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30 AVD 32, Bi-BDnrii. 8TBXBT, LlWCOLN'i Ilflf FIELDS, W.C 


Preface ........ 


Prospectus ....... 

< i 

Rules of the Association ...... 


List of the Congresses ..... 


Officers and Council for the Session 1889-90 


List of Associates ..... 


Local Members of Council .... 


Honorary Correspondents and Foreign Members 


Societies exchanging Publications 


1. Inaugural Address delivered at Glasgow. By The Most 

Hon. the Marquess op Bute, K.T., LL.D., F.S.A.Scot., 
President ...... 

2. Glasgow Cathedral. By John Honetman, Esq. 

3. Bothwell Castle. By J. D. Duncan, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. 

4. The History of the Ancient See of Glasgow (560-1560). By 

The Most Rev. Archbishop Eyre, D.D. . 

5. A Thirteenth Century Scottish Charter relating to Falkirk, 

By W. de Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Sec. . 

6. Launceston Priory. By Richard and 0. B. Peter . 

7. Saxon Monumental Slabs found at Peterborough Cathedral 

By J. T. Irvine, Esq. .... 

8. Welsh Inscribed Stones. By Rev. Canon Collier, F.S.A. 

9. The Great Seals of Scotland. Part I. By A. Wyon, Esq, 


10. Early British Cemetery found at Dummer, Hants. By Joseph 

Stevens, Esq., M.D., C.P.L. 

1 1 . Merlin and the Merlinian Poems. Part I, Merlin. By John 

Vbitch, Esq., LL.D. .... 

12. The Wall of Antonine. By Dr. C. Bruce, F.S.A. . 

13. Scottish Masons' Marks compared with those of other 

Countries. By T. H. Lewis, Esq., F.S.A. 










14. Farther Discoveries of Mounds and Constructions Simulat- 

ing the Forms of Animals in various Countries. By Dr. 
Phex£, F.S.A., etc. .... 155 

15. Retrospect of the Sessions 1887 and 1838. By T. Morgan, 

Esq., V.P., F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer . . .184 

16. Merlin and the Merlinian Poems- Part II. By J. Veitch, 

Esq. ....... 207 

17. Craignethan Castle. By J. D. Doncan, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. . 215 

18. Stirling Castle. By W. B. Cook, Esq. . . .219 

19. Great Seals of Scotland. Part IL By A. Wyon, Esq., F.S.A. 235 

20. Belies and Mementos of William and Mary. By H. Syer 

Ccming, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. . . . .250 

21. Notes on North Caithness and Orkney. By Rev. S. M. May- 

hew, M.A., V.P., F.S.A.Scot. . . . .265 

22. Classification and Distribution of Early Christian Monu- 

ments in Scotland. By J. R. Allen, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. . 299 

23. Rothesay and Bute. By Rev. J. Kino Hewison, M.A., 

F.S.A.Scot. . . . . . .306 

24. The Church of St. Valentine, Rome. By J. R. Forbes, Esq. 313 

25. Celtic Ornament on the Crosses of Cornwall. By A. G. Lang- 

don, Esq. ....... 318 

26. Sketch of Early Scottish History. By T. Morgan, Esq., 

V.P., F.S.A 337 

27. Discoveries in the Neighbourhood of Crowland. By J. T. 

Ikvine, Esq. . . . . . .363 

28. Composition of a Mortar of the Third Century . . 366 

Proceedings of the Glasgow Congress . 65, 68, 172, 174, 280, 283, 

287, 290 
Proceedings of the Association 75, 77, 79, 81, 82, 84, 178, 179, 198, 

362, 365 
Election of Associates . . . 79, 84, 198, 362, 365 

Obituary: J. O. Halliwell-Phillipps, LL.D., F.S.A. . . 85 

Presents to the Library 75, 79, 81, 82, 84, 178, 179, 198, 362, 365 

Annual General Meeting . 

Election of Officers for the Session 1889-90 

Hon. Treasurer's Report . 

Balance Sheet for the Year ending 31 Dec. 1888 




Antiquarian Intelligence and Reviews of Archaeological Publica- 
tions : — 

Jottings of Bromley, etc., Kent. By George Clinch. — Child- 
ren's Rhymes: its Folk-Lore. By H. C. Bolton. — History 
of Strata Florida Abbey, and Account of Excavations over 
its Site. Illustrated. By S. W. Williams. — Roman Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire. By the late Thompson Watkin . 90 

Notes on Remains in Warton Church, Lancashire, with illus- 
tration of incised Slab. By John Harker. — Church- Bells of 
Suffolk. By John James Raven, D.D. — St. Laurence Church 
Tower, Thanet. — Great Seals of England frem Earliest 
Times to the Present. By A. B. Wyon and Allan Wyon. — 
Illustrated Work on the Church-Bells of Stafford. By 
C. Lynam . . . . . . . 202 

Staindrop Church and its Monuments. By Rev. H. C. Lips- 
combe. — Discoveries at Crowland Abbey. Reported by 
A. S. Canham of Crowland. With illustration of Slab found 296 

Opening of Yorkshire Barrows. — Discovery of a Lake Dwell- 
ing. — The Tudor Exhibition. — History of All Saints, Maid- 
stone. By Rev. J. Cave-Browne .... 368 





*1. Early Tomb-Slab, Glasgow Cathedral . . .32 

*2. Facsimile of Charter relating to Falkirk . . .62 

^3. West Door of Strata Florida Abbey . . .91 

< 4 Seal of the Abbot of Strata Florida Abbey . . . ib. 

J 5. Early British Cemetery discovered at Dummer, Hants . 112 

v 6. Neolithic Flint Implements found at Dummer . . 1 14 

'7, 8. Masons' Marks. Two Plates . . .150 

*9. Sculptured Stones, Saxon. Plate 1 . . .179 

-10. Ditto. Plate 2 . . . . .180 

-11. Hatchet . . . . . . .203 

'12. Antiquities in Caithness ..... 266 

*13. Ditto . . . . . . .268 

>14. Slab found at Crowland Abbey . . . .297 

-15. Plan of the Church of St. Valentine at Rome . . 3i7 

16. Crosses of Cornwall. Lanherne Cross . . .321 

17. Ditto. St. Clear, the " Other Half Stone" . . . 325 

18. Ditto. Ditto, Inscribed Stone . . . .326 
'19-45. Celtic Ornament in Cornwall (twenty-seven cuts) 337-347 


The Forty-Fifth Volume of the Journal of the 
British Archaeological Association contains the 
greater number of Papers read during the very successful 
Congress at Glasgow in 1888, and in the course of the 
recent session in London. Many of these Papers relate to 
subjects that have rarely been treated so exhaustively 
before this ; for just as the science of archaeology widely 
embraces all that is old, whether in feeling or in fact, so 
her votaries are more frequently attracted by an almost 
endless series of interesting objects than absorbed by one 
definite point of research. Few of us, too, can really 
devote the great time necessary for keen and fruitful 
study of one special antiquarian subject while the multi- 
tudinous voices of every-day life clamour round us on 
every side for a small share of our attention. Neverthe- 
less we owe our thanks to our literary friends in Scot- 
land, and to our active members generally, for having 
contributed so important a set of Papers as. are con- 
tained in the volume now just completed. 

The retirement of Mr. T. Morgan, F.S.A., from the 


post of Honorary Treasurer, which he has occupied so 
fitly for seventeen years, the death of Mr. J. 0. Halliwell- 
Phillipps, Rev. Scott-Surtees, Mr. W. Myers, and others, 
create gaps in our numbers not easy to fill up, and those 
who remain must rally round the Association, which 
before long will be arriying at the first jubilee — let us 
hope not the last — of its existence. 

W. de Gray Birch. 

31 December 1889. P 



$rita| ^rrtjnefllDgira! Imrintifltt. 

The British Archaeological Association was foanded in 1843, to in- 
vestigate, preserve, and illustrate all ancient monuments of the history, 
manners, customs, and arts of our forefathers, in furtherance of the 
principles on which the Society of Antiquaries of London was esta- 
blished ; and to aid the objects of that Institution by rendering avail- 
able resources which had not been drawn upon, and which, indeed, 
did not come within the scope of any antiquarian or literary society. 
The means by which the Association proposed to effect this object are : 

1. By holding communication with Correspondents throughout the 
kingdom, and with provincial Antiquarian Societies, as well as by 
intercourse with similar Associations in foreign countries. 

2. By holding frequent and regular Meetings for the consideration 
and discussion of communications made by the Associates, or received 
from Correspondents. 

3. By promoting careful observation and preservation of antiquities 
discovered in the progress of public works, such as railways, sewers, 
foundations of buildings, etc. 

4. By encouraging individuals or associations in making researches 
and excavations, and affording them suggestions and co-operation. 

5. By opposing and preventing, as far as may be practicable, all 
injuries with which Ancient National Monuments of every description 
may from time to time be threatened. 

6. By using every endeavour to spread abroad a correct taste for 
Archeology, and a just appreciation of Monuments of Ancient Art, so 
as ultimately to secure a general interest in their preservation. 

7. By collecting accurate drawings, plans, and descriptions of 
Ancient National Monuments, and, by means of Correspondents, pre- 
serving authentic memorials of all antiquities not later than 1750, 
which may from time to time be brought to light. 

8. By establishing a Journal devoted exclusively to the objects of 
the Association, as a means of spreading antiquarian information and 
maintaining a constant communication with all persons interested in 
such pursuits. 

9. By holding Annual Congresses in different parts of the country, 
to examine into their special antiquities, to promote an interest in 
them, and thereby conduce to their preservation. 

Thirteen public Meetings are held from November to June, on the 
first and third Wednesdays in the month, during the session, at eight 
o'clock in the evening, for the reading and discussion of papers, and for 
the inspection of all objects of antiquity forwarded to the Council. To 
these Meetings Associates have the privilege of introducing friends. 

Person's desirous of becoming Associates, or of promoting in any way 
the objects of the Association, are requested to apply either personally 
or by letter to the Secretaries; or to the Sub-Treasurer, Samuel 
Rayson, Esq., 32 Sackville S\eet, W., to whom subscriptions, by Post 
Office Order or otherwise, crossed " Bank of England, W. Branch", 
should be transmitted. 

1889 a 


The payment of One Gttinea annually is required of the Associates, 
or Ten Guineas as a Life Subscription, by which the Subscribers are 
entitled to a copy of the quarterly Journal as published, and permitted 
to acquire the publications of the Association at a reduced price. 

Associates are required to pay an entrance fee of One Guinea (bat 
see next page). The annual payments are due in advance. 

Papers read before the Association should be transmitted to 
the Editor of the Association, 32, Sackville Street; if they are 
accepted by the Council they will be printed in the volumes of the 
Journal, and they will be considered to be the property of the Asso- 
ciation. Every author is responsible for the statements contained 
in his paper. The published Journals may be had of the Treasurer and 
other officers of the Association at the following prices : — Vol. I, out 
of print. The other volumes, £1 : 1 each to Associates ; £1 : 11 : 6 to 
the public, with the exception of certain volumes in excess of stock, 
which may be had by members at a reduced price on application to 
the Honorary Secretaries. The special volumes of Transactions of 
the Congresses held at Winchester and at Gloucester are charged to 
the public, £1 : 11 : G ; to the Associates, £1:1. 

In addition to the Journal, published regularly every quarter, it has 
been found necessary to publish occasionally another work entitled 
Collectanea Archceologica. It embraces papers whose length is too 
great for a periodical journal, and such as require more extensive 
illustration than can be given in an octavq form. It is, therefore, put 
forth in quarto, uniform with the Archceohgia of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and sold to the public at 7s. 6d. each Part, but may be had by 
the Associates at 5*. (See cohured wrapper.) 

An Index for the first thirty volumes of the Journal has been 
prepared by Walter de Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A., Honorary Secretary. 
Present price to Associates, 10*. 6d . ; to the public, 15s. Another 
Index, to volumes xxxi-xlii, the Collectanea Archceologica, and the two 
extra vols, for the Winchester and Gloucester Congresses, also now 
ready (uniform). Price to Associates, 10s. 6d. ; to the public, 15s. 
Subscribers' names received by the Treasurer. 

Public Meetings held on Wednesday evenings, at No. 32, Sackville 
Street, Piccadilly, at 8 o'clock precisely. 

The Meetings for Session 1888-89 are as follow :— 1888, Nov. 21, 
Dec. 5. 1889, January 2, 16 ; Feb. 6, 20 ; March 6, 20 ; April 3, 17 ; 
May 1 (Annual General Meeting, 4.30 p.m.), 15 ; June 5. 

Visitors will be admitted by order from Associates ; or by writing 
their names, and those of the members by whom they are introduced. 
The Council Meetings are held at Sackville Street on the same day as 
the Public Meetings, at half-past 4 o'clock precisely. 


The British Archaeological Association shall consist of patrons, asso- 
ciates, correspondents, and honorary foreign members. 

1. The Patrons, 1 — a class confined to the peers of the United Kingdom, and 

1 Patrons were omitted in 1850 from the list of Members, and have since been 
nominated locally for the Congresses only. 


2. The Associates, — such as shall be approved of and elected by the Council; 

and who, upon the payment of one guinea as an entrance fee (except when 
the intending Associate is already a member of the Society of Antiquaries, 
of the Royal Archaeological Institute, or of the Society of Biblical Archae- 
ology, in which case the entrance fee is remitted), and a sum of not less 
than one guinea annually, or ten guineas as a life subscription, shall become 
entitled to receive a copy of the quarterly Journal published by the Asso- 
ciation, to attend all meetings, vote in the election of Officers and Com- 
mittee, and admit one visitor to each of the public meetings. 

3. The Honorary Correspondents, — a class embracing all interested in the 

investigation and preservation of antiquities; to be qualified only for 
election on the recommendation of the President or Patron, or of two 
members of the Council, or of four Associates. 

4. The Honorary Foreign Members shall be confined to illustrious and learned 

foreigners who may have distinguished themselves in antiquarian pursuits. 


To conduct the affairs of the Association there shall be annually elected a Pre- 
sident, fifteen 1 Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, Sub-Treasurer, two Secre- 
taries, and a Secretary for Foreign Correspondence ; who, with eighteen 2 
other Associates, shall constitute the Council. The past Presidents shall 
be sx officio Vice-Presidents for life, with the same status and privileges as 
the elected Vice-Presidents, and take precedence in the order of service. 


1. The election of Officers and Council shall be on the first Wednesday in 
May* in each year, and be conducted by ballot, which shall continue open 
during one hour. Every Associate balloting shall deliver his name to the 
President or presiding officer ; and afterwards put his list, filled up, into 
the balloting box. The presiding officer shall nominate two scrutators, 
who, with one or more of the Secretaries, shall examine the lists, and 
report thereon to the General Meeting. 


1. The President shall take the chair at all meetings of the Society. He shall 

regulate the discussions, and enforce the laws of the Society. 

2. In the absence of the President, the chair will be taken by one of the Vice- 

Presidents, or some officer or member of Council. 

3. The President shall, in addition to his own vote, have a casting vote when 

the suffrages are equal. 


The Treasurer shall hold the finances of the Society, discharge all debts pre- 
viously presented to, and approved of by, the Council ; and having had 
his accounts audited by two members elected at the previous Annual 
Meeting, shall lay them before the Annual Meeting. 

1 Till 1848 six Vice-Presidents, then the number enlarged to eight, in 1864 
to ten, and in 1875 to the present number. In 1868 past Presidents made per- 
manent Vice-Presidents. 

1 Formerly seventeen, but altered in 1875 to the present number. 

3 In the earlier years the elections were in March. After 1852 till 1862, the 
Annual General Meetings were held in April. Subsequently they have been 
held in May. 

« 2 



1. The Secretaries shall attend all meetings of the Association, transmit notices 

to the members, and read the letters and papers communicated to the 

2. The Secretary for Foreign Correspondence shall conduct all business or 

correspondence connected with the foreign societies, or members residing 


1. The Council shall superintend and regulate the proceedings of the Associa- 

tion, and elect the members, whose names are to be read over at the public 

2. The Council shall meet on the days 1 on which the ordinary meetings of the 

Association are held, or as often as the business of the Association shall 
require; and five shall be deemed a sufficient number to transact business. 

3. An extraordinary meeting of the Council may be held at any time by order 

of the President, or by a requisition signed by five of its members, stating 
the purpose thereof, addressed to the Secretaries, who shall issue notices of 
such meeting to every member. 

4. The Council shall fill up any vacancy that may occur in any of the offices 

or among its own members. 

5. The Chairman, or his representative, of local committees established in dif- 

ferent parts of the country, and in connection with the Association, shall, 
upon election by the Council, be entitled to attend the meetings of the 
Council and the public meetings. 

6. The Council shall submit a report of its proceedings to the Annual Meeting. 


1. The Association shall meet on the third Wednesday in November, the 

first Wednesday in December, the first and third Wednesdays in the 
months from January to May, and the second Wednesday in June, at 
8 o'clock in the evening precisely, 4 for the purpose of inspecting and con- 
versing upon the various objects of antiquity transmitted to the Associa- 
tion, and such other business as the Council may appoint. 

2. An extraordinary general meeting of the Association may at any time be 

convened by order of the President, or by a requisition signed by twenty 
Members, stating the object of the proposed meeting, addressed to the 
Secretaries, who shall issue notices accordingly. 

3. A general public meeting, or Congress, shall be held annually in such town 

or place in the United Kingdom as shall be considered most advisable by 
the Council, to which Associates, Correspondents, and others, shall be 
admitted by ticket, upon the payment of one guinea, which shall entitle 
the bearer, and also a lady, to be present at all meetings, either for the 
reading of papers, the exhibition of antiquities, the holding of conver- 
sazioni, or the making of excursions to examine any objects of antiquarian 

1 In the earlier years the Council meetings and ordinary meetings were not 
held in connection. 

* At first the meetings were more numerous, as many as eighteen meetings 
being held in the year ; and the rule, as it originally stood, appointed twenty- 
four meetings. Up to 1867 the evening meetings were held at half-past eight. 


Congresses have been already held at 

Under the Presidency of 

1844 Canterbury 

1845 Winchester 

1846 Gloucester 

1847 Warwick 

1848 Worcester 

1849 Chester 

1850 Manch ester & Lan caster 

1851 Derby . 

1852 Newark 

1853 Rochester 

1854 Chepstow 

1855 Isle op Wight 

1856 Bridgwater and Bath 

1857 Norwich 

1858 Salisbury 

1859 Newbury 

1860 Shrewsbury . 

1861 Exeter . 

1862 Leicester 

1863 Leeds . 

1864 Ipswich . 

1865 Durham 

1866 Hastings 

1867 Ludlow 

1868 Cirencester 

1869 St. Alban's 

1870 Hereford 

1871 Weymouth 

1872 Wolverhampton 

1873 Sheffield 

1874 Bristol . 

1875 Evesham 

1876 Bodmin and Penzance 

1877 Llangollen 

1878 Wisbech 

1879 Yarmouth & Norwich 

1880 Devizes 

1881 Great Malvern 

1882 Plymouth 

1883 Dover . 

1884 Tenby . 

1885 Brighton 

1886 Darlington and Bishop 


1887 Liverpool, 

1888 Glasgow 

The Lord A. D. Conyngham, K.C.H., 
F.R.S., F.S.A. 

J. Hkywood, Esq.,M.P., F.R.S.,F.S.A. 
Sir Oswald Mosley, Bt., D.C.L. 
The Duke of Newcastle 

Ralph Bkrnal, Esq.*, M.A. 

The Earl of Perth and Melfort 

The Earl of Albemarle, F.S.A. 

The Marquess of Ailesbury 

The Earl of Carnarvon, F.S.A. 

Bkriah Botfield, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Sir Stafford H. Northcote, Bt. 

John Lee, Esq., LLD., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Lord Houghton, M.A., D.C.L., F.S.A. 

George Tomline, Esq., M.P., F.S.A. 

The Duke of Cleveland 

The Earl of Chichester 

Sir C. H. Rouse Boughton, Bt. 

The Earl Bathurst 

The Lord Lytton 

Chandos Wren Hoskyns, Esq., M.P. 

Sir W. Coles Medlicott, Bt., D.C.L. 

The Earl of Dartmouth 

The Duke of Norfolk, E.M. 

Kirkman D. Hodgson, Esq., M.P. 

The Marquess of Hertford 

The Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe 

Sir Watkin W. Wynn, Bart., M.P. 

The Earl of Hardwicke 

The Lord Waveney, F.R.S. 

The Earl Nelson 

Lord Alwyne Compton, D.D., Dean 

of Worcester 
The Duke of Somerset, K.G. 
The Earl Granville, K.G. 
The Bishop of St. David's 
The Duke of Norfolk, E.M. 

The Bishop of Durham 
Sir J. A. Picton, F.S.A. 
The Marquess of Bute, K.T. 




Ex officio — The Dukb op Norfolk, E.G., E.M.; The Duke op Cleveland, 
K.G.; The Earl of Carnarvon, F.S.A.; The Earl op Dartmouth; 
The Earl Granville, K.G. ; The Earl of Hardwickb; The Earl of 
Mount-Edgcumbe; The Earl Nelson ; The Lord Bishop of Durham ; 
The Lord Bishop of Ely; The Lord Bishop op St. David's; Sir Chas. 
H. Rouse Bodghton, Bart. ; Sir James A. Picton, F.S.A.; James Hey- 
wood, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A.; George Tomlinb, Esq., F.S.A. 

Cecil Brent, Esq., F.S.A. 
William Henry Cope, Esq., F.S.A. 
H. 8yer Cuming, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. 
John Evans, Esq., F.R.8., P.8.A. 
A. W. Franks, Esq.,C.B., M.A.,F.R.S , 

Rev. 8. M. Mayhew, M.A. 

Thomas Morgan, Esq., F.S.A. 
Rev. Preb. H. M. Sc arth, M . A., F.8. A. 
Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson,D.D.,F.S. A. 
C. Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A. 
E. Maundb Thompson, Esq., F.S.A. 
John Waltbr, Esq., M.P. 
George R. Wright, Esq., F.S.A. 


Thomas Morgan, Esq., F.S.A., Hillside House, Palace Road, 

Streatham Hill, S.W. 

Samuel Rayson, Esq., 32 Sackville Street, W. 

Honorary Secretaries. 
Walter db Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A., British Museum, W.O. 
E. P. Loftus Brock, Esq., F.S.A., 36 Great Russell Street, W.O. 

Curator and Librarian. 
George R. Wright, Esq., F.S.A., Junior Athenaeum Club, Piccadilly, W. 

E. Maundb Thompson, Esq., F.S.A. 

Wortiiington G. Smith, Esq., F.L.S. 


G. G. Adams, Esq., F.S.A. 

J. Romilly Allen, Esq., F.S.A. Scot. 

Thomas Blashill, Esq. 

Algernon Brent, Esq. 

Arthur Catbs, Esq. 

C. H. Compton, Esq. 

R. A. Douglas-Lithgow, Esq., LL.D., 

F.S.A., F.R.S.L. 
J. W. Grovbr, Esq., F.S.A. 

Richard Howlett, Esq. 
W. F. Laxton, Esq., F.S.A. 
J. T. Mould, Esq. 
W. Myers, Esq., F.S.A. 
George Patrick, Esq. 
J. S. Phene, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 
W. H. Rylands, Esq., F.S.A. 
Benjamin Winstone, Esq. 
A. Wyon, Esq., F.S.A., F.S.A.Scot, 

A. Chasemore, Esq. | R. E. Way, Esq. 


Srittef) ardjafologtfal Staetorfatfoiu 



The poet- Presidents marked * are permanent Vice-Presidents. 

The letter L denotes Life-Members, and C, Congress Members 
for the Year. 


Date of Election. 

1865 Armstrong, The Right Hon. Lord, Newcastle-on-Tyne 
1854 Adams, George G., Esq., F.S.A., 126 Sloane Street, S.W. 
1857 Adlam, Wm,, Esq., F.S.A., The Manor House, Chew Magna, 

1885 Aislabie, Major- General, 102 Piccadilly, W. 

L. 1871 Aldam, William, Esq., Frickley Hall, Doncaster 

L. 1851 Alger, John, Esq., the Public Library, Auchterarder, N.B. 

C. 1888 Allan, F. W., Esq., 125 Buchanan Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

1887 Allen, Dr. John 

1878 Allen, J. Romilly, Esq., F.S.A.Scot., A.I.C.E., 5 Albert Ter- 
race, Regent's Park 

l. 1857 Allen, W. E., Esq. 

l. 1874. Ames, R., Esq., M.A., 3 Hyde Park Mansions, W. 

L. 1857 Amherst, W. A. T., Esq., M.P., F.S. A, Didlington Park, Bran- 
don, Norfolk 

1869 Andrews, Charles, Esq., Farnham, Surrey 

1874 Army and Navy Club, St. James's Square, S.W. 

C. 1888 Arthur, M., Esq., 78 Queen Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

0. 1888 Arthur, T. G., Esq., 78 Queen Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

1877 Ashby, Thomas, Esq., Staines, Middlesex 

1886 Astley, J., Esq., Stoneleigh Terrace, Queen's Road, Coventry 
1876 Athenceum Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

1886 Atkinson, G. J., Esq., Town Clerk, 69 Deane Road, Liverpool 

l. 1857 Bateman, The Right Hon. Lord, Carlton Club 

Baker, Rev. Preb. Sir Talbot R. B., Bart., Ranston, Bland- 


1880 Boilkau, Sir Francis G. M., Bart., Ketteringham Park, Wy- 

l. 1860 Boughton, Sir Charles Rouse, Bait., Vice-President* Down- 
ton Hall, Ludlow 

l. 1860 Bridgman, Hon. and Rev. Geo. T. Orlando, M.A., The Hall, 

l. 1874 Brown, Sir John, Endcliffe Hall, Sheffield 

l. 1878 Babington, Charles C, Esq., M. A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Brookside, 

1885 Bagster, R., Esq., Paternoster Row, E.C. 

1884 Baker, Ernest E., Esq., Weston-super-Mare 

C. 1888 Barnwell, Richard, Esq., Fairfield, Govan, N.B. 

1879 Barton, Rev. H. C. M., M.A., Mudiford, Christchurch 

1879 Barton, Thomas, Esq., Castle House, Lancaster 

l. 1876 Bayly, Robert, Esq., Torr Grove, Plymouth 

1888 Beaumont, F. J., Esq., 42 Trinity Street, Southwark, S.E. 

1865 Belk, Thomas, Esq., Hartlepool 

1882 Bennett, E. G., Esq., 10 Woodland Terrace, Plymouth 
1879 Bensly, W. T., Esq., LL.D., Diocesan Registry, Norwich 

1883 Beresford, Mrs. John, Castor Rectory, Peterborough 
l. 1857 Berrey, George, Esq., The Park, Nottingham 

0. 1888 Berry, — , Esq., 5 University Gardens, Glasgow, N.B. 
L. 1859 Beynon, Richard, Esq., M.P., 17 Grosvenor Square, W. 

1879 Birch, Rev. C. G. R., Brancaster Rectory, King's Lynn 

1871 Birch, Walter de Gray, Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Secretary, British 

Museum, and 81 Dartmouth Park Road, N.W. 
L. 1882 Blakiston, Rev.R.Milburn,F.S.A., 7 Sydenham Road, Croydon 
1861 Blashill, Thos., Esq., F.Z.S., London County Council, Spring 

Gardens, S.W. 
1865 Bly, J. H., Esq., Vauxhall, Great Yarmouth 
1870 Bonnor, Geo., Esq., F.S.A., 42 Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W. 

1872 Braid, Charles, Esq., 35 The Avenue, Tunbridge Wells 

1874 Bramble, Colonel J. R., F.S.A., Cleeve House, Yatton, Somerset 
L. 1886 Bramley-Moore, Rev. W., 19 Woburn Square, W.C. 

1880 Bravender, Thomas B., Esq., care of Mrs. Badon, 14 Highbury 

Grove, N. 
L 1883 Brent, Algernon, Esq., F.R.G.S., 19 Oxford Mansions, W. 
1853 Brent, Cecil, Esq., F.S.A., Vice-President, 37 Palace Grove, 
Bromley, Kent 

1875 Brent, Francis, Esq., F.S.A., 6 Tothill Avenue, Plymouth 
L. 1875 Brinton, John, Esq., Moor Hall, Stourport 

1886 Broad, J., Esq., Ashford 

1861 Brock, E. P. Loftus, Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Secretary, 36 Great 
Russell Street 
L. 1874 Brooke, Thomas, Esq., F.S.A., Armitage Bridge, Huddersfield 
L. 1871 Brown, A. M., Esq., 269 Camden Road, N. 

1883 Brown, T. Viney, Esq., Dover 

1885 Brown, J., Esq., Q.C., 54 Avenue Road, Regent's Park, N.W. 

1884 Browne, Rev. G. F., M.A., St. Catherine's College, Cambridge 
1856 Brushfield, T. N., Esq., M.D., The Cliff, Budleigh Salterton, 


1887 Bulkelev, Edward W., Esq., The Advertiser Ofl&ce, Stockport 
C. 1888 Bulloch* M., Esq., Bothwcll Street, Glasgow, N.B. 


1880 Bulwer, J. R., Esq., Q.C., 2 Temple Gardens, E.C. 
1888 Barnard, Robert, Esq., 3 Hillsborough, Plymouth 

C. 1888 Burnet, John, Esq., 167 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

C. 1888 Burns, Rev. J. S., D.D., Westbourne Terrace, Kelvinside,N.B. 

1881 Bush, Edward, Esq., The Grove, Alverton, Gloucester 
1881 Bush, John, Esq., 9 Pembroke Road, Clifton 

L. 1880 Butcher, W. H., Esq. 

l. 1858 Carnarvon, Right Hon. the Earl of, Vice-President* High- 
clere, Hants 

C. 1888 Connal, Sir M., Virginia Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

C. 1888 Campbell, James, Esq., 137 Ingram Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

C. 1888 Campbell, James A., Esq., Stracathio, Glasgow, N.B. 

18.53 Cape, George A., Esq., 6 Nevill Park, Tunbridge Wells 

1884 Carpenter, Dr. A., Duppas House, Croydon 

1888 Cart, Rev. Henry, Oakhurst, Upper Norwood 
1881 Cates, Arthur, Esq., 7 Whitehall Yard, S.W. 

1881 Chaffey-Cbaffey, R., Esq., East Stoke House, Stoke-sub- 
Hampden, Ilminster 

1889 Chaplin, James H., Esq., Pen-y-Wern Road, Earl's Court 
1855 Chapman, Thomas, Esq., 37 Tregunter Road, West Brompton 
1879 Chasemore, Archibald, Esq., Eberbach, Oxford Road, Putney 
1889 Christian, Ewen, Esq., 7 Whitehall Place, S.W. 

1886 Clark, C. J., Esq.,9 Rupert Road, Bedford Park, Chiswick, W. 

1888 Cockett, Henry, Esq., Hill House, New Walsoken, Wisbech 

l. 1878 Cocks, Reginald Thistlethwayte, Esq., 43 Charing Cross, S.W. 

1869 Cokayne, Andreas Edward, Esq., BakewelL, Derbyshire 

l. 1867 Cokayne, George Edw., Esq., F.S.A., Norroy King of Arms, 
Heralds' College, E.C. 

1866 Cole, T. H., Esq., 59 Cambridge Road, Hastings 

1875 Collier, Rev. Canon, F.S.A., Andover 

1888 Collier, the Rev. Carus Vale, B.A., Bridlington Quay 

1888 Collins, James John, Esq., 17 Thomas Street, Woolwich 

1879 Colman, J. J., Esq., M.P., Carrow House, Norwich 

1876 Compton, C. H., Esq., 13 The Chase, Clapham Common, S.W. 
1863 Cope, Wm. Henry, Esq., F.S. A., Vice-President, 12 Gloucester 

Road, Regent's Park, N.W. 
L. 1869 Cosens, F. W„ Esq., Hollingden, Melbury Road, Kensington 
C. 1888 Coubrough, John, Esq., Blanefield, Glasgow, N.B. 

1876 Cramer, F. L., Esq., Westwell Villa, Lower Richmond Road, 

1861 Creswell, Rev. Samuel Francis, D.D., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., 
North Repps, S. O., Norfolk 

1867 Croker, T. F. Dillon, Esq., F.S.A., 49 Upper Bedford Place, 

Russell Square 
C. 1888 Crum, Alexander, Esq., 4 West Regent Street, Glasgow, N.B. 
1844 Cuming, H. Syer, Esq., F.S. A. Scot., Vice-President, 63 Ken- 

nington Park Road, S.E. 
1872 Curteis, Rev. Thomas S., F.S. A., Sevenoaks, Kent 
1888 Curtis, Charles, Esq., 28 Baker Street, W. 

l. 1872 Dartmouth, Right Hon. the Earl op, Vice-President,* Pats- 
hull, Wolverhampton 


1853 Ducib, Right Hon. the Earl of, F.R.S., 16 Portman Square 

1887 Durham, Right Rev. the Lord Bishop op, D.D., President 

1883 Dickeson, Sir Richard, Esplanade, Dover 

1884 Davies, W. R., Esq., Overthorpe House, Wallingford 
1878 Dawson, Edward B., Esq., LL.B., Aldcliffe Hall, Lancaster 

C. 1888 Day, St. John V., Esq. 

1884 Derham, James, Esq., Sneyd Park, Bristol 
l. 1874 Derham, W., Esq., M.A., LL.M., 119 Lansdowne Road, Ken- 
sington Park, W. 
C. 1888 Dick, J. Proadfoot, Esq., Glenfyne, Inverary, N.B. 

1884 Dix, John W. S., Esq., Hampton Lodge, Durdham Down, 

1878 Douglas-Lithgow, Dr. R. A., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., 27a Lowndes 
Street, S.W. 

1885 Dunkin, Miss, Highfield Rise, Dartford 
1847 Durden, Henry, Esq., Blandford, Dorset 

C. 1888 Dyer, Henry, Esq., 8 Highburg Terrace, Glasgow, N.B. 

1875 Edwards, Sir G. W., 2 Sea Wall Villa, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
C. 1888 Ewing, Sir Archibald Obr, 2 West Regent Street, Glasgow, 

C. 1888 Eyre, The Archbishop, 6 Bowmont Gardens, Glasgow, N.B. 
0. 1888 Easton, Walter, Esq., 125 Buchanan Street, Glasgow, N.B. 
1855 Evans, J., Esq., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., V .^^Vice-President, 
Hemel Hempstead 

0. 1888 Ferguson, Professor, The College, Glasgow, N.B. 

L. 1879 Ferguson, Richard S., Esq., Lowther Street, Carlisle 

L. 1864 Ferguson, Robert, Esq., M.P., Morton, Carlisle 

1886 ffytche, Lewis, Esq., The Terrace, Freshwater, Isle of Wight 
L. 1880 Fisher, S. T., Esq., The Grove, Streatham, S.W. 

1886 Fison, E. Herbert, Esq., Stoke House, Ipswich 
1857 Fitch, Robert, Esq., F.S.A., Woodlands, Heigham, Norwich 
C. 1888 Fleming, J. B., Esq., Beaconsfield, Kelvinside, N.B. 
L. 1888 Fowler, John, Esq., 4 Gray Street, Sandyford, Glasgow 

Fox, Robert, Esq., Falconhurst, East Woodhay, Newbury 
1875 Franks, Augustus W., Esq., C.B., M.A., F.R.S., British Mu- 
seum, W.C. 
L. 1852 Fraser, Patrick Allen, Esq., Hospital Field, Arbroath, N.B. 
1877 Fretton, W. G., Esq., F.S.A., 88 Little Park Street, Coventry 

1883 Fry, E. W., Esq., St. Martin's House, Dover 

1880 Fryer, A. C, Esq., Ph.D., M.A., F.G.S., F.R.H.S., Corn- 
wallis Lodge, Clifton, Bristol 

1884 Fuller, J., Esq., 4 St. George's Road, Bristol 

1883 Granville, Right Hon. the Earl, K.G., Vice-President* Wal- 
mer Castle, Kent 
l. 1874 Gainsford, T. R., Esq., Whiteley Wood Hall, Sheffield 
L. 1881 Gibson, Mrs. James, 

1885 Gill, Robert, Esq., Keele, Newcastle-under-Lyne 

1877 Glasgow, The Mitchell Library, Ingram Street, Glasgow 
1872 Glover, F. K., Esq., The Chestnuts, Beckenham 


C. 1888 Godwin, J. G., Esq., Old House, Rothesay, N.B. 

C. 1888 Gourlay, Robert, Esq., Bank of Scotland, Glasgow, N.B. 

1865 Gow, Mrs. George, care of Mrs. Lees, 22 Weymouth Street, 

Portland Place, W. 
C. 1888 Graham, John, Esq., 212 West George Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

1881 Grain, J. H., Esq., Logrono, Eltbam, Kent 
L. 1360 Greenhalgh, Thos., Esq., Thorneydike, Sarples, near Bolton 

1863 Greenshields, J. B., Esq., Kerse, Lesraahago, Lanarkshire 

1866 Grover, J. W., Esq., C.E., F.S.A., 9 Victoria Chambers, Vic- 

toria Street, S.W. 
L. 1857 Gurney, John Henry, Esq., Northrepps Hall, Norwich 
C. 1888 Guy, Robert, Esq., 120 West Regent Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

1858 Hammond, Charles E., Esq., Newmarket 

1852 Hannah, Robt., Esq., 82 Addison Road, W. 

1883 Harding, Thomas, Esq., Wick House, Brislington, Glouces- 

1864 Harker, John, Esq., M.D., Hazel Grove, near Camforth 
1888 Harvey, James, Esq., Bel grave Villa, Tufnell Park Road, N. 
1872 Hellier, Colonel T. B. Shaw, 4th Dragoon Guards (care of 

Messrs. Holt, Laurie, and Co., 17 Whitehall Place, S.W.) 
l. 1844 Heywood, James, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., Vice-President* 26 
Palace Gardens, Kensington 
1872 Hicklin, B., Esq., Holly House, Dorking, Surrey 
1858 Hills, Gordon M., Esq., 17 Redcliffe Gardens, Brompton 
1870 Hodgson, Rev. J. P., Witton-le-Weir, Darlington 

1869 Holford, R. S., Esq., Westonbirt, Tetbury, Gloucestershire 
0. 1888 Honeyman, John, Esq., 140 Bath Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

0. 1888 Honeyman, P. S., Esq., 88 West Regent St., Glasgow, N.B. 
1880 Hooppell, Rev. R. E., M.A., LL.D., Byers Green Rectory, 

1870 Horner, W. S., Esq., 8 Aldgate 
L. 1863 Horsfall, Richard, Esq. 

1880 Houghton, Mrs., Hill Wood, Leigham Court Road, Streatham 
l. 1856 Hovendon, Thos. Henry, Esq., 181 Bishopsgate Street With- 

l. 1867 Howard, the Hon. Judge, Crapstone House, Horrabridge 
0. 1888 Howat, James, Esq., 146 Buchanan Street, Glasgow, N.B. 
1876 Howlett, Richard, Esq., 42 Drayton Gardens, Brompton, 
L. 1875 Hudd, Alfred E., Esq., F.S. A., 94 Pembroke Road, Clifton, 
1878 Hughes, H. R., Esq., Kinmel Park, Abergele, North Wales 
l. 1859 Hughes, Thomas, Esq., F.S.A., 1 Grove Terrace, Chester 

1862 Hughes, W. E., Esq., Essington Villa, 89 Alexandra Road 

St. John's Wood 

1853 Hull Subscription Library, Albion Street, Hull 

L. 1866 Hunter, Edward, Esq., Junior Carlton Club, S.W. 

1863 Irvine, J. T., Esq., 90 Cromwell Road, Peterborough 

L. 1881 Jackson, Rev. Canon J. E., Leigh Delamere, Chippenham 


L. 1859 Jackson, Rev. Wm, M.A., F.S.A., Pen-Wartha, Weston- 
super- Mare 

1879 Jarvis, John W., Esq., Avon House, Manor Road, Holloway 

1884 Jefferies, James, Esq., Congresbury, co. Somerset 

1879 Jenner, Miss Lucy A., 63 Brook Street, Grosvenor Sqnare 

L. 1874 Jessop, Thomas, Esq., Endcliffe Grange, SheflBeld 

L. 1875 Joseph, Major H., 45 Aberdeen Park, Highbury, N. 

C. 1888 Kino, Sib James, Bart., Wellington Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

0. 1888 Kennedy, James, Esq., Buchanan Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

0. 1888 Ker, J. Ripley, Esq., Bardowie, Milngavie, N.B. 

L. 1857 Kerr, Mrs. Alexander, 19 Warwick Road, South Kensington 

1870 Kerslake, Thomas, Esq., Wynfrid, Clevedon 

1888 King, the Rev. Herbert Poole, Stourton Rectory, Bath 

L. 1865 Kirchofer, Professor Theodor 

C. 1888 Kirsop, John, Esq., 98 Argyle Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

1887 Kitchen, John, Esq., Branksome House, Darlington 
1869 Knight, W. H., Esq., 4 St. James's Square, Cheltenham 

1888 Knipe, H. R, Esq., 54 Wilbury Road, West Brighton 

1875 Lach-Szyrma, Rev. W. S., M.A., St. Peter's, Newlyn, Pen- 
1872 Lacey, John Turk, Esq., 81 Cambridge Gardens, North Ken- 
sington, W.. 
1874 Lacy, C. J., Esq., 28 Belsize Park, N.W. 
L. 1870 Lambert, George, Esq., F.S.A., 10 Coventry Street, W. 
0. 1888 Lang, James, Esq. 

1888 Langdon, A, G., Esq., 17 Craven Street, Strand 
C. 1888 Lawrence, Edwin H., Esq., F.S.A., 84 Holland Park, W. 

1884 Laws, Edward, Esq., Tenby 
l. 1884 Laxton, William F., Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., 4 Essex 

Court, Temple, W.C. 
L. 1888 Leader, J. D., Esq., Moor End, Sheffield 

1862 Le Keux, J. H., Esq., 64 Saddler Street, Durham 

1877 Lewis, Rev. G. B., M.A., Frinstead Rectory, Sittingbourne 
L. 1881 Lewis, Mrs. S. S., 2 Henry Road, Cambridge 
L. 1881 Lewis, T. Hayter, Esq., F.S.A., 12 Kensington Gardens 
Square, W. 

1863 Library of the Corporation of London, Guildhall, E.C. 
1887 Lloyd, Richard, Esq., 2 Addison Crescent, W. 

1886 Long, Lieut.- Colonel, Woodlands, Congresbury 
L. 1866 Long, Mrs. Caroline, Clare Cottage, East Mailing, Kent 
1884 Long, R. Allington, Esq., Southwood Lodge, Highgate 
L. 1868 Louttit, S. H., Esq.,Trematon House, Grove Road, Clapham 
1847 Luxmore, Coryndon H., Esq., F.S.A., 18 St. John's Wood 

Park, N.W. 
1865 Lynam, C, Esq., Stoke-upon-Trent 

l. 1876 Mount-Edgcumbe, Right Hon. the Earl of, Vice-President* 

Mount- Edgcumbe, Devon port 
C. 1888 Maewick, Sir James D., Killermont, Marjhill, Glasgow, N.B. 


C. 1888 Matheson, Sir Donald, K.C.B., West George Street, Glas- 
gow, N.B. 
1860 McCaul, Rev. John, LL.D., Toronto University (care of Mr. 
Allen, Henrietta Street, Coven t Garden) 

0.1888 Macdonald, James, Esq., LL.D., Kingsborough Gardens, 
Glasgow, N.B. 

0.1888 Macgeorge, Andrew, Esq., 91 West Regent Street, Glasgow, 

0. 1888 McGrigor, A. B., Esq., LL.D., 172 St. Vincent Street, Glas- 
gow, N.B. 

Ji. 1875 Mackeson, E., Esq., 13 Hyde Park Sqnare 

1882 McLaughlin, Major-General Edward, R.A., 10 Stanley Gar- 

dens, W. 
C. 1888 MacLehose, J. J., Esq., St. Vincent Street, Glasgow, N.B. 
C. 1888 Mackinlay, David, Esq., 6 Great Western Terrace, Glasgow, 
1876 Manchester Free Libraries, Manchester 

1883 Mannering, Edward, Esq., Bnckland, Dover 

L. 1874 Mappin, F. J., Esq., Thornbury, Ranmoor, Sheffield 

1889 Marriage, 0., Esq., 41 Denning Road, South Hampstead 

L. 1863 Marshall, Arthur, Esq., 13 Belsize Avenue, N.W. 

1862 Marshall, W. G., Esq., Colney Hatch 

l. 1844 Marshall, Wm. Calder, Esq., R.A., 115 Ebury Street, S.W. 

1884 Matthew, E. B., Esq., 26 Elsworthy Road, Primrose Hill 

1871 Matthew, James, Esq., 27 York Terrace, Regent's Park 

C. 1888 Matthieson, T. A., Esq., East Campbell St., Glasgow, N.B. 
l. 1879 Maude, Rev. Samuel, M.A., Needham Market 

1865 Mayhew, Rev. Samuel Martin, M.A., Vice-President, St. Paul's 

Vicarage, Bermondsey ; 83 New Kent Road, S.E. 

1872 Merriman, Robert William, Esq., Marlborough 

l. 1881 Methold, Frederick J., Esq., 15 St. James's Terrace, Regent's 
Park, N.W. 

1 863 Milligan, James, Esq., jun., 2 Fife Road, Kingston-on-Thames 
L. 1867 Milner, Rev. John, 39 St. Quintin Avenue, W. 

C. 1888 Mirrlees, J. B., Esq., Scotland Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

C.1888 Mitchell, J. O., Esq., 69 East Howard Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

L. 1875 Money, Walter, Esq., F.S.A., Herborough House, Newbury 

1881 Montgomery, A. S., Esq., Busch House, Isleworth 

1886 Moore, Henry Talbot, Esq., West Coker, Yeovil 

1878 Moore, Rev. Canon, M.A., F.S.A, Spalding 

1876 Morgan, Rev. Ernest K. B., The Weald Vicarage, Sevenoaks 

1876 Morgan, A. C. F., Esq., Villa Nova da Gaya, Oporto, Portugal 
1845 Morgan, Thos., Esq., F.S.A., Vice-President, Hon. Treasurer, 

Hillside House, Palace Road, Streathara Hill, S.W. 
1884 Morris, Howard C., Esq., 2 Walbrook, EC. 

1866 Mould, J. T., Esq., 1 Onslow Crescent, South Kensington 
C. 1888 Muir, John, Esq., West Nile Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

L. 1877 Mullings, John, Esq., Cirencester 

1872 Mullins, J. D., Esq., Birmingham Free Libraries, Birmingham 

C. 1888 Murray, David, Esq., 169 West George Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

1877 Myers, Walter, Esq., F.S.A., M.R.I.A., 21 Queenborough 

Terrace, Hyde Park 


l. 1875 Norfolk, His Grace the Duke op, E.M., Vice-President* 
Arundel Castle and St. James's Square 
1881 Nathan, Benjamin C, Esq., Lorano, Atkins Road, Clapham 

Park, S.W. 
1884 Nesham, Robert, Esq., Utrecht House, Clapham Park, S.W, 
L. 1875 New, Herbert, Esq., Green Hill, Evesham 

1887 Newton, Colonel W., Hillside, Newark-on-Trent 
1886 Nichols, W., Esq., Woodside, South' Hill Park, Bromley, 

1871 Ouseley, Rev. Sir F. Gore, Bart., St. Michael's, Tenbury 

1888 Oakshott, T. W., Esq. (Mayor), Town Hall, Liverpool 

1852 Oliver, Lionel, Esq., Heacham, King's Lynn 

L. 1881 Oliver, Edw. Ward, Esq., 9 Brechin Place, South Kensington 

1884 Oldham, Mrs., 96 Lexham Gardens, S.W. 

l. 1860 Powis, Right Hon. the Earl of, 45 Berkeley Square 
l. 1866 Peek, Sir Henry W., Bart., M.P., Wimbledon House, Wim- 

1879 Picton, Sir J. A., F.S.A., Vice-President, Sandy kno we, Waver- 

tree, Liverpool 
1889 Paley, E. G., Esq., F.R.I.B.A., Lancaster 
1886 Paton, W. B., Esq., M.A., 55 Queen's Gardens, W 
1859 Patrick, George, Esq., Dalham Villa, Southfields, Wands- 
C. 1888 Patrick, R. W. Cochran, Esq., M.P., LL.D., Woodside, Beith, 

1885 Payne, William, Esq., The Thicket, Woodleigh, Southsea 

1866 Peabody Institute, Baltimore, U.S. (care of Mr. E. G. Allen, 

Henrietta Street, Covent Garden) 
L. 1884 Peacock, Thomas F., Esq., Fernlea, High Road, Sidcup 

1880 Peckover, Algernon, Esq., F.S.A., Sibaldsholme, Wisbech 

1886 Peek, Dowager Mrs., 16 Belgrave Place, Brighton 
L. 1866 Pemberton, R. L., Esq., Hawthorn Tower, Seaham 

1885 Peter, Claude H., Esq., Town Clerk, Northernhaye, Launces- 

1874 Peter, Richard, Esq., The Cottage, Launceston 
1871 Phene, J. S., Esq., LL.D., F.S.A., F.G.S., F.R.G.S., 5 Carlton 

Terrace, Oakley Street, S.W. 
1879 Phillips, Rev. G. W., Pebworth Vicarage, Stratford- on- A von 

1886 Phillips, H., Esq., 145 Walworth Road, S.E. 

1882 Phillips, John H., Esq., Philosophical and Archreological 
Society, Scarborough 
L. 1852 Pickersgill, Frederick R., Esq., R.A., Cracknells, Isle of Wight 
L. 1888 Pierce, Josiah, Esq., 12 Beaufort Gardens, S.W. 

1881 Prankerd, Peter D., Esq., The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
1858 Previte\ Joseph W., Esq., 13 Church Terrace, Lee 

1887 Price, Miss M. A., Hooper's Hill House, Margate 

1867 Prichard, Rev. Hugh, Dinam, Gaerwen, Anglesey 
1873 Prigg, Henry, Esq., Babwell Friary, Bury St. Edmunds 
1887 Pritchett, J. P., Esq., 24 High Row, Darlington 


1883 Probyn, Clifford, Esq., 55 Grosvenor Street, W. 
1889 Prosser, Miss, Mount Pleasant House, Upper Clapton 

l. 1863 Ripon, The Most Hon. the Marquess op, 1 Carlton Gardens 

1886 Rabson, R., Esq., B.A., London and County Bank, Woolwich 

1883 Radford, D., Esq., Mount Tavy, Tavistock 

1877 Rawlings, W. J., Esq., Downes, Hayle, Cornwall 

1883 Ray, H. C, Esq., J.P., Iron Acton, Gloucestershire 
l. 1870 Rayson, S., Esq., 32 Sackville Street, Piccadilly 

1886 Reid, Herbert J., Esq., F.S.A., F.R.S.L., Donnington, New- 

bury, Berks 
0. 1888 Reid, Thomas, Esq., 92 West George Street, Glasgow, N.B. 
1882 Rendle, Mrs. W. G., 15 Russell Road, Kensington 

1875 Reynolds, John, Esq., The Manor House, Redland, Bristol 
L. 1848 Richards, Thomas, Esq., 47 Holland Road, Kensington 

1884 Richards, W. H., Esq., Croft House, Tenby 

0. 1888 Robertson, David, Esq., 12 Windsor Circus, Glasgow, N.B. 

l. 1866 Roe, Charles Fox, Esq., F.S.A., Litchurch, Derby 

l. 1884 Roget, J. L., Esq., 5 Randolph Crescent, Maida Hill 

1877 Roofe, W., Esq., Craven Cottage, Merton Road, Wandsworth, 

L. 1878 Roper, W., jun., Esq., Lancaster 

1882 Routledge, Rev. Canon, St. Martin's, Canterbury 

1877 Rowe, J. Brooking, Esq., F.S.A., Plympton Lodge, Plympton 

1877 Russell, Miss, Ashiestiel, Galashiels, N.B. 

1873 Rylands, W. Harry, Esq., F.S. A., 11 Hart Street, Bloomsbury 

l. 1881 Rylands, T. G., Esq., F.S.A., Highfields, Thelwall, Cheshire 

l. ] 888 Stair, The Right Hon. the Earl op, Bargamy Castle, Ayrshire 

1887 St. Oswald, The Right Hon. Lord, Nostel Priory, Wake- 

1856 Scarth, Rev. Preb. H. M., M.A., Vice-President, Rectory, 
Wrington, E. Somerset 
0. 1888 Scott, A. M., Esq., 156 St. Vincent Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

1877 Sheraton, H., Esq., 1 Highfield North, Rock Ferry, Birkenhead 

1885 Sibbald, J. G., Esq., Admiralty, S.W. 
1867 Silver, Mrs., Beechcroft, Oatland Park 

1876 Simion, L., Esq., Berlin (care of Asher and Co., 13 Bedford 

Street, Covent Garden) 
1879 Simpkinson, The Rev. J. N., North Creake, Fakeuham, Norfolk 
l. 1865 Simpson, Rev. W. Sparrow, D.D., F.S.A., Vice-President, 9 
Amen Court, E.C. 

1888 Simpson, Miss Gertrude, The Arches, Clevedon 

1888 Simpson, Percy, Esq., Fernholme, Enys Road, Eastbourne 

1879 Sinclair, The Rev. John, Fulham 

1884 Skipwith, Grey H., Esq., 8 Hope Drive, Nottingham 

L. 1874 Smith, C. Roach, Esq., F.S. A., Vice-President, Strood, Rochester 

0. 1888 Smith, J. Guthrie, Esq., Mugdoch Castle, Milngavie, Glasgow, 

1878 Smith, Worthington G., Esq., West Street, Dunstable, Beds. 
1884 Smith, Jas. Early, Esq., 85 Avenue Road, Regent's Park 
1884 Smith, Jonathan, Esq., 63 Redcliffe Gardens, S.W. 


1886 Soames, Captain R., Scaldwell, Northampton 

1881 Soames, Rev. C, Mildenhall Rectory, Marlborough 

C. 1888 Sorley, Robert, Esq., 1 Buchanan Street, Glasgow, KB. 

L. 1873 Stacye, Rev. J. Evelyn, M.A., Shrewsbury Hospital, Sheffield 

1881 Sterry, J. Ash by, Esq., Martin's Chambers, Trafalgar Square 

1867 Stevens, Joseph, Esq., Dorset Villa, Oxford Road, Reading 

1865 Stocker, Dr., Peckham House, Peckham 

L. 1878 Strickland, Edward, Esq., Bristol 

1886 Surtees, Rev. Scott, M.A., Dimsdale-on-Tees, Durham 

1858 Swayne, Henry J. F., Esq., The Island, Wilton, near Salisbury 

l. 1877 Talbot, C. H., Esq., Lacock Abbey, Chippenham 

1883 Tayler, F., Esq., F.S.A., Endsleigh, Chepstow Road, Park 

Hill, Croydon 

1875 Thompson, E. M., Esq., F.S.A., Vice-President, Principal 

Librarian, British Museum, W.C. 

1876 Thairlwall, F. J., Esq., 12 Upper Park Road, Haverstock Hill 

1885 Thompson, John, Esq., The Lindens, Peterborough 

1877 Thorpe, George, Esq., 21 Eastcheap, E.C. 

1886 Ticknor, T. F., Esq., 7 Bishop Street, Coventry 

1874 Tomline, George, Esq., F.S.A., Vice-President* 1 Carlton 

House Terrace, S.W. 

1875 Trappes, T. Byraand, Esq., Clayton Hall, Accrington 
1879 Tremlett, Rear- Admiral, Belle Vue, Tunbridge Wells 
1874 Tuke, William Murray, Esq., Saffron Walden, Essex 
1852 Turner, John, Esq., The Cottage, Rickinghall, Suffolk 

C. 1888 Veitch, Professor, The College, Glasgow, N.B. 

1886 Vallentin, James R., Esq., St. Stephen's Club, Westminster, 

1884 Vallentin, John, Esq., Chichester Lodge, Park Hill Rise, 

1872 Vincent, Samuel, Esq., Delce, Park Road, Wallington, Surrey 

l. 1878 Westminster, His Grace the Duke op, K.G., Grosvenor 
House, W. 
1853 Warwick, Right Hon. the Earl op, Warwick Castle 
l. 1875 Winchester, Right Rev. the Lord Bishop op, Farnham 
Castle, Surrey 
1845 Woods, Sir Albert, F.S.A., Garter King of Arms, Heralds' 

College, E.C. 
1860 Wace, Henry T., Esq., F.S.A., Brooklands, Abbey Foregate, 
L. 1873 Wake, Bernard, Esq., Abbey Field, Sheffield 

1880 Walford, Edward, Esq., M.A., 7 Hyde Park Mansions, Edgware 

1889 Walford, Mrs., 88 Wharton Road, West Kensington 
1874 Walker, E. L., Esq., 8 New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
1868 Wallis, Alfred, Esq., F.R.S.L., Mount Vernon, Magdalen 
Road, Exeter 


1881 Walmsley, Gilbert G., Esq., 50 Lord Street, Liverpool 

1869 Walter, John, Esq., Vice-President, 40 Upper Grosvenor Street, 

and Bearwood, Wokingham 

1872 Ward, H., Esq., Rodbarton, Penkridge, Staffordshire 

1877 Way, R. E., Esq., 56 Mervan Road, Brixton 

1884 Welby, John H., Esq., 12 Russell Square, W.C. 

l. 1887 Westlake, N. H. J., Esq., Falcon Honse, Quex Road, N.W. 

1875 Weston, J. D., Esq., Dorset House, Clifton Down, Bristol 

1882 Westwood, J., junr., Esq., The Lake, Snaresbrook, Essex 
1887 Wheeler, Mrs., Hooper's Hill House, Margate 

1887 White, R. Howard, Esq., Calais Court, Ryarsh, Kent 

1866 Whitmore, John, Esq., 124 Sloane Street, S.W. 

1887 Whytehead, Rev. H. R. 

1870 Wilding,' William, Esq., Montgomery 

1886 Wills, W. H., Esq., Coombe Lodge, Blagdon, Somerset 

1875 Wilson, C. M., Esq., Waldershaigh, Bolsterstone, near Shef- 

0. 1888 Wilson, William, Esq., 42 Glassford Street, Glasgow, N.B. 

1883 Winckley, W., Esq., F.S.A., Flambards, Harrow 

0. 1888 Wingate, J. B., Esq., 5 Exchange Square, Glasgow, N.B. 
0. 1888 Wingate, W. E., Esq., 4 Bowmont Terrace, W., Glasgow, N.B. 

1884 Winstone, B., Esq., 53 Russell Square, W.C. 

l. 1882 Wolfe, Miss, High Broom, Crowborough, Sussex 

l. 1881 Wood, C. F., Esq., M.A., West Park, Salisbury 

1885 Wood, Humphrey, Esq., Chatham 
l. 1863 Wood, Richard, Esq., 

l. 1864 Wood, Richard H., Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., Penrhos House, 

1877 Woodjiouse, Dr. T. J., 
0. 1888 Wordie, John, Esq., 49 West Nile Street, Glasgow, N.B. 
L. 1845 Wright, G. R., Esq., F.S.A., Vice-President, Hon. Curator and 

Librarian, Junior Athenaeum Club, W. 

1876 Wright, Mrs. G. R. 

1883 Wright, Mrs., 32 Carisbrooke Road, St. LeonardVon-Sea 
1859 Wyatt, Rev. C. F., M.A., Broughton Rectory, Banbury 

1884 Wyon, Allan, Esq., F.S.A., F.S.A.Scoi, F.R.G.S., 2 Langham 

Chambers, Portland Place, W. 

l. 1863 York, His Grace the Lord Archbishop of, Bishopthorpe 
1876 Yorkshire Philosophical Society, York 



Local jttembets of tfre Council. 

Berkshire Dr. J. Stevens, Dorset Villa, Oxford Road, Reading 

County .... I *** Rey 110 ^ Esq-* Th e Manor House, Redland, Bristol 

Cheshire H. Sheraton, Esq., Highfield North, Rock Ferry, Birk- 

Cornwall Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, M.A., Newlyn, Penzance 

Derbyshire A. E. Cokayne, Esq., Bake well 

n--.™ « F. Brent, Esq., F.S.A., 19 Clarendon Place, Plymouth 

" EVON \ Alfred Wallis, Esq., Elm Grove House, Exeter 

rwTi,TT*w 5 Rev - ^ r * Hooppell, Byers Green, Spennymoor 

UURHAM \ J. H. Le Keux, Esq., 64 Sadler Street, Durham 

n, .„«^ w (J- Dalrymple Duncan, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. 

GLASaow (w.G.Blwk, Esq., F.SJL, Scot. 

Hampshire Rev. Canon Collier, M.A., F.S.A., Andover 

Kent Rev. Canon Routledge, St. Martin's, Canterbury 

Lancashire Sir J. A. Picton, F.S.A., Sandyknowe, Wavertree, 


Lincolnshire J. R. Allen, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., A.I.C.E., 5 Albert 

Terrace, Regent's Park 

Montgomeryshire M. C. Jones, Esq., F.S.A., Gungrog, Welshpool 

Norfolk W. A. T. Amherst, Esq., M.P., Didlington Park, 

Brandon, Norfolk 

Northamptonshire J. T. Irvine, Esq., 167 Cromwell Road, Peterborough 

Somersetshire ... ( Colonel James R. Bramble, Cleeve House, Yatton 
\ E. A. Baker, Esq., F.S.A., Weston-super-Mare 

Staffordshire ... C. Lynam, Esq., Stoke-upon-Trent 

Suffolk H. Prigg, Esq., Bury St. Edmund's 

Surrey B. Hicklin, Esq., Holly House, Dorking 

Warwickshire ... W. G. Fretton, Esq., F.S.A., 88 Little Park Street, 

Wiltshire H. J. F. Swayne, Esq., The Island, Wilton, near Salis- 

Worcestershire... H. New, Esq., Green Hill, Evesham 

Yorit^irf J Rev - W - C - Luki8 ' M - A ' FSA > Rectory, Wath, Ripon 

iorkshire | j p Pritchetti Esq ^ 24 High Row, Darlington 


lt)onorarp Cortespoitiiente anU JTomgn iWembera* 

Arbellot, M. L'Abbe\ Limoges 

Ardant, Monsieur Maurice, Limoges 

Bond, E. A., Esq., C.B. F.S.A., President of the Palceographical Society 

Boutelou, Don Claudio, Seville 

Bover, Don Joaquin Maria, Minorca 

Brassai, Professor Samuel, Klausenberg, Transylvania 

Brugsch-Bey, Hr, Gratz 

Cara, Signor Gaetano, Cagliari 

Carrara, Professor, Spalatro 

Cassaquy, Monsieur roncin, Seraings-sur-Meuse, near Liege 

Cesnola, General Luigi Palma di, New York 

Chalon, M. R6nier, President of the Royal Numismatic Society of Belgium, 

Coste, Monsieur, Marseilles 

Courval, Le Vicomte de, au Chateau de Pinon, near Chavignon 
Dassy, Monsieur, Marseilles 
Delisle, Monsieur Leopold, Hon. F.S.A., Paris 
Delgado, Don Antonio, Madrid 
Durand, Monsieur Antoine, Calais 
Dubosc, Monsieur, St.-Lo, Normandy 
Dupont, Monsieur Gustave, Caen 
Dupont, Monsieur Lecointre, Hon. F.S.A., Poitiers 
Fillon, Monsieur Benjamin, Fontenay-le-Comte 
Formaville, Monsieur H. de, Caen 
Habel, Herr Schierstein, Biberich 
Hefner von Alteneck, Herr von, Munich 
Hildebrandt, Herr Hans, Stockholm 
Jones, T. Rupert, Esq., F.R.S. 
Klein, Professor, Mainz 
Rohne, Baron Bernhard, St. Petersburg 
Lenoir, Monsieur Albert, Paris 
Lindenschmidt, Dr. Ludwig, Mainz 
Mowat, Mons. Robert, Paris 
Nilsson, Professor, Lund 
Reichensperger, Monsieur, Treves 
Richard, Monsieur Ad., Montpellier 
De Rossi, Conimendatore, Rome 
Schliemann, Dr. H., Athens 
Da Silva, Chevalier J., Lisbon 
Spano, The Canon Giovanni, Cagliari 
Stephens, Professor, Copenhagen 
Vassallo, Dr. Cesare, Malta 
Wright, W. Aldis, Esq., M.A., Cambridge 
Yates, Giles Fulda, Esq., Albany, New York. 



The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House, London, W. 

The Royal Archaeological Institute, Oxford Mansion, Oxford Street, W. 

The Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, the Museum, Glouces- 

The Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge 

The Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Derby 

The Kent Archaeological Society. — Care of the Rev. Canon Scott- Robertson, 
Throwley Vicarage, Faversham 

The Somersetshire Society of Antiquaries, Taunton 

The Sussex Archaeological Society, The Castle, Lewes 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Royal Institution, Prince's St., Edin- 

The Society of Antiquaries, The Castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne 

The Wiltshire Archaeological Society 

The Cambrian Archaeological Association, 30 Sardinia Street, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields, W.C. 

The Powys-land Club. — Care of M. C. Jones, Esq., Gungrog, Welshpool 

The Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, care of Robert 
Cochrane, Esq., Trenure Road, Dublin 

The Royal Dublin Society, Kildare Street, Dublin 


Brtttsft ftrcftaeoloejical association. 

MARCH 1889. 

GLASGOW, 28th AUGUST 1888, 


It is the custom of this Society, when it has chosen the 
place of its annual Congress, to make choice of some local 
man upon whom to confer the honour of the temporary 
Presidency of the meeting, and you have had the good- 
ness upon this occasion to confer it upon me. In com- 
mon with my predecessors of the same kind, I feel that 
my first duty is to ofler you my warm thanks for the 
compliment which you have so kindly paid me. And I beg 
now to do so. In common with them also, I must ask 
your indulgence, as a layman among experts, for the de- 
ficiencies which I cannot but show as well as feel, when 
placed in a short-lived and artificial eminence over so 
many men with whose experience and learning no casual 
information which I may happen to possess can be com- 
pared. And this also I very sincerely and respectfully 
do, while I venture to plead for your forbearance upon 
the very ground that my position, however incongruous, 
has been laid upon me by your own choice. Lastly, I 
may say that I am especially conscious of the responsi- 
bility which my present situation lays upon me, as hav- 
ing the duty of bidding the members of the British 
Archaeological Association welcome not only to a new 
district, but to a new country, — a country which is my 
mother, but a stranger and a foreigner to them. It is a 

1889 1 


responsibility which I am only too conscious of my own 
inability fitly to discharge. Being as I am, I know that 
I express not my own feelings only, but those also of my 
neighbours and fellow-countrymen, in assuring you of the 
pleasure which your first visit to Scotland is giving. We 
hope it may not be the last. And while we welcome the 
Association with the most cordial friendliness, and I hope 
I may add with such hospitality as may be accepted in 
evidence at least of our sincere wishes to show that 
friendliness ; and while we trust and believe that the 
things to which your attention will be directed are such 
as may not only make you feel no regret for your journey, 
but also may even encourage you — if, indeed, we be so 
fortunate — to repeat it, we are also conscious of the 
benefits to ourselves in the study and illustration of the 
monuments of our own history which the visit of such a 
body as this is calculated to confer. 

I have spoken of the monuments of history, for I think 
it is now conceded that the true worth, the true use, the 
true work of archaeology is to be the helpmeet of the 
documents of history. It is in general connection with 
this fact that I hope I may be allowed to frame the words 
in which I propose now to address you. Under the pecu- 
liar circumstances of your being in this country for the 
first time, I think I may do best to permit myself a 
greater latitude, or perhaps I should say discursiveness, 
than I should have taken if I had been addressing you in 
England. At the same time, I shall be careful to take as 
examples the things which you have seen or are to see, 
and to mention as many of them as I can. Had this not 
been a first time I might, perhaps, have expressed the 
wish that the excursions which have been organised for 
you had been arranged upon a more homogeneous, histo- 
rical, or ethnological plan ; as, for instance, that they 
had been concentrated within the Cymbric kingdom of 
Strathclyde, which is itself so wide a field that only a 
very limited portion of it could have been satisfactorily 
studied and visited. On the other hand, the tastes of 
archaeologists differ like the tastes of the lovers of the 
Arts, and I may rejoice in the thought that the very 
heterogeneous and fragmentary — I might, indeed, be for- 
given for saying superficial — nature of your excursions 


upon the occasion of your first visit to Scotland may 
after all leave a more useful, and in a sense more truthful, 
impression by giving you some idea of the vastness and 
variety of our remains of antiquity than would have been 
the case had a more strictly scientific selection left the 
possible impression that there were no monuments in the 
country save those characteristic of one district, one 
epoch, or one class. I will, therefore, endeavour to throw 
what I want to say, roughly, under historical heads. At 
the same time this is an arrangement which must neces- 
sarily admit of much laxity, many exceptions, and many 
wide digressions, partly for the reason of which I have 
already spoken, viz., the erratic and eclectic, if I may ven- 
ture to say so, the almost capricious nature of the excur- 
sions which you are making, but also because several of 
these places are in themselves connected with the his- 
tory, and afford instances of the monuments of nearly 
every known period in the records of Scotland. 

I nave no wish to force my own classification upon any 
one else; but until I am convinced that there is one more 
scientific, I may be permitted to say that to my eye 
the history of Scotland always appears to fall into Three 
Periods, viz., the Early, the Mediaeval, and the Modern. 
The first, or Early Period, ends with the death of Macbeth 
at Lumphanan on August 15, 1057. The second, or Medi- 
aeval Period, lasts till the defeat of Mary at Langside (of 
which battle you yesterday visited the site, and saw un- 
veiled the memorial) on May 13, 1568. The third, or 
Modern Period, stretches from the battle of Langside 
until the present day. 

(in.) — I will take the last Period first, because in itself 
it is of least interest to an archaeological body as such, 
since it has left hardly any material monuments. Indeed, 
I might almost dismiss it in a sentence, from this point of 
view, were it not for some features which are necessarily 
associated with it, and along with which I would rather 
take at once the places to which they are attached than 
recur to the same spots again and again from different 

Had the Modern Period to be studied here from the 
point of view of pure history, little could have been more 
interesting. If I may be allowed to go less than two years 


earlier than the date I have myself fixed, and to allude 
to the historical controversy over Mary Queen of Scots, 
which, although it is so utterly without practical use, 
has an almost supernatural power of causing people to 
lose their tempers, T may be forgiven for remarking that 
it was at Glasgow Darnley had the small-pox, and that 
the two most famous of the famous Casket-letters bear to 
have been written from here. Consequently, the question 
whether they are forgeries or not turns in some measure 
upon geographical or rather topographical considerations. 
But, turning to more practically important matters, 
you are in the very city which gives its name to the 
Glasgow Assembly of 1638, you are in the land of the 
Remonstrance, you have this day seen Both well Brig, 
you are but a little north of Drumclog and Sanquhar. 

But this period, as I say, lies out of the range of Archaeo- 
logy proper because it has left next to no material monu- 
ments. The reason of this is because it is identified 
almost throughout its whole length with the period of 
the union of the Crowns, and, since 1707, with that of the 
Parliaments, and the banishment of the seat of govern- 
ment, or rather the transference of the government of 
this country into the hands of the authorities of another. 
The manner in which the first of these changes necessa- 
rily affected the expenditure of private wealth was, of 
course, as nothing to the tremendous diversion of the ex- 
penditure of individuals, and the almost total diversion 
out of the country of the public funds, which has been 
and is so marked and striking a consequence of the 

It is an illustrative fact that you will only be brought 
in contact with some four or five buildings of this 
period, and only one of these of a State character. That 
one is the Chapel Royal of Stirling, built by James VI 
for the baptism of his eldest son, Henry. Even this was 
built before the union of the Crowns, and its present 
condition is an interesting instance of the results of the 
subsequent changes. The other buildings, viz., the Argyll 
Lodging at Stirling (now a hospital), Newark House at 
Port Glasgow (now included in a timber-yard), and Tor- 
woodhead Castle (now a roofless ruin), are private dwell- 
ings, and as such were, even in their best days, the evi- 


dences not of public prosperity but of individual opulence. 
Of one other — the dilapidated ruin of a private house at 
Stirling, called Mar's Work — I need hardly speak here, 
since, although seemingly later, as a construction, than 
the battle of Langside, it is generally believed to be only 
an imperfect congeries of scraps from Cambuskenneth 

If, however, this period has left almost no monuments 
in the shape of edifices, it has left plenty in the shape of 
destruction. Among these some of the most — perhaps 
the most — typical are the buildings of a public or State 
character. You are to visit four of these, viz., Stirling, 
Rothesay, Linlithgow, and Dunfermline. They have in 
common that they are all more or less monuments of the 
brilliant epoch of the five first Jameses. 

Rothesay, which is the least important, is a Thirteenth 
Century castle with an addition of the time of James IV. 
The arms over the gate are among the earliest instances — 
if not, indeed, the first instance — of the employment of 
the two unicorns as the supporters of the Royal Arms. 
The present drawbridge is a most careful restoration — 
from the existing piles found in the moat, and from 
parallel cases — made for me by the late Mr. Burges. The 
statement' that Robert III died at Rothesay on Palm 
Sunday, 1406, has become a sort of common-place. The 
present Lyon King of Arms, in his edition of the Exche- 
quer Rolls, says this is no older than Bower, and accepts 
the statement of Wyntoun that he died at Dundonald. 
I have no opinion on this point, as I have not studied it; 
but I will remark that the statement of Wyntoun is well 
accordant with the indubitable fact that Robert is buried 
at Paisley. Had he died at Rothesay he would have 
been more likely to be buried there, especially as his 
funeral was designedly simple ; and still more so if, as I 
shall have occasion to mention hereafter, the Parish 
Church of Rothesay contained then as now a royal tomb 
bearing the arms of his race, and which has never been 
used. Rothesay Castle was burnt in Argyll's rebellion 
in 1685, and has been a ruin ever since. 

Of Dunfermline, a combined Palace and Abbey, like the 
Escorial, I need hardly speak, because its associations, 
both religious and historical, from the days of Malcolm 


and Margaret downwards, are so important and so vast 
that I could not touch them in a single paragraph. The 
Palace was last occupied by a King when Charles II 
stayed there at the beginning of August 1650. He left 
it on the 16th, the same day on which he signed the 
Dunfermline Declaration, thence so named. It is cer- 
tainly a ghastly close to the history of Dunfermline as a 
royal residence. Of all the perjuries which stain the 
name of the second Charles, perhaps none sink him — per- 
haps nothing could sink him — lower than that Declara- 
tion. The building was allowed to fall in, from decay, 
early in 1708, and nothing was ever done to restore it. 
It had lived to see 1707. 

Another very striking instance of the results of the 
Union may be seen in the magnificent Palace of Linlith- 
gow, burnt by the English troops after their defeat at 
Falkirk, January 17, 1746, and which has remained un- 
restored then and since. 

Again, one more mark of the change is the present 
condition of the castellated Palace of Stirling. You will 
see for yourselves the state of its buildings, the aban- 
doned terraces of its garden, its distimbered and neg- 
lected park, its pleasaunce and tilting-yard turned into a 
cemetery, — a fate which is just impending over the his- 
toric hill-top which lies beneath its eastern wall. 

There is, perhaps, no place in Scotland around which 
so many memories of all historical epochs cluster as 
around the tract of land which can be seen from the 
Rock of Stirling. From the very formation of the Rock 
it must have naturally suggested itself as a site for the 
rude fortifications of the earliest savages ; but I am not 
aware that it appears in history before the time of the 
historic Arthur. About his period it shares with Whit- 
horn, Dundonald, Dumbarton, Dundee, Dunpeleder, and 
Edinburgh, the honour of being the site of one of the 
seven Scottish churches of Edana, from whom I have no 
doubt that the last named city, Edinburgh, is called ; 
unless, indeed, her name has been here assimilated by 
sound to that of a still earlier title of Eiddyn. However, 
I am not here to speak of Edinburgh. 

As to Stirling, I may as well finish at once what I wish 
to say upon it. Your attention will be called to the 


great Friars' Church in which, among other events, 
Mary and James VI were anointed and crowned. It is 
now slowly undergoing the process of restoration, which 
has as yet extended only to the chancel. It is obvious 
that in the Middle Ages it was partially rebuilt, this 
chancel being the portion where the work was accom- 
plished. You will be interested in observing in both por- 
tions some of the consecration-crosses still upon the walls. 
With regard to the present restoration there are one 
or two things to be said. I trust that it will be neither 
accompanied nor followed by any modern outrage upon 
the usages of the past, such as the stone pulpit with 
which St. Giles', Edinburgh, has been disfigured ; but 
that a wooden pulpit will be placed on the south side, in 
the best position for hearing, as the Mediaevals would 
have done, and is done now in the great churches of France 
and Belgium. There are also three particular features 
upon which to be very careful, — (1), if the side-chapels 
originally opened into the nave, they ought to be care- 
fully re-incorporated with it, and not left as ruinous 
burial-vaults, — leaning to against the outside; (2), if 
the sham vaulting of the nave is to be interfered with at 
all, I trust that it will only be interfered with with very 
great caution. I know the present vaulting dates only 
from about 1820, but I suspect it is the successor of a 
much earlier. Unless upon the veiy clearest proof, I am 
not a believer in open timber roofs in Mediaeval Churches. 
I believe they generally had flat ceilings, as at Aberdeen, 
or sham vaulting, as at Paisley. (3), No one can doubt 
that there was a chancel-screen. Its top was almost 
certainly occupied by a gallery, as at Glasgow. Very 
likely it bore the Royal Throne, as at Frankfort, or at 
Rheims at the coronations of the Kings of France. Its 
position is now occupied by a wall, as used to be the case 
at St. Giles', Edinburgh ; and I remember that the Queen's 
Throne, under a curious wooden baldaquin (recalling that 
at Rheims, at the French coronations), was on a gallery in 
the midst of that wall. I greatly fear that in the sweep- 
ing restoration of St. Giles' not only may the Royal Throne 
have been deposed from its ancient position, but the only 
remains of the mediaeval screen may have gone with the 
party-wall which had been erected upon it. I implore the 


authorities of Stirling to be careful how they tamper with 
the wall across their chancel-arch. 

It is, perhaps, as well not to leave the subject of 
the great Church of Stirling without recalling the fact 
that here was buried, in 1419, at the north corner of 
the altar, the person who had been for so many years 
recognised and treated by the Scottish Government as 
Richard II of England, and, in the judgment of Tytler, 
upon very good grounds. I am not aware that any traces 
of the tomb have been discovered. 

As I am speaking of ruins, and have come to speak of 
Churches, I may as well speak at once of the ecclesiastical 
ruins which you are to visit. This is worth doing if it 
were only to protest against the vulgar delusion that all 
phenomena of this sort are to be ascribed to the Reforma- 
tion. It is not so. Other men's sins in this respect are 
too often laid to the Reformers' doors. The only ruin 
due to them whicb you will see is Cambuskenneth. It 
was one of the pious and Royal foundations of David I, 
commonly called " The Saint", dating from or about 11 47; 
and its materials are believed to have been, to a great 
extent, utilised by the Earl of Mar (afterwards Regent) 
in order to build Mar's Wark at Stirling, — the curious 
building, which I have already named, which was never 
completed, and which you will see as a crumbling ruin. 
Even so, the work of destruction was not the deed of the 
Reformers as such, but of the lay impropriator. On 
Sept. 13, 1563, on the complaint of the inhabitants of 
the town that the walls, leaden roof, glass windows, etc., 
were in a bad condition, the Lords of the Secret Council 
ordered the commendator, Robert Pitcairn, to put them 
in proper repair. The eastern part of the walls of the 
choir and Lady Chapel did not fall in till the end of 1672, 
and the remains of the building were pulled down — not 
at the Reformation, but — in the month of November 181 9. 
It is also said that the easternmost portion of the Abbey 
Church of Dunfermline, which contained the Royal tombs 
and the shrine where St. Margaret lay in death as in life, 
by the side of Malcolm III, was " cast down" by the Re- 
formers on March 28, 1560. But it is difficult to tell 


what this actually means. Its site is, in any case, now 
occupied by an entirely new building, while the old nave 
remains still entire. 

The old parish church of Rothesay owes its destruction 
to the beginning of the present century. The ruined 
chancel contains, inter alia, an empty tomb, which has 
been conjectured to be one of several erected by Robert II 
to himself, to meet possible contingencies as to the cir- 
cumstances of his death. 

The church of St. Blane, in South Bute, was only 
abandoned in 1703, owing to the movement of population. 
It is Norman, but a square Gothic chancel has been sub- 
stituted for the apse. There is a stone coffin outside it, 
which, some would fain have it, contains the body of 
St. Blane, whom Bower states to be buried in Bute. I 
own I cannot accept this, and, to the best of my recollec- 
tion, the skeleton it contains is that of a young woman. 
I had it bound round with bronze bands to prevent 
tourists displacing the lid in order to look at the remains. 
The churchyard contains some curious pre-Reformation 
gravestones of persons of the humbler classes, in the 
shape of small stone crosses. 

Near St. Blanes are several sockets of standing crosses, 
and a curious prehistoric building, which the Ordnance 
Survey calls, I believe, " The Devils Cauldron." From 
its position it cannot have been meant for defence. It 
seems too massive for a dwelling. Was it, then, a temple 
or a tomb ? Perhaps both. When I was a child it was 
said that to sleep on a splinter of a certain tree which 
grew in it produced oracular dreams. The circumstance 
is, perhaps, the survival of some tradition of a religious 
or at least preternatural character still surviving as 
attached to the building. 

Dunblane Cathedral, or at least its nave, was roofless 
in 1238. It seems very uncertain whether it had ever 
had a roof. It was roofed with great exertions, and on 
April 12, 1304, Edward I ordered all the lead to be strip- 
ped off, except that above the altars, for use in the siege 
of Stirling Castle. I know not if it was ever roofed again. 
It was roofless in the days of Charles I, roofless it re- 
mained when Slezer prepared his Theatrum Scotice in 
1693, and roofless it remains. It is now on the point of 


being completely restored, and, as far as I am aware, the 
work is to be done in the most careful and conservative 
manner. It owes its initiative to the sense of the Heri- 
tors, but is almost entirely executed by the pious muni- 
ficence of Mrs. Wallace of Gusingall. Her name will, I 
trust, be surrounded with the gratitude which it de- 
serves, and I hope that this very important and interest- 
ing work will not only more than satisfy her hopes, but 
that it may be effectual in raising up in other quarters 
the desire to execute similar patriotic and artistic works 
of renewal. 

You will observe at Dunblane the very remarkable 
plan of the wall which separates the chancel from the 
nave. I imagine that it may have been masked by some 
immense wooden structure in the nature of a roodloft. 

The remaining specimen of an ecclesiastical ruin which 
you will see is raisley Abbey. It was created, in 1163, 
by Walter, the first High Steward of Scotland, as, I 
might say, the expression of the religious and cultured 
sentiment of the great house of Fitzalan, otherwise called 
Stuarts, to which he belonged, and the descendants of 
which have now occupied the throne for more than five 
centuries, down to our present Sovereign and Patroness. 
In one respect this building, or rather the site of part of 
it, will present the saddest feature which will meet your 
eyes in Scotland. 

The transepts, lantern, and chancel, must have been in 
ruins for some time ; but the domestic buildings of the 
Abbey were standing, mostly still roofed, including the 
great cloister- garth. They were very remarkable, both 
historically and artistically. Among other striking fea- 
tures was one side of the great hall of the refectory with 
its rows of stone arches. The buildings were mainly, I 
believe, of the Twelfth Century, but must have been re- 
stored in the Fifteenth, under Abbot Shaw, as some of the 
decorative sculpture bore his arms. The ambulatory of 
the cloister had possessed the remarkable feature of being 
of wood. You will still see against the south wall of the 
Church traces of the manner in which it was attached 
There were, I believe, only two specimens of the domestic 
buildings of an Abbey in Scotland. If anything were to 
have been destroyed, it is needless to remark that the 


Church could have been better spared, as although the 
clerestory-gallery is — perhaps happily — unique, there are 
plenty of Churches, whereas monumental piles of Medi- 
aeval building of a character not only domestic but his- 
toric, are, at least in Scotland, almost non-existent. Well, 
within the last few years, it is all gone, in order to 
straighten the street by 18 inches or 2 feet (I forget 
which), and has given place to a grimy plot of grass and 
an iron railing. The two remaining sides of the cloister- 
garth now present, in their aspect of ghastly mutilation, 
somewhat the same effect as that of a human face after 
the nose has been cut off. 

While, however, it is impossible not to bewail the past, 
it is needful to remember the future. The historical and, 
in one sense, the artistic treasure has been annihilated for 
ever ; but the architectural and, in another sense, the 
artistic feature can still be restored ; and in any work of 
which Paisley Abbey may become the subject, the first 
thing to do ought to be to erect a new square of buildings 
(Church offices or anything else you please) exactly upon 
the old foundations, harmonising with the Church, and 
reproducing as far as possible the general idea of what 
has been lost. 

(i.) — If I may be allowed, in addressing a severely scien- 
tific assembly like the present, to draw a comparison from 
any work of fiction, however famous, I may be permitted to 
compare the transition from the ruins of the Third Period 
of Scottish history to the obscure creative energisms of 
the First, and the strong life of the Second, to the trans- 
ition of Faust when, turning from the modern pathos of 
Margaret, and before throwing himself into the fair, old- 
world dream of Helen, he seeks the mysterious place of 
the Divine Mothers, the origins of things. 

It is in this, the Earliest Epoch, that we find the first 
dim light shed upon the origins of Scottish History. I 
know that this period, especially that portion of it which 
may well precede, or does certainly precede, all written 
records, possesses a peculiar charm for many archaeolo- 
gists, especially such as are students of anthropology. To 
them a kitchen-midden or a flint arrow-head is more 
attractive than the noblest works of Mediaeval Art. On 
the other hand, these subjects undoubtedly share the 


darkness in which Goethe has wrapped the ancient causes 
of what is, and which is calculated to rouse less sympathy 
in the ordinary reader than the woes of Margaret, and to 
prove less attractive than the known historical regions of 
Sparta and Arcadia, where the union of Learning and 
Sensuality engenders the buoyant life of Euphorion, gra- 
cious even if illusory, attractive even if fleeting. 

Of these very early works you have only included two 
as of special importance, viz., the prehistoric hill-fort 
which you visited yesterday at Langside, and Tapock 
Broch, which you are to see to-morrow. 

Of the prehistoric fort at Langside, which you have 
already seen, I do not think there is any necessity that I 
should speak ; not only for that reason, but because I am 
not aware that it presents any very exceptional feature. 
Of Tapock Broch I dare not speak, except to remark that 
it is one of some three or four instances of this peculiar 
class of building found outside the extreme North; because, 
if 1 once began the subject of brochs, I should not know 
when to stop. Fortunately, the whole subject has received 
great attention from the learned. Perhaps none has 
treated it with wider information and intelligence, or in 
a more interesting and attractive manner, than Dr. Joseph 
Anderson, whose admirable Rhind Lectures are, I trust, 
familiar to most of you. A more agreeable as well as a 
more trustworthy guide in Early Scottish Archaeology it 
would be impossible to find. 

The mention of the name of this eminent man natu- 
rally suggests the thought of another peculiar class of 
ancient fortification of which he has treated, viz., Vitrified 
Forts, or those in which the wall has been consolidated by 
being molten, and of which, although the examples are 
not uncommon in Scotland, there is not a single case in 
England, and few in Ireland or on the Continent. You 
may have time to visit an inferior or, rather, much ruined 
specimen at Dunagoil ("the Fort of the Gael") in Bute. 

In Bute, also, you will be shown a specimen of the 
Standing Stones, of which the island possesses several 
examples. I neither venture nor mention any hypothesis 
with regard to their date and object. 

Of the singular prehistoric building which some one 
has called " The Devil's Cauldron", close to the church of 
St. Blane, I have already spoken. 


The earliest written historical documents which we 
possess are naturally those bequeathed to us by the 
Itoman writers, and that great people have also left here 
material traces of their power. The history and monu- 
ments of the Roman occupation of Britain have so long 
formed the battlefield of the learned that it is little to be 
wondered at that the disputes which they engender should 
have become the jest of the frivolous (if I may dare to apply 
that word to the author of The Antiquary), and certainly 
no cause of surprise that they inspire a certain terror in 
outsiders, among whom I confess that I must be num- 
bered. You are to visit only three objects of this class, 
viz., the camp at Ardoch, which I believe is generally 
admitted to have been the headquarters of the Roman 
invaders under Agricola, at least in the winter of 80-81, 
after the third summer of his campaign, in which he first 
pressed forward into the North ; secondly, a portion of 
the Wall of Antonine, so called because erected under 
that Prince in or soon after 139, by Lollius Urbicus, when 
it was desired to incorporate Lothian and Strathclyde 
definitely and finally with the territories of the empire. 
It is the opinion of Dr. Skene that the so-called building 
of the Wall of Severus consisted in the strengthening and 
improving, in the first decade of the Third Century, of 
that of Antonine. 

Rough Castle, the third Roman monument which you 
are to visit, is one of the numerous stations upon this 
Wall, and perhaps not of its earliest period. I thankfully 
leave the subject to abler hands, and in doing so I would 
only ask leave to throw out one suggestion. Is it not 
possible that Calphurnius Agricola, who was sent to see 
to the attacks of the free natives against this wall in 
162, may have been a progenitor, or at least supplied the 
patronymic, of the father of Patrick ? 

I have just named the present Historiographer Royal, 
but it would in any case be unseemly to leave the sub- 
ject of the Earliest Period of Scottish History without 
offering some tribute of grateful homage to the manner 
in which it has been elucidated by his labours. Armed 
with the admirable accomplishments of a scientific know- 
ledge of both Welsh and Gaelic, he has applied his extra- 
ordinary genius, learning, acumen, and patience, to this 


subject to such an extent as practically to revolutionise 
the study. Nor has his work affected documents only ; 
his identification of many an historical site has rendered 
some hitherto silent monument of what was called the 
prehistoric epoch, eloquent with the voice of history. So 
great is his position in the historical field that many 
later writers seem inclined to adopt a position which may 
well seem to clothe itself in an adaptation of a dogma 
attributed to some Mediaeval philosophers, and to be well 
capable of expression in the words, " Skene errdsse dicere, 
absurdum est." No one would shrink more from so 
dubious an honour than the learned Doctor himself. Nor 
is it less a homage to him to say that his learning is so 
vast and so varied, and covers a field so extended, that 
it is impossible but that he must have left in it much 
from which other writers (such, for instance, as the Rev. 
Colin Grant) may be expected yet to benefit the learned, 
or rather the learning, world with immense stores of in- 
formation and observation. 

This Early Period is that in which Scotland gradually 
awoke to the consciousness of herself, and in which 
she assumed, roughly speaking, her natural territorial 
outline, save that the consequences of the victory of Car- 
ham, in 1018, under Malcolm II, were not pushed to 
their full logical result, and the Southern portion of her 
province of Bernicia (the portion, that is, lying between 
the Tweed and the Tyne), recognised as early as the time 
of Hadrian, when he drew his Wall, as an integral part of 
the Northern land, remained alienated and estranged 
from it and her to whom it belongs by race, and attached 
to England ; although it is needless to remark that it 
was only formally resigned by the Treaty of Chester 
during the boyhood of Malcolm IV (" The Maiden") in 
1157, and that it has been occasionally occupied by the 
Scottish troops even down to so late a date as 1640, 
when the Covenanters again held it for nearly a year ; 
in fact, they did not finally abandon Newcastle till Janu- 
ary 1647. 

(ii.) — The Second, or Mediaeval, Period of the History of 
Scotland, as I venture to term that which intervenes 
between the reigns of Macbeth and of Mary, may be 
called the Helen of Scottish archaeology, as distinguished, 


upon the one hand, from the dim and distant Mothers of 
the Earliest Period, and on the other from the Gretchen 
of modern ruin. Here Learning is able, as it were, to 
raise the phantom of the Past in beauty from the grave. 
It is this Period which has left the greatest number of 
material monuments. With these alone can you be said, 
as archaeologists, to be directly concerned. But at the 
same time it cannot be forgotten that the monuments of 
this Period, from the fact that we know' about the per- 
sonal history of the people who made them and Uvea in 
them, are instinct with a human interest which is neces- 
sarily wanting to those of the Earlier Epoch. At the 
same time also it would be an altogether imperfect view 
of this Period which overlooked its immense political 
importance. It is this Period which may be said to 
have formed the Scotland of the present, by developing 
its social system, and by giving birth to those institu- 
tions, such as the jurisprudence and the Universities, 
which are the subject of special attachment and pride. 
Not unnaturally, therefore, is it that it is the thought of 
this Period which still affects the popular patriotic senti- 
ment more than any other. At the present day the two 
names which are popularly the most idolised are those of 
two Mediaevals, namely William Wallace and Robert 
Bruce ; and so intense is the feeling which they inspire 
that I doubt whether you could find one adult in five 
hundred, among the natives of this country, who can hear 
them without more or less of emotion. 

This Period is peculiar ethnologically. The Scottish 
people were then, as it were, in one sense alone. The nation 
was, on the one hand, unaffected by the consequences 
which have followed the Unions, first of the Crowns and 
then of the Parliaments ; and, on the other hand, it was 
consolidated from the embryotic condition of the earlier 
ages. It underwent no other very important territorial 
changes. In 1092 William Rufiis practically conquered, 
and even partially colonised with English immigrants, 
the southern portion of Strathclyde, forming the old dio- 
cese of Carlisle ; in 1157, Malcolm the Maiden (a boy 
in his 'teens) was induced formally to surrender it along 
with the southern portion of Bernicia, of which I have 
already spoken ; and the attempt of William the Lion to 


set it free in 1173 was a failure. In the Thirteenth Cen- 
tury the disputed and uncertain power of the kings of 
Norway over the Western Islands was brought to a close. 
The Isle of Man was conquered in 1313, but again lost 
in 1333. In 1468, in consequence of the marriage of 
James III with Margaret of Denmark, Orkney and Shet- 
land fell peacefully into union with their geographical 

Owing to the peculiar condition of Scotland during the 
Middle Ages this period has left its monuments not only 
in nearly every institution, but in nearly all the histori- 
cal and artistic buildings in the country. I notice that 
nearly everything which is included in your programme 
is something which owes its origin to this epoch, — Glas- 
gow, Bothwell, Craignethan, Torwood, Stirling, Cambus- 
kenneth, Rothesay, Doune, Dunblane, Paisley, Falkirk, 
Linlithgow, Dunfermline. Of most of these I either need 
not speak or have spoken already. 

You have already seen the Castle and Church of 
Bothwell. I will only remark that in that most interest- 
ing and valuable new work, The Castellated and Domes- 
tic Architecture of Scotland, by Messrs. M'Gibbon and 
Ross, this Castle is styled our finest of the thirteenth 
century ; indeed, probably the grandest ruin of its kind 
in Scotland. Interesting as is its history (it was thither, 
by the way, that Bishop Bek betook himself for refuge 
after the Battle of the Brae, in 1297), it has probably 
struck you most, and the Church in a lesser degree, as a 
monument of the great House of Douglas during the 
dizziest period of their elevation, to which it owes so 
much of its present form. 

You have also seen Craignethan, likewise the property 
of the Earl of Home, which is interesting as the work, 
for the most part, of a professional architect, James Hamil- 
ton of Finnart, who was Superintendent of Royal Palaces 
in what I may style the very last portion of the Mediaeval 

Of the places which you have not seen as yet, I may 
first mention Falkirk. I may, perhaps, as well remind 
you that the local custom of prefixing the definite article 
to the name of the Faw-kirk or Fal-kirk is correct, the 
meaning being simply " the particoloured Church"; the I 


in " Fal" I conceive to be the same as appears in fallow 
deer. It belonged to the Templars, and I conjecture, 
from their Oriental connection, that it may have been 
externally polychromed in the Eastern manner, possibly 
with broad horizontal bands of red and white, as is so 
often the case with mosques and mausoleums, and some- 
times with Greek churches. Around it lie many of the 
heroic dead of July 22, 1298; and there is the monument 
of John Graham, whose burial William Wallace himself 
attended, very probably on the night of the 28th. 

Finally, you will see the very splendid Castle or castel- 
lated Palace of Doune, the work of Murdoch, Duke of 
Albany, Regent of Scotland, the first cousin of James I, 
who caused him and two of his sons to be executed upon 
his return from England in 1424. 

While I have thus divided the periods of the History 
of Scotland, and the monuments of each of them which 
you purpose to visit, into these three heads, I may be 
allowed to recur to the remark that there are places in 
which the continuous series of monuments, or even the 
persistence of local tradition or family ownership, form a 
remarkable testimony to the moral unity of the national 
life. Thus the Castle of Doune, of which I have just 
spoken, is still the property of the Earl of Moray, Lord 
Doune, the descendant, through the Lords Avondale, 
of the unfortunate Prince by whom it was founded. 
Thus, again, you find BothweU in the possession of the 
noble and cultured man who is, in one sense, the princi- 
pal representative of the illustrious race of Douglas, and 
to whom historical students have been laid under so deep 
an obligation by his printing the family papers of his 
House. In a certain sense a like remark might be made 
even of Stirling. I was a good deal struck by it last 
year when I heard the cannon of the Castle saluting, by 
the command of our august Patroness, the Queen, the 
colossal statue of William Wallace, which the kindness 
of the local authorities conferred upon me the honour of 
unveiling upon the Abbey Craig. Again it is true, in a 
sense, of Dunfermline, where the reverence of the living 
generation, not less than the antique architecture of 
the Eleventh Century, still watches by the grave where 

1889 2 


Bruce was laid in the Fourteenth. Nor do I suppose 
there is a living adult in Scotland who does not now 
warmly nurse the hope that no outrage, even under the 
cover of a temporary excitement, violated the tomb — it 
could not disturb the last sleep — of the holy and harm- 
less Margaret. 

But perhaps no more striking instance of the unity 
and continuity of the national life can be met with than 
that which is placed before the mind, and to a great 
extent even the eye, in Glasgow Cathedral. Built upon 
a spot consecrated by Ninian probably before the Roman 
troops were finally withdrawn from Britain, when Patrick 
M'Calphurn was a child playing upon the banks of the 
Clyde, in sight of Dumbarton (Ninian, indeed, can hardly 
fail to have been one of those who, as Patrick himself 
tells us in that marvellous work, his Confession, warned 
his people for their good, and was little heeded), selected 
by Kentigern as the spot for that centre of worship 
which has proved the germ of the Glasgow of to-day ; 
consecrated by Joscelin, in the presence of St. David, 
on July 7,1136, it stands to-day as perfect in its archi- 
tectural grace as it stood some 500 or 600 years ago. 
Bishop Wishart, or Zachary Boyd, Leighton, or Dr. Burns 
officiate within it, and Edward I, Robert Bruce, or Crom- 
well worship. And Kentigern sleeps quietly through it 
all, in his narrow bed beneath the crypt, in one thing at 
least never made the victim of a change, namely, in the 
affectionate respect with which the citizens of the city he 
founded have never ceased to surround his memory and 
his grave, how diverse soever may have been the voices 
in which they have professed continuously the aspiration 
of their motto, " Let Glasgow flourish by the Preaching 
of the Word." 

If the contemplation of the past has at last brought 
me to a sacred subject, I may be permitted to cite another 
for the purpose of coming again to the secular and turn- 
ing to the future. I have drawn a comparison from the 
phases of Goethe's great drama. Perhaps the significance 
of its close is too solemn to lend itself properly to another 
image. At the same time there are probably few who 
have read that marvellous closing scene for the first time 
without an impression so vivid as almost to amount to a 


thrill on meeting the reappearance of Gretchen quickened 
in a newer and nobler life, and glad in an enduring hap- 
piness. If I have used her ruin as some image of the 
destruction in this land of things which have been good 
and beautiful, I may end by the expression of a hope that 
a brighter day is yet to come for historical and artistic 
Scotland. The inborn energy of the country sometimes 
seems at last to be struggling successfully even against 
the terrible legacy of the last century, that century 
which, whatever it may have been elsewhere, was to Scot- 
land and to every development of Scottish national feel- 
ing, whether artistic or other, so truly a valley of the 
shadow of death, and a new spirit of culture to be arising, 
quickened by an increased vitality of national sentiment. 

As a help in such a direction I would hail the meet- 
ings in Scotland of such bodies as the British Archaeolo- 
gical Association. The culture and the learning, as well 
as the intelligent interest in native monuments, shown 
by those like yourselves are, I trust, eminently calculated 
to enlighten the ignorant, to arouse the careless, to stimu- 
late the thoughtful and the artistic, and to intensify the 
feeling of the patriotic. That this visit may be the last 
as well as the first I have ventured strongly to hope may 
not be the case. I believe that this country possesses 
district after district not less interesting in themselves, 
except as regards the Parish Churches (and even these 
more so than is often thought) than the provincial dis- 
tricts of England, although they are of course fewer in 
number ; and it may be added that their typical interest 
goes far to outweigh such disadvantages as they may 
possess from not presenting, for instance, an interminable 
series of Perpendicular Churches. 

There is Dumfries,for instance," TheQueen of the South" 
as she is fondly called, the centre of an immense mass of 
monuments of Galloway and Southern Strathclyde, — pre- 
historic antiquities in abundance ; the monuments of the 
campaign of Agricola in 79 ; the monuments of Roman 
and Romano-British Christianity which centre round 
Whithorn ; the monuments which mark the site of the 
battle of Ardderyd, that struggle which may, perhaps, be 
said to have decided the religion of the British race; the 
six great abbeys, — Glenluce,Soul-Seat,Dundrennan,Tong- 


land,Holy wood, and that New Abbey which the memorable 
foundress of Balliol College raised to enshrine the " sweet 
heart" (dulce cor) of her husband; castles such as Lochma- 
ben or Caerlaverock, down to the splendid specimen of a 
decorated mansion of the time of Charles I, which forms 
part of the remarkable group of buildings which consti- 
tute the last named. 

I will only speak, in passing, of Edinburgh, surrounded 
by the castles, the houses, the Churches, and the Abbeys 
of the Lothians, so many of the ecclesiastical monu- 
ments of which owe their present ruin to the savage 
government of Edward VI ; of St. Andrew's, " the house 
of the Apostle", bestowed upon him by Angus, King of 
the Picts, in the Eighth Century, — so strange a contrast 
to the hills and plains of Galilee, or to the sun-baked 
cliffs under which AmaJfi is washed by the waters of the 
Gulf of Salerno, and which yet is filled with history and 
the monuments of history from the Sixth Century down 
to our own time, and is the only place in Scotland which 
can inspire the visitor with the most distant thought of 
Oxford ; and of the granite city of Aberdeen with its im- 
perishable Cathedral, its University buildings, and its 
neighbourhood replete with edifices of every age, especi- 
ally the Mediaeval and the Renaissance. 

Oban offers a centre for studies which may be described 
as almost entirely Celtic, from the purely prehistoric 
epoch, through that which has left upon Dunadd the 
engraven footprint of a progenitor of our Kings, probably 
that of Fergus McErca himself, the very founder of the 
Scottish Monarchy, — a sculpture which in that case dates 
from the dawn of the Sixth Century, when Arthur was 
in the flower of manly strength, and which yet indicates 
the beginning of a line of Sovereigns of whom our Royal 
Patroness of to-day is but one ; the sacred remains which 
mark Eilean na Naoimh, whence Columba came forth in 
574, charged with the task of blessing Aidan McGabhrain, 
that great Prince who, in the judgment of Dr. Skene, is 
the founder of our Monarchy in a more real sense even 
than Fergus, and is a singular link between the past and 
the present, as at once the last representative in Britain 
of the Roman Imperatores and the founder of the line 
which still reigns over us ; and the hallowed shores of I, 


where he fulfilled the mandate, and which are eloquent 
with so much more of which I will not now speak ; and 
an almost countless number of the forts, the dwellings, 
the castles, and the sanctuaries of the Gael. 

Lastly, if you come to the extreme North of the night- 
less summer, you will find yourselves transferred, in 
large measure, from the antiquities of Britain to those 
of Scandinavia, in the atmosphere of Orkney, — a land 
so singularly rich in ancient monuments of every sort 
that it seems almost invidious to name the Stones of 
Stennis ; the Maeshowe, attested by the inscriptions 
of returners from the first Crusade as being already to 
them a building of unknown and mysterious antiquity ; 
the Round Tower of Egilsha, which brings the anti- 
quary again into touch with Ireland ; the singular fort- 
resses, called brochs, of which these islands are the chief 
home, and which are found there and on the neigh- 
bouring mainland literally in hundreds ; the wonderful 
Cathedral of Kirkwall, commenced in 1137, so interest- 
ing as the result of the genius of an amateur, Kol, 
the father of Earl Rognvald II, and where skill has so 
singularly reversed one of the most glaring blunders of 
the great Vatican Basilica, that instead of size being lost 
in proportion, proportion causes a small building to over- 
whelm by the sense of size ; lastly, perhaps, though not 
least, two other great historic monuments of later aays, — 
monuments of greatness and of fall, — the Palaces of Kirk- 
wall and of Birsay. 

But here I will stop. I may very likely owe you an 
apology both for the length, and as some, I fear, may 
call it, the diffusive irrelevance, — perhaps some would 
add the wearisomeness and contentiousness— -of much 
that I have said. I can only renew my plea for your in- 
dulgence upon the ground of the peculiar position in 
which you have been pleased to put me, and that having 
so done you must not expect from your servant more 
than he is able to give. I will end as I began, by saying 
that whatever our shortcomings, and in whatever re- 
spects they may strike you, I am sure that I am speaking 
the feelings not of myself only but of my neighbours and 
fellow-countrymen also, when I again most warmly bid 
the British Archaeological Association welcome to Scot- 



(Read at the Glasgow Congress, 27 August 1888.) 

Queen Mary, in the manner narrated in Nau's Memoirs , 
escaped from Lochleven Castle on Sunday evening, 2nd 
May 1568, between seven and eight o'clock. She arrived 
at Hamilton the next day. Tradition would have it that 
between the 3rd of May and the 13th (the date of the 
battle) she resided in Cadzow Castle, Castlemilk, and 
also in Draffan Castle, — the " Tillietudlem" of Old Mor- 
tality ; but it is unquestionable that she resided all the 
time at Hamilton, where there was a castle, the prede- 
cessor of the present Palace. 

During this time Regent Murray was residing in Glas- 
gow ; in fact he was engaged, as Scotch lawyers would 
phrase it, in justiciary business in the Castle of Glasgow, 
which in part has been reproduced in the Glasgow Inter- 
national Exhibition. The Regent was fairly well in- 
formed of what the Queen was doing at Hamilton, and 
particularly of her desire to retire to the stronghold of 
Dumbarton as soon as she could gather a sufficient force. 
But of one important matter he was ignorant. He did 
not know whether in her march to Dumbarton she would 
proceed by the north or the south side of the Clyde. 
That was not decided on till the appointment of the Earl 
of Argyll to the command of the army, early on the 
morning of the 13th, immediately before her forces began 
to march. 

The Regent's ignorance of the line of march led to cer- 
tain tactics on his part. In case the Queen followed the 
south side of the river, he had the high ground (Lang- 
side, in the neighbourhood of the line of march) surveyed 
by Kirkcaldy of Grange ; and should the north side be 
followed, he determined to draw up his troops on the 
high ground of the Calton of Glasgow (the Muir of Glas- 
gow), and directly meet his opponents. Or, again, should 
he find that the south side of the river was followed, 


then it was quite possible that by a rapid cavalry move- 
ment, followed quickly by infantry, he could occupy 
Langside Hill before the Queen's forces got that length. 
These tactics were strictly observed by the Regent. The 
Queen kept to the south bank of the river, but she was 
intercepted at Langside. 

Now from this flagstaff-mound of the Queen's Park 
(the south side recreation ground of the citizens of Glas- 
gow) we see the city, as it were, at our feet ; the town 
of Rutherglen, a couple of miles to the east, on the line 
of the ten miles' march from Hamilton to Langside ; the 
old road on the south side, proved by old maps to have 
been the public road on that side of the river at the 
Langside period, from Hamilton ; the gentle eminence of 
Clinkart Hill over there to the east, on which the 
Queen's forces were posted. The left division of the Re- 
gent's forces was placed in the Bandstand Park, just at 
our feet ; and the right division at Langside village, con- 
cealed from us at this point, less than 500 yards to the 
south. You also see the line, in part, of the Langloan, 
extending from Clinkart Hill upwards to the village. 
Between the positions of the two armies (6,000 of the 
Queen's, and 4,000 of the Regent's) there was the valley. 

The Queen's forces were too ardent, and rather under- 
valued the strength of their opponents. There was a 
slight artillery encounter, followed by a cavalry move- 
ment from the Queen's side, to permit of the rush made 
by Lord Claud Hamilton with the van up the Langloan 
to the village. In fact there were two cavalry encounters, 
in which latterly the Regent had the best of it, and the 
result was that Lord Claud was unsupported in attempt- 
ing to overcome the Regent's right division at the village. 
The Regent's hagbutters, planted behind the village 
fences, did considerable execution among the pikemen 
composing the van ; but, notwithstanding, Lord Claud 
would probably have been victorious over the right divi- 
sion if it had not been for the superior strategy of Kirk- 
caldy, who was riding between the two wings to " make 
help where greatest need was". Kirkcaldy, at a criti- 
cal juncture, with forces from the other division, made a 
flank movement on the van, which put it at once into 
disorder. He quickly drove home his - advantage, and 


almost immediately the van and the main part of the 
Queen's army got demoralised, and became the pursued. 

The battle began probably about nine o'clock in the 
morning, and lasted three quarters of an hour. Some 
three hundred were slain on the Queen's side ; at least 
four were killed on the Regent's side, and several were 
wounded. Both sides were equally armed and appointed. 
There was no complete armour worn on the occasion, and 
Burton's statement, in his History of Scotland, as to the 
amount of armour worn by the combatants at Langside, 
is exaggerated. The jack and steel bonnet were common 
armour among them, and the weapons consisted of pike, 
sword, lance-staff, bow, hagbut, pistolet, and dagger. 

Scarcely any authentic relics of the battle remain. The 
district is full of myth regarding the battle, but almost 
the whole of it is quite unreliable. Most of it is men- 
tioned in my small quarto on The Battle of Langside, 
published in 1885. There is scarcely any account of the 
battle that is accurate and satisfactory. No special 
account need be singled out, but most of the writers 
have obviously never visited the field. The field had 
never been marked by any cairn, and there was wide 
error even locally as to the facts of the battle and the 
battlefield. Certain local circumstances which need not 
here be mentioned, induced me some time ago to suggest 
publicly that the battlefield should be marked by an 
ornamental cairn at the entrance to the village, where 
the chief fighting took place. This cairn has now been 
erected, and one of the objects the Congress has in com- 
ing out here to-day is to assist at the ceremony, presided 
over by the Lord Provost of Glasgow, of handing over 
the custody of the completed Langside Battlefield Memo- 
rial to the proper authority. 



(Read at the Glasgow Congress, 27 August 1888.) 

Although Glasgow Cathedral is one of the smallest, it 
is by no means the least interesting of British cathedrals. 
Like every other it requires to be very carefully examined 
before it is understood : indeed, I know no other so likely 
to lead a hasty observer to false conclusions. The his- 
tory of the building can only be read in its architecture, 
for unfortunately the early records of the see have been 
lost, and we have no reliable information on the subject 
earlier than the fifteenth century. 

The first thing which will probably strike the visitor 
to Glasgow Cathedral is the peculiarity of the site. Im- 
mediately to the west there is exactly the kind of site 
on which we would expect a cathedral to be built, — the 
summit of a gentle eminence, with the ground sloping 
gradually from it in all directions except north ; but the 
building was reared entirely on the eastern slope, even 
the west gable being about 50 yards from the highest 
point, which was formerly somewhat further west than 
it is now. This peculiarity is not without significance. 
It points to the fact that even during the troublous times 
which preceded the constitution or reconstitution of the 
see by David I, all traces of the original Christian esta- 
blishment had not been obliterated ; that the spot where 
St. Mungo worshipped and was buried was still known 
and venerated. That spot was much more likely to be 
in the sheltered glen on the banks of the Molendinar 
than on the exposed knoll on which the Castle latterly 
stood ; and there, over the Saint's tomb, the new church 
would naturally be erected, regardless of the structural 
difficulties to be encountered. 

As we have not even a fragment in situ of older date 
than 1180, we must begin our history there. That frag- 
ment, which is situated at the south-west corner of the 
present crypt, seems to indicate that the church built 


about that period had a crypt. Crypts were at that time 
fashionable, and here the configuration of the ground 
naturally suggested one. We know nothing more of this 
twelfth century church ; but it seems probable that it 
had no nave, as we find that very early in the thirteenth 
century a nave was designed, and partly built, as it still 
stands. This has a transitional base, and even its plan 
may be recognised as transitional ; but it is, nevertheless, 
unlikely that any of it was erected in the twelfth cen- 
tury, certainly no part of it above the level of the base- 
course. Inside we find, in this nave, the bases on the 
bench-table with square plinths and delicate mouldings 
decidedly earlier in character than the bases in the crypt 
or other bases in the nave, but still distinctly thirteenth 
century work. 

Towards the middle of the thirteenth century (not, 
I think, before 1240) the crypt and choir were erected. 
It seems quite evident that from the commencement of 
this great work operations on the nave were entirely sus- 
pended, but that the transept at least was completed 
about the same time as the choir. The work was there- 
after carried on westward slowly but steadily till the 
nave was finished, about forty or fifty years after the 
choir. It will be noticed that the base of the choir is 
entirely different from that of the nave. The same base 
is carried round the chapter-house, which was probably 
founded at the same time ; but the chapter-house above 
the level of the base was not built till after the comple- 
tion of the nave, probably about 1425-35. It was left 
down like the nave, so that nothing might interfere with 
the completion of the choir. 

Immediately to the south of the transept there is a 
building carried up to the level of the choir-floor, and 
evidently designed to be higher, — indeed, the sill and 
jambs of one of the upper windows has been built, — 
which may have been intended as an extension of the 
transept, though I very much doubt it. This gives us 
the third variety of base, which will be noticed on look- 
ing at the building ; and no part of it was erected before 

It is, perhaps, as well, when we come down to this 
period, that our conclusions as to dates should be verified 


by documentary evidence, for whereas there is no mate- 
rial difference between English and Scotch contemporary 
styles down to the end of the thirteenth century, or 
nearly so, after that period they differ very considerably, 
and we find even local variations of Scotch styles. Any 
one unfamiliar with the later Scotch styles, and who did 
not know that this crypt was erected by Archbishop 
Blackadder in the sixteenth century, would be very much 
puzzled by this building. It is as unlike English work 
of the same period as can well be imagined. At first 
sight, looking at the outside of it, one would say that it 
was Early English. The builders seem to have done 
their best to copy from the adjoining crypt. The plan of 
the window-jambs is very much the same, and even the 
mouldings ; but I have never seen an instance where a 
late workman has managed to make an early capital or 
base. The late work is sure to be detected there if no- 
where else ; and here, as both can be seen from the same 
spot, it is interesting to compare the one with the other. 

The spire is the most modern portion of the building. 
The upper part of the tower was not erected till 1425, 
and the spire considerably later, so that we have the fol- 
lowing sequence, — 1st, portion of a building erected about 
1170-90; 2nd, part of nave, circa 1200-20; 3rd, crypt 
and choir, 1240-80; 4th, upper part of nave, 1270-1300 ; 
5th, chapter-house, circa 1425; 6th, tower, 1425; 7th, 
south crypt, 1500 ; 8th, spire. So that we have the re- 
mains of work done from time to time during a period of 
three hundred years. 

I shall now refer to some of the most interesting and 
peculiar features of the building. The most interesting, 
of course, is the crypt. I have seen crypts which were 
as interesting to me because more puzzling, but none so 
beautiful. In this respect there is nothing at all to com- 
pare with it. It was the last important crypt built in 
Britain, and the designer had at his disposal the whole 
resources of the perfected Pointed style. He had also a 
most suitable site for the purpose ; and it must be ad- 
mitted that he made the most of his opportunities, as 
both the general disposition, and grouping of the parts, 
and all the details, are alike admirable. 

The approach to the crypt from the upper church is by 


two stairs going down north and south from the transept, 
turning east into the aisles. The north approach, east 
from the transept, has heen completed in accordance with 
what has, no doubt, been the architect's original design, 
but he has not been allowed to repeat his beautiful 
design on the south side. Here it is that the fragment 
of old work to which I have referred still remains. Even 
at the risk of spoiling the principal entrance to the 
crypt, and in spite of extraordinary difficulties, that 
ancient piece of wall and a few superficial yards of vault- 
ing have been retained. It is difficult to imagine an 
adequate reason for taking so much trouble about this 
little bit. It will be seen that the walls of this small 
chamber have actually been built under its transitional 
vault at three different periods. 

Perhaps the most striking feature of the crypt is the 
variety of effect produced by the disposition of the small 
piers carrying the floor of the choir. The usual formality 
of parallel rows of piers and arches of the same height is 
entirely absent. There is a symmetrical arrangement of 
groups, but even that is not at first sight apparent, so 
skilful is the plan, and so varied the consequent treat- 
ment of the vaulting. The floor of the crypt, under the 
Lady Chapel, following the slope of the ground, is on a 
lower level than that of the main crypt, so that here 
another element of variety is introduced. The eastern- 
most bays are divided from each other by solid walls ; no 
doubt for structural reasons. These walls, however, are 
pierced by coupled, trefoiled arches utilised as piscinaB 
and credence-tables combined, an unusual but very beau- 
tiful form. It will be observed that the one in the centre 
has been altered. The centre shaft and the trefoil- 
arches have been cut out, and a single arch inserted, in 
the beginning of the fourteenth century, as the arch- 
mouldings plainly tell us. We have it also on record 
that Bishop Robert Wishart was buried here, between 
the altars of St. Peter and St. Andrew, in 1316. 

At the south-east corner is a well, commonly called 
St. Mungo's Well, which has apparently been a source of 
danger to the building, which is nere very much rent and 
twisted, and not at all in a satisfactory condition, as 
settlement still continues. At the opposite corner is a 


rich, early door, the carving of which is much decayed, 
giving access to an apartment which I am inclined to 
think served as the cnapter-house. I have never sup- 
posed that the apartment immediately above this was 
the chapter-house, but it did not occur to me that the 
one on the ground-floor (it is not sunk) may have been 
used for that purpose, till quite lately, when visiting it 
with Archbishop Eyre and Mr. Pugin, when the latter 
pointed to the raised, canopied sedile at the centre of the 
east side as strong evidence of this. I have since noticed 
that in the chapter-house at Inchcolm the seat is raised 
exactly in the same way, and at Crossraguel and else- 
where there is a similar niche formed. The beauty of 
the door, more elaborately enriched than any other in 
the building, is, I think, an indication that this was from 
the first intended to be the chapter-house. A turret- 
stair, also part of the original design, connects it with 
the vestry above and with the choir. 

Returning to the transept, it will be observed that on 
descending the first flight of steps north and south you 
enter porches with elaborate groined vaults of the same 
age as Blackadders crypt ; but the piers from which this 
vaulting springs are of the same age as the main crypt. 
It would thus seem that the original design here was 
never completed, or that it was altered towards the end 
of the fifteenth century. There are, I think, indications 
that the latter was the case; and it is probable that 
when the entrance to the choir was narrowed by the 
erection of the present rood-screen, it may have been 
found advisable to improve the access to the choir by the 
aisles. I have no doubt that the steps down from the 
choir-aisles into the nave did not originally touch the 
base of piers at the west side of the transept as they now 
do rather awkwardly. 

In the nave the most noticeable points are that the 
bases of the responds at the transept and the bases of 
the shafts on the aisle- walls are distinctly older than the 
bases of the main piers and the bases of the west re- 
sponds. The piers might at first sight be taken to be 
older than the piers of the choir ; but while I think the 
builders have been influenced by an older design (as in 
the case of the chapter-house), they have taken such 


liberties with it in matters of detail as to prove that the 
work was actually executed after the erection of the 
choir. Thus on these piers we have not only the later 
base, but the fillets on the shafts, and a somewhat clumsy 
late variety of capital. 

Again, the mouldings of the arcades have rather an 
early look ; but, of course, if I am right as to the piers, 
they cannot be early. I do not rely upon that, however. 
It is quite clear that these are not transitional mould- 
ings. We have such mouldings in their simplest form at 
Jedburgh, Dryburgh, and elsewhere ; and there, as inva- 
riably during the transitional period, and for some time 
thereafter, each group of mouldings is in section square : 
at their greatest projection the mouldings would touch 
lines at right angles to each other. Here, however, each 
group would be enclosed by part of a circle ; and being 
almost devoid of under-cutting, they are unlike anything 
to be found in the early part of the thirteenth, century. 
They are also quite unlike the mouldings in the choir 
executed about the middle of that century ; so that we 
really cannot find a place for them at all till near the 
close of the thirteenth century. We would not find a 
place for them then in England ; but they illustrate the 
divergence in styles to which I have already alluded as 
beginning about this period ; and, in fact, we find such 
mouldings with little relief slightly varied down to a 
very late period, as, for example, at Melrose and Hadd- 

The triforium is evidently later than that of the choir, 
and so is the clerestory. There is a peculiarity about the 
north clerestory wall which I sincerely wish did not 
exist, namely, that it is seriously " off the plumb". I do 
not know the exact inclination, but I have no doubt that 
it is about 2 feet off the perpendicular. 1 

In the choir we have the somewhat unusual feature of 
a pier in the centre carrying the east gable, and over it 
four lancets instead of the more usual five. The plate- 
tracery of the side-aisle windows is also worthy of notice, 

1 Since this was written I have ascertained, through the courtesy of 
Mr. W. W. Robertson of H.M. Office of Works, Edinburgh, that the 
exact inclination is 16 J inches, and that there is no indication of any 
increase having occurred since the present roof was erected. 


being very peculiar. The arrangement of the east end is 
altogether exceptional, and has, no doubt, been influenced 
by the peculiarity of the site. The centre pier may be said 
to continue the arcade round the east end. The aisles are 
also continued round; but at this point the aisle is double, 
and the bays of the outer or east aisle have been used as 
chapels. 1 The design of the Lady Chapel, and of its east 
end especially, is exceedingly elegant. At the south-east 
corner there is a piscina, which is peculiar in that the 
drain is not taken down to the soil, but is simply taken 
through the wall, and discharged through a gargoyle on 
the outside. I have not noticed such an arrangement 
anywhere else in this country, but it occurs, I believe, at 
Notre Dame in Paris, where there is not the same excuse 
for it, the piscinae being only a few feet above the level 
of the ground. 

The chapter-house, as it is called, but what I prefer 
to call the sacristy, enters from the north side of the 
Lady Chapel. It is a lofty, vaulted chamber with a pier 
in the centre ; but there is nothing to indicate that it 
was ever used as a chapter-house, but rather indications, 
in its ample fireplace and ambries, that it was meant for 
a sacristy. 

The south crypt, commonly called "Blackadder's Aisle", 
or more correctly, as Mr. Andrew Macgeorge has shown 
(Old Glasgow), the "Aisle of Fergus", is chiefly interest- 
ing as an illustration of the pertinacity with which the 
Scotch architects stuck to the earlier forms long after 
their use had been discontinued in England. From the 
outside this looks much more like Early English than 
sixteenth century work, and even inside we can find no 
trace of the Perpendicular style, yet it was not begun 

1 This part of the building is known as the Lady Chapel, and is 
referred to in this paper under that name ; but I entirely agree with 
Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock in the opinion that it is not a Lady Chapel. I 
am rather at a loss what to call it ; the term snggested by Mr. Brock, 
retro-choir, not being quite appropriate. A Lady chapel may quite 
correctly be called a retro-choir ; but this is not strictly a choir at all, 
but a double aisle, a row of chapels with an ambulatory between them 
and the choir, connecting the north and south aisles. It is precisely 
the French chevet arrangement adapted to a square end. From an 
entry in Registrum Olasguense, vol. ii, p. 493, dated 21st May 1496, it 
appears that at that time the east end had not a distinctive name, but 
was simply known as part of the choir. 


till the very end of the fifteenth century, and was pro- 
bably not completed till the early part of the sixteenth. 

With the exception of the e&igy of Bishop Wishart, 
already referred to, and two stone coffins in the crypt, 
one of which has on its lid a very elegant foliated cross, 
there are at Glasgow no early monuments worthy of 
mention. This seems rather remarkable, especially as in 
the neighbouring churchyard at Govan a variety of most 
interesting pre-Norman monuments still remain. It is 
almost enough to raise a suspicion that St. Kentigern's 
Cathedral has, after all, been reared on the wrong spot ! 
The monument of the Protestant Archbishop Law, at the 
south-east corner of the Lady Chapel, is an interesting 
example of its period, 1632 ; and there are several others 
in the same style, outside, worthy of notice. 1 

1 Since the Congress met in Glasgow a very interesting sculptured 
slab has been found, with the figure of an ecclesiastic in low relief on 
the top, very much defaced, and with interlacing ornament in good 
preservation on the vertical edges of the stone. 




(Read at the Glasgow Congress, 28th August 1888.) 

Neither the exact date of the erection, nor the name of 
the founder of Both well Castle, has been ascertained; 
but it unquestionably dates its origin from the thirteenth 
century, and various points of similarity between it and 
the Chateau de Coucy suggest the likelihood that its 
architect was assisted by a knowledge of the plan and 
details of that great fortress. It is not even improbable 
that he was himself a Frenchman brought over in conse- 
quence of the connection which about the middle of the 
thirteenth century must have existed between Scotland 
and France, through the fact that the mother of Alex- 
ander III was Marie de Coucy, a daughter of the illus- 
trious house whose proud boast, 

" Je sois ni roi ni prince aussi, 
Je sais le Sieur de Coney", 

is so often quoted. 

The Castle, in all likelihood, was built by the Olifards, 
who during the greater portion of the thirteenth century 
were lords of the barony of Both well, and one of whom, 
Walter de Olifard, Justiciar of Lothian, died in 1242. 
From them it passed into the hands of the Morays, but 
it is not clear by what means the latter family acquired 
it. Douglas throws out the suggestion that it may have 
been by the marriage of the heiress of the Olifards to one 
of the Morays, but of this there is no evidence whatever. 
We are, however, on firm ground in 1278, when we find- 
Walter de Moravia or Moray granting from the Castle of 
Bothwell a discharge to the monks of Dryburgh of the 
multures of certain lands they held of him in Roxburgh- 
shire, in which county he seems to have owned the 
barony of Smailholm, also a former possession of the Oli- 

By his marriage with a daughter of John Comyn (a 
sister of the John Comyn who was one of the competi- 
tors for the Scottish throne) he had two sons. Of the 

1839 3 


elder of these, William, who succeeded him, little is 
known save that he sat in the Parliament of Birgham in 
1290, and swore fealty to Edward I in 1291. Dying 
about 1294 he was succeeded by his younger brother, 
Andrew, who although he had been forced into swearing 
allegiance to the English King, was one of the first to 
join the standard of Wallace in 1297, and remained 
staunch to the cause of national independence when the 
prospects of the patriotic party seemed blackest. Hav- 
ing, however, fallen at the battle of Stirling Bridge, he 
was succeeded by his eldest son, afterwards well known 
as the Sir Andrew Moray who played so conspicuous a 
part in Scottish affairs during the reigns of Robert the 
Bruce and David II. 

At this time Bothwell Castle seems to have been in 
the hands of the English, as two years later, in 1299, we 
find the Scots besieging it for fourteen months, and only 
taking it by assault after the defenders had been reduced 
to the utmost straits. It was then held by the Scots 
till 1301, when Edward in person invested the fortress 
with a large force, and the garrison capitulated. The 
English King is known to have resided in the Castle 
from the 17th to the 20th of September 1301, when pro- 
bably he made a formal grant of it to Aymer de Valence, 
Earl of Pembroke. The Earl (from whom the Valence 
Tower in the Castle derives its name) seems to have re- 
tained it till May 1306, when it was retaken by the 
Scots. The latter, however, do not seem to have kept 
possession of it for any length of time, as at the date of 
the battle of Bannockburn Barbour tells us, 

" The Erie of Herford from the melle* 
Departit with a grete menay, 
And straught to Bothwelle tuke the waye, 
That in the Inglis* mennys fay 
Was halden as a place of wer. 
Schyr Walter Gilbertson was ther 
Capitaine, and it had in ward." 

Only the Earl and fifty of his men were admitted to 
refuge in the Castle, which was shortly thereafter sur- 
rendered to Edward Bruce, Walter Gilbertson probably 
deeming it desirable to cultivate friendly relations with 
the new rulers of Scotland. He seems to have very soon 


succeeded in ingratiating himself with Robert I, and 
three years afterwards is spoken of as "dilecto et fideli", 
in a charter to him by that King of the lands of Machan, 
part of the forfeited possessions of the Comyns. From 
him sprang the house of Hamilton, which was destined 
subsequently to play so prominent a part in Scottish 

On the recovery of Both well it was probably at once 
restored to its owner, Sir Andrew Moray, who had even 
at this time become one of the Kings most trusted ad- 
visers. The office of " Panetarius Scotiae" was conferred 
on him, and as a further mark of the royal favour he was 
in 1326 allowed to marry King Robert's sister Christian, 
relict of Grartney, Earl of Mar, and of Sir Christopher 
Seton, for which a papal dispensation was procured, they 
being in the fourth degree of relationship. 

After the battle of Dupplin, in August 1332, David II 
being then a child, Sir Andrew Moray was appointed 
Regent of the kingdom. Taken prisoner in an attack on 
Roxburgh next year, he was carried to England, but being 
liberated in 1334 he at once set about restoring the 
drooping spirits of his countrymen. 

When, in 1336, Edward III overran Scotland, the Re- 
gent cautiously avoided an encounter in the field, and 
sought refuge among fastnesses, from which the Southrons 
in vain tried to dislodge him. At this time Bothwell 
Castle again fell into the hands of the English, and King 
Edward is known to have resided there from 18th No- 
vember to 6 th December 1336. During this period he 
issued from it a number of documents of considerable im- 
portance, fifteen of which have been preserved, including 
a writ ordering his Council to assemble at London to con- 
sider measures for defending England from the Scots and 
French. Shortly afterwards he withdrew to England, 
when Sir Andrew Moray, after retaking the Castles of 
Dunnottar and St. Andrews, in the words of Wyn- 
toun, — 

" Tuk the way to Bothwhyle, 
And lay as3egeand it awhile, 
And braucht a gyne men called Bowstowre 
For till assayle that stalwart towre, 
And Gylyne the Willers that then 
Held the towre, and was worthi man, 



Saw bis vittals were ner gane, 
And hop off secours had he nane, 
Tretid and syne the castell yhalde, 
His way to Ingland syne can halde." 

This was in March 1337, and the Regent, having dis- 
mantled Bothwell, followed up his success by an incur- 
sion into Cumberland, which he ravaged and plundered. 
Next year he died at Avoch, in Ross-shire, and was buried 
in the church of Rosemarkie. Wyntoun says of him — 

" He was a lord of gret bountie, 
Off sober lyffe and off chastyt6, 
Wyse and vertuous of counsalle, 
And off his gudis liberal]. 
He was of gret devotyoun 
In prayers and in urisoun. 
He was of mekill almons dede, 
Stout and hardy of manhede." 

He had two sons, — John, his successor, who dying with- 
out issue, in 1352, was succeeded by his younger brother, 
Thomas. The latter was one of the Commissioners 
appointed in 1357 to treat with the English for the ran- 
som of David II, and being chosen as one of the three 
great lords who were to constitute themselves hostages 
for fulfilment of the conditions on which the liberation of 
the King took place,went to London, where he died of the 
plague in 1361. He left an only child, Jean, wife of Archi- 
bald the Grim, lord of Galloway, afterwards third Earl of 
Douglas, who succeeded to the Castle and lordship of 
Bothwell, on which account, according to Sir Robert 
Douglas, her husband is said to have added the three 
stars of Moray to his coat of arms, which previously had 
been arg., a chief az. This is, however, a mistake, as the 
Douglases undoubtedly carried the three stars before this 

The history of the Douglases is to a great extent the 
history of Scotland, and it is impossible, within the com- 
pass of this paper, to do more than notice in a most cur- 
sory manner the various members of that illustrious house 
who from time to time have owned the Castle of Both- 

In the life and achievements of Archibald the Grim 
himself there is alone material for a volume. He became, 
as has been said, third Earl of Douglas. As, however, 


the second Earl had a half-brother, George Earl of Angus, 
and as Archibald was only an illegitimate son of the 
" Good Sir James", it is not quite clear how this arrange- 
ment was effected, unless, as Sir Robert Douglas suggests, 
he succeeded in consequence of an entail executed before 
the birth of the Earl of Angus, who was thirty years 
younger than his half-brother. 

Whether or not Archibald the Grim was justly entitled 
to the earldom, he showed himself in every way a worthy 
son of his illustrious father, and of the traditions of the 
great house whose chief he found himself. Of his prowess 
in the field Froissart has given a vivid description in his 
account of the invasion of Northumberland by a combined 
Scots and French force in 1 38 5, when the Castle of Wark 
was taken, and the country ravaged from Berwick to the 
north of the Tyne : "Archibald Douglas, a worthy knight, 
and much dreaded of his enemies, dismounted and held 
up before him a long sword. Its blade was of 2 ells. 
Scarce another man could raise it from the ground, yet 
he wielded it with ease, and dealt such heavy blows with 
it that wherever he reached he overthrew. Before him 
the hardiest of the English army shrank." And in the 
council chamber his wisdom and prudence were as notable 
as his bravery in the field. He is known to have fre- 
quently resided at Both well, and is believed to have been 
the restorer of the edifice, which had, doubtless, fallen 
into very great disrepair during the contests between 
the Scots and English for its custody. It is probable 
that the great hall (65 ft. by 32 ft.), the chapel, and 
other buildings were constructed by him, for they bear 
the Douglas arms on several places ; and it was about 
the period of his possession of the barony that the Scots 
nobles first ceased to shut themselves up altogether in 
the donjons of their castles, and began to erect within 
the enceinte buildings with some pretensions to comfort. 
Dying in December 1401, he left, by his marriage with 
Joanna Moray, a daughter, Mary (whom a few months 
before his demise he had seen married, in Bothwell 
Church, to the ill-starred Duke of Rothesay, son of 
Robert III), and two sons, Archibald, the fourth Earl, and 
James, the seventh Earl. 

The former of these, best known by his appellation of 


" Tineman ,, , seems to have been born under an unlucky 
star, as, despite good abilities and undoubted bravery, he 
was unsuccessful in most of the military enterprises he 
undertook. He commanded the Scots at Homildon, where 
he was wounded in five places, and taken prisoner. At 
Shrewsbury he was again worsted, and taken captive. 
In the spring of 1425 he went to France at the earnest 
request of Charles VII, who created him Duke of Touraine, 
and appointed him Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom. 
He did not, however, long enjoy these honours, as, with 
his usual ill fortune, he was killed at the battle of Ver- 
neuil in August following. He is known to have lived 
for a time at Bothwell previously to his disastrous visit 
to France. 

Archibald, the fifth Earl, as a young man distinguished 
himself at Baug& On the death of James I he was ap- 
pointed one of the Council of the Regency, and next year 
created Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom. It is known 
that he latterly lived a good deal at Bothwell, and there 
is a charter of the barony to him and his second wife, 
Euphemia, daughter of Sir Patrick Graham, and the 
Countess of Strathearn, on his own resignation, dated 
26th April 1425. 

His son William, the sixth Earl, is only remembered 
as the victim of an ignoble plot of the Chancellor Crich- 
ton, who inveigled him into the Castle of Edinburgh, 
and after a mock trial had him beheaded, 24th November 

James, the seventh Earl, known as "the Gross", was 
a prudent man, of whom history records very little. 

William, the eighth Earl, husband of " The Fair Maid 
of Galloway", was stabbed by James II in Stirling Castle 
in February 1451-52, for declining to withdraw from a 
league with the Earls of Crauford and Ross, which the 
King deemed treasonable. 

He was succeeded by his brother James, the ninth 
Earl, the last of the Black Douglases, who, after the col- 
lapse of his revolt against the royal authority in 1454, 
was compelled to seek refuge in England, and Bothwell 
and his other estates forfeited to the Crown. He died a 
monk in the Abbey of Lindores, April 1488. 

On the forfeiture of the Earl of Douglas, Bothwell was 


bestowed by James III on James, second Lord Crichton, 
son of the Chancellor. Dying in 1469, he was succeeded 
by his son William, third Lord, who joining the Duke of 
Albany in his rebellion against the King, his estates were 
escheated to the Crown by Parliament on the 14th of 
February 1483-4. 

The Castle of Bothwell was thus a second time in 
James' gift, and he now bestowed it on his favourite, Sir 
John Ramsay, whom he created a peer by the title of 
Lord Bothwell. Ramsay seems to nave been a man of 
considerable ability, and was three times employed in 
embassies to England. Not unmindful of the hand from 
which he had received so many favours, he remained loyal 
to his ill-fated master in the hour of his misfortune, and 
was for so doing forfeited by Parliament, October 1488. 

The lordship and Castle of Bothwell having again re- 
verted to the Crown, James IV conferred it on Patrick 
Lord Hailes as a reward for his services at the battle of 
Sauchie. Ramsay, the former owner of the fortress, fled 
to England, but seems subsequently to have obtained 
permission to return to Scotland, where he is now known 
to have played the unworthy part of a spy of Henry VII. 
He never recovered either his title or the barony of Both- 
well; but he had grants of other lands, and was the 
founder of the family of Ramsay of Balmain. 

Lord Hailes, in addition to the grant of Bothwell 
Castle, received numerous other proofs of the royal 
favour. On the 26th of June 1488 he was appointed 
Keeper of the Castle of Edinburgh, and was subsequently 
named Master of the Household and Lord High Admiral 
of Scotland ; the last an office, which by a curious coin- 
cidence his ill-starred descendant, whose name is so indis- 
solubly linked with that of Mary Stuart, was also to hold. 
He had likewise a charter of Crichton Castle in Mid- 
lothian, and Dryfesdale and Kirkmichael in Dumfries- 
shire, and on the 17th of October 1488 James erected the 
lordship of Bothwell into an earldom in his favour. 

The King seems at this time to have been afraid of the 
increasing authority of the house of Angus, and possibly 
feared that the "Red Douglases" might attain to the 
power formerly exercised by the other great branch of 
the name. He therefore determined to check their grow- 


ing influence on the borders, and accordingly commanded 
the Earl of Angus to give up Liddesdale and Hermitage 
Castle to Lord Hailes in exchange for the lordship and 
Castle of Both well. 

The old fortress thus a second time passed into the 
hands of the Douglases, and, as upon the former occasion 
when it was acquired by that family, its first owner was 
the most distinguished member of the branch to which 
he belonged, it was now to be the property of one who 
unquestionably stands out as the ablest and most promi- 
nent of the long line of the Angus Earls. Archibald 
" Bell-the-Cat" (to use the name by which he is best 
known in history) was one of the most notable historical 
figures of his day, and even a narration, in the briefest 
fashion, of the most important events in which he bore a 
part is quite beyond the limits of this paper. Hume 
of Godscroft says of him : " He was in every way accom- 
plished both in mind and body, of stature tall, and strong 
made ; his countenance was full of majesty, and such as 
bred reverence in the beholders ; wise, and eloquent of 
speech, valiant, courageous, he was beloved and respected 
by all men." Dying in 1514, he was succeeded by his 
grandson, the sixth Earl, who married Margaret, Queen 
Dowager of Scotland, the daughter of Heniy VII. 

Both well continued in the hands of the chiefs of the 
house of Douglas till about 1655, when it was given off 
as a patrimonial possession to Archibald Earl of Forfar, 
the only son of the second marriage of Archibald Earl of 
Angus, eldest son of William, first Marquess of Douglas. 
He built the present modern mansion, using the old 
Castle as a quarry from which to extract a large portion 
of the material required for its construction, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Archibald, second Earl, on whose 
death (unmarried), in November 1715, of wounds received 
at Sheriffmuir, Both well devolved on the Duke of Doug- 
las. The last named nobleman possessed it till his death, 
in July 1761, when it and his other estates formed the 
subject of the lengthened litigation so well known as the 
Douglas cause, in which James, seventh Duke of Hamil- 
ton, who, as heir male, succeeded to the Marquessate of 
Douglas and Earldom of Angus, maintained that Archi- 
bald Stewart, the alleged son of Lady Jane Douglas (the 


Duke of Douglas' sister) and her husband, Sir John Stew- 
art of Grandtully, was a supposititious child. Eventu- 
ally, on the 17th of February 1769, the House of Lords 
(reversing the decision of the Court of Session) decided 
the case in favour of Stewart, who was subsequently, in 
1790, created a peer under the title of Baron Douglas of 
Douglas Castle. Bothwell now belongs to his descendant, 
Charles, twelfth Earl of Home, the son of Lucy, wife of 
Cospatrick. eleventh Earl, who was the eldest daughter of 
Jane Lady Montagu of Boughton, the latter being the 
eldest daughter of Lord Douglas. 

It is, without question, the finest example of the feudal 
castles of Scotland, and like its prototype, Coucy, con- 
sists of a great donjon dominating an enceinte surrounded 
by high walls with towers at the corners. The donjon 
is 65 feet in diameter, and 90 feet in height to the top 
of the parapet, while the total length of the building is 
325 feet by 170 feet in width. The north and east cur- 
tains (as has been pointed out by Messrs. M'Gibbon and 
Ross in their valuable work on the Castellated and 
Domestic Architecture of Scotland) have evidently been 
rebuilt about the end of the fourteenth or beginning of 
the fifteenth century. 

I shall leave to my friend, Mr. Easton, the duty of de- 
scribing the excavations now in progress, and the inte- 
resting facts they have already brougnt to light. 


GLASGOW, a.d. 560-1560. 

(Read at the Glasgow Congress, 29 August 1888.) 

The history of the ancient see of Glasgow must be mainly 
the history of the Cathedral and of those who have sat 
in the chair of St. Kentigern. The architectural history 
of the old Cathedral, the only one on the mainland not 
a ruin, has been abundantly well illustrated. This paper 
is to give a brief account of the see, of some of its various 
occupants, and of the part they played in the history of 
a period ranging over exactly one thousand years. 

We find the first mention of the site of the old Cathe- 
dral in connection with the history of St. Ninian. About 
twenty years before the Romans finally left Britain, and 
a few years before Ninian, in the year 397, built his 
church at Whithorn, he appears to have built a cell on 
the banks of the Molendinar. Jocelin, the monk of Fur- 
ness, states that when Kentigern came to Strathclyde 
he made his settlement " near a certain cemetery which 
had long before been blessed by St. Ninian", and which 
was " surrounded by dense and overshadowing trees". 

The founder of the see of Glasgow was this St. Kenti- 
gern, known also as St. Mungo. As St. Columba was 
the founder of the Christian Church among the Picts 
(563-97), his contemporary, St. Kentigern, was the apostle 
of Cumbria. He was born in the year 518 (or, according 
to some, in 527), and as Jocelin states that he was con- 
secrated Bishop at the age of twenty-five, the date of the 
consecration would be in the year 552. A tradition or 
legend points out the circumstances under which he is 
said to have come to Glasgow. He had occasion to spend 
a night in the house or cell of a holy man named Fergus, 
who lived in a place called Kearnach (Carnock, Stirling- 
shire), and who had a vision or revelation that he should 
not die till he had seen the holy Kentigern. During 
that night Fergus expired. Kentigern placed the body 


on a car, to which two bulls were yoked, and he com- 
manded them to convey it to the spot ordained of the 
Lord. Followed by the Saint and a number of people 
they took the body to Glasgow, then called Catnures, 
where they drew up beneath certain ancient trees near a 
forsaken cemetery which had been hallowed bySt.Ninian. 
Here the remains of Fergus were buried. So far the 
legend. We shall hear again of the good Fergus when 
we come to speak of Bishop Blackader. What the mean- 
ing of the word " Cathures" is we do not know ; but the 
derivation of the name Glasgow is (from glas, a streamlet, 
and dhu, a hollow or ravine), " the hollow with the burn 
running through it", i.e., the Molendinar Burn. 

Kentigern took up his abode on the banks of the then 
beautiful rivulet, " vocabulo Melindonor", where he had 
buried Fergus. Beneath the shade of the venerable trees 
already named a little oratory and a very humble wooden 
cell were erected, and from tnis, as from the chief seat of 
his mission, St. Kentigern spread Christianity through- 
out the whole extent of what formed, four centuries 
later, the British kingdom of Cumbria, i.e., the territory 
from Loch Lomond and Stirling on the north to Winder- 
mere and Appleby. Glasgow became the ecclesiastical 
capital of this extensive region, the spiritual mother of 
the Welsh tribes and " fair Strathclyde". On this spot 
St. Kentigern was buried after his labours of half a cen- 
tury, a.d. 603, and here for ages the kings and warriors, 
the saints and sages of Cumbria chose their rest beside 
the remains of the renowned apostle of their nation. 

St. Kentigern's oratory or church was most probably 
constructed of wood, and his hospice of twigs or basket- 
work, thatched with reeds : the one a log-house, and the 
other a wigwam or a group of wattle-huts. History tells 
us that when St. Kentigern, who was also the founder of 
the see of St. Asaph, erected there a church, it was a 
wooden church, after the manner of the Britons, — " quum 
de lapide nondum construere poterant, nee usum habe- 
bant/ In any case these erections, the church and the 
hospice or huts, were the origin of the city of Glasgow. 

No record remains to us of the immediate successors of 
Kentigern, and we have but little information on the 
history of the see previous to its restoration by David I. 


About the year 720 the Britons of Strathclyde appear to 
have obtained from Ireland a Bishop named Sedulius. 
The convulsions of the tenth century saw the see in abey- 
ance, and its possessions were seized by laymen. 

The restoration of the see of Glasgow in the early years 
of the twelfth century was the work of the son of St. 
Margaret. As next in succession to the Scottish crown, 
David was Earl or Prince of Cumbria during the reign of 
his brother Alexander. Fortunately we have a most 
important document dating back to this period. It is the 
Notitia of David, or an investigation made by his order 
into the possessions of the see of Glasgow. A copy of 
this Notitia is preserved in the Chartulary of Glasgow. 
Its date is probably a.d. 1120 or 1121. It relates the 
foundation of the church, the consecration of Kentigern 
as Bishop of Cumbria, and his death. It states that he 
was succeeded by many bishops in the see, but that the 
confusions and revolutions in the country had at length 
destroyed all traces of the church, and almost of Christi- 
anity. A record follows of the possessions of the church 
" in all the provinces of Cumbria which are under his 
(David's) dominion and power." His object was to ascer- 
tain what were the properties which at the time be- 
longed to the church, and to confirm the title by a legal 

When the bishopric was restored by David, John 
Achaius, who had been tutor, and afterwards Chancellor 
to the Prince, was elected and consecrated Bishop. He 
has been commonly called the first Bishop of Glasgow ; 
but that should be understood to mean the first Bishop 
of the restored see. The year of his consecration was 

His first care was to provide a church for his Cathe- 
dral. The ancient cemetery and its girdle of trees seem 
to have been nearly all that remained at Glasgow of 
St. Kentigern when Bishop John laid the foundation of 
his church. It was begun before the year 1124, and he 
consecrated it in the year 1136, in the presence of his 
royal pupil, who was now King of the Scots. Bishop 
John held the see for the space of thirty-two years, and 
went to his reward in the year 1147. 

Bishop John was succeeded by Herbert, who held the 


see for seventeen years. He introduced the Sarum 

To the episcopate of Bishop Herbert we must assign 
the foundation of what became the great abbey of the 
diocese. Walter, High Steward of Scotland, founded in 
1163, at Paisley, a monastery for Cluniac monks. Pope 
Honorius III (1198-1216) raised it to the dignity of an 
abbey, and Robert III presented it with a charter of 
regality. No part of the original building remains, for 
the beautiful First-Pointed work that replaced the earlier 
structure dates from the fourteenth century. The pro- 
genitor of the Stuarts endowed munificently the house he 
founded in the midst of his great fief of Strathgryfe, " for 
the souls of King Henry of England, of King David, and 
of King Malcolm." 

Ingelram, his successor, was consecrated by Pope Alex- 
ander III in 1164, and held the see for ten years. 

The fourth occupant of the revived see was Jocelin, 
who was called to the chair of St. Kentigern from the 
great Cistercian monastery of Melrose. This energetic 
prelate obtained in 1175, as soon as he was appointed to 
the see, from William the Lion, the grant of a burgh, 
which was confirmed by Pope Lucius in 1181; and King 
Alexander, by a charter in 1189, granted to the Bishop 
the right of a fair. This right was a valuable privilege 
from the fact' of its attracting trade to the burgh. A 
subsequent royal charter, in 1210, confirmed "the king's 
peace" to those frequenting the fair. Glasgow thus became 
a bishop's burgh, the bishops being the feudal lords of 
the inhabitants. 

Jocelin began -at once to make preparations for a new 
cathedral, as the structure of Bishop John had been de- 
stroyed by fire some forty years after its consecration. 
Two expedients he devised in order to help forward the 
work. He caused to be compiled a biography of St. 
Kentigern, to whom the Cathedral was to be dedicated, 
and he established an association of collectors. The bio- 
graphy was the book so well known, The Life and Miracles 
of St. Kentigern, written or compiled by Brother Jocelin 
of Furness in Lancashire. In it he sets forth the dignity 
of the see of Glasgow, and omits nothing w T hich could 
stimulate the generosity of the faithful. The collectors 


were organised into a " Brotherhood of St. Kentigern. , 
The King of Scots took the association under his patron- 
age by a charter of protection and patronage full of affec- 
tion for the ancient see, " which, though poor and lowly 
in temporal estate, is the spiritual mother of many 
nations", i.e., of " Normans and Saxons, Scots, GaJwe- 
gians, and Welsh", who then peopled Cumbria. 

Bishop Jocelin laid the foundation of his Cathedral in 
1181. He began at the east end, and sixteen years later 
this building was consecrated, in 1197, on the octave day 
of SS. Peter and Paul. It has been the custom to asso- 
ciate the present crypt under the choir with the name of 
Jocelin. We cannot enter into that question beyond say- 
ing that the First-Pointed style of the crypt is evidently 
of a later date than the time of Jocelin. To call it by 
his name is a mistake. 

To this period, and to the action taken by the Bishop 
of Glasgow, must be assigned the final settlement of the 
independence of the Scottish sees. When Bishop John 
was nominated, York claimed supremacy over the see. 
The claim was resisted, but Pope Paschal II enjoined on 
him obedience to the Metropolitan of York. Calixtus II, 
his successor, renewed this ordering, and John went to 
Rome to plead his cause. The claims and counter-claims 
continued to be matters of dispute for half a century, and 
were not finally settled till the year 1188, when by a 
Bull of Clement III the Scottish sees were declared de- 
pendent upon no one save immediately upon the Apostolic 
See. To Archbishop Roger, who asserted that the see of 
Glasgow had acknowledged the jurisdiction of York, Joce- 
lin answered that his see was the " special daughter of the 
Roman Church", and exempt from all other jurisdiction. 
The title of the Church of Glasgow as the "special 
daughter of the Roman Church" is formally recognised in 
a rescript from Pope Alexander III to Bishop Jocelin, 
dated 19th April 1178. 

Jocelin increased the number of canons in his chapter, 
an arrangement approved of by Urban III, in the year 
1186. He died in 1199, in his Monastery of Melrose. 
William of Malvoisin (de Malovicino), a learned French- 
man, succeeded to the see in 1200. After the space of 
two years he was translated to St. Andrews. This ener- 


getic Norman was Bishop for nearly forty years, and his 
charters, yet extant, show his zeal and labours at St. 

Walter was the successor of Malvoisin, and was Bishop 
of Glasgow for twenty-four years. He and Bishop Mal- 
voisin attended the fourth Lateran Council, convoked by 
Innocent III in 1215. During his episcopate, i.e., in 1225, 
the clergy of Scotland met in Provincial Council for the 
first time without the presence of a Papal Legate. The 
representations made to the holy see by the Scottish epis- 
copate led to a Bull being issued by Honorius III, grant- 
ing to the bishops, in consideration of their having no 
local metropolitan, power to hold a provincial council. 
This document is dated 19th May a.d. 1225. The council 
was summoned by one elected by the prelates, and to 
whom was entrusted a quasi metropolitan authority, and 
who was called the " Conservator". This system lasted 
until the latter half of the fifteenth century, i.e., till the 
year 1472. An abstract of the canons enacted by these 
provincial councils is given in Bellesheim, vol. i, pp. 
345, etc. 

Walter ^as succeeded, in 1233, by William de Bond- 
ington, Chancellor of the kingdom. He was consecrated 
at Glasgow. To him we must assign the commencement 
of the erection of the present Cathedral, and he completed 
the crypt and the choir. Though the ciypt has been 
commonly called " Jocelin's Crypt", it was built after his 
time. Any one examining it, and comparing it with other 
buildings of the same style, will be forced to come to the 
conclusion that it is the work of Bondington's episcopate 
(1233-58). One of his first acts was to pay off some of 
the debt by which the Chapter was hampered. In 1240 
he discharged a sum of 1,400 merks due to merchants in 
Florence. The widowed Countess of Lennox gave him, 
about this date, a piece of land on the banks of the Leven 
to help forward the fabric. 

To further promote the building of Glasgow Cathedral, 
nine years after the election of Bondington a resolution 
or order was passed by a provincial council held at Perth 
in 1242, ordaining that the Indulgence for the Cathedral 
be hung up in every church in the realm ; that its terms 
be plainly expounded in the vulgar tongue to the parish- 


ioners ; that on every Sunday and holiday from Ash 
Wednesday to Low Sunday, after the Gospel is read, the 
duty of contributing to the work be enjoined on the 
people ; that their alms and legacies, together with the 
goods of persons dying intestate, be faithfully collected ; 
and that during the season so specified offerings were not 
to be solicited in the parish churches for any other object. 
This arrangement for a national collection would seem to 
point out that the new Cathedral had been now com- 
menced ; and to the fruits of this collection we owe the 
completion of the crypt and choir before the year 1258. 

About the year 1246 he founded the Blackfriars' 
Monastery. Three years before his death he consecrated, 
in 1255, Gameline, who had been elected Bishop of St. 
Andrews. Before his death, with the consent of his 
Chapter, he ordained that the Liturgy of the Church of 
Sarum should in all time coming be observed in the 
Church of Glasgow. He died on the 10th of November 
1258, and was buried on the 13th, in the Abbey Church 
of Melrose, near the high altar. 

In the year following his death the new statutes were 
adopted by the Cathedral Chapter. Under Bishop Her- 
bert, more than a century previously, the Chapter had 
been formed on that of Salisbury ; but now the Chapter 
of Glasgow applied to the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury 
for a fuller explanation of their constitution and customs 
as established by Bishop Osmund, and these were adopted 
by the capitular body. 

After Bondington, John Cheyam succeeded to the see, 
which he held from 1260 to his death in 1268. He died 
in France, and was buried there. 

Robert Wishart or Wiseheart was next appointed to 
the see of St. Kentigern. He was of the old family of 
Wisehearts of Pittarow in Kincardineshire. In the inter- 
val between Bishop Cheyam and Bishop Robert Wishart, 
Nicholas Moffat, one of the canons, had been elected by 
the Chapter in 1268, but was not consecrated; and 
William Wishart was chosen as Bishop in 1270. He was 
translated to St. Andrews in 1274. Robert Wishart was 
nephew of this William Wishart, and was consecrated in 
January 1272 at Aberdeen. The central tower of the 
Cathedral was probably built by him, and also what may 


be called the clerestory transepts. He proposed to add 
to the tower a wooden spire. For this object the Chapter, 
in 1277, obtained by purchase from Maurice, lord of Luss, 
the privilege of cutting all the timber needed " for the 
fabric of their steeple and treasury". Maurice's lands, 
from which the timber was to be taken, were along the 
western shore of Loch Lomond? The Bishop's steward 
and workpeople were to have the right of felling, hewing, 
and dressing timber wherever they chose, and should 
lead or carry it in whatever way they thought best. The 
steeple, however, did not get completed, for fourteen 
years later (i.e., in 1291) we find that the Bishop begged 
" timber for the spire of his Cathedral" from Edward I, 
then in power in Scotland. The King gave him sixty 
oaks from Ettrick ; but these oaks were v used for a dif- 
ferent purpose. 

The flourishing condition of Church and State in Scot- 
land at this period may be gathered from Fordun, where, 
speaking of the death of Alexander III on the 16th of 
March 1286, he says : "All the days of the life of this 
King the Church of Christ flourished, her priests were 
duly honoured, vice was withered up, wrong came to an 
end, and righteousness reigned." Before the close of the 
century the diocese of Glasgow furnished, in the person 
of its Chancellor, William Lamberton, a Bishop for the 
diocese of St. Andrews. This took place in November 

Bishop Robert Wishart will always be a distinguished 
figure in Scottish history as a prelate who was a strong 
supporter of Scottish independence. He took the side of 
Wallace and Bruce, and his hands crowned Robert at 
Scone on the 27th of March 1305. Later he was taken 
prisoner, and detained as such in England until after the 
battle of Bannockburn in 1314. He was Bishop of Glas- 
gow for forty-four years, and died in 1316. He was 
buried in the crypt, between the altars of St. Peter and 
St. Andrew; and the monument in the centre of the east 
end of the crypt must be allowed to be the monument of 
Robert Wishart. 

John Lindsay was appointed to the see in 1322. He 
was a younger brother of the Lindsays of the house of 
Crawford in Clydesdale, a canon of Glasgow, and Great 

1889 4 


Chamberlain of Scotland in 1318. His episcopate was a 
time of troubles, in consequence of war with England. 
He sought refuge in France for a time, and in the spring 
of 1335 he embarked to return to his diocese. The ship 
was attacked by the English, and the Bishop received a 
mortal wound. He died on the 9th of April 1335, and 
was interred in his Cathedral, near the Altar of the 
Blessed Virgin. 1 

The next possessor of the see was William Bae, who 
was consecrated in 1339. He was a great benefactor to 
the town, for he built in 1345 a bridge over the Clyde, 
where now the Stockwell Bridge spans the river. It was 
he who procured from Rome a dispensation by which 
Robert II, the founder of the royal house of Stuart, was 
enabled to marry Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William 
Mure, though related by affinity and consanguinity. In 
return for this favour Robert founded a chaplaincy in the 

1 Here we may appropriately add a few words about the seals or 
arms of the Bishops of Glasgow, because an old deed of this date, i.e., 
1325, has a seal attached to it. This seal was the first seal of the Cor- 
poration, and a plate of it is given in Old Glasgow, p. 96. Unlike the 
English sees, neither tbe see of Glasgow nor any other of tbe sees in 
Scotland ever had any diocesan arms. None of the sees had even a 
permanent seal. Where arms are found they are invariably the per- 
sonal arms of the Bishop. Sometimes heraldic bearings are met with 
on these seals, bat such are always the family arms of the diocesan. 
Although Glasgow had no heraldic bearings, either ecclesiastical or 
civil, it had a common seal which the Bishop, acting through the 
magistrates, who were appointed by him, caused to be appended to 
public documents. The designs on the seals of the community were 
adopted from the seals of the Bishops. On the earliest examples of the 
seals of the Bishops, such as those of 1200, of Walter in 1208, and of 
Bondington in 1233, there is nothing bat the figure of St. Kentigern 
in the act of benediction. Bishop Robert Wishart's counter-seal, made 
about 1271, and figured in Old Glasgow, p. 25, and in Glasghu Fades, 
p. 36, is a much more elaborate seal, and represents the story of St. 
Kentigern as given in the Aberdeen Breviary. In the beginning of 
the fourteenth century the ecclesiastical seal was modified, and the 
bell, the fish, the bird, and the tree-branch were added to the head of 
St. Kentigern. This is the seal of 1325, which has on the dexter side 
of the Bishop's head tbe oak-twig with the bird on it ; and on the 
sinister side the fish and ring, perpendicular, and the bell. The same 
seal continued in use till the Reformation. The seal of the Chapter of 
Glasgow " for causes", and which was in use from 1488-1540, is given 
in a plate in Old Glasgow, p. 19. Here the fish is on the dexter side, 
and the bird with the bell on the sinister side, and the twig is spread 
over the seal, with the legend round it, " S. Capituli Glasgu© ad 


Cathedral of Glasgow. After ruling the see for twenty- 
eight years Bishop Rae died on the 27th of January 1367. 

Waiter Wardlaw succeeded. He belonged to the family 
of the Wardlaws of Torry, Fifeshire. He was a prelate 
of great distinction. By King Bobert he was sent to 
France to renew the ancient league between the crowns, 
which negotiation he carried through in such an able 
manner that at the instance of Charles V he was by 
Pope Clement VII created a Cardinal in 1384. This dig- 
nity he enjoyed only two years, and died in 1387. 

A canon of the Cathedral, Matthew of Glendoning or 
Glendinning, was chosen to succeed the Cardinal-Bishop. 
During his episcopate of nineteen years (1389-1408) two 
events are worth recording. In the year 1400 the wooden 
spire, for which timber was procured from Luss, was 
struck by lightning and totally destroyed ; and in 1401 
the Precentor of Glasgow, Henry Wardlaw, was appointed 
to fill the see of St. Andrews. With the intention of 
erecting a stone steeple on the tower of the Cathedral, 
Bishop Glendoning collected some material, but was pre- 
vented from carrying out his wish by his death on the 
10th of May 1408. 

William Lauder succeeded Bishop Matthew. He began 
the work of the stone spire. His arms, a griffin salient, 
are cut in stone on the lower part of the steeple. The 
year before his death he was appointed to negotiate with 
the Court of England for the liberation of King James I, 
who had been a prisoner for eighteen years. After an 
episcopate of seventeen years he died on the 14th of June 

John Cameron was next appointed to the see of St. 
Kentigern. He was a scion of the family of Cameron of 
Lochiel, was secretary to the Earl of Douglas, who pre- 
sented him to the rectory of Cambuslang, and was by 
King James I, in 1424, made Provost of Lincluden and 
Secretary of State. His consecration took place at the 
end of 1426. He continued, and probably completed, the 
spire ; also he may be credited w?th the building of the 
chapter-house, on the level of the crypt, and the vestry 
abov§ it. In the year 1431 he went, as one of the two 
episcopal representatives of Scotland, to the General 
Council of Basle. 


With the view of adding to the dignity and complete- 
ness of the services of the Cathedral he added, in 1420, 
six canons to the capitular body, making them thirty-one 
in number ; and with the consent of the patrons made 
the parishes of Cambuslang, Tarbolton, Eaglesham, Kirk- 
mahoe,Luss, and Killearn, into prebends; and he arranged 
that the canons should build their manses near the Catne- 
dral, so that, though rectors of various parishes, they 
should have each a residence in the city. This was about 
1440. 1 

The diocese had also two Archdeacons, Glasgow and 
Teviotdale ; and nine rural deaneries, — Lanark, Ruther- 
glen, Lennox, Kyle and Cunningham, Carrick, Peebles, 
Teviotdale, Nithsdale, and Annandale. 

Bishop Cameron's arms, as Bishop of the see, are to be 
seen upon the central pillar of the vestry ; and on the 
western wall, outside, above those of Bishop Lauder. See 
drawing in Glasghu Fades, p. 63. 

With the sanction of the King he established a fair, to 
be held yearly in January, which was known as St. 
Mungo's Fair ; and he arranged the Commissariat Court, 
to be held thrice a week in the Consistorial House at the 
south-west end of the Cathedral. He died on Christmas 

1 The constitution of the Chapter may be fitly described here. The 
close of David's reign (1153) saw the completion of the diocesan reor- 
ganisation and the erection of cathedral chapters, who were to elect 
the bishops. Glasgow Chapter consisted of thirty-one secular canons ; 
of these, nine were officials of the Chapter. The first dignitary was 
the Dean, next to whom came the Archdeacon, the Sub-Dean, the Chan- 
cellor, the Precentor, the Treasurer, the Sacristan, the Bishop's Vicar, 
and the Sub- Precentor. The Dean was the rector or prebend of Cad- 
zow, the Sub- Dean was the rector of Monkland, the Chancellor was 
rector of Campsie. His office was to keep the seal of the Chapter, and 
with it seal all the acts and deeds of the Bishop and his Council. The 
Archdeacon was rector of Peebles, the Precentor was rector of Kil- 
bride, the Treasurer was rector of Carnwath, the Sacristan was rector 
of Cambuslang, the Sub- Precentor was rector of Ancrum, and the 
Bishop's Vicar was parson of Glasgow, or " Glasgow lmo", and had 
the parish of the Barony of Glasgow. In addition to these nine, the 
other Canons were, — 10, Canon of Cardross ; 11, of Balernock or Pro- 
van ; 12, of Carduis ; 13, of Erskine ; 14, of Renfrew ; 15, of Eagles- 
ham ; 16, of Govan ; 17, of Kirkmahoe ; 18, of Tarbolton ; 19, of Kil- 
learn; 20, of Douglas; 21, of Eddleston; 22, of Stobo; 23, of Morebattle; 
24, of Luss; 25, of Ayr; 26, of Roxburgh ; 27, of Durisdeer; 28, of 
Ashkirk ; 29, of Sanquhar ; 30, of Cumnock ; and 31, of Polmadie. 


Eve 1446. He was the most distinguished of all the Scot- 
tish Bishops of his time. 

The successor to Bishop Cameron was William Turn- 
bull, who was translated from Dunkeld to Glasgow. He 
was of the family of Turnbulls of Minto in Roxburgh- 
shire, was a Canon of Glasgow and lord of Pro van in 1440, 
and was promoted to the see of Glasgow in 1447, and 
consecrated in 1448. 

As soon as appointed he resolved to found a University 
in his episcopal city. Pope Nicholas cordially approved 
of the work, and the University was formally erected by 
a Papal Bull dated the 26th of December 1450. Provi- 
sion was made for the study of theology, civil and canon 
law, arts, and other faculties. The office of Chancellor 
was to be held by the Bishop of Glasgow and his succes- 
sors. The same privileges were conferred upon the pro- 
fessors and students as were enjoyed by the Papal Uni- 
versity of Bologna. King James II in 1453 granted a 
charter of protection to the University ; in the same year 
the Bishop and Chapter of Glasgow granted to all mem- 
bers of the University other privileges and exemptions. 

Some seven months before the foundation of the Uni- 
versity a charter of James II, of 20th April 1450, granted 
in favour of Bishop Turnbull, raised the city from the 
rank of a burgh of barony to that of a burgh of regality, 
confirming to the Bishop and his successors " the city of 
Glasgow, barony of Glasgow, and lands commonly called 
' Bishops Forest', to be held by them of us in free, pure, 
and mere regality in fee and heritage for ever." 

This regal barony held of the Crown for the simple 
reddendo of a red rose, was irom this date possessed free 
from all feudal service ; and the Bishops, as in the case 
of the Bishops of Durham, who as Earls Palatine enjoyed 
a similar privilege, had " barons" under them. Such was 
the episcopal barony of Cadder, which was held in free 
barony of the Bishops of Glasgow by service of ward and 
relief, and giving suit at the head courts of the see. Such 
a tenure was very rare in Scotland, the only other in- 
stances known being the baronies of Kilconquhar, of Ath- 
cotmuir in Lanarkshire, and of Edmondstone. 

After an episcopate of seven years, Bishop Turnbull 
died in 1454, and was succeeded by Andrew Muirhead. 


Amongst other good works done by him must be named 
that he founded the Hospital of St. Nicholas about the 
year 1460. It was for twelve indigent old men and a 
chaplain. In addition to the original endowment, Martin, 
Chancellor of the Cathedral, left to it, in 1501, some 
small ground-rents. The revenues are still, after the 
lapse of four hundred years, administered by the Magis- 
trates and Town Council of Glasgow. The chapel had 
over the door the arms of Bishop Muirhead, three acorns 
on a bend, surmounted by the salmon, and a crozier 
behind the shield. It was pulled down in 1808. Also 
he erected, to the north of the Cathedral, a building for 
the vicars choral ; and the road between the west end of 
the Cathedral and the Infirmary is still called " Vicar s 

No allusion has yet been made to the nave of the 
Cathedral, and the massive and imposing square tower 
which, till some forty years ago, stood at the north-west 
end. The dates of these have not been handed down to 
us, but the tower was evidently very old. It was 120 ft. 
high, and had been the bell-tower. Opposite it, at the 
south-west of the nave, there was also another erection, 
evidently meant to be a tower, but which was only 
carried lip to about two-thirds of the height of the other, 
and was finished with gables and corbie-steps. It was 
called in ancient records the Library House of the Cathe- 
dral, and was the place where the Bishops held their 
ecclesiastical courts, and where the records of the diocese 
were preserved. These western towers were sacrificed to 
the want of taste and of reverence for ancient work on 
the part of the Magistrates of the city and Her Majesty's 
Commissioner of Works in the year 1845. 

A list of the books belonging to the Cathedral has 
been preserved, and is printed by the Maitland Club ; 
also a list of the vestments and ornaments, made by 
order of the Bishop and Chapter in 1432, remains to us, 
showing that these were of more than usual richness and 
magnificence. An inventory of the relics has also been 
preserved and published. 

Bishop Muirhead was deputed, together with the 
King's Almoner and Confessor, and several Scottish noble- 
men and clerical dignitaries, to arrange the terms of the 


marriage-settlement of Margaret, daughter of the King 
of Denmark, with James III. The Islands of Orkney and 
Shetland were mortgaged to James in security of his 
Queen's dowry of 60,000 crowns ; and in this way they 
came into the possession of the Scottish crown. 

Eighteen years was the duration of the episcopate of 
Bishop Muirhead, to whom John Laing succeeded in 1 473. 
In his time the dwelling-house of the Friars Minor (who 
were brought to Glasgow by Bishop Turnbull in 1449, 
and were mainly supported by Thomas Forsyth, a canon, 
and afterwards Rector of the University) was in the year 
1476 replaced by a regular Friary. 

Such was the renown of the see of Glasgow, " the 
mother of many races", as William the Lion had styled 
her three centuries before, and which had claimed from 
time immemorial the honourable title of " Daughter of 
the Roman Church", that King James IV deemed it an 
honour to be numbered among her canons. He held the 
appointment of Canon of Barlanark and Lord of Provan. 

About this time Glasgow gave to Aberdeen a Bishop 
who was a most distinguished man, and whose memory 
is still in benediction. William Elphinstone was Glasgow 
born ; at the age of twenty-six appointed to the parish 
of Kirkmichael, chosen in 1474 Rector of Glasgow Uni- 
versity, and made in 1483 Bishop of Aberdeen. 

A space of ten years brought to a close the episcopate 
of Bisnop Laing, who died on the 11th of January 1483. 
He was succeeded by Robert Blackader, a member of the 
family of Blackader of Berwickshire. The Parliament, 
probably on account of a wish on the part of the royal 
Canon, made a move in favour of Glasgow being raised 
to the dignity of an archiepiscopal see. St. Andrews 
had been made an archbishopric some seventeen years 
before. A resolution was passed by it on the 14th of 
January 1489, which set forth that the honour and wel- 
fare of the realm demanded the erection of Glasgow into 
an archbishopric with the same privileges as those en- 
joyed by York. The Pope was informed of this by the 
Chancellor. King James V urged upon the Pope the 
desired erection. In the year 1490 he wrote to the Pope 
saying that " Glasgow surpassed all the other cathedral 
churches in his realm by its structure, its learned men, 


its foundations, its ornaments, and other very noble pre- 
rogatives." Innocent granted the request, and by a Bull 
dated 9th of January 1492 raised Glasgow to an arch- 
bishopric, with Dunkeld, Dunblane, Galloway and Argyle 
for its suffragans. In this way the prelate, made Bishop 
of Glasgow in 1484, eightyears later became Archbishop 
Robert Blackader. The King was less successful in his 
endeavour to get for the new Archbishop the dignity of 
Cardinal. 1 

The Archbishop died in 1508, when making a pilgrim- 
age to the Holy Land. His arms, three roses on a chev- 
ron, are carved on the south side of the altar, to the 
right of the rood-screen door, and on the north end of the 
corresponding one on the left hand. 

In the Protocol Register is a document, dated 1 0th of 
May 1503, showing that the Archbishop paid the sum of 
1,360 merks for the lands of Cragrossie, which were 
mortified by him shortly after for the support of a chap- 
lain in the church built by him near Culross in honour of 
St. Kentigern, and also for some other foundations in his 
Cathedral. Also he signified to the Chapter, in June 
1506, his willingness to annex the vicarages of Cadder, 
Stobo, Lintoun, Kilbirnie, and the rectory of Garvald, to 
his College of the University of Glasgow, " for the utility 
of the clergy, and for the improving of the varied and 
superior learning of the learned men therein". In a 
synod held in the Cathedral on the 21st of April 1506, 
the Archbishop published a decree that the beneficed 
clergy of the diocese should reside in their own benefices 
or in the city of Glasgow, within the College thereof, for 
the sake of study, under a penalty of £5, to be applied 
to the fabric of the Church of Glasgow, if they did not 
obey the statute within three months, £10 if they did 

1 Archbishop Blackader is popularly known by the work at the Cathe- 
dral associated with his name. He constructed the stairs which lead 
to the great crypt, and built the rood-loft. Also he resolved to add a 
south transept ; but he completed only the under-croft, or south crypt, 
commonly called " Blackader's Aisle", and sometimes " Fergus* Aisle". 
This was the last piece of work attempted before the Reformation. An 
agreement, dated the 14th of May 1507, between the Archbishop and 
Thomas Tayt of Ayr, is recorded, by which the burgess contracts to 
sell to the Prelate twelve fothers of lead at the price of eighteen pounds 
Scots for each fother. It was probably destined for the south transept. 


not obey within three months more, and deprivation of 
their benefices if they did not obey within six months 

James Beaton was the next Archbishop of Glasgow. 
He was the son of John Betoun of Balfour, who married 
first Margery Boswell of Balmuto, and secondly Elizabeth 
Melville of Raith. There were six sons and five daughters 
in his family. All these brothers died young, except the 
Archbishop, who lived to the great age of eighty-six. His 
consecration took place at Stirling on the 15th of April 
1509. He also held the office of Chancellor of the King- 
dom. Copies of instruments exist, dated the 8th and 
19th of April 1509, whereby the Dean and Chapter, and 
Martin Reade, Rector of the University, in behalf of that 
body and the clergy of the diocese ; Archibald Watson 
and Thomas Hutchinson, Bailies of Glasgow, in the name 
of the citizens, severally acknowledge the new Archbishop 
as "pastor animarum suarum". On the 17 th of April the 
Archbishop took the oath in the usual form, in presence 
of Robert Forman, Dean, and the Chapter of Glasgow 
assembled in the Chapter House, by touching his breast, 
and swearing on the word of an Archbishop and on the 
Holy Gospels. 

The Archbishop crowned James V in the Castle of Stir- 
ling on the 21st of September 1513. After presiding over 
the see for the space of twelve years, Archoishop Beaton 
was translated to St. Andrews on the death of Archbishop 
Forman in 1521. 

Gavin Dunbar, Prior of Whithorn, and former tutor to 
James V, was now appointed to the see of Glasgow. He 
was consecrated on the 5th of February 1524-5. He was 
a younger brother of Sir John Dunbar of Mochram, and 
brother to the Dunbar of Baldoon who was Provost of 
Glasgow in 1547, and had received his education in the 
Glasgow University. Through the representations of the 
King, the Pope, by a document of the 30th of November 
1530, annulled the office of Legate that had been enjoyed 
by the Primate ; and on the 21st of September, the fol- 
lowing year, Glasgow was exempted from any jurisdiction 
on the part of the Primate. 

Archbishop Dunbar must be looked on as the origina- 
tor of the College of Justice, inasmuch as James insti- 


tuted it by his advice. A difference arose between the 
King and the clergy in connection with this College. The 
King wished to impose a tax of £10,000 a year on eccle- 
siastical benefices for the support of the new institution ; 
but the Bishops would not sanction more than £1,400 a 
year. In either case the approval of a provincial council 
was required, and the council met in Edinburgh on Ash 
Wednesday, 1536. The Synod agreed to an annual tax 
on the clergy for the support of the new College of Jus- 
tice. The College was to consist of fourteen judges, half 
clerical and half lay. The president was always to be an 
ecclesiastic. It received the confirmation of Pope Cle- 
ment VII in the year 1534. The first President was the 
Abbot of Cambuskenneth. 

This date leads us to say a single word about David, 
Cardinal Beaton (1539-46) on account of his connection 
with Glasgow. He was the nephew of Archbishop James 
Beaton, and third son of John Beaton and Isabella Mony- 
penny. Though a Fifeshire man he repaired, in his six- 
teenth year (a.d. 1510) to the University of Glasgow. 
His education was finished in Francfe. The rectories of 
Campsie and Cambuslang were bestowed upon him ; and 
when his uncle was translated to St. Andrews, in 1523, 
he resigned to his nephew David the commendatory 
abbacy of Arbroath, which he had held since 1509. 

Archbishop Dunbar was present at the celebrated trial, 
held at St. Andrews in 1540, of Sir John Borthwick. 

In the year 1546, the year previous to the death of 
Dunbar, the collegiate church of Biggar, in Lanark, was 
founded. It was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, and 
was endowed for a provost, eight canons, four choristers, 
and six poor bedesmen, and was one of the last religious 
foundations in Scotland previous to the Reformation. 

Another work of Archbishop Dunbar was the building 
the gate-house at the Bishop's Castle. 1 

1 This Castle is first mentioned in an old charter of 1290. A great 
tower was erected at the south end of the enclosure, and some other 
portions, by Bishop Cameron in 1430 ; and a smaller tower by Arch- 
bishop Beaton, who also surrounded the Castle by a protecting wall, 
some time before 151 3. A ground-plan of the Castle is given in Olasghu 
Fades, p. 251 ; and two views of the Castle, — one on p. 78, showing 
Bishop Cameron's tower, and Archbishop Dunbar's gatehouse, p. 76 ; 
and another on p. 276, showing the west face of the Cameron tower, 


Archbishop Dunbar died on the 30th of April 1547. 
He was acknowledged even by his enemies to be a prelate 
of learning and piety. The family seems to have been 
noted for goodness, zeal, and charity. An uncle of his was- 
Bishop of Aberdeen from 1518-32, and was, perhaps, next 
to Bishop Elphinstone, the most illustrious occupant of 
that see. 

At this critical period in the ecclesiastical history of 
Scotland, the diocese of Glasgow was able to be of ser- 
vice to two other dioceses. Gavin Hamilton, a Glasgow 
ecclesiastic, was appointed coadjutor in 1551 to the Arch- 
bishop of St. Andrews, who was in weak health ; and 
Henry Sinclair, Dean of Glasgow and President of the 
Court of Session, became Bishop Panters successor in the 
see of Ross. 

The last possessor of the see of St. Kentigern was 
James Beaton, the second of the name. On the death 
of Archbishop Dunbar the Chapter of Glasgow elected 
Alexander Gordon, brother of the Earl of Huntly, in 
1550. He was, however, never consecrated, and resigned 
the see a few months later. Beaton was at once ap- 
pointed. He was only a layman at the time, and but 
twenty-seven years of age. He was consecrated at Rome 
on the 28th of August 1552. Five years after his pro- 
motion, he and another Bishop, and six other persons, 
were commissioned by the Estates of Scotland to go to 

and the protecting wall that was 15 feet high. A stone that was ori- 
ginally part of this protecting wall is now built into the porch of St. 
Joseph's Church, North Woodside Road. It has the arms of Beaton 
quartered with Balfoar, i.e., quarterly, 1st and 4th, azure, a fess 
between three mascles or, for Beaton ; 2nd and 3rd, argent, on a chev- 
ron sable an otter's head erased of the first, for Balfour. Above the 
shield is the Archbishop's cross, and below, the fish with the ring in 
its mouth. An engraving of this stone is given in Old Glasgow, p. 109. 
Over the handsome gatehouse and arched gateway of Archbishop Dun- 
bar was a serieB of armorial bearings, also engraved on p. 110. On 
the upper of the two carved stones are the arms of Scotland with the 
supporting unicorns. On the lower stone are two shields. On the one 
are carved the arms of Dunbar, — or, three cushions within a double 
tressure-flory and oounter-flory gules, with a mullet for difference ; and 
below the shield, the fish with the ring ; and on the lower shield are 
the arms of James Houston, Sub-Dean of Glasgow, — or, a chevron 
cheque* sable and argent between three martlets of the second, with a 
rose in chief for difference. These stones have been lately given to 
Sir William Dunbar to be built into his new mansion in Wigtonshire. 


France as witnesses of the espousals of Queen Mary with 
the Dauphin. The Archbishop was also present at the 
solemnisation of the marriage on the 24th of April 1558, 
in the Cathedral of N6tre Dame. 

In August 1549 the celebrated Convention of Clergy 
had been held at Linlithgow. In the November follow- 
ing a provincial council was held in Edinburgh, and the 
Vicar-General of Glasgow attended it, as the see was 
then vacant. The statutes passed may be read in Belles- 
heim, vol. ii, pp. 202-11. Another provincial council took 
place in 1559, which lasted from tne 1st of March to the 
10th of April. The Archbishop of Glasgow took part in 
it, and with it ended the last council of the old Scottish 

To make this paper on the ancient see complete we 
must add a few words on the value or income of the see. 
The free rent of the archbishopric of Glasgow, as it was 
given at the General Assumption, 1561, was : — in money, 
£987 : 8 : 7; meal, 32 ch., 8 bolls ; malt, 28 ch., 6 bolls ; 
barley, 8 bolls ; horse-corn, 12 ch., 13 bolls, 3 fir.; salmon, 
14 doz. 

The entire possessions of the see at the Reformation 
were the seven baronies and regalities of Glasgow, Car- 
stairs, Stobo, Eddilstoun, Ancrum, Ashkirk, and Lillies- 
leaf, with the Bishop's Forest, and other little things of 
comparatively trifling value in Carrick, Lothian, and else- 
where. The gross money-rental of £987 : 8 : 7 may be 
relatively apportioned as follows : — Barony of Glasgow, 
£650 ; Barony of Carstairs, £150 (?) ; Barony of Stobo 
rental is known to have been £107; Baron v of Eddils- 
toun, £23 : 18 : 4,— equal to £930 : 18 : 4 ; whdst the Bor- 
der baronies at that unsettled time would, perhaps, only 
represent the balance. This sum, it must be remembered, 
was £987 : 8 : 7 Scots, which according to the value of 
money at that time was equal to about only £200. 

When we even allow for the difference in the value of 
money three hundred years ago, and put a price on the 
grain paid to the prelate as rent, as well as on the fourteen 
dozen of salmon, the Glasgow rental was a moderate one, 
and fell far short of the revenues of the great English 

It is no part of our slight sketch of the history of the 


ancient see of Glasgow to travel beyond the year 1560, 
or to go into those causes that led to the national change 
of religion ; but we may say that fewer dioceses in Christ- 
endom have had a more glorious or edifying existence of 
fully one thousand years than Glasgow's ancient see. It 
began with Kentigern, and ends with Archbishop Beaton 
Secundo, who in 1560 retired to France. He was ap- 
pointed ambassador for his sovereign at the court of 
France, was restored to a portion of the temporalities of 
his see in 1600, and died, at the age of eighty-six, on the 
25th of April 1603. 

The names of Kentigern, Jocelin, Bondington, Wishart, 
Cameron, Turnbull,Blackader, Dunbar, and James Beaton, 
will always be household words in the. west of Scotland. 
Of each of these may we say, " Many shall praise his wis- 
dom, and it shall never be forgotten. Tne memory of 
him shall not depart away, and his name shall be in 
request from generation to generation." 1 Of Archbishop 
Dunbar we have the unimpeachable testimony of George 
Buchanan that he was a model prelate, — 

" Splendida coena epnlaa Ian tee, ambitione remota 

Doctrina, ingenio, simplicitate, fide. 
Ipse alios supra facundo prominefc ore." 

The comments of those who cannot be suspected of bias 
will amply bear out the statement. Mr. MacGeorge 
writes: " The people of Glasgow appear to have been for- 
tunate in their ecclesiastical rulers, and their condition 
was greatly superior to that of the communities who were 
under the sway of lay barons. From the time of David 
the city was ruled by bishops till 1491, when Kobert 
Blackader, who then filled the see, was, at the instance 
of James IV (who, like James II, was a canon of the 
Cathedral), promoted to the dignity of Archbishop with 
metropolitan, primatial, and legislative dignity; and until 
the Reformation the Archbishops were the lords temporal 
as well as spiritual of the community." 3 

By the lovers of art and of archaeology the memory 
must always be held in especial veneration of the men 
who built our Cathedral, — a noble work of architecture, 
with its magnificent crypt, unsurpassed and unrivalled. 

1 Ecolas. xxxix, 12, 13. * Old Glasgow, p. 53. 


A little longer than Elgin, it is the second in size of all 
the old Scottish cathedrals. And the mercantile com- 
munity of the second city — a city whose prosperity can 
be traced to its coal and iron — will not need to be re- 
minded that the foundation of this development was 
laid by the Church. We quote from Lawson : — " We are 
not to view the ecclesiastics of the Scottish hierarchy 
merely as the founders of cathedrals, colleges, and reli- 
gious institutions. It cannot be denied that they ren- 
dered essential services by their continued improvement 
of the kingdom in agriculture, in the erection of bridges, 
hospitals for the aged and infirm, many of which still 
remain ; and that they were in many cases the promoters 
of the comforts and luxuries of domestic life. They were 
the discoverers of that invaluable mineral, coal, — a con- 
stant and never-failing source of internal wealth ; they 
were long the only ship-owners of the kingdom ; and 
some of the most useful inventions issued from the 
monastic cloister." 1 

It is only their due to say of those who have sat in 
the chair of St. Kentigern, " These are the mighty men 
of old, men of renown." 3 " Let us now praise men of re- 
nown, and our fathers in their generation Rich men 

in virtue, studying beautifulness All these have 

gained glory in their generations, and were praised in 

their days They were men of mercy, whose godly 

deeds have not failed ...... Their bodies are buried in 

peace, and their name liveth unto generation and genera- 
tion." 3 

1 The Roman Catholic Church in Scotland, p. 15. * Gen. vi, 4. 

8 Ecclus. xliv, 1, 6, 10, 14. 


~J * 


. JuL^4> it «nA lutnadtoA utjm 
«ccm cfr i mm he roiccJ cccW ottcrra 






Among the facsimiles of early Scottish charters which I 
had the honour of exhibiting to the members during the 
recent Congress at Glasgow, the document which is here 
illustrated, full size, by autotype photography, was re- 
ceived with much attention and interest. Historically 
and palseographically there are many points in it worthy 
of notice. The elegantly formed characters of the hand- 
writing cannot fail to strike us with admiration : indeed, 
there are few documents of the class which can compete 
with it for beauty and elegance ; and as the date of a.d. 
1266 is contained in its text, it acquires additional value 
as a test for many other documents which though written 
about the same time contain no date. The text has been 
printed in the Liber Cartarum Sanctce Cruris, for the 
Bannatyne Club (1840); but the Editor of that work 

{>rinted the charter from a faulty copy, and did not col- 
ate it with the original among the Harley Charters of 
the British Museum, which is here published for the first 
time in a correct form. 

The document is a grant by Richard Bishop of St. An- 
drews to the canons of Holyrood Abbey, of the church 
of Egglesbrec (which is called varia capetla), for the souls 
of Kings David and Malcolm, his ancestors Robert and 
iErnaJd, and his uncle Alwine, for a rent of one petra, or 
stone (about twelve and a half pounds) of wax, yearly 
towards the Bishop's Chapel. Among the witnesses are 
many notable personages, — Geoffrey, Abbot of Dunferm- 
line ; John, Abbot of Kelso ; Osbert, Abbot of Jedburgh ; 
Andrew the Archdeacon, and others. 

The church of Egglesbrec, i.e., " Eglais bhrec" (spotted 
church), was so called on account of the varied shades of 
stone used in its building. In after times the name be- 


came Fawkirk or Falkirk, which it now retains. Our 
President has referred to this name in the Inaugural 
Address printed at pp. 1-21. For the convenience of 
readers I append a transcript of the text, with footnotes 
showing the faulty readings of the Liber Cartarum : 

" Eicardus Dei gratia Ecclesie Sancti Andr66 humilis minister. 
Vniversis sancte matris ecclesie filijs totius diocesis sue salutem. 
Sciant tarn posteri quam presentes nos in plenario capitulo nos- 
tro . consilio 1 et assensu cleri nostri dedisse . et presentis script! 
munimine confirmasse ecclesie sancte crucis et canonicis ibidem 
Deo servientibus. Ecclesiam de egglesbrec 2 .que uaria capella dicitur. 
et totam terram quam nos ibi habuimus . uel aliquis antecessorum 
nostrorum . cum omnibus ecclesie 8 et terre prenominatis uille per- 
tinentibus J % pro animabus regum . David . Malcolmi . et anteces- 
sorum nostrorum . Rodberti . -^Ernaldi 4 . et auunculi nostri Alwini 5 . 
et cunctorum fidelium . in perpetuam elemosinam singulis annis 
reddendo de terra supradicta unam petram cere capelle nostre et 
successorum nostrorum ad pentecosten . Quare uolumus et preci- 
pimus ut predictam ecclesiam cum terra prenominata liberam et 
quietam ab omni exactione habeant et possideant . saluis episco- 
palibus de ecclesia . et redditu prenominato de terra. Hiis testi- 
buS . Galfrido abbate de dunfermelin 6 . Johanne Abbate de Calcho . 
Osberto abbate de Jedewrde 7 . Andrea archidiacono . Magistro Os- 
berto de Merlei 8 . Waltero priore de calcho . Aiulfo decano . Rod- 
berto 9 fratre episcopi . Johanne nepote Eodberti 10 episcopi . Rod- 
berto* seulfi 11 filio de pert . Magistro herberto 12 Alexandra capellano . 
Magistro Abraham . Henrico capellano archidiaconi. Hec donatio 
facta est in plenario capitulo apud berewic celebrato . anno ab in- 
carnatione domini Millesimo . centesimo . sexagesimo sexto." 18 

1 concilio 6 Aluuini 9 Roberto 

2 Eiglesbrec 6 Dunfermeline 10 Roberti 

3 eclesie T Jedewarde u Sewlfi 

4 Arnoldi 8 Merty " Osberto 

13 Anno Incarnationi8 Domini mcclxyi. 

Srfttsl) archaeological association. 

GLASGOW, 1888, 




K.T., LL.D. 



The Duke op Norfolk, K.G., E.M. 
The Duke of Abercorn,K.G.,D.C.L. 
The Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T. 
The Duke of Cleveland, K.G. 
The Duke of Montrose, K.T. 
The Marquess of Ailsa. 
The Earl of Carnarvon, D.C.L. 
The Earl of Dartmouth, D.L. 
The Earl of Effingham, D.L. 
The Earl Granville, K.G. 
The Earl of Hardwicke, P.C. 
The Earl of Home, D.L. 
The Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe,P.C. 
The Earl Nelson, D.L. 
The Earl of Stair, K.T. 
Lord Hamilton of Dalzell. 
Lord Mark Kerr, (General). 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop 

of Durham. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop 

of Ely. 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop 

of St. David's. 
The Very Reverend Principal 

Caird, D.D. 
The Rev. J. Cameron Lees, D.D. 
The Rev. Prof. Lindsay, D.D. 
Sir Windham C. Anstruther, Bart. 
Sir Chas. H. Rouse Broughton, Bart. 
Sir Archibald C. Campbell, Bart., 

M.P., LL.D. 
Sir Archibald ORREwiNG,Bart., M. P. 
Sir Edward Colebrook, Bart. 
Sir William Pearcb, Bart., M.P. 
Sir Charles Tennant, Bart. 
The Hon. Sir James King, LL.D., 

Lord Provost of Glasgow. 
Sir Donald Matheson, K.C. U. 

Sir Arthur Mitchell, K.C.B. , 

Sir William Collins. 

Sir John Neilson Cuthbertson. 

Sir Michael Connal. 

Sir James A. Picton, F.S.A. 

Sir James Watson. 

M. Bulloch, Esq. 

Robert Berry, Esq., LL.D., Sheriff 

of Lanarkshire. 
Cecil Brent, Esq., F.S.A 
Dr. Chas. Cameron, M.P. 
J. A. Campbell, Esq., M.P. 
William Henry Cope, Esq., F S A. 
H. Sybr Cuming, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. 
John Evans, Esq., D.C.L., F.R.S., 

Professor John Ferguson, LL.D. 
A. W. Franks, Esq., C.B., M.A., 

James Heywood, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
W. Wallace Hozier, Esq., of Maul- 

delie. Convener of Lanarkshire. 
Andrew Macgeorge, Esq. 
A. B.McGrigor, Esq., LL.D. 
J. D. Marwick, Esq., LL.D. 
Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A. 
Thomas Morgan, Esq., F.S.A. 
David Murray, Esq., M.A., LL D. 
R. W. Cochran Patrick, Esq., LL.D. 
Rev. Prebendary H. M. Scarth, 

M.A., F.S.A. 
Professor Roberton, LL.D. 
Rev. W. S. Simpson, D.D., F.S.A. 
C. Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A. 
E. Maunde Thompson, Esq., F.S.A. 
George Tomline, Esq., F.S.A. 
Profrssor Veitch, LL.D. 
Wm. Walls, Esq., Lord Dean of Guild. 
George R. Wright, Esq., F.S.A. 




Robert Berrt, Esq., Sheriff of LANARKSHIRE, Chairman, 

Thb Hon. Sib James Kino, LL.D., Lord Provost, Sib Arch. Campbell, Bart., 

M.P., LL.D., John Honbyman, P.R.I.B.A., President of the 

Glasgow Archaeological Society, Vice-Chairmen, 

David Guthbie, Esq. 

Kobkbt Gut, Esq. 

W. H. Hill, Esq., LL.D. 

Rev. David Hunteb. 

Rev. A. Orbock Johnston. 

William Jollt, Esq., H.M.I.S. 

T. Hiplet Keb. Esq. 

John Kibsop, Esq. 

Professor Lindsay, D.D. 

J. Mac Donald, Esq., LL.D. 

A. Macgeorge, Esq. 

Geo. M'Grbgor, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. 

A. B. M'Grigor, Esq., LL.D. 

David Mackinlat, Esq. 


Alexr. Macdonald, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. 

A. C. MacIntybe, Esq., F.S.A.Scot 

William M'Onie, Esq. 

H. S. Macpheb80N, Esq. 

J. D. Marwick, Esq., LL.D. 

J. B. Mibblbes, Esq. 

James L. Mitchell, Esq. 

J. O. Mitchell, Esq. 

R. Munbo, Esq , M.D. 

J. B. Murdoch. Esq. 

Ex- Preceptor Matheson. 

David Murray, Esq., M.A., LL.D. 

John Muib, Esq., of Deanston. 

James Muib, Esq., CA. 

James Nicol, Esq. 

James Paton, Esq., F.L.S. 

Alexander Pearson. Esq. 

Thos. Reid, Esq., of Kilmardinnr. 

Robebt Rrnwick, Esq. 

Professor Robbrton, LL.D. 

Archibald Robertson, Esq. 

David Robertson, Esq. 

Rev. F. L. Robertson, D.D. 

Rev. William Ross, F.S.A.Scot. 

Charles Russell, Esq. 

J. G. Smith, Esq., Magdock Castle. 

A. M. Scott, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. 

Alexander Sinclair, Esq. 

Matthew Shields, Esq. 

pbofe8sob stoby, d.d. 

Bailie Shbabbb. 

J. Tullis, Esq., Deacon-Con veneb. 

Pbove8sob Veitch, LL.D. 

W. Renny Watson, Esq. 

Wm. Walls, Esq., Lord Dean of Guild. 

Ex-Pbeceptob William Wilsok, 

J. B. Wing ate, Esq. 
John Wobdib, Esq. 
Pbofbssob Young, M.D. 

Sib Windham C. Anstbuthbb, Bart. 

Sib Archibald Obb Ewing, Bart. 

Sib William Peabcb, Bart., M.P. 

Sib Charles Tennant, Bart. 

Sib Donald Matheson, K.C.B. 

Sib Abthub Mitchell, K.C.B. 

Sib Michael Connal. 

Sib William Collins. 

Sib J. N. Cuthbertson. 

Sib James Watson. 

F. W. Allan, Esq. 

Matthew Abthub, Esq. 

T. G. Abthub, Esq. 

Richabd Barnwell, Esq. 

Dugald Bell, Esq., F.G.S. 

Sheriff Balfour. 

Shbbiff Erskine Mubbay. 

Ex-Bailie Bebtbam. 

W. G. Blackie, Esq., LL.D. 

T. D. Buchanan, Esq., M.D. 

Mathew Bulloch, Esq. 

John Burnet, Esq. 

The Rev. G. S. Bubns, D.D. 

Professor Bower, D.Sc. 

The Vbby Rbv. Pbincipal Caibd,D. D. 

James Caldwell, Esq., M.P. 

James A. Campbell, Esq., M.P. 

Jab. Campbbll, Esq., of Tullichewan. 

J. Ma cn aught Campbbll, Esq. 

John Cabrick, Esq. 

R. W. Cochran- Patrick, Esq., LL.D. 

W. B. Cook, Esq., Stirling. 


John Coubbough, Esq. 

T. Craig Christie, Esq., of Bedlay. 

Ex-Bailie Cbawfobd. 

W. M. Cunningham, Esq. 

St. John V. Day, Esq., F.R.S.E. 

Major Pboudfoot Dick, F.S.A.Scot. 

Ex-Bailie Dickson. 

C. D. Donald, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. 
R. Hunteb Dunn, Esq. 
Henry Dyer, Esq. 
William J. Easton, Esq. 

The Most Rev. AbchbishopEyre, D.D. 
Professor Ferguson, LL.D. 
Alexander Fleming, Esq., Kilmaho. 
J. B. Fleming, Esq., of Kelvinside. 

D. Corse Glen, Esq., F.G.S. 
J. Gill Godwin, Esq. 
Robert Gourlay, Esq. 

D. M. Crerar-Gilbert, Esq.,Torkhill. 
James Grahams, Esq., C.A. 
Bailie Gray. 
J. Wyllie Guild, Esq., F.S. A.Scot. 

With Power to add to their Number. 



G. G. Adams, Esq., F.S.A. 

J. Romilly Allen, Esq., F.S. A.Scot. 

Thomas B lash ill, Esq. 

Algernon Brent, Esq. 

Arthur Catr8, Esq. 


R. A. Douglas Lithgow, Esq., LL.D., 

F.S.A., P.R.S.L. 
J. W. Gbovbb, Esq., F.S.A. 

Richard Howlbtt, Esq. 

W. F. Laxton, Esq., F.S.A. 

J. T. Mould, Esq. 

Walter Myers, Esq., F.S.A. 

George Patrick, Esq. 

J. S. Phbne, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 

W. H. Rylands, Esq., F.S.A. 

Benjamin Winstone, Esq. 

Allan Wyon, Esq., F.R.G.S. 

Paleographer— E. Maunde Thompson, Esq., F.S.A.. Principal Librarian of the 

British Museum. 

Curator and Librarian — Geo. R. Wright, Esq., F.S.A. 

Draughtsman— W. G. Smith, F.L.S. 

With the Officers and Local Committee. 

Hon. Treasurer— Thomas Morgan, Esq., V. P., F.S.A., Hill-Side House, Palace 
Road, Streatham Hill, London, S.W. 

Sub- Treasurer— S. Rayson, Esq., 32, Sackville Street, Piccadilly, W. 

Hon. J W. de Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A., British Museum. 
Secretaries \ E. P. Loftus Brock, Esq., F.S.A., 36, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

Hon Local [ *' Dalrymple Duncan, F.S.A.Scot., 211, Hope Street, Glasgow. 
Secretaries } WlLLIAM George Black, F.S.A.Scot., 88, West Regent Street, 
( Glasgow. 

Hon. Local j John Graham, C.A., 212, West George Street, Glasgow. 
Treasurers ( James Marwick, C.A., 150, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 



^Proceedings of tfje (Tongress, 

Monday, 27th Acgust 1888. 

The forty-fifth Annual Congress was opened at Glasgow on this day 
by a reception by the Lord Provost in the Council Chambers, Ingram 
Street. There was a large attendance. 

The Lord Provost said it afforded him great pleasure to welcome 
the British Archaeological Association to Glasgow, and he was glad to 
think that so many had found it convenient to visit this city. He was 
afraid that the relics of antiquity were but few ; but they had in the 
vicinity an ample field to furnish instruction to those who for the first 
time" had visited this part of Scotland. Apart from that, they had in 
the scenery of the west of Scotland something which would refresh the 
eye after it had finished its antiquarian search. He was glad that the 
programme was so complete. It bore testimony to the exertions of 
those gentlemen who had been responsible for making it. It included 
a visit to prehistoric forts, to the Roman wall of Antonine, and to the 
Roman camp of Ardoch. It also included a visit to the antiquities of 
Bute, where they would have the opportunity of enjoying the hospi- 
tality of the President. It also included the two battlefields of Ban- 
nockburn and Langside, the palaces of Stirling and of Linlithgow, the 
castles of Bothwell and of Craignethan ; and the members would find 
in the grounds of the Exhibition a collection of the most valuable 
treasures of an antiquarian character, many of which have never been 
shown before. He trusted that the weather would continue to favour 
them, and that at the close of the week they would find that they had 
no reason to regret the occasion of the first visit of the Association to 

Sheriff Berry said he had, as Chairman of the Reception Committee, 
on behalf of that Committee to give the members of the Association a 
most cordial welcome to the city. The Lord Provost had adverted to 
the programme of the visits which the members had before them dur- 
ing the week ; and as His Lordship had said, they would have many 
opportunities of investigating places which could hardly be exceeded. 
But independently of that he could not but think that in Glasgow itself 


thero were materials for antiquarian inquiry and research. No doubt 
the present city did not externally bear mauy marks of antiquity. It 
had grown to be a great mart of trade and manufacture; but still in 
its early history, in various quarters, it had' materials which could not 
fail to interest ladies and gentlemen with antiquarian tastes. It was 
well known that for a long period Glasgow was simply the burgh of 
the Bis bop or Archbishop of Glasgow. That had been well illustrated 
in the work of Mr. Macgeorge. Then they were to have from Mr. 
Honeyman, a master of the subject, an explanation of the architecture 
of the Cathedral, which carried them back to the early history of this 
city. They were also to have a paper on the history of the see from 
the Archbishop of Glasgow, and that could not fail to throw a great 
light upon the early history of the* city. He thought the Association 
had not made an unhappy choice in selecting Glasgow for their first 
visit across the Border, and he hop^d the weather in this somewhat 
uncertain season would smile upon them during their stay. 

Mr. John Honeyman, President of the Archaaological Society of 
Glasgow, said he had to offer, on behalf of the Society he represented, 
a most cordial welcome to Glasgow. The Lord Provost and the 
learned Sheriff had spoken more exclusively on behalf of Glasgow, but 
his Society included a somewhat wider area. Ho was glad to think 
that so many members had volunteered to assist them on the present 
occasion to read papers on the various places of interest which were 
to be visited outside the boundaries of the city. He need hardly say 
that the visit of the Association to this part of the country had been 
matter of great interest to the members of the Glasgow Society. 
They were all sensible of what must be the feelings of archaeologists, 
that one of the needs of the present time was a closer association of 
the various Societies. He was therefore happy to welcome them, and 
to see such a large representation at that very early period of their 

Mr. T. Morgan, F.S.A., lion. Treasurer, in the absence of the 
President, the Marquess of Bute, thanked the Lord Provost and the 
other gentlemen for the kindly reception they had given the Associa- 
tion. The more they looked into the history of the past, the more 
they saw that the past of Scottish history could not fail to be interest- 
ing. At the same time, it presented many phases, and they might be 
very grateful that they did not live in those ages when party feeling 
ran so high. They were in a position now to think what they liked, and 
to say what they thought, without being apprehended and placed inside 
the Tolbooth of Glasgow. For one thing he was sure they would be 
all grateful, and that was, that in this city of Glasgow, where there 
was so much to admire, the past had not been forgotten amidst its 
commerce and industry. 


Mr. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., Hon, Secretary, then read the order of 
procedure for the day, when the party took carriages and drove to the 
Queen's Park. Walking through the Park, the members were met at 
Park Buildings by Mr. A. M. Scott, who pointed out the battle-field, 
the places where the troops were disposed, and the points from which 
Queen Mary and the Regent Murray witnessed the engagement. The 
large party walked over the fields to the so-called Celtic or pre- 
historic camp (little better now than grass-grown banks) in the 
immediate vicinity, to the north-west of the flag-staff, and examined 
traces of the old walls. There are many such camps in the neigh- 
bourhood. Camp-hill is also supposed to have been a Roman station ; 
it was reasonable to suppose that the Romans, on crossing the river, 
would take advantage of the old defences. Mr. Scott exhibited a 
quantity of charred corn and oak found in the camp in 1867, about 
nine feet under the surface. Below, in the marshy ground near the 
entrance to Camp-hill House, he pointed out the reputed kirkyard of 
those who fell at the battle of Langside. Mr. Scott's remarks have 
been printed above at pp. 22-24. 

The members afterwards walked down to the village of Langside, in 
order to witness the ceremony of handing over the custody of the 
Battle Memorial to the Hutcheson's Hospital Trustees. Besides the 
members of the Association there was a large gathering of local resi- 
dents and of gentlemen from G lasgow who had interested themselves 
in the erection of the memorial. Refreshments were very kindly pro- 
vided by the Trustees. 

Later in the afternoon the members visited the Cathedral, where a 
paper descriptive of the architectural features was read by Mr. John 
Honey man, F.R.I.B. A. The Rev. Dr. Burns presided. The paper has 
been printed in the Journal at pp. 25-32. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Honorary Secretary, followed Mr. 
Honeyman, and drew attention to the serious cracks visible in the 
spandrils of the tower arches, which he finds running up through the 
modern facing to the roof, indicating the dangerous condition of the 
spire. He is anxious that the attention of the authorities, who are 
responsible for the safety of the church and its frequenters, should be 
drawn to the state of the supporting walls, an examination of which 
shows that there is still some motion in the building, probably in the 
direction of down the hill. The fall of the tower would mean grave 
injury, perhaps irreparable, to the crypt and adjacent parts. Air. 
Brock rejected the application of the popular term lady-chapel by the 
previous speaker to what is really a retro-choir, and hardly capable 
of use as a lady-chapel on account of structural peculiarities. Mr. 
Honeyman accepted this distinction of terms. 

In the evening the opening dinner took place. 


Tuesday, August 28th. 

The members to-day visited Both well Castle via Uddingstone. At 
the entrance to the policies of the Earl of Home, Mr. Easton, factor, 
guided the party abont the castle. The walk through the beautiful 
grounds, and the different views of the Clyde and its wooded banks 
were enjoyed ; but most interest was centred in the ruins of the great 
keep. Since June last workmen had laid bare the foundations of the 
northern part of the structure* and disclosed the workmanship of the 
edifice. It is proposed that these foundations of the castle shall be 
exposed to view. Close to the foot of one of the walls lay the per- 
fectly-formed skeleton of a full-grown man, 1 the bones being in their 
places, and apparently fresh. The walls of the castle have been 
stripped of ivy, and the structure has quite a different aspect from 
that which it has worn for generations. All the nooks, stairs, wells, 
and the ban que ting-hall were carefully examined, and some found 
their way to the top of the south-eastern tower, while below, the fore- 
man-mason on the estate pointed out the individual marks of the 
artisans who, centuries ago, cut the stones. Everything showed that 
the men who hewed, laid, and joined the stones knew well their trade. 

The company met in the enceinte or court, when a paper of much 
merit, by Mr. J. Dalrymple Duncan, P. S.A.Scot., one of the Local 
Secretaries of the Congress, to whom, with Mr. W.G. Black, F. S.A.Scot., 
the Association is indebted for the selection of sites to be visited, was 
read. It has been printed above, at pp. 33-41. 

Mr. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, spoke on the architectural features of 
the building. Bothwell, he said, was one of the most ancient and 
interesting of the many castles of Scotland, and one that required 
study in a little detail, in order that the gradations which Scottish 
baronial architecture passed through from early to modern times 
might be comprehended. Taking in the new excavations, the castle 
formed originally an irregular parallelogram, with circular towers 
projecting at the angles, and with a square tower here and there. 
These towers were remarkable from their having projected beyond 
the line of the curtain wall, thereby giving a good many surfaces for 
attack, such as they did not find iu later works. Where, it was 

1 The thigh-bone, from end to end, was 17 in.; the left hip-bone damaged, 
but as nearly as possible the width there was 11 in.; and of the shoulders, 
13 in.; the knees pronouncedly "knocked"; and in life the man was tall, nar- 
row chested, and knock-kneed. Apparently the body had been placed in a 
shell of some sort, or the bones would not have been so intact ; and there was 
a space of about 1£ in. between the remains and the wall. It was, perhaps, 
one of the inmates buried during one of the investments of this castle. Head 
to the west. 


asked, did this system of defence originate? We knew that the 
Norman castles were designed upon a totally different plan. The 
Edwardian castles in Wales were something like this, and yet we 
could scarcely imagine that they were so early in date, in their 
general number at any rate. They had, he thought, the explanation 
in this, that the military architecture of France was very similar to 
what they saw at Bothwell, and that the English and the Scotch 
alike followed the development of French military architecture. Those 
of them who were at Pembroke Castle, in Wales, would see at once 
the remarkable resemblance there was between the great donjon 
tower of Pembroke Castle and the great tower of Bothwell. The 
tower at Pembroke was erected in the time of Edward I ; the 
tower of Bothwell Castle, they might fairly conclude, was of earlier 
date, and it was quite within the bounds of possibility that it was 
the work of the Olifants, who owned the property at the very com- 
mencement of the thirteenth century. The building was remark- 
able for the careful masonry, for the close joints, and the great pre- 
cision with which the stones were fitted, indicating beyond doubt that 
the Scotch masons of that period were extremely good workmen. 
From the stones which had been found in the excavations it would be 
noticed that each mason had marked his stone with his own par- 
ticular mark. The ravages of war were but too apparent on the 
walls before them. An examination of the huge tower showed that 
in one or other of the sieges to which the castle was subjected it must 
have been undermined, and that the outer half of it must have fallen. 
At a subsequent date the then owner of the castle, whom he took to 
be Douglas the Grim, made the tower secure by building a wall 
across the fallen part, thereby converting what had been a circular 
apartment into a half-circular one. In the bauqueting-hall was a 
window which many of them would take to be a geometrical window 
of 1260, but which in reality was very late fourteenth -century or 
early fifteenth-century work. There was one in St. Mirren's Chapel, 
Paisley, of date 1420, very similar in form. Bothwell Castle being 
one of the oldest castles in Scotland, it was to be taken with con- 
sideration to that still older one which they would see at Rothesay. 
There were many points of resemblance between Bothwell and Rothe- 
say, the chief difference between them being that at Rothesay the 
centre space was circular, while at Bothwell it was square or in the 
form of a parallelogram. 

On the motion of Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.S.A., the thanks of the 
Society were conveyed to Mr. Easton, by whose kindness the mem- 
bers were permitted to see the ruin in favourable circumstances. 

The company then drove to Bothwell, where they were conducted 
to the ancient collegiate church, attached to which the parish church 


has been built. The ancient structure was inspected inside and out, 
and much interest was taken in the monuments within the church, 
which is now used as a burying-place. Three tombs attracted special 
attention — of William, second Duke of Douglas, and of the first Earl 
of Forfar, and the second and last Earl, who died of his wounds 
received at Sheriffmuir. 

Mr. Loftus Brock said that in the history of Scottish architecture 
this was one of the collegiate churches found so frequently in Scot- 
land about the middle of the fifteenth century or somewhat earlier. 
The history of monastic foundations passed through a series of grada- 
tions just as did those in England. First were the Benedictines, who 
followed the times of the early church. Then there were enclosed 
orders more or less, and, lastly, when they became unpopular in Scot- 
land, as in England, it was difficult to find people to live in them. 
Thus the practice of founding colleges of secular priests became uni- 
versal in Scotland as in England; in fact, there was scarcely an 
instance of the founding of one of the older monastic establishments, 
either in the one country or the other, after the middle of the thir- 
teenth century. They had, therefore, before them a collegiate church, 
and they knew the period of its founding. The founders were the 
Douglases, whose history they had heard in the paper of Mr. Duncan 
that day. They noticed the Murray stars within and outside the 
Douglas heart. He took the date of the building to be very close on 
the fourteenth or very early in the fifteenth century. He could not 
attribute a later date to if, because, if they were to get a very late 
date — at the end, say, of the sixteenth century, as had been said — they 
should not be able to account for the piscina, the sacristy, and other 
features. He thought they might study with the security of knowledge 
the building as of the date he had given. Having arrived at that point, 
let them consider two or three of the peculiarities which were found 
repeated in other buildings which they would visit. Notice the pointed 
stone roof which was the rule in Scotch castles. But here they had the 
advantage of seeing the external covering remaining, which had not 
been left in some castles. Outside was the roof of overlapping slab- 
stones, which had successfully resisted the storms since the founda- 
tion of the building. The tracery of the windows had disappeared, 
and he could not but regret that the windows on the north side had 
been filled in with English tracery of a later period. It was possible 
this church, like many other public buildings, was never completed. 
There were too many instances of a chancel being erected, and the 
work carried no further, and he took it that this was one of them. 
There seemed to be structural evidence of an intention to throw out 
transepts left and right, and that that had never been carried out. 
On the outside this building was as good an example of French influ- 


ence as was to be found in any other, there being the wide mouldings, 
the semicircular arch, and peculiar carvings on the capitals. He ven- 
tured to thiuk that those features were more like French work than 
what was found in some of the other churches in Scotland 

After lunch at the hotel, the party drove over to Hamilton, cross- 
ing Both well Brigg on the way, took train for Tillietudlem, and 
thence walked to Craignethan Castle. Its picturesque situation, on 
the top of an elevated and rocky promontory formed by a sharp curve 
of the river, the good state of preservation of the enclosing walls and 
towers, and 'the romantic glamour imparted to the rains, not only 
arouse but maintain interest. A paper was to have been read here 
by Mr. Duncan, but time only allowed a short inspection of the 
ruins, and the party then walked along the path through the glen 
beside the stream of Nethan to carriages again for Lanark, reached 
only just in time for the return train back to Glasgow. 

At the evening meeting, which was held in the Merchants' Hall, 
the Marquess of Bute presided. After thanking the Association for 
the compliment they had paid him in electing him President, and 
bidding the members welcome to this country, he read the Inaugural 
Address, which has been printed at pp. 1-21. 

Sir James King, in proposing a vote of thanks to Lord Bute for his 
address, remarked that it had been an admirable and instructive one; 
and he was sure it was the feeling of all that if in former times the 
Congress had ever been so fortunate as to have a more interesting 
address, it had been more fortunate than most Congresses. His Lord- 
ship had travelled over a very loug period. He had shown himself 
almost as much at home in the Celtic and Roman periods as in that 
which they almost recognised as his especial loving study — the medi- 
aeval. He thought it would be the feeling of all that they ought 
rather to think over what they had heard than to have any discussion 
on the subjects which had been dealt with so eloquently. His Lord- 
ship's name was neither unknown nor nnhonoured here. With several 
of their institutions he had shown a deep interest ; he had added valu- 
able contributions to the history of their country ; he had taken an 
interest in their fine arts, and, as President for a time of the Art Insti- 
tute, had endeavoured to add to the cultivation of that elegant branch 
of learning in the city ; and they could not forget that the University 
owed its noblest hall to his munificence. 

Sheriff- Principal Berry seconded the motion, and the vote of thanks 
was warmly accorded. 

Lord Bute having briefly replied, the proceedings terminated. 
(To be continued,) 


Proceedings of tfje association. 

Wednesday, 2nd January 1889. 

B. Winstone, Esq., M.D., in the Chaib. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the donors of the following 
presents to the Library : 

To the Society, for " Collections Historical and Archaeological relating 

to Montgomeryshire," vol. xxii, Part III. Dec. 1888. 
To the Author, for " Bulletin Historique" of the Societe" des Antiquaires 
de la Morinie, New Series, 147th Part ; and " Les Chartes de 
Saint-Bertin," par M. TAbbe Haignere, tome ii. 
„ „ for " Some Prehistoric Burial-Places in Southern India." 

By Alex. Rea, Esq. 
„ „ for " Lux Benigna," being the History of Orange Street 

Chapel, London. By Richard W. Free, M.A. 

The proposal to save from destruction the mound or rampart called 
" Graham's Dyke", to the north of the Roman wall at Rough Castle, 
was announced. 

Mr. W. de G. Birch, F.S.A., lion. Sec., read a report by Mr. J. T. 
Irvine on " Discoveries of Remains at Peterborough Abbey," which 
will be printed hereafter. 

Mr. Birch also read notes from Mr. Irvine, accompanying drawings 
of monumental stones discovered during the rebuilding of the western 
tower of the church of Helpstone, co. Northt. ; sketches of remains 
recently discovered at Castor Church, near Peterborough ; and a letter 
from Rev. Dr. G. P. Browne of Cambridge, suggesting readings for 
the mutilated Roman inscription recently communicated by Mr. Irvine 
to the Association. 

Mr. Birch exhibited a drawing prepared by Mr. E. P. L. Brock, 
F.S. A., Hon. Sec, of a Roman house on a tessellated pavement found 
by Rev. N. Davis at Carthage in 1860, and now in the British Maseum, 
and gave a short description of the details of the building. 

Mr. Brock read a communication on Launceston Priory, with a plan 
illustrative of recent excavations there : — 


Launceston Priory, 
by richard and otho b. peter. 

At pp. 103-4 of the forty-first volume of our Journal, 1885, we 
noticed a work by our Associate Mr. Richard Peter, and his son, viz. : 
The Histories of Launceston and Dunheved, When Messrs. Peter 
completed their work, the ruins of Launceston Priory were entirely 
hidden. The authors had become satisfied not only of the former 
existence of the building, and acquainted with several of its details, 
but had indicated the general outlines of its site. A solitary arch, at 
the White Hart Hotel of Dunheved, and half-a-dozen scattered stones 
were, however, then the only visible mementos of the grand old 

The writers of this history now submit the following notes to the 
British Archaeological Association. — " A few months after our work 
had been published, the North Cornwall Railway Company became 
possessed of a portion of the site of Launceston Priory, and, in 
excavating for their line, discovered, four or five feet below the sur- 
face, the foundations of walls and the base of a well-cut octagonal 
pillar, in situ, which subsequent disclosures induce us to believe were 
on the east side of the cloisters. Within these walls were found 
several chamfered groin-stones ; about seventy feet of ancient lead 
pipe, having a very primitive junction where a branch pipe was 
united with it ; a metal candlestick ; a large silver horse-harness 
buckle ; and the upper portion of a stone hand-corn-mill. 

" Subsequently to the completion of the railway, the Launceston Gas 
Company became proprietors of another portion of the Priory site, 
extending north-north-east at about sixty feet distance from the rail- 
way-cutting. Whilst enlarging their gas-works, this Company has, 
during the past year (1888), made considerable excavations in their 
land, and have exposed to view the foundations of the whole of the 
eastern end of the Priory Church, which consisted of a presbytery, 
50 ft. long by 19 ft. wide, and two side chapels, each 15 ft. long aud 
11 ft. 6 in. wide. The walls of the presbytery were 5 ft. 6 in. thick, 
supported by wide, flat, cut stone buttresses externally, aud plastered 
iuternallv, the plastering being coloured. At the west end of its 
south wall was found the base of a beautifully cut trefoil column, 
from which sprung the south aisle arcading. In the south side 
chapel were disclosod the foundations of an altar, a piscina, and also 
a grave under the floor. The site being marshy, the wall founda- 
tions were carried down several feet below the internal floor. The 
footways being formed of courses of stones, set on edge, each course 
sloping in a contrary way to the one above it, in what is called 


' herring-bone' fashion. These courses were not set in mortar ; thus 
the water drained through them, and left the superstructure dry. 

" Besides numerous scattered pieces of delicately-carved tombs or 
shrines, of small columns, shafts, window-tracery, ceilings, groins, 
red ridge-tiles, stone dowels, and a few pieces of opaque glass, there 
were unearthed many loose fragments of encaustic floor- tiles, and 
eight or ten perfect specimens of such tiles, especially in the north 
side chapel, where a portion of the floor remained in sita. Some of 
the tiles bore heraldic designs, others capital letters, others geo- 
metrical figures. The floors were formed in the following manner. 
A layer of rough stones was set on edge, earth was thrown over 
them, and then rammed down level. On this a layer of thin slate 
was placed, and on the slates the tiles in mortar. 

" Outside the north wall of the presbytery were found numerous 
graves, containing human remains, mostly five feet below the original 
ground-line. Graves were also found inside the presbytery wall. 
The graves were in every instance like that shown and illustrated at 
p. 79, vol. xli of the British Arch Geological Journal. 

" Undoubtedly much remains as yet unrevealed. Westward of the 
Gas Company's diggings, the surface of the land indicates that the 
ruins of the nave and aisles, and the usual adjuncts of an important 
priory are there. We are using private efforts to buy the land, or 
obtain the right to search for those ruins. It would be very gratify- 
ing to us, if some of the learned members of the British Archaeo- 
logical Association inspected the site, and aided us with suggestions 
arising from their experience. 

u Some of the perfect tiles, and the fragments of others, and of the 
shrines or tombs, have been placed in our local museum, above the 
venerable South Gate. The chief part of the cut stones are care- 
fully deposited in the adjoining churchyard of St Thomas the Apostle." 

Wednesday, January 16th, 1889. 

Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A., V.P., F.S.A.Scot., in the Chair. 

Mr. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, announced that, following the 
excavation of an ancient cemetery outside the walls of Rome, the 
work of exploration had led to the discovery of the foundation walls 
of the ancient Basil ican Church of St. Sylvester, said to have been 
demolished in the fifteenth century. The building was found to con- 
sist of a nave and two aisles, the divisions having been formed by 
ranges of antique, polished, foreign, granite columns with Ionic 
capitals, most probably brought from prior use in some Roman fabric 


of pre-Christian times. Further particulars are expected, and will be 
reported to a future meeting. 

Mr. R. Earle Way exhibited a pilgrim's bottle and a costrel, both 
found during some recent excavations in the newly-formed thorough- 
fare, Tabard Street, Southwark, in close proximity to the site of the 
ancient Tabard Inn, whence the Canterbury Pilgrims set out for the 
shrine of St. Thomas Becket. The first of these interesting articles 
is of green glazed ware, with loops for suspension ; the other being of 
gourd shape, of thin red un glazed ware. Both vessels are nearly 
perfect, and, from their being of the usual type, such as were taken 
for use during a journey, and from the place of their discovery, there 
seems but little reason to doubt but that they belonged to some of 
the pilgrims to Canterbury. The date is about the beginning of the 
6fteenth century. 

Several examples of forged antiques, cast in lead, were laid on the 
table, the well-known works of the firm of "Billy" and " Charley", whose 
productions have frequently been described in the Journal. These 
articles were exhibited by way of warning to collectors, and thanks 
were rendered for this friendly act. Several of the members present 
urged upon the Association the necessity that some of these objects 
should be figured in the Journal for reference in years to come. The 
articles at present are well known, and their history can readily be 
traced ; but it was indicated that, in years to come, there would be a 
proportionate difficulty in doing so, and "while only a few persons in 
remote places are duped now, their numbers will be likely to increase 
if their history be allowed to be forgotten. The exhibition of other 
specimens is invited, and the question of publication will be carefully 
considered. The Chairman exhibited a fine specimen of an incense- 
boat, recently dug up in a field near Rochester. It is of latten, and 
it has been gilded, of which but very few traces remain. It has a 
spreading base, moulded ; a shaped stem, and a somewhat flat boat, 
in the form of a shell, with a hinged cover, the whole designed in 
Italian taste, indicating that the date is early in the sixteenth cen- 

A paper was then read by the Chairman on "North Caithness and 
Orkney", which it is hoped will appear in a future Journal. It was 
illustrated by a number of photographs of the places referred to, by 
drawings, and by specimens of the various antiquities to which refer- 
ence was made. 


Wednesday, 6th February 1889. 
W. de Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A., in the Chair. 

Mr. J. Chaplin, Pen-y-wern Road, Kensington, was duly elected an 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for the following presents to 
the Library : — 

To the Author : for"Cymru Fa: Notes and Queries relating to the 
Past History of Wales." By G. H. Brierly, 1888. 

To the Publisher: for "The Library," No. II, and "Nowlyn Parish 
Magazine," 1888. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, announced that the prepara- 
tions for the coming Congress at Lincoln were making good pro- 

Mr. Brock exhibited a drawing of the Antonine Wall at Camelon, 
forwarded by Mr. McLuckie of Lanark, to whom the Association 
desired to return thanks for the communication. Mr. Brock also 
exhibited a drawing of part of the ruins of Dunfermline Abbey, now 

Mr. A. G. Langdon exhibited the matrices of five mediaeval seals ; 
among them a reverse of a college seal, founded by Henry VIII, the 
seal of the town of Stoke-Curcey, and the seal of Bishop Gilbert 

Mr. Brock exhibited for Miss Shortread a curious Roman fictile 
lamp of double form, consisting of a large lamp with a small one 
above it. Upon the ornamentation is seen the Christian monogram 
or chi-rho. 

Mr. J. M. Wood exhibited a collection of fourteen miscellaneous 
gold English coins made up into a bracelet; they are chiefly of 
George III, but among them was a five-guinea- piece of Charles II. 

The Chairman read a letter from the Very Rev. the Dean of Peter- 
borough, promising an account of the remains of the old Saxon 
church recently discovered beneath the floor of the Cathedral, a plan 
and explanation of which is now being prepared for him by onr Asso- 
ciate, Mr. J. T. Irvine. This communication was received with great 
pleasure by the members present. 

Mr. Irvine sent some drawings and the following notes on " Saxon 
Monumental Slabs found at Peterborough Cathedral." 

"With this is sent, for exhibition at the evening meeting, a sketch of 
the last ornamental slab of Saxon date, found (since our last meeting) in 
executing the repairs at Peterborough Cathedral. Its upper part had 


either become previously defaced by the frosts of winter, or daring 
the excavation of the ditch for the foundation of the west wall of the 
north transept of the present structure in 1117, when, with all the 
others, its head- stone had been removed and part of its top broken 
away. Its lower part had also been partly destroyed when the stone- 
built grave was formed to contain the remains of Bishop Dove 
(1630). A curious small one, consisting of a plain narrow raised 
stone of equal width throughout, and retaining its foot-stone, lies 
close to the left side of the first. It had a small splay along each 
edge ; its section, 9 in. wide, and the height presents, in the dressing 
of its sides, exactly how much it was intended to be above the surface 
of the soil. 

"A small plan, carefully laid down to scale, accompanies the first 
sketch, and shows precisely the position each occupies. In no case 
has any of the remains below been disturbed (or will be), and these 
last slabs will be preserved at the relative levels and on the spots 
they now occupy. 

"Peterborough. — Old wall-decoration discovered during the demoli- 
tion of some cottages in Cumbergate for the extension of the General 
Post Office there. — This is interesting as a very good specimen of 
a class of ornamentation used prior to the introduction of wall-papers. 
The regularity of the design seems to argue that some sort of stencil 
pattern was used ; but no marks of any junction of such an object 
could be seen. The ground was a rich reddish-brown, or claret 
colour ; the ornament a light rose, touched up with white. Excellent 
photographs were obtained of the design by members of the local 
Photographic Society, of which the copy sent for exhibition is one. 
The whole was eventually destroyed, and carted away as rubbish. It 
occurred in a room on the ground-floor of the cottage. 

" With the above, in a case for preservation, is also sent, by the 
request of the Secretary of the local Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society, an early document relating to land in the south part of the 
county, which had wandered into Yorkshire, and then been obtained 
by one of their members and deposited with them. He is desirous it 
should, if possible, be noted in such a manner as might preserve a 
record thereof." 

Major Josephs read an interesting paper on the destroyed " Church 
of St. Antholin, in the City of London," and exhibited some of the 
original books of the church — warden's accounts, and a collection of 
illustrations connected with the church. 


Wednesday, 20th February 1889. 

C. H Compton, Esq., in the Chair. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors of the 
following presents to the Library : — 

To the Society, for "Archeeologia Cambrensis," January 1889; "Re- 
port of Annnal Meeting at Cowbridge," August 1888. 

„ „ for "The Archaeological Journal," vol. xlv, No. 180, 1888. 

„ „ for "Societe* des Antiquaires de la Morinie Bulletin His- 
torique," 148* livraison. 

The progress of the arrangements for holding the Congress, in the 
autumn of the present year, at Lincoln, were detailed. Visits will 
be paid to all places of antiquarian interest in the locality. 

Mr. H. Prigg exhibited two large urns of brown pottery formed on 
a lathe, which were found by him, as detailed in his recent paper. 
The excavations made by Mr. Prigg at Elveden, near Thetford, 
brought these remarkable articles to light, together with some traces 
of a circular wooden situla, mounted with metal, the mountings 
being covered with ornament of Celtic type. The urns, which were 
empty, were arranged in form of a triangle, their necks being down- 
wards, and they had evidently been covered over by the situla. 
Although the urns are similar to those used for cinerary purposes, 
no traces of interments were found within them; but a deposit of 
burnt bones was met with outside the circle of the situla. Mr. Prigg 
referred to the local controversy with respect to the age of the urns, 
several antiquaries contending that they were, of necessity, pre- Roman 
in date. Tbe urns were examined by the members, and the opinion 
was unanimous that they were Roman, the early type of the ornament 
being accounted for by the supposition that it had been made by 
native rather than by Roman workmen. 

Mr. Prigg also exhibited a remarkable bell of large size, formed of 
iron sheeting covered over on both sides with thin bronze ; the plates 
are rivetted together. The clapper, of iron, remains ; and there is a 
broad flat handle for carrying, together with portions of an iron chain 
of later date. The bell has the appearance of being ecclesiastical, 
and it was found several years ago in the fenny portion of the parish 
of Maldenhall. It is of this locality that Mr. E. J. L. Scott, M.A., of 
the British Museum, has found documentary evidence which in his 
opinion places the Cloveshoe of the early Saxon Synod. Mr. Prigg 
believes that he is likely to find the exact site of tbe Synod's meeting 
at a spot where there are two twin barrows. 

Mr. Earle Way contributed another exhibition of Roman pottery 
1889 6 


from South wark illustrative of the extended occupation of the borough 
by that people. The exhibits consisted, of several specimens found in 
a recent excavation in Kent Street. 

Mr. B. Winstone reported the discovery of a large series of examples 
of pottery, mostly more or less broken, during some excavations 
which have just been made by Messrs. Harrison, printers, St. Martin's 
Lane, on their premises. Several representative specimens of the 
find were exhibited. These consisted of fragments of delft-ware, of 
bright colouring and artistic .patterns ; a bellarmine ; a jug coated 
with green glaze, etc. The age of the bulk of the specimens is that 
of the reign of Elizabeth, but some are a little earlier. A discussion 
arose as to the locale of the manufacture, and the opinion was 
expressed that it was roost probable that many of the articles had 
been manufactured in England, the brown glazed ware being of 
foreign make. 

A paper was then read by Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., on the 
"Peculiarities of the Ancient Churches of Cheshire". This paper 
will appear in the Journal on a future occasion. 

Wednesday, 6th March 1889. 
J. Bomillt Allen, Esq., F.S.A.Scot., in the Chair. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the donor of the following 
present to the Library : 

To Ferdinando Borsari, for " Geografia, Etnologica et Storica della Tri- 
politana," etc. Torino, 1888. 

It was announced by Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, that the 
Association had heard with much pleasure of the proposal by the Cam- 
brian Archseological Association to visit London in May, and would 
give them a hearty welcome. Mr. Brock also announced further pro- 
gress of arrangements about the Lincoln Congress. He then read the 
following account of excavations at the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral, 
kindly communicated by Rev. Canon Routledge : — 

"An interesting discovery has lately been made in the crypt of 
Canterbury Cathedral. During the course of some antiquarian investi- 
gations that are being carried out by Canon Routledge, Canon Scott 
Robertson, and Dr. Sheppard, excavations were made about 3 feet 
below the present surface of the ground, at the base of the western 
wall in the crypt. The Norman walls are composed throughout of 
Caen stone, but the west wall was found to be built up, from the found- 
ations, of Kentish ragstone covered with a thick coat of plaster, appa- 
rently of Roman workmanship. If this be the case, the wall must 
have formed part of the Roman church which was afterwards handed 


over by Ethelberfc to St. Augustine, c the church within the city, which 
St. Augustine consecrated in the name of our Saviour Jesus Christ', 
so that it became the first English cathedral. The plaster has been 
examined by an expert, and pronounced to be of an excellent charac- 
ter, and most probably Roman ; and it is pre-Norman without any 
doubt, for the Norman columns are placed close against the wall, while 
the plaster is undisturbed behind it, so that it must have been there at 
an anterior date." 

The Chairman exhibited a Coptic wafer of Communion, and read 
some descriptive notes. He also read the following communication 
from the Rev. Canon Collier : 

Welsh Inscribed Stones, 
by the rev. canon collier. 

A friend who has a living on the borders of Pembrokeshire wrote to 
inform me that he had found several inscribed stones in his neigh- 
bourhood, which he thonght had escaped the notice of Westwood, 
Rhys, and other writers on the subject. I went to the places where 
the stones were found, and send you a few notes of my visit 

We left the train at Clynderwen Station, between Carmarthen and 
Haverfordwest. After going northwards, at right angles to the line, 
for some distance, we turned to the left, and soon reached a small 
church near a farmhouse in the village of Egremont, which lies two 
miles west of Clynderwen. The church is in sad need of repairs, and 
much neglected. In the wall at the west end is inserted a stone about 
4 feet in height, broader at one end than at the other. There is a 
roughly incised cross at the top, and underneath are letters placed one 
under the other. As well as we could make them out they were 
naniacui. I cannot find such a name in Htibner's Inscriptiones Brit. 
Christiana, nor does he mention the stone. The genitive case of the 
word is to be noticed. 

My friend then drove me to a ruined church at Llandilo, not far 
from Maen Clochog, which is six miles north-west of Clynderwen 
Station. This church, to the discredit of the clergyman and patron, is 
roofless. The walls of the nave and chancel are standing, and the 
chancel-arch is in its place, but it may fall at any moment. The 
church is very small : the nave, perhaps, 17 feet by 14 feet ; the chan- 
cel, 12 feet by 10 feet. Round the wall of the nave runs a stone seat 
At the east end, very near to the wall, and outside the chancel, is a 
remarkable stone. The height is about 4 feet. It has inscriptions on 
two sides, and an Ogham inscription on the edge. These latter letters 
I must see again before attempting to interpret them. On this stone, 
as on that at Egremont, is a cross, but of a more florid character. It 
is at the head of the stone, and underneath it is an inscription which I 



could not well read owing to the darkness of the copse in which the 
church stands. The third inscription seems to be ANDASErA • • The 
dots are for letters illegible. 

As yon enter the churchyard by a stone stile, you will see another 
inscription on the stone to the left. It is, as well as one could deci- 
pher it, coihiashi ... caveti. This I read — (Monumentum) of Coihias- 
hus, son of Cavetus. 

These inscriptions are not in Hiibner, nor have I seen any account 
of them in any work on the subject of Welsh inscribed stones. 

Mr. W. de G. Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, read a paper by Mr. Russell- 
Forbes on "The Church of St Valentine in Rome." It is hoped it 
will be printed hereafter. 

Mr. A. G. Langdon read a paper on " Sculptured Crosses in Corn- 
wall," and exhibited a large and artistically drawn series of illustra- 
tions of these antiquities. 

Mr. Birch, Mr. Brock, Mr. Allen, and others, took part in the dis- 
cussion which ensued. The paper will be printed, it is hoped, in a 
future Journal. 

Wednesday, 20th March 1889. 
Allan Wyon, Esq., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., in the Chair. 

O. Marriage, Esq., 41 Denning Road, S. Hampstead, was duly elected 
an Associate. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for the following present : 
To the University of Nebraska, for "University Studies," vol. i, No. 11. 
Oct. 1888. 

It was announced that the Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham, who 
had expressed his assent, had been elected President for the Congress 
to be held at Lincoln, and for the ensuing year. His Lordship had 
also decided upon the date for the meeting, which is to commence on 
Monday, July 29th, and to terminate on the 3rd of August. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, exhibited a fine specimen of 
Roman- Durobrivoe or Caistor ware. It is of small size, of good form, 
and has figures of rabbits and foliage boldly laid on in slip. The mode 
of manufacture was described, and reference made to Mr. ArtiV re- 
searches on the site of some of the old Northamptonshire potteries 
where the ware was made. 

A paper on " The Name Glasgow", with reference to the extent of 
the ancient see of Glasgow, prepared by Miss Russell of Galashiels, 
was then read, in her absence, by the Chairman. 

The second paper, on " The Devil's Fingers and Toe-Nails", by 
H. Syer Cuming, Esq.,V.P., F. S.A.Scot., was then read, in the author's 
absence through continued illness, by Mr. Brock. Carefully executed, 
full-sized drawings of fossils and other objects referred to in the paper 
were exhibited. 



J. 0. Halliwell-Phillipps, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

James Orchard Halliwell, as be was first known to the Literary 
world (having assumed the name of Phillipps in 1873 by Royal licence), 
peacef ally expired on Thursday, Jan. 3rd, 1889, at his quaintly built yet 
picturesquely placed " Bungalow", as he was wont to call Hollingbury 
Copse, two and a half miles from Brighton ; and from his self- planned 
as well as almost self-planted, yaried groves of which, grand and exten- 
sive views of the boundless sea in front, and of the grand country for 
miles and miles around, could be commanded. 

His illness was short but very painful at last, although be had suf- 
fered more or less for some years from the cruel cause of his ultimate 
death ; and this almost unexpected event has brought much distress 
of mind to his disconsolate widow and large circle of friends "at 
home", to say nothing of those " abroad", especially in America, who 
must ever mourn the loss of so true-hearted and accomplished a 
Shakespearean scholar and gentle-minded a man. It is enough to 
say of him that, by his kindly manners and genial, winning ways, 
he took possession of the hearts of all who ever had the happiness of 
his friendship, since there was something in the nature and even 
appearance of the deceased that created an instant impression of ad- 
miration in the minds of those who came across his path, and of 
which he was to the last modestly unconscious, such was the simplicity 
and unselfishness of his character throughout the whole of a tolerably 
long life, which had, like poor humanity in general, to undergo " the 
ills which flesh is heir to" in many trying and anxious times, the "res 
angusta domi", even in his, on the whole, happy career, being amongst 
them ; and until in after years, when he came into the enjoyment of 
considerable property through the death of his father-in-law, Sir Thos. 
Phillipps, his first wife being, by the will of her Grandfather, sole 
heiress to large settled estates, he was never wholly free from the cares 
attendant upon bringing up a family of four charming, and now well- 
married daughters, nor of having that sufficient repose of mind as to 
worldly means which an author needs, or naturally desires, more 
perhaps than any other profession, if we may except an Artist's career, in 
this struggling, strange, eventful life of ours. It was, therefore, a great 
solace and comfort to him to find at last the means of living at his 


ease, although in doing so he did not in any way relinquish his earnest 
love of Letters, nor give up for the mere pursuit of idle pleasures the 
higher instincts of his educated nature, but, on the contrary, he 
settled down in his later years to a more determined pursuit of his 
favourite study, that of the plays and poetry of Shakespeare, his life 
and fortunes, together with the whole range of Elizabethan dramatic 
Literature, and of which he became, and will no doubt long, if not for 
ever, remain, the greatest exponent and chief reliable authority we 
have ever had amongst us. 

In his admirably arranged study, or, as he termed it, his " work- 
shop", at Hollingbury Copse, which, alas ! is now likely to be razed 
to the ground — as there is no expectation of such a home of one 
of Literature's distinguished sons being preserved in its present 
form, as one cannot but feel it ought to be — he devoted many early 
hours of each day to these special studies, and, surrounded as he was 
by some of the rarest books, prints, deeds, drawings, and MSS. of 
Shakespeare's times, ever brought together in one centre, as it were, 
at length produced his magnum opus, the well-known and world- 
renowned Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare, of which he lived to see — 
most unexpectedly to him — a seventh edition called for ; and, the cry 
being still for more, he was occupied at the time of his removal from 
our midst, in preparing for an eighth, with even extra additions from 
his unceasing, ever-acquiring mind and wonderful power of selection, 
from the unbounded stores of information he possessed, and the success- 
ful researches he had been able to make in his various visits to the 
Record Office, whore he was a diligent student to the last, and to the 
many Collections of deeds and charters in our country, he had been in 
the habit of " rummaging", as he quaintly and characteristically 
called these systematic inspections from year to year in his only 
summer holiday, and on which " tours of investigation" he was always 
accompanied by his now widowed wife, who encouraged him greatly 
by her presence and interest in his literary and general pursuits. 

Mr. J. O. Halliwell (Phillipps) joined the British Arche&ological 
Association as an original member, and attended the first Congress 
at Canterbury, with his old College friend, the late Mr. Thomas 
Wright, M.A., P.S.A., and with him he continued on the most 
intimate terms until his lamented decease in 1877, and was also 
closely connected with the only remaining founder of the Society, Mr. 
C. Roach Smith, F.S.A. (unquestionably the best Roman antiquary 
of the day), for whom he ever had the most friendly and affectionate 
regard. With the late Mr. Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, F.R.S., the 
Honorary Treasurer and main supporter of the Society for many 
years of its existence, he was on the closest terms of friendship, as 
well as with the late Mr. J. R. Planche, the eminent dramatic writer, 


historian, and herald, and for a long time one of the Honorary 
Secretaries, as afterwards Vice-President, of this Association ; to 
whom he always considered he was indebted for the interest and 
kindly encouragement he gave to him as a young author and anti- 
quary, from his knowledge of him in 1841, when the first Shake- 
speare Society was founded, and did such useful and lasting works, 
until Mr. Planches lamented death in 1880. To this Journal he 
contributed, in its early career, many learned and interesting papers, 
as a reference to the index will show ; and to the last he con- 
tinued to be a Vice-President, as well as an earnest well-wisher all 
through to its useful and honourable career, as evidenced, amongst 
other things, by his hospitable and elegant Entertainments offered to 
the members at the Congresses held under the presidency of the late 
Marquess of Hertford, at Evesham, in 1875, and at Brighton, under 
that of the Duke of Norfolk, E.M., in 1885. 

As several inaccuracies have been published of Mr. Halli well's early 
career, it may be as well to state here that on November 13th, 1837, 
he matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, and that in the follow- 
ing year he obtained an open Scholarship at Jesus College, to which 
he removed, and was soon after appointed Librarian by the then Master. 

In 1838 he published his first book, entitled A Brief Account of the 
Life, Writings, and Inventions of Sir Samuel Morland, Master of Me- 
chanics to Charles II, in 8vo., and at Cambridge. 

On the 30th of May 1839, and at the almost unprecedented age of 
nineteen (as he was born in 1820), he was elected a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, having been an F.S.A. some time before, as well as an 
F.R.A.S. The late Lord Brougham was, it is stated, an F.R.S. at an 
earlier age. 

In 1840 he published ten books, and in 1841 becoming acquainted 
with Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., of Middlehill, near Broadway, "Wor- 
cestershire, a great Bibliophilist, he was invited to his house, and 
treated like a son, a room being always kept for him, and a welcome 
given whenever he liked to come. Here he fell in love with the eldest 
daughter of his host, a pretty and accomplished lady, and was accepted 
by not only herself, but by Sir Thomas also ; who, however, changing 
his mind afterwards, tried to break off the match, in which he failed 
completely, as the young people were publicly married at Broadway 
Church in June 1842. Hence arose an intense bitterness of feeling 
towards them both, on the part of Sir Thomas, which lasted to 
the day of his death, and which was accompanied by many petty per- 
secutions and cruelly spiteful insinuations, all of which they happily 
lived through, although at times encountering almost straitened cir- 
cumstances in their domestic life ; but which was gallantly overcome 
by the young and sorely tried couple, by their devotion to one another, 


and the diligent way in which the husband met the situation, by 
issuing more books on his favourite subjects than at any other time of 
his life, and thus weathering the storm until the demise of Sir Thomas 
Phillipps brought his dearly loved wife, as sole heiress of Middlehill, 
into a large although as far as her Father had been able to make it so, 
a sadly deteriorated and encumbered property. The poor lady did 
not live for many years to enjoy this altered state of affairs, for being 
thrown from her horse at Worthing, whilst riding with her daughters, 
she received such injuries as to cause her to become a confirmed in- 
valid, and which terminated in her lamented death in the spring of 

One of the most interesting episodes in Mr. Halliwell's life was being 
the means, through the publication of a little tract entitled On the Last 
Lays of William Shakespeare, of purchasing, in 1861, " New Place," 
Stratford on Avon, where the Poet lived and died, and which, with the 
ruined foundations of the house and remains of the old gardens and 
bowling-green attached to it, forms one of the principal objects of 
Shakespearean attraction in the celebrated town. This was done chiefly 
by Mr. Halliwell's unaided exertions, he having got together a sum of 
nearly £5,000 by subscriptions from the public, and thus was enabled 
to carry out his intention of dedicating the purchase to the town of 
Stratford-on-Avon for ever. Let us hope that by this act of Mr. 
Halliwell-Phillipps's long and laborious life, as far as general literature 
is concerned, and especially for bis love and devotion to Shakespearean 
studies and research, exemplified by so many of his publications, even 
to the last "labour of love" upon which he was employed when he 
died, that whatever feelings of forgetfuiness or of ingratitude there may 
have been shown to him, and which he felt keenly of late, have now 
died out, and that one only thought remains in all Stratford-on-Avon, 
and that one, how to do honour to the memory and devoted work of 
such a man as James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, not only in the cause 
of Shakespeare himself, but for the good he always sought to do in the 
world of letters and the world at large. 

The writer of this brief chronicle was an early and long-continued 
friend of the subject of it, and to this hour feels deeply the loss he 
and many others have sustained in the deprivation of his ever 
kindly, generous, and inspiring society, fully attested by the already 
published tributes of affectionate regard for him, in every way, from 
the pens of accomplished writers throughout Europe and America, 
and as such, having had the happiness and pleasure to know the 
honoured subject of his recent thoughts so long, and his family from 
#'the first to the second generation", by which he would include the 
amiable lady, who, as his second wife and companion of recent years, 
helped him in every kindly and befitting manner to dispense the 


many graceful hospitalities of Hollingbury Copse — lie would, ere he 
closes this, he is aware, but feeble endeavour to pourtray his character 
or comment on his renown, venture to suggest to the many admirers 
and old friends of the departed, that now is the time that a combined 
effort should be made to raise a fitting monument to him, by a memorial 
in marble or brass in Stratford Church, and as near to the resting- 
place of Shakespeare, whom he loved so well, and of whom he ever 
discoursed so eloquently. The writer has already spoken of this 
idea to several friends, whom the late Mr. Halliwell-Phillipps knew 
well, and trusted equally, and who would willingly co-operate in the 
organisation of such a movement, and of which he, as the originator of 
the idea, would willingly undertake the duties of Honorary Secretary, 
if none better could be found. He would also suggest that the fol- 
lowing noble lines of Tennyson, so touchingly expressive, and appro* 
priate in every way, might well be used as a fitting tribute to his loving 
work on whatever monument was raised to him : 

" If, in thy second state sublime, 

Thy ransom'd reason change replies 
With all the circle of the wise, 
The perfect flower of human time ; 

" And if thou cast thine eyes below, 
How dimly charactered and slight, 
How dwarf d a growth of cold and night, 
How blanch'd with darkness must I grow ! 

" Yet turn thee to the doubtful shore 

Where thy first form was made a man. 
1 loved thee, Spirit, and love, nor can 
The soul of Shakespeare love thee more. 1 ' 

G. R. W. 


antiquarian Intelligence, 

Antiquarian Jottings relating to Bromley, Hayes, Keston, and West 
Wickham, in Kent By George Clinch, of the British Museum, and 
22, Nicholson Road, Addiscombe, Surrey. — In the neighbourhood of 
Bromley relics have been found illustrating early periods of history. 
The fields of West Wickham have yielded many specimens of palaeo- 
lithic and neolithic workmanship. The British or pre-Roman period 
is well represented by the fine old camp in Holwood Park. The 
remains of buildings at War Bank, Keston, carry one's mind back to 
the period of the Roman occupation of Britain. All these various 
branches will be treated in the pages of Antiquarian Jottings. In the 
churches of Bromley, Hayes, Keston, and West Wickham notes will 
be taken of features of ecclesiological interest, and attention will be 
paid to the memorials of the dead, whether brasses, tombs, ledger- 
stones, or mural tablets. The old mansions within the district — such 
as Bromley Palace, Hayes Place, West Wickham Court, and Hol- 
wood, celebrated from their association with great men — will receive 
a due share of attention. The quarto volume will contain upwards 
of 200 pages, with about sixteen engravings. The subscription will 
be five shillings net, including delivery. There are a few large paper 
copies at 10*. 6d. each. 

The Counting-out Rhymes of Children, their A ntiquity, etc. : a Study in 
Folk-lore. By H. C. Bolton. (London: Stock. 1888.)— The com- 
paratively new branch of archaeology to which we assign the name of 
folk-lore, although still in its infancy, may boast of being as attractive 
as some of the older branches of the tree of knowledge. Certainly, 
many of the works which illustrate the subject exercise a singular 
fascination for the reader. The work before us is no exception to the 
rule. Mr. Bolton evinces a great research, which has been rewarded 
by the recovery of a vast number of rhymes and sentences used by 
children of all races of the world in their games for determining by 
lot the one among them destined to commence the game. We are all 
familiar with many of those rhymes of our own country ; but of the 
rationale and origin of them little is known. Only by comparison of 
cognate foreign specimens can light be shed at times upon these 
strange productions, in which onomatopoeia and jingle of sound enter 
so much. Mr. Bolton has therefore rendered signal service towards 
the elucidation of these archaic sentences by supplying us with 
parallel examples and local variations, without which philological 



inquiry would be in Tain. Many of the words in the collection are 
new to all English dictionaries ; bat we suppose Dr. Murray's army 
of word-hunters will not lose much time in deriving a harvest from it. 

The Cistercian Abbey of Strata Florida : its History, and an Account 
of the Recent Excavations made on its Site. By S. W. Williams. 
(London : Whiting and Co.) — The monastic history of our country 
has by no means yet been exhausted. The first appearance of the 
New Monasticon, under able editorship, promised well ; but a large 
proportion of the religious houses mentioned in the pages of that 
extensive work have been described in so meagre and insufficient a 
manner, that their history must be written again. Not only recent exca- 
vations on conventual sites, for the most part levelled with the ground, 
but the more thorough examination of ancient records, afford the modern 
antiquary a far greater quantity of material for the study of indi- 
vidual foundations than the editors of the Monasticon ever acquired, or 
cared to acquire. The excavations, begun in 1887 and carried on at 
later times by Mr. Williams, have revealed the plan of the buildings, 
and have left practically little to be done. Cistercian architecture is 
always interesting, as the late Mr. Sharpe and the veteran Mr. J. C. 
Buckler have shown ; and here we have many examples of moulding 

and other architectural details which would 
be new to these archaeologists. Mr. Wil- 
liams begins his work with the history of 
the founders, Rhys ap Tewdwr, Gruffydd 
ap Rhys, and Rhys ap Gruffydd, in which 
he tracks the intricate history of Mid- 
Wales from early times down to the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth century. To this 
follows the history of the Abbey ; descrip- 
tion of the possessions, which were ex- 
tensive ; some account of the charters, and 
extracts from chronicles and MSS. throw- 
ing light on the condition of the Abbey ; 
and, finally, an account of the excavations 
and architecture of the buildings. By Mr. 
Williams' plan we are for the first time 
put in possession of an intelligible key to 
the position of the buildings. The pecu- 
liar carved detail, like the head of a 
crozier or pastoral staff, seen on the plate 
of the west front which accompanies this notice, is evidently in- 
spired by the pastoral staff in bend which forms the heraldic 
bearing of the Abbey, as shown on the Abbot's seal in the British 


Museum. The cluster of early graves of monks and abbots in 
the south-east angle of the south transept is a notable feature in Mr. 
Williams' work of excavating; and the elegant encaustic tile pave- 
ments, and other architectural drawings with which the work is 
copiously illustrated leave nothing to be desired in this monograph 
on an important Welsh abbey. An appendix of original documents 
and translations, and a full index complete the work. There are 
many other abbeys in Wales which yet demand a careful vates sacer to 
record their well-nigh forgotten tale. Margam, Strata Marcella, 
Basingwerk, Cymmer, and Whitland, may be equally well discoursed 
of, and of these, too, there is-an abundance of records which only 
requires gathering together and arranging. If Mr. Williams will do 
for these what he has done so well and so thoroughly for Strata 
Florida, he will confer a signal boon upon Cambrian archaeology and 
monastic history, which will reflect the greatest credit upon the 
author of the task. 

Roman Lancashire, 1883. Roman Cheshire, 1886. Liverpool: Printed 
for the author. — In these two well-printed and well-illustrated volumes 
Mr. Thompson Watkin has contributed valuable materials towards 
the history of this part of Britain under the Roman rule. With great 
energy and perseverance he has personally examined the various vice, 
military and vicinal, the remains of castra and villas, and, the most 
important of all that time and vandalism have spared, inscriptions. 
Awarding to the departed antiquary (whose premature death we all 
lament) the highest praise, we venture to point out for the considera- 
tion of those who possess his works a few suggestions and correc- 
tions which we conceive may be acceptable. 

The inscriptions referred to in p. 5 of Roman Cheshire, discovered 
at Wroxeter, do not give evidence of the 14th Legion having been 
quartered there, or that it was there at all. The officers com- 
memorated had retired to that town to dwell after their discharge 
from military service ; and there would have been no need of part of 
a legion to keep the Ceangi quiet, seeing, from the long anterior 
working of the lead-mines of their district, that they must have been 
in a quiescent and friendly state. 

Page 12. No such medal as that referred to (with doubt) is known. 
Geta is not likely to have visited Deva, having been left in the south 
of Britain. Eburacum, York (page 13), was not the capital of the 
Brigantes ; but Isurium was, as shown in the Itinerary of Antoninus. 

Page 94. As for the Roman walls of Chester being in a state of 
ruin in the seventh century, and rebuilt by the Saxons, we disbelieve 
altogether such a conclusion. It has been contended that the Roman 
walls of London were rebuilt by Alfred ; but we have only to turn to 


Mr. de Gray Birch's historical extracts in a recent number of our 
Journal to be convinced that the walls were not included in Alfred's 
restorations. Mr. Watkin's denial of Roman work in the Chester 
walls has been so conclusively refuted elsewhere, that we need not do 
more than mention his palpable errors. 

Page 115. The Roman drainage of Deva, in spite of various 
opinions adduced by Mr. Watkin, and a want of evidence such as 
Lincoln affords, must have been substantial and complete. Unlike 
the mediroval and modern, Roman towns were invariably drained. 

Page 171. The inscription commencing Pro Salute Dominorum has 
been usually attributed to Diocletian and Maximian. Mr. Watkin 
would transfer it to Severus and Caracalla ; but in such a doubtful 
question it must be considered that we do not find the title Dominus 
used upon coins before the time of Aurelian, and that it was com- 
monly adopted by his successors. 

Page 196. The Roman arch in the Castle is called post^Romem by 
Mr. Watkin and Mr. Shrubsole ; but, so far as our recollection goes, 
it appears to be a bond fide Roman arch belonging to some building 
destroyed, but left to stand as a portion of the new construction : of 
this there are other examples. 

Page 258. The leaden salt-pans, which we have considered and do 
consider to be Roman, Mr. Watkin believes to be medieval. 

Page 313. There can be reason for not considering these beautiful 
gold armillce to be other than British. 

One of the most remarkable and novel features in Roman Lanca- 
shire is the paved Roman road running, as is supposed, from Man- 
chester to Rochdale. The engraving of it at Blackstone Edge shows 
how substantially the Roman engineers carried their roads over locali- 
ties which demanded especial and peculiar construction. It will not 
be supposed that many roads required paving in such an expensive 

Page 106. To Mr. Watkin we owe the re-discovery of the altar to 
Fortuna Conservatrix, found in 1612. It had been transferred from 
the Leverian to the Ashmolean Museum. 

Ribchester, the Bremetonacum of Antoninus, receives proper atten- 
tion from Mr. Watkin, who reprints all that has been written about 
it, and illustrates the important inscriptions. The Ribble has washed 
away nearly one-third of the great station or town; and no doubt 
many inscribed stones and other remains have been submerged, and 
would repay the cost of dredging the river. The elaborately orna- 
mented helmet, now in the British Museum, which Mr. Watkin con- 
siders was used in processions, we should suggest was votive, and 
deposited in a temple. 

Whether the inscription (page 141) to Trajanus Decius was miliary 


or dedicatory may be a question : but in other instances Mr. Watkin 
has mistaken the latter for the former, and thus led several writers 
into error. 

Page 1 78. The inscription Deo Ialono Contre, etc., has puzzled Mr. 
Watkin and Dr. Hiibner; and Mr. Watkin, in despair, says, "Who 
this 'most holy god Jalonus' was, we do not know." We suggest 
that the ialonb indicates the station Alone, which seems named from 
the river, which runs near it. It is rather curious that Mr, Watkin, 
with the key as it were in his hand, should have gone to Berlin (but » 
in vain) for a locksmith. 

The Book of Noodles, by W. A. Clouston (London : Stock), is another 
contribution of a most attractive character towards comparative Foik- 
Lore. Numberless tales of simpletons and their follies may be collected 
from the mediaeval MSS. in the British Mnsenm ; and although Mr. 
Clouston has scarcely drawn from this prolific fountain so much as he 
might have done, he has certainly collected a curious series of archaic 
tales which form the foundation of many of the romances which are 
given to the world now-a-days as new and underived. 


Sritrclj &rcijaeolOjjical 8«soctatum. 

JUNE 1889. 



(Read at the Glasgow Congress, 29 August 1888.)] 


As monuments of the past there are no memorials so 
small and yet so full of information and permanent as 
those produced by the numismatic and sphragistic arts. 
In glancing backwards, therefore, at the history of Scot- 
land, these memorials deserve attentive consideration. 
The coinage and medals of Scotland have been dealt 
with so exhaustively and ably by the present Under- 
Secretary for Scotland, Dr. Cochran-Patrick (whose ab- 
sence from our company this evening, owing to official 
duties, we must all regret), that there remains but little 
to be added in that direction of study. The subject of 
Scottish seals has also had some attention paid to it, 
notably by Anderson, in his Diplomata Scotice, and by 
the late Mr. Laing of Edinburgh. Anderson, however, 
gives no description of the seals that he illustrates, and 
Laing treats only with a light hand the one section of 
Scottish seals which, to the historical student, to the 
lawyer, and to the general archaeologist, is of far greater 
importance than any other, namely, the Great Seals of 
Scotland. At the request of my friends, the Secretaries 
of the British Archaeological Association, I have pre- 
pared a paper upon this subject, which, in the course of 
the evening, I will hand to those gentlemen, with a 

1889 7 


view of its publication in the Proceedings of this Con- 
gress, should they deem it worthy of such distinction. 
I do not propose to read this paper to you now, for un- 
less I could furnish each member of the present com- 
pany with an impression of every seal that I were to 
refer to, and with a strong magnifying-glass to help you 
to examine some of them, I fear that I should soon wear 
away your patience. But with your permission, and 
by your kind indulgence, I will mention a few facts 
about this series of seals which may prove of interest by 
way of a general introduction to each of those seals in 
particular, to those who by-and-by may care to look 
through my more extended description. 

Having for many years been familiar with the Great 
Seals of England, I may perhaps be pardoned if I begin 
by one or two remarks of comparison between the seals 
of England and of Scotland. 

The earliest known Great Seal for any king of Scot- 
land was made for Duncan II, who commenced his 
reign in a.d. 1094. The earliest known Seal for any 
king in England is that of Offa, who began his reign in 
757. In both countries the Seals at first bore designs 
only on one side. Those in England were placed upon 
the face of the documents ; those in Scotland were ap- 
pended to documents, the wax on the blank side being 
domed. Seals with designs on both sides were first 
made in Scotland for Alexander I, in 1107, and in 
England for Edward the Confessor, in 1042. The Seals 
of Scotland, although usually similar in general design 
to those of England, namely, with the king enthroned 
on one side, and the king mounted on horseback on the 
reverse, have far greater varieties in design and size 
than those in use in the southern kingdom. 

Before referring to the designs of the Seals, I should 
like to call attention to the legends which run round 
them. I notice that from the first the title of the King 
is given as Rex Scottorum, and that that was con- 
tinued until the Seals of Charles I, when the title was 
altered, first to Ma<finae~] Brit[anniae~] Rex, and subse- 
quently to Rex Scotiae. Of course, I am perfectly 
aware that in England the title Rex Anglorum was 
maintained until the reign of King John, when, in 


1199, it was changed to Rex Anylie, and that in France 
the title of Rex Francorum was always maintained, 
and never changed, so long as that people could boast 
of a king. Still, the very form Hex Scottomm is of 
interest, reminding us, as it does, that this part of 
Britain, now known as Scotland, was not known by 
that name in early historic times, but by that of Cale- 
donia ; the name Scotia being applied to Ireland, whence 
came to this country the powerful immigrants who, in 
the ninth century, after prolonged conflict, at length 
gained such mastery over the Picts as to become really 
the lords of the land. In another particular do the 
legends in these Seals differ from those on the English 
and French Seals, in the expression bearing reference to 
the Divine Power by which the kings reigned. In 
the early Seals — namely, those of Duncan II, Alex- 
ander I, William I, and Alexander II — the expression 
was deo rectore ; but John Balliol adopted the ex- 
pression used by the English and French sovereigns, 
dei gratia. After him Robert Bruce recurred to the 
phrase deo rectore ; but David II again used dei 
gratia, and this has been used by all his successors. 

The earliest Seal, that of King Duncan II, shows the 
sovereign on horseback bearing a lance in his right 
hand; and with this weapon the sovereign appears in 
all subsequent Seals until we come to the Seal of 
Alexander II, 1214, when the lance is exchanged for the 

The next Seal is that of King Edgar, about which 
there is a question as to whether it is genuine or not. 
In the Seal there are two features which remind one of 
Edward the Confessor's Seal: — 1. His peaceful guise: 
he is seated on a throne, without armour ; and, although 
with his left hand he holds a sword, that sword is 
sheathed ; 2. The. use of tlie Latinised Greek word basilei 
in the legend. 

In the third Seal of this series, that of Alexander I, 
the King appears enthroned, wearing State robes. These 
robes continue the same in general arrangement until 
the reign of Queen Mary. The most noteworthy feature in 
these robes is the mantle, and the mode by wnich it was 
fastened. In the earlier Seals the fastening appears to 


have been made by hooks or brooches in front of the 
neck ; but these were subsequently (1320) replaced by 
cords. These cords appear to have given much trouble 
to the kings, for from the weight of the mantles, they 
had a tendency to fall down the back, and thus bring 
the cords round the sovereign's throat, at the imminent 
risk of strangling the royal wearer. To prevent this, in 
a large number of Seals the king is seen using his left 
hand to hold the cords. The kings left hand, when so 
used, could not, of course, hold an orb, and this emblem 
of sovereignty is consequently missing in the majority of 

On the reverse of Alexander Fs Seal, as well as 
on that of David Fs, the lance of the king bears a 
gonfanon. On this I see an ornament which I cannot 
very clearly make out, but in certain lights it has some- 
what the appearance of St. Andrew standing in front of 
his cross ; the head of the saint pointing towards the 
lance, and his body being at right angles to the staff. 
The prevalence of this kind of piety is well known as a 
characteristic of this age, and there is therefore a proba- 
bility of a representation of the saint having been placed 
upon the banner ; but I would like to see more examples 
of each of these Seals before pronouncing a definite 
opinion upon this point. 

In the Seal of Alexander I, as in the Seal of nearly all 
the subsequent kings, the pommels and cantles of the 
saddle are conspicuously large. Similar helps to the royal 
riders appear in some of the Great Seals of England ; 
but the pommels in the Seals of Scotland are much more 
marked and pronounced. As this is a prominent feature 
in saddles employed in Spain, Mexico, and Peru, it would 
seem that these high pommels were considered of special 
service in mountainous countries, and that therefore, in 
this "land of the mountain and the flood", this kind of 
saddle was much more used than in the flatter kingdom 
of the South. 

Coming to the Seal of William I, we notice the same 
peculiarity in his shield that Richard I of England sub- 
sequently had upon his first Great Seal, namely, a spike 
projecting from the centre. This feature appears in the 
Seal of no successor of either of these two monarchs. 


This spike on the shield acquires special interest on a 
Scottish Seal, reminding one, as it does, of how the 
shield which in Southern hands was only a weapon of 
defence, has, by the brave Highlanders of Scotland, been 
made a most formidable weapon of offence. William 
was known by the surname of "the Lion", which is said 
to have been given him on account of the animal of that 
name appearing upon his shield. It is interesting in 
this respect to notice that no lion is shown upon the 
kings shield in his Seal. 

In this series of Seals the lion rampant as an heraldic 
charge appears first of all on the Seal of Alexander II. 
The lion within the double tressure flory counterflory, 
which has been borne upon the shield as the recog- 
nised arms of the royal family of Scotland ever since, 
appears for the first time in the seal of the guardians of 
Scotland carrying on the government between the years 
1286 and 1292. 

The Seal of Alexander III is interesting from its 
strong resemblance to the second Great Seal of Henry 
III of England. I notice that the field of this Seal of 
Alexander III is sprinkled with slipped trefoils, but I 
am at a loss to explain their meaning. There are, how- 
ever, most probably, many gentlemen here to-night who 
can at once enlighten me. If they will kindly do so, I 
shall feel much obliged. 1 This Seal of Alexander III is 
noteworthy in another respect. It is the first in which 
the horse wears a caparison. Touching upon this sub- 
ject, I would briefly state that in this series of Seals, at 
first the caparison round the hind-quarters is continu- 
ous, and leaves no opening for the tail ; in subsequent 
Seals, a small opening is made through which the tail 
is drawn, and this appendage of the horse is tightly 
wound round with thread close to the animals body. 

Seal No. 21 (said that of John Balliol), of which 
only a fragment remains, shows the influence of French 
art upon several of this series of Seals. This particular 
Seal is so similar in certain points to the second Seal of 
Philip III of France that I exhibit Philips Seal for 

1 Jane 1889. lam still without information upon this point, although 
Mr. W. de Gray Birch has ingeniously suggested that the triple form 
of the leaf may allude to the third Alexander. — A. W. 


comparison with it. The most striking feature is the 
throne, the sides of which project and terminate in 
carvings of dogs' heads ; the legs of the throne are thin, 
and terminate as dogs' feet or eagles' claws. The first 
appearance of this form of throne (there, however, in a 
very rudimentary state) is in the Seal of Edgar (1097). 
After this we meet with it again in the Seals of Robert 
Bruce and David II. 

Passing on to the Seals of the ^wo Balliols, John and 
Edward, it is worthy of note that both have the Balliol 
arms as well as the royal arms of Scotland upon their 
Seals. John, however, gives the post of honour to the 
Balliol arms, while Edward places the Balliol arms in the 
second place, to the sinister instead of the dexter. In 
neither Seal are the tinctures of the Balliol arms dis- 
cernible ; but there is no reason to doubt that in both 
cases they are meant to represent a field gules charged 
with an orle argent, as seen in a window, placed in the 
chapter-house of York Minster, in honour of John de 
Balliol's marriage with Isabel, daughter of John de War- 
ren, Earl of Surrey, Lord of Conisbrough. The arms, too, 
are the same as those borne by the celebrated College at 
Oxford, founded by the father of John de Balliol, and 
named after him. 

In the Seal of Robert II, some odd-looking figures ap- 
pear in the architectural work on each side of the throne, 
holding up the shields of the monarch. They are not 
angels, such as appear in the Seals of England and France. 
They bear some resemblance to immense birds, especially 
the parts seen at the foot of the shield ; but the upper 
part is something like a human skeleton. In this Seal, 
over the battlements, are seen men-at-arms similar to 
those appearing in the Second Seal of Absence of Edward 
III of England. These grotesque figures and these 
men-at-arms occur in a still more remarkable manner in 
the Seal of James V. 

When we come to the Seal of Robert III, we notice 
the field of the Seal ornamented all over with a flowing 
floral device, after the Italian style of seal engraving. 
This is a peculiarity not found in the Great Seals of 
England nor in those of Scotland at any earlier period. 
Its existence here, we can little doubt, is attributable to 


Moulakyn (or Mulekyn) and Bonagino, two Florentine 
engravers who entered the Scottish Mint about 1364, 
and were at work there certainly until 1377, and pos- 
sibly longer, and who, after they left the Mint, may 
very likely have remained resident in Scotland. 

The next Seal in this series is of great interest, bring- 
ing forcibly before our minds one of the important 
epochs in the history of this country. When Robert III 
died, in 1406, his son James, who nominally succeeded 
to the throne, was a captive in the hands of Henry IV, 
King of England; and in that country the youthful 
James spent eighteen weary years of captivity. Mean- 
while, the government of Scotland was carried on by 
the young Kings uncle, Robert, Duke of Albany, and, 
after the death of that Duke, by Murdoch, his son. 
Now the charters issued during that period — throughout 
which the royal estates were freely bestowed upon various 
partisan noblemen by the Regents — did not run in 
the name of the King, as during other regencies, but 
solely in the Regent's name; and the Seals attached 
to these documents, although at first glance appearing 
similar to the Great Seals of former kings, bore no effigy 
of, or reference to, the King, but bore the names, arms, 
and effigy of the Regent. We see in this a determined 
attempt to supersede the King and pave the way for 
the Regent's assumption of full regal power and dignity, 
and do not wonder that throughout the whole of this 
period the kingdom was full of strife and conflict. 

When James I was released at last from captivity 
and assumed regal power, he had a Great Seal made, 
which has become remarkable from one fact. It was in 
use for a longer period than any other Seal in this 
country ever was. Made about 1414 for James I, it was 
used by his four immediate successors of the same name ; 
and I have seen it attached to a charter granted by 
James V as late as July 1540. It was thus in use for 
upwards of 125 years — a period of time longer than that 
during which its famous contemporary, the Brdtigny 
Seal, was in use in England, the latter having been used 
for 111 years only, from 1360 to 1471. 

James II, James III, and James IV, put marks of dif- 
ference upon this Seal, and it has been by the observation 


of the use of these that the coinage of Scotland at this 
period has been settled. Dr. Cochran-Patrick refers 
to this in his valuable work upon the coinage of Scot- 
land. The marks of difference are these : — James II 
added four annulets on the throne side of the Seal, and 
on the counterseal four other annulets and a small 
crown ; James III further added a small fleur-de-lis ; 
and James IV altered one of the annulets into a three- 
looped knot or trefoil. 

James V's second Seal, which appears to have been 
used for only a few months, was engraved after the same 
design as the famous Seal he first used, but is a very 
poor imitation of it. 

With the first Seal of Queen Mary begins a new order 
of seals. The Gothic style is replaced by the Renaissance; 
and whilst the Sovereign is represented enthroned on one 
side, the counterseal bears no second representation of 
the Sovereign, but is merely an heraldic device. On this 
counterseal the legend bears no reference to the Sove- 
reign, but a quotation from the Book of Psalms, — salvvm 


Queen Mary's second Seal is French in character, with 
the small counterseal. 

The third is interesting on account of its commemora- 
tion of her marriage with Francis, King of France. On 
one seat the youthful sovereigns sit, each holding two 
sceptres. Both are crowned and clothed in robes of 
state. Francis wears a collar and badge of some order of 
knighthood, which M. Luce, the Chief of the Historical 
Section of the Archives Nationales, thinks represents 
the Order of St. Michael, — an Order which in those 
days was highly esteemed, though subsequently it fell 
into disrepute. The legend on the Seal is most remark- 
able for its assumption of titles. The sovereigns were 
pot content with calling themselves King and Queen 
of the French and of the Scots, which they were in fact ; 
but added England and Ireland to their titles, which 
belonged to them only by a figment of the imagination. 

The first Seal of James VI appears to have been the 
first Seal of his mother, Queen Mary, with an altered 
legend round the throne side. The second is remark- 
able chiefly for the change in the armour in which the 


King is arrayed. For the first time the sovereign adds 
a numeral after his name. The Italian style of engrav- 
ing is reverted to again, the Seals of Mary having 
chiefly been of the French style. 

After the union of the Crowns of Scotland and Eng- 
land in 1603, James VI had a new Seal engraved of 
larger size than any yet used in Scotland : a rose, a 
fleur-de-lis, a portcullis, and a thistle, the badges of 
England, France, and the House of Tudor, as well as 
that of Scotland, appear on one side of the Seal ; and on 
the other side the arms of England, France, and Ireland, 
in addition to those of Scotland, attest the union of 
Scotland and England into one country under the name 
of "Magna Britannia", as set forth in the legend of the 

Charles I, after altering the name in the legend, con- 
tinued to use this Seal for a short time, but soon had 
another engraved, which, from its similarity of one side 
to that of his second Seal for England, I conclude would 
have been engraved about the same time, that is to say, 
in the third year of his reign. This Seal is typical of 
all the subsequent Great Seals of Scotland, which on 
one side display the sovereign on horseback in the same 
attitude as on the Great Seal of England, but with a 
view of Edinburgh instead of London, and one or two 
other minor differences. The other side of the Seal, 
however, has the arms of the United Kingdom, Scot- 
land, of course, taking the place of honour, the first 
quarter, and in the supporters the unicorn going to the 
dexter, and the lion to the sinister. In the Seal of 
Charles, the lion is not only put in the second place, but 
is made a Jion coward, with its tail between its legs, no 
doubt to the delight of the artist, if this portion of the 
Seal were engraved by a Scotsman. 

There is one other particular in these Seals to which I 
think I ought to call attention, and that is, the many 
different forms in which the Scottish crown appears. 
The band is sometimes ornamented by fleurs-de-lis only, 
all of one size ; sometimes by large and small fleurs-de- 
lis ; sometimes pearls appear, sometimes crosses, and 
sometimes trefoils ; but there is one feature characteristic 
of all, with a single doubtful exception, and that is, the 


three fleurs-de-lis, one in the centre, and one at each end 
of the band ; and this is a feature always noticeable upon 
the coins of Scotland, too, until after the union of the 
crowns. In this respect the Scottish crown differs from 
the English, for the position of the fleurs-de-lis and 
crosses are reversed in the crowns of the two kingdoms. 

I now hand to the Honorary Secretaries a full descrip- 
tion of all the Seals from Duncan II to Charles I ; but I 
feel, if I may be permitted to say so, that the work can 
at present in no way compare with the book by my late 
brother, Mr. Alfred B. Wyon, and myself, upon The 
Great Seals of England, although I may have laid the 
firm basis for a similar book which may one day be pub- 
lished. To do so satisfactorily, however, would necessi- 
tate a personal examination of a vast number of original 
charters and Seals scattered throughout Scotland and 
England. So far, I have only examined those found in 
the British Museum, London, the Cathedral Muniment 
Room, Durham, and the General Register House, Edin- 
burgh, and the City Charters of Edinburgh, Glasgow, 
Perth, and Stirling. 

If the members of this Congress who know where 
access can be gained to any charter with impressions of 
the Great Seals of Scotland attached to them would 
kindly let me know personally or by letter, I should be 
very glad, and would endeavour, at some future time, to 
visit such places and make an exhaustive examination of 
such documents, so that more exact information may be 
given upon this important and interesting subject — the 
Great Seals of Scotland. 


No. 1. Duncan II, 1094-1097 (about 2 in. diam.). — 
The king on horseback, galloping to the right. The king 
is clothed in trellised hauberk, and his legs are pro- 
tected by the same kind of armour. He wears a conical 
helmet with nasal. He holds in his right hand a lance 
bearing a pennon ending in two streamers, and on his 
left arm a kite-shaped shield. The horse has a saddle 
and bridle. 

Legend : sigill[vm dvncani deo rectore regis scot-] 



No. 2. Edgar, 1097-1107 (2*5 in. diam.).— The king 
enthroned, wearing a crown of three points, the one on 
the kings right being apparently a trefoil. His mantle 
is fastened over his right shoulder, leaving the right 
arm free, and falls in front of his body and passes over 
the left arm at the elbow. In his right hand he sup- 
ports a sceptre, the top of which terminates in a fleur- 
de-lis ; the other end rests upon his thigh. In his left 
hand he holds a sheathed sword in an almost perpen- 
dicular position, the handle of which rests upon the 
kings thigh. The king's feet rest upon a footstool. 
The throne, which is without a back, is supported by 
legs, at an angle of forty-five degrees from off the per- 
pendicular, terminating as eagle's claws. 

Legend : [imago] edgari scottorvm basilei. 

No. 3. Alexander /, 1107-1124 (about 2.75 in. diam.). 
— The king enthroned, vested in State robes, which 
appear to be as follows : an under-garment, which ex- 
tends to the wrists ; a tight-fitting body -garment, becom- 
ing loose and ample a little below the waist, and extend- 
ing below the knees, with loose sleeves extending to the 
elbow, where they are wide and open ; over all a richly- 
embroidered mantle, fastened in front of the breast with 
two short cords hanging down and terminating in tassels. 
The mantle passes over the king's right elbow, showing 
his right side and the lower part of his arm. On the 
left the robe covers more of the body, and extends 
nearly to the wrisL In the kings right hand is a 
drawn sword, held obliquely, pointing inwards. In his 
left hand is an orb, ensigned with a cross on a long 
stem. The king's feet rest on a footstool. Boots or 
socks extend a little above the ankles. On the top of 
the throne is a cushion. In the field of the Seal, 
beneath the king's left hand, is a disc, charged with a 
flower or other device of eight points. A circle of beads 
separates the device from the legend. 

Legend : ^ Alexander deo rec[tore rex s]cotorv[m]. 

No. 4. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right. The king wears a tunic extending to 
the knee, over which he wears chain-armour. He also 
wears a conical helmet with nasal ; the face is otherwise 
unprotected. In his right hand is a lance with a pennon 


on the top, terminating in three streamers. The left 
arm of the king bears a shield, the inside of which is 
shown — the kings left hand holding the en armes of the 
shield, and grasping the reins of the horse. He wears a 
prick spur. The horse is bridled, and wears a pectoral, 
a saddle with high cantles and pommels, and stirrups. 
The head of the lance, the hoofs of the horse, and the 
top of the helmet break through a circle of beads, which 
separates the central design from the legend. 

Legend : alexand[er deo rectore] rex scottorv[m.] 

No. 5. David /, 1124-1153.— The king enthroned, 
the same as No. 3. 

Legend : fb dav[id] 

No. 6. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, the same 
as No. 4. The studs fastening the leather on the inside 
of the shield are shown. 

No. 7. Malcolm IV, 1153-1165.— Only a small frag- 
ment of this Seal remains, but sufficient is left to show 
the king enthroned, holding in his left hand, which is 
extended, an orb, very similar to that in Nos. 3 and 5. 

No. 8. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right. The fragment shows a Seal similar in 
design to Nos. 4 and 6. 

Legend : [malc]olv[m.J 

No. 9. William /, 1165-1214 (3.1 in. diam.).— The 
king enthroned, as in No. 3, but the figure and the head 
here are thinner and taller ; the mantle is fastened close 
to the neck and passes over the kings shoulders, leaving 
both his arms visible. The body -garment is longer,, and 
extends almost to the ankles ; the sleeves of this gar- 
ment are also longer, and reach below the elbow. No 
marks of socks or shoes appear. The sword, in the 
king's right hand, is held more perpendicularly ; its 
point passes into the band bearing the legend, separating 
the letters v and M in scottorvm. The cross ensigning 
the orb has not the inward inclination as in No. 3. The 
field of the Seal has no ornament under either hand of 
the king. A mere line separates the device from the 

Legend : ^ willelmvs deo rectore rex scottorv/m. 

No. 10. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right. The king is clothed in a hauberk and 


conical helmet with nasal. In his right hand he carries, 
in an oblique position, a lance, at the top of which is a 
gonfanon ending in three streamers. The lance is borne 
leaning forwards, not backwards, as in the preceding 
Seals. The shield has a projecting spike in its front, 
and is held in a perpendicular position in front of the 
king's body, which is partly hidden by it. The guige is 
very distinctly shown passing round the king's neck. 
One half of the front of the shield is shown ; but no lion 
or other charge is represented upon it, although it is 
said that this sovereign obtained the appellation of "the 
Lion" from his having borne a lion upon his shield. The 
king is riding in a more upright position than that of 
any preceding king, as shown by their Seals. His foot, 
whicn is spurred, is firmly placed in a stirrup heel down- 
wards. The horse has a bridle, and wears a pectoral 
ornamented with small studs and a saddle. From under- 
neath the horse is seen the sheath of a sword hanging 
from the king's left. The mane is very plentiful ; the 
tail long, in four stiff pieces. The legend is broken into 
by the helmet and spear of the king and by the hoofs 
and tail of the horse. 

Legend : willelmvs deo / rectore rex / scottorvm. 

No. 11. Alexander II, 1214-1249 (3.5 in. diam.).— 
The king enthroned, somewhat similar to No. 6 ; but 
the body-garment is much fuller, and the sleeves extend 
to the wrists and ankles. The garment is drawn in 
round the waist by a girdle. The mantle does not meet 
under the throat, but only just comes round the top of 
the shoulders, and must have been fastened by cords, 
which, however, do not show in the surviving im- 
pressions. On the king's right the mantle is brought 
round under his right arm about the waist, and is 
thrown across the right and left knees ; on the king's 
left the mantle partly lies upon and then falls over the 
back of the cushioned seat. The covering on the head 
is very small. In the king's right hand is a deeply- 
grooved sword, held in an oblique position, extending 
into the band of the Seal. In his left hand is an orb, 
beyond which the forefingers appear stretching straight 
out. The orb bears a long stem inclining inwards, upon 
which are two knobs, and at the end of which is a cross. 


The throne is ornamented in front, and bears a cushion 
with diapered work thereon. The ground on which the 
king's feet rest is ornamented by a diagonal pattern. 
On the field of the Seal, on each side of the throne, is a 
plant with many branches, and at the extremities of 
each branch is some foliage. 

Legend : *J* Alexander deo rectore rex scottorvm. 

No. 12. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, pacing 
to the right. The king wears a helmet, which is a great 
casque enclosing the whole head, and is flat on the top, 
and bears an aventail over the face. He is clothed in 
mail from head to foot. Over the armour he wears a 
long flowing surcoat drawn in round his waist by a 
double cord, and flowing from his knee to the rear. In 
his right hand he carries a deeply-grooved sword. The 
front of his body is covered by a snield, charged with a 
lion rampant. The guige of the shield passes over the 
king's right shoulder. The spur is a lance-head single 
point. The horse is bridled, and has an ornamented 
pectoral, from which hang five pendants. The saddle, 
which is well formed, has a high cantle for the support 
of the rider. On the saddle-cloth behind the king is 
a lion rampant to the sinister. The horse has a good 
flowing tail. 

Legend; ^ Alexander d/e/o rectore/ rex scot- 

No. 1?. Alexander III, 1249-1286 (4 in. diam.).— 
The king enthroned, crowned, wearing a loose garment, 
as in Seal No. 11, but with the sleeves extending only 
just below the elbows, where they are puffed. From 
the left shoulder hangs the mantle, passing in front over 
the left side and coming from behind the right hand 
over the right and left knees. The king holds in his 
right hand a long sceptre foliated at the top. His left 
hand holds the cords of his mantle. The king has long 
curled hair, and wears a moustache. The kings feet rest 
upon the necks of two animals (said to be lizards). Their 
heads are both turned inwards. The throne has a 
richly-carved back, with four fleur-de-lis finials, and is 
furnished with a cushion. The field of the Seal is pow- 
dered with slipped trefoils. 

Legend : Alexander deo rectore rex scottorvm. 


No. 14. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right, clad in a hauberk of mail covered by a 
surcoat. The helmet is grated in front, and has a hori- 
zontal slit for the sight above the grating, is flat at the 
top, and ensigned with a fan crest. In his right hand 
the king bears a deeply-grooved sword in an almost per- 
pendicular position. The front of the body is covered 
oy a bowea shield charged with a lion rampant. The 
horse for the first time wears a caparison. On its head, 
beside the bridle, it bears a fan crest. The caparison 
covers the hind-quarters of the horse, so that the tail is 
completely covered. Both in front and to the rear of 
the king the caparison is charged with a lion rampant 
to the sinister, within a double tressure flory counter- 
flory. The field is powdered with slipped trefoils. The 
legend is enclosed by a circle of beads both inside and 

Legend : $t Alexander / deo rectore rex / scot- 

This Seal bears a strong resemblance to that of Henry 
III of England, second Seal. 

No. 15. The Guardians of Scotland after the Death of 
Alexander HI, 1286-1292 (3.75 in. diam.).— A Norman- 
shaped shield charged with a lion rampant within a 
double tressure flory counterflory as the royal arms of 
Scotland. The shield is raised in elegant relief from the 
field of the Seal, which is powdered with trefoils. 

Legend: $? sigillvm scocie [depvtatvm re]gimini 


No. 16. Counterseal. — St. Andrew, habited, tied to 
his cross ; a halo surrounding the head of the saint. 
The field of the Seal is powdered with slipped trefoils. 

Legend: ^ andrea scoti[s dvx esto] conpatri- 

No. 17. Edward I {of England), 1296-1306 (3.5 in. 
diam.). — The king enthroned, crowned, bearing in his 
right hand a very long sceptre with a foliated top ; the 
left hand brought into the centre of his body. His feet 
rest upon two small lions, each facing inwards ; the lions 
have very long tails. The robes of the king appear similar 
to those of Alexander III, No. 1 3 ; but they are too in- 
distinct to be accurately described. The throne is richly 


carved, and has a back with four pinnacles somewhat 
similar to that of No. 13, and is furnished with a 

Legend: ^ sigillvm edwardi dei gratta re[gis 
angJlie dni hiberni/e. 

No. 18. Counterseal. — A heater-shaped shield charged 
with three lions passant guardant in pale (the royal 
arms of England). 

Legend : ^ et ducis aquitanie, ad regimen regni 
scocie deputatum. 

No. 19. John Balliol, First Seal, 1292-1296 (4 in. 
diam.). — The king enthroned, crowned, robed, as in the 
Seal of Alexander III, No. 13, holding in the right hand 
a long sceptre terminating at the top in foliated work ; 
his left hand is placed upon the centre of his chest, and 
with the forefinger he is holding down the cord of his 
mantle. The throne is richly carved, and has a back, 
the four pinnacles of which are crocketed, and is fur- 
nished with a cushion. On the field of the Seal, to the 
kings right, is a shield charged with an orle (the arms 
of Balliol). On the king's left is another shield, which 
is charged with a lion rampant. Floriated scroll-work 
is placed between all the words in the legend. 

Legend : ^ johannes dei gracia rex sctotorvm. 

No. 20. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right, clothed in chain-mail, with hauberk 
covered by surcoat. His helmet, which is turned three- 
quarters to the front, is grated over the face, and has a 
slit for sight, and is crowned. In his right hand the 
king carries a sword in an oblique position. The front 
of his body is covered by a shield charged with the 
royal arms of Scotland. The horse is almost covered by 
a caparison charged both over the fore and hind quarters 
with the royal arms of Scotland reversed. In the legend 
fleurs-de-lis are inserted between the words "Johannes, 
Dei, Gracia, Rex". 

Legend : johannes de/i GRAcrA rex : : / scottorvm. 

No. 21. John Balliol, Second Seal. — A mere fragment 
of a Seal, which appears to have been when entire about 
3.5 in. diam. The Seal cannot be fully described, as 
only a small piece of it now remains. It appears to 
have borne a king enthroned, wearing a robe reaching 


to his ankles, embroidered with the royal arms of Scot- 
land. The king's arms appear to turn outwards at the 
elbows. The throne is of a new shape, and appears to be 
made of wood or metal, in poles or rods, terminating on 
each side in two dogs' heads, supported by some thin Tegs 
ending in carving representing either dog's feet or eagle's 
claws. The field of the Seal is covered by a diaper con- 
sisting of diagonal lines enclosing small quatrefoils. The 
band holding the legend is separated from the rest of the 
Seal by a rope border. 

Legend: ei gra/cia reg 

(To be continued.) 





(Read' 21 Nov. im.) 

There are several points in connection with the burial- 
place lately explored at Dummer which tend to render 
it a discovery of considerable archaeological interest. Its 
situation in regard to Silchester (the ancient Calleva) 
and to the Roman thoroughfare, formerly most likely a 
British trackway, which traverses the district on its 
route to an equally important British fortress, Venta Bel- 
garum (Winchester), the chief city of the Belgse. Its 
surroundings, in the shape of occasional barrows, earth- 
works, and flint implements of the rudest type, which 
are found scattered on the hills running westward, the 
uniform rudeness of the pottery, and the place having 
been used for general and not special burial purposes, 
convey the impression that it was the centre of a rude 
although probably scattered people at an early date. 

The field where the vessels are found bears the title of 
" Middle Down" on the tithe map, implying that at some 
period it was not under cultivation. It lies immediately 
south of Dummer Clump, a conspicuous landmark stand- 
ing at about six miles south-west of Basingstoke. The 
elevation is, according to the 6-in. Ordnance Map, 
655.8 ft. above sea-level ; and the " diggings" lie at about 
500 yards from the Clump, and 25 yards north-west of 
Nutley Copse. The land from this point slopes in the 
direction of Nutley and the Preston Candover valley, the 
general drainage being in the line of the Itchen, although 
immediately below lies Axford, whose title implies that 
at some time it must have carried water. The sub-soil, 
at all events that in which the urns lie buried, is a bed 
of coarse, reddish-yellow clay mingled with flints, some 
of which are of considerable size ; and the bed has evi- 
dently been formed at the expense of the tertiary clay, 
which must formerly have covered the hill. This clay 



has been redeposited in pot-holes and gullies formed by 
solution of the chalk, and mingling with the chalk-flints 
has given thp deposit the characteristic name of " clay- 
with-flints". These beds evidently cover no great area, 
as in places near the chalk comes quite close to the sur- 
face, implying that although primaeval forest most likely 
covered the deep clays in early times, the lighter por- 
tions of the soil probably were down, or comparatively 
open spaces habitable by a pastoral people. 

The clay of the bed in which the vessels are found is 
not merely the medium for their reception, but is evi- 
dently the material from which the urns have been 
shaped, as it closely corresponds to the clay of the vessels. 
The land is part of the estate of Sir Nelson Rycroft, Bart., 
whose residence, Kempshott Park, is close by ; and it is 
from the interest taken in the work by Sir Nelson 
Rycroft, in furnishing labour, and from the diligent super- 
intendence of the proceedings by Dr. S. Andrews of 
Basingstoke, that we are indebted for what has been done 
up to the present date. 

As the opportunity was kindly furnished me of being 
present during the greater part of the investigations, I 
have thought it better to make extracts from the notes 
taken as the work proceeded, without detailing the 
dimensions and other minute particulars of the urns, 
which has been done in a tabulated form. 

It appears that on August 9th a shepherd, while pitch- 
ing hurdles, came on a large table-flint, about 3 inches in 
thickness, at about I foot below the surface. Its removal 
disclosed some pottery, which on being carefully taken 
from the ground on the following day (August 10 th) was 
found to consist of two vessels, both being broken. The 
upper one had evidently sunk down into the under one, 
it having apparently rested on it. (Plate 1, figs. 1, 2.) 
Writing of this discovery in the The Hampshire Chronicle 
of date Aug. 15th, Sir Nelson Rycroft describes it as " a 
small vase of baked pottery about 5 inches in diameter, 
smooth inside and out, without pattern. The vase rested 
on a larger one, so broken that it is difficult to estimate 
its size. This is of very coarse pottery either very 
slightly baked or sun-dried, and ornamented with two 
bands not unlike the Norman dog-tooth, made apparently 



with a pointed stick. With these were found some fifty 
pieces of bone, some of which were pronounced by Dr. 
S. Andrews of Basingstoke, who examined them with 

me, to be certainly human With these bones were 

burnt earth and flints, and sun-dried as well as ordinary 
clay. While removing these a third vase was found 
about 3 feet off. This is of very coarse pottery also, sun- 
dried or very slightly baked, about 1 1 inches high and 
15 inches diameter, with one band of ornament like the 

one already described The whctfe was full of earth; 

that towards the outside being the natural clay, while 
the centre was filled with perfectly black loam, as if from 
decayed animal or vegetable matter. Interspersed with 
both clay and mould were burnt flints and pieces of burnt 

The smaller squat vessel here described (fig. l) appears 
to be a food- vessel. It is the only one as yet discovered, 
and the material composing it is nner. It is also darker 
in colour, and the clay contains a quantity of appa- 
rently washed flint grit, and there are three nipple-like 
bosses on its swell. These vessels, and No. 5 on the 
Plate, are the only ones which had not been injured by 
the plough, the first found probably being protected by 
their flint cover. 

The whole of the urns, with the exception of the small 
food-vessel, had been inverted, and, excepting those 
just named, their bases had been ploughed off; and it is 
conjectured from their depth under the soil that the 
chief mischief was due to steam ploughing about twenty 
years ago. It should be stated that the urns appear to 
extend indefinitely beneath the soil, and that there is no 
elevation of the land or sign of a tumulus having occu- 
pied the site ; nor are there any traces of a bank or ditch 
surrounding it to indicate the presence of buried remains 
of any kind. 

The work was continued on August 24th, when one 
vessel was removed. (PL 1, fig. 4.) It was somewhat 
intermediate in size, and its colour is of a redder tint, 
probably from being better fired. In the greater number 
of cases it was necessary to remove the urns with their 
contents, the pottery, from the dampness of the soil, and 
lying so near the surface, having become saturated and 


rotten. In all instances when this was done the urns 
were bandaged with matting bound with tar-twine. 
They were then removed to Kempshott House* Their 
not being emptied prevented complete examination of 
their contents. In this case, however, the urn was re- 
moved in as large fragments as possible, in order for 
restoration. It lay at about 3 feet north-west of urn 3, 
• and its interior was filled with clay containing a few fire- 
splintered flints and one large flint stone. There was no 
discoloration of the clay with fire, or any indication 
that it had contained incinerated remains. It is the 
most elaborately decorated urn of the series. On its sides 
are fine impressions apparently of a small finger-point 
and its nail. There are the usual rim and collar indenta- 
tions, and it bears an imitation handle so shallow as to 
have been useless for lifting. 

While the work was proceeding I made an examination 
of the adjacent ground, when at about 12 feet from the 
working site lay a remarkable flint celt. It is completely 
although coarsely wrought, its dimensions being 4£ in. by 
3^ in. (PI. 2, fig. l),and although neolithic is of palaeolithic 
form. Alongside of Nutley Copse I picked up a hammer- 
stone, some flakes, and a core, and later found a scraper 
(PL 2, fig. 2), lying close to the trench. These imple- 
ments correspond in character to some found by me 
around Ellisfield Camp in 1884, when inspecting that 
earthwork in company with Dr. Andrews and Mr. Charles 
Cooksey. (PI. 2, figs. 3, 4.) This small fortress lies at 
about a mile and a half from the diggings, in a straight 
line. It is squarish in form, and has an outer and inner 
vallum, and ditch between, and is stated as deriving its 
name from iElla the Saxon (^Ella's Field), from that chief 
having, it is believed, occupied it on his route by Basing- 
stoke, in 490, to attack the Romano-British camp at SU- 

On Aug. 31st two urns were dug out. At my sugges- 
tion a trench, about 2 feet in width, was carried round 
the already excavated site, when very near where urn 4 
had stood we came on a patch of incinerated material, 
which was made up of blackened earth, charcoal-ashes, 
splinters of flint, and particles of bone, but which were so 
degraded and pasty as not to be identifiable as human. 


Conducting the trench round to the south side, urn No. 5 
was found. (PI. 1, fig. 5.) It was entire, and turned out 
to be one of the smaller 9 in. vessels. It bore the charac- 
teristic nipples, and was full of blackened earth saturated 
with bony material in a pasty condition, which was not 

About 3 ft. from where No. 3 had sjtood, and on the 
north-west of No. 5, lay the large vessel, No. 6. (PI. 1 , 
fig. 6.) On its circumference were two slightly raised 
fillets punched with irregular circular markings, convey- 
ing the impression that they had been made with the 
end of a hollow stick. It also was bandaged and removed 
with its contents. It stood in stiff clay, in places black- 
ened, and containing crackled flints ; and from near its 
rim, in the clay of the hole, I found a large trimmed 
flake (PI. 2, fig. 5) ; and in the removed clay I picked out 
the large triangular flake (PL 2, fig. 6). 

We had a complete field-day on September 21st, no 
fewer than five vessels being removed (PI. 1, figs. 7, 8, 
9, 10, 11), and two others (PL 1, figs. 12, 13), which were 
left for future removal. On this occasion, in addition to 
Dr. Andrews, we had the active co-operation of the 
Revs. Hugh E. Rycroft and Parker, the former being a 
son of Sir Nelson Rycroft, who was himself generally 
present during the excavations, and by whom we were 
on all occasions most hospitably entertained. Beyond 
the urns no relics of any importance were discovered. 
Some flints splintered with fire, and a lump of iron 
pyrites, found near the base of urn 9 ; and pockets of 
black earth, scraps of charcoal, and bony material tho- 
roughly decayed, lay near urns 9 and 11. The vessels 
were all removed with their contents ; but the earth in 
7, 9, and 10 was evidently largely charged with ashes 
and scraps of bone. The vessels were quite plain, but 
bearing in most instances the small bosses similar to 
those on the urns already described. A peculiarity was 
observed for the first time in clearing the clay from 
around these pots, viz., that the whole of them rested, 
inverted, on small platforms of pitching, made up of 
rude flints, amalgamated with clay of the hole; and 8, 
11, 14, and two others which were dug out later (PL 1, 
figs. 12, 15) were enclosed in cists of flint-stones and 


clay, as represented on the plate, where the fronts of 
the cells have been removed in order to exhibit the 
vessels as they stood. Some of the urns were so dilapi- 
dated and rotten that it is hardly likely they will oe 
rendered presentable. 

The last exploration was made on October 5th, when 
Mr. Shore, F.G.S., of the Hartley Institution, South- 
ampton, was present, when three vessels were removed, 
and all that remained of urn 12. It had been left in 
the ground since the last operations, and had been 
tampered with by visitors. The fresh removals were 
similar to those already dug out ; and they are num- 
bered on the plate as 14, 15, and 16. They rested on 
small platforms of pitching; and 12, 14, and 15 were en- 
closed in flint cells, after the manner of those already 
described. A large patch of blackened material, con- 
sisting of earth, bony matter, and ashes lay south of 
urn 14 ; and we found portions of an urn among the 
clay, which it was conjectured had been ploughed off 
the base of one of the vessels. The urns were bandaged 
before removal; and from the vessel 14, the earth of 
which was blackened, and apparently charged with 
bony material, Mr. Shore took a specimen for analysis. 
Although the analysis is not yet finished, 1 Mr. Shore 
writes that "the carbonaceous matter is 16.81 per cent. 
of the sample. The substance also contains phosphate 
of calcium and phosphate of iron, with some other sub- 
stances in smaller quantities ; but the amount of these 
phosphates is not yet quite determined". These phos- 
phates sufficiently show that animal matter, probably 
human, was present. 

As the investigations ended for the present on Octo- 
ber 5th, Sir Nelson Rycroft directed that a portion of 
the soil surrounding the hole should not be ploughed, 
in order that there should be no further injury to any 
vessels yet remaining in the earth. It was found that 
the dimensions of the space from which the urns had 
been removed embraced 15 ft. 6 in. from north to south ; 
27 ft. from east to west ; the circumference being 70 ft. 

1 Mr. Shore has since stated the analysis as carbonaceous matter, 
16.81 per cent., silica and insoluble matter as 70.51, and phosphate of 
iron, lime, and other salts, as 12.7 per cent. 



The following table shows the dimensions of the six- 
teen urns; but the heights convey but an imperfect 
impression of the vessels when whole, a$ their bases are 
gone. Their thickness is mostly three-eighths of an 
inch, the smaller food-vessel being one-sixth of an inch. 
The dimensions are given in inches : — 

































Height . 

H » 














(greatest) . 

















Depth in earth 

















In summarising from the facts detailed, there appears 
nothing except the cists to mark any difference in grade 
in the occupants of the vessels. The urns are rendered 
in perspective on the plate; but the grouping fairly 
represents their relative position in the ground. In 
their form and character there is great uniformity, imply- 
ing that they are of one period and one tribe. They are 
all rudely outlined, and extremely coarse, being evi- 
dently hand-manufactured and imperfectly baked, the 
outcome, in short, of an industry in which the potter's 
wheel and the kiln had no part. In colour they are 
reddish-brown more or less tinged with yellow, and the 
clay of their composition is largely mingled with coarse 
flint-grit. The ornamentation is of the rudest, and is in 
some cases apparently the work of small finger-points, 
most likely those of women, assisted with the simplest 
tools. The large patches of ashes observed in places with- 
out urns might have been thrown in from the ustrinum 
when the urns were covered up, or they might be the 
cremated remains of children buried without vessels. 
The urns may be arranged in three groups, viz. : the 
larger forms, as 3, 6, 11 ; somewhat intermediate, repre- 
sented by 4, 8, 15; and smaller, about 9 in. urns, as 5, 7, 
9, 10. It is worth the inquiry, could the largest forms 
have been used for men, the smaller for children, and 
those enclosed in cells have been occupied by the ashes 
of persons of somewhat higher position ? They could 
hardly have contained the ashes of females, as women 
reckon for little among savages or semi-civilised people. 


The Dummer vessels are less contracted at the mouth, 
and their rims are less bulky and overhanging at the 
collar than is usual in large coarse urns. In some 
respects they resemble those found by the late Mr. C. 
Warne in Dorsetshire, 1 which are now in the Brighton 
Museum. The fillets or hoops around some of the Hamp- 
shire specimens, bearing the irregularly circular impres- 
sions, are similar to the bands on the Dorset pottery. A 
southern peculiarity appears to be the imitation handle, 
an art introduction which is not met with, according to 
Mr. Green well, 2 in the north, of England. 

In reference to discoveries, which may tend to throw 
light on the interments at Dummer, I can find no 
record of a cemetery having been found which can be 
identified with it, although there are notices of several 
which bear a sufficiently general resemblance. Thus, 
Messrs. Akerman 3 and Stone describe a burial-place 
which they explored at Stanlake, Oxon, in October 
1857. The site was trenched, and in one part of the 
entrenchment the ustrinum was found. The vessels 
were of a similar rude character to those of Dummer. 
Some were found upright, others inverted, and, as in 
the Dummer interments, they rested on flint stones or 
pieces of rock. They were also very much decayed. 
Occasional cavities were seen containing calcined bones 
without vessels of any kind ; and there were cavities 
present prepared for the reception of vessels. The only 
relics discovered were an arrow-head of flint, which had 
been in the fire, and which was found with burnt bones 
in an inverted urn. One plain bronze ring also was 
found with charred human bones. From one urn were 
taken the calcined bones of a child, with burnt bones of 
a kid or lamb. Here we find the interments of a variety 
of one people ; and Mr. Akerman came to the conclusion 
that it was a burial-place for the use of the poorer 
classes, where the bodies were incinerated, and deposited 
in rude clay vessels without accompanying tumuli. 

Rev. Canon Greenwell cites cases of successive inter- 
ments in Gloucestershire among the long-skulled (dolicho- 

1 See figures to Celtic Tumuli of Dorset. 
8 British Barrows, Greenwell, pp. 68-69. 
3 Archceologidy vol. xxxvii. 


cephali) people of the stone and bone-implement period, 
but they were underneath barrows. 1 

The Journal of the British ArchcBological Association 
of September 1882 contains a short account of two 
cists opened by Mr. C. Cooksey, on the west wall of the 
Loddon valley at Basingstoke. Flint arrow-heads of 
finished make were found on the hill close by. The 
urns lay in two large cells cut in the chalk ; and some 
of the vessels were surrounded with flint stones. The 
pottery in these cases was thinner, finer, and better 
burnt, and must be placed at a considerably later date 
than that found at Dummer. 

Sepulchralia more characteristic of the necropolis at 
Dummer are recorded by Mr. Charles Warne 2 as occur- 
ring on Launceston Down and at Rimbury, near the 
hill-fortress of Charlbury. With regard to the former it 
appears that, during the trenching of the ground for 
planting trees, the labourers came on a bed of flints, 
about six inches under the soil, and covering a space of 
twelve feet in diameter, and from twelve to eighteen 
inches in depth ; the flints being removed, a stratum of 
dark unctuous mould appeared, mingled with charcoal- 
ashes, scraps of bone, and fragments of coarse pottery ; 
while below these lay a series of cists cut in the chalk, 
which contained burnt bones and ashes. Other burial- 
places of a similar kind occurred within 150 yards, all 
presenting a similar arrangement, and it was inferred 
that these contained the burnt remains of the lower 
class of people, the tumuli of the same district being 
appropriated to people of superior grade. The Rimbury 
cemetery differs from this, in the fact that underneath 
the layer of urns were found chalk cists containing un- 
burnt remains. About six inches under the soil were 
found the pots, greatly damaged from their proximity 
to the surface. As many as one hundred were removed : 
their mouths were upwards, and were covered with thin 
flat stones. Not a particle of metal rewarded research, 
the only sign of human handiwork being one flint arrow- 
head, and that was not with the interments, but lying 
adjacent to them. 

1 British Barrows, Greenwell, p. 527. 
* Celtic Tumuli of Dorset, pp. 60-6L 


Within a radius of two miles from the digging site at 
Dummer four tumuli exist ; these are most likely of the 
Bronze Period. But whether the cemetery contains the 
ashes of the lower class of a people, of which the tumuli 
contain the chiefs, it is impossible with our present 
knowledge to determine. Along the edge of Nutley Copse, 
immediately south-west of the cemetery, extends an 
embankment, which might form part of an earthwork ; 
but its true character cannot be determined till the 
wood is cut. And at the south end of the copse some 
pits are present, which are denominated " chalk-pits" on 
the Ordnance Map. There are, further, some remarkable 
pits or depressions in the ground in the neighbourhood 
of the excavations, which have received the singular 
title of "Gobley-holes", in which burnt earth and ashes 
have been observed, and which it has been conjectured 
might be pit-dwellings of the period of the cemetery. 
These testify, whether connected or not with the inter- 
ments, that the district has been one of occupation by 
early settlers. With regard to what may be inferred 
from the contents of the necropolis, it is quite conform- 
able to our experience of art of a later date that there 
might be some tribal difference in vessels of one period 
from different localities ; nevertheless, the Dummer ware 
is so coarse in texture and simple in ornamentation, as 
to be inferior to the pottery generally of the Bronze 
Age. The flint implements found around the burial-site 
correspond in character to the large coarse flakes found 
in the clay with the vessels ; and their rudeness implies 
that they could hardly be the work of a people advanced 
to the use of metal. At the same time, the bodies 
being cremated, points to the interments as of the 
round-skulled people of the Bronze Age — an early Celtic 
tribe, who used tne spot as the common receptacle of 
those among their poorer orders who could afford the 
luxury of an interment-urn. The burial-site might pos- 
sibly appertain to the Segontiaci, a British tribe that it 
is thought occupied Silchester and the surrounding dis- 
trict. To whatever period it may be assigned, it must 
have been a time when roughly-chipped stone implements 
were employed, and when the potter's art was of the 


Imagination might picture scenes of wailing and wild 
disorder at these distant cremation -burials, when sacri- 
ficial offerings to the solar deity might have taken part ; 
but the object here is to state facts. 

The placing interments near water-sources has met 
with learned comment as embracing a symbol j 1 but which 
may, perhaps, as easily find a solution in the fact that as 
springs take their origin in hills, hill-dwellers could not 
conveniently bury their dead along the hills without 
placing them in proximity to springs. And it is certain 
that in elevated districts the people would have elected 
to live as near water as possible ; and when springs were 
not accessible, they most likely resorted to dew-ponds, an 
easy method where clay was present, as at Dummer. 

1 " Uniformity of Design in the Works of the Earliest Settlers in 
Britain," Journ. Brit Arch. Assoc, March 1873, pp. 27-36, J. S. Phene, 





(Read at the Glasgow Congress, 29 Aug. 1888.) 

One of the most obscure periods of British history, as 
regards details, is the epoch from 410 — the date of the 
Roman evacuation of Britain — to the close of the sixth 
century. During these 200 years there pass before us cer- 
tain figures, dim and shadowy enough in some respects, yet 
typical of the historical, social, and racial forces at work ; 
born of the past, and actively shaping the course of the 
future nationality and the story of the Island in which we 
live. The men of this epoch were, moreover, destined to 
influence not less, and in a very characteristic way, the 
feeling and the imagination of subsequent generations in 
the materials of its poetry and romance. The wail 
over a broken nationality, the mourning over beloved 
dead lost in a patriotic fight, the melancholy that broods 
over cairn and lonely mound on our moorlands, and the 
restful peace that touches the heart at the desolate caer 
on the windy hill, — all this pathos and tenderness in our 
literature had its first, its best, its truest nourishment in 
the life and death of the men in those fifth and sixth 
centuries. And thus we are linked to them by the ties 
not so much of kinship as of our ever living and common 
human emotions. While the details of those times are 
obscure, we may, however, take three great facts in the 
epoch as standing out clearly enough : — 

(1.) There is the aggression of the Teutons and the 

Eressing of the Celts westwards to the country now 
nown as Devon, Cornwall, Wales, the English Lake 
District, and a stretch of land northwards along a certain 
line to the rock Alcluith, or Dunbarton. 

(2.) There is the splitting up even of this retreat of 
the Celts by the battle of Deorham, in 580, gained by 


Ceawlin. The result of this battle was the severance of 
the Celts south of the Severn from those of the north, — 
briefly, Cornwall from Wales. 

(3.) There is the second severance of the Celts by the 
battle of Chester, in 617, when they were defeated by 
Athelfrith, King of Northumbria. There thus arose the 
division of the Cymri south of the Dee from those of the 
north — Cumbria and Strathclyde. The uniformity of the 
Cymric line of power was thus broken, and its continu- 
ance, as more than a series of isolated states, rendered 
impossible. The history of the period, if it could be writ- 
ten, would show a constant struggle between the disin- 
tegrated Celts and the gradually consolidating Teutons. 

The story, the patriotism, the myth, and the poetry of 
this period are associated chiefly with the names of Vor- 
tigern, Aurelius Ambrosianus, Myrdin Emrys or Merlin 
Ambrosius,UthurPendragon, Arthur, and Merlinus Cale- 
donius, known also as Silvestris, or the Wylt. Since 
those early centuries, the greatest, most wide-spread his- 
toric interest has centred round the names of Arthur and 

The name of special interest to us at present is that of 
Merlin, — a very shadowy figure, I admit ; but still, I 
believe, the name of a person, or rather persons, one at 
least of whom has a certain sufficiently marked historical 
relief. Our question here is, Who and what was he ? 
Were there more than one of the name? If he was 
historical, what was his work, and what his relation to 
the circumstances of the times? Was he an actor in 
in them, or did he enact the often more powerful part 
of inspiring with motive and impulse the actors of his 

- Now all through those years from the time of Vorti- 
gern and Aurelius Ambrosianus down to a point beyond 
the burning of Uriconium — from shortly after410 to583 — 
we have floating before us the name Merlin. Merlin is 
associated with Vortigern ; he is his vates, he stands in 
the same relation to Aurelius Ambrosianus, he is friend 
of Uthur Pendragon, and presides over the birth of 
Arthur. Still later he is the friend and associate of Gwen- 
ddoleu, who fell at the great and decisive battle of 
Ardderyd in 573. Then, even, he is referred to as having 


been met by Kentigern on the wilds of Drummelzier, on 
the Tweed, in the wood of Caledon. He is apparently- 
referred to, under the name of Laloicen, as being present 
at the court of Rydderch Hael, the King of Strathclyde, 
who died in the same year as Kentigern, which was either 
in 603 or 614. 1 

I see no reason whatever for supposing that the name 
Merlin did not refer to a real person or persons more 
than that the other names of the time were purely ficti- 
tious, even such as Ninian, Kentigern, or Columba. Direct 
evidence of a personality corresponding to the name will 
appear as we proceed ; but I cannot concur in the opinion 
that there was but one person of the name, and thp,t the 
same man who was contemporary with Aurelius Ambro- 
sianus was also present at the battle of Ardderyd in 573. 
This, however, is the opinion of the Count Hersart de la 
Villemarqud in his very interesting book on Myrddhin or 
Merlin. But apart from other considerations, this seems 
to me impossible on the ground of the dates alone. Aure- 
lius Ambrosianus comes into prominence as the successor 
of Vortigern about 457, and disappears in 465. If the 
Merlin of Ardderyd had been his contemporary, he must 
have been a great deal more than a hundred years old at 
the date of the battle ; and yet we know that he survived 
this contest for many years. In the poem of the Aval- 
lenau, speaking of himself he says : — 

" Ten years* and forty, as the toy of lawless ones, 
Have I been wandering in gloom among sprites." 

Making allowance for poetical exaggeration, it is quite 
clear that the Merlin who was present at Ardderyd, and 
who wrote these lines, could not have been the Myrdin or 
Merlin the bard, soothsayer, and enchanter, of Ambrosi- 
anus ; or, for the same reason, of Vortigern himself. Nay, 
I go further, and say that he could not have been the 
original of that enchanter Merlin who was the ally of 
Uthur Pendragon, and who is credited with presiding 

1 In the Life of Kentigern the Saint is said to have met at the court 
of Rydderch Hael one named Laloicen, who prophesied, " In curia ejus 
qnidam homo fatnns vocabnlo Laloicen" This Laloicen, according to 
the Scoto-Chronicon, was Myrdin Wylt, the Caledonian Merlin. (See 
Price in Skene, ii, p. 424.) 


over the birth of Arthur, and with the wondrous achieve- 
ments of necromancy associated with this Prince and his 
exploits. A man who died in 623 or later, as appears from 
the Avcdlenau, could not be born in 470 or 480, as Ville- 
marqud supposes. This date, I may observe, is too late 
for his connection with Aurelius Ambrosianus, and it is 
too early for the man who survived to the close of the 
sixth century. It follows either that the true Merlin and 
his exploits are antedated, or that there were two Mer- 
lins. The latter, I believe, is the true supposition ; and 
the mythical attributes of the earlier Merlin have been 
assigned to the latter, while a third wholly legendary 
Merlin arose in the imagination of the romancers of the 
eleventh century. 

That the Merlin of Ambrosianus and Vortigern was 
really distinct from the second Merlin is further proved 
by the circumstances of name and birth. The first Mer- 
lin, the vates of Ambrosianus, is called Myrdyn Emrys or 
Merlinus Ambrosius; the second is named by the Welsh 
Merlinus Caledonius, Silvestris, Wylt, or the Wild ; and 
in the Polychronicon these are regarded as wholly dis- 
tinct persons. Myrdin Emrys is born of a nun or vestal 
virgin and an incubus or spirit of the air. He is a god or 
devil incarnate. Belief in relations of this sort was fixed 
in the popular mind of the time, and it is countenanced 
by St. Augustine : indeed, the word Myrdin (or Merlin) is 
said to indicate this descent. According to Mr. Nash it 
is originally Mab-leian, Mac-leian, Mab-merchleian. This 
was Latinised as Merlinus, Mellinus, Merclinus. 1 Ville- 
marqu£ takes the same view as to the origin of the name, 
but runs it back to the classical Marsus. Now Merlin 
Caledonius had no such origin. He was clearly regarded 
as the son of Madog Morvryn, who was descended from 
the great Cymric family founded by Coel Godebawc, and 
was nearly related to the historical and famous Urien 
Reged. Merlin had, moreover, a twin-sister, Gwendydd, 
who is constantly associated with him in his life, suffer- 
ings, and poetry. This by itself is sufficient to mark him 
off from Merlin Ambrosius. 

If this be so, it follows that the second Merlin, or Mer- 
linus Caledonius, is the author or reputed author of the 

1 Introd. to Merlin, p. ix. 


poems attributed to the person of the name, as this 
author was undoubtedly present at the battle of Ardder- 
ydd, was the friend of Gwenddolleu who fell there, 
knew Rydderch Hael the King of Strathclyde, met Kent- 
igern, and generally was identified with the civil life of 
the period towards the close of the sixth century. In 
this case he is brought very close to us as a personage 
who lived within the bounds of the first known histori- 
cal kingdom in the valleys of the Clyde and Upper Tweed- 
dale, — a haunter, in fact, of the Coed Celydon or Wood of 

One word in passing regarding the first Merlin or Myr- 
din Emrys. He has been confounded with the King 
Aurelius Ambrosianus ; but it is clear that he was quite 
a distinct person. The parentage of Aurelius Ambrosia- 
nus is obscure, but it would seem that he was of Roman 
descent ; in fact, a Romanised Briton, and his mother 
probably a vestal virgin. Hence there arose regarding 
his birth, as respecting that of Myrdin Emrys, the notion 
that he too was born of a spirit of the air, which seems 
to have been the mode accepted at the time of account- 
ing for certain irregularities. The Merlin of Ambrosius 
was also, and probably first of all, the vates of Vortigern. 
When Vortigern practically deserted the national cause, 
Merlin would seem to have attached himself to Ambro- 
sius, the new leader, — the leader, in fact, of the Roman- 
ised Britons who dwelt mainly in the Roman cities, as 
yet, in great measure, intact. Vortigern is said to have 

fiven to Ambrosius a city on one of the summits of 
nowdon ; but' this is incorrect in point both of the gift 
itself and its actual locality. It was not a city, but a 
fort or dinas which was given ; and it is not situated 
on a summit of Snowdon, but on an isolated eminence in 
the valley of Nant Gwynant (the Valley of Waters), on 
the south side of Snowdon, and about a mile from Beddge- 
lert, and known even now as Dinas Emrys> or Fort of 
Ambrosius. 1 This eminence and fort are traditionally 
associated with Myrdin Emrys, and the probability is 
that it was he upon whom the gift was conferred either 
by Vortigern or Aurelius Ambrosianus. Certainly it was 

1 In the Polychronicon the site of the " Collis Ambrosii" is errone- 
ously given as at the source of the Conway. 

1889 9 


here, according to the legend, that Myrdin Emrys poured 
forth his prophecies and forebodings as to the future of 
his country, — 

" Qui sua vaticinia 
Proflavit in Saaudonia", 

while Vortigern sat anxious and brooding by the stream 
which winds through the valley at the base of the hill. 
If stretch of lake and rush of stream below, grandeur of 
rock and peak above, the silence and the shadow that 
lie in the depths of cloven and precipitous cwms, — the 
voice of the mountain as it sends its waters to the valley 
in the soft summer-tide, or as it swells in winter when 
the wind assails its changeless strength, — could ever 
touch the heart of man, and link it to the supernatural, 
this must have been, in an impressionable age, especially 
the function of the land which nourished the bard and 
seer of Dinas Emrys. 

" Pierce then the heavens, thou hill of streams, 
And make the snows thy crest ! 
The sunlight of immortal dreams 
Around thee still shall rest ! 

" Eryri, temple of the bard, 
And fortress of tho free I 
Midst rocks which heroes died to guard, 
Their spirit dwells with thee !" 

Mrs. Hemans, Eryri Wen [Snowdon]. 

Merlin Caledonius, then, the bard, was he who was 
present at the battle of Ardderyd in 573. How this 
arose is tolerably clear. Maelgwyn Gwynedd (or of 
Wales) was nominally at least King of all the Cymri of 
the time. These stretched in an unbroken territory from 
the estuary of the Severn to the Rock of Dunbarton. 
The second severance of the kingdom, consequent on the 
battle of Chester in 617, had not yet been effected. Mael- 
gwyn was Christian, at least in name, and of fine pre- 
sence, but a coarse sensualist in life. Somehow a pagan 
or semi-pagan party had grown up in the northern parts 
of his dominion, — what was known afterwards as Strath- 
clvde. This party had for its chief leader Gwenddoleu, 
of whom we know little more than his connection with 
this rising. His friend, prompter, and counsellor in the 
matter would seem to have been Merlin Caledonius. On 


the other side was ranged, as a lieutenant of Maelgwyn, 
ftydderch Hael, or ftydderch the Liberal, who was then 
a lord or prince of Strathclyde, and whose original seat 
seems to have been on the Clyde, at Llanerch, now Lan- 

The result of the conflict on the banks of the Liddel, 
near Arthuret — where still may be seen a very ancient 
fortified position — was the complete defeat of the semi- 
pagan party, the death of Gwenddoleu, and the establish- 
ment of the kingdom of Strathclyde under Bydderch 
Hael. Merlin, said to be thus rendered insane, fled, after 
the battle, to a retreat in the heart of the wood of Cale- 
don, where now rise from the valley of the Tweed the 
wild, bare, solitary heights of Drummelzier. His loss of 
reason was attributed not simply to grief at the result of 
the battle, but to his having seen in the air, before the 
close of the struggle, a monster of a terrific order, — 

" Silvestris dictus ideo, 
Quod consistens in pralio, 
Mod strum videns in sere, 
Mante coepit excedere." 


Here, in the Wood of Caledon,he is said to have survived 
for many years ; then to have met his death at the hands, 
or rather by the stones and clubs of the servants of Mel- 
dred, Prince of the place, who threw the body into the 
river. The Celtic Orpheus thus met the fate of the 
ancient Orpheus : — " Contigit ut eodem die a quibusdam 
pastoribus usque ad mortem lapidatus ac fustigatus casum 
faceret in mortis articulo, ultra oram Tuedae fluminis prse- 
ruptam, prope oppidum Dun Meller." 1 His grave is still 
shown under a thorn-tree by the side of the Powsail 
Burn as it passes the mound on which stands Drummel- 
zier Kirk, though another site, in a field a little to the 
east of the bank of the burn, is also pointed out as the 
resting-place of the bard and enchanter. 

This, however, is not the only legend of the death of 
Merlin. The Welsh one of the Triads is that, with nine 
bards of Britain he went to sea in a ship of glass, and 
passed away beyond the horizon, disappearing in light, 

1 Vita Kentigerni, p. 157 ; Fordun, Scoto-Chronicon, 1. iii, c. 31. 

9 2 


never to be seen again, — an extremely likely result of 
such a venture. Then, again, in Cornwall he is regarded 
as having been enclosed by the wiles of a woman in 

" a craige 
On Cornwall coast'." 1 

Again, he is shut up in an enchanted bower or castle, 
whose walls, though of air, are to him of adamant ; and 
while the wily woman, his lover, can go in and out to 
him, he cannot stir. There is difference of opinion, natu- 
rally, about the locality of this castle. Some place it in 
the Forest of Broceliande in Brittany, others set it in 

Then, further, old Merlin is lying quietly in a cavern 
or hall under the Eildons, along with Arthur and his 
knights, in an enchanted sleep, from which, when it is 
broken some day by a vigorous bugle-blast, they will 
emerge to restore the Cymri, and redress the disorders of 
the world. I am sure we are all agreed that there never 
was a more fitting time for their reappearance than now. 

1 Ancient Scottish Prophecies. Edinb., 1833. 



(Read at the Glasgow Congress, 29th August 1888.) 

Pytheas of Marseilles was the first voyager who revealed 
our little island to the inhabitants of Southern Europe. 
He flourished about the year before Christ 330, and was 
contemporaneous with Alexander the Great and Aristotle. 
His discovery seems to have been almost forgotten when 
Julius CaBsar, in b.c. 55, invaded the land. His imaginary 
conquest of a region almost beyond the boundaries of 
existence added to his fame, and helped him in his ambi- 
tious career. After Caesar's second invasion Britain was 
left alone for nearly a century. 

The conquest of Britain began a.d. 44, when, in the 
reign of Claudius, a Roman army consisting of four legions 
was landed on our shores. Amongst these troops were 
Galba, Vespasian, and Titus, all of whom subsequently 
wore the imperial purple. Altogether the army, with its 
auxiliaries (according to Dr. Hlibner), consisted of 70,000 
strong. That this large force, so cleverly officered, made 
but slow progress in the work of subjection, says much 
for the valour of our ancestors. The conquests which it 
did make became, however, the subjects of great rejoicing 
in Rome. 

And here may I be allowed to introduce an extract 
from the pages of the younger Livy, which though bear- 
ing upon the conquest of Britain has little to do with 
the Antonine Wall ? It is a lampoon on the Emperor 
Claudius, who I suppose had, through his vicious mode 
of living, become deformed in his latter days. At his 
death he sought admission into Olympus, with what 
result Seneca tells us. The passage I am now to read 
was given to me in its translated form by the late Dr. 
Howson, Dean of Chester : — 

" News is brought to Jupiter that a strange creature 
is coming, with a bald head which he is perpetually mov- 
ing, and dragging his right foot on the ground. On being 


asked what nation he belongs to, he replies with a con- 
fused sound which no one can understand. Certainly he 
is not a Greek or a Roman, nor does he belong to any 
other respectable nationality. Then Jupiter orders Her- 
cules, because he had travelled over all the world, and 
was supposed to be acquainted with every nation, to go 
and inquire to what section of mankind this person be- 
longed. At first Hercules was frightened when he saw 
his extraordinary feet and strange manner of walking, 
and heard his voice, which was hoarse and entangled in 
its sounds, like that of some sea-monster ; and he began 
to think that he was certainly face to face with a thir- 
teenth labour. On looking more closely Hercules does 
think that he is something like a human being, and pro- 
ceeds to question him." 

The result of all is he is denied admission into Olym- 

?us, and sent down to earth again in charge of Mercury, 
'he lampoon proceeds : — 
" Mercury, going along the Sacred Way, sees a great 
crowd of people, and asks if it is the funeral of Claudius. 
It was even so ; and a very grand funeral it was, with 
all kinds of music, so loud that even Claudius heard. 
When Claudius saw his funeral then he knew that he 
was dead. The dirge which was sung was of this kind : 

" ' Send forth waitings, pretend to be sorry, 
Fill the Forum with cries, 
For a great man is dead, 
For a great man is dead. 

" ' He conquered the Britons 

Beyond the shores of the ocean ; 

The blue-eyed Brigantes he fettered with a chain, 

He fettered with a chain.' 

" Claudius was delighted with his own eulogy, and 
wanted to hear a little more; but Talthybius, the messen- 
ger of the gods, lays hold of him, covers his head so that 
no one should recognise him as he drags him over the 
Campus Martius, and near the Tiber sent him down to 
the regions below." 

You will observe the burden of his funeral eulogy was 
his British expedition. 

I pass by the reign of Nero, though in it stirring events 
occurred in Britain. Amongst others the Britons de- 


stroyed many thousands of Roman soldiers and citizens 
at Camalodunum (Colchester), and nearly cut to pieces 
the 9th Legion, which was afterwards taken into Scot- 
land. In this reign, too, Boadicea made her bold but 
unsuccessful attempt to destroy the Roman power. 

Early in a.d. 78, Cneius Julius Agricola was sent 
to Britain by Vespasian. Agricola was not only a suc- 
cessful general but a wise politician. Having subdued 
his enemies, he taught them the arts of peace ; he re- 
pressed the extortions of the tax-gatherers, and he taught 
the people letters and the ways of civilised life. " By 
degrees' , says Tacitus, " the charms of vice gained admis- 
sion into their hearts. Baths and porticoes and elegant 
banquets grew into vogue ; and the new manners, which 
in fact served only to sweeten slavery, were by the un- 
suspecting Britons called the arts of polished humanity." 

Unfortunately that portion of the Annals of Tacitus 
which treats of his wars in Scotland is lost. We have his 
life of Agricola ; but as the object of that work was to 
vindicate the character rather than to give the life of his 
father-in-law, he omits many of those details which are 
so valuable to the historian. 

In the second year of his sojourn in Britain, Agricola 
seems to have advanced as far as the river Tyne, and to 
have placed forts upon the isthmus between that river 
and the Sol way Firth. In his third campaign he reached 
the Tay. His fourth campaign was spent in securing the 
country which he had overrun but had not conquered ; 
" and here", says Tacitus in his Agiicola, " if the spirit of 
the troops and the glory of the Roman name had been 
capable of suffering any limits, there was in Britain itself 
a convenient spot where the boundary of the empire 
might have been fixed. The place for that purpose was 
where the waters of the Glota and Bodotria (Clyde and 
Forth) are hindered from joining by a narrow neck of 
land which was then guarded by a chain of forts." Here 
we have the exact spot, — the narrow neck of land on 
which the Antonine Wall was afterwards built. 

We need not follow the exploits of Agricola further. 
After the great victory which he gained at the Mons 
Granpius (where that was is a disputed point) he ad- 
vanced to the north of Scotland, and ascertained the 


insular character of Britain. It is said that with an en- 
vious eye he looked from some of the heights in the west 
of Scotland upon Ireland, and asked for an additional 
legion that he might subdue that country also; but Domi- 
tian, envious of the fame of his general, refused his re- 
quest. He soon resigned his office, and returned to Rome, 
where eight years afterwards, while yet in the prime of 
life, he died, feared and frowned upon by the court. 

Trajan was too much occupied with Dacia to interfere 
with Britain. 

Shortly after Hadrian came to the throne, the state 
of affairs in Britain was such as to demand the personal 
presence of the Emperor. He came here in the autumn 
of a.d. 119. It is believed that he brought the Empress 
Sabina with him. He brought the 6th Legion with him, 
the 9th having been nearly cut to pieces by the Caledo- 
nians before the battle of Graupius. We know little of 
the exploits of Hadrian in Britain. One result of his 
visit, however, was the rearing of the Wall from Wallsend 
on the Tyne to Bowness on the Solway Firth, the re- 
mains of which to this day excite the astonishment of 
most beholders. A word or two about this Wall that we 
may the better compare it with the northern one. 

It consists first of a Wall of stone 7 or 8 feet thick. 
How high it originally was we do not know. In some 
places it still stands 9 ft. high. Bede says it was 12 ft. 
Camden says that he saw it in one place 15 ft. It pro- 
bably was 16 or 18 ft. high. On its northern side is a 
fosse of about 9 or 10 ft. deep, and 20 or 30 ft. wide at 
top. To the south of the stone wall is an earthen wall, 
generally called the Vallum. This consists of a fosse with 
an agger or rampart on its northern side, and two aggers 
on its southern. Between the stone wall and the earth 
wall was the military way, which was undoubtedly a very 
important part of this great military structure. 

There were also on the Wall, at distances averaging 
four miles, stationary camps strongly fortified, for the 
residence of the troops. The largest of these occupies 
upwards of 5 acres of ground. Besides these stations, at 
a distance of a Roman mile (7 furlongs) from each other, 
was a series of small buildings about 60 ft. square, the 
walls of which are about 7 or 8 ft. thick. These " mile- 


castles" (as we now call them) were probably for the tem- 
porary residence of a small body of troops told off to 
guard that portion of the Wall. Besides this there were 
between the " mile-castles" three or four turrets or stone 
sentry-boxes for the use of the sentinels. These had 
walls of good masonry about 3 ft. thick. 

Hadrian, in building this Wall, did not give up the 
country to the north of it to the enemy. In proof of this 
let me state that two roads, each of them about 20 miles 
from the eastern and western extremity of the Wall, 
went right into Scotland, — the Watling Street and the 
Maiden-way. On these roads were stationary camps 
which were occupied by Roman troops down to nearly 
the close of the Roman occupation oi Britain. This we 
know from the inscriptions and the coins found in them. 
But besides this fact we have the important circum- 
stance to notice, that every station and every "mile- 
castle" had a wide gateway opening northwards. There 
must have been about a hundred of these. This does not 
look as if the Wall was a fence, and that the country to 
the north of it was given up to the enemy. 

Notwithstanding Hadrian's efforts, the Britons in the 
northern part of the island had in the time of Antoninus 
Pius become so troublesome that he found it necessary 
to send, for the suppression of the revolt, Quintus Lollius 
Urbicus to Britain as his representative, and armed with 
special powers. One result of his efforts was the build- 
ing of the Antonine Wall or Graham's Dyke. 

We have already observed that Agricola, before leav- 
ing the Lowlands of Scotland, found it necessary to place 
in garrison some troops in his rear, to render all safe 
behind him. He, of course, could do so most economically 
by planting his forts in the narrowest part of the country, 
that, namely, which lies between the Firths of Clyde and 
the Forth. The same reason which influenced Agricola 
would move Lollius Urbicus to plant his Wall here. This 
General, having dammed back the hostile waves of Cale- 
donians in the year a.d. 140, thought it necessary to rear 
a continuous line of defence from the one coast to the 
other. This he did by carrying a Wall from Carriden on 
the Firth of Forth to West Kilpatrick on the river 


The land between these two shores consists of a wide 
valley bounded on the north by the successive ranges of 
the Kilpatrick, the Campsie, and the Kilsyth Hills, and 
on the south by a continuous chain of gentle eminences, 
none of them rising to any great elevation. Now it is 
along the summits of these gentle southern heights that 
the Antonine Wall is carried. The nature of the ground 
is just that which the Romans always, if in their power, 
chose for their entrenchments. They disliked the expo- 
sure of excessive elevations, and yet they wished at all 
times to be secured from sudden surprise, — an advantage 
which a moderate rise gave them. In travelling by the 
Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway you have an opportu- 
nity of effectively noticing this arrangement in several 
parts of the course. 

Antonine's Wall differs from Hadrian's in being a ram- 
part of earth, not of stone. Like Hadrian's, it has a deep 
fosse on its north side, and a military way on its south. 
It also is provided with stationary camps for the resi- 
dence of its defenders, and some minor structures resem- 
bling the " mile-castles" and turrets of the southern wall. 
It strongly resembles, in its general character, the great 
German Wall which extends from the Danube to the 
Rhine ; which is an earthen fortification, no masonry 
whatever being used in its construction. 

Unhappily, for the purposes of the antiquary, Graham's 
Dyke lies in the district which is traversed by the lines 
of communication which now unite the eastern with the 
western sea, and the two great metropolitan cities of 
Scotland, Edinburgh and Glasgow. The progress of im- 

{ movement has done much to obliterate the lines of Lol- 
ius Urbicus. On my first visit to the Wall (now some 
years ago) I was informed by Mr. Dollar of Falkirk, who 
kindly acted as my guide in that vicinity, that he had 
been told by his grandmother that she remembered the 
time when all the traffic between Edinburgh and Glas- 
gow was carried on by means of pack-horses, and that 
these travelled along the Roman military way attached 
to the Wall. For fourteen centuries this via militaris 
served the necessities of the district. The same, to some 
extent, was the case on the Northumbrian Wall ; but 
rapid changes have taken place since my informant's 


grandmother was young. A coach-road has been made, 
and we may say almost gone ; a canal has been dug, and 
it also has almost become a thing of the past ; and now 
the fiery locomotive revels over the whole scene. 

Unfortunately the Wall has suffered severely under all 
these changes ; it is now but the wreck of its former self. 
It is only here and there that it appears in its native 
majesty. In the vicinity of Falkirk, both to the east and 
the west of it, the works are colossal. The ditch in Gor- 
don's day, near Castlecary (and I think it is the same 
yet), was 50 ft. in breadth, and 23£ ft. in depth. The 
rampart or wall, which was 22 ft. distant from the fosse, 
was 24 ft. broad, and 5 ft. in perpendicular height. 

In the grounds of Mr. Forbes of Callender, near the 
town of Falkirk, I saw remains which in my note-book I 
have described as enormous. They are such as to delight 
the eye of the antiquary, and to give him an impressive 
conviction of the grandeur of the conception, and of the 
firmness of the resolve of the Roman people. 

In most other places the Wall has entirely disappeared, 
the fosse alone marking its course. Occasionally the 
operations of husbandry have filled up the fosse; but even 
here the colour of the herbage or the character of the 
corn show how indelible are the traces which the exca- 
vator leaves behind him. 

Gordon tells us that besides the main rampart to the 
south of the fosse there was another to the north of it. 
Horsley demurs to this. My observation) both on my 
first visit and one which I recently paid to the Wall, in- 
duces me to say that Gordon is right. In more than one 
place, and particularly at Ferguston Moor, near Glasgow, 
I was particularly struck with the occurrence of the two 
ramparts of equal size, and at nearly equal distances from 
the fosse, — the one on the north and the other on the 
south side of it. This additional rampart has probably 
been raised in this and some other places owing to some 
peculiarity in the form of the ground. In the barrier of 
the lower isthmus we have in one place, for some dis- 
tance, an additional member added to the vallum ; but 
this occurs only in one place. 

The Northern Wall was nearly thirty -seven miles long. 
The number of stationary camps placed upon it has been 


eighteen. None of these stations are mentioned in the 
Notitia, this part of the island having been entirely- 
abandoned by the Romans at the time of its compilation ; 
consequently we do not know the Roman name of any 
one of the camps, nor by what troops they were occupied. 
From the altars and inscribed slaos which are found in 
the forts we learn that various corps of Gauls, Germans, 
and other foreigners, in the Roman service, were stationed 
along the isthmus, besides occasional detachments of the 
legionary troops. 

The stations have been placed within the distance of 
two miles from each other. In the Southern Wall they 
average four miles ; but the southern camps are for the 
most part larger than those on the Northern Wall. 
Being so near each other, they command the view of their 
nearest neighbours on each side, and from some of them 
we can see two or three in each direction. Barhill Fort 
seems to occupy the loftiest position in the whole line, 
for both extremities of the barrier may be seen from it. 
The most remarkable feature of this part of the line is 
the north fosse. It is cut in all its formidable dimensions 
out of the solid trap-rock. I did not measure it ; but 
Gordon says he found it to be 40 ft. broad, and 35 deep. 
Even with the aid of gunpowder, such a cutting would 
be a very formidable thing. 

I was much struck with the view from Castle Hill 
Fort, the third from the western extremity of the Wall. 
Eastwards you see Kirkintilloch, three stations off, while 
westwards there is mapped out before you the termina- 
tion of the Wall, Dumbarton Rock, and the silvery Clyde 
as it begins to swell into an estuary. This western view 
was of the utmost importance, for it was needful to have 
timely notice of the approach of the opposing Scots from 
Ireland. And then looking southward from this spot we 
now see those crowded hives of living men, Glasgow, 
Paisley, Renfrew, and Johnstone ; but then the Roman 
soldier looked upon hills and forests tenanted chiefly by 
the red deer, the wild boar, the wolf, and perhaps the 

My late friend, Mr. John Buchanan of Glasgow, tells 
us in his " Notice of the Barrier of Antoninus", given in 
the Journal of the Archceological Institute for 1858, that 


" of all the eighteen castella of the Wall scarcely a ves- 
tige remains." I am glad that he has said this, otherwise 
I should have been ashamed at the paucity of my glean- 
ings. At Castle Hill, at Kirkintulloch, and at Bar Hill, 
I saw the outlines of the stations well developed, and at 
Bar Hill I thought I saw the foundations of the interior 
dwellings. Not a single u mile-castle" was I able to dis- 
cover ; and as to turrets, only one was in existence even 
when General Roy made his survey. Of it he gives us a 
drawing ; and it is well he has done so, for it has disap- 
peared since. 

In the Wall of the Lower Isthmus several inscriptions 
have been found giving us the name of Hadrian and other 
emperors, leading to the conclusion that they had to do 
with the Wall. The inscriptions found upon the Upper 
Wall are equally instructive. 

Lollius Urbicus, as we have seen, commanded the 
Roman forces in Britain during the greater part of the 
reign of Antoninus Pius. How important, then, that we 
should find some stones on which his name was carved. 
One was found in the days of Gordon, and it is now in 
the Museum of the University of this city. It is but a 
fragment of the original stone, but it displays the name 
of the propraetor. It reads : "Legio secunaa Augusta [sub] 
Quinto Lollio Urbico legato Augusti proprcetore [Jectf]." 
(The Second Legion, the Imperial, under Quintus Lollius 
Urbicus, the Legate of Augustus, and Propraetor, erected 
this.) Gordon, speaking of this stone, says : " It is the 
most invaluable jewel of antiquity that ever was found 
in Britain since the time of the Romans. If one were to 
comment on this stone as the subject would well admit 
of, a whole treatise might very well be written on the 

head For how nicely does it correspond with the 

account given by Capitolinus in the life of the Emperor 
Antoninus Pius, where he says, 'Nam et Britannos per 
Lollium Urbicum vicit alio muro cespititio ducto\ etc." I 
quite enter into Alexander Gordon's feelings ; but I am 
glad to state that another slab, in a perfect state, has 
been found comparatively recently, mentioning the name 
of this famous general and of his master. 

The stone of most recent discovery is a large one, and 
is of peculiar interest. The drawing which I have here 


is half the size of the original slab. It was found at Car- 
riden, the eastern extremity of the Wall, and is now in 
the Museum here, 

I may mention that there had been a doubt in the 
minds of some antiquaries as to whether Carriden was 
the terminal station of the Wall. Bede tells us that the 
barrier joined the Forth at " Abercurnig", the modern 
Abercorn, which is a few miles to the east, and nearer the 
shore, as it at present exists. The discovery of this slab 
confirms the belief that Carriden was the terminus of the 
Wall. There are no traces of its being carried further. 
Carriden is somewhat elevated, and it commands a view 
of the plain reaching to the shore. Possibly, too, the sea 
may have flowed up to Carriden when the Wall was 
built. It is the opinion of some geologists that the land 
between the two seas has risen in comparatively modern 
times. Mr. Daniel Wilson, in the opening chapter of a 
work styled The Comprehensive History of Scotland, says : 
" Some of these ancient sea-margins are traced in the 
boulder-clay of the glacial period ; but others not only 
contain marine shells, as those now inhabiting the neigh- 
bouring seas, but even indicate a rise of land over an ex- 
tensive area between the Forth and the Clyde within the 
historic period" I know he is not alone in this opinion. 

We will now examine the slab. The inscription is 
given in clear, well-formed letters, and is without liga- 
tures. I give it in English : — 

" To the Emperor Caesar Titus ^Elius Hadrianus Augus- 
tus, Pious, Fatner of his Country* The Second Legion, 
the Imperial, constructed the Wall through a length of 
4,652 paces." 

The Roman passus, it is needless to say, consisted of 
the double step, or about 5 ft. The distance made would, 
therefore, be nearly 4£ miles. 

The subjects on either side of the inscription are a 
battle-scene and the performance of a lustration. The 
scene on the left of the tablet represents a warrior on 
horseback, fully armed, trampling upon his enemies. The 
unhappy Caledonians are represented by four figures in 
every posture of discomfort : one, indeed, has lost his 
head, which lies on the ground beside him. They are 
represented without clothing of any kind. This surely 


must be an artistic licence on the part of the sculptor. 
They have no beards. On Trajan's Column at Rome all 
the barbarians (the Dacians) are represented with beards, 
whereas the Romans are all shaved. A leaf-shaped sword, 
probably of bronze, lies on the ground. It is of the form 
that was in use among the Celts of Britain before the 
coming of the Romans. 

The subject on the left hand side of the slab represents 
a religious service going forward. The Romans, when 
they had completed any work, before giving it up to its 
intended purpose performed the ceremony of lustration. 
The object of this was to free it from any contamination. 
The ceremonies consisted in the sprinkling of holy water, 
the burning of certain materials (such as incense), the 
smoke of which was thought to have a purifying effect, 
and the slaying of victims. The principal figure in the 
group, in the vesture of a priest, is probably intended for 
Lollius Urbicus. Unfortunately his face is broken off. 
He is pouring wine or oil from a patera upon an altar. 
Music was a necessary accompaniment of the lustratio ; 
accordingly we find a performer playing upon the tibici- 
nium or double pipes. The animals for sacrifice, a sheep, 
an ox, and a pig, are in the foreground of the picture. It 
was usual at a lustration to make these animals walk 
three times round the space or building to be purified, 
and then slain. Some portion of the entrails of the ani- 
mals sacrificed, together with some parched corn and 
wine, were then laid upon the altar, whilst the rest of 
the animals formed a feast for the worshippers. Behind 
the whole group in this compartment is a standard-bearer 
holding up a vexillum, on which is inscribed 




On the Northern Wall all the inscriptions, with one 
exception, represent work done by the three legions then 
in Britain, the 2nd, the 6th, and the 20th. Nothing is 
said of work executed by the auxiliary or foreign troops, 
excepting one, the 1st Cohort of Tungrians. On the 
Southern Wall we have many inscriptions telling us of 
buildings erected and other work done by Asturians, 
Batavians Gauls, and other foreign troops. The reason 


of this difference it is hard to discover. Possibly when 
the legionary soldiers were on the Wall, the foreign or 
auxiliary troops were kept under by them ; but ere their 
withdrawal the auxiliaries would be free to claim the 
credit of any buildings they erected. If, as I suppose, 
the Antonine Wall was soon deserted, there would be no 
opportunity for the auxiliaries to display themselves. 
They have, however, erected altars on which their names 
occur. On Hadrian's Wall repairs and new erections 
occurred from time to time, and the names of the auxili- 
aries appear upon them. 

It may seem to some persons exceedingly strange that 
an unambitious and prudent man like Antoninus Pius 
should not be satisfied with the barrier which had satis- 
fied Hadrian, but should advance his frontier upwards of 
a hundred miles further north. The answer to this sur- 
mise is (as I have already hinted) that Hadrian did not 
give up to the enemy the country north of the Wall, and 
that Antoninus, in building his Wall, did not intend it 
as a* line of operation against the country to the north of 
it, but as a fence against Caledonian aggression. He only 
sought to make more secure the country which Hadrian 

The Wall of the lower isthmus (Hadrian's Wall) keeps 
to the north of the fertile valleys along which the rivers 
Tyne, Irthing, and Eden flow, so as to protect them from 
invasion. Tne Wall of the upper isthmus adopts a dif- 
ferent policy. It keeps to the south of the river-basins 
of the isthmus. At its eastern extremity the Firth of 
Forth bounds it on the north ; and where it fails, the 
river Carron comes into requisition ; and then one of the 
principal feeders of the Carron, Bonny Burn. This brings 
us to the centre of the line, where we have the Dollater 
Bog. Out of this flows the river Kelvin, which skirts 
the northern margin of the Wall almost to its western 
termination. These valleys have been given up to the 
enemy, or rather they have been regarded as an addi- 
tional line of defence against them. In this way the mag- 
nificent Carse of Falkirk, so valuable to the farmer, has 
been given up to the foe. Doubtless it was more of a 
marsh in Roman days than at present, and was to some 
extent encroached upon by the Firth of Forth ; but this 


does not seem sufficient to account for the striking con- 
trast in the engineering peculiarities of the two structures. 

But besides all this, on the southern Wall, Hadrian's 
every station and every mile-castle has had a broad gate- 
way opening northwards. On Antonine's Wall the sta- 
tions, as seen in General Roy's plans, appear to have no 
northern gates. The same was probably the case with 
the mile-castles, though they seem all to have disappeared 
even before General Roy's time. It would seem as if the 
Northern Wall had partaken more of the nature of a 
barrier against aggression than of a line of military 

Lollius Urbicus, in building the Northern Wall, did 
not abandon the Southern one. On it have been found 
several inscriptions mentioning Antoninus Pius, his august 
master. At Jtfremenium, on tke Watling Street, near the 
Scottish border, there was recently found a fine slab 
which had evidently been placed on the front of some 
important building there, giving the honour of the work 
to Antoninus Pius. I give the inscription in English : — 

" To the Emperor Caesar Titus JElius Hadrianus Anto- 
ninus Augustus, Pious, the Father of his Country; under 
Quintus Lollius Urbicus, Imperial Legate and Propraetor, 
the 1st Cohort of the Lingones, having a due proportion 
of Cavalry, erected this." 

It is a remarkable fact that all the inscriptions found 
upon Graham's Dyke belong to the age of Antoninus 
Pius. Were no repairs required in the days of his suc- 
cessors ? and were no additional buildings erected ? On 
the Southern Wall we meet with many inscriptions be- 
longing to reigns subsequent to that of Hadrian. Some 
of them speak of the re-erection of buildings which had 
fallen down from age. It almost seems as if the Wall of 
Antoninus was abandoned shortly after the reign of that 
Emperor. Another fact strengthens this supposition. 
Very few coins have been found upon it belonging to a 
later date. As in modern so in ancient times, where no 
money was forthcoming there was no soldiery. The 
Romans evidently found that the climate of the upper 
isthmus did not suit them, and for their health's sake 
retired to a more genial latitude. 

I have now endeavoured, to the best of my ability, to 

1889 10 


give you some little account of the famous structure, 
Graham's Dyke. What I have been unable to effect you 
will be able yourselves to accomplish when you visit the 
Wall next week. The mighty people who reared these 
structures, and were masters of the world, have passed 
away. And why ? Because they gave way to luxury, 
impurity, and sin of every kind. 

We may be said to be their successors. Queen Victoria 
wields a sceptre which is obeyed by a population four 
times as great as that over which the great Julius ruled. 
Let us demean ourselves wisely, humbly, and holily, and 
then we may yet be, for ages to come, by the blessing of 
God, able not only to maintain but to improve our posi- 
tion, and to be a blessing to the whole world. 




(Read at the Glasgow Congress, 29 August 1888.) 

I have less hesitation in addressing you on the subject 
which I have taken, viz., masons' marks, than I should 
have in addressing an ordinary assembly, inasmuch as 
you have recently had pointed out to you by Mr. Brock 
many examples in situ. Of these curious marks Scotland 
possesses a larger number than, perhaps, we can show 
down South ; and they are, in fact, so numerous that I 
need scarcely refer to any other mediaeval ones. They 
are found cut on the stonework of nearly every mediaeval 
building of importance, and on very many buildings of 
greater antiquity. Of these I have drawn some of the 
most common types, and ranged them in such order as 
may be most conveniently understood. 

The first three upright rows in each of the two dia- 
grams are of great antiquity. The first is taken from 
marks painted or cut on the foundations of the ancient 
walls of Jerusalem, and were found by Sir C. Warren. 

The second row is from Egypt, and the third from 

The next four rows (4, 5, 6, 7) are from various Eastern 
countries, viz., Syria, Asia Minor, etc., after the date of 
our era, and most probably under Saracenic influence. 

No. 8 is from France. 

Nos. 9, 10, and 17, from England. 

No. 10 from France ; and all the rest from Scotland. 

But numerous marks have been found in Rome, Pom- 
peii, and Greece ; almost everywhere, in fact, where they 
are looked for ; and I have myself found them in such 
varied positions, and of such varied dates, as those of the 

Seat pagan Mausoleum of Juba, in Algeria, the Arabic 
osque of Amru at Cairo, and the Jewish Temple of 
Onias in the Land of Goshen. 

10 * 

146 SCOTTISH masons' marks 

A drawing kindly lent to me by Mr. Honeyman gives 
also a series of marks found in this Cathedral. 

The first description of masons' marks was given by 
Mr. George Godwin, the former Editor of The Builder, in 
the Archceologia, in 1841, and in the Transactions of the 
Royal Institute of British Architects in 1868. A very 
valuable paper on Scotch marks in particular was pub- 
lished by Mr. Chalmers in 1852 ; and all the authorities 
and books to be consulted are quoted in an excellently 
written and condensed paper by Mr. Wyatt Papworth in 
The Dictionary of the Architectural Publication Society, 
under the head of " Marks". Last year the whole sub- 
ject, especially as regarding freemasonry, was very ably 
treated, and at great length, by my fellow craftsman, 
Bro. Gould, in his History; ana quite recently papers 
have been read on the marks by Mr. Henry Jeffs at Glou- 
cester, and by Mr. J. Walker Whitley at Leamington. 

That many of these strange, ancient marks had origin- 
ally a definite meaning is very probable ; but this part of 
the subject is too difficult to be entered upon here, and I 
will merely, therefore, give as a specimen of what might 
possibly have been the case with such ancient marks, 
explain one which is now one of an Arab tribe. It is 
simple enough : just two upright lines ; but these repre- 
sent spears stuck in the ground point downwards, and 
with between them, signify a truce. 

I come now specially to the mediaeval marks, and I 
must refer to one statement which I have seen made, viz., 
that they were hidden away out of sight in the hori- 
zontal joints. This is so, no doubt, in modern times, the 
marks (which are still commonly used) being put in the 
joints so as to prevent the stone being disfigured by 
them; and it was so also in some cases, though rarely, in 
former times ; e.g., I have seen such marks in the bed of 
a stone from the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, and I was 
able to copy two of a very peculiar form which had been 

i hidden away in the joint of an overturned column 
^7 at Cairo ; but in general they were external, and 
quite prominent enough to be easily seen, as they 
are in other parts of that very monument, the Mausoleum, 
which I have just quoted. 

As to the working of the surface of the stones, and the 


tool-marks left by the masons, I shall refer immediately, 
as I look upon them of great value. 

Now the special interest which the study of these 
marks has is the light which it possibly may, and I hope 
ultimately will, throw upon the vexed questions of the 
designers and constructors of the great buildings of the 
twelfth to the fourteenth century. It is strange that we 
know for certain so little as to these. Enter some vast 
cathedral, and awed by its grandeur and its beauty you 
ask by whom its outlines and details were first brought 
into being. Who were the men who designed them and 
worked them out ? In whose brains were the outlines, 
remodelled in every succeeding century, imagined ? 

We turn to the written records. Nothing is told us 
there, before the thirteenth century, beyond the state- 
ment that a master-mason, or some such chief workman, 
carried out the work ; but that was the very time of the 
great change from Norman to Early Pointed, which must 
have been prepared for years before it actually took place. 

Then we turn to the buildings themselves. Something 
these tell us at once as to their construction ; at least 
we see that the men who worked at them in the twelfth 
century differed altogether in their manner of working 
from those of the thirteenth. The size of the stones, the 
tools used, the modes of working them, all differed most 
strikingly ; differed, in fact, as much as the mouldings, 
the arches, the ornaments did. Go where you will, in 
England, France, Sicily, Palestine, you will find all 
through the buildings of the twelfth century the same 
carefully worked masonry, the same masons' toolmarks, 
the same way of making them. Except in Scotland, 
where a more massive construction prevailed, the masons 
used small stones, some 9 in. wide and 6 high, carefully 
squared, and marked across the surface with a delicately 
pointed chisel ; always diagonally if the stone were flat, 
but following the leading lines if the work were moulded. 
These v are masons' marks on the grandest scale, graved 
on every stone where the work which we call Norman is 

Another century comes, and all is changed. Except, 
it would again appear, in Scotland, where the old style 
seems to have continued to be used, the delicate tooling 

148 SCOTTISH masons' marks 

disappears, and in place of it we get marks made with a 
tootned chisel, which cover the whole surface with small, 
regular indentations most carefully worked upright (not 
diagonally as before), and giving us another series of 
masons' marks which are sometimes of great use in regard 
to the origin and date of buildings. In Scotland, where 
the old tools were largely used in the new, the strokes 
were usually made upright, and much more strongly cut 
than before. No long time since I had the pleasure of 

Sointing out the change in the tooling to the well-known 
rench archaeologist, M. Clermont Ganneau, who was 
then examining the buildings in Palestine, and he has 
recorded that these tool-marks furnished him with a new 
power in treating of the history of the development of 
Western architecture. 

But consider further, that when the tools of the Nor- 
man masons were thrown aside, there were thrown aside 
also their well-known details of ornaments and mould- 
ings, their style became more refined, and the men who 
succeeded them invented the lovely ornamentation and 
details of the Early Pointed and Decorated work which 
you know so well here in Glasgow and in Elgin and 

How came this change, and who were its definite 
authors? Something do these masons' tool-marks sug- 
gest as to this. The Norman tooling, so far as 1 have 
been able to trace it, came from the north and west of 
Europe ; and wherever I have found it more easterly, as 
in Sicily or Palestine, the buildings have evidently had 
their origin in the west. But it is not so with the thir- 
teenth century work. The claw-tool has been used in 
south-eastern Europe and Asia from very early times, 
and there is scarcely an ancient or thirteenth century 
mediaeval building known to me, from Polo or Ravenna 
on the Adriatic, to Greece and eastward, which does not 
show in some part its use. Even now it is the ordinary 
tool in Egypt, and you may see there any day the masons 
working with it as a matter of course. We have thus, 
at the outset, in these tool-marks as well as in the design 
of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, clear evidences 
of two distinct sources from which they were derived. 

I now turn to the detailed consideration of the marks, 


to try to learn from their study something more of the 
history of the buildings on which they are engraved. It 
is scarcely necessary for me to say that these masons' 
marks are used now as much as they ever were, although 
they are hidden, as I have before described ; and it will 
make our task easier if we proceed, from what we know 
of these present marks, to try to trace their use back- 
wards ; and it was with this view in particular that I 
made the collection of modern marks, some of the leading 
forms of which I have given in the fifteenth and subse- 
quent rows. In this I have been materially assisted by 
Mr. Brindley, the well-known sculptor, by Messrs. Dove, 
and others, to whom my thanks are due. 

The first point to ascertain is, are these marks, as a 
rule, hereditary, descending from father to son with such 
slight alterations as may serve to distinguish them from 
each other ? and it would be an important matter to esta- 
blish their continuity. Certainly, in many cases, it is not 
so : e.g., a Derbyshire family of masons has three distinct 
marks for three of its separate members, figs. 6, 7, 8 ; a 

1 2 3 456789 10 

Bristol family has fig. 1, which is developed into fig. 2, 
scarcely recognizable at the first glance ; whilst another 
member takes fig. 3, all trace of the others being lost. In 
another case the father's mark is fig. 4, and the son's 
fig. 5 ; and in a fourth family the difference is as great in 
figs. 9 and 10. 

Going back to a list of Scotch marks of a mason's lodge 
of Aberdeen in 1670, quoted by Bro. Gould, we find two 
members bearing the same name in three instances, the 
marks being respectively figs. 11 and 12, 13 and 14, 15 
and 16 ; but I have no means of ascertaining as to whe- 
ther the members were of the same family as well as name. 

tfl zl 

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 

On the other hand, there are many cases in which the 
same marks are used at the present day by members of 


distinctly the same family, there being some slight differ- 
ence for the sake of identification. We have thus the 
very simple marks of a father and two sons (London), 
figs. 17, 18, 19 ; of a Yorkshire mason's family, figs. 20, 
21; and a Hertfordshire one named Flint, figs. 22, 23 ; 
and the probability is certainly that some such course, 
as Mr. Whitley has pointed out, would be taken, as you 
can easily see might be with any of the very simple forms 
which I have drawn. The arrow, e.g., fig. 24, gradually 
converted into figs. 25 and 26, as you may see was really 

Y Y J ^ 

> i » 

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 

There is, no doubt, evidence both ways ; but bearing 
in mind that the strictness of the rules of the old guilds 
had been considerably relaxed even in the seventeenth 
century, we may, I think, assume with great probability 
that tne plan still existing of the same marks being con- 
tinued in use by members of the same family, with such 
modifications as I have noted, was a characteristic of the 
mediaeval masons. 

The next point is, was there any distinct mark which 
would serve to distinguish the members of any particular 
lodge, or company, or fraternity ? And I may say shortly 
that I can see no sign which would thus define a separate 
group of workmen ; such a sign, e.g., as that of the crown 
above the hammer, so well known on the Scottish tomb- 
stones. Yet there are certain cases in which one would 
expect to find them, if, as we generally suppose, the com- 
panies were under clerical guidance. Take, e.g., those 
marks collected chiefly by Captain Gonder from the Muris- 
tan, which was the Hospital of the Knights of St. John 

^f of Jerusalem. We might, I think, hope to find 
^7 ^Z something bearing upon their well-known eight- 

^ pointed badge; but there is not, so far as I can see, 
any trace of it. 

The only method left to us, therefore, by which we can 
trace the work and the progress of any particular lodge 
or fraternity from one building to another, or from one 
date to another, so as to ascertain the progress of an art 
by the consecutive history of two or more buildings, is 


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by taking a group of separate but well ascertained marks 
in one of them, and tracing out the same marks, if pos- 
sible, in another. This has been done, to a certain extent, 
in some cases, and Mr. Whitley, to whom I have before 
alluded, and who has treated the subject in a very able 
way, gives us his experience in his paper, from which I 
make a short quotation : — " On careful examination we 
find that the marks upon Leicester's buildings of Kenil- 
worth, and the projection and angle-buttress adjoining 
thereto, are of quite different kinds ; and this leading to 
the re-examination of the buildings, we discover that the 
projection is part of an older tower." 

Mr. Whitley, to whom I am indebted for several of the 
marks in my diagrams, here discovers the difference of 
date by the difference of the marks, and Mr. Brock, you 
will remember, pointed out a similar case at Paisley. 

This mode of identification, however, failed in the case 
of that very accurate observer, the late Mr. Street, in 
Spain. He states that the masons seemed to have worked 
together in large bodies, with a sign for each mason ; but 
he could not, except in one or two cases, detect the mark 
of the same mason on more than one work. 

Now I quite agree with Mr. Whitley that a careful in- 
spection of the marks in any one district may be of much 
use in fixing the dates and the authorship of the build- 
ings in it ; and all evidence seems to point to there hav- 
ing been bands of skilled workmen attached to great 
monasteries, cathedrals, and in later times large cities, 
whose example and training influenced the districts round. 
When works of great magnitude were in hand, these 
bands were, no doubt, increased ; and when the works 
ceased they were lessened in number, the members dis- 
persing here and there, and leaving their marks in various 
places, much as our masons do now at the finish of some 
great work. But I find no distinct trace of the general 
employment of large migratory bands of masons going 
from place to place as a guild, or company, or brotherhood. 

The next point for us to consider is whether we can 
find any distinct change between the marks of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, when the great alteration took 
place in the tooling and the style generally ; and I feel 
bound to say that I cannot see any distinct or general 


sign of such change, the most marked sign, such as the 
Pentalpha, the cross, and the cone, being freely used at 
all dates. 

Generally we find that the same forms which were used 
in early times were continued in the later, though they 
were then made more ornate ; but there is no distinct 
change. Masons' marks again, therefore, fail us here; but 
we may go a step further. I must call to your mind what 
Viollet le Due and Count de Yog\l6 agree in saying as to 
the influence of Eastern art upon that of Europe at the 
time of the Crusades, and we may then endeavour to dis- 
cover if any connection can be found between our masons' 
marks and those used in the East. 

For this reason it was that I have drawn the lists Nos. 
4, 5, 6, and 7, from Palestine and Syria, the date of all 
being in or before the twelfth century (mostly long before), 
and which have been, there is little reason to doubt, 
erected with the aid, in part at least, of Saracenic work- 
men, and you will at once see that all the characteristic 
mediaeval marks are indicated, often in a very simple 
way, in one or other of these lists, and in several instances 
in two or more of the lists. One of them is so peculiar 
A that I must especially notice it. It is like the 
^j figure 4, and is a trade-mark, dated 1607. It is found 
in the well-known bench in the two Town churches 
at Aberdeen, and I saw it no long time since in a very ele- 
gant form on a tombstone dated 1763, at Largs, no a 
great way from here. Now this is not a mark to be \\ 
made, as many are, by two or three strokes ; and it ™ 
is interesting to find it not only on the pavement of 
4- the dome of the Rock at Jerusalem, but on the stones 
of Baalbec, whence Sir C. Warren has sketched it. 

As to the others, one thing will, no doubt, strike you, 
viz., that there is not in any of the lists one of the marks, 
except No. 16, which may be looked upon as a sacred 
symbol, although the greatest part of the mediaeval 
buildings whence they were taken were churches, and 
under clerical influence. 

There are two others as to which doubts may arise, 
viz., the + and the A. The latter appears amongst the 
marks taken from the Muristan and from Syria, and it is 
found also in the glass inlays of about the fifth century 


B.C. in Egypt ; but there is never, so far as I know, any 
corresponding sign of the O in any of its forms of fl or a>; 
and to clear up further any doubt as to its secular charac- 
ter, I may mention that the peculiar form in which we 
have the A in general amongst the marks is given clearly 
and distinctly in my list from the relics of the Temple of 
Onias, where it is stamped on the back of one of the 
beautiful tiles there found. Of these tiles there is a large 
collection in the British Museum, and at the request of 
the late Dr. Samuel Birch I wrote an account of the 
Temple, the ruins of which I visited in company with the 
Rev. Greville Chester, by whom the tiles were brought. 
Some of the smaller ones I have, and I exhibit others 
here from the collection of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund ; others, and very beautiful ones, are figured in my 
description, some copies of which I have brought here for 
your inspection. 

At the back of several of them are marks whose pecu- 
liarity (whatever their date) is that they are the earliest 
examples known of the + , the E, and the A, as structu- 
ral marks. I ventured to assign them to the date of 
Onias, viz., the second century B.C.; but Mons. Maspero, 
in his recent work on Egypt, puts them back to so early 
a period as that of fthaneses III, c. B.c. 1000. Take any 
date you like, it will be long antecedent to Christianity, 
and thus the secular nature of the marks must be ad- 
mitted. Take that other curious form, the Pentalpha. 
This is stamped very distinctly on one of the vases found 
at Tanis in Egypt, its date being about the sixth cen- 
tury B.C. 

As to the cross, I need scarcely say that it is one of the 
earliest characters known, and you may see it in several 
forms on nearly every Egyptian sarcophagus. It is graven 
on the Temple-stones of Baalbec, and stamped on those 
tiles from the Temple of Onias. 

Now putting together the information which we have 
we find — 

1st. That certain definite methods of marking the 
general surfaces of the stones characterised the masonry 
of the styles which we call Norman, and that this had 
apparently a Western origin. 

2nd. That in the thirteenth century there was intro- 


by taking a group of separate but well ascertained marks 
in one of them, and tracing out the same marks, if pos- 
sible, in another. This has been done, to a certain extent, 
in some cases, and Mr. Whitley, to whom I have before 
alluded, and who has treated the subject in a very able 
way, gives us his experience in his paper, from which I 
make a short quotation : — " On careful examination we 
find that the marks upon Leicester's buildings of Kenil- 
worth, and the projection and angle-buttress adjoining 
thereto, are of quite different kinds ; and this leading to 
the re-examination of the buildings, we discover that the 
projection is part of an older tower." 

Mr. Whitley, to whom I am indebted for several of the 
marks in my diagrams, here discovers the difference of 
date by the difference of the marks, and Mr. Brock, you 
will remember, pointed out a similar case at Paisley. 

This mode of identification, however, failed in the case 
of that very accurate observer, the late Mr. Street, in 
Spain. He states that the masons seemed to have worked 
together in large bodies, with a sign for each mason ; but 
he could not, except in one or two cases, detect the mark 
of the same mason on more than one work. 

Now I quite agree with Mr. Whitley that a careful in- 
spection of the marks in any one district may be of much 
use in fixing the dates and the authorship of the build- 
ings in it ; and all evidence seems to point to there hav- 
ing been bands of skilled workmen attached to great 
monasteries, cathedrals, and in later times large cities, 
whose example and training influenced the districts round. 
When works of great magnitude were in hand, these 
bands were, no doubt, increased ; and when the works 
ceased they were lessened in number, the members dis- 
persing here and there, and leaving their marks in various 
places, much as our masons do now at the finish of some 
great work. But I find no distinct trace of the general 
employment of large migratory bands of masons going 
from place to place as a guild, or company, or brotherhood. 

The next point for us to consider is whether we can 
find any distinct change between the marks of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, when the great alteration took 
place in the tooling and the style generally ; and I feel 
bound to say that I cannot see any distinct or general 


by taking a group of separate but well ascertained marks 
in one of them, and tracing out the same marks, if pos- 
sible, in another. This has been done, to a certain extent, 
in some cases, and Mr. Whitley, to whom I have before 
alluded, and who has treated the subject in a very able 
way, gives us his experience in his paper, from which I 
make a short quotation : — " On careful examination we 
find that the marks upon Leicester's buildings of Kenil- 
worth, and the projection and angle-buttress adjoining 
thereto, are of quite different kinds ; and this leading to 
the re-examination of the buildings, we discover that the 
projection is part of an older tower." 

Mr. Whitley, to whom I am indebted for several of the 
marks in my diagrams, here discovers the difference of 
date by the difference of the marks, and Mr. Brock, you 
will remember, pointed out a similar case at Paisley. 

This mode of identification, however, failed in the case 
of that very accurate observer, the late Mr. Street, in 
Spain. He states that the masons seemed to have worked 
together in large bodies, with a sign for each mason ; but 
he could not, except in one or two cases, detect the mark 
of the same mason on more than one work. 

Now I quite agree with Mr. Whitley that a careful in- 
spection of the marks in any one district may be of much 
use in fixing the dates and the authorship of the build- 
ings in it ; and all evidence seems to point to there hav- 
ing been bands of skilled workmen attached to great 
monasteries, cathedrals, and in later times large cities, 
whose example and training influenced the districts round. 
When works of great magnitude were in hand, these 
bands were, no doubt, increased ; and when the works 
ceased they were lessened in number, the members dis- 
persing here and there, and leaving their marks in various 
places, much as our masons do now at the finish of some 
great work. But I find no distinct trace of the general 
employment of large migratory bands of masons going 
from place to place as a guild, or company, or brotherhood. 

The next point for us to consider is whether we can 
find any distinct change between the marks of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, when the great alteration took 
place in the tooling and the style generally ; and I feel 
bound to say that I cannot see any distinct or general 


by taking a group of separate but well ascertained marks 
in one of them, and tracing out the same marks, if pos- 
sible, in another. This has been done, to a certain extent, 
in some cases, and Mr. Whitley, to whom I have before 
alluded, and who has treated the subject in a very able 
way, gives us his experience in his paper, from which I 
make a short quotation : — " On careful examination we 
find that the marks upon Leicester's buildings of Kenil- 
worth, and the projection and angle-buttress adjoining 
thereto, are of quite different kinds ; and this leading to 
the re-examination of the buildings, we discover that the 
projection is part of an older tower/' 

Mr. Whitley, to whom I am indebted for several of the 
marks in my diagrams, here discovers the difference of 
date by the difference of the marks, and Mr. Brock, you 
will remember, pointed out a similar case at Paisley. 

This mode of identification, however, failed in the case 
of that very accurate observer, the late Mr. Street, in 
Spain. He states that the masons seemed to have worked 
together in large bodies, with a sign for each mason ; but 
he could not, except in one or two cases, detect the mark 
of the same mason on more than one work. 

Now I quite agree with Mr. Whitley that a careful in- 
spection of the marks in any one district may be of much 
use in fixing the dates and the authorship of the build- 
ings in it ; and all evidence seems to point to there hav- 
ing been bands of skilled workmen attached to great 
monasteries, cathedrals, and in later times large cities, 
whose example and training influenced the districts round. 
When works of great magnitude were in hand, these 
bands were, no doubt, increased ; and when the works 
ceased they were lessened in number, the members dis- 
persing here and there, and leaving their marks in various 
places, much as our masons do now at the finish of some 
great work. But I find no distinct trace of the general 
employment of large migratory bands of masons going 
from place to place as a guild, or company, or brotherhood. 

The next point for us to consider is whether we can 
find any distinct change between the marks of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries, when the great alteration took 
place in the tooling and the style generally ; and I feel 
bound to say that I cannot see any distinct or general 


natural as forms of the men and animals used or encoun- 
tered by the way ? 

We know that itinerant merchants were the medium 
for the earliest intercourse; we know that cairns and 
termini were used by many nations : the poirvXia by the 
Syro-Phoenicians, Greeks, and Trojans ; the lapides effi- 
giati by the Latins, engraved with the Uph crovxffa (either 
symbols or forms of their deities), agreeing exactly with 
the stone termini from Babylon, now seen in all the 
museums of Europe, the sun and the serpent-figures 
being the most prominent; the IVSB'D pfct, eben masctth, 
the stones engraven with figures, by the Hebrews, etc. 
There were even presiding deities of roads and ways, — 
Hercules, Mercury, and the goddess Vibilia. Of these 
dii viales, two seem to have derived their names from 
their office. Mercury was called Viacus, and the goddess 
Vibilia had the reputation of preventing wayfarers from 
straying. She could hardly have done so except as a 
sign to indicate the direction. 

In conjunction with the serpent, the human form 
is most prominent ; and in Sussex, where a very ancient 
serpent-emblem is known, still exist a male and female 
deity, — the one like the head of the Sphinx, the other 
an intaglio cutting in the chalk downs; 1 both of enormous 
dimensions, and both apparently presiding (being face to 
face) over the once vast and almost trackless wood of 
Anderida. One of these figures has long since been iden- 
tified with the ancient British deity Andrast or Andrass ; 
the other being in the vicinity of the former Andred's 
Caster (the Camp of Andred), I have in several publica- 
tions identified with that personage, probably so named 
from the Greek dvfjp, avSpo? (a man), and from them the 
whole district so called. This would agree with Caesar's 
statement that the Britons used Greek letters. These 
figures are both prominently in positions to guide way- 
farers through the dangers of the forest. 

Caesar appears to have instituted a new course for the 
traffic in tin after having annihilated the navy of the 
Veneti, which had hitherto conveyed it. My former 
paper in this Journal of March 1878 shows how all this 
came about ; and as Diodorus states the conveyance was 

1 See my illustration in The Graphic, Feb. 7, 1874. 


then by horses, where is the improbability of supposing 
that tne figure of a horse would mark the boundary at 
which the conveyance from Cornwall, the former place of 
departure, was to stop ? The tin was clearly sent over 
by way of the Island of Vectis, or Wight, after he insti- 
tuted the new traffic; and the spot where the white 
horse is would be the nearest bend in the road formed 
by the Ridgway down to the modern Portsmouth. The 
fleet being destroyed, a short passage by sea was neces- 
sary, and the one probably then in use by the Belgse 
was, no doubt, adopted. 

We learn from Suetonius that Augustus placed youths 
on the elevated roads to give information by signal of 
danger. This was merely substituting Roman for British 
scouts or sentinels, as the look-out from the heights was 
the first intimation Csesar had of warlike opposition. 
That the great and lofty road of the Ridgway should 
have been excepted is most improbable. One of the grand 
objects of the various boundary-dykes was the same. 

In the vicinity of one, and probably the oldest, of these 
roads several serpentine mounds have been discovered by 
me. I consider the Ridgway route and the White Horse 
long anterior to the Roman invasion, and that not 
Csesar but the natives adopted the route and its way- 
mark for earlier Belgic commerce. The skilled use of the 
horse described in Csesar's account includes horsemanship 
generally, as he mentions their cavalry (equitatu) as well 
as the chariot- warriors (essedariis) ; and their art in de- 
picting animal forms, as recorded by several authors, 
would support this, the horse being their great posses- 
sion. There must have been good roads for their chariots 
to go by in casaof war, which was frequent in the island. 

The veteran archaeologist of America, the first who 
seems to have reduced the subject to rule by critical sur- 
vey, the careful accuracy of which has saved to America 
many a monument physically erased by the plough, Dr. 
F. H. Davis, M.D., was, with several other authors of the 
Government Reports on the animal-formed mounds, pre- 
sent at my reading at New York after my extensive sur- 
vey of the mound-builders' works. Dr. Davis was the 
only one then living of the three great men who saw the 
importance of preserving the ancient monuments of the 

ii 2 


Mississippi Valley ; l monuments which contain a record 
of former customs in which lie a large portion of the his- 
tory of that vast continent. In those monuments, from 
the survey of which I had then just returned, I find a 
plan and system as perfect as could be laid down by our 
modern system of railway signalling, or of telegraphic 
communication, prior to that of electricity. 

Such simple systems as are even now in use among the 
Indians would, if applied to the larger earthworks which 
are of dimensions, and in positions, to facilitate such an 
operation, cause with ease communication by signal-fires 
from Newark to St. Louis, and wake up to offence or de- 
fence, as desired, the elaborate and carefully constructed 
forts extending over that vast area; while with the 
minor ones, of which many are lost, the agency of fire 
could be dispensed with, and the communication could be 
by sentinels. The more peaceful roadways for traffic or 
messengers have their special indications to guide or 
warn the wayfarer, as the case might be. By these 
routes, amongst the other animal forms already men- 
tioned, the serpent and the dragon are most striking. 

Some of these mounds are enormous, as Grave Creek 
Mound and Cahokia, and every advantage has been taken 
of natural elevations to erect others. 

This, again, brings back the subject to the height of 
way-marks in Europe and Asia, of which the small stones 
from Babylon, mentioned above, give no indication. 
Homer mentions an example which proves the fiairvXca to 
have been lofty ; otVcZd ko\<ovt), a lofty mound, called by 
men BcltUulv, but by the immortal gods, aijfia Mvplm^, 
often rendered Myrinne's Sepulchre, but in a more primary 
sense a sign, signal, a painted or sculptured device. Ren- 
dering afjfta a tomb, instead of a sign, made it necessary 
to appoint the tomb to a person, hence Myrine. But 
Apollo was the tutelary deity of Myrine, and thence 
named Myrinus. It seems more probable, therefore, as 
the immortal gods would hardly have been represented 
as talking of a mortaPs grave, that this " lofty" way-mark 
represented Apollo either by his sculptured sign, the ser- 
pent, or the sun, or an obelisk, or even his sculptured 
figure. If so, we may add his name to the dii viales; and 

1 See The Oxford University Herald, Dec. 23, 1882. 


in this case as presiding over the intersections of roads 
where the allies of the Trojans met from the far-off plains, 
and thus, of course, as seen from far. This is strengthened 
by Ovid's describing the natural semblance of a human 
form on a hill-top in Messenia. It was called popularly 
the Watch-Tower of Battus, but Ovid prefers to call it 
the " Index", as evidently used as a guide for the way, 
and not to watch from. Hermes, or Mercury, having a 
difference with Apollo, was supposed to have turned one 
Battus into this form ; one of the 'Ep/icua, in short, but 
said to be erected by the god himself; hence, of course, 
a hill instead of a carved stone, and above all a gigantic 
human semblance. Zete opun, guarded boundaries. 

It is, perhaps, better to complete one illustration than 
to multiply exatnples in a superficial manner. The stone 
was said to be upright, and first to have resembled lone, 1 
one of the Nereides, who as goddesses were often im- 
plored for propitious journeys, especially by sea. They 
had altars near the coast for offerings, which were, no 
doubt, way-marks for mariners. 

In the English translations all the points are lost. 
There is no mention of the locality, Messenia. Mr. Addi- 
son calls the stone into which Battus was turned a 
" touchstone", some authors call it a " pumice-stone", but 
in the original Latin it is a stone simulating lone ; and 
when Battus was transformed into it, it was called an 
" Index". An engraving in an early Latin edition in the 
British Museum represents Battus as a stone figure of a 
man pointing to a watch-tower on the hill in Messenia. 
So far from being a pumice-stone, it is described as " du- 
rum silicem"; probably a compact column, like the Stor 
Rock in Skye, or that seen from the Eggischhorn. Such 
a summit in Messenia was shown to me. 

The story is very like that of Lot's wife, which not 
improbably meant a column of rock-salt, as a way-mark, 

1 Bade, mammilated, natural columns were and are yet worshipped ; 
were imitated by the Phoenicians, as seen in museums ; are frequent 
in Brittany. A monolith near Brest, with apparently natural protu- 
berances, has been erected as a standing stone, and is 40 ft. high from 
the surface ; but the mammae are under 5 ft. from the ground. If in 
weathering these should fall off, the gender would be changed. It is 
described in my account in Brit. Arch. Journal, March 1878, as " le 
symbole d'une des grandes divinites Celtiques." 


by which she died and was buried. Both transformations 
were for disobedience. Ovid's intention is clear from the 
next poem, in which Hermes, after transforming Battus, 
proceeds on his way, and encounters a lady and a dragon, 
the finale being that the lady is turned into a marble 
statue. In the Iliad Zeus turns a " dragon" into stone, 
as a sign. 

As bearing on biology and geology, an almost unique 
example of an art-design of such objects from nature is 
in a collection of mound-builders' pottery in the Museum 
at Davenport, in America, and I believe only there. The 
pottery is in the form of dragons, and was exhumed from 
one of the ancient mounds. This mound was in a locality 
of not much apparent interest ; but recently huge fossils 
have been found there in large quantities, and in the 
form of saurians. Professor Sir Richard Owen termed 
them dragons, and the technical name given to them is 
that of the zeuglodon. Whether this creature or only 
its fossil remains existed coevally with its representors in 
pottery, there is no evidence for; but it is attributing too 
great a knowledge of art to the mound-builders to assume 
that they could rehabilitate a skeleton with its outward 
living form. 

Following the geographical order I have laid down, 
the serpent appears to have been very anciently repre- 
sented in China by earthen ways. For, example, the 
Lang, or serpent, is a serpentine road leading to the 
royal tombs of the Ming dynasty, near Pekin. This ser- 
pentine way is bordered on each side with colossal stone 
effigies of various animals in apparent attendance or 
guard on the great serpent. Dignity is imparted from 
the selection of all the larger animals, as elephants, 
camels, dromedaries, hippopotami, etc. 

At the head of the way, near the royal tombs, is what 
is so often found, but the purpose of which has, I believe, 
only been identified by myself, a flowing stream (water 
of separation), cutting off contact between the living and 
the dead. In journeying the Hebrews might use running 
water collected in a vessel ; but when settled, the brook 
Kidron became the separation of the living and the dead. 
There being now no temple, even a Samaritan mother will 
not touch the corpse of her own child, Moslems alone 
acting for the dead. 


This is so constant a feature in the prehistoric burial- 
places in the British Isles, in the American sepulchral 
animal forms, and in the various animal designs I have 
traced on the several continents, that, given either the 
burial-place or the site of ancient settlement, I have 
found no difficulty in detecting its accompaniment. Hence 
the superstition that spirits could not pass running water. 
A ridge, or dorsal formation, leading to the tombs of Ec- 
batana, in Persia, is also known as " The Dragon." 

In 1887 (the Jubilee Year of Her Majesty) a ceremony 
took place at Hong Kong, in presenting an address to 
the Governor to be sent to Her Majesty to commemorate 
the occasion, which included a procession, the great 
feature of which was two huge dragons, each requiring 
180 bearers, each bearer being habited in an embroidered 
silk robe costing £6. The cost of the procession, which 
took three hours to pass any given point, was £16,000. 

At this point, though a digression, I cannot omit to 
tender my thanks to our noble President (the Marquess 
of Bute) for information given to me by him at Athens, 
in 1877, of a like great dragon ceremony at Tarascon in 
the south of France. The whole day is given to it. 
Stating my desire to the Maire to be present at the whole 
ceremony, I was habited as one of the dragon's attend- 
ants, and with halberd and battleaxe, tabard and vizard, 
I followed the monster till a pretty little girl, dressed as 
Santa Martha, destroyed him by a symbolical baptism in 
a drenching of holy water. 1 

Cambodia is now the high place of serpent-worship in 
the East. In India the serpent is everywhere. I have 
already published accounts of my own observations upon 
it in my travels to some well-known places in that 
country. Time will not permit particulars, but the most 
recent discoveries of serpent-emblems are those at Sanchi 
and Amravati. But not the sculptured serpents alone, 
but living serpents, were and are still worshipped, and 
curiously associated with the human race. At Manipur 
the royal family claim descent from a still existing species 
of serpent called there Pa-Kung-Ba. Religious worship 
is still rendered to the living animal. A serpent of great 
age was worshipped at Sumbulpore down to a recent 

1 See the account in The Builder of August 30th, 1879. 


date, as described by Major Kittoe. We can hardly for- 
get that the paternity of Alexander the Great was 
asserted by his mother to have been that of a serpent. 

The caves in which such serpents existed, sometimes ot 
artificial construction, were, it seems, covered with earth. 
That the contour of the earthen encasement should have 
been formed to represent the object of worship within 
the enclosure is obvious ; and the allSs converts in Brit- 
tany, once so covered, and now called grottes des fSes, 
were not improbably covered in such semblance. But 
fSe is French for enchantress, and the female diviner, and 
the spirit of Aub, or of Python, was the spirit thought to 
affect the woman of Endor and the Pythoness of Philippi. 

The serpent and the woman seem always in the same 
argument, whether at Delphi, in the priestesses, or else- 
where. The serpent-temples of the Greeks always had 
their attendant priestesses. Minerva is always repre- 
sented with a serpent. Any sacred or symbolical earthen 
mound in India would probably recall both the woman 
and the serpent to the mind of the beholder. As in the 
Vedas the Earth itself is addressed as Sarpa Rajni, i.e., 
Queen of the Serpents, so also the Scandinavian goddess 
Hertha, or Earth, was worshipped with serpent surround- 
ings, as the wife of Odin. 

With a masculine aspect, the same idea was held by 
the Greeks. Erechtheus and the man-serpent Erechtho- 
nius had the Earth for their mother. The Persian idea 
of Ahriman was not dissimilar. 

The omphalos of the Greeks was at Delphi, the place 
of the Pythonian Apollo. In this sense the topes of 
Sanchi and Amravati may have represented omphaloi, — 
an idea which their form supports, as also that of the 
dagobas of Ceylon. Such a term in the plural may sound 
strange, but all eastern nations claimed to have the om- 
phalos of the earth in their respective countries ; the 
Greeks claimed more than one in Greece, with the islands. 
It symbolised the vitality of the earth. 

Those who consider the greatness of Apollo arose from 
his destroying the python have overlooked that the 
Delphic traditions exhibit his humiliation and punish- 
ment as a consequence of such act. Anaxandrides, a 
Delphian writer, states that he was obliged to serve be- 


cause he slew the python. v The mythical celebration 
every eight years at Delphi supports this, the youthful 
representative of the deity having to flee to Tempe after 
the encounter, to be purified from the crime. 

As my last remark on this part of my subject, I may 
point out that, irrespective of form, as well as sometimes 
in connection with it, localities, especially mountains and 
lofty places traditionally associated with the serpent and 
its worship, were held most sacred. The Acropolis at 
Athens, Mount Ithomd in Messenia, the two peaks at 
Delphi, and the lofty mount on the Plain of Lerna, with 
many others, were sacred to the serpent. 

Before the Acropolis was truncated to make way for 
the Parthenon, it is probable that a natural or artificial 
representation of the man-serpent Erichthonius occupied 
the summit. The story of the daughters of Cecrops hav- 
ing to keep the ark or repository (/ciparov) in which the 
child Erichthonius was, from intrusion, and when, against 
directions, it was looked into, and the child was seen as 
part serpent and part human, and is also described as 
entwined in a serpent, seems exactly to agree with a ser- 
pent encased or enshrined in a serpent-like, i.e., serpent- 
formed cave or chamber. It was a cave in the Acropolis 
that the Pelasgi were allowed to dwell in, and as they 
and the Etruscans appear to have migrated from the 
same locality, the serpent-decorations in the caves of 
worship of the latter must have been known to them. 

It is not improbable that under the foundations of the 
earlier temple on which the Parthenon now stands, re- 
mains of such a cave-temple may still exist. I have 
examined the levels very carefully, and there must be 
some special reason for the great area the lofty flight of 
steps conceals. 

Having been the first person to discover the serpent- 
carved remains at Pergamus, 1 which resulted in the 
Gigantomachia now at Berlin, I should feel very gratified 
if my suppositions as to the Parthenon were realised. 

All nations attributed sacredness to mountains, and 
many considered them the abode of their deities. It is 
reasonable to suppose from this that when a mountain 

1 See my illustration of Mal-Tepe in The Builder, June 16th, 1877. 


simulated the form of any object worshipped by the be- 
holder, it would be looked on as a sacred impersonation. 
The repeated reference to " holy hills" in the Hebrew 
writings, the sacred hymns to mountains in the Vedas, 
and the Avesta, as appear from the following, support 

Extracts from the Ormazd Yasht : — " The address to 
the Creator, the Bright, the Majestic, the Heavenly of 
the Heavenly, the Highest. — This mountain praise we, 
Ushi-darena, bestowing understanding day and night." 
" The mountain Ushi-darSna, which bestows understand- 
ing, we praise by day and night with gifts brought amidst 

From the Aban Yasht: — "The address to the Holy 
Zarathrustra in praise of Ardvt-ctira the Spotless, from 
the Creator. — Holy One, the Mighty Armed. To her 
offered the snake Dah&ka with three jaws" (the Ohio ser- 

f>ent has a triangular jaw), "in the region of Bawri (Baby- 
on), a hundred male horses, a thousand cows, ten thou- 
sand small cattle", "on the top of the mountain"," Hukai- 
rya", "The mountain Alborj, which surrounds the world." 1 

From the Khordah Avesta. — "The mountain Raevanta, 
created by Mazda, praise we ; the mighty, kingly Majesty 
created by Mazda, praise we." " The mountain Ushi- 
darena, the kingly Majesty, the mighty, imperishable 
Majesty created by Mazda, praise we.' " For the moun- 
tain Caokeftta, created by Ahura for all Yazatas, Ahura 
Mazda the shining, the majestic; the mountain Caokeftta, 
created by Mazda, praise we, all pure." 

This name (spelled in the Aban Yasht, " Qa8ka") is so 
like that of the enormous mound Cahokia (U.S.A.), that 
as pottery with the Buddhistic suastika on it was ex- 
humed from a mound no great distance off, in Missouri, 
it seems to indicate intercourse from the East to America. 
The uses of the two mounds were the same. 

In the Mah£ Bhirata, Krishna teaches the tribe of 
Yddavas to adopt the worship of the mountain Govardd- 
hana, and to abandon that of the god Indra ; and in the 
Bamayana, the " three-peaked hill" of Ganges (Ganges) 
sacred stream is mentioned ; and the " sacred chariots of 

1 In the Scandinavian mythology the serpent Jormnngandre sur- 
rounds the world. Snake and mountain are sometimes synonymous. 


the Holy Ones" were accompanied by the flashing glitter, 
" like lightning's glory",of " crested snakes". The Chinese, 
says Cambry, revere mountains because a dragon fre- 
quents them, called " the Father of Happiness. ' They 
erect temples to him. 

This metaphysical personification of the mountains is 
supported by the oriental physical personification of 
mountains. Thus we find almost every part of the human 
body applied to simulating parts of mountains, as follows : 
head, BWi, Rdsh; ears, ItDTK* Azndth ; shoulder, S)H3, 
CdthSph ; side, tx , Tsad ; loins or flanks, n*7D3> Cisldth ; 
rib, jfrx, TsSld; back, MB>, Shecem; thigh, Pin\ Jarcdh; 
foot, 7Jn, Regel, etc. ; paps, as in Jura ; breasts, titOoi, 
riT0op€a ; Parnassus, etc. 

But with these forms and impersonations, verbal and 
physical, are united in all the continents very remarkable 
but very similar traditions, habits, customs, and remains 
of occupation, as well as objects of art, all agreeing, with 
more or less uniformity, in the several localities. 

Exhumations near serpent forms in America produced 
human skeletons of various epochs : some on layers of 
charcoal, some on trunks of large trees carbonised, and 
some surrounded with broken pottery and flint (chert) 
flakes, showing reverence for a long period, and consecu- 
tive burials by various peoples. 

Excavations in a serpent-mound in the Pyrenees pro- 
duced, among human bones, evidences of similar consecu- 
tive burials of different nationalities, each treating the 
previous interments with respect. The remains, now pre- 
served in a local museum, were found in the following 
order, superincumbent each one over the next below it : 
mediaeval with Latin inscriptions, early Christian, Mero- 
vingian, Roman, Gallo-Romanic objects; and beneath all, 
rude, primitive Keltic pottery and flint flakes. The 
Christian votive objects are preserved by being built into 
the walls of a very ancient but small church erected on 
the head of the serpent form. This serpent guides over a 
difficult pass. Rites of elaborate ceremonial are still in 
use for the dead among the Pueblo people of Arizona, 
which are in exact conformity with the ceremonials de- 
tailed in a Scandinavian poem. 

The large trunks of trees in the burials near serpent- 


forms in America agree with the ceremony of burning the 
" split pine" in the Pyrenees, which ceremony I have 
seen performed on the serpent-mounds there. Serpent- 
ceremonials abound on both sides of these mountains, the 
Spaniards there having a proverb, "No hay funcion sin 
Tarasca", — no religious ceremony without the serpent. 

From the customs I have seen with the split pine, the 
Maypole must have originated in similar rites. 

I find in the vicinity of the serpent-forms I have dis- 
covered in Scandinavia, England, Scotland, Wales, and 
Ireland, very similar remains, traditions, and customs. 
Peculiar ceremonies are recorded up to recent dates, and 
the physical features of the localities agree. 

Short as this brief outline is, from the necessary limit 
of space, one all-prevailing feature must be mentioned, or 
the subject will be undefined. In the vicinity of all 
serpent-forms, whether made or only identified with 

fagan worship, are caves, I have no doubt, for worship, 
will enumerate some in the order I have followed. The 
great American serpent in Ohio overlooks the distant 
plains of Kentucky, where is the Mammoth cave. In 
China the vast sepulchres of the Ming Tombs form the 
caves to the Lung or serpent. In India the caves of 
Elephanta, Salsette, and Bamian, are really serpent- 
temples. There are similar excavations to the serpent- 
temples in Cambodia. At Pergamus, the large cave in 
my drawing in The Builder, June 16th, 1877; in Egypt 
(the mother country of serpent- worship), the subterra- 
nean labyrinth contained similar innumerable chambers ; 
in Greece, the Corrycian Cave at Delphi; in Scandinavia, 
the various Jettestue. At the huge figure in Sussex the 
cave has been turned into a crypt ; at Royston the cave 
is well known ; at Sarphl^ (place of the serpent), near 
Llangollen, is an excavated rock-cave. 1 In each case of the x 
serpent in Scotland, as at Ach-na-Goul, where I excavated 
a large-built cave. 2 The tombs by way of " the dragon" 
form the caves in Persia ; and this passage in the Aban- 
Yasht shows the purpose of the cave, and therefore its 
existence generally by such places: " Praise her, the pure 

1 " Results of a Ramble at Llangollen," Brit. Arch. Jovrn., 1884 
8 Described in The Times, Oct. 17th, 1871. Also illustrated by me 
in Proceedings of the Royal Institute of British Architects, 19 May 1873. 


Ardvt-9tira. To her offered the destroying Turanian 
Franra?6, in a hole in this earth, one hundred male horses, 
a thousand cows, ten thousand small cattle/' etc. 

The connection between the caves as places of worship, 
and the animal forms so worshipped, seems beyond ques- 
tion, as, where such forms are natural simulations, artifi- 
cial caves, either by excavation or construction and sub- 
sequent earth-covering, have been formed; and where the 
caves are natural, the mounds or forms are artificial. In 
some cases the caves and formations are alike artificial. 

What I have advanced as to the horizontal being an 
early stage of art hitherto overlooked, is manifest. Im- 
mediately the progress of art demanded proportion and 
correct similitude, it would present itself as it does to 
children making figures of sand. Easily capable of cor- 
rection and alteration till these points were attained, 
both from position and material, it was really the parent 
of basso-relievo, which in stone or wood would first be 
worked horizontally, and then erected, as were the slabs 
from Nineveh and the mural sculptures of Egypt, faults 
being easily rectified before construction. The modelling 
and manipulation were those still used by sculptors. It 
was the parent of terra-cotta work. Such mounds of vast 
dimensions were described by ancient writers. Iphicra- 
tes mentions vast dragons in North Africa as overgrown 
with vegetation; Maximus Tyrius describes a sacred dragon 
Jive acres long, and surrounded by a lofty wall ; Posido- 
nius saw a serpent in Syria an acre long, into the mouth 
of which a man could ride on horseback ; and others. 

I was present on the animal-mounds in America with 
persons of English birth, of various social positions, who 
having emigrated in early life had acted in and been pre- 
sent at the clearing of the woods for agriculture, w^hen 
8uch mounds were so revealed, large trees growing 
through them, proving their antiquity. These English- 
men told me that the Indians were so alarmed that their 
prior ignorance of them was beyond question. 

I exhibit photographs of the serpent-mounds and forms 
from every continent, and from almost every country in 
the world. 

Erratum.— Page 158, line 13, for "30 ft." read "60 ft." 


Proceeding* of tfje (Tongress. 

(Continued from p. 74.) 

Wednesday, 29th August 1888. 

This day the members visited Torwoodhead Castle, the Tapock Broch, 
and several points of interest in and around Stirling. The party left 
shortly after nine o'clock, by train, for Larbert, and drove toTorwood. 
A short inspection was made of Torwoodhead Castle, a comparatively 
modern structure though in ruins, and of no special historical interest ; 
and subsequently, after a walk of about a mile through the wood, 
Tapock Broch was reached. Several showers fell during the forenoon, 
but the weather on the whole was favourable, and the excursion 
throughout was much enjoyed. Tapock Broch attracted much atten- 
tion, and was closely inspected by many of the members. Mr. J. Dal- 
rymple Duncan, F.S.A.Scot., when the party had gathered within the 
walls of the tower, read a paper referring to the structure, which will 
be printed hereafter in the Journal. 

On the motion of Professor T. Hayter Lewis, F.S.A., seconded by 
Mr. R. Nesham, a vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. Dalrymple Dun- 
can for his paper. 

The members then returned to the carriages, and drove to the vil- 
lage of Bannockburn. Here another halt was made, and the party 
ascended the hill to the flag-pole which marks the spot where the 
standard of the Scottish army is believed to have been planted at the 
battle of Bannockburn. From this point an extensive view of the 
famous battlefield is obtained, and the movements of the contending 
armies were graphically described by a resident. 

Continuing the drive, Stirling was shortly afterwards reached, and 
luncheon was partaken of in the Royal Hotel. After luncheon, Mr. 
William B. Cook, of Stirling, read a paper dealing with the interesting 
features of the town, which will be printed hereafter. 

Mr. Cook afterwards conducted the party through Greyfriars Church, 
in connection with which he pointed out that it was the scene of the 
coronation of Mary Queen of Scots and James VI. He also pointed 


out " Mar's Work" as a remarkable building erected by the Earl of 
Mar, in 1570, with stones taken from Cambuskenneth Abbey after its 
destruction, drawing attention to its inscriptions. 

Argyll's Lodge, believed to be one of the finest specimens of the old 
Scottish mansion-houses in existence, was also visited. It was built by 
the first Earl of Stirling, Secretary of State to Charles IL 

The Castle was then inspected, and its numerous features and asso- 
ciations were pointed out. From the battlement over the Douglas 
Garden, Mr. Cook drew attention to the Cemetery referred to by the 
Marquess of Bute, which spoils the side of the Gowan Hills at the 
Ballingeich Road. 

After leaving the Castle, the party returned to Glasgow, which was 
reached shortly after six o'clock. 

The members met in the evening in the Corporation Galleries. Mr. 
Thomas Blashill was in the chair. Three papers were expected to be 
read this evening consecutively ; but Dr. Bruce, who found himself 
unable to be present at the evening meeting which had been appointed 
for him, desired permission to read his paper also on this occasion. 

The Most Rev. Archbishop Eyre read a paper on " The History of 
the Ancient See of Glasgow, a.d. 560-1560," which has been printed in 
the Journal at pp. 42-62. 

Mr. J. Honeyman, F.R.I.B.A., proposed a vote of thanks to Arch- 
bishop Eyre, which Mr. Ewan Christian seconded, and the motion was 
agreed to unanimously. 

Mr. Allan Wyon, F.R.G.S., Chief Engraver of Her Majesty's Seals, 
then read a paper on " The Great Seals of Scotland." This paper also 
has been printed in the Journal, at pp. 95-111. 

A vote of thanks was awarded to the lecturer. 

Another meeting was held at the same time in another room, at 
which Mr. W. H. Cope, F.S.A., presided. 

Professor Veitch read a paper upon "Merlin and the Merlinian 
Poems", which has been printed in the Journal at pp. 123-30. 

On the motion of Mr. Thos. Morgan, V.P., F.S.A, Eon. Treasurer, 
seconded by Mr. W. G. Black, Professor Veitch was thanked for his 

Dr. J. Collingwood Bruce, F.S.A., then read a paper on " The Wall 
of Antonine", which has been printed at pp. 131-44. At the close the 
learned antiquary was heartily thanked for his paper, and the meeting 
terminated at a late hour. 


Thursday, 30th August, 1888. 

The members devoted the whole day to an excursion which com- 
prised a trip to Bute, and drives through the Island to the various 
objects of archaeological interest for which it is famous. About a hun- 
dred members, many of them accompanied by ladies, left the Broomie- 
law at seven o'clock in the morning by the steamer Columba. Passing 
down the Clyde, in the lower reaches attention was directed to Newark 
Castle, Port Glasgow, Dumbarton Castle, and the site of the termina- 
tion of Antonine's Wall, which formed the subject of the paper read on 
the previous evening by Dr. J. Collingwood Bruce. At Prince's Pier, 
Greenock, there was a considerable accession to the Congress party, 
whose numbers were now little less than two hundred. The weather 
in the early morning had been threatening, and when the steamer 
passed Earn rain fell. There were one or two other showers in the 
course of the forenoon ; but the weather afterwards cleared up, and 
bright sunshine prevailed during the rest of the day. 

On arriving at Rothesay the party were conducted to the Castle, of 
which a careful inspection was made. The Rev. J. K. Hewison, F.S. A. 
Scot., addressed the members on the history of the ancient ruin. His 
remarks will be printed hereafter as a paper in the Journal. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, speaking of the architectural 
features of the Castle, said that the visitors were assembled in a build- 
ing of peculiar interest as far as Scottish castles were concerned, for 
it was, perhaps, the oldest stone-built, mediaeval castle remaining in 
Scotland. From its masonry they could trace that it was older than 
even Bothwell, which the Association had visited the other day. In it 
there were many signs of the gradation of one class of early architec- 
ture into another. The circular form of the court would be observed 
with interest. It would recall to the minds of those who were with 
them in Cornwall the Castles of Restormel, Launceston, and Trematon, 
which all showed peculiar local feeling. Here, far removed from those, 
was nearly the same peculiar form, but with four large circular towers, 
and of an earlier date, namely the middle of the twelfth century. The 
circular shape, in his opinion, in Cornwall was simply owing to a local 
peculiarity on the part of the builders who had the work in hand. But 
whence does the form come from here in Scotland P Is it derived from 
an earlier circular earthwork ? As far as the masonry was concerned 
there was, on the inner face of the wall of the court, what they would 
call semi-Norman work in England, or somewhat earlier ; but every- 
thing was later in Scotland, and he would fix the date at about the 
middle of the twelfth century. The line of the portcullis was worth 


looking at, as showing bow, when the Castle was rebuilt, the npper 
portion of the rebate for the portcullis was not continued. The latter 
arrangements were curious. They indicated that when the times were 
not troublous the owners abandoned the severity of the older work, and 
erected a castle more like a palace, with better, habitable rooms. The 
chapel was of the usual form, and that an early one. The staircase 
was external, and the tracery of the windows was very similar to that 
to be seen' in the nave of Glasgow Cathedral, and also in the ruined 
chancel of Rothesay Parish Church. 

When the company were leaving the Castle, the Rev. Mr. Hewison 
mentioned that the drawbridge over which visitors now passed into 
the ruin was constructed according to the original plan. It was placed 
on the top of the old oaken piles, which bore traces of having been 
burned down to the edge of the water in the moat, but which were 
quite sound below water-mark. A portion of one of the piles was 

The members were then driven to the ruined chancel of the ancient 
parish church, which adjoins the present building. 

The Rev. Mr. Hewison stated that the visitors were assembled upon 
the site of the original Cathedral of the Isles ; but in early times Bute 
and the neighbouring islands were subject to the episcopal jurisdiction 
of the Norwegian bishops, Trondheim in Norway being regarded as 
the cathedral city for these islands. The ancient parish church was 
dedicated to two saints. It was called the Church of Kilbrook ; and 
the little chapel outside was dedicated to St. Mary, and was called the 
Lady Kirk or Kilmory. The old church was taken down first of all 
in 1692, and having been rebuilt stood until 1796, when it was again 
removed, and the present structure put upon its site. It was supposed 
that the chapel outside was the chancel of the old church. Some per- 
sons called it the choir ; but he was not so sure that it was either of 
them. It measured 27 ft. 7 in. long by 17 ft. 8 in. wide, and it could 
easily be seen, from the style of architecture, that it dated from the 
thirteenth century, the time when the Stewarts of Scotland were appa- 
» rently all-powerful in that place. The chapel was notable now for 
containing three beautiful effigies which lay there, he might say, in 
such disgraceful disfigurement. Grave controversies had been waged 
round them. The Marquess of Bute had shown the other evening that 
Robert II, for certain contingencies, had erected tombs up and down 
the country, and that this was supposed to be one of them. The tomb 
he referred to was the one on the south side of the chancel, where they 
saw the eflSgy of a warrior lying armed cap a pie. There were four 
theories with regard to the monument. The first was that it was the 
tomb of King Robert II ; the second was that it was the tomb of King 
Robert III ; the third was that it was the tomb of Sir John Stewart of 
1889 12 


Bonkil, who was slain at Falkirk in 1298 ; and fourthly, it had been 
asserted, and he might say almost conclusively proved, that it was the 
tomb of the eighth Hereditary Grand High Steward of Scotland, 
Walter, who married Marjory, daughter of King Robert Brnce. The 
second effigy was believed to be that of Marjory, who was shown lying 
with her child in her arms. The third effigy was said to be that of 
Angus, Lord of the Isles, who died in 1210; but an examination of 
some Gothic lettering on the stone led him to believe that it was that 
of one of the Cumins who were intimately associated with the 
Island. The first notices of the place were found in the Chronicles of 
Man, where it was stated that Alan, the Bishop of Sodor and Man, 
was buried in the Church of the Blessed Mary at Rothesay. That was 
in 1320. 

Speaking of other objects of antiquity round the place, the Rev. 
Mr. Hewison said that there was in the churchyard an ancient Celtic 
cross. At one time there must have been many of them. He thought 
so on account of the fact that there were dedications of no fewer than 
sixteen Celtic saints in the Island. The cross was cnt out of a piece 
of micaceous schist, and was elaborately carved. Until two years ago 
it lay in the churchyard. The custodian then drew attention to it, and 
he (Mr. Hewison) had it repaired and set up. It was supposed to be 
the monument of Robert Wallace, one of the Bishops, who died in 
1665. He was believed to have been connected with the great family 
of Wallace. 

Mr. Hewison exhibited the ancient sand-glass of the parish church, 
which was purchased in the middle of the last century, for the purpose 
of timing the minister's sermon. It ran for forty-five minntcs. He 
also showed an early printed Celtic Bible, a Testament, and a Cove- 
nanter's sword from the south of Scotland. 

Mr. Honeyman made a few remarks, and Mr. Brock expressed a 
feeling of deep regret at seeing monuments so valuable and so historic 
as those they had just seen being left exposed to the action of the 
weather, and being apparently so little valued by the nation. 

The party then inspected the Celtic cross which Mr. Hewison had 
found lying un cared for in the churchyard, and which he has now set 
up on a base near the chancel. There are also to be seen in this 
churchyard a tomb of one of the former suffragan bishops, and the 
mausoleum of the Bute family. 

The members were then driven to Mount Stewart House, the seat 
of the President, the Marquess of Bute. They were received with the 
greatest cordiality by the Marquess and Marchioness, and entertained 
to luncheon in the marble hall. By command of the Marquess no 
speeches were made at the luncheon. 

Afterwards the members drove to the ancient church of St. Blane, 


past the standing stones of Lnbas. At the chapel the Rev. Mr. Hewi- 
son said that it was dedicated to St. Blane, who lived in the sixth cen- 
tury, and was supposed to have been miraculously generated. It was 
Romanesque in form, and consisted of a nave and chancel. From 
examination of the ruins he had come to the conclusion that they were 
constructed on an earlier foundation. The eastern portion contained 
the remains of a building which had been erected at a period anterior 
to the Norman part of the chapel. Tradition pointed to a tomb near 
the wall as being that of St. Blane. It had been stated that it was the 
tomb of a young woman, but he dissented from this view. The chapel 
stood on the top of an artificial mound, aud, strange to say, there was 
a passage between the higher and the lower ground, leading to what 
was now known as the Nunnery. It was not an ordinary parish church, 
but a monastery, and in the middle of the seventh century there was a 
complete monastic establishment there. Around the chapel there were 
many very fine Celtic stones, which had been figured in Stewart's work 
on sculptured stones. Among the stones was one to which there was 
not an equal in Scotland, an old millstone which had been converted 
into a socket for a cross. 

Mr. William Galloway spoke of the structural features of the build- 
ing, pointing out the differences between the early and the late styles 
of masonry, and how the earlier stonework was covered by Norman 
bnilding, and then by even still later masonry. 

Close to this edifice, on the side of a hill, are the remains, barely 
visible, of a circular structure known as "The Devil's Cauldron." 

It had been intended to visit the vitrified fort of Dunagoil, but suffi- 
cient time had not been allowed, and only six members of the large 
party managed to reach the fort. Finally the party drove to Kil- 
chattan Bay, where they embarked on the steamer Victoria. 

On the way to Wemyss Bay votes of thanks were, on the motion of 
Mr. Brock, seconded by Mr. Black, accorded to the Rev. Mr. Hewison 
and the other gentlemen who had added to the success of the excur- 
sion. The city was reached at half-past eight o'clock, and no evening 
meeting was held, in obedience to the programme. 



$roceetrfng£ of tfje association* 

Wednesday, 3rd April 1889. 

C. H. Compton, Esq., in the Chair. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors of the 
following presents to the Library : 

To the Society, for " Collections Historical and Archaeological relating 

to Montgomeryshire," vol. xxiii, Part I ; Part xliv. April 1889. 

„ „ for " The Journal of the Royal Historic and Archroologi- 

cal Association of Ireland," vol. viii. 4th Series. No. 77. 
„ „ for " Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 

land," vol. x, New Series. 

To the Author, for " Materials for Russian Archaeology." By B. Raddoba. 
St. Petersburg, 1888. 

To the Rev. B. H. Blacker, for " Gloucestershire Notes and Queries," 
Part XLIL April 1889. 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., Ron. Sec, announced the progress 
of the arrangements for the Lincoln Congress. He also announced 
that a resolution had been passed by the Council for preparing a memo- 
rial against the proposed demolition of the Church of St. Mary-le- 
Sfcrand, London. 

Mr. J. T. Irvine sent for exhibition a carefully drawn plan of Peter- 
borough Cathedral, with the following notes : — " I send a drawing for 
exhibition at the evening meeting. It is of interest as it definitely 
decides the architectural question relative to the manner in which the 
eastern ends of the choir-aisles of Peterborough Cathedral terminated. 
That their form in Norman times was outwardly square, the remains 
above the roof of that structure known as * The New Building" had 
always testified ; but as the interior at present existing, though square, 
was only of late Early English or Early Decorated age, the question 
whether the original design was square also, or apsidal, had been often 
discussed. The present concreting of the floors of the aisles has com- 
pletely settled the point, as the plan to half-inch scale shows, and, 
indeed, renders description unnecessary." 

Mr. J. T. Irvine also exhibited an original charter, being a grant by 


John Abelle of Caldewell to John Abelle, his son, of the moiety of a 
virgate of land in Caldewell (or Cauldwell, co. Derby), and sundry 
rents therein. Dated at Caldewell on Sunday next after the Feast of 
SS. Simon and St. Jude (28 Oct.), first year of Henry V (1413). The 
broken seal of arms is appended to the deed. 

Mr. Brook exhibited a tray of coins of the Emperor Posthumus. 

Mr. W. de G. Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Sec., read a paper entitled " Sepul- 
chral Rites of the Old World," by the late Mr. John Brent, F.S.A., of 
Canterbury, which will be printed hereafter in the Journal. In the 
discussion which ensued, Mr. W. H. Cope, F.S.A., Mr. Brock, the 
Chairman, and others, took part. 

Wednesday, 17th Aphil 1889. 

H. J. Reid, Esq., F.S.A., in the Chair. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors of the 
following presents to the Library : 

To the Gipsy-Lore Society, for " Journal," vol. i, No. 4. April 1889. 
To the Glasgow Archaeological Society, for " Transactions,' ' New Series, 
vol. i, Part III, and "Report of Council for Session 1887-8." 

Mr. J. T. Irvine forwarded a selection from sketches of various 
fragments of Saxon work found in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Peterborough, which had previously been exhibited by him : — 

" A. Fragment of a body-stone dug up in Maxey churchyard (com- 
pare with font from Penmon Church, Anglesey). Singular to say, a 
small remnant of the original British race must in this neighbourhood 
have preserved a continuous existence though beset on every hand by 
Gothic invasion and its accompanying local names, for the next 
parishes are Essendine and Islington, akin to Pedwardine or Leint- 
wardine, etc., and Talgarth, etc., on the Welsh borders. 

" B, c 1 , c 3 . Fragments found used as wall-stones, during the rebuild- 
ing of the tower of Helpstone Church, and now preserved in front of 
the Rectory House. 

"d 1 , d 2 . Fragments of Saxon crosses preserved in the garden of 
Mr. Sykes' house at Gnnwade Ferry, near Millton. They are said to 
have come from Long Thorpe Church, but more probably came from 
Castor. Compare d 1 with that found at Bath, and engraved in the 
Archaeological Journal. 

" e. Stone of Roman date, now at Upton Farm (Mr. Tibbutt's), near 
Castor. Found during excavations by Artis, whose published repre- 
sentation of it is very incorrect. The top appears prepared to receive 
the socket of some other object. 


" f 1 , f 3 , f 8 , f 4 . Views of the four sides of the lower part of a cross- 
shaft of Saxon date, preserved in the Hermitage Chapel, or so-called 
4 Cell of St. Pega' at Peakirk. The Abbey of Peakirk was abolished 
in the time of the Confessor. If of a date prior to that event, it most 
likely is of the date of King Cnnt. 

" G 1 , front ; G 2 , back ; and G 8 , G 4 , the edges of a cross preserved in 
Nassington Chnrch. Compare with it cross at Aycliffe, Yorkshire, 
p. 260, Archaeological Journal (Parker's vols.), vol. iii. 

"h. Fragments of Saxon carving, most likely from the chnrch erected 
by Bishop iEthelwold, about 972, at Medeshamsted ; for this, with a 
stone holy water stonp, was found below the plaster-flooring of that 
Saxon abbey chnrch, lately laid open below the present Cathedral. 

" i. Saxon body-stone discovered near the sonth-west pier of cross- 
ing at Peterborough Cathedral. No stone coffin existed below any of 
these Saxon slabs then fonnd. The interment in every case had been 
in the earth only. 

" j 1 and J 3 , ends ; J 8 and J 4 , sides ; J 6 and j e , plans of the base (all 
now left) of churchyard cross, Castor Chnrch. This, with the so-called 
monument of Abbot Hedda at Peterborough Cathedral, and its other 
fragments in the wall of Fletton Church, are of the period of that 
fashionable return to a sort of embellished Saxon interlacing design 
which took place shortly before, and lasted some years after, 1100 ; to 
which date also belonged the cross from Nassington Chnrch, given 
above ; so also is that remarkable font at Melbury Bubb Church, in 

A letter was read from Rev. Canon Bontledge, F.S.A., in which 
some further discoveries at St. Martin's Church, Canterbury, are de- 
scribed. Three specimens of mortar accompanied the letter, — one from 
the recently investigated ancient west wall of the crypt of Canterbury 
Cathedral, one with pounded brick from the walls of St. Martin's 
Chnrch, and the third from the newly discovered portion of that build- 
ing, of friable description. It was announced that these had been 
inspected at the previous Council meeting, when the opinion was ex- 
pressed that all three specimens were likely to be of Roman date, par- 
ticularly the first two. 

Rev. Greville M. Lovett communicated a notice of a discovery be- 
neath the Norman west front of Rochester Cathedral, in a letter to 
Mr. Irvine. Certain excavations have revealed the existence of founda- 
tions of an earlier "building, upon portion of which the existing front 
stands. These foundations are those of a building of some considerable 
width, ending in a semicircular apse. The axis of the fabric does not 
correspond exactly to that of the present Cathedral, but is inclined 
to the left. The masonry appears to be, in the opinion of the writer, 
similar to the early Norman work of the Cathedral erected by Bishop 



Gundolph ; but from the plan being of a separate building so obvi- 
ously, it was considered by the meeting that the foundations must be 
those of the earliest Saxon cathedral erected on the site. 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., Hon. See., exhibited a series of first 
brass coins of the Emperor Trajan in very fine condition. The reverses, 
for the most part, were illustrative of the Germanic wars. 

Mr. J. T. Irvine reported the discovery of a enrions sepulchral slab 
during the works now happily begun for upholding the ruins of Crow- 
land Abbey, and exhibited a drawing showing the design of the slab. 

Mr. A. S. Canham forwarded ft paper descriptive of this find, which 
will be printed hereafter. The paper was further illustrated by a 
ground-plan of the Abbey Church ruins, showing the exact positions 
of the discoveries named. 

A paper by Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.S.A., Eon. Sec., on " Ancient 
English Heraldic Seals," was then read in his absence. It will be 
printed in the Journal hereafter. A large collection of impressions of 
the objects described was exhibited. 

In the discussion which ensued, Mr. E. Walford, MA.., referred to the 
wearing of badges in ancient Greek times, and quoted the description 
of the seven warriors by -zEschylus, each of whom had his separate 



Rev. S. M. Mathew, V.P., M.A., in the Chair. 

The Hon. Treasurer, Thos. Morgan, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., read the 
Treasurer's Report and Balance-Sheet, which had been duly audited 
and compared with the vouchers by the Hon. Auditors. 

Treasurer's Report for the Year ending 
31 December 1888. 

It is with satisfaction that I present the accounts of the year 1888 
with a balance, on 31st December, of £6 : 12 : 6 in favour of the Asso- 
ciation, though we began the year with a deficit of £13 : 7 : 1, as 
appears by the Balance-Sheet which has been prepared by Mr. Samuel 
Rayson, the Sub-Treasurer, and duly audited. 






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The proceeds of the Glasgow Congress have contributed an amount 
which has placed us in this improved position, for the annual subscrip- 
tions and compositions reoeived have been considerably less, from one 
cause or another, than in the previous year ; but as many subscrip- 
tions overdue remained unpaid, let us hope that this falling off in the 
receipts of the year may be made up in the next. 

We have paid off £30 of the Index II printing account, and there 
remains rather more than the same amount outstanding, which we 
must endeavour to settle up in the current year. 

Beyond this I have no particular comment to make on the Balance- 
Sheet, in which it will be seen that the disbursements have been on 
the scale reduced in late years to the most economical point, yet the 
Jov/rnal has been fully maintained both as to the number of contribu- 
tors and the quality of the illustrations. 

Thomas Morgan. 

After consideration it was proposed by G. K. Wright, Esq., F.S.A., 
that the Report and Balance-Sheet be adopted. This was seconded by 
Mr. Lax ton, F.S.A., and unanimously agreed to. 

Mr. Birch's absence, through illness, prevented the presentation of 
the usual Secretaries' Report upon the work of the Society during the 
past year. 

Messrs. Marriage and Rayson having been appointed Scrutators, the 
ballot-papers were presented to the members present, and the ballot 
for the officers for the ensuing year was then declared open for the 
space of half an hour, at the close of which the following result was 
announced : — 


Ex officio — The Duke op Norfolk, K.G., E.M.; The Duke of Cleveland, 
K.G.; The Marquess of Bute, K.T.: The Eabl of Carnarvon, D.C.L.; 
The Earl of Dartmouth ; The Earl Granville, K.G. ; The Earl 
of Hardwickb ; The Earl of M ount-Edgcumbe ; The Earl Nelson ; 
The Lord Bishop of Durham ; The Lord Bishop of Ely; The Lord 
Bishop of St. David's; Sir Chas. H. Rouse Bouqhton, Bart. ; Sir 
James A. Picton, P.S.A.; James Heywood, Esq., F.R.S., F.8.A.; George 
Tomline, Esq., F.S.A. 

Colonel G. G. Adams, F.S.A. 
Cecil Brent, Esq., F.S.A. 
William Henry Cope, Esq., F.S.A. 
H. Sybr Cuming, Esq., F.S.A.Scot. 
John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., P.S.A. 
A. W. Franks, Esq.,C.B., M.A.,F.R.S., 

Rev. S. M. Mayhew, M.A. 

Thomas Morgan, Esq., F.S.A. 

J. S. Phene, Esq., F.8.A., LL.D. 

Rev. Prbb. H. M. Soarth, M. A., F.S.A. 

Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson,D.D.,F.S. A. 

C. Roach Smith> Esq., F.S.A. 

E. Maundb Thompson, Esq., F.S.A. 

John Walter, Esq. 

George R. Wright, Esq., F.S.A. 

Thomas Morgan, Esq., V.P., F.S.A. 



Samuel Rayson, Esq. 

Honorary Secretaries. 
W. be Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A. 
E. P. Lovtus Brock, Esq., F.S.A. 

E. Madndb Thompson, Esq., F.S.A., LL.D. 

Curator and Librarian. 
George R. Weight, Esq., F.S.A. 

Worthington 0. 8mith, Esq., F.L.S. 


J. Romillt Allen, Esq., F.8. A.Scot. 

Thomas Blashill, Esq. 

Arthur Gates, Esq. 

Algernon Brent, Esq. 

C. H. Compton, Esq. 

R. A. Douglas-Lithgow, Esq., LL.D., 

F.S.A., F.R.8.L. 
J. W. Grovbr, Esq., F.S.A. 
Richard Uowlett, Esq. 

W. F. Laxton, Esq., F.S.A. 

J. T. Mould, Esq. 

W. Myers, Esq., F.S.A. 

George Patrick, Esq. 

W. H. Rtlands, Esq., F.S.A. 

Rev. Scott Surtees, M.A. 

Benjamin Winstonb, Esq., M.D. 

Allan Wyon, Esq., F.8.A., F.R.G.S. 


R. E. Way, Esq. 

A. G. Langdon, Esq. 

The Hon. Treasurer read a resume of two years' proceedings of the 
Association as follows : — 

Retrospect of the Sessions op 1887 and 1888. 
by t. morgan, v.p., f.s.a., hon. treasurer. 


Two years have elapsed since you kindly listened to my review of 
the antecedent session. With your permission I will now endeavour 
to recall the main features of the sessions 1887 and 1888, for the pur- 
pose of furthering the discussion of subjects brought latterly under our 

It is evident in these days that history, when recording human 
affairs, will no longer be satisfied with pictures of sudden leaps and 
transformations such as are permissible on a theatrical stage ; but the 
changes being gradual, and more like dissolving views on an illumi- 
nated canvas, as they merge from one into another, must be studied 
step by step, and by patient investigation. This exegetic process has 
been forwarded in the case of our Association by the more than usually 
scientific spirit shown during the late sessions in the papers read and 
published, which either embody reports of new discoveries or reduce 
to a system the study of the old. The many objects of antiquity laid 


upon this table at our evening meetings have also conduced to the 
same end. 

If any one doubted that in ancient Hellas " Vixere fortes ante Aga- 
memnona", such a sceptic was answered by Dr. Schliemann when he 
laid open the ruins of a city below Troy itself, and since then by his 
descriptions of the Cyclopean walls of Tiryns and Mycen©, where were 
buried the great men of nations, be they Phoenician, or Carian, or of 
indigenous growth, who were already old when the Trojan expedition 
set out. Mary C. Dawes, M.A. (Athenaeum, Sept. 29, 1888), reports 
that all the land around Mycenae was used as a place of burial, and the 
square, rock-cut chambers lately discovered, with more than one skele- 
ton in each, seem to have been family mausoleums. The bodies had 
not been cremated, and from this circumstance, and from the numerous 
objects found in them, they are traced back to B.C. 2000. 

We cannot claim so high an antiquity, but at least the many Roman 
and other remains unearthed have tended to systematise the chrono- 
logy of events in this island since the beginning of the Soman occupa- 
tion, and to show that, whether native or foreign, we have had Aga- 
memnons here before William the Conqueror. 

The study of sculptured stones of non-historic or gt^wi-historic times 
has thrown considerable light on the dawn of Christianity in the 
British Isles, and on the progress and state of society judged by ad- 
vancing excellence in the arts. As to this I refer particularly to the 
elaborate papers, with illustrations, by Mr. J. Rorailly Allen on the 
early Christian monuments of these isles. He divides those in England 
generally into periods dating between a.d. 400 and 700, and between 
700 and 1100; the former with inscriptions in debased Soman capi- 
tals, or in the Celtic language, in Ogham characters ; and the latter 
having interlaced work, key-patterns, and spirals bearing inscriptions 
in Irish minuscules, Saxon capitals, or Scandinavian runes. In the 
Isle of Man, he says, they all, with one exception, belong to the second 
of these classes. There is a long list of names, but none which can be 
identified with persons known in history. The peculiar Manx alphabet 
is common to the Western Islands of Scotland and the other portions 
of Great Britain conquered by the Norsemen. 

Another paper, on early fonts, by the same author, follows up the 
subject with very interesting results. He has also given us, in con- 
junction with Mr. A. G. Langdon, a full account of early monuments 
in Cornwall, giving their geographical distribution and characteristics 
according to date, as in the former instances. The rude pillars and the 
wheel-crosses, with their variations, are here a distinctive feature. 
Mr. J. Eomilly Allen has given the antiquarian world the benefit of 
his investigations in this field in a comprehensive work on Christian 
symbolism before the thirteenth century, and the conclusion he arrived 


at seems to be that Christianity in Cornwall, as well as Ireland, Wales, 
Scotland, and the north of England, was introduced through Brittany 
from Gaul. He gives a full account also both of the memorials and 
history in Ireland and Scotland, and a summary of the specimens of 
Celtic stonework in England, in Journal, vol. xli, p. 343, tracing the 
progress very minutely through the first rude pillar-stones with only 
various forms of crosses incised upon them, which succeeded the Chi- 
Rho symbols. He then follows up these, and brings the whole to bear 
upon the early saints of Wales, the knowledge of whom in history, he 
says, is chiefly derived from lives written in the twelfth century. He 
associates memorials in Wales with the times of the following : — 
St. Dubritius, Bishop of Llandaff, a.d. 560-600 ; his successor, St. Teilo, 
together with St. Padarn and St. Cybi, contemporaries of St. David, 
who died in 601 ; St. Cadoc, who founded the Monastery of Llancar- 
van, in Glamorganshire, and was present at the Synod of Llandewi 
in 569 ; St. II tutus, born in Brittany, and his name associated with 
Llantwit Major, in Glamorganshire, and stated to have lived at the 
beginning of the sixth century. He fixes the extreme limits of the 
duration of the Celtic Church from about the year 400 to 1100. 

We have had the opportunity of visiting at our Congresses the fol- 
lowing four crosses or pillars, which I will emphasise as interesting 
specimens of the later period of these monuments : — 

1. The Pillar of Eliseg, near Valle Crucis, in North Wales, described 
by the late Mr. Bloxam in Journal, xxxix, p. 371. He calls this column 
the most remarkable post-Roman memorial stone in this country, and 
having inscribed upon it perhaps the earliest pedigree, that of Eliseg. 
It may be, he says, of the eighth century ; but the column itself he 
considered to have come from some Roman building, perhaps from 
Deva or Uriconium. Though a small part only of the inscription 
remains, and that nearly illegible, the shaft having been broken, it 
originally consisted of thirty-one lines, transcribed by Mr. Edward 
Lhuyd in 1692. 

2. The Carew Cross, in Pembrokeshire, South Wales, was described 
by Mr. Lynam in Journal, xli, p. 129 ; and the inscription upon it by 
Mr. W. de Gray Birch in the same volume, p. 405, who gives its mean- 
ing as " [The Cross] of the Sons of Ilteut [the Son] of Ecelt or Echw- 
ydd." Mr. Allen considers it to be of the ninth century, from the 
ornamentation and details, which resemble the Llantwit Cross in Gla- 
morganshire, on which also the name Iltet occurs. 

3. Llanteglos Pillar or Obelisk, with interlaced work upon it and an 
inscription in the Anglo-Saxon language, was seen by us near Camel- 
ford in Cornwall, at the Rectory House of the Rev. Mr. Wilkinson, and 
it is described as possibly of the tenth century. The inscription is 
characteristic: " + -<iElselth & Genereth wrohte thysne sybstel for 


^lwyney's Soul & for heysel." Translated by Mr. Langdon : " + -*E1- 
selth and Genereth wrought this family pillar for JElwyney's soul and 
for themselves." 

I would venture to substitute for the words " family pillar", the 
monument of peace. The Anglo-Saxon syb (peace) and stel (monu- 
mental pillar) seem to be derived from the Greek ; the latter word cer- 
tainly from oryXr}. It would, perhaps, be too far-fetched a derivation 
to suppose the A.-S. syb (peace) to be a corruption from ij<rvxty*> I 
would suggest that JElselth and Genereth had done some injury to, or 
perhaps killed, JGlwyney, and erected the pillar as a kind of atone- 
ment. In this case it would be an interesting example of penitence, 
the result of Christian feeling among a warlike people. The Cross of 
Copplestone, Devon, described in Journal, xxxiv, pp. 122-3, assigned 
to the date 901-940 a.d,, has been judged, with good reason, to have 
been an expiatory monument for the murder of a bishop. Mr. R. E. 
Way has shown that the Coplestone Stone is mentioned in the land- 
boundaries of a charter of King Edgar, a.d. 974, of which he exhibited 
a facsimile. 

4. The Danish Cross (so called) at Wolverhampton consists of the 
shaft of a column in the churchyard. It is circular, with Scandinavian 
style of ornaments, uncouth beasts and foliage running round it. It 
bears the impression on its sides, near the base, of having had fixed to 
it five stone canopies, to cover statues, presumably, of the four Evan- 
gelists and one other, which have caused the date to be assigned 
to a later period than the column itself indicates. But may not these 
statues and canopies have been later additions which have since dis- 
appeared, leaving only the marks where they were fixed, and the carv- 
ings appertaining thereto ? If this is the case, the shaft may be of the 
earlier date implied by the reasoning of Mr. C. Lynam in his article 
on Staffordshire crosses in Journal, xxxiii, p. 439, in which he says 
"the capital alone might almost remove the work from the mediaeval 
category, for its profile is certainly not Norman, but of classic type. 
The plan of shaft is simply cylindrical, and it has the classic entasis. 
The carvings are of most excellent workmanship, their designs of the 
highest artistic merit ; and in my view there is a trace of classic feeling 
about the whole which would separate it from all mediaeval work." 

It will be seen that Mr. J. Romilly Allen makes the date of a,d. 1200 
the final limit as to time of the class of remains above described, 
because he says in the thirteenth century an entire change took place 
in Christian art, which then ceased to be Byzantine in character, and 
became medieval. In confirmation of his classification he compares 
the sculptures on stone with illuminated MSS. of the same date, and 
expresses surprise that " while early Celtic and Saxon MSS. are pre- 
served with extreme care by those libraries which are fortunate enough 


to possess any, the equally valuable monuments in stone of the same 
period are treated with utter neglect." To remedy this state of things 
Mr. J. Bomilly Allen has expressed his views in a practical manner by 
proposing that a museum of Christian archaeology should be founded 
in London, and in a paper on the subject has shown how this can be 
done, giving details of the scheme, and a plan of the proposed museum. 
Let us hope that the will and also the means may be found for carry- 
ing this project into effect. 

Some obscure portions of history connected with the before men- 
tioned localities have been commented on by the Rev. W. S. Lach- 
Szyrma of Newlyn, and especially as regards language, in his papers 
on " Wales and West Wales," and u Manx and Cornish, the Dying and 
the Dead." Like our friend and Associate, Mr. Thos. Kerslake, the 
well-known author of a pamphlet headed Gyfla, he seeks to penetrate 
the doings of the first Celtic inhabitants with the amalgamating Sax- 
ons, and both have brought out many interesting facts in illustration 
of their views. Our respected Secretaries have also read papers on 
these early times. Mr. W. de Gray Birch a second Part, with further 
legends of St. Nicholas, in Latin, and a paper on early notices of the 
Danes in England, from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and other sources ; 
and on the site of the battle of Brunanburh, from a Cotton MS. of the 
tenth century. In the MS. the place is written " Bruningafeld"; but 
the name alone does not appear so important as the bringing of evi- 
dence from the course of history in support of the right spot. When 
the battle was fought, for which the dates 926 and up to 937 are 
variously given, Athelstan, the Christian monarch, was in strong 
force, partly by his own skill in amalgamating the Danish counties on 
the eastern coasts by the firm bonds of a united Christianity, and 
partly by the influence obtained over the western as well as other parts 
of the country by the skill and bravery of his two predecessors, Alfred 
the Great and Edward the Elder. 

In proof of the amalgamating skill of Athelstan may be named the 
fact that in 927, Odo, a Dane by birth, was made Bishop of Wilton, 
and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, 942-69. Sigfrid, King of 
Northumbria, had married the sister of Athelstan, and was to become 
a Christian, but he afterwards relapsed into heathenism, which was the 
prime cause of the war in the north, because the two sons of Sigfrid 
became very hostile. Olaf, one son, repaired to Dublin, and Godefrid, 
the other, to Scotland, where he was sheltered by King Constantine, 
contrary to treaty. Hence the heathen conspiracy against Athelstan, 
which was commenced by an invasion under Olaf, who sailed into the 
Humber with six hundred and fifteen ships, and presumably landed a 
large army. This could only be maintained on shore by dividing it 
over the country, and they would have found it necessary to co-operate 


with their allies in the north, or at least not to depart too far from 
them, into the midst of an enemy's country in 'which Athelstan was 
very strong. 

The latter, after concentrating his forces on the western coast, would 
proceed to meet the enemy perhaps as far north as Carlisle ; therefore 
it seems probable that Ingnlphus and others who have said that 
Brnnanbnrh was in Northnmbria, that is the country north of the 
Humber, were correct. The battle might possibly (though against 
evidence) have been foaght at the Bromborough in Cheshire, suggested 
at the Liverpool Congress ; but Somersetshire, as has been suggested 
by Mr. Birch, seems quite too far south. The similarity of names, 
that is " Bruningafeld" of the Cotton Charter, with Broomfield, is not 
of itself sufficient, for there is another Broomfield in Essex mentioned 
in a paper by Mr. J. M. Wood on two round towers of churches there, 
printed in vol. xliv of the Journal. There are also Bromfields and 
Bromboroughs elsewhere. There have certainly been creditable advo- 
cates for Somerset and Devon of ancient date ; but if their accounts 
are analysed, it will be seen that the desire of the West Saxons to 
magnify their own part in the affair would be enough to account for 
their advocacy of places quite away from the scene of operations ; for 
the signal defeat of the heathens at Brunanburh was an action to be 
proud of, exceeding any other in the history of the time. 

The question of the sites has been ventilated in The Athenceum, July 
to December 1885. The letter of Jas. B. Davidson on p. 435, in which 
he quotes Florence of Worcester, copied by Simeon of Durham, Roger 
of Wendover, and The Chronicle of Melrose, shows that the battle could 
not have been fought in Devon or Somerset. The actions of the parties 
engaged render it probable that it was somewhere between the Hum- 
ber and the western part of Scotland. The Humber was a convenient 
place of meeting to assemble the fleets of the allies coming both from 
Scotland as well as from the Baltic, and for collecting the forces of 

Athelstan had certainly in 934 made an expedition into Scotland by 
the eastern coast ; but on this latter occasion he was going to meet 
the enemy where they were assembled in great force, and for this 
reason one writer would place the battle in Dumfriesshire. In Dur- 
ham county a site was also suggested at the Darlington Congress, and 
in Cumberland there is a Bromfield near Carlisle. Probabilities seem 
to be in favour of Northnmbria, or somewhere north of the Humber ; 
and the facts at our command are too few to affirm more than proba- 
bilities for the site of a battle which is likely to remain hidden in the 
darkness of a long night. The " Burnt Field", or the " Burg of Burn- 
ing", may both have been poetical names, yet we cannot suppose the 
event itself to be a poetical myth. It is too well confirmed by contem- 
porary circumstances and by authors of credit. 


As to the death of Constantino, King of Scotland, in the battle, the 
poem quoted by Mr. Birch is likely to be correct, which says the son 
it was of Constantino who fell, bat the father returned to his kingdom : 

" So there eke the aged 
Came by flight 
to his country north, 
hoary warrior. 

And his son he left 
on the slaughter-place 
mangled with wounds, 
young in warfare." 

As Olaf fled to Dublin, and his father-in-law, Constantino, to Scot- 
land after their defeat, this is an additional reason for supposing the 
battle to have been fought in the north country, for if in the south 
they would probably not have escaped with their lives. 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brock, F.S.A., Eon. Sec, has contributed further 
information on sculptured stones with interlaced work, more particu- 
larly on those seen at the Darlington Congress and across the border, 
in a paper illustrated by many drawings and photographs ; but I am 
carried out of chronological order from old Roman times, which should 
have come first, and especially as this period has been copiously dwelt 
upon in various papers during the last two sessions. 

First and foremost are those by Sir James Picton on the Walls of 
Chester, with drawings of the masonry, including that Roman portion 
of the north wall with cornice ; particularly interesting to our Society 
as having been originally produced in evidence by Mr. C. Roach Smith 
forty years ago, figured in vol. v of the Journal, and farther described 
at length in vol. ii of his Collectanea Antiqua. He has also taken part 
in the new controversy, and I can add nothing to what has been 
already said. 

The publication of a record of the sculptured Roman stones taken 
out of the wall, by Mr. J. P. Earwaker, has added some names of sol- 
diers and officials of the 20th Legion not before known, as the Prefect 
of the Camp, a Syrian by nation, and an important personage. I have 
endeavoured to furnish some particulars of the history of this legion, 
quartered at Chester, from consular denarii which refer to its antece- 
dents, and have drawn attention to the perfected text of the Barberini 
inscription from the demolished triumphal arch of the Emperor Clau- 
dius in Rome, with an engraving of the stone. 

There has been a discussion as to the modern river to represent the 
Anton of Tacitus, which he describes in the same sentence with the 
Severn, as girt about with forts. The Anton is generally translated 


Avon, of which name there are two rivers falling into the Severn, — the 
one at Tewkesbury, and the lower one at a point not far from Bristol. 
The only apparent reason that the Nen, in Northamptonshire, has been 
taken for the Anton, is from the name of the county supposed to be 
derived from it, that is North Anton, while Southampton is the most 
southern Anton ; and looking at the course of events (as far as we 
know them) it is more probable that one of the three more southerly 
rivers was the Anton rather than the Nen, which was beyond the 
actual scene of the war. 

The Dobuni of Gloucestershire had submitted to Aulus Plautius ; 
Ostorius, his successor, was proceeding against the Silures in South 
Wales, and to secure the territory already acquired he would be likely 
to fortify such heights of the Severn as would control that river. The 
southern counties of Dorset, Wilts, Hants, and the Isle of Wight, had 
been subdued by Vespasian in his younger days, after he had been 
appointed to the command of the 2nd Legion by the Emperor Claudius 

This lowest Anton of the three, which falls into the Southampton 
Water, is still called by the ancient name of Anton in part of its 
course ; and Mr. Birch considers this latter to bear the palm, both from 
its name, and because the heights from which and through which it 
flows will answer well to the " cinctos castris" of Tacitus. Either of 
the three lower rivers would suit the events. (See Journal, xliv, p. 193.) 

The Rev. B. E. Hooppell had given us some account previously of 
the interesting ruins of Vino via, near Binch ester. He has now added 
to this a more detailed description, in two parts, of their present state, 
illustrated by drawings to scale; and an account of the hypocaust, 
which is so large and lofty that a man may stand upright between the 
piers, and perambulate the recesses. This Roman town, like others, 
has furnished a supply of worked stones for building in mediaeval 
times ; and the small church of Escombe, two miles off, has been con- 
structed from materials drawn from hence. 

This station was on the main north road of the Itinerary of Antoni- 
nus, No. 1. Southward the road seems to have crossed the Tees at 
Greta Bridge, though no station is marked upon the Iter ; but a camp 
and a large number of Roman antiquities found here have been care- 
fully described by the Rev. Prebendary Scarth. 

Twenty- two Roman miles south of this is Cataracton, near Rich- 
mond ; and the church of Catterick is built on the site of a Roman 
camp. This spot is particularly interesting as being on Ptolemy's 
meridian of London, and from whence his observations in latitude were 
taken for this part of the country. Here two roads of the Itinerary 

We have had a paper on the ancient roads of Durham by J. W. East- 
1889 13 


wood, M.D. ; and Mr. Geo. Payne, who has long made the antiquities 
of Kent his study, has given ns a paper on the old roads of that county. 

Our Associate, Mr. John Harker of Lancaster, has furnished a far- 
ther notice of antiquities, and of the consecrated Well there. These 
show the importance of a place in Roman times, which has been iden- 
tified in medisBYal history, through its name and castle, with some of 
the most interesting events, and with the title of John of Gaunt and 
his dynasty, so long in antagonism with the rival house of York. 

The Rev. S. M. Mayhew, whose notices of the city of Lincoln have 
been on more than one occasion recorded in the Journal, has given 
an account of Roman remains at Filey, where he considers there was a 
good harbour in Roman times, and where Roman remains have been 
found. He gives his opinion on some controverted points upon which 
light may be thrown by the masonry of a building lately uncovered, if 
the excavations are followed up. His visit to the distant Caithness 
and Orkney this year has resulted in a paper with original information 
from his pen, illustrated by a number of photographs and drawings of 
the antiquities described. 

A Roman villa has been discovered in Gloucestershire, on the Tock- 
ington Park estate, situate half a mile east of the highway leading 
from Bristol to Gloucester, known as the Ridge Way. A portion, of 
about a yard square, was laid open in 1787, but very little notice was 
taken of it, and it was soon forgotten. Twenty-three rooms and cor- 
ridors have now been brought to light since excavations were begun in 
August 1887. One of these rooms has a fine pavement of about 
18 ft. 3 in. square, and other fragments of pavements have also been 
found, as well as many worked stones of considerable interest. The 
villa being as yet only partially explored, further discoveries may be 
expected. I am indebted for this account to the Transactions of the 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archasological Society for 1887, wherein will 
be found coloured plates of the pavements, etchings of the worked 
stones, and plan of the works. 

Roman antiquities may be summed up with Mr. W. de Gray Birch's 
description of the latest portion discovered of the baths at Bath. He 
has crowned his description with the welcome intelligence that through 
the labours of the Society of Antiquaries this portion has been saved 
from destruction, or at least from obstruction, by rendering it acces- 
sible for future inspection, notwithstanding the new works which have 
to be undertaken in and above it. 

Following Roman events, we are carried in time to the point whence 
we set out, that is to the early days of Christianity. The Rev. R. C. 
Jenkins has well illustrated this period by a description of his own 
church at Lyminge in Kent, which he attributes to the time of St. 
Dunstan, after the suppression of the older religions house in 965, and 


out of the debris of this building the present church was built. The 
ancient one had been ruined by the Danes in 804. Its foundations, 
however, have been exposed to view, and were seen on the occasion of 
our Congress at Dover. They form an oblong figure parallel to the 
parish church, on the north side, and a short distance from it, present- 
ing several peculiarities. There are two apses, one on the east, the 
other on the west, and the Canon, on the authority of Sir Gilbert 
Scott, describes them as of two dates, the western portion being of an 
entirely different character from the eastern, and a cross- wall separates 
one part of the church from the other. The eastern portion he attri- 
butes to St. Ethelburga (called also St. Eadbnrg), who received the 
veil here from Archbishop Honorius in a.d. 633, when she became 
Abbess of the Convent, and was here interred. This was, with pos- 
sibly one exception, the first convent for women established in England. 
The eastern portion of the building is formed of stones of large size, 
many of them being a yard or more in length, set in solid concrete of 
lime and pebbles. The western portion of the foundations seems to 
belong to an even earlier church erected by the original labour of 
Roman believers, and conformed to the model of a western apsidal 
sanctuary with aisles terminating squarely. Ethelburga, daughter of 
King Ethelbert of Kent, was betrothed here, and married to King 
Edwin of Northumbria in 627, and in 633, after her husband's death, 
retired with Paulinns into Kent, having passed six years of a chequered 
life in the world to spend the remaining fourteen in seclusion and 
prayer. Canon Jenkins has given us the annals of Lyminge Church 
and estates chronologically, which throw light upon English history 
in general. 

The transactions of the early church are interwoven with those of 
Northumbria through St. Wilfrid, whose life, read at the Darlington 
Congress, has been given, with the surrounding details, in the Journal 
by Mr. J. F Anson. Queen JEnfleda, daughter of St. Ethelburga, seems to 
have been a useful coadjutor of St. Wilfrid. Mr. J. FAnson has fully 
related the circumstances connecting this Bishop with the churches of 
Ripon and Hexham until his death at Oundle in Northamptonshire. 

A discovery was reported on the 6th of March, through Mr. Brock, 
by Canon Routledge, of a wall in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral, 
which is found to be of earlier date than the Norman portions which 
are partially built upon it. The hardness of its mortar and other 
indications lead to the supposition that the wall is of Roman date, and 
part of the ancient church which St. Augustine found on the spot on 
his arrival at Canterbury. 

Dr. J. W. Eastwood has connected Sockburn and Dinsdale with 
Roman times through their ancient church history. Other interesting 
memorials of churches have been given by various members. 

132 • 


The Rev. H. C. Lipscombe contributes a paper on Staindrop Parish 
Church, Durham, which he calls the church of the Nevilles, the annals 
of which powerful family he gives, and shows that the first wife of the 
great Earl of Westmoreland, Joan S win ford or Beaufort, daughter of 
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, erected a college on the north side 
of the church. 

The Rev. Arthur M. Chichester, Yicar of St. Mary's, Sandwich, has 
given an account of his own most interesting church, together with 
that of St. Clement, in this ancient town of Kent. In the latter church 
is an early carved tympanum over the little belfry-door. 

The Church of St. Mary is said to have stood on this spot as far 
back as the year 640, and to have been injured by the Danes, and 
restored by Queen Emma, the wife of Canute. The Vicar says the 
ruined columns of the first arches of the Norman nave remain at the 
west wall, and two perfect rows of Norman bases were found in a line 
with them, below the present floor. 

Mr. C. Aldridge has told the story of Birkenhead Benedictine Priory, 
visited at the Liverpool Congress. He tells us it was founded by 
Hamon de Massey, third Baron of Dunham Massey, in about 1150, and 
considers it to have been an independent foundation, and not affiliated 
to the Benedictines of St Werberg, Chester. 

The Rev. Andrew E. P. Gray has given an interesting account of 
the origin of Christianity in Wirral, that peninsula between the Mersey 
and the Dee, the history of which is associated with our ancient hero 
of Glasgow and of St. Asaph, St Kentigern, otherwise called St. Mnngo, 
also with the Norwegians and their fellow countrymen in the Isle of 

The Hon. and Rev. G. T. 0. Bridgeman, Rector of All Saints, Wigan, 
has described his church as one of the oldest foundations in the king- 
dom ; but he says the only ancient part of the present building is the 
tower, an immensely solid structure, the walls being 6 ft 6 in. thick 
in one part ; but much of it has been encased with stone and cement, 
which prevents its being seen. The Rector considers that the tower 
in early times was used as a fortress in times of danger. 

Another church with specially interesting features in itself and in 
the ancient stones built up in its walls, has been described in an ex- 
haustive paper by Mr. J. P. Pritchett, Hon. Secretary to the Darling- 
ton Congress. The Church of St. Peter-at-Croft, on the Tees, has 
enabled the writer to follow its history from the supposed first founda- 
tion as a small chapel or oratory on the site of a Roman temple, in the 
times, perhaps, of Benedict Biscop and St. Wilfrid, if the sculptured 
stone engraved in the Journal was connected with this early founda- 
tion. The stone had formed part of the shaft of a cross with all the 
characteristics of seventh century work. Ruined by the Danes, Mr. 


Pritchett considers the present church may have been rebuilt or re- 
stored in about 1075. In the wall is also a stone having on it a 
Romano-British sculptured figure, pronounced to be such on the author- 
ity of Mr. C. Roach Smith. 

Mr. Pritchett follows up the history of the church to the times of 
Sir John Clervaulx (he died in 1443), who married a daughter of the 
great house of Lumley of Lumley Castle. This match brought the 
Clervaulx into relationship with the royal family, both York and Lan- 
castrian branches. 

A good introduction to the mediaeval period are Mr. Walter de Gray 
Birch's historical notes on the original document known as the Will of 
King John, which he had previously laid on the table at an evening 
meeting ; and an autotype photograph of this famous state paper is 
given in the Journal, vol. xliii. Though called a will, it is an instru- 
ment made when the King was in extremis, to empower a commission 
to execute his wishes ; and Mr. Birch has given a short account of 
each of the thirteen counsellors, lay and ecclesiastic, who signed the 
document, and were appointed to carry out its provisions. Their 
names will call up many a reflection on the events of the day, and on 
the statements and counter-statements made upon the acts of this un- 
fortunate King, and will help to correct several popular errors con- 
cerning his latter end. Mr. Birch has quoted the late Mr. Halliwell- 
Phillipps for exposing the false statement in a MS. known as the 
u Brute Chronicle", wherein the King is reported to have died of poison 
at Swineshead Abbey, though in another part of the same document he 
is said to have died at Newark Castle, which is the truth, and tho 
poisoning is not confirmed by contemporary evidence. Shakespeare, 
therefore, took the popular view in fixing the death of the King by 
poison at Swineshead Abbey. Mr. Birch has also given an extract from 
the King's itinerary for the month of October 1216, the last of his life, 
in which are named many places in the neighbourhood of the proposed 
headquarters of our Congress this year. The month begins with Lin- 
coln, and ends with Newark-upon-Trent. 

Our old Associate, Mr. C. Lynam, has furnished us with an account 
prepared with his usual care, and accompanied by plans, elevations, 
and sections, of the remaining walls of the Cistercian Nunnery of White 
Ladies, Staffordshire. 

Two papers, the outcome of the Darlington Congress, will be read 
with interest as giving full details of historical sites and of the charac- 
ters who have figured in them. The Rev. J. F. Hodgson has described 
Raby, " the cradle of the mighty Nevilles", carrying up its origin to 
the time of Dolfin, son of Uchtred, and the Earls of Northumbria, from 
whom it descended to Fitz-Maldred, " Dominus de Raby" in the thir- 
teenth century. The buildings, however, he says carry us no further 


back than the second quarter of the fourteenth century, when the 
owner was Ralph Neville, famous at the battle of Neville's Cross. It 
is an Edwardian castle of the fourteenth century, complete in all its 
parts, without apparently any earlier work or later alteration, and the 
" largest castel of loggings in all the north country" in Leland's time. 
Of the two remaining towers, that on the west of the south front, now 
called the "Duke's Tower", was formerly named "Joan's", from Joan 
Beaufort, daughter of John of Gaunt, and second wife of Ralph Neville, 
first Earl of Westmoreland. A barbican, or advanced gateway, seems 
to have been destroyed in modern times. It had sculptured on it the 
great bull of Neville, as appears by an old plate, carrying the banner 
of their arms and the shields of John Neville and his first wife, Maude 

Mr. Hodgson has shown the appearance of the Castle in 1720, from 
a print reproduced in the Journal. A further account of Raby is given 
by Mr. J. P. Pritchett, who has been very circumstantial in the his- 
tory, with ground-plans of the works of the Nevilles round Darling- 
ton, and has placed before us the Castles of Brancepeth, Middleham, 
Sheriff-Hutton, Barnard Castle, and Snape Castle ; the latter interest- 
ing as having been the residence of Catherine Parr when married to 
her second husband, John Neville, Lord Latimer. Each castle is a 
picture calling up some event in the Wars of the Roses, and Mr. Prit- 
chett has prominently bronght forward the many conspicuous names 
which have shed lustre on the house of Neville. 

Anticipating our visit to Scotland, Mr. H. Syer Cuming favoured us 
with a paper on " Relics and Mementos of Mary Stuart", arranged to 
present an outline of her life. He referred also to several notices of 
various portraits of the Queen scattered through the pages of this 
Journal. The interest in this subject has been extended by the large 
exhibitions of pictures, relics, and memorials of Queen Mary at Glasgow 
last year, and this year in London. 

The archaeological notes sent us from Havre and Normandy by our 
old correspondent, M. Charles Roessler, announce discoveries at Lille- 
bonne, Fecamp, and elsewhere, with a curious account from a contem- 
porary MS. of the numbers and quality of the soldiers in garrison at 
Harfleur in 1423, and description of Gaulish and Roman coins found 
in the valleys around. He has informed us that the fine Roman pave- 
ment found at Lillebonne, and described in our Journal, vol. xxvi, has 
been sold for £320 to the Museum of Rouen. 

The miscellaneous subjects upon which papers have been written 
need not enter into my classification. They have a special interest of 
their own which will fix the attention of the reader, and the same may 
be said of the exhibits at the evening meetings ; but among these latter 
may be named a hoard of bronze celts shown by Rev. Preb. Scarth, a 


thick green glass vessel found in a stone coffin of the Saxon period, and 
numerous Roman and other remains found at Peterborough, as well as 
many drawings of objects of interest in the neighbourhood, by Mr. 
J. T. Irvine, who has also given a description of a prehistoric flint 
instrument in the possession of the Dowager Marchioness of Huntly, 
found on the Huntingdonshire bank of the river Nen. A boxwood 
model of the ring of Earl Orme, a.d. 942, now in the British Museum, 
was exhibited by Mrs. Tyzack ; Etruscan horse-trappings and many 
miscellaneous objects collected during his last tour to Egypt and 
elsewhere, by Mr. W. Myers ; Roman sword from Hampshire, by 
the Rev. Canon Collier. A beautiful female head, of small size, in 
marble, found in the bed of the Walbrook, London, and considered to 
be Roman, was exhibited by the Rev. S. M. Mayhew. A Roman 
horseman in bronze, of small size, by Dr. Walker, found near Peter- 
borough. A drawing of a sculptured Roman stone found at Carlisle, 
of much interest, figured in the Journal, was exhibited by Mr. R. S. 
Ferguson. Mr. J. W. Grover has not forgotten to exhibit, from time 
to time, miscellaneous collections of Roman antiquities, to which his 
researches have so long been directed. Coins from Nero to Constan- 
tius, a vase, two water-pipes, part of a mortuariv,m y jug-handle, and 
glass bottles of various forms, besides miscellaneous relics from Mint 
Street, Southwark, and other localities, were produced by Mr. R. Earle 
Way. Drawing of a Roman statera, or steelyard, from Bainesse, near 
Catterick, Yorks., by the Rev. R. E. Hooppell ; Babylonian tablets of 
the fifth and sixth centuries, B.C. ; gold earrings and many miscella- 
neous exhibits throughout the session by Mr. Cecil Brent ; photographs 
of the Croft Cross by Mr. I' Anson ; and photos, of Roman remains at 
Treves and raauy other places by Mr. T. Blashill. Miss Kilner showed 
a Cingalese MS. written on palm-leaves ; and Mr. W. de Gray Birch a 
plate of inscriptions from St Michael's Church, Coventry. Rubbings 
of monumental brasses in Hants, by a new method, were exhibited by 
Mr. H. D. Cole of Winchester. Among them was one to John de 
Campeden, Master of the Hospital of St. Cross, 1382-1410. Finally, 
Mr. A. Wyon brought a medal, by John Roettier, of the Peace of Breda, 

Upon the whole, the two sessions have shown considerable archaeo- 
logical activity, and it is probable that the Congress about to be held 
at Lincoln this year will prove equally illustrative of past history. 
Mr. G. R. Wright, F.S.A., our Congress Secretary, assures us that 
such will be the case, from the influential support and assistance pro- 
mised in the neighbourhood, and the well known interest attaching to 
that ancient Cathedral city and its surroundings. 

This retrospect must not be closed without a passing reference to 
the many respected Associates whose names appear in the obituary of 


oar Journal , and who during a length of years have cheered our meet- 
ings, and enlightened our proceedings with their stores of knowledge, 
but have been taken from among us during the past two years. They 
have passed away, but the remembrance of them will not soon pass 

The following resolutions were then carried : — 

It was proposed by the Chairman, seconded by T. Morgan, Esq., 
that a hearty vote of thanks be rendered to the Marquess of Bute for 
his services as President during the Glasgow Congress and through 
the year. 

It was proposed by G. R. Wright, Esq., seconded by W. Laxton, 
Esq., that the best thanks of the Association be accorded to T. Mor- 
gan, Esq., for his services as Treasurer during the past year. Carried 

A vote of thanks to the Honorary Secretaries, W. de Gray Birch, 
Esq., P.S.A., and E. P. Loftus Brock, Esq., F.S.A., was then agreed 
to unanimously, on the proposition of Thos. Morgan, Esq., F.S.A., 
seconded by C. Brent, Esq., F.S.A. 

The Auditors were then especially thanked for their services. Pro- 
posed by E. P. Loftus Brock, Esq. ; seconded by G. Patrick, Esq. 

It was proposed by the Chairman, seconded by Mr. Howlett, P.S.A., 
that a vote of thanks be accorded to G. R. Wright, Esq., F.S.A., 
for his services as Congress Secretary. This was agreed to unani- 

Mr. Wright, in replying, referred to the active arrangements which 
have been already made for the Congress at Lincoln in July, and 
which will, he hoped, ensure the success of the meeting. 

A vote of thanks to the Rev. S. M. Mayhew was agreed to on the 
proposition of E. P. Loftus Brock, Esq., F.S.A., seconded by W. H. 
Cope, Esq., F.S.A. 

This was put to the meeting by T. Morgan, Esq., F.S.A., and after 
the Chairman had responded the proceedings came to a close. 

Wednesday, 15th Mat 1889. 
T. Morgan, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, in the Chair. 

Matthew Bulloch, Esq., of Bothwell Street, Glasgow, was duly 
elected an Associate. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors of the 
following presents to the Library : — 


To the Society, for " Archaeologia Cambrensis," the Journal of the 
Cambrian Archaeological Association. April 1889. 5th Series, 
No. 22. 
„ „ for u Archaeological Journal," vol. xlvi, No. 181. 

„ „ for " Transactions of the Burton-on-Trent Natural His- 

tory and Archaeological Society," vol. i, 1889. 
To Andrew Oliver, Esq., for a Plate of Rubbings of Brasses at Cobham 

and Cowfold. 
To Walter R. Skinner, Esq., for " The Mining Manual," 1889. 

The death of the Rev. Scott Surtees, lately elected to the Council, 
and that of the Rev. Canon Moore of Spalding, were announced, and 
received with regret. 

The visit of the Cambrian Archaeological Association to London was 
announced by Mr. Brock, who said that the visitors would be specially 
welcomed by the British Archaeological Association on that occasion. 

Mr. J. R. Allen, F.S.A.Scot., explained the programme of that 
Society's visit. 

Mr. G. R. Wright, F.S.A., gave further details of the Lincoln Con- 
gress. Mr. Wright also exhibited a collection of miscellaneous anti- 
quities belonging to the late Mr. Wm. Smith, and now to his daughter, 
Mrs. Wright, viz., three Etruscan vases of red and black ware; a 
Roman lamp, Venus chastising Cupid ; pieces of relief ware ; Samian 
mortarium with lion's head spout; Roman bronze fibula; two handles, 
Etruscan cylix ; and flat Egyptian bottle. 

Mr. Roofe also exhibited two Greek vases, — one with women pouring 
out a libation ; the other has an ivy-leaf scroll on the shoulder. 

Mr. Brock exhibited a drawing of a Roman terra-cotta relief found 
in excavations not far from the Roman camp at St. Catherine's, near 
Christ Church, Hants. The subject is a helmeted warrior resting the 
left foot on a low stand or pedestal. 

Mr. Andrew Oliver's present of rubbings from brasses from Cowfold 
and Cobham was described by Mr. Brock. 

Mr. W. de G. Birch exhibited Mr. Pritchett's careful drawing to 
scale of the Clervaulx tomb in Croft Church, Durham. 

Mr. T. Morgan, V.P., F.S. A., Hon. Treasurer, read a paper on " The 
Battle of Brunanburg", which will be printed in the Journal hereafter. 
In the discussion which ensued, Mr. Allen, Mr. Brock, Mr. Birch, and 
Mr. Wright, took part. 

Mr. J. Mathews Jones, of Chester, exhibited drawings of sections of 
other excavations at the Wall of Chester, west of North Gate. These 
are of the highest interest to the controversy still existing as to the age 
of the Walls. 


"Wednesday, 5th Jdnb 1889. 
W. H. Cope, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., ih the Chair. 

Christopher Lethbridge Cowland, Esq., St. John's, Launceston, was 
duly elected an Associate. 

Thanks were ordered by the Conncil to be returned to the respective 
donors of the following presents to the Library : 

To the Society, for " Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society, 1888-9," vol. xiii, Part I. 

„ „ for " Pemfitky Archaeologicke a metopisne." V. Praze. 


„ „ for " Gescbafts-bericht welcher in der General- Versamm- 

lung der Gesellschafb des Museums des Konigreiches Bohmen 
am 10 Februar 1889, vorgelegt wurde." Prag, 1889. 

„ „ for " Newbury District Field Club, Rules, and Excursion 

to Penshurst, ,, 1889. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, exhibited a drawing of, and 
read notes on, some recently discovered Roman remains at the Croy- 
don Sewage Farm, Beddington, Surrey. 

Mr. Brock also announced the discovery of a Roman pottery-kiln in 
a wood near Botley, Hants, which the Rev. Canon Collier, F.S.A., 
desired to communicate to the Association. The inside is highly glazed 
or vitrified. The bricks are 8£ by 4J in., and 2 in. thick. Roman 
pottery has been found in an adjacent field, and other Roman remains 
have been found about a mile away. Small pieces of charcoal were 
picked up near the kiln. 

Mr. C. H. Compton drew attention to a recent exposure of part of 
the Roman wall of London on the south side of Ludgate Hill, and 
Mr. Brock stated that further portions were likely to be revealed dur- 
ing the progress of excavations now going on there. 

Mr. A. G. Langdon exhibited rubbings of sculptured stones in Corn- 
wall : 1, a Saxon "coped" stone, 7 ft. 6 in. long; 2, the Pendarves 

Mr. W. Myers, F.S.A., exhibited a large collection of antiquities 
recently brought by him from oriental and other sites. Among them 
were a string of Roman paste-beads, ditto Egyptian, a small terra- 
cotta vase, a pair of fibulae, a bronze ring with a bee on the shoulder, 
two plaques, one vase-handle, one ornament, one Egyptian Osiris, one 
hieroglyphic ring of the thirteenth dynasty, one porcelain jar-handle, 
one stone bust, one stone Horns, one terra-cotta fish, one wooden box, 
one bronze instrument, one string of blue beads, one stone knife, one 


silver urn, one stone amulet, five large chevron- bands, one stone vase, 
one weight, and one plaque. 

Mr. Myers also exhibited an illustration of the newly discovered 
column at the back of the Pantheon at Rome, showing the remarkably 
beantiful character of the carved capital. 

Mr. Brock described the further progress of arrangements for the 
Lincoln Congress. 

Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, exhibited a photograph of 
the Anglo-Saxon charter of King Edward the Confessor to Coventry 
Minster, and read a short paper on it 

Mr. Birch also exhibited an impression of the present seal of the 
Dean and Chapter of Llandaff, communicated by Mr. R. W. Griffith of 
Cardiff. The design is apparently a quaint reproduction of the twelfth 
century seal in the British Museum, which was shown to the Congress 
members of the Cambrian Archaeological Association during their 
recent meeting in London. 

Mr. Birch also read a communication from Mr. J, T. Irvine of Peter- 
borough, showing that part of the remains of the apse which termi- 
nated the north aisle of the choir of this Cathedral has been seen since 
sending up the plan of that found at the east end of the south choir- 
aisle. Both plans correspond. A very richly carved cap to a square 
pilaster of considerable size was found used as a building stone in such 
foundation-wall. The carving is remarkably bold, and very classic in 
treatment. It retains thick coats of a whitewash received prior to 
1116, and belonged probably to the works of Abbot Ernulph. The 
striking contrast of work so richly carved as this is with the sternness 
everywhere present in the later Norman work of the existing church 
is remarkable. 


Antiquarian Intelligence, 

The Ancient Town of Warton. — Carnforth, 1 North Lancashire) with 
its dilapidated sacred buildings, — part of the Gothic ruins ivy clad and 
neglected, 2 a portion used as the clerical residence, and part used as 
the parish church of the district, — is at present exciting a certain 
amount of public interest. Repairs, long needed, to the roof and clere- 
story of this Warton parish church are being executed; and not 
merely locally, but in America, attention directed to the lovely spot, 
situated under the towering crags of mountain limestone ; for in the 
hamlet there is, it appears, a residence named " Washington House", 
and it has always been stated that the Washington arms were to be 
found on the western front of the church tower. Armorial shields, 
carved in relief, exist east and west of what was formerly the main 
entrance at the base of this tower, — an entrance now blocked by 
accumulated rubbish, and a window inserted into the upper part, and 
its interior used as a modern vestry. These shields have been 
pointed out as Washington shields to visitors ; but they are quite 
plain, that is, without carved device of any kind ; and even if origin- 
ally painted, every vestige of design has disappeared. It was only 
on the falling from the tower-front of the church of a considerable 
flake of modern rough-cast cement that the true Washington shield 
appeared to view with its bearings perfect, namely, argent, two bars 
gules, in chief three mullets of the second; 8 as supposed, the founda- 
tion of the American national ensign, the stripes and stars. 

On Whit Tuesday, whilst visiting the old church, and especially 
examining the tower (which to me seems to need careful repair, so as 
to take care of the architectural treasures that have been spared to 
this period), the intelligent parish clerk, G. Tatham, asked an opinion 
as to a device carved on the lintel of the entrance from the tower-Btair 
to the belfry. As one enters the belfry, one sees the design on looking 
up. The position is such as to render it not at all likely that it could 
have been carved after the structure was built, for it is fatiguing 

1 Formerly Kerneford. 

2 Last used as a tithe* barn. 

3 The shield is of beautiful form. The tinctures are not depicted, as is usual 
in carved shields of the base period in heraldry. The device in chief seems to 
me neither to be of the character of the mullet, or mullet of six points, but 
resembles' cross) ets. 1 see no indication of a crescent for difference, unless it 
be a blemish indentation in the honour-point of the shield ; for Lucas refers 
to it, and says, argent, two bars gules; in chief, three mullets of the second, 
with a crescent for difference. 


merely to look up at the device. The representation resembles, I 
think, a hatchet with broad blade and slender support and shape. The 
design is poorly drawn and executed. It reaches about two-thirds 



across the roof of the entrance-passage, and is of this form. To me it 
seems to be such a device as masons were wont to execute, that is, 
quaint and significant badges of personal remembrance, — say a hatchet 
for Hatch ; for in the days of old men worked not merely for their pay 
but for fame, and had pleasure in their handicraft, and took pride in 
it. Or it has a wider significance, for ancient objects of veneration 
were frequently made use of for sacred purposes in changes of outward 
religion during the upward intellectual progress of our own race ; and 
this lintekstone with its curiously formed hatchet has possibly been 
used in the so-called pagan period for devotional purposes. If so, it 
is not the only one, for in the Duke of Sutherland's Museum at Dun- 
robin there is a stone cross finely carved with Celtic fretwork ; yet 
on the opposite side of the stone it has rude sacrificial representations 
of the Druidical period. John Harker. 

The Church Bells of Suffolk, by John James Raven, D.D., of Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge, Vicar of Fressingfield-with-Withersdale, 
and Honorary Canon of Norwich Cathedral, is in preparation, and will 
be published by subscription. — The early publication of this work is 
announced by Messrs. Jarrold and Sons, Norwich. It will contain an 
account of all the church bells in the county of Suffolk, their makers 
and history, so far as they can be discovered, with about ninety illus- 
trations. Incidental notices will be introduced of the ancient uses of 
bells, the individuals mentioned on them, and many historical events 
connected therewith. Introductory remarks on the general history of 
bells will be prefixed to the local portion of the work. The book will 
be fully illustrated with engravings of ornaments, letterings, founders' 
marks, shields, etc., of which some will be found hitherto unknown. 
The latter portion of the work will contain a complete list of churches 
in the county, with the inscriptions on the bells now belonging to 
them, as well as on many which have been recast. 

The demy 8vo. edition is limited to 500 copies, and will be offered 
to subscribers before the day of publication at 15*. net; the larger edi- 
tion, royal 4to., is limited to 50 copies, and will be subscribed at 25s. 

St. Laurence Church Tower, Thanet. — In connection with the repara- 
tion of the ancient fabric of St. Laurence's Church it may be interesting 


to note the connection of Archbishop Laurence, the companion and 
successor of St. Augustine, with the church bearing his name. He 
appears to have been second only, in point of energy and influence, to 
the great and sainted pioneer of Christianity in Britain himself, and 
there is a poem which ascribes to him certain miraculoas cures. 

St. Augustine landed at Ebbs Fleet in August 597, and with him 
were Laurence, who succeeded him as Archbishop, and Peter, the first 
Abbot of St. Augustine's, who gave his name to St. Peter's, Thanet. 
It is seventy years after the landing of St. Augustine before we have 
any authentic record of the foundation of a religious house in Thanet 
(St. Mildred's Abbey), and in 730 the present Minster Abbey was 
founded. It is not, however, at all improbable that during the life- 
time of SS. Augustine and Laurence religious houses were founded at 
Minster and St. Laurence, the latter probably by Laurentius himself. 
There are records of the existence of a church here in 1062, while the 
churchyard was consecrated so long ago as 1275. The church seems 
to have attained its present form about a.d. 1200. 

The tower is one of considerable archsBological and architectural 
interest. It dates back to the early part of the twelfth century, and is 
terminated by an addition made in the fifteenth century, which includes 
a portion of the wall under the parapet, and the whole of the parapet 
itself. There is a fine ring of six bells. 

The first instalment of the repairs, the interior of the tower, was 
undertaken in commemoration of Queen Victoria's Jubilee, and has 
been successfully carried out ; but the funds are now exhausted. As 
this work advanced, it became apparent that the upper part of the 
exterior was full of large cracks, and the parapet also was in so dan- 
gerous a condition that it was necessary either to remove or repair it 
at once. The Committee felt, therefore, constrained to go on to the 
completion of the tower. 

This farther appeal is made in the hope that the snm now required 
will be heartily contributed by neighbours residing in the five parishes 
which have been formed out of the original parish of St. Laurence, 
and by other loyal friends of the church. Donations will be received 
by the Vicar and Churchwardens. 

The Great Seals of England from the Earliest Period to the Present 
Time. Commenced by the late A. B. Wton, F.R.G.S., and completed by 
Allan Wyon, F.R.G.S. (London : Stock, 1887.)— If patient assiduity 
and conscientious labour could alone avail to produce so great a work 
as the one before us, it could not have been entrusted to better hands 
than those of our Associates, the brothers Wyon, Chief Engravers of 
Her Majesty's Seals, whose particular and special employment has 
well fitted them for the task they have so happily carried out. The 


course of its production demanded on the part of the authors an inti- 
mate acquaintance with the history of England and France, and this 
not only political but personal and biographical ; a sound knowledge 
of the heraldry, hagiography, and bibliography of the subject ; and a 
profound intimacy with the art which seals, especially seals of sove- 
reigns, illustrate and represent. Armed with these advantages, as they 
were, it became necessary for them to examine and determine the rela- 
tive importance of a vast collection of impressions preserved in our 
museums, the archives of cities, cathedrals, towns, and private families, 
and in the many miscellaneous niches which enshrine these elegant 
art-relics of departed dynasties. 

The sum of all this is given to the world in the form of a large folio 
volume of elaborate execution as regards printing and binding, en- 
riched with a large series of permanent photographs, full size, embody- 
ing the whole collection of types at present recognised as distinct. By 
the production of this work the Wyons have certainly succeeded in 
attaining a foremost literary position as exponents of a very interest- 
ing branch of archaeology. 

We cannot expect that every type of royal seal has yet been cata- 
logued, for since the publication of this book a few new seals have 
been found, and they will, no doubt, take their proper places in any 
new edition ; but it would be impossible to overrate the merits which 
it possesses both for thoroughness and accuracy, two paramount pro- 
perties which combine to make it an indispensable text-book to all 
whose studies or tastes direct their attention to the Great Seals of 

The Church-Bells of the County of Stafford. By Charles Lynam, 
P.R.I. B. A. 1889. — Campanology, one of the many subdivisions of 
antiquarian science, which has of late years taken up a specific and dis- 
tinct position for itself, will always be an attractive pursuit. Many 
works on bells have emanated from the laborious investigations of 
county archaeologists ; but the one before us is in many respects second 
to none. The music which the bells of our rural and urban churches 
discourse delight some, while others, like Mr. Lynam, our artistic 
Associate, take pleasure in climbing bell-towers, taking casts or sketches 
of mediaeval legends around the bells, and tabulating the result of their 
investigations in the attractive form of a handsome volume which is a 
really valuable contribution to our knowledge of all that appertains to 

Staffordshire is, in this respect, quite a representative county. The 
greater number of the examples are of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies ; and as Mr. Lynam figures every inscription of importance, as 
a result we have a fine and copious collection of ornamental letters and 


numerals, stops, crosses, foliage, and devices, such as is afforded by no 
other clasB of mediaeval relics. The inscriptions also fall into classes. 
The language is, for the most part, English ; bnt among the earlier 
bells Latin is frequently found. Apart from names of founders and 
churchwardens, and occasional dates, some examples record pious sen* 
timents, as for example : — 

" + Ihesus be mi sped." 
" + Ihesus be oure spede." 
" Sancte Maria ora pro nobis." 
" + In onore sancte Trenete." 
" + Missi de celis vos salvet vox Gabriel is." 
" S'ce gregore o. p." 
" + Veni veni creator spiritus 
Mentes tuorum visita." 
" Te Deum Laudamus." 
" Cantate Domeno canticum novum." 

Some of the English inscriptions are very quaint, as, for example, — 

" Come away, make no delay." 
" Come at my call and serve God all." 
"Peace and good neighbourhood." 
" Prosperity to this parish." 
" God save his church." 
" God send us peace." 
"When you us ring we '11 sweetly sing." 
" With equal note to church I call 
To marriage and to funeral." 

With the true feelings of the artist, Mr. Lynam adds, by way of 
appendix, some capital notes on the church towers, with careful 
sketches of the best examples. 



Britisi) £vcljaeolocjual 8$$<matfom 





{Concluded from p. 130.) 

Whatever deduction we may make from the traditions 
regarding Merlin, on the ground of legend and myth, 
there remain in his relations to Ardderyd and Gwenddo- 
leu, and his share in the battle — even his insanity — a 
substance of truth. This is clear from the Merlinian 
poems, which are traceable as distinctive compositions far 
back to the early centuries. They are preserved in MSS. 
written a considerable time after their actual composi- 
tion, viz., the Black Book of Caermarthen (1154-89), time 
of Henry II ; the Book of Aneurin, in the latter part of 
the thirteenth century ; the Book of Taliessin, in the 
beginning of the fourteenth century ; the Red Book of 
Hergest in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 1 These 
poems are kt least six in number : — 

There is (1), the dialogue between Taliessin and Myr- 
din {Black Book of Caermarthen, i ; Skene, i, p. 368). 

There is (2) the Avallenau in its oldest form {ibid., xvii; 
Skene, i, p. 370). 

There is (3), the Kyvoesi Myrdin, a dialogue between 
Merlin and his sister Gwendydd {Red Book of Hergest ^ i ; 
Skene, i, p. 462). 

1 Skene, Four Ancient Books of Wales, i, p. 3. 
1889 14 


There is (4), a Fugitive Poem of Myrdin in his Grave 
(Red Book o/Hergest, ii ; Skene, p. 478). 

There is (5) the poem beginning " Blessed is the birch 
in the Valley of the Gwy" (Black Book of Caermarthen, 
xvi ; Skene, i, p. 481). 

There is (6) the poem beginning " Listen, O little pig", 
etc. (ibid., xviii; Skene, i, p. 482). 

The first two poems (Dialogue between Taliessin and 
Myrdin, and the Avallenau) are regarded by Cymric 
scholars as the oldest, and as original, or very nearly 
so. The others, while containing original stanzas, are 
held to have been subject to interpolations by later 
hands ; but all of them have characteristics and refer- 
ences in common, not possessed by the other poems in the 
Four Ancient Books of Wales. In nearly every one there 
is mournful reference to Ardderyd and Gwenddoleu ; 
there is reference to the twin-sister Gwendydd; and 
they are characterised especially by a tone of wailing and 
regret for the past with its mournful memories, and a 
certain despair about the future which obtrudes itself on 
the vision of the seer. There is a constant sense of con- 
trast between the happy life of the bard, gone for ever, 
and his present lot. "Sorrow's crown of sorrow is 
remembering happier things/' There is, further, a feel- 
ing for nature of a remarkable, even delicate kind ; and 
there is a peculiar attitude to the Christianity, or rather 
ecclesiasticism, of the time. 

The prevailing tone is the sadness I have indicated. 

" As Gwenddoleu was slain in the blood-spilling of Ardderyd, 
And I have come from among the furze." 

(Cyvoesi, Skene, i, 462 et seq.) 
" Has not the burden been consigned to earth P 
Every one must give up what he loves." 

" Beneath my green sod is he not still ? 
The chief of sovereigns of the North, of mildest disposition." 

" The Creator has caused me heavy affliction : 
Dead is Morgeneu, dead is Mordav, 
Dead is Moryen : I wish to die." 


The Merlinian poems, both earlier and later, contain 
very marked references to natural objects, especially trees 


and flowers. There is a distinct feeling for nature for its 
own sake. The Merlin of the poems seems to rejoice in 
wood and mountain. Others of the poets in the Four 
Ancient Books of Wales enumerate natural objects not 
without regard ; in the Merlinian poems there is a special 
feeling for them. Perhaps this is due to the nature- 
worship of the Cymri, of which Merlin was certainly a 
representative and embodiment. Such a form of worship 
necessarily led to careful, minute, and loving observation 
of the forms of the outward world, and this must eventu- 
ally end in a complacent and sympathetic regard for 
them. Merlin worshipped, we are told, "woods, fountains, 
stones, and more or less the spirits of the air, water, fire, 
and earth ; he interrogated the stars, predicted the 
future, as his predecessors had done, and gave himself up 
to the magical practices of the time forbidden by Councils 
and punished by the Church. He was, if baptized, 
Christian only in name." (Villemarqud, Merlin, pp. 33-4.) 
In this relation the apple-tree is the favourite, a con- 
stantly recurring object of address and regard in the Mer- 
linian poems ; and this is a very singular fact, — showing 
a feeling for bloom and blossom, the early life of spring, — 
symbolising, I think, the heart of hope which waited 
patiently until autumn touched the tree with its ripened 
gold, — a hope not always fulfilled, for the bloom was 
often untimely frayed. 

" Great apple-tree of delightful branches, 
B adding luxuriantly, and shooting forth renowned scions." 

Again : 

" Great apple-tree, a green tree of luxurious growth ; 
How large are its branches, and beautiful its form !" 

Again : 

" Great apple-tree, and a yellow tree, 
Grew at Tal Ardd, without a garden surrounding it." 

The " yellow tree" here, the " pren melyn", is the bar- 
berry, appropriately pictured as yellow, and growing be- 
yond the garden-garth, free in the wilds. Then we have : 

" Sweet apple-tree, that grows by the river side." 

" Sweet apple-tree, and a tree of crimson hue, 
Which grew in concealment in the Wood of Celyddon." 

14 * 


Can the tree of " crimson hue" be the rowan ? I have 
little doubt that it is. If so, w.e have in this and other 
points evidence of a feeling for objects in nature, on 
the part of these old Cymn, which wholly disappeared 
from Scottish, even English poetry for hundreds of years 
subsequent to their time. 

His sister addresses him as " the fosterer of song among 
the streams". What finer touch could" there be than this, 
or what more direct reference to a soul yearning for, de- 
lighting in, the music of the hills ? Then the following 
show the heart of one out amid the wilds, and therein re- 
joicing : 

" Listen, little pig ! Is not the mountain green ? 

• • • • 

Listen, little pig ! Are not the buds of thorns 

Very green, the mountain beaut if ol, and beautiful the earth f " 

Then we have references to the notes of birds : 

" Listen to birds whose notes are pleasant." 

• • • • 

" Listen, little pig ! Hear thou the melody 
And chirping of birds by Caor Reon !" 

But the notes of birds had a significance for him more 
than the merely pleasing. They were symbolical, pro- 
phetic : 

" Listen, little pig ! thou little, speckled one ! 
List to the voice of sea-birds ! Great is their energy ! 
Minstrels will be out, without their appropriate portion ; 
Though they stand at the door a reward will not come, 
I was told by a seagull that had come from afar. 

To me it is of no purpose 
To hear the voice of water-birds whose scream is tumultuous. 
Thin is the hair of my head ; my covering is not warm. 
The dales are my barn ; my corn is not plenteous." 

Merlin's relation to the Christianity of the time is 
tolerably clear. He was more or less influenced by it ; 
perhaps at one time or other, partially at least, embraced 
it. But he obviously wavered ; probably gave it up for 
his original nature-worship and his power of enchantment 
and prophecy. Merlin was essentially a bard and seer, 
the product and reflection of his age, and this he in sub- 
stance remained to the end. We must disregard the 
mythical and comparatively Christian character assigned 
to him in the later poems and traditions of the Welsh. 


We find his true position depicted in the old Avallenau 
and by himself. There he appears on the pagan side at 
the battle of Ardderyd. He is not in favour with the 
conqueror, Bydderch Hael, who appears in a somewhat 
later Merlinian poem as 

" the enemy 
Of the city of the Bards in the region of the Clyd." 1 

Then, as he himself tells us, he is hated for his creed by 
the foremost minister of Rydderch, and this we know 
was the Christian Bishop Kentigern. Even in the famous 
interview between Merlin and Kentigern on the wilds, 
related in the Scoto-Chronicon (the details of which are, 
of course, fabulous), Merlin is represented, after making a 
formal acknowledgment of the Trinity, as at once relaps- 
ing into soothsaying, and offering to prophesy three 
events of importance to the incredulous Kentigern, who 
thinks it right, however, to dismiss him with a blessing. 

Then there are the pleadings of his sister Gwendydd 
with him in the name of God and Christ, and his refer- 
ence, in reply, to God as " the Chief of Creatures". She 
urges him, before he dies, to partake of the Communion ; 
but he indignantly refuses to accept this at the hands of 
"excommunicated monks", 2 whatever this phrase may 
mean, and says " May God Himself give me communion." 3 
Then the loving sister says to him finally, — 

" I will commend my blameless 
Brother in the supreme Caer. 
May God take care of Myrdin !" 

And he replies, — 

" I, too, will commend my blameless 
Sister in the supreme Caer. 
May God take care of Gwendydd ! 


Merlin's references to priests, monks, and bishops, are 

1 Dialogue between Merdin and His Sister, later form of the Avallenau, 
Skene, i, p. 463. 

9 The same contempt for the monks is found in the Book of Talies- 
sin (xxx), Skene, i, 2(&, — 

" Monks congregate like dogs in a kennel. 
From contact with their superiors they acquire knowledge." 
* # * 

"Monks congregate like wolves." 

8 Skene, i, p. 477. * Ibid., p. 477-8. 


almost uniformly disparaging, — even bitter. He fore- 
saw the rise of this to him unworthy class into power and 
social importance, and the corresponding disparagement 
of the bards ; and he bewails it beforehand as one of the 
evils of his country, and a source to him of personal grief. 
The priest was to be inside, and hospitably entertained ; 
the bard was to be left standing outside the threshold, 
without his portion. 

Merlin detested the rising ecclesiasticism of his time, 
and at the same time he had, to a certain extent, sup- 
plemented his feeling of nature-worship, and his belief 
in the grasp of supernatural powers, by a theism and 
some dim hold of a Trinity of Persons. His faith in 
the omnipotence, if it ever existed, of the supersensible 
powers at his command, was rudely shaken by the dis- 
aster to his party and himself sustained at Ardderyd, 
and he passed the remainder of his life a doubting, 
broken-hearted, and despairing man. This, I believe, was 
the true Merlin of the Wood of Caledon, of the wilds of 
Drummelzier, and the Myrdin Wylt of the early Welsh 
bards and historians. In one of the Merlinian poems there 
is reference to 

" The single, white-bearded person who exhausted Dy ved, 
Who erected a chancel in the land for those of partial belief, 
In the upland region and among wild beasts." 1 

The chancel in the upland region is characteristic, and 
the phrase " partial belief conveys precisely the attitude 
of Merlin to the Christian faith. 

The later conception of Merlin, as developed in the 
middle ages, and to be found in the pages of Malory, and 
accepted by Tennyson, has nothing in common with the 
reality. It is the view o£ a wholly inferior characfter ; it 
is simply that of the wise man entrapped and overcome 
through the vulgar wiles of a woman, — a kind of tempta- 
tion to which others than the wise are not less subject. 

We must add to the features of the original Merlin his 
wizard power. Of what sort this was, or was supposed 
to be, we may learn from the traditions regarding the 
Welsh Gwydyon ap Don. He could call up before the 
eyes of men a fair woman from the blossoms of the tree ; 

1 Skene, i, p. 483 ; B. B. of Caermarthen, xviii. 


the springing plants were changed into forms of heroes 
seated on prancing horses. If his castle were attacked, 
he could call up, with a wave of the hand, the stream of 
the rainbow to encircle the stronghold, and scare away 
the assailants ; every sieger fled surprised and awed. 
Toiling spirits were ever ready at his command. 1 

Whatever we may think of this pretension, it is true 
that the people of the time profoundly believed in the 
wizard as a real power; and what is more, those who were 
supposed to possess it were not conscious impostors. It 
was the form in which £he sphere of the supersensible 
appeared to the early, sensitive, and imaginative Cymric 
race; the supernatural power was not wholly divorced 
from the world, it was incarnate in some men. But the 
gift was accompanied by some awesome conditions. This 
same Gwydyon ap Don is represented by the bard as 
engaged in a feat-some and mysterious struggle : — 

" I saw a fierce conflict in Nant Frangcon 
On a Sunday, at the time of dawn, 
Between the bird of wrath and Gwydion." 2 

We thus see how it was that mediaeval personages in the 
Lowlands of Scotland were credited with supernatural 
powers ; that Lord Soulis had his familiar Red-Cap, that 
Michael Scott sought to rule rebellious sprites, and how 
the whole feeling of Scotland during the Stuarts was 
tinged with awe of the supernatural and belief in faery, 
ending in witchcraft, and its attribution to the Devils 
power. This, in its essence, was a Cymric inheritance, 
transmitted through the mediaeval romancers. 

This conception of the higher world was, no doubt, sen- 
suous and inadequate ; but it was not wholly groundless 
or without its elevating power. The natural, as it is 
called, — the part of the world presented to the senses, 
and unwarrantably emphasised as the whole, — is but a 
clothing, an incarnation of the soul beyond and in it ; as 
such it is truly symbolical. It manifests mind analo- 
gous at least to our own ; thus we know it, feel it, are 
able to put meaning into it. Sometimes it shows emo- 
tion, as it were, by sympathy with us in our moral and 
spiritual moods. Again, it appears to be in contrast 

1 The Chair of Ceridzven, B. of Talimin, xvi ; Skene, i, 296. 
* Ibid. 


and in conflict with our mental and moral processes ; it 
• seems to scorn and to spurn our individual aspirations, 
efforts, and purposes. It passes by and over the indi- 
vidual, as if in pursuit of some far off divine event, 
towards which it is eagerly moving. The old Cymric 
view which spiritualised the world and the powers of 
earth and air, even the erroneous faith in the capacity 
of the individual to grasp, master, and wield certain of 
those powers, were but aim precursors of that higher 
faith which finds the Divine in nature, which regards the 
so-called natural as by itself a mere fragment of what is, 
and of that insight into the life of things, based on open- 
ness of vision and reverential waiting on the revelation 
to be found there, which brings the world of heaven and 
earth, of light and shadow, of hill and stream and flower, 
into the heart of man, and thus truly enables him to 
make it his own. 




(Read at the Glasgow Congress, August 1888.) 

The original name of the lands of Craignethan was Draf- 
fan, and they are first heard of under that appellation 
in 1160, when Arnold, Abbot of Kelso, granted them in 
fee to Lambyn Asa for a reddendo of two and a half silver 
merks. In 1271 they were held by Sir Hugh de Craw- 
ford and Alice his spouse ; but no documents have been 
discovered throwing any light on their ownership for a 
considerable period after this date, though it is probable 
they formed part of the vast possessions of the House of 
Douglas. It is also uncertain at what period they passed 
into the hands of the Hamiltons, but in all likelihood 
James, first Lord Hamilton, obtained possession of them 
shortly after the forfeiture of the Black Douglases in 
1455. He probably erected the keep of the Castle, which 
appears to date from the latter half of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. In 1529 the fortalice, under the name of Castre 
de Nauthan, with the adjacent lands, was bestowed by 
James, second Lord Hamilton, and first Earl of Arran, 
upon his natural son, Sir James Hamilton of Finnart, and 
to this remarkable man it undoubtedly owes alike much 
of its architectural importance and its historical interest. 
It is impossible witnin the limits at my disposal to do 
more than touch upon the salient points in the career of 
one of the most notable figures of the reign of James V. 
Hamilton's character is a most complex one, and it is dif- 
ficult to understand how one possessed of his fine taste 
and artistic skill should have been conspicuous for fero- 
city and barbarity even in the rude age in which he 
lived. His career up till the period of his fall was one 
long series of honours and successes, and he became the 
possessor of a chain of estates running from Crawford- 
john, in Upper Clydesdale, to Finnart in Western Ren- 
frewshire. The offices of dignity and profit he held were 
innumerable, — Captain of the Palace of Linlithgow, She- 
riff of the counties of Linlithgow and Renfrew, Bailie of 


the Barony of Lesmahagow, Cupbearer and Steward of 
the Household, the King's Master of Work and Superin- 
tendent of the Royal Palaces, Lord High Treasurer, 
Governor of Dumbarton Castle, and last, but not least 
remarkable, Grand Inquisitor in all cases of heresy. 
Every effort was made to efface the stain on his birth. 
He was twice legitimated, first in January 1512-13; and 
second, with three natural sons of his own, in November 
1539 ; while the King even gave him the right to incor- 
porate the royal double tressure in his coat of arms. 

Amongst, the many cruel and violent deeds of his life 
none was baser than his slaughter, in cold blood, of the 
Earl of Lennox after the battle of Linlithgow Bridge in 
1526, — a murder which his father Arran bewailed, ex- 
claiming with anguish that the wisest, best, and bravest 
man in Scotland had fallen. And yet, with all his fero- 
city and rapacity, he was the architect of some of the 
finest portions of the Palaces of Holyrood, Falkland, and 
Linlithgow, while the Castles of Edinburgh, Stirling, and 
Rothesay were considerably added to and adorned by his 
genius. It is, therefore, not surprising that he should 
have devoted attention to the improvement of his own 
residence at Craignethan, and to him are attributed the 
enclosing walls and towers round the keep, with the 
outer courtyard. 

In 1540 King James visited him at Craignethan, on 
the occasion of the marriage of his daughter to James, 
Master of Somerville ; but his career of prosperity was 
soon to close. In the following year he was accused of 
connivance in a plot to assassinate the King; and though 
it seems not improbable that the charge was groundless, 
he was found guilty and executed, while his estates were 

In 1541 the Lord Treasurers accounts contain entries 
of disbursements in connection with the maintenance of 
Craignethan Castle ; and in that year also James again 
visited it while on a hunting expedition in Lanarkshire. 

The Castle and lands remained annexed to the Crown 
till after the King's death, when the forfeiture was re- 
called, and they were restored to a son of Hamilton of 
Finnart, who subsequently became Sir James Hamilton 
of Evandale, and Sheriff of Lanarkshire. The latter did 


not, however, long retain possession of them, as James, 
second Earl of Arran, was desirous of acquiring them, and 
they were subsequently conveyed to him. 

There is a tradition that Queen Mary was at Craigne- 
than after her flight from Lochleven on 2nd May 1568. 
Mr. Greenshields of Kerse, in his Annals of Lesmahagow, 
seems to consider the tradition as founded x>n fact, point- 
ing out that it is undoubted that Mary proceeded to 
Hamilton, where her friends and adherents assembled 
from all quarters. Sir William Drury, writing to Cecil 
on the 6th of May 1568, informs him that since the 
despatch of his last letter he " could not hear of any 
more than that the Queen continued at Draffan, among 
the Hamiltons." The tradition of the district is that 
Mary, after remaining some time at Cadzow Castle, was 
removed to Craignethan as a place of greater security ; 
and, as Mr. Greenshields says, the Place of Hamilton at 
that time being merely a square tower, altogether un- 
suited for a royal residence, it is quite likely that Craig- 
nethan, both from its strength and its greater distance 
from Glasgow, where Moray was assembling his forces, 
would be selected as the most suitable dwelling for the 
Queen in the district. 

Be this as it may, it is undoubted that when, after 
Langside, Moray made an incursion into the Middle Ward, 
he took possession both of Craignethan and the Place of 

In 1570, during the struggles between the adherents 
of Mary and those of her son James VI, Sir William 
Drury and the English army took the Place of Hamilton 
(which was held by the Queen's party) and destroyed it. 
The defenders were, however, allowed to retire to Craig- 
nethan, and meeting Lord Sempill, one of the leaders of 
their opponents, seized him and carried him with them. 

In 1579, when John and Claud Hamilton were attainted 
for their supposed complicity in the assassination of the 
Regent Moray, Craignethan was again besieged, and in 
it was found James, the third Earl of Arran. Despite 
the fact that he had been insane for many years, he was 
taken prisoner, and kept for some time in captivity. 

Craignethan remained in the hands of the Hamiltons 
till 1661, when the Duchess Anne sold it to Andrew Hay. 


The latter seems, from the arms over the entrance to the 
mansion, which he (in the words of Hamilton of Wishaw) 
" built with the ruins of the Castle in the corner of the 
garden", to have been a cadet of the house of Tweeddale. 
In 1720 the Castle and lands were acquired by purchase 
from the Hay family by the Duke of Douglas, and after 
his death passed, by the decision of the House of Lords 
in the famous Douglas cause, to Archibald Douglas, son 
of Lady Jane Douglas, the Duke's sister, and her hus- 
band, Sir John Stewart of Grandtully. Mr. Douglas was 
raised to the peerage in 1790, but the title became ex- 
tinct in 1857. Craignethan now belongs to his descend- 
ant and representative in the female line, Charles, twelfth 
Earl of Home. 

The Castle consists of an inner and outer courtyard 
separated by a dry ditch or moat 30 ft. wide. The outer 
courtyard, 190 ft. by 140 ft., is surrounded by a battle- 
mented wall, and has square towers at the north-western 
and south-western angles. The inner courtyard, 82 ft. 
by 65 ft., contains the keep, which is battlemented, and 
has bartizans at the angles and over the entrance. The 
corbelling of the battlements is extremely fine and artistic. 
The enclosing wall of the inner courtyard is strengthened 
on the south by two towers, one of which is of unusual 

It is well known that Craignethan was the prototype 
of the " Tillietudlem" of Sir Walter Scott's Old Mortality. 
The house to which reference has been made as having 
been built by Andrew Hay in the outer courtyard was 
offered as a residence to the great novelist by Lord Doug- 
las ; and Lockhart tells us he was at first disposed to 
entertain the proposal favourably, though circumstances 
subsequently occurred which altered his intention. 



(Read 29th August 1888.) 

Anyone who attempts to give an account of the condi- 
tion of the Rock of Stirling and its inhabitants in prehis- 
toric times will find little upon which to found a particu- 
lar and detailed description. It is probable that for long 
after the glacial period the Rock was uninhabitable, and 
not until the sea retreated from the Carse of Stirling and 
the Vale of Menteith, would shelter and subsistence for 
human beings be obtainable upon its craggy height. As 
time rolled on, and the rock became peopled, the mud- 
hut would mark the abode of the inhabitants, and the 
"broch" their fortress in time of danger. The " folk-moot" 
was situated on the northernmost spur of the Gowan 
Hills, and from their highest point may have blazed forth 
the sacrificial fires of Baal. The advantages of the site 
for communication by signal with other neights in the 
surrounding plain would soon be recognised. Naturally 
the locality would form a centre for great gatherings, 
whether friendly or hostile ; and from the frequency of 
the struggles for possession of the eminence, it has been 
called " Striveling", or the Rock of Strife, — the Mons 
Dolorum of the monkish writers. Such is the generally 
received derivation of the name of Stirling ; and it may 
be of interest to archaeologists to devote a few minutes 
of the short time at our disposal to this question of nomen- 

What was the name of Stirling before it became a rock 
of strife ? The pertinence of this query has been tacitly 
acknowledged by Sir Robert Sibbald and other writers, 
who explain that the strife alluded to in " Striveling" is 
not the warfare of men, but the striving of the waters of 
the Teith, the Allan, and the Forth, which meet near 
Stirling. This derivation is at least ingenious, if some- 
what poetical, as it accounts for both parts of the word 
" Striveling", which the more common etymology fails to 
do ; but the probability is that neither the strife of men 


nor the strife of waters is commemorated by the name of 

If we look for a topographical explanation of the name 
we are likely to be more successful. When the face of 
the country was changed by the last elevation of the 
land, and *Mr. Geikie's Lake Caledonia rushed into the 
Frith of Forth, and was lost in the German Ocean, the 
Rock of Stirling was surrounded by a marsh which in the 
deeper depressions formed little lochs or lakelets. In 
the name of Raploch, a village and farm lying at the foot 
of the Castle Rock, to the west, we have, perhaps, a sur- 
vival of the character of the country at that time, just 
as in the beds of marine shells in Raploch Quarry we 
have evidence of the sea which covered the plain at a 
still more remote period. The lands of Raploch, or Rop- 
loch, appear in the oldest records of Scotland ; and as 
Roploch means " the robber's loch", it is not improbable 
that at one time the swamp near Stirling was infested by 
marauders from the mountains ; at any rate, the name 
indicates the nature of the surroundings of the Rock at 
an early period ; and Stirling is probably nothing more 
than the rock in the marsh. 

It is amusing to note the numerous spellings of the 
name " Stirling* in old deeds and letters. Sir W. Fraser, 
in his Stirlings ofKeir, gives no fewer than sixty-four dif- 
ferent ways of spelling the surname of the family. In 
addition to these I have collected from printed records 
and manuscripts fifty-two different spellings, making a 
total of one hundred and sixteen, while, by proceeding 
on the liberal lines of the old writers, and ringing the 
changes upon vowels and consonants, I would undertake 
to double the number. Of the one hundred and sixteen 
modes, two are Latin, nine French, and two poetical. I 
have not included " Snowdon", a name given to Stirling 
by William of Worcester, and used by Sir David Lyndsay 
in his Complaint of the Papingo. 

The oldest form, " Strevelyn", dates from 1160, and the 
present style is at least as old as 1433. Why it should 
have been selected as the permanent spelling of Stirling 
it is difficult to say, unless it can be accounted for by the 
constant use of the word "sterling", signifying true or 
genuine, and an assumed connection between the two 


words. Sir John Lubbock, Mr. E. W. Robertson, and 
other modern writers, agree with Camden in rejecting the 
popular idea that the one word was derived from the 
other. The question is too wide to be discussed here, and 
would form a good subject for a separate paper. I may- 
state, however, that after reading all that I can find 
published on the matter, I am not convinced that the 
authorities mentioned are right in attributing the origin 
of the word " sterling" to the Esterlings who refined the 
English money in the time of King John. It is even 
doubtful whether there was really such a people at all. 
Richard Gough, the continuator of Camden, says the 
word " sterling" occurs in an ordinance of Henry II, dated 
1184 ; and I nnd it recorded in the ancient statutes of 
Scotland that " King Davyd ordaynt at the sterlyng (or 
silver penny) suld wey xxxij cornys of gude and round 
quhete." That sterling and streviling were interchange- 
able terms is evident from Maitland's History of the House 
of Seton, where it is related that King Robert the Bruce 
founded a chapel in Dumfries in honour of the Virgin 
Mary, to commemorate the third Sir Chrystell Seyton, 
and " gaif to the said priest and his successouris the soume 
of fy ve punds streviling to be ta'en of the barony of Car- 
laverock for their sustentation." There is, in fact, much 
to be said in favour of the theory which has been rather 
summarily set aside ; but I leave the subject here, and 
pass on to the building of Stirling Castle. 

" The time when there was no Stirling Castle", remarks 
the late Mr. Robert Chambers in his Picture of Scotland, 
"is not known in Scottish annals." In a modified sense 
this is perfectly true. The ancient inhabitants of North 
Britain had, doubtless, a fortress on Stirling Rock, and 
when the Romans invaded the country, the suitability of 
the site for fortification was not likely to escape their 
notice. The Roman Road, which passes near the Rock, in 
the direction of the river, and an inscribed stone on the 
Gowan Hills, in the vicinity of the Castle, bear lasting 
testimony to their presence in this district. By and bye 
the position became too dangerous for the Romans to 
hold, and when they withdrew from the island, Stirling 
formed part of the Pictish province of Fortrein or Fort- 
renn. When Egfrid, the Anglian King, overran the 


country in 681, and established a bishopric so near as 
Abercorn, on the Forth, he would naturally occupy Stir- 
ling, where he must have crossed the Forth, when four 
years later he burned Tulach Almond, near Scone. 

After the Picts received their liberty centuries of tribal 
wars followed, resulting in the formation, under Ken- 
neth I {circa 843), of the kingdom of Scotland, which 
comprised the modern counties of Perth, Fife, Stirling, 
and Dumbarton, with the greater part of Argyle. Stir- 
ling was still a frontier rath or fortress when Kenneth 
the Hardy led his followers across the Scots Water, or 
Forth, and ravaged the domain of his foes ; and when the 
second Kenneth threw up embankments at the fordable 
points of the Forth, the fortress of Stirling would, no 
doubt, be strengthened. There appears to be no founda- 
tion for Boece's statement that this monarch destroyed a 
strong Pictish fortress at Stirling ; and certainly it did 
not, as the same writer asserts, form part of the ransom 
of his brother and successor, because his brother (if he 
had one) did not succeed him. Nor is there any confirm- 
ation to be found of the fabulist's story, that the North- 
umbrians rebuilt the Castle, and in about twenty years 
restored it to the Scots on condition of receiving their 
assistance against the Danes. It was not until Forteviot, 
Scone, and Abernethy, ceased to be royal residences, or 
capitals, that Stirling possessed a Castle worthy of the 

There must have been a fairly well-built fortress in the 
reign of Alexander I, who founaed the first chapel within 
its walls ; but it was not until his successor ascended the 
throne that a feudal castle, probably a single square 
tower or keep, Math spacious courtyard or enceinte, re- 
placed the earlier buildings of wood and wattles, rudely 
fortified by earthworks. As Mr. Robertson observes in his 
valuable work, Scotland under her Early Kings, David I 
found Sootland built of wattles, and left her framed in 
granite castles, and monasteries studding her land in 
every direction. 

When we come down to the reign of William the Lion 
we find Stirling Castle one of the five principal fortresses 
of the kingdom. After the death of Alexander III, 
Richard the mason and Alexander the carpenter were 


paid the large sum of £105 : 15 : 4 for work done at the 
Castle within the year 1287-88. The fortress was more 
than once hurnt down and rebuilt during the wars with 
England. In 1304 it was strong enough to resist a siege 
for three months. 

According to the Book of Pluscarden, the King of Eng- 
land, in 1377, ordered Stirling Castle to be rebuilt by 
William Montague, who appointed in his own stead < 
Thomas Rokeby, Knight, whose arms still remain on the 
walls of a certain tower. Needless to say that no trace 
now remains of either tower or arms. 

We find Wynton describing the Castle in 1339 as 

"A wycht-hons made off lyme and stene, 
And set in till sa stythe a place 
That rycht wycht off it self it was." 

At that time the Steward of Scotland, seeing he could 
not break the walls, put the Castle in charge of Maurice 
Murray, who, says Wynton, " enfossyt it grettumly". 
Twenty years later the revenue of the Court of Justiciary 
is granted for the construction of the walls of the Castle, 
and the repairs extend over a period of three years. A 
commission appointed in 1368 to visit the royal Castles 
of Lochleven, Edinburgh, Stirling, and Dumbarton, had 
power to give orders for their being at once repaired, 
garrisoned, and provided with victuals, warlike engines, 
and other means necessary for resisting attack. In 1380 
£43 : 2 : 8 was paid for the construction of the barbican 
of Stirling Castle ; in the following year two other out- 
works and the north gate were erected at a cost of 
£62 : 2 : 6 ; and in 1383, new walls, probably those still 
standing, were built. In the reign of Robert II, £9 4 : 1 9: 6 
was spent upon the tower called "Wal", the houses 
within the walls were repaired at a cost of £7 : 1 6 : 6, a 
bridge was made, and a wooden mill constructed. Robert, 
Duke of Albany, built a new chapel, probably on a dif- 
ferent site from the one founded by Alexander I, and 
during his regency an average of £70 a year was spent 
upon the upkeep of the Castle buildings. 

Various new works and alterations were carried out 
between 1406 and 1409, one of these being the construc- 
tion of a door in the White Tower. The oldest parts of 

1889 15 


the present buildings, such as the Mint and the houses 
on the west side of the Palace Square, may be ascribed 
to the reign of James II. From the fact that in 1459 
there is a payment made for preparing stones for works 
at the Castle, and the further fact that the revenues of 
the earldom of Lennox were appropriated for these works, 
we may surmise that considerable additions and improve- 
ments were then in progress. 

To James III, whose love for architecture proved a 
fatal passion for himself, Stirling Castle is indebted for 
one of its principal buildings, namely the Parliament 
House, whicn even in its present degraded state presents 
features worthy of admiration. The Exchequer Bolls 
contain no entry that can be definitely ascribed to this 
great work ; but the accounts giving the details may be 
among the missing Rolls of this reign. James III also 
built a new chapel royal on the site of the Duke of 
Albany's ; but it seems to have been an unpretentious 
building as compared with the Parliament House, as it 
soon fell into a ruinous state. Both buildings had for 
their architect the unlucky Cochrane, who was hanged 
over Lauder Bridge by the rebel lords. 

The crowning work of the Castle, the still beautiful 
Palace, is usually credited to James V; but it was begun 
by his predecessor in 1496, when the mason, Walter Mar- 
lyoun, received a payment " in erlis of his condicion (or 
contract) of biggin of the King's house." 

In 1510 the lands of Auchincruive were granted to John 
Lockhart and his wife for £100 due to him for his labours 
and services to the King in connection with the works 
at the Castle. The gallant hero of the Lady of the Lake, 
whose statue adorns the north-east corner of the Palace, 
continued the work, though slowly, as it was not finished 
until 1539, in which year Sir James Hamilton of Fynnart, 
the King's favourite and chief adviser, was confirmed in 
possession of the barony of Avondale for his services in 
connection with the completion of the Palaces of Stirling 
and Linlithgow. The French battery commanding the 
river and bridge owes its existence to Mary of Lorraine, 
widow of James V, who caused it to be erected in 1550. 

While some repairs in the Castle were being carried 
out in 1574, James VI wrote to the steward of Menteith 


to compel the tenants of the lordship to carry slate from 
the Heugh of Menteith to Stirling Castle, for making the 
same water-tight. This order the said tenants appear 
to have "contempuandlie" disobeyed ; but they were 
afterwards brought to a sense of their duty by the threat 
of a penalty of 205. for each horse that was absent. 

The royal determination to keep the Castle water-tight 
did not last long, for in 1583 Sir Robert Drummond, 
Master of the Works, reported that it was in a ruinous 
condition. The great hall in Parliament House was not 
only leaking through the thatch on the roof, but the 
walls were being destroyed by the water ; the towers 
were " nakit", and without slates ; the west quarter of 
the Palace was so far gone that it required to be taken 
down and rebuilt ; and the Chapel Royal was so bad that 
no one could remain in it in time of rain. Ten years 
later the King pulled down the Chapel Royal, and erected 
a new one for the baptism of his son Frederick, this being 
the last important building erected within the Castle 

Before James VI's visit to his native country, in 1629, 
there was a general furbishing up of the Castle for his 
reception. No fewer than two hundred and eighty-two 
" lozens", or panes of glass, were put into the windows of 
the King's rooms, the Parliament House, and the Chapel, 
which is a proof of the dilapidated state the buildings 
were allowed to fall into after the seat of royalty was 
transferred to London. 

From the Master of Works' specification and estimate 
of probable cost, which have been published by the Ban- 
natyne Club, we learn that the Parliament House had a 
trumpeters' loft, probably at the north end, that one of 
the towers was called " Elphinstone's Tower", that the 
King's arms were displayed above the inner gate, and 
various other interesting particulars. 

In Queen Anne's reign the Castle area was extended 
towards the east, new outworks being made, with fossa 
and drawbridge, as are still to be seen. Slezer's views, 
dated 1693, show the Castle with five round towers of 
considerable height; but these have been torn down. The 
lower portions of two of them form the inner entrance to 
the Castle, and the base of a third, to the south, is still 



visible ; but this is all that is left of the high towers of 
Stirling, to which Sir David Lindsay bade a fond adieu. 

Nor can we refrain from lamenting the barbarous man- 
ner in which the noble buildings of the Scottish kings 
have been treated by the modern engineers of the War 
Department, who seem to have taken especial pleasure in 
destroying the architectural beauties of the fine old edi- 
fices. Compared with their so-called " improvements", 
the tooth of time has been merciful indeed. When Robert 
Burns first visited Stirling, the desecration of the Parlia- 
ment House made him so angry that on returning to his 
inn he scratched on one of the window-panes a few severe 
lines reflecting on the successors of the Stewart race ; but 
on a second visit he thought they were unworthy of his 
muse, and took out the pane on which they were in- 
scribed. The lines, however, have been preserved, and 
appear in some editions of his works. Lord Cockburn, in 
his recently published Circuit Journeys, says he was often 
assured that the Government, in the beginning of the 
present century, were anxious to dispose of Stirling 
Castle to the highest bidder, and were prepared to pass 
a special Act to enable them to do so. Fortunately the 
Government were prevented from perpetrating such an 
outrageous piece of folly. There is no archaeologist, no 
patriotic Scotsman, but must feel indignant at the man- 
ner in which the residence of royalty, and the ancient 
seat of the Scottish Parliament, has been despoiled and 
irretrievably injured by Governmental officialism — strong 
in power, but weak in intelligence, and utterly devoid of 
sympathy with the past glories of our country. 


From the accession of Alexander I down to the Union 
of Scotland with England, Stirling was one of the chief 
centres of political activity and statecraft, and to give 
the annals of the Castle justice would involve the rela- 
tion of nearly the whole of Scottish history. A bare 
chronicle is all that can be attempted here, and as the 
most summary way of dealing with the subject I shall 
present it before you in four divisions, viz., the Castle as 


a royal residence, as a place of arms, as the seat of 
national assemblies, and as the scene of other events of 
historic interest. 

In an excellent work recently published it is stated, or 
rather repeated, that Stirling Castle first became a royal 
residence after the accession of the Stewarts. This state- 
ment does not do justice to Stirling, the fact being that 
under the early kings of Scotland, as Mr. Robertson 
remarks, " Stirling commanded the passage of the Scots 
Water, and situated between the two great divisions of 
Scotia and Lothian, was amongst the most important 
places in the kingdom, and a frequent and favourite resi- 
dence of the sovereign." Stirling Castle was, indeed, in 
the words of the poet, " Parent of monarchs, nurse of 
kingly race/' Alexander I died here in 1124, and when 
William the Lion fell ill, he expressed a wish to be car- 
ried to Stirling, " a place for which he appears to have 
felt an especial fondness", and where, after lingering for 
several months, he closed his long and eventful career. 
In 1257, Alexander III and his Queen were carried off' 
from Kinross in the night time, and before dawn were 
safe within the walls of Stirling Castle, the result of a 
coup d'gtat effected by Walter Comyn, Earl of Menteith. 
At a quieter period of this King's reign Stirling was his 
most frequent abode, and for his pleasure a new park or 
chase was constructed, and the old one repaired. To the 
Stewarts, Stirling Castle was more than a mere residence. 
It was, so to speak, re-created by them, and they made 
it a delightful and luxurious home, although it must be 
added that several of the family occasionally found it 
something very like a prison. When James VII was here, 
in 1682, he expressed a great liking for the Castle, and 
truly remarked that " it was inherent and natural to all 
the royal family, for many years past, to have a particu- 
lar kindness for Streviling." Robert the Steward, the first 
of the royal line, dated many of his charters from Stir- 
ling ; and James I, who regarded the place as the Wind- 
sor of Scotland, showed a marked preference for the 
splendid situation of the Castle. His son, James II, was 
the first of the Stewart sovereigns who was born within 
its walls. He gave the Castle as a dowry to his wife, 
and from that time it continued to be the portion of the 


Queens of Scotland. James III also first saw the light 
in Stirling Castle, — a fact only now disclosed by the pub- 
lication of the Exchequer Rolls. For carrying the wel- 
come news to the King at Holyrood, his faithful servant, 
Robert Nory, received a charter confirming him in the 
possession of the Ward of Gudy, in Menteith, and grant- 
ing him in life-rent the lands of Queenshalch, near Stir- 
ling. A relic of the sainted Queen Margaret, carefully 
preserved at Dunfermline Abbey, was brought to Stirling 
for the Queen's confinement ; and it is on record that the 
same garment was put to a similar use when James V 
was born at Linlithgow. 

History and record are alike silent as to the birthplace 
of James IV, but the probability is that Stirling Castle 
had that honour. It may not have been to him a very 
happy home, as he was probably confined within its walls, 
owing to the fear of his father that in the person of the 
young Prince would be fulfilled the interpretation of a 
dream that the royal lion of Scotland would be torn by 
his whelps. The dream was, alas ! only too literally ful- 
filled by the tragic end of the King at Beaton's Mill ; and 
in the Chapel Royal in Stirling Castle, James IV spent 
many hours doing penance for the melancholy death of his 
father, whose dust, along with that of his Queen, lies 
buried at Cambuskenneth Abbey. 

It appears from the Exchequer Rolls that James III 
carried with him to the field at Sauchie the famous two- 
handed sword which King Robert the Bruce wielded 
with fatal effect at the battle of Bannockburn. The sword 
was left on the field, where it was afterwards found along 
with a casket containing £4,000 of treasure, by a man 
named Walter Simpson, who obtained as a reward for 
their recovery the life-rent of parts of Cessintuly and 
Coldoch, in Menteith. It would be interesting to know 
whether this sword is still in the possession of the royal 
family. If the story told of the sword belonging to the 
Earl of Elgin (now in the Glasgow Exhibition), and said 
to be Bruce's, is correct, it cannot be the sword which 
was lost at Sauchieburn. 

In June 1496 Margaret Drummond, the lady-love of 
James IV, came to reside at Stirling Castle, where she 
was kept in great state. The scheming Margaret Tudor, 


lawful wife of James IV, always regarded Stirling Castle 
as her peculiar property. Here she lost her first-born ; 
here she showed with pride, to the English envoy, the 
beautiful babe who was afterwards James V ; and here, 
after the disaster of Flodden, she gave birth to Prince 
Alexander, Duke of Ross, who died in infancy, and was 
buried in Cambuskenneth Abbey. Hither also the Queen- 
Mother fled with her children when they were demanded 
by the Lords Commissioners; and £b the gate of the 
Castle she put into the little hands of James V the keys 
of the fortress, and with a nod directed him to give them 
to the Regent Albany. By her second marriage she for- 
feited her right to the Castle; but it was frequently 
occupied by her, and several stormy interviews with her 
opponents took place in the royal chambers, which were 
also the headquarters of a series of intrigues with her 
brother, Henry VIII of England. 

Contrary to local histories, James V was neither born 
nor crowned in Stirling Castle, but he was brought to it 
early in life, and his nigh spirit occasionally broke out 
not only in play with Davy Lindsay, but in warfare with 
his retinue ; and some say he threatened the porter with 
his dagger because he would not open the Castle gates at 
his command. As " the gudeman o' Ballengeich" he often 
slipped out by a postern near the north gate, and sallied 
forth upon adventure bent. His first wife, Magdalen of 
France, did not live to see her dower-Castle ; but his 
second spouse, Mary of Lorraine, held many a gay court 
within its Palace. Her initials appear on several parts of 
the building erected by her consort, while her portrait 
formed one of the bassi-relievi with which the ceiling of 
the banqueting-room was decorated. Her second son was 
born here, but only survived a few days, and was buried 
at the same time as his brother, in the royal vault at 

During her regency Mary of Guise kept up a splendid 
style at Stirling, and had a fine band and choir of vocal- 
ists. When at variance with the Governor of the kingdom 
she did not hesitate to hold Parliaments of her own ; and 
altogether a more regal lady never reigned at Stirling 
Castle. Her sway was exercised in a sumptuary way over 
the Provost and magistrates of the royal burgh, who had 


to don a French court-dress at her command ; and the 
town's officer still wears, on high occasions, the uniform 
which she prescribed for that official. 

Stirling Castle was the nursery of the hapless Queen 
Mary, who, when seven months old, was carried, along 
with her mother, from Linlithgow to Stirling by a dash- 
ing enterprise on the part of certain Scottish nobles 
whom Henry VIII had failed to seduce from their alle- 
giance. On Sunday the 9th of September 1543 the baby 
Queen was crowned with great ceremony in the Cathe- 
dral Church, the occasion being celebrated with nearly a 
month's rejoicing, during which the Rock rang with the 
clash of arms in mimic war, and the plaudits of the spec- 
tators, who were delighted with the manly sports of our 

After the battle of Pinkiecleugh, Mary was sent for 
safety to Inchmahome, and she did not see the grey 
towers of Stirling again until she returned to Scotland a 
widow. The first night she slept in her ancestral Palace, 
she ran a narrow escape of being burnt to death by an 
accident which caused a great sensation on account of an 
ancient prediction that "a queen should be burnt at 
Stirling", a prediction still happily unfulfilled. 

Several months before her public marriage with Darn- 
ley, Mary had been privately united to him in wedlock 
in David Rizzio's apartment in Stirling Castle, and when 
her husband lay ill, shortly after the second marriage, 
she tended him with wifely care. When Mary took the 
field against the lords who could not brook her marriage 
with her cousin, Stirling was her headquarters. The 
Castle was not again favoured with her presence until 
after the birth of her son, who was baptized in the Chapel 
Royal with a pomp and splendour only excelled by the 
proceedings at the baptism of his own son in 1594. 
Darnley very ungraciously took the sulks on the auspi- 
cious occasion; and although there is no reason to believe 
Buchanans statement that he had not a dress fit to 
appear in, or the local tradition that he spent the day 
drinking in a tavern in St. Mary's Wynd, it is true he 
took no part in the ceremony, secluding himself either in 
his apartments in the Castle, or in Willie Bell's lodgings 
at the foot of Broad Street, now known as " Darnleys 


House", but very absurdly designated in a modern in- 
scription on the wall as the nursery of James VI and his 
son Prince Frederick. The christening took place on the 
17th of December, and on the 23rd there was a reconci- 
liation between the royal pair ; but next day Darnley, 
on hearing of the pardon granted to the Earl of Morton, 
went off in high dudgeon, without saying good-bye to his 
wife, and consequently Christmas was spent in grief and 

On the 6th of January the Queen graced with her pre- 
sence the nuptials of Mary Fleming, one of the two 
Maries who remained faithful to her cause, and on the 
13th she left Stirling Castle for Edinburgh. On the 22nd 
of April of the same year (1567), Queen Mary came to 
Stirling to see her son ; and next morning, Wednesday 
the 23rd, she quitted the Castle for the last time. 

James VI was crowned at Stirling when he was about 
thirteen months old, and was afterwards kept in the 
Castle, where he received his education from the famous 
George Buchanan, assisted by Peter Young. Buchanan's 
method of instilling knowledge into the mind of his royal 
pupil made the Countess of Mar hold up her hands in 
horror at the freedom taken with the sacred body of the 
Lord's anointed by his learned and severe preceptor. 

James VI's eldest son, " the good Prince Henry", was 
born in Stirling Castle in February 1594. All the his- 
tories, following Lindsay of Pitscottie, give the date as 
the 19th ; but 1 have discovered a contemporary note of 
the event on the fly-leaf of an old volume of the Stirling 
Register of Sasines (in which, by the way, I also found 
a fragment of an ancient Scottish ballad), which sets 
forth that " the six of Februar 1593" (New Year's Day at 
that time fell on the 25th of March, which accounts for 
the difference in the year), " Anna Queen of Scotts wias 
lighter of ane sone to King James y 6 Sext & his name is" 
(here there was originally a blank, afterwards filled in 
with " Frederick James") " betwixt fo r & thre h n in y e 
morning." Whatever was the date of the Princes birth, 
there is no doubt as to the date of his baptism, which was 
celebrated at Stirling on the 30th of August 1594, with 
the most magnificent piece of pageantry ever seen in 


Since the Union, Stirling Castle, though occasionally 
visited by the reigning monarch, has never been a royal 
residence, and in consequence has fallen into decay. 

As a place of arms Stirling Castle has had a very 
chequered history. Sometimes the prize which stimulated 
contending armies, as at Bannockburn ; at other times 
held by the King against his nobles, and again by the 
nobles against their King ; the scene of faction-fights, the 
object of rebellious raids, — the ancient fortress has wit- 
nessed many a gallant exploit, and thousands of brave 
souls have passed away in its attack and defence. In 
1174 it was surrendered to the English, with four other 
Scottish fortresses, as a pledge for the ransom of William 
the Lion ; but it is important to notice, as a correction of 
the historian, that it was never actually given up. Dur- 
ing the interregnum the Castle changed hands at least 
ten times, one of the sieges being specially memorable for 
the enormous exertions put forth by Edward I to take 
the Castle, and for the heroic defence made by Sir William 
Oliphant and his small garrison, who only capitulated at 
the end of three months' resistance. It is mentioned in 
history that the English King despoiled St. Andrew's 
Cathedral of its leaden roof in order to enable him to 
wreak his vengeance on Stirling Castle, the only fortress 
which held out against him; but it is not generally 
known that he also ordered the Prince of Wales to take 
lead for his stone-throwing engines from the roof of Dun- 
blane Cathedral, taking care to leave the place over the 
altar untouched. Thus Edward provided a salve for his 
kingly conscience. 

In 1651 Stirling Castle was successfully besieged by 
General Monk, who did Scotland more harm by removing 
the national Registers (which were afterwards lost at 
sea) than he did by occupying the Castle, although we 
have him to blame for the destruction of many of the 
decorations of the Palace. A short and unavailing siege 
by Prince Charlie, in 1746, closes the history of the Castle 
as a place of arms. 

Some of the most important of the early Councils 
General, which preceded Parliaments, sat at Stirling. At 
one of these, in the reign of William the Lion, a number 
of alterations were made in the laws of the realm as con- 


solidated by King David ; while at another, under Alex- 
ander II, tne right of trial by jury is said to have been 

The first Parliament held in the Castle was during 
Balliol's short reign ; and not the least memorable was 
the Parliament of James I, at which the Duke of Albany 
and hjs two sons, together with his father-in-law, the 
Earl of Lennox, were tried on a charge of high treason, 
convicted, and summarily executed on the Heading Hill. 
It was in our Parliament House that the will of James III 
was publicly read ; and there also Queen Mary announced 
to her nobles her intention to marry Lord Darnley. 

In 1571, when James VI was carried into the " Black 
Parliament", the light was streaming in through a chink 
in the roof. The baby King asked the Earl of Mar the 
name of the place, and on being told it was the Parlia- 
ment House, he is said to have replied, " My Lord, there 
is a hole in the Parliament." This saying has been pre- 
served as an example of the King's precocious punning 
powers. At a later period he displayed his proficiency in 
this line of wit in the same place. 

The holding at Stirling of James' first Parliament after 
taking the government into his own hands, occasioned a 
protest by a party of the nobility, who refused to attend 
it because it was not convened at Edinburgh. In 1645 
the Parliament removed from Edinburgh to Stirling on 
account of the plague ; and in 1561 the last Parliament 
in Scotland at which the King personally presided, 
opened its sittings here, but adjourned to Perth. 

Among other events of historic interest connected with 
Stirling Castle must be mentioned the murder of the 
eighth Earl of Douglas by James II, who under provoca- 
tion stabbed his enemy with his dagger; Sir Patrick Gray, 
who had a private grudge against the unfortunate Earl, 
following up the King's thrust with a blow from a battle- 
axe, which proved fatal. Tradition says that the Earls 
body was thrown out of a closet- window still to be seen, 
and buried where it fell ; but it is not easy to believe 
that the kinsmen of the Douglas would have allowed 
their chief to lie in an obscure grave. 

Two noted impostors were maintained in Stirling at 
the cost of the nation : one of them, Thomas of Trump- 


ington, the false King Richard I of England, for a period 
of nineteen years, up till his death, when he was buried 
in the Dominican Monastery, a lying Latin inscription 
on his tombstone carrying the imposture beyond the 
grave. In 1495 James IV welcomed Perkin Warbeck to 
Stirling Castle with royal honours. He was provided 
with handsome lodgings in the burgh ; and so much was 
the impostor identified with Stirling, that although he 
was hanged at Tyburn, and in all probability buried in 
England, tradition insists that his remains were interred 
in the vault at Cambuskenneth Abbey which the King 
had prepared for himself. 

With numerous incidents of court life and political 
movement Stirling Castle is closely associated ; but 
enough has been said to show that in Scottish annals it 
must always occupy a prominent, I may almost say a pre- 
eminent, and illustrious place. 




{Continued from p. 111.) 


No. 22. Robert Bruce, 1306-1329 (3.8 in. diam.). — The 
king enthroned, crowned, and robed, very similar to the 
Seal of Balliol (No. 11), holding in his right hand a very 
long sceptre, terminating in the band of the Seal in a 
large floriated ornament. With the forefinger of this, his 
right hand, he holds down the cord of his mantle on a 
level with his girdle. His left arm, from the elbow, is 
extended on one side ; and in his left hand he holds an 
orb, from which proceeds a long stem, on the top of which 
is a cross patt^e. The feet of the king rest upon two 
small lions (or lizards) with extended tails, botn facing 
inwards. Tne throne is richly carved, and is furnished 
with a very small cushion seen only on the kings left. 
The words of the legend are separated from one another 
by slipped trefoils. 

Legend : ^ robertvs deo rectore rex scottorv/m. 

No. 23. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right, clothed in mail and covered by a surcoat. 
The head is protected by a helmet, globular at the top, 
surmounted by a crown. The face is covered by a grated 
vizor below a horizontal slit for the sight. In his right 
hand is a sword. The front of his body is covered by a 
shield charged with the royal arms of Scotland. The 
horse has a caparison flying freely, and is open behind 
so that the tail comes through. The head of the horse 
bears as a crest, between its ears, a fleur-de-lis or trefoil. 
Each part of the caparison is charged with the royal 
arms of Scotland reversed. As on the obverse, the words 
of the legend are separated from one another by slipped 

Legend : robertvs deo rectore rex scottorvm. 


No. 24. Robert Bruce, Second Seal (4.1 in. diam.). — The 
king, with long curling hair, enthroned, crowned., robed 
very much as Alexander III (No. 13), but without girdle; 
the sleeves also are a little longer, and are wide and 
open at the end. The right arm is extended, and the 
hand holds a sceptre foliated at the top, and has two 
knobs on its stem. The left hand is raised to the breast, 
and two fingers hold the cords of the mantle. The throne 
is of similar construction to that seen in Seal No. 21; but 
here the side-pieces are arched, and have a row of beads 
along the top, and the dogs' heads are turned downwards 
and inwards. An ornamented piece of drapery is thrown 
loosely over the centre of the seat, and extends a con- 
siderable way up the arms. 

Legend : robertvs deo rectore rex scottorv/m. 

No. 25. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right, clothed in mail armour, with surcoat 
terminating apparently at the hips, on which is embroi- 
dered a lion rampant to the sinister. The king wears a 
grated helmet crowned, turned three-quarters to front. 
In his right hand he carries a sword. In front of the 
body is a shield, the whole face of which is seen charged 
with the royal arms of Scotland. The horse wears a capa- 
rison, on which the royal arms of Scotland reversed, 
appear in front of and to the rear of the rider. Part of 
the horse's tail is shown issuing from under the capari- 
son, which is lifted up by its action. * 

Legend : robe/rtvs/ deo rectore re/x scotorvm. 

No. 26. David II, 1329-1370, First Seal (4.1 in. diam.). 
— The king enthroned, crowned, and robed, very similar 
to No. 24 ; but the king's feet rest upon two wyverns 
whose tails are convoluted in the centre of the Seal ; 
their heads, at the end of their long necks, are turned 
upwards and inwards. The arms of the throne have no 
return, but the dogs' heads at their ends point outwards 
and upwards. On the field of the Seal, and close to the 
king's left ear, is the letter d. 

Legend : david dei [gractTa /rex scottor/vm. 

No. 27. Counterseal. — The King on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right; the same as No. 25, but with the fol- 
lowing differences*: — the helmet of the king is seen full 
face ; the surcoat (or cyclas, for it is short and open half 


way down the side) is charged with the royal arms of 
Scotland (the lion turned to the dexter). On the king's 
right shoulder is an ailette charged with the royal arms 
of Scotland reversed. Laing says that genouill&res make 
their first appearance here ; but the impressions that I 
have seen have not been perfect enough for me to endorse 
this statement. Upon the band, after the last word in 
the legend, is a wyvern. 

Legend : david /dei g/ratia rex scottorvm. 

No. 28. David II, Second Seal (2.9 in. diam.). — The 
king enthroned, with flowing hair, moustache, and double 
pointed beard ; crowned, wearing long robes which com- 
pletely hide his feet. Around his neck is a short cape 
without any opening in it. The sleeves of his robes ex- 
tend to the wrists, and are open and very wide. With 
his right hand he grasps a sceptre with foliated top, 
which the king holds obliquely across the right shoulder. 
The throne has a back, and is richly ornamented, but is 
not furnished with a cushion. Two sprays of foliated 
ornament fill up the field of the Seal on each side of the 
throne. There is a cross flory at the commencement of 
the legend. 

Legend : sigillvm david dei gratia regis scottov. 

No. 29. Counterseed. — The royal arms of Scotland on a 
shield, surmounted by a circle, ornamented with cuspings. 

Legend : sigillvm david dei gratia regis scotto.... 

No. 30. Edward Balliol, 1332-1335 (3.9 in. diam.). — 
The king enthroned, crowned, clothed in a loose garment 
extending to his ankles, drawn in at the waist by a girdle, 
with sleeves cut off at the elbows, wearing the mantle 
fastened in front of the neck by a large brooch. In his 
right hand he holds a sceptre foliated at the top. His 
left hand rests upon an orb which is placed on the seat 
of the throne. The throne has a back, is richly carved, 
and is furnished with a very small cushion. On the top 
of two of the crocketed pinnacles of the back of the 
throne, nearest to the king's head, are two birds, each 
turned inwards. On the field of the Seal, to the king's 
right, is a small shield charged with a lion rampant. In 
a similar position, on the king's left, is another small 
shield charged with an orle, the Balliol arms. 

Legend : edwardvs dei gratia rex scotorvm. 


No. 31. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right. The king is armed in ring-mau, over 
which he wears a long surcoat extending below the knee. 
The surcoat is embroidered with the royal arms of Scot- 
land. The king wears a grated helmet (shown in profile) 
with a slit for sight ; crowned ; and carries in his right 
hand a sword, to the handle of which is fastened a chain 
passing up to his neck. In front of the king is a small 
shield, nearly the whole face of which is displayed, 
charged with the royal arms of Scotland. The saddle has 
a hign pommel and cantle, or enclosing pieces both in front 
and to the rear of the body. The king wears a spur of 
the shape of a mullet of six points. The horse wears a 
caparison in two pieces, each charged with the royal arms 
of Scotland reversed, a bridle, and a fan-shaped crest. 

Legend : ed/wardvs dei gratia / rex scotorvm. 

No. 32. Robert II, 1370-1390 (4.25 in. diam.).— The 
king enthroned, crowned, clothed in a loose garment ex- 
tending to his feet and covering them, and with sleeves 
terminating a little above the wrist. No girdle is worn. 
The king wears a mantle with cords tied in front of his 
body, and hanging down to the waist. These ends are 
held by the king's left hand. His right hand holds a 
sceptre with a foliated top. The seat of the throne is 
placed under a projecting Gothic canopy richly orna- 
mented. On eacn side, in a niche, under embattled but- 
tresses, is a grotesque figure supporting a shield charged 
with the royal arms of Scotland. Over the battlemented 
walls, above the niches, appears a man-at-arms on each 
side of the throne. Beneath the architectural support to 
the throne are clouds. On the band bearing the legend 
a winged wyvern is placed after the last word. 

Legend : Robert vs dei gratia / rex scottorvm. 

No. 33. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right. The king is clad in plate-armour, over 
which he wears a jupon embroidered with the royal arms 
of Scotland, the lower part adorned with fringe. The 
helmet is shown full-face, round at the top, with two slits 
for sight, and is surmounted by a crest, a lion statant to 
the sinister, guardant, with a very long, wavy tail. The 
king bears in his right hand a sword. In front of his body 
is a shield charged with the royal arms of Scotland. From 


under the shield comes the king's left hand holding the 
reins. The horse is clothed with a caparison charged 
with the royal arms of Scotland reversed. A pectoral 
band is seen in front of the horse. Underneath the horse, 
following the outline of the seal, is ground resembling 

Legend : robertvs dei gra/oia rex scottorvm. 

No. 34. Robert III, 1390-1406, First Seal (4.25 in. 
diam.). — This Seal is exactly the same as No. 32. 

No. 35. Counterseal. — The same as No. 33, with the 
following differences : (l) above the crest is a mullet 
pierced ; (2) the field of the Seal is enriched with foliated 
ornament after the Italian style. 

No. 36. Robert III, Second Seal (3 in. diam.)— The 
king enthroned and crowned. The size and design of this 
Seal is very similar to that of David IFs Second Seal, 
No. 28, but the following differences are at once discern- 
ible : (1) the size is a little larger; (2) the king's left hand 
is laid upon his breast instead of in his lap; (3) the sceptre 
is longer, and has no knob at the one end, and at the 
top has a well-formed fleur-de-lis ; (4) there are no sprays 
of foliated ornament on the field of the Seal on each side 
of the throne ; but (5) a series of cusps run round the line 
enclosing the central design; (6) at the commencement of 
the legend is an estoile in place of a cross flory. 

Legend : # sigillvm roberti dei gracia regis scot- 

No. 37. Counterseal. — The king on horseback gallop- 
ing to the right, in plate-armour, wearing a crowned 
helmet with large, projecting, quaint front-piece, bearing 
in his right hand a sword. In front of the body is a 
shield, the face of which is fully displayed, charged with 
the royal arms of Scotland. The king is spurred with a 
rowel of six points. The horse wears a caparison not 
ornamented ; the tail is clearly shown. The device is 
surrounded at the top by cuspmgs, and underneath the 
horse by round small mounds covered with grass. 

Legend: sigillvm roberti dei gratia regis scottov. 

No. 38. Robert {Duke of Albany), Regent, 1406-1419 
(4.25 in. diam.). — This Seal is similar to that of Robert III 
(No. 34), but has the following important differences : — 
(l) instead of a crown the Regent wears a coronet with 

1889 16 


fine balls or pearls ; (2) instead of a sceptre the Regent 
holds a swora in his right hand ; (3) the shields on each 
side of the Regent are of better shape ; (4) the shield on 
the Regent's left is charged with the following arms (in 
place of the royal arms of Scotland) : quarterly, 1st and 
4th, a lion rampant, for Fife ; 2nd and 3rd, a fesse chequy, 
for Stewart; differenced by a label of three points : (5) 
the characters of the legend are black letter instead of 
Legend : sigillvm roberti dvcis albanie gvberna- 


No. 39. Counterseal. — Similar to No. 35, except in the 
style of letter of the legend. 

No. 40. James 7,1406-1437 (4.25 in. diam.).— The king 
enthroned and crowned. The design of this Seal is simi- 
lar to that of Robert II (No. 32), with the following ex- 
ceptions : (1) the crown upon the king's head is much 
larger ; (2) the sleeve on his left arm is much fuller below 
the elbow ; (3) the end of the sceptre is a fleur-de-lis ; 
(4) on each side of the throne is a small lion sejant affron- 
ts ; (5) a mullet appears on the field of the Seal, under 
the letter c in jacobvs. 

Legend : jacobvs dei gracia rex 

No. 41. Counterseal. — Very similar to No. 35, but — 
(1) the space enclosed by the front of the king's body, the 
lower outline of the shield and the neck of the horse, is 
deeper and larger ; (2) the position of the king's left hand 
and the reins are also different ; (3) the floriated orna- 
ment on the field of the Seal, and numerous other details, 
are also different. 

Legend: jacobvs dei gracia rex ...... scotorvm. 

No. 42. James II, 1437-1460 (4.25 in. diam.)— This 
Seal is the same as No. 40, with the addition of four 
annulets, — two in the field of the Seal, above the pin- 
nacles on the top of the throne ; and two between the 
skirts of the king's robes and the small lions on each side. 
The circle enclosing the legend is ornamented with small 
quatrefoils. (These may be on James I's Seal, but I have 
not seen any impression perfect enough to enable me to 
state the fact definitely one way or the other.) 

No. 43. Counterseal. — The same as No. 41, with the 
following differences : the addition of a small crown 


between the king's right arm and his sword ; and four 
annulets, — two, one above and one beneath the neck of 
the horse ; two on the hinder caparison, below the lion 
on the field of the arms. 

No. 44. James III, 1460-1488 (4.25 in. diam.).— The 
same as No. 42. 

No. 45. Counterseal. — The same as No. 43, with the 
addition of a small, elongated fleur-de-lis beneath the fet- 
lock of the right fore-leg of the horse. 

No. 46. James IV, 1488-1513 (4.25 in. diam.).— The 
same as No. 44. 

No. 47. Counterseal. — The same as No. 45, except the 
annulet under the horse's neck, which is altered into a 
sort of three-looped knot or trefoil; and a portion of a leaf 
or quatrefoil shows under the lower half of the annulet 
above the neck of the horse. 

This Seal was also used by James V as late as 8 July 

No. 48. James V, 1513-1542 (4.2 in. diam.).— This Seal 
is a poor imitation of No. 40. The mullet and the lions 
are altogether absent here, as are the annulets introduced 
into Nos. 42, 44, and 46. The crown is smaller. The 
body of the king is more like the figure of a female. The 
king's knees are ridiculously wide apart. The top of the 
sceptre terminates in one large and two small fleurs-de-lis. 
The men on the battlements are ungainly in their appear- 
ance, and the one to the king's left rests his left hand 
upon the head of a battle-axe. The clouds under the 
King s throne appear as small mounds covered with slip- 
ped trefoils. The lines encircling the legend resemble 
ropes both here and on the counterseal. On the band 
bearing the legend foliated work separates the end from 
the bediming 8 

Legend : jacobvs dei gracia rex scotorvm. 

No. 49. Counterseal. — Resembles No. 41. The annu- 
lets, the crown, the fleur-de-lis, and trefoil, subsequently 
added to No. 41, have all disappeared. The crest on the 
king's helmet, the lion statant, is much larger, and has 
a tail terminating in four parts. The foliated ornament 
on the field of the Seal resembles trefoils, not quatrefoils, 
mingled with rudely engraved fleurs-de-lis. Between the 
crest and the commencement of the legend is a cross. 



The S's on this side as well as on the other side of the 
Seal are very squat and ugly. 

Legend : & jacobvs dei gratia rex scotorvm. 

No. 50. Mary, 1542-1568, First Seal (4 in. diam.).— 
The queen enthroned, crowned, holding in her right hand 
a sceptre terminating in a fleur-de-lis ; her left hand is 
laid upon her breast, immediately below the fastening of 
her mantle. The throne is in the Italian style of archi- 
tecture, with two ornamental columns in front, which 
with the back support a tester ; on the front of which is 
a cherub's head between two wings, and other ornamental 
devices and scrollwork. 

Legend : maria dei gratia regina scotorv. 

No. 51. Counterseal. — A shield charged with the royal 
arms of Scotland, encircled below and on both sides with 
the collar of the Order of the Thistle, ensigned with a 
crown. The crown has above the jewelled band three 
large fleurs-de-lis, one in the centre, and one at each end. 
Between the large fleurs-de-lis is a cross patt^e, and 
between each large fleur-de-lis and each cross is a small 
fleur-de-lis. From each of the large fleurs-de-lis proceeds 
a band crocketed; all meeting in the centre, where appears 
a small orb ensigned with a cross patt^e. The shield is 
supported on each side by a unicorn collared and chained. 
Their tails are forked at the end. Each of the unicorns 
supports a lance. The butt-ends of these lances rest on the 
ground, below the shield, and cross each other below the 
collar of the Thistle. The other ends of the lances appear 
above the heads of the unicorns, and there carry each a 
small square flag flying inwards, charged with the cross 
of St. Andrew enfiled in the centre with an open crown. 
(The flag above the dexter supporter is so indistinct that 
I cannot feel sure that the cross is enfiled with a crown.) 
Behind each unicorn, on the field of the Seal, is a small 
thistle leaved and ensigned with a crown. At the bottom 
of the Seal there is a representation of ground, from 
which spring two leaved thistles, one passing to the 
right, and another to the left. In the band, at the com- 
mencement of the legend, is a thistle ensigned with a 
crown, on each side of which is a small cross composed of 
five beads. 

Legend : salvvm fac popvlvm twm dne. 


No. 52. Maty, Second Seal (4 in. diam.). — The queen 
enthroned, crowned, holding in her right hand a sceptre 
terminating in the hand of Justice, and in her left a 
sceptre of ornamented stem, terminating in a fleur-de-lis. 
The queen wears a long mantle fastened below the neck, 
opening and separating as it falls. She rests her arms 
upon tne two sides of her throne, which is without a 
back. The throne is placed under a canopy with a scal- 
loped valence, from beneath which falls, in richest profu- 
sion, such ample drapery, caught up and festooned on 
each side, as to completely fill the field of the Seal. 

Legend : *J* maria dei gratia regina scotorvm. 

No. 53. Counterseal (l£ in. diam.). — A shield charged 
with the royal arms of Scotland ensigned with a crown 
showing four fleurs-de-lis and three crosses patt^e, from 
the top of each of which proceeds a thin band ; all meet- 
ing in the centre, thus covering the crown with six 
arches. The spaces on each side of the shield are filled 
with small scrollwork. 

No. 54. Francis and Mary (3.8 in. diam.). — The king 
and queen sitting on one throne, under the overhanging, 
fringed, escalloped drapery of a tent, the sides of which 
are drawn out and festooned in the margin of the device. 
Each sovereign has a tasselled footstool. The king, 
crowned, wears a robe covered with fleurs-de-lis, and a 
small cape, over which appear the collar and badge of some 
order of knighthood, probably that of St. Michael. 1 Both 
of his arms move upwards from the elbow. In his right 
hand he holds the sceptre terminating in a fleur-de-lis ; 
in his left a sceptre terminating in the hand of Justice. 
The queen wears a mantle fastened by short cords in the 
front of the neck. Her right hand rests on her knee, and 
holds the sceptre terminating in a fleur-de-lis ; her left 
arm is turned upwards at the elbow, and her left hand 
holds a sceptre terminating in the hand of Justice. In 
the tent above the sovereigns' heads the valence has a 
fleur-de-lis at the top of each escallop. The curtains of 
the tent are ornamented all over with fleurs-de-lis. In 
the exergue of the Seal, under the footstools, is the date 

1 The Order of St. Michael was instituted in 1460, and was held in 
estimation for abont a century ; bat subsequently it fell into disrepute 
from the easy way in which it was acquired. 


Legend : franciscvs et mama d : g : r : r : francor : 


No. 55. Counterseal (2.3 in. diam.). — A shield charged 
with the following arms, per pale ; the dexter impale- 
ment is divided per fesse, the arms in chief being three 
fleurs-de-lis for France ; those in base being three lions 
passant gardant in pale for England. The sinister impale- 
ment is charged with the royal arms of Scotland. The 
shield is ensigned with a crown. The whole device is 
surrounded by a simple circular line. 

No. 56. Mary, Fourth Seal (4.5 in. diam.) — The queen 
enthroned, crowned ; head slightly turned, looking to her 
right ; wearing a mantle fastened across the breast by a 
short band ; holding perpendicularly, in her right hand, 
a very long sceptre terminating in a fleur-de-lis ; and ob- 
liquely, in her left hand, a shorter sceptre terminating in 
the hand of Justice ; her feet resting on a cushion. The 
throne is very broad, and without a back. Behind the 
figure of the queen is a tent with the curtains drawn 
aside, and festooned at the sides of the Seal. The upper 
part of the tent is surrounded by a short escalloped 
valence ornamented at the points of junction of the escal- 
lops by thistles and tassels. 

Legend : maria dei gratia scotorvm regina. 

No. 57. Counterseal (2 in. diam.). — A shield charged 
with the following arms : per pale, the dimidiated arms 
of France (the full arms being three fleurs-de-lis) on the 
dexter side, and the royal arms of Scotland on the sinis- 
ter side ; ensigned with a crown. The crown is of a dif- 
ferent design from that which appears on the Seal No. 55. 
Above a narrow, jewelled band are three fleurs-de-lis ; 
between each two fleurs-de-lis is a cross patt^e with 
a pearl or ball projecting from the upper and two 
side-limbs ; between each fleur-de-lis and each cross is 
another pearl or ball. The crown has four arches, all 
meeting in the centre, under a central pearl or ball. The 
enclosing circles of this counterseal are simply orna- 

No. 58. Mary, Fifth Seal (4.75 in. diam.). — The queen 
enthroned, crowned. The design of this Seal is similar 
to that of the last, No. 56 ; but the queen holds in her 
right hand a much shorter sceptre, and this terminates 


in the hand of Justice, whilst the sceptre in her left hand 
terminates in a fleur-de-lis. The top of the tent is orna- 
mented with cherubs' heads in place of thistles, and the 
tassels are fuller. In the exergue, under the throne, is 
some foliated ornament on the band, bearing the legend 
above the top of the tent. Between all the words in the 
legend is a small flower with two leaves on a stalk. 
Legend : mama dei gra : regina scotorvm dotaria 


No. 59. Counterseal. — A shield divided per pale, bear- 
ing on the dexter the dimidiated arms of France, and on 
the sinister the royal arms of Scotland. The shield is 
ensigned with the crown, the same as on Seal No. 51, 
except that the cross on the top of the crown is perfectly 
plain (not patt^e). The shield is surrounded on its two 
sides and its base by the collar of the Order of the 
Thistle, and the badge of the same Order pendent there- 
from. The shield and crown are supported by two uni- 
corns, one on each side, which also support spears, the 
lower points of which pass through rings lying upon the 
ground, which extends across the bottom of the Seal. 
Just below the spear-heads are flags flying outwards, each 
charged with the Cross of St. Andrew, enfiled in the 
centre with a crown. The background of the Seal is 
covered by foliated ornament. A large thistle is placed 
on the band, at the commencement of the legend. 

Legend : salwm fac popvlvm tvvm domine. 

No. 60. James VI, 1568-1625, First Seal (4 in. diam.). 
— The same as Queen Mary's First Seal, No. 50, except 
the legend. 

Legend : iacobvs dei gratia rex scotorv. 

No. 61. Counterseal. — Precisely the same as No. 51. 

No. 62. James VI, Second Seal (4.5 in. diam.). — The 
king on horseback, galloping to the right, fully protected 
by armour. The helmet is open, with the vizor up, 
showing the king's face in profile. Five feathers pro- 
ceed from the back of the helmet. The body-armour 
is thus described by Laing, 1 — " The cuirass, rather glo- 
bular in form, finished with the ridge called the tapul 
in front ; the pauldrons with passe-gardes, the large 
elbow-pieces, the genouilleres, with plates to protect the 

1 Catalogue of Scottish Seals, by H. Laing (Edinburgh, 1850), p. 16. 


The S's on this side as well as on the other side of the 
Seal are very squat and ugly. 

Legend : & jacobvs dei gratia rex scotorvm. 

No. 50. Mary, 1542-1568, First Seal (4 in. diam.).— 
The queen enthroned, crowned, holding in her right hand 
a sceptre terminating in a fleur-de-lis ; her left hand is 
laid upon her breast, immediately below the fastening of 
her mantle. The throne is in the Italian style of archi- 
tecture, with two ornamental columns in front, which 
with the back support a tester ; on the front of which is 
a cherub's head between two wings, and other ornamental 
devices and scrollwork. 

Legend : maria dei gratia regina scotorv. 

No. 51. Countersecd. — A shield charged with the royal 
arms of Scotland, encircled below and on both sides with 
the collar of the Order of the Thistle, ensigned with a 
crown. The crown has above the jewelled band three 
large fleurs-de-lis, one in the centre, and one at each end. 
Between the large fleurs-de-lis is a cross patt^e, and 
between each large fleur-de-lis and each cross is a small 
fleur-de-lis. From each of the large fleurs-de-lis proceeds 
a band crocketed; all meeting in the centre, where appears 
a small orb ensigned with a cross patt^e. The shield is 
supported on each side by a unicorn collared and chained. 
Their tails are forked at the end. Each of the unicorns 
supports a lance. The butt-ends of these lances rest on the 
ground, below the shield, and cross each other below the 
collar of the Thistle. The other ends of the lances appear 
above the heads of the unicorns, and there carry each a 
small square flag flying inwards, charged with the cross 
of St. Andrew enfiled m the centre with an open crown. 
(The flag above the dexter supporter is so indistinct that 
I cannot feel sure that the cross is enfiled with a crown.) 
Behind each unicorn, on the field of the Seal, is a small 
thistle leaved and ensigned with a crown. At the bottom 
of the Seal there is a representation of ground, from 
which spring two leaved thistles, one passing to the 
right, and another to the left. In the band, at the com- 
mencement of the legend, is a thistle ensigned with a 
crown, on each side of which is a small cross composed of 
five beads. 

Legend : salvvm fac popvlvm twm dne. 


No. 52. Mary, Second Seal (4 in. diam.). — The queen 
enthroned, crowned, holding in her right hand a sceptre 
terminating in the hand of Justice, and in her left a 
sceptre of ornamented stem, terminating in a fleur-de-lis. 
The queen wears a long mantle fastened below the neck, 
opening and separating as it falls. She rests her arms 
upon the two sides of her throne, which is without a 
back. The throne is placed under a canopy with a scal- 
loped valence, from beneath which falls, in richest profu- 
sion, such ample drapery, caught up and festooned on 
each side, as to completely fill the field of the Seal. 

Legend : >Jf maria dei gratia regina scotorvm. 

No. 53. Counterseal (l£ in. diam.). — A shield charged 
with the royal arms of Scotland ensigned with a crown 
showing four fleurs-de-lis and three crosses patt^e, from 
the top of each of which proceeds a thin band ; all meet- 
ing in the centre, thus covering the crown with six 
arches. The spaces on each side of the shield are filled 
with small scrollwork. 

No. 54. Francis and Mary (3.8 in. diam.). — The king 
and queen sitting on one throne, under the overhanging, 
fringed, escalloped drapery of a tent, the sides of which 
are drawn out and festooned in the margin of the device. 
Each sovereign has a tasselled footstool. The king, 
crowned, wears a robe covered with fleurs-de-lis, and a 
small cape, over which appear the collar and badge of some 
order of knighthood, probably that of St. Michael} Both 
of his arms move upwards from the elbow. In his right 
hand he holds the sceptre terminating in a fleur-de-lis ; 
in his left a sceptre terminating in the hand of Justice. 
The queen wears a mantle fastened by short cords in the 
front of the neck. Her right hand rests on her knee, and 
holds the sceptre terminating in a fleur-de-lis ; her left 
arm is turned upwards at the elbow, and her left hand 
holds a sceptre terminating in the hand of Justice. In 
the tent above the sovereigns' heads the valence has a 
fleur-de-lis at the top of each escallop. The curtains of 
the tent are ornamented all over with fleurs-de-lis. In 
the exergue of the Seal, under the footstools, is the date 

1 The Order of St. Michael was instituted in 1460, and was held in 
estimation for about a century ; but subsequently it fell into disrepute 
from the easy way in which it was acquired. 


The S's on this side as well as on the other side of the 
Seal are very squat and ugly. 

Legend : %? jacobvs dei gratia rex scotorvm. 

No. 50. Mary, 1542-1568, First Seal (4 in. diam.).— 
The queen enthroned, crowned, holding in her right hand 
a sceptre terminating in a fleur-de-lis ; her left hand is 
laid upon her breast, immediately below the fastening of 
her mantle. The throne is in the Italian style of archi- 
tecture, with two ornamental columns in front, which 
with the back support a tester ; on the front of which is 
a cherub's head between two wings, and other ornamental 
devices and scrollwork. 

Legend : maria dei gratia regina scotorv. 

No. 51. Counterseal. — A shield charged with the royal 
arms of Scotland, encircled below and on both sides with 
the collar of the Order of the Thistle, ensigned with a 
crown. The crown has above the jewelled band three 
large fleurs-de-lis, one in the centre, and one at each end. 
Between the large fleurs-de-lis is a cross patt^e, and 
between each large fleur-de-lis and each cross is a small 
fleur-de-lis. From each of the large fleurs-de-lis proceeds 
a band crocketed ; all meeting in the centre, where appears 
a small orb ensigned with a cross patt^e. The shield is 
supported on each side by a unicorn collared and chained. 
Their tails are forked at the end. Each of the unicorns 
supports a lance. The butt-ends of these lances rest on the 
ground, below the shield, and cross each other below the 
collar of the Thistle. The other ends of the lances appear 
above the heads of the unicorns, and there carry each a 
small square flag flying inwards, charged with the cross 
of St. Andrew enfiled in the centre with an open crown. 
(The flag above the dexter supporter is so indistinct that 
I cannot feel sure that the cross is enfiled with a crown.) 
Behind each unicorn, on the field of the Seal, is a small 
thistle leaved and ensigned with a crown. At the bottom 
of the Seal there is a representation of ground, from 
which spring two leaved thistles, one passing to the 
right, and another to the left. In the band, at the com- 
mencement of the legend, is a thistle ensigned with a 
crown, on each side of which is a small cross composed of 
five beads. 

Legend : salvvm fac popvlvm tvvm dne. 


No. 52. Mary, Second Seal (4 in. diam.). — The queen 
enthroned, crowned, holding in her right hand a sceptre 
terminating in the hand of Justice, and in her left a 
sceptre of ornamented stem, terminating in a fleur-de-lis. 
The queen wears a long mantle fastened below the neck, 
opening and separating as it falls. She rests her arms 
upon the two sides of her throne, which is without a 
back. The throne is placed under a canopy with a scal- 
loped valence, from beneath which falls, in richest profu- 
sion, such ample drapery, caught up and festooned on 
each side, as to completely fill the field of the Seal. 

Legend : >Jf maria dei gratia regina scotorvm. 

No. 53. Counterseal (l£ in. diam.). — A shield charged 
with the royal arms of Scotland ensigned with a crown 
showing four fleurs-de-lis and three crosses pattde, from 
the top of each of which proceeds a thin band ; all meet- 
ing in the centre, thus covering the crown with six 
arches. The spaces on each side of the shield are filled 
with small scrollwork. 

No. 54. Francis and Mary (3.8 in. diam.). — The king 
and queen sitting on one throne, under the overhanging, 
fringed, escalloped drapery of a tent, the sides of which 
are drawn out and festooned in the margin of the device. 
Each sovereign has a tasselled footstool. The king, 
crowned, wears a robe covered with fleurs-de-lis, and a 
small cape, over which appear the collar and badge of some 
order of knighthood, probably that of St Michael. 1 Both 
of his arms move upwards from the elbow. In his right 
hand he holds the sceptre terminating in a fleur-de-lis ; 
in his left a sceptre terminating in the hand of Justice. 
The queen wears a mantle fastened by short cords in the 
front of the neck. Her right hand rests on her knee, and 
holds the sceptre terminating in a fleur-de-lis ; her left 
arm is turned upwards at the elbow, and her left hand 
holds a sceptre terminating in the hand of Justice. In 
the tent above the sovereigns' heads the valence has a 
fleur-de-lis at the top of each escallop. The curtains of 
the tent are ornamented all over with fleurs-de-lis. In 
the exergue of the Seal, under the footstools, is the date 

1 The Order of St. Michael was instituted in 1469, and was held in 
estimation for about a century ; but subsequently it fell into disrepute 
from the easy way in which it was acquired. 



(Read 21 Nov. 1888.) 

We seem to live in an age when historic anniversaries 
cluster thick and fast around us. Last year America 
celebrated the centenary of her New Constitution, the 
British dominions were jubilant that Queen Victoria had 
completed the fiftieth year of her reign, and Peterborough 
was not unmindful that 1887 was the tercentenary of the 
death of Mary Stuart ; the Roman Pontiff inaugurated 
the present year with his jubilee ; the centenary of the 
death of Prince Charles Edward, on January 31, was not 
forgotten by the descendants of his adherents, if they 
made but little outward signs of their unshaken loyalty 
to the exiled house of Stuart. 1 This year brings, too, 
with it the four hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
Henry V, the victor of Agincourt, and the tercentenary 
of the defeat of the Spanish armada, two events whicn 
fill the English heart with honest pride and highest 
gratitude to Heaven. In 1788 our forefathers celebrated 
the centenary of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 with 
religious services, balls, and banquets, fireworks, and illu- 
minations, and by the erection of monuments and the 
issue of various medallions ; and their descendants are 
called on this year to commemorate the bicentenary of 
the same stupendous event. 2 This, therefore, appears an 

1 On January 31 the portrait of the " Young Pretender", in my 
library, was draped with black crape; Dr. Lee, at All Saints, Lam- 
beth, held a solemn service on this day ; and a Requiem Mass for the 
repose of the Prince's soul was to have been performed at the Church 
of the Carmelites, Kensington, but was forbidden by the Cardinal 
Archbishop. Was this because Charles Edward had become a member 
of the Anglican Communion in 1 753 ? 

2 I have two copper pieces struck on the centenary of the Revolu- 
tion. One is thick, and about the size of half-a-crown. Obv., within a 
border of oak-leaves, la urea ted bust of William III to the right ; be- 
neath, 1688, Rev., British lion supporting the royal arms, and tramp- 
ling on the emblems of Popery ; above, rbvolvtion penny ; beneath, 


appropriate time to offer for the consideration of our 
Association a few scraps which I have gathered together 
touching the relics and mementos of William and Mary, 
the grandson and granddaughter of King Charles I. 

William Henry, Prince of Orange, the posthumous son 
of William, Stadtholder of Holland, was born at the 
Hague, Nov. 4, 1650 ; and perhaps one of his earliest 
existing mementos is a large medal struck in 1654, on the 
obverse of which is his nearly full-faced bust wearing a 
flat hat with jewelled rosette and pendent feathers. Be- 
neath is a scroll inscribed wilhelmvs . hi . D . G . princ . 
alavs . etc . an . 1654. The reverse displays the profile 
bust of his august mother, with the legend, mama . dei 


etc. pabeele . F. Though the Prince is here styled Wil- 
liam III, he did not actually acquire possession of the 
Stadtholdership until 1672, and in the following year 
silver money was issued bearing his laurelled bust in 

In October 1677 the Prince of Orange paid a visit to 
England, and at St. James' Palace, on November 4th, 
espoused his cousin Mary, eldest daughter of James Duke 
of York by his first wife, Anne, eldest daughter of Hyde 
Earl of Clarendon. This royal union was a theme for the 
ballad-mongers, and the following verse of a doggerel 
ditty is often repeated in the present day : 

" What is the rhyme for porringer ? 
The King he had a daughter fair, 
And gave the Prince of Orange her." 1 

On the occasion of the marriage of William and Mary at 
least two, and perhaps even more, cossets, or wedding- 
baskets, were constructed of beadwork on frames of iron 
wire. The one here described is an oblong square measur- 
ing nearly 18 J in. by close on 14^ in., with a large, open, 
trefoil handle rising at each end and at front and back of 

branch of olive. The other is rather larger than the current halfpenny, 
thin, with engrailed edge. Obv. 9 lanreated bust of the king to the 
right; legend, gvlielmvs hi . dei . gratia . 1688. -Bey., in the field, 
within a wreath, *™ ; legend, gloriovs revolution jvbilee. 

1 This song is given in The Jacobite Minstrelsy, p. 28. 12 mo., Glas- 
gow, 1828. 


joint behind ; the lamboys (which seem not to be of 
plate, but of some stiff fabric, forming a skirt) extending 

from the waist to the knee are all well expressed." 

The armour is fluted and engraved, double lines appear- 
ing between ovals and other devices. The king bran- 
dishes a sword in his right hand, and holds the reins in 
his left. The head and neck of the horse are protected 
by a testi&re ornamented by a plume of fine feathers. 
Over the body is a caparison divided into two pieces ; 
that in front of the king, passing round the breast of the 
horse, is ornamented with a large thistle and leaves, and 
surrounded by a wide ornamental border. The piece 
behind the king is ornamented with a shield bearing the 
royal arms of Scotland, and ensigned with the royal 
crown, and surrounded by a floriated ground with an 
ornamental border. The lower edge of the caparison is 
ornamented with a row of tassels. The horse's tail, which 
is bound with thread some little way after leaving the 
body, is passed through a small opening made for it in 
the caparison. The hmd legs of the horse press a grassy 
piece of ground which fills up the bottom of the Seal. 
Behind the king and the horse is a foliated pattern cover- 
ing the field of the Seal. 

Legend : iacobvs sextvs dei / gratia rex scotorvm. 

No. 63. Counterseal. — A shield charged with the royal 
arms of Scotland, surrounded on three sides by the collar 
of the Order of the Thistle, pendent from which is the 
badge of the Order. Above the shield is a royal helmet, 
above which are the royal crown and crest, the latter 
being a lion s&jant affront^e, crowned, holding in its dex- 
ter paw a sword, and its sinister paw a sceptre, behind 
the head of which is a riband bearing the motto, in 
defens. From between the helmet and the royal crown 
proceeds a lambrequin, filling up the upper part and sides 
of the Seal. The shield and the helmet are supported 
on each side by unicorns regally gorged and chained. 
Through the rings at the end of the chains pass the butt- 
ends of spears, the heads of which appear above and 
behind the heads of the unicorns, each bearing a banner 
flying outwards. The banner behind the dexter supporter 
is charged with the cross of St. Andrew, surmounted in 
the centre by a crown. The banner behind the sinister 


supporter is charged with the royal arms of Scotland. 
The supporters, the rings, the ends of the spears, the 
badge of the Thistle, all rest upon some grassy ground 
which extends right across the bottom of the Seal. The 
words in the legend are separated from one another by 

Legend : salvvm fac popv/lum twm domine. 

No. 64. James VI (I of England), Third Seal (5.5 in. 
diam.). — A shield charged with the following arms : quar- 
terly, 1st and 4th, a lion rampant within a double tressure 
flory, counterflory, for Scotland ; 2nd, quarterly, first and 
fourth, three fleurs-de-lis for France ; second and third, 
three lions passant, guardant in pale for England ; 3rd, a 
harp for Ireland. The shield is surrounded below and on 
the two sides by the collar of the Order of the Thistle, 
pendent from which is the badge of the same Order. 
Ensigning the shield is the royal Scottish crown. The 
crown on this Seal is ornamented above the band by 
three fleurs-de-lis with two small crosses pattde between 
them. The shield is supported on its sinister and dexter 
sides by a unicorn and a lion cou£ respectively, both 
crowned. The unicorn is gorged regally and chained. 
Behind the shield are two spears in saltire, the butt-ends 
resting on the ground below the shield, the heads show- 
ing above the shields, each bearing a small banner flying 
outwards ; that towards the unicorn being charged with 
the cross of St. Andrew, that flying towards the Hon with 
the cross of St. George. Between the collar of the Thistle 
and the supporters is a very thin, elongated, inscribed 
garter. From the end of the garter hangs the badge of 
the Order of that name. 

Legend : iacobvs d: g: mag: brit: fran: et hib: rex. 

No. 65. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right. The king is crowned (without a helmet), 
his face turned three-quarters to the front. He wears a 
cuirass " protecting the upper part of the body", says 
Laing, " and the traces of three lames, the lower from the 
waist to the thighs, which latter are protected by similar 
lames or plates lapping over each other horizontally. The 
legs are without armour of any kind, having the thick 
jackboots, which now began to supersede the ancient 
jainbrets.'" His right hand, protected by a gauntlet, 


joint behind ; the lamboys (which seem not to be of 
plate, but of some stiff fabric, forming a skirt) extending 

from the waist to the knee are all well expressed. ' 

The armour is fluted and engraved, double lines appear- 
ing between ovals and other devices. The king bran- 
dishes a sword in his right hand, and holds the reins in 
his left. The head and neck of the horse are protected 
by a testi&re ornamented by a plume of fine feathers. 
Over the body is a caparison divided into two pieces ; 
that in front of the king, passing round the breast of the 
horse, is ornamented with a large thistle and leaves, and 
surrounded by a wide ornamental border. The piece 
behind the king is ornamented with a shield bearing the 
royal arms of Scotland, and ensigned with the royal 
crown, and surrounded by a floriated ground with an 
ornamental border. The lower edge of the caparison is 
ornamented with a row of tassels. The horse's tail, which 
is bound with thread some little way after leaving the 
body, is passed through a small opening made for it in 
the caparison. The hmd legs of the horse press a grassy 
piece of ground which fills up the bottom of the Seal. 
Behind the king and the horse is a foliated pattern cover- 
ing the field of the Seal. 

Legend : iacobvs sextvs dei / gratia rex scotorvm. 

No. 63. Counterseal. — A shield charged with the royal 
arms of Scotland, surrounded on three sides by the collar 
of the Order of the Thistle, pendent from which is the 
badge of the Order. Above the shield is a royal helmet, 
above which are the royal crown and crest, the latter 
being a lion sejant affrontde, crowned, holding in its dex- 
ter paw a sword, and its sinister paw a sceptre, behind 
the head of which is a riband bearing the motto, in 
defens. From between the helmet and the royal crown 
proceeds a lambrequin, filling up the upper part and sides 
of the Seal. The shield and the helmet are supported 
on each side by unicorns regally gorged and chained. 
Through the rings at the end of the chains pass the butt- 
ends of spears, the heads of which appear above and 
behind the heads of the unicorns, each bearing a banner 
flying outwards. The banner behind the dexter supporter 
is charged with the cross of St. Andrew, surmounted in 
the centre by a crown. The banner behind the sinister 


supporter is charged with the royal arms of Scotland. 
The supporters, the rings, the ends of the spears, the 
badge of the Thistle, all rest upon some grassy ground 
which extends right across the bottom of the Seal. The 
words in the legend are separated from one another by 

Legend : salvvm fac popv/lum twm domine. 

No. 64. James VI (I of England), Third Seal (5.5 in. 
diam.). — A shield charged with the following arms : quar- 
terly, 1st and 4th, a lion rampant within a double tressure 
flory, counterflory, for Scotland ; 2nd, quarterly, first and 
fourth, three fleurs-de-lis for France; second and third, 
three lions passant, guardant in pale for England ; 3rd, a 
harp for Ireland. The shield is surrounded below and on 
the two sides by the collar of the Order of the Thistle, 
pendent from which is the badge of the same Order. 
Ensigning the shield is the royal Scottish crown. The 
crown on this Seal is ornamented above the band by 
three fleurs-de-lis with two small crosses patt^e between 
them. The shield is supported on its sinister and dexter 
sides by a unicorn and a lion cou6 respectively, both 
crowned. The unicorn is gorged regally and chained. 
Behind the shield are two spears in saltire, the butt-ends 
resting on the ground below the shield, the heads show- 
ing above the shields, each bearing a small banner flying 
outwards ; that towards the unicorn being charged with 
the cross of St. Andrew, that flying towards the lion with 
the cross of St. George. Between the collar of the Thistle 
and the supporters is a very thin, elongated, inscribed 
garter. From the end of the garter hangs the badge of 
the Order of that name. 

Legend : iacobvs d: g: mag: brit: fran: et hib: rex. 

No. 65. Counterseal. — The king on horseback, gallop- 
ing to the right. The king is crowned (without a helmet), 
his face turned three-quarters to the front. He wears a 
cuirass " protecting the upper part of the body", says 
Laing, " and the traces of tnree lames, the lower from the 
waist to the thighs, which latter are protected by similar 
lames or plates lapping over each other horizontally. The 
legs are without armour of any kind, having the thick 
jackboots, which now began to supersede the ancient 
jainbrets.'" His right hand, protected by a gauntlet, 


wound is thus mentioned in the old song of " The Boyne 

" A bullet from the Irish came, 

Which grazed King William's arm ; 
They thought His Majesty was slain, 
Yet it did him little harm." 

The identical spurs worn by King William at the 
Battle of the Boyne were preserved for some time in an 
Irish family, and were then presented by one of its mem- 
bers to the Earl of Harcourt whilst Lord Lieutenant 
(1772-77), and by him to Horace Walpole. They were 
kept in a red leather box lined with green velvet, and 
when the Strawberry Hill Collection was sold off, in 1 842, 
constituted lot 86 of the sixteen days' sale, realising the 
sum of £13 :2:6. 

At the sale of the Crofton Croker Collection by Messrs. 
Puttick and Simpson, Dec. 22, 1854, lot 341 is thus de- 
scribed in the Catalogue : " William III. — A pair of the 
King's gloves, leather, the cuffs embroidered with gold 
thread. In carved oak case, glazed. This pair of gloves, 
which there are good reasons for believing were those 
worn by William III at the memorable Battle of the 
Boyne, were given to me on the 20th of August 1850 by 
the Baron Sir William Dillon, Bart., at Lismullen Park, 
co.Westmeath, in the room where, according to tradition 
(and there is no reason to doubt it), William III slept 
from the 2nd to the 4th of July 1690, and which probably 
had been previously occupied by James II." (Extract from 
private manuscript memorandum by Mr. Croker.) These 
gloves were knocked down for the sum of £2 : 12. 

The victory of the Boyne was memorialised in many 
ways, and among others by the production of a round 
gold watch, formerly in the Bernal Collection. This 
watch has on the dial an enamel of St. George and the 
Dragon, the hands are set with rose-diamonds, the sides 
are enamelled in flowers, within is a landscape, and on 
the back, William on a white horse, at the Battle of the 
Boyne. This interesting bijou is signed " Josephus Nor- 
ris, Amsterdam", and was probably made for the King or 
some member of the royal family. 1 

1 The last living relic of the Battle of the Boyne was probably Mat- 
thew Champion, who died at Yarmouth, Oct. 9, 1793, aged one hun- 
dred and eleven, and who, though a child at the time, was with his 


A watch which belonged to William III was sold with 
the rest of the treasures of Stowe House in 1848. It is 
of silver, made by Bushman of London, and has on its 
face a medallion of the monarch. Daniel Quare, the 
Quaker, made a repeating watch for William III, which 
is still in good condition. 

We meet with but few personal relics of William III, 
but some of them may be here pointed out. 

In the jewel-closet at Burleigh House, the seat of the 
Marquess of Exeter, is a pocket-handkerchief which be- 
longed to the King ; and in the state-bed dressing-room 
is a superb set of toilet articles of gilt silver, once the 
property of the same monarch. There still remains at 
Hampton Court a pair of handsome silver-gilt fire-dogs 
with the King's crowned cipher, made in 1696 ; and in 
the first presence-chamber is the canopy of his throne, 
with his arms and the Dutch motto, "Je Maintiendrai" . 
In another apartment of the same Palace are shown the 
state-beds of William and Mary, and in a third room are 
some chairs which 'are believed to have been embroidered 
by the Queen. 

In the Forman Collection at Pip Brooke House, Dor- 
king, is a splendid Chinese coverlet of crimson satin 
adorned with animals, birds, flowers, and other devices, 
wrought in rich and varied coloured silks, and measuring 
9 ft. 9 in. in length by 6 ft. 5 in. in width, which is said 
to have belonged to Queen Mary, and to have been pre- 
sented to her by her father, James II. This gorgeous 
specimen was obtained on the Continent over thirty years 
since, and there is every reason to put faith in the* state- 
ment received with it. 

Two other reputed relics of the same Queen were sold 
at Wellington Street in June 1857, and are described in 
the Catalogue thus : "Lot 111. A necklace and earrings 
of amber beads, mounted in gold and enamelled. These 
belonged to Mary, the daughter of James II, and wife of 
William III." 

When the good and gentle Queen Mary II had reached 

father at the memorable conflict. A quaint memento of the battle was 
presented to George IV on his visit to Ireland in 1821, namely a lyre, 
in which the shell consisted of the skull of the horse which Duke 
Schomberg rode during the fight. See J. W. Croker's Correspondence 
and Diaries, vol. ii, p. 207. 



her thirty-third year she fell a victim to small-pox, 
breathing her last on Dec. 28, 1694, in the royal Palace 
of Kensington. Her body, after lyingin state at White- 
hall, was interred in a vault beneath Henry VII's Chapel 
at Westminster, the funeral sermon being preached by 
Dr. Tenison, Archbishop of Canterbury. 

A few mortuary mementos of the Queen must now be 
referred to, the most touching being the ring containing 
some of her hair, which was found tied by a black ribbon 
to the left arm of King William immediately after his 

In the catalogue of Lord Braybrooke's collection of 
rings at Audley End, No. 123 is thus described : "A small 
and delicate lady's gold mourning ring, in memoir of 
Queen Mary, wife of William III. The hoop, which is 
very slight, is inlaid upon the shoulders with black ena- 
mel, and surmounted by a square box for setting, orna- 
mented with perpendicular lines of the same down the 
sides. The box contains a tress of the deceased Queen's 
hair plaited, with m.r. and a crown in small gold ciphers 
laid over it. A crystal cut into facets encloses them. 
The under side of the box has a Death's head and cross- 
bones inlaid in black enamel." 

In our Journal (vol. v, p. 78) mention is made of one 
of the Queen's mortuary brooches inscribed " Memento 
Maria Begin, obt. 28 Dec. 94." 

Another record of the Queen's death must not be passed 
by in silence, — the letter in French, dated Kensington, 
-f-f January 1695, which the King addressed to Charles 
Henri de Lorraine, Prince de Vaudemont, full of expres- 
sions of the deepest sorrow at his loss. This interesting 
document is in the British Museum. 

Several medals were issued on the Queen's death. 
Among others may be cited one with her profile bust to 
the right, inscribed maria . d . g . m . brit . fran . et . 
hib . regina . f . d . p . a. The reverse represents the 
Queen in a canopied bed, with a seated figure of the King 
in the foreground, at whose feet are three kneeling 
figures. In the exergue is the legend, popvlis liberta- 
tis erepta obiit vii ian mdcxcv. Another medal with 
this reverse has on the obverse the Queen's bust sur- 
rounded by the words diva maria brit. orbis et totivs 
evrop. decvs. 


At University College, Oxford, is a statue of Queen 
Mary ; and there was formerly another, with her husband, 
on the east side of the Quadrangle of the Royal Ex- 
change, destroyed by fire, Jan. 10, 1838. 

We must now return to the bereaved monarch, and 
speak of a few of his mementos. 

It is needless to dwell on the King's accident on the 
road from Hampton, nor on the supervening fever which 
terminated fatally about eight of the clock in the morn- 
ing of March 8, 1702. William expired in the same 
Palace where his beloved Queen had breathed her last 
eight years before, and was interred in the same vault at 
Westminster in which she was laid. 1 No monumental 
effigies point out the resting-place of either Sovereign, 
but waxen figures of William and Mary are to be seen 
among "the ragged regiment" in Westminster Abbey. 
And whilst on the subject of waxwork it may be added 
that William III is in Madame Tussaud's "Hall of Kings." 

Trinkets were made in memory of William as they had 
been for his Queen. One is given in the catalogue of 
Lord Braybrooke's collection of rings at Audley End, — 
"No. 249. Royal mourning-ring ; a slight gold hoop with 
a silver frame on the summit, set round with six small 
pearls, and made to imitate a buckle with a gold tongue 
across it, so that the band of it, visible below, resembles 
the garter. On one shoulder are two more small pearls, 
and the surface is covered with black enamel, with the 
inscription, in letters of gold, ' Gulielmus III Rex, 1702/ 
After 'Rex* is a Death's head of gold." The Baroness 
Burdett-Coutts has a highly interesting gold memorial 
ring of William III, set with a facetted crystal, beneath 
which is a portion of the King's hair, with crown and 
cipher in gold filigree. On the back is engraved " w. R., 
the 8th March 170J. iEta. 51, Nov. 4." 

Various medals were issued on the King's death. One 
of the most curious bears his laurelled bust to the left, 
with the legend, gvlielm . hi . d . g . m . bbit . fr . et . 
hib . rex . F . D . P . A. Rev., the Monarch carried on an 
eagle's back to heaven ; legend, consecratio gvlielmi 

1 For some time after William's death there were a few heartless 
scoundrels who used to drink the health of " Sorrel", the little horse 
whose trip caused the fracture of the King's clavicle. 


max.; exergue, oibbonis flebilis occidit xiv kal. april. 

Numerous epitaphs were composed on King William, 1 
and our former Vice-President, the late Lord Boston, 
possessed a singular panegyric on the Sovereign, which 
must not be omitted. It is written within a woodcut- 
border, 12| in. high by 7f in. wide, in the centre of the 
upper part of which is a disc surrounded by scrollwork, 
and ensigned by a baron's coronet, and on either side a 
bold foliate scroll including a kneeling Cupid. The side- 
borders and base are likewise floral scrolls, upon which 
birds are placed, the whole design being coloured and 
gilt. The centre of the piece is painted a deep brown or 
black, and on this the following is written in white and 
gold letters : 

"A true Encomium on King William y* 3 d 
Humbly presented to the Right Honourable 
William Lord Paget, written by 
Jos h owes late Lieutenant. 

" Hee was His words few & Faithfull. 

The Head, Heart and (Soul) of the His Actions Manly <fc Heroick. 

Confederates. His Government without Tyranny. 

The Assertor of Liberty (and) De- His Justice without Rigour. 

liverer of Nations. His Religion without Superstition. 

The Support of the Empire, [dors. Hee was Great without Pride. 

The Bullwark of Holland & Flaun- Valiant without Violence. 

The Preserver of Brittaine. Victorious without Tryumph. 

The Reducer of Ireland. Active without Weary ness. 

The Terror of France. Cautious without Fear. 

His thoughts were wise & Secret. Meritorious without Thanks. 

King, Queen, Prince (Subject ne'er yet) saw 
So wise, just, honest, valiant as Nassau. 

He was 

But words are wanting to say what : 

Say all that 's Great & Good, <fc Hee was that." 

The author of this quaint "Encomium", no doubt, served 
under " The Little Dutchman", as William's foes were 
pleased to call him. 

We must now refer to a few of the statues and busts 
which have been wrought in memory of our hero ; and 
first, of the charming little effigies in pipe-clay, 3£ in. 
high, which are thought by some to have been produced 

1 Three are given in Pettigrew's Chronicles of the Tombs, pp. 318-20. 


about 1690, by John Dwight, at Fulham, but which may 
really have had their birth at Gouda. They represent 
the King standing, habited as a Roman Caesar, but with 
a flowing wig, his right hand resting on the hilt of a 
sword at his left side. One of these rare statuettes was 
exhumed in Smithfield, Sept. 20, 1845, and is now in my 

The most renowned statue of King William is the 
equestrian one, of lead, set up on College Green, Dublin, 
July 1st, 1 701, the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne. 
On its pedestal is the following inscription : 

" Gulielmo Tertio 

Magna? Britannia?, Franciee, et Hibernife 


Ob Religiouem Conservatum 

Restitutas Leges. 

Libertatem Assertam, 

Cives Dublinienses Hanc Statuam Posuere." 

Views of the statue are given in The Mirror (xxvii, p. 
257) and in Chambers' Book of Days (ii, 9), in both of 
which works may also be seen accounts of the attacks 
which at various times have been made upon this fine 
monument ; and it may just be noted that medallions of 
this College Green effigy are printed in black on the silk 
collars of the Orange Lodges, surrounded by the words, 
" The Constitution, the Whole Constitution, and Nothing 
but the Constitution." 

In the centre of Queen's Square, Bristol, raised on a 
lofty plinth, is a bronze equestrian statue of William III 
in Roman habit, his right arm extended, and in his hand 
a truncheon, with which he points as if in command. 
This is the work of John Michael Rysbraeck. 

In the Great Hall of the Bank of England is a fine 
pedestrian statue, by Cheere, of King William in Roman 
costume, with the following inscription beneath it : 


Legibus vim, 

Judiciis Auctoritatera, 

Senatui Dignitatem, 

Civibus universis Jura sua, 

Tarn Sacra, quam Civilia, Reetituta, 

Et illustrissimse Domus Hanoverian® 

In iniperium Britannicum Successione 


Posteris confirmata, 

Optimo Principi, 

Galielmo Tertio, 

Conditori suo, 

Orato Animo Posuit, dicavitqne 

hnjus ^Erarii Societas, 

A. c. mdccxxxiy. harumqne iEdium L" 

Which has been rendered into English thus: "For restor- 
ing Efficacy to the Laws, Authority to the Courts of 
Justice, Dignity to the Parliament, To all his Subjects 
their Religion and Liberties, And confirming these to 
Posterity, By the Succession of the illustrious House of 
Hanover To the British Throne : To the best of Princes, 
William the Third, Founder of the Bank, This Corpora- 
tion, from a Sense of Gratitude, Has erected this Statue, 
And dedicated it to his Memory, In the Year of Our Lord 
1734, And the first Year of this Building." 1 

In 1808 an equestrian statue, in bronze, of William III 
as a Roman emperor, was erected in St. James' Square, 
pursuant to the will of Samuel Travers, Esq., who died 
in 1 724. It is the work of the younger Bacon, who 
modelled the horse from a favourite steed belonging to 
George III. 

A bust of the Great Nassau appeared in " The Temple 
of British Worthies" at Stowe, accompanied by the fol- 
lowing' inscription : " King William III, who by his vir- 
tue and constancy having saved his country from a 
foreign master, by a bold and generous enterprise pre- 
served the liberty and religion of Great Britain. " 

From sculpture pass we on to painting. The walls of 
many mansions and public edifices display portraits of 
William and Mary. At Hampton Court is a picture by 
Sir Peter Lely representing Mary whilst Princess of 
Orange, in the character of Diana, with bow and arrow ; 
and in the same Palace is a youthful likeness of the 
Prince by Adrian Hanneman, and also portraits of the 
King and Queen by William Wissing. In the Council 
Room of Greenwich Hospital are half-length portraits of 
William and Mary by Sir Godfrey Kneller. In the Town 
Hall of Guildford are whole-length pictures of William 
and Mary. In London we find, in Painter-Stainers' Hall, 

1 See Maitland's History of London, ed. 1739, p. 623. 


a full-length of the King, the work of and present from 
Sir Godfrey Kneller. Another full-length of the same 
monarch is in Merchant Taylors' Hall ; and portraits of 
William and Mary, by Thomas Murray, decorate the Hall 
of the Fishmongers. In the British Museum was a paint- 
ing of the King, which now forms part of the National 
Portrait Gallery. He is represented in armour, with a 
long military wig. In the same Gallery is a portrait of 
William as a boy, aged seven, painted by C. Janssen, and 
also one of Mary II by Wissing. 

As might well be expected, there is no lack of minia- 
tures of William III. Our good friend the Rev. S. M. 
Mayhew has lately purchased a massive and richly chased 
finger-ring of gold, set with an oval miniature of the 
King, nearly full-faced, the right shoulder being next the 
spectator. He is bare-headed, with flowing wig of dark 
brown curls ; and over the shoulders is thrown a crimson 
mantle lined with ermine, and so arranged as to expose 
the bands of the steel pauldron. This miniature is said 
to have been painted by an artist named Fleming, and 
the trinket was formerly the property of Dr. Sadlier, 
Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. 

The engraved portraits of William III are far too 
numerous to be here described, but two extremes may 
just be referred to, — one an oval, by N. Chevalier, within 
a border of leaves, on which are inscribed the chief events 
of his life ; the other a rude woodcut, in which he stands 
holding the Bill of Rights, and is accompanied by the 
Queen. Beneath are these four lines : 

" William the hero, with Maria mild, 
(He James's nephew, she his eldest child), 
Fix'd freedom and the Church, reform'd the coin, 
Opposed the French, and settled Brunswick's line." 

For the convenience of those who care to test the 
accuracy of any of the above cited portraits of the great 
Hero and Deliverer, the following word-picture of him is 
extracted from Cunningham's History of Great Britain : 
" King William was of a middle stature, and had chest- 
nut coloured hair. He had a piercing eye, a hooked nose, 
round shoulders, and slender legs. His appearance was 
not uncomely, whether standing or sitting ; but he was 
most graceful on horseback." 


In Larwoods History of Sign-Boards (p. 50) it is stated 
that William and Mary may still be seen as a tavern-sign 
at Maiden Causeway, Cambridge. Their portraits are 
found on a vast number of medals struck in this country 
and Holland, and on the Nuremburg jettons made by 
Lazarus Gotlieb Laufer. The King was not unfrequently 
depicted on the large Delft-ware chargers and other 

})ieces of table-crockery, and graved and stamped on the 
ids of tobacco-boxes ; for artists of all degrees of merit, 
and craftsmen of every sort, exerted themselves to mul- 
tiply trifles for the gratification of the Orange party of 
the seventeenth century, and which should preserve and 
hand down to posterity " The Glorious and Immortal 
Memory of William III" 



(Read 20th February 1889.) 

As these Notes are written, the roll and scent of break- 
ing seas, the whistle of western winds, the dream of 
ancient life, the memories of historic places, come again 
to me. The names and words of ancient Scandinavia, 
the rough inflection of Norse dialects, the bones of an 
almost forgotten people who have left us but few relics 
and not a name, the model and shape of viking ships 
sailing these northern seas, the pleasantly wild legends of 
ancient superstition, and stories of fierce mediaeval war- 
fare, — in these the archaeological student, wandering to 
the far-off Orcadean islands, is relegated to and living in 
the past. 

It may, perhaps, be said that in presence of its glorious 
coast-line there is little else to attract in Caithness as a 
district. In Pennant's day, indeed, it was little but a 
vast morass, and far removed from the amenities of 
civilisation; but the coast-line, that is literally garrisoned 
by strongholds, — towers and castles all in their day re- 
markable, alas ! mostly so, for deeds of violence and 
wrong. Their history runs from the Norse settlement, 
dr. a.d. 800, to about 1680. Take for examples the old 
Norse fort on Duncansby and the interesting ruins of 
Keiss-Girnigoe, Sinclair, and other castles, in loneliness, 
— sentinels on the shores of the deep inlet of Sinclair 

Though Caithness is at present very nearly woodless, 
evidences of a far different state of things exist in the 
carbonized forest trunks found near Keiss Castle and in 
other localities. This ravage of the woods is by some 
writers put down to Danish invasions; but looking to the 
geological formation of the country, its morasses and the 
destruction of forests may both, as in central Ireland, be 
more probably ascribed to want of drainage. The level and 


bare character of the country has, however, the advan- 
tage of a relief in the solitary, glorious cone of Morven, 
through the base of which mountain runs the dividing 
line of Sutherland and Caithness-shires, once one county. 

The geological formation is a secondary sandstone in 
layers, separating freely, and containing numerous fossils 
of ganoid fish (discovered and classified by Robert Dick 
of Thurso), some specimens of which are before you. 

The present name of the county is a distortion of a Scan- 
dinavian original. In old Norse it is " Katanes", i.e., the 
Noss or Nose of Cattey ; Cattey having been, with Suth- 
erlandshire, a name common for both counties. Tradition 
and history are alike silent on the aboriginal inhabitants 
of the district. They appear to have been of Gaelic 
rather than Pictish origin ; and it is somewhat remark- 
able that Eumenius of Autun {civ. a.d. 297-308) writes 
of the Caledonians and Picts as the same people, " Cale- 
dones aliiqui Picti". So also the inclusive word " Caledon" 
(from which Caledonia is derived) means the wild man of 
the wood. We may probably have here a light thrown on 
the early life and being of the people of Caithness and 
the islands. Of the degree of their civilisation we know 
little but as disclosed from their sepulchral mounds. They 
appear to have lived as did the northern nations, fought 
and toiled as they with instruments and weapons of bone, 
stone, and bronze ; erected the same forms of dwelling 
and fortification, practised the same funeral rites, with 
the same sepulchral chambers piled aloft into tall green 

About the year 920 Caithness came under subjection 
to Sigurd, Earl of Orkney, and bowed, more or less, four 
hundred years to this northern yoke. In this period the 
names of Harold Harfaager, Ronald, the father of Hollo, 
conqueror of Normandy, and ancestor of our William I, 
appear. conspicuous in the record. So also do names of 
places in which are wrapped the expressions of Norse 
heathenism. Take two, Thurso and Hoborn Head, a 
celebrated promontory to the west. In the first name 
we have the Scandinavian Thor, and aa, a river (the river 
of Thor). 1 In the second name, Holli, goddess of Hell, 

1 It may be the deep sound of the heavy, falling, measured waves 
of Thurso Bay to superstitious imagination suggested also the echoing 
blows of the hammer of the god. 





\s> m 









and Brion, the son or child (child of goddess of hell); and 
well and correctly is the promontory thus named. 

From the grass-grown cliffs above Scrabster Bay the 
view is simply absorbing. On that bright September day, 
below moved smoothly the tranquil, blue waters of the 
deep inlet of Scrabster Roads ; to the west, the steep alti- 
tudes of Hoborn Head ; to the east, on a jutting rock, the 
sparse, grey ruins of Scrabster Castle, the site of an early 
missionary settlement from Iona ; beyond, the curves of 
Thurso Bay, and the deep-set town just seen ; rising 
above which is the tower of Harold, and miles away the 
precipices of Dunnet Head, forming, with Easter Head 
on the coast opposite, the narrow, western gate of the 
Pentland Fiord, the inlet of rough tides and the swift Gulf 
Stream ; north, the Orkneys, red in summer sunshine, 
green in fertility, dark in cave-fissures; and towering 
over all the tremendous cliffs and celebrated Stack of 

Fermit me to detain you on the summit and edge of 
Hoborn Head. From the west it has felt the full effect 
of the fierce artillery of the tides of the Pentland, and 
the gigantic forces of the western seas ; the lofty sand- 
stone rampart is shaken, burrowed, tunnelled, and torn. 
A stack of some 400 ft., a tower of rock, has by the per- 
petual Atlantic surge been cloven, and stands separate 
from the mainland cliff; its turrets yellowish grey, its 
base black with seaweeds and floating tangle. The quick 
flight of the puffin, displaying his white plumage, shows 
like a flash of light thrown upon those dark, heaving 
masses of weed ; and birds innumerable float on the 
waves beneath our craggy eminence, an unmelted snow- 
fall on the barren flood. It is possible, though hardly 
practicable, to reach opposite the base of this gigantic 
monolith by a dark, tunnelled, slippery, and dangerous 
way overhung by black and threatening rock, if one 
might keep his path with nerves unshaken, for the voice 
of the hungry, restless sea fills the rock-cavities, rushing 
and boiling in the darkness beyond. 

Scrabster appears to have been about a.d. 600 a mis- 
sionary settlement from Iona, led or directed by the great 
apostle, Columba ; and from thence the true Light was 
carried through the islands to Ultima Thule. Scrabster 


(now little more than a ragged wall), I fear too soon 
to fall defenceless before the waves, is a sacred and inte- 
resting spot. One of the earliest notices of the place and 
enterprise is found in the treatise of the Irish monk, 
Dicuil, De Mensurd Orbis Terrarum. 

Our most important help for measuring the spirit and 
manner of these men, who undertook the conquest of the 
wild Orkneys and Shetlands for the Cross, and succeeded, 
lies in this, they gave their names to the islands wherein 
they laboured and died, and by those names those islands 
are written down in our maps, — as Papa Westray, Papa 
Stronsay, Papdale, Papa Stour, and so of others. These 
tell us of the extension and rooting of the Faith, though, 
alas ! as in Britain, Christianity was whelmed for a time 
by a fierce returning flood of heathenism. Names such 
as St.Olaf, St. Mary, St. Magnus, belong to the era of the 
reconversion of the islands under the Norse occupation. 

In the period of this invasion, John, an early Bishop of 
Scrabster, interceding for his flock, the people of Thurso, 
suffered martyrdom by Harold in a manner revolting as 
cruel. All that remains of this early cradle of our faith 
is just a shore-built wall on a storm-beaten crag. 

Passing the picturesque Harold's Tower (now the burial- 
place of the Tankerness family, though once the resting- 
place of Harold himself, the fierce northern leader), the 
deep bay under the walls of Dunnett Head leads on 
towards the very ancient Castle, the family seat of the 
Earls of Caithness. This family, the Sinclairs, was cen- 
trally settled at Girnigoe, on Sinclair Bay ; the younger 
branch of the house at Mey, in Barrogil Castle, a building 
of two courts, now the residence of the Earl of Caithness. 
"The curse of Almighty God", on account of the sins 
and wrongs done in Girnigoe, is supposed to have reduced 
that stronghold to ruins. It was a ruinous mass in 1689. 

Just beyond Barrogil is Mey, with its famous and too 
fatal " Men" (" Men of Mey"), a roost or whirl of waters 
rising in huge domes, and breaking in deluges of foam, — 
the cause of shipwrecks unnumbered. 

I want to say something of the celebrated John o' 
Groats. The site is east of Thurso about twenty miles, 
and inaccessible by any but special conveyance, the road 
running parallel with the coast, developing glorious views 
of the islands and intervening sea. 



John o' Groats is approached through a flat country, 
and is but a little modern inn upon the shore, and some 
half-dozen fishers' cottages, — added, however, the tradi- 
tional green mound, the supposed site of the celebrated 
house, and most northerly in Scotland. Some have believed 
its history and occupancy alike mythical. Eeally it is 
not so. Groat or Grote is an old Scottish patronymic ; 
yet reasonably this might have had a Flemish original. 
Still occupancy is traceable to the fifteenth century; and 
in the seventeenth, cir. 1647, the then John o' Groat and 
his chattels were vexed by certain troublesome law pro- 
ceedings set forth in a long, crabbed, and as troublesome 
Latin law process preserved at the inn. 

Moreover, on digging into this green mound were un- 
earthed sundry hewn stones, a quern, a stone pestle, two 
stones of a small hand corn-mill, net-sinkers, and other 
objects demonstrative of the reality of the occupancy, and 
perhaps of this man's family, which give name to the 
remote spot. 

A tradition also exists that in the reign of James IV 
three brothers from Holland obtained the monarch's pro- 
tection, and settled on purchased land, holding a yearly 
family reunion in the house of an elder brother, built on 
this spot, and octagonally. The little inn is octagon also. 
Nothing, however, now exists of John o' Groat but these 
few annotated relics and his memory. But wild Dun- 
cansby shoots aloft, and the impetuous tides from the 
adjacent whirlpool of Stroma, and fearsome Boers, under 
Duncansby Head, are just as when John Grote chose his 
site and built his house here. 

It is evening time. The far-stretching, white beach is 
ramparted by huge, rolled boulders, the spoil of the furies 
of many tempests ; grey, but in this hour beautiful in 
their quiet, long-cast shadows ; and deep, transparent 
browns and purples of thick seaweeds and floating 
tangles. Under the almost level beams of declining 
sunlight reflected from innumerable prisms of white 
and broken shells, these vast banks glisten in all the 
tender colours of iridescent glass. A deep tranquillity 
invests the scene, disturbed, although not marred, by the 
cry of launching fishers. Eastward, on the bright steel 
waters, a dense, black line marks the unrestful, dangerous 


Roost ; the hills of Pomona melt in lilac haze ; the rocks 
of nearer Stroma blacken; only on the far and lofty 
precipices of Hoy the evening glow yet lingers. East- 
ward, in gathering glooms, with red flames burn the twin 
and guardian lights of Skerrie. Night drops her velvet 
curtains ; and the rising moon presently purples the 
blackened shadows, and crests with yellow light the 
hasty waters of the Pentland Frith. 

The approach to Kirkwall is somewhat sudden, lying 
as it does in a bend of the Fiord. There is great novelty 
in the general view, with the square tower of St. Magnus' 
Cathedral rising beyond and above the grey houses of the 
town. Kirkwall consists of one street, tortuous, narrow, 
historical, and more in length than a mile. Two points 
are striking, the extreme narrowness of the via, and anti- 
quity and picturesqueness of many of the houses. This 
may be noted also, its one tree, honoured and protected, 
standing right in the footway of the very narrow street. 

Kirkwall, " the creek or bay of the church", is a royal 
burgh of unknown antiquity, possessing a charter from 
James III, confirming, a.d. 1476, all its ancient privi- 
leges. The town is governed by a provost and four 
baillies. Kirkwall forms one of the Wick District of 
Burghs, returning one member to Parliament. Unlike 
Stromness, the long continuity of the broad street is 
broken by the space before the Cathedral, standing 
about midway. Of course St. Magnus is the chief object 
of attraction, and well repays investigation. But three 
cathedrals, intact, of ancient foundation, remain in Scot- 
land, This is one, the others being St. Giles, Edinburgh, 
and St. Mungo, Glasgow ; all others are in ruin. A very 
beautiful view and grouping of the central buildings 
of Kirkwall is seen from Gallows Hill, with a back- 
ground of the lavender-tinted and rounded heights of 
Pomona, and the silver streak. of the dividing waters. 
To the right is St. Magnus' Cathedral ; to the left, the 
red sandstone ruins of the Bishop's Castle and the Palace 
of the Earls of Orkney, toned by the dark foliage of a few 
and rare trees. 

The Cathedral dates from 1137, being then founded by 
Roynrald,Jarl of Orkney, and built of sandstones supplied 
by the Orkney Islands. Yellowish grey, yellow, lavender, 


and deep red, blend in artistic combinations. The archi- 
tectural styles are Norman and Early Pointed Gothic. 
On entering the Cathedral the eye is somewhat deceived 
by the narrowness and great height of the nave, and 
coloured gloom prevailing in the aisles, arising from the 
omission of western aisle-windows. The general impres- 
sion is, perhaps, of Durham, but on a fax lesser scale. 
The thirty-two pillars of the nave, rising 10 ft. apart, 
want the massiveness of the southern Cathedral. Yet 
St. Magnus has beauties of its own, and the east window 
its special magnificence. Four lancets are surmounted by 
a great rose- window of twelve rays and a central trefoil. 
We may revert to Hollar's view of the great eastern win- 
dow of our old Paul's Cathedral, which, if of much grander 
dimensions, admitted the same architectural lines as 
Kirkwall's east window. 

The plan of the Cathedral is cruciform, with nave and 
nave-aisles, also north and south transepts with two 
small chapels, choir and choir-aisles, and a central tower 
carrying, until 1661, a lofty wooden spire. This spire was 
destroyed by lightning, and never rebuilt. The Cathedral 
in length is 234 ft.; in breadth, 56. The transepts are 
161 ft., with a breadth of 28 ft. An ancient chronicler 
has written thus : " It has three gates checkered with 
red and white polished stones embossed and flowered in 
a comely way"; but now weather-beaten, the yellowish 
sandstones suffering most. Dryden also says " these are 
probably the finest examples in Britain of different 
coloured stones in patterns." The interior carvings, how- 
ever, are in better preservation. The capitals over the 
choir present masses of foliage and fruit, interspersed 
with human faces, which from originality and character 
may be likenesses of some of the ancient brotherhood 
of the Cathedral. No stained glass exists ; but the frag- 
ments of old wood-carving are very rich, and beautiful in 
design. The three bells, presented by Bishop Maxwell, 
were cast, in 1528, "by Robert Borthwick, in Edinburgh, 
Master Gunner to James V." 

The curfew is still rung at eight o'clock. 

Tradition holds that the remains of many bishops and 
Norse jarls rest within these sacred walls, but no traces 
remain of either monuments or inscriptions. Hugh Miller 

1889 18 


notes having been shown a square, narrow cell formed in 
the thickness of the wall, and " in the cell was found, 
depending from the roof, a rusty iron chain with a bit of 
bread attached." The cell is supposed by some to be 
the burial-place of St. Magnus; and I have read of human 
bones within, and these carted away with rubbish. The 
Vice- Admiral of that division of Spain's Armada which 
attempted the doubling of these stormy isles, the com- 
mander of the great ship wrecked upon Fair Isle, lies 
here in peace ; and it may be added, many seventeenth 
century coffin-shaped memorial stones with doleful anti- 
cipations of the life to come, stand like vexed and despair- 
ing ghosts around the walls. 

The exterior view of the Cathedral from the Calvary 
Cross, lately restored to its place, is very striking. Its 
lofty height, fine and deeply recessed west window, the 
carved and chequered doorways; the clustering traditions 
of the ages ;, its fit remoteness from busy scenes with 
their eternal agitations; and over all the glamour of sun- 
lit colour, — combine to make St. Magnus a romance of 
beauty, with promised pleasurable reminiscences in the 
whirl even of a London life. 

The Earl's Castle and Bishop's Palace are to the south 
of the Cathedral, and adjoining. The Earl's Palace was 
built in 1600 by Patrick Stuart, Earl of Orkney, called 
also " The Scourge of the Islands." In the banqueting 
hall are two fireplaces. Over one is a fine example of the 
level arch, 12 ft. in its span. In this hall Sir Walter 
Scott places the interview between Bruce and Cleveland 
the pirate. Here also, in 1616, the trial and condemna- 
tion of Elspeth Reoch, a young and beautiful woman, for 
witchcraft took place. The style of building is Scotto- 
Flemish with much ornamentation. The hall was 34 ft. 
in height, and measures 55 ft. 1 in. by 20 ft. 4 in. 

The Bishop's Palace, of red sandstone, has suffered from 
the tooth of time and hand of the spoiler, and is most 
picturesque in its desolation. 

A good specimen of the stone residences once possessed 
by the old Lairds of Orkney may be seen in that in 
Broad Street, belonging to the Bakies of Tankerness, — 
a stone front with well-barred entrance opening on a 
spacious enclosure, around which, built in stone, stand the 


dwelling-house and its offices. Towards the top of Broad 
Street is a still more ancient and remarkable residence, 
an almost fortified house. Kirkwall differs from Strom- 
ness and Lerwick in this, — the latter towns have the 
narrowness, but fail in the picturesqueness of the former. 

It is said "every stone of our street is historical." This, 
perhaps, is hardly within the circle of truth. I give you 
two historical reminiscences. Civ. 1715 lived in the 
house by the one tree a Hanoverian agent and great sup- 
porter of the new dynasty, by name Moodie. Opposite 
the Castle Hotel (now built on the site of the Castle of 
Kirkwall) is a flagged way leading to a road above the 
Cathedral. One ill-starred morning Moodie came from 
the Cathedral towards his home, when the Earl and his 
brother and two armed servants emerged from the entry. 
" See you that Hanoverian dog ? Shoot him !" said the 
Earl. The servants obeyed ; the wounded man fell to 
the ground. " Kill him !" and again he was obeyed. But 
Moodie's little grandson stood at the house-gate, and 
saw the murder. As a man, and after Culloden (1746), 
he brought the survivors of his grandfather's murder to 

There died the year before last (1886), in Broad Street, 
and in a house inhabited by his father, a man of one 
hundred and three years. He was a cobbler, as was his 
father before him. He received this from his father, that 
after Culloden a young man, by name Stewart, and a 
scion of that well known family, came a fugitive from the 
battle, footsore, and almost naked, and by the old man's 
father Stewart's worn out brogues were patched and 

The barrenness of the Islands in trees is largely com- 
pensated by the exquisite tints of the hills and ver- 
dure of meadows; and more so as the scenery amidst 
which Stromness is set unfolds itself with the deep, warm 
red of the masses of Hoy, and the soft hills of Ronsay ; 
to the right the grassy breast of Maes Howe and lilac 
heights of Pomona and distant Stronsay, the embosomed 
lakes of Stennis, blue as the Mediterranean, with their 
grey and blackened Stennis Circles ; and over all a cloud- 
less, sapphire sky and unbroken hush of solitude. 

Maes Howe. — About three miles south of Stromness, to 

18 * 


the left, is the Maiden's Mound, and remarkable as the 
place where the first Runes of Shetland and Orkney were 
discovered, and they are 1,000 in all ! Maes Howe is a 
chambered cairn or cone, 300 ft. in circumference, 92 in 
diameter, 36 in height, standing on a circular platform 
270 ft. in diameter, surrounded by a trench 40 ft. in width. 
A long, low, sandstone passage of 54 ft. leads to the in- 
terior chamber, which is about 15ft. square. The roof 
is formed of gradually overlapping stones, closed at last 
by one. These chambered cairns belong to Orkney. There 
is another not far from Kirkwall. There are none in 
Shetland. These of Orkney, as does Maes Howe, possess 
" loculi". Here are three, with the stones that closed the 
mouth of each of them. Can these small chambers have 
been places of sepulture ? At each angle of this chamber 
is a slab of stone, on one of which is carved a remark- 
able cross (see Plate), on another a serpent around a pole, 
and a winged dragon. So near the cross, may these refer 
to the fiery, flying serpents and the serpent of brass ? 
since it is held these carvings are the work of a crusading 
Norse jarl on his way to or from Jerusalem ; most pro- 
bably Jarl Rognvald (" the Blessed Jarl"), the hero who 
in 1152 left Norway with a considerable following for 
the Holy Land. 

Some nave dismissed the Runes of Maes Howe as " mere 
scribblings". They appeared to the writer as something 
more, and more valuable, — the names of those men who 
accompanied Jarl Rognvald on Crusade. This speculation 
having been submitted to Dr. Anderson was admitted as 
the correct solution. 

Stones of Stennis. — The Bridge of Brogan, or Causeway, 
separates the Lakes of Stennis. To the south is the first 
circle, on a platform 104 ft. in diameter, and 3 ft. above 
the general level. The stones of the inner circle were 
from 15 to 17 ft. high ; but two, however, remain stand- 
ing. These are of red sandstone, and apparently from 
Sandwick parish ; and possibly, as a friend suggested, 
were moved in winter-time. In the centre of the ring is 
the fragment of a cromlech ; and on the Bridge of Brogan 
a gigantic solitary monolith, grey and massive, and 
standing well, with a background of the red precipices of 
Hoy. The stone of Odin (see Plate), perforated about 5 ft- 


from the ground, stood until 1814 ; to the last an object, 
amongst the peasantry, of great veneration. They never 
failed, when visiting it, in leaving an offering here. 

The second circle, on the Lake of Harray, though im- 
perfect, is yet more perfect than the first, and appears to 
have originally consisted of sixty stones. The jutting 
spit of land is covered by burial-mounds, the circle stand- 
ing within, on a platform of 360 ft. diameter. The dis- 
tance between the stones is 17 ft. Thirteen are stand- 
ing, thirteen are broken, more than twenty have disap- 
peared, and ten are prostrate. The stones are all 
socketed. The Circle of Brogan was known as the Temple 
of the Sun ; that of Stenness, the Temple of the Moon. 

There was a third circle at Bookar, from which the 
stones have disappeared ; and two remarkable and soli- 
tary stones on the larger of the hills, east (perhaps 
gnomons), make the sum of this interesting locality. 

Skaill and Skara, on the extreme north-west of Ork- 
ney, the terminus of a lonely upland country studded 
with lakelets, the long and weary road opening on the 
vast Bay of Skaill, where the Atlantic waters rush and 
fall evermore. Skaill House, the residence of Mr. Watt, 
F.S.A.Scot., overlooks the Bay. It is to the intelligent 
observation and perseverance of this gentleman the archae- 
ological world is so indebted for the discovery of a buried 
Pictish settlement and its exhumation in part. I dare 
not test your patience with more than a brief notice of 
the buried dwellings of Skara. 

Some years ago the wild Atlantic swept away the drift- 
sand, exposing a vast kitchen-midden, from which shells, 
deers' antlers, and implements of bone and stone were 
taken. (See Plate). Many or most of these are at Skaill 
House. Behind the midden lay a mass of ruined building. 
By great labour Mr. Watt succeeded in laying bare a 
portion, and most interesting, of the ruin. The build- 
ings may be generally described as a group of chambers 
or cells lying on either side a zigzag passage running 
nearly parallel to the beach. These chambers have a dia- 
meter of about 11 ft. 6 in., a length of 21 ft., with rounded 
ends, and walls built of beach-stone set in rude mortar. 
The interior walls are imperfect. Each dwelling opens 
into the zigzag passage, and the floor of each is marked 


out into compartments by stone uprights, the hearth re- 
taining marks of fire and burned bones. Other compart- 
ments appear to have been sleeping-berths. Shelves and 
" loculi" are there, intended for articles in daily use, as 
stone lamps, auerns for pounding fish-bone, etc., found in 
situ, as though a sudden invasion had driven away the 
dwellers, leaving their homes and household implements 
behind them. These dwellings were roof-ribbed with 
whalebone covered with turf. They have a small look- 
out seaward, and the tortuous passage at its every angle 
afforded the possibility of defence. Just within each 
habitation is a recess in which a dog on guard may have 
been kept. (See Plate.) 

Within one dwelling was found a rude, thick urn of 
clay. Such have been found also in the ruins of other 
brocks in Orkney, leading up to the idea of preservation 
in their dwellings of the burned ashes of their dead. 
Clay, as a defence against rain and wind, had been used 
seaward as exterior plaster. 

From the implements and relics found within and 
without these dwellings being formed exclusively from 
stone or bone, a high antiquity for these remains may be 
inferred. The bones are of animals long since extinct in 
Orkney, as deer, with the bones of Bos primigenius. 
Human remains were also found : one on its face, near the 
fireplace ; the other with animal bones, in a corner of the 
dwelling. The skull is of low development, with receding 
forehead, resembling others found in old graves in Orkney. 

It is not possible, it is premature, to attempt to fix an 
age for these remarkable discoveries. Too many imple- 
ments of design and finish testify for the inhabitants as 
removed from utter barbarism. The drain beneath one 
dwelling, and general constructive skill, perhaps also the 
cremation and preservation of the ashes of the dead, are 
collateral witnesses. Relics of a remoter era certainly 
were found, but overborne by a weightier evidence for a 
civilised advancement. 

These, from amongst others, were exhumed at Skara : 
a celt of quartz ; a "fetish", the upper part of a human 
body, in whalebone, with no small approach to an Esqui- 
maux type (see Plate); a stone cup with red pigment ; cal- 
cined hematite ; celts of bone ; a perforated stone ball 


covered with projecting knobs; stone lamps; a mortar or 
quern ; large numbers of polished beads of teeth or bone ; 
bones partly severed, and intended for beads; a large bone 
vessel made of the vertebrae of the whale ; stone flakes 
and knives ; a jasper celt from Shetland ; a stone box 
with pigment ; celts of red sandstone and serpentine from 
Shetland; urns formed from steatite from Shetland also; 
a remarkable disc of steatite, polished, and inscribed with 
something very like a galley with elevated prow and ex- 
panded lateen sail. These are a few from amongst the 
many in the Museum at Skaill House. The time may be 
when antiquarian and intelligent zeal will uncover further 
this buried settlement. 

Right across the Bay is a dark scaur. Under this was 
discovered, thirty years ago, the wonderful and most 
interesting hoard of very ancient Norse silver work, much 
of which is deposited in the Museum of Edinburgh Archae- 
ology, and of which on a future evening I hope to exhibit 
some models. It is remarkable that in the Saga, trans- 
lated by Dr. Anderson, is a brief, vague notice of treasure 
buried on the north-west coast. 

Returning to Kirkwall, our paper concludes with a 
glance at a most interesting spot, the Island of Egilshay, 
about twelve miles north-east of Kirkwall Harbour. On 
this small Island are the ruins of a church, the most 
ancient in Orkney. The date of its erection is uncertain ; 
but its round tower, of Celtic pattern, may suggest a 
Celtic origin, perchance an offspring of the Scrabster mis- 
sionary settlement. Sir H. Dryden supposes the building 
may date from 990, and that the builders might have been 
Norsemen. There are but three round towers in Scot- 
land, — Abernethy, Brechin, and Egilshay; the latter form- 
ing part of the church itself. The structure consists of a 
chancel and nave, in length together, 44 ft. 8 in., with a 
nave of the breadth of 15 ft. 6 in., and chancel, in breadth, 
9 ft. 5^ ins. The tower is at present 48 ft. high ; but 
this height does not appear normal. The gables are 
crow-stepped, as in the case of a most quaint and inte- 
resting church near John o' Groat's. The roof was stone- 
flagged, and over the chancel is a small stone chamber 
called "The Grief House", perhaps a prison. Having 
no intelligence of the founders I will add only the cele- 


brated St. Magnus, Jarl and Saint, was murdered in this 
Island a.d. 1115. 

He who visits these northern isles must defy the sea; 
it is of primary importance ; be prepared also for certain 
deprivation and roughness ; but the visitor is certain of 
welcome, and finding in so much novelty of scene and 
manifold interest store for after-thought when London 
life-tide may leave him a little space of quiet ebb. 


Mermaid Legend. — The Point of D Warwick is the scene of the legend 
following. A young lad of the neighbourhood found in a pool on the 
coast a mermaid sunning herself. He made himself so agreeable, or 
fell so under her fascination, that a closer intimacy ensued, and for 
long continued. The young man grew wealthy, but distributed his 
wealth to another maiden, in form of diamond jewelries of great value, 
the gifts of the sea-nymph. In process of time he became less attentive 
to his appointments, yet always demanding more and more gold and 
jewels. His ocean love experienced a natural exasperation in finding 
her gifts bestowed on earthly rivals. At length a fair evening tempted 
him afloat, with the sea-maid's promise that they two would sail in her 
skiff to a cave under D Warwick Head, wherein were piled all the gold 
of all the ships ever wrecked in the Pentland Frith and on the sands 
of Dunnett Head. He hesitated, but at length consented, and is now 
confined a captive, bound with a chain of gold, in a cave on Dunnett 
Sand, watched over by the unsleeping eyes of the mermaid. 

The last mermaid was reported to have been seen by Miss Mackay, 
daughter of the Rev. David Mackay of Reay, in 1823. Her experience 
gave rise to great and general discussion in the then learned world. 

Witchcraft. — Superstition had a fast hold in Caithness and Orkney. 
The clergy failed to eradicate it, being little less superstitious than their 
people. Even " public fast days" for " the overflowing of wickedness" 
failed also. In 1 719 many persons in Thurso being suspected of witch- 
craft and compact with the Devil, the Presbytery made formal com- 
plaint to the Sheriff, asking a commission to try them. The circum- 
stances were these. A certain Hugh Montgomery of Scrabster lost 
most unaccountably the contents of his cellars, and watching, armed, 
saw a troop of cats invading his rooms. These he attacked, wounding 
some, and from one detaching a leg. In a day or two it was rumoured 
that a venerable dame living at Oust, near Thurso, was in bed with a 
broken leg. She long had been known as " uncanny*', and here was 
proof. The Sheriff investigated the charge and its proofs, and sent the 
record to the Lord Advocate, who censured him, and quashed proceed- 
ings. Nevertheless, the poor old woman, being removed to prison, 
died from neglect therein. Two others died, and after death were found 

Pennant heard this story, and dismisses it with satire. It is true 


John o' QroaVs. — The family possessed lands at Dnncansby. Not 
less than thirty- three inventories of lettings or feuings in connection 
with this family are preserved with the " Clerk of Supply" for Orkney. 
These cover years from 1496 to Malcolm Groat, " the late ferryman , 
1642. It is remarkable no old traveller who visited John o' Groat's 
makes mention of the traditional octagonal honse, but rests the fame 
thereof on it being the northernmost honse in Scotland ; neither De- 
foe, nor Pennant, nor William Lithgow, nor Richard Franc Re, nor 
the Rev. John Brand, Commissioner of the General Assembly, who 
rested there one night. Re speaks of the abundance of good provision, 
and " more north, in an angle of Caithness, lies John o' Groat, upon 
an isthmus of land that faceth the pleasant Isles of Orkney." The 
house octagonal appears to have been " a traveller's tale". 

Arms of the Earls of Caithness. — Quarterly, 1st, azure, a ship at an- 
chor, her oars erected in saltire within a double tressure counterflowered 
or ; 2nd and 3rd, or, a lion rampant gules ; 4th, azure, a ship under 
sail or; and over all a cross engrailed, dividing the four quarters sal- 
tire. Crest, on a wreath a cock proper, two griffins beaked or. Motto, 
" Commit thyself to God." 

Museums and Private Collections. — At Thurso the disarranged botanical 

and geological collections of Mr. Robert Dick, late baker in 

At Stromne8S, a small geological collection, and one of ornithology. 
At Kirkwall, the interesting African collection belonging to the 

worthy Provost. 
The admirable lithic collection, chiefly from Shetland, the work and 

possession of W. Cursitor, Esq., F. S.A.Scot. 
The excellent collection from Skara at Skaill House, by W. Watt, 

Esq., F.S.A-Scot. 


$rocfftmtgs of tfye CongrMW* 

(Continued from p. 177.) 

Fbidat, 31st August 1888. 

The members, under the guidance of Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Eon. 
Sec, spent the forenoon in inspecting Paisley Abbey. The party 
arrived in Paisley shortly after ten o'clock, and were received by 
Bey. Mr. Dalgetty, Rev. Mr. Metcalf, Rev. Dr. Henderson, Mr. Gar- 
diner, Mr. Mackenzie, Dr. Graham, Dr. Richmond, etc. They were 
subsequently joined by Mr. Barbour, M.P. 

Mr. Brock, after the members had assembled in the church, gave a 
short explanatory paper, which will be printed hereafter. The mem- 
bers afterwards passed through the north doorway into the ruined 
choir of the church. 

Mr. Ewan Christian pointed to the marks of fire on the east end of 
the choir-walls, and called attention to an illustration of the tooling of 
the thirteenth century. 

From the choir the party passed through the church to St. Mirren's 
Chapel, or " The Sounding Aisle" as it is commonly called. 

The members afterwards inspected the monastic buildings, and under 
the guidance of Mr. Thomas Reid, of Paisley, a subterranean passage 
leading from the Abbey towards the Cart. The passage was large 
enough to permit of one walking in it with a slight stoop, and he sug- 
gested that it had extended from the Abbey kitchen to the river. 

The party returned to Glasgow shortly after one o'clock. 

After luncheon, by kind invitation of the Reception Committee, in 
the Royal Bungalow within the grounds of the Exhibition, the party 
proceeded to the University, where they were received by Professor 
Young, and shown over the Hunterian Museum. He pointed out that 
want of room prevented the College authorities having the various 
articles better arranged ; but even as they were, there was abundant 
material for those interested in archeology to inspect and study. Pro- 
fessor Young's remarks will take the form of a paper. 

At half- past four an adjournment was made to the Bishop's Castle. 


Here the party was received by Sir James King, Lord Provost ; Sheriff 
Berry, Sir William Collins, Bailie Shearer, Councillor Walter Wilson, 
Rev. Professor Story, Mr. Wyllie Guild, Mr. John Honey man, and 

The Lord Provost said that on the part of the Executive Council of 
the Exhibition, of which he was Chairman, he had to welcome the 
members of the Association to the Bishop's Castle. Although a paper 
castle it contained many treasures not unworthy of their notice, 
gathered from public and private collections, wherever access could be 
obtained to articles illustrative of the various periods of Scottish his- 
tory. He was sure, while the accommodation within the building 
could scarcely admit of all entering at once, that there would be enough 
there to make the completion of this day not the least agreeable nor 
the least instructive among the many which they had spent in Scot- 

The members spent a long time in the building, and carefully 
examined the numerous articles laid out in the various cases. The 
collection comprises a large number of objects of interest connected 
with the life of Mary Queen of Scots, also memorials of Prince Charlie 
and other pretenders to the throne. Here also is exhibited the Solemn 
League and Covenant, the parchment bearing the original signatures 
of the promoters of the same. The collection as a whole is, no doubt, 
priceless, and has never been excelled. 

A meeting of the members of the Association was held in the Cor- 
poration Galleries in the evening. 

The Marquess of Bute, the President, occupied the chair, and before 
the ordinary business of the meeting began made a few observations 
on some of the peculiar arrangements of the interior of Glasgow Cathe- 
dral as illustrated by certain foreign examples. In the address which 
he had delivered the other evening he said that he had noticed, in 
connection with Stirling, the fact that it was possible the royal throne, 
at least at the coronation, might have stood upon the top of the rood- 
loft. The position which it used to occupy in St. Giles, Edinburgh, 
before the recent restoration, favoured that idea. The fact of the seat 
of the Corporation of Glasgow being on the top of the rood-loft pointed 
in the same direction. Of course tops of rood-lofts were put to all 
sorts of uses, — turned into organ-galleries, and so on. Sometimes this 
position was used, however, as the seat of the chief person. One 
instance of this, with which he was familiar in England, was the parish 
church at San down, the seat of Lord Harrowby. He had already 
mentioned the positions of the royal thrones in the Cathedrals at 
Frankfort and Rheims. The second topic on which he wished to touch 
was a more important one, — the position occupied in Glasgow Cathe- 
dral by the grave of St. Kentigern. It would be generally found that 


in western countries the body of the patron saint had been taken oat 
of the grave, and pnt into a large structure somewhere behind the 
high altar. The arrangement in Glasgow, bo far as he knew, wu 
unique upon this side of Italy. In Italy it was the universal custom 
to bury the saint beneath the altar. Daring a recent period he had 
lived in the south of Italy where there were churches which recalled 
the peculiar arrangement of Glasgow. He gathered from them, as 
well as from other things, that the position of the grave of Kentigero 
fixed beyond doubt the position of the high altar in the choir above, 
for it must have stood precisely above. Daring the time the Associa- 
tion had been there a certain amount had been said and written in the 
newspapers about the fittings of Glasgow Cathedral In considering 
the best method of arranging Glasgow Cathedral they had to pay 
attention to what was the most convenient arrangement for the Pres- 
byterian service, and subject to that, to follow as far as possible what 
was done in buildings erected in the same way as Glasgow Cathedral 
With the exception of the Communion, which was celebrated compa- 
ratively rarely in the Cathedral (only four times a year), public wor- 
ship was always connected with the pulpit. Hence the thing to con- 
sider would be merely the most convenient and desirable position for 
the pulpit to be put in. In all cathedrals elsewhere, where there was 
very much preaching, the pulpit was upon ail occasions placed, not in 
the chancel, but in the nave. Every one knew the instance of the ser- 
mons which were the most popular of any in England, namely those 
delivered in Westminster Abbey. When these were delivered, the 
pulpit was placed in the nave. This was the case with all the English 
cathedrals. The French people were exceedingly fond of preaching; 
and the whole world knew of the courses of services in the Church of 
Notre Dame de Paris, which were of so much interest to the whole 
literary universe, when men like La Corde>e preached, the pulpit was 
always placed in the nave. Then take Belgium. There the pulpit, 
which was a distinct feature of ecclesiastical art, was also placed in the 
nave. All the pulpits were objects of splendour. There was an 
instance, which he remembered exceedingly well, of a pulpit in the 
nave of St. Gudule, at Brussels, which was a perfect marvel of wood- 
carving. It was one of the sights of the city. He would, therefore, 
strongly urge, if it were his business to urge anything, that it seemed 
to him that the thing to do was, as in the examples to which he had 
alluded, to place the pulpit at the side of the nave. It was the most 
convenient position for hearing. Whether the chancel was used for 
Communion or not was more purely a religious matter, on which he 
was not called to speak. Incidentally his Lordship remarked that he 
did not know of any ancient stone pulpit. There was what some people 
might take to be a stone pulpit at Sorrento ; but it was not a pulpit, 


properly speaking. It was an ambo. There might be instances in 
South Italy of splendid stone ambones from which people preached. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, agreed with what the Mar- 
quess had stated with regard to the proper position of the pulpit. The 
principal things which wonld indicate the desirability of re-arranging 
snch a building as Glasgow Cathedral were the dictates of common- 
sense. Every one who had any experience of acoustics knew that if 
the preacher attempted to speak straight before him his voice was very 
frequently lost. On the other hand, if the clergyman spoke diagonally 
he was heard with much greater effect ; therefore common-sense dic- 
tated that the pulpit should be placed at one side of the building, either 
north or south. 

Mr. John Honeyman expressed the obligations which the members 
felt to the Chairman for his observations. With regard to the shrine 
of the patron Saint, he had formed the view that the present position 
of the shrine was at the east end of what was the former chancel, that 
the chancel built by Jocelyn extended a little way eastward from the 
position of the present shrine, and that the builders of the present 
Cathedral did not disturb that arrangement, although they had moved 
the high altar. There was one circumstance which seemed to indicate 
that this had been the case, namely, there was a solid building under 
the present pulpit, showing that there was no doubt that that was the 
position of the high altar. While the identical arrangements which 
the Marquess had described might have existed in the church as ori- 
ginally built, it was only slightly varied at the present time. 

Mr. T. Morgan, P.S.A., Hon. Treasurer, then read a paper entitled 
u Notes on Scottish History", which will be printed hereafter. 

Professor Hayter Lewis, F.S.A., submitted a paper on the subject 
of u Masons' Marks." This has been printed in the Journal, at pp. 

Dr. J. S. Phene, F.S.A., then read a paper on "Further Discoveries 
of Mounds in the Form of Animals", which has been printed in the 
Journal, at pp. 166-171. 

Saturday, 1st September 1888. 

The members to-day visited the Roman camp at Ardoch, Doune 
Castle, and Dunblane Cathedral. The excursion was one of the most 
extended of the series, and unfortunately it had to be made with the 
discomfort of rain. Among the party were Professor Herbert Story 
and Professor Young. 

Taking train from Buchanan Street to Greenloaning, the members 
drove through the grounds of Colonel Drummond Moray to Ardoch, 


and about an hour was spent in an examination of the grass-grown 
lines of the ancient fortifications. The camp is about two miles and a 
half to the north of Greenloaning Station, and is within the grounds 
of Ardoch House. It is about the largest that has jet been discovered, 
and is one of the best preserved remains of the Roman occupancy of 
Britain. It is supposed to have been the site of an early native camp, 
afterwards occupied by the Romans, and adapted by them to the 
requirements of their soldiery. The works consist of four portions. 

Professor Young undertook the guidance of the party, and in the 
course of some remarks referred to the existence of many so-called 
Roman works throughout this quarter of Scotland, which upon ex- 
amination proved to be nothing but natural formations of sand and 
gravel. These misleading natural stratifications of sand and gravel 
extended from the mouth of the Tay up to Ben Ledi, and away down 
through the narrow glen at Bridge of Allan into the Carse. It was 
said that 25,000 men were accommodated in this camp ; but looking 
to the limited area of the ground which it enclosed, he was inclined to 
disbelieve the statement. 

In the- course of the walk round the ramparts a number of the mem- 
bers expressed a strong desire that at least a part of the camp should 
be excavated. A tradition regarding an underground -passage, which 
was blocked up about the end of last century, was discussed, and it 
was suggested that in all probability the passage was a well, although 
the necessity for a well, with the river so close at hand, could not be 
very clearly seen. 

Carriages were resumed, and progress made, by way of Dunblane, to 
Deanston House, the residence of Mr. John Muir, who most generously 
entertained the party. Luncheon was served in a large marquee 
erected on the lawn in front of the house, and was partaken of to the 
strains of music from a band stationed outside the tent. 

Thanks having been proposed by Mr. Thomas Blashill, and heartily 
rendered, Mr. Muir expressed the very great pleasure the visit of the 
Association had given him, and his regret for the cause of Mr. Bulloch *s 

After a walk through the grounds and garden, the party returned 
to their carriages, and drove over to Doune Castle, a little further 
down the Valley of the Teith. In the courtyard of the Castle Mr. Dal- 
rymple Duncan read a paper upon the history of the structure, which 
will be printed hereafter. 

It was late in the afternoon when Dunblane was reached. In their 
examination of the Cathedral the attention of the party was particu- 
larly directed to the beautiful double windows in the west gable and 
the vesica-window above. In the chancel, now used as the parish 
church, the Rev. A. Ritchie gave a short sketch of the history of the 


The Rev. Mr. Ritchie said that there was good authority for believ- 
ing that at a very early date a Culdee convent occupied the site of the 
Cathedral. The discovery of a fine Celtic cross of about the seventh 
century, under the floor of the church, was good proof of this fact. 
That event was associated with the name of St. Blane ; but the only 
fact that could be verified about him in connection with Dunblane was 
that he was buried there. He appeared to have come from Ulster, and 
had been brought up by an uncle, St. Cathan, who had a little cell 
about Kilchattan Bay. It was supposed that the Culdee convent was 
erected into a bishopric by David I about the middle of the twelfth 
century ; but from that time till about a century later very little was 
known about the building. At the date about 1240 the Cathedral 
appeared to have fallen into an altogether dilapidated and ruinous 
state, and the revenues of the see had become utterly exhausted. About 
that time Bishop Clement was appointed Bishop, and it was to him 
that they owed the church, or at least the western portion of it. He 
found the place in ruins, and he left it a stately sanctuary. The first 
three storeys of the tower are all that remain of the earlier structure. 
So far as they knew, from that time forward there were comparatively 
few Bishops men of great note. Of the more notable were Nicholas de 
Balmyle, in the fourteenth century, who was also Chancellor of Scot- 
land. In the fifteenth century there were Findlay Dermot, the builder 
of the first bridge over the Allan ; William Stephen, one of the earliest 
Professors of Divinity at St. Andrew's ; Michael Ochiltree, who 
crowned James II at Holyrood, and built the church at Muthill. Pass- 
ing on, they came to James Chisholm, who did a great deal for the 
church. He was chaplain to James III, and made a very narrow 
escape at Lauder Bridge; but for the intercession of the King he 
would have suffered the fate which befell the other favourites there. 
He did much in the way of finishing parts of the building, having put 
an extra storey on the tower, erected the parapets of the choir, and 
completed much of the carved woodwork. He was succeeded by a 
half-brother, William Chisholm, who proved the reverse of a benefactor 
to the church, for he alienated the estates, and wasted the revenues of 
the see. This Bishop was followed by a nephew of the same name, 
who continued the work of spoliation begun by his predecessor. Ulti- 
mately he vacated his charge, and crossed to France, where he became 
Bishop of Vaison. He was believed to have taken away with him 
some important .documents relating to the history of the see. It was 
he who brought to Scotland the dispensation that enabled Mary to 
marry Darnley, and it was he who took a conciliatory letter to France 
when she married Bothwell. About the year 1489, when Glasgow was 
erected into an archbishopric, Dunkeld, Dunblane, and Galloway, were 
included within it, and the bishops became suffragan bishops under 


Glasgow. With regard to the bishops under the first Protestant epis- 
copacy, there were none, so far as he was aware, of great note. Two 
were named Graham, and one Bellenden. In the year 1588 the Cathe- 
dral had again fallen into a miserable and dilapidated state. It was 
well, however, to know that the Chnrch at that time had some care 
for its historic edifices, for in the Records of the Assembly of that year 
an Act was found stating that an article should be given into the 
King regretting the ruinous state of certain churches, among them the 
Church of Dunblane, and asking that means should at once be taken 
for their repair. The name of Leighton, afterwards Archbishop of 
Glasgow, was the name associated most widely and most rightly with 
the second Protestant Episcopacy of the Church. How far the state 
into which the Church had been allowed to fall was due to neglect 
and want of money, on account of the poverty of the place, and how 
far it had been brought about by actual violence at the time of the 
Reformation, was a matter on which he would like more information. 
He had no doubt the imagos and other Popish furnishings and embel- 
lishments were pulled down and destroyed, but he questioned whether 
it had been shown that any great violence was done to the structure 
by the Reformers. It is known that Edward I ordered the lead of the 
roof to be removed for use in the siege of Stirling Castle in 1303. 
Probably poverty had prevented the proper repair of the roof, which 
had been allowed to decay. The tracery of the east and south win- 
dows of the choir had been entirely renewed, with very bad effect and 
execrable taste, about the year 1820 ; and in 1860 the roof of the 
eastern part, which had never been uncovered, was erroneously thought 
to be in a bad state, and was sacrificed for the present very paltry and 
poor erection. In reflooring the church three blue slabs were left 
undisturbed in the middle passage, as it was believed that the unfor- 
tunate Margaret Drummond, the mistress of James IV, or secretly 
married to him, and her two sisters, who were poisoned at Drummond 
Castle, were buried underneath them. Mr. Ritchie concluded by say- 
ing that he would leave the account of the architectural features of the 
Cathedral to the able hands of Dr. Rowland Anderson. 

At the close, Professor Story, Dr. Anderson, and Mr. W. G. Black, 
F.S.A.Scot., Hon. Local Secretary, made a few remarks. 

After tea the party returned to Glasgow, reaching the city shortly 
after nine o'clock. On Sunday, 2nd Sept., the members attended 
Divine Service in the Cathedral, and the sermon was preached by the 
Rev. D. G. S. Burns, Minister. 



Monday, 3bd September 1888. 

The members devoted the whole of the day to an excursion to the 
neighbourhood of Falkirk and Linlithgow. Compared with the num- 
bers who turned out to some of the earlier excursions, there was a 
falling off. About fifty members, accompanied by lady friends, left 
Queen Street Station at ten o'clock for Bonnybridge. They were 
received by the Rev. Dr. Russell, Minister of the first charge of the 
parish of Campbeltown, and proprietor of the estate of Bonnyside ; 
Mr. James Wilson of Bantaskine, and Mr. J. Riddock M'Luckie, by 
whom they were conducted to the Elf Hill, not far from the Railway 

The Rev. Dr. Russell said that the Marquess of Bute, in his address 
the other evening, scientifically classifying Scottish history, divided it 
into three periods, — the early, the mediaeval, and the modern; the 
first or early period ending with the death of Macbeth, August 15, 
1057 ; the second, or mediaeval, with the defeat of Mary at Langside 
on May IB, 1568 ; and the third, or modern, extending from the battle 
of Langside to the present. The scene now before the visitors brought 
the earliest of the early period under notice, and embraced evidences 
of the energy and precaution of a people who claimed to be lords of 
the world. By the rapid changes which had taken place in recent 
years the Wall had suffered severely, and was but a wreck of its former 
self. Happily, however, for the archaeologist a portion of the wreck, 
which afforded a correct idea of the original, still remained. The 
words of Gordon, who wrote in 1726, were still true. He said : " If 
any curious person has a mind to see this Wall in its highest perfec- 
tion, he needs go no farther than three miles to the west of the town 
of Falkirk." To the south lay the province of Valentia, extending to 
Hadrian's Wall, and immediately to the north the provinces of Vetpar 
nana and Caledonia. The slight artificial eminence where the members 
stood was called "Elf Hill", probably a corruption of "Eilfahel". 
Various opinions had been hazarded as to its character. Stewart and 
others regarded it as a watch-tower, the fourth from Gastlecary. Wal- 
die, in his book published in 1883, gave it as his opinion that it was 
reared over the fallen brave after some great battle. The reading of 
his book had suggested the propriety of erecting a fence round the 
hill to preserve it from the inroads of cattle and sheep. Others, again, 
among whom was Mr. George Dongall, maintained that it was a fort 
of first importance, and with Roughcastle, three furlongs to the east, 
and an outpost at Broomhill, to the north-west, was designed to com- 
mand the eastern centre of the natural route from the north to the 
south. It was probable, looking at the configuration of the district, 
1880 19 


that it was at points within sight of them that the chief attacks by the 
Picts were delivered. 

Leaving the Elf Hill, the visitors took their way along the Roman 
Wall formed in A.D. 140 by Loll ins Urbicus, and running through Ach- 
nabuth (tent-field). Dr. Russell remarked that he felt confident that 
a search would bring to light in the Elf Hill and the Wall, as well as 
in Roughcastle, many rare archaeological objects. 

At Roughcastle the Rev. Dr. Russell said that it must have been one 
of the most important forts on the line, considering its strategical 
position. Gordon alluded to it as a fort which for entireness and mag- 
nificence exceeded any to be seen on the whole track, from sea to sea. 
It needed the eye of an accomplished archaeologist to discern these 
qualities now. So far as known, no Roman relic had been found on 
Elf Hill or on the Wall to Roughcastle, although an altar-stone was 
discovered in a field to the south of the Castle in 1843. It was of 
freestone, and bore a Latin inscription stating that it was dedicated to 
Victory by the Sixth Cohort of the Nervian Auxiliaries. A quern or 
millstone was also found there, made of stone not known in the 

The visitors followed the line of the Roman Wall into the grounds 
surrounding Bantaskine mansion-house, where they were hospitably 
entertained to cake and wine by the genial proprietor. Under his 
guidance they also inspected the beautifully grown conifercc on the 
adjoining property of May field. 

Subsequently the party entered carriages, and drove to Falkirk, 
where they were received by the Provost and magistrates. An inspec- 
tion was made of the old parish church, which is believed to have been 
founded in 1057 by King Malcolm III. The visitors viewed with 
much interest the historical monuments to be seen in the churchyard. 
Among them were the handsome cross erected by the Marquess of 
Bute to the,memory of the " Brandanes", or men of Bute, who fell at 
the first battle of Falkirk ; and the plain block of stone which marks 
the grave of Sir John Stewart, who was slain on the same occasion, 
along with Sir John de Graeme, " the right hand of Wallace", whose 
remains are now covered by more than one stone, surmounted by a 
casting in bronze of the two-handed sword supposed to have been 
wielded by Sir John. There were also the tombs of Sir Robert Munro 
and his brother, Dr. Duncan Munro, of Obsdale; and of William 
Edmonstoune of Gambus- Wallace, who were slain at the second battle 
of Falkirk, January 17, 1746. 

The visitors were entertained to luncheon by the Corporation in the 
Town House, under the presidency of Provost Hodge. The customary 
complimentary toasts were honoured, and before the company dis- 
persed Mr. M'Luckie exhibited a curious, sculptured stone which had 


been found near the Roman Wall. He also showed a bronze spear- 
head and a bronze brooch fonnd at Ooshen Sandholes, near the Carron 
Ironworks. The spear-head was discovered 6 ft. below the surface, near 
human remains. It was ornamented up the edges with brass studs 
sunk in flush with the surface of the surrounding metal. The bronze 
brooch was embedded 4J ft below the surface of the ground, not far 
from the spear-head. Both relics, it was stated, were believed to 
belong to the period of the first battle of Falkirk, 

After luncheon the members of the Association continued their 
drive. Through the kindness of Mr. Forbes they were allowed to pass 
through the well-wooded grounds and past the front of the mansion- 
house of Callender. 

Leaving the policies by the eastmost gate, the party got into the 
highway, and drove to Linlithgow. Here they went through the Royal 
Palace, the birthplace of James Y and of Mary Queen of Scots ; and 
the Church of S. Michael, a Gothic building mainly of the fifteenth 
century. Owing to the protracted nature of the proceedings earlier in 
the day, the visitors had not much time to spare at Linlithgow, and no 
papers were read. 

The members met in the evening in the Corporation Galleries, Mr. 
Thomas Blashill in the chair. Mr. G. R. Wright, F.S.A., Hon. Con- 
gress Secretary, read a paper entitled " Notes on a Diary Kept by one 
of the Suite of the Duke of York, afterwards James II, under date 
1679 to 1681, on the Journey from London to Scotland," which will be 
printed hereafter. 

Mr. J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A.Soot., contributed a paper on "The 
Classification and Geographical Distribution of Early Christian Monu- 
ments in Scotland," which in his absence was read by Mr. W. de Gray 
Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Sec. This paper will be printed in the Journal 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, submitted a paper on " The 
Peculiarities of Ancient Scottish Architecture.' * This paper will also 
find a future place in the Journal. 

Dr. Rowland Anderson said he was proud to find that Mr. Brock 
combated the belief that the Scottish people were almost entirely in- 
debted to France for their architecture. He admitted at once that' 
there were many distinctive features to be found here that were not 
found in England. On the other hand, he did not think that the 
features here were so different from what were found in England as 
they found between various districts in England. But after the War 
of Independence, when communication with the South was practically 
cut off, the Scotch developed a style of architecture which was very 
strongly marked, and was only to be found here. 

Mr. Ewan Christian, Professor Hayter Lewis, F.S.A., and Mr. 


W. G. Black, F.S.A.Scot, continued the discussion, and a vote of 
thanks was afterwards accorded to the gentlemen who had contributed 

Tuesday, 4th Sept. 1888. 

This was the closing day of the Congress. The place selected for 
the excursion was the abbey town of Dunfermline. The Provost and 
Magistrates of the burgh, following the example of the Corporations 
of other towns which the Association has visited, welcomed the mem- 
bers. In the Council Chamber the Magistrates and members of Council 
were assembled, along with members of the School Board and several 
of the leading gentlemen of the town and district. Among them were 
Sir Arthur Halket of Pitfirrane, Mr. J. A. Hunt of Logic and Pitten- 
crieff, Sheriff Gillespie, Rev. Mr. Stevenson, Rev. Mr. Alexander, and 
Rev. Mr. David Imrie. 

Provost Donald said that the people of Dunfermline were very proud 
of the visit of the British Archaeological Association, and were glad to 
know that they had something worthy of their attention in the city. 
It was one of the oldest royal burghs in Scotland. As early as the 
eleventh century it contained a royal residence. Malcolm Canmore 
and Queen Margaret were married in 1070 ; and then, as now, the 
people had royalty that was truly worthy of their admiration. Queen 
Margaret, like our beloved Queen of to-day, was a noble example to 
the nation. Not only had they then temporal royalty, but they had 
the triumphant monarchy of a King of Kings, who rnled in the hearts 
of the King and Queen of those days. The first burgh charter was 
granted by King Robert the Bruce ; and the oldest confirmation- 
charter was granted by King James VI in the year 1588, so that this 
was the tercentenary of its date. 

Mr. George Robertson, F. S.A.Scot., and Custodian of Crown pro- 
perty in Dunfermline, then read a paper on the history of Dunfermline 
Abbey and Palace. This will, it is hoped, be printed hereafter. 

The various works of art which adorn the Council Chamber were 
pointed out. Among them are portraits of George Chalmers of Pitten- 
crief, and Provost Low of Ford el ; of James, eighth Earl of Elgin, suc- 
cessively Governor-General of Jamaica, Canada, and India, and Pleni- 
potentiary to China ; and of Admiral Sir Andrew Mitchell. There 
were exhibited the Bible, chair, and looking-glass nsed by the Rev. 
Ralph Erskine, father of the Secession ; the Dunfermline copy of the 
Solemn League and Covenant, and a number of old engravings of 
views of the town. 

Councillor William Clark, showed a small white marble pilaster, 
believed to have formed a portion of the monument which at one time 
stood over the grave of King Robert the Bruce. Mr. Clark found the 


relic beneath the pavement of the Abbey when making excavations to 
fit np heating apparatus. He also showed a beautiful, illuminated 
Missal which belonged to the monks of Dunfermline. 

The members then proceeded to the Abbey, and examined its archi- 
tectural features and the interesting monuments which it contains. 

Mr. E. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Bon. Sec., said that the architecture of 
the nave was so similar to that of Durham Cathedral that it well justi- 
fied the remark of many of the members that it is " a little Durham". 
It was stated that when the church was rebuilt, workmen were brought 
from Durham to help. In that way there was a curious connection 
between architecture across the Border and architecture in Scotland, 
showing that the Scotch did occasionally derive some architectural 
styles from England as well as work out their own style. /While the 
design was partially inspired by Durham, the workmen, when they 
came there, made the design with many Scottish elements. It was 
curious that the height of Scottish churches, in proportion to their 
width, was greater than in England. Outside the church were some 
remarkable buttresses. They were of a later date than the Reforma- 
ation, showing that there was an evident intention to preserve, at any 
rate, that portion of the building for use. With regard to the remarks 
which had been made about the demolition of the choir, that all that 
was destroyed was removed by the Reformers, the order which was 
given them indicated how far they were to go, and it could hardly be 
thought that they would go further than they had permission to do. 
They were to purge the church of what they considered objects of 
idolatry, but nothing was said with regard to the pulling down of the 
structure itself; and since it was found that in ihe seventeenth century 
an effort was made, at great expense, by the erection of buttresses, to 
preserve what was left of the church, it seemed hardly in accord with 
any intention to make a clean sweep of every portion. Probably, 
since the nave was found to be large enough for public worship, the 
east end of the church was left to the fate of many another building, — 
for the wind and the other elements, added to neglect, to cause its 
fall. Drawings exhibited showed that there was a considerable num- 
ber of arches of the old choir in a state of ruin, all of which had dis- 
appeared in order to make way for the present parish church. They 
ought not to leave the place without referring, with feelings of regret, to 
the fact that one of the greatest men of Scotland, King Robert Bruce, 
should lie beneath the spot on which he stood without any visible 
monument save the pulpit of the church which covers the spot. He 
trusted that some effort would be made to place the pulpit in another 
position, and to pat some other memorial there. The Bruce was worthy 
of it. The heart of every Scotchman warmed with enthusiasm at the 
mention of his name ; and was it right that such a nation as Scotland 


should permit the body of the Bruce to remain there apparently un- 

It wad mentioned that a movement had been made in the direction 
of erecting a suitable monument, and a sketch was shown of a proposed 
memorial brass. 

The Monastery was next visited, and, the party then went through 
the Royal Palace. Subsequently they were entertained by Provost 
Donald to luncheon in the City Arms Hotel. The customary loyal and 
complimentary toasts were proposed. 

After luncheon the work of inspection was resumed, parties going 
off to visit the remains of the Tower of Malcolm Canmore, a represent- 
ation of which appears on the armorial bearings of the burgh ; and 
Queen Margaret's Cave, a rock-hewn oratory, to which the sainted 
monarch is said to have been in the habit of retiring for meditation 
and prayer. 

The party then returned to Glasgow. 

The members met in the Corporation Galleries later in the after- 
noon, the Marquess of Bute, President, in the chair. Professor Fer- 
guson gave the outline of a paper on the literature of witchcraft in 
Scotland, which will be printed hereafter. Professor Ferguson also 
indicated the bearing of a paper upon Kirani Kiranides, a seventeenth 
century book of medical and magical receipts, supposed to have been 
the work of a Persian king, which it is hoped will also find a place in 
the Journal, 

Mr. W. G. Black, F.S.A.Scot., Hon. Local Secretary, read a paper 
upon "The Derivation of the Name Glasgow." This also to be printed 

Mr. W. de Gray Birch, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, read a paper upon ** The 
Materials for the Scoti-Monasticon," which will be printed in a future 
Part of the Journal. Mr. Birch also exhibited some photographs of 
Scottish charters forming part of a collection which he is now prepar- 
ing for publication. 

On the motion of the President (the Marquess of Bute) votes of 
thanks were subsequently passed to the Lord Provost and Magistrates, 
the Principal and Professors of the University, Sheriff Berry, and the 
other members of the Local Reception Committee, the Executive 
Council of the Glasgow International Exhibition, the President, Council, 
and members of the Glasgow Archaeological Society, the Provost and 
Magistrates of Falkirk, the Provost and Magistrates of Dunfermline, 
the Officer commanding at Stirling Castle, the Provost and Magistrates 
of Stirling, Mr. Matthew Bulloch, Mr. John Muir, and Mr. Wilson. 

On the motion of Mr. E. P. L. Brock, seconded by Mr. Morgan, a 
vote of thanks was passed to the Marquess of Bute (the President), the 
Local Secretaries, and Treasurer. 


Further votes of thanks were conveyed to Mr. Dalrymple Duncan 
and Mr. W. G. Black for their services during the visit. 

The Marquess of Bute, in acknowledging the vote, said he had to 
repeat his thanks to the members for having conferred upon him the 
honour of being the President of the Glasgow Congress, and also his 
thanks to them for the kindness and forbearance with which they had 
treated him. He ventured again to express the hope that the impres- 
sion made upon the members by this first expedition into Scotland 
might be snch as to encourage them to repeat it He assured them 
there were many districts full of monuments which would excite their 
deepest interest. With the renewal of his thanks and of his best 
wishes his Lordship resigned his office. 

In the evening the members of the British Archaeological Associa- 
tion and of the Library Association of the United Kingdom, by invita- 
tion of the Corporation, attended a reception and conversazione in the 
Corporation Galleries. The guests were received by Lord Provost 
Sir James King, Lady King, and the Magistrates, in the west room of 
the lower halls. During the reception Messrs. Adams' band played in 
an adjoining room, and the Balmoral choir, conducted by Mr. H. A. 
Lambeth, city organist, sang in the music-room upstairs. About 800 
invitations had been issued. The Marquess of Bute (the President) 
and Lady Bute were present during the greater part of the evening. 

This concluded the proceedings of the Glasgow Congress. 


Antiquarian Intelligence, 

Staindrop Church and Monuments, By Rev. H. C. Lipscombe, M.A. 
(Simpkin, Marshall, and Co.) — Visitors to the Darlington Congress in 
1886 will remember visiting Staindrop Chnrch, when the Vicar, Mr. 
Lipscombe, gave its history, 1 and showed his book on the subject, pub- 
lished in 1852. This book he has rewritten, with additional informa- 
tion, and illustrating it with nine large photographs very well done ; 
and plans, reprinted from the former book, also show the church at 
various stages in its history. 

Notices of the church and monuments have appeared in this Journal, 
viz., in a paper on Staindrop Church, by Rev. H. C. Lipscombe (vol. 
xliii, p. 138), and in a paper on " The Works of the Nevilles round 
Darlington", by Mr. J. P. Pritchett (vol. xlii, p. 217). We may, 
however, remind our readers that this is essentially a Neville church, 
being just outside the grounds of Raby Castle, which for nearly five 
hundred years was one of their chief residences; and the church was 
enlarged and beautified as the Neville family increased in wealth and 

Evidences exist to prove the erection of a pre-Norman church, such 
as remains of crosses, etc. ; but with respect to the earliest part of the 
present building, — portions of two windows in the nave, — the usual 
controversy, Norman or Pre-Norman (erroneously, as regards the 
Church of England, called Saxon), might with propriety rage fiercely. 
We then come to more solid data, nave-arcade, 1170-90; then to 
alterations of external walls, amounting to reconstruction, about 1250 ; 
enlargement of aisles about 1343 ; remodelling and fitting up chancel 
as a collegiate church, 1406-12, when Joan Beaufort (daughter of John 
of Gaunt by Catherine Swinford, and second wife of Ralph Neville, 
first Earl of Westmoreland) founded a college here for eight priests, 
four clerks, six esquires, six gentlemen, and six other poor persons. 
We then come to the usual dismantling and destruction, first about 
1536, in the suppression of the College ; again when the revenues were 
seized, 1548; and again when the sixth and last Earl of Westmoreland 
was attainted, and became an exile, in 1570. 

The ancient font deserves notice. It still bears the arms of Lord 
Bergavenny (sixth son of Ralph Neville, first Earl of Westmoreland, 
and his second wife, Joan Beaufort) and of his wife, Elizabeth Beau- 
champ, through whom he obtained the barony of Bergavenny, which 
still remains in the Neville family, the present holder, the Marquess of 

1 See vol. xliii, pp. 92, 138. 


Abergavenny, being the premier Baron of the United Kingdom. It is 
octagon in form, and made of Teesdale marble ; and judging from the 
above named coat of arms, probablj dates aboat 1435-50. 

Mr. Lipscombe devotes a great part of his book* to the monuments 
of the great Neville family, which are no doubt the most interesting 
features of the church. First in date comes a female effigy, supposed 
to be Isabella, the heiress of the Nevilles, who married Robert Fitz- 
Maldred, the descendant of the famous Uchtred, the last independent 
Earl of ancient Northumbria; and who, taking the name of Neville, 
engrafted the Norman name on to the pure " Eengle", or real English 
stock. This monument is in a simple niche in the south, wall, and 
dates about 1250. 

Then comes one supposed to be Euphemia de Clavering, wife of 
Lord Ralph Neville, who died 1331, and mother of the more famous 
Ralph Neville, the hero of the battle of Neville's Gross. This is in a 
beautiful canopy, and dates about 1343. 

Then comes one of about 1375, supposed to be Maud, daughter of 
Lord Percy, by his wife, Lady Mary Plantagenet, great-granddaughter 
of Henry III. This lady married Lord John Neville, one of the 
greatest soldiers of his age, and the builder of Raby Castle. 

The chief glory of Staindrop Church is, however, the splendid ala- 
baster altar- tomb erected about 1400-20 by the first and greatest Earl, 
of Westmoreland in memory of himself and his two wives, Margaret, 
daughter of the Earl of Stafford, and Joan Beaufort, daughter of John 
of Gaunt and Catherine Swinford. This second wife, Joan, was buried 
in the choir of Lincoln Cathedral ; and at the recent Lincoln Congress 
a paper on the subject was read by Mr. J. P. Pritchett, and as we 
hope to print it we need not now say any more about it here. The 
tomb at Lincoln has lost the inscription, but is otherwise in good 
repair. This tomb at Staindrop must have been one of the most beau- 
tiful in the kingdom. It is illustrated in Blore's Monumental Remains, 
and Mr. Lipscombe gives a beautiful photograph of it as it now exists. 

After an interval of three generations (which include the troublous 
times of the Wars of the Roses and the tyrannical times of Henry VII 
and Henry VIH) we come to an oak monument erected in 1560, with 
effigies of the fifth Earl and two of his wives ; the third wife being left 
out, as, being deceased wife's sister, she and her lord got into great 
disgrace with the Maiden Queen Elizabeth. And so ends the series of 
Neville monuments, for the sixth and last Earl was attainted for being 
a leading spirit in the rising of the North, and died in exile and 

The book contains a great deal of information on minor and more 
modern matters, and then gives at length, both in Latin and English, 
an important charter of indentures between King Edward III and his 
1889 20 


son John of Gaunt (therein called " King of Castile and Count of Rich- 
mond") respecting the exchange of numerous castles, manors, lands, 
and advowsons, between them ; among which the advowsons of the 
churches of Staindrop and Brancepeth are made over to John of 
Gaunt, by which means it came, no doubt, to the Earl of Westmoreland 
on bis marriage with Joan, John of Gaunt's daughter. 

The book concludes with a complete pedigree of the Vanes, who, 
after the estate of Raby and Staindrop had belonged to the Crown for 
some fifty years after the attainder, came into possession of it through 
purchase by Sir Henry Vane from the Crown in 1626, and still retain 
it in the person of Henry, fourth Duke of Cleveland. 

Altogether this little book, which we commend to our readers, gives 
not only a complete history and description of the church, but from its 
constant references to the great Neville family forms a link in our 
country's history. 

Discovery at Crowland Alley, — Much uncertainty has hitherto sur- 
rounded the history of Crowland Abbey, regarding the dates of the 
erection of its various parts ; but the extensive excavations made 
recently, for the purpose of underpinning the foundations, have brought 
to light many interesting particulars that will aid in forming a reason- 
able theory for a more consecutively complete record than has hitherto 
been available. For instance, whenever an opening has been made, at 
the bottom there was the original foundation — piles driven through the 
peat into the gravel ; and on these were rough, small stones in layers, 
with " heavy earth". This " heavy earth" is the rubbish from the 
quarries from which the stones were obtained. The peat that remains 
amongst the piles is compressed into a hard, compact earth as solid as 
the surrounding materials. To all appearance a portion of the peat 
was thrown out of the trenches for the foundations, then the piles were 
driven in, and the other material thrown on until it was brought nearly 
to a level with the surface of the site, and on this the building was 

So far as the present excavations go, no matter whether the super- 
structure be Norman or Perpendicular, no interference had been made 
with this early work. So far as relates to the nave, it is fair to sup- 
pose that the original plan of Ethelbald's Abbey has not been altered. 
Everywhere there seems to have been the most reverent care exercised 
in preserving, in any alteration that has been made, all that it was 
possible of former buildings. Several portions of Norman or Saxon 
work have been found encased by the latter buildings ; and the pillars 
of the Gothic nave have beneath them as foundations, most probably, 
the entire materials of the former columns, including both base and 
capital. Several of these foundations in the south arcade of the ruined 



nave have been examined, and they are all of similar construction, and 
one of them has been left open, and admirably protected by the 

It is seldom such a confirmation of history is to be found as that 
which is revealed in a massive stone tablet taken recently from the 
foundation of the south-west buttress of the tower. In order to show 
its historic importance it is necessary to refer to the work done at the 
Monastery between the years 1405 and 1423. Some time about the 
former date Abbot Thomas Overton appointed William of Crowland 
his master-mason; and on p. 360 of Bonn's edition of Ingulph's 
Chronicle there is an account of extensive works carried out by him, 
amongst which are included the two transverse aisles of the church 
with their vaulted roofs, as well as a chapel in honour of the Virgin on 
the north confines of the choir. He also erected the whole of the 
lower part of the nave of the church, from the foundations to the lay- 
ing of the roof, as well as both aisles, together with their chapels. 

On p. 393 of the same work the above statements are confirmed, and 
several particulars added which give interest to the tablet before refer- 
red to. The writer of the history states that he " thought it both 
becoming and opportune to hand down to memory 'the names of some 
of those who had given temporal benefits, so that posterity might 
devoutly repay them by praying for the repose of their souls." Thir- 
teen names are recorded, the last but one being a John Tomson. The 
west front of the nave had been rebuilt by Abbots Henry Longchamp 
and Ralph Merske between the years 1190 and 1254 ; and when, in 
the early part of the fifteenth century, William of Crowland, under the 
direction of Abbot Thomas Overton, began the rebuilding of the nave, 
he undoubtedly, first of all built the two massive buttresses to the 
west of the front to give it support, the wide-spread footings of which 
show that they were intended to withstand an extraordinary thrust; 
and it was in this wide foundation, at a point considerably below the 
present surface of the soil (bat, when placed there, most likely 
level with it), that the tablet was found. Apparently it formed part 
of the foundations of the south wing of the porch that was erected a 
considerable time afterwards ; but it was the extraordinary spread of 
the foot of the buttress that gave it that appearance, and it was the 
unequal pressure caused by the weight of the more recent structure 
that produced its fracture. 

The accompanying Plate will give a correct idea of the stone. It 
is 7 ft. 6 in. long, 3 ft. 7 in. wide, and 8 in. thick, and is a fine 
specimen of Barnak rag. The surface is clean and clear, not in the 
least worn either by time or weather. The inscription is as sharp 
in detail as it was when it left the hands of the mason. What gives it 
further interest is the fact that the name inscribed upon it is the same 


as the donor before mentioned, viz., John Tomson, 1 and the sentiment 
embodied in the top line, " Orate p' aia" (Ovale pro anima) lends rap- 
port to the theory that it is directly connected with the event before 
referred to, and is a memorial of the works carried out by William. 

To add to the evidence on this point, a stone of a similar description 
is now visible beneath the only remaining portion of the, north trans- 
verse aisle, which was built by the same person. It is of the same 
width and thickness, with a marked off margin containing letters 
exactly like the former. 

It is impossible to ascertain whether any similar tablet was fonnd 
in a corresponding position in the south buttress, as the lower part of 
it was taken down and entirely rebuilt by O. G. Scott, Esq., in I860, 
when the west front was restored, and the portion remaining of the 
south transverse aisle has been altered too much for anything but a 
mere fragment to remain beneath it. Possibly the examination of the 
foundations of the north-west buttress of the tower may throw more 
light on the matter. 

The extent of the works carried out by William would have ren- 
dered it quite possible for him to have done similar honours to many 
of his patrons. The west front of the cloisters was rebuilt by him, as 
well as the nave with its north and south aisles. It is also stated that 
he ordered " two tablets to be prepared by the diligent skill of the 
sculptors, for the purpose of being erected at the altar of St. Gruthlac ; 
and that he might render them more beauteous in appearance he 
ordered the lower one to be painted, while he had the whole of the 
npper one gilded." It may reasonably be inferred from this quotation 
that tablet-forming was popular at this time. The history also Btates 
that he completely rebuilt the refectory house with artistic elegance 
and the greatest magnificence. 

The importance of the discovery of the tablet lies in the fact of its 
connecting the history with the building by an actual name, and the 
sentiment of the request, "Orate p'aia", might have been taken nearly 
direct from the language of the historian. Its size and the style of its 
execution forbid the thought of its having been put into the position 
in which it was found in any casual or accidental manner, and proba- 
bility points to the conclusion that it is one of a series of memorial 
stones breathing the spirit of the devotion of the Church of the age, 
and commemorating the names and beneficence of its patrons.— (A- 8. C.) 

1 The slab is of the thirteenth century, and the rhyming inscription round 
the edge is in letters of that period, " Petre preces pro me Petro Pastor pie 
promo." It has been adapted at a later period to the memory of Jo. Tom- 
son. — En. 


British ^rcljacolocjtcal assottattoiu 





{Read at the Glasgow Congress.) 

On looking through the back volumes of the proceed- 
ings of the various antiquarian societies throughout the 
country, it will, I think, be found that the number of 
papers dealing with generalisations is very small as com- 
pared with those in which individual structures, monu- 
ments, or objects, are described in detail. This must 
needs be so in the first instance, for it is only when the 
characteristics and geographical position of all the exist- 
ing specimens of any particular class of remains have been 
ascertained that a comprehensive view of the whole can 
be taken, and theories deduced as to their origin, distri- 
bution, and sequence in order of development. In other 
words, no generalisations can be made until a complete 
survey has been undertaken of all the materials which 
form the subject of the investigation in hand. 

There is at the present time a most pressing want for 
an archaeological survey of Great Britain, including within 
the scope of its operations the plotting down upon the 
Ordnance Map of every trace of man and his handiwork 
left by successive generations upon the face of the 

To take an instance from another branch of science. 
The archaeologist is now very much in the same position 
1889 * 21 


as the geologist was in the days when he had no map 
showing the extent and stratification of the various 
rocks. I believe that it was a very great blunder to pass 
a Bill for the Protection of Ancient Monuments without 
first making a general archaeological survey. It is of for 
more importance to science that a permanent record 
should be kept, giving full particulars about every monu- 
ment in existence, than tnat a limited number of them 
should be acquired as public property. The destruction 
of ancient remains is at all times to be deplored ; but 
when a monument has been photographed, measured, and 
accurately described, its loss is not so irreparable as it 
would otherwise be. 

No class of our national antiquities are so deserving of 
being exhaustively surveyed as the early Christian sculp- 
tured stones. I have, for my own satisfaction, made lists 
showing the geographical distribution of these stones, 1 
and marked their positions on the sheets of the Ordnance 
Map. In the present paper I propose briefly to sum up 
the results arrived at by a single individual, whose work 
is necessarily imperfect, in the hope that it may stimu- 
late sufficient interest in the subject to lead to a fuller sur- 
vey being undertaken either by the Government or by the 
combined effort of the different archaeological societies. 

The only maps with which I am acquainted, showing 
the geographical distribution of the early Christian monu- 
ments in Scotland, are those given in Dr. J. Stuart's 
Sculptured Stones of Scotland, and in iE.Hubner's /nscnp- 
tiones Britannice Christiana. These maps are, however, 
too small to be of much value ; and no attempt is made 
to indicate the different varieties of stones belonging to 
different periods or localities. 

The characteristics by which we are enabled to classify 
the monuments are — (l), the style of the lettering of the 
inscriptions ; (2), the peculiarities of the ornament and 
figure-sculpture ; and (3), the shape and construction of 
the monument. These will now be considered in order. 

The number of inscribed stones of the Christian period 
in Scotland is exceedingly small when compared with 

1 A list of the pre-Norman sculptured stones of England, compiled 
by Prof. G. F. Browne and myself, has already been published in this 
Journal, bat a more detailed catalogue is still required. 


those in other parts of Great Britain. It is not easy to 
explain why this should be so, for Scotland possesses 
more sculptured monuments ornamented in a similar way 
to the illuminated pages of the Hiberno-Saxon MSS. 
than are to be found in Ireland, Wales, or England, and 
the Scot has never been behind his neighbours in literary 
culture. Although there are comparatively few inscribed 
stones north of the Tweed, a large proportion of the 
monuments have symbols carved upon them, the meaning 
of which is at present unknown. It may, perhaps, turn 
out eventually that the absence of inscriptions is ex- 
plained by the presence of these symbols. The following 
table shows the number and geographical distribution of 
the Christian inscribed stones of Scotland : — 

Debased Latin Capitals. — The Catstone at Kirkliston, 
Edinburgh ; Yarrowkirk, Selkirkshire ; Kirkmadrine, 
Wigtonshire ; Whithorn, Wigtonshire. 

Debased Latin Capitals and Ogams. — Newton in the 
Garioch, Aberdeenshire. 

Ogams only. — Aboyne, Aberdeenshire; Logie in the 
Garioch, Aberdeenshire ; Scoonie, Fifeshire ; Golspie, 
Sutherlandshire ; Broch of Burrian, Orkney ; Bressay, 
Shetland; Cunningsburgh, Gigha, Lunnasting, and St. 
Ninian's, all in Shetland. 

Anglo-Saxon Capitals. — Ruthwell, Dumfriesshire. 

Hiberno-Saxon Minuscules. — St. Vigean's, Forfarshire; 
Iona, Argyllshire ; Papa Stronsay, Orkney. 

Anglian Runes.-* Ruthwell, Dumfriesshire. 

Later Runes. — Kilbar, I. of Barra, Hebrides ; Crosskirk 
and Cunningsburgh, Shetland ; Lethnott, Forfarshire. 

Dr. J. Anderson, in his Rhind Lectures, 1 tells us that 
the method adopted by the archaeologist in dealing with 
his specimens consists in — "(1), arranging them in groups 
possessing certain characteristics in common ; (2), deter- 
mining the special types of which these groups are com- 
posed ; (3), determining the geographical range of each 
special type ; (4), in determining its relations to other 
types within or beyond its own special area ; and (5), 
determining the sequence of the types existing within 
the geographical area which is the field of study." He 
further tells us 2 that the typical characteristics of any 

1 Scotland in Early Christian Times, lsfc Series, p. 20. 2 lb., p. 76. 



particular class of structures or monuments " are most 
readily obtained from the study and comparison of the 
greatest possible number of the most perfect specimens", 
and that " this number is more likely to be met with in 
the principal group of specimens" existing in the locality 
where the type originated "than in the derived group", 
consisting of offshoots of the principal group found in 
some other geographical area. Thus, if the positions of 
all the examples of any special class of ancient remain be 
marked upon a map, the principal group is generally to 
be found where the examples are most closely crowded 
together. We see, therefore, what very important results 
are to be obtained from an archaeological survey. 

Assuming that we have now before us a map showing 
the geographical distribution of the early inscribed Chris- 
tian monuments throughout Great Britain, and that the 
origin of each different kind of lettering is to be sought 
in the part of the country w T here the stones on which 
they occur are most numerous, we learn the following 
facts. In the first place it will be seen that all the groups 
of inscribed stones in Scotland, given in our list,. are de- 
rived groups, since the principal groups exist outside its 
area. Thus the principal group of Ogam inscriptions is 
situated in the south-west of Ireland, that of inscriptions 
in debased Latin capitals in Cornwall or Wales, that of 
biliteral inscriptions in both Ogams and debased Latin 
capitals in Pembrokeshire, that of inscriptions in Hiberno- 
Saxon minuscules in Ireland, that of inscriptions in Ang- 
lian Runes and Saxon capitals in Northumbria, and that 
of inscriptions in later Runes in the Isle of Man. 

The derived groups of inscribed monuments in Scot- 
land are, as we have already observed, very small ones. 
The inscriptions in debased Latin capitals are the oldest, 
and probably belong to the period between a.d. 450 and 
650. These inscriptions are cut on rude pillar-stones 
devoid of dressing or ornament of any kind, having in 
addition to the lettering the Chi-Rho monogram of Christ 
in a few instances. There are four inscriptions of this 
class in Scotland, all in that part of the country south of 
the Forth. 

The Ogam inscriptions occurring in Scotland differ 
from those found in other parts of Great Britain in being 


carved on highly ornamented crosses instead of on rude 
pillar-stones ; the letters being on a stem-line, not on the 
angle of the stone, and with points between the words. 
There are ten of these inscriptions in Scotland, one half 
of which are in Shetland, one in Orkney, and the remain- 
der in the north-east part of the country. They seem 
to be of later date than those of Ireland and Wales, and 
may possibly belong to the seventh, eighth, or even ninth 
century. The four Ogam inscriptions on the mainland of 
Scotland are on stones bearing the symbols of unknown 
meaning already mentioned. The geographical distribu- 
tion of Ogam inscriptions in Great Britain shows that 
this kind of letter was used only by the Celts ; and as no 
instances are known abroad, the Ogam alphabet was 
most probably of native origin. 

There are only three inscriptions in Hiberno-Saxon 
minuscules in Scotland, — one at St. Vigean's in Forfar- 
shire, on an erect cross-slab covered with Celtic ornament, 
animals, and symbols ; another on a sepulchral slab at 
Iona, with a plain cross ; and a third on a rough, unhewn 
stone at Papa Stronsay in Orkney. Minuscules of similar 
appearance are found on the sculptured crosses and in 
the Hiberno-Saxon MSS. of the eighth, ninth, and tenth 

The number of minuscule inscriptions in Scotland is so 
small that nothing is to be learnt from the geographical 
distribution of the specimens ; but it is a very remarkable 
fact that the form of letter which is most usually asso- 
ciated with the peculiar Celtic ornamental patterns in 
Ireland and Wales is so conspicuously wanting on monu- 
ments of the same type and period in Scotland. 

There are two inscriptions in Roman capitals of the 
Hiberno-Saxon period in Scotland, — one on the cross at 
Ruthwell in Dumfriesshire, and the other on a small 
fragment covered with Celtic ornament, found at Leth- 
nott in Forfarshire, and now preserved in the Museum of 
National Antiquities in Edinburgh. Although lloman 
capital letters are used in the Hiberno-Saxon MSS., no 
inscriptions occur on sculptured stones either in Ireland 
or Wales in this character, most of the examples being 
in the north of England. Both the debased capitals to 
be seen on the rude pillar-stones of the early Christian 


period and the well-formed letters on the later elabo- 
rately sculptured crosses are variants of the Roman 

The chief characteristics of the debased Roman capi- 
tals are the great irregularity of the formation of the 
letters due to the want of skill in writing possessed by a 
semi-barbarous population ; and in the later specimens 
a gradual tendency towards the minuscule shape of let- 
ters, as shown by the introduction of transitional forms. 
The Hiberno-Saxon capitals, on the other hand, were 
executed at a time when the minuscule alphabet had 
been fully developed, and the art of the scribe had 
reached a high pitch of perfection ; consequently the 
Saxon capitals exhibit none of the faulty execution of the 
debased capitals of the earlier period. On the contrary, 
every letter is beautifully formed and equal in merit to 
those on Roman inscribed stones of the best description, 
from which they are only to be distinguished by certain 
peculiarities, such as the diamond-shaped o, the z-shaped 
s, and a general leaning towards angularity. Other modi- 
fications of the Roman capitals in Saxon times seem to 
have resulted from coming in contact with the Runic 

The practice of beginning a new sentence with a capi- 
tal letter is quite unknown on the inscribed stones. All 
the letters, whether capitals or minuscules, are made of 
equal size ; and in many instances the two are mixed 
together, sometimes several different forms of one letter 
occurring in the same inscription. 

The inscriptions in Hiberno-Saxon capitals in Scotland 
are outliers or offshoots of the principal group of speci- 
mens existing in Northumbria, and belong to the same 
period as the Anglian Runes with which they are often 
associated, as at Ruthwell. In fact, the Ruthwell inscrip- 
tion really belongs to England rather than Scotland ; so 
that the Lethnott Stone is the only one in Scotland pro- 
per which has Hiberno-Saxon capitals upon it, and even 
these are mixed with letters, some resembling Runes, 
and others more like minuscules. The date of the in- 
scriptions in Hiberno-Saxon capitals is probably of the 
eighth and ninth centuries. 

Lastly we come to the Runic inscriptions. Two entirely 


different kinds of Runic letters are found on the inscribed 
stones of Great Britain, — (1), Anglian Runes, which are 
akin to the Old Northern Runes of Scandinavia ; and 
(2), later Runes, which were introduced into this country 
at the time of the Norse and Danish invasions. 

The Anglian Runes were derived originally from Scan- 
dinavia, at a period some centuries before the later Norse 
Runes came into use, and occur on stones found exclu- 
sively in the Saxon parts of England. The only example 
in Scotland, that at Ruthwell in Dumfriesshire, belongs 
to this group. 

There are five stones with inscriptions in later Runes 
in Scotland, and, as might be expected, they are all on 
the islands round the coast, — one being in the Hebrides, 
at Kilbar, on the Island of Barra ; and the remainder in 
Shetland, one at Crosskirk (now lost), and three at Cun- 
ningsburgh. These are all outliers of the principal group 
in the Isle of Man, and belong to the period when the 
Norse pirates devastated all the places which were acces- 
sible by sea in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries. 

The inscriptions occur on crosses showing a curious ad- 
mixture of tne Scandinavian with the Celtic element in 
the style of the ornament. 

The scenes depicted on the figure-sculpture of some of 
the stones also indicated that although Christianity had 
superseded paganism as the religion of the sea-rovers who 
erected the Kune-inscribed crosses, the old Northern 
mythological stories of Sigurd and Fafner, of the bound 
Lok£, and of Velund the Smith, had not yet lost their 
hold on the imaginations of the people. 

In now concluding our survey of the Christian in- 
scribed monuments of Scotland we can only express our 
astonishment that when so much is to be learnt from this 
branch of research, so little care has been taken to collect 
or preserve the materials whence these precious " sermons 
in stones" are to be obtained 




(Delivered orally at Rothesay and St. Blanks during the Glasgow 
Congress, August 1888.) 

One peculiarity of Rothesay Castle is its circular wall 
enclosing an area 135 ft. in diameter, the original wall 
being 8 ft. thick and 20 ft. high. The lower part of this 
wall is the oldest part of the Castle, dating anterior to 
the thirteenth century. It is supposed that it superseded 
a Celtic cashel or rath, which accounts for the irregularity 
of its circular form. Four lofty exterior circular towers, 
33 ft. in diameter, flank the great wall on the north- 
east, north-west, south-east, and south-west ; each tower 
having its separate entrance below, and also from the 
wall-top, by an arrangement used in times of peace. 

The method of defence was similar to that used in the 
thirteenth century. There was no keep, the towers being 
utilised as separate places of defence. This is borne out 
by the fact that there are visible the remains of four 
separate stairs leading up to the curtain-walls. One of 
these is styled " The Bloody Stairs" on account of some 
forgotten incident in the history of the fortress, or on 
account of its component stones being of a red colour. 

The main gateway is very narrow, and faces the north. 
It has evidently been surmounted by, a small barbican 
pierced by a pointed archway of the thirteenth century. 
Beyond this was built the great barbican, completed 
about 1540. 

The original walls, of Norman freestone masonry, have 
been raised about 10 ft., whinstone and slate being used 
in the building; the old battlements also being lifted, 
leaving, however, the paved floor of the wall-top to be- 
come the covered passages, in the heart of the wall, seen 
leading from tower to tower. 

The great barbican, dating from the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, was, as could be seen, occupied more 
as a residence than a place of defence. 

The area within the walls was covered with buildings, 


the foundations of which are visible, among others being 
the two-storeyed Chapel of St. Michael 

The earliest mention of the Castle is found in the 
records of the Norse invasion in 1228, when Husbac, 
King of the Sudreys, besieged the Scots in a Castle in 
Bute, and one of his officers killed the Steward of Scot- 
land upon its walls. Hewing through the " soft" wails 
the Vikings won the Castle. 

In 1263 it was again captured by the lieutenants of 
King Haco. It seems also to have changed keepers in 
the Wars of Independence, and to have suffered partial 
demolition in 1312, to be rebuilt a few years later by 
Edward Baliol. The Scottish kings, down till 1540, made 
it a favourite place of residence. Tradition says that 
Eobert III died within its walls, in a room, a portion of 
the groined roof of which is still pointed out, although it 
is now generally accepted that Dundonald Castle was the 
scene of the King's death. 

In 1489, James IV incarcerated Patrick Lindsay in a 
dark dungeon within the Castle, " quhair he schould not 
sie his feitt for ane year". In 1498, the Stewarts of Bute 
were appointed hereditary keepers of the Castle, an office 
now held by the Marquess of Bute. 

The royal arms over the outer doorway of the great 
barbican, consisting of the lion rampant on a shield sur- 
mounted by a crown, and supported by two unicorns, — a 
form of the insignia first used by James IV, — have led to 
the inference that he built this part of the structure; but 
it is more probable that it was erected in the time of 
James V, who in 1540 gave Sir James Hamilton three 
thousand crowns to repair the Palace; but Hamilton 
embezzled the money. 

In 1544, the Earl of Lennox and an English fleet seized 
the island and Castle. In 1650, a troop of Cromwellian 
soldiers garrisoned the fortress. During the Presbyterian 
struggle for independence, in 1685, the Duke of Argyle 
plundered and partially destroyed the Castle. The here- 
ditary custodians were apparently dislodged and com- 
pelled to build a new residence, still to be seen in the 
High Street. At least, a tradition goes that one of the 
Earls of Bute, who had married a daughter of the Duke 
of Argyle, after this, when taunted by his bride as to the 


meanness of the dwelling to which he had brought her, 
replied, " Had your father not burned down my house, 
you would have had a palace to live in." 

In 1816, the ruins were explored and repaired, nothing 
of importance having been discovered; and again, in 
1871-2, the present Marquess of Bute had the Castle 
thoroughly examined, and the moat excavated, under the 
superintendence of Mr. Burges, architect, the whole 
being tastefully laid out as it now appears. It was then 
discovered that the piles on which the original draw- 
bridge was reared were still existing, but burned to the 
water-edge, and on these the supports of the present 
working drawbridge have been erected. 

The parish church stands on the site of the Cathedral 
of the Isles, — the Sudreyar as the adjacent isles were 
called by the Norsemen, or Sodor as they are still desig- 
nated in the title of the Bishop of Sodor and Man. The 
church had a double dedication, to St. Brioc (Cilia* 
Bhruic), a Saint of the sixth century, and to the Virgin 
Mary. The original pre-Reformation church was removed 
in 1692, and on its site another erected, which was also 
taken down in 1796 to give place to the present structura 

It is supposed that the chapel adjoining the church, 
called St. Mary's, Kilmory, or Lady Kirk, was the chancel 
or choir of the original edifice. It measures 27 ft. 7 in. 
long, 17 ft. 8 in. broad, and about 9 ft. high; and from 
its late First-Pointed style, the date of its erection 
appears to have been the period when the first Stewart 
kings were resident in the Isle. It seems to contain 
fragments of an earlier edifice. Apart from its architec- 
tural characteristics, the chapel is most notable now for 
containing three beautiful effigies, lying, I am sorry to 
say, in disgraceful disfigurement. Grave controversies 
had been waged around them, since there was no record 
to show to whose memories they had been placed there. 

The tomb which the Marquess of Bute had referred to 
in his Presidential Address to the Congress was the one 
on the south side of the chapel, where the recumbent 
figure of a warrior, armed cap-k-pie, within a low Gothic 
recess, is visible. There were four theories regarding this 
effigy: first, that it was a monument to Robert II; second, 
to Robert III ; third, to Sir John Stewart of Bonkill ; 


and fourth, to a Stewart, Sheriff of Bute.* But Dr. David 
Laing had suggested that since the quartering of the 
coats of arms upon the monument was — 1st and 4th, 
Stewart ; the 2nd and 3rd, the royal arms ; and as there 
was collateral evidence bearing on his inference, — it refers 
to Walter Stewart, eighth hereditary Lord High Steward 
of Scotland, who died in 1327; and who married Marjory 
Bruce, daughter of King Robert I. 

The effigy in the northern recess, which is that of a 
lady holding a babe by her left side, might thus represent 
Marjory, who died in giving birth to Robert II, whom we 
find, in the last quarter of the fourteenth century, erecting 
tombs for his father and mother. Until last century this 
chapel continued to be the burial-place of the Stuarts of 

The third effigy on the floor is usually associated with 
the name of Angus, Lord of Bute, who died in 1210; but 
the remains of a Gothic inscription on the monument, 
em cumm, has suggested the name of Wilyem Cummin, a 
member of a family once closely connected with Bute in 
the thirteenth century. 

In 1296, Gilbert de Templeton, rector of the church, 
swore fealty to Edward I of England. In 1320, Alan, 
Bishop of Sodor, was " interred in the Church of the 
Blessed Mary of Rothesay in Bute". His successor, Gil- 
bert M'Lellan, was also buried in the same place. 

From these and other circumstances it might be infer- 
red that these Bishops, both Galloway men, whose dio- 
ceses were under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of 
Throndheim, in Norway, had fixed their Cathedral seats 
in Rothesay at that disturbed time. In 1662, the Pro- 
testant Bishop, Robert Wallace, whose gravestone is still 
preserved in the churchyard, selected the church for his 

In the churchyard a Celtic high cross was shown, dating 
probably from the eleventh century, of a peculiar type, 
and cut out of a slab of micaceous schist. The obverse 
side is divided into three compartments, in which appear 
respectively the figure of a mounted horseman ; a cat-like 
creature, crowned, and with forked tail ; and a cross on 
which two doves are perched. On the reverse side, 


between two compartments of interlaced wicker-work, 
appears a mounted horseman. The cross had been trans- 
ported thither from one of the Celtic chapels in the 
island, was repaired and re-erected by the Rev. J. K. 
Hewison in 1886. 

The sand-glass of the church and an Irish Bible, etc., 
were also inspected. 

Kilblain, or St. Blanes Church, is notable for its roman- 
tic situation, overlooking the Frith of Clyde, and elevated 
between two hills associated with well-known Celtic 
Saints, — Suidhe Chattan and Suidhe Blaan, — the seats 
of Catan and Blane. 

Blane, the founder of this church in the sixth century, 
was the son of Ertha, sister of Catan, and daughter of 
Aidan, King of Dalriada. His day in the calendar is 
Aug. 10, 590. Educated in Ireland, under SS. Comgall 
and Kenneth, Blane travelled to Rome and back through 
England to Kingarth, which he made his abbacy. The 
unique remains around the present church, the Cyclo- 
pean enclosing walls, the great Cashel or Devils Cauldron, 
the double burial-ground with upper and lower chapels, 
the Pilgrim's Stone, the millstone and quern found here, 
all suggest the former existence of a Celtic monastic esta- 

The Irish annalists record the deaths of several bishops 
and abbots of Kingarth between 660 a.d. and the close 
of the eighth century ; while Kingarth (the chief garth 
or sanctuary) was in reality the whole Isle of Bute. It 
is this church which has always been associated with 
" Blaan the mild, of Cenngarad". The name gairadh, 
garad, an enclosed place, a wall, suggests the wall of 
boundary and defence to which Alan, the Steward, in 
1204, refers when he granted to the Cluniac monks of 
Paisley " the church of Kengaif, in the Isle of Bote, with 
all its chapels, and the whole parish of the same isle, and 
with the whole land which St. Blane, it is said, formerly 
girded across country, from sea even to sea, by boundaries 
secure and visible." 

Blane, according to Fordun, was buried in Bute, and 
tradition still avers that the sarcophagus on the south 
side of the chapel, now bound with bronze, contained his 


ashes. Their noble President believed the remains, which 
had been once exposed, were those of a young girl ; but 
the sarcophagus was too long for an ordinary female. 

It is to be noticed that Kilblain stands on what seems 
to be an artificial mound, surrounded by a wall, as well 
as an outer cashel, while on the south side there is a 
lower burial-place connected to the higher by a built 
passage and stairs. The lower grave-yard is called " The 
Nunnery", or " Women's Burial-Place", and is connected 
with the following tradition, — that when Blane returned 
from Rome, bringing holy earth whereon to found his 
church, and was carrying it to that place, he asked assist- 
ance from a woman passing by, and on her refusing him 
help he banned her, and vowed that no woman should be 
buried beside the men in the upper burial-ground. But 
these divisions were not uncommon in the early Celtic 
Church. Reference was made to an incident of a similar 
character referred to by Bede in connection with the 
Monastery at Barking ; while in the Isle of Innismurray 
and also in the Isle of Inniscleraun, in Ireland, there are 
examples of the women's cemetery surrounding a Lady 
Chapel outside the burial-place of the men. This super- 
stitious practice lingered in Kilblain till 1665, when it 
was stopped by an edict of the Presbytery. 

The present ruined edifice, consisting of nave and chan- 
cel, the chancel-arch being considered a fine example of 
pure Norman work, was, he believed, built over an older 
structure, part of which is visible in the chancel-walls. 
Mr. Galloway, architect, who had accurately described 
and figured the ruin in the Archceologia Scotica (vol. v, 
Part II), was of the same opinion. One of the Stewarts 
may have built the Romanesque church about the same 
time as Rothesay Castle, which is of similar work. It 
was used as the parish church down till last century. 

Mr. Hewison pointed out Celtic crosses used as memo- 
rials, some of which are figured in Stuart's Sculptured 
Stones of Scotland; also a millstone utilised for the socket 
of a cross ; the pilgrim's stone or font ; St. Blane's Well, 
which is reputed to have an especial virtue ; the outer 


cashel, 6 ft. thick, surrounding what is still called " The 
Orchard"; and "The Devil's Cauldron." 

This latter structure, he said, consisted of a circular 
wall enclosing an area from 31 to 33 ft. in diameter ; the 
wall now being from 8 to 10 ft. thick, and 4 to 12 high, 
being formed of huge blocks of stone. It was also called 
" The Dreaming Tree Ruin", a tree having grown within 
it, whose leaves, it was said, " were made for happy 
lovers", and were plucked till the tree died. Its use was 
matter of conjecture. Its usefulness as a broch was 
scarcely admissible, as it was overlooked by the lofty 
precipice, Druimen (Gaelic, little ridge), under which it 
is situated. It may have been the carcair, or cell, where 
an early hermit had. his little house and oratory, where, 
like St. Cuthbert, he could only see the heavens above 
him, and be " far from the madding crowd". The door- 
way entered from the south side, in the base of the wall. 

From all these works it was easily seen that here we 
have not merely a ruined parish church, but the interest- 
ing remains of an early Celtic monastic establishment. 



{Read 6th March 1889.) 

Since the discovery of the Basilica of St. Valentine on 
the Via Flaminia, in December 1888, the excavations 
have progressed, and I am enabled to give some interest- 

The remains of the curiously shaped brick altar at the 
east end of the chapel or oratory founded by Julius I 
have been described, and attention called to traces of 
frescoing on the wall of the niche, upon which the follow- 
ing letters, white on a blue ground, can be seen : 

scissimus et BEATissimus . ROMAB r : t'om sieo 

The characters are late, and probably form part of the 
restorations of Nicholas II in 1060. 

In the nave (to the left in facing the altar), and against 
the north side-wall of the chapel, was found a tomb, and 
near it the inscription, + s zeno. The sarcophagus has 
the usual wavy lines of the fourth century, with the por- 
trait of a woman in the centre as an orante ; perhaps the 
Virgin Mary. At either end is represented an apostle, 
probably SS. Paul and Peter. By the tomb, in the wall, 
are remains of a window. St. Zeno is associated with 
St. Valentine, and generally called his brother; but there 
must be some mistake in this as Valentine suffered Feb. 
14th, 270, and Zeno, April 12th, 380, or 110 years after- 
wards. The work, De Locis Sanctorum Martyrum (ninth 
century), speaks of "Zenonis, fratrisValentini", as buried 
with others in the Catacombs near the Via Appia. These 
are those now called St. Prsetextatus. From there the 
body was brought to this church, and afterwards trans- 
lated to the Chapel of St. Zeno in the Church of St. Pras- 
sede. From the north wall of the Chapel it is 30 yards 
to the entrance of the Catacombs, which are to the 
north-east. Between them are some pagan tombs with 
a tufa wall having courses of bricks at top and base. 



I have now to speak of an interesting discovery in the 
history of the church. The original chapel had fallen into 
decay, perhaps ruined by the Goths, and so Pope Hono- 
rius 1 undertook its restoration, which was completed by 
Theodore I, 625-42. The excavations show that they 
virtually built a new church to the south of the original 
chapel, which became the north aisle of the new basuican 
church. This was considerably larger than the former, 
its entry extending towards the Via Flaminia. It is 
31 yards 4 in. in breadth. The original chapel was 25 ft. 





" ' TINE "™ — -— —" 

Corridor from oither aislt 
below prttbytery in front of tribunal 


Church of 8t. Valentine. 



The body of St. Valentine was brought out from his 
catacombs, and placed in the new church ; and we may 
presume that of St. Zeno was brought from St. Praetex- 
tatus at the same time, and placed in the aisle, or ori- 
ginal church, the altar at the end being probably rededi- 
cated to him. The apse, presbytery, and choir of the new 
church were raised considerably above the floor of the 
nave, so that the body of St. Valentine reposed below the 
altar, under the presbytery. This was reached by a cor- 
ridor which is still paved with slabs of beautiful pavo- 
nazzetto marble. Half way along it, so as to be under 


the altar, is a square recess in which were deposited the 
remains of the Saint. Here was found a piece of an in- 
scription, MXRtyr, and a fragment of a lattice- worked 
screen, through which evidently visitors looked at the 
martyr's body. The chancel-screen formed one side of 
this corridor, and from it the choir extended into the 
church, as at St. Clement's ; and, like the latter, this was 
decorated with the thirteenth century Cosimati work. 

Beneath the floor of the choir Christian tombs were 
found older than the church, for that had been erected 
over part of the cemetery. One of these, left in situ, dates 
a.d. 406, by the consuls named. It is the grave of a 
little boy :— 


The niche in the tribunal, behind the altar, evidently 
contained a bishop's chair. 

The De Locis Sanctorum Martyrurn, already meptioned 
work, thus speaks of the church : " Inde prope juxta Via 
Flaminea, apparet ecc'la mirifice ornata sci Valentini 
mar'. Ubi ipse corpore jacet et multi s'ci ibidem sunt 
sepulti." The Salisbury Itinerary has, " Deinde intrabis 
per urbem ad Aquilonem donee pervenies ad portam Fla- 
mineam, ubi quiescit via Flaminea sanctus Valentinus in 
basilica magna quam Honorius reparavit et alii Martyres 
in aquilone plaga sub terra/' 

At the end of the south aisle is a square niche with 
remains of a fresco representing the figure of a woman in 
the Byzantine style. On her right is written 



This church was restored in 1060 by Pope Nicholas II, 
as recorded in an inscription in the Church of S. Silvestro 
in Capite, adjoining the G. P. O.: 

1889 22 






An inscription of the time of Pope Nicholas IV (1288- 
92) shows that the body of the Saint was translated to 
the Chapel of St. Zeno, in S. Prassede, where both still 
repose. The church was ruined in the troubles of the 
fourteenth century, and destroyed in the fifteenth, when 
all the fittings of value were removed to the Church of 
*S. Silvestro in Capite. The walls of the original chapel 
have the usual fourth century construction, alternate 
layers of brick and tufa stone ; but the walls of the 
eeventh century basilica are built of old material, and 
hare no special character, except that they are very bad. 
The only column found is of red granite, and the capital 
is Ionic. 

Amongst the funereal inscriptions found, the following 
are of special interest as confirming that these ruins are 
of the Church of St. Valentine : 


viyebe . POST . Ovitvm . dat . Deus Omnipotent. 

The next inscription is in writing hand, and is frag- 
mentary : 

[Depo]situs in p[ace\ 
[q]ui vixit anno* 
saqui m 
asm Petru gv[t] e 

qui rtceisdus 

ad ad domnu [ Valentinu] 
receset d C TI Kalendas a\ugui\ 
tas briLcia refrigeri 
tibi V\cdentinu8\ 

William of Malmesbury speaks of the church in 1126, 
" Secunda porta Flaminea, quae modo appellatur sancti 
Valentini, et Flaminea Via." 

When Pope Paschal I (817-24) put the mosaics in the 
church of St. Prassede he included in his work portraits 
of Valentine and Zeno, which may yet be seen on the 


vault of the Tribunal. The body of St. Zeno seems to 
have been removed by Leo III, in 810, to the chapel in 
St. Prassede, which is highly decorated with mosaics of 
that time. In this chapel repose both the bodies of 
St. Zeno and St. Valentine. 

The Porta Flaminia, now named the Porta del Popolo, 
was once called the Porta Valentino. 

The Catacombs of St. Valentine were discovered in 
1878 by Professor Orazio Marucchi. They had been 
turned into a wine-cellar. The first crypt is that in which 
St. Valentine was buried, and is the only part frescoed. 
The fresco of the Crucifixion, illustrated by Bozio and 
Aringhi, had been cut through in making the cellar, leav- 
ing only the Saviour's left, extended arm, and under it the 
figure of St. John. On the left wall is part of another 
fresco with the letters 




part of the name Salona ; and to the spectator's left is 
the niche of the Virgin with the infant Christ. On the 
left of the Virgin is written 



part of the word genetrix. On the left wall of the crypt 
are traces of a group of saints. These frescos are Byzan- 
tine, of the ninth century, made after the body was taken 
into the Basilica, when the Catacombs were visited as 
places of veneration by the pilgrims. 

22 2 



(Read Gth Tj)9*y889.) 

In a previous paper 1 read before tlv^ssociation, the sub- 
ject of the " Early Christian MonuWts of Cornwall 
was dealt with by myself and Mr. JSJRoniilly Allen, 
F.S.A.Scot. I propose, on the present dpasion, to ex- 
amine in detail the ornamental features of fl£ sculptured 
crosses. \ 

In writing on this matter (which has not hittF^o been 
treated separately), and to give at the outset a cP* ou *~ 
line of our subject, I have thought it best to divF ^nis 
paper into four parts, — (1), a list of all the stoned 1 */* 
Celtic ornament upon them ; (2), a description in. #*" 
of some of the different examples ; (3), some genera 16 " 
marks on the work ; (4), an analysis of the ornair n *> 
side by side, with similar specimens which exist in ofi* 
parts of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The following is a revised and corrected list of tli 
already given at the end of the paper referred to (p. H2<± 
xi, a, b, c, and d), since publishing which I have had an : 
opportunity of visiting the remaining Celtic stones, and 
am now able to give a reliable list, including those not J< 
before noted, and omitting any upon which Celtic orna- 
ment does not appear. The twenty-six stones therein 
named are all decorated with the same kind of- Celtic 
patterns which are found on the crosses of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and are also used in the illuminations of the 
Hiberno-Saxon MSS. of the eighth, ninth, and tenth cen- 
turies. The localities where these crosses exist are as 
follow : — 

(a.) Complete with Head and Shaft. 

Pftrish. Place. 

Cardynham . . .In churchyard 2 
Lanhydrock . . In churchyard 

1 Journal Brit Arch. Assoc., vol. xlir, Part IV, p. 301. 1888. 
• Illustrated in The Builder, 30 March 1889. 






. In churchyard (2) 

Mawgan in Pyder 

. Lanherne Nunnery 1 


. In churchyard 8 


. In churchyard* 

St. Neot 

. Four-hole cross on Temple Moor 4 

St. Teath . 

. In cemetery 5 

Sancreed (2) 

. In churchyard. 6 By Vicarage gate 7 


. Trevena 8 

(b.) Head only, or with small Portion of Shaft. 

Padstow (2) 

. Prideaux Place. 9 In Dr. Marley'rf g 

St. Breage . 

. In churchyard 

St. Breward 

. National Schools 

St. Columb Major 

. In churchyard 10 

St. Minver . 

. In St. Michael's churchyard 

(c.) Shaft only. 


. . In churchyard 


. On Water Pit Down 

St. Blazey . 

. Biseovey 

St. Cleer 

. Near Redgate (2) 

St. Erth 

. In churchyard 11 

St. Jast in Penwitl 

l . In church (north wall) 

St. Neot . . 

. In churchyard 


(d.) Part of Shaft and Base only. 
. In churchyard 

In addition to these crosses there are two inscribed 
altar-slabs at Camborne, very similar to each other, with 
square key-pattern borders and incised crosses within; 
one is in the church, and the other at Pendarves. 12 There 
is also a beautiful coped or recumbent stone, 7 ft. 6 in. 
long, covered with key-pattern ornament, etc., in the 
churchyard of Lanivet, on the south side of the church. 

Of the above crosses six only are inscribed, — Tintagel 
and Gulval in capitals ; Lanherne in mixed capitals and 
minuscules; St. Cleer, St. Blazey, and Cardynham, in 
minuscules only. Some of the stones will now be de- 

1 1, 3, 4, and 5, illustrated in The Builder, 30 March 1889. 

2 Illustrated in Journal Brit. Arch. Assoc, vol. xliv, Part 4 (1888), 

6 6, 7, and 8, Ibid. 

9 Illustrated in The Builder, 30 March 1889. 

10 10 and 11, Journal, xliv, Part 4, pp. 324, 313 (1888). 

12 The Pendarves slab is now used as a sundial, a gnomon having 
been inserted in it by the owner. 


Lanherne Cross (Plate 1). — Lanherne, in the parish of 
Mawgan-in-Pyder, and Deanery of Pyder, is three miles 
north-west from St. Columb, and five miles and a half 
from St. Columb Road Railway Station on the Cornwall 
minerals line. 

The monolith stands in the Nunnery grounds adjoin- 
ing the church, and was brought there many years ago 
from a field called " Chapel Close", on the barton of Rose- 
worthy, in Gwinear, near Camborne. It is the most 
beautiful specimen of an elaborately decorated cross in 
Cornwall, and executed with much greater care and skill 
than was usually bestowed on these monuments. This 
is probably accounted for by the fact of its being made 
of Pentewan stone, 1 which is softer and more easily 
worked than granite, which, with one or two exceptions, 
is the material used for all the others. 

It belongs to the class known in Cornwall as " four- 
holed crosses", which have the expanded arms of the 
cross connected by a circular ring, the spaces between the 
ring and the arms of the cross being pierced right through 
the stone. 

There is an entasis on the shaft, which is rather more 
marked on the south-west front than on the other sides. 
The angles have a bead-moulding, which is narrowed and 
continued round the head, while the connecting ring is 
moulded with a triple bead on the front and back, and 
below the arms. The portion above the arms has four 
beads ; but unfortunately the upper part of the head is 
somewhat broken. The dimensions are as follow : total 
height, 4 ft. 10 in.; diameter of ring, 16 in.; shaft, ll£ in. 
wide at the bottom, and about 8 in. thick, tapering to 
about 5 £ in. at the head. 

South- West Front. — All four sides are sculptured as 
follows : on the head, the figure of the Crucifixion rudely 
executed, with the limbs of the Saviour extended straight 
along the arms of the cross, according to the ancient 
Byzantine fashion. The shaft is divided into two panels, 
the upper one containing triple-beaded plaitwork, and 
the lower an inscription in mixed minuscules and capi- 
tals : — 

1 A greenish, metamorphosed rock, or altered picrolite, similar to that 
found at the Poljphant Quarry, near Lannceston, etc. 















♦ I 


+ BrB 

m a 


North-East Front — On the head five bosses, sometimes 
supposed to symbolise the five wounds. The shaft is 
divided into two panels, the upper one containing triple- 
beaded knotwork, and the lower an inscription in similar 
characters to those on the south-west front : 


South-East Side. — On the head, at the end of the arm, 
two elliptical rings placed crosswise and interlaced. On 
the shaft a continuous band of double-beaded, spiral knot- 

North- West Side. — On the end of the arm two rings 
similar to those on the opposite side. This side of the 
shaft is particularly interesting, for here occurs the only 
specimen of zoomorphic, 1 interlaced work in Cornwall. 
This is a dragon with a serpentine body, which passes up 
the panel, and in returning fills the spandrils with con- 
tinuous Stafford knotwork, terminating in the mouth. 

The Rev. W. Iago, of Bodmin, gives the following read- 
ing of the inscriptions : — 

+ b(eatct)s etd et imah 
and says, "In support of this I find that on certain stones 
given by Hiibner we have ' Sanctus', ' Pius', ' Christianus', 
' Praecipuus', applied as title to those commemorated ; 
therefore we have + bs for ' Beatus\ We can then read 
the whole legend like the others, consisting of names, 
'+ The Blessed Eid and Imah'; and on the back of the 
cross the name of the man who had the cross set up to 
their memory, viz. ' Runhol\ I regard the ruhol as a 
contraction for ' Runhol\" 

The Inscribed Cross at Trevena, Tintagel. 3 — Tintagel, 
anciently called " DundagelT, in the Deanery of Trigg 

1 On the west side of the cross in St. Breage churchyard, on the top 
of the shaft, are the remains of what appears to be the head of a dragon 
somewhat similar to the above. 

■ Hiibner, Inscriptiones Christiana Britannicc. 

8 Sir John Maclean, Deanery of Trigg Minor, vol. iii, p. 109. 


Minor, is romantically situated on the north coast of 
Cornwall, six miles north-west of Camelford, twenty north 
of Bodmin, and twenty from Launceston Railway Station. 

The cross now stands in the small garden in front of 
the Wharncliffe Arms Hotel at Trevena (the village of 
Tintagel). It was removed some years ago from Trevillet, 
a farm near by, where for a considerable period it had 
done duty as a gate-post. The holes for the gate, and 
mutilated condition of the whole stone, testify to the 
treatment it received in that position. The stone itself 
is a peculiar kind of very fine granite. 

The whole desigji of this cross is quite different from 
any other in Cornwall. The crosses on each side of the 
head are formed by a double bead radiating from the 
central boss, and stopped on a raised cable-moulding at 
the ends of the arms ; but this ornament now only exists 
on the lower arm on each front, and traces of it still 
remain on the edges of the shaft, all the rest having been 
broken off. The following are the dimensions : height, 
3 ft. 11 in.; width, 1(> in.; and 7 in. thick at the bottom, 
tapering to 4 in. at the top. 

It is inscribed in capitals, and sculptured on each front 
as follows. On the south front the central boss is en- 
riched with a kind of quatrefoil cross deeply sunk, and 
between the arms were four little triquetra-knots, but 
only one is complete. The inscription is perfectly legible, 
and contains the names of the four Evangelists written 
in a most remarkable manner. The first name, matheus, 
is in two horizontal lines ; the second, marcus, in two 
vertical lines ; the third, lucas, has the first four letters 
horizontal, but upside down, and the last letter s on the 
skew ; the fourth name, ioh (johannes) is vertical ; so 
that the inscription in a manner reads round, as if on a 
flat stone. 

On the north front, in place of the triquetra-knots, 
were four little bosses, but only three are left. The in- 
scription on this side is in horizontal lines, and reads 


(iElnat + made this cross for his soul.) 

On each side of the inscriptions, vertically, was a long 
incised cross with the head at the bottom; the cross 


itself widened at the ends of the arms and head. One of 
these has been hacked away from the north-east angle. 

Cardynham Churchyard Cross. — Cardynham, or Car- 
dinham, in the Deanery of Bodmin, is situated four miles 
north-east of Bodmin. The granite cross stands opposite 
the south porch of the church, and is the best preserved 
example of its kind in the county ; owing, most likely, 
to its having been built into the church wall 1 for a great 
number of years. From an interesting sketch kindly sup- 
plied by the Rev. W. Iago I am able to give the position 
of the two parts of the cross as they # existed in the out- 
side of the chancel- wall previous to the restoration of the 
church. Both parts were visible in the east wall, — the 
head below, and towards the south side of the window ; 
and the shaft laid flat above the plinth, forming a corner- 
stone at the south-east angle. When the church was 
restored in 1872 they were taken out, and erected where 
they now stand, by the then Rector, the Rev. G. Hyde- 

Being anxious to ascertain the length of the shaft, or 
if it was fixed into a base, I had it excavated last autumn, 
but was only able to.get down about 12 in., when I found 
it was jammed in round the bottom with large stones, so 
it is impossible to say how tall the monument really is. 

This belongs also to the four-holed class. A bead runs 
round the arms of the head, and the ring is ornamented 
on both sides with a bead at the angles, and a peculiar, 
projecting, broad fillet is seen on the outside, which I 
have not observed on any other examples. The angles 
of the shaft have a bold bead stopped at the head. The 
dimensions are as follow : height (out of the ground), 
8 ft. 6 in.; diameter of ring, 3 ft.; shaft at top, 1 ft. 6 in.; 
at ground-line, 2 ft. 2 in.; thickness, 1 ft. 4 in. at ground- 
line, tapering to 7 in. at the top of the head. All four 
sides are deeply sculptured as follow : — 

North Front. — On the head a central boss, and the 
arms ornamented with double-beaded triquetra knots 

1 The cross illustrated on top of p. 323 in the Journal Brit. Arch. 
Assoc., vol. xliv, Part 4, was bailt into this same wall, on the north side 
of the other. 


connected to each other, and interlacing, and thus form- 
ing a beautiful and complete knot, — the only instance of 
this treatment. The shaft is decorated with very bold, 
foliated s.crollwork, and in addition has a kind of band 
running down unevenly through the principal bead of the 

South Front. — The head is similar to the front, but the 
knotwork of the head is formed of a single instead of a 
double bead ; but the work on the east and bottom arms 
has nearly disappeared. The shaft is divided into three 
panels. The upper one is inscribed, but only the letter 
"r" is distinct; the •ther markings look like a "g" and + . 
The middle panel contains a curious, interlaced knot 
which appears to have been broken away in the middle ; 
and the lowest, some irregular, broken six-cord plaitwork. 

West Side. — On the head, at the end of the arm, a 
square key-pattern ; on the shaft, at the top, is another 
square key-pattern, but unlike that above, which changes 
into an entirely different ornament below, without the 
usual division of a bead between them, consisting of a 
debased form of chains and rings. 

East Side. — On the head at the end of the arm a figure- 
of-eight knot ; on the shaft, from the bottom to about 
half way up, interlaced twists and rings working into 
simple loops or links at the top. 

In point of detail the west side is undoubtedly the 
most interesting, as in addition to the two different ex- 
amples of key-patterns we have below " a very peculiar 
pattern 1 which occurs in Great Britain only in the Isle of 
Man 2 and the adjacent parts of Cumberland and Anglesey. 
As the stones in this district are partly Scandinavian, 
and as the same ornament occurs on a rune-inscribed font 
at Gallstad Church, Westgotland, and is not found on 
any other of the purely Celtic stones or MSS., this design 
may be fairly said to be of Scandinavian origin." 

To show the appreciation of the aborigines for these 
monuments of antiquity, I may mention that the woman 

1 J. R. Allen, Analysis of Celtic Interlaced Ornament, p. 233, example 
No. 18. 

» " The crosses of the Isle of Man belong to the period of the Scan- 
dinavian occupation (a.d. 888-1226), as is proved by their runic inscrip- 
tions." — J. R. Allen, Early Christian Symbolism, p. 85, 

The M Other Half ttsmeS 


Jl W. 

Relative jK»iti«n of tfcc twb atone*. c^Ll^Gr^—^ 


who looks after the church informed me that " when the 
stone was tooked out of the wall, the blacksmith wanted 
to 'ave 'un to bincf his wheels 'pon, but 'e wasn't 'ardly 
big enough"! 

The St. Cleer Stones 1 (Plates 2 and 3).— St. Cleer, St. 
Clere, or St. Clare, in the Deanery of West, is about two 
miles and a half north of Liskeard, and between it and 
Redgate, in a field called "Pennant" (the head of the 
valley), stand side by side, and about 5 ft. apart, these 
two famous stones. The taller one is ornamented, and 
the shorter one is ornamented and inscribed. 

Writing on these stones 2 Borlase says : " In the parish 
of St. Clere ...... there are two monumental stones which 

seem to me parts of two different crosses, for they have 
no such relation to each other as to make one conclude 
that they ever contributed to form one monument of that 

kind. The taller one is like the spill of a cross In 

the top of the stone there is part of a mortice but 

the making of this mortice seems to have shattered the 

stone, for part of the shaft is cloven off, and not to 

be found ; from which defect this is called ' The Other 
Half Stone/ The ground about this stone is much 
tumbled and searched by digging ; and in one of the hol- 
lows is the inscribed stone 8 I apprehend it might be 

the pedestal or plinth of a cross, and that the other was 
either placed at the other end of the grave, or was erected 
for some other person." 

"The Other Half Stone: 9 — "The Other Half Stone", 
slightly tapering, is 7 ft. out of the ground, and about 

1 The illustrations of these two stones by Hingston and Blight, and 
all others that I have had an opportunity of examining, as, for ex- 
ample, those in Camden and Borlase, are full of inaccuracies. In the 
accompanying drawings (Plates 2 and 3), for the first time, have the 
ornament and inscription been correctly represented. 

* Borlase, Antiquities of Cornwall, 1754, p. 361. 

9 " The inscribed stone lay for some years in a pit which was dug 
near the other stone, probably in search of treasure ; but in 1849, 
through the exertion of the Exeter Archaeological Society, aided by 
persons in the neighbourhood, it was drawn out, and a small subterra- 
nean, cruciform vault was discovered near its base." — Parochial His- 
tory of Cornwall. 1867. 


2 ft. wide above the plinth, which is similar to the in- 
scribed stone. It appears to have been split down the 
back, as the shaft is only 9 in. in thickness, while at the 
plinth it is about 17 in. Only the north-east side is 
sculptured, and this has a fine panel, 3 ft. 3 in. by 1 ft. 5 in., 
filled with an eight-cord plait, and finished in a different 
manner, top and bottom. Between this and the plinth 
is a plain panel about 16 in. square. 

The Inscribed Stone. — This inscribed cross base is pan- 
elled on all sides by a wide, flat bead. The top of the 
stone has a large mortice deeply sunk, which has caused 
the greater part of the west and south sides to break 
away. The dimensions are as follow : height, 4 ft. 6 in., 

3 ft. wide at the bottom, and about 2 It. thick. The 
upper portion is tapered from the top to about 9 in. from 
the ground, where it breaks out l£ in., and forms a 
plinth. The east side is inscribed, and the other three 
are ornamented with bold and deeply cut plaitwork and 
knots. Taking the sides separately we have on the east 
an inscription in minuscules : 


doniert rogavit pro anima. 

(Doniert has requested prayers for his soul); i.e., Doniert 
(has erected this monument), and begged prayers to be 
here offered for the repose of his soul. The same senti- 
ment is frequently expressed on ancient tombstones in 
the words of St. Monica : " I care not where you lay my 
body; but this only I ask, that you remember my soul." 

North Side. — A four-cord plait. 

West Front. — This had originally four knots in the 
panel, formed by two intersecting oval rings, as- already 
described, but only the two lower ones are perfect. 

South Side. — A six-cord plait. 

An attempt has been made to identify this " Doniert" 1 

1 Camden says : " As for Doniert, I cannot but think he was that 
Prince of Cornwall whom the chronicles named Dungerth, and record 
that hee was drowned in the yecre of our Salvation 872." 


The Inscribed stone. 


fl-lr hrrt-w-to 


with " Dungerth", a prince or king of Cornwall, who was 
drowned in a.d. 872 ; at all events there is nothing im- 
probable in accepting this date, as the character of the 
ornament and style of lettering in the inscription indi- 
cate that it is of about this period as regards age. Under 
these circumstances this information is especially inte- 
resting, since it is the only stone which furnishes us with 
any reliable date ; and as nothing is known historically 
of these stones, any attempt at ascribing dates to them 
has been carefully avoided ; though of course the above 
gives us some sort of chronological guide in reference to 
the other stones with similar ornament upon them, which 
consequently may be taken as belonging to the same 

The Camborne Altar-Slab. — Camborne, in the Deanery 
of Carnmarth, is three miles south-west of Redruth, on 
the Great Western Railway. 

The above has a square key-pattern border round it, 
and in the middle an incised Greek cross in outline. It 
measures 3 ft. 7 in. by 2 ft. 7 in. by 7 in. thick, and is 
preserved under the altar in Camborne Church. The in- 
scription, in mixed minuscules and capitals, is written 
round the stone, and reads as follows : 

+Leuiut mfit heC AL t Are Pro Amma fua 

(+ Leviut 1 ordered this altar 2 [slab to be made] for [the 
good of] his soul.) The A's in this inscription are of a 
very remarkable shape, having an additional vertical 
stroke hanging from the V-shaped cross-bar of the letter, 
thus A, a peculiarity which occurs in the inscription upon 
the celebrated Ardagh chalice in the Museum of the 
Royal Irish Academy, — a Celtic work of art of the best 
period. 3 They are also found on a stone at Llandawke, 

We come now to the uninscribed crosses, of which the 

1 " Leviut" signifies " the master or pilot of a ship". See Williams' 
Cornu-Brit. Lexicon. 

9 Borlase says of it (Antiq., p. 365), "I do not at all doubt that it 
served as a covering of an altar." 

5 George Petrie's Christian Inscriptions in the Irish Language, vol. ii, 
p. 50. 


following may be taken as the best typical examples: 
Sancreed (2), St. Columb Major, and Phillack. 

The Sancreed Crosses. — Sancreed or Sancreet, in the 
Deanery of Penwith, lies four miles south-west of Pen- 
zance, and possesses two very interesting granite crosses. 
One stands in the churchyard, and the other by the right 
hand side of the gate leading to the Vicarage, which is 
close to the church. It is remarkable that the heads in 
each case are exactly similar in form, and are the only 
examples of this kind in Cornwall. In shape they are 
like a four-holed cross, but not pierced, and the connect- 
ing ring not beaded, though the arms are ; and the bead 
is carried down the angles of the shaft, and widened 
below the neck in the usual manner. The entasis of both 
the shafts is very pronounced. 

The Sancreed Churchyard Cross. — The monolith stands 
on the south side of the church, and is considered to be 
in situ. It is in an almost perfect state of preservation. 
The dimensions are as follow : height, 6 ft. 4 in.; diame- 
ter of ring, 1 ft. 6£ in.; width across the arms, 1 ft. 7 in. 
The shaft is nearly square, varying from 10^ in. to 12£ in. 
at the bottom, and 10 in. to 11 in. at the neck. The cross 
is sculptured on all four sides as follows : 

Hast Front. — On the head the figure of the Crucifixion 
with the features remaining, this and another at Pen- 
darves (Camborne) being the only cases where they ap- 
pear. Below the feet of the figure is an incised panel 
formed by a rectangular figure, and two diagonal lines 
from corner to corner. 

Now with regard to this incised work, I must here 
point out that this particular mode of decoration is of an 
entirely different kind as compared with Celtic, and so 
deserves special mention here. As the term implies, it 
was merely a way of executing the designs by means of 
incised lines ; and it is worthy of notice that this style 
was freely used on the same crosses where interlaced 
work, key-patterns, and scrolls appear, showing at least 
that the two styles were contemporary. 

This branch of the subject should, I think, be treated 
separately, and I hope to deal with it on some future 
occasion in another paper, together with the miscella- 


neous ornament occurring on the crosses of Crowan, 
Helston, Mylor, etc. 

Continuing our description, we have below this panel 
an incised vessel with a stiff flower growing out of it, 
having a kind of fleur-de-lis head. This design is sup- 
posed by some to represent the Holy Grail and Lily of 
the Virgin. 

West Front. — On the head an incised circle in the 
middle, and the bead carried round each arm of the cross. 
On the shaft, immediately below the head, is an incised 
panel as described, and underneath an incised shield ; 
the beads of the angles stopped at the head. 

North Side. — On the head a plain panel at the end of 
the arm, formed by the bead ; on the shaft another in- 
cised panel in a similar position ; and below a single and 
deeply incised zigzag line. 

South Side. — On the head a panel like the north side ; 
and on the shaft, at the top, a small panel similar to the 
others, but forming a kind of double cross ; below this, 
and continued to the bottom, is a splendid example of 
angular key-pattern ornament, very well and regularly 

Sancreed Vicarage Gate Cross. — This cross stands on 
the right hand side of the gate, and adjoining the church- 
yard. Unfortunately it was re-erected against the wall, 
and I am consequently unable to give any description 
whatever of the back. 

The Rev. R. Bassett Rogers, Vicar of Sancreed, has 
kindly furnished me with the following details regarding 
the discovery of the shaft. He says : " The head 1 1 found 
sunk in an earth socket on top of the hedge close by, and 
the shaft I found in 1881, during the restoration of the 
church, built horizontally into the upper and eastern part 
of the wall of the aisle. All the wall was taken down, 
and I stood by when the masons began, until they had 
reached the shaft in question, when I had it carefully 
lowered to the ground. I then took the head out of the 
hedge, and finding they fitted one another as well as 
could be expected, cemented and fixed for security, etc., 
where you saw them." 

1 Blight, p. 21. 


The above interesting account easily explains the some- 
what dilapidated condition of the shaft as compared with 
that in the churchyard. The height of the monument, 
out of the ground, is 5 ft. 7 in.; diameter of ring, 1ft. 7^ in.; 
width across the arms, 1 ft. 9 in. The shaft is 11^ in. 
wide at the neck, and 6 in. thick ; 13£ in. at the bottom, 
and 7\ in. thick. The cross is sculptured on the three 
visible sides as follows : 

The Front — On the head appears the figure of the 
Crucifixion, with a bead or nimbus round the head, simi- 
lar to that on the churchyard wall at St. Paul, 1 near Pen- 
zance. There is also a band round the waist, and the 
arms are slightly bent in the same manner as on the 
churchyard figure. On the shaft a panel with some 
double-beaded plaitwork remaining on the lower portion, 
that on the upper having disappeared. 

Right Side. — On the shaft a continuous panel of Staf- 
ford knotwork with serpentine band, like that at Lan- 
herne, but without the dragon's head. 

Left Side. — On the shaft a continuous panel of angular 
key-pattern work, the same as appears on the south side 
of the churchyard cross. There is no work on the sides 
of the head. 

St. Columb Major Churchyard Cross. — St. Columb 
Major, in the Deanery of Pyder, is sixteen miles north- 
east of Truro, and two and a half from St. Columb Road 
Railway Station, on the Cornwall minerals line. 

The cross stands in the churchyard, on the east side, 
and consists of a magnificent granite head and short 
shaft. Belonging also to the four-holed class, it is, in 
addition to the general description already given of this 
kind of monument, one of the six examples possessing 
cusps or rounded projections in the spaces formed between 
the circular ring and the arms of the cross. The head 
has a central boss, the arms are beaded at the angles, 
and the double beads of the ring are carried through the 
arms. The total height of the cross is 3 ft. 1^ in.; dia- 
meter of ring, 2 ft. 4 in.; width across the arms, 2 ft. 8£ in.; 
and only 5 in. thick. 

The east front is in a very good state of preservation, 

1 Illustrated in Journal Brit. Arch, Assoc., vol. xliv, p. 323. 


The triquetra-knot appears on the top and north arm, 
and interlaced knots on the others. 

The west front, for some reason or other, is much muti- 
lated and worn, though the remains of enrichment are 
similar to that on the east front. 

The shaft is only 6 in. high ; but whether it was ori- 
ginally longer, it is difficult to determine : judging, how- 
ever, from the thickness of the stone, and width of the 
shaft, it probably was not. I have been unable to ascer- 
tain whether it stands in its original base. 

Phillack Churchyard Cross. — Phillack, or St. Fellack, in 
the Deanery of Penwith, is situated on the shores of St. 
Ives' Bay, six miles south-west of Camborne, and one 
mile north of Hayle Station on the Great Western Rail- 

The monolith stands on the south side of the church, 
opposite the porch. For many years it was built into a 
wall, or probably a wall built round it, only the head 
showing ; x but it was moved, and placed where it is now, 
by the Rector, the Rev. Canon Hockin, to whom I am 
indebted for the following particulars. He says : " The 
Phillack Churchyard Cross was placed where it now is 
when the church was rebuilt in 1856-7. It previously 
was in a spot about 10 ft. to the northward of its present 
position. Our churchyard crosses usually are facing the 
main entrance, a little to the right hand ; and this now 
occupies the same relative position to the entrance-gate 
as it did previously to the old entrance-gate, which was 
on the south side of the church, and which it was desir- 
able to alter. There was no base found, although there 
had certainly been one originally, as the shaft has a tenon 
worked at the bottom." These combined facts, of no base 
being found, and yet a tenon worked, seem to suggest 
yet another site for this stone, perhaps the original one. 

The head is shaped in a similar manner to the four- 
holed crosses, but the circular ring is not beaded, and the 
arms are more curved : a double bead runs round them, 
and the outer one is carried down the angles of the shaft 
and widened gradually below the neck. 

The most interesting points of this monument are — 

1 The cross in this position is figured in Blight, p 22. 
1889 23 


(1), it is the sole example of a two-holed cross, as only 
the two upper holes are pierced right through, while but 
about I inch is left between the lower sinkings in the 
middle of the stone; (2), a unique ornament is seen in 
the boss, 1 just above the neck, on the north and south 
sides. I have never heard of another instance of this 

The monolith is 5 ft. 10 in. high ; diameter of circle, 
18^ in. In plan it is an irregular parallelogram, varying 
from 14^ in. to 12^ in. at the base. It is quite a feature 
of this stone that it is nearly square, as, with the excep- 
tion of that already mentioned, in Sancreed churchyard, 
and the shaft at St. Neot, all the others are considerably 
thinner than wide. 

The shaft, with a slight entasis, is sculptured on all 
four sides with debased, angular plaitwork, though some 
on the north side is rudely rounded. It is our worst ex- 
ample, and executed in the roughest manner, being little 
better than some deeply incised double lines : indeed, the 
bead at the angles is formed in this way by one line. The 
Crucifixion appears on the west front of the head, and 
five bosses on the east front. A double bead runs round 
the sides of the head, following the shape of the ring and 
arms of the cross. 

Before proceeding to analyse the ornament on the 
sculptured crosses just described, it would be well, per- 
haps, to make one or two general remarks on interlaced 
work, and in doing so I do not think I can do better 
than quote a passage from Mr. J. Rom illy Allen's valu- 
able paper on the "Analysis of Celtic Interlaced Orna- 
ment", read before the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 
on 12th Feb. 1883. On pp. 225 and 226 he says : "A 
great deal of ingenuity has been wasted by several 
authors in speculating as to the probable origin of Celtic 
interlaced work, which would have been far better em- 
ployed in studying the details of the ornament itself. 
The fact is that the idea of interlaced bands applied to 
decorative purposes may have been suggested in a variety 
of different ways, as, for example, by any twisted, plaited 

1 There are two bosses on each side of the cross at Tregullow, in the 
same position, and 1 have since found another example like Phillack at 
Merther-Uny (St. Wendron). 


or woven fabric, or by braidwork patterns sewn upon 
garments. Mr. Anderson 1 has pointed out that this 
species of ornament is to be found upon the works of art 
of most periods and of most nations ; the only difference 
between Celtic knotwork and that produced elsewhere 
being that in the former case it was made one of the 
leading features of this style of decoration, and was deve- 
loped with an amount of ingenuity quite unparalleled, 
whereas in the latter case only the simpler kinds of inter- 
laced patterns occur, and they generally occupy a very 
subordinate position in designs where more favoured 
forms predominate. The other authors who have dealt 
with the subject in the most rational manner are Profes- 
sor West wood 2 and the Rev. J. G. Cumming." 8 

We may mention that interlaced work is found in 
Grecian architecture, e.g., in the capitals and bases of the 
Temple of Minerva Polias, 4 and in the capitals of the 
Temple of Erechtheus, 6 finished B.C. 409. It is a common 
form of ornament in Roman mosaic pavements ; but in 
sculpture was carried to its highest and most beautiful 
state of perfection on the crosses of Ireland and Scotland 
in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries. 

With reference to the paper just mentioned I must add 
that I have found it of the greatest possible assistance. 
Apart from many explanatory diagrams showing the 
method of setting out and developing the patterns, etc., 
it contains some two hundred and twenty examples of 
interlaced work, and nearly a hundred of key-patterns 
and spirals, which are all systematically arranged : the 
former from an elementary twist, to the most elaborate 
combinations ; all being selected from existing examples, 
which are described, tabulated, and numbered ; so that 
by reference to the corresponding number given in the 
lists we ascertain where each pattern occurs in Great 
Britain or Ireland ; and it is from this paper that I have 
been enabled, in my analysis, to give the names of most 
of the places where like patterns occur to those found on 
the crosses of Cornwall. 

1 Scotland in Early Christian Times, 2nd Series, p. 111. 

2 Journal of the Arch. Inst, vol. vii, p. 17, and vol. x, p. 285. 
8 Arch. Camb., 1886, p. 156. 

* Chamber's Civil Architecture, vol. i, Plates 6 and 7. 
5 History of Architecture, Fergusson, vol. i, p. 232. 



We must not, however, leave the subject without some 
observations on the character and style of this Cornish 
work. It is well known that one of the factors in the 
evolution of art as applied to the ornamentation of these 
§tones, is the adaptability of the material with which the 
primitive artists had to deal. In districts where the 
stone is easily manipulated, the work is found to be con- 
siderably superior to that in other places where the 
nature of the substance is less suitable ; thus corroborat- 
ing the remark on p. 320 as to the manner in which our 
finest example at Lanherne is produced. 

Taking, for instance, a wild and rugged granite county 
like Cornwall, as in the ornament of its crosses, so in its 
architectural detail, the work is indifferently designed 
and rudely executed, and, as I have already pointed out, 
most of the patterns are evidently debased copies of 
those beautiful forms of ornament, which, if they did not 
originate in Ireland, were at all events so highly deve- 
loped there as to constitute a separate style of art. 

Two of the most typically Celtic forms of ornament are 
found in Cornwall, viz., interlaced work and key-patterns; 
but of the true Irish divergent spiral there are no ex- 
amples, as the scrollwork which occurs on some of the 
stones appears to be more in common with the foliage of 

The best examples of really good work are : (l), with 
interlaced work, — on the cross at Lanherne, on the shaft 
in St. Neot's churchyard, and on the two stones in St. 
Cleer, near Redgate ; (2), with knotwork, — also on the 
Lanherne Cross and on the Four-Hole Cross on Temple 
Moor ; (3), with key-patterns, — on the Sancreed Church- 
yard Cross and the beautiful recumbent Saxon tomb in 
Lanivet churchyard, which, although not actually a cross, 
must not pass unnoticed ; and (4), with scrollwork, — on 
the crosses of Llanivet (west cross) and Lanhydrock 
churchyards. The worst or most debased examples of 
interlaced work are found on the crosses in the three 
churchyards of Lanhydrock, Lanivet (west cross), and 
Phillack, and at Prideaux Place, Padstow. 

I have laid on the table this evening (with four excep- 
tions) drawings of all the interlaced work on the crosses 
of Cornwall, as far as I have been able to gather, for there 


is no information on the subject. The drawings were all 
measured and drawn to scale on the spot, and the orna- 
ment, in most cases, delineated from my rubbings photo- 
graphed to scale. 

The four exceptions are — (1), the lately erected shaft 
in Gulval churchyard, near Penzance ; (2), the back of 
the Sancreed Vicarage gate cross ; but bearing in mind 
how little work is left on the front, I doubt if any exists 
on the back, as the Vicar, who is much interested, in this 
work, would not have fixed it as he has had there been 
any ornament remaining ; (3), two sides of the magnifi- 
cent shaft in St. Neots churchyard, our finest example in 
granite. When I saw it, last autumn, it was lying on 
the ground, against the south wall of the church, so I was 
only able to take rubbings of two sides ; but I am glad 
to state that since then it has been moved out into the 
churchyard, preparatory to being erected on St. Neot's 
Stone, opposite the south porch, and 30 ft. from it. 1 
(4), one side of the stone at Trekeek Farm (Minster), 
near Camelford. This beautiful shaft still forms the 
pivot-stone of a thrashing machine ; but I am glad to 
report that steps have been taken to restore 1 it to its ori- 
ginal base, in situ, by the side of the road on Water Pit 
Down, about half a mile from the farm. It is very pro- 
bable that the under-side of this stone, which has been 
hidden from view for over thirty years, may be inscribed. 

I have appended to my paper a full analysis, with illus- 
trations, of the different details of ornamentation found 
on the various Cornish crosses, side by side with similar 
specimens existing in other localities, which have been 
taken from the following works : — 

The Sculptured Stones of Scotland, by Dr. J. Stuart. 
Printed for the Spalding Club. 2 vols. Aberdeen, 1856-7. 

The Analysis of Celtic Ornament, by J. Romilly Allen, 
F.S. A.Scot. Feb.l883.(Proc.Soc.AnLScoL,vQh.l7a,ndl9.) 

Christian Inscriptions in the Irish Language, by George 
Petrie, LL.D. (Annual vol. of Royal Hist, and Arch. 
Assoc, of Ireland. Dublin, 1872.) 

1 Since the above was written, the projected restorations have in 
each case been carried out ; the latter by and at the expense of Colonel 
S. A. Bake of Camelford, when, as conjectured, the atone was found 
to be inscribed. 


Lapidarium Wallice, by Prof. I. O. Westwood, M.A., 
F.L.S. Oxford, 1876-9. 

Ancient Sepulchral Monuments, byBrindley and Wea- 
therly. London, 1887. 

Manual of Sepulchral Slabs, by Rev. E. L. Cutts, D.D. 
London, 1849. 

If I should have succeeded in awakening any fresh in- 
terest in these ancient memorials, my task will not have 
been in vain ; and should my readers be able to suggest 
to me any further train of research connected with this 
interesting subject, I need scarcely say how gladly any 
suggestions will be received. 

In conclusion, my best thanks are due to Mr. J.Romilly 
Allen, F.S.A.Scot., for his kind and willing assistance, 
especially in the analysis, as well as for the use I have 
made of his valuable books ; also to Dr. S. G. Litteljohn 
of the Central London District Schools, Han well, W., who 
has very kindly photographed to scale several of my rub- 
bings, thus enabling me to produce correct drawings of 
the ornament on the crosses, and so for the first time to 
give a really true picture of these exquisite monuments 
of antiquity, the beauty of which has been so nearly lost 
to us of the present generation. 

The following analysis of Celtic ornament includes all 
that is known to me on the stones I have seen. Should, 
however, any of my readers know of any other examples 
not contained in this analysis, I should feel obliged by 
their communicating with me, in order that from time to 
time the details on the newly discovered stones may be 
added to their respective subdivisions, thus preserving a 
record of them all. 



Names of Places in Great Britain and Ireland where examples of the same 
pattern occur are in smaller type. The districts are taken in the follow- 
ing order throughout : 1, England ; 2, Wales ; 3, Scotland ; 4, Isle of 
Man ; and 5, Ireland ; and the counties, except where necessary, are only 
inserted after the first mention of a place. 


(1.) Regular Plaits. 1 
(a.) With Four Cords. 

N.B. All examples to this Scale. 
[The word top refers to the position of the pattern on the stone.] 
Names of Places in Cornwall where each Pattern occurs. 
St. Blazey. — Biscovey (north-east side). 
St. Cleer.* — On Doniert's Stone (north-east side). 
St. Minver. — St. Michael, in churchyard (east side of shaft). 

Aycliffe and Chester-le-Street, Durham; Gosforth, Cumberland; St. 
John's, Chester ; Dinsdale-on-Tees (2), Yorkshire ; Ilam, Staffordshire ; 
Peterborough, Northampton. — England. 

Carew and Nevern, Pembrokeshire ; Llandough, Llantwit, and Mar- 
gam, Glamorganshire ; Maen Achwynfan, Flintshire ; Penmon, Anglesey. 

Benvie and Farnell, Forfarshire ; Jordan Hill and Govan, near Glas- 
gow ; Inchinnan, Renfrewshire; Mansfield, Ayrshire ; Stanlie, near Pais- 
ley ; Abercromby, Fifeshire ; firessay, Shetland. — Scotland. 

Tuam, co. Galway ; Durrow, Bang's Co. — Ireland. 
(b.) With Six Cords. 

St. Blazey. — Biscovey (south-east front). 

St. Cleer.*— On Doniert's Stone (south-west side). 

1 Where a termination of a pattern of the interlaced work exists, it is given 
to show the methods by which the cords can be joined up so as to leave no 
loode ends. 

* Places marked thus * denote where the illustrated example exists. 


Qnethiock. — In churchyard (south front). 

Aycliffe and Gainford, Durham ; Brompton, Yorkshire ; Fulbourn, Cam- 
bridge ; Dinsdale-on-Tees (2), Yorkshire ; Helpstom, Peterborough. 

Coychnrch and Margam, Glamorganshire ; Llanbadarn Fawr, Radnor- 
shire; Meifod, Montgomeryshire; Penally, Pembrokeshire; Penmon, 

Aldbar, Forfarshire ; St. Andrew's, Fifeshire. 
(c.) With Eight Cords. 

St. Neot* — In churchyard (west side), all three panels 

Copplestone Cross, Devon; Aycliffe, Gainford, 

Llandeilo Fawr, Brecknock ; Nevern, Penmon. 

Liberton, near Edinburf 
ar, Jordan Hill. 

Clonmacnois, King's Co, 

Copplestone Cross, Devon; Aycliffe, Gainford, and Lindisfarne, Dur- 

Liberton, near Edinburgh ; Rothesay, Bute ; Docton, Fifeshire ; Aid- 
bar, Jordan Hill. 

(2.) Angular Plaits. 
(a.) With Four Cords. 

Phillack.* — In churchyard. On all four sides. 
Castor and Longthorpe, Northamptonshire. 

(b.) Irregular, Angular Plaitwork. 
Qnethiock. — In churchyard (south front). 

(3.) Broken 1 Plaitwork. 

(a.) With breaks made symmetrically. 

St. Blazey. — Biscovey (north-west front). 
St. Cleer.— On " The Other Half-Stone." 

St. Neot. — In churchyard ; east side, top panel ; and south side, top 
and middle panels. 

1 The term " broken plaitwork" implies that the pattern consists of joining 
up any two cords instead of carrying them forward, thus distinguishing them 
from the*' ordinary regular plaits." One result of this method is the leaving of 
spaces in the work ; but the term really applies to the u breaking" or "stop- 
ping off" of the cords at regular or irregular intervals. 


(b.) TJie same as foregoing, but with rings introduced. 

St Neot. — In churchyard ; east side, bottom panel. 

N.B. Of course different varieties of this class occur in other 
districts ; but the combinations being varied in almost every con- 
ceivable manner, it is extremely doubtful if a corresponding speci- 
men of those examples in Cornwall can be found in other places, 
although the treatment may, in some cases, be considered some- 
what similar. 

(c.) With breaks made symmetrically ', and spaces left. 
With Four Cords. 

Lanhydrock.— In churchyard (west front). 

Lanivet. — In churchyard ; on west cross, west front. 

St Neot.* — Four-hole cross on Temple Moor (north-east side). 

N.B. Examples of this pattern in double rows are found in 
other districts, as well as a horizontal treatment of the knots ; but 
the three specimens in Cornwall are all single, the only difference 
between them being that in those at Lanhydrock and Lanivet 
there is no space left between the knots, so that they are in reality 
a continuous band of figure-of-eight knots, unlike the cases where 
they appear separately. 

Kirkby Moorside, Yorkshire ; Nassington, Northumberland ; Gainford, 

Llanynnis, Brecon; Llanbadarn-Fawr, Llandough, Margam. 

Cossins, Monifieth, St. Vigean's, and Kirriemuir, Forfarshire ; Crieff, 
Perthshire ; Rothesay, Govan, Meigle. 

Durrow, King's Co. ; Kilkispeen, Co. Kilkenny. 

(d.) With breaks made unsymmetrically, or irregular \ broken 

Padstow. — In churchyard (west side) (?) 

St. Erth. — In churchyard (south front). 

St. Just in Penwith. — In north wall of church (unfinished). 

St. Neot. — In churchyard (north side, middle panel). 

(e.) The same as foregoing, but with a Ring. 

St. Neot. — In 'churchyard (south side, bottom panel). 

N.B. There is a considerable difference in the workmanship of 
the patterns given under this head (d), which is worth noting ; 
e.g., the work at St. Neot is extremely good, whereas that occur- 
ring on the other stones is extremely poor and debased ; for the 
bands do not lap over and under each other regularly, and in some 
instances stop suddenly without being properly joined up. 



(/.) Irregular, broken plaitwork with spaces left. 

Cardynham. — In churchyard (south front). 
Minster. — Water-Pit Down (east front). 
Sancreed. — Vicarage gate cross (front). 

(4) Debased Forms of Plaitwork. 

Lanivet. 1 — In churchyard, west cross (on north side). 
Padstow.* — Prideaux Place (all four sides) (?). 

(5.) Knotwork. 
(a.) Figure-of-Eigkt Knots. 

Cardynham. — In churchyard (east side of head). 

Gulval (?). — In churchyard (west front), one end of figure broken. 

Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (south-west front). 



(6.) Spiral Knotwork. 

Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (south-east side). 
St. Blazey. — Biscovey ; on north-west front of the inscribed stone a 
single panel of spiral knots in double row, terminating in a pair 
of Stafford knots. ' 

Hickling, Notts. 

Abbotsford, Roxboroughshire ; Aberlemno, Forfarshire; Arthurlee, Ren- 

1 There are two crosses in Lanivet churchyard, one on the west, and the 
other on the north side of the church, which for distinction will be called the 
west cross, or, the north cross. 

(c.) Stafford Knotwork. 


Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (north-west side). 

Minster. — Water- Pit Down (west front). 

St. Blazey. — Biscovey ; on north-west front of the inscribed stone a 

single panel of spiral knots in double row, terminating in a pair of 

Stafford knots. 
Sancreed. — Vicarage Gate Cross (right side). 
Aycliffe, Durham; Bexhill, Sussex. 

The above last two named have the dragon's head also. 

N.B. Examples of this pattern, without the serpentine band, 
and in double rows, are found in other districts, as at Jordan Hill, 
Kirriemuir, Jedborough, Scoonie, Inchbrayock, Scotland ; Aycliffe, 
Billingham, Jarrow, Durham ; and Llandough, Wales ; but those 
occurring in Cornwall are all single, and have the serpentine band, 
except St. Blazey, as already explained. 

(d.) S-shaped Knotwork. 

St. Neot. # — In churchyard (east side, middle panel). 

N.B. The diagonal treatment of the middle band in this beauti- 
ful example is, as far as I have been able to ascertain, unique. 

(6.) Ring-Patterns. 
(a.) Twists and Rings. 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Cardynham (No. 3).* — In churchyard (east side). 


Gulval. — In churchyard (east front), like No. 2, bnt worked into an 

irregular pattern above. 
Mawgan in Pyder* (No. 1). — Lanherne (north-east front). 
Minster. — Water-Pit Down (west front, bottom panel). 
Padstow* (No. 2). — In churchyard (east side). 
Quethiock. — In churchyard (east side). 

Hexham, Norham, and Warden, Northumberland; Aycliffe, Gainford, 

Llandevaelog, Brecknockshire ; Llantwit, Penally, Penmon. 

Liberton, Edinburgh ; Monreith House, Wigtonshire ; Drainie, Elgin ; 
Bressay, Inchinnan, Bothesay. 

Kirk Michael. 

(b.) Plaits and Rings. 1 With Four Cords. 

St. Neot. # — In churchyard (north side, top panel). 

Copplestone Cross. 

Wigtown and Monreith House, Wigtonshire. 

(c.) Chains of Rings* 

Cardyubam.* — In churchyard (west side). 
Gosforth and Dearham, Cumberland. 

Kirk Andreas, Kirk Christ's, Kirk Michael (2) ; Ballaugh Bushen and 
St. John's, Tynwald. 

(d.) Irregular Ring- Patterns. Twists and Rings. 
Gulval. — In churchyard (west side). 

1 Formed by a four-cord plait with the crossings of the bands emphasised 
by a ring. 


(7.) Knots. 
(a.) Two Oval Rings interlaced Crosswise, 

Lanivet. — In churchyard, on Saxon coped stone. 

Mawgan in Pyder. — Lanherne (south-east and north-west sides, on 

Minster. — Water-Pit Down (east front). 
Qnethiock. — In churchyard, on lower limb of head. 
St. Breage. — In churchyard (west side, on ring). 1 
St. Cleer.* — On Doniert's Stone (two complete on north-west front), 
St. Columb Major. — In churchyard, on lower arm of head. 
St. Teath. — In cemetery (north side, on arm). 

Aycliffe and BilUngham, Durham ; Dinsdale-on-Tees, Dearham. 

Qolden Grove, Carmarthenshire; Corwen, Merionethshire; Carew, 
Llandough, Llantwit, Margam, Meifod, Nevern. 

Meigle, Perthshire ; Govan, Inchinnan. 

(b.) Two Oval Rings combined with two Concentric Circles, 
all interlaced. 

St. Just in Penrith.* — In church (north wall). 

St. Neot. — In churchyard (north side, bottom panel). 

Jorrow, Northumberland. 

(c.) Miscellaneous Knots. 

Cardynham. — In churchyard (south front). 

N.B. This is a very curious knot, and quite unlike any others. 
Being somewhat abraded, it is uncertain what it was originally 
intended for. 

1 The only instance in Cornwall where the connecting ring of the cross is 



(/.) Irregular^ broken plaitworh with spaces lefL 

Cardynham. — In churchyard (south front). 
Minster. — Water-Pit Down (east front). 
Sancreed. — Vicarage gate cross (front). 

(4.) Debased Forms op Plaitwoek. 

Lanivet. 1 — In churchyard, west cross (on north side). 
Padstow.* — Prideaux Place (all four sides) (?). 

(5.) Knotwoek. 
(a.) Figure-of-Eigkt Knots. 

Cardynham. — In churchyard (east side of head). 

Gulval (?). — In churchyard (west front), one end of figure broken. 

Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (south-west front). 



(6.) Spiral Knotwork. 

Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (south-east side). 
St. Blazey. — Biscovey ; on north-west front of the inscribed stone a 
single panel of spiral knots in double row, terminating in a pair 
of Stafford knots. ' 

Hickling, Notts. 

Abbotsford, Roxboroughshire ; Aberlemno, Forfarshire; Arthurlee, Ren- 

1 There are two crosses in Lanivet churchyard, one on the west, and the 
other on the north side of the church, which for distinction will be called the 
west cross, or, the north cross. 

(c.) Stafford Knotwork. 


Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (north-west side). 

Minster. — Water- Pit Down (west front). 

St. Blazey. — Biscovey ; on north-west front of the inscribed stone a 

single panel of spiral knots in double row, terminating in a pair of 

Stafford knots. 
Sancreed. — Vicarage Gate Cross (right side). 
Aycliffe, Durham; Bexhill, Sussex. 

The above last two named have the dragon's head also. 

N.B. Examples of this pattern, without the serpentine band, 
and in double rows, are found in other districts, as at Jordan Hill, 
Kirriemuir, Jedborough, Scoonie, Inchbrayock, Scotland ; Aycliffe, 
Billingham, Jarrow, Durham ; and Llandough, Wales ; but those 
occurring in Cornwall are all single, and have the serpentine band, 
except St. Blazey, as already explained. 

(d.) S -shaped Knotwork. 

St. Neot.* — In churchyard (east side, middle panel). 

N.B. The diagonal treatment of the middle band in this beauti- 
ful example is, as far as I have been able to ascertain, unique. 

(6.) Ring-Patterns. 
(a.) Twists and Rings. 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Cardynham (No. 3).* — In churchyard (east side). 



(/.) Irregular, broken plaitwork with spaces left. 

Cardynham. — In churchyard (south front). 
Minster. — Water-Pit Down (east front). 
Sancreed. — Vicarage gate cross (front). 

(4.) Debased Forms of Plaitwork. 

Lanivet. 1 — In churchyard, west cross (on north side). 
Padstow.* — Prideaux Place (all four sides) (?). 

(5.) Knotwork. 
(a.) Figure-of-Eigkt Knots. 

Cardynham. — In churchyard (east side of head). 

Gulval (?). — In churchyard (west front), one end of figure broken. 

Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (south-west front). 



(b.) Spiral Knotwork. 

Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (south-east side). 
St. Blazey. — Biscovey ; on north-west front of the inscribed stone a 
single panel of spiral knots in double row, terminating in a pair 
of Stafford knots. ' 

Hickling, Notts. 

Abbotsford, Roxboroughshire ; Aberlemno, Forfarshire; Arthurlee, Ren- 

1 There are two crosses in Lanivet churchyard, one on the west, and the 
other on the north side of the church, which for distinction will be called the 
west cross, or, the north cross. 

(c.) Stafford Knotwork. 



Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherno (north-west side). 

Minster. — Water- Pit Down (west front). 

St. Blazey. — Biscovey ; on north-west front of the inscribed stone a 

single panel of spiral knots in double row, terminating in a pair of 

Stafford knots. 
Sancreed. — Vicarage Gate Cross (right side). 
Aycliffe, Durham; Bexhill, Sussex. 

The above last two named have the dragon's head also. 

N.B. Examples of this pattern, without the serpentine band, 
and in double rows, are found in other districts, as at Jordan Hill, 
Kirriemuir, Jedborongh, Scoonie, Inchbrayock, Scotland ; Aycliffe, 
Billingham, Jarrow, Durham ; and Llandough, Wales ; but those 
occurring in Cornwall are all single, and have the serpentine band, 
except St. Blazey, as already explained. 

(d.) S -shaped Knotwork. 

St. Neot.* — In churchyard (east side, middle panel). 

N.B. The diagonal treatment of the middle band in this beauti- 
ful example is, as far as I have been able to ascertain, unique. 

(6.) Ring-Patterns. 
(a.) Twists and Rings. 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Cardynham (No. 3).* — In churchyard (east side). 



(/.) Irregular, broken plaitwork with spaces left 

Cardynham. — In churchyard (south front). 
Minster. — Water-Pit Down (east front). 
Sancreed. — Vicarage gate cross (front). 

(4.) Debased Forms of Plaitwork. 

Lanivet. 1 — In churchyard, west cross (on north side). 
Padstow.* — Prideaux Plaice (all four sides) (?). 

(5.) Knotwoek. 
(a.) Figure-of-Eight Knots. 

Cardynham. — In churchyard (east side of head). 

Gulval (?). — In churchyard (west front), one end of figure broken. 

Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (south-west front). 



(6.) Spiral Knotwork. 

Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (south-east side). 
St. Blazey. — Biscovey ; on north-west front of the inscribed stone a 
single panel of spiral knots in double row, terminating in a pair 
of Stafford knots. ' 

Hickling, Notts. 

Abbotsford, Roxboroughshire; Aberlemno, Forfarshire; Arthurlee, Ren- 

1 There are two crosses in Lanivet churchyard, one on the west, and the 
other on the north side of the church, which for distinction will be called the 
west cross, or, the north cross. 

(c.) Stafford Knotwork. 


Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (north-west side). 

Minster. — Water- Pit Down (west front). 

St. Blazey. — Biscovey ; on north-west front of the inscribed stone a 

single panel of spiral knots in donble row, terminating in a pair of 

Stafford knots. 
Sancreed. — Vicarage Gate Cross (right side). 
Ayciiffe, Durham; Bexhill, Sussex. 

The above last two named have the dragon's head also. 

N.B. Examples of this pattern, without the serpentine band, 
and in donble rows, are fonnd in other districts, as at Jordan Hill, 
Kirriemuir, Jedborough, Scoonie, Inchbrayock, Scotland ; Ayciiffe, 
Billingham, Jarrow, Durham ; and Llandough, Wales ; but those 
occurring in Cornwall are all single, and have the serpentine band, 
except St. Blazey, as already explained. 

(d.) S -shaped Knotwork. 

St. Neot.* — In chnrchyard (east side, middle panel). 

N.B. The diagonal treatment of the middle band in this beauti- 
ful example is, as far as I have been able to ascertain, nnique. 

(6.) Ring-Patterns. 
(a.) Twists and Rings. 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Cardynham (No. 3).* — In churchyard (east side). 



(/.) Irregular, broken plaitwork with spaces lefU 

Cardynham. — In churchyard (south front). 
Minster. — Water-Pit Down (east front). 
Sancreed. — Vicarage gate cross (front). 

(4.) Debased Foems or Plaitwobk. 

Lanivet. 1 — In churchyard, west cross (on north side). 
Padstow.* — Prideaux Place (all four sides) (?). 

(5.) Knotwoek. 
(a.) Figure-of-Eigkt Knots. 

Cardynham. — In churchyard (east side of head). 

Gulval (?). — In churchyard (west front), one end of figure broken. 

Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (south-west front). 



(6.) Spiral Knotwork. 

Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (south-east side). 
St. Blazey. — Biscovey ; on north-west front of the inscribed stone a 
single panel of spiral knots in double row, terminating in a pair 
of Stafford knots. 
Hickling, Notts. 

Abbotsford, Roxboroughshire ; Aberlemno, Forfarshire; Arthurlee, Ren- 

1 There are two crosses in Lanivet churchyard, one on the west, and the 
other on the north side of the church, which for distinction will be called the 
west cross, or, the north cross. 

(c.) Stafford Knotwork. 



Mawgan in Pyder.* — Lanherne (north-west side). 

Minster. — Water-Pit Down (west front). 

St. Blazey. — Biscovey ; on north-west front of the inscribed stone a 

single panel of spiral knots in double row, terminating in a pair of 

Stafford knots. 
Sancreed. — Vicarage Gate Cross (right side). 
Aycliffe, Durham; Bexhill, Sussex. 

The above last two named have the dragon's head also. 

N.B. Examples of this pattern, without the serpentine band, 
and in double rows, are found in other districts, as at Jordan Hill, 
Kirriemuir, Jedborongh, Scoonie, Inchbrayock, Scotland ; Aycliffe, 
Billingham, Jarrow, Durham ; and Llandough, Wales ; but those 
occurring in Cornwall are all single, and have the serpentine band, 
except St. Blazey, as already explained. 

(d.) S shaped Knotwork. 

St. Neot.* — In churchyard (east side, middle panel). 

N.B. The diagonal treatment of the middle band in this beauti- 
ful example is, as far as I have been able to ascertain, unique. 

(6.) Ring-Patterns. 
(a.) Twists and Rings. 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Cardynham (No. 3).* — In churchyard (east side). 


son, and died at York in a.d. 211. A hundred and fifty- 
seven years later the General Theodosius had to repeat 
the process of pacification. 

The camps of the various Roman generals cannot now 
be distinguished from each other. Some would have been 
occupied by all of them in succession ; others would have 
been thrown up as the circumstances of the time might 
dictate. A fruitful field is here open for discussion. 

When old Roman history ceases we are introduced, 
through the mists on the hills, to the Picts and Scots ; 
but the darkness is rendered even more obscure by the 
efforts of writers holding various opinions to accommo- 
date the distant objects to their own vision, and recon- 
cile, each in his own way, incongruities and blanks in the 
accounts handed down ; for before the days of the Vener- 
able Bede and of Adamnan, the biographer of St. Columba, 
and Eddius of St. Wilfrid, contemporary evidence is 
almost wanting, except in 60 far as sculptured crosses 
and inscriptions may to some extent guide us ; for the 
poetic legends, without date or collateral evidence to 
support them, cannot be accepted as history, though we 
must certainly not undervalue the legends preserved in 
the Celtic language, which Dr. Skene has edited and 

Chalmers 1 considers there is nothing to show that the 
Picts and Scots were different nations. They are classed 
together as " Caledones aliique Picti" by Eumenius in his 
eulogium on the Emperor Constantine. The name of 
" Scoti" occurs in Claudian in the fourth century, but 
rather as a poetic term derived from the Scyths, a people 
beyond the bounds of the civilised world. The " Picti" 
are mentioned by him in the same sense, — the name pro- 
bably revived from Julius Caesars painted Britons. Clau- 
dian is speaking of Theodosius, grandfather of Honorius, 
when he says — 

" llle Caledoniis posuit qui castra pruinis 
Terribilis Mauro debellatorque Britanni 


mad iterant Saxone faso 

Orcades ; incaluit Pictorum sanguine Thule 

Scotorum Cnmulos flevit glacialis Ierne."* 

1 Caledonia, by Geo. Chalmers, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

* Claudian, De IV Cons. Honorii, v. 26, 28, 29, 31, 33. 


And again : 

" ferroque notatas 

Perlegit exsangnes Picto moriente fignras." 

Ammianus Marcellinus, in the time of Julian, says the 
Picts were divided into two nations, — " Picti in duas 
gentes divisi Dicaledones et Vecturiones." 

I had occasion, in an article on East Anglian history, 
in Journal, vol. xxxvi, p. 185, to express an opinion on 
the mode adopted by the chroniclers of grouping our 
population together under selected epithets ; not so much 
by any real national origin as by the combinations — social, 
political, and religious — of the time when Bede wrote, 
exemplified in his narrative, wherein he parcels out Eng- 
land between Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. By these 
terms, and for the reasons I gave, the three parties were 
indicated who seemed at the time he wrote to be in pos- 
session of the country ; and I am inclined to think that 
the kingdom of Scotland, when the old Roman rule had 
ended, was found occupied in the same manner, and 
treated by historians in the same way. Thus, as the 
Angli, who were the adherents of New Rome, gave their 
name to Engla-land, or England, and the Franci to 
France, so the same party in Scotland were represented 
by the Scoti, who also transferred their name to the 
whole country when uniformity in religion had been esta- 
blished. Thus, if this speculation is correct, we see how 
Christianity has given us our nationalities, and founded 
our civilisation. 

The Picts were those outside the pale in the Lowland 
districts and round the coast, where they were subjected 
to influence and intercourse from Norway, a country in 
which movements were always going on among the 
numerous chiefs and their clans. 

It is probable that intercourse with, and even settle- 
ments in, Scotland had been carried on by Norwegians 
before that exact date of a.d. 787, when the eastern 
pirates are said to have been first seen in our isle. In 
any case the name of Picts was given to the heathen and 
heterodox Lowlanders, and the name may only have been 
adopted from the verses of Claudian before referred to. 
The name was dropped in 843, that is, when the uni- 
formity of New Rome had been established, and we hear 


of Picts no more; but as Christianity was largely preached 
by the missionaries from Ireland, the name of Scots was 
given to the converts on both sides of the Irish Channel 
from Port Patrick to Donoughdee. The name of Britons 
was retained for the Celtic or Gaelic speaking population 
of Wales and Scotland, who seem to have adhered to 
some of the early forms of Christianity. 

We derive our first connected history of Scotland from 
Fordun, a priest of the diocese of St. Andrew's, and chap- 
lain of the Church of Aberdeen, who wrote in the four- 
teenth century. He makes Fergus, the son of Erth, to 
have ruled over the Scots in a.d. 403, and gives lists of 
kings of the Scots and Picts up to the time of Alpinus, a 
name suggestive of a mountaineer or highlander, son of 
Achaius. He was killed fighting against the Picts, and 
his son, Kenneth II, succeeding to the crown in 834, was 
enabled completely to subdue the Picts in 843, who, 
according to this account, lost at that time not only their 
nationality, but also their name and their language. 
Kenneth II then reigned from the Tyne to the Orkneys. 

Lists of semi-mythical sovereigns of Picts and Scots 
have been made out much in the same way as Saxo Gram- 
maticus constructed his lines of the early kings of Den- 
mark, by stringing together a number of names of chief- 
tains and their histories, often contemporaneous, and 
placing them as successive kings of the whole country, in 
this way creating a spurious chronology carried back cen- 
turies before the Christian era. The history of Norway 
presents a similar difficulty, through the country being 
parcelled out among many independent chieftains until 
Harold Hairfagr first had his hair cut in 890 ; which 
means that he adopted Christianity and civilisation by 
being cropped short, according to the fashion of the 
Romans ; and he was then able by degrees to unite the 
country under one government, though the disagreement 
of his numerous sons put back for many years the work 
which their father had begun. 

As to the progress of Christianity in Scotland, it seems 
to have advanced from the west through Ireland, and 
also by the eastern line of coast through the vast king- 
dom of Northumbria, which before being divided or cur- 
tailed extended from the Humber and Ribble rivers on 
the south to the Forth and Clyde on the north. 


We must be content, before the reign of Kenneth in 
Scotland, to accept the lives of isolated workers in the 
propagation of the faith, such as Columba, whose life was 
written by Adamnanus, a monk of Icolmkill, who became 
its Abbot in 679 ; and the lives of St. Ninian and St. 
Kentigern, to whom reference will be made further on. 
It may be mentioned in passing that there is a statement 
by Prosper of Aquitaine, that one Palladius was sent out 
from Rome by Pope Celestine to preach to the Scots in 
the fifth century, and at about the same time St. Regu- 
lus, a Greek of Achaia, had landed for the same purpose 
at St. Andrew's, carrying with him relics of the apostle. 

Northumbrian history must be read in connection with 
the march of affairs in Scotland. Edwin was the first 
King of Deira, between the Humber and the Tees, who 
became a Christian, through Ethelburga his wife ; and 
from him the city of Edinburgh is thought by some to 
have derived its name. He had succeeded iEthelfrith, a 
furious heathen, who in combination with CadwaJlon of 
Wales, determined upon defeating the Christian monarch, 
and succeeded in doing this at Hatfield Chase in 633, 
when King Edwin, his enemy, was slain, and Eanfrid 
and Osric, both heathens, took possession of Bernicia and 

At the death of Oswald, in 642, he was succeeded by 
his brother Oswy, who was a zealous Christian, and fought 
successfully against the Picts ; and in furtherance of his 
design of consolidating an empire, killed Oswin his fellow- 
sovereign in Deira, and arranged a marriage of his 
daughter, Alchfleda, to Peada of Mercia, son of Penda, 
the formidable antagonist of the Christian religion. The 
condition of this marriage was that Peada should become 
a Christian, and that Penda's daughter, Cyneburga, 
should marry Alfred, the son of Oswy. Ecgfrith, a younger 
son of Oswy, succeeded to the whole of Northumbria, and 
showed himself a most energetic soldier, invading Ireland 
in 684, and then crossing over to Galloway was killed at 
Drummechtan. This is probably the Dunnichen of the 
present day, or the mountain of Nechan in the middle of 
Angus, ten miles north of the Firth of Tay, and twelve 
from the German Ocean. 

Alfred, the elder brother of Ecgfrith, succeeded to the 


crown, — a man renowned for his learning and good sense. 
Bede says he had spent part of his life in the islands of 
the Scots, to study the literature, and he calls him " vir 
undecumque doctissimus". 1 He was educated by Wilfrid, 
who was rewarded by him with a bishopric. This King 
Alfred placed himself in communication with the first 
men of the day, such as Adamnan and Arcuulphus, men 
who had travelled through Greece, Syria, and Egypt; 
and he was not unknown to the learned Aldhelm of Sher- 
borne ; but his resistance to the plans of Bishop Wilfrid 
as to church organisation was the probable cause of his 

After the short reign of Eadwolf, Osred, the son of 
Alfred, was established in Northumbria in 705. Ceolwulf, 
who succeeded in 731, was the King to whom Bede dedi- 
cated his Ecclesiastical History ; but he left his kingdom 
to retire into a monastery, as so many other Anglo-Saxon 
kings did in this eighth century ; and affairs in North- 
umbria became very unsettled up to the time when Eg- 
bert, King of Wessex, adopted the same policy of amal- 
gamation as his friend Charlemagne, Emperor of the 
Franks. After causing East Anglia and Mercia to sub- 
mit to his rule, he marched beyond the Humber into 
Northumbria, and compelled Eanred to acknowledge his 
sovereignty in 827. This marks an epoch when Christi- 
anity had taken a firm hold in the various kingdoms of 
the Saxon Heptarchy, and about the time when King 
Kenneth had annihilated the Picts, that is heathenism. 

Before making reference to the Danish invasions I will 
venture to digress a little upon the lives of two holy men 
mentioned before, and intimately connected with the 
early days of this city of Glasgow, they are St. Ninian 
and St. Kentigern, who were among the pioneers of the 
Christian preachers, and theirs wlu serve as types of 
other workers in the same cause. The written lives of 
these early saints, however, being intended rather to 
show the efficacy of faith in doing what without it could 
never have been accomplished, are so overladen with 
miracles to prove this, that we are predisposed to place 
less confidence in the recital than the histories them- 
selves deserve, for there must be truth underlying the 

1 Bede, H. E.> lib. v, c. 12. 


flowery legends, — indeed, there are few legends which 
have not some foundation of fact. In any case these two 
lives bear the impress of the time when they were writ- 
ten, that is in the twelfth century, and even as such are 
of importance. The one of St. Nijiian, written by St. 
Ailred, who began life at the court of King David of 
Scotland, and belonged to a family who owned the church 
of Hexham. Cumberland and Northumberland belonged 
to Scotland at that time, and he, therefore, was a Scot- 
tish subject when he became a Cistercian at Rievaux, in 
Yorkshire, under Abbot William, the friend and corre- 
spondent of St. Bernard, and in 1143 was made Abbot of 
Kievaux. The other, a life of St. Kentigern, was written 
by Joceline, a monk of Furness Abbey. 

The journey of St. Ninian to Rome, in the time of the 
Emperor Theodosius, is interesting ; and his return 
through Gaul, where he visited St. Martin at Tours, may 
be taken as one instance of the religious connection be- 
tween Rome and Gaul at this period. Treves was the 
capital of the West. It had long been the seat of the 
Praefect of the Gauls ; it was the centre of occidental 
civilisation ; there was a great library connected with 
the imperial palace, and education was carefully attended 
to. St. Martin, the pioneer of monasticism in the Western 
Empire, had " animus circa monasteria aut circa ecclesiam 
semper intentus". The monasteries in the south of Gaul 
became the schools of Christian philosophy. 1 

Ninian founded the church " Candida Casa" at Whit- 
herne in Galloway, when this part of Scotland formed 
part of the Roman province, and successfully undertook 
the evangelisation of the Southern Picts. He dedicated 
the church to his friend St. Martin, who, according to 
the best authority, died in 397. 

The date of St. Kentigern is nearly two centuries later 
than St. Ninian. The author of the second life professes 
to have derived it from native sources ; but he did not 
like, as he says, the barbaric compound, and cooked it up 
again with Roman sauce. 

An interesting instance of the frequent communication 

1 For these and many other particulars I am indebted to the " Lives 
of SS. Ninian and Kentigern" in Historians of Scotland, vol. v, edited 
bj Alexander Penrose Forbes, D.C.L., Bishop of Brechin. 


with Rome, in the eighth century, is that of Ceolfrid, 
Abbot of Jarrow, in a dedication by him of a Latin Bible 
sent as a gift to Pope Gregory II shortly before his death 
in 716. This Bible, with the dedication, still exists, and 
is known as the Codex Amiatinus. A fac-simile of one 
page of the Codex and one of the dedication has lately 
been published by the PalaBographical Society in Plates 
Nos. 65 and 66 of their Second Series. 

The birth of St. Kentigern partook somewhat of the 
marvellous or paradoxical. His mother, Taneu, driven 
over the sea, was sheltered when shipwrecked, and being 
besides in an interesting condition, by St. Servanus, who 
had been a pupil of St. Palladius, and kept a school for 
boys at Culross, where an annual procession is recorded 
as taking place in honour of St. Serf, or Servanus, on the 
1st of July. A child was born, and named Kentigern. 
The lad grew, and was educated by Servanus with his 
other pupils, and soon showed wonderful superiority in 
temporal as well as spiritual learning among his school- 
fellows, and acquired a name for the miracles wrought by 
his faith and by his prayers. His gentle nature was 
shown in the pains he took to tame a robin-redbreast, 
which would come at his call, and perch upon his hand ; 
but the rude boys, by their rough handling, killed the 
poor bird, and the Saint had to perform the miracle of 
bringing it to life. He preached to the wild tribes among 
whom he lived the study of the works of God, by which 
they might be brought to imitate in their own lives the 
forethought and industry of the bee and the ant, and the 
docility of the little robin. 

Another story is told of the Saint accidentally letting 
out the fire which he had been appointed to watch, 
against early prayers on dark mornings. He procured the 
twig of a tree, and it caught fire by a spark from heaven ; 
by which, instead of censure, the act brought him in- 
creased veneration. 

A fish and ring were the instruments of another mar- 
vellous adventure in which a lady was concerned. She 
was Queen Langueth, and lost her wedding-ring, which 
made her husband furious, and so aroused his suspicions as 
to her fidelity that she was cast into prison. St. Kenti- 
gern, however, sent a messenger to fish in the river, who 


caught a salmon. In the body of this fish (ripped up in 
presence of the Saint) was found the wedding-ring, thus 
proving the innocence of the lady, and appeasing the 
wrath of the King. 

Some apology is needed for repeating here these oft- 
told tales ; but they were firmly planted in the minds of 
the people, as can be seen in the Inquisitio Davidis of the 
year 1120, which is the first authority for the early his- 
tory of the see of Glasgow, and they have been perpetu- 
ated on the seals of the Bishops, and in the heraldic arms 
of the city ; in which, however, the twig has grown into 
a tree, and the robin-redbreast is as large as a jackdaw 
or a raven. The fish and ring are constant, and the hand- 
bell of the early missionaries is not forgotten. 

St. Kentigern was consecrated a pontiff at the hands 
of a single bishop from Ireland, after the British and 
Scottish custom, though the ecclesiastical canons only 
authorise such a consecration by three bishops at the 
least. Some curious particulars are given of his vestments. 
He wore the roughest hair-cloth next his skin; then a 
tunic made up of goat-skins, with a hood drawn together 
after the manner of a fishing-net, a white alb, and always 
a stole over his shoulders. The pastoral staff was not 
rounded, gilt, and jewelled, as used in the present day 
(twelfth century), but of ordinary wood, and simply re- 
curved. He held in his hand a book, a manual, always 
ready for the exercise of his ministry, as occasion might 

The sons of Belial conspired to ruin him, with the 
knowledge of a King named Morken ; he therefore left 
Glasgow, and proceeded to find out St. David at Menevia 
in South Wales. After seeing him he sought out for him- 
self a place in which to found a monastery. He fixed 
upon Llanelwyn, called afterwards St. Asaph's, from the 
name of a young student there who rose afterwards to be 
a bishop and abbot. 

Britain, beset on many sides by enemies, often found 
her Christianity obscured, if not destroyed, and on many 
occasions various rites were introduced contrary to the 
form of the Church and the decrees of the Fathers ; 
Kentigern therefore went seven times to Rome, that he 
might from the fountain-head learn the truth at the 


mouth of Gregory himself, and the mode to be adopted 
for correcting errors. 

King Rederech, who is considered to have been a King 
of the Alclyde country, and dwelling at Alclyde, or Dum- 
barton, was a converted Christian. He, finding that 
religion in his country was going from bad to worse, sent 
to Kentigern, and recommended him to go back to his 
old residence and his flock at Glasgow. Kentigern, there- 
fore, placed St. Asaph over the community at Llanelwyn, 
and proceeded out of the north gate of the church to 
travel to Scotland. He here took leave of his friend, and 
out of honour to his memory the said gate was only to 
be opened once a year, on St. Asaph's Day, which is the 
1st of May.. 

Before proceeding to Albania he sent preachers to the 
Orkneys and Norway to preach the Gospel of Christ. 
Joceline says he came to Cathures (now called Glasghu), 
and took up his abode near a cemetery formerly conse- 
crated by St. Ninian, where six hundred and sixty-five 
early worshippers were said to repose. The name of the 
little stream which flowed by the infant colony of Glas- 
ghu is written Mellingdenor or Mellingdevor by Joceline, 
probably corrupted from the Latin word for a mill-stream, 
according to the conjecture of Mr. MacGeorge. 1 Many of 
the provincials had not yet been washed in the font of 
baptism, many others were tainted with the contagion of 
multiform heresies, and all stood in need of the counsels 
of a good shepherd and ruler. 

Out of the marvels in the life of St. Kentigern, one is 
an instance of the allegorical sense in which many of 
them are to be understood. St. Mungo yoked together 
two animals of very different natures, a stag and a wolf, 
and harnessed them to a plough, with which he attempted 
to cultivate the sand on the sea-shore ; and, wonderful 
to relate, he obtained from so unpromising a soil a fine 
crop of corn. It can only be supposed that the stag repre- 
sents the wild Highlander, and the wolf the Pict or 
Saxon, and that by taming and employing both he had 
obtained an excellent harvest from the good seed of the 
faith which he had sown in the barren sand. 

An account is given of St. Columba visiting St. Kenti- 

1 Old Glasgow, by Andrew MacGeorge. Glasgow, 1880. 


gem with a great following of his disciples and others, 
who desired to behold the face of so great a man. 

At his death, in about a.d. 603, the body of St. Kenti- 
gern was buried in the crypt of his church, and there is 
an account of his bell in the Register of the Bishopric of 
Glasgow (ii, p. 334). Much respect was paid to his relics 
by King Edward I of England. (See Compotus Garda- 
robe, 29th year, on 20 and 21 Aug. and 3rd Sept.) 

Dedications of churches to the memory of St. Kenti- 
gern are very numerous throughout Scotland, and there 
are eight so dedicated in Cumberland, 1 enumerated by 
Bishop Forbes in his general introduction to the Life in 
vol. v of the Historians of Scotland. 

1 " Cambria" and " Cumbri" were not applied to any part of the 
territories and people of Britain by any writers before the eleventh cen- 
tury, that is, Ethelwerd, who wrote 975-1011. To Bede these terms 
were quite unknown. He calls the people " Britones" generally. Gildas 
knows nothing of these terms, any more than Nennius or Adam nanus. 
(See Notes of Bishop Forbes.) 

(To be continued.) 


^roceefcings of tfje association. 

20 November 1889. 
Rev. S. M. Mathew, M.A., V.P., in the Chair. 
The following were duly elected Associates : 

Rev. George M. Claris, M.A., 6 Pembridge Villas, Southfields, 

Cecil G. Savile Foljambe, M.P. 

Miss Rosaline Oliver, Summer Hill, Heachara, King's Lynn 
Rev. James Cardie Russell, D.D., Bonnyside, Dunfillan, Dunoon, 


Thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors of the 
following presents to the Library : 

To the Society of Antiquaries, for " Proceedings," No. Ill, vol. xii, 2nd 

Series ; "Archseologia," vol. li, Part II, 1889. 
To the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, for 

" Proceedings for the Year 1888," vol. xxxiv. 
To the Rev. B. H. Blacker, M.A., for "Gloucestershire Notes and 

Queries," Parts 43 and 44. 1889. 
To the Cambrian Archwological Association, for "Archceologia Cambren- 

sis," Nos. 23 and 24. 1889. 
To the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, for 

" Journal," Nos. 78 and 79. 1889. 
To the Royal Archaeological Institute, for "Journal," Nos. 182 and 183. 

To the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin, for " Transactions," vol. xxix. 

Parts 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. 1889. 
To the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, for "Transac- 
tions," vol. xiii, Part 2, 1888-9; and "Analysis of Domesday 

Survey of Gloucestershire," 1889. 
To the Hemenway South- Western Archaeological Expedition, Salem, Mass., 

U.S.A., for " The Old New World," by Silvester Baxter. 1888. 
To the Davenport Academy of Nat. Sciences, Davenport, Iowa, U.S.A., for 

" Proceedings," vol. v, Part I. 1884-9. 


To the Powys-Land Club, for " Collections Historical and Archaeological," 

vol. xxiii, Parts 2 and 3. 1889. 
To the Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Arch. Society y for 

" Transactions," vol. x, 1889; and " Description of the County 

of Cumberland," by Sir Daniel Fleming of Rydal, a.d. 1671. 

To Rev. Dr. Belcher, Rector of the High School, Otago, New Zealand, for 

To the Smithsonian Institution, for " Annual Report of the Board of 

Regents for the Year ending June 1886." Part I. 
To C. R. Smith, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., for "Biographie de M. Lecointre- 

Dupont, par J. L. de la Marsonnidre." Poitiers, 1889. 
To A. E. Cokayne, Esq., for " Haddon Hall, Derbyshire." Bakewell, 

To G. R. Wright, Esq., V.P., F.S.A., for "A Brief Memoir of J. 0. 

Halliwell-Phillipps." London, 1889. 
To the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, for 

" Journal," vol. xi. 1889. 
To the Societe des Antiquaires de la Morinie," for " Memoires," tome xxi. 

To A. Oliver, Esq., FJU.B.A., for "Reprint of the Rubbing of Roger 

Thornton, All Saints' Church, Newcastle-on-Tyne." Date, 1429. 
To the Author, for u The Church Plate of the County of Dorset." By 

J. E. Nightingale, Esq., F.S.A. Salisbury, 1889. 

The Hon. Secretaries announced that the resolution of the Council 
relative to the preservation of the ancient Butter Market, Dartmouth, 
passed at a special meeting after the close of last session, had been 
duly presented to the local authorities. Thanks to the efforts of the 
Association, and also of other antiquarian societies, the local intention 
of removing the buildings had been abandoned. 

It was also stated that some of the domestic buildings of Eggleston 
Abbey had recently been demolished by the proprietor. Other portions 
of these curious remains were in danger of removal ; but thanks to the 
efforts of Mr. J. P. Prichett, Local Member of Council, their demoli- 
tion was stayed for the present. A remonstrance had been agreed to 
by the Council, pointing out to the owner the importance of preserving 
the remains. 

Mr. J. T. Irvine reported 

Discoveries in the Neighbourhood op Crowland. 

" Since last session there are but few finds in this district for me to 
report to the Association. Mr. A. S. Canham, of Crowland, gives in- 
formation of a further very recent discovery of specimens of the singu- 
lar wedge-shaped bricks found in this neighbourhood. The find took 
1889 25 


place during the ploughing over of a field close to the farmhouse of 
4 Single Sole*. This farm lies in the very extreme north-east point 
of Northamptonshire, and between Thorn ey and Crowland. It anci- 
ently belonged to Peterborough Monastery, and there was a chapel 

" Besides the fragments of these wedges, a small sandstone sharpener 
and black Castor ware were found. There were also fragments with 
a positively square head found. The first find was in the ditch which 
surrounded the tump or artificial mound on which the Cell of St.Guth- 
lac stood, near Crowland. There also square tops came to light. The 
second was in an ancient ditch which at other points produced Samian 
and Castor ware, and which underwent removal in excavating the 
brick-clay in the Woodstone brickyard to the west of the London Road. 
The third was the discovery of between one hundred and two hundred 
fragments, also in an ancient ditch which passes below the north 
transept of Peterborough Cathedral, and most likely was the north 
boundary of the monastery first erected on this site. 

"Among the large number found inside the Cathedral no square top 
came to light, nor any fragment diminishing to both ends. With them 
there lay fragments of Castor ware, black and red, but only one frag- 
ment of Samian pottery. A sketch of two fragments of the last found 
is sent for exhibition. 

" The other discovery is derived from T. J. Walker, Esq., M.D., the 
finding of another of the well-known Roman stone water-basins. Of 
these, two have been already reported ; but the fragment in Mr. Walker's 
possession had been part of a larger and finer specimen, and far more 
elegant than the others. Like most Roman columns, this had been 
turned, and the material is not the Barnack stone they so often use 
hereabout. A sketch is forwarded for exhibition. 

" The type here entirely differs from that of the flat slab generally 
ornamented with sunk work round three edges, and having an uncom- 
monly shallow sinking on the top so often found in the south-west of 
England, as at Tockington and Cirencester in Gloucestershire, at 
Bath, and at a farm to the south of Warminster." 

Mr. R. Earle Way exhibited a curious stone mortar which was found 
about sixty years ago in excavating an ancient tumulus which still 
exists at Leofield,co.Oxon. It was filled with Roman coins, specimens 
of which were shown. They range from Domitian to Constans. The 
tumulus, which is elliptical in form, is 120 yards wide at the base, and 
50 yards by 12 yards at the summit, which is truncated ; the aperture 
made by the excavation, in which the mortar was found, being still 
apparent. The mortar is broken, probably by use, and was found 
mended with lead. 


Mr. Way also exhibited a rubbing from a curious oak panel of black 
oak, now in the possession of the Bey. S. Pole of Rackenford, Devon* 
It represents a hunter and dog, with a stag pierced by arrows. 

Mr. R. Peter sent a drawing of a curious chest or treasure-box, the 
property of Mr. Nicholls, Penfound Marks, the Downs, Poundstock, 
North Cornwall. The chest is in good condition. It is incised with 
lines, and with an inscription in letters which appear to be of a date 
late in the close of the seventeenth century. 

Mr. E. P. Loftus Brook, Hon. Sec, F.S.A., exhibited some fragments 
of fifteenth century manuscript service-books which had been used by 
bookbinders of the sixteenth century. Two fragments had been used 
to form the covers of an edition of Sal lust printed at Bale in the 
middle of the sixteenth century ; another being from an Italian book 
printed at Venice in 1553 ; while a third was from Green way's trans- 
lation of Tacitus, London, 1595. 

Mr. Andrew Oliver exhibited a rubbing of the beautiful Flemish 
brass at All Saints' Church, Newcastle-on-Tyne, and read explanatory 

Mr. C. Lynam, Local Member of Council, described a collection of 
sketches of ancient buildings visited during the Lincoln Congress. 
He also produced a plan of the Roman fortified post which has recently 
been brought to notice, in the valley of the Blythe, four miles from 
Stoke-on-Trent. It consists of a central parallelogram, 155 ft. by 
150 ft., enclosed by double ditches, both of which have been dug out 
of the level plateau. A third ditch extends along one of the sides. 

Mr. C. H. Compton exhibited some capital rubbings of brasses in 
illustration of his paper. 

The first paper was then read by Mr. Compton, on "North Creak, 
Norfolk", which it is hoped will be printed hereafter. 

A paper was then read by Mr. Thomas Morgan, Hon. Treasurer, 
F.S.A., "The Rose of Provence and Lilies of France, or a Vision of 
Lincoln", which it is hoped will also be printed hereafter. 

Wednesday, 4th December. 

W. De Gray Birch, Esq., F.S.A., Hon. Sec, in the Chair. 

The following Associates were unanimously elected : 

Albert Addison, J.P., Portsmouth 

Alfred Stirling Blake, J. P., Portsmouth 

Andrew Oliver, 7 Bedford Row, W.C. 

Robert Percy Walker, 108 Tettenhall Road, Wolverhampton 

Edwin Walter L. Willes, Glenelg Road, Gosport 

W. Payne, Portsmouth, elected a Local Member for Hampshire. 


Thanks were ordered by the Council to be returned to the respective 
donors of the following presents to the Library : 

To the Society of Antiquaries, for "Archaeologia," vol. 50, Pt II. 
To the Royal Institute of British Architects, for " Transactions," vol. v, 
New Series. 
Mr. B. P. L. Brock, F.S.A., Hon. Sec, read Dr. Alfred C. Fryer's 
communication on the 

Composition op a Mortar op the Third Century. 

" In March 1888 a Mithrceum was discovered accidentally at Ober- 
Florstadt. It was in form of rectangle, and the interior depression 
was approached by four steps on the southern side. The altars, coins, 
and figures were removed to the Museum at Darmstadt. Professor 
Adamy made careful examination of the place, and came to the con- 
clusion that the building was a temple dedicated to Mithras, and was 
built about the middle of the third century. 

" A small piece of the mortar was sent to me, and on submitting it 
to a chemical analysis it gives the following results : 


"Sand, insoluble in hydrochloric acid ... ... 74.92 

Carbonate of lime ... ... ... ... 5.09 

Alumina and oxide of iron ... ... ... 8.6L 

Carbonate of magnesia ... ... ... 1.02 

Sulphate of lime ... ... ... ... 0.52 

Lime otherwise combined ... ... ... 1.50 

Soluble silica ... ... ... ... 0.84 

Moisture and chemically combined water ... 7.20 

Chlorine ... ... ... ... ... trace. 

" In judging of a mortar, the relation of lime to sand is of import- 
ance. This relation varies according to the quality of the sand, for fine 
sand required less lime than coarse. In the mortar under examination 
the sand was unusually coarse, and larger pieces of quartz could easily 
be recognised. It has been estimated that a good lime-mortar should 
contain 15 per cent, of slaked lime in the dried mass. The amount of 
hydrated lime in the above is only a little over 7 per cent. 

"The above remarks show that this ancient Roman mortar had 
very inferior properties. This is confirmed by the fact that it easily 
crumbles away. The percentage of alumina and ferric oxide appears 
to be high, but the quantity of magnesia is small. " 

Mr. W. de G. Birch, F.SA., Hon. Sec, read the following letter : — 

" Town Clerk's Office, Lincoln. 
5th Nov. 1889. 

" Major George Lambert, Coventry Street, London, W. 

" Dear Sir, — On the other side I send you copy of Resolution 
adopted at a meeting of the Finance Committee of the Corporation of 
this city held on the 4th instant. 

" Yours truly, J. T. Tweed. Town Clerk. 


" M»jor George Lambert, silversmith, of Coventry Street, London, a 
member of the British Archaeological Association, having restored the 
large and small maces of the Corporation entirely free, of cost, and 
having also in his letter to the Mayor, dated 3rd October 1889, supplied 
information as to the dates and weights of the maces, 

" It is hereby resolved 

" That the best thanks of the Council be and they are hereby 
accorded to Major Lambert for his generous act 

" Resolved § 

" That a copy of the letter of Major Lambert, above referred 
to, be entered upon these Minutes as an interesting record on 
the subject of the maces." 

Mr. H. Syer Cuming, F.S.A., V.P., called attention to a discovery 
of a crypt of early date (eleventh century) at St. Chad's, Shrewsbury : 
and further information was promised on a future occasion. 

Mr. C. H. Compton exhibited a collection of rubbings relating to the 
Compton family, and the subject of his paper, viz., " South Creak." 
The brass reputed to be that of the Compton family bears a knight and 
lady kneeling in prayer ; in the field are four fire-beacons ; the motto, 
" So have I cauee'\ six times repeated ; and on labels issuing from 
thoir mouths, texts from the Psalms. It is from Sop well, Hants. 

Mr. Brock and Mr. Birch made some remarks at the conclusion of 
the paper. 

Mr. J. M. Wood read a further paper on the " Round Towers of La- 
marsh and Pentlow Churches, Essex", with drawings and photographs 
of those and other examples, from the Saxon MSS. in the British 

Mr. Grover said the round towers were early Saxon military work, 
not at first connected with a church. 

Mr. Brock also supported the theory of Saxon origin, and instanced 
the tower of the church of Willingham, co. Lincoln, now ruined, with 
Saxon windows of two lights and central pillar. 


antiquarian Intelligence, 

Opening of Yorkshire Barrows, — Canon Greenwell has been recently 
occupied in opening barrows on the north-east of the Yorkshire 
Wolds, in the parish of Folkton and Hunmanby. On the east side of 
the barrows on Folkton Wold the remains of a child, nnder four years 
of age, were found, together with three objects composed of chalk, and 
nnlike anything ever found before in barrows. They are circular, and 
vary in size from 4 to 6 in. in height, and from 4 to 7 in. in diameter. 
They are entirely covered, except at the bottom, with a series of orna- 
mentations ; many of the lines forming the patterns are raised. It is 
impossible to describe the beauty and delicacy of the design on these 
objects. A very peculiar design occurring upon all consists of a series 
of dots, producing in a conventional form the human face. No such 
figure has hitherto been met with upon the pottery or other articles of 
the ancient British period. The smallest of these objects weighs two 
pounds ten ounces; the next size, four pounds ten ounces; and the 
largest, seven pounds. The substance is hard Wold chalk. There 
were also seven burials of unburned bodies in the same mound, with 
which there was nothing associated, except the central one, which had 
a very beautifully decorated drinking-cup. 

The last barrow excavated was 45 ft. in diameter. It contained four 
bronze axes of the early form, without flanges or sockets. They are of 
the type of axe which hitherto is the only one that has been associated 
with the burials of the bronze period in Britain. The four are beauti- 
ful specimens, and are in the finest state of preservation, having on 
them a polish like glass. Three of them are ornamented with short, 
incised lines. 

Discovery of a Lake- Dwelling. — North-west of Milan, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Somma Lombardo, there has recently been discovered, 
through the draining of the large turf-moor of La Lagozza, a lake- 
dwelling which differs in many respects from the others in Upper Italy 
and Switzerland. This relic of civilisation was met with under the 
peat-bog and the underlying layer of mud, the former being I m&tre in 
thickness, and the latter 35 centimetres. The building was rectangu- 
lar, 80 metres long and 30 metres broad ; and between the posts, 
which are still standing upright, lay beams and half-burnt planks, the 
latter having been made by splitting the trees, and without using a 
saw. Some trunks still retain the stumps of their lateral, projecting 
branches, and they have probably served the purpose of ladders. The 


lower end of these posts, which have been driven into the clay soil, is 
more or less pointed ; and it can be seen from the partly still well 
preserved bark that the beams and planks are of white birch, pine, fir, 
and larch. 

Among other things were fonnd polished stone hatchets, a few 
arrow-heads, flint knives, and nnworked stones with traces of the 
action of fire. Some pieces of burnt clay have probably been used as 
weavers' weights. There were also kidney-shaped thread-weights and 
spindle-rings of bnrnt clay. These are especially worthy of notice 
because among the Swiss lake-dwellings of the stone period only stone 
spindle-rings have been met with. 

The earthen vessels of La Lagozza are of two kinds, rough and 
smooth. Generally speaking, the shape of the former is that of a 
cylindrical cone, and in the clay are mixed together pounded pebbles 
as well as fragments of quartz and mica. The smooth vessels, pn the 
other hand, are chiefly small, hemispherical in shape, with flat or 
curved edges, and contain only a sprinkling of pebble-fragments. A 
layer of fine clay forms the outer coating of the vessel, and a projection 
on the side, pierced with two holes, has evidently been used to draw a 
piece of thread or string through, by which the vessels have been sus- 

The remains of webs which have been discovered are much coarser 
than those of Robenhausen, in Canton Zurich, the best known pile- 
village, and in reality they are rather rough network than woven 
tissues. Traces of animals are altogether wanting, and the inhabitants 
seem to have lived exclusively on vegetable diet. Grains of six-lined 
barley and two sorts of wheat were found in great heaps here and 
there, as well as cherries, walnuts, and acorns without shells. Apples, 
too, were to be seen, which, although small, show that attempts had 
already been made at that time to bring the apple-tree to perfection. 

Especially to be noted is the fact, if we may judge by this discovery, 
that not a single beast of burden was at the disposal of the pile-builders 
of La Lagozza ; from which it is evident that the agriculture carried 
on by them was of a very simple character ; and that in the settlement 
there is not the slightest indication of cattle-rearing, or of hunting, or 
fishing. There is likewise no evidence to show that the inhabitants 
had any intercourse with the natives of other parts of Upper Italy. 

Exhibition of Pictures and Objects of Interest connected with the Royal 
House of Tudor, at the New Gallery, Regent Street. — It has been decided 
to hold in January next, at the New Gallery, an exhibition of pictures 
and objects of interest connected with the Royal House of Tudor and 
its times. The period during which the Tudor monarchs occupied the 
throne was one of the most important in modern history. Under their 


sway the naval and military power of England was decisively asserted, 
and the brilliant achievements of her seamen laid the foundations of 
our colonial empire. The genir.s of the statesmen who served them 
gave settled shape to our institutions, and established the principles of 
our civil and ecclesiastical government ; while at their court literature 
and the arts found encouragement, and the name of the most illus- 
trious of the Tudor sovereigns is inseparably linked with that of 

It is intended that the Exhibition shall be illustrative of all that is 
most remarkable in these several sections. To the portraits of the 
sovereigns themselves will be added those of the most famous states- 
men, warriors, and men of letters who flourished during the period of 
the Tudor rule, and a special endeavour will be made to bring together 
as complete a series as possible of the works of Holbein. The Exhi- 
bition will also embrace miniatures, jewellery, arms, and armour, 
tapestry, embroidery, carvings, and personal relics of all kinds, together 
with plate, coins, medals, seals, original manuscripts, and printed 
books, connected with the period. 

All correspondence in connection with the above to be addressed to 
the Hon. Harold Dillon, F.S.A., Secretary. 

History of All Saints* Church, Maidstone. By Rev. J. Cave-Browne. 
(Maidstone : Bunyard.) Mr. Cave-Browne, the author of the History 
of Lambeth Palace, not many years ago noticed in our Journal, has 
devoted a long period of caref nl research into the archives not only of 
the parish of All Saints, but of all other likely depositories of informa- 
tion respecting the subject he has taken in hand. The result is that 
he has left little unsaid of this interesting church. The early history 
of Maidstone as a Roman military station, with basilica and temple ; 
Domesday notices of the parish; the details of the architecture and 
altar-tombs; the biographical notices of the rectors who played an 
important part in the Church history of their times ; the Hospital, the 
College, the numerous monuments, and the Registers, — afford material 
for the several chapters ; and the copious list of illustrations enhances 
the value of the work in antiquarian eyes. Our members will not 
grudge hearty thanks to the author for a work which, while of local 
value for the most part, yet appeals to students of a wider range, and 
not in vain. 




Aberdeen, William Elphinstone, Bishop 

of, 55 
A chains (John), Bishop of Glasgow, 44 " 
Agricola(C. J.), conquests in Britain, a.d. 

78, 133 
Allen (J. Romilly) exhibits Coptic wafer 

of Communion, 83 
reads Canon Collier's paper on 

Welsh inscribed stones, 83 
— — paper on classification of early 

"Christian monuments in Scotland, 289- 

Altar-slab, ornamented, Camborn Church, 

Cornwall, described, 327 
Anderson (Dr. R.), view of Scottish archi- 
tecture, 289 
Anglican Runes, Scottish inscriptions in, 

Antonine Wall at Camelon, 79 
Architect, Scottish, Sir John Hamilton of 

Finnart, 215 
Ardoch, Roman camp visited, 285 

Bacon the Younger, sculptor, his figure of 

King William, 262 
Bannockburn Field visited, 172 
Beaton (James), Archbishop of Glasgow,57 

second, Archbishop of Glasgow, 59 

Birch (W. de G.), F.S. A., Hon. Sea, Notes 

on thirteenth century Scottish charter 

relative to Falkirk, 63 
reads paper by the late J. Brent, 

Esq., on sepulchral rites of the old 

world, 179 

reads paper on ancient English 

heraldic seals, illustrated, 181 

paper on the materials for the 

Scoti-Monasticon, 292 
exhibits photographs of Scottish 

charters, 292 
Black (W. G.), paper on the derivation of 

the name Glasgow, 292 


Blackader (Robert), Bishop of Glasgow, 55; 
Archbishop, 1492, 56 

Blane (St.), church of, 9 

Bodger (J. W.) exhibits charter of John 
Abelle of Caldewell or Cauldwell, co. 
Derby, to John Abelle his son, 28 Oct. 
1413, with seal of arms, 178 

Bondington (William de), Bishop of Glas- 
gow, 47 

Bothwell Castle captured by the Scots, 
1306 and 1306, 34 ; capture of, by Ed- 
ward III, 1336, 35 ; passed to family of 
Douglas, 86 ; bestowed on Lord Hales, 
39; returned to the Douglas family, 40; 
now belongs to Lord Home, 41 ; de- 
scribed by J. Dalrymple Duncan, 33 ; 
visited, 71; described by E. P. L. Brock; 
similarity of donjon -tower to that of 
Pembroke Castle, 72 

Kirk and its tombs visited, 73; 

stone roof, 

Britain, conquest of, A.D. 44, 131; de- 
scribed first by Pytheas, b.c. 33", 131; 
Roman conquest of, a.d. 44, ib.\ ex- 
tended by Agricola, a.d. 78 , 183; Ha- 
drian builds a wall across, 184; Urbicus-, 
Quintus Lollius builds Antonine Wall, 
or Graham's Dyke, 135; width of its 
ditch near Falkirk, 137 

Brock (E. P. L.), F.S. A., Hon. Sec, exhi- 
bits drawing of Roman house at Car- 
thage, and pavement in the British 
Museum, and describes details of build- 
ing, 75 

reads a communication on Laun- 

ceston Priory, with plan of recent exca- 
vations, 75 

announces excavations of ancient 

cemetery outside Rome, 77 

exhibits drawings of Antonine 

Wall at Camelon, and of part of ruins 
of Dunfermline Abbey, Bince destroyed, 

paper on the peculiarities of anci- 
ent churches of Cheshire, 82 

reads Canon Routledge's account 




of excavations in crypt of Canterbury 

Brock (E. P. L.), F.S.A., Hon. Sec, exhi- 
bits specimens of Caistor ware, 84 

exhibits series of first brass coins 

of Emperor Trajan, 181 

— — — on the peculiarities of ancient Scot- 
tish architecture, 289 

Bruce (Dr. C.) on Wall of Antonine, 131 

Butr (Marquess of), his address at Glas- 
gow, 1 

Caithness and Orkney, notes on, 265 
Camborn altar-slab, 327 
Camelon, Antonine Wall at, drawing of,79 
Cameron (John), Bishop of Glasgow, 57 
Canham (A. S.) sends notes and drawings 
of curious sepulchral slab found at Crow- 
land Abbey, 181 
— — notes of discoveries at Crowland 

by, 296 
Cauldron (The Devil's) visited, Bute, 177 
Celtic ornament on Cornwall crosses, 318 
Celts of Britain, their division by Saxon 

victories, 123 
Charter relating to F:dkirk Church, 63 
Cheere, sculptor, figure of King William 

by, 261 
Cheyam (John), Bishop of Glasgow, 48 
Clark (W.) exhibits white marble pilas- 
ter, part of tomb of Robert Bruce, and 
illuminated Missal of monks of Dun- 
fermline, 290 
Ciervaulx tomb, Durham, drawing of, 199 
Collier (Rev. Canon), notes of unknown 

inscribed stones, Wales, 83 
Coloured stonework, Kirkwall Cathedral, 

Cornwall, Celtic ornament on its crosses, 

Craignethan Castle visited, 74, 215 
Crowland Abbey, discoveries at, 296 
Crowland (William of), master mason, 297 
Cumino (H. S.), V.P., F.S.A.Scot., paper 
by, on the fossils, eta, called "Devil's 
Fingers and Toe-Nails", 84 

paper on relics and mementos of 

William and Mary, 250 


Devil's Cauldron (The), Bute, 9; described, 

Douglas (Archibald), Tineman, 37 

Doune Castle visited, 284 

Dragons, artificial, in North Africa, 171 

Dunblane Cathedral, 9 ; lead of roof re- 
moved by Edward I. 232; visited and 
described by the Rev. A. Ritchie, 284;' 
Bishop Clement founder of present, 
church in 1240, 285; General Assembly i 
in 1588 strive to have it repaired, ib. ! 

Dummer, early British cemetery found at, { 
112 I 

Duncan II (King), oldest known great 

seal of, 1094, 96 
Duncan (J. D. ), description of Bothwell 

Castle by, 33 
Dunbar (Gavin), Archbishop of Glasgow, 

Dunfermline visited, paintingB in Council 

Chamber, 290 
Dunfermline Abbey, drawing of part of 

ruins, 79; visited, and described by 

Mr. Brock, 291 


Edgar, King of Scotland, his great seal, 
its genuineness questioned, 97 

Edward I (King) captures Bothwell Castle, 

Egremont Church walls, inscribed stone 
at, 83 

Elf Hill and Antonine Wall, near Falkirk, 
visited, 287 

Ellisfield Camp, Hants, 115 

Elvedon, remains found at, 81 

Eyre (Archbishop), the history of the an- 
cient see of Glasgow by, 42 


Falkirk, thirteenth century charter relat- 
ing to, 63 ; Church of ^Egglesbrec" at 
(1266), 63; so called from coloured stone 
used in it ; Church visited, 288 

Forbes (R.) sends paper on Church of 
St. Valentine, Rome, 84 


Glasgow, paper on the name of, by Miss 
Russell, 84; motto of, 18; raised to rank 
of burgh of regality, 1449, 53; founda- 
tion of University of, 53; history of see 
of, 42 ; Cathedral, by John Honeyman, 
Esq., 25; later crypt, 26; earlier ditto, 
27 ; Chapter- House or Sacristy, 31 ; 
Blackader's aisle, 31; Jocelin (Bishop) 
builds Castle, 45 ; Bishop Robert Wis- 
hart probable builder of spire of Cathe- 
dral, 48; spire destroyed, 51; stone spire 
begun by Bishop William Lauder, and 
finished probably by Bishop Cameron, 
51; archdeacons and rural deaneries of, 
52; constitution of Chapter, t&.; num- 
ber of canons, ib.; Archbishop Black - 
ader builds rood-loft, 56; seals of Bishops 
of, 50; Bishop's Castle, 58; free rent of 
archbishopric, 1561, 60; St Nicholas, 
Hospital of, 54; inaugural address at, 1 

Goshen Sand- Holes, near Carron Iron- 
works, spear-head and bronze brooch 
found there, 289 

Gwendydd, sister of Merlin, 211 




Hamilton (Sin James) of Finnart, Scottish 
architect, 215 

Headstones, ancient, 9 

Helpstone Church, Saxon and other slabs 
at, 75 

Herbert, Bishop of Glasgow, 44 

Hewison (Rev. J. K.), paper by, on Rothe- 
say and Bute, 306 

Hibemo-Saxon minuscules, Scottish in- 
scriptions in, 301 


Inaugural address at Glasgow, 1883, 1 

Incense boat found near Rochester, 78 

Ingelram, Bishop of Glasgow, 45 

Inscribed stones in Wales, 83 

Inscriptions, Christian, found in St. Valen- 
tine's Church, Rome, 314-16; on crosses 
in Cornwall, 321 

Irvine (J. T ) reports discoveries of re- 
mains at Peterborough Cathedral, 75 

sends sketches and notes of Saxon 

and early monumental stones fouud 
during rebuilding of tower of Helpstone 
Church, Northants, 75 

■ sends drawing, plan, and notes of 

Saxon slabs found in the north transept 
of Peterborough Cathedral, 79 

• photograph of old wall-painting in 

cottage in Cumbergate prior to its de 
struction, 80 

exhibits plan and notes of apses 

originally terminating the choir-aisles of 
Peterborough Abbey Church (now Ca- 
thedral), 178 

■ exhibits sketches of Saxon frag 

ments from the neighbourhood of Peter- 
borough, 179 

Jocelin, Bishop of Glasgow, builder of the 
Cathedral, 45 

Josephs (Major) reads paper with illus- 
trations and original documents of the 
Church of St. Antholin, City of London, 

Kirkwall Castle, 271 

Ladykirk, in Bute, described, 308 ; monu- 
ments in, 309; Band-glass at, 310 

Laing (John), Bishop of Glasgow, 55 

Llandilo Church, inscribed stone (Ogam) 
at, 83 

Langdox (A. G.) exhibits matrices of five 
mediaeval seals, 79 

reads paper on crosses in Cornwall, 


Langside, battle of, 22 

Latin debased capitals, Scottish inscrip- 
tions in, 301 ; in capitals and ogams, 301 ; 
in later runes, 301 

Lauder (William), Bishop of Glasgow, 51 

Launceston Priory, plan and description 
of recent excavations, 75 

Lewis (T. H.), F.S.A., on Scottish masons' 
marks compared with those of other 

v countries, 145 

Lindsay (John), Bishop of Glasgow, 49 

Linlithgow visited, 289 

Lovett (Rev. G. M.) communicates notes 
of older foundations with an apse be- 
low the west front of Rochester Cathe- 
dral, 180 

Macbeth, death of, 3 
M'Luckie (Mr.) exhibits drawing of part 

of Antonine Wall, 79 
exhibits curious carved stone found 

near Antonine Wall, 288 
Maldenhall, bell of iron and bronze found 

at, 81 
Malvoisin (William of), Bishop of Glasgow, 

Mary (Queen), her defeat, at Langside, 3 
Mary of Orange (Queen ), 257 
Masons' marks, 145 

Master-mason, William of Croyland, 297 
Mayhew (Rev. S. M.), Notes on North 

Caithness and Orkuey, 265 
exhibits incense-boat found near 

Rochester, 78 
Merlin and the Merlinian poems, 123 
Merlin, his death, 129 
Monuments of Nevilles, Staindrop Church, 

Moravia or Moray ( Walter de), 33 
Morgan (T.),F S.A., Hon. Treasurer^nper 

by, on the battle of Brunanburgh, 199 
sketch of early Scottish history by, 

Mount Stewart House visited, 176 
Muirhead (Andrew), Bishop of Glasgow,54 

Norse captures of Rothesay Castle, 307 

Offa ( King), oldest known royal seal, 96 
Ogam inscription, 83; inscriptions in Scot- 
land, 301 
Olifard (Walter de), his death, 1242, 33 
Oliver (A.) presents rubbings of brasses 

from Cowfold and Cobham, 199 
Orange (William Henry), Prince of, 257; 

equestrian figure of, 261 
Orkney, notes on, 265 


Paisley Abbev, 10; visited, and paper on, 
| read by Mr. Brock, 280 



Pkteb (R. and 0. B. ) describes discoveries 
at Launoeston Priory, 76 

Phkne (Dr ) oo mounds simulating the 
forms of animals, 155 

Prigo (H.) exhibits two large urns and 
traces of circular wooden situ la with 
metal ornaments of Celtic type, found 
at Eivedon, near Thetford, 81 

bell of iron covered with true 

bronze, found at Maldenhall, 81 

Pritchktt (J. P.) exhibits drawing of 
Clervaulx tomb, Croft Church, Durham, 

Pytheas of Marseilles first describes Bri- 
tain, b.c. 330, 131 

Rae (William), Bishop of Qlasgow, 50 
Richard, Bishop of St Andrew's, charter 

of, 63 
Robert III, death of, 5 
Robertson (O.) submits paper on history 

of Dunfermline Abbey and Palace, 290 
Rochester, incense-boat found near, 78 
Roofr (Mr.) exhibits two Greek vases, 199 
Rothesay Castle visited, described by Rev. 

J. K. Hewiaon, 174; its history, 306; 

parish church in ruins, visited, with its 

interesting monuments, 175; Celtic cross 

in churchyard, ib. ; sand-glass of parish 

church, 176 
Rough Castle, on Antonine Wall, visited, 

Routledqk (Rev. Canon), discoveries in 

crypt of Canterbury Cathedral, 82 
sends notes of discoveries at St. 

Martin's Church, Canterbury, 180 
Royal arms of Scotland, supporters first 

used with, 5 
Russell ( Miss), paper by, on the name of 

Glasgow, read, 84 
Russell (F. J.), paper describing St. Va- 
lentine's Church, Rome, 313 
Rysbraeck (John Michael), sculptor, his 

figure of King William, 261 


Scandinavia, British union of, with Scot- 
land, 16; its antiquities, 21 

Scotland, natural boundary of, 14; unity 
of national life, 17; Great Seals of, 95 

Scott (A M.), F.S.A.Scot., describes battle 
of Langside, 22 

Scottish churches, old, height of, 291 ; his- 
tory, periods of, 3; sketch of, 337; ma- 
sons' marks, 145 

Serpent-mound in Pyrenees excavated, re- 
mains found, 169 

Shetland Islands, Ogam inscriptions in, 

Shorthkad (Miss) exhibits Roman lamp 
with Christian monogram, 79 

Skara, Orkney, ancient ruins at, 275 

Staindrop Church and monuments, 294 
St. Andrew's Cathedral, lead removed by 

Edward I, 232 
St. Blane, church of, visited, and Celtic 

fragments, 177 
St. Mungo, or St. Kentigern, 42 
St. Sylvester, Church of, outside Rome, 77 
St. Valentine, Church of, Rome, paper on, 

read, 84, 313 
Stevens (J.) on early British cemetery 

found at Dummer, Hants, 112 
Stirling visited, and described by W. B. 
Cook, 172 ; Castle visited, 173 ; paper 
by W. B. Cook on, 219; Roman road 
near, 227; inscribed stone on Gowan 
Hills near by, ib.; formed part of pro- 
vince of Fortrein, ib. ; Alexander I raised 
a chapel in it, 222; one of the five prin- 
cipal fortresses of the kingdom, ib.; in 
1377 ordered to be rebuilt by the Eng- 
lish king, 223; in 1383 new walls built, 
ib.; Government desirous to sell it as 
old materials, 226; history of the Castle, 

Tapock Brough visited, 172; paper read 

on, by J. D. Duncan, ib. 
Thompson (John), monumental slab of, 

Tillietudlem of Sir Walter Scott, Craig- 

nethan Castle, 218 
Title of Scottish kings on seals, 96 
Torwoodhead Castle visited, 172 
Turnbull (William), Bishop of Glasgow, 53 


Valence ( Aymer de) receives grant of Both- 
well Castle, 34 

Veitch (J.) on Merlin and the Merlinian 
poems, 123, 207 


Walter, Bishop of Glasgow, 47 

Way (E.) exhibits Roman pottery found 
in Kent Street, South wark, 81 

Wardlow (Walter), Bishop of Glasgow, 51 

Welsh inscribed stones, 83 

William and Mary, relics of, 250 ; paint- 
ings of, 262 

Winstonr (B.) reports discovery of Eliza- 
bethan pottery iu St. Martin's Lane, 
London, 82 

Wishart (Robert), Bishop of Glasgow, 48 

Wood (J. M.) exhibits fourteen English 
gold coins in bracelet, 79 

Wright (G. R.) exhibits various antiques, 
the property of Mrs. Wright, 199 

Notes on a diary by one of the 

suite of the Duke of York (James II), 289 

Wton (A.), F.S.A., on the Great Seals of 
Scotland, 95, 235 

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