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Full text of "Journal - British Archaeological Association"

HANDBOUND 
AT THE 



UNIVERSITY OF 
TORONTO PRESS 



THE JOURNAL 



Bnttsl; 



ESTABLISHED 1843, 



ENCOURAGEMENT AND PROSECUTION OF RESEARCHES 

INTO THE ARTS AND MONUMENTS OP THE 

EARLY AND MIDDLE AGES. 



VOL. IV. 



Honfcon : 
PUBLISHED BY HENRY G. BOHN, 

AT THE OFFICE OF THE ASSOCIATION, 
YORK-STREET, COVENT-GARDEN. 



MDCCCXLIX. 





v.l,. 



LONDON: 
RICHARDS, 100, ST. MARTIN'S LANK. 




CONTENTS OF VOL. IV. 



On the Red Glazed Pottery of the Romans . C R. Smith 

Contributions to English Philology . . J. 0. Halliwell 

On the Ancient City Walls of Rochester . Rev. B. Poste 

On a Roman Building discovered in Lower \^r ru o> , . oo 

Thames-street .... 

Notes respecting the same . . . . C. R Smith . . 45 
On Saxon Remains found in Gloucestershire . T. Wright . . 50 
On Mural Paintings as a Domestic Decora-) p w p 1 u u qi 

tion during the Middle Ages . . ) 
On Discoveries in Barrows near Scarborough Lord A. D.Conyngham 101 

On the Coins of Cunobeline and the Ancient) -& T> -n 

[Rev. B. Poste . 107 

Britons. Part vii .... 

Account of the Vemon Manuscript . . J. 0. Halliwell . 115 

On a Hoard of Northumbrian Stycas, disco- \^ T -^ 

J \W. Fennell . .127 

vered in Yorkshire .... 

On the Carvings of the stalls in Cathedral } rr w . , 

i <-< 11 . j-n i r * " 1'lgHt . . <\JO 

and Collegiate Churches . . . j 

On the Heraldic Decorations of Tile Paving . L. Jewitt . .216 
On the Study of Monumental Brasses . . J. G. Waller . . 227 
On the Communications between Britanny) 

and Wales, from the time of the Romans fM. de Gerville . 229 

down to the present time . 
Notes on Caerwent and Caerleon . . C. R. Smith . . 246 

On the Manufacture of Iron in Britain by ) , , A T 

J \M. A. Lower . . 26o 
the Romans > 



State of the Walls, etc., of the city of Wor-j w TT r>i u n~n 

cester, in 1768 .... 

On the Discovery of Four Hundred Roman )-,-, /-, T , 

\F. C. Lukis . . 2r4 
coins in Jersey . . . . ) 

Description of the contents of a Saxon Barrow T. Bateman . . ~70 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

On Roman Medicine Stamps, etc., found atjp R . , 

Kenchester ..... 
On the Sepulchral Character of Cromlechs in |p n T f 

the Channel Islands 
Observations on the Practice of Embalming] 

among the Ancient Egyptians, illustrated [-T. J. Pettigrew . 337 

by the Unrolling of a Mummy from Thebes J 
On the Charge in Heraldry, called a "Rest,) y T> pi u- o^q 

or Clarion" ..... 
Discoveries made at Ickleton and Chesterford,\ 

on the borders of Essex and Cambridge- [C. R. Smith . . 356 

shire, by the Hon. R. C. Neville . / 
Report of General Meeting and Election of Officers and Council) ,,- 

for 1848-9 

Donations for General Purposes ...... 87 

Proceedings at the Congress held at Worcester . . . 287-322 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION . . . .55, 133, 28*7, 379 

NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS . . . . . 88, 1 60, 407 

LIST OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL WOBKS . . . . 192, 415 

INDEX ........... 419 

LIST OF ENGRAVINGS . . . . . . . . 423 

PRESENTS TO THE ASSOCIATION 1 95 



THE JOURNAL 



OF THE 



APRIL 1848. 



ON 

THE RED GLAZED POTTERY OF THE ROMANS, 

FOUND IN THIS COUNTRY AND ON 

THE CONTINENT. 

IN former volumes of the Journal examples have been 
given of Romano-British pottery, verified as such by evi- 
dence that cannot be challenged. On the present occasion 
will be described another class of fictile ware, which, in the 
course of our proceedings, has been frequently alluded to, 
but never fully particularized. It is true it has been the 
subject of essays in some of our antiquarian publications, 
yet these have rather had for their object the attempt to 
fix the production of the pottery to some particular locality, 
or to identify it with some special kinds mentioned by 
ancient writers; while the absence of illustrations have 
rendered the discussions intelligible and interesting only 
to a comparative few. We shall, as far as our limits will 
allow, embrace these questions, and give engravings of the 
most prominent varieties of the pottery, so as to avoid as 
much as possible the hazard of being misunderstood, and, 
for the same reason, shall retain the commonly accepted 
term " Samian", although the propriety of the designation 
will probably appear more than doubtful. 

The pottery called " Samian" is chiefly distinguished 
from all other kinds discovered in this and neighbouring 

VOL. IV. 1 



2 THE EED GLAZED POTTERY 

countries, by a red or coral-colour glaze, the body being 
of a paler red, of compact texture, slightly porous, and 
sonorous when struck. The colouring matter is derived 
from the oxides of lead and iron. 

In the papers on fictile ware referred to above, it has 
been shewn that Roman potteries abounded in Britain, 
and there is every reason to believe that future researches 
may bring to light the sites of others ; for there still remain 
many peculiar kinds of pottery apparently referable to 
distinct localities apart from those to which are appropri- 
ated the described classes. The Samian ware is found 
throughout this country almost wherever Roman remains 
are met with : but in no instance has a fragment ever been 
discovered under circumstances which would authorize us 
in classing it with the Romano-British productions. Mr. 
Artis found no specimen of it in the extensive remains of 
Roman potteries discovered by him in Northamptonshire. 
But he met with a remarkable instance of an unsuccessful 
attempt made to imitate a design on a common variety of 
the embossed kind. Indeed, it appears that although the 
potters of this extensive district succeeded so well in 
certain descriptions of clay vessels, they failed in accom- 
plishing more than a rude resemblance to the good style 
of design which marks the generality of the Samian ware. 
Some few of the vases from Northamptonshire are orna- 
mented with human figures and classical subjects, but in 
so rude a manner as to shew the artists were unpractised 
in this higher walk of their profession. Or, it is probable, 
the Samian ware was imported too abundantly and at too 
easy a rate to give rise to a necessity for its fabrication in 
Britain; else, it must be admitted, tbere seems no par- 
ticular reason why, since the clay and colouring matter 
were accessible, it might not have been manufactured in this 
province. Neither is it to be included among the varieties of 
ware made in the potteries on the Medway ; and the notion 
that the Samian paterae fished up on the Kentish coast by 
oyster dredgers were some of the products of submerged 
kilns, seems untenable until some confirmatory evidence is 
adduced. This part of Britain was well-populated through- 
out the Romano-British epoch, and many circumstances 
may be suggested to account for the presence of the patera? 
in this peculiar situation* 



OF THE ROMANS. 



As one of the main objects of the present observations 
is to give a clear idea of what is meant by Samian pottery, 
and to furnish types of the more frequently occurring 
varieties, we here give twelve examples of the plain or 
unembossed kind, and two which are ornamented with a 
simple ivy-leaf pattern, selected from a large number dis- 
covered in the city of London. Two, in the third row, 
have a neat pattern (difficult to be correctly shewn on so 
small a scale), which has not unaptly been called engine- 
turned, from its resemblance to the engine-turned work of 
the watch-cases of the present day. The most common of 
these are, perhaps, numbers 2, 6, 12, and 14, and the rarest 
shapes are those of numbers 3, 5, 9, and 10. (See over- 
leaf} 

Across the centre of the bottoms of most of these vessels 
are stamped the names of the potters ; seven examples of 
which, taken from several hundred found in London, are 
here given. 1 




The other division of the Samian pottery is that which 
is embossed. Like the foregoing, it is uniformly of a red 
colour, and presents no palpable difference in glaze, or in 
the composition of the body of the ware. The most com- 
mon shapes are 
those of the bowls 
shewn in the an- 
nexed cut, and in 
p. 313, v. i, of the 
Journal. The up- 
per rim of others 
expands consi- 
derably, and the 
bowl is not so 
deep, while the 
external surface 




Height, 6 inches : diamete 



1 In the " Collectanea Antiqua," Nos. x and xi, will be found a complete list 
of the names here alluded to. 



THE RED GLAZED POTTERY 




Height, 3 inches ; Diameter, 6 inches. H. 2 J ; D 4. H. 2f ; D. 2. 




\ 



H. 2 ; D. 5. 



H. 2; D. 4|. 




H. 2; D. 4. 






H. |; D. 4. 
10 



H.2; D. 4J. 



H. 1|; D. 3. 




11 



H.1J; D. 3J. 
12 



7 S 



H. 2 ; D. 10. 
13 



H. 1J; D. 6. 
14 



/ X 

' ^ 

H. 4 ; D. 10. 




H. 1J ; D. 4. 



OF THE KOMANS. 




is usually decorated almost to the top with wreaths of foli- 
age or scrolls, surmounted 
by a border of the engine- 
turned pattern. These vases 
usually vary from seven to ten 
inches in diameter, and from 
three to six inches in height. 
The other variety is cup- 
shaped or upright, an exam- 
ple of which is given below. 
This also includes a wide gra- 
dation in scale, some being 
nine inches in height, and 
others (as for instance, the spe- 
cimen exhibited on the right), Actual *. 

not more than two inches. 
One of the chief cha- 
racteristics in the designs 
upon these elegant vases 
is the festoon and tassel 
border which so com- 
monly surmounts them. 
The more prevailing 
forms of this border are 
shewn of the actual size 
in the accompanying cut 
(fig. 1) ; of these the two first are most frequently met with. 



'tss^i^^s^^^ 




Height, 5 inches ; diameter, 6. 





. 1 Borders on Samian ware foun I in London 
Full sii of originals. 



Fig, C One-half the actual s.ze. 



6 THE RED GLAZED POTTERY 

The potters' names, of which a single example will suf- 
fice (fig. 2), are generally stamped upon the exterior 
surface of the embossed Samian vases, and in a larger and 
bolder type. 

The designs upon these vessels embrace an almost infinite 
series of curious and interesting representations of popular 
subjects, strikingly illustrative of social and religious habits 
and customs. Divinities and their emblems, priests and 
sacrificial ceremonies, bacchantes dancing, and bacchana- 
lian processions, with scenes from mythic creeds, form a 
numerous division. Specimens before me exhibit Diana 
surprised by Actaeon ; Action attacked by his dogs ; 
Apollo and Daphne ; the Pygmies and cranes, etc. In 
the annexed engraving, of a fragment from the site of 
New Coal Exchange, 1 will be recognized the goddess 




Two-thirds actual size. 



Fortune, holding the rudder and cornucopias, beneath an 
arch with twisted columns. On the fine vase delineated in 
page 3, a faun carrying a basket of fruit upon his head 
and a drinking cup with handles (cantharus ansa), 2 
beneath a similar arch, forms the chief ornament; on the 
engraving in page 5 are seen, in different compart- 
ments of the vase, Hercules, a figure with shield and 

1 Now in the collection of Mr. Price, together with the specimens in page 10, 
found in the same locality. 

2 Virgil, Eel vi, 17. 



OF THE KOMANS. 





sword, probably intended to represent a performer in the 
pyrrhic dance, and Diana. Genii, cupids riding upon 
marine animals, tritons, griffins, and 
other imaginary beings, form a nu- 
merous class. 

The exhibition of wild beasts, 
one of the favourite amusements of 
the circus, is not unfrequently illus- 
trated by these fictile pictures. The 

annexed cut 
has reference 
to the term- 
ination of a bull fight. The besti- 
arius, armed with shield and hatchet, 
is approaching to despatch the 
wounded animal. On a fragment 
in my possession is a man with a sword and a veil, who 
reminds us of the matador in the bull-fights of Spain in 
the present day. 

Gladiatorial combats were among the most popular shows 
of the Romans, and engaged the skill of the potter, as 
well as that of the sculptor, the painter, and the worker 
in mosaic. The costume and equipments of the combat- 
ants in most of the representations on the Samian ware, 
are well defined, and accord pretty closely with examples 





8 THE KED GLAZED POTTERY 

furnished in other works of ancient art, and with the 
descriptions in classical authors. The four pair of gladi- 
ators shewn in the cuts given above, have been selected 
from different vases. In the first, the conquered figure is 
in the attitude of imploring the mercy of the spectators. 
They are both armed with short curved swords, helmets, 
and armour on the right arm; but the fallen combatant 
seems destitute of greaves, which the other wears. 

In the second group the figures are armed still more 
differently : the one on the left has evidently gained the 
victory ; he bears a circular shield and curved sword ; his 
antagonist, the oblong scutum and a straight sword, which 
is lowered apparently in token of submission. In the 
third cut the helmet seems the only material point of 
difference. 

The fourth combat is between a retiarius, armed only 
with his trident, and a gladiator whose costume differs 
from that of some of the preceding figures, only in the 
covering of the right leg, which resembles that usually 




Two-thirds of the actual size. 



worn on the arm. Those with the oblong shields are pro- 
bably intended for the class termed Samnites, while the 
circular shield is a characteristic of that called Thracians. 
The short apron fastened over the hips with a girdle, seems 
common to almost all. The fragment of an elegant bowl 
in the above cut, affords a further variety of design. 



OF THE ROMANS. 9 

Musicians are often introduced playing on flutes and 
on the harp ; upon other vases are masks and 
grotesque faces and figures. A fragment be- 
fore me is adorned with masks interspersed 
among foliage, probably the oscilla or faces of 
Bacchus, suspended in vineyards to insure fer- 
tility. 

Some with victories, genii, and winged 
figures, are remarkable for grace and beauty. 
An example is shewn in the annexed cut. 

Another series comprises scrolls of foliage, 
fruits, and flowers, arranged in every conceiv- 
able way, and generally with pleasing effect. Nine varie- 
ties, taken from at least two hundred, are represented in 
the accompanying plate, which has been kindly presented 
to me by Mr. Fairholt. These chiefly constitute a border 
on the upper part of the Samian bowls. On the fragment 
shewn below, the vine forms the chief ornament in the 





One-half the actual size. 



centre of the vase ; the arrangement of the clusters of 
grapes, the tendrils, and the birds, is both simple and 
rich. 

I cannot even thus briefly conclude this division of my 
remarks without referring to a class of subjects of so loose 
a character, that even with a knowledge of the unre- 
strained sensual habits of the Romans, we are surprised to 
see evidences of their licentiousness paraded forth upon 
the domestic board, and depicted upon the vessels in daily 



VOL. IV. 



10 



THE RED GLAZED POTTEEY 



use, to meet and please alike the eye of young and old, of 
the modest as well as the lewd. The prevailing taste for 
such representations is mentioned by Pliny : " in poculis 
libidines c&larejuvit, acper obscenitates bibere" lib. xxxiii; 
and "vasa adulteriis ccelata" lib. xiv. 

I proceed to make a few observations on the mecha- 
nical processes a- 

/ dopted in orna- 
menting the pot- 
tery. I have often 
noticed a very close 
resemblance in par- 
ticular patterns or 
figures upon vases 
totally different in 
general aspect, and 
from this similitude 




Two thirds the actual size. 



in details, have often been 
able to trace so close an 
affinity as to leave no 
doubt of their being the 
work of the same hand. 
The warrior in the frag- 
ments ' shewn in this 
page, is obviously from 
the same mould, although 
the other parts of the 
designs are quite distinct 
from each other. 

It appears that several 
moulds were often re- 
quired to complete one 
design, and that after the vessels had been thrown upon 
the wheel, the compartments were consecutively stamped 
by the potter. In a note I have just received, Mr. Fair- 
holt observes : " While engaged in drawing the Samian 
pottery for the illustration of your paper, the mode of its 
manufacture, and more particularly of its ornamentation, 
has attracted my attention. It appears to me conclusive 




Two-thirda the actual size 



1 These were dug up on the site of the New Coal Exchange, and are now in 
the collection of Mr. E, B. Price, 



OF THE ROMANS. 



li 



that it was done bit by bit, the border and leading lines 
first, and the figures one by one afterwards. A variety of 
these figured stamps must have been at the disposal of the 
workman, and he does not appear to have been restricted 
in his use of them by the difference of size or scale of his 
figures. Thus in the perfect vase engraved in this paper 
(p. 5), the man killing the snake is very much smaller 
than the warrior in the centre; but both are included 
within the lines which form a border to each subject; but 
the figure of the huntress at the side is so large that her 
head reaches above the boundary line, and must evidently 
have been stamped on afterwards, as it projects in relief 
above. In the same way, the stem of the plant which 
divides each subject in the fragment with gladiators (p. 8), 
is stamped in relief at random over the border beneath, 
proving that the ornamentation of these vases was effected 
in the way described. In some scenes, where two gladia- 
tors are wanted opposed to a third, the same stamp is used 
for both, who are placed side by side from the same mould. 
The hare on the small Samian cup (p. 5), is the same used 
upon the large circular perfect one." 

Some few examples of pottery, coming under the gene- 
ral term Samian, have been discovered, in London and in 
one or two other places in England, which exhibit the 
ornaments in higher re- 
lief and of very superior 
execution, but the mate- 
rial seems in no respect 
to vary from that of the 
more numerous descrip- 
tions of pottery under 
consideration. The fi- 
gures (two of which are 
here shewn), instead of 
being stamped upon the 
vessels as before describ- 
ed, have been separately 
moulded and carefully af- 
fixed by a graving tool. 
In all the specimens I 
possess (seven in number), this process is clearly indi- 
cated, and the mark of the tool used for polishing the line 




Size of origin aH. 



12 



THE EED GLAZED POTTERY 



of junction, and freeing it from excrescent clay, is discern- 
ible. This variety of the Samian ware is so rare, that 
with the exception of a single specimen in the York mu- 
seum, I am not aware of any other examples to refer to 
besides those alluded to above. Mr. Price, 1 in reference to 
the manipulation of the ornaments, cites the following pas- 
sage from Martial, lib. iv, 46. 

" Et crasso figuli polita caelo 
Septenaria synthesis Sagunti 
Hispane luteum rotae toreuma." 

There are, as before observed, other exceptions to the 
varieties of Samian ware specified in the foregoing notes, 
but they are more remarkable for peculiarity of design or 
for the colour of the clay than for superiority in work- 
manship. The specimen chosen for the adjoining cut is 




Two tlai:ds the actual size 



singular in its ornamentation as well as in its pale yellow 
colour and absence of glaze. Fragments have also been 
found of the brilliant red glazed pottery ornamented with 
stars, leaves, and diamond patterns, incuse. 

In the class of Samian pottery may also be included the 
shallow dishes, resembling the common earthen-ware ves- 
sels, termed mortaria. Like these, their internal surface 
is usually partially covered with small stones, apparently 
intended to facilitate triturition or to counteract friction. 
Some of them have deep overlapping rims, as in the 
restored example from a specimen in the possession of 

1 " Gentlemen's Magazine," 1844 r part ii, p. 37, 



OF THE ROMANS. 1 3 

Mr. Huxtable, which is unique in respect to its orna- 
mental pattern. 




Diameter, 7j inches ; depth of rim, 2j, 

Samian vessels are very frequently met with, inter- 
mixed with urns of coarser ware, in sepulchral interments. 
The embossed kinds are rarely found in perfect condition, 
and the value that was attached to all descriptions of the 
pottery may be inferred from the fact of fragments being 
often discovered neatly riveted with lead. 

As before remarked, we question the claim of Britain to 
the manufacture of these interesting vessels, and we think 
it is equally certain they were not, with the exception of 
the more remarkable kinds here alluded to or described, 
imported from Italy. Antiquaries were probably induced 
to adopt the term Samian from the fact that an extensive 
trade in earthenware was carried on at Samos, and because 
earthen vessels of red clay were made there, to which 
reference is not unfrequently found in ancient writers. 
As Plautus mentions them, the manufactory must have- 
been established at a very early period. Pliny, whose 
authority on the subject is the most important, says : 
" Major quoque pars hominum terrenis utitur vasis. Sarnia 
etiamnum in esculentis laudantur. Retinet hanc nobili- 
tatem et Arretium in Italia: et calicum tantum Surren- 
tum, Asta, Pollentia : in Hispania Saguntum, in Asia Per- 
gamum. Habent et Tralleis opera sua, et Mutina in 
Italia, quoniam et sic gentes nobilitantur. Hasc quoque 
per maria, terrasque, ultro citroque portantur insignibus 
rotas officinis nobilitantur iis oppida quoque ut Rhegium 
et Cuma3." This passage is decisive in showing that Samos 
did not possess a monopoly in the manufacture of fictile 
vases; and many ancient writers might easily be cited 



14 



THE BED GLAZED POTTERY 



who refer to the celebrity in the fictile art of other cities 
mentioned by Pliny. Now the peculiar styles of work- 
manship which distinguished the works of these several 
places, can only be ascertained by an examination of the 
remains of the vessels themselves, discovered upon or near 
the sites of the places where they were made. It is pro- 
bable that if this investigation could be effected, we should 
be enabled, by comparison, to appropriate some of the 
rarer varieties of Samian ware found in England, to more 
than one of the localities named by Pliny. That the ware 
of Arretium was imported into Gaul and Britain is certain. 
Dr. Fabroni, an Italian antiquary, has published engrav- 
ings of specimens of a beautiful kind of red embossed pot- 
tery discovered at Arezzo (the ancient Arretium), resem- 
bling our Samian, but of superior execution, and orna- 
mented with more classical designs, bearing a closer 
affinity to the chaste and finished productions of the Greek 
school of art. He has also given a somewhat copious list 
of potters' stamps, which, both in names and in formula, 
totally differ from those discovered in this and in neigh- 
bouring countries. 1 

At a recent meeting of the Association, among a quan- 
tity of fragments of Samian ware found at Colchester, and 




forwarded by Mr. Wire, was a specimen, (shewn in the 
annexed cut), which, at the first glance, excited attention 
from its marked variance to the numerous types with 

1 Storia degli antichi vasi fittili Aretini, del Dott. A. Fabroni. Arezzo, 1840. 



OF THE ROMANS. 



15 



which we were previously 
familiar. A closer exa- 
mination and comparison 
with the examples from 
Arezzo, furnished by Dr. 
Fabroni, lead us to infer 
that this fragment must 
have been copied from 
designs which had origin- 
ally been brought from 
Arretium. In the three 
cuts upon this page, taken 
from Fabroni's work, are 
apparently the prototypes 
of some of the figures 
upon the Colchester spe- 
cimen, modified and arranged probably by the whim or 
capability of inferior or careless imitators. The boy or 
Cupid above the festoon, seems derived from some such 
representation as that upon the fragment above, while a 
like analogy may be traced between the festoon or wreath 
terminating in serpents' heads, and the fanciful ornaments 
here reproduced from the Arezzo collection. 






The upper border of the Colchester specimen also differs 
in the double twisted cord from the analogous pattern, 
which in many hundred instances decorates our Samian 
vases. But perhaps, after all, it is not so much in the 
general view, as in the details taken separately, that the 
resemblance will be acknowledged. Since the discovery 
of the Colchester fragment, I nave examined the chief 
London collections, with a view to see if any still closer 
connexion could be observed between the two classes, 



16 



THE BED GLAZED POTTERY 



and the investigation has led to the detection of two 
specimens which appear to have been imported direct 
from Arretium. The one here shewn is in the possession 




Section shewing interior, one-half original size. 



of Mr. Newman. It is unique in shape, of superior work- 
manship, and in the festoon pattern and pearled circle, dif- 
fers as much from the Samian as it resembles the Arretine, 
examples of which, from the work cited above, are here 
appended (fig. 1). 

The other is in the possession of Mr. Chaffers, and is 
remarkable for the deep engine-turned pattern, and for 
the potter's name in a sandal or foot, a type peculiar to 
the Arezzo stamps, as shewn in Fabroni's list (fig. 2). 






Fig. 5. Height, 2 inche 





OF THE ROMANS. 17 

The importation of the Arretine ware into Gaul is most 
satisfactorily decided by a potter's 
stamp found at Lillebonne, in Nor- 
mandy (the Juliabona of the Romans), 
the names upon which are almost liter- 

ally identical with some 
found at Arezzo, here re- 
engraved. The Tittius of 
these inscriptions is de- 
signated in the first of the three Arezzo marks as a potter 
of Arretium; we find also in the Arezzo list L. Tittius, 
and L. Tettius ; the association of the latter with the 
Hilerius or Hilarius of the Arezzo and Lillebonne stamps, 
seems to leave no doubt of the one being a variety of the 
other. 

The frequent occurrence of two distinct names in the 
same stamp, may, as Fabroni suggests, indicate the pro- 
prietor or master, and the workman. 

The examples given above will be sufficient to shew the 
distinction in formula and type between the potters' stamps 
found at Arezzo, and those found in England (see p. 3). 
The former, it may be observed, are generally in the 
nominative case, while the latter are as common in the 
genitive, accompanied by M. for manu, or OF. for officind, 
as BOKILLI.M., OF.ABALI., PATERNi.OF., and when in the 
nominative, are often followed by F., or FE., for fecit. The 
names themselves are also widely different. In a catalogue 
of several hundred found in London, 1 we notice only a very 
few which are at all identical, and these are common names, 
such as must have been of frequent occurrence in all parts 
of the Roman empire; and which, moreover, from their 
discordance in style of impress, cannot possibly be ascribed 
to the same individuals. 

Having given examples of the most common kinds of 
Samian ware, having shewn in what points it bears a 
certain analogy with the Arezzo pottery (the only Italian 
production with which we are at present acquainted, at all 
resembling it), and having at the same time indicated some 
of the more palpable points of dissimilitude, we proceed to 
advance some reasons for appropriating the manufacture 

1 See " Collectanea Antiqua," No. x. 

VOL. IV. 3 



18 THE RED GLAZED POTTERY 

of the pottery, that is to say, the general class termed 
Samian, to Gaul, when that country flourished under the 
peaceful and civilizing influence of the Roman power. 

In all the varieties of the ware discovered throughout 
England, Germany, and France, we recognize the closest 
resemblance in form, in design, in the composition of the 
material, and in the names of the makers. We thus esta- 
blish for the specimens found in these countries a common 
origin ; and when we reflect on the fact of the vast ascend- 
ency in the arts gained by Roman-Gaul over the more 
northern countries, testified alike by the historian and by 
existing remains, we also establish a prima facie argument 
in favour of that province, it being far more probable that 
the pottery should be imported from Gaul, abounding 
in artists and artificers of all kinds, into Britain, which in 
this respect was second to Gaul, than vice versa. 

Many of the potters' names are decidedly Gaulish ; such 
as the following : Agedillus, Banoluccus, Beliniccus, Ben- 
nicus, Bilicanus, Bilicatus, Boiniccus, Bonoxus, Brackillus, 
Catasextus, Cobnertus, Coccillus, Cosaxtis, Dagodubnus, 
Dagomarus, Divix, Divixtulus, Durinx, Gabrus, Muxtulus, 
Rogenus, Rologenus, Suobnedo, Vertecisa, Yiducos, Vosii- 
cunnus, etc. ; some are less barbarous in sound, while 
others are pure Roman. Upwards of four hundred dif- 
ferent names have been found in London alone; and many 
of these in their various readings are identical with names 
found in the canton of Bergne, at Augst, Treves, Tours, 
and in other parts of France. In the lists from these 
places are many which we have not noticed in English 
collections; but it is a question if there are any in our 
catalogues which may not be found in some of the conti- 
nental museums and collections. 

But if the chain of evidence in favour of the continental 
origin of the ware be still thought incomplete, the wanting 
links will be found in recorded discoveries of the remains 
of kilns, and of moulds and stamps. 

Mr. Artis presented me with a cast of part of a mould 
for making an embossed Samian vase stamp with the name 
Cobnertus. It was given to Mr. Artis by M. Brongniart, 
who stated it to have been found in France. A fragment 
of a vase of similar pattern, and bearing the same name, 
has been discovered in London. M. Brongniart has pub- 



OF THE ROMANS. 



19 




lished 1 an engraving of one of the actual stamps for mark- 
ing the newly-made ware, a 
mould for the circular frieze, 
and also a fragment of a 
mould for the vases with 
figures in relief. The two 
first are copied in the an- 
nexed cut. 

The same name occurs in 
the list of potters' stamps 
found in London. These, 
with other similar imple- 
ments used in the manu- 
facture of the Samian vases 
were discovered at Lezoux 
near Thiers (Auvergne), 
upon the site of an ancient manufactory of pottery. 

M. Brongniart also mentions mounds found, in 1802, at 
Luxembourg, and Mr. Wright informs me he has noticed 
a portion or portions of one, in the collection of the Count 
de Portales, at Paris. In the proceedings of the Society 
of Antiquaries of France (torn, v, p. li), it is stated that 
kilns had been discovered in the valley of the Brusche 
(Bas-Rhin), and near them a considerable quantity of pot- 
tery figured and marked with the names of the makers. It 
resembled so precisely some found at Saverne (twelve 
miles north-west of Strasburg), that the specimens from 
the two places were pronounced to have been cast in the 
same moulds. The clay of which they were made, 
appeared to have been procured from the neighbourhood 
of the kilns. 

It would have been foreign to the object of my paper to 
give examples of the many specimens in my own collec- 
tion and in those of my friends, which are of singular type. 
Some may suggest different origins from the great mass, 
which without means of comparison it would be useless to 
speculate on. But attention may be called to examples of 
what appear to be inscriptions, noticed upon the lower 
part of the exterior surface of fragments of four embossed 
vessels, three of which are in my own possession, and the 



1 Traite des Arts Ceramiques ou des Poteries, etc., p. 424. Paris, 8vo., 1844. 



20 CONTKIBUTIONS TO 

other, found at Exeter, in the British Museum. Two of 
these are here delineated. That to the right is engraved 





from a cast of the Exeter specimen, forwarded by Captain 
Shortt, who states that Mr. Foster (a gentleman versed 
in the Oriental tongues) considered its purport to be, 
" Daoud made me." Some such interpretation might cer- 
tainly be looked for, but I am not aware through what 
medium Mr. Foster explained the characters. It is pro- 
bable that analogous inscriptions may be met with upon 
pottery found on the sites of Roman towns on the coast of 
Spain or in Africa, which may explain those found in 
England. 

The prescribed limits of these remarks, and indeed their 
object, forbade a recapitulation of the opinions of writers 
on the Samian ware, but the subject cannot be closed 
without making special mention of the interesting essays, 
by Mr. W. Chaffers and Mr. E. B. Price, published in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, 1844-5, and the observations of 
Captain Shortt in his Silva Antiqua Iscana. 

C. ROACH SMITH. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO ENGLISH PHILOLOGY. 

GOUT. This term is generally explained a drain, and 
Ray gives it as a Somersetshire word, " Gowts, canales, 
cloacce, sen sentince subterranece," English Words, 1674, 
p. 67. It is still retained in use in Lincolnshire, not 
merely in that sense, but also applied to a sliding door at 
the extremity of a drain, by means of which the water is 
retained in the drain in a dry season, and let off in a time 
of flood. " GouteSj sinks, vaults; Bristol is eminent for 



ENGLISH PHILOLOGY. 21 

these goutes or subterraneous vaults, by reason of which 
they draw all things on sledges for fear the shaking of 
cart-wheels should loosen these arches," Kennett's MS. 
Glossary. Kennett also informs us that " a wide ditch or 
water-course that empties itself into the sea is called in 
Romney Marsh a gut." These terms are doubtlessly con- 
nected with each other, and with the word as it occurs in 
the Prompt. Parv., " Gote or water schetelys, aquagiwn" 
Dugdale, in his History of Imbanking, 1662, page 243, 
mentions " the erecting of two new gotes at Skirbek and 
Langare for drayning the waters out of South Holand and 
the fens." 

ROWAN-TKEE. A name for the mountain-ash, and worthy 
of notice, were it merely for the sake of condemning the 
conjectural emendation of aroint thee, witch, in Macbeth, 
i, 3, which has been supposed to be an error for a rowan- 
tree, witch, a branch of that tree being considered to this 
day, in the north of England and Scotland, an approved 
charm against spells, 

" Rowan-tree and red thread 
Put the witches to their speed." 

And Evelyn informs us that, in his time, the tree was held 
sacred in Wales, not a church-yard being without one. 
The absurdity, however, of the correction above alluded to 
is obvious, for as the term aroint occurs three times in 
Shakespeare, the same corruption could scarcely have ob- 
tained in all instances, and Ray has a form of the word in 
1674. The following proverb, referring to the preserva- 
tive qualities of the rowan-tree, was recently heard in 
Durham : 

" If your whup-stick's made of rowan, 
You may ride your nag thro' ony town." 

GLOBE-GEE. A kind of flower so named is mentioned in 
the Newe Metamorphosis, a MS. poem, temp. Jac. I. It 
was probably a kind of daisy, but the term does^not appear 
in Gerard, nor have I succeeded in tracing it in any ear- 
lier list of plants. 

ANGELICA. The virtues of this plant are constantly 
alluded to by Elizabethan writers. Gerard, p. 847, says, 
" The rootes of garden angelica is a singular remedie 



22 CONTRIBUTIONS TO 

against poison, and against the plague, and all infections 
taken by evill and corrupt aire ; if you do but take a peece 
of the roote, and holde it in your mouth, or chew the same 
betweene your teeth, it doth most certainly drive away the 
pestilential! aire." 

" Angellica, which, eaten every meale, 
Is found to be the plagues best medecine." 

The Newe Metamorphosis, MS. temp. Jac. I. 

PUTEN. This term sorely puzzled Gifford, when editing 
Ben Jonson. It occurs in Every Man out of his Humour, 
p. 139 : " They have hired a chamber and all, private, to 
practise in for the making of the patoun" Tobacco is the 
theme, and patoun was merely a species of tobacco. The 
Newe Metamorphosis, a very curious MS. poem, written 
between the years 1600 and 1614, has several allusions to 
it, and the following extract is decisive : 

" Puten, transformed late into a plante, 
Which no chirurgion willingly will wante ; 
Tobacco cald, most soveraigne herbe approved, 
And no we of every gallant greatly loved." 

CAEDUUS-BENEDICTUS. The virtues of this plant are 
made to serve the purpose of a joke in Much Ado about 
Nothing, iii, 4 ; but Gerard's account of it does not well 
illustrate the passage in Shakespeare. The distilled Car- 
duus-water was, however, extensively used both as an out- 
ward application and an internal medicine. Gerard says, 
p. 847, " Angelica is an enimie to poisons ; it cureth pesti- 
lent diseases if it be used in season ; a dram waight of the 
powder hereof is given with thin wine, or if the feaver be 
vehement, with the distilled water of Carduus benedictus, 
or of tormentill, and with a little vineger, and by itselfe 
also, or with treacle of vipers added." In another place, 
p. 1009, he adds, " the distilled water thereof is of lesse 
vertue." 

TUNE. To sing. This verb was often used without the 
particular reference to the musical notes now implied by 
it, and the signification is retained in the following popu- 
lar rhyme : 

" In March the birds begin to search ; 
In April the birds begin to build ; 



ENGLISH PHILOLOGY. 23 

In May the birds bigin to lay ; 
In June the birds begin to tune; 
In July the birds begin to fly." 

It may admit of a question whether the term is not simi- 
larly used in the Two Gentlemen of Verona. 

MASTER. The jack at the game of bowls. Jocky, in 
the second part of Edward IV, 1600, "We will play five 
up, for this bottle of ale, and yonder gude puir woman 
shall keep the stakes, and this cheese shall be the maister" 
The game of bowls was formerly very fashionable, and 
numerous allusions to it are found in our early writers. 

Dow. To thrive. Cotgrave has, " Atrophe, in a con- 
sumption, one with whom his meat dowes not, or to whom 
it does no good." In Meriton's Praise of Yorkshire Ale, 
1697, p. 83, it is explained be good, " He'll never dow egg 
nor bird." Kennett has, " Dow or to dow, to be good for 
somewhat; as in the Yorkshire phrase, He dows not, or is 
a dow-not, i. e. he is good for nothing," MS. Lansd. 1033. 

FOOT-HEDGE " When at the casting up a dyke, and 

planting it with quicksets, they thrust in bushes on the 
bank to stand for a fence, without stakes to guard the 
young quicks, this is called in Oxfordshire a foot-hedge," 
Kennett, MS. Lansd. 1033. This term is still in use. 

CHOPINE. " By the altitude of a chopine," Hamlet, ii, 
2. The following account occurs in Coryafs Crudities, 
1611, p. 261 : " There is one thing used of the Venetian 
women, and some others dwelling in the cities and townes 
subject to the signiory of Venice, that is not to be observed 
(I thinke) amongst any other women in Christendome ; 
which is so common in Venice, that no woman whatsoever 
goeth without it, either in her house or abroad ; a thing 
made of wood, and covered with leather of sundry colors, 
some with white, some redde, some yellow. It is called a 
chapiney, which they weare under their shoes. Many of 
them are curiously painted; some also I have seen fairely 
gilt : so uncomely a thing (in my opinion) that it is pitty 
this foolish custom is not cleane banished and exter- 
minated out of the citie. There are many of these cha- 
pineys of a great heigth, even halfe a yard high, which 
maketh many of their women that are very short seeme 
much taller then the tallest women we have in England. 
Also I have heard that this is observed amongst them, 



24 CONTKIBUTIONS TO 

that by how much the nobler a woman is, by so much the 
higher are her chapineys. All their gentlewomen, and 
most of their wives and widowes that are of any wealth, 
are assisted and supported eyther by men or women when 
they walke abroad, to the end they may not fall. They 
are borne up most commonly by the lefte arine, otherwise 
they might quickly take a fall. For I saw a woman fall a 
very dangerous fall as she was going downe the staires of 
one of the little stony bridges with her high chapineys 
alone by herselfe; but I did nothing pitty her, because 
shee wore such frivolous, arid (as I may truely terme 
them) ridiculous instruments, which were the occasion of 
her fall; for both I myselfe, and many other strangers, as 
I have observed in Venice, have often laughed at them for 
their vaine chapineys." The commentators have not given 
this passage at length, but it deserves to be fully tran- 
scribed, for it undoubtedly furnishes us with the most 
curious account of the chopine that has yet been pointed 
out. 

BANBURY CHEESE. This cheese is mentioned in the 
Merry Wives of Windsor, i, 1, Slender being compared 
with it on account of his thinness. The following account 
of the manner in which it was made is preserved in a MS. 
of the time of Henry VIII, in the British Museum : 

" To make Banbery Chese. 

" Take a thin ches-fat, and hote mylk as it comus from 
the cou, and ryn it forth withal in sorner tyme, and kned 
your cruddz bot onus, and kned them not to smal, bot 
breke them onus with your hondez ; and in somer tyme 
salt the cruddz nothyng, bot let the chese lye iij. dayes un- 
salted, and then salt them, and lay oon upon an other, but 
not to much* salt, and so shal they gethur buttur; and in 
wyntur tyme in like wyse, bot then hete your mylk and 
salt your cruddz, for then it wil gether buttur of itself. 
Take the wrunge whey of the same mylk, and let it stand 
a day or ij. til it have a creme, and it shal make as good 
buttur as any other. MS. Sloane 1201, f. 3. 

POTTLE-POT. See 2 Henry IV, ii, 2 " At a tavern 
near Cheapside in London, certain gentlemen drinking 
healths to their lords on whom they had dependance, one 
desperate wretch steps to the table's end, lays hold on a 



ENGLISH PHILOLOGY. 25 

pottle-pot full of canary, swears a deep oath, What, will 
none here drink a health to my noble lord and master? 
And so, setting the pottle-pot to his mouth, drinks it off 
to the bottom, was not able to rise up or to speak when he 
had done, but fell into a deep snoring sleep; and being 
removed, laid aside, and covered by one of the servants of 
the house, attending the time of the drinking, was within 
the space of two hours irrecoverably dead." The Great 
Evil of Health Drinking, 1684, p. 128. 

MAMMOCKS Explained by Forby, " leavings, wasted 
fragments." It constantly occurs in old writers in the 
sense of bits or fragments of any kind. "Abrdno, by 
piece-meale, by mamocks," Florio, ed. 1611, p. 4 ; " Frt- 
gola, a crurn, a mite, a scrap, a mammocke," ibid., p. 197. 
" The train, or mammocks of flesh sowd up and down to 
catch the wolf," Howel, 1660. Upton, in his MS. addi- 
tions to Junius, explains mammock, " a piece torn off or 
fragment," and Coles has, " Mammocks, fragments, frus- 
tula, analecta." Hence used as a verb by Shakespeare in 
Coriolanus, i, 3, to maul, mangle, or tear in pieces, and it 
is now a provincialism in a similar sense, but generally 
applied to food. " Don't mammock your wittles so, bor," 
said a Suffolk woman to her child, who was pulling his 
food about. 

MAMMER. To hesitate. The term is still in use in the 
provinces. " Mammered, perplexed," Akermaris Wilt- 
shire Glossary, p. 34. " Hammering on" Othello, is 
merely hesitating, the word better suiting the context 
than the muttering of the quarto. See further instances 
in my Dictionary of Archaisms, p. 539. 

AFURST. Thirsty. This term occurs in Piers Plough- 
man, and is rightly conjectured by Mr. "Wright to be cha- 
racteristic of the dialect of the west of England. " Affurst 
corrupte pro athirst, sitiens, siticulosus," MS. Glouc. Gloss. 

A VANG. A strap, or stay to which the girt is buckled ; 
a whang; the iron strap under the lap of the saddle to 
which the stirrup-leather is fastened. Devon. 

AUMB. In Devon, alms distributed to the poor at 
Christmas were formerly so called. Aumous, alms, in old 
English. 

A-SCORN. " Quasi illudens, a particula otiosa more ve- 
terum prasposita, as when the sun doth light a-scorn, i. e. 



VOL. IV. 



26 CONTRIBUTIONS TO 

hiding itself behind a cloud, and scorning, as it were, to 
bestow its light upon us ; or, at least, hiding itself behind 
a cloud, and sometimes peeping out for a moment, as 
it were in mockery : scorning etiam exponitur changing, 
a Fr. escorner, deformare, i. e. vultum mutans in pejus," 
MS. Additions to Junius. This curious annotation is on 
a well-known passage in Troilus and Cressida, i, 1. 

ATHLTET. Athurt and alongst, a proverbial expression 
when reflections pass backwards and forwards between 
neighbours ; also, when the two ends of a piece of cloth or 
linen are sewed together, and then cut through the middle, 
so that the two ends become the middle or the breadth, 
and the middle or breadth makes the two ends. Devon. 

BALKER. A little piece of wood by which the mowers 
smooth the edge of their scythes after the whetstone, com- 
monly fastened to the end of the sneyd by a pin. Devon. 

BARGE. In the Exmoor dialect, a great filthy hog. A 
blow-maunger barge, a flat blob-cheeked person, one who 
puffs and blows while he is eating, or like a hog that feeds 
on whey and grains, stuffs himself with whitepot and 
flummery. 

BALLOW. In the Devon district, malleus ligneus quo 
glebae franguntur; a bat; magna pila, a great ball. The 
word occurs in the folio edition of King Lear. 

BANDY-STICK. Pandum lignum, baculus incurvus, vel 
clava incurvata, a stick bent at the lower end, or turned 
for that purpose, made use of at the plays of bandy and 
cricket. To bandy about from one to another, hinc inde 
agitare, as boys drive the ball backward and forward at 
bandy. See Romeo and Juliet, ii, 5, for a good instance 
of the metaphorical use of the word. 

BANNISTER-MONEY. Money paid by the mayors of Exe- 
ter to poor people, who travel with passes, to enable them 
to depart out of the limits of their jurisdiction. 

BATTLE. Vox academica, to enter into the college 
books the expenses for meat and drink incurred by the 
students under their particular names. The battles are 
the amount of those expenses. A battler, as distinguished 
from other students, is one who stands to no commons, as 
it is called, but pays only for what he actually calls for, 
and is commonly looked upon as of a rank somewhat infe- 
rior, answerable to a sizer at Cambridge. The term is not 
quite correctly explained in Middleton's Works, v, 544. 



ENGLISH PHILOLOGY. 27 

BATCH. " A batch of bread, panes uno et eodem tempore 
in furno cocti, e. g. ' Thou crusty batch of nature,' Troi- 
lus and Cressida, v, 1, in which passage some critics read 
botch, whereas the epithet crusty determines it to the con- 
trary; for a batch of bread, signifying any quantity of 
bread baked at one time, a crusty batch of nature by an 
easy figure may denote a rugged production of nature, like 
loaves ill-formed, and almost all crust." MS. Additions to 
JuniuK. 

BULL'S-NECK. To bear one a bull's neck, i. e. to bear a 
grudge against, or to be provoked at the sight of a person. 
Devon. 

TENDEE. The person who betes the fire in a malt-kiln, 
who^sits before the mouth of it, and supplies it with straw 

by little and little, lest the fire should burn the malt 

Devon. 

BEN. To the true ben or bend, i. e. to the utmost 
stretch, when applied to the bow. Exmoor. " They fool 
me to the top of my bent," Hamlet. Applied to one sort 
of leather, stiff and almost inflexible. 

BLAST. A sudden inflammation of which no account 
can be given ; the blasting and blighting of trees by hot 
winds or very cold ones, that arrest the juices in their cir- 
culation. The Devonshire people are continually catching 
blasts, as they term it, in their eyes, faces, and even legs, 
when they are out of doors in cold evenings, as if they 
were particularly under the influence of the planets, and 
more liable to such disorders. " To fall and blast her 
pride," King Lear, ii, 4, where the folio reads blister. 

BLOW. To blow a person, pudore afficere ; to be blown, 
erubescere, pudore suffundi vel rubore, to blush by a sud- 
den surprise. " All blown and red," Lucrece. 

LAID. Contrived ; plotted. " that plotts well laid 
should thus be dash'd and foyld," Strode's Floating 
Island, 1636. " Good plots, they are laid," Merry Wives, 
iii, 2. 

TABLE. The tables, or memorandum-book. " From 
the table of my memory I'll wipe away all trivial fond 
records," Hamlet, i, 5. Compare the following passage: 

" I have wiped away from the table of my remembrance 
all formes and effigies, that first, middle, and last, at all 
times, and above all thinges, I might prescribe fresh in my 



28 CONTRIBUTIONS TO 

memorie your faithfull favours, so liberally and so freelye 
expended uppon mee." Melton's Sixe-Fold Politician, 
1609. 

" Takes care to have his pew plac'cl best in sight, 
In hast plucks forth his tables as to write 
Some sermon-note, mean while does only scrawl 
Forgotten errands there, or nought at all." 

Tales Characters, 1691, p. 18. 

" II leave him at his prayers, and as I heard, 
His last ; and Fidus, you and I do know 
I was his friend, and durst have been his foe, 
And would be either yet ; But he dares be 
Neither yet. Sleep blots him out and takes in thee. 
The mind, you know, is like a Table-book, 
The old unwipt new writing never took." 

Donne's Poems, p. 141. 

AGATE. Metaphorically applied to a diminutive person. 
" Never manned with an agate till now," 2 Henry IV. 

" Page. Not so strange as the metamorphosis of Ajax, 
an't like your Grace. 

" Dem. Grace, you Aggot, hast not forgot that yet? 

" Page. No, and yet 'tis a wonder I ha'not, grace being 
so seldome used ; I'm sure they say none at some ordi- 
naries, for at sitting down they cannot intend it for hunger, 
and at rising up, they are either drunke, or have such 
mind a dice, they never remember, my Lord, then." 
Day's lie of Gulls, 1633. 

TRUE-MAN. An honest man. " The thieves have bound 
the true men," 1 Henry IV. 

" He cannot steale you, but hee must steale the cloaths 
you have on ; and he that steales apparrell, what is he but 
a theefe? and hee that is a theefe cannot be a true man" 
Hey wood's Roy all King, 1637. 

ALM'S-BASKET. " They have lived long on the alm's- 
basket of words," Love's Labour's Lost. 

" Thy tongue, and not unwittily perhaps, 
One likened to th' almes-basket fill'd with scraps ; 
It feeds our ears with mix'd and broken words, 
Just like the poor with bits from sev'rall boards." 

Prestu-ick's Hippolitus, 12mo. 1651, p. 75. 



ENGLISH PHILOLOGY. 29 

ACCIDENT. Adventure ; chance. " Think no more of 
this night's accidents" Midsummer Night's Dream, iv, 1. 

" And you, gentlemen, 

Dispense with this dayes accident. Your cheer 
To-morrow shall be doubled." N abbes' Bride, 1640. 

WHAT CHEEK. Apparently equivalent to, What's the 
matter? what news? " What cheer, my love?" Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream, i, 1. 

" Amaz'd they started as they heard me near : 
He fled for shame; she cried, good sir, what cheer?" 
New Crazy Tales, 1783, p. 19. 

TIME " Time and the hour runs through the roughest 
day," Macbeth, i, 3. So much discussion has been wasted 
on this passage, that it will not be useless to confirm the 
ordinary reading by a similar phrase used by Lodge, in his 
Wit's Miserie, 4to. Lond. 1596, p. 43, " Day and time 
discovering these murders, the woman was apprehended, 
and examined by the justice, confessed the fact." 

AFFECTATION. Affection. These two words were fre- 
quently interchanged. Shakespeare uses affection for affec- 
tation in Love's Labour's Lost, v, 2. 

"Friendly reader, after I had finished my former 
bookes, I was drawn on, as well by diverse my friends, as 
also with a certaine affectation which I beare thereunto, 
for to set forth a booke of the art of measuring grounds 
by this my new devised instrument : for that I see daily 
errours continually practised, even by those which be in 
most practise : whereby it gives the ignorant occasion, and 
not without cause, to bring in question the truth of that 
infallible and noble science of Geometric, the mistresse of 
all Arts." Hoptons Baculum Geodceticum, 4to. 1614. 

HAT. " My hat to a halfpenny Pompey proves the best 
worthy," Love's Labour's Lost, v, 2. 

" You shall hire him for a speciall baily if you come off 
with an angell, and sometimes he may carry a ring in his 
mouth, if hee have a cast livery for his labour. Hee is the 
only man living to bring you where the best licour is, and 
it is his hat to a halfepenny but hee will be drunke for 
companie." Lodge's Wit's Miserie, 1596, p. 63. 

TALL. The archaical meaning of this term is common 



30 ANCIENT CITY WALLS 

in Shakespeare. " Ay, forsooth, but he is as tall a man of 
his hands as any is between this and his head," Merry 
Wives of Windsor, i, 4. The phrase occurs in Palsgrave, 
1530, verbs, f. 410, " He is a tall man of his harides, Oest 
ung habille homme de ses mains" So again in the Win- 
ter's Tale, v, 2, " I'll swear to the prince thou art a tall 
fellow of thy hands, and that thou wilt not be drunk." 

J. O. HALLIWELL. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE ANCIENT CITY WALLS 
OF ROCHESTER. 

THEKE appears to be undoubted evidence, from ancient 
charters and grants, that Rochester was walled as early as 
the end of the seventh century ; but it is known, with suf- 
ficient certainty, as is noted by the historians of the place, 
that the present walls were built in the year 1225, in the 
reign of Henry III. A length of about ninety yards of 
the eastern wall is the best preserved portion; in many 
other places they are entirely removed. As far back as 
the civil wars, two centuries ago, they seem to have been 
in a dilapidated state, as the city is not referred to as a 
place of strength by the writers of those times. 

What by association confers additional interest to the 
city walls of Rochester is, the presumption that they stand 
on the precise spot of the fortified works of the ancient 
Roman camp which occupied this place, and which were 
replaced in the Middle Ages by a wall of masonry ; and 
there being no reason to suppose that the second wall of 
Henry III varied in its direction from the first. It is 
scarcely necessary to make the observation, that most of 
our ancient cities have derived their origin from Roman 
camps : population appearing to collect in those places 
which the Roman legions or cohorts had occupied when 
the same offered the accommodation of a sea-port, or any 



OF ROCHESTER. 



31 



other striking advantage; or when being in the line of 
some principal road, there was a Roman station there. In 
short, a Roman camp was laid out with such regularity of 
streets and divisions, and such convenience of arrange- 
ments otherwise, that every facility seems to have been 
afforded for the construction of a town when it became 
untenanted by the force for which it was originally formed. 
At Rochester, it is probable that at some period of the 
occupation of this country by the conquerors of the world, 
a Roman legion (or 6000 men) was entrenched at this 
place; such occupation to be considered as temporarily 
only ; as no such force was usually maintained here when 
the Roman troops were assigned to their various quarters 
in the island ; Rochester or Durobrivse, as was its ancient 
name, being only known as a Roman station : arid in later 
times of Roman occupation, we are informed with certainty 
by the office book, the " Notitia" of the empire still extant, 
that no Roman troops, not even a single cohort, were sta- 
tioned here, they being removed to protect the line of the 
sea-coast, which was threatened by the Saxons. 




A A. Line of the original walls 

B. Original bridge 

C. Present bridge 

D. Northgate 

E. St. Clement's church 

F. Eastgate 

G. Castle 



H. Barbican 

I. Norman keep 

K. Cathedral 

L. Southgate 

M. Addition to the cnstle enclosure 

N. Part added by the ecclesiastics 



By the aid of a map of the city, in which the walls are 
delineated, it will be easy to trace the form of the Roman 



32 ANCIENT CITY WALLS 

camp occupied by the present city, and intended, as has 
been presumed, for one Roman legion (or 6000 men). 
The ancient earthen rampart must have inclosed a space 
of ground of an oblong figure, of which the opposite sides 
and angles were equal, with possibly some variation of 
outline in the side next the river, that is, the west side. 
This was a form common to Roman camps. By consult- 
ing the plan, the east and north walls will be found to cor- 
respond in the required situation; but the south wall does 
not. However, this can be accounted for, as there is 
evidence it is not in its original situation, but has been 
pulled down and re-constructed. We are informed that 
in the year 1290, in the reign of Edward I, the monks of 
the priory obtained permission of the crown to remove 
that wall forty-two yards further southward. They were 
to re-build it in length fifty-four rods from Eastgate to the 
Prior's-gate ; but the permission once gained, it is pre- 
sumable they may have been allowed to vary the direction 
of it, whence may have arisen the present irregularity of 
position of this wall. There is every reason to suppose 
that what the monks did was this, that they left the 
south-eastern round tower remaining, and that they in- 
closed a piece of ground of a triangular form within this 
new part of the city, widest south of the cathedral, and 
contracting again to the line of the former city wall near 
the Prior's-gate. They would thus have obtained the addi- 
tional space and scope in the part of the city immediately 
about the cathedral, which seems to have been their object. 

This alteration therefore of the south wall of the city, by 
the ecclesiastical powers, in the thirteenth century, pre- 
vents us from being able to show that it was originally 
parallel with the north wall, which would be requisite for 
the full and complete proof that it occupies exactly the 
former site of a Roman camp; at the same time there is 
no reason to doubt of its having been formerly parallel. 

But if the city were once a Roman camp, the gates 
would be opposite, and such can be proved was formerly 
the case. One of the ancient gates, Eastgate, pulled 
down long since, but which has left its name to part of the 
High-street, was obviously opposite to the former exit at 
the bridge, the ancient bridge having been in a line with 
the High-street, whereas the present bridge diverges. The 



OF ROCHESTER. 33 

gate in the northern city wall, Northgate, or Childegate, 
as it was otherwise called, removed at some former time, 
had also its opposite in the gate called Southgate, in the 
southern wall of the city pulled down in the year 1770. 
To this a street led from Childegate, crossing the High- 
street, at right angles, and passing close by the western 
doors of the Cathedral. There were not long since, as 
there possibly may be now, several persons living who re- 
membered the Southgate. It stood diagonally to the direc- 
tion which the Roman southern rampant must have had, 
which does not appear at first to correspond with the views 
here entertained : but the reason may have been that it 
should be in the line of the outworks added to the Castle at 
Boley-hill, when the Danes abandoned their lofty mounds, 
cast up for the attack of that fortress ; consequently there 
is reason to suppose this gate replaced a former one. In 
position it is distant some forty or fifty yards only from 
the Prior' s-gate, mentioned in the record of the alteration 
of the city-walls by the ecclesiastics. 

Thus we find that this ancient city, in its parallel walls 
and in its gates exactly opposite, possessed the requisites 
of a Roman camp, leaving no doubt that it precisely occu- 
pies the position of one. It might have been suspected, 
from the termination of its name, " Chester," that it did, 
and examination confirms it; yet the correspondency of 
its gates and streets to those of a Roman camp has never 
hitherto been pointed out or noticed by those who have 
written of the history and antiquities of the place, an 
omission which ought to be supplied. 

Regarding, then, the ancient city as once a Roman 
camp, from the extent of its ramparts and circumvallations 
which we can ascertain, we find it formed an enclosed space 
of about 490 yards long by 290 broad, being a "tertiatum 
castrum," as the Roman term was ; for so they styled the 
camps which were of this customary proportion, that is, 
one-third longer than broad, and its area must have been 
rather more than twenty-nine acres. 1 They observed this 

1 Twenty-five and a-half acres being treatise of Hyginus, who is supposed 

assigned, according to the dimensions to have lived in the time of Hadrian, 

of Roman camps given in Polybius, for the same space would have been occu- 

a single legion, it will be observed the pied by two legions, or one legion and 

space inclosed by the Rochester walls its auxiliaries. In either case, about 

a little exceeds it. According to the twelve or thirteen thousand men. 



34 ANCIENT CITY WALLS 

proportion, as writers on the subject inform us, and where 
their camps varied from it, and were longer than this pro- 
portion and extended to a great length and size for large- 
armies, they were called castra classica, literally trumpet 
camps ; classicum being the military trumpet ; as from 
their length, it became necessary to sound the trumpet 
calls in several parts of them at the same time. Some in- 
cidental particulars we may now notice. 

One is, that the same rounded angle as is observable in 
the ancient Roman camp at Reculver and other instances, 
may be noticed in the east angle of the ancient city walls 
of Rochester. At that part, a short distance from the 
ancient foundation-school, on the road to the common, 
the side-walls, on observation, will be seen to be round- 
ing where the tower joins on to them. 

Again, the " via principals," or principal street of the 
camp, which was used as a parade for the soldiers, and was 
of the invariable breadth in Roman camps of a hundred 
feet, was necessarily the street leading from Childegate to 
the former Southgate, and passing at the west-end of the 
cathedral. This has not preserved its original breadth, as 
this once broadest and most open space of the interior of 
the camp, the parade of the troops, is now, or at least part 
of it, one of the narrowest streets of the city. At the side 
of this via principalis, the praetorium, or head quarters of 
the camp, is to be looked for, as well as the Augurale, or 
temple of the camp, which, according to customary ar- 
rangements and in usual circumstances, would have been 
on its western side or that opposite to the cathedral and 
the adjoining church. Across part of the via principalis a 
portion of the ancient bishop's palace seerns to have been 
built, and the remainder of its southern termination towards 
the Southgate must have been also at some former time 
built across or otherwise enclosed. 

As .to the piece of Roman walling represented in Stuke- 
ley's Itinerarium Curiosum, edit. 1776, plate xxx, second 
set, which is supposed to have been near the former St. 
Clement's church, it has probably been removed, as it does 
not appear that it can now be recognized ; and there is no 
late mention of it. 

Regarding the construction of the city walls, it may be 
briefly noticed that they have every appearance of being 



OF ROCHESTER. 35 

of the dates assigned to them; that is, 1225 and 1290. 
Towards the western extremity of the north wall, portions 
of bricks remain, which have been thought to be not 
Roman ; but if they are, are they not necessarily a proof 
of higher antiquity than here assigned, as they may have 
been taken from some Roman building? As to height, 
the perfect part of the east wall before mentioned is about 
thirty feet, which may be judged to have been the height 
of the original walls. As to the part added by the eccle- 
siastics, the king's grant only specified that it should be 
sixteen feet high. The north-east tower, it may be here 
noticed, is still pretty well preserved, having its original 
spiral stone staircase, an interior arch of entrance, a fire- 
place on its lower floor, and a covered passage running 
underneath the wall : but has no battlements, though they 
still remain on the adjoining east-wall. 

Of the Roman camp, on the lines of which the ancient 
city walls of Rochester are supposed to have been raised, 
it is scarcely requisite to observe that it must necessarily 
be understood to have been a " castrum hibernum," or 
strongly intrenched winter camp, and not a " castrum 
aestivum," or one formed in their daily marches, the works 
of which would have been too slight for their direction to 
have been attended to, or followed, in walling a fortified 
town. 

What we know of the earlier proceedings of the Romans 
in Britain throws no certain light on the first forming 
of the intrenched camp here. Various reasons might 
be assigned that Julius Csesar did not cross the Med- 
way at this point to invade the dominions of Cassive- 
launus; nor, if he did, would he have formed a deeply- 
intrenched "castrum hibernum", or winter camp. In 
regard to the invasion of Aulus Plautius, in A.D. 43, there 
seems no reason to doubt the universally prevailing opinion 
in the Middle Ages, that his landing (which it seems was 
at three contiguous places), was at and near Southampton; 
and as to the emperor Claudius, who came to his assist- 
ance the following year, it appears from Dion Cassius that 
he sailed at once up the Thames ; and immediately after 
these two first years, the seat of war was removed to the 
territories of the Belgse and Dumnonii, and to the 
western and northern parts of Britain. We can thus 



36 ANCIENT CITY WALLS 

identify the first formation of the camp here with no 
known events of the earlier proceedings of the Romans in 
Britain; and the most credible supposition seems to be 
that one of the legions of Claudius's reinforcement, which 
we know was withdrawn, might have wintered here on its 
return to the continent. The conjecture is somewhat 
indefinite, but is, perhaps, the least improbable that may be 
formed on the subject. 

Reverting to the space inclosed by the castle walls and 
the intrenchments of the " castrum hibernum", together in 
extent twenty-nine acres, we may observe that it would 
appear too large an extent to have comprised merely the 
Roman station which was maintained here. It may be 
concluded, that the inclosure intrenched within the castle 
walls, an area of about three or four acres, was the Roman 
station : while the nature of the ground shews that the 
Roman port, for there must have been a sea-port here in 
Roman times, occupied the part of the present city im- 
mediately north of the castle, where was the former church 
of St. Clement, long since pulled down. The remaining 
part of the intrenched inclosure towards the east was pro- 
bably occupied by detached buildings, fields, and gardens. 
It appears to have been so in Saxon times; hamlets and 
fields (vicos viculos et agros) being mentioned here in va- 
rious grants to the church, recorded in Dugdale's Monasticon 
and Thorpe's Registrum Roffense. It seems to have been 
likewise thus in Norman times, a piece of ground within 
the walls near the deanery having been called " Odo's 
Orchard" (see Fisher's History of Rochester, p. 12); and 
even at the present day there is a considerable extent 
occupied by garden ground within this space. 

The Saxon walls formed round the inclosure may be 
judged to have been extremely slight, probably formed 
merely to replace the palisade at the crest of the vallum of 
the intrenchments. We call them Saxon, as it is highly 
improbable there were city walls here in Roman times: 
otherwise more fragments of Roman bricks used in bond- 
ing their stone walls might have been expected to have 
been worked up in the present ones. Nor is there reason 
to suppose that the castle inclosure itself was walled during 
the Roman sway, or presented aught else than a strong 
earthen rampart. What is rather a strong proof that 



OF ROCHESTER. 37 

neither the castle nor the city were walled in Roman times, 
is the fact, that the foundations of the walls of both are 
built on arches of construction, 1 like the walls of Lynn 
and Norwich, and those of the ancient castle at North- 
ampton. Had there been previous Roman walls, the Nor- 
man architects would have taken advantage of the founda- 
tions already made. 

The adoption of arches of construction in the walls of 
ancient cities and fortresses, seems a little extraordinary ; 
and it is presumable, that this method of construction was 
not used in the Middle Ages, from sound and judicious 
principles of architecture, but arose from unscientific ideas 
of the strength of arches. These builders possibly thought 
that because an arch is strong, that it was stronger than 
solidity itself: not considering that when the overwhelm- 
ing point of pressure to an arch arrives, the lower wedge 
stones will crush, whilst a perfectly solid mass will continue 
for an indefinitely longer time to bear up the superincum- 
bent weight. B. p. 

1 The arches of construction of the of the original foss or ditch remains 

Rochester city walls may be seen in at that place ; and the walls here 

Mr. Jacobs' garden, a short distance seem to have been breached at two 

south of the former Eastgate. Much places. 



38 




ON A ROMAN BUILDING DISCOVERED IN 

LOWER THAMES STREET, IN THE 

CITY OF LONDON. 1 

THE portion of a Roman building, represented above, 
and in a ground plan on the opposite page, was discovered, 
at a depth of ten feet, in Lower Thames-street, on the site 
of the Coal Exchange, in January 1848 : 

C, on the right-hand of the plan, represents the west 
side of a room twenty-three feet in length, of which 
only eight feet of its depth has yet been excavated, the 
ground beyond being covered by houses (A A). The 
floor is ornamented with square red tesserae, such as 
generally form the border of the finer pavements, with 
others of a yellow colour placed irregularly, not form- 
ing any particular pattern, but evidently purposely in- 
troduced to present a more pleasing effect. The room 
is surrounded by a very firm wall, three feet in thick- 
ness, composed of red tiles (eighteen inches by twelve), 
and mortar, with occasionally a few yellow ones inter- 
spersed; the foundations are of Kentish rag stone; the 
internal surface of this wall had been covered with fresco 

1 Read, February 11. 



ROMAN BUILDING IN LOWER THAMES- STREET. 



39 




40 ROMAN BUILDING 

painting ; all the specimens I could discover were of a light 
red. A doorway, marked o, leads into a room at the back 
of the circular-ended apartment, which I shall presently 
describe. A second floor appears to have been raised by the 
Romans, for some purpose, a foot above that just alluded 
to, which is clearly indicated by a course of red cement 
running the whole extent of the room, between which and 
the lower floor is a coarser concrete. This may have been 
considered necessary in consequence of the first pavement 
being lower than the level of the Thames at Spring tides, 
as it is at the present time only one foot above high- water 
mark; and on one occasion, when I visited these remains 
during a very high tide, the whole area was inundated, in 
fact, up to this very mark. On the question as to the 
increase in height of the bed of the Thames since that 
period, I am happy to say our associate, Captain Bullock, 
R.N., has promised shortly to favour us with some remarks. 
About thirteen feet from the south wall is a more recent 
structure of chalk in the form of a well (G), but which does 
not penetrate below the upper course of pavement. The 
diameter of the opening of this well is two feet ten inches, 
but for what purpose it was intended cannot now be easily 
ascertained; the chalk is bound together by means of a 
circular piece of elm, and several courses of brick have 
been still more recently carried up on the top. 

To the north is another very interesting apartment with 
a semicircular recess at one end, projecting beyond the 
west wall of the room before spoken of, which is in a com- 
paratively perfect state, I mean as to its ground-plan, 
although very little of its elevation remains, except at the 
eastern end. The size of it is twelve feet by thirteen, or 
nearly square; the semicircular wall which encloses it is 
about two feet thick, and which, from the irregularity of 
its outer surface, has at some subsequent period been dis- 
turbed. In a recess of the east wall is built a seat three 
feet six inches in length, and sixteen inches from the floor, 
capable of holding two or three persons, and a passage (D) 
leading to some apartment beyond, which has a tessellated 
pavement similar to that in the south room. The hypo- 
caust (F), by means of which this room was heated, was 
entire until injured by the excavators. The pillars sup- 
porting the floor average twenty-two inches in height, and 



IN LOWER THAMES-STREET. 



41 



are formed of twelve or fourteen tiles, eight inches square, 
placed evenly one upon another, with mortar between: 
on these are placed larger tiles of eighteen inches by 




Hypocaustk Scale, one-eighth of an inch to a foot. 



A. Ground not excavated 

B. Walls of Roman building 

D. Passage whence the hot air was conveyed to the 
hypocaust from the furnace, extending 12 feet 



M. A conduit on which the flue tile was placed to 
convey the hot air to other parts of the building 

N. Pillars supporting the floor of sudatorium, and 
forming the hypocaustum 



twelve ; above them, others of twenty-four inches. They 
are so arranged as to form an arched passage between 
each row of pillars, the distance averaging fourteen inches. 
The lower floor of the hypocaust has a declivity towards 
the furnace. A concrete of broken tiles arid mortar 
three inches thiolc 

MJ.V/Q l/i.nv,iv, JESSSSSSSS&SS^S^S^S!^ 



rests upon the pil- 
lars forming the 
floor of the room 
above; the tessellat- 
ed pavement is un- 
fortunately absent. 
This floor is in such 
a firm state, that we 



VOL. IV. 



42 ROMAN BUILDING 

are enabled to ascertain the direction from whence the hot 
air proceeded ; and underneath the ground covered by the 
present houses we can, for a distance of twelve feet, trace 
a narrow way (in the direction of the passage above) sup- 
ported by pillars similar to those of the hypocaust, until 
the width, which gradually decreases, enables a two-foot 
tile to carry the superincumbent floor. This probably 
brings us to the furnace by which not only this room was 
heated, but the hot air also conveyed through flue tiles 
built in the wall, to those rooms more remote from it. 
One of these conduits may be observed in the plan of the 
hypocaust, at M. Here also the water was heated for 
the baths. 

Further north I traced the walls of another room twenty 
feet square, in the corner of which, at c, was also dis- 
covered a tessellated pavement similar to that before de- 
scribed. About six feet of the elevation of jthe north 
wall was visible, and on the east side, the foundation of 
a wall built of stone and bonding tiles, running in the 
direction of the semicircular room, as shewn in the plan, 
at K. Towards the western extremity of this room was 
a solid piece of Roman masonry (H), more than eight feet 
in length, the breadth of which I could not ascertain; 
this, I imagine, was the stand for a bath. Contiguous, and 
twenty feet from the east wall, was a drain (i), which here, 
on a level with the tessellated floor, had a considerable fall 
towards the Thames ; this water-way was formed, at the 
bottom and sides, of two-inch boards, eighteen inches deep 
and ten inches wide, arched over with Roman tiles placed 
lengthways, the sides meeting in the centre at top, im- 
bedded in mortar. 

By a reference to the plans of baths discovered at Pom- 
peii, as well as those of Caracalla, and the representations 
on the walls of the ThermaB of Titus at Rome, we find 
that the caldarium, or room for the warm-bath, and the 
concamerata sudatio or vapour-bath, were frequently in 
two separate apartments, the former being in that case 
square, the latter of semicircular form, and as nearly cir- 
cular as it could conveniently be to concentrate the vapour 
from the stove or brazier which was placed in it, in addi- 
tion to the heat arising from the hypocaust beneath. We 
invariably find this room semicircular. In the meeting- 



IN LOWER THAMES-STREET. 43 

room of the Society of Antiquaries is a model of some 
baths discovered in the island of Lipari, described by Cap- 
tain Smyth (23rd vol. Archceologia). Of the same form 
is the sudatorium, having also a suspended floor over the 
hypocaust, and adjoining, immediately over the furnace, is 
the caldarium. Contiguous are the frigidarium or cold- 
bath, the apodyterium or dressing-room and conversation- 
room. Again, in a plan of some Roman remains dis- 
covered at Duncton, near Bignor, Sussex, in 1812, we 
have the same arrangement with respect to the caldarium 
and sudatorium; the latter has a semicircular recess 
facing the west, the floor being supported by the pillars of 
the hypocaust beneath. I will here briefly advert to the 
instructions laid down by Vitruvius, in his chapter on 
baths. He says : " The suspensures of the caldarii are 
thus formed : First the bottom is to be paved with foot 
and half tiles, inclining towards the hypocaust, that if any 
fuel should be ejected it may roll back again to the en- 
trance of the furnace; for thus the fire will naturally 
spread itself under the suspension. Upon this eight-inch 
earthen pillars are raised, and so placed that tiles of two 
feet may rest thereon. The height of the pillars is two 
feet ; they are made with clay, having hair beaten therein ; 
and upon these two-feet tiles are laid, which support the 
pavement." 

In examining the interesting remains now under notice, 
the similarity in the construction and arrangement is 
obvious, which induces me to believe that the opening in 
the east wall of the semicircular apartment, or sudatorium 
at D, would lead us to the caldarium,, and the passage in 
the hypocaust (before described) extending twelve feet 
under the houses, reaches the furnace underneath it, and 
the recess or seat in the wall E was where the bather pro- 
bably sat, whilst the attendant completed the operations 
with the aid of the strigil and perfumed oils. 

The room to the south was the principal apartment, 
fronting the river, perhaps used for a waiting and conver- 
sation-room. This was most probably twenty-three feet 
square. 

The apartment to the north was the frigidarium, the 
brick-work still remaining on which the bason rested, and 
by its side the drain which conveyed the waste- water into 
the Thames. 



44 ROMAN BUILDING 

I was at first inclined to think that this was a private 
bath attached to a Roman villa, but upon the subsequent 
discovery of the frigidarium, and inferring that the cal- 
darium existed beyond the sudatorium and hypocaust, 
thus having three rooms devoted entirely to the purposes 
of bathing, I have been induced to alter my opinion and 
consider it a public bath, the situation so near the river 
being in every respect well adapted. 

According to Vitruvius, the proportions of the calda- 
rium and sudatorium ought to be twice the length of their 
breadth; I have therefore, in the restored plan (indicated 
by unshadowed lines), so placed them, which makes the 
front room exactly square ; and thefrigidarium being also 
a square of twenty feet, we have space for some smaller 
rooms at the back, to hold unguents and other purposes, 
thus forming altogether a compact pile of buildings, such 
as I conceive it originally to have been, and approximating 
so accurately to the directions and plans laid down by 
Vitruvius, for the construction of a public bath. 

Some doubts having been expressed whether these were 
baths at all, or, in fact, anything more than common apart- 
ments, or if so, whether their position was not unusual, 
I am consequently more prolix than I should otherwise 
have been in my remarks. With regard to their position, 
I think we shall find that in all the Roman Thermas that 
part of the building where the baths were disposed was 
invariably south-west. Vitruvius remarks : " The warm- 
est position is to be chosen, such as is sheltered from the 
north and north-east, and the caldaria and tepidaria 
should be lighted from the west, or, if that is opposed by 
the nature of the place, from the south, because the prin- 
cipal time of bathing is from noon to the evening" ; con- 
sequently the rooms having that aspect would be warmer. 

I have shown by the dotted lines (P), the portion which 
is to be preserved by a circular wall of brick and cement ; 
it includes the whole of the hypocaust and a piece of the 
front room, all of which has been drained. In the eastern 
wall is to be placed a doorway, by means of which the 
excavations under the court-yard may at some future time 
be attempted, should it be thought desirable. 

I cannot conclude without, in the first place, bearing 
testimony to the good feelings which prompted the archi- 



IN LOWER THAMES-STREET. 45 

tect, Mr. Bunning, to communicate the discovery to the 
members of the British Archaeological Association, and 
take such effective steps to preserve these interesting re- 
mains; as well as the civility the public received from 
Mr. Nixon and those employed in the works. Secondly, our 
thanks, as antiquaries, are due to the Corn and Coal Com- 
mittee (through the intercession of their chairman, Mr. 
Thomas Lott, F.S.A.) for their exertions permanently to 
preserve the remains by constructing this enclosure ; and 
we must hail with satisfaction this move in the right direc- 
tion (now made, for nearly the first time, with any degree 
of spirit) by the corporation, to protect our remaining 
civic antiquities from destruction. 

W. CHAFFERS, JUN. 



FURTHER NOTES IN CONNEXION WITH THE 
PRECEDING PAPER. 

IT is very seldom that many objects of ancient art, 
exclusive of remains appertaining to the buildings them- 
selves, are found upon the site of Roman houses. This 
has been the case throughout the extensive excavations 
carried on in the city, inclusive of those which laid open 
the building under consideration. Only a few coins (of 
the Constantine family) were met with in the immediate 
vicinity ; but as the excavators were completing their 
labours at the south-west corner of the area, close to 
Thames-street, they opened a pit, in which, among decom- 
posed animal and vegetable matter, they found much 
broken red glazed Roman pottery, fragments of sandals, 
and other objects, which it may not be uninteresting to 
record. Such pits are not of unusual occurrence in 
London : when situated in localities where springs abound, 
or in low boggy districts, they often contain objects in 



46 KOMAN BUILDING 

metal, which are remarkable for their perfect preservation, 
owing to the presence of moisture and the exclusion of 
air. In the pit mentioned above were found coins of 
Domitian, Nerva, and Aurelius ; an armlet made of wires 
of copper and brass twisted together ; a long slender spoon ; 
and an implement, shewn in the cut below; 1 all perfectly 
free from rust or corrosion. 




Half the actual size. 



Of red glazed pottery there were fragments of at least 
fifty different vessels, such as are described in a paper 
in the present number of the Journal ; and among the 
illustrations of which will be found three of the specimens. 
On some of the plain dishes were potters' names, as fol- 
lows : ALB VCI. BIRANII . D AGOMAEVS . DOMINAC . FLOI. 

OFFGER. LATINVS. PATEKCLOS. PATRIOT. SILVI. . ; On 

the rim of a mortarium, SOLLVS. ; and on the handle of an 
amphora, G. s. A. 2 

There was also a bone hair-pin, eight inches and a-half 
in length, which, as a good example, is here engraved. 



One-half the size of original. 



A considerable number of bone pins, used for fastening 
the dress and for dressing the hair, have been found in 
various parts of subterranean London. The larger, such 
as that exhibited in the cut, belong to the latter class, and 
have usually the upper extremity ornamented. 

The Roman ladies used pins of the precious metals, as 
well as of ivory and bone, to fasten their platted hair, 
which, as we learn from coins and sculptures, was dressed 
with great care and with very varying, and sometimes 

1 In the possession of Mr. Webster, of Russell-street, Covent-Garden. 

2 The whole of these are now in the collection of Mr. Price. 



IN LOWER THAMES-STREET. 



47 



extravagant, fashion. The acus, and its application in the 
head gear, are mentioned by Martial : 

" Taenia ne madidos violet bombycina crines, 
Figat acus tortas, sustineatque comas." Lib. xiv, Epig. 24. 

The manner in which the hair was fastened with the 
pin is shewn in a sculptured female head, in a group found 
at Apt, in the south of France. It is published by Moiit- 
faucon, in his Antiquite Explique (Suppl. iii, 3), and is 
reproduced in fig. 1, in the annexed cut. As a proof of 
the continuance of the fashion to the present day, by the 
side of the antique figure is placed (fig. 2) a female head, 
sketched at Coblentz, by Mr. Fairholt. 




Mg. 2. 



Among the rubbish carted from the immediate vicinity 
of the Roman house, was a considerable quantity of flue 
tiles, mostly broken. Fig. 1, in the cut below, represents 




Fig. 1. 



ROMAN BUILDING 



the half of a double flue tile, sketched from a specimen in 
my collection, found in another quarter of the city the 
lines of dots shewing the restored part. This and a smaller 
portion, found in Thames-street, of precisely similar pat- 
tern and shape, are the only examples of the double flue 
tile I have met with. Each measured, when complete, 
eighteen inches in depth, thirteen in length, and five in 
width. Fig. 2 shews portions of tiles, with circular open- 
ings, which also come under the denomination of flue 
tiles. They are of pale yellow and red clay, and, when 
entire, measured from six to seven inches square. I have 
never seen these tiles in situ as flue tiles ; but have noticed, 
in two instances, in London and in Essex, similar tiles, 
but of larger dimensions, filled with concrete, and used for 
supporting the floors of rooms, precisely as the columns of 
tiles are usually arranged. 

The third variety of flue tiles (fig. 1 in the annexed 
cut), found on the site of the house, is the most com- 
mon ; such are generally 
found among the ruins 
of Roman domestic build- 
ings. They were inserted 
in the walls vertically 
upon each other, and 
joined by cement, thus 
forming tubes or flues 
for conveying the warm 
air from the hypocaust 
to the apartment above. 
They have also one or 
more lateral openings to 
equalize the temperature. In this country it is seldom 
we find more than the foundations of the walls of Roman 
houses; and consequently but few opportunities are afforded 
of seeing the actual arrangement of these flues. In the 
Roman villa at Bramdean, in Hampshire, preserved by the 
good taste and liberality of the late W. Greenwood, esq., 
many of the hollow tiles yet remain in their original posi- 
tion in the walls of a room nineteen feet square, paved 
with a coloured tessellated pavement, supported by piers, 
and heated by a furnace or stove like that in Thames- 
street. With respect to heating rooms by means of hypo- 




1. Flue tile. 



2. Drain tile. 



IN LOWER THAMES-STREET. 49 

causts, it seems to have prevailed almost universally 
throughout Britain. It is very seldom we find the remains 
of Roman buildings without such indications, even when 
they are of small dimensions. In an extensive villa at 
Dursley, in Gloucestershire, recently laid open by P. B. 
Purnell, esq., a suite of rooms (doubtless the winter apart- 
ments of the villa), was found to have been thus warmed ; 
among these was an apartment supposed to have been the 
atrium, of considerable extent, the roof of which was sup- 
ported by two rows of stone columns, the bases yet remain- 
ing. The constant occurrence of the hypocaust in Roman 
villas and houses discovered in this country, is explained 
by taking into consideration the coldness of the climate in 
the winter months, especially when compared with that of 
Italy. The rigour of our northern winters must have 
been severely felt by the Romans, and a provision against 
their inconvenience would be one of the chief calcu- 
lations in the construction of domestic buildings. We 
must not lose sight of this important point in drawing 
comparisons between the houses of Britain and those of 
Italy. Thus baths, for instance, those luxurious append- 
ages to the costly villas of the south, were probably much 
modified in size and accommodations in the better class of 
villas in the northern provinces ; and we must not neces- 
sarily look for them in the smaller houses, nor forget that 
the chief use of furnaces and hypocausts was to provide 
heat to counteract the cold of the climate. 

The wooden piles noticed between the Roman building 
and Thames-street, were no new or uncommon feature in 
the discoveries. They have been met with in former 
excavations along the banks of the Thames, and in other 
parts of the city. On removing some Roman buildings, a 
few years since, on the Southwark side of the river, an 
excellent opportunity was afforded for observing the mode 
adopted by the Romans to overcome by the means of 
wooden piles the natural insecurity of the soil. 

C. ROACH SMITH. 



VOL. IV. 



50 



SAXON REMAINS FOUND IN GLOUCESTER- 
SHIRE. 

THE Association has recently received the communica- 
tion from its associate, Mr. Albin Tabram, of Nailsworth, 
in Gloucestershire, of an account of some not unimportant 
discoveries of the sepulchral remains of the Anglo-Saxon 
inhabitants of that district, accompanied with the usual 
articles found on such occasions, several of which are pecu- 
liar in their character, and deserve to be pointed out to the 
attention of our members. We have on a former occasion 
(Journal, vol. ii, p. 53), given some specimens of the 
early Anglo-Saxon remains found in Gloucestershire, and 
pointed out the great importance of comparing such re- 
mains as are found in different parts of the island, under 
the belief that the variations in form and character, in dif- 
ferent parts, will assist us in understanding the ethnolo- 
gical distribution of the various tribes of settlers. 

The remains now under consideration were found, in 
November 1847, in an arable field called "Chavenage 
Sleight," between Avening and Chavenage, bordering on 
the Roman road which has been called the Akeman-street, 
leading from Cirencester to the Severn, which it crossed at 
Oldbury or Aust. A very extensive but low circular 
mound occupied this field ; it is said, indeed, to have 
covered not less than a quarter of an acre, although at its 
greatest elevation not more than six feet above the level of 
the field. Mr. Wigrnore, who occupies the farm, wishing 
to level the field, and supposing that this was a mere heap 
of stones and earth, employed a labourer to turn it up, 
who, on breaking open the mound from the summit, found 
about half a yard beneath the surface a skeleton, which 
had apparently been thrown in without any care. Beneath 
this, quantities of large flagstones were met with, placed 
horizontally ; and under them, on reaching the level of the 
ground, the centre of the tumulus, to the extent of many 
square yards, was covered with ashes and stones that had 



SAXON REMAINS. 51 

evidently undergone the process of burning, mixed with 
half-burnt human bones and black earth, in some parts 
four or five inches thick. Beyond this central area of cre- 
mation, and arranged in a circle round the circumference 
of the mound, were found seven rude graves, with a skele- 
ton in each, except one grave which contained two skele- 
tons, side by side, the feet of one being placed to the head 
of the other. One skeleton had the right fore-arm raised 
against the side of the grave, and resting against a spear- 
head. 

The graves are described as being formed of large rough 
flagstones, placed against each other like the roof of a 
house, three or four forming the side of a grave. Unfor- 
tunately no one possessed of any antiquarian knowledge 
was present on the occasion, and the different articles 
found during the excavation were dispersed by the work- 
men, and only some of them fell into the hands of Mr. 
Tabram and other antiquaries of the neighbourhood, who 
gathered the above information by examining the la- 
bourers. 

In some of the graves were found beads of different de- 
scriptions, but in general resembling those so universally 
met with in Saxon graves. Of these about thirty have been 
collected, of a great variety of shapes and patterns of clay 
and glass : some of them of clay, having the grooves with 
which they are covered filled with coloured glass. One 
skeleton had a number of these beads round the neck, from 
which the accompanying examples are selected (fig. 1). 




Fig. 1. Full size. 



Some of the beads were of amber, a material which, from 
its supposed virtues, we find so frequently used by the 
Anglo-Saxons for that purpose: these, Mr. Tabram states, 



52 SAXON REMAINS. 

were all of a peculiar shape, apparently forming a small 
segment of a circle. Several of the graves contained iron 
spear-heads, from five to seven inches in length ; and there 
were found six or seven iron buckles ; an instrument 
which was described to Mr. Tabram as " a kind of dagger," 
but which was no doubt the knife so common in Saxon 
interments ; and an article which Mr. Tabram's informant 
called an iron pot, and which in the printed proceedings 
of the Society of Antiquaries 1 is termed " a single small 
iron basin." A very little knowledge of Anglo-Saxon 
antiquities is required to satisfy us that this was an umbo 
or boss of a shield. 



/ ; "%- = 

fc^OSfcl f^Tir^ 

%M^ 



^'Illlliil 



i> ''V.svV 
JUtfJ^ 




Fig 3. Full size. 



Among the more curious articles furnished by the re- 
moval of this mound were four or five thin circular pieces 
of bronze, which appear to have been silvered over, and 
are ornamented with patterns apparently stamped with a 
punch. Two examples of these ornaments are given in 
the accompanying cuts (figs. 2 and 3) ; they are of such 
rare occurrence that I do not recollect having ever seen 
one before. They were probably attached to the dress as 
brooches ; and are said to have been all found on the breast 
of one of the skeletons. 

In the same grave with the skeleton which had the 



1 An account of this discovery was 
communicated to the Society of Anti- 
quaries in January, and the articles 
here engraved sent up for exhibition, 



but they were returned without having 
even been drawn, and appear to have 
attracted much less attention from the 
Society than they merited. 



SAXON KEMA1NS. 



53 




Silver ear-ring. Full size 



string of beads (engraved above) 
round its neck, and which was 
probably that of a female, were 
found two ear-rings, formed of thin 
crescent-shaped plates of silver, the 
ends drawn out fine and twisted 
together. One of these is shewn 
in the adjoining 
cut, fig. 4. These 
also are new types 

of Anglo-Saxon personal ornaments of 
the early period to which the barrows 
belong. In one grave, the skeleton had 
a ring (fig. 5) of bronze, of rather large dimensions. 

Among other articles mentioned by Mr. Tabram, was a 
bronze pin on a piece of wire, exactly like one of those 
represented in our former notice of the Anglo-Saxon bar- 
rows of Gloucestershire (Journal, vol. ii, p. 54, fig. 8) ; and 
two bronze fibula, both circular, one very thin, but the 
other thick and massive, with the appearance of having 
been gilt. The latter is represented, the size of the 
original, in the following cuts. 




. 6. Ring, "Full size. 




Bronze fibula gilt. Full size. 



A general comparison of the articles found in this very 
remarkable tumulus, with those found in known Saxon 
graves in other parts of the island, can leave no doubt of 
the people to whom it must be ascribed ; but there are 
several characteristics quite peculiar to it ; among which, 
not the least remarkable are the extensive remains of 



54 SAXON REMAINS. 

cremation, and the method of forming the graves. Several 
instances have occurred in which, among Saxon interments 
where the bodies were evidently deposited entire, one or 
two solitary individuals had been burnt before burial ; and 
the earliest Anglo-Saxon poetry, such as the poem of 
Beowulf, speaks of burning as being at a remote period 
one part of the funeral rites. The circle of graves round the 
tumulus described above, appear to have been quite inde- 
pendent of the ashes and burnt bones in the interior. It 
is, however, much to be regretted that the progress of the 
excavation was not more carefully watched. 

THOMAS WEIGHT. 



55 



of tfje Association. 



JANUARY 12, 1848. 

Mr. KIBKMANN exhibited two Roman coins, or ancient copies of coins, in 
lead, which had been dredged from the bed of the Thames, accompanied 
by the following remarks : 

" The subject I am about to introduce to the notice of the Association is 
that of the leaden money of the Romans, on which very little hitherto has 
been said and still less seems to be known. 

" The earliest notice of the subject I have been able to find in any nu- 
mismatic writer, occurs in the work of Beverinus de Ponderibus et Mensuris 
Antiquorum, the first edition of which was published at Naples in 1639 : 
he tells us simply that leaden money was mentioned by Plautus in joke, 1 
and cites the passage in the Cassina : " Cui homini peculi nummus non 
est nisi plumbeus." 2 

" The next writer in point of time by whom the subject is mentioned is 
the well-known Charles Patin, in his Introduction a la Connoissance des 
Medailles, the first edition of which was published in 1665 ; he says: ' that 
the expression ' nummum plumbeum' frequently occurs in ancient writers, 
and that Erasmus had no doubt but that the term was proverbial for having 
no money at all' ; for which he quotes the authority in Plautus already 
noticed. 3 

"In 1692 Louis Jobert published in French a numismatic work, La 
Science des Medailles, and here for the first time the actual existence of an 
antique medal of lead is referred to. He tells us, 4 ' that some leaden 
medals are to be met with, and that those which are ancient are most 
curious ; and he says that he had seen at Avignon a Tigranes, but that 
antiquaries would hardly agree that there were any ancient medals of lead.' 

"Passing over a variety of intermediate writers, who, with the exception 
of Ficoroni presently mentioned, merely echo what had been said before, 

1 Bartholomaei Beverini de Ponde- 3 Introductio ad Historiam Numis- 
ribus et Mensures Antiquorum. Naples matura, p. 37, et seq. Ed. 1683. 
1719, p. 78. 4 The Knowledge of Medals. Lon- 

2 Cas. 2-3, 75. don, 1697, p. 21. 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

I come to the last edition of Pinkerton in 1808. 1 In vol. i, page 61, after 
asserting that the Tigranes mentioned as genuine by Jobert was then per- 
fectly well known to be a forgery, he refers to the passage in Plautus 
already noticed as an authority for the existence of Roman money of 
lead ; but contends that the few imperial coins that had been found were 
chiefly trial-pieces, in order to enable the artist to judge of the ' progress 
of the die,' and that others were those which had been plated and the 
covering worn off. 

" In 1740 Ficoroni published at Rome his Piombi Antichi* in which he 
has given about five hundred examples of ancient leaden pieces ; but 
amongst them all there is scarcely one that can be clearly identified as an 
imperial Roman coin, all of them being for the most part leaden medal- 
lions, seals, and tickets for admission to public or private places of vice or 
amusement. 

" In this state of the subject, and the singular paucity of information 
concerning everything that relates to it, I feel much pleasure in exhibiting 
to the Association two imperial coins of lead, of Nero and Aurelius, of the 
size of first and second brass, obtained from that fruitful mother of an- 
tiquities the bed of the Thames. 

" That of Aurelius was picked up on the towing-path at Barnes, where part 
of the soil taken from the site of old London Bridge had been deposited : 
it bears the head of Aurelius to the right, with the inscription . . . AVBELIVS 
CAE . . ; and, on the obverse, Mars marching to the right with the hasta and 
trophy between the letters s . c, with the inscription TB POT in cos n. 

" That of Nero was picked up on Old Swan wharf, where part of the 
same soil had been deposited : it represents the head of Nero to the right, 
with the inscription NEBO CLAVD CAESAE Ava GEE PM TBP IMP ; and, on the 
obverse, a figure standing in front of an altar, with a patera in the right 
hand and a cornucopia in the left, between the letters s . c : the inscription 

is GENIO AVGVSTI. 

" Without attaching to the subject more importance than it deserves, it 
appears to me that the conclusion necessarily drawn from the consideration 
of these coins is one of considerable interest: they would seem to establish 
beyond dispute that the line so often cited from Plautus has reference to 
the actual subsistance of a leaden coinage amongst the Romans, and is 
not mere hyperbole : it may be admitted as highly probable, that the artist 
might (according to the idea of Pinkerton), have tested his work as it pro- 
ceeded in a metal so ductile as lead ; but this can only apply to the work 
in an unfinished state, and not to the die when it was completed. But 
assuming a few specimens to have been struck off after the die was finished, 

1 An Essay on Medals. London. 2 I Piombi Antichi de Francesco de 
1808. Ficoroni. Rome, 1740. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 57 

the possibility that any of these should in more instances than one have 
descended to us through such a succession of ages is so remote, that it 
cannot be used as any argument against the plain sense of the poet's 
words, coupled with the actual presence of the coin itself. 

" For what purpose these coins were struck, and what was their relative 
value, I am unable to offer any solution, but must leave the subject to the 
further consideration of the Association." 

Mr. Koach Smith observed that the curious pieces exhibited by Mr. 
Kirkmann were unquestionably ancient, and of the highest degree of rarity. 
This latter fact would rather militate against the supposition of their 
having been intended for coins. They are simply casts from brass coins. 
The leaden money referred to by Mr. Kirkman, he (Mr. Smith) suggested 
may probably be recognized in the imitations in lead of the denarii, both con- 
sular and imperial, which are still not unfrequently met with, and numerous 
examples of which he had collected from the locality which had furnished 
Mr. Kirkmann 's interesting specimens. 

Mr. Kolfe exhibited two enamelled late Roman fibula? found at Rich- 
borough. One of these is circular, with concentric circles in a white, blue, 
and black composition; the other is square with a projection in the centre, 
mounted with white enamel. 

Mr. Inskipp of Shefford, Beds, communicated the following note, dated 
December 16 : 

" I have recently attended the entire removal of two mounds or barrows 
at Clifton, in a field three miles from Shefford. One human skull, accom- 
panied by the skeleton of some small animal, was found near the centre 
of the mound, and nearer to the margin stood a very humble vessel of 
unbaked clay containing ashes : this vase is in my possession. I regret 
my efforts were not crowned with more interesting results. 

" I have been this day to examine an eminence in a different direction 
I can scarcely call it a barrow : from hence I have collected two iron 
spurs, and one of bronze of excellent workmanship, and such as might 
challenge the nicest workman of the present day to rival ; besides these 
spurs the same site has produced a knife, some ornamental ironwork, a 
perforated slice or skimmer of bronze, also, a piece of thin brass, the seg- 
ment of a circle ten inches in diameter, clipped at the edges into unequal 
points with spaces between, the sharp points being alternately short and 
long. This curious relic has evidently been intended to represent the sun, 
and to my conviction has been fastened on to the centre of a shield, and a 
small piece of brass with four rivets now left in it leads me to conclude this 
was probably the means by which it was fastened. This is a singular relic, 
and I will next week send you a drawing therefrom, and shall be gratified if 
you can throw more light upon it than my conjectures afford. A quantity 
of human bones were also found, and black, fatty earth, but no charcoal. 

VOL. IV. 8 



58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

The spurs resemble those represented on the brasses of the Knights 
Templers ; they have very large rowels, or prongs, which are, like all the 
other parts of the spur, beautifully wrought. An immense quantity of sea 
shells and the common oyster shell was found here. Sometime since the 
labourers dug out a red basin, as they called it, which I doubt not was a 
Samian vase, and this, with other reasons, induces me to conclude that the 
spot was originally a place of Roman sepulture, and that a Saxon place of 
defence was built thereon, as the name Campton Bury implies." 

Mr. Smith laid before the Council a sketch of one of the Roman earthen 
vessels termed mortaria, forwarded to him by Mrs. Forster, of Greville 
Villa, Cheltenham. It was found with other pottery, a fibula, a portion 
of a mill-stone, and other objects, at the foot of Leckhampton Hill, during 
some excavations. A member of the Association (Captain Bell) is preserv- 
ing a more detailed record of the discovery, as well as the antiquities 
referred to by Mrs. Forster. 

Mr. Smith read an extract of a letter from Mr. P. B. Purnell, of Stans- 
combe P#rk, respecting the existence of some Roman architectural remains 
at Gloucester. Mr. Purnell states, that the base and part of the capital 
of a Roman pillar of the Corinthian order, has lately been excavated at 
the Westgate in the city. The base is three feet nine inches in diameter; 
the pillar would consequently be thirty feet high. These fragments were 
found at the depth of fourteen feet below the surface. A series of similar 
bases, Mr. Purnell states, reaches from the top of the Westgate, in the 
exact line of the present houses, half way down the street, serving as 
foundations for the modern houses. 

Mr. W. Harry Rogers exhibited an enamelled crucifix, illustrated by 
the following remarks : 

" There are few antiquaries who are not alive to the beauty and interest 
of medieval enamelled works, of which during a short time perhaps more 
specimens have claimed the attention of our Association, than, in a much 
longer period, have been laid before any other society. Such rare and 
valuable relics as the plate of the rev. Henry Crowe, the chasses of Mr. 
George Isaacs, the bowl of the earl of Warwick, and the Albert Durer 
enamel of Mr. Dodd, are objects which, from their high value and singular 
rarity, it is seldom in the power of private individuals to procure. I should 
be much wanting were I to omit adding to the above list any analogous 
example within my reach ; an enamelled crucifix, therefore, kindly 
placed at my disposal by Messrs. Falcke, of Oxford-street, I beg now 
to exhibit. It is one of a numerous class executed at Limoges in the 
thirteenth century, but possessing all the features of Byzantine design, 
for which, in a recent essay, I have endeavoured to account. 

" The crucifix of the time, with its usual characteristics, is shewn by 
a drawing furnished for this occasion, by the Freemasons of the Church. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



59 



The present example differs from it in a most important point. The 
remarkable monogram above the head of Our Saviour in this instance is 
composed of the letters IHI.; a variety, which, at first sight, it is some- 
what difficult to explain. 

" The contraction of the Greek form of the word Jesus, from its first 
appearance upon Gnostic gems, as ic, passed during the Middle Ages 
through the gradations of me and ms, down to the singular contortion 
YHS, which occurs in the Nuremberg Chronicle. Since the mis-interpreta- 
tion of the monogram as 'In hoc signo'; 'Jesus hominum Salvator' (accord- 
ing to the Jesuit conceit), or, ' Jesus hominum consolator', has entirely 
disappeared before the dawn of archaeological accuracy in the present age : 
the three letters under consideration cannot be regarded as initials, but 
simply as a mode of writing the sacred name, new to antiquaries, and 
which probably only took its rise in an error on the part of the artificer. 

"This seems the more probable when it is remembered that the 
inscription i. N.B.I (Jesus Nazarenus Rex Judaeorum) often occupied the 
same position ; and a workman, accustomed to sculp the latter, might 
easily be supposed, in executing the sacred monogram, to have substituted 
by an oversight a letter i for the final s. Even in highly important 
inscriptions, from an early date, down to the sixteenth century, similar 
mistakes abound. Their occurrence upon ' jettons ', or ' abbey counters', 
is proverbial; and I may close by reminding you, that upon a costly 
nigellum ring, exhibited at one of our meetings by Mr. George Isaacs, it 
was seen that the word ' Maria' commenced with an N." 

In reply to an inquiry made by Mr. Waller, as to the reasons for 
Mr. Rogers assigning this crucifix to so late a date as the thirteenth 
century, its Byzantine character suggesting a much earlier period, Mr. 
Rogers replied that the enamel previous to the thirteenth century exhi- 
bited in parts a chocolate colour, which was wanting in the present ex- 
ample. Also, from comparison with other works of known date, he was 
confirmed in believing it to be of the period to which he had consigned it. 

JANUARY 26. 

The hon. R. C. Neville forwarded a descriptive list of the large brass 
coins found at Chesterford. They range as follows : 

Claudius 1 

Vespasian 3 

Domitian 13 

Nerva 2 

Trajan 56 

Hadrian 62 

Sabina 1 

138 



Brought up 
Antoninus Pius . . 
Faustina Senior . . 


. 138 
. 31 
. 12 

8 


Faustina Junior . . 
Commodus .... 


1 
1 


Illegible 


3 


Total . 


. 194 



60 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



The coins of the earlier emperors are in general much worn from 
circulation; those of the later division are well preserved. Among them, 
as may be supposed, are rare types, such as those relating to the conquests 
of Trajan; an amphitheatre, etc., of the same emperor; of Hadrian, 
Disciplina Aug. ; the emperor and four soldiers : others, with several 
figures ; the Eex Quadis datus of Pius : the Mternitas Aug. of Faustina 
Senior, the empress in a car drawn by two elephants ; of Aurelius, one of 
the galley types, and that of Virtus Aug. Imp. vi, Cos. iii ; a bridge, over 
which the emperor is passing, attended by five soldiers. There were also 
three coins in second brass, of Trajan, Hadrian, and Pius, in fine preserv- 
ation. Since the discovery of the above deposit, Mr. Neville has acquired 
from the same site, a second brass coin of Hadrian, with the reverse of 
Britannia Cos. iii, a personification of the province of Britain, seated. 

Mr. Wire exhibited a 
Roman statuette, in 
bronze, of good work- 
manship, recently dug 
up at Colchester. It 
represents a genius, or 
cupid, bearing fruit in its 
left arm, and a bunch of 
grapes in the extended 
right hand. The annexed 
cut gives the image of 
the actual size. . 

Mr. Pretty presented 
impressions of two cir- 
cular seals of the four- 
teenth century. The 
one reads round the de- 
vice of a hammer, or 
mallet, between a fleur- 
de-lis and a star, Rolanti 
Chavvet; the other, Caput 
lohns, the head of the Bap- 
tist in a charger. The 
former was found at Irth- 
lingborough ; the latter, at Northampton, in the Castle-foss. 

A communication from Mr. F. W. Lukis, addressed to the secretary, 
was read : 

" In reply to your inquiry, made at the suggestion of some of our asso- 
ciates, whether the engraving on the stones of the cromlech of Gavr' Innis 
might not possibly be the result of some geological or accidental pheno- 





PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 61 

menon, and that the rubbings lately sent you would be the result of the 
raised stratification on the surface of the stones, I beg leave to make the 
following remarks : 

" 1st. The small island of Gavr' Innis is of granite, that is to say, the 
compound of felspar, mica, and quartz, in its common or more ordinary 
intermixture, affording, when examined in situ, no peculiarity to distin- 
guish it from the granites which compose this part of Brittany. 

" The rocks on the island exhibit no peculiar tendency to decompose, 
but in the ordinary manner, either by disintegration or occasional scaling, 
as is common during the weathering of this rock. 

" The general texture is coarse, crystalline, and confused ; the several 
minerals interfering with each other's form, as commonly seen in other 
granites. 

" In the mass there is no laminar or concretionary visible structure, 
neither is there any appearance of such a tendency in its usual decompo- 
sition. 

" The whole of the cromlech of Gavr' Innis is formed of blocks of this 
granite, with the exception of one or two props, which are of quartz, but 
these are not engraved upon. 

" The blocks appear to have the exact shape and size which they origin- 
ally had, when obtained in order to form and occupy the place they now 
do. They are rude and unsquared by the hand of man. Several of them 
may be seen to have been exposed to atmospheric influence previously to 
their present position. 

" These blocks have no markings on any part of their exterior surfaces, 
and it is only that part which may be said to wall the chamber of the 
cromlech which possesses any. 

" There are several props on both sides of the chamber of granite, on 
whicb no markings appear ; nor is there the least appearance of desquama- 
tiou which might have obliterated the designs. 

" The flat stones forming the roof are not engraved ; these are also gra- 
nite blocks of the same nature as the sides. It must be observed that in 
the cromlech of Dol-ar-Marchant, one of the roof stones is engraved, and 
must have contained more markings once than at present ; this is attri- 
butable to the scaling and weathering now going on, by which, in a short 
time, the whole will resume a plain surface entirely devoid of engravings. 

" 2nd. The nature of the ingredients which compose ordinary granite is 
so well known, that you will scarcely require my enlarging upon them ; 
and though the common appearance of granite is uniform, and to the gene- 
ral observer apparently homogeneous, there are various modes of decom- 
position in that rock which might at first sight induce a similarity or 
resemblance to the engravings in Gavr' Innis. 

" It is known to geologists that granite in decomposition will affect the 



62 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

appearance of a schistose rock, and produce a very anomalous structure, 
so as to pass for gneiss or other stratified rocks. Sometimes concentric 
lines or stain-marks are observed, denoting an incipient decomposition. 
A scaling then succeeds, spreading outward of a common centre, which 
would seem to cover a nucleus, and which is sometimes deep seated within 
the mass. If this mode of decomposition is uniform around it, a bolder 
or globular rock is the result. All this is to be remarked as applicable to 
the upper portions of the general mass of the rock, or in the neighbour- 
hood of veins. In this manner of decomposition, granite may exhibit 
appearances very similar to volcanic and other rocks. 

" In examining the lines which surround the nucleus in question, we 
find that they consist of a stain, as if an iron mould was the original cause 
of this destructive process. After a time a hole in the stone is the conse- 
quence, and a succession of these is occasionally found. They are of dif- 
ferent thicknesses, and the spaces between them are irregular and broken 
by the crystalline structure of the scale, which does not appear affected 
by the desquamation which is slowly going on in the mass itself. 

" This process would produce a concentric stratification on the surface 
of the rock, and its appearance might possibly be somewhat like the 
designs on the stones of Gavr' Innis. The arrow or herring-bone patterns 
must however be sought for by another process. If the rock composing 
the cromlech had been of gneiss, some of the parallel designs might offer 
an analogy to the edges of the foliated structure of that rock. Here we 
do see flexures and contortions equally uniform with some of the repeti- 
tions of lines in the cromlech, but we have to do with a granite, and the 
assumption ceases. 

" The alternate lamina? in the above mentioned mode of decomposition 
presents us with many objections, if we now examine the channels or 
grooves of the engravings on the props of the cromlech. Here we have a 
rounded groove on the same plain, and not a succession of sharp raised 
foliations, as might be expected, were they naturally formed of a schistose 
rock, or by the mode of decomposition above mentioned. 

" The elegant stratified appearance of some of the magnesian rocks of 
various countries would have afforded us numerous points of comparison, 
but rocks of sediment or of precipitation will scarcely allow us a just com- 
parison with our granite block, which has so little mechanical structure 
about it, and their geological distinctions are too well marked to justify 
conclusions from a few partial configurations of like appearance. Allow- 
ing a minutely laminar or foliated structure to granite, there are no 
examples in the neighbourhood of Gavr' Innis to confirm the conjecture 
made of these designs being the effect of a natural cause. The size of 
the stones and the varied patterns could only be attributable to a con- 
firmed foliated structure throughout on a schistose rock, and it must be 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 63 

remarked that some of the lines (as in the example at Dol-ar-Marchant) 
are simply engraved upon a plain surface, without the raised rib being 
perceptible to the hand when passed over the surface of the rock. 

" I do not know what is the nature of the stone used in the construc- 
tion of the mounds of New Grange, or, if granite has been employed, 
would any geological phenomenon be ascribed to the designs on these 
stones ? 

" You will perceive that I have reasoned upon the objection made by 
some of your members ; and I have taken the structure of granite, and its 
mode of decomposition, which appeared to me the only part of this pri- 
mary rock which could afford a conjecture that some similarity existed 
between the two appearances. 

" I regret that I cannot send you a portion of these interesting engrav- 
ings, and I fear the impossibility of bringing away any portion of that 
singular structure. A personal visit to Brittany would at once be the 
means of removing any doubt of that work being artificial or not. 

" I have endeavoured to avoid technicalities, but I fear I have not 
treated the matter as some of your friends might have done ; but if I have 
not answered to their objections, I shall be glad to know how to explain 
appearances which no examination of granite within my reach or expe- 
rience has ever enabled me to observe. I cannot, however, conclude with- 
out assuring you that no natural agent could produce the various patterns 
and designs visible on the stones of this cromlech." 

Mr. F. Baigent presented a drawing of an early Norman font, which he 
had found filled with dirt and rubbish, in the belfry of Hurstbourne Priors 
church, Hants. 

Mr. Carley, builder, of Wrotham, Kent, exhibited fifteen silver coins of 
James I, Elizabeth, Charles I, and Charles II, found in pulling down a 
cottage at Wrotham, concealed in the roof or rafters near the fire-place. 

Mr. C. .Roach Smith stated, that in vol. iii, page 173, of the Journal, 
reference was made to a fragment of Roman sculpture found at Chester- 
ford, in Essex. He had since learned that it is preserved in the British 
Museum. By the kindness of the hon. R. C. Neville, the Council is 
enabled to supply cuts of it, and thus correct the erroneous notions formed 
from the defective engraving in Horsley. 

The figures, although much injured by time, were evidently intended to 
represent not the Decs Matres, but other divinities, of which Mercury 
and Venus may be recognized by their symbols ; and the other two 
may probably be Jupiter and Mars. The original form and use of this 
fragment cannot be easily ascertained. It would appear to have been cut 
to fit into part of some building, as upon one side are no traces of sculp- 
ture, nor at the back, which is not straight, nor are all the sculptured 



64 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 






luclws 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 65 

sides at equal angles. The two uppermost cuts exhibit it in two views, 
and beneath is a plan exhibiting its peculiarity of form. 



FEBRUABY 8. 

The rev. Beale Poste communicated the following account of the dis- 
covery of an ancient sepulchral interment of a very remarkable description, 
near Maidstone : 

" The site of this discovery is a large stone quarry in the parish of 
Allington, about a mile north-west of Maidstone, and occupied by Mr. 
Tassell, architect and builder ; the interment being in a bed of loam which 
is interposed between two veins of rag-stone, and which was necessary to 
be removed to carry on the works of the quarry. 

" The time of discovery was the 10th of December last, when a cavity 
was fallen in with about four feet six inches long by three feet broad, and 
five feet deep from the surface of the ground. The cavity itself being 
about eighteen inches high where the head and chest of the skeleton were 
laid, and the height at the other end about twelve inches. The body was 
deposited nearly north-west and south-east. 




" The manner of forming the cist, which was constructed in a way 
extremely unusual, was as follows: The pit having been dug of the 
dimensions as above stated, the bottom and lower parts of the sides were 
worked and prepared in the same way as clay is tempered for making- 
pottery or bricks. When this had been sufficiently done, fuel was intro- 
duced and a strong fire made, which burnt into a solid substance of 
brick the bottom and lower parts of the sides ; and thus the cist was in 
part formed and the work so far advanced. When this had been thus 
made and had become cool, the ashes were cleared out, and the corpse was 
placed in, along (as is conjectured by impressions on the interior lining of 
the cist) with a quantity of moss, which was strewed on and about the 
body. It appears from the nature of the cavity the head must have been 
inclined on the chest, and the knees slightly raised and bent. A dome 

VOL. IV. y 



66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

was then made over the corpse, composed of rods of wood, in diameter 
from an inch to half an inch, stretched across from side to side, crossed at 
about the distance of six or seven inches (as was judged) by other rods, 
two or three together, some impressions of which have been preserved. 
This having been prepared for a support, the dome of tempered clay was 
then made over it, fuel introduced, and a very strong fire again made, 
which burnt the dome into a complete vaulting of brick over the corpse : 
and after this a layer of large stones was placed over the dome about a 
foot thick : and afterwards the pit filled up with common earth, and so left. 

" According to this process, as has been described, the interment seems 
to have been prepared. As to the circumstances of the discovery. On 
the workmen coming to the place, in the course of moving the soil, the 
brick dome and stones fell in upon the bones of the skeleton, and broke 
most of them : they were, however, carefully collected, as also many 
pieces of the dome, bearing the impressions of the rods which had formed 
the supporting frame-work, and placed in the shed attached to the quarry. 
No coins, and not the least particle of pottery, was found in the cist, as 
was ascertained by carefully examining the earth taken out. 

" The bones, though somewhat soft and brittle when found, from the 
loss of animal matter, were in a high state of preservation ; and had it not 
been for the circumstance of the cist falling in, a very entire skeleton 
might have been formed of them. The state of the skull, from the 
sutures being much obliterated, shewed the individual to have been about 
seventy years of age. The form of the skull also shewed that he did not 
belong to the present race which possess the island ; but to the Celtic 
division of the European family. It was very narrow in the front part, 
and low in the forehead, exhibiting but little development of the intel- 
lectual faculties, while the organs of self-preservation, and other inferior 
organs in the hinder parts of the skull, were strongly developed. The bones 
seem to be those of a person about five feet seven inches high while in 
life ; the thigh bone being seventeen inches long, and the other bones in 
proportion. The right bone of the pelvis exhibited an osseous deposit, 
circular in form, about two inches and three-quarters in diameter, about 
a quarter of an inch thick in the central part, and gradually diminishing 
all round to the circumference, until it became lost in the healthy bone. 
There was also a small transverse fissure across the interior side of the 
same bone, exhibiting the appearance as if it had sustained the unusual 
injury of being fractured from the inside to the outside, and not in the 
contrary direction, as would appear most obvious. 

" It may be mentioned as indicative of the good state of preservation of 
the bones, that Dr. Plomley, F.G.S., a gentleman eminent for his phy- 
siological and scientific attainments, a resident in Maidstone, and Mr. 
Bensted, F.G.S., noted as a geologist, of the same place, are endeavouring 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 67 

to re-connect and articulate the skeleton, to place it in the Museum of 
Natural History at present forming in Maidstone. 

" The teeth apparently had been every one in a sound state. None 
were in a state of decay, even incipiently so ; but from the broken condi- 
tion of the jaws, upper and lower, only twenty-four were collected, the 
rest becoming lost in the rubbish. They appear to differ from the teeth 
of modern races of mankind, from their excessive hardness, and from the 
thickness of the enamel, which is nearly double that of modern teeth. 
The great wear they have had, indicates that the individual lived partly 
on raw corn, peas, wheat, etc. Some of them having been worn down 
three-sixteenths of an inch, if not more, almost, if not quite, to the crown. 

" The annals of our ancient sepulchral deposits, perhaps scarcely afford 
an instance of one more singular. Whether the persons who performed 
the funeral rites, intended that the body should be consumed by fire, is 
not certain. The dome of clay was burnt into brick by the second fire, 
made upon it after the interment, and the framework of wattles, on which 
the dome was supported, was burnt into charcoal ; yet in the result, no 
effect was produced on the bones, which it seems when the deposit was 
discovered, were all in the most perfect state of preservation, and shewed 
not the slightest trace of fire. The mode of sepulture, indeed, must have 
tended in some way to the extraordinary preservation of the skeleton ; 
apparently by the pyroligneous acid, formed by the combustion of the 
wattle-work, and the moss, which appears to have been placed in the 
cavity with the corpse. 

" There having been no Anglo-Saxon or Koman remains found in this 
ancient sepulchre, and the interment appearing to have been decidedly 
British, from the form of the skull of the person, which belongs to the 
Celtic race of the European family ; the date of the interment is so far 
perfectly indefinite. It may have taken place 1700 or 2700 years ago : 
but there is one circumstance which may rather induce us to select the 
former period, than the latter ; namely, the close proximity of a former 
Romano-British villa, or building. 

" Much of the foundations of this had been taken up, it is supposed, not 
many years since, but attracted no notice ; when, in 1844, the remaining 
parts were removed, on which occasion intimation of the circumstance was 
brought to Mr. T. Charles, of Maidstone; too late, however, for a plan to be 
made, or for more than a few fragments of a hypocaust to be preserved. But 
Mr. Charles, who some years since had noticed the road leading down to 
Allington Castle being mended with Koman tile, and had been unable to 
ascertain from what building it was taken, then became acquainted with 
the source from whence it was produced. It now being known that this 
ancient sepulchre is only about 100 yards east of the site of the former 
Romano-British villa, the supposition is rendered probable that the inter- 



68 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

ment was connected with it. The interment, it is true, is not according 
to the Romano -British custom, as no fragments of pottery were found; hut 
the person buried might have been some Briton, part of the household of 
the villa, and by his wish, may not have been buried in conformity with 
the usual modes of those who adopted Roman customs. In corroboration 
of this, it may be observed, that Roman and Romano-British interments, 
when foundations of Roman buildings are discovered in their immediate 
proximity, are almost always to the east of them, as this : from what cause 
is not known : and the great burying-place at Rome, the Esquiline hills, 
was also on the eastern side of the city. 

" It should be added to the above, that at the time the quarrymen dis- 
covered this ancient sepulchral deposit, Mr. Bogue, superintendent of the 
consignments of quarry-stone for Messrs. Lee, a most intelligent person, 
was present, and has been extremely useful in communicating information 
of the state of the cist, etc." 

Mr. Bensted thus observes on the Allington sepulchral remains: 

" The pit was excavated in a bed of red clay, in its formation subsequent 
to the tertiary strata, and much used in the neighbourhood for brick- 
making. This bed of it formed a vault of considerable extent, bounded 
on two sides by detached broken beds of Kentish rag-stone. The situation 
is near to the division of the parishes of Allington and Maidstone, and is 
about 220 yards from the river Medway : the surface of the place is about 
seventy feet above it, and has a rather steep descent to the river side. 

" Upon examining the burnt clay, very perfect casts of a striated stem 
of grass may be seen, and also the impressions of small seed vessels, not 
unlike grass seeds. The stems were mixed up in the clay similar to 
chopped straw. In the fragments of the burnt clay preserved, very clear 
impressions of small rods are visible, both longitudinal and transverse. 
Parallel to the inner surface of the tomb is a perfect impression of a rod 
or wattle, about three-quarters of an inch in diameter, and coming within 
half-an-inch of the concave surface ; there appear impressions of three 
rods of similar size crossing the upright impression, and at the back are 
two casts of rods running up and down. 

" The above arrangements appear to warrant the inference, that a frame 
of wattle-work was made over the body; and the clay after being properly 
tempered was worked into the interstices of the rods, the fire afterwards 
being applied gave the whole structure a sufficient solidity to sustain the 
weight of a pile of loose stones lying on the top." 

Mr. Smith read a note from Mr. Cobb, giving the particulars of exca- 
vations made by him at Button Baron, in the parish of Borden, Kent. 

" In the autumn of the year 1846, the foundations of two buildings 
were clearly traced out by the shortness of the clover, in a field called 
Fourteen Acres, near the old Manor-house, at Button Baron. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 69 

" The first foundation explored was a square one. The walls, which 
were composed of large flint stones, were about eighteen inches in thick- 
ness and little more in depth, and twelve below the surface of the earth ; 
the interior was filled up with stones, mortar with small particles of brick 
in it, and pieces of tile, together with a quantity of oyster shells. 

"The next foundation laid open was oblong. The walls were both 
thicker and deeper than those of the other, but the same distance below 
the surface ; in the interior were found rows of square tiles, in piles of 
six each, placed on each other ; the intervening space was filled up with 
mortar, broken tiles, and fragments of pottery. Like the other, it was 
connected with no other foundation. 

" The spot where the coins were found is of considerable extent, and 
has been apparently a pond filled up. There were also a quantity of 
nails, fragments of pottery, knives, door-hinges, and bone-pins, found 
here." 

In Ii*eland's History of Kent, vol. iv, p. 37, occurs the following pas- 
sage : " In 1695, Dr. Plot, when sinking a cellar at Sutton Baron, 
discovered several Koman bricks with their edges upwards, much like 
those previously turned up at the ancient Roman Sullonica near Ellestre, 
in Middlesex." 

The coins found by Mr. Cobb, thirty-five in number, are : Gallienus, 
three ; Tetricus, twenty-eight ; Numerian, one ; Carausius, two ; Allectus, 
one. 

A note from Mr. Fulcher, of Sudbury, was read. Mr. Fulcher states : 
" An antique oak pulpit, of remarkable elegance and beauty, has been 
recently discovered in the church of All Saints, in this town. It had been 
concealed for centuries by deal-boards and paint, to say nothing of greater 
enormities, so that none but the curious in church architecture could have 
suspected its latent excellence. This pulpit is Gothic, an octagon of 
the perpendicular style, beautifully proportioned, richly carved in the 
higher parts of the panels, and terminates in a single pedestal. The 
latest date which can be assigned to it is the early part of Henry VII 's 
reign, the date of the church being as old as the reign of Edward IV. The 
oak is perfectly sound, and the edges of the tracery as perfect as if fresh 
from the carver's hands. The work of restoration is in the hands of 
Mr. Ringham, of Ipswich, who proceeds in a highly satisfactory manner. 
Pulpits of this description are exceedingly rare ; the only one known in 
this or neighbouring counties is that in Southwold church." 

Mr. T. C. Brown communicated the particulars of recent discoveries at 
Cirencester, with sketches. He writes : " The Roman amphitheatre at 
Cirencester, vulgarly called the Bull-ring, situated in the Querns, a piece 
of land curiously tossed about, now hilly fields, in a district otherwise 
level, was visited by the British Archffiological Association in the year 



70 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



1846. Some of the members of the Association will remember this 
ground, it having been pointed out to them from the high mounds of the 
amphitheatre. Some particulars were given them of the discoveries made 
from time to time there, viz. : the quarries worked by the Romans, hav- 
ing the stones with the mortices in them ; the stone coffins, seven of which 
have been found within a few years ; the signet of gold ; the Roman steel- 
yard of brass, with a leaden weight covered with composition ; glass lacry- 
matories ; bracelets ; coins ; skeletons, one with massive iron fetters on it. 

" I have now to inform you that new discoveries have just been made in 
part of this ground, cut off from the amphitheatre by the railway, which 
the proprietor has been levelling, carrying the earth away from one foot 
to one yard in depth. About twenty skeletons were discovered, generally 
detached, but one group was found containing five skeletons placed side 
by side, and one at the feet ; a massive stone coffin ; a tomb-stone ; three 
roughly-cut sarcophagi, two of them containing rude urns full of burnt 
bones. Other urns were found deposited in the naked earth ; amongst 
the burnt bones in one urn were a few birds' bones and a charred chry- 
salis in a cocoon ; a few Roman coins of the later empire ; a bronze Her- 
cules, imperfect, but with a finely-cut head and bust ; fibulae, etc. 

" I have given a rude sketch of the sarcophagus, which I do not remem- 
ber to have seen found here before ; also of the monumental stone, which 
is remarkable only for some relation which it would seem to bear to an- 
other found a hundred years ago in the same neighbourhood, and which I 




D AA 



CAST 





have likewise sketched. The former (fig. 2) is cut in calcareous freestone, 
like the shaft of a column, the lower portion being hollowed for the 
reception of an um containing the burnt bones. The inscription clis- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 71 

covered in the last century is cut on a stone similar in shape to that 
recently excavated (fig. 1), and, for comparison, is here given : 



D M 

IVLIAE CASTAE 
CON1VGI VIX 
ANN XXXIII 



" The skulls, like all the ancient ones I have met with in this neigh- 
bourhood, are remarkable for the fine preservation of the teeth, which are 
even set, none deficient, and both front and grinders much worn. 

" There is an uniform type in the skulls smooth, well developed, ex- 
panding towards the occiput excepting two varying remarkably from this 
type. Being unlearned, I will not attempt to define them, especially as I 
have forwarded one of each to Dr. Prichard, the president of the Ethno- 
logical Society." 

Mr. Croker read the following extract from a letter he had received 
from sir W. Betham : "Among the most recent discoveries here in 
Dublin, has been eleven Etruscan coins, eight of which are figured in my 
Etruria Celtica ; two others, duplicates, with a horse on one side and a 
wheel on the other, about the common size of an as, certainly Etruscan, 
but which I have not found figured in any Italian work ; and a small coin, 
with a head on one side and a horse on the other, all in bronze. The 
twelfth coin, for there were twelve, is a Roman as of the oldest type, 
the bifrons on the obverse, the reverse the prow of a ship with ROMA 
under it. They were found by the workmen in digging the foundation of 
a house on Arran Quay in this city, as well as we are able to learn from 
the people (labourers) from whom the proprietor of the house obtained 
them. This is a new feature and ingredient in the ancient history of 
Ireland." 

Mr. Pettigrew read the following note from the rev. H. F. Woolrych : 
" The galleries in Watford church having been condemned to demoli- 
tion, together with the large square pews, some fresco paintings have been 
discovered on two of the octagonal pillars which divide the nave of the 
church from the north aisle ; three faces of one of these pillars have seve- 
ral representations : one of a clerical personage of large dimensions, and 
two others which I have attempted to trace." 

The subjects of some of these paintings, which are in very bad preser- 
vation, appear to be St. Christopher and St. Dunstan. 

Mr. Kent, of Stanton, Suffolk, forwarded sketches of Anglo-Saxon wea- 
pons in iron, found some time since on an eminence in the north part of 
the village of Stanton, deposited by the side of a skeleton, together with 
the boss of a shield. Mr. Kent also supplied the following notes relating 
to other discoveries in the vicinity of Stanton : " In the adjoining village 
of Bardwell, on an eminence overlooking the village, a good many skele- 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

tons have been discovered within the last forty years. I saw the hoss of 
a shield that was found there three years since, and it had a projection in 
the convex centre, of what I considered to be gold. I think some one 
at Diss, in Norfolk, has got it now. A small earthen pot, containing 
the bones of an infant, was also found on the same spot by a workman, 
who deposited it again, and it cannot be found now. 

" About a quarter of a mile from this place a good many fragments of 
Roman pottery have been found, and some coins also. The pottery was 
almost all broken. I saw some fragments the other day there, of a very 
large bowl made of white earth, and the man who found it has also got 
some coins for me to examine when I have time." 

Mr. W. Newton exhibited drawings of some Roman fictile vessels, 
accompanied by remarks as follows : " The three vases, sketches of 
which, drawn to the real size, accompany this, are part of a considerable 
number that have been lately dug from the earth in cutting a part of the 
Great Northern Railway, near the village of Little Wymondly, in the 
county of Herts. In examining the progress of this work a few weeks 
ago, I learned from the labourers employed, that in excavating a part of 
the line on the side of a bank which they pointed out to me, they came 
into an ancient burial-place, where many vases of rough yellow clay, unor- 
namented and of different shapes, fell from their resting-places, most of 
them without being broken by the spade. The depth at which these 
vases were buried was stated to have been about five feet below the pre- 
sent surface. Some of them contained fragments of bones in a very 
crumbling condition ; some of the lesser vases were within the larger ones, 
and appeared to have been broken at their feet when placed there, or 
decayed by time. 

" I could hear nothing of coins or warlike weapons having been found 
amongst them, and was at first inclined to consider these vases and bones 
to have belonged to Roman people of the lower order, who probably 
resided in this locality in the early part of the Christian era. I was the 
more inclined to think so from the circumstance of the Roman Icknield 
way crossing the country within a short distance (say two miles) of this 
spot ; and within a lesser distance than that the Wilbury hills are situ- 
ate, upon which there are some ancient entrenchments, said to have 
formed a Roman encampment. 

" The larger vase contained broken bones and some earth, of which a 
small quantity accompanies this. The lesser vase, broken at the foot, 
was within the larger one, but what it might have originally contained, I 
know not. The pitcher or bottle, of the same yellow clay, is of a classic 
form, well made, with a good shaped handle, but rough, and not superior 
to our ordinary garden-pot ware : it is evidently an ordinary domestic 
utensil. This, I believe, was empty, but what was its use or object in 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 73 

being buried with the dead, I must leave for others to decide. These 
vases are now in the possession of a private gentleman residing at Hit- 
chin, through whose kindness I have been enabled to make the accom- 
panying sketches. Many other specimens of this kind, taken from the 
same spot, are, as I am informed, in the possession of other parties in the 
neighbourhood, but I have not seen any of them. 

" I may add also, that near the same spot from which the vases were 
taken, there were found a few small iron nails (perhaps from twenty to 
thirty). They are about the size of hob-nails or shoe-nails used by our 
labouring peasantry. They had thick heads, and were all bent at their 
points as though turned or clenched, after having been driven through 
some hard substance, as plate-iron, brass, wood, or leather ; and, what is 
very singular, I am informed that, when found, these nails all lay in a 
semicircular range, at equal distances apart. Is it not probable that these 
nails were set round a small buckler of wood or leather, for the purpose of 
giving it strength, or as ornaments, the substance of which buckler has 
mouldered away by time, and left the nails in the position described ? 

" I hear that, in carrying on the excavation and cuttings of the Great 
Northern railway, some other sepulchral relics have been since discovered 
on the opposite side of the Wilbury hills, but of this I have not yet 
learned any particulars, except that, among the bones, spear-heads and 
other weapons have been found." 

Mr. Newton subsequently forwarded a letter from Mr. C. C. Newton, of 
Hitchin, stating that the spot where the urns, etc., were found, was not, 
as reported, in the cutting of the Great Northern railway, but in excavat- 
ing a river two miles in length and fifteen feet deep, the private under- 
taking of Mr. Waldock, of Stotfold Mill. 

Mr. Eosser read a letter from the Rev. George Cox, of Mitchel Dean, 
Gloucestershire, stating that a large quantity of Roman coins had been 
found at Lydbrook, in the forest of Dean, in searching for sandstone. 
Those which Mr. Cox had seen were of Gallienus, Victorinus, and Clau- 
dius Gothicus. 

The council are in hopes of securing, through the medium of Mr. Cox, 
the inspection of the coins, or a catalogue compiled before they become 
dispersed. 

Mr. Solly exhibited a plan of the Roman theatre discovered at Veru- 
lam, including the additional portions recently laid open. The council 
were unanimous in expressing a hope that the gentry and nobility of 
Hertfordshire would come forward and aid the St. Albans' Architectural 
Society in carrying on the excavations (which had hitherto been con- 
ducted with very slender pecuniary means, and on an extremely limited 
scale), when the importance and extent of the remains is considered. The 
council are happy to be able to state that the local society, under the 

VOL. IV. 10 




74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

superintendence of Mr. Grove Lowe, has promised to publish a detailed 

account of the discoveries as early as possible. 

Mr. Neale exhibited a small Koman bust, in 
bronze, apparently a steel-yard weight, found in 
the cliff at Walton-on-the-Naze, in the county of 
Essex. 

Mr. J. Albin Tabram communicated the dis- 
covery of some Anglo-Saxon remains, by labour- 
ers employed to level a barrow in a field called 
" Chavenage Slait," in the parish of Avening, 
Gloucestershire. Engravings of the objects dis- 
covered, which are of a highly interesting charac- 
ter, will be found in the present Journal. 

FEBRUAKY 23. 

Mr. Silvester, of Springhead, Kent, exhibited some Roman fibulae, 
coins, etc., discovered during the last few months, in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of his residence. 

Mr. W. Shaw presented drawings of Roman urns, found in levelling a 
barrow in the Loading Marsh, at Little Shelford, in the isle of Foulness, 
Essex, the property of Mr. Stephen Allen, of Rayleigh Lodge, in whose 
possession the urns now are. The isle of Foulness, on the Essex coast, 
is so far removed from the lines of commercial and social intercourse, as to 
be but little known to the antiquary or topographer. In fact, it presents but 
few points of attraction. It is unapproachable except at low water, and 
then only by the aid of a guide ; and during the winter months the island 
is almost impassable. Like all the low land on the Essex and Kentish 
coasts, it was apparently well peopled in the time of the Romans. 
Mr. Allen states, there is another barrow in the marsh where that 
in which the urns were found, stood ; this he intends examining on a 
future occasion. The interment described by Mr. Shaw presented no 
unusual feature. One large urn, containing burnt bones, occupied the 
centre of the mound, and around it were grouped seven or eight earthen 
vessels of different shapes, among which were two red glazed dishes of the 
types Nos. 6 and 14, in page 4 of this volume of the Journal. 

Mr. Shaw also exhibited a very perfect bronze spear-head, found at the 
ferry across the Crouch river at Hull-bridge ; and noticed the discovery 
of a small British gold coin, and coins of Trajan and Antoninus Pius, 
on the site of the Roman burial-place, near Billericay. The coins are in 
the possession of Mr. Wood, of Rochford. 

Mr. Shaw moreover stated, that during a recent visit to Canewdon, he 
had observed fragments of Roman house tiles, which had been recently 
excavated on the south side of the church-yard. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 75 

Mr. Humphrey Wickham exhibited a denarius of Elagabalus, and a 
penny of Harold, found at Rochester castle. The reverse of the latter 
reads LEOFPINE ON LVNDENE (Leofwine at London). 

Lord Hastings exhibited, through Mr. W. Harry Rogers, a copper- 
gilt crucifix of fine workmanship, and of the close of the thirteenth 
century. " The principal feature," Mr. Rogers remarked, " is the intro- 
duction of pale blue enamel of Limoges, and of a series of turquoises. 
The Byzantine character imparted to the whole is very apparent. But 
unfortunately the feet of the figure are restorations ; and the cross upon 
which the figure is placed, and which is elegantly ornamented on both 
sides with engraving, must be ascribed to a lower date than the figure 
itself. Many examples show that in the Middle Ages the turquoise was 
a favourite stone ; and some documents tend to prove that particular 
virtues were ascribed to it." 

Mr. R. Percival, F.S.A., communicated a note addressed to him by 
Mr. W. G. Tomkins, of Moscow, with an impression in wax of a penny 
of Ethelred II : 

" Knowing you to be interested in antiquities, and a curiosity of that 
sort having fallen under my observation the other day, I procured an 
impression to forward to you with a little description : it is an English 
coin, found near Dorpat, in very good preservation, as you will perceive by 
the impression. I have made a little sketch on paper to enable you to 
decipher it better ; its history, as supposed by my scientific friend in this 
town, is, that it formed part of the spoils of Danes or Northmen in some 
incursion into England, and was brought to Russia by them to trade for 
Asiatic productions at Novgorod, at that time the mart for such traffic ; 
its thickness is about one-twentieth of an inch, and its weight 220 grains ; 
its date is about 866 A.D., and it exhibits a very high degree of art for so 
remote a period. Hoping it may interest you and not prove unaccept- 
able." The legend on the reverse is EDELPEBD . MO . LVND . (Ethelwerd, 
moneyer, (at) London). 

Mr. Chaffers exhibited a plan of a Roman building discovered in Lower 
Thames -street, illustrated by a detailed account read to the public meet- 
ing on the llth, and printed in the present number of the Journal. 

Mr. Roach Smith, in bearing testimony to the accuracy of Mr. Chaffers' 
plan, said he differed from his colleague with respect to the purpose for 
which the hypocaust, one of the chief features in the remains, was 
intended, believing it was solely to provide warmth, and that the room 
above was a winter apartment, and not a sudatory. Mr. Smith said a 
great many Roman buildings, similarly constructed with hypocausts, and 
in every respect equally interesting, had been cut to pieces and utterly 
destroyed during the late " city improvements" ; and one could scarcely 
suppose that all these houses were provided with baths of such compara- 



76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

tive extent, while, on account of the coldness of the climate, it would be 
difficult to imagine any house unprovided with at least one warmed apart- 
ment. 

Mr. Hunt, of Ipswich, exhibited a gold ring found near that town, 
inscribed >Ji DAME . PENSEZ . DE . MEI. 

A paper on the Couvre Feu, by Mr. Syer Cuming, was laid upon the 
table, and will probably be printed in a future part of the Journal. 

MARCH 8. 

Mr. Joseph Clarke presented a sketch, taken by himself, of some 
remains discovered in November last, by the Hon. R. C. Neville, about 
half a mile from the village of Hey don, Essex, a short distance to the 
right of the road leading to Foulmire. With the concurrence of Mr. 
Neville, the council have provided an engraving of the sketch, which is 
explained by Mr. Clarke's notes : " It is a small and nearly square room, 
dug into the northern side of one of the numerous little hills or undula- 
tions thereabouts, roughly built round with pieces of chalk, the top of the 
structure having about four feet of earth above it. The bottom or floor, B, 
is apparently of lumps of chalk, and forms a very hard conglomerate ; on 
this floor, at the northern part of the building, is another raised smaller 
portion, c, of the same material and about a foot in height, probably form- 
ing a step into it. Around three sides of the floor, B, the fourth side at G 
being so disturbed as to defy exact location (but I judge there could be 
none), is a trench A, (the spade sticking in it), which was found filled with 
charcoal, ashes, etc. ; it is about eighteen inches deep and about as much 
wide, terminating abruptly at E, in a peculiar, narrow, small, deep chan- 
nel, not more than two or three inches in width, and from its declivity 
from without must have been an inlet, as if for the purpose of conveying 
fluid into the trench A. Surrounding the whole is a roughly-built wall, 
composed of irregular pieces of clunch (hard chalk) rudely squared ; it is 
about four feet high from the bottom of the trench, and forms one side of 
it. The corner, F, presents an appearance of arching, which suggests the 
idea of its having been domed or partially domed over ; but if this sup- 
position be correct, it must have been very low, the springing of the over- 
hanging blocks of chalk being not more than two feet six inches above the 
floor B. Marks of fire are palpably visible on the upright walls D D D, but 
as there are no evidences of wearing or burning away, it could have been 
but little used. The small brass coin of Constantius (Flavius Julius) the 
Second, and fragments of Samian and other Roman fictile ware, and imple- 
ments found in it, indicate it to be of that period, and conjecture is busy 
in suggesting an origin for this mysterious cavity. From the arching 
appearance at F, an inference may be drawn that it was a potter's oven, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



77 





n 




78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

the floor, B, being the receptacle of the unburnt vessels surrounded by the 
fire in the trench A. It might have been for the sacrifice of animals, as 
bones, antlers, etc., were found, and a small globular bell of brown metal, 
resembling a cattle or horse-bell, and similar to those bells of the present 
day called ramblers (those of the shape of church bells being called latin 
bells or latins) worn by teams of horses, a custom not yet quite extinct in 
the south of England. On comparison, a skeleton head found there 
proved to be that of an ass, but this might have been accidental, as the 
room might have been in a dilapidated state, and the creature might have 
fallen in and perished. But the finding of a bracelet or anklet of bronze 
suggests that it may have been a place of sepulture, where the corpse of 
some one of distinction was consumed according to the Roman funeral 
rites." 

The council was favoured with an account of this discovery by Mr. 
Neville himself, at their meeting on the 8th of December (see Journal, 
vol. iii, p. 340). This report, illustrated by the engraving, will be read 
with increased interest. The remains are probably sepulchral, and ori- 
ginally, it is likely, were covered with a mound of earth, which may have 
been levelled by the agriculturist at some former period. 

Mr. A. Durand presented an impression, in wax, from a circular seal 
now in the museum of Calais, which was found in the ruins of the palace 
of John, duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III. It bears a 
leopard or lion rampant, and a motto which appears to read >J< Je zu set 
de amour. 

Mr. G. R. Corner presented a tracing from an incised slab, with the fol- 
lowing communication : " I send you a tracing which I took in 1842 
from an incised stone slab in Matlock church, Derbyshire. It is in 
memory of Anthonie Woolley and Agnes his wife. The inscription round 
the edge of the stone is as follows : 

" ' Here lyeth the bodies of Anthonie Woolley and Agnes his wyefe 
wch Anthonie dye the iiii dae of September in the yere of our lorde 
M D Ixxiij (aged) Ixij on whose soules God hathe taken mercy on.' 

" At the feet of the principal figures are those of four sons and two 
daughters, with the initial letters of their names at their feet. 

" My brother, who has been kind enough to black the tracing for me 
with Indian ink, observes that the most remarkable thing about the stone 
seems to him to be, that the sleeves as well of the lady as the gentleman 
(for both of them exhibit varieties of the same fashion) curiously illustrate 
a passage in The Taming of the Shrew : 

" ' What's this ? A sleeve ? 'Tis like a demi-cannon. What up and 
down carved like an apple tart ! Here's Snip and Nip, and cut, and 
slish, and slash.' 

" I have not time to look for any account of Anthonie Woolley. Per- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



79 



haps some of your Derbyshire correspondents may think the stone suffi- 
ciently interesting to send us a history of him, as I believe he was a man 
of some note in his day and locality." 

Mr. Keats exhibited a well-executed antique head and bust of a Roman 
youth, sculptured in marble, which was found among some rubbish in the 
garden of a house in Brompton, called by tradition Cromwell's. The 
head had probably formed part of the collection of some person of taste or 
property. It appears, Mr. Croker stated, that Henry Cromwell was mar- 
ried from the house, and that at one time it belonged to Sir Matthew 
Hale. 

Mr. Joseph Curt exhibited thirty-four coins of Carausius, from the hoard 
found at Rouen, portions of which had been previously laid before the 
council. The types of the last are as follows : 



Laetitia (a galley) 
Abundantia . . 
Virtus Aug. . . 
Providentia Aug. 
Tutela . . . 


2 
1 

3 two varieties. 
5 three ditto. 
8 three ditto. 


Temporum Fel. . 
Fortuna Red. 
Salus Aug. . . 
Securitas Perp. . 
JSquitas Mundi . 


4 
2 two varieties. 
6 two ditto. 
2 

1 



Mr. Southcott, of Dalston, forwarded for inspection some Romano- 
British urns, dug up near the canal at the junction of Sir W. Middleton's 
estate and Rhodes's, at the bottom of Shrubland-road, in the Queen's-road, 
Dalston. 

Mr. Wire communicated a notice of the discovery of a skeleton at Col- 
chester, at the feet of which were two small urns, the skeleton lying east 
and west. As iron nails six inches long, with wood still adhering to them, 
were found with it, Mr. Wire infers the body had been buried in a wooden 
coffin. He also remarks that the iron nails which are found in two dis- 
tinct burial-places in the suburbs of Colchester, are marked by. a dif- 
ference of character ; those from one cemetery being upwards of six inches 
in length, with broad heads, similar to the mop nails of the present 
day, while those found in the other locality are about three inches long, 
with heads of proportionate size, resembling the " tenpenny nails" of com- 
merce. 

A letter from Mr. Grafter, of Gravesend, dated February 27, was read : 
" In the Kentish Independent (a Gravesend newspaper) of last Satur- 
day, I read, in the seventh page, under the head of " Spring Head," a 
very interesting account of a meeting of the British Archaeological Asso- 
ciation on Friday. The second paragraph states that ' mention was also 
made at the meeting of the discovery, last week, in the railroad works at 
Northfleet, of a mass of oak, part of a vessel, thirty feet below the bed of 
the estuary, at which the Roman fleets generally wintered, and where, too, 
many of their ships were constructed.' 

"This was too much for me to pass over unheeded; so I proceeded 



80 PEOCEED1NGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

forthwith to the estuary, where I met several gentlemen on the same 
errand, making similar inquiries for the ' mass of oak, part of a vessel,' 
and notwithstanding our promising to reward the workmen if they would 
show it us, they positively declared that nothing of the kind had been 
found there. They have not excavated any part of the estuary, hut are 
actually filling it up, or rather carrying an immense embankment of chalk, 
at least forty feet high, above the level of its surface, across the estuary, 
for the railway. 

" In boring near the spring (which runs from Springhead to the Thames) 
to ascertain the depth to a solid foundation, and where they intend throw- 
ing over an arch for the spring to pass through, the workmen inform me 
that peat, mixed with wood, came up in the auger a very common occur- 
rence in such situations. The same was lately found whilst boring for an 
artesian well in Tilbury fort." 

Mr. Pettigrew read a letter addressed to him by Mr. Hyde Clarke, of 
42, Basinghall-street : 

" I perceive by a report of the proceedings of the British Archaeolo- 
gical Association, that a coin was exhibited which had been found at Dorpat. 
This coin of Ethelred II was coined at London, and supposed to have been 
taken by Danish traders to Novogorod. 

"It is quite unnecessary to adopt this hypothesis ; as we find, by re- 
ference to Nester, the oldest chronicler of Russia, that whole bodies of 
English were concerned in the conquest of that country in conjunction 
with the Varengues. These Varengues, who are usually held to have been 
a band of Scandinavian rovers, I have connected with the Varini of the 
Romans, a tribe living in the neighbourhood of the English or Angli. 
These, under the name of Warini, in the time of Charlemagne, are found 
in conjunction with the English living in Jutland ; and their laws were 
confirmed under the names of Angli and Werini. Nester says that the 
invaders of Russia were the Varengues, English, Danes, and Normans. 
This people spoke English ; and their laws are in conformity with those of 
the early English kings. Under the name of fiapiyyoi and Varangi the 
Varengues and English formed the Varangian guard of the emperors of 
Constantinople. This is the last we hear of these people. 

" The English form of the name of these people I take to be 'Waring'; 
and I derive from them the name of Warwick, in its old form Waring-wic. 
The kings of the Warin, or Varni, with whom the kings of the East English 
were allied, were the Warings. 

" This subject, connected with English history, has been hitherto left 
without investigation, chiefly on account of the statements of Bede and 
king Alfred, that the English had wholly left Jutland, and the country 
held by them was quite deserted ; whereas we have positive evidence that 
the English were near Jutland in the time of Charlemagne, and in the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



81 



tenth and eleventh centuries took part in the invasion of Russia. Perhaps 
the way to reconcile the statements of Bede and Alfred is to suppose that 
the English, on settling in England, shifted from their original seat in 
Jutland, so that their original country remained waste. This was perhaps 
the district near Sleswick, now called Anglen, and which is held by a 
Danish race, though some suppose that they have English blood in them. 
The Warings, or Varini, were in the time of Tacitus and Pliny seated on 
the Baltic near Jutland, and the remains of the English, or Angli, might 
have removed there." 

Mr. Croker exhibited drawings forwarded by the president, of some 
urns from a barrow on the estate of Mr. W. J. Denisou, M.P., near 
Scarborough. These will be engraved in a future part of the Journal, 
together with other interesting objects recently discovered in the tumuli 
of this district by the president. 




MABCH 29. 

Mr. T. Pryer exhibited a small Roman bronze bust of Jupiter (here 
engraved of the actual size), which was dug up in the 
Essex marshes near Grays. 

Mr. Ross exhibited drawings of fictile vessels orna- 
mented with grotesque heads, discovered in tombs at 
Truxillo, in Peru. 

The rev. Beale Poste contributed to the Associa- 
tion's collections for the county of Kent, the following 
observations : 

" I beg to communicate the circumstance of the 
discovery of some Roman coins and of sepulchral 
remains, closely adjacent to the site of a Roman- 
British town, whose name is known to have been Aiglessa, and in later 
times, Eccles. 

" The Roman coins were : i. A second brass coin of Hadrian in 
tolerably good preservation (a Roman Britannia). Obverse, head of the 
emperor to the right ; inscription, IMP . CAESAR TRAIANVS (HADBIANVS AVG). 
Reverse, Britannia sitting, her right hand supporting her head, a spear in 
her left, and at her side a shield, with a spike in the centre. Inscription, 
PONT . MAX . PP . TP . vi . cos . in. On either side of the sitting figure, s.c., 
and in the exergue, BRITANNIA, n. A first brass of Antoninus, much 
defaced, and the inscription illegible both sides; but apparently the 
'Vota Suscepta' type. m. A third brass of Constantino Junior, much 
defaced on both sides, and inscription illegible, apparently the Gloria 
Exercitus' type. The reverse exhibits two soldiers standing on each side 
of three spears. 

VOL. iv. n 



82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

" The sepulchral remains consisted of a pit six feet square, lined with 
blocks of chalk, and four feet deep. In it were fragments of pottery, 
dark burnt material, and the very large antlers of a stag and other bones. 
As this had been filled up some days before the date of the visit, 
February 25th, satisfactory information could not be obtained of its state 
at the time of discovery in all particulars. 

" As to the Roman-British town of Aiglessa, or Eccles, according to the 
account of Mr. Abbot, of Rowes Place (on which property it is situated, 
who assisted the inquiries to the best of his power and paid every atten- 
tion), the space of ground occupied by the foundations and scattered debris 
of tile, brick, etc., is about twelve acres. Nothing now is visible above 
ground, except the above scattered debris ; but according to common 
report many neighbouring dwellings have been formerly built from mate- 
rials collected hence. The sepulchre, or cist, above-mentioned, was a 
little to the west (about 1 00 yards) of the site of the town ; and apparently, 
as far as information could be obtained, was of a date later than Roman 
times, or about the sixth or seventh century. Proceeding in a direct 
line from the town in a westerly direction towards the river, though not 
to the nearest point, was a vein of perfectly black earth sixty or seventy 
yards long, and about ten feet broad. This was apparently the remains 
of some large sewer, or drain, from the town to the river. 

" The preceding summer, the field being in clover, not only the direc- 
tions of the 'streets could be seen, but also the forms of various buildings, 
by the different colour of the herbage. 

" There were two general engagements within a mile or two of this 
place. The first between Vortimer and Hengist, A.D. 457, in which the 
party of the latter, the Saxons, are said to have been defeated. The 
second, a severe battle between Edmund Ironside and the Danes, in 
A.D. 1016. On one of these occasions it is presumable the town was 
burnt and never re-built. In Domesday it is mentioned as a manor in 
Aylesford parish under its name Aiglessa. The site now in ancient maps 
of the land is called Eccles. Here, on the river's side, are the celebrated 
veins of fuller's earth, from which nearly the whole kingdom is supplied. 
Hence, the name of the place in the ancient British ' Y clei ' (i. e. the 
clay), from which Aiglessa, and afterwards Eccles, was formed. 

"It is not impossible that Mr. Charles's tumulus and cemetery on the 
adjoining Aylesford hills, above Kits Coty house, was one of the places of 
interment used by the inhabitants of this town. At that spot were fragments 
of stone tombs, surgical instruments, and other remains, indicating a con- 
siderable population; and above 200 Roman coins from Vespasian to 
Gratian." 

Mr. Wire communicated an account of discoveries recently made in 
Colchester, accompanied by an illustrative plan, and an exhibition of a 
large quantity of Roman pottery and other objects : 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 83 

" The excavations which have brought to light the antiquities forwarded, 
or referred to in the following notes, were made for the purpose of building 
a general drain from east to west, from Osborn-street, through St. John- 
street, turning into Chapel-street to the south, and then going again to 
the west in Essex-street. 

"In Osborn and Stanwell-streets nothing of interest was found. In 
John-street were found fragments of Roman tiles, both red and yellow 
(the latter very unusual here), and part of a boar's jaw, with tusks six 
inches in length. Throughout the length of the trench in this street, 
proofs of an old drain appeared, probably the remains of an open ditch, 
as its former name, Gutter-Lane, leads us to suppose. For a considerable 
distance in Chapel-street, many fragments of embossed and plain Samian 
pottery were dug up, as much, I should suppose, as would fill a bushel 
measure. There were also found portions of urns of common earth, and 
handles and rims of amphorae ; but the quantity of oyster-shells was 
astonishing. In Essex-street few more fragments of various kinds of 
pottery were discovered. 

"The trench varied in depth from three to fourteen feet. Having 
watched the excavations on this and on former occasions, I have formed 
an opinion, that the site of the houses marked 2 and 3 in my plan (border- 
ing St. John-street), and the intervening part of Chapel-street, formed the 
grand reservoir for the accumulated drainage water, and that it was 
carried off to the river by the ditch noticed above ; and most probably the 
Chis-wells (in old deeds Chis-pond), now converted into an ornamental 
piece of water, is the remains of this once-general receptacle for the off- 
scourings of this part of the town. 

" Mr. Wellbeloved, in his Eburacum, in noticing the embossed Samian 
vessels found at York, quotes Dr. M. Lister, who says that ' they have 
potters' names stamped on the bottoms.' It is rather singular that most 
of the bottoms found here, which bear potters' names, are those of plain 
vessels ; in fact, not one in twenty of those which have names can be 
identified as having belonged to embossed vessels. The following is a 
list of the potters' names recently discovered : those marked *, occur in 
Mr. Smith's list of stamps found in London ; l the figure f is prefixed to 
one in Mr. Wellbeloved's list : 

ATECII . M * ILLIOMKJN * OF . KVFI 

* BORILI .OF OF . IIMAN * SILV1 . OF 

f CRAVNA . F OF . MONO * SIIXTI . MAN 

* OF . CREM * PRiMVLI * TASCILL1 . M 

* OF . FVS REDITI . M * VITA 
FOVRI REVIL1NVS * OF . VITA 

* HABILIS . F 

1 " Collectanea Antiqua," p. 150, et seq. 



84 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



" On the handle of an amphora is a name or names in two lines, the 
first letters apparently wanting : 

. KACLE 

. PBAB 

One of the fragments of Samian pot- 
tery, forwarded by Mr. Wire, has been 
figured in p. 14 of the present Journal. 
There were also a few examples of the 
Romano-British ware described in vol. i, 
one of which, with the figure of a dog 
in high relief, is shown in the annexed 
cut. 

From the miscellaneous objects has 
also been selected, on account of its 
elegant ornamentation, what appears to 
one-half ordinal ze. have been the cover of a small box. It 

is in bronze, and is here represented of the full size. 





Mr. Wire remarks that, although he has minutely examined, for a long 
series of years, a vast number of Roman tiles found in and about Colches- 
ter, he never could trace upon them, in any instance, an inscription, or 
letters, such as, in some other places, are often met with. 



85 



GENERAL MEETING, MARCH lOra, 1848. 



SAMUEL REYNOLDS SOLLY, ESQ., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

IN THE CHAIR. 

THE CHAIRMAN apologized for the absence of the President, and after 
congratulating the Members on the progress of the Association, called 
upon the Auditors to deliver in their Report, which was as follows : 

Beport of 3utitttire. 

"WE, the Auditors appointed by the General Meeting of March 1847, 
have examined the accounts of the British Archaeological Association for 
the past year, and find the entries and vouchers for the same correct and 
distinctly made. It appears that the receipts have amounted to the sum 
of 402. 10s. 8d., and the payments to 410. 18s., leaving a balance of 
8. 7s. 4d. due to the treasurer; which, with the balance due to the same 
at the audit of 1846, renders the society indebted to the treasurer the 
sum of 17. 13s. 

" We unite with the previous auditors in expressing our satisfaction at 
the manner in which the accounts are kept, the strict economy practised, 
and the propriety of laying before the society the precise condition of its 
affairs. We regret to find there remain unpaid no less than 206 sub- 
scriptions, and urgently impress upon the attention of the Council the 
necessity of employing a regular collector. There have been, unhappily, 
no less than fifteen deaths among the members during the past year, and 
thirty-seven subscribers have from a variety of causes retired from the 
Association. There have, however, been elected fifty-eight new associates, 
and the precise number of members now on the list is 477. 

" The Auditors cannot close their Report without expressing their satis- 
faction at the desire entertained, and already acted upon, by some of the 
members, to subscribe by donation, or an increased annual payment, to the 
promotion of the funds, to enable the Council to aid in excavations that 
may be in progress in different parts of the country ; and recommend that 
a list of such contributors may be printed, and circulated together with 
this Report among the members at large. The Auditors feel satisfied 
that when the members shall see the manner in which the receipts are 
disposed of, the gratuitous services rendered by all the officers, and reflect 



86 



GENERAL MEETING. 



upon the value of the Journal which every member receives for his very 
small contribution, furnishing a work which as a record of antiquarian 
discoveries has not its equal in this or any other country, they will be 
anxious to increase the means of the Council to enable them to carry out 
more fully the useful and national purposes for which the Association was 
established. 

"(Signed) J. A. MOORE, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

"JAMES PBIOB, F.S.A., M.R.I. A." 

The above Report was unanimously adopted by the Meeting, and a 
copy of it directed to be transmitted to each associate. 

The thanks of the Meeting were then respectively voted to The Lord 
Albert D. Conyngham, M.P., K.C.H., F.S.A., President; the Vice-Presi- 
dents and Council of the past year ; the Treasurer ; the Secretaries ; the 
Draughtsman ; the Auditors ; the donors of plates and cuts in aid of the 
illustration of the Journal. 

A ballot was taken for Officers, Council, and Auditors, for the ensuing 
year; and Messrs. Newton and Keats, who were appointed Scrutators, 
having examined the lists, reported the following as elected : 

PRESIDENT. 

THE LORD ALBERT D. CONYNGHAM, M.P., K.C.H., F.S.A. 



VICE-PRKSIDENTS. 



SIR WM. BETHAM, F.S.A., M.R.I.A. 
SIR WM. CHATTERTON, BART. 
JAMES HEYWOOD, M P., F.R.S., F.S A. 
REV. W. F. HOPE, M.A., F.R.S. 



SIR S. R. MEYRICK, K.H.. LL.D,, F.S.A. 
R. MONCKTON MILNES, M.P., M.A. 
T. J. PETTIGREW, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
SIR J. GARDNER WILKINSON, F.R.S. 



TREASURER. 

T. J. PETTIGREW, F.R.S., F.S. A. 



SECRETARIES. 

T. CROFTON CROKER, F.S.A., M.R.I.A. | 



C. ROACH SMITH, F.S.A. 



Secretary far Foreign Correspondence THOMAS WRIGHT, M.A., F.S.A. 
Hydrographical Secretary CAPTAIN A. B. BECHER, R.N. 



Joseph Arden, F.S.A. 

Charles Baily, F.S.A. 

Rear Admiral Beaufort, F.R.S.,M.R.I.A. 

William Henry Black 

Alexander H. Burkitt, F.S.A. 

William Chaffers, F.S-.A. 

Nathaniel Gould, F.S. A. 

W. D. Haggard, F.S.A. 

James O. Halliwell, F.R.S., F.S.A. 



A. C. Kirkmann 

Samuel Phillips 

J. R. Planche, F.S.A. 

W. H. Rosser, F.S.A. 

S. R. Solly, M. A., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

John Green Waller 

Alfred White 

Albert Woods, F.S. A. (.Lancaster HernM) 



AUDITORS. 
William Beattic, M.D. | Captain Richard Johns, R.M. 



GENERAL MEETING. 



87 



It was announced that the Fifth Annual Congress would be holden at 
WOKCESTEK, commencing on the 14th, and extending to the 19th of 
August inclusive. 



In accordance with the instructions of the General Meeting, the Council 
have the pleasure of recording the donations received, together with 
increased subscriptions, to the present time, and will be happy to con- 
tinue the list from time to time of other grants of a like description : 



Hudson Gurney, Esq , F.RS., 

F.S.A 

Sir J. E. Swinburne, Bart., 

F.RS.,F.S.A. . 
Rev. T. Halford, M.A., F.S.A. 
J. O. Halliwell, Esq., F.RS., 

F.S.A 

W. H. Rosser, Esq., F.S.A. . 
T. C. Croker, Esq., F.S.A. 

M.RI.A 

T. Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 
Hon. Colonel Onslow 
Richard Percival, Esq., F.S.A. 
Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson, 

F.RS 

Rear Admiral Beaufort, K.C.B. 

F.RS., M.RI.A. 
T. J. Pettigrew, Esq., F.R.S., 



F.S.A. 



Annual 



2. *. 


d. 







s. 


d. 






C. R. Smith, Esq. F.S.A. Annual 


2 


2 





10 





Thos. Bateman, Esq. . do. 


1 


I 









T. Purland, Esq. . . do. 


1 


1 





5 





Alfred White, Esq. . . do. 


1 


1 





5 





A. C. Kirkmann, Esq. . do. 


1 


1 









William Newton, Esq. . do. 


1 


1 





5 





T. Fairfax Best, Esq. . do. 


1 


1 





5 5 





George Milner, Esq. . do. 


1 


1 









Dawson Turner, Esq. F.R.S. 








5 





F.S.A. . . .do. 


1 


1 





5 





Wm. Chaffers, Esq., F.S.A. do. 


1 


1 





5 





John Barrow, Esq., F.R.S., 








5 





F.S.A do. 




1 









S. W. Stevenson, Esq. F.S. A.do. 




1 





5 





W. P. Griffith, Esq., F.S.A. . 




1 









W. H. Rolfe, Esq. . 




1 





5 





W. Bland, Esq. 




1 









Rev. H. Jenkins, M.A. . 










2 2 





W. Yewd, Esq. 











A list of the DONORS OF PLATES AND CUTS will be given in the 
next Journal. 



88 



Notfas of tfefo publications. 



A SERIES OF MONUMENTAL BRASSES, EXTENDING FROM THE REIGN OF 
EDWARD I TO THAT OF ELIZABETH. Drawn and Engraved by J. G. 
and L. A. B. Waller. Parts I to XVI. Folio. London : Weale. 

So long since as the month of July 1840, the first numbers of this work 
appeared, at a time when brasses were little understood, and the practice 
of obtaining impressions by rubbing was confined to a few. It was the 
first publication devoted solely to the object of the delineation of the 
brass, and it has been followed by a host of ephemeral publications which 
have now rendered the subject almost commonplace. 

The scale on which the effigies are drawn is calculated to exhibit the 
detail with the greatest precision, the delicacy of the lines employed being 
such as no diminutive wood-cut could ever produce. It was the aim of 
the authors to produce a representation on steel, which should be large 
enough to exhibit the figure with the strictest fidelity, and to make the 
representation worthy of the originals, a work of art and skill. 

Sixty of the most valuable of these extraordinary memorials have been 
produced in the parts of the work which have appeared. The greater por- 
tion of the specimens are published for the first time ; they are of the 
highest value both for their scarceness and their beauty, and the engravings 
in point of fidelity will never be equalled. 

A beautiful feature of the work consists in tinting the arms and cos- 
tume wherever the colours could be made out by examination, and we can 
bear testimony to the careful and minute attention with which this part 
of the subject has been performed, a feature which, let it be recollected, 
is peculiar to the work. 

To particularize all or the greater number of the plates is not our pur- 
pose. There is not one of those interesting brasses, the existence of 
which were scarcely known when the first number appeared, which have 
not been given, and that for the first time. The well-known brasses of 
the knights in chain armour, the oldest archbishop, and a variety of 
specimens in civil and military costume of the most curious and varied 
costume are to be met with. The care with which the arms and sur- 
coats and dresses have been coloured, is unique. 

It is impossible to do more than to notice a few of the examples, and 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 89 

we select them not only for their value, but their scarceness. They are 
too grand and elaborate for a wood-cut, and therefore are not, in all pro- 
bability, to be met with elsewhere. 

There is a well-known description of brass known as the Flemish brass, 
which is a plate engraved over the whole surface and richly diapered ; we 
prefer to point attention to the specimens of this kind of workmanship. 
The representations are, we believe, peculiar to this work, and the care 
with which the diapering is made out, and the richness of the colouring, 
evince the extreme accuracy and labour with which the Messrs. Waller 
have completed their views of this portion of the subject. 

The brass of A. Evengar and lady in Allhallows Barking, London, is 
a curious, and, before it was engraved in this work, but little known 
example. The beautiful diapering of the back ground, made out by a 
light red, and the colouring of the arms, all conspire to show the pains that 
have been taken to restore this very curious example to its former ap- 
pearance. 

Another but a much earlier example of the engraved slab is the brass 
of Thomas Topclyfe and wife, in TopclifFe church, Yorkshire. This is a 
civilian and wife, surrounded by a rich collection of saints and tabernacle- 
work, in the style of the Lynn brasses. The arms are a curious example 
(not over-dignified) of canting arms, viz., a chevron between three peg- 
tops. The plate is not coloured, but the elaborate workmanship exhibits 
the labour which the artist and engraver have bestowed on this plate, 
which, for its beauty and elaborate execution, is in itself worth more than 
the price of the number in which it is contained. 

The well-known palimpsest in the group of Humphrey Oker and wife, 
in which a priest has been turned over, and a large group of children 
engraved on his back, which, with the other figures, is a specimen of a 
very odd and ludicrous appropriation of one brass, or rather a series of 
brasses, to commemorate persons for whom it was never designed. 

The beautiful Beauchamp monument, in Little Easton church, Essex, 
is splendidly exhibited in colours ; it is one of the best in the work. We 
have not space to go through the plates to any gi-eater length. Those we 
have enumerated are taken almost at random, and for their scarceness. It 
must not therefore be assumed that older examples are noticed on the 
ground of their superior execution. Every subject is marked with equal 
correctness in point of detail and execution, from the proud and haughty 
father of Anne Boleyn down to John Corp, the Dartmouth skipper and his 
granddaughter. 

One of the numbers is dedicated to letterpress alone, with vignettes. 
One is a demi-figure in mail, formerly only known by an impression. 
This is engraved, and we believe the authors have since identified the 
person. We wish our brief space would allow us to notice more fully the 

VOL. IV. 12 



90 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

account of sir John D'Abernoun, which is replete with information on this 
ancient but little known family. 

On the brass of sir John Cheke and lady, there is a monogram or mark, 
probably the mark of the engraver, which we think has been most satis- 
factorily elucidated by the aid of an ancient seal. We cannot pass over, 
in this brief notice of the letterpress, the historical account of alderman 
Feld and his son, written, we believe, by Mr. J. G. Waller. It is full of 
particulars relating to those apparently not very important individuals. 
The article is enriched by letters obtained from the British Museum, 
and is composed with great antiquarian knowledge. 

The series contemplated by the authors, we regret to say, is still un- 
finished. When will they receive sufficient patronage to complete the 
work ? From the long space of time which has elapsed since it was com- 
menced, it is feared they have received but a slight degree of that support 
which their exertions have so richly merited. We trust this notice will 
increase the admirers of their valuable work, that it will soon be com- 
pleted, and become the only collection of brasses which can be regarded as 
of paramount authority. E. i. c. 



HELPS TO HEREFORD HISTORY, CIVIL AND LEGENDARY. By J. Dacres 
Devlin. 12mo. 1848. London: J. Russell Smith. 

THIS little volume is a very praiseworthy attempt to give the good people 
of Hereford some information in an amusing form relating to points in the 
history of their own town and neighbourhood. Mr. Devlin is by profession 
a boot-closer, but he has combined with the duties of his calling a taste 
for literary pursuits, and besides some poems, etc., has been some time 
known by his researches into the history of English trades, on which he 
is preparing a more extensive work, one to which we shall look forward 
with interest. Having taken up his residence in Hereford, he has pursued 
his researches in that place, and the first portion of this book consists of 
a sketch of the history of the ancient Cordwainers' Company of Hereford, 
in which he has made good use of local documents. The rest relates to 
some Herefordshire legends, which are pleasantly treated in prose and 
verse. We have just room left to give it our hearty commendation to 
all who take interest in such subjects. T. w. 



THE JOUENAL 



Iritis!) ardjaeotoflical association. 



JULY 1848. 



MURAL PAINTING 

AS A DOMESTIC DECOEATION DURING THE MIDDLE AGES. 

THE more generally diffused taste for antiquities which 
characterizes the present time, and the more careful record 
of discoveries made in altering or repairing churches and 
old buildings, together with the facilities afforded by 
archaeological associations for giving such records pub- 
licity arid permanency in their journals, have added much 
to our knowledge of the habits and customs of our an- 
cestors, in the retirements of their domestic life, where the 
chronicler rarely followed them, and of which we know 
least. It has been the fortune of our own Association to 
record in these pages very many curious instances of the 
discovery of mural paintings on the walls of churches; 
these and similar notices satisfactorily shew, by their num- 
ber and variety, how widely the taste for such decoration 
spread during the Middle Ages; and that, far from such 
displays being rare, they indeed were all but universal, 
appearing as well upon the walls of the humble village 
church as upon those of the more sumptuous cathedral. 
The object of the present paper is briefly to show that the 
same taste for wall-paintings existed in private life, where 
more expensive tapestry could not be afforded, or was not 
deemed requisite ; that they occupied in fact the place of 
modern portable pictures, diffusing religious or moral 

VOL. IV. 13 



92 MURAL PAINTING. 

instruction, or reviving the remembrance of popular ro- 
mances and tales by the vivid representation of the prin- 
cipal scenes and actions therein narrated. 

Church decoration of this kind is often concealed by 
whitewash, and is not unfrequently brought to light ; but 
specimens of domestic internal wall-painting are of much 
greater rarity, particularly if of an early date ; a circum- 
stance easily accounted for by the rapid and continuous 
changes which fashion or altered habits render necessary 
or usual, and which induce a succeeding generation so 
rapidly to obliterate or improve the residences of the pre- 
ceding one. Thus, while the exterior of many an old 
mansion or private dwelling may preserve its more ancient 
appearance, it is a matter of much greater rarity to find 
their interiors present any of their original features. It 
is with much satisfaction that I am enabled to call atten- 
tion to an early and curious example of domestic mural 
decoration which fell under my notice but a few weeks 
since, during a visit to Salisbury. 

In New-street, Salisbury (which was anciently the prin- 
cipal thoroughfare between Old Sarum and the western 
door of the cathedral), stands a stone-fronted house with a 
projecting upper story ; the lower portion used as a stable 
and lumber-room, the upper as a cabinet-maker's work- 
shop, to which access is gained by a ladder. The external 
features of the lower portion remain, exhibiting a long 
window, occupying nearly the entire front, divided into a 
series of narrow pointed lights by transom and mullions, 
and a door inserted in it on one side ; the upper story has 
been altered much and faced with tiles, having an Eliza- 
bethan wooden-framed window in the centre ; at the side, 
however, a square-headed window remains, divided into 
two pointed lights by a central mullion. This window is 
seen in the accompanying sketch of the interior ; and it is 
this corner of the upper floor that especially merits atten- 
tion, as it presents us with the most original features of 
the building. The fire-place is of stone ; and above this 
and the side window is the distemper painting to which I 
would most particularly allude. The plaster has fallen 
away in the upper portion, and a more modern chimney 
has entirely destroyed one side of the composition ; but 
enough remains to convey a perfect idea of the subject, 



MURAL PAINTING. 



93 



style of treatment, and age of the picture. A draped 
figure of the Virgin has been seated in the centre, which 
represents a garden walled in ; beside her is a pot, in which 
are placed flowering lilies, emblems at once of her purity 
and divine acceptance. An angel, in white alb and cope 




with yellow collar, kneeling beside the low wall, points 
with his right hand to the flowers, and holds in his left a 
scroll, the greater part of which, with the inscription, is 
gone ; it most probably consisted of the words of saluta- 
tion addressed to Mary by the angel Gabriel. Behind the 
angel and over the window appear three figures, doubtless 
intended for the three magi, or " kings of Cologne", whose 
history and adventures figured so conspicuously in the 
legends of the Middle Ages. They are habited in long 
tunics bordered with yellow fur, having an opening in 
front, and girdled tightly round the waist ; the sleeves are 
also edged with fur. The upper portion of each figure is 
broken away. The legs are covered with tight chausseSj 



94 MURAL PAINTING. 

and they all wear long-toed shoes, terminating in sharp 
points. This costume will furnish us with the means of 
ascertaining the period when this picture was painted, 
which may be safely fixed at the latter half of the fifteenth 
century. The dresses of the magi exactly represent those 
worn during the reign of Henry VI, and are identical 
with the costume delineated in the beautiful illuminated 
manuscript life of St. Edmund, now preserved in the 
British Museum (Harleian MS. 2278), which was pre- 
sented to that king when he passed his Christmas at St. 
Edmundsbury, by William Curteys, who was then abbot of 
the monastery there. The long-toed shoes may be seen 
worn by the figures of English kings in Cotton MS. Julius 
E, 4, which were drawn in the reign of Henry VI, and are 
precisely similar to those seen in our wood-cut. The 
back-ground of the picture is entirely covered with a 
diaper pattern, as the illuminations in manuscripts of the 
same period generally are. 

The legend of the three magi (Gaspar, Melchior, and 
Balthazar), or, as they are frequently termed, the three 
kings of Cologne (from their relics having been translated 
from the east and preserved in the cathedral there), was 
one of the most popular during the Middle Ages. Their 
visit to the Infant Saviour and the Virgin in Bethlehem, 
was a subject which the illuminators and painters con- 
stantly chose to depict. In public and private buildings, 
in books, tapestries, and images, they continually appeared. 
In the mysteries performed on stated occasions, their adven- 
tures formed a most attractive portion. Their names were 
worn about the person as effective charms or preventives 
against danger. Mr. C. Roach Smith possesses two garters 
of stamped leather inscribed with their names, which also 
appear on rings worn against cramp. I have in my own 
possession a small paper, which having touched their skulls 
at Cologne, was believed to guard travellers who carried 
it about their persons from all accidents, head-aches, the 
falling sickness, fevers, sorcery, witchcraft, and sudden 
death ! Mr. Smith has published a fac-simile of this 
curious billet in his Collectanea Antigua, with much 
information of a curious kind connected with the subject, 
and to which I must refer those who wish for fuller 
particulars; also to Mr. Wright's edition of the Chester 



MURAL PAINTING. 95 

Mysteries (published by the Shakespeare Society), for the 
most detailed and curious of the legends describing their 
adventures, from Harleian MS. No. 1704. 

Wall-painting of this kind existed in the palace of West- 
minster as early as 1238, when the chapel of St. Stephen's 
was paved with coloured tiles, and the story of Joseph 
depicted on the walls, and which were repaired in 1255 
by Peter de Hispania, a painter in the service of Henry III. 
The painted chamber adjacent had its walls covered with 
pictures of the wars of the Jews, as described in 1322, 
by Friar Symeon. " Near this monastery (Westminster) 
stands the most famous royal palace of England ; in which 
is that celebrated chamber on whose walls all the warlike 
histories of the whole Bible are painted with inexpressible 
skill, and explained by a regular and complete series of 
texts, beautifully written in French over each battle, to 
the no small admiration of the beholder and the increase 
of royal magnificence." The Society of Antiquaries have 
published copies of the fragments of the paintings in their 
Vetusta Monumenta. The battle -scenes are composed 
with great spirit ; but there are other subjects of even 
greater curiosity, as shewing the inventive taste of the 
age : such as the Triumph of Largesse, or bounty, over 
avarice ; and the Triumph of Debonerete", or meekness, 
over anger ; also the very popular story of St. John appear- 
ing as a pilgrim to king Edward the Confessor. An orna- 
mental pattern was painted on the walls where the pictures 
did not occur ; and a fragment within a window, also 
engraved in this work, exhibits the beauty and richness of 
such decoration. Warton has noticed, that in the year 
1277, Otho duke of Milan, having restored the peace of 
that city by a signal victory, built a noble castle, in which 
he ordered every particular circumstance of that victory to 
be painted ; and Paulus Jovius relates, that these paint- 
ings remained, in the great vaulted chamber of the castle, 
so late as the year 1547. 

In the hall for the reception of guests, adjoining the 
cathedral of Worcester, is an early and curious painting 
of the Adoration of the Magi. Religious sentences were 
also frequently inscribed. In the Metrical Romance of 
Sir Degrevant (edited by Mr. Halliwell for the Camden 
Society, from a manuscript of the fifteenth century, in the 



96 MORAL PAINTING. 

public library at Cambridge) is a very curious passage 
descriptive of the interior of a chamber : 

" With the Pocalyps of Ion, 
The Powles Pystoles everychon, 
The Paraboles of Salamon, 
Payntyd ful ryjth." 

This custom of inscribing moral sentences, which may 
have been imitated from the eastern nations, continued 
until the Restoration. The " sentences painted in my 
lord keeper's house at Gorhambury" (sir Nicholas Bacon, 
father to the more celebrated Francis), are preserved in 
the manuscript collection of the British Museum. 

Warton, in his History of English Poetry, has noticed 
how much the old English romances were reverenced by 
our ancestors, and the familiarity with which they must 
have been known. " These fables were not only perpetually 
repeated at their festivals, but were the constant objects of 
their eyes. The very walls of their apartments were 
clothed with romantic history. Tapestry was anciently 
the fashionable furniture of our houses, and it was chiefly 
filled with lively representations of this sort." Wall- 
painting also was made similarly subservient to romantic 
history, as the following curious passage from Lydgate's 
poem The Temple of Glass which he quotes, will 
testify : 

" I sawe depeynted upon a wall, 
From est to west ful many a fayre ymage, 
Of sondry lovers, lyke as they were of age, 
I-set in order after they were true ; 
With lyfely colours, wonders fresshe of hewe, 
And as methought I saw some syt and some stande, 
And some knelyng, with bylles 1 in theyr hande, 
And some with complaynt woful and pytious, 
With dolefull chere, to put to Venus, 
So as she sate fletenge in the see, 
Upon theyr wo for to have pite. 

And fyrst of all I sawe there of Cartage, 
Dido the queue, so goodly of visage, 

1 Petitions or bills of complaint. 



MURAL PAINTING. 97 

That gan complayne her aventure and caas, 
Howe she disceyved was of Aeneas, 
For all his hestes, 1 and his othes sworne ; 
And sayd, helas that she was borne, 
Whan she saw that dede she must he. 

And next her I sawe the complaynt of Medee, 
How that she was falsed 2 of Jason ; 
And nygh by Venus saw I syt Addon, 
And all the maner howe the bore hym sloughe, 
For whom she wepte and had pite inoughe. 

There sawe I also how Penelope, 
For she so long ne myght her lord se, 
Was of colour both pale and grene. 

And alder next 3 was the fresshe quene ; 
I mean Alceste, the noble true wife, 
And for Admete howe she lost her lyfe ; 
And for her trouthe, if I shall nat lye, 
How she was turned into a daysye. 

There was also Grisildis innocence, 
And all her mekenesse and her pacience. 

There was eke Ysaude, and many other mo, 
And all the tourment and all the cruel wo 
That she had for Tristram all her lyve ; 
And how that Tysbe her heart dyd ryve 
With thylke sworde of Syr Pyramus. 

And all the maner howe that Theseus 
The Minataure slewe, amyd the hous 
That was forwrynked 4 by craft of Dedalus, 
Whan that he was in prison shyt in Crete, etc. 

And uppermore 5 men depeinten might see 
Howe with her ring goodlie Canace 
Of every foule the leden 6 and the song 
Could understand, as she hem walkt among : 
And how her brother so often holpen was 
In his mischefe 7 by the stede of brass." 

The author has in this instance followed Chaucer's de- 
scription of the internal decoration of his House of Fame, 
the figures and stories in which he describes as " graven" ; 
although of some portion he says 

1 Promises. 2 Deceived. 3 Next of all. 

4 Much wrinkled : the allusion is to the Cretan labyrinth. 

5 On the uppermost part of the wall. 6 The language. 7 Misfortune. 



98 MURAL PAINTING. 

" There sawe I soche tempest arise, 
That every herte might agrise 
To see it painted on the wall." 

In the same author's translation of the Romance of the 
Rose, the walls of the garden are described as painted 
with a series of emblematical figures : 

" Sorowe was painted next Envie 
Upon that wal of masonrie." 

" All these things well avised 
As I have you er this devised, 
With gold and asure over all 
Depainted were upon the wall." 

The same author in his Dreme describes himself: 



in a chamber paint 



Full of stories old and divers, 
More than I can as now reherse." 

And he afterwards says that there was 

" on the wals old portraiture 
Of horsemen, haukis, and houndis, 
And hurt deer all full of woundis, 
Some like bitten, some hurt with shot." 

One of the Lais of Marie, a French poetess of the thir- 
teenth century, mentions a chamber painted with stories 
from Ovid's Art of Love ; and Boccaccio often decorates 
his temples in a similar manner. 

Caxton, in the prologue to his Boke of the hoole Lyf of 
Jason (1475), has described an exceedingly curious series 
of paintings in the castle of Philip duke of Burgundy, at 
Hesdin, in Artois, upon the river Canche. He says : " He 
did doo maken a chambre in the castell of Hesdyn, wherin 
was craftyly and curiously depeynted the conquest of the 
Golden Flese, by the sayd Jason ; in which chambre I have 
ben and seen the sayd historic so depeynted, and in remem- 
brance of Medea and of her connyng and science, he had 
do make in the sayd chambre by subtil engyn that when 
he wolde it should seme that it lightened, and then thon- 
dre, snowe and rayne. And all within the sayde chambre 
as ofte tymes and whan it shuld please him, whiche was al 



MURAL PAINTING. 



99 



made for his singular pleasir." No other writer mentions 
these singularly curious paintings, which appear to have 
been capable of some dioramic effects. They were pro- 
bably destroyed in 1553, when the town and castle of 
Hesdin were demolished by Philibert Emanuel, duke of 
Savoy, general of the emperor Charles V. 

In the Royal Library at Paris is a beautiful manuscript 
of the adventures of Lancelot and the knights of the Round 
Table (No. 6784), apparently executed in the fifteenth 
century. One of the 
illuminations, here 
engraved, represents 
Morgan le Fay shew- 
ing king Arthur the 
paintings of Lance- 
lot's adventures, exe- 
cuted on the walls of 
the room. Warton 
conceives that a hall 
in the castle of Dover, 
called Arthur's Hall, 
and a chamber called 
Genevra's Chamber, 
were so called from 
the adventures of each 
with which the walls were decorated. 

The celebrated Dance of Death was a wall-painting, 
and was copied on the walls of the cloisters of St. Paul's 
cathedral, at the cost of one Jenkin Carpenter, who lived 
in the reign of Henry VI, in imitation of that in the 
cloisters of the church of the Innocents at Paris, and 
which may be traced to one much older in a nunnery at 
Basle, which appears to have been executed in 1312. 

This style of internal decoration continued until a late 
period, and supplied the place of more expensive tapestry. 
Shakespeare, in his Henry IV, Part II, makes Falstaff 
allude to it when he persuades Hostess Quickly to part 
with the tapestry of her dining-chambers, saying : " For 
thy walls, a pretty slight drollery, or the story of the pro- 
digal; or the German hunting in water-work, is worth a 
thousand of these fly-bitten tapestries." Mr. Knight, in 
his pictorial edition of the poet, has rightly considered this 




VOL. IV. 



14 



100 MUHAL PAINTING. 

water-work as & fresco painting, and has illustrated the 
passage by a copy of one of a series of such wall-paintings, 
which formerly decorated an old house on Woodford Com- 
mon, Essex ; there were twelve of these paintings, exhibit- 
ing as many subjects of rural life; they bore the initials 
D. M. C., and the date 1617. 

At West Stow Hall, Suffolk, some distemper paintings 
of the age of Elizabeth, were recently discovered by the 
removal of panneling from the wall on which they were 
depicted ; the principal objects are : a boy hawking, with 
an inscription in old English letters, " Thus doe I all the 
day"; a young man making love to a maiden, inscribed, 
" Thus doe I while I may"; a middle-aged man looking 
on, the inscription, " Thus did I when 1 might" ; an aged 
man hobbling onward, the inscription, " Good Lord, will 
this world last ever?" 

Mention has already been made of the moral sentences 
painted on the walls of Gorhambury, near St. Alban's ; of 
its other mural paintings, Aubrey has left the following 
curious account. In the hall he says, " is a large storie, 
very well painted, of the feast of the gods, where Mars is 
caught in a net by Vulcan ; in the wall over the chimney 
is painted an oake, with akornes falling from it, with the 
words Nisi quid potius; and on the wall over the table is 
painted Ceres teaching the soweing of corne, the words 
Mbnita meliora." At one end of the gallery were repre- 
sented, as large as life, the figures of king James seated on a 
rock, Henry IV of France, and the king of Spain, painted in 
umber, the lights being put on with burnished gold. The 
ceiling was painted with busts of Greek and Roman em- 
perors and heroes. "In the portico facing the garden, op- 
posite each arch, and as big as the arch, are drawn by an 
excellent hand (in water-colours), curious pictures," all 
emblematical, with mottoes under each. 

When panneled walls became usual, it was not uncom- 
mon to find them decorated with pictures in oil, which 
thus usurped the place of the old distemper paintings; 
a series of portraits often occupied arches immediately 
beneath the ceiling, of which many examples still remain. 
At Staunton Harold, Leicestershire, a room is thus decor- 
ated ; and there is a fire-place at Ipswich similarly adorned 
with pictures of a ship, a terrestrial globe, and a portrait 



MUEAL PAINTING. 101 

of one of the Eldred family supposed to have been the 
one who sailed with Cavendish in 1586. At Eastbury, 
Essex, are others ; and at Sandwich is a very curious room 
with paintings, representing the reception of Catherine, 
queen of Charles II, at the town gates; a sea fight; and 
portraits of the king and queen, and the master (mayor of 
Sandwich) and mistress of the house, in the reign of 
Charles II, when these paintings were executed. 

In more humble residences, paintings in distemper-co- 
lours on the plastered walls continued to be seen ; and a 
late instance of the practice was communicated to the 
Association by Mr. Elliott, of Chichester, with a drawing 
of a portion of a painting discovered on the walls of an 
old house belonging to Mr. Mason of that place. It con- 
sisted of rude representations of foreign birds and trees, 
with a background of fields and buildings, in defiance of 
all perspective and truth of architectural details ; and was 
surrounded by an ornamental border. It was probably 
executed late in the seventeenth century. Its only claim 
to notice was the fact of its being a modern instance of an 
ancient practice which had existed for so many centuries 
as a domestic decoration in England.. 

F. W. FAIRHOLT. 



ACCOUNT OF DISCOVERIES MADE IN BARROWS 
NEAR SCARBOROUGH, 

BY LORD A. D. CONYNGHAM. 

I MUST begin my account of my researches in Scar- 
borough, by acknowledging the assistance which I received 
from the suggestions of Dr. Murray and Mr. Dunn, and the 
practical assistance which I obtained from Mr. Tissiman. 

On the 8th of March I proceeded to examine the tumuli 
upon Seamer Moor, a wild moor, lying on the right of the 
high road from Scarborough to York, and at a distance of 
two miles and a half from the former town. 



102 



DISCOVEEIES IN BARROWS 



I had my attention especially directed towards that part 
of the moor lying near the " Beacon," which itself appeared 
to me to be a large tumulus, partially carried away for 
sand, and for the stones of which it was composed; I saw, 
within a very small distance, seven or eight mounds, which 
I imagined to be tumuli, several of them had evidently 
been already opened for the purpose of rifling their contents. 
I selected for examination a very large tumulus, lying 
three hundred and sixty yards to the west of the 

" Beacon" ; from this tu- 
mulus the urn (fig. 1) 
had been taken, and after- 
wards recovered by the 
kind exertions of the 
friends of Mr. Denison, 
my uncle, who is the pro- 
prietor of the estate. 

The individual who had 
taken the urn had made 
his way from the apex 
of the tumulus to the 
side of a large flagstone, 
covering the cist which 
end of the cist was thus 




Fig. 1. Height, 4 inches ; diameter, 6 inches. 



contained the urn : the western 
exposed to my view. 

The tumulus, of which the foundation had been a slight 
undulation of the soil, measured two hundred feet from 
its base to its apex, and was quite circular; the cist, 
already opened, was a chamber cut in the solid sand com- 
posing the natural soil ; it measured five feet six in length, 
by five feet three in width ; its height was two feet five 
inches, and it was faced by flag-stones, averaging two feet 
six in height, by eighteen inches in width ; these supported 
one large flag-stone, of the common flag-stone of the 
neighbourhood, which was sufficiently large to cover the 
entire cist ; it lay very nearly due east and west : from 
its floor to the surface above it measured seven feet six 
inches. My inquiries could only bring to my knowledge 
that the urn had contained a few ashes, some teeth, and a 
piece of flint, now exhibited ; and that it had been placed 
at the eastern end of the cist; that the man who had 



NEAR SCARBOROUGH. 



103 




opened the cist had first stated that it contained a skeleton, 
but afterwards contradicted himself, and denied it. 

The cuttings, which I caused to be made, from the 
north to the south, following the level of the solid soil, 
produced, in the northern cutting, the flint arrow-head, in 
the southern cutting the small flint sphere, and what I 
imagine to be a flint graving- 
tool (fig. 2). In each cutting, 
at a distance of forty-five feet 
from the exterior, I came to 
large stones of irregular size, 
and placed at irregular dis- 
tances, continued in a circle 
around the entire mound, and 
at a distance of four feet and 
a half from the mass of stones, Fig - 2 - One - half ori ^ nal size - 
forming a cairn over the vaults, and which cairn had 
been again covered over with earth. In the southern 
cutting, at a distance of nine feet from the principal 
chamber, I came to a large stone, measuring, in length four 
feet, in depth one foot eight inches ; the upper surface, which 
was irregular, was two feet three inches across. This stone 
was imbedded in the natural soil of clay and sand mixed, and 
was at the following depth from the surface, viz. : turf 
one foot, cairn of stones four feet, sand one foot eight 
inches. At the northern corner of this stone, partly pro- 
tected by it, and partially by 
a small stone leaning over it, 
was the rude urn (fig. 3), 
containing a mixture of sand 
and the fine ashes of some 
animal or human being; on 
the natural surface, and close 
to the urn, was a layer, two 
feet in length, by one in 
breadth, of human bones 
calcined, mixed with a small 
portion of charcoal. The 
other cuttings, which I made, 
in various directions, follow- 
ing the natural soil, produced 
nothing further. 




Fig. 3. Height, 5J inches; diameter, 6 inches. 



104 DISCOVERIES IN BARROWS 

I afterwards examined what appeared to me to be a 
small tumulus, very few yards to the north-east of the 
tumulus which I had already opened, but it proved to 
be a slight undulation of the natural soil. 

I also examined a large oblong mound, two hundred 
and eighty yards to the south-west of the Beacon, and, 
again, another of circular form, fifty yards further still 
to the south-west ; these also proved to be merely natural 
undulations of the soil. 

A small round barrow, sunk at the top, proved, upon 
upon minute examination, to have been previously opened ; 
the only object found was one perforated piece of sand- 
stone, of an irregularly circular shape, and of about three 
and a half inches across. 

Two barrows were then opened under my directions, 
lying in a field, called Ayton East field, formerly known 
by the name of "the Sparrow Flat," and just on the 
southern edge of Seamer Moor; these tumuli were placed 
at a very slight distance from each other ; the smaller and 
eastern barrow measured fifty-two feet from its base to its 
apex in length, forty feet from base to apex in breadth ; 
its height had been greatly reduced by the plough. This 
barrow was composed of large stones of the sand-stone of 
the neighbourhood, mixed with the lime rubble of the soil 
around. In the centre I came to a square bier, four feet six 
inches in length, and in breadth formed of five large 
stones ; a skeleton was curled upon it, without any protec- 
tion whatever; close to the bier was a mass of human 
bones, calcined, and a considerable quantity of charred 
wood. This tumulus presented neither urn nor weapon. 

The western and larger barrow measured eighty-five 
feet from its base to apex in length, and fifty feet from its 
base to apex in breadth ; at forty feet from the exterior of 
the mound I came to a circle of large irregular stones, 
these were placed at the base of a cairn of large stones, 
topped by limestone rubble. I removed the entire cairn. 
From the centre to the eastern side, the rubble had been 
converted into lirne, by the action of a very powerful fire. 
Mixed with the lime was a considerable quantity of pot- 
tery, and of animal and human bones and ashes, mixed 
into one mass. Towards the north, in the centre of the 
cairn, amongst the rubble, were two separate masses of 



NEAR SCARBOROUGH. 



105 



human bones, very much decomposed. With each mass 
was a rude spear, or arrow-head of flint; their original 
position could not be traced. 




Fig. 4. One-half original size. 

Nearly to the centre, but rather to the west, at only a 
depth of eight inches from the surface, was a thin flat 
stone, measuring twenty inches by eighteen; this partially 
covered a very small portion of human bones, five beauti- 
fully formed arrow-heads of flint, four flint celts, two 
more rude spear-heads of flint, two beautifully formed 
knives and spear-heads of flint, two very large tusks of 
the wild boar, one piece of deer horn, perforated at the 
end, and drilled through, and which I imagine to have 
been the handle for one of the celts, much in the manner 
of that in the museum of M. de Courvale, at his Castle of 
Pinon, in France, and of which I sent a drawing to the 
Association. I found amongst the rubble a whetstone, 
evidently much used. 

A circular barrow, of smaller size, upon the edge of the 
moor, adjoining the field where these barrows are situated, 
offered but a few calcined bones, placed upon some large 
irregular stones, with the sand-stone of the neighbourhood 
heaped over them ; amongst the sand-stone were two rude 
small spear or arrow heads of flint. 

I then opened a large tumulus, measuring seventy 
yards around its base, in a plantation adjoining a farm- 




106 DISCOVERIES IN BARROWS 

house, called Seamer Manor House. This barrow first 
presented a circular row of large stones; in the centre of 
the barrow was a beautifully formed cist, of flag-stones 
placed on end, but without any covering. The angles of 
this cist pointed to the north, to the east, and to the 
west. From the base to the apex of the triangle it 
measured rather more than four feet ; at the northern 
angle was placed a large urn of soft clay, which was, 
most unfortunately, completely bro- 
ken. At a distance of six feet from 
the western angle was a smaller 
urn (fig. 5), of the very softest ma- 
terial, placed without any protec- 
tion ; it fell to pieces on exposure to 
the air, but was afterwards carefully 
fastened together by Mr. Tissiman. 

Two small pieces of pottery were found 

rig. 5. Height, 4 j inches; amongst the rubble composing the 

mound. 

With Mr. Osbaldeston's permission, I then opened a 
tumulus at the back of Ebberstone ; it was upon a part of 
the moor, known by the name of Jawl-bone Ridge. This 
tumulus was a cairn of stones, covered with earth ; when 
cut through it measured sixty feet across, and five feet 
six inches from the level of the soil to the apex of the 
mound. There was a slight depression on the surface, 
and also when the cairn was cut through there was a 
marked depression of the stones. About the centre I 
came to a small round cist, measuring eighteen inches 
across, and eighteen inches in depth, containing calcined 
bones and charcoal. This tumulus presented neither urn 
nor weapon of any kind. 

I then opened two tumuli on Willoughby Wold, at a 
place called Fry Moor. The largest measured twelve 
feet in height, and one hundred arid five feet in diameter. 
Making a very wide cutting through it, I came to a very 
slight layer of charcoal, and in the centre of the tumulus 
found a small cist, cut in the natural soil of flinty rubble ; 
it measured sixteen inches in depth, by twelve inches 
wide, and was filled with ashes. This tumulus presented 
no other object. 

The smaller barrow measured sixty-six feet in extreme 



BRITISH COINS. 













NEAR SCARBOROUGH. 



107 



diameter ; at the depth of six feet from the surface came to 
a skull, with a few decom- 
posed bones ; eighteen 
inches deeper was the 
perfect skeleton of an 
adult, placed east and 
west, the knees gathered 
up against a large stone. 
Partially resting against 
the shoulder-blade was 
the urn now exhibited 
(fig. 6); it had been 
crushed by the forma- 
tion of the barrow, and 
was restored by Mr. Tis- 
siman. I obtained from 
this tumulus the rude 

flint arrow-heads, also Fig - 6 ' Height ' 7 inches ; diameter> 7 inches - 
exhibited ; they were scattered about the mound. 




ON THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE AND OF THE 
ANCIENT BRITONS. 



COINS OF THE ICENI. 

THE coins of this class seem to have attracted notice 
shortly after the middle of the last century, about which 
time several of them were engraved in numismatic and 
other publications. The legends were mostly given incor- 
rectly; but we are now able to bring them forward in 
more variety and with a much greater approach to truth. 
The following six are in our national collection. The 



VOL. IV. 



15 



108 THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE 

seventh is in that of John Huxtable, esq. We must pre- 
mise that they are all silver coins; and refer to the accom- 
panying plate for their delineations : 

i. ECES ; weight, 1 8-| grains. 
Ji. ECEN; weight, 19^ grains. 

in. Confused or partially effaced inscription, with some resemblance 
to the foregoing, No. i ; weight, 19^ grains, 
iv. ATA ; weight, 1 8-| grains, 
v. ATA; weight, 18 grains, 
vi. ATEA; weight, 19 grains. 

vii. SITMV; weight, 19 grains. The top of the T in the die from which 
this coin was struck, not having been formed in its proper place, but a 
little way down the shank of the letter, has given it the appearance of a 
small printing t. The coiner must have done this perfectly unintention- 
ally, as only the large T was known in times of antiquity. 

Former writers appear to give no inscriptions which 
may not be resolved into some of these; the variation 
having arisen from the specimens used being partly effaced. 
Thus, the supposed reading ECEAI, was no other than 
ECEN; and that ATA could be easily misread as ID, can be 
without difficulty understood, from the form of the con- 
cluding letter, as may be seen by referring to fig. 4 of the 
plate. Other erroneous readings might be cited, arising 
from the same cause. 

The above types are those which it is proposed to assign 
to the Iceni. An old writer gives an uninscribed coin 
with a head belonging to this class, as appears by the 
reverse ; but it is not known whether this last be still in 
existence. The types reading ECEN were among some of 
those the first known to former numismatists, but were 
wrongly read as CEN, with the omission of the first letter; 
notwithstanding it appears plain enough in some speci- 
mens. Afterwards, these types being in some collection 
not obvious to numismatists, and those reading ECES being 
chiefly known, misread on one or two specimens EGES, they 
were supposed to refer to a chief of that name. But the 
coins reading ECEN having again made their appearance, 
this last supposition seems to have been relinquished. 

Now, considering the whole of these inscriptions, there 
can be little doubt that they belong to the Iceni ; and that 
in fact they are a few of the types of a very numerous 



AND OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS. 109 

coinage. They seem very unlike the coinage of a chief, as 
they shew a great pertinacity to the same representations, 
both in their obverses and reverses, while the legends 
vary. Were they the coins of a chief, the contrary might 
be expected to be the case, as may be seen by reference to 
the types of Pixtil in the Gaulish coinage ; the application 
of which to one individual is sufficiently well established. 
Considering then the British types which we are at present 
examining, as belonging to a national coinage, we may 
next endeavour to ascertain how far the legends agree 
with an appropriation to the Iceni. 

The proper appellation of this people, who inhabited 
Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, and Huntingdonshire, 
was either Cenimagni, as in Caesar; i. e. Cenomani, or 
Iceni, as in Tacitus. Baxter, in his Glossary of British 
Antiquities, applies the name Uigantes to them, consider- 
ing them the same people as the Jugantes of Tacitus. 
Dr. Pegge, in a dissertation appended to his Essay on the 
Coins of Cunobeline, published in 1766, was the first who 
clearly shewed that their general name was Cenimagni, or 
Cenimanni; and that there was another division of them 
called the Iceni-Coritani. A similar opinion is found in 
the work of Richard of Cirencester, Book vi, 30. Baxter 
had touched on these points, and brought forward con- 
siderable information; though obscuring his opinions by 
much erroneous conjecture. 

Much illustration has been adduced on the subject, and 
we may refer to Tacitus, Annals, xii, 31, in proof that the 
Coritani must have been the nation spoken of under the 
appellation of Iceni, and as having taken umbrage at the forts 
extending between the Severn and Warwickshire Avon 
(inter Sabrinam et Antonam). A somewhat minor proof is 
the name of the Iceni proper, i. e. the Cenimagni of Ca3sar, 
which may not have been irrelative, but applied to distin- 
guish one of two cognate tribes the Iceni-magni, that is, 
the greater Iceni. This idea is by no means inconsistent 
with what we know otherwise of ancient British geo- 
graphy. The learned Baxter, whom we have just men- 
tioned, suggests with much appearance of probability, that 
there were outliers or dependents belonging to this tribe 
of Iceni-Coritani, occupying districts still more to the 
westward; and these, according to him, were those who 



1 1 THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE 

engaged in hostilities with the Romans, as recorded by 
Tacitus, being incommoded by the forts built in their 
neighbourhood, which the Iceni proper, dwelling more to 
the east, could scarcely have been. It is evident that 
Tacitus leaves some such particulars to be supplied. 

If the foregoing supposition be received, which seems 
suggested by the ancient accounts which have come down 
to us, and solves many difficulties, it will follow that 
the Iceni first engaged in war with the Romans not on 
their own account, but to protect the Iceni- Coritani and 
their dependants, who had become embroiled with them; 
and that in the sequel, having advanced for this purpose 
with an army into the territories of these their neighbours 
and allies, and met the Romans in the field, they were so 
severely beaten by them that they submitted before the 
Romans had actually entered their own territories. This 
appears from Tacitus (Annals, xii, 32); as immediately 
after this battle with the Iceni, Ostorius Scapula marched 
to the westward, and to the shores of the Irish sea. The 
territories assignable to the Iceni-Coritani appear to have 
been Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Rut- 
landshire, and Northamptonshire. Those of the Iceni- 
magni have been before noted. 

With the territorial divisions of this state, however, we 
have not at present further to do; but may observe, that 
with the general name of this people, i. e. with the word 
Iceni, the legend ECEN has all the reference that could be 
expected. As to the legend ECES, it is apparently for 
ECENOS or ECENVS ; which, by a glance at the learned work 
of M. Lelewel on the Gaulish Coinage, seems capable of 
an easy explanation. M. Lelewel informs us, page 317, 
that the Gaulish chiefs were accustomed to impress their 
names, accompanied with the appellation of their respective 
states, in an adjective form, thus : Arivos Santonos, and 
Cantoris Taronos. That is, as it is interpreted, Arivos 
chief of the tribe of the Santones, and Cantorix chief of 
that of the Turones. M. Lelewel excepts the greater 
states in Gaul, as the Carnutes, Bituriges, ^Eduans, Ar- 
verni, Senones, and Bellovaci, in which he cannot trace 
this custom to have prevailed. This is immaterial, how- 
ever, to our present purpose : and as the termination os or 
us was almost indifferent in Celtic countries, though gene- 



AND OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS. Ill 

rally the former, ECEN(OS), or ECE(NO)S, is here used to 
express the name of the state in which the coins were 
struck ; the name of the chief or king being omitted. 

Presuming that this explanation will not be much con- 
troverted, we may now pass on to notice one of the other 
inscriptions, ATA or ATEA, which these coins seem to bear. 
By referring to the accompanying plate, fig. 4, the reader 
will see the way in which this word ATA is written the 
hind leg of the horse forming the first stroke of the com- 
mencing A, and the concluding A being expressed almost 
with the vagary of a monkish scribe of the middle ages. 
In fig. 5, the form of the second A varies, whether origin- 
ally so, or altered by the engraving tool of some former 
possessor, as in the instance, vol. iii, page 229, does not 
appear quite certain ; however, it has been thought better 
to represent this coin also. In fig. 6, we have this word 
again varied to ATEA, the T and E being blended in one 
letter. A coin reading ATA, of the same type as those in 
the plate in the collection of J. D. Cuff, esq., is engraved 
in the first volume of the Numismatic Journal, plate ir, 
British coins, fig. 2. The interpretation of the inscription 
ATA or ATEA may be left to further discoveries. 

As to the inscription SITMV on fig. 7, considering it to 
refer to the name of a place, we find in it a part of the 
word Sitomagus, the capital of the Iceni-Magni. The 
beginning of both is the same : and not knowing the pre- 
cise orthography of the word among the ancient Britons, 
and with the possibility that one of the letters on the 
coin may have been transposed or inverted, it may be 
perhaps received without difficulty as intended for the 
appellation of that city. 

The site of the ancient Sitomagus is pretty generally 
considered to have been Thetford, in Norfolk; a town 
advantageously situated on two navigable rivers, the Ouse 
and Thet ; where are to be seen ancient earth-works and a 
high mound. Bloomfield, in his History of Norfolk, de- 
dicates a considerable part of one of his folio volumes to 
an account of this place; and Martin, in 1779, also pub- 
lished its history. Its importance seems to have con- 
tinued to Saxon times; as there are Saxon coins extant 
which were struck here. The Romans, however, are sup- 



112 THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE 

posed on their conquest to have removed the capital of the 
Iceni-magni from hence to Venta Icenorum, supposed 
Caistor, near Norwich. They similarly removed the 
capitals of British states in several instances to other 
places. 

Of these coins of the Iceni, we may observe, that the 
majority of the types appear to have the branch of a tree 
extended parallel with the arched neck of the horse. 
This, however, is no certain indication of these coins, 
one of the coins of Cunobeline having also a branch ex- 
tended over a horse. In these coins of the Iceni, there 
seems but little doubt that the branch was only inserted 
to occupy the place usually filled by various ornaments in 
Celtic coins; copied, as in the present instance, from the 
Macedonian type. That, however, they were not imme- 
diate copies, but rather remote ones, it is scarcely neces- 
sary to say ; there having been obviously many interven- 
ing copies between them and the originals. 

As to the provenance of these coins, that is, respecting 
the localities where they are found. It seems to appear 
clearly enough, that types corresponding to the greater 
part of those in the accompanying plate, were in the hoard 
discovered about ten years since, at March, in the isle of 
Ely, though difficult to be recognized, on account of the 
imperfection of the inscriptions (see the Numismatic Chro- 
nicle, vol. i, p. 89), and that some of them have at other 
times been found in Cambridgeshire, p. 86. In Mr. Aker- 
man's work of the Ancient Coins of Cities and Princes, 
8vo. 1846, p. 196, this class is attributed to Cambridge- 
shire, and that part of Britain : which corresponds very 
well to the purport of the present examinations, that 
county having been, as before observed, within the terri- 
tories of the Iceni. 

That one of this class may have been found in Devon- 
shire another near Portsmouth is no proof that these 
coins have a different appropriation, but must be attributed 
to accidental circumstances; the greater amount of evi- 
dence tending to show that they belong to the Iceni. 

In regard to a gold coinage, it can hardly be doubtful 
that the Iceni possessed one. Tacitus says of their king 
Prasutagus, that he was longd opulentia clarus, that is, 




AND OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS. 113 

noted for his opulence for a length of time ; which can 
only be interpreted, that he was possessed of much money, 
among which, of course, must have been gold as well as 
silver coin. Examining the British series, to ascertain 
whether these views be correct, there appears to be a veri- 
fication of them. We have, for instance, a fine gold coin 
found at Oxnead, in Norfolk. Obverse, a horse to the 
right, altogether in the style of 
the horse on the silver coins of 
the Iceni. Reverse, two cre- 
scents back to back, with a star 
above and another below. (See 
the Numismatic Journal, vol. i, p. 224, arid Numismatic 
Chronicle, vol. i, page 86). The coin is in the British 
Museum collection, and is here engraved from the original. 
The gold coins, 40, 41, and 42, in plate n of Ruding, seem 
to require the same attribution, as probably all, or nearly 
all, the British coins should have, which have the two 
crescents on the reverse back to back, which these have, 
except No. 40, which has a representation somewhat vary- 
ing from the crescents. No. 41 has fragments of an in- 
scription, both above and below the horse. Specimens of 
the gold coins of this class with perfect inscriptions will 
no doubt in time make their appearance. 

Some few remarks have been already made on the 
division of this people into two tribes, on the territories 
those two tribes respectively occupied, and on the manner 
in which they were first drawn into a war with the Romans 
and beaten by Ostorius Scapula. The other few brief 
particulars known respecting them it is scarcely necessary 
to recapitulate, namely, of their being originally derived 
from the Cenomani of Gaul ; of their campaign against 
Caesar in his second expedition; of their supposed nego- 
ciations among the other British states with Augustus; of 
their sending back the soldiers of Germanicus when ship- 
wrecked on their shores, which seems attributable to them ; 
of their policy in the first years of the Roman invasion in 
the reign of Claudius; of their king Prasutagus making 
the Roman emperor, conjointly with his two daughters, 
his heir ; and of the insurrection and making war with the 
Romans under their queen Boadicea. These are the 
events which compose their history, which, should ever the 



114 THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE 

lost books of Tacitus be recovered, it would be highly inter- 
esting to know in full. At present we know them only in 
outline, and partly conjecturally, except indeed the events 
connected with Boadicea, which have come down to us 
more particularly detailed. We may only allude to these 
events to suggest, that it was when their ambassadors 
visited Rome, in company with those of the other British 
kings, about B.C. 14, that, in imitation of Roman customs, 
they first adopted a coinage. 

A somewhat unfavourable view is given of this people 
by Richard of Cirencester, book i, 6, that from being a 
warlike nation, and neglecting husbandry and the civil 
arts, they joined the Romans on their invasion in the time 
of Claudius. Whence he obtained this information is 
not known; nor does it appear they otherwise joined the 
Romans except by keeping at peace with them. 

The uncertain coins attributed to Boadicea, queen of the 
Iceni, have been before noticed, vol. ii, p. 12, and vol. iii, 
p. 235. Both of them have the legend BODVOC. One of 
them is in gold, with a rudely represented horse on the 
obverse, and the said legend on a tablet across the field of 
the coin on the reverse. The other, in silver, has a head 
on the obverse with the inscription ; and on the reverse a 
horse galloping to the right. It increases the uncertainty 
respecting these last, that the British word buddig signi- 
fies " victory." We know not, in fact, how they were 
intended to be inscribed: whether with the name of a 
goddess, or of some ruler merely. But these coins 
one would rather consider as the coins of a chief, and 
if so they must be those of some leader, who during the 
wars with the Romans assumed this name, Boduognatus, 
which apparently would be a name much corresponding 
with the Latin Victorinus. Camden, who was acquainted 
with the first of these types, expressed his doubts, as 
has been stated on a former occasion, whether it refer- 
red to Boadicea or to the Dobuni, otherwise called the 
Boduni. More modern discoveries, however, have partly 
decided this question, as they generally have the conclud- 
ing c to the legend, which was not on his specimen. It 
is, therefore, probably a casual coincidence merely, that 
one of the most recent discoveries of this type, recorded in 
the Archaeological Journal, vol. i, p. 388, occurred at 



AND OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS. 1 1 5 

Rodmarton, in Gloucestershire, which would have been 
within the territories of this people. B. p. 



THE PLATE OP BRITISH COINS. The coins are engraved from the originals in 
the British Museum, except figs. 7 and 10, which are from the collection of 
John Huxtable, esq. Fig. 10 is probably British from its style, though some 
types attributed to the ^Edui have a certain degree of resemblance. See 
Lelewel, plate vi, figs. 54-5. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE VERNON MANUSCRIPT. 

THIS celebrated volume was presented to the Bodleian 
Library soon after the termination of the civil wars, by 
Edward Vernon, esq. of Trinity college, Oxford. It is 
described in Bernard's Catalogue, 1697, page 181, as " a 
vast massy manuscript" ; and truly so, for it is at once the 
largest and most valuable relic of the kind that has been 
preserved. The following notices of its contents are 
printed from memoranda made some years ago for refer- 
ence, and without any view to publication. They must, 
therefore, be accepted as imperfect; but, in the absence 
of any better, they will enable the student to form an 
estimate of the nature of the contents of this remarkable 
collection. 

The manuscript is written on vellum, and must be 
ascribed to the earlier part of the fourteenth century. It 
numbers ff. 412 and 8 ab init.; ff. 311-318, 403-412, not 
foliated; ff. 337-340, 369-372, interchanged by the foliator, 
but rightly bound; ff. 273, 276, interchanged in the bind- 
ing; f. 406, torn; ff. 57-64, 81-88, 102, 106-113, 127-166, 
248, 389-392, 402, wanting. The first part contains eight 
leaves not foliated with the remainder : " Here bygynnen 
the tytles of the book that is cald in Latyn tonge Salus 
Anime, and in Englyshs tonge, Sowle-Hele" It com- 

VOL. IV. 16 



1 1 6 THE VERNON MANUSCRIPT. 

mences : " Nou let hure here and understonde ententyf- 
lyche myne wordes" ; and concludes with the words, 
" That he and I mowe come to that blisse that I unwor- 
thyly have spoken of, quod nobis misericorditer concedat, 
qui vivit et regnat in secula seculorum. Amen." In the 
following list, the Arabic numerals designate the folios; 
the Greek letters the columns ; and the r and v the sides 
of the leaf. 

1. A translation of the Old and New Testament into verse, f. 1, r, a. 

Warton (i. 21) considers this to have been made before the year 

1200, but I think erroneously. 
Beg. (a/c^>) . ..." hit cometh in my thouht." 
Ad finem, "Jon hire was a trewe feere, and nolde nou3t fro 

hire go ; He loked hire as his ladi deore, and what heo wolde, 

hit was i-do." 

2. How the martyrs be God's knights, f. 9, r, ft. 

Beg. " Now bloweth this newe fruyt that late bigon to springe." 
Fin. " And fro on to othur so arowe the while the 3er wol leste." 

3. Of new year's day. f. 9, r, ft. 

Beg. " jeres day the holy feste heij day is and good." 

Ad fin. " The day is good to holde heije of men that beth wyse." 

4. Of twelfth-day (Epiphany}, f. 9, v, a. 

Begin. " Twelfthe dai the he3e feste nobliche is to holde." 

And end. " Wei ouhte we halewe that ilke day and honoure also." 

5. Of St. Hillare. f. 9, v, a. 

" St. Hillare the holi mon of Aquitayne was." 

Ad fin. " Now God for the love of hym us bringe thider uchon." 

6. Of St. Wolston, St. Edward, and William of Normandy, f. 9, v, ft. 

" Seint Wolston Bisschop of Wircestre was her of Engelonde." 
Ad finem," Now God leeve that we mote with him in the joye of 
hevene beo." 

7. Of St. Fabian, f. 10, v, a. 

" Seint Fabian threttene 3er was in Roome." 

Ad fin. " And to the joye of hevene from pyne he gon wende." 

8. Of St. Agnes, f. 10, v, ft. 

" Seint Agnes the holy mayde wel sone heo bygon." 
Ad finem, " And wende to the blisse of hevene aftur hire muchele 
pyne." 

9. Of St. Vincent, f. 11, r, ft. 

" Seint Vincent in Spayne was and to a Cristene bisschop com." 
Ad finem, " That we mote to hevene come, and fo^if us ure 
misdede." 



THE VERNON MANUSCRIPT. 117 

10. Of St. Julian, f. 11, v, (3. 

" Seint Julian, the goode herbogour, of noble kuynde com." 
Ad fin. " That ur Lord us lete ur sunne bete and hevene have to 
mede." (Hickes 1 Thes. i. 224.) 

11. Of St. Blase, f. 12, r, /3. 

" Seint Blase wel clene lyf ladde withouten hore." 
Ad finem, " That Seint Blase is inne i-broujt and that we therof 
ne misse." 

12. Of St. Agace. f. 12, v, 0. 

" Seint Agace that gode maide in Cisyle was i-bore." 

13. Of St. Scolace. f. 13, r, (3. 

" Seint Scolace that holy mayde holy was of lyve." 

14. Of St. Valentin, f. 13, v, a. 

" Seint Valentin the martir good mon -was i-nouh." 

15. Of St. Juliane. f. 13, v, a. 

" Seint Juliane com of heije men, as we fyndeth i-write." 

16. Of St. Mathi. f. 14, r, 0. 

" Seint Mathi Apostel is, as 36 schule alle i-wite." 

17. Of St. Gregori. f. 14, r, 0. 

" Seint Gregori the confessour in Cisyle was i-bore." 

18. Of St. Longius. f. 14, v, ft. 

" Seint Longius was a blind kniht, tho God was don on the roode." 

19. Of St. Edward, f. 14, v, 0. 

" Seint Edward the 3onge martir was kyng of Engelonde." 

20. Of St. Cuthberd. f. 15, v, a. 

" Seint Cuthberd was i-bore her in Engelonde." 

21. Of St. Benet. f. 16, r, a. 

" Seint Benet ladde holy lyf that was so holy mon." 

22. Of St. Julian, f. 16, r, 0. 

" Seint Julian the confessor i-bore was at Roome." 

23. Of St. Bride, f. 16, r, 0. 

" Seint Bride of wel heje men into Scotlonde com." 

24. Of St. Oswold. f. 16, v, a. 

" Seint Oswold was i-bore heere in Engelonde." 

25. Of St. Chadde. f. 17, r, 0. 

" Seint Chadde the gode mon was her of Engeloude " 

26. Of St. Marie Egipcian. f. 17, v, a. 

" Seint Marie Egipcian in Egipte was i-bore." 
27.(A)0/ St. Mary's day in Lent. f. 18, v, a. 

" Seinte Marie day in Lente among othur dayes gode." 
27.(B)0/*/K? Moveable feasts, f. 18, v, a. 

" Festes meble ther beth i-cleped fyve in the 3ere." 



118 THE VERNON MANUSCEIPT. 

28. Stories from the New Testament, f. 19, v, o. 

" Bifore six dayes of Ester as a palmesone eve." 

29. Of St. Alphe. f. 27, r, (3. 

" Seint Alphe the martir, good mon was i-nouh." 
Compare MS. Bodl. 779, for another copy. 

30. Of St. George, f. 28, r, a. 

" Seint George the holi mon, as we fyndeth i-write." 

31. Of St. Mark. f. 28, r, ft. 

" Seint Mark, the Godspellere, wyde wende aboute in londe." 

32. Of St. Peter, f. 28, r, ft. 

" Seint Peter, the frere prechour in the cite of Veronye." 

33. 34. Of St. Phelip and St. Jacob, f. 28, v, a. 

" Seint Phelip and Seint Jacob apostles weoren tweyne." 

35. How the holy cross was found, f. 28, v, (3. 

" The holy Rode, the swete treo, riht is to haven in mynde." 
The MS. Ashmole, 43, says, 

"The Holi Rode was i-founde, as 36 witeth, in May, 
And anhansed was in Septembre the Holi Rode day." 

36. Of St. Quiriac. f. 30, r, a. 

" Seint Quiriac, the Bisschop, prechede Godus lawe." 

37. Of the miracles of the holy cross, f. 30, r, a. 

" The holi Roode was i-founde, as je witeth, in May." 
38 Of St. Dunston. f. 30, v, ft. 

" Seint Dunston was of Engelonde i-come of goode more." 

39. Of St. Aldelm. f. 31, r, ft. 

" Seint Aldelm the confessour was mon of goode lyve." 

40. Of St. Augustin. f. 31, v, a. 

" Seint Augustin that Cristendom brouhte into Engelonde." 

41. Of St. Pernele. f. 31, v, ft. 

" Seint Pernele that holi mayde riht is to habben in mynde." 

42. Of St. Barnabe. f. 32, r, a. 

" Seint Barnabe the Apostel that good was and hende." 

43. Of St. Adboruh. f. 32, r, (3. 

" Seint Adboruh, that holi maide, was here of Englonde." 

44. Of St. Albon. f. 32, v, ft. 

" Seint Albon this holy mon was here of Englonde." 

45. Of St. Aylbriht. f. 33, r, a. 

" Seint Aylbriht the holy kyng was of Englonde." 

46. Of St. Aeldrede. f. 33, r, ft. 

" Seint Aeldrede of Heli god mayde was and hende." 



THE VERNON MANUSCRIPT. 119 

47 Of St. Botulf. f. 33, v, a. 

" Seint Botulf this holy monk and Adulf his brother." 

48. Of St. Patrik. f. 33, v, ft. 

" Seint Patrik com thorwh God to preche in Irelonde." 

49. Of St. John. f. 35, v, ft. 

" Seint John was the beste bern the holy baptyst." 

50. Of St. Peter, f. 36, r, ft. 

" Seint Peter was with ur Lord of alle hise apostles hext." 

51. Of St. Athelwold. f. 38, v, ft. 

" Seint Athelwold Bisschop was, and in Engelonde i-bore." 
53. Of St. Swithyan. f. 39, r, a. 

" Seint Swithyan the confessour was her of Englonde." 

53. Of St. Kenelm. f. 39, v, a. 

" Seint Kenelm in Engelonde was i-come of goode streone." 

54. Of St. Margarete. f. 39, v, ft. 

" Seinte Margarete was an holi maide and good." 

See also a MS. in Heber's Collection, Catal. part xi. MS. Ashm. 
43 ; Trin. Coll. Oxon. 81 (57), idem. " Seynt Margarete was 
holi maide and good." The life of this saint printed by Dr. 
Hickes (Thes. i. 224-231) is different. See Black's Cat. col. 66. 

55. St. Mary Magdalen, f. 40, v, ft. 

" Seinte Marie Magdaleyn, that God fo^af hire sunne." 

56. Of St. Mildride. f. 41, v, ft. 

" Seint Mildride the holi mayde of kynges kunne come." 

57. Of St. Cristine. f. 42, r, ft. 

" Seint Cristine this holi thing, as I ow telle con." 

58. Of St. Jem (James), f. 43, v, a. 

" Seint Jem, the holi apostel, riht is to habben in mone." 

59. Of St. Alix. f. 44, r,/3. 

" Sitteth stille withouten strif, 
And I wol tellen ou of a lyf 

Of an holy mon, 
Alix was his nome ; 
To serven God thhujte him no scheme : 

Therof never he ne blon." 

60. Of the father and mother of St. Gregory, and how he was got. f. 45, 

r, a. 
" Alle that ich in word and dede I thonke hit God, al folkes kyng." 

61. Of the seven sleepers, f. 47, r, ft. 

" Seve slepers were seli men, as me hath ou i-told bifore." 

62 Of St. Dominik. f. 47, v, ft. 

" Seint Dominik, the noble frere, in Spayne was i-bore." 



120 THE VERNON MANUSCRIPT. 

63. Of St. Oswald, f. 49, r, a. 

" Seint Oswald the goode kyng of that on ende of Engelonde." 

64. Of St. Cristofre. f. 49, r, a. 

" Seint Cristofre was a sarazin in the lond of Canaan." 

65. Of St. Laurence, f. 49, v, ft. 

" Seint Laurence good mon was, and in strong martirdom." 

66. Of St. Perpolyt. f. 50, r, ft. 

" Seint Perpolit the martir kniht was with gret honour." 

67. OJ St. Mary. f. 50, v, a. 

" Seinte Marie Godus moder fro the apostles was heo nouht." 
See MS. Bodl. 799, Laud. B. 18 (5). 

68. Of St. Bartholomew, f. 51, v, a. 

" Seint Bartholomeuj, the holi mon, com of kynges blode." 

69. Of St. Gyles, f. 52, r, ft. l 

" Seint Gyles the holi mon lovede nothing sunne." 

70. Of St. Egwyne. f. 52, v, ft. 

" Seint Egwyne the holy mon was here of Englonde." 

71. Of St. Mathew. f. 52, r, ft. 

" Seint Matheu the Evangelist apostel he was i-wis." 

72. Of St. Michel, f. 53, v, a. 

" Seint Michel the Archangel and hise felawes also." 

73. Of St. Jerome, f. 54, v, a. 

" Seint Jerome was swithe god clerk, and wis thorwh alle thinge." 

74. Of St. Justine, f. 55, r, a. 

" Seynt Justine of hei3e men in Antioche com." 

75. Of St. Leger. f. 55, v, a. 

" Seint Leger a bisschop was, an holi mon also i-nouh." 

76. Of St. Fraunceis (ore\). f. 55, v, ft. 

" Seint Fraunceis, the ffrere menour, that good mon was i-nouh." 
Ending, (artX). " And as hit were men of witte this foules he gon 
preche." 

77. Of St. Clement (cu:e0). f. 65, r, a. 

" Alias ! quath this gode mon myne lene children threo." 

78. Of St. Katerine. f. 65, v, a. 

" Seinte Katerine of noble kunne com bi olde dawe." 

79. Of St. Andreu. f. 66, v, a. 

" Seint Andreu the Apostel was seint Petres brothur." 

80. Of St. Nicholas, f. 67, r, ft. 

" Seint Nicholas, the holi mon, that god confessor was." 

81. Of St. Lucie. f. 68, v, ft. 

" Seint Lucie the holy maide in Cicile was i-bore." 



THE VERNON MANUSCRIPT. 121 

82. Of St. Martha, f. 69, r, ft. 

" Seint Martha god wommon was, as je schule here telle." 

83. Of St. Thomas, f. 70, r, a. 

" Seint Thomas the gode Apostel i-martred was in Jude." 

84. Of St. Stevene. f. 71, r, ft. 

" Seint Stevene was a Gyeu and of Gywes he com." 

85. Of St. Jon. f. 71, v, ft. 

" Seint Jon the Evangelist that apostel also is." 

86. Of St. Thomas (Cant.), f. 73, r, ft. 

" Wolle 36 nou undurstonde hou hit is i-write." 

Very many copies of this that I have examined have heen crossed 

out with a pen. arc\. 
" Ac ur Lord, for seint Thomas love, his grace sone on hem caste." 

f. 80, v, ft. 

87. De Sacta Paula (aice^). f. 89, r, a. 

" Eithur othur thus to clothun and fede." 

88. Of Ambrose, and how he reproved Theodosius the Emperor, f. 89, v, a. 

" Herkeneth, sires, for my purpose 
Is ou to telle of Seint Ambrose." 

89. De quadam virgine in Antiochia. f. 91, v, y. 

" At Antioche, as men han sayde, 
Dwellede sum tyme a mayde." 

90. Quedam virgo invite in lupanari posita servavit pudiciciam. f. 92, r, ft. 

Beg. " Nou 30 maidens, alle and sum, 

Lerneth the miracles of martirdom ; 
Lerneth also, with liht faces, 
The nomes of such maner places." 

End. " The beginnyng of this martirdom, 
Furst of that mayden com, 
But the kniht the effecte folfuld, 
For that he was furst i-culd : 
But as God wolde for the nones, 
Thei toke heor coroune bothe at ones." 

91. De duobus veris amicis. f. 92, v, y. 

Beg. " Sumtyme men reden that ther was, 
In a cuntre clept Pictogoras, 
Dwellynge there twey men 
I-clept Sithia and Climonen." 

End. " This lyf endyted Seint Ambrose 

On Latyn ; tak hede to his purpose." 

92. De sancta Theodora, f. 93, r, a. 

" At Alisaundre, tel i ow con, 
In the Emperours tyme Zenon." 



122 THE VERNON MANUSCRIPT. 

93. Of St. Bernard, f. 93, v, y. 

" Seint Bernard born was at Burgoyne." 

94. Of St. Austin, f. 96, r, y. 

" Seint Austin was nempned that name." 

95. Of St. Savyn. f. 100, r, ft. 

" Sum tyme ther was an hethen man, 
That men called Savyn than." 

96. The story of Barlaam and kyng Josafaph (imp.}, f. 100, v, /?. 

A MS. of this in old German verse of the 13th century in British 
Museum, MS. Addit. 10288 ; Warton's H. E.P, iii. p. 167 ; MS. 
Laud, C. 72 ; MS. Bodl. 72, f. 288, v. 

Beg. " A good mon ther was and a clene, 
A clerkmen callen Jon Damascene 
Compiled the stori in good faath, 
Of Barlaam and kyng Josafath." 

And wanting between these 

" Confus a wei then gon he wende, 
Til he come to his secunde frende." 

" I schal lete set up verreyliche 
An ymage of gold al to the liche." 

End " Miracle is wrouht thorw Godus love." 

97. Ldfe of St. Euphrosine of Alexandria, f. 103, r, y. 

Beg. " In Alisaundre, that grete citee, 
Ther was a mon of much pouste ; 
Pathmicius forsothe he hiht, 
He kepte wel the heste of God almiht." 

This is probably derived from the Greek. See MS. Bodl. Bern. 277. 

End. " The abbot and the convent with good chere, 
Worschipeden God al i-feere ; 
And so do we Him that sit above, 
That he wolde, for that maydenes love, 
Graunten us hevene withouten eende, 
With him therin for to leende ; 
God graunte us grace that hit so be ! 
Amen ! amen ! for charite." 

98. A translation of " la estorie del Evangelie" in English verse (artX). 

f. 105, r, a. 

With illuminated pictures. This should contain a full account 
of the life of our Saviour, and many other copies exist in manu- 
script. One, I think, is in the Harleian collection. A rubric 
informs us that it was translated from the Latin. 

" Sum while ich was with sunne i-bounde." 
It ends (are\) at the end of the story of the Nativity, f. 105, v, y. 



THE VERNON MANUSCRIPT. 123 

99. Hymns (aw-(p). f. 114, r, a. 

One of these hymns, beginning, " Hail beo yow, Marie," has been 
printed by Warton, Hist. Engl. Poet. ii. 108. 

100. The miracles of our Lady (artX). f. 124, r, y. 

101. The Gospels in verse, f. 147, r, a. 

102. Hoio a kyngfred hys brothur wyt mynstralsie. f. 115, v, ft. 

" As hit bifel of a riche kyng." 
102.*0n the feasts of holy Church, f. 115, v, y. 

103. Defesto corporis Christi. f. 116, r, a. 

104. Septem miracula de corpore Christi. f. 197, r, y. 

105. The story of Lazarus and other Gospel stories, f. 199, r, /3. 

Among these is a very curious poem on the story of Esther and 
Ahasuerus, or of Amon or Hamon and Mardocheus or Mordecai, 
formed into a fabulous romance. It commences : 

" Mony wynter witerly, 
Or Crist weore boren of ure ladi, 
A rich kynge, hijte Ahaswere, 
That stif was on stede and stere." 

Another curious piece may also be noticed. It is entitled, " The 
visions of Seynt Poul wan he was rapt into Paradys," and is 
quoted by Warton, i. 19. 

106. The Pater noster. f. 231, v. 

107. The ten commandments, f. 233, r, y. 

108. Credo, f. 233, v, a. 

109. The prick of Conscience, f. 265, r, y. 

A very good copy of this poem is in MS. Ashm. 60, entitled, 
" Incipit Stimulus Consciencie a Ricardo Heremita de Hampole 
compositus." Few works of this class are more numerous in 
manuscript collections. 

110. The PricJe of Love. f. 284, r, a. 

" Her beginneth the Prikke of Love, 
That profitable is to soule behove. 

Beg God that art of mijtes most, 

Fader and Sone and Holi Gost, 
Thow graunte hem alle thi blessyng, 
That herken wel to this talkyng." 
Ad finem, 

" Nou thou him knowest and his bounte, 
Love him wel for charite, 
Evermore to thi lyves ende ; 
To joye and blisse then schalt ou wende, 
That he hath ordeyned for ure solace ; 
Lord bring us thider for thin grace ! Amen. 
Thus endeth the Spore of Love, 
God grant us the blisse of hevene above." 

VOL. IV. 17 



124 THE VERNON MANUSCRIPT. 

111. A disputation bytwene the bodi and the soule. f. 286, r, y. 

Printed in Wright's edition of Walter Mapes, App., p. 340-346. 

(Another copy of this in MS. Digb. 102.) 
Ad finem, 

" And Jehu, that us alle hast wroujt, 

Lord, after thi feire face, 

And mid thi precious blod i-boujt, 

Of amendement jef us space, 

So that thin hondewerk leose noujt 

In so deolful stude and place ; 

Ac the joye that thou hast wrou3t 

Graunte us, God, for thyn holy grace. Amen." 

112. Her is a gret lamentation between our Ladi and St. Bernard of 

Christes passion, f. 287, r, y. 

1 1 3. A disputacyon between the god man and the Devil, f. 288, v, y. 

114. The Castle of Love. f. 293, r, y. 

Init. " Her byginnet a tretys that is y-clept Castel of Love, that 
bisschop Grosteyjt made y-wis for lewede mennes byhove." 

" That good thenketh good may do, 
And God wol helpe him therto : 
For nas never good work wroi^t 
Withoute beginninge of good thoujt." 

115. Ypotis. f. 296, v, a. 

Tit. " Her biginneth a tretys 

That me clepeth Ypotys." 

Beg. " Alle that wolleth of wisdom lere, 
Lustneth nou and je may here 
Of a tale of holy writ, 
Seint Jon the Ewangelist witnesseth hit." 

End. " Thus endeth this spellyng 

Of Jhesu, ure hevenly kyng ; 

God graunt us all his swete blessyng, 

Schrift, and hosel, and good endyng. Amen." 

Other copies may be seen in MS. Cotton. Calig. A. ii. f. 77 ; Titus 
A. xxvi ; MS. Douce 323, art. 4 ; MS. Arundel 140, latter part 
of the xv cent.; MSS. Ashm. 61 and 750. 

116. Her beginneth a tretis of three messengers of death, f. 297, v, y. 

117. Short religious poems, f. 298, r, (3. 

118. Kyng Eobert of Cicyle. f. 300, r, y. 

Tit. " Her is of kyng Robert of Cicyle, 
Hou pride dude him begyle." 

Beg. " Princes proude that beth in pres, 
I wol ou telle thing not lees. 
In Cisyle was a noble kyng, 
Fair and strong and sundel 3.yng." 



THE VERNON MANUSCRIPT. 125 

Ad fin " Evermore to ben above, 

Ther is joye, comfort, and love. Amen." 

There are copies of this romance at London and Cambridge. It 
is printed in Halliwell's Nuga Poetics, 1844, p. 49. 

119. Disputacyon betwene Child Jehu and Masters of Lawe of Jewri. 

f. 301, v, y. 

120. Disputacyon betwene a Christen man and a Jewe. f. 301, v, y. 

Printed by Warton, in Hist. Eng. Poet. ii. 413. 

121. How a man schuld here masse, f. 302, v, a. 

122. Story of St. Gregory, f. 303, v, y. 

123. Story of St. Bernard, f. 304, r, y. 

124. King of Teran and Soudan of Dammas. f. 304, v, (3. 

Printed by Ritson, in his Metrical Romances, from this MS. 

Tit. " Her bigenneth of the kyng of Tars and of the Soudan of 

Dammas ; and how the Soudan of Dammas was i-cristened thoru 

Godus gras." 

Beg. " Herkneth now, bothe olde and jyng, 
For Marie love that swete thyng." 

End. " Graunt us alle in hevene liht, 

To see thi swete face. Amen." 

125. Proverbs, f. 307, r, ft. 

126. Litel Caton. f. 309, v, o. 

127. Liber Catonis. f. 310, r, ft. 

128. Short religious poems, f. 314, r, ft. 

129. Stimulus amoris. f. 319, r, a. 

130. A tretis that techeth to love God. f. 334, r, a. 

131. The form of perfect living, by Richard Hampole. f. 334, v, ft. 

Cf. MS. Tanner, 375. 

132. A treatise of contemplative life. f. 343, r, a. 

In ninety-three chapters. 

133. The mirour of St. Edmound. f. 356, r, ft. 

134. The Abbey of the Holy Ghost, f. 359, v, ft. 

Tit. " Heer biginneth a tretis that is clept the Abbey of the Holy 
Gost, that is Concience of monnes herten schulde ben in this 
Abbey most." 

Incip. " Mi deore brethren and sustren." 

This treatise has been generally ascribed to bishop Alcock, but 
erroneously. See Tanner, p. 24, and Syr Gawayne, Introd. 

135. Spiritum Guidonis. f. 363, v, ft. 

136. Of the love of God f. 367, v, ft. 



126 THE VERNON MANUSCRIPT. 

137. Piers Plowman (are\). f. 394, v, /3. 

Passus primus, f. 395, r, a ; passus secundus, f. 395, v, ft ; passus 
tertius, f. 396, r, ft ; passus quartus, f. 397, r, a : passus quintus, 
f. 397, v, a ; passus sextus, f. 398, v, ft; passus septimus, f. 399, 
v, ft ; passus octavus, f. 400, r, ft ; passus nonus, f. 400, v, ft ; 
passus decimus, f. 401, r, ft. 

138. The history of Pilate, in prose and verse (UKC^). f. 403, r, a. 

139. How mercy surpasseth all things, f. 407, r, a. 

" Bi West under a wylde wode syde." (16 st. of 12.) 

140. Deo Gracias. f. 407, r, y, and f. 407, v, y. 

" In a chirche ther I con knel." (10 st. of 8, and 6 st. of 8.) 

141. Against my will I take my leave, f. 407, v, a. 

" Nou bernes buirdes bolde and blythe." 

Alliterative (8 st. of 8). Printed by Ritson, in his collection of 
Ancient Songs and Ballads, p. 44. 

142. Deus caritas (7 st. of 8). f. 407, v, (3. 

" Deus caritas est and deore God omnipotent." 

143. Each man ought himself to know (9 st. of 12). f. 407, v. 

" In a pistel that Poul wrou3t." 

144. On ^ester-day (15 st. of 12). f. 408, r, a. 

" Whon men beoth muriest at heor mele." 

145. On the good keeping of Christ's commandments (13 st. of 8). f. 408, v, a. 

" I warne uche leod that liveth in londe." 

146. For hos seith the sothe, lie schal be schent (8 st. of 12). f. 408, v, ft. 

" The mon that luste to liven in ese." 

147. Fye on a false friend (9 st. of 8). f. 408, v, y. 

" Frenschipe faileth and fullich fadeth." 

148. Thank God of all ; an antient poem beginning thus : " By a wey 

wandryng as I went" (17 st. of 8). f. 409, r, a. 

The Ashm. copy (343) is written on two leaves of vellum, early in 

the 15th century ; the last stanza is defaced by stain and friction. 

See Mr. Black's Catalogue, col. 248. 

149. The World a phantasy (11 st. of 12). f 409, r, y. 

" I wolde witen of sum wys wiht." 

150. Mercy to God (12 st. of 8). f, 409, v, a. 

" As I wandrede her bi Weste." 

151. Truth is best (9 st. of 8). f. 409, v, y. 

Beg " Hose wolde him wel avyse." 

152. Charity no longer cheer (14 st. of 8). f. 410, r, a. 

" Hose wolde be thenkei him weel." 

153. Women the good of the world (14 st. of 8). f. 410, r, ft. 

" In worschepe of that mayden swete." 



NORTHUMBRIAN STYCAS. 127 

154. Prayer to the Virgin, f. 410, r, y. 

" Off all floures feirest falle on." 

155. The Virgin's Flourdelys. f. 410, v, /3. 

" Marye mayden, moder mylde." 

156. Selden sey^e is soonfor$ete. f. 410, v, y. 

" O dere God, what mai this be." 

This is an elegy on the death of Edward III, printed by Conybeare 
in ArchcBol. vol. xviii, p. 22-26 (14 st. of 8). 

157. A warning to beware, f. 411, r, ft. 

" Yit is God a curteis Lord." 

A poem on the disturbances and calamity of the earlier part of the 

reign of Richard II, printed by Conybeare, in Archaol. vol. xviii, 

p. 26-28(11 st. of 8). 

158. A short poem. f. 411, r, y. 

" Crist jive us grace to love wel holi cliirch." 

159. Say the best (7 st. of 8). f. 411, v, a. 

" Quene of Hevene, moder and may." 

160. Make no tarrying till the morrow, f. 411, v, a. 

161. Amend thy sins (12 st. of 8). f. 411, v, ft. 

" By a wode as I gon ryde." 

J. O. HALLIWELL. 



AN ACCOUNT OF A HOARD OF NORTHUMBRIAN 
STYCAS DISCOVERED IN YORKSHIRE. 

THE hoard of stycas, of which the subjects of this paper 
formed a part, was found in a field near Ullerskelf, 1 adjoin- 
ing the York and North Midland railway, and within a 
short distance of the river wharf. The discoverer is one 
William Foster, a labouring man in the employ of colonel 
Thompson. He states his impression that the treasure was 
brought towards the surface during the autumn of 1846, 
when some deep trenches for draining were in progress near 
the spot where the plough laid it bare in March following. 

1 Parish of Hornington, West Riding, Yorkshire. 



128 



NORTHUMBRIAN STYCAS. 



The coins, amounting probably to several thousands, 
were compacted with verdigris into one mass. When 
making examination of the place in June last, I found with 
a few scattered stycas some pieces of leather, the material, 
in all probability, within which they had been originally 
enclosed. 

While making the present collection from different per- 
sons into whose hands they fell, I must have rejected at 
least an equal number, and still have fifty duplicates of 
common type. The parcel under notice contains coins of: 



Eanred 70 


EV+DIREX .... 


4 


Ethelred . . . .267 


(?) EV+DPV1FF 


5 


Redulf 5 
Osbercht . . . .18 
Vigmund . . . .47 
Vulphere .... 5 
Heard vulf . . . .14 


(?) VENRV .... 
(?) ENDEAOE .... 
(?) VLLHELHFF 
(?) ALKRED .... 
EDELHELM-VVLFRED 


5 
2 
2 
1 

1 


(?) Erdulfon ) 

HOAVDBE J 

Total 


Uncertain .... 
In original state, say 

,458. 


7 
4 


The moneyers run thus : 




EANRED. 


HEDULF. 




Aldates . . 1 Eurduulf . 1 


Brother . . 1 Cocired . . 


2 


Brother . . 6 Eurduulfi . 1 


Cudberch . 1 Cordred . . 


1 


Badigils . . 1 Oudigils . . 1 
Dintred . . 5 Fordred . . 9 


Total, 5. 




Daegberht . 1 Ful & Folcnod 3 
Eadvini . . 4 Gadutes . . 1 


VIGMUND. 

Coenred . .19 Evemed . . 


1 


Eanred . . 2 Gaduteis . 3 


Conered . . 1 Edilveard . 


12 


Eordred . . 3 Vulfred . . 3 


Edelhelm . 4 Hunlaf . . 


10 


Edelveard . 1 Monne . . 24 


Total, 47. 




Total, 70. 








OSBRECHT. 






Banmic . . 1 Edulhu . . 


9 


ETHELRED. 


Edelhelm . 5 Eanvulf . . 


1 


Alghere . . 9 Fordred . .18 
Brother . . 5 Leofdegn . 28 
Dintred . . 7 (?) Mutedeln 1 
Cunemuxd . 1 Monne . . 44 


Monne . . 5 Eanulf . . 
Vineberht . 2 Vulfsixt . . 
Total, 18. 


1 
] 


Coenred . . 1 Odilo . . 1 
cuber ..!(?) Odun . . 1 
Eanred . .32 Vulfred . .12 


VULPHERE. 

Vulfred 


5 




Earduulf . 63 Vendelbearht 6 
Edelread . 1 Vulpic . . 3 
Edelhelm . 2 (?)Victen . 1 
Erdvini . . 6 Vidulco . . 1 


(?) HEARDVULF. 

Hutrd . . 1 Edelhelm . 
(?) Eanred . 1 Idulo . . . 
Deroc . . I (?) Edvini . 


1 
2 
1 


Eordrid . . 6 LORERDM . 1 
Eadvini . . 2 obv. EDILREVD 2 


Aother ..!(?) Egmund . 
Edelhuled . 1 Monne . . 


1 

1 


Herreth . . 4 Uncertain . 10 


Earduli . . 2 Euivude . . 


1 


Total, 269. 


Total, 14. 





NORTHUMBRIAN STYCAS. 129 

On attention being first drawn to this kind of coinage, 
one cannot but be arrested by the variety of metals used 
to represent one common value, and afterwards by the 
more extraordinary variety of lettering with which they 
are impressed, and by the license taken in the construction 
of words, in the way of adding, withdrawing, and trans- 
posing their component letters. I venture to suggest that 
these deviations are by no means invariably the result of 
carelessness or of ignorance, for in many instances exami- 
nation proves that, with regard to several moneyers, there 
has been a "method in their madness." It may seem 
unimportant, but perhaps not wholly irrelevant to notice 
some of these peculiarities in the case of two or three mint- 
masters, who appear to have followed their own devices 
with a degree of freedom, limited only by the confines of 
their own ingenious or eccentric turn of mind. While the 
Roman graver never deviated from a form established for 
each letter of his alphabet, and while the mintmaster of 
our day is equally firm in upholding the form by Roman 
hands prescribed, which we all call capital, thus acted not 
the freemen of Northumbria ; in certain cases, to be named, 
they followed so little in a settled line of lettering and 
spelling, and so much the run of individual fancy, that a 
character, like that which manuscript possesses (to a degree 
reflecting some mental or moral features of the writer), is 
imparted to their minting. We say, then, that some of 
the mint-masters wrote as it were a free hand upon these 
tablets, which have braved a thousand years ; further, that 
they took strange liberties with letters, turning them topsy 
turvy, or placing them back to back, ad libitum, occasion- 
ally permitting two or three to follow ordine recto, but 
starting the rest in retrograde from the + set up at the 
opposite end of the field. Again, many are the liberties 
taken with their own names ; so many by one, Earduulf, that 
to detect and identify the man after his own representation 
of alias upon alias is difficult; indeed we might challenge 
the " modern instances" of our police courts to produce his 
equal. But last, not least, we bring a charge of unwar- 
rantable liberties taken with the king's name : in case of 
king Ethelred preferring an indictment against any of his 
subjects, the lawyers of that day had filled a folio or more 
in summing up the prosecutor's titles. 



130 NORTHUMBRIAN STYCAS. 

We may next endeavour to elicit a few mental features 
from the artist's mode of handling. 

Among the men who minted for king Ethelred, Earduulf 
and Leofdegn stand conspicuous. On the grounds follow- 
ing, I would suggest that there were two who owned the 
former name. That one, Earduulf, having a perception of 
order, brought it to bear upon the coinage -above his com- 
peers, and that, this regularity attained, he never gave 
himself to change in the main features of the work ; he but 
occasionally put forth a stroke of fancy in the ornamental 
dots and dashes of the obverse legend, and chiefly on the 
centre ornament of the reverse. 

Contra, Earduulf, the eccentric, has coins of very irre- 
gular shape still greater irregularity of lettering and 
legend so great, indeed, that in twenty-eight coins he 
places the letters of his obverse legend in seventeen dif- 
ferent ways, while his own name is so ingeniously dealt 
with, that in these twenty-eight coins, but four repetitions 
of the same spelling occur. Are we to attribute this to 
chance and bungling, or to a rude endeavour after variety, 
with diligence pursued ? This fixity of purpose may have 
been exerted on variations, as that of Alghere and Herreth 
was upon our mode of spelling their own and their sove- 
reign's name. 

These differences of minting in Earduulf may otherwise 
be reconciled by supposing that he grew more orderly in 
his old age, though that is not a common case ; or while 
orderly himself, he may have had unlettered or mis- 
chievous apprentices (such as have earned a name among 
printers of our day), who luxuriated in playing tricks 
with his types. Pass we on to Leofdegn, a man of order, 
though fond of variety, who never retrogades his monarch's 
name, nor his own^ and (in this collection of types) makes 
but one change in spelling it, but ligates the letters of his 
reverse, and there introduces the letters F and G to us in 
well chosen variety ; his centres on either side being regu- 
lar and ornate to a degree, in all respects giving him good 
claim to the honourable title of MONET (monetarius). 

In conclusion, we may observe, how Osbrecht has ex- 
perienced on all hands the grossest orthographical mis- 
representation, while Vigmund the archbishop seems wholly 
to have escaped it. 



NORTHUMBRIAN STFCAS. 131 

Before leaving this subject of the orderly or transposed 
position of letters, I am led by the circumstance of Runic 
characters having been found upon the stycas, to make a 
quotation from the Northern Antiquities of M. Mallet, 
leaving it to the learned to determine whether his remarks 
may be considered pertinent to the present matter in 
general. Speaking of the Scandinavians, as to the super- 
stitious view in which Eunic characters were by them 
regarded, he observes (page 118 of Bonn's late edition, 
Antiquarian Library} : " Impostors easily persuaded a 
credulous people that these letters, disposed and combined 
after a certain manner, were able to work wonders, and in 
particular to presage future events. There were letters, 
or runes, to procure victory to preserve from poison to 
cure bodily diseases to dispel evil thoughts from the 
mind, etc. They employed nearly the same characters for 
all these different purposes; but they varied the order and 
combination of the letters, they wrote them either from 
right to left, orfrom top to bottom, or inform of a circle, 
or contrary to the course of 'the sun" etc. 

If the case applies, the altered reading of a name, per- 
sisted in beyond the probabilities of chance, may be more 
meaningful than we suppose ; and, under these externals, 
be like the Victoria Aug. Salus Aug. Pax Aug. of those 
who went before. But this unwarrantable stretch of fancy 
brings me back to sober particulars. Touching the cdins 
which appear referable to the monarch Heard uulf, specially 
those in the catalogue; the strange variety of spelling, 
the general aspect of the coins, and their respective mint- 
marks, suggest, at first sight, a connexion with Earduulf, 
whom I have denominated the eccentric moneyer of Ethel- 
red ; but it is singular that, while in his case, twelve coins 
only out of twenty-eight are distinguished by retrograde 
lettering, the fourteen above named are all characterized 
by being thus disarranged from their propriety. 

If the monarch Hearduulf is not numismatically ascer- 
tained, demonstrative evidence may now perhaps be found 
on some of the coins, and in a somewhat less degree on 
others, where, in the former instances, is plainly found 
the termination REX, and in the latter RX. A further cor- 
roboration may be drawn from the circumstance of seve- 
ral known moneyers to other monarchs occupying these 

VOL. IV. 18 



132 



NORTHUMBRIAN STYCAS. 



reverses, while the rest seem peculiar to this king. The 
sagacity of Mr. C. Roach Smith, in attributing to him the 
retrograde coin HOHVDRE - HVLTRD, is admirably seconded 
by a conjunction of the name HVILTRD with the clearly 
regal EARDVVREX of the present series. 

Following the arrangement of Mr. C. Roach Smith, four 
coins, bearing EVXDIREX, are placed next, and five others, 
reading EVXDIVIFF, follow, all of which bear a peculiar 
mintmark, but are reversed by known moneyers. 

Subjoined is a register of four examinations of stycas 
from different hoards, to give a notion of the similarity 
prevailing in them all with respect to numerical propor- 
tion in the coins of the various princes and prelates. The 
first column is from the Numismatic Chronicle, vol. vii, 
p. 104; the second from the Journal of the Association, 
vol. ii, p. 233 ; and the third is from a notice of 511 of the 
1847 hoard, published by Mr. Wellbeloved of York. The 
last column is my own, which appears proportionably the 
richest in Osbercht's and Vulphere's, poorer in Redulf, and 
less cumbered with Eanred, than the others, the average 
is struck after, including those which I possessed. The 
proportions are remarkably equal : 





Eanred. 


Ethelred. 


Eedulf. 


Osbercht 


Vigmd. 


Vulph. 


Total. 


York Hoard ) 
of 1843 J 


157 


446 


19 


45 


94 


13 


774 


Hargrove ) 


531 


919 


63 


61 


237 


23 


1835 


1847 ) 
















Wellbeloved 


102 


804 


15 


23 


59 


8 


511 


Fennell 


66 


252 


8 


23 


57 


8 


414 



836 1921 



105 



152 



447 



52 3534 



Of the total 



about l-4th. morethanl l-34th. l-23rd. 1-Sth. l-68th. 



Wake field, York, May 1, 1848. 



WILLIAM FENNELL. 



133 



of t&e Association. 



APEIL 12. 

MB. SYEE CUMING communicated a paper on the couvre-feu, of which 
the following is an abstract : 

" There are few points in the ancient jurisprudence of England which 
are enveloped in more doubt and obscurity, or which have given rise to 
more conflicting opinions as to their origin and intention than the Couvre- 
feu law. 1 Some have regarded it as a cruel devise of our first William to 
coerce and enslave his newly acquired Saxon subjects ; whilst others have 
seen in it a wise and thoughtful provision for the prevention of fires, and 
have endeavoured to trace its nativity to an age antecedent to the Norman 
conquest, and place it among the wise enactments of the Great Alfred. 

" Although there is no evidence to show that the couvre-feu law origin- 
ated with the Norman conqueror, yet it appears certain that in the year 
1068 he ordained that all people should put out their fires and lights at 
the eight o'clock bell, and go to bed. This law was rigidly observed 
during his own reign and that of his successor. But that it was not 
intended as a badge of infamy, is, however, evident, from the fact, that 
the law was of equal obligation upon the foreign nobles of the court as 
upon the native-born Saxon serfs. And yet we find the name of curfew 
law employed as a bye- word, denoting the most odious tyranny ; and many 
historians, poets, and lawyers, speaking of it as the acme of despotism 
levelled alone at the vanquished English. Polydore-Vergil tells us that 
William, ' In order that he might convert the native ferocity of the people 
into indolence and sloth, he deprived them of their arms, and ordained 
that each head of a family should retire to rest about eight o'clock in the 
evening, having raked the ashes over the fire ; and for this purpose a sign 
should be made through every village, which is even now preserved, and 
called in the Norman, coverfeu.' 1 

" Hutchinson, in his History of Durham, vol. i, p. 101, alludes to the 
couvre-feu in the following dolorous strain ; speaking of William, he says : 
' In a little time the king displayed a new exertion of tyrannical power, 
in depriving the people of the custody of arms, seizing the same into his 
hands, and laying them up in arsenals, formed in the several castles he 
was building, or had erected throughout the land. And then, under 
severe penalties, he prohibited the use of fire or candles when the curfew- 

1 In old French, carre-feu, or cerre- of the middle ages it was called igni- 
feu; now changed into curphour, cou- tegium or peritegium. 
vre-feu, and curfew. In the low Latin 



134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

bell should ring, to prevent associations and conspiracies. This bell was 
heard by the English as the knell of their departed liberty, and a rejieated 
testimony of slavery.' 

" We learn from Du Cange that the ringing of the couvre-feu, igni- 
tegium, or peritegium bell, as it was called in low Latin, prevailed generally 
in Europe during the middle ages as a precaution against fire : and this 
fact is alone sufficient to justify William in reviving and extending the 
law in this country. 

" In the Antiquarian Repertory, vol. i, page 4, it is stated upon the 
authority of monsieur Pasquier, that the ringing of the curfew-bell was a 
custom long established in particular towns in France, and originated, as 
he supposes, in times of tumult and sedition. But the earliest instance 
he gives, is no further back than the year 1331, when the city of Laon, 
which had forfeited its privileges, was reinstated therein by Philip de 
Valois, who directed that for the future a curfew-bell should be rung in a 
certain tower in that city, at the close of the day. Pasquier adds, that 
under the reigns of Charles VI and VII it came much into use. 

" In the Statuta Massiliensis, v. 4, all persons are forbidden from going 
out without a light after the sounding of the bell called Salvaterra (qua 
afurtis nocturnis salvarentur) ; and a still harder injunction is given in a 
Parisian statute, A.D. 1291, namely, that none were to draw wine after 
the bell had rung (Nul ne traite vin, plus que cuevre-feu sera sonnez). In 
some places the parishioners were to say, on their knees, the Angelus ad 
Virginem, for which they were to have ten days of pardon. 1 

" So late as the latter part of the seventeenth century a fire-bell was 
rung at a certain hour in the evening at Vienna, as a signal to the inha- 
bitants to extinguish their fires within door, and to hang up lanterns in 
front of their houses. 

" Voltaire, in his Universal History, ridicules the notion of the couvre- 
feu being a badge of degradation ; he observes, that ' The law, far from 
being tyrannical, was only an ancient police, established in almost all the 
towns of the north, and which had been long preserved in the convents.' 
And he adds this reason for it : ' That the houses were all built of 
wood, and the fear of fire was one of the most important objects of 
general police.' 

" However well intentioned the couvre-feu law may have been, it pro- 
bably met with some opposition in this country, from either the natives or 
the Norman intruders ; for in the year 1103, we find Henry I repealing 
the enactment of his father. Blackstone says (vol. iv, p. 420), that Henry 
'abolished the curfew; 2 for, though it is mentioned in our laws a full 
centuiy afterwards, 3 yet it is rather spoken of as a known time of night 

1 Du Cange, v, Ignitegium. 
2 Stat. Civ. Lond. 13 Edw. I. ' 3 Knight's Life of Dean Colet, p. 6. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 135 

(so denominated from that abrogated usage) than as a still subsisting custom.' 
Although the couvre-feu law was abrogated by Henry I, yet the custom of 
ringing the bell at eight o'clock long continued ; and is not only mentioned 
in several old documents, but even to the present time in some parts of 
the country 

" ' The curfew tolls the knell of parting day.' 

" In the second mayoralty of sir Henry Colet, knight (father of dean 
Colet), A.D. 1495, and under his direction, this solemn charge was given 
to the quest of wardmote in every ward, as it stands printed in the Cus- 
tumary of London : 

" ' Also yf there be anye paryshe clerke that ryngeth curfewe after the 
curfewe be ronge at Bowe chyrche, or Saint Brydes chyrche, or Saint 
Gyles without Cripelgat, all such to be presented.' 1 

" In Stripe's edition of Stow, 1731 (vol. i, b. 3, p. 542), speaking of 
St. Mary-le-Bow, it is stated, that ' The parish clerk's office, belonging to 
this church, was to ring the curfew-bell ; as it was to be rung at three 
other churches in London at a pretty distance from each other. That 
so, this notice, all the curfew-bells in other parishes might be rung in 
due season; viz. Barking church, St. Bride's, and St. Giles's without 
Cripplegate.' 

" The couvre-feu is still rung at eight o'clock at St. Edmund the King, 
Lombard-street. At Bishopgate; Shoreditch; Spitalfields ; St. Michael, 
Queenhithe; St. Mildred, Bread-street; 2 St. Antholin's, Budge-row; and 
in some other city churches there are evening bells, which are popularly 
known as the couvre-feu ; but some of which are, I believe, really prayer-bells. 

" On the southern side of the Thames the couvre-feu was, till within 
these six or seven years, nightly rung at St. George's church, Borough. 

" At St. Peter's hospital, Newington, better known as the Fishmongers' 
Almshouses, there is a bell rung every evening from eight o'clock till 
nine, which the old parishioners were wont to denominate the couvre-feu ; 
but it is now said that it is rung to warn all strangers from the premises, 
and the alms-people to their several apartments. The sign and spirit in 
fact of the old couvre-feu is continued, although the name is now forgotten 
by the ignorant inhabitants of the neighbourhood. 

"We may gather from Polydore- Vergil that the custom of ringing 
couvre-feu prevailed pretty generally throughout England in the early part 
of the sixteenth century : and to show that this inference is not altogether 
without foundation, I have grouped the few notices which I have met with 
concerning it into counties, by which it will be perceived that in every 
quarter of the island the couvre-feu bell has been continued to a late 
period. First then of 

1 Spelm. Cod. LL. W. I. 288. Hen. I. 2 The bell at this church was silenced 
299. by order of vestry, December 1847. 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

"BERKSHIRE. It is stated in the Mirror, vol. xix, p. 275, that 'At 
Saint Helen's church, Abingdon, the curfew is still continued ; the bell is 
rung at eight o'clock every night, and four o'clock every morning, during 
the winter months. There are eight bells in Saint Helen's tower, but 
the fifth or sixth is generally used at the curfew, to distinguish it from the 
death-bell, for which purpose the tenor is used, and is rung at the same 
time at night if a death has happened in the course of the day, and for 
that night supersedes the necessity of ringing the curfew.' 

" CAMBRIDGESHIRE. The nightly tolling of the couvre-feu bell at Great 
St. Mary's must be well remembered by every fellow of the university. 

" DORSETSHIRE. In Hutchins's Dorset, vol. ii, page 267, the author, 
speaking of Mapouder church, mentions land given ' to find a man to ring 
the morning and curfew-bell throughout the year.' In the same work 
(p. 422), under Ibberton, is mentioned one acre given for ringing the eight 
o'clock bell, and four pounds for ringing the morning bell. 

"A writer in the Mirror, vol. xxii, p. 405, says that " The custom of 
ringing the curfew is still kept up at Dorchester. The curfew (or seventh 
of a peal of eight bells) is rung at eight o'clock every night, for about a 
quarter of an hour, and afterwards as many strokes are told, as ai-e neces- 
sary to denote the day of the month ; ' and he adds, that ' A bell has been 
rung, from time immemorial, in the same tower (that is, St. Peter's), every 
morning at six o'clock, from Lady-day to Michaelmas, and at seven o'clock 
from Michaelmas to Lady-day, and at one o'clock at noon every day. This 
was instituted, unquestionably, for the purpose of calling the different 
labourers to work ; for which, the sexton is paid a yearly salary by the 
churchwardens.' 

" DURHAM. Hutchinson, in his Hist, and Antiq. of the County Pala- 
tine of Durham (Newcastle, 1785), vol. i, p. 102, says ' The curfew-bell is 
still rung in many towns in the county of Durham.' 

" ESSEX. There is still standing at Barking the ancient ' fire-bell 
gate', wherein the couvre-feu was formerly rung. 

" GLOUCESTERSHIRE. At the close of the last century, the couvre-feu 
was still continued at St. Michael's church, Gloucester. 

" HAMPSHIRE. It is mentioned in the Mirror (vol. xix, p. 307), that 
' the curfew is still rung every night at eight in the town of Winchester, 
and the bell, a large one, weighing 12 cwt., is appropriated for the purpose 
(not belonging to a church), but affixed in the tower of the guildhall, and 
used only for this occasion, or on an alarm of fire': and it is also stated, 
' that it formerly was the custom to ring the bell every morning at four 
o'clock, but the practice being found annoying to persons living near, the 
corporation ordered it to be discontinued.' 

" HERTFORDSHIRE. It is stated in Hone's Every-day Book (p. 242), 
that at Hoddesdon, ' the old curfew-bell, which was anciently rung in that 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 137 

town for the extinction and relighting of ' all fire and candlelight' still 
exists, and has from time immemorial been regularly rung on the morning 
of Shrove Tuesday at four o'clock, after which hour the inhabitants are at 
liberty to make and eat pancakes, until the bell rings again at eight o'clock 
at night. This custom is observed so closely, that after that hour not a 
pancake remains in the town. 

" KENT. In the articles for the sexton of the parish of Faversham, 
agreed upon and settled in 22 Henry VIII (preserved in Jacobs' History 
of that town, p. 172), we read: ' Imprimis, the sexton, or his sufficient 
deputy, shall lye in the church steeple ; and at eight o'clock every night 
shall ring the curfewe by the space of a quarter of an hour, with such bell 
as of old time hath been accustomed.' 

" Boys, in his Hist, of Sandwich, says that the sexton ' rings the tenor 
bell every night at eight o'clock, unless there be a burial at the church, 
and again in the morning at four o'clock, from a fortnight after Michael- 
mass to a fortnight before Old Lady-day, except on Sundays and in the 
twelve days after Christmas : for which he has from the corporation annu- 
ally 3, and an allowance of 6s. 8d. for candles and oil.' A correspondent 
to the Mirror (vol. xxii, p. 210) states, that ' the bell is still rung at Sand- 
wich, at St. Peter's the Apostle, every night for the space of six to ten 
minutes, excepting on the day of a funeral, when the sixth, seventh, and 
eighth bell is rung at seven o'clock in the morning, according to the cir- 
cumstances or payment of the deceased. The tenor, or curfew-bell, weighs 
I5cwt. 2qrs. 91bs. A bell also rings here at four in the morning from 
Michaelmas to Christmas.' 

"Hasted, in his History of Kent (vol. ix, p. 416, 2nd ed.), speaking of 
St. Margaret at Cliffe, in the hundred of Bewsborough, says : ' There are 
five roods of land given for tolling the bell at night, called Curfew-land.' 

" LEICESTERSHIRE. Macaulay, in his Hist, and Antiq. of Claylrook in 
Leicestershire (8vo. Lond. 1791, p. 128), says, 'The custom of ringing 
curfew, which is still kept up at Claybrook, has probably obtained without 
intermission since the days of the Norman conqueror.' 

" NORFOLK. In 1567 Thomas Walle, mayor of Norwich, among various 
things relative to the Dutch and Walloons who had settled in that city, 
ordered that they should not walk in the streets after the eight o'clock bell 
at St. Peter's of Mancroft had gone. 1 It is stated in the Mirror (vol. xxii, 
p. 210), that the curfew still rings at St. Peter's church, Norwich, and also 
at Yarmouth. 

" NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. In Bridges's History of Northamptonshire (vol. 
i, p. 1 10), speaking of Byfield church, the author states that: 'A bell is 

1 History of the French, Walloon, Refugees settled in England. By John 
Dutch, and other Foreign Protestant Southerden Burn, 1846, p. 64. 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

rung here at four in the morning, and at eight in the evening, for which 
the clerk hath 20s. yearly, paid him by the rector.' 

" NORTHUMBERLAND. Brockett, in his Glossary of North-country words 
(8vo. London and Newcastle, 1829), tells us that : ' The purpose, as well as 
the name, of the curfew-hell is still retained in Newcastle, where it is rung 
at the original time eight o'clock at night.' In Brand's Popular Antiquities 
(ii, p. 138), it is stated that a bell also rung ' at four in the morning.' 

" The couvre-feu bell of Otterburn is probably the one alluded to in 
the noble old ballad of Chevy Chace, wherein it is said 

' This fight did last from break of day, 

Till setting of the sun ; 
For when they rung the evening-bell^- 
The battle scarce was done.' 

" NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. So late as the close of the last century, the 
couvre-feu bell was regularly rung at Mansfield. 

" OXFORDSHIRE. The origin and continuation of the custom of ringing 
the couvre-feu bell at Carfax has already been alluded to. Peshall, in his 
History of the City of Oxford (p. 177) states, that ' the custom of ringing 
the bell at Carfax every night at eight o'clock (called curfew bell, or cover 
fire bell], was by order of king Alfred, the restorer of our university, who 
ordained that all the inhabitants of Oxford should, at the ringing of that 
bell, cover up their fires and go to bed, which custom is observed to this 
day, and the bell as constantly rings at eight as Great Tom tolls at nine. 
It is also a custom, added to the former, after the ringing and tolling this 
bell, to let the inhabitants know the day of the month by so many tolls.' 

STAFFORDSHIRE. In the Statuta Leichefeldensis Ecclesite, occurs the 
following notice : ' Est autem ignitegium qualibet nocte per annum 
pulsandum hora septima post meridiem exceptis illis festis, quibus matu- 
tinae dicuntur post completorium, in quibus ignitegium ex consuetudine 
non pulsatur.' 

" SUFFOLK. Till within these few years, and perhaps even now, the 
couvre-feu was rung at St. Mary-at-the-tower, Ipswich. 

" SURREY. In Lysons' Environs of London (vol. i, p. 232), is the fol- 
lowing extract from the churchwardens' and chamberlain's accounts of 
Kiugston-upon-Thames : ' 1651. For ringing the curfew bell for one 
year, 1 : 10s.' 

" SUSSEX. The couvre-feu bell is still rung at Horsham. 

" WILTSHIRE. The custom of ringing the couvre-feu is still continued 
at St. Peter's church, Marlborough. 

" YORKSHIRE. In the Gentleman's Magazine, for August 1799 (vol. ix, 

1 In the more ancient form of this even-song bell was rung": i.e. the ves- 
ballad the line runs thus "And when per-bell. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 139 

p. 719), it is stated, that ' at Ripon, in Yorkshire, at nine o'clock every 
evening, a man blows a large horn at the market cross, and then at the 
mayor's door.' This custom is evidently connected with the couvre-feu, 
which was not always rung at eight o'clock, for the sexton in the old play 
of The Merry Devil of Edmonton (4to. 1631), says : 

' Well, 'tis nine a doke, 'tis time to ring curfew.' 

" Thus we find that long after the law ceased to be obligatory, the 
custom of ringing the couvre-feu bell was continued in London and more 
than half the counties ; and I doubt not an application to our local secre- 
taries on the subject would greatly swell the list of places where the 
practice is still retained. 

" The couvre-feu law was not confined to South Britain ; for we find 
David I, king of Scotland, in his Leges Burgorum, enjoining his subjects 
to extinguish their fires and lights at a certain hour. Lord Hailes has 
the following remark : ' The couvre-feu, and by corruption, curfeu. This 
bell was rung in boroughs at nine in the evening. (Act 144, Parl. 13, 
James I.) The hour was changed to ten, at the solicitation of James 
Stewart, the favourite of James VI.' 

" In Muses' Threnodie (note, p. 89) it is stated, that there is a narrow 
street in the town of Perth, in Scotland, still called Couvre-feu-row, leading 
west to the Black Friars, where the couvre-feu bell gave warning to the 
inhabitants to cover their fires and go to rest when the clock struck ten. 

" In the middle ages so much regard was paid to ringing the couvre-feu, 
that land was occasionally left to pay for it. This feeling appears to have 
been not altogether extinct even so late as the close of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, for in bishop Hall's Fourth Satire occurs the following : 

' Who ever gives a paire of velvet shoes 
To th' Holy Rood, or liberally allowes 
But a new rope to ring the couvre-feu bell, 
But he desires that his great deed may dwell, 
Or graven in the chancel-window glasse, 
Or in his lasting tombe of plated brasse.' 

" In winter, and in flat and dangerous localities, the ringing of the bell 
in the evening has often been the means of safely guiding and sometimes 
saving the lives of travellers ; and there are instances on record of persons 
so saved leaving a sum for ringing this bell. 

" But it is time to allude to the instrument by which the fires were 
extinguished the couvre-feu. 

" The first representation of a couvre-feu appeared as an illustration to a 
communication from Francis Grose, in the Antiquarian Repertory (vol. i). 
It is there stated that, ' this utensil is called a curfew, or couvre-feu, from 
its use, which is that of suddenly putting out a fire : the method of apply- 

VOL. IV. 19 



140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

ing it was thus, the wood and emhers were raked as close as possible to 
the back of the hearth, and then the curfew was put over them, the open 
part placed close to the back of the chimney ; by this contrivance, the air 
being almost totally excluded, the fire was of course extinguished. This 
curfew is of copper, riveted together, as solder would have been liable to 
melt with the heat. It is ten inches high, sixteen inches wide, and nine 
inches deep. The Rev. Mr. Gostling, to whom it belongs, says it has 
been in his family from time immemorial, and was always called the curfew. 
Some others of this kind are still remaining in Kent and Sussex.' 

" The ornamentation upon the specimen engraved in the Antiq. Rep. is 
rather of a conflicting character, consisting of a broad ring with a cross in 
the centre, somewhat like the sculptnred terminations of the cusps of late 
Gothic buildings ; then occurs a belt of zigzag or chevron pattern, remind- 
ing us of early Norman work, and outside this is a vignette border of 
grapes and vine leaves, which is a well-known decoration upon the conti- 
nent as early as the middle of the fifteenth century, and in England at 
the close of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth centuries. 

" The above specimen passed into the possession of Horace Walpole, 
who, in his catalogue, speaks of it as ' an ancient curfew, or couvre-feu, from 
Mr. Gostling's collection.' The specimen formed part of lot 83 of the 
nineteenth day's sale of the Strawberry Hill collection, and was purchased 
by William Knight, esq. In the prefatory remarks of the sale catalogue 
(p. xi), it is alluded to as ' a singular relic of the Norman rule, an ancient 
couvre-feu.' 

" The print given in the Antiquarian Repertory has furnished the autho- 
rity of every representation of the couvre-feu which has appeared, although 
but a faint resemblance can be traced between many of the copies. 

" In spite of the statement in the Antiquarian Repertory, that some 
couvre-feus were ' still remaining in Kent and Sussex,' it was a popular 
belief that the only specimen in existence was the one preserved among 
the treasures at Strawberry Hill ; but the fallacy of this belief was made 
manifest a few years back, for in passing through Chancery-lane in Feb- 
ruary 1842, the specimen now before you caught my eye in the shop of a 
curiosity dealer. Where the specimen came from I know not ; all the 
information I could obtain respecting it was, that it was ' bought of a man 
with two or three other old things.' 

" The specimen under consideration, like that formerly at Strawberry 
Hill, is of stout Niirnberg latten. It is formed of three pieces and the 
handle ; not soldered, but riveted together, and gilt. Its dimensions 
differ but little from the couvre-feu described in the Ant. Rep., being lOf 
inches high, 14| inches wide at the base, and 9| inches deep. The en- 
chased ornamentation upon the border and handle of this specimen is of a 
much richer and bolder character than that of the Strawberry Hill couvre- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 141 

feu, consisting of pomegranates, bunches of grapes, vine leaves and tendrils. 
The edge, which is strengthened by an iron wire, is decorated with a cable 
pattern. The most marked difference between the two specimens is the 
absence on this one of the zigzag and circular ornaments, which have led 
some knowing antiquaries to pronounce the Strawberry Hill couvre-feu to 
be of the age of the Norman dynasty. Both specimens are evidently of 
the same age, and are of the close of the fifteenth or early part of the 
sixteenth century. 




" It may be important to add, that the interior of the specimen before 
you shows evident marks of its having covered the fire. 

" A third example of the couvre-feu exists in the Canterbury museum. 
It is of brass, slightly ornamented, and was long an heirloom in the 
Bering family. Hasted (vol. v, p. 434, 2nd ed.) speaks of it while it was 
in the hands of its original possessors. He says, ' At New Shelve 
house, in 1755, I saw a curfew, or covre-feu, much of the same sort as 
that lately belonging to Mr. Gostling, of Canterbury, and of which a plate 
may be seen in the Antiquarian Repertory (vol. i, p. 89), which had been 
in the manor-house here time out of mind, and had always been known 
by this name.' 

" I have been informed that in the Boulogne museum is preserved a 
very ancient couvre-feu of earthenware, covered with brown glaze. The 
latest catalogue of this museum that I have at hand was printed in 1836, 
and as there is no mention made of a couvre-feu in it, the specimen must 
have been added since that date." 

The following letter from Mr. Pretty, of Northampton was read : 
" I communicate for the information of the Association some particulars 




142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

I have further obtained from Mr. Weston, of Brixworth, respecting a 
discovery made a few years since on land in his occupation. The drawing 
forwarded represents an unhaked cup, used probably as a thuribulum. It 
was discovered with several cinerary urns, apparently British, on the 
manor of Wolphage, south of the church in the parish of Brixworth. Mr. 
Baker obtained some of the urns, having had the choice of them, except 
the one at present described, which Mr. Weston wished to keep in his 
own possession. It is round at the bottom, and appears to have been 
suspended over a fire, as the bottom is stained black from the smoke ; 
there are perforated projections at the side to receive 
the cord or chain which suspended the vase. At two 
places the edge of the top has been broken or 
worn away by the chain or cord which suspended 
it. It is two inches and a half in height, and 
averages about three inches and a half in diameter. 
The bronze sword (of which I forwarded a drawing 
some time since, and which is alluded to at p. 356, 
vol. ii, of the Journal] was found further to the west, and nearer to the 
river (the northern branch of the Nen), which divides this lordship from 
Spratton. The vicinity of Brixworth, as well as the village, is extremely 
interesting for the remains of tumuli and a small camp, now nearly 
obliterated, called Burrow (or Borough) Dykes, as you will observe in the 
slight sketch sent of the locality. 

" South of Lamport are tumuli, one at the corner of the road to Hanging- 
-Houghton, and another in the park grounds to the east. At Rothwell-well 
are traces of a camp or settlement on the right of the road and running 
across the Scaldwell road ; interments have been found on the right side of 
the road indicated by the dots. A sword and helmet (?) found here. North 
of Biixworth church a tumulus, smaller than the other tumuli, was opened 
by the Rev. Hume ; the result unfavourable. In the large four-sheet 
map of Northamptonshire, apparently tumuli are indicated (but now re- 
moved), opposite to Wolphage. At the turning to Pitsford are the remains 
of a tumulus, called in the four-sheet map Lyman's Hill tumulus, probably 
a corruption from Lich-man's Saxon for Dead Man's ; and when part of 
the hill was cut away for the road to Pitsford, remains of skeletons were 
found, and old people now call it Dead Man's hill. To the west is the 
camp named Burrow Dykes. Opposite to Boughton is lord Vaux's Mount, 
so named in an old view of Boughton, by Badeslade. LordVaux probably 
planted the elm trees upon it ; the mount has every appearance of a 
barrow. Query, if the size and age of the elms would agree with the time 
of lord Vaux? I need not allude to the church at Brixworth, as every 
archteologist must have been fully acquainted with its antiquity ; but 
Bridges states ' To the north of the church are the vestigia of trenches, 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 143 

and to the east of it butts or hillocks South-west of the town are the 

ruins of Wolfage-house, to which belongs part of the manor.' In Morton's 
Natural History of Northamptonshire, and in the Ordnance Map, the 
tumulus is called Longman's hill, instead of Lyman's, and Mr. Baker has 
so named it in the History of Northamptonshire, vol. i, p. 65 ; but I am 
more inclined to follow the map published in 1779, which was revised by 
the gentlemen of the grand jury in 1775, and corrections made by them 
in their respective hundreds." 

An illustrative map accompanied this communication. 

Mr. Inskip forwarded the following list of potters' stamps on Roman 
red glazed ware found at Shefford, Beds., and in its immediate vicinity : 

SILVVS TENEVM NVTIS OFPRIMVS 

OF COE LVPPA VIRT1VAS OFMVSEEA 

MACCIVS MATVCVS FETI OFMACCIA 

CALVINVS EEGINVS OViDI CVCAUM 

LIBERALIS SCOLVS CVIM SCOBVS 

OFFAGEB OF'ALBIN DONVM 

Mr. W. Meyrick communicated an extract of a letter he had recently 
received from Mr. G. F. Gird wood, relative to an ancient burial place in 
Orkney. Mr. Gird wood writes : " While thus employed in writing to you, 
I have received a little box from a friend (an old army doctor by the way), 
which I forward to you, informing you that this gentleman, some half- 
dozen years ago, left the army and bought a small property in Orkney, 
about seven miles from the town of Kirkwall. On this property, about a 
month ago, he discovered what he imagines to be an old Scandinavian 
place of burial ; it covers more than an acre of ground (about an acre and 
a quarter), and consists of a grey-coloured greasy-looking mass of ashes of 
bone and peat and wood charcoal, the bones very much burned or triturated 
into quite small bits ; in some places there are stones much marked with 
fire ; the whole is covered with about two feet of vegetable matter round 
the outside edges ; the ashes are found to the depth of not quite three 
feet ; in the centre, the water rose on them at eight feet, when they were 
not at the bottom. My friend thinks it must have been used for a long 
period, as the remains of 10,000 men and beasts (allowing there were 
numbers burnt at the funerals of the human beings) would not make the 
body of ashes he has found. The contents of the box are some of the 
bits of bone and ashes taken from this singular mound. On looking into 
the box, I find they are quite dry, like dust, and I have not moistened 
them, or taken any in fact, as I would like you to put them into the hands 
of any of your friends curious in such matters. I know the place where 
the great deposit exists : it is in a green field or meadow about four 
hundred yards from the sea, slightly sloping to the south, facing the Pent- 
land Firth, nearly opposite to John o' Groat's house. There is nothing 



144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

in the name of the place, or any local tradition, that can throw the slightest 
light on the subject." 

A note from Mr. Wire, of Colchester, was read : " Enclosed is an 
impression in wax of a copper coin, found here a short time since. On 
the obverse is a beardless head to the left, with the horn of Ammon in 
front of it and faint traces of letters, but what they are has eluded my 
attempt to make them out, from that part of the coin being corroded. On 
the reverse is a winged (?) horse galloping to the right, under it CAM. 
Believing that numismatists have agreed to assign to Cunobeline those 
coins that have Camulodunum, either at length or abbreviated, on them, 
this may be fairly given to that series. There has been found, not far from 
the Balkon Fort, or grand Roman western entrance to this town, a skeleton 
lying with the head to the south (unusual position here) ; at the feet was 
discovered, in an urn of coarse black earth, partly broken (no doubt entire 
when deposited), thirteen brass bead-like ornaments, five-eighths of an inch 
in length and nearly half an inch in diameter, encircled by grooves cut in 
the whole length. From their fabrication, and the quality of the material 
of which the urn was composed, they may possibly be referred to the early 
Saxon or late Roman period." The coin described by Mr. Wire is assigned, 
as he conjectures, to Cunobeline. Two analogous specimens are figured 
in Ruding, pi. 5, figs. 20 and 21. 

Mr. Rolfe exhibited some Saxon and Roman fibulae found in the isle of 
Thanet, and a silver coin of Carausius; reverse, EOMANO.EENOVA; in 
exergue, KSB., from the neighbourhood of Richborough. 

APEIL 26. 

Mr. Warren presented an impression of a circular brass seal, found, he 
understood, at or near Ixworth, reading s . HINEIK . TEIBES round a mer- 
chant's mark. 

Mr. Bell presented a sketch of a stone statue of Mercury, lately found 
at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in digging the foundations for the railway High 
Level bridge. 

Mr. Sandys informed the Council that the rev. N. B. White, of Cashel, 
is desirous of restoring a portion of the western tower of the " Rock of 
Cashel," one of the most ancient structures in Ireland, adjoining the 
archiepiscopal palace in that city. A large portion of it fell down about 
a month since, and the remainder will in all probability soon follow, 
unless efforts be made to stop the progress of decay. Mr. White is very 
laudably making a collection for the projected restoration. 

The rev. S. Isaacson addressed a communication to the Council : 
" In No. xiii of the Journal, p. 78, I perceive Mr. G. R. Corner pre- 
sented a tracing from an incised slab, with the following communication : 



PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 145 

' I send you, etc. The inscription round the cope of the stone is as 
follows : ' Here lyeth the bodies of Anthonie Woolley and Agnes his 
wyefe, wch Anthonie dye the iiii dae of September in the ye re of our 
Lord M D Ixxiij (aged) Ixii, on whose soules God hathe taken mercy on.' 
And he adds : ' I have not time to look for an account of Anthonie 
Woolley. Perhaps some of your Derbyshire correspondents may think 
the stone sufficiently interesting to send us a history of him, as I believe 
he was a man of some note in his day and locality.' 

The above slab has been engraved many years, and a copy is inserted 
amongst the Woolley MSS. in the British Museum (Additional MS. 6667, 
p. 275). The inscription, however, reads ' dyeth', not 'dye'; the date 
also is M D Ixxvj, and no age is mentioned. The arms of Woolley are 
engraved below, viz. : Sable, a chevron vaire, or and gules, between three 
maiden's heads couped at the shoulders, proper. 

" The Woolley manuscripts relating to Derbyshire are very extensive, 
and contain numerous allusions to the family, deeds, correspondence, pedi- 
grees, parochial registers, etc.; from which I collect that the Woolleys 
were persons of consideration. The name, however, appears to have 
been a corruption of W. Oley. For in a letter of the celebrated Dr. 
Samuel Pegge, addressed to Mr. Adam Woolley, dated 25th October, 
1783, occurs the following passage : 

" My extract from y e will of Wm. Oley de Eiber, made 3rd April, 1507, 
is in English, but the original was Latin. The words you want run thus : 
' And if it shall happen y* Margaret his wife dies, then his executors to 
have the ordering of his lands, etc. ; so that there be hearty supplications 
and prayers of charity in the parish church of Matlock offered and made, 
what priest soever for the time celebrates at the blessed altar in the said 
church, especially that constant prayers be made for the soul of him, y e said 
Wm. Oley, and Margaret his wife ; John Oley, and Joan his wife, his 
parents ; and for John Robotham, and Mary his wife, his wife's parents, 
etc.' A volume of family prayers. 

" This William Oley was the grandfather of Anthony, to whom the 
slab refers. 

" Roger Woley was one of the burgesses in parliament for the borough 
of Derby, 3 Henry V, and 4 Henry VI. 

" The Cotton MS., Titus, b. iv, p. 108, contains ' an acknowledgment 
of Thomas Woley, the king's eleymosyner (almoner), of having received 
from lady Margaret Pole 1000, for the king's eury, May 25, 1509.' 

" Edward Woolley, vicar of Crick, buried there 25th June, 1628. John 
Woolley, M.A., fellow of Christ's college, was rector of Keyworth, Lei- 
cestershire, 1777. 

" The family appear to have been distinguished for their loyalty; for in 
1662, a book was published entitled Wolley's Loyalty amongst Rebels. 



146 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

This Woolley was Adam, son of Anthony of the Slab, and ^as buried in 
the same vault about 1619. 

"In a letter from Mr. Adam Wolley, dated February 16th, 1820, he 
speaks of ' William Wolley of Derby, the historian of the county.' Of 
this history, I find no traces in the British Museum ; nor does his name 
occur amongst the authors in Watt. 

" Should these notulcB of the family be worth perusal, they are much at 
your service, and shall be concluded with the graphic preamble of the will 
of Adam the son of Anthony, dated September 88, 1616 : 

" In the name of God, Amen. The 28th day of September, Anno 
Dom. 1616. I, Adam Woley, of Riber, in the parish of Matlocke, in the 
countie of Derbie, gentleman, beinge in sounde and perfect memorie, 
praised be Almightie God, doe make, ordayne, and declare, my last will 
and testament in manner and fforme followinge, viz. : Ffirst and most 
willinglie, and w 01 a free harte, I render and give againe into the hands 
of my Lord God and Creator my spiritt, w cb hee of his ffatherlie good- 
nesse gave unto mee when hee first fationed mee in my mother's wombe, 
makeinge mee a liveinge and reasonable creature, nothinge doubtinge but 
that, for his infinitt mercies set forth in the precious bloud of his deerlie 
beloved sonne Jesus Christe, our Saviour and Redeemer, hee will receive 
my soule into his glorie, and place it in the companie of his heavenlie and 
blessed saints. And as concerning my bodie, w th a good will and free 
harte I give it, on commendinge it to the earth, whereof it came, to be 
buried in the church of Matlocke, in the same place where my ffather 
Anthoney Wolley was buried, nothinge doubtinge but at the great day and 
general resurrection of all ffiesh, when wee shall appear before the judg- 
ment-seat of Christ, I shall receive the same again by the mighty power 
of God, whereby hee is able to subdue all things to hiniselfe, not a cor- 
ruptible, mortal, weake, and vile bodie, as now it is, but an incorruptible, 
immortall, stronge, and perfecte bodie, lyke unto the glorious bodie of my 
Lord and Saviour Jesus Christe.' Then follow the usual dispositions of 
property. 

" I would merely add, that the additional manuscripts in the British 
Museum, numbering from 6666 to 6718 inclusive, were bequeathed to 
that national institution in 1827, by Adam Wolley, of Matlock, county of 
Derby, esquire, and contain a collection of matter of the highest interest 
to the archaeologist, the historian, and the general inquirer." 

Mr. Price made the following communication, which was accompanied 
by an exhibition of the antiquities described : " I have the pleasure of 
exhibiting to the Association, through the kindness of Mr. Harris, of 
Bath, an ancient British or Celtic bronze sword or spear blade. Tt is 
about sixteen inches in length, and leaf-shaped, terminating in a fine 
point, which is still perfect. In the lower part are four strong rivets for 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 147 

securing it to the shaft or handle. It was discovered last September, by 
some labourers at Tiverton, about two miles from Bath, at a depth of 
thirty feet. Near it was also found some human remains and stags' horns. 




From the fact of Bath and its neighbourhood having from time to time 
proved so prolific in Koman remains, it has been assumed that this weapon 
is a relic of that period. It has been, moreover, a question whether the 
bronze leaf-shaped weapon was in use among the Celtic tribes previous to 
their intercourse with the Romans. I venture to think, however, that the 
balance of evidence is in favour of the opinions of sir S. Meyrick and 
Mr. Planche, who term it the Celtic ' Llaonawr'. We have, I think, 
every reason to believe, that the weapons of the Roman invaders were of 
steel ; and judging from the sculptures yet extant, we are certainly not 
warranted in assuming them to have been leaf-shaped. From a communi- 
cation to the Association in 1845, by Mr. J. Bell, it seems that weapons 
precisely of this description are of frequent occurrence in Ireland. They 
have been also found in Scotland, in Cornwall, in Wales, and in the river 
Thames (at Kingston and Vauxhall). About twelve months ago, Mr. Kirk- 
inann exhibited to the Association some fine specimens taken out of the 
Thames near Vauxhall, and which are engraved in the Journal, vol. iii, 
page 60. 

" A valuable communication which accompanied the exhibition afforded, 
I think, additional evidence in favour of the supposition, that the 
leaf-shaped bronze sword belonged to the British or Celtic races. From 
the circumstance of these weapons being found also in Phoenicia, it cer- 
tainly seems far more feasible to assume them to have been derived from 
the Phoenicians rather than the Romans. In support of their supposed 
Roman origin, reference is made at page 265, vol. i, of the Journal, to an 
engraving of the monument of a Roman warrior with a leaf-shaped sword. 
This reference is unfortunate, and illustrates the importance of being sure 
of our premises ere we draw our conclusions. I saw this monument 
during our Gloucester congress, and can vouch to the fact of the sword 
bearing no resemblance to the engraving. The question, however, is one 
worthy of still further investigation ; for it is somewhat curious that the 
leaf-shaped sword is of frequent occurrence upon Etruscan vases, as will 
be sufficiently evident upon a few minutes' examination of the splendid 
collection in the British Museum. 

" The red or Samian pottery exhibited is also kindly forwarded by Mr. 

VOL. IV. 20 



148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Harris. Some of these specimens are of an unusually interesting cha- 
racter. They were found in excavating for Bath park in 1831. 

" With respect to local antiquities, perhaps no city in England could by 
this time have produced so interesting and extensive a collection as Bath, 
had its citizens cared for such matters. It seems curious that out of a 
population of 60,000 there should he so few to take the slightest interest 
in the numerous memorials which have from time to time presented them- 
selves, and which tend so greatly to illustrate the Roman occupancy of 
this splendid city. But now, amid all its modern grandeur, who of its 
citizens would care to know that the many colossal fragments yet pre- 
served hespeak a grandeur long prior to the days of Beau Nash? and 
that these massive and highly-sculptured fragments indicate the existence, 
some fifteen centuries ago, of temples which must have far outshone 
all the modern architectural magnificence which this beautiful city can 
boast of? 

" It is certainly matter for regret that when the Bath corporation con- 
signed these numerous and interesting Roman remains to a proprietary 
institution, they should have omitted to stipulate for a room suitable for 
their reception. The numerous relics of antiquity which lie scattered 
over the building are well worthy of better accommodation ; and I venture 
to suggest to the authorities of the Bath Institution, that somewhat less 
apathy with regard to such matters would by no means detract from the 
fame and general utility of their institution. That such apathy does exist, 
was abundantly proved in the result of some inquiries I made, and which 
ultimately led (after much difficulty) to my being conducted below stairs 
by the porter into what I presume was intended by the architect of the 
building as a back kitchen. Some highly-curious Roman sculptures and 
tablets line the walls, and seem to indicate a subsequent intention of con- 
verting it into a museum ; but at present it is used really and truly as a 
lumber room. A more chaotic scene I never beheld. Heaps of books, 
manuscripts, bills of parcels, plaster casts, fragments of sculpture, boxes 
of Samian ware, encaustic tiles, pieces of Roman amphora and mortaria, 
canvas screens, and disabled furniture, were all thrown together in the 
most admired disorder, rendering the construction of a foot-path a work of 
some labour. 

" The most interesting object was an immense piece of sculpture 
representing a Roman warrior ; this was almost concealed by a series of 
heavy screens and frames, the removal of which, without more assistance, 
seemed to involve the probability of a broken head or some other bodily 
mishap. From the partial view I had, I think this monument is not 
among the collection of elaborate engravings published by Lysons. Near 
this lay, half-buried, a large collection of fragments of Roman pottery, 
which, I understood, had probably not been touched for fifteen years : 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 149 

indeed, the thick layer of dust upon everything seemed to indicate that 
undisturbed repose had reigned throughout this subterranean museum for 
a very considerable period. In another corner laid a huge heap of 
encaustic church-tiles all apparently of very curious character not one of 
which but would have an honourable place in the collection of any one 
interested in medieval art or ancient ecclesiastical decoration ; but there 
they laid half-smothered in dust, presenting a quiet leaning-post for the 
ponderous cast of a gigantic head and shoulders of a Hercules or Jupiter, 
who seemed to the imagination to recline his head as if dismayed at 
the surrounding chaos looking like Caius Marius mourning over the 
ruins of Carthage. 

" This encaustic pavement is probably from the abbey church ; but I 
find nobody knows ; and it seems equally clear that nobody cares. I must 
in justice to the institution, state that the really valuable library which 
thus lies scattered in heaps all over the floor, does not belong to that 
body, but I understand is the property of some gentleman who has had 
permission to deposit his goods in this room. It is to be hoped , for the 
sake of his books, as well as the credit of the institution, that his tenancy 
will soon expire. 

" I cannot conclude without offering my acknowledgments to Mr. Harris, 
for his kindness in allowing me to freely inspect his extensive and valuable 
collection of local antiquities." 

Mr. Milner, of Hull, communicated some remarks on the ancient custom 
of blowing a horn at Ripon, in Yorkshire : " An interesting paper on the 
couvre-feu, or curfew law, was read by Mr. Cuming before this Association 
last month. Mention was made of a singular custom at Ripon, in York- 
shire, of a man sounding a horn at the market cross and at the mayor's 
door, every evening at nine o'clock. Mr. Cuming appears to consider 
this remarkable ceremony as in some way connected with the curfew-bell ; 
I cannot agree in this opinion, and my reasons for not doing so are as 
follow. Some years ago I spent several nights in this ancient city, and 
had an opportunity of observing this strange custom, a relic of olden 
times ; a horn was blown every night, three times at the cross and three 
times at the mayor's door. I made every inquiry as to the origin of this, 
and forward you such information as I was able to obtain on the subject, in 
the hope that my remarks may prove interesting, or at least convey infor- 
mation to some members of the Association. v 

" Ripon is a place of considerable antiquity ; a monastery was founded 
there in 661, and in 663 St. Wilfred was appointed abbot, from thence he 
was translated and raised to the see of York. According to Dugdale, in 
hisMonasticonAnglicanum, king Athelstan granted a charter to the monas- 
tery at this place, constituting it a sanctuary for one mile round. I merely 
mention this to show that bells must have existed there at a very early date, 



150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

and that the curfew might have been rung in that town the same as in other 
places. According to tradition, in Saxon times the government of Ripon 
was vested in the hands of twelve elders, twenty-four assistants, and one 
chief magistrate, called vigilarius, or wakeman ; the duty of the vigilarius 
was to cause a horn to be blown every night at nine o'clock in the centre 
of the town. After this signal had been given, the whole property of the 
town was considered to be under the care, or in the keeping of the muni- 
cipal authorities, and if any inhabitant suffered loss from having his house 
or premises broken into and robbed during the night, the community were 
bound to render compensation for the injury sustained, and a tax was 
levied upon each and all to meet any claims that might thus be made. 
This appears a remnant of a very primitive and patriarchal form of 
government ; each member being bound by interest, as well as brother- 
hood, to protect the property of his neighbour ; no doubt such regulations 
would have a salutary effect on the honesty and integrity of the community; 
accordingly we find that in king Athelstan's charter to the monastery 
before alluded to, it states : " that the men of Ripon should be believed 
by their .yea and na." In the cathedral is a marble monument with an 
effigy of Hugh Ripley, the last wakeman. He is represented kneeling on 
a cushion, with a book in his left hand ; he is habited in civic robes, with 
frill and ruffs, and above is suspended on each side a warder's horn ; the 
inscription runs as follows : ' Here lieth entombed the body of Hugh 
Ripley, late of this towne, and merchant, who was the last wakeman, and 
thrice mayor, by whose good endeavours this town first became a maioralite. 
He lived to the age of 84 years, and died in the year of our Lord 1637.' 
And below, ' The former monument having been defaced in the time of 
the civil wars, this was erected by the corporation, A.D. MDCCXXX.' A 
charter was granted to this place by James I, in 1604, when Hugh Ripley 
became the first mayor. 

" Brand, in his Popular Antiquities, p. 138, merely mentions the fact 
of a horn being blown every evening at Ripon, and refers to the Gent. 
Mag. for August 1790, vol. Ix, p. 719. In the magazine thus alluded 
to, the correspondent simply states, amongst other singular customs at 
Ripon, that ' at nine o'clock every evening a man blows a large horn at 
the market cross, and then at the mayor's door ; if any of your ingenious 
correspondents can inform us of the meaning, or origin, it will oblige, etc.' 
I have referred to several later numbers of the magazine, but cannot find 
that any reply to the query was ever given. 

" Mr. Wright, in a very able paper read before the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and published in the thirty-second volume of the Arcliceologia, 
gives an outline of municipal government under the Anglo-Saxons. I am 
inclined to think we have in the custom above alluded to, another link in 
the chain of evidence, proving the antiquity of local governments. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



151 




" ARMS OF BIPON. Gules; a bugle 
horn, stringed and garnished, or; the 
word RIPPON of the last, the letters 
forming an orle ; viz. : in pale the 
letters T and N, in chief the letters 
R and P, and the letters PO in 
fesse ; the mouth-piece of the horn, 
dexter." 



MAY 10. 



Mr. Wright exhibited some denarii, 
found on the property of the earl of 
Beauchamp at Hall End, Polesworth, 
Warwickshire, a portion, it was 
stated, of a large hoard recently 
ploughed up. Those received by Mr. 
Wright were of Vespasian, Hadrian, 

Pius, and Faustina Junior. Every exertion was used to obtain an inspec- 
tion of the bulk, but without success. 

Mr. Smith laid before the meeting a paper by Mr. W. Fennell, of 
Wakefield, on some stycas found in Yorkshire (printed in the present 
number of the Journal}. With the paper was a catalogue of the coins, 
prepared with great care and elaborately arranged, so as to show the pecu- 
liarities of all the types and legends. It is a valuable compilation, and 
will be referred to with advantage by the Saxon numismatist in connexion 
with previously published papers on the Northumbrian stycas, among 
which may be cited those by Mr. Adamson, on the hoard found at Hexham 
(ArchcEologia, vol. xxv, with 25 plates); by Mr. Lindsay (Numismatic 
Chronicle, vol. vi) ; by Mr. Smith (Numismatic Chronicle, vol. vii, and vol. ii 
of the Journal of the Association). The late Mr. H. Brandreth, F.S.A. 
printed an essay on the Anglo-Saxon stycas, in which he shows that the 
letters upon the coins appear to have been constructed with moveable types. 

Mr. J. Brown directed attention to discoveries made during the restora- 
tion of the old church of St. Pancras. Among these is a stone upon 
which are carved five crosses (possibly emblematical of the five wounds of 
the Saviour) ; a piscina (early English) ; sedilia, of later date ; and at the 
east end of the church, a most beautiful specimen of moulded brickwork ; 
all of which had been preserved by Mr. Gough, the architect. Subse- 
quently, the Council received a communication on the same subject from 
Mr. Purland, who observes : " Our forefathers were wont to think that 
' ale and cakes' at Pancridge-in-the-Fields made leisure pleasant, and Dr. 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Stukeley, in the same locality, made Roman camps spring up like mush- 
rooms after a growing shower. ' Caesar's camp' (or, perhaps it were safer 
to say, Stukeley 's camp), is, however, no more, and the sallow people that 
congregate about the gas-works, dwell unconsciously upon its site. The 
Pancridge well, too, once famous for its healing virtues, is an unknown 
thing, and has probably given place to the chapel belonging to the ceme- 
tery of St. Mary-le-bone. St. Pancras is one of the churches mentioned 
in the Doomsday survey, and it is recorded that ' William de Belineis gave 
the tithes of its manor, containing four hides of land, and yielding a rent 
of twenty pence, to the canons of St. Paul's, which conveyance was con- 
firmed by bishop Gilbert, in 1J83. The church has gone through all 
the gradations of beautifying, until at length even a churchwarden was 
unable to improve it further, and it is now undergoing a course of 
restoration, or rather, rebuilding, for with the exception of a portion of 
the wall, most of the church will be new. There was until lately a very 
beautiful arch of about the thirteenth century standing, through which 
was the entrance to the choir, but the spirit of improvement decreed its 
destruction, and it is now gone. In fact, everything of interest has been 
swept away, the sedilia and piscina are bricked up, and a very early and 
beautiful specimen of carved brickwork, which might have been covered 
with a door, has been cut down and destroyed ! On the other hand, the 
very ugly roof, with the monstrous tye-beams encased in lath and plaster, 
are to remain, thus spoiling what would be (if the architect could have his 
way) a very seemly building. The sages of the parish also contemplate a 
spire, as soon as they can persuade the parishioners to supply funds. In 
the churchyard are many memorials of the Catholic priesthood, the church 
deriving a character of great sanctity from the circumstance of its being 
the last in which mass was celebrated at the time of the Reformation. 
Here also rest Pascal, Paoli, Walker the lexicographer, and the chevalier 
d'Eon. The celebrated Mary Woolstonecroft Godwin lies with her hus- 
band and his second wife, under a very chaste monument. Many others 
of note might be named, but Woollet the engraver, Cooper the artist, 
and count O'Rourke (famous in the fashionable world of 1785), will suffice 
to show that much interest attaches to ' Old St. Pancras-in-the-Fields.' " 

Mr. Purland also exhibited a flint arrow-head, picked up on the beach 
at Ramsgate, and a seal of St. Giles's or Emanuel hospital at Norwich, 
founded in 1249. The seal appears to present some interesting peculia- 
rities, which will probably be described and commented on in a future 
number of the Journal. 

Mr. R. Windle presented a copper plate, etched by himself, accompa- 
nied by the following note : " The font, an etching of which I have given 
to the Association, is in All Saints' church, Claverley, Shropshire, an 
extensive parish situate about five miles east from Bridgenorth, The 




FONT 



R.W. 1848- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 153 

substance of the font, I am informed by the churchwardens, is the red rock 
of the county, which is found in great abundance in the neighbourhood, 
and of which the church is built ; the font I consider of the Norman 
period, most probably belonging to a church which has in great part 
disappeared, but of which vestiges may be found in the present structure, 
viz., in the basement of the tower, where the Norman round-headed 
massive arches are clearly traceable, and in the arches and pillars which 
separate the aisle from the nave, which are clearly Norman ; the eastern 
window I should consider decorated, and some of the north windows ; here 
are also windows of the perpendicular period. The church has doubtless 
been built at different periods, as is evidenced by the different styles of 
architecture. It was a source of much regret to me to find, that some 
few years since, the font had been painted to represent marble by order of 
the churchwardens, previous to which it was covered with whitewash ; had 
there been an active member of our Association in the parish at the time, 
these enormities might have been prevented. In the church are some 
interesting monuments to members of the Gatacre family, which has been 
located in the parish since the days of Edward the Confessor; these 
tombs have incised slabs on them, but apparently they are not very 
ancient, perhaps of the period of Henry VII. There is also an altar- 
tomb to the memory of Broke, who was speaker of the House of 

Commons, recorder of the city of London, and one of the judges of the 
Common Pleas, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, and on the tomb are 
recumbent figures of the judge and his two wives. In the church are also 
a piscina and sedilia." 

MAI 31. 

Mr. Goddard Johnson, of Norwich, and Mr. Barton, of Thexted, near 
Walton, Norfolk, exhibited a considerable quantity of early British, Roman, 
and Saxon antiquities, discovered at various times in Norfolk : 

The British remains, exhibited by Mr. Johnson, consisted chiefly of 
flint and bronze celts (as these weapons or implements are termed), dis- 
covered at Marham, Fransham, Pulham St. Mary, Oxborough, etc. One 
in bronze, of novel shape, was found in a tumulus on Frettenham Common. 

Among the celts was one found in a tumulus on Frettenham Common, 
which being of a type very un- 
usually met with in England, is 
here engraved. Its length is 
four inches. But although this 
form be rare in England, it is 
common in Ireland ; and Mr. 
Croker has many specimens of 




154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

it in his collection. The same observation will apply to the celt engraved 
in vol. ii, p. 280, of the Journal. 

In such abundance has the county of Norfolk produced these pri- 
meval remains, that one item of Mr. Johnson's collection is " ten spear- 
heads found at Stibbard, with seventy celts, in a meadow, by a man who 
was making an under-drain." The Saxon remains were equally interesting, 
and included many objects of great rarity ; but it was observed, that their 
value to the historical and scientific antiquary was much lessened by the 
want of detailed facts connected with their discovery. Among these were 
numerous beads of coloured glass, clay, and amber; fibulae and other 
objects in metal. In one of the barrows near North wold Mill, were pal- 
pably the remains of a circular target or shield, the shape being clearly 
defined. Owing, however, to want of prompt measures to secure draw- 
ings, this interesting object was allowed to crumble to dust almost without 
record. 

One of the most remarkable objects exhibited by Mr. Johnson was a 
very perfect bronze Roman vessel, with an elaborately-ornamented handle, 
found at Prickwillow, a hamlet to Ely. It had been carefully drawn and 
figured in the Archceologia, vol. xxviii, but its artistic peculiarities had not 
been sufficiently pointed out and described. Some persons had considered 
it of medieval date, from the resemblance in the style of the decorations 
to works of the renaissance period ; but Mr. Smith adduced reasons for 
assigning it to the Roman times, and laid stress on the authority of Pliny, 
and on the name of the artificer, Boduogenus, for appropriating it to 
Gaul. He also drew comparison to a somewhat similar vessel found in 
Norfolk, a drawing of which had been forwarded by Mr. Dawson Turner. 

A note from Mr. W. Harry Rogers stated that he perfectly agreed with 
Mr. Smith, that a first glance at the vessel in regard to its ornamentation 
seemed to refer it to the period of the renaissance, but thought that on 
the following grounds it ought to be viewed as a genuine Roman produc- 
tion. The colour of the metal is eminently in its favour, strongly resem- 
bling that of a similar vessel, known as Roman, formerly in the collection 
of sir J. Banks, who subjected it to the analysis of Dr. Pearson, from 
which it was found to be composed of copper and tin in a proportion of 
six to one, a combination not used in the sixteenth century. The cha- 
racter of the oxide which remains approaches that of all Roman works 
discovered under the same circumstances. The decorative vine, executed 
in nigellum, is, in its character of drawing, purely Roman ; the stems of 
the leaves first rising out of the branch at right angles, and then proceed- 
ing in a parallel direction to it; whereas, in the sixteenth century, the 
stems always originated from a gentle and gradual curve. The texture of 
the nigellum itself more strongly approximates that on the celebrated 
praatorian chair, and other cotemporary works, than the Italian niello of 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 155 

later date. Some of the leaves, again, are formed of pure copper, a 
species of arrangement never practised in the sixteenth century, but fre- 
quent in classic times ; for that the Romans were pleased with the con- 
trast of brass and copper may be shown by the numerous existing brass 
coins encircled with copper rims. The silver insertions for the dolphins' 
eyes and other portions, partly confirm its Roman origin ; as does also 
the tinning on the interior, mentioned by Pliny, and found upon all 
vessels like the present. After some further observations on the orna- 
mentation of the handle, Mr. Rogers gave good reasons for showing that 
its peculiarities tended to prove the vessel to be a provincial specimen of 
Roman art, an opinion in which Mr. Planche concurred, and supported 
by the name " Boduogenus", stamped upon it. 

A drawing of a very similar vessel, but not so highly ornamented, was 
exhibited by Mr. D. Turner. This specimen was dug up in making a 
ditch in a marsh bordering the river Waveney, in the parish of Herring- 
fleet, Suffolk, the property of Mr. Leathes ; on the handle, in a label, 
QV.ATTENVS.F. Mr. H. M. Leathes has since presented the Association 
with an enlarged drawing of the handle, and a painting in oil of the 
entire vessel, executed by Mr. Leathes, jun. 

Mr. Smith laid before the Council some notes on recent discoveries in 
Essex : 

BILLEBICAY. In the immediate vicinity of the spot which produced 
the urns figured in vol. iii, Mr. W. Shaw has excavated a pit, twenty 
five feet deep, from which he procured a large quantity of fragments of 
pottery. Somewhat similar pits have been repeatedly noticed in the 
vicinity of Roman towns and stations. Lately Mr. Diamond has opened 
several near Ewell, in Surrey (see Arch&ologia) ; and his opinion is, 
that they were burial-places for the common sort of people. Those 
opened at other localities, such as Winchester, Springhead (Kent), Rich- 
borough, Chesterford, and, more recently, at Billericay, do not seem to 
support this conjecture. The more general notion is, that they were 
merely receptacles for rubbish and refuse. They generally are found 
filled with earth different from that of the soil in which they are 
sunk, and impregnated with animal and vegetable matter, and, more or 
less, of broken pottery. The pit at Billericay is situated in a district 
which was evidently extensively used as a burial-ground, and near a grave 
adjoining it Mr. Shaw found three coins, one of Hadrian, and two of Con- 
stantine. In and near it were also fragments of house tiles, which are 
particularly interesting, as proving, in connexion with the extensive ceme- 
tery, that the locality was well populated, notwithstanding no record has 
ever been made to establish the fact. From inquiries instituted by Mr. 
Shaw, the existence of subterranean masonry has been ascertained, which, 
by the description given by workmen who had in past years laid it open, 

VOL. IV. 21 



156 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



appears to belong to the hypocaust of a house. It is the intention of Mr. 
Shaw to excavate these remains, provided he can obtain permission of the 
owner of the field. 

COVILLE MANOR, NEAB WHITE ROTHTNG. To the Eev. S. Isaacson, the 
Association is indebted for the communication of the discovery of Roman 
remains on the land occupied by Mr. Judd, who very kindly has permitted 
them to be examined. They consist of a number of urns (some containing 
burnt bones), found in the circuit of half a mile round the manor house, 
with coins extending from Nero to Gratian, fragments of tiles, and other 
objects, among which some Roman keys are especially curious, for their 
close resemblance to some of presumed novelty of invention of the 
present day. 




Actual Size. 



HARLOWE. The lands in the possession of Mr. J. Barnard, of Harlowe 
Mill, have also furnished numerous coins, Roman and British. Among 
the latter are several of Cunobeline in brass (one or two unpublished) and 
one in gold, of the type figured in the Ancient Coins of Cities and Princes 
(pi. xxii, fig. 4), but the inscription on this specimen reads TASCIOVRIGON, 
in two lines ; pottery, on two fragments of which are the marks CALCIO . F, 
and VEIEHNIV (Veternius or Veterinus.) 

In a field near the railway station, are the vestigia of a building ; broken 
tiles and the tesserae of a pavement strew the surface of the ground. 

RAWRETH. In a field the property of Mr. Joseph Pease, about two 
years since, were dug up a considerable quantity of broken urns and bones. 
Subsequently, other urns containing bones were dug up in a bank in a 
field half a mile distant from the other. Recently, also, further discoveries 
of the same kind have been made. The various deposits referred to ap- 
pear to be of a sepulchral nature. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 157 

The rev. S. Isaacson exhibited an adze of stone, brought from the Feejee 
Islands by his nephew, Mr. S. R. Lock, and drew a comparison between 
the rude instruments universally found amongst the uncivilized people of 
those distant regions, and those recognized as the domestic and warlike 
implements of our Celtic forefathers. This adze, he observed, was used 
in polishing the inside of their canoes, which were generally excavated 
from the solid wood by the action of intense heat-^-a custom which, he had 
observed, extensively prevailed amongst the Warows, a race of boat-building 
Indians on the banks of the great rivers of Guiana, South America. Mr. 
Lock believes the handle, from its evident want of adaptation to the in- 
strument for all practical purposes, to have been, as is not unusual, thus 
elaborately ornamented for the purpose of displaying their taste and skill 
in wood-carving, and securing a ready purchaser amongst the Europeans 
who casually touch there; an idea supported by analogy amongst all 
nations, from the earliest periods. 

Mr. Fairholt exhibited a drawing of the remains of a stone cross, in the 
street of Ludgershall, Hants. It is of the fifteenth century, and has been 
elaborately sculptured in compartments with subjects which, from their 
mutilated condition, cannot now be identified with certainty. Two appear 
to have been intended to represent the Crucifixion and the Ascension. 
The injury this monument has suffered was certainly not wholly perpe- 
trated at a very remote period. Only a few years ago it was pulled to 
pieces by the people of the place, and would have been speedily annihilated, 
but for the energetic interposition of the late rev. A. B. Hutchins, of Ap- 
pleshaw, who replaced the stones, and rebuilt the structure, at his own 
expense. 

Mr. G. Nichols forwarded an impression of a gold British coin, found 
on the line of railway near Romsey, Hants. One of the same type is 
figured in Akerman's Ancient Coins of Cities and Princes, fig. 15, pi. xxi, 
obv. CO.F. A horseman, bearing an oval shield, galloping to the right; rev. 
VIBI. across the field; the letters divided by a leaf. Mr. Akerman re- 
marks that, with the exception of one coin of this class (picked up at 
Bognor, Sussex), we have no account of the finding of the coins inscribed 
VIB and VIBI, and that it is probable future discoveries may shew they were 
issued by some prince whose territory comprised the counties of Sussex 
and Hants. 

Mr. Smith exhibited casts of two gold British coins, recently found in 
the neighbourhood of Steyning, Sussex. The one reads, obv. COM . F. in 
a label, rev. VIB.KEX., a horseman galloping to the right, the right arm 
raised (Ancient Coins of Cities and Princes, fig. 1, pi. xxii); the other is 
slightly different from fig. 13, pi. xxi, of the some work, with the letters 
TIN over a horse of rude workmanship. 

Mr. Huxtable and Mr. Webster forwarded casts of some British gold 



158 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



coins found at Wonersh, near Grantley, in Surrey. Some of these were 
unedited, but specimens have recently been published in the Numismatic 
Chronicle, vol. ix, p. 92, where it is stated that the bulk of the hoard was 
melted by a silversmith at Guildford. 

Mr. H. L. Long drew the attention of the Council to discoveries of found- 
ations of Roman buildings, coins, a potter's kiln, etc. at Farley Heath, 
near Albury, in Surrey. A detailed account has been furnished to the 
Society of Antiquaries by Mr. M. F. Tupper, and will be probably pub- 
lished in the next part of the Archceologia. 

Mr. Smith exhibited drawings by Mr. Fairholt of the following interest- 
ing objects. A Roman vessel in dark clay, with white ornamental patterns 
(fig. 1), seven inches in height, discovered near Chichester during the 
railway excavations, and now deposited in the museum of that city. 




Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. 

Anglo-Saxon vase in dark earth, with indented pattern (fig. 2), eight 
inches and a half in height, with a goblet in green glass (fig. 3), two inches 
and half high, discovered at Belle Vue, in the parish of Lympne, Kent, 
upwards of twenty years since ; with spear-heads and a sword in iron, found 




Fig. 4. 



Fig. 5. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



159 



in digging stone in a quarry, together with the ornamented appendages to 
belts, here represented (figs. 4 and 5) half the original size. The second 
of them has been gilt. They are in the 
possession of Mr. W. Hills, of Chichester. 

A Saxon fibula, found some years since 
near the turnpike road at Folkstone Hill, 
between Folkstone and Dover. The body 
is of bronze gilt, the central band has been 
ornamented with slices of garnet, one of 
which remains at the bottom in a silver 
rim ; the upper part has also been set with 
stones or some kind of glass. It pre- 
cisely resembles one found at Osengal, in 
the collection of Mr. Rolfe. This is also 
in the possession of Mr. Hills. 

Mr. H. Norris exhibited a fragment of 
sculpture of the fifteenth century, intended 
probably for a portion of a shrine, found in an old quarry near Ilchester. 




160 



Notices of Ntfo publications. 



MEMORIALS OF EDINBURGH IN THE OLDEN TIME. By Daniel Wilson, 
F.R.S.S.A., Acting Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 
land. Edinburgh: Hugh Paton, Adam-square. London: Simpkin, 
Marshall, and Co. 1848. 

THE darkness of time, which, in spite of the hypotheses of ingenious 
speculators, still envelopes the land of the Picts and its capital city, has 

proved favourable, as 
usual, to that kind of 
interest, which, like 
some particular plants, 
flourishes naturally in 
the absence of light. 

Hence, in the early 
history of the Scottish 
metropolis, we find in 
the entire absence of 
historical material, a 
plentiful succedaneum 
in the shadowy array 
of mythic kings and 
heroes, whose renown, 
according to the ques- 
tionable authority of 
the early chroniclers, 
dates from a period as 
remote as 989 years before the Christian era. 

In the names of persons and of places which appear in those relations, 
there may be noted certain coincidences which seem to have emanated 
from a stock common alike to the northern and southern portions of 
Britain, the former occurring under the title of Albany, the latter Albion; 
and of the one we have Mandubrace, of the other Membritius both 
claiming Trojan origin ; each probably springing from the mythic record 
of an original fact, handed down with certain oral departures. Mean- 
while, as regards Pict and Celt, so far as real evidence extends, the one 
is represented only by a few instruments of flint or brass ; and the other 




NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 161 

by those vitrified forts, concerning which our speculations lead not to 
conclusions much more definite than the peasant lore which ascribes to 
them their origin severally, as things shot from the moon, and raised by 
the spells and labour of elfin dwarves. But although Dun-Edin fails to 
present aught tangible to our research, we find, however, something more 
intelligible under the title of Edwins-burgh, by which the Scottish metro- 
polis was designated after the inroad of the Saxons of Northumberland, 
when Edwin, their leader, rebuilt the fortress on the site now occupied by 
the castle in the beginning of the seventh century. Passing from this 
event, over a space of upwards of four unchronicled centuries, we arrive at 
a period when Scottish history commences its teeming narration of strata- 
gems, treasons, and escapes. In 1093, " Donald Bane laid siege to the 
castle in an unsuccessful endeavour to possess himself of Edgar, the 
youthful heir to the crown, then lodged within its walls. In that year 
also, queen Margaret, the widow of Malcolm Canmore, and the mother of 
Edgar, to whose wisdom and sagacity he entrusted implicitly the internal 
polity of his kingdom, died in the castle, of grief, on hearing of his death, 
with that of Edward, their eldest son, both slain at the siege of Alnwick 
castle." The practice of fighting over the border was by this time an 
affair of old standing ; and indeed a mere continuation of the earlier dis- 
cussions of a like nature between Pict and Celt from time immemorial. 
" While the usurper, relying on the general steepness of the rocky cliff, 
was urgent only to secure the general accesses, the body of the queen was 
conveyed through a postern gate, and down the steep declivity on the 
western side, to the abbey church of Dunfermline, where it lies interred ; 
while the young prince, escaping by the same egress, found protection in 
England, at the hand of his uncle Edgar Atheling. 

The above is the first recorded escape of the kind; but subsequent 
accounts furnish notable instances in which the same steep path has been 
found available both for the purpose of flight, and likewise as a means of 
effecting a private entrance to the fortress. Of the former there is a 
traditionary parallel to the rescue of Edgar, in the story of the infant 
prince James VI, having been secretly let down over the rock in a basket, 
into the hands of the Catholic adherents of the queen, in order to be 
educated according to their faith. This story is, however, apocryphal; 
but there is better authority for an exploit of the gallant viscount Dundee, 
when on his way to raise the highland clans in favour of king James, 
while the convention were assembled in the parliament-house, and were 
proceeding to settle the crown upon William and Mary. " With only 
thirty of his dragoons he rode down Leith Wynd, and along what is called 
the Long Gate, a road nearly on the present line of Princes-street, while 
the town was beating to arms to pursue him. Leaving his men at the 
Kirk-brae head, he clambered up the rock at this place, and urgently 



162 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

besought the duke of Gordon to accompany him to the highlands. The 
duke, however, preferred to remain, and hold out the castle for the terror 
of the convention, and Dundee hastily pursued his way to Stirling. The 
entrance to the castle by which Dundee obtained this interview, is pre- 
sumed to have been by means of the same postern through which the 
remains of queen Margaret were secretly conveyed in the year 1093, while 
the fortress was besieged by Donald Bane the usurper. Alexander I 
made Edinburgh a royal residence at the beginning of the twelfth century, 
and founded the abbey of Holyrood, or monasterium Sancta Crucis de 
Crag, at the same time putting forth the nuns, from whose establishment 
within the castle that fortress is said to have derived the title of Castrum 
puellarum, and introducing in their place the canons regular, as better 
suited for the office of imparting ghostly counsel to the soldiers therein 
lodged. The place called Canon-mills is understood as being the site of 
the mills appropriated to the use of those canons, and still displays some 
tokens of antiquity. " The charter of foundation of the abbey of Holy- 
rood, besides conferring valuable revenues derivable from the general 
resources of the royal burgh of Edinburgh, gives them a right to dues 
to nearly the same amount from the royal revenues at the port of Perth, 
the more ancient capital of Scotland, justifying the quaint eulogy of his 
royal descendant, that 'he was a sairsanctfor the crown,' By another 
grant of this charter, liberty is given to the canons to erect a burgh 
between the abbey and the town of Edinburgh ; over which they are 
vested with supreme rule, with right of trial by duel, and by fire and water 
ordeal. Hence, the origin of the burgh of Canongate, afterwards the seat 
of royalty, and the residence of the Scottish nobility, as long as Scotland 
retained either to herself. Jn the same charter also, the first authentic 
notice of the parish church of St. Cuthbert, and the chapelries of Corstor- 
phine and Libberton are found, by which we learn that that of St. Cuth- 
bert's had already, by this early date, been endowed with very valuable 
revenues ; while it confirms to its dependency at Libberton certain dona- 
tions which had been made to it by Macbeth of Libberton in the reign of 
David I, erroneously stated by Arnot as Macbeth the usurper. 

The well known legend of the White Hart is quoted by our author, 
with reference to the foundation of the abbey of Holyrood, as a thing 
which " most probably had its origin in some real occurrence, magnified 
by the superstition of a rude and illiterate age." 

David I having constituted the castle a royal residence, it was after- 
wards successively occupied by Malcolm IV, Alexander II, and by William 
surnamed the Lion, until after his defeat and capture by Henry II of 
England, when it was surrendered, with other principal fortresses of the 
kingdom, in ransom for the king's liberty. 

In our author's copious and graphic description of the castle, we find 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 163 

the usual changes and substitution of modern appurtenances according to 
the alterations which have taken place in the means of defence, and other 
requirements of the garrison. Although careful investigation has succeeded 
in the discovery of antique remains of the former citadel, " the main por- 
tion of the fortifications, however, must be referred to a period subsequent 
to the siege in 1572, when it was surrendered by sir William Kirkaldy, 
after it had been reduced nearly to a heap of ruins." In a report furnished 
to the Board of Ordnance, from documents preserved in that department, it 
appears that in 1574 (only two years after the siege) the governor, George 
Douglas, of Parkhead, repaired the walls and built the half-moon battery, 
on the site, it may be presumed, of David's tower, which was demolished 
in the course of the siege. " The most interesting buildings, however, 
in the castle, are to be found, as might be anticipated, on the loftiest and 
least accessible part of the rock on which it is built. Here, on the very 
edge of the precipitous cliff, overhanging the old town several hundred 
feet below, the ancient royal palace is reared, forming the south and east 
sides of a large quadrangle, called the Grand Parade. The chief portion 
of the southern side of this square consists of a large ancient edifice, long 
converted into an hospital for the garrison, but which had been originally 
the great hall of the palace. Notwithstanding the numerous changes to 
which it had been subjected in adapting it to its present use, some remains 
of its ancient grandeur have been preserved. At the top of the principal 
staircase may be seen a very finely sculptured stone corbel, now somewhat 
mutilated, representing in front a female face of very good proportions, 
and ornamented on each side with a volute and thistle. On this still 
rests the original oak beam, and on either side of it there are smaller 
beams let into the wall, with shields carved on the front of each. The 
whole are now defaced with whitewash, but they afford evidence of the 
existence, formerly, of a fine open timbered roof to the great hall, and it is 
probable that much more of it still remains, though concealed by modern 
ceilings and partitions. From the occasional assembling of the parliament 
here, while the Scottish monarchs continued to reside in the castle, it still 
retains the name of the Parliament House." Many features of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries appear in the part of the building where 
the royal apartments are situated, but their order and symmetry have been 
utterly deranged by the inelegant requirements of the garrison, and of 
the more antique vestiges there are no more than mere indications of the 
former state of the venerable and royal edifice. But passing the dungeon, 
curiously vaulted and partly cut out of the solid rock, whose rugged 
plainness bespeaks only indefinite antiquity, we proceed to notice a portion 
of the edifice which, notwithstanding the modesty of the author, appears 
to have been brought into notice by his research. After describing the 
church, whose site is now occupied by a range of barracks, the author 

VOL. IV. oo 



164 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

says : " We have been the more careful in describing the site and general 
character of the ancient church of the castle, in order to prevent its being 
confounded with a singularly curious and interesting ecclesiastical edifice 
still remaining there, immediately to the west of the garrison chapel, the 
existence of which seems to have been totally lost sight of. Its external 
appearance, though little calculated to excite attention, leaves little reason 
to doubt that the original walls remain. It is still in a tolerably perfect 
condition, consisting of a very small building, measuring sixteen feet six 
inches by ten feet six inches within the nave, probably the smallest as 
well as the most ancient chapel in Scotland. At the east end, there is a 
neatly carved, double, round arch, separating it from a semicircular chancel, 
with a plain alcoved ceiling. It is decorated with the usual Norman zigzag 
mouldings, and finished on the outer side by a border of lozenge-shaped 
ornaments, the pattern of which is curiously altered as it approaches the 
spring of the arch. No traces of ornament are now apparent within the 
chancel, a portion of the building usually so highly decorated, but the 
space is so small, that the altar, with its customary appendages, would 
render any further embellishment immaterial. There have been formerly 
two pillars on each side supporting the arch, with plain double cushion 
capitals, which latter still remain, as well as two of the bases, but the 
shafts of all the pillars are now wanting, and the opening of the arch is 
closed in with a rude brick partition in order to adapt the chancel to its 
modern use as a powder magazine. The original windows of the chapel 
have all been built up or enlarged, but sufficient remains can be traced to 
show that they have been plain, round-headed, and very narrow openings. 
The original doorway is also built up, but may still be seen in the north 
wall, close to the west end, an arrangement not unusual in such small 
chapels, and nearly similar to that at Craigmillar castle. This interesting 
edifice is now abandoned to the same uses as the larger church was in 
Maitland's time, and is divided into two stories by a floor which conceals 
the upper portion of the chancel arch. 

" This chapel is, without doubt, the most ancient building now existing 
in Edinburgh, and may with every probability be regarded as having been 
the place of worship of the pious queen Margaret, during her residence 
in the castle till her death in 1093. It is in the same style, although of 
a plainer character, as the earliest portions of Holyrood abbey, begun in 
the year 1128 ; and it is worthy of remark that the era of Norman archi- 
tecture is one in which many of the most interesting ecclesiastical edifices 
in the neighbourhood of Edinburgh were founded, including Holyrood 
abbey, St. Giles's church, and the parish churches of Duddingstone, Ratho, 
Kirkliston, and Dalmeny, all of which, with the exception of St. Giles's 
church, still contain interesting remains of that era." 

The edifice above described, and which perhaps had been more appro- 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 165 



priately styled an oratory, or place for private devotion, may probably still 
contain many details overlaid by the barbarous disfigurements of modern 
innovation, and should be well worthy of being further revealed, but its 
situation in a garrison must, we presume, be an insurmountable obstacle 
to such restoration. It is a noticeable circumstance, that consecrated 
places appear to be deemed peculiarly appropriate as receptacles for the 
combustible matter in which "villainous saltpetre" is the active ingredient. 
We have in mind at this moment a most exquisite bit of interior decora- 
tion in the shrine of St. Oswin, at the east end of Tynemouth priory, 
which is crammed with the same devil's compound, not only preventing all 
access to the edifice itself, but ready, at the first spark dropped by the care- 
lessness of a powder-monkey, to send into the air the adjacent ruins, 
containing some of the fairest remains of early English work in existence. 
We may likewise instance the Norman chapel in the White Tower of London, 
containing invaluable records; this sanctuary may be considered as guarded 
by the two opposite elements, the chamber below being till late, if not still, 
appropriated as a magazine for gunpowder, while over the chapel is an 
extensive water cistern. We know not if it may have occurred to the 
Ordnance authorities that, in case of sudden invasion, the parchment rolls 
there stored might be found useful in the construction of cartridges on 
emergency. 

Returning to the historical portion of the work, we find, that of the 
eight monasteries founded by Alexander II in the early part of the 
thirteenth century, one for Blackfriars was situated in Edinburgh. It 
stood on the spot now occupied by the Royal Infirmary and near to the 
collegiate church of St. Mary-in-the-Fields, or more commonly as the Kirk- 
of- Field, associated with an extraordinary deed of violence in the murder of 
Darnley, the boyish husband of the unhappy queen of Scots, which fearful 
event took place in the provost's house on the 9th of February 1567. 

In reference to the iconoclastic transactions of the pullers down of the 
" rook's nests," we find it recorded by bishop Lesley, 1558, that " the erle 
of Argyle and all his cumpanie entered in the toune of Edinburgh without 
anye resistance, quhair they were well received, and suddentlie the Black 
and Gray frieris places wer spulyeit and cassin doune, the hail growing 
treis plucked up be the ruttis, the Trinitie college and all the prebindaris 
houses theirof lykewise cassin doun, the altaris and images within saint 
Gelis kirk and the Kirk of Field destroyed and brint." Such was the 
righteous zeal of the reformers of the congregation ! 

After the surrender of Edinburgh into the hands of Edward I, in June 
1291, the castle underwent a succession of assaults, during which it 
changed hands more than once, and in 1334 the castle was rebuilt by 
Edward III, and put in a state of complete defence, as one of a chain of 
fortresses, by which he hoped to hold the nation in subjection, David II, 



166 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



having been ransomed by the adjustment of a parliament held in Edin- 
burgh in 1357, returned from England and continued to reside in the 
castle, to which he made considerable additions, and adding in particular 
the building known as David's Tower, which, two hundred years after, was 
battered down in the regency of James VI. Here David died in 1370, in 
the forty-second year of his age, and with him terminated the direct line 
of Bruce. He was buried in the church in the abbey of Holyrood before 
the high altar. " He was a brave and gifted prince, who in happier times 
might have elevated the character of his people. Tradition represents 
him as beguiling his tedious captivity in England with his pencil, and 
Barnes relates that he left behind him, in a vault in Nottingham castle, 
the whole story of our Saviour's passion, curiously engraved upon a rock 
with his own hand. 




The castle, from a map engraved in 1575, shewing king T?avi i's tower. 

At this time, according to Abercromby, " Edinburgh was but a small 
burgh, or rather, as Walsingham calls it, ' a village, the houses of which, 
because they were so often exposed to incursions from England, being 
thatched for the most part with straw and turf, and when burnt or demo- 
lished, were with no great difficulty repaired. The strength of the castle, 
the convenience of the abbey, the fruitfulness of the adjacent country, and 
its no great distance from the borders, made after kings choose to reside 
for the most part, to hold their parliaments, and to keep their courts of 
justice in this place." 

"With the accession of Robert II, the first of the Stuarts, anew era 
begins in the history of Edinburgh. From that time may be dated its 
standing as the chief burgh of Scotland, though it did not assume the full 
benefits arising from such a position till the second James ascended the 
throne. It may indeed be emphatically termed the capital of the Stuarts ; 
it rose into importance with their increasing glory ; it shared in all their 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 167 

triumphs, it suffered in all their disasters, and with the extinction of their 
line, it seemed to sink from its proud position among the capitals of 
Europe, and to mourn the vanished glories in which it had taken so pro- 
minent a part. The ancient chapel of Holyrood, neglected and forgotten 
by their successors, was left to tumble into ruins, and grass grew on the 
unfrequented precincts of the palace, where the Jameses had held high 
court and festival, and the lovely but unfortunate Mary Stuart had basked 
in the brief splendour of her first welcome to the halls of her fathers, and 
endured the assaults of the rude barons and reformers with whom she 
waged so unequal a contest. 

" During the reigns of the earlier Stuarts, the relative positions of 
Scotland and England continued to preserve more the character of an 
armistice in time of war, than any approach to settled peace, and in the 
constant incursions which ensued, Edinburgh experienced the same evils 
formerly resulting from its exposed position." 

In 1384 the town is found in the hands of the English, and in the 
following year the first edifice of St. Giles was destroyed. In 1390, 
we find the ambassadors of Charles V at the Scottish court, for the 
purpose of concluding a treaty of mutual aid and defence against the 
English ; and shortly afterwards Henry VI of England invested Edinburgh, 
" till (the usual consequences of the Scottish reception of such invaders) 
cold and rain, and absolute dearth of provisions, compelled him to raise 
the inglorious siege and hastily recross the border, without doing any 
notable injury either in his progress or retreat." The nineteen years of 
captivity endured by the royal poet, James I, in England, was probably 
favourable in many respects to the country he was afterwards called to 
govern, although eventually fatal to himself, as one in advance of his time, 
and in this particular his fortunes offer, to a certain extent, a parallel to 
those of the ill-fated Mary Stuart. " On the 21st of February, James I, 
the poet, the soldier, and the statesman, fell by the hands of his rebellious 
subjects, in the convent of the Dominicans at Perth, spreading sorrow and 
indignation over the kingdom." King James II was not above seven 
years old when he was brought from the castle, his birth-place, and being 
conducted in state to Holyrood Abbey, was there crowned with great mag- 
nificence the first of the Scottish kings thus united in birth and royal 
honours with the capital of the kingdom. 

In Scottish history the undercurrent of treasons, stratagems, and sur- 
prises, seldom flags; and with the Stuarts such unquiet details appear to 
usurp the place of ordinary events. Among such reprisals of treachery 
was the ominous presentation of the bull's-head, and the immediate exe- 
cution of the Douglas while enjoying the hospitality of the king in Edin- 
burgh castle. " In the year 1753, some workmen digging for a foundation 
to a new store-house within the castle, found the golden handles and 



168 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

plates of a coffin, -which are supposed to have belonged to that in which 
the earl of Douglas was interred." In reference to the above deed, the 
following " rude rhymes" are quoted by Hume of Godscroft : 

" Edinburgh castle, tovme, and tower, 

God grant thou sinke for sinne, 
An that even for the black dinner 
Earle Douglas gat theiren." 

" The increasing importance which the royal capital was now assuming, 
speedily drew attention to its exposed situation. In the reign of Robert II, 
the' singular privilege had been conceded to the principal inhabitants, of 
building dwellings within the castle, so as to secure their families and 
wealth from the inroads of the English ; but now, in the year 1450, im- 
mediately after the battle of Sark, the ancient city was enclosed within 
fortified walls traces of which still exist. They extended along the south 
declivity of the ridge, on which the older parts of the town are built ; after 
crossing the West Bow, then the principal entrance to the city from the 
west, and running between the High-street and the hollow, where the 
Cow Gate was afterwards built, they crossed the ridge at the Nether Bow, 
and terminated at the east end of the North Loch. Within these ancient 
limits the Scottish capital must have possessed peculiar means of defence ; 
a city set on a hill, and guarded by the rocky fortress ' There watching 
high the least alarms' it only wanted such ramparts, manned by its 
burgher watch, to enable it to give protection to its princes, and repel the 
inroads of the southern invader. 

About 1460, the collegiate church of the Holy Trinity and the hospital 
attached to it, were founded by the queen dowager, Mary of Guelders, and 
here the royal foundress was interred in the year 1463. After a rest of 
nearly four centuries, the remains of the queen have been disturbed by a 
power little dreamt of in her time ; the church of the Holy Trinity has 
succumbed to the demands of a railway company, and the remains of Mary 
of Guelders having been discovered by the research of the Edinburgh 
Society of Antiquaries, remain carefully guarded by the authorities until 
the place of their re-interment shall have been determined. 

In 1488, James III was slain by his rebellious nobles at Stirling. 
This monarch who, according to our author, " contributed more than any 
other of the Stuart race towards the permanent prosperity of the Scottish 
capital, stands charged on the record of Drummond, with a 'love for build- 
ing and trimming up of chapels, halls, and gardens,' as a taste that 
usually pertains to the lovers of idleness." James should have lived in the 
nineteenth century, and have been a member of the Camden Society. 

Immediately after the coronation of the young king (James IV), his 
heralds were sent to demand the restitution of the castle in his name ; and 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 169 

this, twth other strongholds, being promptly surrendered to his summons, 
he assumed the throne without further obstacles. Towards the close of 
the same year (1488), his first parliament assembled within the Tolbooth 
of Edinburgh. A royal experiment of this time is thus recorded : " The 
king caused a dumb woman to be transported to the neighbouring island 
of Inchkeith, and there being properly lodged and provisioned, two infants 
were intrusted to her care, in order to discover by the language they should 
adopt what was the original human tongue. The result seems to have 
been very satisfactory ; as, after allowing them a sufficient time, it was 
found that ' they spake very guid Ebrew.' " 

The Scottish nobles began now to distinguish themselves by knightly 
feats of arms ; and the space near the king's stables, just below the 
castle wall, became the scene of the most splendid displays in joust and 
tourney. 

Poetry, learning, and the arts, now resorted to the Scottish capital. 
The Palace of Honour, and a translation of Virgil's JEneid into Scottish 
verse, were dedicated by Gawin Douglas, afterwards bishop of Dunkeld, 
to the 

" Maist gracious Prince our Souerain James the Feird, 
Supreme honour renoun of cheualrie." 

And Dunbar, the greatest poet Scotland has produced, was in close attend- 
ance on the court ; and with him, Kennedy, his kindly foe, and sir John 
Eoss, and Gentill Koull of Corstorphine ; as well as others enumerated by 
Dunbar in his Lament for the Makaris. 

Up to this time the residence of the Scottish kings at Holyrood was 
only as guests of the abbot ; but now the king set earnestly to work " for 
the bigging of a palace beside the Abbay of the Holy Croce"; the only 
part of which still in existence is the " for yet", or vaulted gateway to 
the abbey court ; the south wall and other remains of which may yet be 
seen in the court-house of the abbey, the indications of the arches of its 
groined roof being still visible on the outer wall. 

The union of James IV with the princess Margaret, daughter of Henry 
VII of England, opened the court to many who had previously been with- 
held by political jealousy; and the association appears to have been favour- 
able to the Scottish capital in the introduction of such examples as the 
peaceful and established character of the English court had now assumed. 
This bright period of Scottish history was prematurely closed when James, 
seduced by the romantic challenge of the queen of France, " to ride, for 
her sake, three feet on English ground," paid dearly for his chivalry on 
Flodden Field. 

After the fatal field of Flodden, the dread of invasion stirred the 
government to an immediate extension of the city walls of Edinburgh, 



170 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

and the extended bounds of the Cowgate were now enclosed with the 
utmost energy, " so that, in an incredibly short time, the extended city 
was enclosed within defensive walls, with ports, and battlements, and 
towers, an effective protection against the military engineering of the 
age." Considerable portions of this wall have remained to the present 
time, exhibiting abundant tokens of the haste with which it was erected, 
as well as preserving in the name of the Flodden wall, by which it is 
still known, another proof of the deep impression that disastrous field 
had left on the popular mind. 

1515. The nation now experienced all the evils of a long minority; 
and we hear of such events as are characterized by the expressive Scotch 
word bickering. On one occasion we are told of an affair " with long spears 
and pikes," a part of the town invested and barricadoed ; the result of 
which is, that the master of Montgomery, sir Patric Hamilton, with 
almost four score more, are left dead upon the place ; and some days after, 
the Humes, well banded and backed with many nobles and gentlemen of 
their lineage, took the lord Hume's and his brother's heads where they 
had been fixed, and with the funeral rites of those times interred them in 
the Blackfriars. Again, soon after, James Beatoun, archbishop of Glas- 
gow, and chancellor of the kingdom, " fled to the Black Frier Kirk, and 
their was takin out behind the alter, and his rockit rivin aff him, and had 
beine slaine, had not beine Mr. Gawin Douglas requeisted for him, saying 
it was shame to put hand on ane consecrat bischop. It was at the com- 
mencement of this bicker, that Douglas made the following repartee, 
having appealed to the archbishop to use his influence with his friends to 
compromise matters, and prevent, if possible, the bloodshed that otherwise 
must ensue ; the archbishop excused himself, on many accounts, adding : 
" Upon my conscience, I cannot help it": at the same time striking his 
breast in the heat of his asseveration, he betrayed the presence of a con- 
cealed coat of mail ; whereon, Douglas retorted : " How now, my lord, 
methinks your conscience clatters." This was the affray known by the 
popular name of " Cleanse the Causey." Burning and trial by ordeal 
followed, and the state of the Scottish capital wore the aspect of a lapse 
into rude barbarism ; the only marvel being, that amid such events, the 
king should have been suffered to die without violence at Falkland, on the 
14th of December 1542. 

With a sad presentiment of the future, the father of the unfortunate 
Mary exclaimed, when he heard on his death-bed that the queen had 
given birth to a daughter : " It came with a lass, and it will go with a 
lass." The sad presage of the dying king, followed by such a course of 
chequered events, the factions which divided the Scottish nobles; the 
threats of England ; the offered conciliation, accompanied by conditions so 
obnoxious to the cardinal, and to the queen dowager Mary of Guise, who 



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171 



saw in the proposed marriage between prince Edward and the young 
queen, a death-blow to their church ; the deadly enmity which followed 
the refusal of this alliance, and all its disastrous consequences, these, 
together with the rancorous struggle between the old and the new faith 
which distracted Scotland ; the bright interval of the French court ; and 
something like a troubled reflex of its gay splendours, which shone on 
the return of the young queen to her native dominions, dashed, however, 
by significant passages, such as mingled with the pageants designed to 
welcome her, yet ominously threatening the faith in which she had been 
nursed, and to which she finally became a martyr; when the destruction of 
Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, was renewed in mockery before her ; and 
the patron St. Giles 
torn out of the town 
standard, and the this- 
tle inserted in its 
place ; the rude coun- 
selling of Knox; the 
inauspicious alliance 
with the boyish and 
imbecile Darnley; the 
murder of Eizzio at 
the very feet of the 
pregnant queen; the 
wild catastrophe of the 
Kirk of Field ; the 
forced union with the 
traitor Bothwell, 1 and 
the train of disastrous 
events ending in the 
gloom of long and weary captivity ; the head blanched by sorrow, yet still 
singularly beautiful, 2 finding no rest at last, but such as was offered by the 
block of the executioner, these constitute a picture such as 

" when some mighty painter dips 

His pencil in the gloom of earthquake and eclipse." 

And if it is not without some bright passages, yet such occur but as 
flashes of lightning amid the depths of the tempest, splendour and 
terror mingled for an instant, but ending in darkness only the more 
appalling from the brief and fitful contrast. 

1 Late revelations have shewn that of Mary Stuart immediately after her 
Mary had scarcely a choice in the ill- execution ; which, in spite of the rigid 
omened match. expression consequent upon a violent 

2 In the collection at Abbotsford, death, still presents lineaments of ex- 
there is a picture of a decollated head, traordinary beauty. 

said to have been painted from the head 




VOL. IV. 



23 



172 



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Although the events which we have merely touched have become fami- 
liar by repetition in all the various forms which history, poetry, and art, 
can bestow, their interest has never become exhausted ; while fact after 
fact has arisen tending to disabuse the memory of the unhappy queen 
from those darker imputations which have appeared against it; so that 
while we cannot wholly acquit, still we pity more than we blame her. 
Meanwhile, every locality with which her memory is associated, appeals to 
the imagination only the more strikingly, from the indefiniteness of some 
of the facts which they illustrate. Of such illustrations, our author has 
furnished some interesting examples ; one of which, a building, called 
" Queen Mary's Bath", we borrow for these pages, especially on account 

of a striking corroboration 
which is given in the ac- 
companying text, relating 
to the escape of the con- 
spirators after the assassin- 
ation of Bizzio. 

" The queen was kept a 
close prisoner in her apart- 
ment, while her imbecile 
husband assumed the regal 
power, dissolved the parlia- 
ment, and commanded the 
estates immediately to de- 
part from Edinburgh, on 
pain of treason. The earl 
of Morton, who had kept 
guard, with one hundred 
and sixty followers, in the 
outer court of the palace, 
while the assassins entered 
to complete their murderous 
purpose, was now command- 
ed to keep the gates of the 
palace, and let none escape ; but the chief actors in the deed contrived to 
elude the guards, and leaping over a window on the north side of the 
palace, they fled across the garden, and escaped by a small outhouse or 
lodge, still existing, and known by the name of Queen Mary's Bath." 

We have been told by the proprietor of this house, that in making some 
repairs on the roof, which required the removal of the slates, a rusty 
dagger was discovered sticking in one of the planks, and with a portion 
of it more deeply corroded than the rest, as though from the blood that 
had been left on its blade. This, the discoverers, not unreasonably, 




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173 



believed to have remained there from the flight of the murderers of 
Kizzio. 

The following cut represents a very curious building, which stood on 
the west side of the Kirk-gate, at Leith, and was taken down in 1845. 
It had an inscription over the doorway, cut in old English letters, 
3T&fi>ttS ^Harta> and a niche, in which there had doubtless been a statue 
of the Virgin and child. 
Local tradition pointed 
it out as a chapel found- 
ed by Mary of Guise, 
but apparently with- 
out any sufficient evi- 
dence. 

On the west side of 
Blyth's close, part of a 
series of ancient build- 
ings under the castle 
rock, called the King's 
Stables, there existed 
a remarkable building, 
some portion of which yjfjfT^ 
still remains. This, the 
concurrent testimony 
of tradition and inter- 
nal evidence, pointed 
out as having been the 
mansion of Mary of 
Guise, the queen of 
James V, and mother 
of queen Mary. Over 
the main doorway which 
still remains, there is 
the inscription in bold 
Gothic characters, 
latts ^onor SDco, with 

I. E,., the initials of the king, at the respective ends of the lintel, 
shield, placed on the right side, the monogram of the Virgin Mary is 
sculptured ; while a corresponding shield on the left, now entirely defaced, 
most probably bore the usual one of the Saviour. On the first landing of 
the principal stair, a small vestibule gave entrance to an apartment, ori- 
ginally of large dimensions, though for many years subdivided into various 
rooms and passages. At the right-hand side of the inner doorway, on 
entering this apartment, a remarkably rich Gothic niche remained till 




On a 



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recently, to which we have given the name of a piscina, owing to its having 
a hole through the bottom of it ; the peculiar mark of that ecclesiastical 
feature, and one which we have not discovered in any other of those niches 
we have examined. The name is at least convenient for distinction in 
future reference to it, but its position was at the side of a very large and 
handsome fire-place ; one of the richly clustered pillars of which appears 
in the engraving, on the outside of a modern partition ; and no feature 
was discoverable in the apartment calculated to lead to the idea of its 
having been at any time devoted to other than domestic uses. We may 
further remark, that there were in all, seven of these sculptured recesses, 
of different sizes and degi-ees of ornament, throughout the range of build- 
ings known as the Guise Palace and Oratory a sufficient number of 
" baptismal fonts", we should presume, even for a Parisian Hopital des 
Enfans trouves." 

The number and variety of such niches which are to be found among 
the ancient remains of Edinburgh, is a circumstance worthy of note, but 
we do not agree with our author in considering them to have served, in 
some cases, no other purpose than that of mere " ornamental recesses or 
cupboards," neither does Arnot's method of classing them as baptismal 
fonts seem more satisfactory. In the first place, we find no corroboration 
in the use of decorations, purely ecclesiastical, for any inferior purpose, 
moreover there is no occasion for going out of the way to conceive such 
appropriation. Font, piscina, and stoup, had each its distinct use, and 
none of the examples quoted can be considered as belonging to the first 
article in the above classification, while the piscina was peculiar to the 
priestly office and proper only to ecclesiastical uses, such as those in which 
the clergy might officiate ; but the stoup (a recess for consecrated water 
contained in a movable vessel) may be found alike in churches, hospitals, 
and on staircases and other parts of the dwellings of the laity. On ex- 
amining the engraving, we should conceive the building it represents to 

be of the character of a domestic chapel, 
in which the piscina might be appropri- 
ate, though it is very probable that it may 
have lapsed, soon after the time of Mary 
of Guise, through the change of opinions 
which ensued, into the condition proper 
to a domestic apartment. Of the different 
recesses mentioned by our author, we 
conceive they have served variously the 
purpose of piscina, holy- water stoop, and 
of ambre for the keeping of ecclesiastical 
utensils belonging to the host and the 
service of mass. The annexed cut 




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175 



represents a richly decorated niche, indicating the prevalence of a pure 
taste in Gothic architecture continuing in Scotland, at a time when it had 
ceased to exist in England. This our author considers, " in all proba- 
bility, served as a credence table, or other appendage to the altar of the 
chapel," but we are inclined to think it comes under the category above- 
mentioned. The apartment in which this niche occurs " was occupied as 
a schoolroom, about the middle of the last century, by a teacher of note 
named Mr. John Johnson. ' When he first resided in it, there was a 
curious urn in the niche, and a small square stone behind the same, of so 
singular an appearance, that, to satisfy his curiosity, he forced it from the 
wall, when he found in the recess an iron casket, about seven inches long, 
four broad, and three deep, having a lid like that of a caravan trunk, and 
secured by two clasps falling over the keyholes, and communicating with 
some curious and intricate machinery within.' This interesting relic was 
obtained from a relative of the discoverer by Robert Chambers, esq., the 
author of the Traditions of Edinburgh, by whom it was presented to sir 
Walter Scott. It was empty at the time of its discovery, but is supposed 
to have been used for holding the smaller and more valuable furnishings 
of the altar [or perhaps rather as a reliquary]. It is now in the collection 
at Abbotsford, and has all the appearance of great antiquity. 

" In the east wall of this building, which still stands, there is a curious 
staircase built in the thick- 
ness of the wall, which 
afforded access from the 
chapel to an apartment 
below, where there was a 
draw-well of fine clear 
water, with a raised para- 
pet of stone surrounding 
it. Immediately to the 
north of this, on the same 
floor, another room ex- 
isted with interesting re- 
mains of former grandeur ; 
the fire-place was in the 
same rich style of Gothic 
design already described, 
and at the left side there 
was a handsome Gothic 
niche with a plain one 
immediately adjoining it. 
The entrance to this portion of the palace was locked, and cemented with 
the rust of years, the door leading to the inner staircase was also built up, 




176 



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and it had remained in this deserted and desolate state during the memory 
of the oldest of the neighbouring inhabitants, excepting that ' ane sturdy 
beggar' lived for some time rent free in one of the smaller rooms, his only 
mode of ingress or egress to which was by the dilapidated window. The 
same difficulties had to be surmounted in obtaining the sketch from which 
the accompanying vignette is given." It appears highly probable that 
this chamber may have appertained originally to an ecclesiastical func- 
tionary, and that, in fact, the predecessor of the " sturdy beggar" was no 




other than the domestic chaplain of Mary of Guise. The decorated niche 
may have contained a vessel of consecrated water for the purpose of saining 
the ecclesiastical domicile, as well as for the aspersion of penitents and 
other visitors ; while the plain niche as probably contained the missals, 
hours, breviaries, etc., belonging to the good man, whether properly, 
or ex officio. 

" With the memorials appertaining to Mary's time the higher associa- 
tions in the history of the Scottish capital may be considered to end. 
During this time likewise the various outbreaks of the reforming party, 
or rather of those whom the intemperate zeal of their divines stirred up 
to mere indiscriminate acts of destruction, effectually wasted the fairest 
and most venerable remains of Edinburgh's ecclesiastical antiquity, in the 
course of the ' work of purification' (as it was called) which ensued ; and 
the consequence is, that only such fragments remain as happily escaped 
their notice, and which appear but as monuments of the violence which 
assailed the sacred edifices whereof they were appurtenances. 

" During the minority of James VI, Edinburgh was little favoured by 
the royal countenance, and but little occurs in the way of intercourse 
between the king and his capital, except the summons of a parliament 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 177 

soon after his assumption of the reins of government, when the sovereign 
entered the city by the West Port, where he was received by the magis- 
trates under a pall of purple velvet, and an allegory of ' king Solomon with 
the two, wemen' was exhibited as a representation of the wisdom of Solomon, 
after which the sword and sceptre were presented to him. At the ancient 
gate in the West Bow the keys of the city were given to him in a silver 
basin, with the usual device of a cupid descending from a globe, while 
' dame Music and hir scollars exercisit hir art with great melodie.' At 
the Tolbooth he was received by three gallant virtuous ladies, to wit, 
Peace, Plenty, and Justice, who harangued him in the Greek, Latin, and 
Scotch languages [i. e. we presume, in the three learned tongues], and as 
he approached St. Giles's church, dame Religion showed herself, and in 
the Hebrew tongue [the original, sec. exp.] desired his presence, which he 
obeyed by entering the church," etc. We have advanced that much of 
the higher associations ended with queen Mary's reign, but where these 
end, there begins much that is both curious and interesting, as well as 
regards minor events as likewise in illustration of manners and domestic 
habits. The great bulk of the old ecclesiastical edifices had been swept 
away or otherwise " purified," and in addition to this, repeated siege and 
assault had done their work of destruction, especially the disastrous onslaught 
by the English in 1544, when baffled in their attack upon the castle they 
proceeded to wreak their vengeance upon the city, setting it on fire in 
numerous quarters, and after being compelled to quit by the continual firing 
from the castle, together with the smoke and flames which they themselves 
had raised, still renewing the process of destruction on the following 
day, and for three successive days, till they had completely effected their 
purpose. 

" This disastrous event forms an important era in the history of Edin- 
burgh : if we except a portion of the castle, the churches, and the north- 
west wing of Holyrood Palace, no building anterior to this date now exists 
in Edinburgh. The siege of the castle by Cromwell, and an accidental 
fire which destroyed the chief part of Holyrood Palace, while that edifice 
was occupied by the parliamentary troops, added to these successive means 
of destruction, caused the introduction of a new feature in the archi- 
tectural character of the city, which appeared towards the close of the 
reign of the second Charles. Of this the Golfer's land is a good and early 
specimen, consisting of an engrafting of the mouldings and some of the 
principal features of the Italian style upon the forms that previously 
existed. The gables are still steep, and the roofs of a high pitch, and while 
the front assumes somewhat of the character of a pediment, the crow-steps 
are retained on the side gables ; but these features soon after disappear 
and give way to a regular pediment, surmounted with urns and the like 
ornaments, a very good specimen of which remains on the south side of 



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the Castle Hill, as well as others in various parts of the old town. The 
same district still presents good specimens of the old wooden-fronted lands, 
with their fore stairs and handsome inside turnpike from the first floor, 
the construction of which Maitland affirms to be coeval with the destruc- 
tion of the extensive forests of the Borough Moor in the reign of James V." 
Of all these characteristic features the author gives excellent examples 
among the numerous etchings and wood-cuts, from drawings hy his own 
hand, which embellish the book. But to follow the mere outline of these 
particulars would require much more than our space admits, neither can 
we do more than heartily recommend a perusal, in the work itself, of the 
numerous anecdotes, sketches of character, fragments of poetry, traditions, 

and other interesting details with 
which it abounds, and we must con- 
clude by calling the reader's attention 
to some few of the characteristic 
wood-cuts which we have selected for 
the purpose of illustrating this notice. 
The annexed is one of the edifices in 
the " steep and narrow Closes of Edin- 
burgh, once appertaining to the noble 
and gentle of the good city, and 
which belonged to the celebrated 
Adam Bothwell, bishop of Orkney, 
who officiated at the ominous mar- 
riage service, in the chapel of Holy- 
rood Palace, that gave Bothwell 
legitimate possession of the unfor- 
tunate queen Mary, whom he had 
already so completely secured within 
his toils. That same night the dis- 
tich of Ovid was affixed to the palace 




' Mense malas Maio nubere vulgus ait,' 

and from the infamy that popularly attached to this fatal union, is traced 
the vulgar prejudice that still regards it as unlucky to wed in the month 
of May. The character of the old bishop is not one particularly meriting 
admiration. He married the poor queen according to the new forms, in 
spite of the protest of their framers, and he proved equally pliable where 
his own interests were concerned. He was one of the first to desert his 
royal mistress's party, and only two months after celebrating her marriage 
with the earl of Bothwell, he placed the crown upon the head of her 
infant son. The following year he humbled himself to the kirk, and 



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179 



engaged ' to make a sermon in the kirk of Halierudehous, and in the end 
thereof to confesse the offence in marieng the queine with the erle of 
Both well.' The interior of this ancient building has been so entirely 
remodelled, to adapt it to the very different uses of later times, that no 
relic of its early grandeur, or of the manners of its original occupants 
remains ; but one cannot help regarding its chambers with a melancholy 
interest, disguised though they are by the changes of modern taste and 
manners." Here " we may believe both Mary and James to have been 
entertained as guests, by father and son (the bishop and the earl), while 
at the same board there sat another lovely woman, whose wrongs are so 
touchingly recorded in the beautiful ballad of Lady Ann BotliweWs Lament" 

" In the alley called Sandiland's close, a large and remarkably substantial 
stone tenement forms the 
chief feature on the east 
side, and presents an ap- 
pearance of great antiquity. 
The ground floor of this 
building is vaulted with 
stone, and entered by door- 
ways with pointed arches ; 
and over the lower of these 
is a neat small pointed win- 
dow, or loop hole, splayed 
and otherwise constructed, 
as in early Gothic buildings. 
We present a view of one 
of the most interesting 
pieces of ancient sculpture 
in Edinburgh, which forms 
part of the internal decor- 
ation of this old edifice. It 

seems to be intended to represent the offering of the wise men, 1 and is 
well executed in bold relief; although, like most other internal decorations 
in the old town, plentifully besmeared with white-wash. It appears to 
form the end of a very large antique fire-place ; the remainder of which is 
concealed under panelling and partitions of perhaps a century old. 

" Such of the title deeds of this property as we have obtained access to, 
are, unfortunately, quite modern, and contain no reference to early pro- 
prietors ; but one of the present owners described a sculptured stone con- 
taining a coat of arms, surmounted by a mitre, that was removed from 
over the inner doorway some years since, and which appear to have been 

1 We cannot detect any signification seeing, appears to convey a moral and 
of the subject ascribed by our author not a scriptural meaning, probably im- 
to this piece of sculpture, which, to our plying teaiptatiun. 

VOL. IV. 24 




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/" 



the Kennedy arms. If it be permissible to build on such slender data, 
in the absence of all other evidence, we have here, in all probability, the 
town mansion of the good bishop Kennedy, the munificent patron of 
learning, and the able and upright .councillor of James II and III. The 
whole appearance of the building is perfectly consistent with this suppo- 
sition. The form and decorations of the doorways all prove an early date ; 
while the large size and elegant mouldings of the windows, and the 
massive appearance of the whole buildings, indicate such magnificence as 
would well consort with the dignity of the primacy at that early period. 
" The ancient burgh of Canongate may claim as its founder the sainted 

David I, by whom the abbey of 
Holyrood was planted in the 
forest of Drumselch early in the 
twelfth century, as a shrine for 
the miraculous cross which the 
royal hunter so unexpectedly ob- 
tained within its sylvan glades. 
It sprung up wholly independent 
of the neighbouring capital, gather- 
ing as naturally around the con- 
secrated walls of the monastery, 
whose dependents and vassals 
were its earliest builders, as did 
its warlike neighbour shelter itself 
under the overhanging battlements 
of the more ancientfortress. Some- 
thing of a native-born character 
seems to have possessed these 
rivals, and exhibited itself in 
very legible phases in their after 
history, each of them retaining 
distinctive marks of their very 
different parentage." 

Here we have in juxtaposition 
the distinct holdings of church 
vassals, and vassals of the crown; 
and " the magistrates of the Ca- 
nongate still claim a feudal lord- 
ship over the property of the 
burgh, as the successors of its 
spiritual superiors ; most of the 
title-deeds running thus : 'To 
be holden of the magistrates of the Canongate, as come in place of the 
monastery of Holy-cross.' " 




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181 




The annexed representation is one of the niches ; several specimens of 
which are described by our author 
aa occurring in different parts, 
especially in the Guise Palace. 
The present example is such as, 
had it occurred in a church, might 
have been supposed to have ap- 
pertained to a chantry ; but from 
its situation, we are disposed to 
look upon it as part of the decora- 
tion of a priest's residence. The 
house in which it appears, is situ- 
ated in the Canongate, and was 
formerly known as the " Parlia- 
ment House", and is surmised by 
the author to be that of William 
Oikis, wherein the regent Lennox, 
with the earls of Morton, Mar, 
Glencairn, Crawford, Menteith, 
and Buchan, the lords Ruthven 
and Lindsay, and others assem- 
bled, and after pronouncing the doom of forefaulture against William 
Maitland, younger of Lethington, and the chief of their opponents, adjourned 
the parliament to meet again at Stirling. The 
house is now in a mean and ruinous condition ; but 
an inspection of its interior reveals many particu- 
lars of its former magnificence. 

We borrow a specimen of the "antique precursors 
of the knocker and bell, which are still frequently 
to be met with in the steep turnpikes of the old 
town, notwithstanding the cupidity of antiquarian 
collectors. The ring is drawn up and down the 
notched iron rod, and makes a very audible noise 
within." The risp, or tirling pin, is frequently 
alluded to in Scottish song, as in the fine old 
ballad, 

" There came a ghost to Margaret's door, 

Wi' mony a grievous groan, 
And aye he tirled at the pin, 
But answer made she none." 

The present specimen is on a stair belonging to 
the ancient mint in the Cowgate. 




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Among the traditions in which Edinburgh is peculiarly rich, the section 
which relates to the mysteries of ghosts, wizards, and supernatural appear- 
ances, especially abounds. Of such as relate to 

" Sotil enchauntours and eke negrymauncers" 

few are so grim and other-worldlike as the attributes and transactions 
ascribed to major Weir. 

No relation of the kind ever left so general and deep-rooted an impres- 
sion, "nor was any 
spot ever more cele- 
brated in the annals 
of sorcery, than the 
little court at the 
head of the (west) 
Bow, where the wiz- 
ard and his sister 
dwelt." The spot is 
approached by a laby- 
rinth of ancient tene- 
ments and mysterious 
alleys, with whose in- 
habitants the ghosts 
and warlocks long 
disputed the posses- 
sion of their crazed 
domiciles. 

" This curious zig- 
zag steep was un- 
doubtedly one of the 
most ancient streets 
in the old town, and 
probably existed as a 
roadway to the castle, 
while Edwin 's-burgh 
was comprised in a few mud and straw huts, scattered along the higher 
slope. Enough still remains of it to shew how singularly picturesque and 
varied were the tenements with which it once abounded. 

" At the corner of the Lawn-market is an antique fabric, reared ere 
Newton's law of gravitation was dreamt of, and seeming rather like one 
of the mansions of Laputa, whose builders had discovered the art of 
constructing houses from the chimney -tops downwards ! A range of 
slim wooden posts sustains a pile that at every successive story shoots 
further into the street, until it bears some resemblance to an inverted 
pyramid. 




NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 183 

" It is, nevertheless, a fine example of an old burgher dwelling. The 
gables and eaves of its north front, which appear in the engraving of the 
Weigh-house, are richly carved, and the whole forms a remarkably striking 
specimen, the finest that now remains, of an ancient timber land. Next 
comes a stone land, with a handsome polished ashlar front and gabled 
attics of the time of Charles I. Irregular string courses decorate the 
walls, and a shield on the lowest crow-step bears the initials of its first 
proprietors, I. 0, I. B., with a curious merchant's mark between. A little 
lower down, in one of the numerous supplementary recesses that added to 
the contortions of this strangely crooked thoroughfare, a handsomely 
sculptured doorway meets the view, now greatly dilapidated and timeworn. 
Though receding from the adjoining building, it forms part of a stone 
turnpike that projects considerably beyond the tenement to which it 
belongs ; so numerous were once the crooks of the Bow, where every 
tenement seemed to take up its own independent standing with perfect 
indifference to the position of its neighbours. On a curiously formed 
dormer window, which surmounts the staircase, the city motto appears to 
have been cut, but only the first word now remains legible. Over the 
doorway below, a large shield in the centre of the lintel bears the William- 
son arms, now greatly defaced, with this inscription and date on either side, 
SOLI . DEO . HONOR . ET . GLORIA .D.w.l. 6. 0.4. The initials are those of 
David Williamson, a wealthy burgher in the time of James VI. But the old 
stair once possessed or was believed to possess strange properties, which 
would seem to imply that these sacred legends were not always effectual 
in guarding the thresholds over which they were inscribed as charms 
against the approach of evil. A low vaulted passage immediately adjoining 
it leads through the tall tenement to another court behind, and a solitary 
and desolate abode, once the unhallowed dwelling-place of the notorious 
major Weir. The wizard had cast his spell over the neighbouring stair ; 
for old citizens, who have ceased to tempt such giddy steeps, affirm that 
those who ascended it of yore felt as if they were going down. We have 
tried the ascent, and recommend the sceptical to do the same ; happily 
the old wizard's spells have defied even an improvement commission to 
raze his haunted dwelling to the ground." But we must quit this last 
remaining fragment of the most picturesque of Edinburgh's old remains, 
referring our readers to the book itself for the full particulars of the 
uncanny personage, whose restless ghost is said still to haunt the Bow 
and those unsavoury precincts called variously, as superstition or the 
olfactory sense may happen to prevail, by either of its denominations of 
the Haunted or the Stinking Close. However, the name of major Weir 
is a good name to conjure withal, and one that still inspires terror in the 
spirit of many a belated wayfarer as he recalls the tradition of the " tall 
black man" with " grim countenance and a big nose," who, ere he stood 



184 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

confessed a wizard, had so beguiled the " Bow-head saints" and the " holy 
sisters," as to have been denominated Angelical Thomas in their peculiar 
phraseology; and if the scared passenger be spared a vision of the major 
himself, there are apparitions appertaining to him equally weird and ugsome, 
especially in the long-legged spectre of the wizard's sister, who walks the 
Bow, appearing as tall as two ordinary women, and whose habit is to make 
night hideous with " great immeasurable laughter," rolling her long body 
to and fro, and finally disappearing among flames in the Stinking Close. 
Neither is the major's enchanted staff without its especial terrors, the 
black staff which he invariably grasped when he would be strong among 
the saintly congregation, and which was burned along with the wizard, 
and of which the persons present did aver, " yt gave rare turnings, and 
was long a burning, as also himself." The wretched original of the long 
spectre is supposed to have been driven mad by the cruelty of her brother, 
and is said to have borne on her forehead the mark of the fiend in the 
manner of an " exact horseshoe shaped for nails in her wrinkles, terrible 
enough, I assure you, to the stoutest beholder. She was condemned to 
be hanged, and, at the execution, conducted herself in the same insane 
manner, struggling to throw off her clothes, that, as she expressed it, she 
might die with all the shame she could. The magical black staff, which, 
in the major's life time, it was no uncommon thing for the neighbours to 
see step in and tap at their counters on some errand of its master, or 
running before him with a lanthorn, as he went out on nocturnal business 
and gravely walked down the Lawnmarket behind his mysterious link-boy ; 
this supposed gift of the evil one is said likewise to walk or to wait as porter 
at the door, while the hum of Grisel Weir's necromantic spinning-wheel is 
heard at dead of night, and the deserted mansion is seen blazing with the 
lights of some eldrich festival, when the major and his sister are supposed 
to be entertaining the prince of darkness." 

The legend of major Weir is a fair specimen of the harsh and austere 
character of Edinburgh demonology, and of the numerous traditions with 
which various nooks of the old town are associated, but which are dying 
out with the changes of the times as well as through the demolition of the 
crazed and fantastic tenements to which, as a sort of spiritual title deeds, 
they appertained. But quitting such tempting themes, and not even 
allowing ourselves to touch upon the philosophical and more Koger Bacon- 
like glamourie of Napier of Merchiston, we must take leave of the Memorials 
of Edinburgh, repeating our recommendation of a perusal of the work to our 
readers and recording our estimate of the success of the industrious and 
sensible author in the production of two most satisfactory volumes. We 
cannot bring our notice to a close without pointing to the varied accom- 
plishments which have been exercised in this production ; not only in the 
striking and lucid descriptions of historical and local events, the true 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 185 

antiquarian spirit in which traditionary assignment has been collated with 
actual fact, in the laborious investigation of title-deeds, charters, and other 
sources of authentic information, and the admirable order and arrangement 
of dates ; but likewise in the graphic illustrations from drawings by the 
author's own hand, the result of long and earnest research ; and we sin- 
cerely trust that such talent and application will be honourably distin- 
guished and duly rewarded. J. w. A. 




AN ATTEMPT TO DISCRIMINATE THE STYLES OF ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND 

FROM THE CONQUEST TO THE REFORMATION. By the late Thomas 
Rickman. Fifth edition. 1848. 

THE true perception of the beauties of the Gothic architecture of 
England, which we now happily observe in the restorations of old, and in 
the designs for new buildings, may justly be said to date its origin from 
the publication of Mr. Rickman 's book. Previously to this era the Gothic 
styles were a perfect chaos to the architect, who, understanding nothing of 
their peculiarities, blended together heterogeneous forms, producing thereby 
a vile travesty of the elegant arrangements and appropriate ornaments of 
his Gothic predecessors. The mischief, however, did not stop here, for 
in the " repairing and beautifying" our ancient edifices, many an admirable 
specimen of art was removed or concealed, cruelly defaced or wantonly 
destroyed. Many zealous antiquaries did indeed protest against the 
defacements and barbarisms of their day, but their exertions had little if 
any effect ; they could not interest the public in the preservation of these 
works of art, for they could not point out the means by which the laws of 



186 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

Gothic architecture might be investigated. Though many valuable illus- 
trative works were published, the clue to unravel the mystery which hung 
over the history of the architectural skill of our forefathers was wanting : 
the public might indeed admire, but could not understand. The merit of 
this discovery belongs to Mr. Rickman, who first pointed out clear and 
unmistakable lines of demarcation between the three styles which had 
been previously assumed to exist, and assigning to each an intelligible 
and appropriate name, led inquirers into the right path to acquire informa- 
tion. But Mr. Rickman did more ; he traced the peculiarities of each style 
in the arches, doors, windows, niches, and other members of the Gothic edi- 
fice, and thereby thoroughly demonstrated his theory. The volume which 
he published was indeed deficient in pictorial illustrations, but perhaps 
the appendix, which pointed out examples in every part of England, gave 
a wider range of interest to his work, and by fixing attention on realities, 
secured a more than transient attention to the science of the art. Gothic 
architecture henceforth became a popular study, and through Mr. Rickman 
the beauties of many a village church became for the first time known 
and appreciated. However, the want of pictorial illustrations was con- 
sidered an objection ; the few introduced by Mr. Rickman were not suffi- 
ciently explanatory of his text, and were objectionable from not being 
taken from actual buildings. The present edition is put forth to supply 
this desideratum. It comes before the public in a most attractive form ; 
every part of the book presents us with some pictorial object, and the 
number and variety of them give the volume a very elegant appearance. 
Many of them are very beautifully executed and appropriately introduced : 
but there are exceptions. We think there should have been a little more 
attention given to the examples cited by Mr. Rickman, as well as a selec- 
tion made of those with which the public is least familiar. Thus a plate 
of the north transept of Hedon church would have been a more acceptable 
illustration of an early English front, than the well-known view of the 
transept of Beverley minster. Some of the illustrations are inappropriate, 
for instance, at page 213, where Mr. Rickman is speaking of the internal 
decoration of a perpendicular building, and a view is given of an exterior 
compartment of Yelvertoft church. The example of a decorated wood screen 
from St. John's, Winchester, is not sufficiently marked in its character, and 
it would have been easy to have found a better specimen. We should also 
have been glad to see an example of the large decorated windows, but even 
in the present collection the choice has not been very felicitous. In fact, 
throughout the book, some of the engravings appear to have been inserted 
because they were already at hand for the printer, and some to have been 
copies of others previously published. As an instance of the danger of 
trusting to a copy, we notice the plate of the Eleanor's cross, at North- 
ampton, in which the foliation of the statuary niches is incorrectly drawn. 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 187 

It would, we think, have heen more judicious to have given Mr. Rickman's 
text without the interpolations which the editor has thought fit to insert. 
The errors, if they be errors, which are thus indirectly hinted, are few 
and unimportant, and the additional information might have been more 
fitly introduced as a supplemental paragraph, in a distinctive type, at the 
foot of each of Mr. Rickman's divisions of his subjects. Although we 
confess the present edition does not come up to the expectations we had 
formed, still we cheerfully admit that it has great recommendations, and 
is a great improvement upon the former editions. J. s. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ROMAN THEATRE OF VERULAM. By R. Grove Lowe, 
Esq., pp. 18, with two plates, 8vo. London and St. Alban's, 1848. 
Published for the St. Alban's Architectural Society. 

THE public should feel much indebted to Mr. Lowe and the St. Alban's 
Architectural Society for their exertions to bring to light remains not 
exceeded in interest by any which are extant in this country. Indeed, 
they are here quite without a parallel ; and one is struck with conviction, 
that a genuine taste for the preservation of our national monuments has 
yet to be propagated, when such a discovery excites but little attention, 
and, for want of extended sympathy and support, the active investigators 
are forced to suspend, if not to abandon, their praiseworthy researches. 
The disclosures made were sufficient to have justified the government in 
supplying funds towards the excavations and contingent expenses, which, 
after all, would have been insignificant in comparison! with the success 
which must have ensued. But while the principle of preserving our 
national monuments as a means of public instruction seems universally 
admitted, it is only acted upon in so partial and restricted a manner, and 
with such an utter want of discrimination and sound judgment, that objects 
of the highest historical value are often suffered to perish, while memorials 
of comparative worthlessness are collected and treasured up to serve no 
ostensible end or object. No one can dispute the utility of grants from 
government for the National Museum, for the publication of records, etc. ; 
but it seems contradictory to the spirit of those gi-ants, that their applica- 
tion should be so prescribed and restricted, as to be wholly unavailable to 
meet emergencies, such as that which recently occurred at Old Verulam. 
To take every occasion which may present itself to solicit the attention of 
the government to the conservation of our national monuments, is one of 
the chief objects of this Association, as it should be of the numerous insti- 
tutions established upon its model ; for every year's experience fatally 
proves it is only by an united and general effort that this desirable end 
can be attained. 

VOL. IV. 2-' 



188 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

Some remarks on the remains of Vemlamium have appeared in the 
preceding volume of the Journal, followed by brief notices of Mr. Lowe's 
discoveries. The essay before us is illustrated by an excellent plan, which 
will enable us to compare this theatre, the first that has ever been 
brought to light in England, with those preserved on the continent, by 
the good taste and feeling of people and rulers. The theatre of Verulam, 
Mr. Lowe states, was 190 feet 3 inches in diameter. "The two outer 
walls are on the plan of the Greek theatres ; they comprise &40 degrees 
of a circle ; between them was a corridor 9 feet wide. The stage con- 
tained only the limited space of 46 feet long and 8 feet 9 inches deep. 
At the east part was a room with a coarse tessellated pavement. This 
was one of the rooms usually found at the sides of the stage of ancient 
theatres for the use of the performers. Many varieties of sandstone and 
limestone appear to have been used in the construction of the theatre, as 
well as slabs of white marble 13-16 inch thick. The outer wall was 

5 feet 10 inches thick; the second wall 3 feet 6 inches; the scena 2 feet 

6 inches ; and all the other walls 2 feet thick." 

There are good grounds for believing that the destruction of the Roman 
buildings in Britain did not take place so early as is generally supposed. 
They have been, it is well known, less subjected to sudden violence than 
to long pilfering and stealing ; and in our own days we have known 
Roman walls and buildings resorted to as quarries for building materials 
and for repairing the public roads. Mr. Lowe remarks : " As is usual 
round all ancient buildings in England, there had been an accumulation 
of earth round the walls of the theatre previous to their demolition. For 
when, on that occasion, the workmen removed the lowest layer of tiles, 
which was about the natural level of the site, the earth immediately fell 
in, or was thrown over the foundations, which had not subsequently either 
been trodden upon, or exposed to the weather, the mortar being left quite 
sharp and uninjured. From these facts we may safely infer, that many 
centuries had elapsed between the desertion and demolition ; though from 
the good preservation of the painted mortar on the walls, we might have 
inferred that they had not, for so long a period, been exposed to the severe 
frosts of this latitude. 

In the list of 171 coins, discovered during the excavations, it will be 
noticed that three only are antecedent to the reign of Gallienus ; while 
the bulk are of the Constantine family ; and the last, of Arcadius. It is, 
however, generally supposed that a considerable number of coins and 
objects of minor interest were purloined from time to time by curiosity- 
hunters, who, on such occasions, abound to the great annoyance of the 
scientific inquirer. It only remains to be observed, that the low price of 
this essay should, in conjunction with its merits, ensure its admission into 
the library of every lover of our national antiquities. c. E. s. 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 189 

ANCIENT SEA- MARGINS, AS MEMORIALS OF CHANGES IN THE RELATIVE 
LEVEL OF SEA AND LAND. By Robert Chambers, Esq., F.R.S.E. 

MR. CHAMBERS is already familiar to most of our readers as a diligent 
writer on many branches of historical, topographical, and literary antiqui- 
ties. In treating of these, he has successfully engrafted the picturesque 
style of romantic narrative on the domains of severer scientific observa- 
tion ; and had the accuracy of his statements stood the test of criticism as 
well as the attractive vehicle in which they are embodied, his reputation 
would have been second to none in this branch of literature. Unfortu- 
nately for his fame, literature was his profession in earlier years ; and 
like his. more celebrated precursor, in the picturesque treatment of archae- 
ology sir Walter Scott he has frequently been tempted to risk future 
fame for present profit. 

In the work now under review, the same pleasant style is employed to 
impart to the reader a series of geological and historico-antiquarian obser- 
vations, which appear to be characterized by a degree of accuracy and 
care, such as promises to redeem the faults of the author's earlier literary 
productions. How far his deductions and generalizations merit to be 
ranked among the cautious contributions of inductive reasoning to the 
furtherance of science, we leave geologists to determine, while we recom- 
mend the volume most cordially to the perusal of the archaeologist, as 
treating in a singularly attractive style, and with well-arranged method, 
a series of hitherto isolated facts in British archaeology, of the utmost 
value to its study as a science. 

" Taking", says the author in his introduction, " observed facts for our 
data, we know that there was a time subsequent to the completion of the 
rock formations, when this island (not to speak of other parts of the earth) 
was submerged to the height of at least 1700 feet." He then proceeds to 
lay before the reader an extensive series of observations, all tending to 
establish the fact, that a series of distinctly marked " ancient sea-margins" 
at various definite elevations, and similar in character to the celebrated 
" parallel roads" of Glenroy, may be observed not only throughout Great 
Britain, but on the European and American continents. From this he 
proceeds to inquire as to the time probably embraced by the whole series 
of phenomena ; and following out his detail of local observations, he comes 
to a series of discoveries evidently within the historic era, and belonging 
equally to the domain of the geologist and the archaeologist. 

An extract or two will best illustrate this section of the work. " There 
is some evidence", he remarks (p. 18), " certainly not satisfactory, but yet 
claiming to be not wholly overlooked, leading to the conclusion that the 
last movements of emersion have taken place since the island became a 
seat of human population. The few remnants of a higher plateau through- 



190 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

out the Carse of Gowrie almost all bear names in which the Celtic word 
for island forms a part: thus Inchyra, Megginch, Inch-michael, Inch- 
martin, Inchsture, etc., as if a primitive people had originally recognized 

these as islands in the midst of a shallow firth The minister of 

Errol reports the finding of the remains of a small anchor, about fifty 
years ago, in a piece of low ground on the estate of Megginch. In the 
same district, which is fully a mile from the margin of the firth, a boat- 
hook was discovered eighteen feet below the surface sticking among the 

gravel, as if left by the tide on the sea shore These particulars 

would, perhaps, not be deserving of notice, if they were not in conformity 
with some others that are better authenticated. In 1819, in digging in 
the carse land at Airthrey near Stirling, where the surface is nearly twenty- 
five feet above high-water of spring-tides in the river, which flows at a 
mile's distance, there were found the bones of a large whale. No doubt 
can be entertained that this animal had perished at a time when the sea 
stood at some unknown point upwards of twenty-five feet above its present 
level. About five years afterwards, the bones of another large whale were 
found on the estate of Blair-Drummond, seven miles further up the carse, 
and probably at a greater elevation above the sea. In this case, a deep 
moss had covered the ground, indicating one long section of the interval of 
time since the death and deposition of the animal. . . . But the most 
valuable fact in connexion with these relics is, that in each case there was 
found among the bones a fragment of stag's-horn, containing a perforation 
of an inch in diameter, evidently artificial, and, in the Blair Drummond 
instance, containing the remains of rotten wood. It was the opinion of 
Mr. Home Drummond, on whose property the latter whale was found, 
that this horn had been the handle of a rude instrument, perhaps a har- 
poon, and that it had been used in some way in connexion with the animal 
when it was stranded. The purport of these facts and inferences evidently 
is, that a human population existed in the land before some of the last shifts 
of the sea-level." 

These observations the archaeologist will at once perceive belong still 
more to his province than to that of the geologist. What is of more value, 
they show him an important branch of his favourite study treated, as it 
ought to be, as a science. By following out the hint thus given, how 
valuable are the results that the archaeologist may arrive at ! What is 
his science but the geology of the postdiluvian world ? Many isolated facts 
of the utmost value are now accumulating by means of "journals" and 
" transactions," preserving the record of observations on cromlechs, tumuli, 
embankments, and ancient earthworks of every description ; of the weapons, 
the pottery, the relics, and coins, which they contain ; on Celtic, Roman, 
and Romano-British remains throughout England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
as well as on the continent. But all these must be regarded by the Intel- 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 191 

ligent antiquary as the mere alphabet of his science. When he has learned 
to classify them and put them together, the early history of the British 
isles \vill have to he written anew, as that of our planet is now being 
written by our Lyells, Bucklands, Murchisons, and Millers, after having 
learned to decypher the records that have lain unheeded for so many 
centuries, with their wondrous story of pre-adamite life of the giants of 
that elder world. 

But we must return to Mr. Chambers's Ancient Sea-margins for one 
more extract. In the section on " the basin of the Clyde," he remarks 
(p. 202) : " In the autumn of 1847, the workmen engaged in enlarging 
the harbour of Glasgow at Springfield, opposite the Bromielaw, discovered 
an ancient canoe, deep imbedded in the soil, at the distance of about a 

hundred feet from the margin of the Clyde Mr. Robert Stuart, in 

a recent work, entitled, Views and Notices of Glasgow in Former Times, 
gives a drawing of the canoe. He describes it as formed from a single 
piece of oak timber, measuring rather more than eleven feet in length, 
twenty seven inches in breadth, and, where the sides are in best preserva- 
tion, about fifteen inches in depth. The fore part is almost entire, but at 
the opposite extremity the sides are somewhat broken down. Here there 
is a groove extending across the bottom, which leads to a supposition that 
this end of the tree had been cut away, and that a separate piece of wood 
had been fitted into the groove mentioned, so as to form a stern." It 
appears that the discovery is not a solitary event, but we have not space 
to follow the author through his most interesting series of observations, 
tending, in this case, to prove beyond doubt, that the river Clyde, from 
whence in the nineteenth century the Scottish merchantmen and steamers 
sail to every quarter of the globe, had formed, in the earliest ages of the 
inhabitation of our island by man, and at a period long preceding even 
our earliest historic traditions, an important scene of navigation, and not 
improbably a seat of commerce and civilization of which no vision has been 
dreamt in modern philosophy. 

We cordially recommend this work to our readers. It is written in a 
pleasant style, abounds with local and historical allusions, such as the 
antiquary loves to pause upon. Nor does the author think it beneath the 
dignity of science to pause in his researches in the Vale of Tweed, to 
remind us that we are following him into Carterhaugh, the scene of the 
romantic fairy ballad of Tamlene ; or, as we turn off into a neighbouring 
valley, that we are treading the braes of Yarrow, the scene of one of the 
most plaintive ballads of border minstrelsy. D. w. 



192 



RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 



NUMISMATIC.". 

Au Introduction to the Study of Ancient and Modern Coins. By J. G. Akerman. 
12mo. J. R- Smith. London. 1848. 

The Numismatic Chronicle, Nos. XL. and XLI. Contents : I. On Coins of Crotona. 
By W. Watkiss Lloyd - n. On a Discovery of Roman Coins, in the Parish of 
Little Malvern, Worcestershire. By W. S. W. Vaux. in. Silver Coinage of 
Siam. By W. B. Dickinson. iv. Notice of a Medal of the Chevalier D'Eon. 
By W. D. Haggard. v. Unedited Autonomous and Imperial Greek Coins. By 
H. P. Borrell. vi. Pehlevi Legends on Sassanian Coins. By Professor H. H. 
Wilson. vn. Unedited Ancient British Coins. By the Editor. vm. On a Me- 
dallion of Antoninus Pius. By G. Sparkes. Miscellanea : Tables of French and 
Neapolitan Weights. Extracts from the " Northampton Mercury." Correspond- 
ence. Proceedings of the Numismatic Society. London. 8vo. 1848. J. R. 
Smith. 

Revue Numismatique, 1847, No. V. Contents : I. Sur les Medailles a 1'exergue 
CONOB et la monnaie d'or des rois Ostrogoths d'ltalie, par M. Alfred Senckler. 
ii. Explication de quelques monnaies baronales inedites, par A. Barthelemy. 
in. Recherches sur la numismatique du Comte de Flandre, consideree dans les 

monnaies noires durant la suzerainte fran9aise, par Jules Rouyer. 1848. No. I. 

Contents : I. Observations sur les medailles de Smyrne, par M. du Mersan. 
n. Notice sur les monuments numismatiques de 1'expedition de Charles VIII en 
Italic, 1474-1495, par M. E. Cartier. in. Mereaux des monnoyers de Tarascon, 
lettre a M. de Lagoy, par M. de Courtois. iv. Doutes sur une medaille de grand - 
bronze, attribute a Marcellus, par M. A. Duchalais. v. Monnaies merovingi- 
ennes, lettre a M. Duchalais, par M. A. Senckler. vi. Triens de Chalon-sur- 
Saone, par M. H. Grepinet. Emblemes monetaires du regue de Henri II, par M. 
J. de Petigny. 

Reponse a la Dissertation de M. A. Deville sur un Symbole Gaulois, figure sur les 
medailles de 1'Armorique, par M. Ed. Lambert. 4to. p. 1 6. Caen. 



HISTORY. 
Memoirs of the Reign of Charles the First. (From the Fairfax Correspondence in the 

possession of the late Mr. Hughes of Winchester.) Edited by G. W. Johnson, 

Esq. 2 vols. 8vo. Bentley. 

A History of the Jesuits. By Andrew Steinmetz. 3 vols. 8vo. Bentley. 
Pepys' Diary and Correspondence. Vol. I. New edition, with the omitted passages 

restored. Edited, with additional notes, by Lord Braybrooke. Colburn. 
Supplemental Notes to the History of Europe during the Middle Ages. By H. 

Hallam. 8vo. 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

Original Papers published under the direction of the Committee of the Norfolk and 
Norwich Archaeological Society. Part 11, vol. ii. Norwich. Muskett. 1848. 

Helps to Hereford History, civil and legendary. By J. Dacres Devlin. 12mo. London. 
J. R. Smith. 

The Isle of Man : its History, physical, ecclesiastical, civil, and legendary. By the 
Rev. J. G. Gumming, M.A. F.G.S., post 8vo. London. Van Voorst. 



RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 193 . 

Specimens of the Early English Metrical Romances, by G. Ellis, Esq. A new edition, 
revised by J. O. Halliwell, Esq. 8vo. H. G. Bohn. 

Rambles in Worcestershire. By J. Noake, fcap. cloth. 

Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de FOuest. Annee 1846. Contents : I. No- 
tice sur les pierres closes de Charras, par M. L. Faye. n. Monuments de 1'arron- 
dissement de Loudun, par M. Arnault-Poirier. in. Notice sur la restoration de 
la sacristie de Sainte-Radegonde do Poitiers, par M. M. Menard. iv. Observa- 
tions sur les noms de lieux dans le departement de la Vienne, par M. Redet. 
v. Memoire sur une medaille de Simon Machabee, par M. Cousseau. vi. Re- 
cherches sur 1'ancienne maison de Chatelaillon, en Aunis, par M. L. Faye. vn. 

Dom Rivet et 1'histoire litteraire de la France, par M. G. Lecointre-Dupont. 

Annee 1847. Contents: Documents pour 1'histoire de 1'eglise de St.-Hilaire de 
Poitiers. 8vo. Poitiers and Paris. 1847-8. 

Sepulchra Exposita, or an account of the opening of some barrows; with remarks 
upon miscellaneous antiquities, discovered in the neighbourhood of Audley End, 
Essex. By the Hon. R. C. Neville, F.S.A., &c. 8vo. (Privately printed.) 

Collectanea Antiqua, No. XI. By C. Roach Smith, i. On Roman Potters' Stamps 
and the so-called Samian ware found in London. n. Ancient bone Skates. in. 
Romano -Gaulish antiquities discovered near Boulogne- sur mer. London. J. R. 
Smith. 

Revue Archeologique, 1847. Contents. No. VIE : Notice sur 1'Ambsesa, ville de la 
province de Constantino, par M. de Lamarre Sur un monument trouve pres de 
Menton dans la principaute de Monaco, par M, G. Henocq. Notice sur le fut 
d'une colonne portant une inscription en caracteres indiens decouvert a Ostende, 
par M. le Baron de la Pilaye. Lettre de M. Otto Jahn a M. Hase sur des anti- 
quites du Musee du Louvre Lettre de M. Botta a M. Letronne sur quelques 
noms propres contenus dans les inscriptions de Khorsabad. Reponse de M. Le- 
tronne a M. Botta. Notre -Dame de Boulancourt (Depart, de la Haute-Marne). 
Lettre de M. le Vicomte de Rouge a M. A. Maury sur le Sesostris de la xne 
dynastic de Manethon. Lettre de M. A. de Longperier a M. Lowenstern sur les 
inscriptions cuneiformes de 1'Assyrie. Congres Scientifique de France (xv e 

session) tenu a Tours. No. VIII : Sur le monument appele le Tombeau de la 

Chretienne en Algerie, par M. Ch. Texier. Notice sur 1'eglise Saint-Etienne de 
Beauvais, par M. 1'Abbe Balthasar. Lettre de M. S. Birch a M. Letronne, sur un 
passage curieux de Choricius. Lettre de M. C. Leemans a M. J. de Witte, sur 
quelques monuments egyptiens du Musee britannique et du Musee de Leide. 
L'Ascia emprunte au paganisme et figure par les premiers Chretiens sur leurs 
monuments sepulcraux, par M. le Baron Chaudruc de Crazannes. Decouverte 
faite a Saint-Denys de plusieurs cercueils en platre, et d'ossements humains, par 
M. Gilbert. Les Grecs ont-ils adopte quelquefois des noms propres egyptiens ? 
par M. Letronne. Nouveau procede de peinture murale, dite fresque mixturale, 
par M. Gilbert. Encore quelques mots sur la Haute-Borne, par M. T. Pinard. 

Explication sur la Haute-Borne, par M. Letronne. No. IX: Memoire sur le 

temple dedie a Auguste, au confluent du Rhone et de la Saone, par M. Aug. Ber- 
nard. Eclaircissements sur deux passages de Pausanias et de Strabon, qu'on a 
crus relatifs aux temples hypetres grecs, par M. Letronne. Sceaux des Saintes 
Chapelles, par M. L. Douet d'Arcq. Legende de Saint-Nicolas (iconographie 
chretienne), par M. A. Maury. Lettre de M. B. Fillon a M. Letronne, sur un 
tombeau antique decouvert a Saint-Medard des Pres (Vendee). Note sur 1'Origine 
du nom du K'ber Roumia dit tombeau de la Chretienne en Algerie, par M. le Dr. 
A. Judas. Lettre a M. Letronne sur la famille du Psammetichus dans la xvm e 



194 RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 

dynastie egyptienne, par M. S. Birch. Lettre de M. J. Oppert a M. Letrorme, sur 
les noms propres des anciens Perses. Remarques sur quelques monuments du 
midi de la France, lettre au directeur de la Revue Archeologique, par M. T. Pinard. 

Peinture a fresque. No. X : Notice sur Orleansville, par M. F. Prevost. 

Notice historique et archeologique sur Feglise paroissiale de Saint-Laurent, de la 
ville de Paris, et exatnen critique des vitraux histories dont on vient de decorer 
cette eglise, par M. Troche. Du personnage de la mort (deuxieme article), par 
M. A. Maury. Lettre de M. le Due de Luynes a M. de Saulcy, sur une inscription 
bilingue trouvee en Afrique. Sur les vaisseaux des anciens, par M. G. Henocque. 

No. XI : Lettre de M. C. Leemans a M. J. de Witte, sur quelques monuments 

egyptiens du Musee britannique et du Musee de Leyde (Deuxieme partie). Lettre 
de M. le Vicomte de Rouge sur di verses questions souleveesdans sa lettre & M. A. 
Maury et dans celle de M. C. Leemans. Du personnage de la mort, et de ses 
representations dans 1'Antiquite et au Moyen Age, par M. A. Maury. Chartes a 
vignettes ; representation de Charles V, pi. 81, description par M. L. Douet d'Arcq. 
Sur la decouverte d'un papyrus grec, a Thebes, et d'une capse a contenir des 
livres, a Alexandrie, par M. Letronne. La porte de 1'Hotel Clisson, description 
par M. J. Quicherat Lettre de M. S. Birch a M. Letronne, sur le cartouche 
egyptien trouve par M. Layard dans les ruines de Nimroud. Remarque sur cette 
lettre, par M. Letronne. Lettre de M. le Baron Chaudruc de Crazannes a M. A. 
de Longperier, sur la monnaie attribute aux Sotiates. Note de M. A. de Long- 
perier sur la lettre precedente. No. XII : Sur une inscription de deux artistes 

grecs, auteurs d'une statue de cheval, par M. Letronne. Du Personnage de la 
Mort, et de ses representations dans 1'Antiquite et au Moyen Age, par M. A. 
Maury. Addition a la note sur une inscription de Terracine et sur une inscription 
de Cora, par M. Egger. Note sur la determination de la date de 1'ere provinciale 
d' Afrique, par M. F. Prevost. Le chateau de Couzieres (Indre-et-Loire), par M. 
T. Pinard. Lettre de M. Chaudruc de Crazannes a M. P. Merimee, sur une Sta- 
tuette gauloise en fer. Sur quelques fragments de Poteries gauloises trouvees 
pres de Vitry-le-Francais, par M. le Dr. Mathieu. Crosse double du xm e siecle : 
explication de la planche 79, par M. A. de Longperier. 



WORKS PREPARING FOR PtTBLICATION. 

By subscription. The Antiquities of Richborough, Reculver, and Lymne. By C. 
Roach Smith and F. W. Fairholt The object of this work will be to afford clear 
and correct information respecting the remains of these important military stations 
of Roman Kent, with views, architectural details, on copper, and numerous en- 
gravings on wood of antiquities discovered at Richborough and Reculver. It 
will be handsomel}' printed in 4to. Subscribers' names received by the Authors 
at 5, Liverpool-street, City. 

J3y subscription. Iconographie d'une Collection choisie de cinq mille Medailles Ro- 
maines, Byzantines et Celliberiennes, par J. Sabatier. Paris, Rollin; London, 
Barthes & Lowell. 

By subscription. Deloney's " Historic of the Gentle Craft," with an account of the 
author, introduction to each part, and numerous notes, in fcap. Svo. By J. Dacres 
Delvin, author of " The Shoemaker" in Knight's " Trade Guides," " Helps to 
Hereford History," &c. Subscribers' names received by the Author, 30, Kirby- 
street, Hatton Garden ; and by J. R. Smith, Old Comptou-street. 



195 



PLATES AND DRAWINGS PRESENTED TO THE 
ASSOCIATION. 



f ) 

. j 



DONORS. 

Drawing of a celt, mounted in stag's horn, discovered ) LORD ALBERT D. 
near Amiens . . . . . . j CONYNGHAM, Pres. 

Drawing of two ancient British ornamented urns of un- 
baked clay, from tumuli at Scarborough 

Coloured drawing of a Roman pig of lead, found at Bos- ) R T> tr 
sington, Hants; in the possession of J. M. Elwes, Esq. j Kev> A ' B 

Coloured drawing of a small Roman coin found at Castor \ 
farm near Andover . . . . . ( 

Print of an ancient galley discovered in the channel of 

the Rother ..... 
Drawing, in sepia, of urns taken from a barrow on Win- ) 

terslow down, near Salisbury . . . . j 

Drawing of a bronze fibula .... 

Drawing of a flint Celt found at Quobly, Hants 
Sketch of a galley ..... 

Two drawings of a bell . 
Coloured drawing of a spear 
Coloured drawing of a spur . . . . 

Coloured drawing of Roman Querns discovered at Spring- ) A. H. BURKITT, Esq., 
head, by Mr. Silvester . . . . . j F.S.A. 

Drawing of a coffin lid (stone) discovered in the ruins of j 

St. Leonard's Hospital, Bedford, Nov. 1847 
Embossed brickwork in the wall of Nettlewell church, ) 

Essex . . . . . . . ) 

Coloured drawing of a Roman urn found at Burgh ) DAwsoNTuRNER,Esq. 

Castle j F.R S., F.S.A. 

Drawing of a pax found at Burgh Castle 

Drawing of a Roman bronze bowl found at Heringfleet, ) 

Suffolk, inscribed QVATTENVS.F . . . j 

Drawing of an ancient gun found in the sea at Lowes- 1 

toff ; in possession of George Edwards, Esq. . . } 

Coloured drawing of an escutcheon of wood, found em- } 

bedded in the wall of a house, formerly a religious > 

house, at Lowestoff, in 1842 . . . . ) 

Drawing of a medieval earthen vessel dug up at Lewes M. A. LOWER, Esq. 
Two drawings of the coffins of William and Gundreda, ) 

and other remains . . . . . ) 

Manuscript account, and ten illustrative drawings, of ) m v -1% -n 

Edgbaston chapel, Salop . ) 

VOL. IV. 26 



196 PRESENTS TO THE ASSOCIATION. 

Coloured drawing. Shrewsbury . . . T. F. DUKES, Esq. 

Coloured drawing from a piece of glass in his possession 
Print of three Roman inscribed stones at Wroxeter 
Drawing of a highly ornamented sword-handle, silver- ) 

mounted, of the time of the civil wars . . ) 

Coloured Drawing of a Roman tile (inscribed) found at ' 

the Roman baths at Treves, August 1842. Now in the 

Shrewsbury Museum .... 
Coloured drawing of an earthen crucible found at the "| 

Roman baths at Treves, August 1842. Now in the > 

Shrewsbury Museum . . . . ) 

Two drawings of the tomb of Sir Mathie Cradok, and \ JQHN BRITTON jjsq 

Katherine his wife (widow of Perkin Warbeck), in the > p g ^ 

chancel of St. Mary's church, Swansea, Glamorganshire ) 
Print of an ancient urn of baked clay, found at Cairn ) 

Thierua, Ireland . . . . . | 

Print of an engraved Norman metallic vessel, found, July ") 

9, 1824, in the bed of the Severn, between Gloucester > 

and Tewkesbury . . . . . ) 

Print of an ancient brazen vessel found near Drury Castle, | 

Carberry, Cork . . . . . J 

Four drawings of Pigeon House, formerly belonging to ) gir JJ ENEY D BYDEN 

the Knights Templars . . . . ) 

Drawing of an ancient jug . . . .A. DURAND, Esq. 

Drawing of Roman vessels and boss found at Little Wai- | j Q. W ALLER ESQ 

den, Essex . . . . . . j 

Drawing of the boss of a shield found at Little Walden, ) w j CLARKE Esq 

Essex . . . . . . . j 

Coloured drawing of a tessellated pavement at Hadstock, ) T p T . _ -n ari 

Essex, excavated by the Hon. Mr. Neville, in 1846 . } J 
Drawing of the bronze frame of a gypsire discovered at { Rey T ^r OODKDFP . 

Upchurch, in Kent . . . . . ) 

Drawing of an embossed Romano-British coin found at \ Rev. BEALE POSTE, 

East Farley, Kent . . . . . j M.A. 

Map of the Isle of Thanet, Reculver, Richborough, Dover, ) 
Folkstone, Romney-marsh, Boulogne . . .} 

Drawing of a Roman altar found at Clyton, in ) n TJ XT -rf an 
Cumberland, in 1847 .... . J C. HODGSON, ESQ. 

Plate of a bell, with an inscription 

Plan of Olenacum (old Carlisle), shewing the Roman roads ""] 

leading to and from the station, the modern roads of 1 iyr R T OHN R O OK 

the neighbourhood, <fec., and the sites of ancient re- j 

mains in and about the station . . .J 

Enlarged plan of the castreuses recently discovered at ) 

Olenacum . . . . . . | 

Drawings of Roman inscriptions and other antiquities ) 

discovered on and near the site of Olenacum . . ) 

Plan and section of Wolme Chapel, near Workington, ) 

Cumberland, now kept in part repair as a sea mark . j 
Drawings of pieces of white marble sculpture of the"] 

flagellation of Christ, found under the flag stones of the I 

old Church of Thursby, near Carlisle. It has been { 

coloured with vermillion on a gold ground . . J 



PRESENTS TO THE ASSOCIATION. 197 

Drawings of Bede's chair in Yarrow Church, County } 

Durham, and of window masonry of the west front of > Mr. JOHN ROOK. 

the staple of Bedlington Church, Northumberland . ) 
Drawing of a supposed manor, or parish boundary stone,") 

placed in the wall of a house called " Skye," near j 

Wigton. It bears a representation of a pig roasting, I 

grate, hobs, and turnspit dog, with date (1617) and [ 

inscription, in which the word " Cockermouthe " is 

alone to be decyphered . . . .J 

Full size copy of a stone, formerly in the old kitchen at") 

Harley-brow Tower, near Whitehall, Cumberland, I 

recording the building of the house in the fourth year [ 

of the reign of Edward the Sixth . . . j 

Roman altar found on Gallow hill, near Carlisle, in 1829 

Coloured drawing of a compartment of the interior and } -nr r\ T> n 

L 1 1 J.T. r ii. T> f W. D. >BUCE, Esq., 

exterior small north-east transept ot the Beverley > p q A 

Minster, Yorkshire . . . . . ) 

Coloured drawing of the ruins behind York Minster, as ) 

they were in 1824 . . . . . | 

Drawing of the remains of St. Clement's old church. Wor- ) T . -& - a \ 

f -, n A -i r J . HiVANS, Jisq.,r .b.A. 

cester; standing in 1841 . . . .) 

Sketches of tombstones in Winchester cathedral, and of ) .,- u T T> 
a Roman urn discovered in Water lane, Winchester . j 

Coloured drawings of mural paintings discovered in Win- 
chester cathedral in 1847 .... 

Drawings of a Norman font in the belfry of Hurstbourne } 
Prior church ; and of a doorway in the north wall of > 
Clatford church, Hants . . . . ) 

Drawing of the door in the north wall of Clatford church, ) 
Hants . . . . . . . j 

Unpublished plate of coins of the kings of Mercia . Rev. D. H. HAIGH. 

Sketch of a bronze javelin-head from the bed of the ) C. R. SMITH, Esq., 
Thames, April 1847 . . . . . .j F.S.A., Secretary. 

Coloured drawing of a portion of a tessellated pavement 
from near Finch lane, London 

Coloured etching of Roman fibulae, etc., found at Spring- 
head, in Kent ..... 

Coloured print of a Roman pavement found in excavat- 
ing for the Great Western Railway through Basildon, 
Berks, in 1839 

Drawing of a flint celt found at Hillyards, Shanklin, ) 
Isle of Wight . . . . . .) 

Fac-sirnile letter of Charles II to Lady Shirley, dated \ T.J.PETTIGREW, Esq. 
Brussels, October 1657 . . . . j Vice-P resident. 

Sketch of a Roman urn found at Amwell, Herts, 3 846 . Rev.S.IsAAcsoN,M.A. 

Rubbing from the ridge of a coped gravestone found at \ ,,, j> rj OOK 
York . . . . . . . j 

Rubbing of Runic knot work, and animals, discovered at 
York 

Drawing of sculptures on the church at Sandbach, in ) -r T> - v 
Cheshire . . . . . . j 

Rubbing from an incised stone found in demolishing the ) 
south-west angle of the tower of old St. Pancras church ) 



198 PRESENTS TO THE ASSOCIATION. 

Drawing of the well at Wavertree . . . B. KEET, Esq. 

Sketch of a sculptured stone, now used as a table in a | M r v 

public house at Walton, Liverpool . . j 1VJ 

Sketch of a die for the reverse of a crown of Charles I, | Q w v 

found in Baker street, Shrewsbury . . } & ' 

Coloured drawing of an earthen vessel found at Chelms- ) J. A. REPTON, Esq., 

ford in 1843 . . . . . . J F.S.A. 

Coloured drawing of a piscina, in Springfield Church,"! 

Essex, elucidated by drawings of those of Teltey, Essex ; 

Hautboss, Norfolk ; St. Lawrence, near Ramsgate ; a 1 

Chapel near Coggeshall, Essex ; Laxton, Northampton- j 

shire ; Suffield, Norfolk ; Knapton, Norfolk ; White 

Notley, Essex ; and Blickling, Norfolk . .J 

Drawing of a painting discovered behind the pulpit in ) 

Springfield Church, Essex . . . . j 

Drawing of a marble slab, from Pleshey church, Essex . 

Print of a bronze British buckler, found in the bed of the ) T OHN BELL Esq 

river Isis . . . . . . } 

Rubbings of Fragments of early inscribed stones, found } 

as walling stones, June 1848, in the walls of the > 

chancel of St. John's Church, Newcastle-upon-Tyne . ) 
Seven coloured drawings of the Deae Matres found at 

Housesteads, now in the collection of the Society of 

Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
Coloured drawing (fac-simile) of a pane of glass formerly ) 

in the Roman Catholic chapel at Newcastle-upon-Tyne j 
Rubbing from part of a circular bronze shield found in 

an ancient camp at Chester-le-street, Durham, in 1802 
Sun-dial (drawing) 
Coloured drawing of a steel spur dug up near Deadmen's ) Mr JoHN j) ENNETT . 

lane, Newport, Isle of Wight . . . ) 

Rubbing from the monumental effigy of Harry Hawles, ) 

in Arreton church, Isle of Wight . . . j 

Rubbing from a monumental effigy in Calbourne church, 

Isle of Wight . . . . . . 

Two prints of tomb, and portrait of Columbus . . -j j 1 g A Secretary 

Lithographed sculpture from the Chateau de Bonnivet . \ Society of Antiquaries 
Plate of sculptured frieze in the Chateau de Bonnivet . j of the West of France 
Fac-simile letter of Queen Elizabeth . . . W. M. LEATHES, Esq. 



Drawing of a fourteen-pound weight of the reign of Henry ) j, -^ -^ j^ ogg -g 

the Seventh . . . . . . ) 

Drawing, in sepia, of the west door of Paignton church, ) 

Devonshire . . . . . . j 

Print of a large bronze brooch, or fibula, found at ) n Q A T NTH T LL v sa 

Roscommon, in 1842 . . . . . ) 

Drawing of an ancient punt, or canoe, formed from a trunk"! 

of oak, discovered in elevated mossy ground, five feet 

from the surface, on the lands of Aglish, parish of > 

Lismore, county Waterford. It is now at Fort 

William, in the possession of Mr. J. B. Gumbleton . J 
Drawing of a figure and end of a bench in Dennington \ T> UNTHORNE j; sa 

church ..... j 



PRESENTS TO THE ASSOCIATION. 199 

Drawing of the effigies of William, Lord Bardole, and ) 

Joan his lady, in Dennington Church, with an im- > E. DUNTHORNE, Esq. 

pression of a seal, medal, and a coin of Charles II . ) 
Drawing of bronze celt, two iron spurs, iron spear head ) 

and pike, found at Dennington, in 1824, in the pos- > 

session of William Long, Esq., of Saxmundham . ) 

Coloured drawing of part of a bronze implement, found 7 T n T? 

near Carrdorn castle . . ^ j J. CAEEUTHERS, Esq. 

Drawings of coffin lids and various ornaments in Bakewell ) m T> T* 

church, Derbyshire J T. BATEMAN, Esq. 

Drawing of a pewter chalice found in a stone coffin in ) 
Bakewell church ,. . . . . j 

Drawing of a flue tyle and roman brick, found at Wyck, ) TT v 

near East Worldham . . . . . \ ~ UBSDELL, Esq. 

Drawing of Roman remains discovered at Colchester . A. F. SPRAGUE, Esq. 
Plate of an incised slab in the church of St. Gregory, ) 

Sudbury, Suffolk . . . . j 

Drawing of a Roman earthen vase, of white colour, found ) 

in the garden of Mr. Bryant of Colchester . . j 

Coloured drawing of a mural painting, discovered in ) , T T * T> 

Godshill church, Isle of Wight, 1843 . . } Mr " J " A ' BABTON ' 

Coloured drawing of a mural painting of the sixteenth ) 

century, in a house belonging to Mr. Mason of \ R. ELLIOTT, Esq. 

Chichester . . . . . . J 

Coloured drawing of a Norman doorway, on the north ) Q -^ T> 

side, Therbertin church, Suffolk, from a sketch by Sir > h . "' fV 3T , HAM > 

William Betham . . . . .) Vice- President. 

Sketch of St. Mary Magdalene chapel, Ripon . . W. A. COMBS, Esq. 

Four lithographed plates of the pavement, plan, interior ) 

and exterior of the church of St. Mary Magdalen, > 

Ripon . . . . . . . j 

Nine coloured drawings of Fairlight church, near") 

Hastings, with accompanying description made upon ( w TT -D , 

the spot, a short time previous to the destruction of [ KE ' ^ 

the church . . . . . . J 

Sketches and description of some archaeological details in ) 

Battle Abbey church, Sussex . . . .) 

Print of an ancient silver decade ring, found at Cork, ) -n TT -n 

in 1847 |* HoARE > Esc l- 

Print of an ancient British collar of bronze, found in ) T T ^ 

Lancashire, in 1831 . . . . j J. LINDSAY, Esq. 

Two tracings from glass at Thirsk . . . Mr. LONGSTAFFE. 

Rubbing from the monumental effigy of Margerie Arun- ) n 

dell, in Anthony church, Cornwall . . } C ' SPENCE > Es( l- 

Coloured engraving of Richard de la Wich, Bishop of ) M ^ p 

Chichester, 1244 to 1252 . . . . j 1VJ VLAMD. 

Ground plan of a Roman villa, and lithographed speci- ^ 

mens of part of a tessellated floor found therein, exca- I Hon. R. C. NEVILLE, 

vated at Chesterford, Essex, in October 1847, by the ( F.S.A. 

Hon. Mr. Neville . . . . . ' 

Print of remains of a Roman building discovered in Lower ) M . T 
Thames street, London, February 1848 . . J * 

Etching of the north-west view of Rothersthorpe church, ) w T, 

Northamptonshire . . . . .} K PaETTY > 



200 PRESENTS TO THE ASSOCIATION. 

f The Architectural 
Woodcut of a seal of St. Alban . . . . | Soc of gt Alban's 

Engraving of the seal of the Friars Minors, Ipswich . W. S. FITCH, Esq. 
Engraving of the seal of the priory of St. Peter and St. 

Paul, Ipswich . . . . . 

Engraving of the seal of the Holy Trinity, Ipswich, 

matrix in ivory . . . . 

Rubbing from a fragment of a stone cross found in the ) g T -r ONO -p 

substructure of a church ; now in the Dover Museum j ' S 1* 

Eubbing from a stone in a principal buttress of the steeple ) M T w 

of Ixworth church, about 30 feet from the ground . } JVI 

Drawing of sculptured figures in stone, found at Ham- } H MORRIS v sft 

don hill, Ilchester . . . . J U iis ' ^ 

Plan and section of a Roman encampment on Hamden ) 
hill, Somersetshire . . . . . j 

Plan, and two coloured drawings, of a Roman villa dis- ) m ri 17 

covered at Maidstone . . j T " CHARLES, Esq. 

Plan of a Roman villa on the property of Thomas Baker, 7 m T -pi 

Esq., of Watercombe house, Bisley, Glocestershire . j i EB ' ^ 
Lithographic print of the chancel of Hythe church, Kent Rev. F. WRENCH. 
Sketch of the position, etc., in which a skeleton was } 

found in the chalky bed of a hill at Stowting, Feb- > 

ruary 13, 1844 . . . . . ) 

Drawing of the interior of a western porch, and some } 

other details, of Headborn Worthy church, near Win- > W.B.BRAFiELD,Esq 

Chester . . . . . . ) 



Elaborate sketch of a tomb 



{ 



Drawing of a capital in the Boulogne Museum . Mr. A. STUBBS. 

Sketches of three Roman inscribed altars found on the ~\ 

property of T. James, Esq., at Otterburn, in Northum- > Mr. JOSEPH FAIRLESS 

berland . . . . . . ) 

Plan of the chief part of the grounds which include the ) M -n 

debris of Alauna (Valognes), the site of excavations J. M0 ^ s ' V 

j TOAK Honorary 

made m 1845 ......) J 

Drawings (four) of primeval remains discovered in ) j, Q T -g 

Guernsey . . . . . . ) 

Drawing of Roman urns and Samian vessels found at } 

Foulness, and a bronze spear from the Crouch, at the > Mr. W. SHAW. 

ford at Hull bridge, Essex . . . . ) 

Drawing of a stone from Carne-down barrow . . C. WARNE, Esq. 

Drawing of Carne-down barrow . 
Drawing of implements from two tumuli on Dawlish \ 

down, near Milbourne, Dorsetshire . . . ) 

Drawing of weapons found at Stanton, Suffolk, in pos- ) -jyj r j jj KENT 

session of Mr. J. H. Kent . . . . ) " 

Series of twelve plates from J. Young Akerman's } j YOUNG AKERMAN 
Archeeological Index of British, Roman and Saxon > ' -p, 

. ,. i. \ J^oU., OcC., O.xx. 

Antiquities . . . . . . ; 

Engraving of a gold coin of Edward the Confessor, in the ) ji jj SPURRIER Esct 
cabinet of Thomas Henry Spurrier, Esq. . . j 

( REV. WM. DANSEY, 
Plate containing engravings of eleven seals . 'IMA 



PRESENTS TO THE ASSOCIATION. 



201 



View and prospectus of St. John's gate, Clerkenwell, as ) 
proposed to be restored . . . . J 

Print of a bronze in possession of Mr. Deck of Cambridge, 

query a lamb ? ..... 

Drawing of a mould for casting coins, three obverses and 7 

three reverses . . . . . . ) 

West front and inner court gateway of Pytchley Hall, J 

Northamptonshire . . . . . ) 

Drawings of enamels and beads found at Chavinage ) 

Sleight, Gloucestershire . . . . } 

Drawings of gold ornaments found at Limerick and Cork 
Drawing of a gold coin found at Aldeburg . . 

Drawing of impressions of Roman coins in lead, from the 

bed of the Thames . . . . t 

Large coloured drawing of three Roman funereal vessels 
Etching of the font at Claverley, Shropshire . . 

Etching of monumental effigies at Fletching, Sussex . 



W.P.GRIFFITH, Esq. 

F.S.A. 
,,_ -p.,, 
1V1 

j? j p OWELL Vc 
R A B 

A m . -& 

ALBI] iM, Esq. 

Mr REDMOND ANTONY 
W. JACKSON, Esq. 

n v -~, 

A.C. AIKKMANN, Jisq. 

W. NEWTON, Esq. 
R. WINDLE, Esq. 
Mr. DAY. 



(To be continued.) 



' 



THE JOUKNAL 



OP THE 



OCTOBER 1848. 



ON THE 

CARVINGS OF THE STALLS IN CATHEDRAL 
AND COLLEGIATE CHURCHES. 

THE successive visits of the Association to Winchester, 
Gloucester, and Worcester, which places, as well as some 
of the churches in their vicinity, all present remarkable 
specimens of the carved stalls so generally found in the 
cathedral and collegiate churches of this and other coun- 
tries, have drawn more than once the attention of its 
members to these interesting monuments of medieval art. 
These stalls were, in fact, those especially appropriated to 
the members of the collegiate body ; and the seats, instead 
of being fixed and immovable, turn upon hinges, and when 
turned up, the under side exhibits a mass of sculpture, 
arranged according to a regular and unvarying plan, in 
which the workmen and artists have exhibited their skill 
and imagination in a very remarkable manner. It is diffi- 
cult to say how this arrangement of the seats originated, 
and what was the reason of their being thus adorned; 
but as they are invariably found under the circumstances 
just mentioned, they appear to have been considered as an 
indispensable part of the ornamentation of a collegiate 
church. Several conjectural explanations of these seats 
have been offered, the popular opinion, however, being that 
they were turned up during a part of the service when the 
clergy were not allowed to be seated ; but that out of pity 

VOL. IV. 27 



204 CARVINGS OF THE STALLS 

to the aged or infirm, they were allowed to rest themselves 
against the bracket supported by the sculpture, which 
afforded a support without allowing them actually to be 
seated. For this reason, it is said, they received in France 
the title of misericordes (still preserved among the French 
archaeologists) and patiences ; while our English antiqua- 
ries generally call them misereres. 1 Why, however, this 
particular class of sculptures, seldom found (except at an 
early period) in any other part of the church, should have 
been appropriated especially to these seats, is a question to 
which I am not aware that any satisfactory solution has 
yet been found. 

It is to these sculptures alone that the present notice, 
very brief in proportion to the real interest of the subject, 2 
will be devoted. These sculptures range in date from 
the thirteenth century to the age of the reformation, and 
are distinguished by various degrees of excellence. Some- 
times they are very rude, but more commonly, like the 
illuminations in some manuscripts, they possess a consider- 
able share of artistical skill. Found on the continent, as 
well as in England, the general character of the subjects is 
so uniform, that we might almost suppose that the carvers 
throughout Europe possessed one regular arid acknowledged 
series of working patterns. Yet there is a great variety 
in the details of the subjects and in the manner of treating 
them. It may be observed, that the ornamentation consists 
generally of a principal subject, immediately supporting 
the bracket, and of two side lobes or cusps springing from 
the latter. These side ornaments consist sometimes of 
mere foliage, attached to the bracket by a stalk ; sometimes 
they are grotesques, or separate subjects, having little or 

1 Ducange has, under the word Mi- they have been much neglected, and a 
PERICORDIA, the explanation, " Sellulse, great number of them have been suf- 
erectis formarum subselliis appositse, fered to be destroyed. A few were 
quibus stantibus senibus vel infirmis engraved by Carter, in his " Ancient 
per misericordiam insidere conceditur, Sculpture". The very interesting series 
dum alii stant, Gallis misericordes vel in the cathedral at Rouen were engraved 
patiences. 8. Willelmi Consuet. Hir- and described by M. Langlois. 

saug. 1 . ii, cap. 2. ' Prhnum in ecclesia [It may be stated that Messrs. Wright 

quamdiu scilla pulsatur ante noctur- and Fairholt are gradually preparing 

nos, super misericordiam sedilis sui, si a detailed essay on the sculptures of 

opus habet, quiescit.' " the miser icordesinthe English churches, 

2 Very little has been written on the to be illustrated by a large number of 
subject of these sculptures, and, con- engravings from various examples in 
sidered as mere gross representations, England. Ed] 



IN CATHEDRAL CHURCHES. 205 

no connexion with the central piece; while they are often 
a dependant and important part of the story represented 
under the bracket. Writers of vivid imaginations have 
given them no less a variety of interpretations. Some 
have conceived them to be satirical attacks directed by the 
monks at one another, or at the secular clergy; while 
others have imagined that these strange and grotesque 
figures embodied in allegorical form the deepest mysteries 
of our holy faith. Each of these opinions was equally far 
from the truth. In all probability neither the designers 
nor the carvers were monks, although it is evident they 
were men of a certain degree of education, and well ac- 
quainted with the popular literature of the day, the dif- 
ferent classes of which are here represented in a pictorial 
form. In this point of view they are valuable as artistical 
monuments, while they illustrate in a most interesting 
degree the manners and habits of our forefathers. 

One of the most popular branches of the popular litera- 
ture alluded to was the science of natural history, in the 
shape it was then taught. The treatises on this subject were 
designated by the general title of Bestiaries (bestiaria), or 
books of beasts ; they contained a singular mixture of fable 
and truth, and the animals with which we are acquainted 
in our ordinary experience stood side by side with monsters 
of the most extraordinary kind. The accounts, even of the 
more common and well known animals, trespassed largely 
on the domain of the imagination, and therefore much more 
extraordinary were the fables relating to those of a doubt- 
ful or of an entirely fabulous character. I may mention, 
as an example, the unicorn according to medieval fable 
the fiercest and most uncontrollable of beasts. A stratagem, 
we are told, was necessary to entrap the unicorn. A beau- 
tiful virgin, of spotless purity, was taken to the forest 
which this animal frequented. The unicorn, tame only in 
the presence of a pure virgin, came immediately and laid 
its head gently and without fear in the maiden's lap. The 
hunter then approached and struck his prey with a mortal 
blow, before it had time to awake from its security. A 
more popular character was given to these stories by the 
adjunction of rnoralizations, somewhat resembling those 
which are found at the end of the fables of ^Esop. The 
mysterious power of the maiden over the unicorn, the 



206 CAKVINGS OF THE STALLS 

resurrection of the phoenix, the generous nobleness of the 
lion, the craftiness of the fox, the maternal tenderness of 
the pelican, are capable of a multitude of mystical inter- 
pretations. 

The Bestiaries, of all ages, are more universally illus- 
trated with pictures than any other book they seem to 
have contained the first science to be instilled into the 
youthful mind. Every one who has been in the habit of 
examining the sculptured stalls of which we are speaking, 
knows that the stories of the Bestiaries are among the most 
common representations. On the very interesting stalls in 




Fig. 1. From Stratford-on-Avon. 

"W 

the church of Stratford-upon-Avon, we find the story of 
the maiden and the unicorn, the latter being made a more 
cruel sacrifice to the hunter, after having fallen a victim to 
the charms of beauty (fig. 1 ). The style of this work seems 
to carry us back to the earlier part of the fourteenth cen- 
tury : it is not clear to whom the arms belong, but the 
lobes are formed of the leaves and acorns of the oak, the 
favourite foliage of the Early English style of ornamenta- 
tion. The pelican, the elephant, the lion, and the more 
ignoble monkey, have their place on the stalls at Gloucester. 
The fabulous objects of the natural history of the middle 
ages dragons, chimeras, griffins, and the like, are much 
more numerous. The syren is seen on the stalls of Great 
Malvern. 

Next after the Bestiaries, the most popular books of the 
middle ages books which were pictorially illustrated with 



IN CATHEDRAL CHUKCHES. 



207 



equal profusion were the collections of JEsopean fables, 
known under the titles of Ysopets and Avynets, from the 
names of the celebrated fabulists .ZEsop and Avienus. With 
these was intimately connected the large romantic, or 
rather satiric, cycle of the history of Renard the Fox, which 
enjoyed an extraordinary degree of popularity from the 
twelfth century to the nineteenth. The fables and the ro- 
mance of Renard are frequently represented on the stalls. 
The fable of the rats hanging the cat is represented very 
grotesquely in a carving on the stalls of Great Malvern, 
probably also of the fourteenth century (fig. 2). The side 




Fig. 2. From Great Malvem. 

ornaments are here two owls. The man and the ass, the 
fox carrying away the goose, and one or two other similar 
subjects, are found at Gloucester. The fox preaching is 
found on one of the side ornaments of a stall carving in 
Worcester cathedral, and is not of unfrequent occurrence 
elsewhere. 

Another class of literature, frequently accompanied with 
pictorial illustrations in the manuscripts, comprises the 
calendars or ecclesiastical almanacs, in which the domestic 
or agricultural employments of each month are pictured at 
the top or in the margins of the page. Such subjects are 
extremely frequent in the carved stalls. Three stalls in 
the cathedral of Worcester represent men employed in 
mowing, reaping, and sheaving the corn. Another repre- 
sents the swineherd feeding his pigs, by beating down the 



208 



CARVINGS OF THE STALLS 



acorns from the trees. This last is a very common sub- 
ject. Scenes of hunting or hawking are also not unfre- 
quently met with. The stall carver has given a still 
wider range to his imagination in representing domestic 
scenes, which are very frequent, and very interesting for 
the light thus thrown on the popular manners of our fore- 
fathers in far distant times. A very curious example may 
be cited from the cathedral of Worcester, which represents 
a domestic winter scene (fig. 3). A man closely wrapped 




Fig. 3. From Worcester. 

up is seated beside a fire, stirring his pot ; his gloves, which 
are remarkable for being two-fingered, as well as the ex- 
pression of his features, show that he is suifering severely 
from the temperature. He has taken off his boots, and 
warms his feet by a rather close approximation to the fire. 
All the details of the picture are equally curious, even to 
the side ornaments; one of which represents two flitches 
of bacon, the winter's provision, suspended to a hook, while 
on the other a rather gigantic cat is basking in the warmth 
of the chimney. The chimney itself is not unworthy of 
notice. 

The domestic cat is met with in other examples. On 
a stall from Minster church, in the isle of Thanet, an 
old woman, a witch-like figure, is occupied at her distaff, 
accompanied by two cats of grotesque appearance. One 
of the stalls at Great Malvern, which, like those of Wor- 
cester, appear to be of the latter part of the fourteenth 



IN CATHEDRAL CHURCHES. 



209 



century represents a man at his dinner. Another in the 
same church (fig. 4) exhibits a woman in bed, attended by 
a physician. Others of this class are more grotesque and 




Fig. 4. From Great Malvern. 



playful, representing games and pastimes. One of these, 
here given (fig. 5), from Gloucester cathedral (the sculp- 
tures of which appear to be of the latter half of the four- 
teenth century), represents two boys playing with balls, and 




Fig. 5. From Gloucester. 



is a curious illustration of the costume of the period. The 
whole field is, in these stalls, covered with ornamentation, 
and there are no side cusps. Sometimes we have very 



210 



CAEVINGS OF THE STALLS 



curious representations of the processes and implements of 
trade, commerce, and labour. The very interesting example 
of this class of representations here given from the church 
of Ludlow, in Shropshire (fig. 6), represents two men sup- 




Fig. 6. From Ludlow. 

porting, we might almost say from their posture worship- 
ping, the beer-barrel. Their costume, with its u dagged" 
borders, is of the reign of Richard II. The side ornaments 
here represent severally the ale-bench, with the barrel, jug, 
and drinking cup; the forms of which are valuable data 
for the archa3ologist. The stalls of Ludlow church have 
been much mutilated, and evidently with intention, for the 
heads, arms, and other prominent parts, have been cut off 
with a sharp instrument. It is a very remarkable fact, 
also, that there is an evident distinction of style in them, 
indicating two classes of workmanship, one of which is 
superior in design and execution to the other. The work- 
man to whom we owe the latter has carefully marked 
every one of his stalls with his sign or mark, a branch ; 
a singularity which I do not remember to have observed 
elsewhere. It is exhibited in the above cut, and will be 
observed similarly placed in two others from the same 
church, given in the present article. One of these (fig. 7) 
represents, we are led to suppose, the grave-digger, as the 
implements of his calling, with the tomb, and a hand hold- 
ing up the holy- water pot, are seen in the right-hand side 



IN CATHEDRAL CHURCHES. 



211 



ornament. On one side of the middle figure are represented 
a barrel, a pair of clogs, a bellows, and a hammer, which 
might throw some doubt on the profession of the indi- 
vidual. The mutilation of the arms of the right-hand side 




Fig. 7. From Ludlow. 

figure renders it difficult to say exactly how he was 
intended to be occupied. Practical jokes, not always 
restrained within the bounds of the delicacy of modern 
times, are common ; and monks and nuns sometimes appear 
in scenes of this description, of which some curious examples 
are furnished by the stalls of Hereford cathedral. These 
stalls are of early workmanship, and the side ornaments 
exhibit the well-known Early English oak foliage in pro- 
fusion ; when I saw them last, they were scattered in 
lamentable confusion in the church, having been taken from 
their places during the repairs and restorations of the build- 
ing. One of them, represented in the next page (fig. 8), 
exhibits a scene from the kitchen, in which a man is evi- 
dently taking liberties with the cook-maid, who has thrown 
a platter at his head. A subject closely resembling this is 
found on one of the stalls of the church of Great Malvern. 
These subjects are sometimes carried to a degree of indeli- 
cacy, which cannot be described. 

It is remarkable, and especially characteristic of these 
carvings, that scriptural or religious subjects are very 
rare. A stall at Gloucester appears to represent the scrip- 



VOL. IV. 



2 1 2 CARVINGS OF THE STALLS 

tural story of Sampson overcome by the courtesan Dalilah. 




Fig. 8. From Hereford. 

An example of a saint's legend occurs in the representation 
of the story of St. George and the dragon, on a stall at 
Stratford-upon-Avon, the side ornaments to which are not 
very congruous grotesques. This particular subject, how- 
ever, belongs almost as much to chivalrous romance as to 
sacred legend. The stories of the great medieval romances 
also find a place in these representations. A foreign 




Fig. 9. From Gloucester. 



example represents the fabulous Aristotle subdued by the 
charms of his patron's wife the subject of a well-known 
poem the Lai d J Aristote. A stall at Gloucester (fig. 9), 



IN CATHEDRAL CHURCHES. 213 

no doubt taken from one of the old romans de geste, repre- 
sents a knight in combat with a giant. The same cathe- 
dral furnishes us with interesting representations of knights 
tilting, and of others engaged in the chase. Subjects that 
may be considered as strictly allegorical are also rare; 
perhaps the figure of a naked man enveloped in a net, with 
a hare under his arm, and riding on a goat, in the stalls 
of Worcester cathedral, may be considered as belonging to 
this class. A figure of a fool riding on a goat occurs on 
the stalls at Gloucester, and may have a similar significa- 
tion. The subjects most commonly supposed to be of 
this allegorical character are mere grotesques, copied or 
imitated from those phantastic sketches so often found in 
the margins of manuscripts of the thirteenth, fourteenth, 
and fifteenth centuries. 

A number of very excellent examples of these burlesques 
are presented by the stalls of Winchester cathedral ; the 
elegant foliage on which would bespeak the thirteenth cen- 
tury. In these, the bracket is supported by a small group, 
consisting in most cases of grotesque figures of animals or 
human beings, in various postures and occupations. The 
large side cusps, differing in this respect from all the later 
examples, are here the most important part of the subject. 
In some they consist of extremely tasteful groups of foliage, 




Fig. 10. From Winchester cathedral. 



generally formed of vine leaves. Figures of children or 
monkeys are in some instances intermixed with the foliage. 
Sometimes the cusp consists of a large head or face, ex- 



214 CARVINGS OF THE STALLS 

hibiting strange grimaces. In one instance the two cusps 
represent a mermaid and a merman. In another we have 
a man fighting with a monster; in one we see a woman, 
seated apparently on a cat, and occupied with her woof; 
others represent musicians playing on the pipe or the 
fiddle; and in the one given on the preceding page (fig. 10), 
the musicians are a pig and a sow a young pig in one in- 
stance dances to the fiddle, while in the other the maternal 
melody appears to have charms but for one of the offspring. 




Fig. 11. From the chapel of Winchester school. 

The stalls of the chapel of Winchester school also fur- 
nish a very remarkable series of sculptures, of a date not 
much later than those of the cathedral, and containing a 
number of droll burlesques, among other subjects of a 
more miscellaneous character. The accompanying example 
(fig. 11), the costume of which is that of the reign of 
Edward III, represents a man haunted and tormented by 
hobgoblins ; he is seeking his way by means of a lighted 
candle, with terror impressed on his countenance; while 
the imps, seated in the side cusps, are making him the 
object of their jeers. 

Another very singular example of diabolical agency is 
here given from a stall at Ludlow, and we may again 
observe on it the private mark of the workman. It is 
curious, because it contains an evident allusion to a scene 
in the medieval mysteries or religious plays. The par- 
ticular play to which I allude is that representing the last 



IN CATHEDRAL CHURCHES. 



215 



judgment, or doomsday, in which the demons are intro- 
duced dragging into hell a variety of classes of dishonest 
people, thus conveying a moral and satirical admonition 
against some of the crying sins of the day, which were 
most practised among, and most offensive to, the lower and 
middle orders of society. One of these great offenders 
was the ale-wife who used short measures. In the stall 
from Ludlow church (fig. 12), the demon is carrying the 



r 




Fig. 12. From Ludlow. 

ale-wife, with her false measure and gay head-dress, to 
thrust her into hell-mouth the usual popular representa- 
tion of which forms the side ornament to the right ; another 
demon plays her a tune on the bagpipes as she is carried 
along. It will be observed that the head of the demon 
who carries the lady is broken off. A third demon, seated 
in the cusp to the left, reads from a roll of parchment the 
catalogue of her sins. 

These carvings are, it will be seen, not only monuments 
of medieval art, but they may be looked upon as important 
illustrations of medieval literature and of social and intel- 
lectual history, and they show us how necessary it is for 
the archaeologist to extend the field of his inquiries beyond 
the immediate limits within which the particular subject 
under consideration appears at first sight to lie, as a monu- 
ment of architecture, or painting, or sculpture, if he would 
thoroughly understand it. An extensive study of the lite- 



216 HERALDIC DECORATIONS 

rature of the middle ages is needful for the comprehension 
of their objects of art, and indeed of all medieval monu- 
ments, as it is for their history. The sculptured stalls, 
besides their value for the study of manners and costume, 
form a practical illustration of the kind and degree of 
scientific and literary information it was thought necessary 
to place before society at large. It was restricted, as we 
have seen, to the bestiaries and the fables, with a smatter- 
ing of the romance of chivalry and of scriptural and 
legendary lore. THOMAS WRIGHT. 



ON THE HERALDIC DECORATIONS OF 
TILE PAVING, 

AND NOTICE OP PAVEMENTS EXISTING AT WORCESTER. 

IN No. vn of our Journal, I gave a short paper on 
Encaustic Paving Tiles, and I have been induced again to 
bring the subject before the Association, not on the general 
ground only of the great importance and value to the 
archaeologist of every species of medieval decoration, but 
because our recent congress has been held in a locality 
especially connected with the subject. Worcestershire gave 
us the first proofs of these interesting fictile decorations 
being the ancient manufacture of our own country, by the 
discovery within its boundaries of two kilns, in which had 
been baked many of the tiles which may yet be seen in the 
neighbouring churches ; and at the present day, the city of 
Worcester itself possesses, besides its magnificent assem- 
blage of ancient examples, a manufactory, in the establish- 
ment of Mr. Fleming St. John, of some of the finest 
modern imitations in existence. 

The kilns alluded to were found at Malvern, and in the 
parish of St. Mary Witton, near Droitwich. The former 
was discovered seven feet under ground, on land formerly 
belonging to the Priory of Malvern, in the year 1833, by 
Harvey Eginton, Esq., of Worcester, in excavating a road- 



OF TILE PAVING. 217 

* 

way to the Priory. It was carefully opened in the presence 
of Dr. Card and other archaBologists, and was found to 
consist of two strongly-built semicircular arches, separated 
from each other by a massive pier. In each of the arches 
was a horizontal flooring, two or three feet above the level 
of the ground, upon which the tiles were burned. The 
length of the kiln was thirty-five feet, and the depth of 
the openings two feet three inches. The fire was on the 
ground below the horizontal divisions, and the earth, 
with long exposure to the action of the fire, had the 
appearance and hardness of limestone slag. The hori- 
zontal divisions were formed of three pieces, the centre 
portions forming key-stones to the side ones. The outer 
arches were constructed of tiles, the inner of bricks, 
and, with long use, these were completely vitrified and 
glazed. There was no aperture for smoke, and a quantity 
of charcoal having been found, it is probable that this 
material was used in the manufacture. The depth at 
which the kiln was placed under-ground, and its being 
firmly backed up with Malvern rag-stone, Mr. Eginton 
says, was no doubt for the purpose of preventing injury 
from expansion by heat. In the kiln, fragments of tiles 
were found of similar patterns to some in Great and Little 
Malvern churches, etc. The kiln at St. Mary Witton was 
discovered in 1837, and consisted of arched chambers of 
corresponding form to the Malvern kiln, and separated in 
like manner by a strong intermediate pier. In this kiln a 
considerable number of tiles were found, of which speci- 
mens are now preserved in the museum of the Worcester- 
shire Natural History Society. They will be found to be 
identical in design with some now existing in the pave- 
ment in Worcester cathedral, which is hereafter described. 
Another kiln has recently been discovered at Great Bedwin, 
in Wiltshire, and it may be here observed, that many of 
the tiles from that place are of the most elegant designs. 

Ornamented tiles were formerly much used for paving 
the floors of sacred edifices, and their use was so generally 
confined to buildings of a devotional character, that when- 
ever they are found in the remains of castellated or domestic 
mansions, there is good reason for supposing that a reli- 
gious fabric had at some time existed on the spot, either a 
private chapel or some other holy edifice. 



218 HERALDIC DECORATIONS 

The earliest known specimens appear to be of the latter 
part of the twelfth, or the beginning of the thirteenth 
centuries. Of these the examples from Castle Acre, pre- 
served in the British Museum, are perhaps the most 
ancient. An interesting discovery of tile paving of the 
thirteenth century, consisting of single and of sets of four 
tiles, was recently made on the site of the destroyed church 
of the totally deserted, and almost forgotten village of 
Woodperry, in Oxfordshire. In reference to this place, 
it may not be uninteresting to observe, that although there 
had long been a tradition that a church and village had 
formerly existed at Woodperry, and had been destroyed 
by fire, no vestige was known to remain of either until 
within the last few years, when a labourer accidentally 
discovered a skull beneath the roots of a tree which he was 
felling. This circumstance, coupled with the tradition, 
induced the man to think that he was working on the site 
of the ancient church-yard. Examinations were subse- 
quently made, and recent discoveries have proved that he 
was right in his conjectures. Numerous foundations and 
fragments of the church, as well as the above-named tile 
pavement, have been brought to light, and coped and 
incised slabs, graves, remains of habitations, and many 
interesting objects of antiquity, have been found. The 
manor of Woodperry belonged to Richard, king of the 
Romans and earl of Poictou, brother of Henry III, and on 
some of the tiles are impressed his well-known badges, the 
lion rampant and the spread-eagle, while others bear the 
characteristic foliage of the period, the trefoil. Another 
pavement of this century has been laid bare in the chapter- 
house of Westminster Abbey, and many of the tiles of 
which it is composed are of the most interesting character, 
exhibiting both the costume, foliage, and armorial deco- 
rations of the time. To this period are also to be attributed 
the beautiful tiles which are hereafter described as being 
found in the pavements adjoining Worcester cathedral. 
Other examples of the same age are to be seen at Bredon 
and Malvern, in Worcestershire ; Great Bedwin, Wiltshire ; 
Tewkesbury and Tintern, Gloucestershire; St. Cross and 
Warblington, Hants ; Exeter cathedral ; and in many other 
places. 

In the two following centuries the decorations were of 



OF TILE PAVING. 219 

a much more varied and elaborate character. The foliage 
was more elegantly and gracefully thrown, and exhibited 
great natural freedom. The oak, the vine, the ivy, and 
other leaves, were beautifully and closely copied from 
nature, and much good taste and skill were exhibited in 
their disposition. Of this period examples are frequently 
met with, but some of the most elegant will be found at 
Worcester, Malvern, Evesham, Wells, Winchester, Shrews- 
bury (where the vine-leaf and grape are peculiarly elegant), 
Rudford, Gloucestershire, St. Alban's, etc. In the six- 
teenth century, encaustic tiles appear to have been but 
occasionally used, but Flanders or Gaily tiles of this period 
are sometimes met with ; they are of foreign manufacture, 
and have their patterns depicted in superficial colours. 
Other tiles are sometimes met with in the West of England, 
the devices of which are raised above the general surface in 
high relief; these are considered to be of late manufacture. 
A pavement of late date has also recently been found at 
Holt, in Worcestershire. 

The devices impressed upon paving tiles consist, for the 
most part, of foliage, heraldic bearings, crosses, sacred 
symbols, geometrical figures, mounted knights, and gro- 
tesque figures. In many cases a single tile contains a 
complete pattern within itself; but sets of four, nine, six- 
teen, and other numbers, with a continuous pattern ex- 
tending over the whole surface, are not uncommon. Of 
sets of four, there are at Worcester, Malvern, Woodperry, 
Great Bedwin, St. Alban's, Gloucester, Wells, Winchester, 
Romsey, Thornbury, Standon, Beaulieu, St. Cross, and 
many other places, excellent examples. Of nine and six- 
teen, some of the finest are remaining at Worcester ; Great 
Bedwin, Wilts; Shrewsbury; West Hendred, Berks, etc. 

Armorial bearings, badges, and cognizances, are perhaps 
the most useful and valuable decorations to the archaeolo- 
gist which tile paving presents. Heraldic remains are at 
all times valuable, and whether they are found depicted in 
all their gorgeous blazoning on the stained glass of the 
windows, or on the monumental effigies of the great de- 
parted, or whether sculptured on the bosses, the brackets, 
or font, or impressed in the tiles of the pavement, they 
should be most carefully noted down and zealously pre- 
served ; as a single blazon or the badge of an illustrious 

VOL. IV. 29 



220 HERALDIC DECORATIONS 

house, will frequently lead to the most successful research 
into the history and foundation of the building upon the 
site of which it was discovered. 

By means of heraldry, descents of families may be satis- 
factorily traced, their alliances by marriage ascertained, 
and the very branch of a family fully proved by the mar- 
shalling of the coats, and the modes of differencing the 
bearings. By it also, the descent of property through 
various families and branches by heir ship or marriage may 
be seen ; the dates of monuments, charters, seals, etc. 
determined, and the age of stained glass, sculpture, carv- 
ing, and embroidery, as well as of mural paintings, tile 
pavements, and other varieties of medieval decoration, 
ascertained. 

The arms upon pavement tiles frequently exhibit the 
bearings of the lords of the manor and of the chase, as well 
as those of the monarch, and of founders and benefactors 
of the church ; and their aid is therefore peculiarly valuable 
in tracing the descent of property, and in determining 
sources of church benefaction : as for instance, at Malvern, 
the arms of the successive lords of the chase and manor, 
Clare (plate i, fig. 2) and De Spencer, earls of Gloucester; 
Newburgh and Beauchamp, earls of Warwick ; and the 
royal arms, the lordship having by marriage reverted to 
the crown, are represented : while at Neath are the arms of 
Clare, De Spencer, Turberville, Montacute, De Granavilla, 
and other patrons and benefactors of the abbey, as well as 
the royal shield; and at Haccombe, Devonshire, among 
other bearings, are those of the founder Haccombe. 

Of examples of armorial tiles may be mentioned the fol- 
lowing. At Bredon, Worcestershire, is an extensive series, 
consisting of above thirty different bearings of illustrious 
families of the thirteenth century, amongst them are those 
of Edward I, queen Eleanor (Castile and Leon), Edward 
of Caernavon, France (semee-de-lis), Bohun, Warren, Clare, 
Cantilupe, Maltravers, Mortimer of Wigmore, Mortimer of 
Chirk, Wake, Hastings, Berkeley, Beauchamp, Grandison, 
Latimer, De Vere, De Geneville, De Spencer, etc. etc. At 
Shrewsbury are the arms of Hastings, Beauchamp, Mor- 
timer, the royal shield, and many others. At Warblington 
are Clare and Grey. At St. Alban's the arms of Beauchamp 
occur amongst others ; and at Hereford, those of Mortimer, 



OF TILE PAVING. 221 

Berkeley (plate i, fig. 17), the royal arms, those of Edward 
the Confessor, etc. At Wenlock are Mortimer (plate i, 
fig. 20) and several others. At Gloucester, those of abbot 
Sebroke ; at Haughmond, those of Corbett. In Christ 
Church, Oxford, are the royal arms and those of the see of 
Exeter, etc. ; and at Worcester, are the royal shield and 
those of the earl of Cornwall, Beaucharnp, Le Boteler, Le 
Scot, Warren, Carpenter, Clare, etc. (see plate i.) Other 
examples are remaining at Quatford, Cound, Lilleshall, 
Evesham, Hardwick, Exeter, etc. 

In some instances two or four tiles are employed to 
produce one shield, as in a fine example at Westminster, 
where four tiles are each charged with a portion of the 
royal arms, and the spaces unoccupied by the shield are 
filled with figures. At Worcester, too, there are exquisite 
specimens composed of four tiles ; and at Gloucester, in 
the Blackfriars, is a tile with the points of four half shields 
of the arms of Beauchamp, meeting in the centre, this 
has evidently been the centre of a nine-tile pattern. At 
Malvern is a beautiful design of sixteen tiles, containing 
four shields of Beauchamp, within a foliated circle ; and at 
the same place is also an interesting specimen of impaling 
(plate i, fig. 1). The design is composed of four tiles, 
each bearing, within a portion of a circle which extends 
over the whole surface, a shield bearing a fesse, and in 
chief, two mullets, and having on the one side the dexter 
half of a shield with the same bearing ; and on the other 
the sinister half of a shield, charged with an engrailed 
cross, thus giving, when placed together, both the family 
and impaled coats. 

Of patterns extending over sets of four tiles, bearing 
coats of arms, surrounded by foliage or other ornament, 
some of the most elaborate and elegant patterns will be found 
at Malvern, where they are mostly enclosed by ornamented 
circles (plate i, fig. 2), but there is also one peculiarly 
beautiful design of the royal arms, placed diagonally on the 
tiles, forming, when laid together, a quatrefoil in the centre. 
Another of nearly similar design occurs at Gloucester. 

Whilst speaking of shields placed diagonally, it may be 
well to mention the modes of their use in the arrangement 
of a pavement. Sometimes they are placed lozengewise 
singly, with plain border-tiles between, as at Neath, where 



222 HERALDIC DECORATIONS 

one portion of the pavement is entirely composed of them, 
separated from each other by plain red tiles of about half 
the width of the ornamented ones. In other instances, as 
at Haccombe, Devon, they are so arranged as to be placed 
four together alternately, with their points meeting. In 
this church are the royal arms (plate I, fig. 3) and those of 
Haccombe, Ercedechne, etc. so arranged. At Shrewsbury, 
on tiles which I procured from the rock-work of a gardener 
at that place, the arrangement is reversed : in this instance 
the upper corners of the shield are made to join together, 
so as to form an elegant quatrefoil. At Warblington, 
Hampshire, shields are introduced in an excellent running 
pattern of interlaced circles. The modes of arranging 
heraldic decorations upon tiles is extremely various, some- 
times a plain shield fills up the whole surface of the tile, as 
at Shrewsbury, Bredon, Lilleshall, Hereford, and Worcester. 
In other instances the tile itself bears the device without a 
shield, as at Haughmond, St. Alkmund's, Shrewsbury, Bet- 
ton Strange, and Worcester. At the latter place are the 
arms of bishop Carpenter, paly of six, on a chevron three 
cross crosslets, and above the chevron the mitre is intro- 
duced (plate i, fig. 16) ; the arms fill up the surface of the 
tiles, and are so arranged as to form, when placed four 
together, a singularly beautiful square pattern, the chevrons 
forming a square, the pales a shaded cross, and the mitres 
filling up the corners. Another, of similar design, has the 
arms of Beauchamp (plate i, fig. 15), a fesse between six cross 
crosslets, placed so together that the fesses form a lozenge. 

When coats of arms are introduced in the ordinary way 
on tiles, they are generally either placed one below another 
as borders, or alternately, with plain or ornamented quar- 
ries, singly, or as at Worcester, in sets of four together, 
with plain black bands between. 

Besides coats of arms, badges and cognizances are of not 
unfrequent occurrence. Of these the swan, at Thornbury, 
Gloucestershire; the before-named badges of the king of 
the Romans, at Worcester and Woodperry ; the horse-shoe, 
at Betton Strange ; the badge of Corbett, at Haughmond, 
and the Stafford knot from Malvern, Thornbury, and 
Standon, Staffordshire, are good specimens. At the latter 
place, the knot is introduced as a running pattern around 
a circle on a four-tile device with very good effect. 



OF TILE PAVING. 223 

Of the other varieties of tile-paving ornamentation, I will 
not in the present paper enter into any description. It 
will be sufficient at present to observe, that they may be 
classed amongst the most beautiful and appropriate decor- 
ations of the sacred edifice which the middle ages present. 
Harmonizing as they did with the soft and mellow tints of 
the stained glass of the windows, with the elaborately em- 
broidered frontals and altar-cloths, and with the gorgeous 
copes, maniples, stoles, and apparels of the priests, they 
imparted a feeling of spiritual awe and solemn grandeur 
to those holy edifices which they adorned. 

It is extremely gratifying to see that this interesting 
species of fictile decoration has been of late years so much 
reintroduced, both in the erection of new, and in the re- 
storation of old churches. Numerous exquisite copies of 
ancient examples of various ages have been made by Messrs. 
Minton and Co., of Stoke-upon-Trent, to whose energy and 
perseverance the restoration of this ancient branch of 
manufacture is mainly to be attributed. Their copies pos- 
sess all the graceful freedom of the originals, and have been 
largely introduced into many of our finest modern build- 
ings with good effect. This effect, however, it may be 
observed, might be much improved by the more general 
introduction of plain quarries and borders, thus breaking 
the pattern of the pavement, and adding much to the 
richness of its appearance. 

Many of the Worcestershire churches are replete with 
beautiful examples of tile paving, some of them of the 
finest character, both for design and execution ; but very 
few churches, either in this county or elsewhere, have 
sufficient portions of pavement remaining to show the mode 
of their original arrangement. Worcester cathedral, how- 
ever, possesses, although hitherto unknown, perhaps one 
of the finest and most extensive series of original arrange- 
ment in existence. 

When I arrived in Worcester to attend the recent 
Congress, and examined the magnificent cathedral, I could 
barely find a score of tiles, with the exception of the justly- 
celebrated monumental cross in the Lady chapel ; but 
having been told by a gentleman that he believed there 
were a few in the old singing-school attached to the cathe- 
dral, I proceeded thither, and while examining it, I also 



224 HEBALDIC DECORATIONS 

carefully explored the adjoining rooms and passages, and 
had the extreme gratification of discovering, beneath the 
accumulations of ages, one of the best remaining examples 
of this species of fictile decoration. Without for a moment 
entering into the original intention and use of that portion 
of the cathedral known as the old singing-school, and 
Cromwell's rooms, I will merely observe that they are 
approached by a flight of stone steps, and a short passage, 
leading from the vestries at the west end of the south 
aisle of the choir. On emerging from this passage, there 
is a small closet (if I may be allowed to use the term, for 
the sake of familiarity) on the left, and a doorway on the 
right, opening into a hall, called Cromwell's room; from 
this room is a narrow doorway and winding passage, lead- 
ing to another closet; a doorway leading by a flight of 
stone steps into an open passage and small room, over the 
before-named closets, etc., and a third door opening into a 
small room, from which the old singing-school is entered. 
These are all groined ; but at the period of my visit were 
filled with such a motley assemblage of rubbish that it 
was next to impossible to examine them; here decayed 
matting, broken tin candlesticks, and rusty iron enough 
to stock the shop of a marine store-dealer, were mixed up 
with dust that would have made a scavenger's fortune. 
And under this mass of filth and rubbish, after scraping 
the floors in many places, I had, as I have said, the extreme 
gratification of discovering one of the most interesting 
examples of tile-paving which has ever come under my 
notice. It is much to be deplored that these valuable 
remains of ancient grandeur should have so long been shut 
out from examination, and have been totally unknown 
even to those whose residence the cathedral may be said 
to be ; but, at the same time, it is a pleasing reflection and 
a solace, to feel that their preservation at the present day, 
bad as that state of preservation may be, is to be attributed, 
probably, to the accumulated dust and rubbish which we 
so heartily condemn. 

The whole of the rooms, and passages, and closets I 
have named, have been paved with decorated tiles of the 
finest character, and they are for the most part remaining 
in their original arrangement, to the extent of at least 
seventy square yards, of which the only portion previously 



OF TILE PAVING. 225 

known were those in the one room, the singing-school. 
Many of the patterns are obliterated, and others partly so, 
but enough remains to show what their former magnificence 
must have been. 

Of the patterns found upon the tiles of the foregoing 
pavement, it will be only necessary to mention, that 
besides some of the most exquisite designs of foliage ex- 
tending over sets of four, nine, and sixteen tiles, birds, 
sacred emblems, and other devices, there is a fine series of 
heraldic decorations, containing amongst others the arms 
of Clare, Le Boteler, Warren, Le Scot, Beau champ (pi. i, 
figs. 14, 9, 10, 7, 11, 8, and 19), and the royal arms; these 
are all single tiles, but there are also some unique exam- 
ples of shields, composed of four tiles ; of these, the well 
known badge of the king of the Romans, the lion and the 
spread eagle (plate I, fig. 21), here represented within 
double quatrefoils, and his arms (plate I, fig. 22), a lion 
rampant within a border bezanty, placed lozengewise on 
the four tiles, the spaces being filled with elegant foliage, 
will be enough to show the high value and beauty of the 
whole. 

The floors are divided into compartments by borders of 
shields or birds (plate n, fig. 8), some of the patterns 
identical with others discovered in one of the before-men- 
tioned kilns, and these compartments are filled in with 
tiles laid lozengewise, the patterns upon them being divided 
from each other by bands of plain black quarries. This 
gives a good effect and pleasing variety to the pavement, 
and renders it altogether one which would be of the greatest 
service for arranging modern floorings. 

In conclusion, I would observe, that there are few places 
in existence which can boast of such a valuable, such an 
extensive, and so rich an assemblage of this species of 
fictile decoration as Worcester; but there are few places, 
I hope, where such remains would have been so long 
unknown. It is lamentable to see the deplorable state of 
that portion of the religious fabric which contains them ; 
but I trust that since a commencement has been made by 
having one or two of the portions swept for me, that the 
whole will now be carefully washed for the public. 

LLEWELLYNN JEWITT. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES.] 



226 EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

PLATE I. 

Fig. 1 . Example of Impaling, from Malvern : half of a design composed 
of four tiles. 

Fig. 2. Half of a four-tile design with the arms of Clare, from Malvem. 

Fi^s. 3, 4, 5, and 6. Shew one of the varieties of arrangement of armorial 
paving. 3, is the royal arms from Haccombe; 4, De Spencer, 
from Shrewsbury ; 5, Fitzwarren, from Shrewsbury ; 6, Dem- 
court, from St. Mary's abbey, York. 

Figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 17. Le Scot, Warren, Beauchamp, Clare, etc. 
from Worcester. 

Fig. 13. Beauchamp, arranged lozengewise on the surface of the tile, for 
arranging four together, Worcester. 

Fig. 14. Bishop Carpenter, arranged in a similar manner, from the Lady 
chapel, Worcester. 

Fig. 15. Berkeley, from Hereford. 

Fig. 16. Hastings, from Shrewsbury. 

Fig. 18. Mortimer, from Wenlock. 

Fig. 19. Arms of Richard king of the Romans (earl of Cornwall), arranged 
on four tiles, from Worcester. 

Fig. 20. Badge of the same, from Worcester. 



PLATE II. 

SELECTION OF TILES FKOM WORCESTER. 

Fig. 1. Single tile pattern, arranged in borders. 

Fig. 2. Arranged in sets of four. 

Fig. 3. Arranged as a set of sixteen tiles, in the pavement. 

Fig. 4. Arranged in borders, and as sets of nine. 

Fig. 5. This pattern occurs also in black and buff. 

Fig. 6. Quarter of an elegant sixteen-tile pattern. 

Fig. 7. Portion of a nine- tile pattern. 

Fig. 8. Birds, arranged as borders alternately, with plain black quarries. 

Fig. 9. Half of a four-tile pattern. 

Fig. 10. Birds, arranged in sets of four-tiles, with the heads to the centre. 

Fig. 11. Lion, arranged in sets of four. 

Fig. 12. Fleur-de-lis, for filling spaces in the edges of the pavement, and 

also in sets of four. 

Fig. 13. Fleurs-de-lis, arranged in sets of four tiles. 
Fig. 14. Sacred emblem of the fish, arranged in sets of four, nine, and 

sixteen. 
Fig. 15. Arranged in sets of four and sixteen. 



Of some of the above tiles discovered at Worcester, Messrs. Minton are now 
preparing exact copies for their modern pavements. 




Presented by Llewcllynn Jewitt, Esq. 



HERALDIC TILES. 



PLATE II. 




Presented by Llewellynn Jewitt, Esq. 

SELECTION OF TILES FROM WORCESTER CATHEDRAL. 



227 



NOTES ON THE STUDY OF MONUMENTAL 
BRASSES. 

(COMMUNICATED TO THE WORCESTER CONGRESS.) 

MONUMENTAL brasses are now so well known, and their 
collection so general, that there are very few who have not 
some acquaintance with the subject. With the view of 
rendering the practice of making collections more interest- 
ing, I have drawn up the following notes. 

One of the first things to be done by a collector, is to 
register in a book each brass, according to its locality, accu- 
rately copying the inscription, arid noting the peculiarities. 
By this practice an acquaintance is quickly obtained of the 
dates and costume thereto belonging ; and a number of 
other interesting particulars which cannot here be minutely 
detailed, but which gradually arise with increasing expe- 
rience and observation. 

I will direct the attention of the student particularly to 
the design and execution, as points well worthy of obser- 
vation. In the early brasses, of which two specimens may 
be mentioned (Sir Roger de Trumpington, and the knight 
from Pebmarsh), there is a conventional treatment of the 
features which is seen in all the works of art of the time, 
viz., the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth centu- 
ries. Whether in painted glass, wall-painting, painting on 
panel, or in manuscript illuminations, without exception, 
this peculiarity will serve at all times to indicate the period 
of execution. Later, during the reign of Edward III, there 
are many different and marked types, showing different 
.designers ; and we now meet with the florid Flemish brass, 
of which we possess many remarkable examples. The gene- 
ral distinction of a Flemish brass consists in its forming an 
oblong surface, composed of several plates of metal so 
united as to seem but one. On this surface the design is 
engraved, and with a richness of detail unknown to those 
of English design. A specimen of the later Flemish brass 
is to be seen in the rubbing of Thomas Pounder, Ipswich. 
These, however, are not the sole distinctions, for there are 
Flemish brasses, both in England and in Bruges, in which 
the figures are cut out to the outline, according to the 

VOL. IV. 30 



228 MONUMENTAL BRASSES. 

English custom. But the execution shown in the use of 
the graver is very different in the Flemish brass ; the lines 
of which are generally more shallow, and all the broad 
ones cut by a flat, chisel-shaped instrument, instead of the 
lozenge-formed graver. This circumstance will be found 
to influence the design, and make a very marked distinction 
between the two kinds of brasses. 

In the first quarter of the fifteenth century the design 
and execution of brasses becomes exceedingly elegant and 
graceful ; attempts are made at female beauty ; the folds of 
the draperies are admirably disposed, and some of the ani- 
mals at the feet are designed in a manner that could scarcely 
be surpassed. The brass of the duchess of Gloucester is a 
good example of the early part of this period. Several 
most beautiful designs of this era are extant in different 
parts of the kingdom ; not so rich in details as the Flemish, 
but far surpassing them in grace and beauty of composi- 
tion. At the close of this century, a time rich in art, 
brasses are very inferior in every respect. It is evident 
their superintendence has fallen into different hands ; that 
they are not now designed by the same class of artists ; and 
the analogy that previously existed between them and other 
works of art, is no longer to be seen to a similar extent. 
In the following century but little beauty can be found ; 
the Flemish brass before alluded to (Ipswich brass), is, 
however, very interesting, as are many others of the same 
class and period. It is very elaborate in design, and strongly 
resembles the wood- engraving of early printed books. 

Portraits do not appear in brasses before the sixteenth 
century: until that time every artist drew the features 
conventionally, in most instances of so strict a character, 
that the hand of the designer can immediately be traced. 
Attempts, however, seem to have been made. There are 
two examples, as early as the reign of Edward II, which 
are by the same hand (sir John d'Aubernour, Stoke d'Aber- 
nor, Surrey ; and sir John de Creke, Westley Waterlen, 
Cambridgeshire), but which have both peculiarities which 
look like attempts at individuality. Sometimes eccentrici- 
ties such as the wearing a long beard, contrary to the 
general custom of the time are found, which, I think, 
must be regarded as something of an approach to an at- 
tempt at portraiture ; but nothing beyond this was ever 



COMMUNICATIONS, ETC. 229 

accomplished. In the sixteenth century, however, there 
can be no doubt upon the subject. Many brasses of this 
time are evidently portraits ; some, indeed, have individu- 
ality so strongly marked, that one is constrained to think 
them very good ones. The brass of Thomas Pounder I 
again allude to in illustration. At Bruges are some late 
brasses containing portraitures worthy of the hand of Rem- 
brandt, whose heads they greatly resemble. 

Brasses worked on both sides are common ; when oppor- 
tunity offers, in their being loose upon the slab, of making 
an examination, this, therefore, should never be omitted. 
To these the term Palimpsest has been given. An inter- 
esting example of this kind may be cited from Burwell, in 
Cambridgeshire. It not unfrequently happens, that frag- 
ments of Flemish design are found upon the reverses ; some 
instances occur where an older brass is altered to suit a 
later date, and another individual. j. G. WALLEK. 



ON THE 

COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN BRITTANY AND 

WALES, FROM THE TIMES OF THE ROMANS 

DOWN TO THE PRESENT TIME. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE WORCESTER CONGRESS BY MONS. DE GERVILLE, HON. P.S.A. 
TRANSLATED BY MONS. R. LEJOINDRE. 

FIRST LETTEE. 

IN 1795 I was one of the expedition to Quibe'ron; the 
naval squadron to which I belonged was constrained, by 
stress of weather, to anchor off Plymouth, in Cawsand 
Bay. We were kept there a week, during which time we 
often landed to make excursions to Plymouth and Daven- 
port. A Welsh regiment was stationed on a hill near 
Mount Edgecombe. Some French priests from Brittany, 
who were with us, noticing that the Welshmen spoke the 



230 COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN 

same language as themselves, began to converse with them, 
and they understood one another perfectly well. For 
many Englishmen, and especially for the Bristol and Liver- 
pool seamen, this is nothing new. I know that, since 
1814, the inhabitants of Wales and those of Brittany have 
got up together Celtic reunions to study that tongue, and 
there have been frequent meetings between the learned 
men of both countries. As I neither know Welsh nor Bas- 
breton, I have never sought to become a member of those 
assemblies; nevertheless I take a great interest in them. 
I have taken notes about the names of places in my own 
country which are the most ancient and have evidently a 
Celtic origin, but as that language is much altered through 
age, those ancient names are scarcely made out by Welsh 
or Bas-bretons of our days. 

Some people might perhaps doubt the antiquity of the 
Welsh or Breton language. It will be easy for me to 
prove its antiquity by means of an author who is in the 
hands of all classical students. Ca9sar, writing two thou- 
sand years ago the history of his campaigns in Gaul, says 
distinctly, of the people living on the coasts between the 
Loire and the Seine : " Civitates qua3 Oceanum attingunt 
et quce eorum lingua Armoricce appellantur." (Bell. Gall. 
1. vii.) It is still the name that the Welsh or Bas-bretons 
give to maritime countries; for the same reason, the mari- 
time countries between the Seine and the Scheldt are still 
known under the name of Morinie. With respect to the 
antiquity of the language, it is proved also by another pas- 
sage in Caesar. He tells us that the Veneti (in Brittany) 
on the eve of being attacked by one of his lieutenants, 
claimed assistance from the Britons inhabiting that part of 
England facing their own country: " Auxilia ex Britan- 
nia, quse contra eas regiones posita est, arcesserunt." 
(Bell. Gall. 1. iii, s. viii.) 

Another historian, not less respectable, says there was 
between them some little local diversity of language, but 
it is what we see now in our own countries : " Sermo hand 
multum diversus." (Tacitus, Agricola.) Since then, 
there is little change. The intercourse has not ceased be- 
tween the two countries. 

The Saxon chronicle tells us that Wales was peopled 
by men from Armorica : " ex Armorica." It is also the 



BRITTANY AND WALES. 231 

opinion of the Venerable Bede, and of the writers in the 
middle ages, such as William of Malmesbury and Girald 
the Cambrian, who wrote in the twelfth century. 

The foregoing are, methinks, sufficient proofs of the 
antiquity of the Cambro-Armorican tongue, and of the 
primitive relations between both coasts. I might here add 
many other similar proofs, but the preceding will suffice. 
I need not prove the present intercourse. Even now two 
priests from Brittany, Messrs. Mahe and Ledrean, of the 
diocess of Quimper, are chaplains of the Catholic congre- 
gation of Aberystwith, in Cardiganshire, and the inhabit- 
ants are said to prefer them to English or Irish clergymen. 
It is also there that the last congress between Welsh and 
Bas-bretons must have taken place. I do not think the 
question of the historical and continuous intercourse be- 
tween both countries has been treated there. I am there- 
fore, about to give the result of my own researches on that 
subject, and shall be as brief as possible. It will be seen 
I copy no one. I wanted at first to consult the military 
histories of Wales and Brittany, but Geoffrey of Monmouth 
has mixed so many fables with it, that I was obliged to 
desist from that project. The ecclesiastical history has 
furnished me with more credible facts, and the use I make 
of them, methinks, is new. I will at first treat of what I 
call the itinerant saints, whose life was almost wholly 
occupied with going from Wales to Brittany, and vice 
versA. 

It would be difficult to find an example of a more active 
and continuous intercourse than that which took place 
between these countries, during three or four centuries, 
from the time of St. Germain of Auxerre and St. Patrice 
'(or Patrick), down to the death of Alfred the Great and 
his biographer Asser, born in Wales, and who also had 
travelled in France. At this point the charts fail entirely, 
but are replaced by a crowd of witnesses as irrecusable as 
they are numerous. 

I return to the particulars of that epoch, as famous, I 
think, in the history of the intercourse and civilization of 
those countries, as was for Europe the epoch of Gothic 
architecture. 

At the time when St. Germain was called into England to 
oppose the error of the sect of Pelagians, the most remark- 



232 COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN 

able saints of France and England had as yet names of 
Latin origin ; they belonged to the period of Roman sway. 
St. Patrick, St. Martin of Tours, and St. Germain, were 
the principal promoters of ecclesiastical organization in 
Wales. 

On his arrival in England, St. Germain held his first 
conference with the Pelagians at Verulam (St. Alban's), 
and shortly after went into Wales, the birthplace both 
of the error and of the chief of the Pelagians. This 
sectarian was called Morgan, which name indicates an 
origin common to Brittany or Wales, and has still the 
same meaning as Pelage in French, or Pelagus in Latin. 
At that time the transforming and mixing of the Celtic 
and Roman tongues was obvious, and henceforth there 
will be but Welsh or Bas-breton names. 

One of the great means that St. Germain made use of to 
oppose heresy, was the founding of those monasteries, the 
population of which appears incredible for so small a coun- 
try; that of Bangor alone would suffice to give an idea of 
the immense number of monks maintained in those establish- 
ments. We learn from Bede, a most faithful and sensible 
historian, writing not long after the event, that in a war 
against the Welsh, the Saxon king Ethelried destroyed 
there 1200 monks, besides which a great number escaped. 
The abbey of Lancarvan was not much inferior in popula- 
tion, besides many other smaller convents, and a great 
many bishoprics founded long before St. Augustine had 
converted the Saxons of Kent. 

Thanks to a learned Englishman, 1 we have the complete 
list of each of those episcopal seats, amongst which was 
the archbishopric of Caerleon, transferred afterwards to St. 
David. The inhabitants of Brittany are much more be- 
hind in the history of theirs. They (the archives) belonged 
to the metropolis of Tours, where the great collection 
called Gallia Christiana has again been stopped, although 
a pretended continuator of the Benedictines has received 
considerable funds towards continuing this work, which he 
has not yet thought of doing. 

The monks and first bishops of Wales were they who 

1 Godwin, " De Praesulibus Anglise". and lived at the beginning of the seven- 
His testimony is the more valuable for teenth century, 
us, as he himself was bishop of Llandaff, 



BKITTANY AND WALES. 233 

carried on that religious and civilizing commerce which was 
so very active for several centuries. It was to them, and 
often to the very same individuals, that both countries owed 
the establishment among them of Christianity, of convents, 
and episcopal seats. The same families gave both to Brit- 
tany and Wales, at the same time, warriors, princes, kings, 
anchorites, monks, abbots, and prelates. Even St. Patrick, 
the apostle of Ireland, was born in Brittany, where his 
father and mother and connexions were living. I will 
endeavour to give a list of those missionaries who evan- 
gelized both countries, and who generally founded eccle- 
siastical establishments. This list, beginning with St. 
Patrick, will comprise especially the names indicated by 
Butler, in his Lives of the Saints, and by hagiographs of 
both countries. With Albert the Great, Lobineau, Mabillon, 
and the best authors among the Welsh and English, whose 
testimony may serve as corroborative in the eyes of the 
Protestants, I do not pretend to deny the obvious faults 
of legendary tales; but yet I think with Pascal, that "the 
clouds are no reason to make us doubt the sun. False 
miracles would not be alleged were there none true." 

The father of St. Patrick was one of the last Gallo- 
Romans remaining in Arrnorica, at the time of the inva- 
sions of the Franks or Saxons on this coast. His mother, 
named Conchesse, was sister or niece to St. Martin of Tours, 
who himself had come from Pannonia. 

St. Patrick had spent the first years of his life in Armo- 
rica, when, towards his sixteenth year, some Hibernian 
pirates landed on the coast of his country and sacked it, 
killed his father, and carried the young man to Ireland as 
a captive. He there passed six years in hard slavery; but 
his time was not lost: he learnt so well the language of 
Hibernia, that afterwards he was enabled to undertake the 
conversion of that country with the greatest success, and do 
for it what his uncle Martin had done for the west of France. 
In a part of his confessions or memoirs, he speaks of the 
great desire he had felt to come back into Gaul to see again 
his parents and friends, amongst whom he reckoned St. 
Germain and St. Martin. 

Here I think I ought to speak of his Armorican origin, 
contested by the Scots, who pretend he was born at Kil- 
patrick, and this erroneous opinion is supported by the 
otherwise judicious and sensible Butler. 



234 COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN 

I am about to give my list of itinerant saints ; the 
abundance of materials will force me to confine myself to 
the monks of Welsh convents and regionary bishops. 
These last had received the episcopal consecration, but with- 
out having any particular diocess, as in our days, for then 
heathenism was prevalent, and the office of these mission- 
aries was rather to convert than to govern ; yet the epis- 
copal character was necessary for them to ordain priests, 
and even bishops, when the harvest was abundant. Among 
these new bishoprics many were at first temporary ; there 
were many such in Brittany and Wales ; this is the reason 
why St. Thelian and St. Dubrice were successively bishops 
in Brittany and Wales. 



SECOND LETTEK. 

In my first letter, I had announced my intention to 
give, on the intercourse between Wales and Brittany, and 
upon the saints who were its principal agents, summary 
accounts, as brief and as clear as I could, and as seemed meet 
for the history of those two people, whose ancient tongue 
and simplicity have for me something very respectable. 

The chain of proof will have its two extremities and its 
centre. At both ends I give simply two links, strong 
enough to bear the centre. At first Caasar tells us that 
the Armoricans had a language [distinct from others, and] 
anterior to his time, and that that people had relations 
considerable enough with the insulary Britons to receive 
from them assistance against the Romans. At the other 
extremity of my chain, there is a fact taking place in our 
own time, and not less evident. Two priests arrive with- 
out any previous study, and preach the Gospel to Welsh- 
men in a tongue as conformable to theirs as the slight 
local variations noticed two thousand years ago by Tacitus 
would permit. These facts can be appreciated and verified 
by any one. 

The centre links of the chain of events have a peculiar 
interest ; it is truly the golden age of the intercourse 
between Armorica and Cambria. There, the witnesses are 
so numerous and prodigious as to call to mind the words 



BRITTANY AND WALES. 235 

of the Bible : " nubem testium." I shall be constrained 
to make only a selection. 1 

I will quote only those names belonging to both coun- 
tries; many of them were bishops in both parts, and this 
alternate episcopal power seems at first contrary to the 
fixity established by the canons, but may be explained 
away, as before stated, by the fact that there were then 
itinerant or wandering bishops, entrusted especially with 
the conversion of nations amongst whom Christians were 
not yet numerous enough to require diocesan bishops. It 
is to St. Germain that I attribute the organization of those 
innumerable workmen, who, like swarms of bees, estab- 
lished themselves where their misfortunes or their mission 
sent them. 

It is sufficiently well known in England that St. Ger- 
main, called by the Armoricans and deputed by a council 
of Gaul, made two excursions into Great Britain to oppose 
the Pelagians, about the years 429 and 448. At this last 
mentioned time, we see the great bishop of Auxerre join- 
ing to himself some fellow -labourers, such as Dubrice, 
Iltut, Thelian, whose names are found again amongst the 
first bishops of LlandaiF and St. David. It has been 
noticed that the bishoprics were very numerous in Wales; 
four still remain, and primitively there were seven in a 
country whose population amounts only to 700,000 souls. 

The Cambrian missionaries carried into Armorica the 
same predilection for establishing episcopal seats : to them 
we owe those of Quimper, St. Paul de Le"on, Fregnier, St. 
Brienc, St. Malo, and perhaps Dol ; though the pretensions 
of the last are much higher. 

Among the important foundations the influence of St. 
Germain introduced into Cambria, I notice the abbey of 
Bangor-Iscoed in Flintshire, which must not be confounded 
with the chief town of the bishopric of Bangor. The num- 
ber of the monks at Bangor-Iscoed is said to have been 
2400. This number may appear exaggerated; but when 
we recollect that the Saxon king, Ethelfrid, caused 1200 
of them to be slaughtered, and that yet a great many 
went over to Brittany, that number will not seem so im- 
probable. 

1 Conan-Meriadec might be named He was elected first king of Brittany 
here, though said to be born in Scotland, about the year 383. (Note of the trans.) 

VOL. IV. 31 



236 COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN 

But Bangor abbey is not all ; that of Llancarvan, founded 
by St. Cadoc, was also very numerous. Cadwan, born in 
Armorica, whence he passed into Britain with St. Germain 
as interpreter and collaborator, ended his days in Einly 
abbey, in the island of Bardsey. 

The college established by Iltut, the situation of which 
has preserved the name of Llan-lltut, was perhaps the most 
important of these establishments, not so much for the 
number, as for the merit of the men educated there. 
Amongst them was Malo, who settled at Aleth, became its 
bishop, and gave it his name (St. Malo); Samson, Thelian, 
Magloire, who evangelized the diocess of Dol in Brittany, 
and contributed so much to its illustration as to cause it 
to be entitled a bishopric at a time when it had not even 
titulary bishops. St. Brienc, after having founded some 
monasteries in the country of the CuriosolitcB [comprising 
the country about St. Malo and St. Brienc], founded there 
also the bishopric of his name, whose first bishop he was. 
St. Frugdual did the same on the coast between the town 
of St. Brienc and the Finisterre, and established there the 
episcopal seat of Fregnier. Nearly at the same time Paul- 
Aurelien converted the part that bore his name (St. Pol- 
de-Leon) until the French revolution. Lastly, Corentin, 
having come, like the others, from Wales, founded the 
church of Quimper, called also, on his account, Quimper- 
Corentin. Thus it was that after the predications of St. 
Germain, the persecutions of the Saxons forced the Welsh 
to emigrate, and carry abroad the teachings of a religion 
prohibited in their own country. 

In quoting these bishops, I have not, for want of space, 
mentioned the numerous founders of convents then cover- 
ing the coast of Brittany ; for the same cause, I will name 
only Llandevenec, founded by St. Guenole, and Llan-Nin- 
nock, whose foundress, St. Ninnock, had received instruc- 
tions and rules from St. Germain in Wales, one of whose 
most illustrious disciples she was. This nunnery is con- 
sidered as the most ancient in Brittany. 

Similar names of monasteries, found in Brittany and 
in Wales, prove that the same individuals have founded 
some on both sides of the channel. Llancarvan and Llan- 
lltut are to be met with in Brittany and Wales. 

Volumes might be made up of the names of itinerant 



BRITTANY AND WALES. 237 

saints who, during two centuries after St. Germain, went 
continually from the one to the other country, and carried 
with them, at the same time, the light of the gospel and 
that of civilization. 

I purpose to give, at the end of this letter, a short bio- 
graphy of these pilgrims, and to notice particularly those 
who formed establishments in both countries; but the 
accounts will not have so much certainty as those of Caisar 
and Tacitus. It is known that at the time of the Mero- 
vingian kings in France, and of the Saxon heptarchy, his- 
tory and literature are riot rigorously exact, but I shall 
have the advantage that such exactness is not absolutely 
necessary: provided I succeed in proving that the Armo- 
ricans and Welsh have always spoken the same language, 
my aim is secured. 

Under the Anglo-Norman princes, it would be easy to 
establish, through Girald the Cambrian and William of 
Malmesbury, both belonging to the twelfth century, that 
in their time the same tongue was spoken in Armorica and 
in Cambria. I speak not of Asser, the friend, professor, 
and biographer of Alfred the Great. He bears the name 
of Menevensis, or "of St. David 1 ', which sufficiently proves 
his Welsh origin; he had also intimate relations with France. 

It is a curious fact, that St. Germain, in giving to 
the Welsh rules for the uniformity of religious service, 
made them adopt the rites of the Gallican church. (Such 
are the words of Rees, his Welsh historian.) This fact 
.may be contested at a time when we have still in France 
Gallican and anti-Gallican opinions. But let us be as 
accommodating as St. Gregory the pope, who, says Bede, 
being asked by his missionaries in Great Britain if the 
diversity of rites, and even if the admission of variations 
in the performance of mass were not reprehensible, gave 
a most moderate answer, arid in harmony with the prac- 
tice introduced by St. Germain a century and a half before 
that answer. (See Bede, Hist. EccL, c. xxvii.) 

I end here this superficial notice, with a short biography 
of the principal characters whose names are famous for 
establishing Christianity on both sides of the channel. 

St. Germain of 'Auxerre. I have not the pretension to 
write a biography of this great man. He has his histo- 



238 COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN 

rians. I wish only to mark his influence in Wales and on 
the nations speaking the Celtic tongue. It is reported by 
the hagiographs, the Bollandists, and subsequently by Butler 
(who has abbreviated them), that after having delivered the 
Welsh from the Pelagian errors, St. Germain had taken 
steps to prevent their recurrence, and to destroy the general 
ignorance then prevalent in Europe. To that provision 
are to be attributed the vast religious establishments in 
Wales in the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries. I need 
not again mention the monastery of Bangor, in which the 
number of monks is said to have amounted to upwards of 
two thousand. 

This is not all. Wales, whose population to this day 
does not reach 800,000 souls, had in the time of St. Ger- 
main and his followers, many other monasteries, whose 
population is hardly credible for so circumscribed a space. 
I will name only that of Llancarvan, and two others on 
the river Wye, having each upwards of a thousand pupils ; 
to these may be added the colleges founded by Iltut, out of 
which nearly all the first bishops of Brittany came, such 
as St. Malo, Gildas, Leonor, Dubrice, Theliaii, Samson, 
Brienc, Paul de Le'on, Corentin, besides the bishops of 
Wales, the number of whom is not less considerable. 
There were at first seven Welsh bishoprics, four of which 
still remain. Is it then to be wondered at if the country 
of Wales, much smaller than Brittany, was inundated, so 
to speak, with bishops, missionaries, abbots, and even her- 
mits? Armorica then comprised not only the parts in 
which the Bas-breton is spoken, but moreover the bishop- 
rics of Dol, Rennes, St. Malo, and a considerable part of 
those of Nantes and Vannes. In those parts many memo- 
rials of the ancient language are still extant; they are the 
proper names of places. In England the same may be 
observed. The counties of Monmouth and Cornwall spoke 
also the Welsh language a few centuries ago. Dr. Borlase, 
who lived in the latter part of the last century, had known 
a woman who still spoke the ancient dialect of her country. 
These remarks lead one to conjecture that Welsh had 
been the language of Gaul in remote times, and that Ca3sar 
did not speak of a new dialect when he said : " Civitates 
qua3 eorum lingua ArmoricaB appellantur." 

Only one more of the acts of St. Germain is applicable 



BRITTANY AND WALES. 239 

to our subject; I mean the intercourse he had subsequently 
with Brittany. In going to England for the repression of 
the Pelagian errors he stopped awhile in Armorica, and 
took with him some fellow-labourers, and above all inter- 
preters, indispensable for him in a country whose language 
he did not understand. On his return into Gaul, he was 
suddenly recalled by the Armoricans, and he saved them 
from the sword of a German chief whom JEtius had sent 
there as minister of his revenge. The able and courageous 
conduct of St. Germain towards Eocaric recalls to mind 
the famous interview between pope St. Leo and the fierce 
Attila. It was necessary to remark the claims of the 
west of France and of England to naming St. Germain 
their apostle. It is perhaps well to mention, that Corn- 
wall had for a long time an episcopal seat bearing his 
name, and which is at present united to that of Exeter. 

Si. Martin of Tours. This is a contemporary of St. 
Germain, and his claims to the title of apostle of the west 
of Gaul, are not less legitimate. Normandy claims him, as 
well as Brittany and Touraine, but his presence in England 
is not so marked as that of St. Germain, by whom he was 
outshone ; yet several parishes in the south of England, and 
even in London, still acknowledge him for patron. Bede 
tells us, that at the time of the mission of St. Augustine, 
queen Bertha, wife of Ethelbert, performed her devotions 
with the Christians she had brought from Gaul, in an 
ancient church of St. Martin, which she had found near 
Canterbury. 

St. Patrick (or Patrice). It was perhaps not expected 
to find here the name of the apostle of Ireland ; neverthe- 
less, he is not a stranger to Armorica. The Irish pretend 
he was born at Kilpatrick, in Scotland ; however, it is 
pretty certain he was born in the ancient diocess of Dol 
(in Brittany), and it is himself who says so in his book of 
confessions or memoirs. He even names Bonaven as the 
place of his birth, It is still the name of a small parish 
in the bishopric of Dol, between Cancale and St. Malo, in 
the canton of Chateauneuf. The modern name is Bonaban ; 
it contains only about two hundred and fifty souls. 

Patrick was nephew to St. Martin, and son of his sister 
(or niece) called Conchesse, and of a Gallo- Roman lord 
named Calpurnius. He tells us that, in his sixteenth 



240 COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN 

year, some Hibernian pirates landed in his country and 
slaughtered his father, and took him (Patrick) away a 
prisoner to Ireland, where for six years he was a slave, 
and thus learned the language of Hibernia. He adds that, 
at an advanced age, he had felt a strong desire to return 
to Gaul and see again his relations and friends, amongst 
whom he names St. Germain and St. Martin. In claiming 
St. Patrick as a compatriot, I felt it necessary to correct an 
error very prevalent in England. Doubtless, there exists 
in Scotland a place called Kilpatrick ; but this word, mean- 
ing only " the cell of Patrick", does not prove that the 
apostle of Ireland had been born there. 

St. Patern. This is again one of the last Gallo-Roman 
saints. He was born in Wales, at a place called Llan- 
badarn (Pembrokeshire). He went over to Armorica and 
was made bishop of Vannes. He must not be mistaken 
for St. Patern, a monk of the abbey of Ancion, in Poitou, 
who came about that time to establish himself in a forest 
of the diocess of Coutances, near a place retaining his 
name. He left his retreat to become bishop of Avranches, 
and died near that town. He is often confounded with 
the previous one, who was bishop of Vannes. There is 
also a St. Patern known in Merionethshire, and said to 
have been born in Armorica. 

St. Fragan.- The following bear Welsh names, and 
stand chiefly in chronological order. St. Fragan, born in 
Whales in the fourth century, went over to Brittany, where 
he died in the following century, leaving a numerous family. 
Ploufragan is called after him. One of his sons, Guenole, 
founded the monastery of Llandevenec. 

St. Cadwan. Born in Armorica towards 403, accom- 
panied St. Germain in his excursion to Great Britain, and 
distinguished himself in Merionethshire and Montgomery- 
shire : several churches there have him for patron. When 
old, he retired to the island of Bardsey, where he died in 
the abbey of Einly. See Butler's Lives of the Saints, and 
Evans' Survey of North Wales. 

St. Brieuc. Born in 409, in Cambria, was about twenty 
years old when St. Germain came there. He became one 
of the principal pupils of that prelate, who took him to 
France and ordained him. Directed by that excellent 
guide, he made great progress in spiritual life. When 



BRITTANY AND WALES. 241 



again in England he was made a bishop. Towards 480, 
he went over again, and landed with two hundred and 
sixty-eight monks in a harbour of the Leonnais (Brittany). 
In going through the territory of Treguier, he built there 
the monastery of Llanbaeron. His death is marked about 
the year 502. He was born in Lincolnshire. He founded 
the monastery of Grand-lanri, where the town of St. Brieuc 
now stands. See Butler and Doric's Histoire EccUsias- 
tique de Bretagne. 

St. Iltut This is one of the most useful comrades of 
St. Germain. Like him and St. Martin, he had served as 
a soldier with distinction. He entered with the same 
courage, and with an indefatigable perseverance, into the 
career of ecclesiastical studies, under the conduct of St. 
Cadoc, abbot of Llancarvan. He founded in the neigh- 
bourhood of this abbey the college which has furnished 
the greatest names among the bishops of Brittany. The 
school of Llan-lltut, in Glamorganshire, was governed by 
its founder with zeal and talent until his old age. After 
chosing his successor, he crossed the sea and joined his 
old companions in Brittany, and ended among them his 
long and useful career. Iltut died near Dol, towards the 
middle of the sixth century. A parish in Finisterre bears 
his name Llan-Iltud. A recurrence of the same name 
in various places has often puzzled me in my researches. 
North -Wales has also its St. Paterne, whom the Welsh 
authors describe as Armorican. Is he a third saint of the 
same name? In the same manner three Samsons might 
be found ; one of whom is entitled archbishop of York, at 
a period when there was neither bishop nor archbishop in 
that town. Happily, this confusion does not interfere with 
my researches on the philological intercourse between 
Brittany and Wales. 

St. Cadoc. In the preceding article I have just spoken 
of this abbot, and of his great monastery at Llancarvan. 
I merely mention him again to confirm his right to the 
title of itinerant saint. He is one of the ornaments of the 
Armorican catholic calendar. See Butler, 24 Jan. 

Sf. Gildas. Pupil of St. Iltut, born in 421, in Brittany, 
of a sister of St. Patrick, by a Bas-breton prince. He 
was a long while in Ireland, and in the islands on the 
coast of Brittany. He had taught theology at Llancarvan 



242 COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN 

at the solicitation of St. Cadoc the founder. See his life 
in Bonn's Six Old English Chronicles, 1848. 

It is supposed there were two of the name of Gildas ; but 
this does not concern the present inquiry. St. Gildas wrote 
the book De Excidio Britannice, and had travelled much 
in Armorica, Wales, and Ireland. 

Guenole and Guenael. Guenole, founder of Llande- 
vene abbey in Brittany (diocess of Quimper), was son of 
Fragan (see his name ante). Compelled to fly from 
Britain, he emigrated to Armorica, and was brought up in 
monastic life by Budoc, in an island near that of Brehat. 
He died in 504. He was one of the greatest founders of 
monasteries on the coast of Brittany. With the help of 
king Grallon he founded the celebrated abbey of Llande- 
venec. Some charts of this abbey are still extant, in which 
I find the royal participation of Grallon, who then go- 
verned that part of Armorica. Without those charts, I 
should have doubted the existence of this little king, about 
whom, as about king Arthur, many fables are current. 

I must not leave this article without speaking of Guenael, 
or Vinael, successor to Guenole, as abbot of Llandevenec. 
He was also an itinerant saint, and travelled much in 
Great and Little Britain. He was patron of the island of 
Aurigny (Alderney). It is in the cartulary, called the 
black book of the cathedral of Coutances, that I have found 
his name as patron of the church of Aurigny. This car- 
tulary is of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. At 
the Reformation, this Breton name being found too bar- 
barous, the name of St. Anne was substituted for it, and is 
still the saint patroness of the island of Alderney. 

Born at Quimper in 454, Guenael was placed in his 
seventh year under the charge of Guenole. He took the 
religious gown when ten years old. In 504, he was desig- 
nated by St. Guenole as his successor; he accepted only 
for seven years, after which time he went over to England 
with twelve monks. He travelled in Ireland, and made 
there many conversions. In the year 513, he carne back 
into Armorica with fifty monks, remained three years at 
Llandevenec, and died near Varmes in 518, aged sixty- 
four. Butler, 3 Nov. 

Sf. Dubrice (in Welsh, Dyfrid). St. Dubrice, born in 
Wales, taught theology at first in Hentland monastery, on 



BRITTANY AND WALES. 243 

the Avon, 1 and afterwards at Mochros, on the Wye. Pupils 
came to him from all parts of Britain, amounting to a 
thousand, among which were numbered St. Samson and 
St. Thelian. Ordained bishop of Llandaff by St. Germain, 
he was transferred to the seat of Caerleon in 495, and had 
for successor at Llandaff, St. Thelian. [All these saints 
went over into Armorica.] Dubrice abdicated his arch- 
bishopric in favour of St. David, and retired to Bardsey- 
islarid, at Einly abbey, on the coast of Caernarvon. He 
had come over to Great Britain at the beginning of the 
sixth century. All authors, catholic or protestant, speak 
of him with great praise. I have selected him par- 
ticularly as one of St. Germain's companions, who consti- 
tuted so firmly the Welsh church a century and a half 
before the arrival of St. Augustine in Canterbury. The 
rev. -- Rees gave, in 1815, a very circumstantial topogra- 
phy of South-Wales, in which St. Dubrice is said to have 
been born in Pembrokeshire, near Fishguard. 

I have given in the preceding articles some notes on 
St. Germain and his colleagues, and among these last have 
selected those who were the most itinerant. It remains 
for me to speak of some of their disciples, bishops ; or 
abbots, who continued the intercourse between Armorica 
and Cambria. 

St. Samson. Brought up in the school of Dubrice and 
Iltut, Samson went over to Armorica, where he was made 
bishop of Dol ; he resigned his seat to St. Magloire, his kins- 
man, who became by turn the apostle of the Channel islands. 
Many authors name two Samsons, and occasionally even 
three ; the third, as having been archbishop of York, at a 
time when there were not Christians enough in that town 
even to require a bishop. 2 Bede reports that the estab- 
lishment of Christianity at Canterbury hardly dates from 
the end of the sixth century, and that the institution of 
an episcopal seat at York is later than that of Canterbury. 

St. Magloire. I have spoken of this saint in a special 
work; and have since received a very circumstantial life 

1 At a moment when a learned con- to this town. Such an establishment 

gress takes place at Worcester, it would at so remote a time might offer some 

be desirable that some member should interesting relics. 

inquire whether it is Hentland or Mo- 2 This was no reason, if we judge of 

chros, the site of which was pretty close those times by our own. (Note of trans.) 



of St. Magloire, composed about the year 1319, in French 
rhymes, by a canon of the convent of St. Magloire, in 
Paris, from a Latin original of the twelfth century. Both 
documents throw great light on the conversion of the 
Channel islands, and on the death of St. Magloire in the 
island of Sark, and the preservation of his body in that 
island until it was removed to the priory of Lehon, near 
Dinan, under the reign of the Carlovingians, and thence 
carried to Paris, for fear of his being desecrated by the 
northern pirates. All these events need here no further 
notice. 

I intended closing this list of itinerant saints at the 
time of Alfred the Great, whose friend and biographer Asser 
was also born in Wales, but I see that my list, superficial 
though it be, would carry me too far. I will give simply 
the names of Welshmen who founded bishoprics in Brit- 
tany. They were : St. Malo, who gave his name to the 
town of Aleth, where he established his episcopal seat, 
very near the time when Leonor fixed himself in the same 
country, and gave his name to a parish (St. Lunaire) near 
Dinan. Another Welshman, Fugdual, had founded the dio- 
cess of Treguier (a corruption of his name) near that of 
St. Brieuc, of which we have already spoken. Between this 
bishopric and that of Quimper, St. Paul Aurelien estab- 
lished the diocess of St. Paul de Leon. Lastly, St. Corentin 
added his name to that of the town of Quimper, of which 
he was the first bishop. 

The want of space obliges me to mention thus only the 
founders of new diocesses in Arrnorica. I have not men- 
tioned several Welsh women, who went also to Brittany to 
form religious establishments; I will name only Ninnock, 
to whom is owed the oldest nunnery in Brittany. The 
church of that community has become that of a parish 
which stills bears the name of Llan-Ninnock. 

Before closing this letter, I will say a few words about 
Corn wall. The decline and disuse of the Celtic tongue can 
there be traced. This language was there prevalent till 
the fifteenth century. In the histories of Cornwall, by 
Borlase and Lysons, is found the name of a professor con- 
temporary with Henry VIII, who first published instructions 
in English in that county. The last person who spoke there 
the ancient tongue is named by the two authors, and died 



BRITTANY AND WALES. 245 

five or six years after Dr. Borlase, who was still living in 
1772. The same language was also the vernacular tongue 
of the French-speaking parts of the diocesses of Rennes, 
Dol, Vannes, Nantes, and St. Brieuc. 

It is generally supposed that that idiom ceased to be 
in use only at the end of the sixth century. I am of 
opinion it ceased sooner or later gradually, according to 
the time of annexation to the French monarchy. I am 
inclined to believe that before the Christian era, and even 
long after, in Monmouthshire, the Gaulish or Celtic tongue 
was the vernacular idiom. This supposition seems justi- 
fied by the expressions of Caesar, and by the great number 
of names of places which belong evidently to the Gaulish 
language, and of which they are the surviving evidence. 

The people inhabiting both sides of the Channel have to 
all appearances the same origin, and a view of the map is 
sufficient to suggest that idea, which is confirmed by the 
greatest Roman general, who had long made war in Gaul 
and in Britain. 

At an epoch when the inhabitants of the two Britains, 
who still preserve the Gaulish tongue, unite in a new 
brotherhood, and when Bas-breton priests are still able to 
teach the gospel to their brethren in Wales, I thought it 
well to present them with some notes on the ancient inter- 
course between the children of the same fathers. 

Now, when the Archaeological Society of Great Britain 
assembles in a place not very distant from Wales, I 
promised to its noble president, when at my house, 
to send him this essay as my contribution to a society 
which has so kindly admitted me as a member, at a time 
of life when I was not able to appear personally in its ranks. 
This circumstance will suffice to explain away the imper- 
fection of my work. I shall be happy if the Society thinks 
my researches have been simple and clear. 

Valognes, Normandy, July 1848. 



246 



NOTES ON CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 

ONE of the objects of the annual congresses of the Asso- 
ciation, is the examination of the antiquities of the district 
in which they may be held. A considerable degree of 
latitude is necessarily implied in this declaration ; for it 
must be obvious, that close investigation, which presumes 
leisure and other favourable circumstances, cannot be 
always, on such occasions, bestowed on subjects whose 
importance and interest entitle them to patient and careful 
exploration. When practicable, however, it is desirable 
that the observations of members be collected and recorded, 
as it is probable, though they may furnish no very striking 
or novel information, attention may thereby be directed to 
localities and objects not generally known, and further 
inquiry may be instigated in those who do not labour 
under the disadvantages which attend the casual visitor. 
With this prelude, and in anticipation of the indulgence 
claimed by the circumstances under which they are penned, 
the following notes are contributed to the proceedings of 
the Worcester Congress. 

No remains of past ages are more impressive on the 
mind of the antiquary than those of the Roman cities and 
castra. Whether, like the places which head these re- 
marks, their sites still teem with human life ; or, like Burgh 
and Richborough, are returned to the uses of the tiller of 
the soil; their massive walls, high and broad, and (where 
the injurious hand of man has not been at work) as fresh 
as when deserted by their Roman garrisons, strike the 
reflecting beholder with admiration and wonder at the 
difficulties surmounted, and at the pains and labour ex- 
pended in raising structures so vast and endurable. They 
interest us for their architectural features, for the careful 
choice of the various materials which enter into their com- 
position, and chiefly for forming an important link between 
the unknown and the known, and in presenting a resting- 
place as it were in the department of our Romano-British 
antiquities, where in a great void we attain something tan- 
gible, something which the eye can dissect, appropriate, 



CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 247 

and comprehend. It is chiefly also from these stations, 
the strongholds of the Roman legionary soldiers and their 
auxiliaries, that we have obtained those valuable memorials, 
inscribed stones, which, with the scanty information sup- 
plied by historians, constitute the bulk of the imperfect 
history that has been preserved of our country during the 
Roman domination. To the durability of these great 
mural defences, if left to themselves and the lenient hand 
of time, no limits could be assigned ; but, unhappily, for 
ages they have been valued only as building materials, and 
generation after generation down to the present day have 
followed each other so effectually in the work of destruc- 
tion, that in very many instances not a stone has been left 
of structures which would else have bid defiance to time 
itself. The ruins then which are still left to us become 
the more valuable, and as a like disastrous fate awaits 
many of them, it becomes our duty to draw public atten- 
tion to their value and interest, and by every means in our 
power to avert the danger that threatens them. With 
respect to the public feeling for ancient monuments, it is 
often whimsically regulated by caprice and fashion ; some 
come within the beaten line of the tourist, and as their 
preservation and exhibition are profitable to the proprie- 
tors, they may be considered safe for the present at least. 
But others of equal interest, which lie in remote or less 
accessible districts, are almost totally disregarded, and 
perhaps even unknown to neighbouring residents. Thus 
everybody visits Raglan castle and Tintern abbey, and 
many contrive in their summer rambles to inspect Chep- 
stow castle ; but not one in a thousand has even heard of 
Caerwent, though it be only five miles distant from the 
last place. When at Chepstow, I was repeatedly assured 
there was nothing to see at Caerwent, and that it was not 
even mentioned in. the Guide Book ! 

Among the unread papers communicated to the Wor- 
cester Congress, was one on Caerwent, by the late rev. 
Samuel Seyer, dated July, 1786. It was contributed by 
Mr. Gutch. The details in it are curious and interest- 
ing, but, as by accident, it did not come into my hands 
until my return, I was unable to test the accuracy of the 
writer on some points of no great importance. It is as 
follows : 



248 



CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 



" Caerwent, the Venta Silurum of the Romans, lies five 
miles from the New Passage, and as many from Chepstow, 
on the Newport road, which enters it at the eastern gate 
and comes out at the western, so that the turnpike road 
is laid on the main street of the ancient city. It is now a 
poor inconsiderable village, containing the parish church, 
one large farm-house, three ale-houses, three shops, and 
about a dozen mean houses within the walls, and about 
half a dozen against the walls without. I traced the fol- 
lowing ground plot. The eastern gate-way is not yet 




A. Tessellated pavement 

BBB. Wells 

C The Pit 

D. The PrtBtoriiun 



E. The road to Newport and Caerleim 

F. The road to Usk 

G. The road to Chepstow and New 

Passage v 



totally obliterated. On the left hand as you enter, the 
city wall is regularly terminated ; and here its thickness 
appears to be nine feet(?) from this wall arises another, not 
so thick, to which the gate was probably hung. On the 
right hand side of the entrance the wall is so far pulled 
down to make way for the road, that no trace of a gateway 
remains. Proceeding towards the south, on the outside, 
the wall is visible all the way to the south-east angle, 
but the facing, which was of regular courses of hewn 
stone, is generally removed, leaving the rough masonry 
exposed to view, except a few yards before you come to 
the angle, where the whole is entire to a great height. 
The wall in this place stands on the top of an agger, which 



CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 249 

seems somewhat reduced from its original height (if we 
may form a judgment from its height in other places), and 
is now cultivated with potatoes. Its present height above 
the agger may be about ten feet, i. e. just even with the 
ground on the inside, for such is uniformly the difference 
of height between the inside and the outside of the walls, 
except towards the south, where the ground naturally 
sloping towards the valley, the inside of the town being 
still kept to a level, makes the difference between the level 
of the inside and of the outside greater than in other parts. 
This difference of elevation could not be from nature ; it 
must have arisen from the gradual addition of soil in a 
great city, and from the final ruin of its buildings, and is 
an argument that the city was fully built and inhabited. 
I was told that the fertility of the land on the inside of 
the walls is much greater than on the outside, owing no 
doubt to the soil deposited while the city was inhabited, 
and to the ashes of its buildings, which they frequently 
find in digging. In the south-east angle the earth is 
thrown up seven or eight feet higher than the ordinary 
level, the walls still rising with it ; intended, probably, for 
the station of a watch looking towards the station at Sud- 
brook. All along the south side are the greatest remains 
of the walls ; for if there ever was any agger on this side 
it is now removed, and the wall appears to the height of 
near thirty feet from the fields, with a facing of regular 
courses of hewn stone, for the most part remaining. In 
one or two gaps, where it may be measured, it is about 
three yards thick. Where the facing has been removed 
the internal masonry appears somewhat particular, being 
composed of flattish stones set obliquely on their edge in 
a bed of mortar; and over them another bed of mortar is 
spread, while the interstices remain without any mortar at 
all. There is a small agger on the inside of this south 
wall, probably only the top of the original one, the lower 
part being hid under the increased soil. The wall in 
many places rises five or six feet above this agger, which 
I suppose to be nearly, perhaps quite, its original height. 
Camden mentions three bastions in this wall ; I observed 
only one, shaped and situated as in the plan ; but I might 
have overlooked the other two, for none at all appear on 
the inside, the place is so much overgrown with briars. 



250 CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 

There are no remains of the south gate- way ; it is merely 
a breach in the walls, leading by a lane in the village into 
the fields. Under this wall, a few yards from it (at c), 
is a large pit, from whence lately many hundred loads of 
a black rich soil have been carried away to manure the 
lands. I agree to the opinion of the person who shewed 
it me, that this was the place into which the drains of the 
town emptied themselves. The western wall in no place 
rises above the level of the inside; on the outside it is 
tolerably perfect, only the facing is removed. There are 
no traces of the western gate-way ; on the left as you enter 
the town a house is now building from the spoils of the 
walls, and on the right a lime-kiln is kept at work, so that 
this part is likely soon to be obliterated; for the lime- 
burner told me that the whole walls were built of lime- 
stone. The agger is very perfect all along the western 
wall, and towards the north-west angle the ditch is very 
plain. The north wall is nearly in the same situation; no 
part of it rises above the level of the inside; on the outside 
I cannot tell whether the facing is removed or not, the 
agger (which is very perfect) is so completely overgrown 
with briars. The wall is broken down, that the turnpike 
road to Usk may pass through. There are no remains of 
the northern gateway; it now leads into a field within the 
walls. The remainder of the eastern wall and agger are 
precisely in the same state as the northern. This is the 
present state of the walls of Caerwent. 

" Near the western gate I suppose stood the prsetorium. 
I discovered a cross wall about ninety yards in length ; its 
breadth I found to be two yards and a half: and the lime- 
burner told me that what I measured was only half its 
breadth ; for there was another wall of the same thickness, 
he told me, which ran close by its side, making the whole 
breadth five yards, and that this had been removed about 
a week ago by the owner of the field on the west side. I 
saw the truth of what he told me, by the appearance of 
the ground, and can only account for it by supposing that 
the two walls were built at different times: perhaps the 
innermost was added as the wall of a building, the builder 
not being at liberty to make use of the public wall. There 
are no remains of a cross wall joining this to the city wall; 
but the trace of the agger on which it stood is very evident : 



CAEKWENT AND CAERLEON. 251 

the stones have been probably long ago removed, the field 
being in good cultivation, and perhaps in a year or two 
more the thick wall above-mentioned will be only discover- 
able in the same manner. The other wall of the prasto- 
riurn, I suppose, went along by the side of the main street ; 
but the turnpike road has most likely consumed its re- 
mains. Near the south-west corner of the praatorium, on 
the outside, are considerable ruins, probably the remains 
of some building. Here they had lately, in digging up 
the stones, uncovered a wall, which seemed like the inner 
wall of a room, and had dug up two large wrought stories ; 
one was the turned base of a column, about one foot and 
a half high, having a square hole on the top by which to 
fasten it with lead or iron to the next piece of the shaft ; 
the other stone was about two feet high, somewhat in 
shape of a cone, and this likewise appeared to be turned, 
and had a square hole on the top for the insertion perhaps 
of an iron spindle, but no similar hole at the bottom. 
There is another of nearly the same shape and dimensions 
standing at the door of the first house on the left hand 
when you enter at the eastern gate ; but I forgot to ask 
where it carne from. It was at this house I lodged, with 
very civil people. All three stones are of sand-stone, such 
as at Sudbrook cliff, and a stratum of which, I believe, 
runs not far from Caerwent. I find by Camden, that 
there have been three tessellated pavements found at Caer- 
went : of these I did not hear a word. But within these 
few years another has been found, and the owner, Mr. 
Lewis, of Chepstow, has very judiciously built a room over 
it to preserve it. It is three or four feet below the level 
of the orchard in which it stands. What remains (for I 
question whether the whole be there) is about twenty-four 
feet square; it is composed of squares of near an inch, of 
three or four different colours, formed into a very pretty 
pattern, so that on a transient view it looks very like a 
handsome carpet. The red squares are made of brick; 
the white and grey of stone. The whole is laid in a bed 
of mortar. The pieces having all square angles, must neces- 
sarily leave many interstices in forming a complex pattern 
as this is ; but how these interstices were originally filled up 
I cannot say ; at present they are filled up with dirt or lime. 
Near the pavement are large remains of some building. 

VOL. IV. 33 



252 CAEKWENT AND CAERLEON. 

" This is what I was able to collect of the present state 
of Caerwent during a day's stay now, and a few hours last 
year. I was informed that the minister of the parish 
(Mr. Thomas) had drawn up an account of the place at a 
considerable length ; but upon visiting him at his house at 
Caldecot, I found that he had mislaid it upon removing 
into another house. He has given copies of it to several 
persons, to the bishop of Salisbury (Dr. Barrington), to 
Mr. Hanbury of Pontypool, and others. 

"Great quantities of Roman coins have been found here, 
and are found every day, upon opening fresh earth. All 
which I saw (near one hundred) were imperial. Mr. 
Thomas told me that the consular were likewise dug up, 
that they were even more common than the imperial, and 
on that account were sold cheaper by some who were able 
to distinguish them: but he surely mistook one for the 
other. I bought two very perfect copper pieces of Trajan, 
weighing about a penny each, for half a crown ; and 
among some smaller Roman ones, I bought a silver penny of 
William the Conqueror, and another of one of the Edwards. 

" The people of the village have all a notion that the 
tide formerly flowed up to the walls of their town, and 
that Caerwent was a port ; and it ought to be added, that 
the tradition of the neighbourhood is that the tide formerly 
flowed up likewise to Creek (a village about a mile nearer 
to Chepstow than Caerwent), through another valley up a 
brook called Subbrook, [wrong] as I imagine; nay, some 
of the people at Caerwent told me that the rings to which 
the vessels were fastened might be seen in their walls. 
This latter circumstance is more than I can well believe; 
and the pit above-mentioned without the south wall seems 
to me to prove that this was never covered by sea water. 
Nor indeed was it the custom of the Romans, in building 
even a port, to bring their walls close down to the water : 
witness Chester, Gloucester, the station at the head of 
Wmdermere, and others. Considering, however, the many 
alterations to which the channel of the Severn has been 
undoubtedly liable, I think it not at all improbable that 
the tide has flowed up the valley which lies below the 
south wall of Caerwent, the tradition of the inhabitants, 
and this circumstance, that they still call the south wall 
the Port wall, give a great credibility to the supposi- 



CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 253 

tion. 1 The brook which now runs along the valley, about 
half a mile from the south wall, passes through Caldecot, 
and falls into the Severn at Caldecot Pill, about four miles 
from Caerwent. When the Romans deserted the port, the 
mud deposited by the tide, and that which is brought down 
in great abundance by the brook in floods, might have 
raised the bed of the channel, which the Romans certainly 
kept open, and thus the port might have been shut up 
even without any change in the level of the Severn. But 
I rather think that the level of the Severn is somewhat 
lower than it formerly was, which will at once account for 
the discontinuance of the tide. Whichever be the cause 
why the tide has ceased to flow so high as formerly, I 
believe it to be the case in many other rivers running into 
the Severn. 

" There were, no doubt, many Roman ways leading to 
Caerwent, but they are for the most part obliterated. The 
principal road was certainly to Caerleon, the capital of 
this country; but it is now entirely lost in the turnpike 
road. Another led to Usk, which I am informed is still 
visible. Mr. Thomas told me, that there were some little 
time ago remains of a road pointing towards Sea-common, 
about half a mile west of Sudbrook camp. These remains, 
which were about three quarters of a mile from Caerwent 
in the lane leading to Caldecot, were almost destroyed a 
year or two ago in the reparation of the road ; what little 
he shewed me was not sufficient to prove its existence. 
There are, in the ditch about a quarter of a mile from 
Caerwent in the same lane, some very large stones, which 
might have been used in the foundation of the road. Mr. 
Thomas told me likewise, that at Creek, about a mile from 
Caerwent, in a wood by the Chepstow road-side, he had 
seen remains of a road composed of large blue stones, 
which, likewise, were destroyed in the reparation of the 
road. But there is no account of any Roman station at 
Chepstow to which this could lead." 

The measurement of the area of Caerwent, as given in 
Mr. Seyer's plan, does not accord with other surveys. 
Strange 2 states, the foundations of the wall extend 450 

1 It is more probable that the tradi- plied, which was most likely porta, a 
tion sprung from a misconception of gate or entrance. c. R. s. 
the origin of the word port as here ap- 2 " Archacologia," vol. v, p. 35. 



254 



CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 



yards by 350, while Coxe makes them 505 by 350. Mr. 
Seyer omits two bastions on the south side, one of which 
indeed is scarcely to be noticed by a superficial observer, 
from the thick growth of underwood and the accumulation 
of soil which cover and obscure the more ruinous portions 
of the wall. A view of the most perfect bastion, and of 
that towards the west, is given in the cut below ; the latter 
has fallen forward, and the entire view of the line of wall, 
it must be remarked, is shrouded in masses of trees and 
vegetation, which render it very picturesque, but conceal 
its architectural features. 




To those familiar with the Roman mural constructions 
in the central, eastern, and southern parts of England, the 
wall of Caerwent will afford interesting points of compa- 
rison. The eye does not recognize the bonding courses 
of tiles so conspicuous at Colchester, St. Alban's, Rich- 
borough, Lymne, Burgh, and in most other similar works; 
and pounded tile does not enter into the composition of 
the mortar. There are, however, four bonding courses of 
red sand-stone, which, when new, would show like tiles 
(the rest being lime-stone); but now, from lichens and 
weather stains, the external surface of the whole wall 
appears of one colour. At Silchester, as at Caerwent, there 
are no tiles in the walls, nor pounded tile in the mortar, 
but the bonding courses are formed, or rather supplied, by 
rough carstone in wide irregular lines. 

The pentagonal towers or buttresses, two sides of the 




CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 255 

most perfect of which are shewn in the annexed cut, are 
also very remarkable, and 
differ in form from all I 
have hitherto had an op- 
portunity of inspecting. 
They are built up against 
the wall, as shewn in our 
cut, and not into it, al- 
though it is probable they 
might have been attached 
at the top. This mode of 
construction is not singu- 
lar. It may be also re- 
marked, that the lowest 
course of stones in the wall projects about six inches. 
This is a feature also common to the w^all of Silch ester, 
and to some others. The stones of this row are the largest, 
many being eighteen inches square ; they decrease in size 
towards the top. At present, about thirty courses remain, 
and the height of the wall yet remaining may be above 
twenty feet, and from ten to twelve feet thick; but, as 
before remarked, they are so inaccessible from the trees 
and shrubs that vegetate upon and around the dismantled 
ruins, that accurate measurements would have been a work 
of more time and labour than I could, during my brief 
visit, afford. I may express a hope, that some of our 
associates in Monmouthshire will use their influence and 
exertions to have these interesting remains cleared of 
the dirt and thickets in which they are embedded and 
hidden. The entire place offers a tempting field for a 
systematic investigation ; it may, indeed, be considered 
almost as unbroken ground, for the discoveries of tessel- 
lated pavements, shafts and capitals of pillars, with other 
remains of buildings, such as are upon record, appear to 
have* been the result of accident, arid were never followed 
up by any regular researches. 

In the preceding paper, by Mr. Seyer, the condition of 
modern Caerwent is described. Many of the cottages 
appear of considerable antiquity, and some may be in part 
those very buildings spoken of by Leland as being newly 
built when he visited this place (temp. Henry VIII). His 
account, though brief, is curious. " Yt was," he says, 



256 



CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 



" sum time a fair and large cyte. The places where the 
iiii gates was, yet appere, and the most part of the wal yet 
standeth, but al to minischyd, and torne. In the lower 
part of the walle toward a little valey standeth yet the 

ruins of a stronge 1 Within and abowt the waulle 

be a xvi or xvii smaul houses for husbondmen of a new 
making, and a paroche chirch of S. Stephyn. In the 
town yet appear paviments of old streates, and yn digging 
they finde foundations of great brykes, Tessallata-pavi- 
menta, et numismata argentea simul et cerea" Itin. v. 5. 
x. 5. The foundations of buildings can still be traced at 
various localities throughout in the interior of the walls, 
and in many places they are but little below the present 
surface of the ground, although the soil has accumulated 
considerably. In and about the church-yard fragments of 
Roman tiles of various kinds are strewed in all direc- 
tions, and in the Great House orchard (east of the church) 
they are found in such quantities that the farmer sup- 
poses them to have been buried as stores for use. Coins 
have been found in great numbers, but I could not learn 
that any extensive collection had been preserved. Mr. 
James Pink, of Bristol, communicated to me a consider- 
able number, chiefly of the Constantine family, with a few 
of Carausius and Allectus, of common types. 

The church forms a conspicuous object in the scenery 
of Caerwent, and is visible at a considerable distance. It 
consists of a high tower, a nave, and a chancel, and had 
once two aisles, for the la- 
teral walls shew traces of 
arches and windows now 
filled up. The tower, door- 
ways, and windows, are of 
the perpendicular period. 

The two sepulchral slabs, 
represented in the annexed 
cut, were found a short time 
since, turned upside down, 
in the church-yard. They 
have been carefully preserv- 
ed by the rev. M. Steel, 
whose polite attention on 

1 This blank was never filled up in the original munuscript. 





CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 257 

the occasion of my visit, I take this opportunity of 
acknowledging. 

To Mr. Steel I am also indebted for information respect- 
ing the discovery of an ancient burial-place, apparently of 
the late Romano-British period, on the left side of the 
high-road from Chepstow, just without the walls of Caer- 
went; and also for impressions of a gold British coin in 
the possession of Miss Lewis, of Portiskewit, found in the 
vicinity of Chepstow. As this coin is a variety of a class 
not hitherto satisfactorily ap- 
propriated, and as its place of 
discovery is authenticated, an 
engraving of it will not be 
unacceptable to the numisma- 
tist, especially as analogous 
coins have been commented on in our Journal by the 
rev. B. Poste, and to his remarks in pages 12 and 13, and 
page 23 et seq. in vol. ii, and to the cuts there given, refer- 
ence for comparison is directed. 

Caerleon, distant about eight miles from Caerwent, is 
inferior to no place in the importance due to its antiquities. 
Built apparently at the same period, and upon the same 
plan as Caerwent, it far exceeded its neighbour in extent 
and populousness, and in its public buildings. The remains 
of the city wall are by no means so extensive as those of 
Caerwent, for as the town never sank into ruin, successive 
generations have taken advantage of its ancient mural 
defences and levelled the greater part for building materials. 
But from the vestiges that remain to our own times, it is 
evident that the Roman city had extended itself far beyond 
the bounds of the wall, and its suburbs on the opposite 
side of the river Usk are indicated by the term ultra 
pontem, still applied to the modern village. Tradition 
assigns a circumference of nine miles to the Roman city ; 
and this extent may not be considered too wide of the 
mark, if we allow it to embrace the villas, which it has 
been well ascertained were plentifully scattered around it. 
Coxe 1 states, that as he walked along the banks of the 
Usk, beyond the Bear-house field, near half a mile to the 
west of the town, he observed great quantities of Roman 
bricks and hollow tiles; and that foundations have been 

1 " Historical Tour in Monmouthshire." London. 4to. 1801. 



258 CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 

found in the elevated grounds to the north and north-west 
of the walls, particularly beyond Goldcroft common. At 
Bulmore, a hamlet on the banks of the Usk, upwards of a 
mile from Caerleon, are the remains of villas which have 
not yet been excavated. Here was found a walled ceme- 
tery, which contained eight stones with inscriptions; it is 
probable others are yet concealed beneath the soil; and, 
without doubt, many have gone towards the repair of the 
neighbouring road, as within the memory of persons still 
living, it was no uncommon occurrence to pick up along 
the line of the highway fragments of stones with letters 
carved upon them. In the parish church of Kemys, a 
village two miles distant, an inscription was found on a 
stone used for the support of the font. All of these monu- 
ments appear to have been erected to the memory of 
soldiers of the second legion, or to members of their fami- 
lies. These are included in the valuable collection of 
inscriptions (upwards of thirty) brought together by Mr. 
J. E. Lee, and published in 1845. To these may be added 
the following, recently found near the town, with a great 
variety of sepulchral remains, during excavations for the 
South Wales railway: 1 



D M 

AVBELIVSHERCVLA 
NVS.AEQVESVIXITAN 
NOS.XXVII1CON1VXF 
ACIENDVMCVEAV1 
T 



Since my visit, I am informed by Mr. Lee, that another 
has been discovered, which he will shortly lay before the 
Caerleon Antiquarian Association an institution recently 
founded by Mr. Lee and his friends. All of these inscrip- 
tions are valuable, and many of historical importance ; and 
when it is considered Caerwent has not furnished one, and 
that many other sites of celebrated towns arid cities are in 
this respect almost equally barren, the antiquary must 
admit the claim of Caerleon to his especial consideration, 
and applaud the zeal and good taste which are now 
combined in exertions to secure for it a museum of 
local antiquities in which they may be deposited. It 

1 " Delineations of Roman Antiqui- bourhood," a notice of which was 
ties found at Caerleon and its neigh- given in vol. i of the Journal, p. 370-1. 



CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 259 

would exceed the limits of this report to discuss the points 
of interest presented by these monuments. But two, 
lately restored to the town after an absence of nearly two 
centuries, may be referred to. The one is a votive tablet 
for the health of Severus and his sons Caracalla and Geta, 
by two persons who also erected an altar to the goddess 
Salus (Saluti Regince]\ which altar, about three years 
since, was dug up in the church-yard. The other records 
the restoration of the temple of Diana. A Temple-street 
still exists, and the town-hall (now pulled down) was sup- 
ported by four Roman columns of the Tuscan order, which 
probably belonged to some temple. It is also recorded that 
a statue of the goddess was found many years since. 

The glowing description of Giraldus Cambrensis, who 
in the twelfth century was an eye-witness and a rather close 
observer of what he saw, causes us to mourn the chilled 
unmoved feelings with which people in the middle ages 
seem to have surveyed the splendid wrecks of ancient art 
by which they were surrounded. In the silence of the 
unappreciating and uninquiring spirit of the times, the 
brief account of Giraldus is a burst of antiquarian enthu- 
siasm extorted by the striking objects, which, in Caer- 
leon, he found before him ; the vestiges of palaces, a 
tower of prodigious size, hot baths, temples, theatres, sub- 
terraneous vaults and aqueducts, stoves for transmitting 
the heat through narrow tubes, are expressions which we 
are warranted in concluding were suggested not by a warm 
imagination, but by remains then in existence. When in 
our own times we have evidence of what has been destroyed 
at Caerleon, we have only to estimate what amount of 
vandalism might be perpetrated in six centuries, and Giral- 
dus's statement may be then easily received as literally 
true, which in fact it appears to be. 

Between the Usk and the south side of the Roman wall, 
the Romans erected many public buildings. There was 
found the fine and interesting inscription, recording the 
restoration of the barracks of the seventh cohort, in the 
time of Valerian and Gallienus, by the pro-praator and 
others of the second legion. Here also has been very 
recently laid open the remains of edifices of a superior 
kind, and also of what appears to have been a temple. 
During my brief stay in Caerleon, I had an opportunity of 

VOL. IV. 34 



260 CAERWENT AND CAEKLEON. 

seeing foundations of considerable extent in the process of 
excavation. The chief apartment was paved with slabs of 
slate, about five feet and a half in length, three feet in 
width, and from one inch and a half to two inches in thick- 
ness. A row of the bases of columns erected upon square 
foundations of tiles and stones ran the length of the floor 
at about nine or ten feet apart ; the shafts of these columns 
were twenty-two inches in diameter, precisely the dimen- 
sions of those of the temple of Sulis Minerva at Bath. 
Adjoining this room, and in the midst of the debris of other 
apartments, was very recently found a fragment of the 
tympanum of a pediment. The centre contains the head 
of Medusa winged and entwined with snakes. It has been 
evidently enclosed within a wreath or some circular orna- 
mentation. To afford a clear notion of this piece of sculp- 
ture, I must direct attention to Lysons's Reliquice Romany 
Part n, where, with other remarkable remains, is figured a 
very similar tympanum and other fragments of a temple of 
Minerva found at Bath ; the head of Medusa of the Bath 
temple was enclosed within two wreaths of oak leaves and 
acorns. These interesting relics alone will give some notion 
of what is still being found at Caerleon, and of the nature 
and number of public buildings of the Roman city : and 
here attention may be drawn to the capstones of a cornice 
mentioned by Coxe, who says they were scarcely inferior 
in elegance of workmanship to the angular cornices in the 
ruins of Palmyra. These, and many other antiquities, have 
disappeared from Caerleon since the time of Coxe. At a 
short distance from the site of the remains spoken of above, 
was discovered, a year or two ago, a room forty feet in 
length, with pavement, hypocaust, and other appendages, 
indicative of its having belonged to a superior class of 
domestic buildings. This room, Mr. John Jenkins, jun., 
the proprietor of the property upon which all these late 
discoveries have been made, was desirous of preserving, 
and kept it open for inspection several months ; but, he 
informed me, it excited no interest, and was only visited, 
during that long period, by three or four individuals. We 
may, however, it is understood, expect that a full and com- 
plete report on these remains, by Mr. Jenkins and Mr. Lee, 
will be laid before the local society, accompanied by copious 
plans and drawings. 



CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 261 

In the immediate neighbourhood of these remains stands 
the Castle Mound, an earthwork three hundred yards in 
circumference at the base, and ninety at the summit. It is 
flanked by the remains of two buttresses, and opposite is a 
platform, the extent and original plan of which is not at 
present to be traced. Between the buttresses appears the 
entrance or doorway, but how the ascent to the summit 
was arranged no judgment can be formed from what meets 
the eye : it is now reached by means of a spiral path : 
neither are there any perceptible vestiges of the tower 
which formerly is said to have crowned the summit, the 
" turrirn giganteum" probably of Giraldus. The buttresses 
and platform are generally supposed to be Norman work, 
but a careful investigation and excavations are much wanted 
to determine the question. That the mound was used as 
the keep of a castle is not improbable ; but it is not at all 
likely that this was its original destination. I am much 
inclined to think it is one of those hill barrows of the 
Roman period, such as we meet with at Bartlow in Essex, 
to which in external appearance it may be compared, 
and also to the Dane John of Canterbury. No authentic 
account of the tower upon the top seems to be preserved, 
neither have we any particulars sufficiently circumstantial 
of attempts to penetrate the interior of the mound ; but the 
following mention by Coxe of the exhumation of Roman 
sepulchral remains in the side of the mound is an important 
fact in relation to the question of the antiquity of the work. 
" Descending from the mount," he states, " and tracing the 
foss, I observed, towards its south-western side, heaps of 
Roman bricks and tiles, which had been recently dug up in 
making foundations. Among these were some fragments 
of large bricks, two feet square, and two inches in thick- 
ness. They formed part of a Roman sarcophagus which 
measured six feet and a half in length ; it was found on the 
side of the mount several feet above the ground. The 
situation of this sarcophagus seems to indicate that the 
lower part of the mount existed in the time of the Romans." 

In a field to the left of the entrance to Caerleon from the 
Caerwent and Newport roads, is an oval cavity, commonly 
known by the name of Arthur's round table. It is about 
two hundred and twenty feet in length, one hundred and 
ninety in breadth, and sixteen in depth, and slopes gra- 



262 CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 

dually from the brink towards the centre. This is probably 
the vestige of an amphitheatre. Donovan, 1 who inspected 
it at the commencement of the present century, states that 
in one of the sides a spot was pointed out to him where some 
stones, supposed to have been part of the seats, were dis- 
covered ; and Coxe quotes a passage in the Secret Memoirs 
of Monmouthshire, asserting, that in 1706, a figure of 
Diana, in alabaster, was dug up near a prodigious founda- 
tion of freestone, on the south side of Arthur's round table, 
which was very wide, and supposed to be one side of a 
Roman amphitheatre. Near this spot, some excavations 
were made a few years since on a limited scale, and founda- 
tions were met with, which I understood, were considered 
to be indicative rather of domestic than public buildings. 
I have before mentioned the valuable inscriptions which 
constitute one of the chief and most interesting features of 
the antiquities of Caerleon. Nearly all of these have refer- 
ence to the second legion ; and in the absence of written 
history, they furnish acceptable, if not copious and con- 
nected, information, relative to the place and its military 
occupation under the Romans. To these must be added 
the less important but useful stamps occurring upon tiles, 
and found in great abundance in and about the town. 
There are three or four varieties of type, their purport 
however being simply Legio Secunda Augusta LEG . u . 
AVG. Richard of Cirencester classes Isca among the nine 
colonial cities of Britain, possessing peculiar rights and 
privileges ; he states moreover that it was held for many 
years by the second or Augustan legion, until it was trans- 
ferred to Valentia and Rhutupis. 2 The Notitia confirms 
this statement of Richard with respect to the latter station, 
where it was probably quartered a short time previous to 
the general withdrawal of the Roman troops from Britain. 
But its removal to Valentia must have been at a much 
earlier period, and probably only for temporary purposes. 
This legion came into Britain in the time of Claudius, and 
in the reigns of Hadrian and Pius was employed in the 
northern parts of the province. But at this period Ptolemy 

1 " Descriptive excursions through 2 In the coin of Postumus, supposed 

South Wales and Monmouthshire." By to read " Exercitus Ysc", the Ysc has 

E. Donovan, F.L.S., in 2 vols., 8vo. no reference to Isca, but is merely Aug 

London, 1805. blundered. 




CAEEWENT AND CAERLEON. 263 

states its chief quarters were at Isca, and as we have also 
the testimony of the Itinerary of Antoninus that Isca was 
the station of the second Augustan legion, we may probably 
not err in concluding that its head quarters were always at 
Isca, and that it was only occasionally marched into the 
north. 

A large quantity of minor objects of Roman art have 
been, and still are being, brought to light at Caerleon, par- 
ticularly during excavations on the property of Mr. J. 
Jenkins, jun. An extensive catalogue of coins, published 
by Mr. Lee, is being daily increased. One of the rarest is 
of Carausius in silver, of the Adventus type. There is also 
a unique third brass of the same emperor, of which, by 
permission of Mr. W. D. Jen- 
kins, the proprietor, I am en- 
abled to give a cut. Obverse, 
Imp CAEAVSIVS p.F.AVg 1 . Re- 
verse, VENVS victrix. Yenus 
leaning on a column, holding 
in her left hand an apple, in her right a palm branch. 
This epigraph frequently occurs on the coins of empresses, 
but very rarely on those of emperors. The more usual 
type exhibits the goddess holding a helmet in one hand and 
the hasta in the other, or holding a figure of victory or a 
globe, with a helmet at her feet. Upon the coins of Julius, 
who affected descent from Venus and Anchises, the god- 
dess, as his tutelary divinity, is often represented, and she 
appears upon the coins of most of the empresses down to a 
late period. But personified, as in the example before us, 
we have only a few instances ; those which occur to me at the 
present moment are upon the coins of Etruscilla and Salo- 
nina. An engraved intaglio, set in a gold 
ring, which has been also discovered at 
Caerleon, and which is likewise in the collec- 
tion of Mr. W. D. Jenkins, has a very neatly- 
executed figure of Venus Victrix depicted, 
as upon the coin, leaning upon a pillar, the 
emblem of security, holding in one hand the apple she re- 
ceived in Mount Ida from Mercury, and in the other a 
palm branch, the symbol of peace, not inaptly illustrative 
of the goddess as addressed by Lucretius, lib. i, v. 30. 




264 CAERWENT AND CAERLEON. 

" Effice ut interea fera mcenera militiai 
Per maria ac terras omnes sopita quiescant. 
Nam tu sola potes tranquilla pace juvare 
Mortales," etc. 

For a long time there has been an outcry against the 
neglect with which the people of Caerleon have regarded 
their antiquities. Donovan, half a century ago, was warm 
in his expressions of disgust at the manner in which these 
ancient remains were trafficked and carried away. Wil- 
liams, the author of a History of Monmouthshire in 1796, 
also exclaims against the abstraction of the antiquities, 
and suggests that a museum be formed at Caerleon, wholly 
devoted to the relics of its ancient magnificence; but up 
to the present day, neither the people of the town nor of 
the county, understood the value of them, or in any way 
tried to ensure their preservation. The honour of estab- 
lishing a local museum, to be confined to the works of 
ancient art discovered in the neighbourhood, is due to 
Mr. John Edward Lee, a gentleman who is not a native of 
the county, and who, until the last few years, was a perfect 
stranger to it. He has set an example worthy the atten- 
tion of other towns, as well those where museums are 
not yet founded, as others where local antiquities hold 
a very unworthy position, and are made subservient to 
foreign matters, to natural productions of common occur- 
rence, and often to mere childish curiosities. 

To Mr. Lee and to Mr. John Jenkins, I was indebted 
for a most hospitable reception during my brief stay at 
Caerleon. 1 c. ROACH SMITH. 

1 My landlady at the Hanbury Arms Coxe and Hoare, she said, usually 

well remembered the visits of Coxe, commenced their researches at four 

sir R. C. Hoare, Donovan, and Manby, o'clock in the morning in summer 

to Caerleon, nearly half a century ago. time ! 



265 



ON THE MANUFACTURE OF IRON IN BRITAIN 
BY THE ROMANS. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE WORCESTER CONGRESS. 



, speaking of the natural productions of Britain, 
says : " Nascitur ibi plumbum album in mediterraneis re- 
gionibus, in maritimis^eTTwm ; sed ejus exigua est copia" 1 
This limited knowledge of the mineral riches of the country 
is excusable in one who only paid it two brief visits, and 
those in the capacity of an invader, which would almost 
necessarily render his observations, in more senses than 
one, superficial. The expression of the ancient Hebrew 
writer respecting the Land of Promise, " A land whose 
stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig 
brass," would have been far more appropriate. 

That the inhabitants of this island were to some extent 
skilled in the working of iron, previously to the advent of 
Ca3sar, may be inferred from the partial advancement they 
had made in the arts of civilized life, the subjugation of 
the horse, the use of chariots, and other collateral circum- 
stances, as well as from the expression of Caesar, " they 
use imported brass" (cere utuntur importato), implying 
that their iron was of home manufacture. Their currency 
appears to have been partially of this metal : " They use 
either brass or iron rings, 2 adjusted to a certain weight, 
for money." 

But waiving the discussion of the question, whether iron 
was actually manufactured in Britain previously to the 
Roman period, we have indubitable evidence that the 
Romans were well acquainted with the subterranean 
wealth of the island. Tacitus tells us, that Britain pro- 
duces gold, silver, and other metals ; and Pliny alludes to 
the smelting of iron in this province; while Solinus not 
only mentions the British iron, but specifies the agri- 
cultural and other implements manufactured from it in 
his time. 

I know not upon what grounds our commentators upon 

1 De Bell. Gall. lib. v, cap. 12. lies, little thin staves of the metal, and 

2 " Annulis ferreis"; some eommen- this may be a preferable reading, but it 
tators read " taleis ferreis", iron tal- does not affect niy argument either way. 



266 MANUFACTURE OF IKON. 

Caesar make his plumbum album, tin, instead of common 
lead. "We know that pigs of lead bearing Roman stamps 
have been occasionally met with. Sir R. Murchison is of 
opinion, that the one in the possession of Mr. More, of 
Linley Hall, county Salop, found in the vicinity of that 
gentleman's lead-works, and marked IMP. ADRIAN: AVG, was 
the produce of the neighbouring mines ; one portion of 
which " distinguished from those of modern date by the 
smallness of the drifts, and the avoiding of those knots 
which now give way before gunpowder" is still designated 
the Roman vein, and mining tools, evidently Roman, have 
occasionally been found in the galleries. 1 But this by 
the way. 

As the indicia, upon the earth's surface, of iron beneath, 
are much more obvious than those of lead, it is evident 
that the former metal would have attracted the attention 
of the Romans sooner than the latter. But it is difficult 
to ascertain precisely when the working of it commenced, 
although I hope to be able presently to show strong pro- 
babilities that the iron-works of the south of Britain were 
in existence in the first century of the Christian era. 

According to Scrivener's History of the Iron Trade, 
the forest of Dean contains immense beds of cinders, the 
refuse of the Roman forges. The same authority mentions 
the discovery, in 1762, about four miles north of Bolston 
Gaer, of a coin of Antoninus Pius, and a piece of fine Roman 
earthenware, under a large bed of cinders. The vessel 
alluded to, which was unfortunately broken by the work- 
men, " was charged with greyhounds, hares, etc." and was 
probably of the ware denominated Samian. " In York- 
shire and other counties," adds Mr. Scrivener, " cinders 
have also been discovered, accompanied with coins ; all 
which evince the frequency of iron-foundries during the 
period of the Roman reign in Britain." Musgrave 2 says, 
" as regards iron, it is manifest that in the times of the 
ancients it was produced in the country of the Silures and 
melted in furnaces, which the half-burnt ashes to be seen 
at this day in great abundance, and the altar of Calpurnius, 
raised to Jupiter Dolichenus, as protector of iron-works, in 
our time in a state of ruin, testify." Another altar to the 

1 Silurian System, 1839, p. 279. 

2 Belg. Brit. cap. xiii, 4, quoted by Scrivener. 



MANUFACTUKE OF IRON. 267 

same deity was found at Ben well, county of Northumber- 
land, the Condercum of the Romans; 1 and Williams 2 states 
that the Romans introduced iron-foundries, in Siluria, at 
Monmouth, Hadnoch, Keven Pwlldw, and other parts of 
Monmouthshire. 

That the rich ferruginous strata of the south-east of 
England, included in the vast tract then designated Sylva 
Anderida, and now known as the Wealds of Sussex, Kent, 
and Surrey, could long escape the observation of so inqui- 
sitive a people as the Romans was impossible; yet I am 
not aware that any positive proof of this, in the shape 
either of archaeological remains, or of historical record, has 
hitherto been adduced. I beg therefore to submit to the 
notice of the Association, a brief account of some recent 
discoveries in Sussex, which appear to me satisfactorily to 
prove that the Romans had extensive'iron-works there, at 
an early period of their dominion in Britain. 

The scoriae, or cinders, of the disused forges of this part 
of the country have long been employed as an excellent 
material for the repair of roads ; and it was in digging for 
them on Old Land farm, in the parish of Maresfield, about 
twelve miles north of Lewes, that the discoveries alluded to 
were made. In 1844, the rev. Edward Turner, rector of 
the parish, accidentally observed a piece of Roman pottery 
upon a lump of cinders lying ready for use by the road- 
side ; and, his curiosity being excited by the circumstance, 
he visited the spot from which the latter had been procured, 
and on that and subsequent occasions collected from the 
workmen a variety of Roman remains. 

The field in which the discoveries occurred, contains a 
vast bed of cinders some acres in extent, the accumulation 
of ages. " In the centre of this field," observes Mr. Tur- 
ner, "at or near its highest point, I discovered that a few 
days before my first visit, the labourers had opened a sort 
of grave about twelve feet in depth, at the bottom of which 
was a considerable quantity of broken Roman pottery, 
both of the coarser and the finer sort. The grave had 
been formed in this way : the ground had been excavated, 
first, through about one foot of earth, then through two 
feet of cinders, and lastly, through about eight or nine 

3 Wallis's "Natural History of Northumberland," vol. i, p. 118. 

4 " Historj' of Monmouthshire." 

VOL. IV. 35 



268 MANUFACTURE OF IEON. 

feet of earth. It had, however, been filled up again entirely 
with cinders." 

Mr. Barratt, the surveyor, who has the direction of the 
labourers, informs me that he has seen several skeletons 
exhumed from the cinder-bed, and that the bodies had 
evidently been buried in it as in common soil. I have no 
means of ascertaining whether these remains were accom- 
panied with pottery, coins, or other articles of Roman 
fabrication at any rate they had not received Christian 
burial. If, as I conjecture, they were the remains of 
Roman artizans who smelted the ore on this spot, we must 
conclude that the works were carried on for a long series 
of years : for a recently-formed cinder-bed would scarcely 
have been selected as a place of sepulture. 

So immensely numerous are the remains of the pottery, 
that scarcely a single barrow-load of cinders can be ex- 
amined that does not contain several fragments of it. 
Hardly any of the vessels have been found entire, a cir- 
cumstance easily accounted for by the weight of the cinders, 
which would readily crush articles of so fragile a kind. 
Mr. Barratt has a small piece of Samian ware which is 
nearly perfect; it is a shallow cup with a foot (the rim 
adorned with the ivy-leaf pattern), and measures three 
inches and three-quarters in diameter. 

The following are the principal objects which have been 
observed : 

i. Many coins in first brass of Nero and Vespasian, par- 
ticularly the latter, and an oxidized fragment of one of 
Dioclesian. Most of these are badly preserved ; and some 
others, having undergone the action of fire, cannot be 
identified. 

ii. Portions of fibulae and armillaB. I have a good 
bronze fibula nearly perfect. 

in. Fragments of Samian pottery of the ordinary types. 
Two of those in my possession have potters' marks OF 
MIRAVI and "IVAN. 

iv. Fragments of coarse fictile ware, mortaria, and the 
like : one marked IVCVNDVS. 

v. Fragments of glass. 

vi. Pieces of sheet lead, full of nail holes, with fragments 
of wood adhering to them. 

vn. Much broken brick or tile. 



MANUFACTURE OF IRON. 269 

viii. An instrument of mixed metal, probably a stylus 
(in the possession of Mr. Barratt). 

It is greatly to be regretted that the cinder-digging had 
been carried on for five years or more before this acci- 
dental discovery was made, and that numbers of coins and 
other relics had, during that time, been thrown away by the 
labourers, who were totally ignorant of their value, and 
who are unable to give any satisfactory account of them. 
A discovery, which might have proved of great value had 
a competent observer been at hand, was made on the spot 
so far back as 1842 or 1843; namely, that of the founda- 
tions, rudely constructed of stone, of a building measuring 
thirty feet by twelve, and covered with cinders to the 
depth of about six feet. This had been removed, and the 
ground re-levelled, before Mr. Turner's attention was called 
to this interesting spot. 

Mr. Turner agrees with myself, that the era of the com- 
mencement of these works may be fixed at the time of 
Vespasian, or his successor, Titus, when Agricola began 
to promote the arts of civilization in this province with 
diligence and success. Iron- works existed in the immediate 
vicinity of these discoveries until within the last century ; 
and it is not improbable that the manufacture had been 
carried on, without much intermission, from Roman times 
to the discontinuance of the trade in this part of the 
island. The district was, and still is, particularly rich in 
ore; and it may be interesting to mention, in connexion 
with this subject, that the first cannon cast in this country 
was the production of Ralph Hoge and Peter Baude, who 
resided in the adjacent parish of Buxted, temp. Hen. VIII. 

M. A. LOWER. 



Since the foregoing was written, Mr. Mercer, of Sedles- 
combe, in this county, has informed me of two other sites 
of iron -works where Roman coins have been found ; viz., 
at Sedlescombe and at Westfield. Mr. M. shewed me two 
pieces in large brass, so much corroded that identification 
was out of the question. The scoriae still contain much 
metal, a proof that the Romans were not very skilful in 
smelting. I have remarked the same thing at Maresfield. 



270 



ON THE 

STATE OF THE WALLS, FORTIFICATIONS, AND 

DITCH, OF THE CITY OF WORCESTER, 

IN 1768. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE "WORCESTER CONGRESS. 

BEING unable to attend the Congress at Worcester, by 
reason of pressing engagements in London and elsewhere, 
I am desirous of contributing a mite of information respect- 
ing one of the most obvious objects of inquiry to an anti- 
quary, when visiting an ancient city. When I was there 
in 1839 and 1840, I observed but small remains of the 
city wall ; and these, no doubt, will be viewed by the 
members of the Association, to whom the fact of their dis- 
mantling, after the siege of Worcester, in the civil wars of 
Charles I, must be well known. The document, which I 
have the honour of communicating, not only attests this 
fact, but states that, so long ago as the year 1768, there 
were " very few traces" of the fortifications then remain- 
ing. The original document is written on parchment, 
and sealed with the common seal of the city on a wafer 
between paper, on a parchment label : it was found only 
a few days ago, among the old miscellaneous documents 
removed from the Treasury chambers to the Rolls house, 
\and purports to have originated in application then being 
made, by the magistrates of the county, to obtain a grant 
of the site of those fortifications from the crown. The 
city asserted its claim hereby, and, I suppose, remains in 
possession. I cannot find any trace of the transaction in 
the Treasury records in my charge ; and it does not appear 
that any minute was ever made at the Treasury board on 
the subject. The document serves therefore, at this time, 
not only as evidence of right by long possession ; but it 
furnishes a link in the chain of history, relative to the 
external defences of the city of Worcester, almost midway 
between the time of their dismantling, and their present 
state. 



STATE OF THE WALLS, ETC. OF WORCESTER. 271 

To the Right Honourable the Lord Commissioners of his 
Majesty's Treasury. 

The memorial of the mayor, aldermen, and citizens, of the city of 
Worcester, in councel assembled. 

Sheweth, That your memorialists are greatly surprized to hear that 
application is making to your lordships by the justices of the county of 
Worcester, not only for a grant of certain lands in the county of Wor- 
cester, but also of the scite of the ancient fortifications in and about the 
city of Worcester, with the ramparts, fosses, ditches, and other wast 
grounds belonging to the crown, and now (as is alleged) lying useless and 
unprofitable, both to the crown and the publick, but capable of being 
improved and made beneficial to both. 

Your memorialists therefore most humbly beg leave to represent to 
your lordships, that the city of Worcester is a very ancient and populous 
city, and a county of itself, distinct and separate from the county of Wor- 
cester at large ; and that your memorialists and their predecessors have 
for several centuries last past, held, used, and enjoyed divers liberties, 
franchises, messuages, lands, tenements, commons, wasts, wast grounds, 
soils, pourprestures, and other rights, privil edges, and immunities, within 
the said city, as well as by various charters to their said predecessors, 
granted and confirmed by several kings and queens of this realm, as also 
by divers prescriptions and customs in the same city, used and approved 
by the said charters, from time to time confirmed and established. 

That your memorialists apprehend it is indubitable that the ancient 
fortifications and walls of this city were originally built by the citizens 
thereof for their security and defence, and that the same were constantly 
repaired, held, and enjoyed by them, until the greatest part therof were 
demolished at the time of the civil wars of this kingdom, subject to the 
special power in the crown to garrison troops in the said city, and to 
occupy the fortifications for the defence thereof, as the exigency of publick 
affairs and the safety of the kingdom required. 

That ever since the said fortifications were demolished (of which there 
are few traces now remaining), your memorialists and their predecessors 
and tenants have peaceably held, enjoyed, and repaired the remains thereof, 
and kept in order the ditches, and improved the wast lands within the 
said city, so that the same in general are now in a cultivated state, and 
not useless and unprofitable. And your memorialists humbly apprehend 
and insist they have a right to hold and enjoy the same. 

Wherefore, your memorialists humbly beg leave to remonstrate against 
any grant to be made by the crown to any persons whatsoever in prejudice 
to your memorialists' claims and right to the scite of the ancient fortifica- 
tions, with the ramparts, fosses, ditches, and other wast grounds within 



272 DISCOVERY OF ROMAN COINS 

the city of Worcester. And humbly pray that no order may be made for 
a grant thereof. And that your memorialists may have notice of any 
further proceedings that shall be taken in order to obtain such grant, and 
have liberty to oppose the same, and to be heard by themselves or their 
councel, in such a manner as to your lordships shall seem meet. 

In witness whereof, your memorialists have hereto put their common 
seal, this 23rd day of March, in the year of our Lord 1768. 

(L.S.) 

Indorsed : " Worcester. The memoriall of the mayor, aldermen, and 
citizens, of the city of Worcester, to the Lords of the Treasury. 

" Wilmot, Bloomsbury-Square." 

W. H. BLACK. 

London, 13th Aug. 1848. 



ON THE DISCOVERY OF FOUR HUNDRED 

ROMAN COINS IN THE ISLAND 

OF JERSEY. 

CONTRIBUTED TO THE WORCESTER CONGRESS. 

IT may not be unknown to many of our members, that a 
large tract of land in the island of Jersey presents to the eye 
of the visitor a mere assemblage of sandy hillocks, dry, 
barren, and valueless. This accumulation of sand rises over 
the highest grounds, as well as the western plains beneath. 
This district is known by the name of Les Quenvais a 
term variously explained : by one it is, owing to its exposed 
situation, where the silt becomes the sport of every wind 
and storm which prevails on the Atlantic side of the island ; 
by the other, it signifies a fruitful and cultivated land. 
Its present barrenness and sad change are attributed to a 
judgment of the Almighty; and, like many similar natural 



IN THE ISLAND OF JERSEY. 273 

alterations of soil and surface, a firm belief has obtained 
among the inhabitants of this neighbourhood, that it was 
an act of Divine vengeance for some national cruelty or 
infringement of a righteous commandment. 

Be this as it may, the sandy district is fast recovering 
its value, through the improved state of agriculture, and 
the enterprise of intelligent farmers. It exhibits some of 
those features recognizable in various places on this coast 
of the continent, and the Channel islands. 

The date assigned to this devastation of silted sand is 
the close of the fifteenth century. There is, however, 
reason to believe that it belongs to that period when the 
western coast of Europe was more than usually acted upon 
by the winds of the Atlantic, by which the sea on that 
coast broke through its original embankments and de- 
stroyed the low lands which skirted the ocean. 

In the course of our archaBological researches we have 
frequently been drawn to the consideration of the changes 
of surface from the early Celtic period to that which may 
be called recent, although more properly termed medieval. 
By a series of sections, the accumulation of sand bears 
marks of several inundations, quite distinct in their appear- 
ance, and varying somewhat in their directions. The soil 
and clay beneath this sandy mass exhibit Koman vestiges 
of pottery and other articles, so that we cannot be far 
wrong in attributing the change in this supposed fertile 
district to a period not far removed from the Roman sub- 
jugation of western Europe. 

Fragments of Roman pottery from beneath the sandy 
hillocks of Les Quenvais, in the possession of colonel Le 
Couteur, of Jersey, aide-de-camp to her majesty, present 
indubitable marks of the possession of this district by those 
conquerors. And as if a further proof were wanting, in 
February last, ajar, of coarse earthenware, which contained 
four hundred brass coins in excellent state of preserva- 
tion, was dug out from the substratum, where it may 
have been lodged at the time of the Roman occupation 
of Jersey. 

The following list of the coins will probably be interest- 
ing to our numismatic friends : 



274 



DISCOVERY OF ROMAN COINS 



CONSTANTINE. 28 varieties. 



Var. 1. 
Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. Avo. Head 

laureated ; armour on shoulders. 
Rev. MARTI . CONSERVATORI. Head of 

Mars to the left. 1 

Var. 2. 
Obv. IMP. CONSTANTINVS. p.p.AVG. Head 

etc. as the preceding. 
Rev. As Var. 1. 

Var. 3. 

Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Helmet- 
ed head to the right. 

Rev. SOLI . INVICTO . COMITI. A figure 
standing undraped, head radiated ; 
right hand raised, holding a patera, 
in the left a globe ; left shoulder 
draped ; in the field S.P., in the 
exergue P.L.N. 

Var. 4. 
Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Laure- 

ated head ; armour on shoulders. 
Rev. SOLI . INVICTO . COMITI. Radiated 

head of Apollo or the sun. 

Var. 5. 
Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Laure- 

ated head ; bust in armour. 
Rev. CONCORD . MILIT. A draped figure, 

helmeted, and holding a military 

standard in each hand ; in the field 

a star ; in exergue PLN. 

Var. 6. 
Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Head 

laureated ; armour on shoulders. 
Rev. PRINCIPI . JUVENTUTIS. A figure 

standing draped, holding a military 

standard in each hand ; in the field 

a star ; in exergue PLN. 

Var. 7. 

Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Head 
laureated ; armour on shoulders. 

Rev. PRINCIPI . JUVENTUTIS. A figure 
standing draped ; right hand holding 
a javelin across his body, in the act 
of thrusting; left hand holding a 
globe ; in left field a star ; in exergue 
PLN. 

Var. 8. 

Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Head 
laureated ; armour on shoulders. 

Rev. MARTI. CONSERVATORI. A draped 
figure standing, helmeted; right arm 
raised, holding a spear or javelin, 



point downwards ; left resting a 
shield at his feet ; in the field a 
star; in exergue PLN. 
Var. 9. 

Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Head 
laureated ; armour on shoulders. 

Rev. PRINCIPI . JUVENTUTIS. A figure 
standing, draped ; left arm raised, 
holding a javelin, point downwards ; 
in right hand a globe ; in the right 
field a star ; in exergue PLN. 

Var. 10. 

Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Head 
laureated ; armour on shoulders. 

Rev. CONCORD . MILIT. A figure stand- 
ing, draped, holding a military stan- 
dard in each hand ; in the right field 
a star ; in exergue PLN. (This is a 
variety of No. 5.) 

Var. 11. 

Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Head 
laureated ; armour on shoulders. 

Rev. COMITI. AVG G.NN. A figure stand- 
ing, draped ; head radiated ; a globe 
in right hand ; in left a whip ; in the 
right field a star ; in exergue PLN. 

Var. 12. 
Obv. IMP . CONSTANTINVS . AVG. Head 

laureated ; armour on shoulders. 
Rev. SOLI . INVICTO . COMITI. A figure 

standing, half draped; head radiated; 

right hand raised, holding a patera ; 

in left a globe; in the field S.P.; in 

exergue PLN. 

Var. 13. 
Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Head 

laureated ; armour on shoulders. 
Rev. SOLI . INVICTO COMITI. A figure 

standing, half draped; head radiated; 

right hand raised, holding a patera ; 

in left a globe ; in the right field a 

star ; in exergue PLN. 

Var. 14. 
Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Head 

laureated ; armour on shoulders. 
Rev. SOLI . INVICTO . COMITI. A figure 

standing, as above; in left field a 

star ; in exergue PLN. 

Var. 15. 
Obv. IMP. CONSTANTINVS. P. AVG. Head, 

etc., as the former. 
Rev. SOLI . INVICTO . COMITI. In the 

field S.F. ; in exergue PLN. 



The lineaments of Constantine are to be recognized in this effigy of Mars. 



IN THE ISLAND OF JERSEY. 



275 



Var. 16. 

Obv. IMP . CONSTANTINVS . AVG. Head, 
etc., and rev. as the former ; in the 
field T.F. 

Var. 17. 

Obv. IMP. CONSTANTINVS. P.F.AVG. Head, 
etc , and rev. same as the former. 

Var. 18. 

Obv. IMP. CONSTANTINVS. P.P. AVG. Head 
laureated ; armour on shoulders. 

Rev. GENIO . POP. KOM. A figure stand- 
ing, draped ; a modius on the head ; 
right hand holding a patera down- 
wards ; in left a cornucopia : in 
exergue PIN. 

Var. 19. 
Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.P. AVG. Head 

laureated ; armour on shoulders. 
Rev. SOLI . INVICTO . COMITI. A figure 

standing, half draped; head radiated; 

right hand raised, holding a patera ; 

left a globe; in the field T.F. ; in 

exergue PTR. 

Var. 20. 

Obv. IMP . CONSTANTINVS . AVG. Head, 
etc., and rev. same as former. 

Var. 21. 

Obv. CONSTANTINVS . P.F. AVG. Head, 
etc., same as former ; in the field S.F.; 
in exergue P.L.C. 



Var. 22. 

IMP . CONSTANTINUS . AVG. Head, etc., 
same as former. 

Var. 23. 

IMP . CONSTANTINVS . P.F. AVG. Head, 

etc., same as former. 
Var. 24. 

IMP . CONSTANTINVS P.F. AVG. Head, 

etc., same as former; F.T. in field. 

Var. 25. 

CONSTANTINVS . p. F. AVG. Head, etc., 
same as former; S.P. in the field; 
exergue MSL. 

Var. 26. 

IMP . CONSTANTINVS . AVG. Head, etc., 
same as the former ; S.P. in field. 

Var. 27. 

IMP . CONSTANTINVS . P . AUG. Head, etc., 
as the former ; S.P. in field ; exergue, 
MLN. 

Var. 28. 

Obv. IMP . CONSTANTINVS . AVG. Head 
laureated, armour on shoulders. 

Rev. GENIO . POP. KOM. Figure standing 
draped, right holding a patera down- 
wards ; in left, a cornucopia ; S.P. in 
field; exergue, MLN. 



LICINIUS. 4 varieties. 



Var. 1. 

Obv. IMP . LICINIVS .P.F. AVG. Head 
laureated, armour on shoulders. 

Rev. GENIO . POP. BOM. A figure stand- 
ing, draped, head with a modius, right 
hand holding a patera, left a cornu- 
copia. A star in left field ; in exer- 
gue, PLN. 

Var. 2. 

IMP . LICINIVS .P.F. AVG. Head, etc., 
as the former ; S.F. in field. 



Var. 3. 
Obv. IMP . LICINIUS .P.P. AVG. Head, 

etc., as the former. 
Rev. Head of figure, radiated ; T.F. in 

field ; exergue, PTB. 

Var. 4. 
As the former ; B.S. in the field. 



MAXIMINUS. 3 varieties. 



Var. 1. 
Obv. IMP. MAXIMINVS.P.F.AVG. Head 

laureated, armour on shoulders. 
Rev. GENIO . POP. BOM. Figure standing 
half-draped, head radiated, in right 
hand a patera, in left a cornucopia ; 
star in right field ; exergue, PLN. 

Var. 2. 
As former. T.F. infield; exergue, PTB. 

VOL. IV. 



Var. 3. 

Obv. IMP.MAXIMINVS .P.F. AVG. Head 
laureated, armour on shoulders (dif- 
fering from the former). 

Rev. SOLI . INVICTO . COMITI. A figure 
standing, resembling the former, right 
hand raising a patera, left a globe. 
Exergue, MOSTT. 



276 



DISCOVERY OF ROMAN COINS, ETC. 



MAXIMIANUS. 2 varieties. 



Var. 1. 

Obv. IMP.MAXIMIANVS.P.F.AVG. Head 
laureated, armour on shoulders. 

Rev. GENIO . POP. BOM. A figure stand- 
ing, head radiated, right hand hold- 
ing a patera downwards ; in left a 
cornucopia. 



Var. 2. 

Obv. IMP . MAXIMIANO . p . F . s. AVG. Head 
laureated, armour on shoulders. 

Rev. GENIO. POP, ROM. Figure standing 
half-draped; upon the head a modius; 
right hand holding a patera down- 
wards, in left a cornucopia ; exergue, 

PLN. 

F. C. LUKIS. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE CONTENTS OF A 
SAXON BARROW, 

RECENTLY OPENED IN DERBYSHIRE, BY MR. BATEMAN. 
COMMUNICATED TO THE WORCESTER CONGRESS. 

ON May 3rd, 1848, it was our good fortune to open a 
barrow, which afforded a more curious variety of relics, 
than has ever been previously discovered in this county. 

The tumulus, which is at Benty Grange, near Monyash, 
is of no considerable elevation, perhaps two feet at the 
highest point, but is spread out over a pretty large area, 
and is surrounded by a small trench. 

About the centre, and upon the surface of the natural 
soil, was laid the only body contained in the barrow, of 

which not a vestige could 
be distinguished besides the 
hair of the head, of course 
excepting the articles de- 
posited along with the in- 
terment. Near the place 
which, from the presence of 
hair, was judged to be the 
situation of the head, was 
found a curious assemblage 
of ornaments, which, from 
the peculiar nature of the 
Fjg j soil, it was impossible to 




CONTENTS OF A SAXON BARROW. 



277 




remove with any degree of success. Of these, the most 
remarkable (fig. 1), are portions of silver binding and 
ornaments from a leather cup, about three inches in 
diameter at the mouth, which was decorated by four 
wheel-shaped pieces, and two small crosses of silver, affixed 
by pins, which were clenched on the inside. The other 
articles found in the same situation are principally per- 
sonal ornaments, of the 
same scroll-pattern as 
those figured at page 25 
of the Vestiges of the An- 
tiquities of Derbyshire ; 
of these (fig. 2) ena- 
mels, there were two 
upon copper, with silver 
frames ; and another of 
some composition which 
fell to dust almost im- 
mediately: the prevail- 
ing colour in all is 
yellow. There was also 
a knot of fine wire, and 
a quantity of what may be termed braiding, some appa- 
rently of carved bone, and some of a friable composition : 
this apparently was attached to silk, or, if not attached, 
had lain in contact with it, as the glossy fibre of silk was 
very evident at first. 

Proceeding westward from the head, at about six feet 
distance, a large mass of oxydized iron was perceived, 
which, being removed with the utmost care, and having 
been washed and joined, now presents the framework of 
a helmet, and an assemblage of chainwork (fig. 3). The 
helmet has been formed of ribs of iron radiating from the 
crown of the head, and covered with narrow plates of 
horn, running in a diagonal direction from the ribs, so as 
to form a herring-bone pattern ; the ends were secured by 
strips of horn, radiating in like manner as the iron ribs, 
to which they were riveted at intervals of about an inch 
and a-half : all the rivets had ornamented heads of silver 
on the outside, and on the front rib is a small cross of the 
same metal. Upon the top, or crown of the helmet, is an 
elongated oval brass plate, upon which stands the figure 



Fig. 2. a. and 6. Enamelled ornaments. 

and d. Bone ditto. 



278 



CONTENTS OF A SAXON BARROW. 



of an animal, carved in iron, now much rusted, but still a 

very good represen- 
tation of a pig : it has 
bronze eyes. 

There are also many 
smaller decorations, 
abounding in rivets, 
which have pertained 
to the helmet, but 
which it is impossi- 
ble to assign to their 
proper places, as is al- 
so the case with some 
small iron buckles. 

The chainwork be- 
fore-mentioned, con- 
sists of a large quan- 
tity of links, of two 
descriptions, attached 
to each other by small 
rings (fig. 4) half an 
inch in diameter : one 
kind is flat and lo- 
zenge-shaped, about 
one inch and a-half in length ; those of the other sort are 
all of one pattern, but of different lengths, varying 
from four to ten inches ; they are simply pieces of 
square rod iron, with perforated ends, through which 
are passed the rings connecting them with the 
diamond-shaped links. Along with these was a six- 
pronged instrument similar to a hay fork ; with the 
difference, that the tang, which in a fork is inserted 
into the shaft, is in this instance flattened and folded 
over, so as to form a small loop as for suspension. 
All the iron articles, except this and the helmet, 
were amalgamated together from the effects of rust ; 
they also present traces of cloth over a great part of 
their surface, it is therefore not improbable that 
they may have originally constituted some kind of fig. 4. 
defensive armour by being sewn upon or within a doublet. 
This view of the case is, moreover, strengthened by the 
varied lengths of the long links, and the uniform length 
of the diamond-shaped separating links. 




Fig. 3. a. The cross, on a larger scale, seen in its position 
at 6 ; c. and d. Details of helmet, buckles, etc. 



CONTENTS OF A SAXON BAREOW. 279 

The peculiarly corrosive nature of the soil has been 
slightly alluded to, and it will be here in place to state, 
that such is generally the case where these more important 
Saxon burials have taken place in this county, whilst 
Celtic interments are mostly found in good condition. 
This is to be accounted for, to a certain extent, by the 
fact, that the soil in the Saxon barrows of Derbyshire has 
undergone a tempering and mixing, which is very obvious 
to all engaged in opening them : the earth being divided 
into layers by thin veins of an ochry substance, resulting 
from the admixture of some liquid which cannot now be 
distinguished. 

ADDITIONAL NOTES. 

For antiquities bearing on those here described, see, for Enamels, 
Journal of the Archceological Institute, vol. ii,p. 162 ; Archceologia, vol. ix, 
p. 189. 

Crosses, Douglas's Nenia, pp. 68-86 ; Archceological Album, p. 206 ; 
Archceological Journal, vol. i, p. 317; and Vestiges of the Antiquities of 
Derbyshire, p. 20. 

Helmet, something similar in Institute Journal, vol. iii, p. 352 ; also 
alluded to in Beowulf, quoted in Archceological Album, p. 200. , 

Iron mail, -is also mentioned in the same poem. 

Saxon hair, Douglas's Nenia, pp. 56-7, 89-90. 

The boar was sacrificed to Freya by the pagan Saxons, and was a 
prominent animal in the mythology of the northern tribes ; see Keightly. 

T. B. 



280 



ON A ROMAN MEDICINE STAMP AND OTHER 
OBJECTS FOUND AT KENCHESTER. 

DUKING our late Congress at Worcester, some Roman 
antiquities, found at Kenchester in Herefordshire, were 
exhibited by one of our members, Mr. R. Johnson, of 
Hereford. Since the meeting, the same gentleman has 
communicated to me impressions from a quadrilateral 
seal or stamp from the same locality, which is of such 
unusual occurrence in this country, and in itself so curious 
and interesting, that a few observations in explanation of 
its use and character may not be unacceptable ; and at 
the same time I will draw attention to the other objects, 
which, as I observed, had been previously submitted to us. 

It is not exclusively to those grand monuments of 
antiquity which furnish models of art, or to those which 
serve the loftier objects of history, that the archaeologist 
should direct his inquiries. He will not neglect those 
humbler monuments which, unimposing as they may seem 
to be, frequently disclose curious and useful instruction, 
make known or illustrate the social manners and usages 
of the ancients, and afford an insight into the details of 
their domestic life. Of such a class is the stamp before us. 

Our cut exhibits two of the inscribed sides of the stone, 
with the letters incuse 
and retrograde ; and 
below, the two other 
sides as stamped upon 
wax. Above, is the 
word SENIOR, the first 
three letters of which 
are repeated on the 
lower surface, and may 
probably stand for the 
name of the owner of 
the stone at some sub- 
sequent period. The 




VISTIANICET 



VI! 



ON A EOMAN MEDICINE STAMP. 

inscriptions on the four sides are : 



281 



i. 



T-VINDAC-ARIO 
VISTIANICET 



T- VIND A.CIAR 
OVISTI-NARD 



3. 



4, 



VINDAC-ARI 
OVISTICHLORON 



T-VINDACARIO 
VISTI . 



indicative respectively of the anicetum, the nardinum, 
and the chloron, of Titus, or Tiberius, Vindacius Ario- 
vistus. The latter portion of the fourth inscription is 
broken away. 

The anicetum, nardinum, and chloron of T. Vindacius 
Ariovistus were medicinal preparations manufactured by 
this individual, who may have been a general practitioner 
of physic, or, if we compare the formula and the names of 
the medicines with similar stamps, merely an oculist. A 
considerable number of analogous inscriptions, on stones 
resembling this specimen in form and material, have been 
met with on the continent, and in two or three instances 
in this country. Many of these, in addition to the names 
of the preparations and makers, indicate their use for 
complaints of the eyes, and they are generally known 
under the designation of "oculists' stamps". Thus we 

have NARDINVM AD IMPETVM J DIARHODON AD IMPETVM ; 

which were applied to assuage a sudden inflammation of 
the eyes ; and other collyria employed post impetum, or 
after it had subsided. Another stamp reads DIARHODON 
AD FERVOREM, and seems to show that the diarhodon was 
compounded in different ways for particular stages of the 
complaint. Marcellus Empiricus, in describing the various 
diseases of the eyes, speaks of the primus impetus, subitus 
impetus, etc. The same writer illustrates many others, 
and confirms their appropriation, as, for instance, the stamp 
DIAMIS* AD 1 vcr, explained Diamysus ad veteres caligines, 



282 ON A EOMAN MEDICINE STAMP. 

is elucidated by the following passage : Collyrium dia- 
mysos quodfacit ad aspritudines oculorum tollendas et ad 
lacrymas substringendas (Marcettus Empiricus, p. 180); 
and this passage is illustrated by and explains also the AD* 
ASPK* in the inscription DIALEPID AD * ASPR*, and others 
having a like termination. Another specimen gives us the 
formula POST * IMPET LIPPIT', post impetum lippitudinis, 
appended to the diasmyrnum, a celebrated collyrium, 
composed of myrrh, saffron, and other herbs, mentioned 
by many of the ancient writers on medicines, and espe- 
cially by Galen, who says : At quando pns, quod in oculis 
est, digerere placet, collyriis quce myrram habent, maxime 
utemur, quce utique et Dyasmyrna Greed proprid vocant. 
(Gal. methodi medendi, lib. vi.) 

Many other varieties might be cited, as the ANODYNVM 
ADOMN LIP?', ad omnem lippitudinem ; the CHLOEON AD 
CLAR *, claritudinem, for brightening the eyesight ; the 
diabsoriacum ad caliginem, for dimness (mentioned by 
Pliny and Marcellus), etc. 

The nardinum and the chloron of the Kenchester stone, 
it will have been perceived, are included in the examples 
quoted above. The former was a composition of spike- 
nard, mentioned by Aetius and Pliny as one of the most 
valuable of the ancient remedies. The nard or spikenard 
was probably one of the chief ingredients in those per- 
fumes and unguents which Pliny tells us were sold at the 
rate of four hundred denarii for the single pound. There 
were various kinds, such as the Celtic, the Syrian, etc. : 
the latter is named by Tibullus (lib. iii, eleg. vi.) 

Jam dudum Syrio madefactus tempora nardo 
Debueram sertis implicuisse comas ; 

and Horace ( Car. lib. iv, ode xn) testifies to its costly nature : 

Nardo vina merebere. 

Nardi parvus onyz eliciet cadum. 

The term chloron seems to refer solely to the green 
colour of this salve. 

The anicetum I do not find in any of the lists of oculists' 
stamps to which I have yet been able to procure access. 1 

1 The more recent works containing par M. le docteur Sichel. Paris, 1845. 

additional examples to those which I Observations sur les cachets de me- 

have examined are : decins oculistes anciens, apropos de 

Cinq cachets inedits de medecins cinq pierres sigillaires inedites, par M. 

oculistes remains, public's et expliques Adolphe Duchalais. Paris, 1846. 



ON A ROMAN MEDICINE STAMP. 283 

It is mentioned by Pliny (Nat. Hist. lib. xx) as being 
prepared from aniseed, which he describes as in universal 
request for culinary as well as medicinal purposes, and in 
its long list of virtues includes the properties of staying 
the running of the eyes and of extracting objects which 
have fallen into those organs. He states that the Greeks 
gave it the name of anicetum. But the pseudo-Dioscorides 
says that it was to a preparation of the anethum (dill), 
that the term anicetum, av/^Tjrov, was applied, from its 
superiority over all other medicines. Pliny, on the con- 
trary, says that anethum dims the eyesight. 

Only two of the numerous varieties of these stones 
which have been previously published are authenticated as 
discovered in this country. One of these was found at 
Bath, in a cellar in the abbey yard, in 1731. Like that 
of Kenchester and others, it is described as being of a 

greenish cast. The other is stated to have been found at 
loucester, (not at Colchester, as some of the French works 
have it), and is published in Haym's Tesoro Britannico. 
Mr. Forster, in 1767, exhibited to the Society of Anti- 
quaries a cast of a third, but the place of its discovery is 
not recorded (Archceologia, vol. ix, p. 228.) Lillebonne, 
Honfleur, Nismes, Lyons, and other localities in France, 
have furnished examples, and Germany also ; but at Nais, 
near Ligny, the Nasium of Ptolemy and Antoninus, no 
less than seven have been found, three of which are in- 
scribed on two sides only, one on three, and the others on 
all four. They comprise the names of a variety of com- 
pounds, as well as of complaints of the eyes, but some of 
the medicines seem adapted to more general application. 
These and many others, indeed almost all which have been 
published previous to 1816, will be found in a Dissertation 
by M. Tochon d'Anneci, 4to, Paris, 1816. M. Ch. Dufour 
has recently made known, through the medium of the 
Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de Picardie, tome 
viii, two of these oculists' stamps, the one found at Amiens, 
the other at Neris (Allier), which he explains in an able 
and satisfactory manner. He observes, that in fifty-three 
of these stamps, only one has not been found either in 
France, Germany, or in England ; and he remarks, that as 
the formulae of the preparations were taken from the works 
of celebrated physicians, the sale of the medicines would 

VOL. IV. 37 



284 ON A ROMAN MEDICINE STAMP. 

probably have been as great in Italy as in the more remote 
provinces of the empire, were we not induced to infer 
from the above fact, that at the seat of civilization no con- 
fidence was placed in their efficacy ; but that, as at the present 
day, charlatanism met with greater success in villages than 
in towns and cities. Now it would be desirable to know 
for certain whether such stamps are not also found in 
Italy, and perhaps overlooked or disregarded among the 
more attractive remains which in that rich country engage 
the attention of antiquaries. There are abundant proofs 
that quackery in medicine prevailed extensively at Rome 
itself; and it would be a very easy task to trace in the 
pharmacopoeias of the Greeks and Romans the origin of 
many of the superstitious customs and practices, connected 
with the treatment of diseases, which the science of modern 
times has not yet been able to eradicate. 

It will be curious to see, upon a further examination of 
these stamps, how far the personal names support the 
notion of their provincial origin. That the Ariovistus of 
the Kenchester specimen was a German, will be suggested 
by its identity with that of the celebrated German chief 
who occupies so prominent a position in Cesar's Commen- 
taries. A mineralogical examination of the stones would 
probably lead to some conclusion as to their parentage, 
especially as so many of them are described as being of a 
green colour ; the Kenchester stone, I may observe, I have 
not yet been favoured with a sight of. 

With respect to the application of these stamps, M. 
Dufour very rationally conjectures, and cites passages in 
ancient writers in confirmation of his opinion, that the 
various preparations were hardened with gum or some 
viscid substance, and kept in a solid state, to be liquified 
with fluids when required for use. In this case the stamps 
would be impressed just before the medicines attained the 
last stage of solidification. 

There is, however, an example of a rim of a large 
earthen shallow vessel, marked with an oculist's stamp, 
which may be considered as somewhat controverting this 
notion, especially as explained by Caylus, torn, vii, p. 261, 
who thinks the inscription, in consequence of its singular 
position, refers to some common kind of medicine for 
animals. This stamp differs in no respect from others of 



ON A ROMAN MEDICINE STAMP. 



285 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3- 




Fig. 4. 



286 



ON A ROMAN MEDICINE STAMP. 



the same kind, and its appearance upon the rim of a vessel 
where we commonly meet with the potter's name, may be 
more satisfactorily accounted for, by supposing that the 
vessel was used for preparing the medicine, or that the 
stamp was used by the potter in mistake ; or, simply instead 
of a regular mark which at the moment required may not 
have been at hand. 

The other objects discovered at Kenchester, and exhi- 
bited by Mr. Johnson, were a horse's head in bronze, 
(shewn in the two views in the previous page), and which 
probably was intended for the handle of a knife (figs. 1,2); 
beads in jet, well cut and polished, resembling examples 
discovered in London (fig. 3) ; and a bronze fibula, in a 
perfect state of preservation (fig. 4), which may be com- 
pared with one of similar character found at Staples, 1 and 
one in the British Museum, in gold, found at Odiham, in 
Hampshire. 

There were also eight brass coins of Carausius ; the 
types of seven of which, being, PAX. AVG., FORTVNA . AVG., 
MONETA . AVG., and TEMPORVM . F. ; the last, in respect to 
the simple F. as the initial of the word Felicitas, is unpub- 
lished. The eighth is of the highest degree of rarity, and 
probably unique, as the only specimen of the type pre- 
viously known was one in the cabinet of lord Albert 
Conyngham, which was stolen in passing through the post- 
office. 2 It reads on the ob- 
verse, round the effigies of 
the emperor, IMP vsivs. 
AVG., and on the reverse is 
Hercules holding an olive 
branch and club; the let- 
ters are part of the legend, 
HERCVLI . PACIFERO. ; in the field, c. 

Kenchester, it need scarcely be observed, occupies the 
site of the Roman Magna in the department of the Silures. 

C. ROACH SMITH. 




Collectanea Antiqua, pi. in. 



Numismatic Journal, vol. i, p. 264. 



287 



Srftfsft 



3*0atfatfotu 



FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING, WORCESTER. 

AUGUST 1848. 



GENERAL COMMITTEE. 

PATRON. 

THE RIGHT HON. LORD LYTTELTON, 
(Lord Lieutenant of Worcestershire.) 

PRESIDENT. 

THE LORD ALBERT D. CONYNGHAM, K.C.H., M.P., F.S.A. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



*Tho HIGH SHERIFF OF WORCESTERSHIRE 
*The WORSHIPFUL THE MAYOR OF WOR- 
CESTER 

*TheVERY REV. THE DEAN OF WORCESTER 
J. BENBOW, ESQ., M.P. 
R. BERKELEY, ESQ. 

BENJAMIN BOND CABBELL, ESQ., M.P., 
F.R.S., F.S.A. 



*The HON. and REV. J. S. COCKS 
T. J. PETTIGREW, ESQ., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

OSMAN RlCARDO, ESQ., M.P. 

FRANCIS RUFFORD, ESQ., M.P. 
*CAPTAIN RUSHOUT, M.P. 
WOOLWYCH WHITMORE, ESQ. 
SIR THOMAS E. WINNINGTON, BART. 



W. Harrison Ainsworth, Esq. 

W. Francis Ainsworth, Esq., F.R.G.S. 

Jabez Allies. Esq., F.S.A. 

Joseph Arden, Esq., F.S.A. 

Arthur Ashpitel, Esq., F.S.A. 

Charles Baily, Esq., F.S.A. 

William Beattie, Esq., M.D. 
*The Rev. T. L. Claughton 
*John H. Clifton, Esq. 
*Dr. Beale Cooper 

T. Crofton Croker.Esq., F.S.A., M.R.I.A. 

Secretary 
*John Dent, Esq. 
*William Dent, Esq. 

Rear Admiral Sir W. H. Dillon, K.C.H. 

A. J. Dunkin, Esq. 
*F. T. Elgie, Esq. 

F. W. Fairholt, Esq., F.S.A. 

R. H. Fisher, Esq. 

George Godwin, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Nathaniel Gould, Esq., F.S.A. 

W. P. Griffith, Esq., F.S.A. 
*The Rev. Canon Grove 
*J. M. Gutch, Esq., F.S.A. 

W. D. Haggard, Esq., F.S.A. 

J. O. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
*Dr. Hastings 
*The Rev. H. J. Hastings 



The Rev. Dr. Hume 
*The Rev. Canon Ingram 
*J. W. Isaac, Esq. 

William Jerdan, Esq., M.R.S.L. 

Llewellyn Jewitt, Esq. 

Dr. Maiden 
*Major Moore, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

William Newton, Esq. 

Benjamin Oliveira, Esq., F.R.S. 

John Parker, Esq. 
*W. V. Pettigrew, Esq., M.D. 

J. Robinson Planche, Esq. F.S.A. 

Edward B. Price, Esq. 

David Roberts, Esq., R.A. 

William Henry Rolfe, Esq. 

W. D. Saull, Esq., F.S.A. 

Major E. Sheppard 
*C. Sidebottom, Esq. 

C. Roach Smith, Esq., F.S.A., Secretary 

Henry S. Stevens, Esq. 

The Rev. J. M. Traherne, M.A. 
*H. B. Tymbs, Esq. 
*The Rev. A. Wheeler 

Alfred White, Esq. 
*The Rev. J. H. Wilding 
*The Rev. Canon Wood 

Thomas Wright, Esq., M. A., F.S.A., Sec. 

William Yewd, Esq. 



The above list includes only the names of those members of the General Committee 
who attended in person, or who took tickets. The names marked with an asterisk 
belong to the Local Committee. 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF 



MONDAY, AUGUST 14. 

THE opening meeting was held at eight o'clock in the evening, at the 
Guildhall. 

The President and Members were received by the Mayor, E. Webb, 
Esq., and Aldermen ; and the meeting was attended by the Very Kev. the 
Dean, Canons Wood and Grove, and a considerable number of the most 
influential of the gentry of the city and its neighbourhood. 

The MAYOK said he felt great pleasure in introducing his Lordship and 
the Association to the citizens of Worcester, and in expressing on behalf 
of the corporation the satisfaction they experienced in having it in their 
power to offer a welcome to a society engaged in promoting objects of such 
public utility. It was in appreciation of the benefits arising from such an 
institution that the invitation from the Town Council had been forwarded, 
and he hoped that a city which was associated with so many important 
historical events, as well as with the useful arts, and which possessed so 
many monuments of past times, would prove well worth their visit. He 
trusted their time would be fully and agreeably occupied during the week, 
and that they would have no reason to regret the honour they had done to 
" the faithful city." (cheers.) 

His Worship then placed the President in the chair, seating himself at 
his right hand, the Aldermen and the officers of the Association taking 
their seats on either side. 

The PEESIDENT said : Ladies and Gentlemen, the most agreeable of my 
duties, whilst filling the flattering position of President of the British 
Archaeological Association, lies in opening our annual congress, prepara- 
tory to a week spent in the society of friends, having tastes and pursuits 
congenial with my own ; and well aware how the science, which peculiarly 
interests me, will be advanced by the lights thrown upon it by the re- 
searches of our members, produced on these occasions. Alas ! that at this 
meeting we should have to deplore the loss, since our last Congress, of 
some of our most valued members, by death of individuals who were dear 
to many of us, from a personal knowledge of their worth, and who shed the 
lustre of their well-established reputation for antiquarian science upon our 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 289 

society. But, gentlemen, the very science which we love teaches us the 
perishable nature of all that has to do with this earth, and the employ- 
ment of our intellect upon antiquarian or any other science would indeed 
be worse than idle, did not that intellect, thus freed from rust, cause us 
alone to value, and therefore make us endeavour to prepare for that better 
world which cannot pass away, and where the pain felt, from the separation 
from friends, cannot be experienced. (Applause.) The study of antiquities 
has engaged the attention of mankind from the earliest period of history ; 
to the scientific or literary inquirer, " the past" must always have excited 
his warmest attention, the universal tendency of the imagination when 
cultivated and refined being to invest with importance every relic drifted 
down from an ancient world ; thus we find it recorded in the history of 
the fine arts, that the first rudimental attempts of sculpture, blocks of 
wood or stone, hewn into the rudest likeness of the human form, were 
preserved in the Grecian cities with the utmost consideration ; but we find 
that not only a general love for the monuments and arts of the past existed 
at a very early period, but that there existed regular professed antiquaries 
there was a profession of men instituted in the principal Greek cities, 
whose business it was to point out to all inquirers the peculiar wonders of 
their locality, to explain ancient inscriptions, and to exhibit relics. Hero- 
dotus, who breathed the genuine spirit of antiquity, and who effected with 
grace and ease in narrative the difficult and delicate transition from the 
mythic to the historical, is full of allusions to the relics of the past. In 
Egypt, from the days of Menes or the shepherd kings, the love of anti- 
quities was cultivated with a species of veneration bordering upon idol 
atry ; and Plato informs us that to such an extent did this love of the past 
proceed, that both Egyptian sculptors and painters were by law forbidden 
to change or modify in any respect the forms of the ancient statues and 
paintings nay, that in his day there were works in the temples ten thou- 
sand years old. The same feeling was predominant in ancient Rome, and 
there can be no doubt that at an early period antiquarian societies in some 
form or other were constituted, though under the empire the reigning 
monarch watched every association with a jealous eye. Of the formation 
of antiquarian societies we have no certain data previous to the sixteenth 
century ; that many existed earlier, especially among the ecclesiastics of 
the day, there can be little doubt, although the superstitious veneration of 
the supposed relics of saints must have been injurious in a high degree to 
the preservation of whatever was really curious or valuable ; we first read 
of an antiquarian society being founded by archbishop Parker, in the year 
1570; about twenty of the members were accustomed to assemble from 
time to time in the house of sir Robert Cotton ; in 1589 the society peti- 
tioned queen Elizabeth for a building, and a charter, but with what success 
we know not : the reputation of the society, however, gradually increased 



290 PHOCEEDINGS OF 

until it excited the fears of James the First, who, alarmed lest it should 
discuss public transactions, dissolved it. At the commencement of the 
eighteenth century it again revived, and grew into such importance that in 
1751 the members obtained a charter of incorporation, the power to con- 
stitute statutes, and to act under a common seal ; the original object of 
their inquiries appears to have been British antiquities, and history, al- 
though the enlarged operations of the society now embrace every subject of 
ancient and medieval relics and traditions. From the cultivation and 
extension of this antiquarian taste has sprung our modern institutions of 
similar tendencies ; of these the Archaeological Association may boast of 
the widest range and the loftiest objects. Its peculiar constitution, its 
open meetings, its utter rejection of any spirit of exclusion, the zeal and 
promptitude with which at all times its members are ready to assist every 
inquiiy, and to aid as far as may lie in their power the prosecution of every 
laudable design for the discovery and preservation of the relics of medieval 
or ancient times, cannot fail to render it one of the most useful societies 
of the present age. Its annual congress, whilst offering variety and 
amusement, must necessarily increase and enlarge the field of its utility, 
by bringing various minds into contact, and by associating together persons 
of intelligence, who might otherwise have never met ; it will then, upon 
the return of the members to their own localities, spread a love of whatever 
is curious or interesting that has been preserved to us from the ravages of 
time. The historian is deeply indebted to the antiquary, and to those 
most curious and interesting analogies by which genius and research fre- 
quently throw new lights upon the characters and motives of the distin- 
guished actors of the past. The beautiful architectural remains, the ex- 
quisite specimens of the cameo and intaglio, the artistic skill displayed in 
the cutting of gems, the graceful designs and formal beauty of some of the 
antique pottery, the sharpness of outline, correctness of drawing, and, 
above all, the beautiful imagery upon the reverses of coins, which have 
descended to our times, can only be thoroughly appreciated and valued by 
those whose taste has been refined and understanding cultivated by anti- 
quarian research. Of the encaustic painting of the ancients we know 
little ; their mosaics, however, have survived, and many specimens, after 
the lapse of twenty centuries, remain as fresh and as fair as when they 
were first laid down. It is indeed delightful to wander back to that mys- 
terious past, and to retrace the way to those lands of song and art, by the 
vestiges of such beautiful relics as these, until we can appreciate the feel- 
ings of him who said : " There could be no more divine pleasure on earth 
to the man of genius and cultivated understanding than to hear the dramas 
of Sophocles recited by the side of the Apollo or the Laocoon." It has 
been prettily said in the preface to Brand's Popular Antiquities " Bugged 
and narrow as this walk of study may appear to many, yet fancy opens 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 291 

from hence to prospects enriched with the choicest views of her magic 
creation ;" but whilst pleased with this conceit, we must remember that 
" truth," as Dr. Johnson tells us, " is the intellectual gold which nothing 
can destroy," yet truth like gold may exist in alloy, in combination with 
foreign substances ; and as it is the office of the chemist to separate and 
refine the ore, so it is the province of the archaeologist to investigate and 
restore the other to its natural purity and beauty, free from all imperfec- 
tions, uncorrupted by any alloy. His lordship then resumed his seat 
amidst the acclamations of the meeting. 

Mr. Wright read a note from J. F. Ledsam, esq., high sheriff of Wor- 
cestershire, accompanied by the exhibition of the objects referred to : 

" The few relics which I have the honour to submit for the inspection 
of the Congress are presented rather on account of their having been 
found within the county of Worcester than for any importance or interest 
that could attach to them in the opinion of the antiquary. They consist 
of silver and brass coins of Edward I, and earlier dates, some iron imple- 
ments and keys, a spear-head, etc., a spur of the time of Henry III, a 
metal seal in good preservation, two rude jugs, a tile, fragments of glass, 
bones, etc. Weoley Castle, where these articles were found, chiefly in 
the moat, is in the parish of Northfield, and county of Worcester, four 
miles west of Birmingham. It occupied, with its appendages, seventeen 
acres, in a park of seventeen hundred acres. The moat enclosed about 
one acre. Northfield was the property of Alwold. It was seized at the 
conquest by Fitz-Ansculf. His heiress married Paganell, whose heiress 
married Sonaeri, who erected the castle in the beginning of the thirteenth 
century. A descendant of Bottetourt (who accompanied the Conqueror) 
possessed Weoley Castle in right of his wife, who was co-heiress of Someri. 
In 1385 the male line became extinct." 

Mr. Wright then announced that the local museum would be open for 
inspection during the week to the members and visitors, and alluded to a 
collection of antiquities made by Mr. Eaton, of Worcester, and which had 
been found on levelling the castle mound, on the Severn bank. These 
mounds were not uncommon in castles of early formation, but they formed 
a subject for great discussion as to their probable age. The articles in 
question were found at the bottom of the mound, in a layer of black mould, 
which exhibited traces of having been subjected to the action of fire. 
Some of the remains were Roman, and others Saxon, as late as the tenth 
century. These antiquities were valuable ; but as the museum was being 
continually added to, he should probably be enabled, at a later period of 
the Congress, to give a further description of the articles brought for 
exhibition. 

Mr. Fairholt read a paper on early monumental effigies previous to the 

VOL. IV. 38 



292 PROCEEDINGS OF 

time of king John, as illustrative of that monarch's tomb in Worcester 
cathedral. 

The author, after urging the advantage of the study of early monu- 
mental effigies, to the historian, the genealogist, and the artist, and draw- 
ing comparison between the truthful and appropriate works of former 
times and the tasteless affectation of modern classic monuments, observed 
that: "The earliest monumental effigy of an English sovereign in this 
country is that of king John in Worcester cathedral. Our earlier kings 
were either buried in their French dominions or interred without sculp- 
tured effigies, or their tombs have been destroyed. At Fontevraud, in 
Normandy, existed, before the first French revolution, the effigies of 
Henry II, his queen Eleanor de Guienne, and Isabel d'Angouleme, the 
queen of John. These effigies, as well as the abbey which enshrined 
them, are reported to have fallen beneath the devastating hands of the 
revolutionists. We owe to the zeal and perseverance of a lamented artist 
(Charles Alfred Stothard) their resuscitation and delineation ; he hazarded 
a journey to Normandy in order to ascertain their fate. An indiscriminate 
destruction, which on every side presented itself in a track of three hun- 
dred miles, left little to hope on arriving at the abbey of Fontevraud ; but 
still less when this celebrated depository of our early kings was found to 
be but a ruin. Contrary, however, to such an unpromising appearance, 
the whole of the effigies were discovered, in a cellar of one of the buildings 
adjoining the abbey. Since this period another effigy of Eichard I has 
been found in the cathedral of Rouen, to which he had bequeathed his 
heart, and where it was interred, and over which this effigy was placed. 
All these figures are more or less mutilated ; and though of better execu- 
tion than that of king John, do not possess so entire and perfect a resem- 
blance as that curious monument. 

" To point out fully the curiosity and interest of the tomb of king John, 
it will be necessary to take a brief survey of the history of monumental 
effigies previous to this period. 

" The earliest sepulchral monuments in this country are the stone 
coffins, covered with ridge-shaped slabs, which were frequently decorated 
with fanciful ornament, and were common in England and on the conti- 
nent. It was a custom of considerable antiquity to sculpture them with a 
cross ; and several such stone coffins of an enormous size and weight have 
been recently discovered in the cemetery of St. Matthias, near the old 
Roman city of Treves, and which are believed to be coeval with early 
Christian times. Saxon tombs of this kind are rare in this country, but 
one of a remarkable and highly enriched character was discovered in 1841 
at Bakewell, in Derbyshire. 

" These stone coffins were cut from massive blocks, hollowed to receive 
the body ; they were narrower at the feet than at the head, cut square 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 293 

upon the shoulders, and have a hollowed recess for the head ; they were 
covered with a ridged slab (en dos d'dne), which was succeeded by a flat 
one at a later period. Their introduction is lost in the distance of time ; 
they, may be traced from as early a period as the ninth century, and were 
in general use in the time of Henry III, after which they were of rare 
occurrence. At an early period (and among the poor until the fifteenth 
century), the body being swathed in cerecloth, was committed at once to 
the earth. We are told by Matthew Paris, that the monks of St. Alban's, 
in the Norman times, were all buried without coffins, till Warin, the 
twentieth abbot, who died in 1195, ordered stone coffins to be used, as 
more decent. 

" These coffins were generally placed with the lid even with the pave- 
ment of the church, so that they in fact formed a part of it ; at other 
times the entire coffin reposed upon the surface itself, in the manner of 
that called the tomb of William Rufus, in Winchester cathedral ; the sides 
being sometimes ornamented with carving. The coped lid, which had 
been formed 011 the Roman model, served at once for a cover and memorial 
for the deceased. The coffin lid of Matilda, queen of William the Con- 
queror, at Caen, in Normandy, has a long Latin epitaph, engraved all 
round the edges and up the centre. Others are ornamented with crosses, 
and in some later instances the insignia of the deceased. The sword for 
the knight, the horn for the hunter, the hatchet for the carpenter, the key 
for the blacksmith, the shears for the clothier, the knife and colander for 
the cook, the chalice, crozier, and mitre, for the ecclesiastic; but these 
belong generally to the fourteenth century, though they occasionally range 
from the twelfth to the fifteenth. 

" The slabs which covered these coffins, when flat, were decorated some- 
times with the figure of the person buried within, but we meet with no 
instances earlier than the twelfth century. The effigy was carved in very 
low relief, in a sunk panel, the figure in the highest part of its surface 
being only level with the face of the stone, and thus preserving almost the 
effect upon the spectator of looking into the coffin and viewing the body 
within. One of the earliest and most curious instances is in the cloisters 
of Westminster abbey, and it covers the remains of one of the early 
Norman abbots. The figure holds a crozier and chalice, and lies in a 
recess, cut exactly like the interior of the stone coffins of the period, with 
a circular recess for the head. An improvement appears in the coffin lid 
of Roger, bishop of Salisbury (who died 1139), on which that prelate 
appears in full pontificals in a niche, surrounded by elaborately-enwreathed 
ornaments. But the slab which covered the mortal remains of Jocelyn de 
Bailul, also bishop of Salisbury (who died 1184), and which, with the 
other just named, is still preserved in Salisbury cathedral, exhibits the 
effigy, as it were, emerging still more from the stone ; for although the 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF 

figure is sculptured in low relief, it is not sunk in panel or niche, but 
rises freely from the surface. 

" By the middle of the twelfth century, the effigy, although still placed 
on the coffin lid, and being sculptured with it from one solid piece of 
stone, began to represent the deceased as if lying on the surface of the 
tomb. The royal effigies at Fontevraud are so sculptured, and the fine 
series of military figures in the Temple church, London ; which have been 
satisfactorily proved, during the recent reparations, to have been placed 
immediately over and upon the coffins containing the deceased, the edges 
of which were level with the pavement. 

" There is one very interesting point in connexion with all these early 
effigies, which is, that they are not only faithful representations of the 
persons they are intended to commemorate, but they resemble the body 
which lies below precisely as it appeared when laid in the grave, excepting 
only those effigies which represent the deceased in armour. 

" It had been the custom from the earliest period in Britain to bury 
the dead with the clothes, personal ornaments, arms, or favourite portions 
of personal property which belonged to them. The Romans burnt the 
body ; the Saxons buried them fully armed and equipped, and often 
richly dressed, and with much valuable jewellery upon them. The Nor- 
mans seem to have followed the same course ; and an examination of their 
early sepulchres goes to prove that the dead were dressed in the garments 
they wore while living; and if holding dignified offices, then in their 
dresses of state. 

" Ecclesiastics were buried in full pontificals, with the pastoral staff 
and chalice, and entire insignia, even to gold rings and other valuables, 
which contributed to their worldly dignity. The abbots of Evesham, who 
died in the twelfth century, were found thus interred ; and the bishops of 
Hereford, as late as 1516. Monsieur Lenoir has described the contents 
of the tombs of the abbots Morard and Ingon, in the abbey of St. Ger- 
main-des-pres. Morard died in the year 990, and his skeleton was dressed 
in a long woollen alb or tunic, of a deep purple colour, ornamented with 
embroidery, over which was a wide and long chasuble, the stuff being a 
very strong figured satin, which appears to have been of a deep red colour. 
Abbot Ingon, who died in 1025, was also found clothed in a garment of 
dark violet-coloured taffety, similar to the habit of the Benedictine monks, 
edged with a broad border of worked cloth, the ground of which was of 
gold. The mitre was covered with silk, the gloves upon the hands were 
well preserved, and were formed of silk tissue in open work. A ring was 
upon the finger, being set with a turquoise. The stockings which covered 
the legs were of dark violet-coloured silk, ornamented all over with a 
variety of elegant designs in polygonal shapes, upon which were worked 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 295 

greyhounds and birds in gold, and which are believed to have been the 
sumptuous and highly valued work of the eastern manufacturers. 

" In the same manner were the bodies of our early kings consigned to 
the earth. Matthew Paris tells us that when Henry II was taken to 
Fontevraud to be buried, ' he was arrayed in the royal vestments, having 
a golden crown on the head, and gloves on the hands, boots wrought with 
gold on the feet, with spurs, a great ring on the finger, and a sceptre in 
the hand, being girt with a sword.' Stothard, who has drawn and engraved 
this effigy, remarks, that when we examine it we cannot fail to remark 
that it is already described by this account of a contemporary and eye- 
witness of the body as prepared for the grave, the only variation being in 
the sword, which is not girt, but lies on the bier, on the left side, with the 
belt twisted round it. ' It therefore appears,' he adds, ' that the tomb 
was literally a representation of the deceased king, as if he still lay in 
state. Nor can we, without supposing such was the custom, otherwise 
account for the singular coincidence between the effigy of king John, on 
the lid of his coffin, and the body within it, when discovered a few years 
since.' 

" In the monumental effigy of king John, the city of Worcester possesses 
at once the earliest regal effigy in the kingdom, a true and undoubted 
authority for regal costume, a perfect representation of the body as buried 
beneath, the best example of the progress of the art of sculpture at that 
early period, and an historic memento of one of our most remarkable rulers. 
The effigy is carved in grey marble, and was originally the lid of the stone 
coffin which covered his remains. In his last moments he appears to have 
taken hurried steps for his ' soul's health,' and repentance for his mani- 
fold misdeeds and maladministration. He speaks, in his will, of having 
no time for particular arrangements ; he appoints certain noblemen and 
dignified ecclesiastics his successors ; directs them, in general terms, by 
donations to religious houses, and alms to the poor, to make, for the good 
of his soul, reparation for injuries done to God and holy church ; he 
annexes the usual anathema against any who shall infringe this disposition 
of his property ; he directs his body to be buried in the church of St. 
Mary and St. Wulstan (now the cathedral of Worcester). John, in his 
last moments, commended his soul to God and to St. Wulstan ; and his 
body, royally attired, was conveyed to Worcester. Over his head was 
placed a monk's cowl, as a sort of shield for all his sins, and a passport to 
heaven. He was interred between St. Oswald and St. Wulstan, whose 
graves are in the chapel of the Virgin, at the eastern extremity of the 
cathedral. His body was removed to its present position, before the high 
altar, in the reign of Henry VII, and an altar tomb erected, within which 
the body was placed, and upon which rests the effigy. 

" This effigy formerly the lid of the stone coffin which contained the 



296 PROCEEDINGS OF 

king's remains, and which, probably, was originally on a level with the 
floor of the cathedral represents the king in royal costume ; and on each 
side of his head are two diminutive figures of bishops, swinging censers. 
These are undoubtedly intended for Oswald and Wulstan, between whose 
remains he, as before mentioned, actually reposed. John wears a dalmatic 
of crimson, lined with green, the neck and cuffs edged with gold, and 
jewelled border ; his tunic is yellow, or cloth of gold ; he is girt with a 
belt; on his hands are jewelled gloves, a ring on the middle finger of his 
right hand, which supports a sceptre, while his left grasps a sword. He 
wears red hose, and black shoes with golden spurs. 

" Now mark how singularly the truthfulness of this monumental effigy, 
as a veritable resemblance of the body within the tomb, has been confirmed. 
On the 17th July, 1797, the tomb was opened, and the dress of the corpse 
exactly corresponded with that of the monumental figure ; showing, as in 
the instance of Henry II 's effigy at Fontevraud, that they faithfully repre- 
sented the defunct as he lay in state. There were only two points of 
dissimilarity. The king had no crown on his head, or gloves on his hand ; 
the latter may have decayed. But the minute accuracy of the old chroni- 
cles was proved by the former ; for in place of the regal crown, the head 
of John was found to be enveloped in the celebrated monk's cowl, in which, 
as a passport through the regions of purgatory, he is stated to have been 
buried. This once sacred envelope appeared to have fitted the head very 
exactly, and had evidently been tied or buckled under the chin with straps, 
as part of them remained. The body was covered with a robe reaching 
from the neck nearly to the feet, and some of its embroidery was still 
visible near the right knee. It appeared to have been made of strong 
crimson damask, but the injuries of time rendered it difficult to ascertain 
this exactly ; the cuff to the left hand remained. The left arm was bent 
towards his breast, and the hand had grasped a sword in the same manner 
as on the tomb ; the sword itself was much decomposed, but portions of it 
were found at intervals down the left side, the scabbard being much more 
perfect. The coverings of the legs the precise nature of which was not 
ascertained were tied round the ankles, and were probably the red hose 
seen in the effigy. 

Traces of the original colours with which the effigy had been tinted, 
being visible, Stothard, in his Monumental Effigies, has given a coloured 
restoration of this curious figure, which agrees, in a remarkable manner, 
with the fragments of dress found on the body. 

The author then gave a brief review of the more modern forms of monu- 
mental effigies, and concluded thus : 

" Among the various antiquities which England possesses, there are 
none so immediately illustrative of our history as these national monu- 
ments which abound in our cathedrals and churches. Many an exquisite 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 297 

specimen reposes in lonely unfrequented village churches, their beauty 
hidden by coats of whitewash, and their safety dependent on their utter 
worthlessness in the eyes of those whose duty it should be to guard them 
against destruction. Instances are on record where the stone effigies have 
been wantonly broken up to mend roads, and the brasses sold by dishonest 
sextons for their value as old metal. The value of these ancient records 
cannot be too imperatively dwelt on : they are historic data ; they are 
mementoes of the arts of the middle ages ; they are the form and sem- 
blance of our great forefathers, fashioned by contemporary hands, and 
bequeathed to us as the last memorial of their mortal state. All who 
injure them, commit not only sacrilege to the church, they dishonour the 
dead, and act contemptuously to the persons and memory, as far as in them 
lies, of the ancestry by whose wisdom and valour the progressive improve- 
ment of our country has been obtained, and the wholesome laws and free 
movements we enjoy, battled for and won. The language cannot be too 
strong that should be used to impress their value on the minds of those 
who have them in their keeping. May the hands they uplift in prayer 
speak to man, as they appeal to God, and hinder the wantonness of igno- 
rant destruction, that posterity may have the privilege we have ourselves, 
of gazing on the figures of the good and great, preserved by the same pious 
feeling in which the old poet Spenser apostrophizes them as 

' Old monuments, which of so famous sprights 
The honour, yet in ashes, do maintain.' " 

Mr. Roach Smith enumerated several glaring instances of vandalism 
recently perpetrated in London and Westminster abbey, and other public 
places, and observed, that if such scandalous acts were tolerated in locali- 
ties which were presumed to be guarded, and inaccessible to the spoiler, 
it was no wonder that the more ancient and rarer monuments scattered 
throughout the country, in unfrequented places, were sacrificed to the 
sordid or ignorant people, who, from accidental and temporary proprietor- 
ship, considered themselves at liberty to destroy, and appropriate to their 
private uses, the most valuable of our national remains. And this, he 
considered, would ever be the case until public opinion could be brought 
to bear upon the government, and force it to protect the national monu- 
ments. 

Mr. Wright read a paper on the romantic materials of history, illustrated 
from the autobiography of Egwin, bishop of Worcester : 

" When we commonly quote history," observed the author, " it is the 
popular opinion, we may say, the popular prejudice, that history is 
truth ; yet we no sooner subject this same history to the strict test of criti- 
cism, than we discover that it is nothing better than a confused heap of 
statements without foundation, or resting on ambiguous traditions ; of 



298 PROCEEDINGS OF 

intentional falsehoods or misrepresentations, originating only in the bitter- 
ness of political animosities ; and, lastly, of mere fable and romance. Few, 
who have not examined deeply into the sources of history, would imagine 
how much of this last-mentioned class of materials enters into its compo- 
sition. When we compare the histories of different countries, in ancient 
as well as in modern times, we are surprised at the frequency with which 
the same event occurs in them all, battles gained by the same stratagem, 
or lost by the same disastrous accident ; the same details of crimes and of 
virtues ; the same fates of individuals. The incident of Alfred harping in 
the Danish camp is thus repeated in English history within half a century 
of that of the Dane entering the Saxon camp at Brunanburgh in the same 
disguise. The story of William Tell shooting the apple from the head of 
his son, is found under other names in the old ballad poetry of England 
and Germany. This remarkable relationship between the historic stories 
of different peoples, admits of a very simple explanation. A vast mass of 
popular fables much of it of a mythic character and romances, floated, 
during the middle ages, from country to country, and from mouth to mouth ; 
and these, frequently taking a colouring from place and circumstance, 
became located, and, being fixed upon individuals, were handed down to 
us as historical facts." 

Mr. Wright gave two or three striking examples, such as supplied, he 
observed, a canon of criticism of the greatest importance, if we would 
really study history in an intelligent manner : and taking a review of the 
transmission of superstitions from age to age, and the changes that have 
taken place in the popular mythology, he proceeded to the story of Egwin. 

" At the latter end of the seventh century the rich valley forming the 
south-eastern portion of the modern county of Worcester, and bordering on 
Warwickshire and Gloucestershire, was covered with forest land, which 
afforded food for immense herds of swine, the flesh of which animals 
formed a very large portion of the food of our Anglo-Saxon forefathers. A 
portion of this wood, situated on the banks of the Avon, and then known 
by the name of cet Homme, was given by Athelred king of Mercia to Egwin 
bishop of Worcester, who was himself closely allied by blood to the Mercian 
kings. In the thickest part of this district was a spot inclosed by the 
winding of the river, thickly covered with brambles and brushwood, which 
probably concealed the ruins of Roman buildings ; William of Malmesbury 
alludes to an old tradition that it was the ruins of a church. Time and 
the superstition of the Anglo-Saxons seem to have given a sacred character 
to this spot it was probably looked upon as the haunt of the three wood- 
nymphs, the fairy glen of the foi-est. 

" Bishop Egwin had entrusted the keepership of this forest to four 
swineherds a higher class of men than swineherds of the present day, 
because they had often to defend their charge by force of arms against 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 299 

hostile invaders. The four swineherds were two brothers, named Eoves 
and Ynipa, and two other brothers, Trottuc and Cornuc. Each had a 
division of the wood under his particular care, but Eoves was the principal, 
and acted as commander or overseer over the rest, and his position was so 
respectable, that the whole wood took from him the name of Eoves-ham, 
or the residence of Eoves. One day a sow, belonging to the drove under 
the particular charge of Eoves, which was pregnant, suddenly disappeared 
among the brambles, where they were taken out as usual to feed. For two 
or three days, Eoves waited patiently, in the hope that the sow would 
return as usual to its companions; he then became uneasy, and day after 
day the forest was hunted, but in vain, until a few days afterwards the 
wanderer suddenly made her appearance, accompanied with a litter of 
seven small pigs, which were all white, with the exception of their ears 
and feet. Eoves was exceedingly rejoiced, for he stood high in the con- 
fidence of his master, and it appears that, in Anglo-Saxon times, the loss 
of one of the drove committed to his charge, however numerous, subjected 
their keeper to grave suspicions. Next day, however, when the swine 
were led out to feed, the sow disappeared again, accompanied by her 
young, and was the cause of new alarm. This was repeated a third time, 
and then Eoves, perplexed in the extreme, called together his companions, 
and determined to seek out, at all risks, the place of concealment. The 
search was laborious and painful, and Eoves was on the point of giving it 
up in despair, when he came to the old ruins, and discovered the object of 
his inquiries quietly reposing under shelter of a thick bush of brambles. 
Eoves probably felt some awe of the spot in which his sow had sought an 
asylum, and he looked warily around him, when, to his great astonishment, 
he beheld three damsels, standing and singing, of whom the middle ex- 
celled the others in stature and in her surpassing beauty, and held a beau- 
tiful book in her hand. The swineherd was struck with terror, and he 
made his escape as quickly as possible, followed by the sow and her litter. 
" This story is simply a fairy tale, and it may be compared with nu- 
merous others, given as such by early writers, and in several of which a 
sow is the instrument of leading its drover to the enchanted spot. It was 
probably a local legend popular among the Anglo-Saxon peasantry of 
Worcestershire, which bishop Egwin took hold of to turn it to a pious use. 
He declares that Eoves went and related the circumstances to the milieus, 
or ruler of the district, who took him to the bishop and made him repeat 
his story in his presence. Egwin pretends that at first he disbelieved it, 
but that, on the earnest protestations of the swineherd, he determined to 
accompany him to the spot, and be himself a witness to its truth or false- 
hood. There, according to his own account, the bishop fell down and 
prayed fervently, and on rising to his feet he was blessed with the same 
vision that had been seen by his servant, with this difference, that the 

VOL. IV. 39 



300 PROCEEDINGS OF 

middle lady now bore a cross as well as a book, and Egwin judged at once 
that it was the Virgin Mary, accompanied by two angels. He immediately 
ordered the spot to be cleared of brambles and of ruins, built in their 
place a stately religious house, which he endowed with lands he purchased 
in the neighbourhood. From the name of the wood it was called the 
abbey of Eovesham, and was famous in after ages under the slightly 
altered name of Evesham. 

" Such is the legend of the foundation of Evesham abbey, as related to 
us by its founder ; and it is the more remarkable, as it shows to us how 
fable often entered into history, under the very circumstances which we 
should imagine would have ensured truth. Bishop Egwin, either unknow- 
ingly, himself under the influence of popular superstition, or deliberately 
and intentionally for the sake of giving strength to his religious foundation, 
has handed down for historic truth what was evidently a mere fable. We 
are almost led to take the more unfavourable view, because, although 
Rome placed him among the number of the saints, other circumstances 
throw a certain degree of suspicion on his character. He has given his 
own testimony to a miracle pretended to have happened to himself, under 
circumstances in which he could not have laboured under a deception. 

" Egwin was made bishop of Worcester about the year 692, and he had 
not long presided over the see before the people entrusted to his care 
began to bring serious charges against him. Of what nature these charges 
were we are not told, but they reached the ears first of the king and next 
of the pope, and the Saxon prelate was obliged to undertake the then long 
and wearisome journey to the eternal city to clear his character from the 
blot which had been cast upon it. Egwin commenced his journey with a 
rather ostentatious act of humility, but one by no means uncommon in 
these early ages. Before leaving Mercia he ordered a smith to make him 
a heavy ring of iron, ' such as they fixed about the feet of horses,' fastened 
with a lock, and having locked it on his bare legs as an instrument of 
penance, he threw the key into the river Avon, in a place then called 
Hrudding Pool. Thus equipped he went to Dover, and sailed in a small 
vessel to Italy. On his arrival he fell on his knees on the shore of the 
Tiber to return thanks for his safe voyage, while his attendants fished in 
the river to obtain a meal. They soon caught a moderately-sized salmon, 
and immediately prepared it for cooking ; but on opening it they were 
struck with astonishment at finding in its belly the identical key which 
they had so recently seen sinking in the waters of a small river in their 
native and far distant land. 

" Our only witness for this strange story is Egwin himself. He de- 
clared the truth of the miracle to the pope, and the latter considering it as 
a sufficient proof of his innocence, caused him at once to be relieved from 



THE AKNTJAL MEETING. 801 

his ring ; and scarcely listening to the accusations or to the defence, sent 
him home to Worcester with every mark of honour. 

" Egwin is the first Englishman known to have written his own life. 
His object was probably to defend himself against the attacks to which he 
appears to have been exposed in his lifetime. In this autobiography he 
gave the account of his visit to Rome, and of the subsequent foundation of 
Evesham, where he passed the latter years of his life ; and he added to it 
his dreams or visions, which he pretended to receive by a sort of inspira- 
tion. This autobiography is lost in its original form; but a splendid 
manuscript of saints' lives, in a handwriting of the tenth century, in the 
British Museum, contains a long life of Egwin, perhaps considerably older 
than that date, which is compiled from his own book, and in which much 
of the autobiography, in which he speaks in the first person, is inserted 
verbatim. The common lives of the saints are mere abridgments of this. 

" This autobiography of Egwin contributed in other ways to the romantic 
materials of histoiy. One of his visions, in which he speaks in the first 
person in figurative language, is a sort of moral allegory, in which the 
temptations of the world are represented under the semblance of a pagan 
city, against which human nature, represented in the person of Egwin, has 
to contend. The city is at length, after a long struggle, overthrown by 
the direct interference of heaven. One of the later writers of Egwin's life, 
taking this literally, has transformed it into a marvellous history of the 
destruction of the ancient Roman town which occupied the site of the 
modern Alcester, in the neighbouring county of Warwick. 

" Thus we see, in analyzing the life of one individual only, the way in 
which one large class of the common materials of history was manufac- 
tured. There are many other classes, equally truthless, which help to 
form the mass, but to which I will not trespass further on your attention 
by alluding. Enough, I think, has been said to show you how necessary 
it is that what we commonly call history should be thoroughly weeded, and 
carefully sifted, before we can place any confidence in it. I may, perhaps, 
hope that this great truth will be felt more deeply by our present audience, 
from the apt illustration it receives in a narrative so closely connected with 
the early annals of this ancient city." 

The President said that, before closing the proceedings of the evening, 
he wished to call attention to some beautiful painted glass exhibited in the 
room, by a very talented artist of this city, Mr. G . Rogers. He thought 
it was right to give honour where it was due ; and he could only say that 
some of the specimens were perfectly beautiful, and would compare with 
the best of the medieval ages. 

The whole company were now invited by his Worship to partake of 
refreshments in the ante-rooms ; and thus agreeably concluded the pro- 
ceedings of the first day. 



302 PROCEEDINGS OF 



TUESDAY, AUGUST 15. 

At nine o'clock in the morning, the President, Officers, and Council, at 
the invitation of his worship the Mayor, met the members of the Corpo- 
ration and the Local Committee at breakfast, at the Guildhall. The 
mayor presided, supported on the right and left by Lord Albert Conyngham 
and the Dean of Worcester, Canons Wood and Grove, the Rev. T. L. 
Claughton, etc. After breakfast the company went in procession to the 
cathedral, the mayor and aldermen being habited in their official robes. 
They were met at the north entrance by the dean, canons Wood and 
Grove, and the hon. canons Claughton and Hastings. The members of 
the Association also attended at prayers. 

MOKNING MEETING, ETC. 
THE PRESIDENT in the Chair. 

Mr. Ashpitel delivered an extempore lecture on Worcester cathedral. 
He first alluded to the cathedrals which had been already visited by the 
Association, and feared that he should be an unworthy successor of the 
gentlemen who had so ably lectured upon them. Indeed the office would not 
have devolved upon him, but for the unavoidable absence of Mr. Cresy, who 
it was first intended should have performed that duty. Previous to his 
visit to Worcester, his impressions with regard to the cathedral were, that 
it was a somewhat mean building, devoid of much interest, but in this he 
had never been more agreeably disappointed ; for whether he looked to the 
design of the double transepts, the cloisters, or the glorious tower, the 
edifice was full of archaeological interest and architectural beauties. Nor 
ought the cathedral to suffer in comparison with others in consequence of its 
being a few feet shorter or narrower, seeing that it contained points which 
would challenge comparison with any other in the kingdom, and he indeed 
felt surprised that authors could have found in their heart to depreciate 
such a structure. More especially he regretted to find that natives of 
Worcester themselves spoke disparagingly of it. The lecturer produced 
a large collection of transcripts from original documents, from Florence of 
Worcester, the Worcester Annals, etc., all illustrative of the ancient history 
of the cathedral, regretting his inability to give even a summary of them 
in the short space of a lecture. The original cathedral was erected in 
680. St. Oswald, in 983, built a monastery for the monks, between whom 
and the secular clergy a strong opposition had for a long time existed. 
St. Peter's church and St. Mary's minster were both in the same precincts ; 
and it was related that on the erection of the latter, the workmen employed 
to remove the stone for the new edifice were totally unable to do so, upon- 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 303 

which they sent for bishop Oswald, who on his arrival perceived a wretch 
in the form of an Ethiopian squatting on the stone, grinning, and making 
contemptuous and derisive gestures at the efforts of the workmen. By 
the simple sign of the cross, however, the saint effected the dislodgment of 
his unearthly foe, and the stone, which before had defied the exertions of 
eighty men, could now be removed by two only. The cathedral and city 
were burnt down in 1041 by Hardicanute's army, in revenge for the oppo- 
sition of the citizens to the Danegelt. Then came the conquest, and one 
of William's strongest opponents was bishop Wulstan of Worcester, who 
refusing to give up his pastoral staff, struck it so energetically into the 
ground, that all the exertions of his enemies to remove it were useless. 
Tin's miracle was alleged to have operated so strongly as to have been the 
means of confirming the saint in his office. Wulstan, in 1089, rebuilt 
the cathedral and monastery, and one part of the present inquiry would 
be as to whether any portion of St. Oswald's structure was remaining and 
appropriated to the new one. It was recorded of Wulstan, that, on seeing 
the workmen pulling down the old church, he wept. One of his attend- 
ants expostulating, and reminding him that he ought rather to rejoice, as 
he was preparing in the room of it an edifice of greater splendour, he 
replied " I think far otherwise : we poor wretches destroy the works of 
our forefathers, only to get praise to ourselves ; that happy age of holy 
men knew not how to build stately churches ; but under any roof they 
offered up themselves living temples unto God ; but we, on the contrary, 
neglecting the care of souls, labour to heap up stones." This has been 
used to shew that Wulstan entirely built a new church, and many erro- 
neous theories had been constructed by Green and others on this point. 
Oswald's church most probably had a crypt, and if so, that part of the 
building was not likely to have been destroyed by Hardicanute's fire. Up 
to a recent period all ancient masonry with semicircular arches had been 
put down as Saxon, until the evidence of undoubted documents shewed 
that most of them must have been Norman. A reaction now took place, 
and all arches of that description were indiscriminately called Norman, so 
that little was put down to the credit of the Saxon dynasty. It was also 
said, that scarcely any Saxon church could now be in existence : first, 
in consequence of the ruthless and wholesale destruction of them by the 
Danes ; and secondly, because they were generally built of wood. Bede, 
however, mentioned one constructed of stone as early as 505, and even 
the churches of that date were not new ; for Bede related that pope 
Gregory, in his instructions to the abbot Mellitus, then going into Britain, 
desired him not to destroy the temples of the idols, but to sprinkle them 
with holy water, and to convert them to the service of the true God, that 
the people might more familiarly resort to the places to which they had 
been accustomed ; and he (Mr. Ashpitel) thought, that with that state of 



304 PROCEEDINGS OF 

refinement induced by the long-continued stay of the Romans, their style 
and manner of building must have been everywhere copied in this island. 
Besides, it was improbable that the Normans, on their arrival, wantonly 
pulled down all the existing structures for the sole pleasure of building 
them up again ; for the difference in the Norman and Saxon styles was 
little more than one of ornament. The Normans, having better stone, 
built with larger and more regular blocks, and hence the reason they did 
not pay so much attention to the efficiency of the mortar ; but the Saxons, 
with rougher materials, were compelled to use mortar of a description for 
hardness which often outlasted the stone itself. The main distinction, 
then, beyond that of ornament, between Saxon and Norman architecture, 
' was, that the latter exhibited a superior closeness of joint, but inferior 
mortar. Now the crypt of the cathedral exhibited a rougher kind of work 
and excellent mortar, answering to the Saxon mode. Nor must it be said 
that this arose from the circumstance of the work being underground, for 
it was well known that the fabricators of ancient churches paid as much 
attention to those portions of their work not usually in sight, as to the 
more prominent parts, and crypts more especially were not neglected by 
them, inasmuch as they were used for special purposes and services. All 
this went to prove that the crypt at Worcester belonged to the Saxon 
period, but he would excuse himself for giving a decided opinion on the 
subject, inasmuch as ere long far better means of pronouncing a decision 
would be obtained, the fruit of researches and measurements made of 
cathedrals on the continent. In this crypt was an entrance to a subter- 
ranean passage, which would be the subject of exploration during the 
Congress. He was of opinion, that if the crypt were not built by Oswald 
it must have been the work of Wulstan ; in proof of which he exhibited 
drawings of various acknowledged Saxon arches, groinings, etc., shewing 
the similarity between them and the crypt of Worcester cathedral ; and 
when he considered that Wulstan opposed the Norman conqueror that 
he refused to make use of the Norman language and that he invariably 
presented Saxons to the livings in his patronage, it exhibited such a dislike 
to the Norman dominancy, that it was not likely the saint would have 
adopted the architecture of that people. He was therefore of opinion that, 
although built after the conquest, the Worcester crypt was built by Saxon 
workmen, and after the Saxon style. The cathedral was twice burnt 
after that period, namely, in 1113 and 1202 ; but William of Malmesbury 
stated with the utmost gravity, that while all else was burnt, the monu- 
ments of the two saints, together with a mat and wooden seat used by 
them, were untouched by the fire. The great body of the present cathe- 
dral was built in the thirteenth century, being what was termed first 
pointed or early English. The choir was clearly executed first, and the 
work appeared to have proceeded regularly and slowly through the three 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 305 

successive bishoprics. The mouldings, caps, bases, etc. of the nave were 
quite of the decorated character, but the triforium and clerestory partook 
more of the earlier character. The latter in particular seemed originally 
to have been intended for triplets of lancets. The nave probably was 
completed by bishop Cobham, commonly designated as " the good bishop." 
In the great transept was much of what might be assigned to the semi- 
Norman period, as well as the bases of the nave walls ; and as regarded 
the two dissimilar arches at the western end, about which so much contro- 
versy had arisen, he was of opinion that they were the work of Wulstan, 
but that after the fire of 1 1 1 3 that end of the building suffered more than 
at any other period, and that the architects of the time decided on casing 
those arches, which they therefore did in accordance with the style which 
then prevailed, by pointing the principal arches, and imparting to the 
whole the appearance of the semi-Norman or transition period. This was 
confirmed by his examination of the original work behind the triforium, 
and the decidedly Norman character of the external windows at that part 
now blocked up, and beneath which windows of a later date had been 
inserted. The cathedral therefore presented some work which was most 
probably Saxon, although it might have been executed subsequently to the 
conquest ; some Norman work of Wulstan, untouched ; some of a semi- 
Norman character ; one of the most beautiful early English choirs of which 
this kingdom can boast ; and an exceedingly fine tower of the fourteenth 
century. The cloisters were said to have been built in 1372, but to this 
he objected, for the fan tracery there seen could not have come into use till 
the perpendicular period. The refectory was of the decorated order, but 
elevated on walls of a most primitive appearance, having, near to the 
ground, small semicircular-headed lights with plain roll labels, which he 
thought were at least coeval with the oldest portions of the cathedral. 
Mr. Ashpitel concluded by passing a well-deserved encomium on the dean, 
canons, and other officers of the cathedral, for the kind attention and 
assistance they had given to the investigation. 

After a brief adjournment, during which a considerable number of the 
members partook of lunch at the palace by invitation of the dean, the 
company proceeded to the cathedral, and, accompanied by Mr. Ashpitel, 
inspected the crypt, and then proceeded through and round the cathedral, 
Mr. Ashpitel illustrating his paper and remarks on the various styles of 
architecture by drawing attention to the examples themselves. He ob- 
served, that this cathedral exhibited peculiarities which completely puzzled 
the architects, such, for instance, as the curved arches on one side of the 
nave clerestory, and the straight-lined or triangular arches on the other. 
The great north entrance, opened by bishop Wakefield in 1380, appeared 
by certain shafts and capitals to have been originally a Norman doorway, 
then to have been stopped up and a decorated window opened in it, and 



306 PROCEEDINGS OP 

lastly, altered to its original use, though in a later style ; the head of the 
decorated window, with its handsome tracery, still remaining above the 
present door. He also dwelt with rapture on the beauty of the choir, and 
the peculiarity of the dog-tooth ornaments of its arches being divided in 
the centre by a plain roll moulding. He suggested that some artist 
should take drawings of the beautiful carvings and foliage of the capitals, 
so much admired for their sharpness and grace, for the purpose of com- 
parison with others of the same date. 

Mr. Planche, at the request of the president, then called attention to a 
tomb, near to the mortuary chapel of prince Arthur, said to have been that 
of the countess of Salisbury, the originator of the order of the Garter. 
No other foundation existed for assigning this tomb to the memory of 
that lady than the sculpture in the screen-work above, which contained a 
rose enclosed in a garter. This theory had long been exploded, and others 
had endeavoured to prove that the recumbent figure must have represented 
a female of the De Cliffords, or a sister of bishop Giffard, whose tomb was 
next to hers. He himself had subscribed to the latter theory, until he 
discovered in the arms emblazoned on the tomb certain features which 
again threw the matter into doubt, and here it must remain for the present. 

Mr. Godwin took this opportunity, the company being close to the small 
southern transept, of calling the attention of the dean and chapter to a 
most unsightly square semi-Italian pier raised for the support of the 
building at that place, recommending its removal, and also the early pro- 
fessional investigation of this transept, which appeared to be in a very 
dilapidated state. 

Mr. Ashpitel then took the party through the cloisters, pointing out 
the singularity of the longitudinal cuttings throughout the ranges of piers 
on three sides, for which he could not account, except that they were 
intended as openings for communication between the transcribing monks. 
The chapter-house, with its central supporting shaft, groined roof, arcaded 
wall, and decorated windows, was much admired. The refectory and the 
guesten-hall were also visited. The latter is the audit-house, built in 
1320 by Wulstan de Braunsford, then prior of Worcester, for the enter- 
tainment of strangers exclusively, the rules of the order not allowing them 
to sit at table with the monks in the refectory. Here the convent held 
their monthly court for the settlement of differences between their tenants. 
A few years ago the original beautiful wooden roof was discovered and laid 
open, together with some curious mural paintings ; it is therefore hoped 
that the intention of pulling down this building will be abandoned. The 
roof was much admired, and it was strongly recommended that the whole 
should be restored, and drawings taken of the mural paintings (one of 
which represents the Adoration of the Wise Men). After this the company 
dispersed through the city to inspect its many other antiquities, among 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 307 

them the house in the Corn-market, which Charles II occupied at the 
battle of Worcester ; the ancient timbered houses in Friar-street, the 
bishop's palace, the churches, the Commandery park (the site of the battle 
of Worcester), and the vestiges of the ancient city walls, engaged the atten- 
tion of several parties of visitors. 

EVENING MEETING. 
The PRESIDENT in the Chair, 

Mr. Gutch read a paper on queen Elizabeth's visit to Worcester in 
1575. 

Mr. Fairholt read a paper by Mr. Halliwell, on the Worcestershire 
custom of Catherning ; or soliciting gifts on St. Catherine's day. 

Mr. Planche read a paper on early female head-dresses. 

Mr. C. Eoach Smith read a paper by Mr. F. C. Lulds, on cromlechs in 
the Channel islands, illustrated with large coloured drawings and dia- 
grams. 

In the course of the evening the President announced that the Associ- 
ation had received some drawings of an ancient sun-dial, some views, etc. 
from Mrs. Davies, of Elmley Park, who had kindly forwarded them for 
the purpose of the temporary museum. 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 18. 

This day was devoted to a visit to Sudeley Castle, the seat of John and 
William Dent, esqrs. 

The members and visitors, to the number of about one hundred and 
twenty, were conveyed from the Spetchley station to Cheltenham by 
special train at ten o'clock, and at Cheltenham the local committee had 
provided carriages for the remainder of the distance, about eight miles. 

Camden says that Sudeley was the residence of a line of barons descended 
from Goda, king Ethelred's daughter. Ralph, earl of Hereford, Goda's 
son, held it, and his progeny flourished there for a long time, when it 
came into the possession of Thomas Boteler, by marriage with the heiress. 
Sir Raphe, son of Thomas Boteler, about the middle of the fifteenth 
century, built the present castle, from the spoils, it is said, which he had 
acquired in the wars with France. It was a fine castellated mansion, 
with two spacious quadrangular courts, embattled towers, and a chapel. 
Edward IV afterwards purchased the castle, and it subsequently fell into 
various hands, till, in the reign of Henry VIII, it was granted to sir 
Thomas Seymour, by whom the castle was restored to its former magni- 
ficence ; and when this ambitious man had gained the hand of the dowager 

VOL. IV. 40 



308 PROCEEDINGS OF 

queen Katherine Parr, widow of Henry VIII, Sudeley was their residence. 
After Seymour was beheaded, the castle and manor were bestowed on the 
marquis of Northampton, and in 1553 on sir J. Brydges (then created 
baron Chandos of Sudeley) for his services to queen Mary. George, the 
sixth lord Chandos, was the last of this noble family by whom Sudeley 
was inhabited. In 1644, the parliamentary troops reduced the building 
to ruins. The present proprietors became possessed of it in 1837, and 
have restored and fitted up for habitation a considerable portion of the 
structure. The chapel, a late specimen of perpendicular work, is remark- 
ably picturesque, as are also the remaining unrestored portions of the old 
mansion. Queen Katherine was buried in the chapel. The discovery of 
her remains is the subject of a paper published in the Archceologia. 

The Messrs. Dent have collected some exceedingly fine old wood carv- 
ings, tapestry, pictures, and other works of art. Not the least curious is 
the identical image in wood of the Deity, represented as an earthly 
potentate, wearing a German crown, which was discovered in pulling up 
the remains of old London bridge. It is supposed to have stood in the 
chapel of St. Thomas, and is of the fifteenth century. It is engraved in 
the last part of the Archaologia. Many of the private friends of the 
Messrs. Dent were invited to meet the Association, including the earl of 
Ellenborough, J. Coucher Dent, esq., the rev. B. Dent, J. C. Brocklehurst, 
esq., M.P., the dean of Worcester, the mayor of Worcester and many 
members of the corporation, the high sheriff and Mr. F. Ledsam, etc. 
Nearly two hundred sat down to an elegant repast served in a pavilion on 
the lawn. The healths of the dean and chapter of Worcester, and of lord 
Albert Conyngham, having been consecutively proposed by Mr. John 
Dent, the dean, in acknowledging the compliment, observed that it had 
given to himself and the chapter the greatest satisfaction to throw open 
the cathedral to the members of the Archaeological Association, and, from 
their researches and information, the cathedral authorities would hence- 
forth estimate, more highly perhaps than heretofore, the beauties of that 
structure confided to their charge. He was sure that he was speaking 
the sentiments of every member of the chapter, when he stated that it had 
given them all great satisfaction to become acquainted with so many 
gentlemen of eminent literary and antiquarian fame, who had been pre- 
viously unknown to them. Lord Albert Conyngham said, that his heart 
was not as yet so chilled by scientific studies as not to beat most warmly, 
and especially at that moment, with the highest pleasure and gratification 
for the manner in which the Association and himself had been received. 
He could not attribute his position to his scientific acquirements, still less 
to his position in society, inasmuch as the Association could most readily 
have procured persons of higher rank than himself to preside over them ; 
and therefore he could only attribute it to a reciprocity of that personal 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 309 

friendship and esteem which he felt towards its members ; who, with 
himself, he was quite sure, were actuated by the warmest feelings towards 
the worthy and liberal founders of this feast. (Cheers.) His lordship 
then said he had been permitted to propose a toast. He should not call 
their attention to the history of the architectural beauties around them, 
but to an object still more beautiful in itself. It was a sight most cheer- 
ing to the heart to see gentlemen employing that wealth which they had 
gained in a manner so honourable to them, not only in entertaining their 
friends and exercising the rights of hospitality, but likewise in ameliorat- 
ing the condition of the poor. Those who knew the Messrs. Dent better 
than he did, had assured him that within the scope of their influence the 
poor were never forgotten. (Cheers.) He trusted that those gentlemen 
might have the autumn of their life much as we found it in this climate 
bright, sunny, and cheerful ; and that it might be closed with the charm- 
ing recollection, that they had been useful in their day and generation. 
He concluded by proposing " the health of J. and W. Dent, esqrs." (Great 
applause.) 

Mr. J. Dent, in reply, assured his lordship and the company, that he 
was determined not to shrink from the path of duty, and that whatever he 
or his brother might deem necessary to perform, they would be quite 
willing to do it with all their might. Having pursued a long commercial 
life, one thing they believed was due from them to the public, namely, to 
give a portion of that wealth, which his lordship had said they had acquired 
so honourably, in some measure to the gratification of the public, particu- 
larly when the object was one of scientific knowledge and amusement. 
As to the kind allusions which had been made to them, he was sorry to 
say that it was rather beyond the autumn of life with him, and whether a 
severe winter might ensue, or not, he was at least happy to find that he 
possessed all their best good wishes. (Cheers.) Mr. W. Dent also 
responded to the toast, and said it had given them both the greatest 
satisfaction and contentment to perform the rites of hospitality to so 
learned and scientific a body, and to the personal friends who had met them 
on that occasion. It was an ancient saying, " of him to whom much was 
given, much would be required ", and " by liberal things shall ye stand" ; 
and he was at least happy to think that in restoring Sudeley to something 
like its ancient magnificence, although a large sum of money had gone 
from their pockets, yet it had been most usefully applied in the employ- 
ment of artists, builders, workmen, labourers, and others. He returned 
the company his best thanks for the marks of respect and esteem which 
they had evinced towards himself and brother, and hoped they should 
continue to merit them to the end of their days. (Cheers.) 

The party returned to Worcester at seven o'clock. 



310 PROCEEDINGS OF 



EVENING MEETING. 
His WOESHIP THE MAYOR in the Chair. 

Mr. Wright, read a paper by Mr. J. G. Waller, on the study of monu- 
mental brasses (see p. 927). 

Mr. Fairholt followed Mr. Waller's paper with an extempore account of 
the series of rubbings of monumental brasses which had been communi- 
cated to the Association ; and for which they were principally indebted to 
the rev. G. Y. Osborne, Mr. C. Bridger, and Mr. Sprague of Colchester. 
He then pointed out the peculiarities of the many that were sent, and 
went through an entire series of rubbings from them, commenting on each, 
and exhibiting them one by one. He remarked on the simplicity of the 
early brass, consisting only of a single figure ; and noticed how ornamental 
canopies were afterwards introduced, coats of arms emblazoned upon them 
in vivid enamel, and the utmost elaboration of ornament adopted. The 
famous Lynn brasses, he remarked, were not only very ancient examples, 
but were exceedingly beautiful works of art, and aided, by the curious 
representation of the feast of the peacock, as shewn upon one of these 
monuments, to illustrate the domestic manners of our ancestors. He pointed 
out the peculiarities of those large brasses which were made in Flanders, 
and, unlike those of England, entirely in one large sheet of metal, the 
ground being covered with ornament ; and remarked that they showed the 
connection which the merchantmen of the olden times preserved between 
the arts and manufactures of our own country and the continent, the 
wealth produced by trade being often expended in the elaboration of public 
and private buildings connected with the great traders. He noticed the 
fact of one of the finest of these brasses having been but a few years since 
destroyed by the cupidity of a sexton, who sold it for the metal, and it was 
consigned to the melting-pot. He then proceeded to notice the various 
peculiarities of costume exhibited by these brasses, tracing the gradual 
introduction of plate armour in place of chain mail, descanting particularly 
on the ladies' costume, and pointing out the richness and elaboration of 
their dress, and the practice of emblazoning the surcoat or mantle with the 
arms, embroidered with their proper colours, upon it. He also gave a 
curious example of the manner in which, at a later period, the older brasses 
were frequently taken up from their places, turned face downwai'ds, and 
then re-engraved for another person ; and showed, by reversing one of 
these rubbings, and presenting a plain surface, how this might have been 
easily effected. He concluded his address by directing attention to the 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 311 

valuable work on monumental brasses by the Messrs. Waller, to whose 
zeal and abilities the public was indebted for very much of the knowledge 
that had been obtained of those interesting works of art. 

Mr. Wright next read the following letter from M. Guizot, excusing his 
absence from the congress : 

" My dear Sir, J'aurais eu un grand plaisir a profiter de 1'aimable 
invitation a Sudeley Castle que vous voulez bien me transmettre. J'en ai 
re9u une aussi du doyen de Worcester. Je regrette vraiment beaucoup de 
ne pouvoir en profiter. Je suis retenu ici par mes enfants et par un petit 
travail que j'ai hate de terminer. Veuillez etre, aupres de MM. Dents, 
Finterprete de mes remerciements. Je serais bien heureux d'avoir quelque 
jour 1'occasion de les remercier moi-meme. * * * * 

" Tout a vous bien since rement, 

" Lowestoft, Ir Aout, 1848. GUIZOT." 

Mr. Gutch read a paper on the Clothiers' Company at Worcester. 
Among the interesting objects connected with the history which were 
exhibited by Mr. Gutch, was a pall used at the funerals of deceased mem- 
bers. Mr. Gutch described it as " composed of alternate stripes of em- 
broidered velvet and tapestry. The embroidering on the velvet consists 
of fleurs-de-lis, eagles, double-headed, displayed ; pine-apples (query teazles), 
and angels with expanded wings, standing on wheels. The tapestry con- 
sists of figures of saints and passages from scripture history ; at the sides 
are four shields of arms or devices, emblematical of the manufacture of 
cloth. 1 It was suggested by Miss Agnes Strickland, during her recent 
visit to Worcester, that this pall might be a mortuary cloth used at prince 
Arthur's funeral ; that the embroidery is Spanish ; that the pine-apple, or 
teazle, is a pomegranate ; the purple, the imperial colour ; and that the 
wheels are Catherine wheels, introduced into the arms through prince 
Arthur's marriage with Catherine of Aragon." Mr. Gutch observed that 
this opinion is strengthened by a manuscript of the time in the College of 
Arms, published in the Antiquarian 'Repertory, which details the parti- 
culars connected with the arrival of queen Catherine in England, the 
pageants at her marriage with prince Arthur, and his decease, six months 
afterwards, at Ludlow, including the offering of palls of cloth of gold to 
the corse by the lords mourners. There were also two green silk flags, 
bearing the dates of 1540 and 1541, and inscribed Henry the VIII by the 
grace of God King of Ingland and of France, Lorde of Ireland, Defender 
of the Faythe, and immediately under God supreme Hed of the Church of 
Ingland. 

Mr. Halliwell communicated the following letter from the rev. E. M. 
Rudd : 

1 The altar cloth in Winchcombc church bears a close resemblance to this 
pall. 



312 PEOCEEDINGS OF 

Kempsey, August 14, 1848. 

SIB, I send you a tracing, which I have hastily made this morning, 
from a rude sketch, taken by myself from the Roman stone, soon after its 
discovery. 

VAL CONST 
ANTING 
PFEIN 
V10TO 
AUG 

In full, VALER1O CONSTANTINO PIO FELICI INVICTO AVGVSTO. 

You will observe that, in the first line, VAL is a monogram, as is FE in 
line the third. 

A few years before 1818, in the kitchen garden of the " Parsonage 
Farm", near the church, several stones were dug up, and employed in con- 
structing a stone fence, the boundary of a terrace. They lay at the depth 
of four feet ; many of them were cemented together, and they appeared 
to have formed the foundation of a building. When fixed in the wall of 
the sunk fence, two were observed having letters inscribed on them. 
From time to time they attracted attention, but no explanation at all 
satisfactory could be afforded, though enough was apparent to prove that 
the stones were Roman. It had been conjectured that they might be 
broken halves of a single stone, parts of one inscription. The trial, how- 
ever, was deferred till accident brought the fact to light. In the year 
1818, this portion of the fence gave way, when, by placing the two frag- 
ments together, it was found that they exactly tallied, having been split 
in such a manner as to divide one of the lines consisting of the letters 
PFIN, through the middle of the letters. 

The stone is about three feet long, and between nineteen and twenty 
inches broad. It has here and there upon the surface slight excavations 
from decay, but none which materially interfere with the letters. 

In Gruter, vol. i, p. 284, is 

IMP CAES VAL 
CONSTANTINO AVG. 

Ibid. p. Q82, is 

IMP CAES FL CONSTANTINO MAX TKIVMFATORI PIO FEL AVG, ETC. 

In the Beauties of England and Wales, art. Westmoreland, is the fol- 
lowing inscription, p. 99 : 

IMP 

C VAL 

CONST 

ANTING 

P I E X T 

AVG. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 313 

" A stone," says Camden, " with this inscription, in honour of Constan- 
tine the Great, was found in the year 1 602, at the confluence of the Loder 
and Emont." Ibid. The ground, in which the stone was dug up, is 
undoubtedly Roman. It has been mentioned sometimes as a square camp, 
sometimes as a Roman camp. And within a few years it has been dis- 
covered, that here was some Roman building, in which was a flue for 
conveying heat. All the above is copied by me (very hastily, that I may 
not lose a post) from an account of this inscription and of the camp, which 
I drew up in or about 1822, but which I have never finished nor finally cor- 
rected, and some of the sheets are loose. It is of considerable length, and 
I proposed to abridge a part. Not that I thought of publishing the account, 
though possibly it would have borne publication. The tracing of the in- 
scription I have no doubt will be acceptable to you. I cannot have the 
same assurance with regard to the rest of this letter ; but I deemed it as 
well to make the extracts. I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

E. M. RUDD. 

In addition to the above may be mentioned an inscription found in 
Northumberland (Horsley, pi. xxv) : 

IMP. CAES 

FLAV VAL 
CONSTANTINO 
PiO NOB 

CAESARK 

From the tracing forwarded by Mr. Rudd, it appears that the first line in 
the Kempsey inscription has been broken away. 

Mr. John White of Hereford communicated the following account of a 
discovery of sepulchral remains at Abergavenny. The urns and paterae 
were exhibited in the temporary museum. 

' The specimens of Roman-British pottery sent for exhibition at the 
Congress of the British Archaeological Association, were recently disco- 
vered near the site of the Roman station, Gobannium, the modern Aber- 
gavenny. Some men were trenching a portion of the nursery-grounds of 
Mr. James Saunders, when one of them thrust his spade against a hard sub- 
stance, which, on examination, he found to be the top stone of a sarcophagus, 
or cist-vaen. The sarcophagus contained, besides the vessels which are the 
subject of this paper, two black-coloured vases, which crumbled when 
exposed to the atmosphere, and a quantity of charred bones. These speci- 
mens of the Roman fictile art are of great beauty, and are in a state of 
excellent preservation. But apart from the interest imparted to them, 
there are other considerations which render the discovery important. 

"It appears that, some years ago, several cists of a similar description 
were found in the same piece of ground by Mr. Saunders' workmen ; but 
in these instances, it is believed, a large number of gold and silver coins 



314 PROCEEDINGS OF 

were discovered in the vases contained in the cists. The workmen sold 
the coins, which were in perfect preservation ; and, in order to secure the 
profit to themselves, left their master in a state of ignorance as to the 
circumstance that had occurred. Unfortunately, all trace of the coins has 
been lost ; but the fact of so many cases of sepulture having been traced 
within a few yards of each other, leads us to hope that others yet remain 
to be brought to light. The very rev. the dean of Hereford appears 
inclined to think that the spot was not occupied, during the Roman period, 
as a burial-place or cemetery. From this opinion, however, I very humbly 
differ ; and I anxiously look forward to the period when further excavations 
will be made on the same ground. The remains of a Roman causeway 
have been traced across the grounds in the vicinity of the cists. This 
circumstance is at present the subject of investigation. 

" The accompanying illustration will give an idea of the cist, which was 
formed of five stones very rudely put together. The stones are entirely 
unadorned, and evidently have never been touched by a chisel. Probably 
the remains are those of a Romanized Briton, first buried in accordance 
with the Roman custom, and then interred together with those articles 
which the departed valued most. The custom, at that period, amongst the 
Britons, of burying trinkets, drinking vessels, etc., with their dead, is too 
well known to need observation, as illustrative of the sepulture before us. 

" The larger vase probably contained the oil or wine used at the burial ; 
and the smaller one was possibly a drinking vessel. The paterae are 
Samian ware ; and the inscription on the larger patera, JULLIN, refers to 
the name of the potter, Jullinus. The pattern upon the rim of the smaller 
patera is taken from the form of a leaf, or seed-pod, which, I believe, have 
been favourite ornaments with potters through all time." 



THURSDAY, AUGUST 17. 

The morning was devoted to excursions, by various parties, to Per- 
shore, Evesham, Wollershill, Holt, and Malvern, and to an inspection of 
some subterranean medieval architectural remains in the garden of Mrs. 
Thomas, of the White Ladies. The excursionists received the kindest 
attention and hospitable entertainment, from the rev. Mr. Chowne of 
Pershore, Dr. B. Cooper of Evesham, Mr. C. F. Hanford of Wollershill, 
and Mr. Pickernell of Holt castle. The rev. H. Malpas, the rev. B. Hem- 
ming, and Mr. Bedford, also attended at the abbey church of Pershore, 
and conducted the visitors to the objects of interest in that interesting 
edifice. To Mrs. Thomas the Association is indebted for assistance in fur- 
therance of researches made in the remains of the nunnery adjoining her 
residence, and for courteous attention to the visitors. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



315 



At the close of this day, lord and lady Albert Conyngham gave a 
soiree to the members and visitors, at which upwards of three hundred 
attended. 

A considerable number of exhibitions of antiquities and works of medi- 
eval art were displayed upon the tables, and the walls were hung with 
drawings in illustration of papers forwarded to the congress. 

The President contributed a valuable assortment of Roman and Romano- 
Gaulish antiquities discovered at Amiens and Etaples; some Mexican 
pottery, and English medieval works of art, including a pocket case of 
silver, knife, fork, spoon, etc., which belonged to prince Charles Edward, 
and whose initials the vaiious articles bear. This case was presented to 
his lordship when a boy by George the Fourth. 

Mr. Rolfe exhibited a selection of unpublished Roman and Saxon anti- 
quities discovered during the progress of railway excavation at Richbo- 
rough, in Thanet, the Rhutupium of the Romans, together with a model 
of the Roman subterranean building within the walls of the ancient for- 
tress, the extent of which was ascertained by Mr. Rolfe in 1843, but the 
entrance up to the present time has not been discovered. 

Mr. John Moore, of West Coker, near Yeovil, exhibited coloured draw- 
ings of Roman tessellated pavements in Somersetshire, executed by Mr. J. 
Moore, jun., with great fidelity and effect. One or two of these pavements 
are of much interest, and will probably be described and commented on in 
a future number of the Journal. 

Mr. Moore also gratified the assembly by the inspection of a beautiful 
gold Roman ring, found at Ilchester, an engraving of which by Mr. Fair- 
holt, from a sketch by Mr. J. Moore, jun., is here presented. 




The ring weighs one ounce. It is set with an aureus of Severus Alex- 
ander, of the Liberalitas type. Caylus has published a gold ring very 
similar in style of workmanship to Mr. Moore's ; and that it is of the same 
period is moreover confii-med by the fact of its being set with a gold qui- 
narius (of the Victoria Germ, type) of Maximinus, the murderer and 
successor of Severus Alexander. The coin in this ring is secured in the 
inside by two bars of gold forming a cross. Among the drawings upon the 
table was one, furnished by Mr. Moore, representing some fragments of 
sculpture of the fifteenth century, from the church of Brimpton d'Erercy, 
Somerset. The subjects are the Salutation and the Offering of the Magi. 

VOL. IV. 41 




316 PROCEEDINGS OF 

These sculptures Mr. Moore found by accident during repairs of the 
church. They had been thrown aside among rubbish as worthless. 

Mr. Gutch exhibited, amongst other objects, a gold Roman ring, with an 
intaglio in onyx of Jupiter Serapis, found between 1710 
and 1720, at Wroxeter, in Shropshire, the site of the 
Roman Uriconium, a paper on the antiquities of which, 
by Mr. T. F. Dukes, is published in the Gloucester 
volume. The Roman road, called Watling Street, went 
through the middle of the town, and through the ford, 
still called Wroxeter Ford. An immense number of 
Roman coins, silver and brass, have at various periods 
been discovered here, of which the Rev. Francis Leighton possessed a 
large collection. This ring, which weighs 7 dwts. 15| grs. was bought by 
the father of the well-known dissenting minister Job Orton, the intimate 
friend of Dr. Doddridge. It was bequeathed to Dr. Johnstone, a very 
able and skilful physician, then residing at Kidderminster, by Job Orton, 
the son. It descended to Dr. Edward Johnstone, now residing at Edg- 
baston, near Birmingham, who kindly entrusted the ring to Mr. Gutch, 
for inspection at this meeting of the Association. 

Mr. T. Farmer Dukes exhibited a drawing and plan of the camp on 
Malvern Hill, in the parish of Coldwall ; and Mrs. Davies, of Elmley 
Park, drawings of the font in Elmley castle church, and of a curious sun- 
dial in the churchyard. 

Mr. Roach Smith exhibited three leaden matrices for the seals of Alex- 
ander bishop of Lincoln, William bishop of Durham, and Rodulf, arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (of the twelfth century), found a few years since in 
the bed of the Thames at London ; and an impression from the seal of 
the chapel of Mordon Foliot, or Castle Morden, in the parish of Langdon, 
Worcestershire, recently found at York, and now in the possession of Dr. 
J. Thurnam, of that city. It reads : Ji s' COMVNE.C'TODI.CAPELLE.BE. 
MARIE . DE . MORT' FOLLIOT, around a representation of the Virgin and Child 
under a canopy, beneath which in a niche is an ecclesiastic in the attitude 
of praying. The seal is oval in shape, and of the fourteenth century. 

Mr. Crofton Croker exhibited and explained a variety of specimens of 
Irish gold ring money, many of which are similar in shape to the Manilla 
currency used in Africa at the present day ; part of the pix of the Temple 
church, being a contemporary representation of three knights Templars ; 
clasps and buckles found in graves in the Orkneys, and two silver buckles 
of Danish manufacture, from Inniscattery, an island at the mouth of the 
Shannon ; a plate of gold, worn by the early Christians in Ireland ; a bulla 
found in Ireland, and probably of as early a date as that of the introduc- 
tion of Christianity there ; nine porcelain cubes with animals upon them 
and Chinese characters, found in Ireland, and conjectured to have been used 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 317 

as chessmen ; buckles, rings, brooches, beads and necklaces, of Etruscan, 
Egyptian, Roman, and Saxon work. 

The Messrs. Dent added, to the collections brought together on this 
occasion, some valuable portraits, autographs, and manuscripts, connected 
with the history of Sudeley castle ; and Mrs. Thomas some richly-orna- 
mented gloves of the time of Charles II. 

At the request of lord Albert Conyngham, Mr. J. S. Buckingham gave 
an extempore lecture on the present state of the city of Tbebes, as a pre- 
paratory introduction to the morrow's programme. Alluding to mummies, 
he said there were supposed to be a hundred millions of them interred in 
Upper Egypt : they were used by the natives as fuel ; and from the skulls 
\vas taken a mass of bituminous matter employed in the process of em- 
balming, which was now sold in many European countries, and entered 
into the pharmacopoeia of many continental nations, as it had been formerly 
done in England, under the name of " momia", as a sovereign specific for 
an internal wound. 

FKIDAY, AUGUST 18. MORNING. 

Mr. Arden having kindly placed at the disposal of the Association a 
mummy, which he had obtained from a tomb at Thebes, during a visit to 
Egypt, Mr. Pettigrew, assisted by Dr. Versalius Pettigrew, superintended 
the arrangements for its unrolling in the Nisi Prius court of the Shire- 
hall ; on the table of which was placed the mummy with the case and all 
its accessories. The galleries were also hung round with diagrams and 
drawings illustrative of the Egyptian mythology, and the various modes of 
sculpture as practised in Egypt at successive epochs. 

By twelve o'clock, when Mr. Pettigrew commenced his lecture, a large 
audience had assembled, the President taking the chair. The lecture, 
which lasted nearly three hours, was listened to with the deepest attention 
and with marked gratification. An abstract of it, together with a descrip- 
tion of the mummy, will probably be prepared by Mr. Pettigrew for the 
next Journal. 

At six o'clock about one hundred and twenty of the members and 
visitors dined together at the Guildhall, lord Lyttelton, the lord-lieutenant 
of the county, presiding. 

THE EVENING MEETING 

Was held in the lecture-room of the Natural History Museum, the Presi- 
dent in the chair. The papers read were : 

1. Passages of Shakespeare's first love. By J. 0. Halliwell, esq. 

2. On the carvings of the stalls of cathedrals and collegiate churches. By 

Thomas Wright, esq. 

3. On the heraldage of paving tiles. By Llewellyn Jewitt, esq. 

4. On the Dineley manuscripts. By J. Matthew Gutch, esq. 



318 PROCEEDINGS OF 

These volumes were kindly entrusted by sir Thomas Winnington, bart., 
of Stanford Court, in Worcestershire, to Mr. Gutch, for exhibition at the 
Congress of the Archaeological Association; at which sir Thomas regretted 
it was not in his power to be present, in consequence of his absence in 
Ireland, and a death in his family. They are called the Dineley manu- 
scripts, from their having been compiled by Thomas Dineley, esq., a 
member of one of the oldest families resident in Worcestershire, two 
descendants of whom are now living in Worcestershire, the rev. George 
Dineley, rector of Peopleton, and the rev. F. P. Giffard Dineley, curate 
of Churchill. The manuscripts consist of two thick 4to. volumes one 
bound in green parchment, and the other in white. In the first, there 
does not appear any date, to show when it was written, whether before 
or after the other ; in all probability, from several remarks which occur, 
it is the earliest of the two but in the latter there is the date of 1675, 
when the writer commenced the narratives it contains. They must have 
been the work of a gentleman, Mr. Gutch observed, well versed in eccle- 
siastical antiquities, and indefatigable in his pursuit of them, a classical 
scholar, well acquainted with heraldry, and an accurate draughtsman. 
The sketches of monuments, coats of arms, dresses, etc., are many of them 
exquisitely done in pen and ink; and the handwriting is fair and beautiful, 
the work of an excellent calligrapher. The green volume relates to his 
visits to several of the cathedral cities, and the parishes adjoining them, 
from which he has clearly and accurately delineated the monuments, and 
inscriptions upon them, with the arms of the families, and frequently 
traced the pedigrees of them. The epitaphs he had copied are many of 
them very quaint and curious. The value of the manuscripts is great, as 
there is no doubt that many of the monuments have ceased to exist, or are 
considerably defaced, and become illegible from lapse of time. 

This volume, in green, has the following title affixed to it : 

History from 

Marble, 

Being Ancient and Modern 
Funeral Monuments 

in 
England and Wales, 

by 

F. D., Gent. 

The first article consists of an alphabet of arms, additional to those 
which the writer says he met with on funeral monuments, tombstones, 
churches, castles, public buildings, and seats, in the journal, in alphabet- 
ical order. 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



319 



The following places, which were visited by Mr. Dineley, are enumer- 
ated, which may probably lead gentleman, engaged in tracing genealogies, 
to request from the possessor an inspection of the volumes, the contents 
of which are perhaps nowhere else at this time to be found : 

Cathedral cities : Bath, Winchester, Bristol, Gloucester, Oxford, Here- 
ford, Worcester, Lichfield, Chester, St. Paul's cathedral, and Westminster 
abbey. 

Towns and places adjacent : Chippenham, Berkeley, Gloucestershire ; 
Twining, Gloucestershire ; Cirencester, Windsor, Cambridge, Bicot, Ox- 
fordshire ; various colleges and parishes in Oxford ; Islip, Oxfordshire ; 
Eardisland, Herefordshire ; Leominster, Bromyard, Ledbury, Weobly, 
Newport, Herefordshire ; Stoke Edith, Stretford, Ledbury, Dilwyn, Monk- 
land, Pershore, Evesham, Norton, Spetchley, Queenhill, Eipple, Crowle, 
Burford, Cropthorne, Tewkesbury abbey, Wolverhampton, Warwick, Al- 
brighton, Whitchurch, Malpas, Cheshire ; Bunbury, Cheshire ; Chester 
city; several of the city churches in London, the Temple church, Hackney; 
Otford, in Kent ; Corsham, Wilts ; Lacock abbey. 

At the conclusion of this paper, Mr. Planche made the following state- 
ment : 

" On entering the abbey church of Pershore by the principal north door, 
immediately to the left, and against the wall, 
stands a large stone coffin, within which lies 
the sepulchral effigy of a knight in armour 
of the thirteenth century. The legs are 
crossed, but have been broken off above the 
ankles, and the face and other portions of 
the effigy much mutilated by ' Goth and 
time '; but its details are sufficiently pre- 
served to render it one of the most interest- 
ing monuments of its period. The warrior 
has the long Norman shield on his left arm, 
and with his right hand grasps a horn, which 
is attached by a strap and buckle to his 
sword-belt. As far as my observation goes, 
I believe this to be an unique feature in 
English sepulchral effigies. Pere Montfau- 
con furnishes us with an example in France, 
in the effigy of ' Guillaume Malgeneste, ve- 
neur du roi, mort en 1301.' Monarch, 
Franc. Plate xciv, fig. 6. Another remark- 
able and instructive feature in this effigy 
is the illustration it affords us of the mode of fastening the mail hood 
across the neck and chin of the wearer, which was first made apparent 




320 



PROCEEDINGS OF 




to English antiquaries by Mr. Waller, in the head of an effigy in Dor- 
chester church, Oxfordshire, engraved in No. vi of our Journal, p. 1ST. 
In that specimen the overlapping portion of the mail is fastened up to the 
right side of the head ready for combat. In the 
one now before us, this portion is unlaced and 
thrown back on the hauberk, shewing the chin and 
neck of the figure. This variety is also perfectly 
new to me, and may throw some light upon the 
frequent but obscure allusions to the ventaille 
which are met with in Anglo-Norman romances 
of this period." Vide plate LXV of Strutt's Dress 
and Habits, and the observations upon it in vol. 
ii, p. 64, new edition. 
" In the Dineley manuscripts, an account of which has just been laid 
before the meeting by Mr. Guteh, I found a pen and ink drawing of this 
effigy in its perfect state the crossed legs resting on a recumbent lion, and 
the whole figure upon a slab, with foliated ornamental border, resembling 
that of William Longespee at Salisbury, as engraved in Sandford. The 
left hand of the figure is inaccurately represented as grasping the sword 
hilt instead of the horn. It is accompanied by the following note : 
' The most ancient ' (effigy) ' is that of a knight templar, without in- 
scription, and defaced, which I have touched off below.' It does not 
appear, therefore, that even in Mr. Dineley's time there was any tradition 
respecting the person represented; or, at least, that he was cognizant 
of such." 




Mr. Koach Smith then exhibited a plan of a Roman villa discovered at 
Staucombe park, the seat of Mr. Purnell B. Purnell, a gentleman whose 
friendly assistance to the Association, during the Gloucester congress, 
would be remembered. The plan, and a descriptive paper, had been con- 
tributed by Mr. Purnell to the present congress. Mr. Smith added that, 
as the evening was so far advanced, it would be impossible for him to do 
more than briefly refer to some striking features in the discovery ; but the 
paper would, no doubt, be printed, at an early opportunity, in the proceed- 
ings of the Association. 

One of the upper rooms of the institution in which the Association met 



THE ANNUAL MEETING. 321 

this evening, was devoted to a museum of antiquities, formed expressly for 
the congress. Among the many interesting objects brought forward, may 
be mentioned : The original charter of the Clothworkers' Company of 
Worcester, processional shields of the same, with the motto " Weave truth 
with trust," and the ancient embroidered pall of the fifteenth century, for- 
merly used by this guild in the interment of its members ; a collection of 
beautifully-executed brass rubbings, arranged by Mr. F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A., 
illustrative of the history and costume of various periods ; autograph let- 
ters of queen Elizabeth, Charles II, W. Pitt, Chatham, Dr. Samuel John- 
son, admiral Kodney, etc., exhibited by lord Lyttelton ; a mandate of queen 
Elizabeth, and a letter of general Ireton, by the mayor and corporation ; 
a court roll of the fifteenth century, and antiquities found at Weoley castle, 
Northfield, by J. F. Ledsam, esq., the high sheriff of the county ; torques 
found at Perdiswell, a spear-head dredged up in the Severn in 1844, 
Roman gun-lock dug up from the Fort Royal, and other antiquities, by 
Mr. Jabez Allies, F.S.A. ; curious sculptures discovered on the walls of 
old St. Michael's church, by Mr. T. Eaton ; encaustic tiles from Holt 
castle ; illuminated letters of the fifteenth century, by Mr. J. M. Gutch, 
F.S.A. ; Celtic, or early Roman sword discovered at Ipswich, by Mr. W. 
S. Fitch ; many most valuable Egyptian antiquities, by Mr. T. J. Petti- 
grew, F.R.S. ; curious collection of old swan marks, by the rev. W. Cooper, 
West Rasen, Lincolnshire ; remarkable Saxon and Roman antiquities from 
Richborough, by Mr. W. H. Rolfe ; original dies for medals struck to 
commemorate the coming of George I to England; for the restoration of 
Charles II, etc., by Mr. W. J. Taylor of Little Queen-street, Holborn ; 
early printed books ; a saddle of admiral Vernon, by W. W. Lewis, esq., 
and Chinese bottle found in a tomb at Thebes. (This last-named article 
is about the size of a smelling-bottle ; on one side is a flower, and on the 
other Chinese characters. Sir J. F. Davis translates the characters thus : 
"The flower opens, and lo ! another year.") Roman urns, etc., found at 
Abergavenny, by Mr. John White ; Roman antiquities discovered at Ken- 
chester, by Mr. R. Johnson ; Saxon remains found at Elkington, by Mr. 
Milne ; among these were spear-heads, bosses of shields, and the blade 
of a sword, to the point of which still adheres the end of the sheath in 
bronze. 

SATUBDAY, AUGUST 19. 

The closing meeting was held this morning in the Guildhall, the Presi- 
dent in the chair. 

Votes of thanks were passed to the mayor and corporation, to the dean 
and chapter, to the local committee, to Dr. Hastings and the council of 
the Natural History Society, to the contributors of papers and of exhibi- 



322 PEOCEEDINGS, ETC. 

tions, to the lord-lieutenant, to the Messrs. Dent, Hanford, Dr. B. Cooper, 
rev. Mr. Chowne, the Messrs. J. Y. Bedford and Pickernell. 

The council have also to acknowledge the following donations towards 

defraying the congress expenses : 

s, d. 

Benjamin Bond Cabbell, esq., M.P., Vice-President . 10 10 
James Taylor, esq., Strensham park . . . .550 

John Benbow, esq., M.P. 500 

Francis Kufford, esq., M.P 930 

The Lord Southwell S 

R. Berkeley, esq 200 

The Rev. Canon Wood 100 



* # * The Council of the Association having, subsequently to the Wor- 
cester Congress, had the gratification of receiving a requisition most 
numerously signed by the Right Rev. the Bishop of Chester, the Dean, 
Canons, and other dignitaries, the Mayor, and members of the Corporation, 
together with several noblemen and gentlemen belonging to the county of 
Chester, have determined upon holding the next Congress at Chester, in 
the month of August 1849. 



THE JOURNAL 

OF THE 

Association. 



JANUARY 1849. 



ON TUB 

SEPULCHRAL CHARACTER OF CROMLECHS IN 
THE CHANNEL ISLANDS. 

COMMUNICATED TO THE WORCESTER CONGRESS. 

BEFORE entering on the main subject of this memoir, it 
may not be improper to state the chief reasons the writer 
had in commencing the examination of these truly ancient 
memorials. 

In the year 1811, he was present at the opening of a 
large cromlech in his neighbourhood. This massive struc- 
ture was upwards of forty feet in length, by seventeen in 
breadth. The whole area was covered by five huge stones ; 
the largest of which measured nearly fifty feet in circum- 
ference, and was supposed to weigh thirty tons. 

The sight of this singular structure, emerging after 
the lapse of many centuries from the hill on which it 
stands, and protruding, as it were, for the first time since 
its construction, from the ground which covered it, made 
a deep impression on his mind. The work of spoliation, 
and the incautious rifling of its contents, by whoever chose 
to work about this monument, caused many regrets at 
the time; but he was fortunately soon relieved from all 
anxious concern on this point, by the accidental alarm, 
that the structure itself was unsafe, and on the eve of 
falling upon the intruders. 

In the year 1817, another spot afforded him (in his 
native island) the opportunity of exploring a new locality, 
without the interference of the public. After some days 
of labour, and when everything gave indications of a rich 

VOL. IV. 42 



324 SEPULCHRAL CHARACTER 

harvest, a new difficulty arose where least expected, i. e., 
in the ignorance and carelessness of the workmen employed ; 
and finding that every spadeful of the contents required the 
watchful eye of the antiquary, he thought it advisable to 
desist until a more fortunate moment arrived, when he 
could himself use the implement, and be assisted in his 
attempt by those who could judge of the value of the 
contents. This delay, however, has caused him many 
moments of regret and sorrow: for during his absence 
from the island, the whole was levelled to the ground, and 
removed by the speculators in the granite trade of the 
island ; and thus has the present generation and posterity 
to deplore a monument of great interest. 

It is to such instances of ignorant vandalism that archae- 
ology opposes its strenuous exertions ; and the zeal of our 
Association is aroused to maintain national monuments 
wherever they exist. 

It is also proper to remark, that during the period 
alluded to, the writer commenced his examination of 
these truly ancient memorials in his neighbourhood, under 
the full impression, that the various accounts of druids' 
altars, druids' temples, cromlechs, and circles, then before 
the public, were true, or drawn from the most authentic 
sources. 

A chart of the cromlechs, hillocks, cairns, and other 
rocky eminences, was carefully made ; the names of all 
suspicious localities were noted; circles and cycloids were 
traced thereon ; and for a time this key to druidism ap- 
peared to prosper. 

The Celtic names of places and rocks, the Brehons, 
Brechous, and Breas, were placed above the more recent 
Norman appellations. The Pouquelayes (Pwca, Puck or 
Fairy, and Lie, a place) appeared to occupy an interme- 
diate position between the original name for the cromlech, 
and the use to which it was assigned, that is to say, 
a period after the decline of the race which constructed 
these monuments, and the introduction of their degener- 
ated posterity. The ignorance of the use and purpose of 
these monuments, which prevailed among the people who 
succeeded their founders, appears evident from the super- 
stitious designation of them, as Chambre des Fees, Creux 
des Fees, and every term which belongs to fairy-land. 



OF CROMLECHS. 325 

The halo of fairy mythology has not yet departed from 
this neighbourhood ; and many a cairn, or hougue, as they 
are called, bears still a name, drawn from this fertile 
country of imaginary beings. 

The stories of the country people were not without their 
use in the progress of our work ; nor were the super- 
stitious fears of destroying these memorials least to be 
despised ; for to this dread of fairy power may be attri- 
buted the preservation of some of our finest cromlechs. 

Those who are acquainted with a granite country, or 
rocky district, will best understand the wild and singular 
character of the land, and how much the appearances of 
nature, aided by legendary lore, affect the mind. The 
downs and moors of Cornwall, and the tors of Devonshire, 
the lonely mountains of Wales, the wide wastes of the Scot- 
tish highlands, can scarcely ever be deprived of reminis- 
cences of elfish days, the creations of imagination and 
ignorance. Apart from this consideration, however, when 
enormous blocks of stone are found scattered about in all 
directions, or protruding their grey heads of moss through 
the goss and brushwood (and many of these masses are 
sometimes thrown into such forms and shapes as easily to 
be mistaken for the work of barbarian art), it is some 
apology for the illiterate if he ascribes a false use, or forms 
an erroneous conception of the matter. 

It was with these feelings that the first examination of 
one of our largest cromlechs took place. Determined to 
explore these structures with regularity and system, plans 
and sketches were prepared at every stage of the opera- 
tion. That the stain marks of blood from the countless 
victims which had been sacrificed upon the druid's altar 
in question, should have been obliterated by time, did not 
surprise us; nevertheless, we had fostered the hope that, 
where the midnight fires had consumed the victims, traces 
of that imperishable substance, charcoal, would at any rate 
be discovered: but in this we were equally disappointed. 

To this apparently trifling circumstance may be attri- 
buted the first serious doubt, whether our text-books were 
right or not, and the germ of that inquiry into the history 
of these early monuments, without prejudice, by means of 
the antiquities alone, was thus produced. The dawn of a 
new system now shone over us, and daily proofs were 



326 SEPULCHRAL CHARACTER 

obtained of the simple sepulchral character of the crom- 
lech, at least in this Norman archipelago. Subsequent 
examinations of the same structures have been pursued 
both in England and France, and these have only added 
fresh confirmation to the views here advanced. 1 

The simple shape and form of the cromlech may be 
considered as one of the earliest patterns of a sepulchre. 
The circle of stones which usually surrounds it, marks and 
encloses the outer court; and this area probably was all 
that was esteemed sacred. A radius taken from the centre 
of the principal chamber will give the semidiameter of the 
whole. The cromlech itself in some part of its circum- 
ference had an opening, which was closed by a large stone, 
or a dry wall of stones, and then covered over by earth 
or turf. 

Some analogy may here be remarked between this arid 
the holy sepulchre at Jerusalem, which, though hewn out 
of the rock, had a great stone at the entrance; and St. 
Augustine intimates, that the women who first visited the 
sepulchre on the morning of the resurrection, went only 
into a certain space, which was fenced off by a kind of 
wall, in front of the stone sepulchre. In several instances 
our cromlechs have this entrance at the east end. One in 
the island of Herm has it on the north, and another on 
the south. 

This dark hollow chamber or tomb was the house of 
death : in it were deposited the bones of the departed, or, 
as it might be, the ashes of the dead. In this family or 
social sepulchre, a small spot appears to have been allotted 
to each deposit of human remains. Vases and other 
vessels were placed near the bones ; but it is necessary to 
distinguish these fictile vessels from the cinerary vases of 
other nations; and it is proper to remark here, that in no 
instance within our observation have these vessels been 
found to contain the ashes of the dead. They were pro- 
bably used to contain offerings to the manes of the de- 
parted, or were renewed frequently by the living who 
visited the sacred abode of those whom they once cherished 
and loved. Many of these vessels had evidently been in 

1 The constructing of a massive a tumulus raised from the materials 
stone cromlech denotes a peaceful and found on the spot itself, may be made 
quiet possession of the soil ; whereas, by a marching or invading army. 



OF CROMLECHS. 327 

use during the life-time of the parties ; and in one instance 
no fewer than eighteen vessels, of all sizes and shapes, 
were found accompanying the bones of one individual. 

If the period in which these rude sepulchres were 
erected be coeval with, or even prior to, the foundation of 
Rome, we shall bring before our minds much that may 
be compared with ancient Greece and Etruria, where the 
same care for the departed and similar affectionate regards 
prevailed, but only under a more advanced state of civil- 
ization. It is true that we miss the elegant forms and 
costly decorations of these ancient and truly celebrated 
hypogei ; we are deprived of the delight of tracing the 
ancient modes of thinking and acting, so interestingly 
depicted upon the beautiful jars and votive vessels of 
Etruscan manufacture ; we find no elaborately wrought 
scarabei or precious amulet, no gold or silver ornaments, 
no bronze or other metal instruments I 

Nothing of this nature has been discovered during our 
explorings. We seem to speak with a remote people, 
whose habits and manners were as far apart, as the polite 
and intelligent cities of Europe are from the rude native 
of the islands of the Pacific. Hunting and fishing their 
chief employment; stone and clay their principal commo- 
dity. There is a charm, however, about these truly ancient 
tombs; and the simplicity of their forms, with the many 
unassuming stone instruments strewed around, denote at 
every step the habits and customs of perhaps the first 
inhabitants of Europe ! 

The ponderous structures we are considering bring us 
back to the period which excites our astonishment when 
we contemplate the Tyrrhenian architecture of Italy and 
the east ; when the weight of materials seemed to be little 
accounted of, before affectionate zeal or national pride. 

The floor of the cromlech was usually paved with flat 
stones, or, in the absence of these materials, a level floor of 
small round stones ; on this were laid the bones and other 
articles. The heaps of human remains were kept apart, 
and various methods were discovered in order to preserve 
a distinct spot for each. By reference to the first volume 
of this Society's labours, pages 146 and 149, it will be seen 
that the bones were placed around the cromlech in distinct 
heaps, accompanied by the vessels, which were deposited 



328 SEPULCHRAL CHARACTER 

with them ; but at other times the spaces between the 
props were used to place the remains, after the manner 
of a catacomb. Our recent excavations have, however, 
thrown much light and information on this subject, and 
it is for this that the various drawings and sketches have 
been sent for your examination. It would appear that 
when the floor of the cromlech became unable to hold 
fresh deposits of human remains, other contrivances were 
resorted to. 

In the examination of the cromlech mentioned in the 
Journal, above quoted, at page 149, allusion is made to a 
discovery of a flat slab, which was supported on each side 
by small blocks of stone; beneath which was a hollow 
space, in which sundry articles were deposited with the 
human remains. It was not then conjectured that this 
flat stone formed a part of the second flooring which 
had been raised over the first deposits. 1 The examination 
of other localities has placed this in a clearer light; and 
we have decided proofs of a series of pavements and floors 
raised to hold the deposits of human remains. Thus shew- 
ing that these sepulchres were in use for many generations 
prior to the introduction of Christianity, or the invasion 
of the Roman armies into western Europe. 

In default of a second pavement, so placed over the 
first, without disturbing the original bones and vessels, a 
layer of clay appears to have been substituted, and levelled 
to receive fresh remains. Here it may be proper to state, 
that this clay bed has often been mistaken for the ground 
floor of the cromlech. A little attention to geological 
phenomena, however, will most frequently detect this error, 
and prove useful to the antiquary who searches after hid- 
den treasures. 

It is now necessary to allude to the additions and 
enlargements made to most cromlechs which have come 
under our notice, both here as well as in France and 
Great Britain. 

For the same reasons above mentioned, when the inte- 
rior of the cromlech became too contracted to receive fur- 

1 It is probable that this second pave- letter addressed to sir Joseph Banks, 

ment was uncovered by the soldiers doubted the circumstance at the time, 

who were employed in clearing away Vide " Archceologia", volume xvii, 

the sand in 1811. The writer of a page 254. 



OF CROMLECHS. 329 

ther deposits, the side props appear to have been moved, 
so as to form a recess or apsis; and in the cromlech at 
Lancresse, Guernsey, on the north side, there is one which 
had been formed, probably in consequence of the original 
capstone extending beyond the external wall of the sepul- 
chre, and not bearing upon it, and permitting an easy 
removal of it, so as to form a small side chamber. A flat 
pavement of one stone was discovered in it, as represented 
at page 146 of the same volume. 

Independently of these apsidal chambers, cromlechs were 
frequently extended at one of the ends : numerous exam- 
ples have been discovered in the course of our labours. 
In some cromlechs in Brittany and in Guernsey it has 
been found difficult to distinguish these distinct enlarge- 
ments; but the contraction of the original plan of the 
cromlech in most cases is made apparent, as also the in- 
troduction of a step across the structure, as observed in 
the cromlech of Gavr' Innis, and the Creux des Fees, in 
Guernsey. 

The diagram of the cromlech De Hus, in the island of 
Guernsey, will shew the additions first made to the original 
sepulchre, and the four side chambers subsequently made 
for the purpose of depositing human remains. 

In excavating the large square chamber on the north 
side (No. 1), the deposits appeared to have been made 
therein in the same order as was found to be pursued 
within the main sepulchre; but in the adjoining small 
chamber (No. 2), a great deviation from this method was 
discovered, and the extraordinary presence of two kneeling 
skeletons within it excited much interest and many con- 
jectures, on this singular and unusual method of depositing 
human remains. This circumstance, it is proper to state, 
is the only one which has come under our notice; and, 
indeed, whole skeletons are rarely discovered in any of 
these sepulchral chambers. In the interior of the crom- 
lech none have been found. 1 

The two chambers (3 and 4, vide diagram) discovered 
on the south side of the cromlech De Hus, or Du Tus, have 

1 In China, where we may look for tirely consumed ; the bones are then 

ancient customs, which are proverbially taken up and carried with much pomp 

perpetual, we learn that the bodies and ceremony to their final resting- 

are first buried until the flesh is en- place. 



330 



SEPULCHRAL CHARACTER 















o 


















o 



n 














OF CEOMLECHS. 



331 



afforded much information ; and although the appearances 
denote a considerable change in the customs and habits of 
the people whose graves are before us, there was much to 
confirm the same care and attention in the safe depositing 
the remains of their friends in the places assigned to each. 

The chamber, or sepulchre (No. 3), displayed the inte- 
rior flooring of flat 
stones, on which three 
distinct deposits of 
bones and skulls were 
placed, and each de- 
posit accompanied by 
one earthen jar, proba- 
bly containing food or 
an offering to the dead. 

Nothing more was 
found within this tomb. 
In the adjoining cham- 
ber (No. 4), represented 
in the annexed wood- 
cut, important devia- 
tions were observed. 

After having re- 
moved nearly two feet 
of earth and shells, we 
were surprised at find- 
ing a stone flooring, 
on which several skulls and bones were placed. A circum- 
stance so novel to us at finding a deposit near the top, 
induced a farther search beneath this pavement, when 
another similar floor was discovered about 1 2 inches below 
the first, on this also several distinct deposits were laid. 
During these explorings no jars or vessels were discovered. 

We were further induced to examine the interior under 
the second pavement, and at two feet from it found a 
third deposit of human remains. This last floor had no 
pavement, and three or four distinct masses of human 
bones and skulls lay on the natural soil. 

During the examination of this catacomb, we had not 
discovered any jars or vessels ; but on the north side of 
this chamber, at the foot of a stone prop, a round vessel, 
resembling a rude bowl, of coarse earthenware, was found 




VOL. IV. 



43 



332 SEPULCHRAL CHARACTER 

in a reversed position, placed on three flat stones, disposed 
in a triangular form, and covering about two handfuls of 
human bones, apparently placed there for some significant 
purpose. 

It has been stated, that during the excavations no 
vessels had been found with the deposits of remains 
within this last chamber. It is, however, proper to remark, 
that near to the surface we found portions of several jars 
which had belonged to some of the disturbed vessels of 
the main chamber of the cromlech adjoining : thus proving, 
beyond doubt, the subsequent erection of these side cham- 
bers. They were posterior to the original and primitive 
use of the chief sepulchre, known as L'autel de De Hus. 

Before quitting this interesting cromlech, it is necessary 
to explain the state of the interior, and the various addi- 
tions made to it, by the successors of that race who first 
erected it. 

The western stone is a fine block of grey granite, mea- 
suring seventeen feet long, and with two others covers a 
nearly square chamber twelve feet by fifteen : this sepul- 
chre is surrounded by a circle of upright stones sixty feet 
in diameter. The chamber appears to have been disturbed 
by intruders at a very distant period from the date of our 
excavations. There is one peculiarity in this chamber of 
great interest to the examiner of Celtic remains. 

It appears by the state of the second stone (vide diagram), 
that in the construction of the cromlech, or soon after, a 
fault was observed in it, and that to avoid and prevent its 
fall into the interior of the chamber, a stone pillar or prop 
was placed under it. This prop was standing under the end 
of the second capstone, and immediately in front of it was 
a large fragment, which, it would appear, time had at last 
loosened from its precarious situation, and it fell with other 
fragments upon the deposits beneath. It was owing to 
this accident that we had the good fortune to explore 
this part of the interior, and to recover several fine jars, 
which were partly crushed by the fallen debris alluded to. 1 

In this situation they had lain for many years, and 

1 This debris was doubtless the merits of the props from it, at two feet 

" rocky bottom " mentioned by the and a half high ; whereas they are 

same writer in the " Archseologia", vol. about seven feet in height, 
xvii; who likewise took his measure- 



OF CROMLECHS. 333 

certainly before the construction of the four additional 
chambers above-described ; for the true position of the 
jars alongside of the human bones was now seen (several 
fragments of which had so lately been discovered about 
the small chambers, strewed without any order). Burnt 
human bones were also perceived, which circumstance 
had not been observed in the other parts and chambers of 
this sepulchral locality. The quality of the pottery usually 
found in the lower floor of the large chambers, appeared of 
an older description ; and I think there is a wide interval 
of time observable in the taste and patterns of the first 
race and the latest jars discovered. 

The cromlech Du Tus, or De Hus, stands upon a rising 
ground near the district called " Paradis", a name suffi- 
ciently denoting a better order of things, and the triumph 
of the cross over barbarous rites and pagan worship; for 
immediately contiguous to the lands of De Hus stood the 
first Christian building erected to the true God, and one 
of the first missionary settlements in the island under St. 
Magloire (pronounced, in the dialect of these islands, St. 
Malliere or Manlier). 

A NEWLY-DISCOVERED CROMLECH IN JERSEY. 

Of the two drawings of the interior of this cromlech 
(seen overleaf), one represents the east end, or entrance; 
the other the west, including four internal divisions. 

There is a remarkable affinity between this structure 
and the monuments of this kind in the island of Guernsey. 
The dimensions are nearly alike : forty feet in length, by 
twelve or fourteen in breadth ; the circles surrounding 
them being, in three instances, sixty feet in diameter. 

The partial destruction of this fine cromlech can date only 
from the period when gunpowder was first used by quarry- 
men in blasting of rocks, for one "jumper hole " is still to 
be seen on a large fragment lying near it on the south. 

The peculiarities of this cromlech are to be noted, as 
they illustrate many of those details above-recited ; and 
as the entrance into it, with the four steps to descend, 
indicate either a more recent period or a more advanced 
civilization. 

The regular descent is into a sort of vestibule. The two 
stone jambs placed at the entrance, render this part of the 



334 



SEPULCHRAL CHARACTER 



structure new and interesting. The large fragment of the 
capstone or roof, doubtless formed, when it stretched across 
this entrance, a noble but rude impost. 




In the cut, representing the west end, it will be observed 
that, on the left hand, a long obelisk-like stone stands ~on 
the inside of the line of props which forms the outline of 
this area. This pillar stands near the edge of one of the 




props, behind which a recess or apsis has been formed. 
Another pillar is placed at the other side ; and, with a 
long slab at the foot, forms and closes the recess: this 



OF CROMLECHS. 335 

division, doubtless, once contained human remains ; when 
lately discovered, a quantity of burnt bones and black 
earth were in it. Nearly in the line of this slab, and by 
the side of the second pillar, another divisional chamber 
is seen, when another shorter pillar succeeds : and this 
again is repeated, until four compartments are thus 
formed. 

This new distribution of the internal area of the crom- 
lech, is peculiarly interesting. It confirms the statement 
here made as regards divisions and additional chambers, 
observable in other cromlechs in the Channel Islands, as 
well as in Britanny. 

That these divisions, alterations, and additions, both 
internally and externally, as respects the structure of 
cromlechs, can be proved to be in these islands, for the 
more conveniently depositing human remains when room 
was wanted, or some more dignified person was to be 
separately placed within the sepulchre, there can be no 
doubt of. I may here also repeat that the pouquelaye, as 
well as the celebrated cromlech, now to be seen on the 
Conway estate, near Henley-on-Thames (both structures 
once hallowing the Island of Jersey), have these separate 
divisions beautifully marked out ; whilst their use and 
purpose are now clearly defined, by the result of our 
excavations in the cromlechs of Guernsey. 

Without, at this moment, entering into the purpose of 
the large stone circles of England, or of the temple-like 
form of Stonehenge, I cannot but allude here to the 
rectangular enclosure, said to be within the celebrated Cum- 
berland circle near Keswick. Should future examinations 
be pursued in that locality, the interior of this enclosure 
ought to be carefully explored. 

The dimensions of this new cromlech very nearly cor- 
respond with several other structures of this form and 
character now existing in the Channel Islands. It may be 
proper to remark that the capstones, once spread across 
the now open interior, exhibited in both drawings, were 
placed in the same horizontal manner as those in other 
parts. The uprights or prop-stones, which form the se- 
pulchre, have the summits nearly on a level ; and on these 
ends may be seen the evidence of their having been ham- 
mered with heavy stone mullers for that purpose. These 



336 SEPULCHRAL CHARACTER 

are the only visible marks of work on them. At present, 
their height out of the ground is not beyond seven feet ; 
but they are said to be at least nine feet from their base. 

The discovery of this monument was accidentally made 
in the month of April last. It had been buried beneath 
the mound for many years, and brambles and thorns co- 
vered the whole. The capstones, as before observed, had 
been destroyed ; and probably the quarrymen never per- 
ceived that their work of destruction was so circumstanced, 
and that they were demolishing a rock placed there by the 
hand of man. 

Several vessels, of coarse pottery, were discovered in the 
interior ; but many portions of jars and vases were de- 
stroyed in excavating it. Fragments of pottery and 
limpet-shells, the usual substances found within these 
localities, were abundantly strewed about in all direc- 
tions. The frequent use of this shell-fish is evident, in 
exploring the remains of that period. There is, however, a 
difficulty in solving the great question why such a mass 
of limpet-shell should be invariably accompanying these 
abodes of the dead ? The same remark may be made in 
Britany, as amongst the tombs of the Channel Islands. 
The limpet-shell is discoverable in every sepulchral re- 
main in these places in the earliest deposits, as among 
the most recent ! Was this species of food sacred to the 
dead ? or did the devotees and pilgrims to the sepulchres 
of their fathers share with them their scanty fare ? Cer- 
tain it is, that the enormous quantity of limpet-shells 
found here within the tombs, and covering the bones and 
skulls sometimes two and three feet in thickness, and this 
at considerable distances from the haunts of man, render 
this subject one of curious inquiry to the antiquary. A 
solution to this question would perhaps introduce us to 
much of the habits and customs of this truly ancient 
people. 

In examining these sepulchres, we seem to converse 
with the aboriginal race, who first settled on the ultima 
Thule of the west of Europe. The habits of the Indian 
tribes of the South Seas are constantly recurring to the 
mind. Stone hatchets, hammers and war clubs, domestic 
stone implements, knives and arrow-points, stone and bone 
amulets, clay beads, and perforated stone ornaments, ac- 



OF CEOMLECHS. 337 

company the remains here under notice. The vicinity of 
the cromlechs produce many specimens of stone instru- 
ments, used in hunting and fishing, as well as for purposes 
of defence. In short, what has been designated as the 
" stone period " in the Pagan antiquities, is fully exempli- 
fied. In the manufacture of many of these stone instru- 
ments, an evident improvement in the form and elegance 
of some of them is observed. Some of the circular discs 
are beautifully polished, and some of the celts (nearly 200 
of which have been discovered in Guernsey alone), are 
elegantly finished. In the course of these explorings, care 
has been taken to attach interest to the most rude and 
shapeless mass which betrayed the work of man upon it. 
Mill trougha and hand mullers (preceding the more recent 
form, called the quern\ have been collected, and, by this 
means, many historical results, shewing that these various 
articles were in common use, and a general idea to some 
extent formed of the customs and habits of this remote 
and primitive age. F. c. LUKIS. 



OBSERVATIONS ON 

THE PRACTICE OF EMBALMING AMONG THE 
ANCIENT EGYPTIANS, 

ILLUSTRATED BY THE UNROLLING OP A MUMMY FROM THEBES, PRESENTED 

TO THE ASSOCIATION BY JOSEPH ARDEN, ESQ., F.S.A., FOR THE 

WORCESTER CONGRESS. 

BY THOMAS J. PETTIGREW, F.R.S., F.S.A., VICE-PRESIDENT AND TREASURER 
OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

THE most casual reader of the histories of various nations, 
both ancient and modern, cannot fail to have been forcibly 
struck with the intense and uniform reverence which has 
been paid to the remains of the dead, and to the several 
processes that have been, or are now, practised in their 
disposal or preparation. Of all these the burial of the dead 
in the earth appears to have been the most common. This 



338 EMBALMING AMONG 

also seems to be the most natural, for " Dust thou art, and 
unto dust thou shalt return." To seek the cause of the 
very peculiar care of the mortal remains of the ancient 
Egyptians, it is essential to look to their system of theology, 
and upon this subject it must be admitted that our infor- 
mation is but scanty. It is presumed, however, that the 
practice of embalming has been founded upon a belief of 
the immortality of the soul, the Egyptians conceiving that 
as long as the form of the body could be preserved entire, 
they were facilitating the reunion of the soul with the 
body at the day of resurrection. 

The Egyptians were probably the first to lay down the 
principle of the immortality of the soul. They are reported 
to have held an opinion that when the body is dissolved, 
the soul entered into some other animal, which is born at 
the same time, and that after it had gone the round of all 
other animals that inhabit the land, the waters, and the 
air, it again entered the body of a man which is then born, 
and this circuit they conceived was performed by the soul 
in 3000 years. Herod. Hist., lib. ii, s. 123. The doc- 
trine of transmigration may, then, be supposed to have in- 
fluenced the practice of embalming, by which means the 
Egyptians have excelled later nations in the preservation 
of their remains. By the perfection of their art, and by the 
discovery of the key to their lost literature, we absolutely 
know more of the ancient Egyptians than we do of a people 
of much more recent periods. Thus, whilst of the Romans 
we only find portions of their osseous remains, we have the 
very persons, form, features, etc., of the ancient Egyptians 
brought before us ; nay, we ascertain their names and 
their occupations, and frequently are enabled to trace even 
the line of their ancestry. 1 

It is to the earliest period of Egyptian history that 
I must particularly direct your attention on the present 

1 This was illustrated by reference director of the balance, that he may 
to the hieroglyphics upon the case of give a good wrought coffin (or sarco- 
a mummy, purchased by the lecturer phagus) in the consecrated enclosure 
at the sale of the late Mr. Salt's col- in the western mountain Ament of 
lection of Egyptian antiquities. It Egypt, for the votary Osiris, OSIEI, 
was that of a priest, whose name was man deceased ; son of the priest Ouo- 
Osiri, descended from other priests nofri, deceased ; son of the priest On- 
named on his case for three genera- khonso, deceased ; son of the priest 
tions. The hieroglyphics read thus : Horsiesi, deceased ; approved or glo- 
" This is a chosen offering to Anubis, rifled." 



THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 339 

occasion, in relation to the practices of embalming, and 
in these the application of various agents to the pur- 
poses intended, will be apparent, and the extraordinary 
perfection of the manufactures of the country evinced. 
The antiquity of the Egyptian mummies alone is sufficient 
to command our attention; but when their antiquity is 
considered in connexion with the history of the species, 
and the state and condition of the arts and sciences, I know 
of no subject more interesting, or more calculated to excite 
reflections of the deepest import. As, however, the time 
devoted to this examination is necessarily limited, I must 
not enter upon the various accounts which Herodotus, 
Diodorus Siculus, and others, have handed down to us 
on the practices of the Egyptians in relation to their 
mummies. These you may refer to in your library, and 
you will find that they employed them occasionally as 
securities for the loan of money, and that they had them 
even present at their banquets, to remind them daily of the 
inevitable course of nature. The pictorial representations 
in the tombs of the ancient Egyptians give to us the order 
of their funereal processions, and illustrate the practices in 
connexion with them. The statements made by the ancient 
historians have been singularly confirmed by recent exa- 
minations of these buildings. 

The principal object on the present occasion is, however, 
to consider the nature of embalming, and briefly to notice 
its different kinds, so that upon the unrolling of the speci- 
men before us you may understand the process which, in 
this instance, has been selected. 

The object of embalming, it is scarcely necessary to say, 
is, by the aid of various medicaments, to enable a body to 
resist the process of putrefaction. Particular individuals 
were appointed by the Egyptians to this service, and they 
may be looked upon as an inferior grade of the priesthood. 
But it was a trade, and according to the wealth of the 
deceased the mode of embalming was selected. Many have, 
therefore, been found ornamented with jewels and paint- 
ings, with gold, silver, and other precious materials. 
These, however, are rarely to be seen in the present day, 
except in the cabinets of antiquaries ; for Egypt has un- 
dergone so many revolutions her tombs have been so 
pillaged, by the invasion and incursion of other nations, 

VOL. IV. 44 



340 EMBALMING AMONG 

that all monuments of this description, of the most valua- 
ble nature, have long since vanished. From the few things, 
however, that have in recent times been discovered, there 
is no reason to question the veracity of the statements that 
have been handed down to us on the subject. 

The mummies of Thebes are generally esteemed the 
finest specimens of embalming, and they are here less in- 
jured by time than at Memphis, where the atmosphere is 
more damp. The value of the various articles which have 
been found in the tombs of Thebes, will account for the 
destruction which has taken place among the mummies, 
from the violence of the Persians, and the depredation of 
the priests subsequently established there, from the time 
of Athanasius the Great. In Thebes alone, it is stated, 
there were not less than 13,000 priests engaged in ran- 
sacking the tombs in search of gold and silver, and often 
in destroying the tomb itself by fire. The mummies at 
Thebes are prepared in different ways; those of Abydus 
all in the same manner that is, with a black balm, pro- 
bably the most ancient method ; and this circumstance 
would seem to be in accordance with the opinion enter- 
tained by Sir Gardner Wilkinson, and others, of Abydus 
being a more ancient city than Thebes. 

Herodotus gives us particular information relative to the 
art of embalming, and alludes to the various methods in 
which it was practised. The order in which he details his 
information, which he derived from the priests, is not that 
which, with the knowledge we now possess of chemistry, 
can be admitted to be correct; but it must be said, in sup- 
port of the veracity of the historian, that, whilst we may 
dispute the course of the process which he says was pur- 
sued, it is certain that he details no one thing with respect 
to it which has not been found to be substantially correct. 
I have witnessed evidences of this ; and I have also met 
with other methods besides those enumerated by Herodo- 
tus. He mentions three kinds of embalming, and Diodorus 
Siculus states the price attendant upon each : the first he 
places at the cost of a talent of silver, which is equal to 
225/. English money; the second, twenty minse, or 75/. ; 
and the third a much smaller sum, the amount of which he 
does not specify. Without entering into any particular 
statement on these points, I shall content myself with de- 



THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 341 

tailing to you the general relation respecting erabalments, 
which I shall divide into five classes : 

The first class are embalmed with a good black balm, 
into the composition of which various aromatics enter, and 
this substance is introduced into all the cavities of the 
body. The bandages with which the body is afterwards 
enveloped, are glued so firmly to the body that it is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to separate them, The viscera belonging 
to these bodies are deposited in urns, or rather vases, called 
canopic, made of various materials, the best being those of 
Oriental alabaster; others are made of calcareous stone, 
and some of wood. These are surmounted by four differ- 
ent heads, being those of a man, a hawk, an ape, arid a 
jackal. In the examination of the mummy of Pet-maut- 
ioh-mes, at Jersey, in 1837, and of which I have published 
an account in the twenty-seventh volume of the A rchceologia, 
I discovered the several portions of the body appropriated 
to these vases. Amset, the human-headed, has the care 
of the stomach and large intestines; Kebsnof, the hawk- 
headed, the liver and gall-bladder ; Hapee, the ape, or 
cynocephalus, the small intestines ; and Smof, or Smaut, 
the jackal, the lungs and heart. Now, this is confirmatory 
of what has been stated as to the division of the human 
body into thirty-six parts by the Egyptians, each of which 
they believed to be under the government of one of the 
decans or aerial demons, who presided over the triple di- 
vision of the twelve signs ; and Origen says that, when 
any part of the body was diseased, a cure was obtained by 
invoking the demon to whose province it belonged. Cham- 
pollion made out a kind of theological anatomy of this 
kind, from the great funereal ritual; and we find it also 
expressed on some of the mummy cases. We may, I 
think, fairly regard this as the first manifestation of the 
attempt to assign the several portions of the body to par- 
ticular planets, as subsequently handed down to us by the 
celebrated almanack makers, and which appears to have 
expired with " Francis Moore, physician ". 

The vases surmounted by the four different heads, to 
which I have alluded, are occasionally found in a box in 
which papyri, and also idols, are to be met with. In the 
first-class mummies, scarabsei, often gilt, are found with 
inscriptions on the right side of the loins, not on the 



342 EMBALMING AMONG 

chest of the mummies ; and, on the left side, the repre- 
sentation of two fingers, formed either of silex or glass. 
On these mummies, also, sometimes papyri are found, but 
often in an injured state, from the tenacity of the glue 
connecting the bandages together. 

In the second class of mummies, the body is filled with 
a bitter wood, reduced to very fine particles. The con- 
tents of the body are divided and arranged into four por- 
tions, folded in bandages, and placed within, upon, or by 
the side of the body, or among the bandages over the 
lower limbs. The bandages of this kind of mummy are 
generally removed from the body with the greatest ease, 
and leave the body entire. According to signor Athanasi, 
the head and neck of this kind are embalmed with a 
material composed of resin and gum mastic. I have seen 
specimens of this nature, but not in any of the second 
class that it has fallen to my lot to unroll. A metal re- 
presentation of the soul over the breast, and a symbolic 
eye over the opening in the flank, is common in these 
mummies. 

The third class is that which is particularly described by 
Herodotus, and is effected by natron. An analysis of some 
on the table has shewn it to consist of common culinary 
salt, chloride of sodium, mixed, as usually happens in na- 
ture, with minute portions of sulphate of soda and muriate 
of lime, and imbued with much animal matter derived 
from the human body. The Egyptians used natron to 
cleanse, scour, and bleach their linen, and also in the 
manufactory of glass. It is, therefore, you will perceive, 
a fixed alkali, and not a neutral salt, like the nitre or salt- 
petre of the present day. The fixed alkali dries up the 
animal fibre ; the neutral salt acts as an antiseptic, but 
retains the fluids of the animal matter. 

The fourth class of embalming is a mode with ashes. 
These mummies never exhale any disagreeable odour, 
which the third class sometimes do. They are said to be 
brought from African Ethiopia to Thebes for burial, and 
the greater part are found in the midst of the Temple of 
Isis. The modern Nubians admit that every thing con- 
tained in these tombs came from the country which is 
above Thebes. The greater part of these bodies are those 
of artizans, having their work-tools and instruments, which 



THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 343 

are very simple and of an ordinary make, buried with them. 
Some of these are enclosed in black cases, with various 
symbolic figures, and surrounded by many objects of an- 
tiquity. The tombs containing these are small, and rarely 
hold more than six or seven cases, some of which are fur- 
nished only with a bust or mask. Signor Athanasi ob- 
served the remains of a bull, which had no doubt been 
sacrificed, and left at the entrance of a tomb by the 
mourning relatives, before they took their departure and 
left their deceased kindred amongst strangers. 

The fifth class of embalments is with sand. I have 
twice witnessed the substitution of this material for the 
bitter wood. These mummies are generally enclosed in a 
single case of sycamore, of very ordinary workmanship, 
and rarely contain any antiquities. 

The mummies of poor Nubians are enveloped with reeds, 
worked in the manner of baskets ; or with palm-leaves, 
bound together with very slight cords. 

These, then, may be regarded as the different kinds of 
embalments; and the manner and order of the processes 
appears to me to have been thus effected l : 

1. Extraction of the brain through the nostrils; injec- 
tion of pitch or natron, or sand, into the skull, though it 
is frequently found empty; plugging of the nostrils and 
cavities of the ears. 

2. Extraction of the viscera ; incision in the left flank; 
placing of viscera in vases, or return of them, bandaged or 
otherwise, into the body. 

3. Introduction of aromatic or other substances, calcu- 
lated to prevent putrefaction. 

The accounts of embalming mention the steeping of the 
body in a solution of natron for seventy days, and no 
longer : in this respect corresponding with the period 
during which the Egyptians mourned for the father of 
Joseph. The steeping of the body in this liquid must 
necessarily have preceded the insertion of the aromatic 
substances, though the reverse of this is stated by Herodo- 
tus to have been the case. After the removal of the body, 
the cuticle was carefully separated, and the body washed 

1 The manner in which these oper- they were effected were exhibited by 
ations were performed was detailed, the lecturer, 
and the several instruments by which 



344 EMBALMING AMONG 

with palm wine, or some other astringent, by which the 
skin was, as it were, tanned. Great care was taken to pre- 
serve the nails, and oil of cedria was injected into the 
body to destroy insects. That, in these processes, heat 
was applied, was apparent from numerous examples on 
the table. Honey, wax, and a variety of articles, have also 
been mentioned as having been employed in the prepara- 
tion of the mummies ; and a late author has suggested 
that, in the embalming process, creosote was generated, 
and propelled into every tissue. And it has also, more 
ingeniously than satisfactorily, been attempted to be shewn, 
that the character of the diseases for which, in for- 
mer times, mummy was esteemed so important a medi- 
cinal substance, were such as those for which, in modern 
times, the creosote has been recommended. If this were 
to be admitted, we should then be found to be probably in 
possession of an universal remedy ; for there is scarcely a 
disease to which the human frame is subject, for which, 
according to ancient writers, it has not been directed to be 
given. Creosote possesses the remarkable property of 
coagulating albumen, and to this must be attributed its 
antiseptic power ; for albumen will not putrify when 
coagulated, nor will the fleshy mass or muscular fibre 
putrify by itself. I have certainly not been able to detect 
the smell so peculiarly characteristic of creosote in any of 
the numerous mummies I have examined; but it is not 
improbable that this substance may be generated by a sort 
of dry distillation of the body endued with bituminous 
matter. Any mineral or vegetable tar, the cedria, etc., 
would also contain creosote. 

4. The body thus prepared, the ornamental part pro- 
ceeded : Gilding the whole or part of the surface of the 
body gold mouth-piece enamelled eyes rings beads 
staining the nails with hennah (Lawsonia inermis, Linn.) 
application of sandals wood dust on the body. The 
position of the limbs, the arms crossed, or straight, were 
indiscriminately employed ; preservation of hair, some- 
times plaited, appears to have commanded great attention. 

There is some difficulty in assigning the period when the 
practice of embalming in Egypt ceased. We have evidence 
of it by St. Augustine, in the fifth century. Count Caylus 
was of opinion that no mummies had been made since the 



THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 345 

conquest of Egypt by the Romans. The Christians in Egypt, 
St. Athanasius tells us, in his Life of St. Anthony, were in 
the habit of keeping in their houses the embalmed bodies, 
not only of their martyrs, but also of all who died among 
them. St. Anthony opposed this custom ; and, fearing 
that his body might be so disposed of, he withdrew with 
two of his monks into the desert, and directed that they 
should, after his death, bury him in secret, and not let the 
place of his entombment be known. In a Christian church 
at Thebes, signor Athanasi found a square case, of simple 
exterior, in which was a corpse enveloped like those of the 
Egyptians; the only difference he perceived was, that the 
Christian mummies had a small belt, ornamented with 
several red crosses. This brings me to consider the modes 
of investiture of the body in the bandages. These are of 
linen, not cotton, as has been commonly imagined. The 
microscope has given to us the most satisfactory determi- 
nation of this question. They vary as to their texture, 
being fine or coarse ; applied in large or small portions ; 
consist of rollers of different lengths and breadths, and 
often of entire sheets. Sometimes, the limbs are sepa- 
rately invested with them ; at others, they enclose the 
limbs with the body. They are more or less carefully 
applied, according, I presume, to the expense attendant 
upon the preparation of the mummy. The finest ban- 
daging I ever saw was upon the head of a mummy from 
Memphis, belonging to signor Athanasi, which I unrolled 
some years since. The bandages appear to me to have 
been applied wet, otherwise they could not have been made 
to lie so compactly. They were also applied at different 
times, apparently in a series sometimes two or three. 
Occasionally the name of the individual appears on them 
at the end of the rollers, often in abridged hieroglyphics. 
Sometimes the bandages are of a pink hue, being tinged 
by the carthamus tinctorius ; generally they are of a 
brown colour, from an infusion calculated, by its tan, to 
assist in the preservation of the body. The bandages often 
present fringed specimens, and are frequently knotted; 
leathern amulets placed upon or over them, upon different 
parts wreaths of flowers and berries sandals necklaces 
varnished bandages, and gilt a portrait (as upon one 
in the British Museum, and figured in my History of 
Egyptian Mummies, plate vn) breastplate. 



346 EMBALMING AMONG 

The cases in which mummies are placed vary in num- 
ber. The inner one is called by the French the cartonage, 
from its resemblance to pasteboard : this is usually very 
finely painted. The face is, however, not to be regarded 
as a portrait. The female is painted either yellow or 
white, or a light pink ; the male, red. 

The subjects represented relate to the Egyptian mytho- 
logy. They are very similar in most cases, and usually 
commence with the same symbols. They are no more 
than a collection of homages offered by the deceased to 
Osiris, the deceased often taking the name of the god. 
There can be no doubt, I think, that an attentive examina- 
tion of the characters and subjects will satisfactorily con- 
vince any one that the subject bears relation to the trials 
which the soul was to undergo, and the deities through 
whose intervention, or by whose intercession, it was to 
pass through the different stages of its progress towards 
another state of existence. 

The cartonage is made of layers of linen, pasted together 
with the gum of the acacia, and plastered with lime, 
fashioned to the human shape, and laced up behind. 

Some mummies are only placed in a wooden case of 
the human figure, with hieroglyphical inscriptions and 
prayers. They are made of sycamore, cordia myxa, cordia 
sebestena, deal, etc. I have often seen three of these 
cases to one mummy; and these are sometimes placed in a 
sarcophagus, either of wood, stone, or other material. 

The sarcophagus was employed by the Egyptians for a 
purpose directly the reverse of its meaning, which we 
know in Greek signifies flesh eater; and a stone (lapis 
azzius) is described by the Greeks as answering to this pur- 
pose, and said to be able to destroy a body in forty days. 
The substances of the Egyptian sarcophagi are of a dif- 
ferent nature, and serve for the preservation of the body 
contained within them. They vary in their forms. There 
is one in the British Museum of white marble, with gilt 
hieroglyphics. The ordinary shape is an oblong, rounded 
at the head, and square at the feet. Many of these are 
in rose-coloured granite, from the quarries of Philce, Ele- 
phantine, and Syene. It is of great hardness. Besides 
sarcophagi of wood, marble, and granite, others of lime- 
stone, alabaster, breccia, basalt, baked earth, and slate, 



THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 347 

have been found. The British Museum contains two mag- 
nificent sarcophagi, well known as the Lovers' Fountain, 
and Alexander's Tomb. These are of breccia, and formed 
from a single block ; grooves for the reception of the lids 
are apparent ; but the lids are wanting. The Lovers' 
Fountain was taken by the French from Cairo to Alexan- 
dria, and thence came to this country. The tomb of Alex- 
ander, upon which the late Dr. Clarke wrote a most learned 
and ingenious work, hieroglyphical knowledge has shewn 
not to have belonged to this conqueror; for upon it is 
expressed the name of Arnyrtseus, who lived about a cen- 
tury before Alexander. He reigned in Egypt from 414 
to 408, B.C. Alexander conquered Egypt in 332, and died 
323 years B.C., which must be conclusive on this matter. 
The finest sarcophagus with which I am acquainted, is 
that in the museum of the late sir John Soane. It was 
taken by Belzoni out of one of the chambers of the tombs 
of the kings in the valley of Biban el Moluk. The sarco- 
phagus was in the innermost chamber, and measured nine 
feet five inches in length by three feet nine inches in width. 
It is two feet one inch high, and is carved both inside and 
outside with hieroglyphics in intaglio, coloured black, which 
are in great preservation. It is composed of alabaster or 
arragonite, very transparent, and sounds like a bell. 

It would be improper in this brief and necessarily hasty 
summary to pass over the occurrence of papyri sometimes 
found in the mummies. This is, however, but rarely the 
case, and I have seen only five instances. The manuscripts 
are generally contained in separate figures of the deity 
Osiris, and placed near to the mummies. They are written 
in Hieroglyphic, Hieratic, or Enchorial ; and some are 
bi-lingual, having Enchorial and Greek characters. Some 
of these have also pictorial representations. They gene- 
rally consist of certain formulas of prayers, composing the 
Great Funereal Ritual, or Book of the Manifestations. 
They do not relate to the life of the individual, but to the 
funereal rites, and to the theological doctrine upon death 
and a future state, professed by the Egyptians. In short, 
they specially apply to the trial the soul has to undergo, 
and refer to the deities through whose intervention it was 
to be enabled to pass to another stage of existence. 

To illustrate the preceding observations, the mummy 

VOL. IV. 45 



348 EMBALMING AMONG THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS. 

was now removed from the case of painted sycamore, for 
unrolment. It measured five feet two inches in the ban- 
dages. The ancient Egyptians were short in stature; 
no mummy having been met with by the lecturer exceed- 
ing five feet and a half in length. The bandages were 
secured by narrow strips of tape-like bandage, passed round 
and across and diagonally on the mummy, and arranged 
and tied behind in the manner of a lady's stay-lace. The 
bandages were numerous and of different texture, applied 
with great neatness and precision. Various compasses 
were found at different parts, filling up all hollows and 
vacuities. The linen was found to have been darned and 
mended in several places ; and various portions had coloured 
borders of blue and green colours. The limbs were sepa- 
rately bandaged; and between the bandages, lying upon 
the surface of the abdomen, was a large mass of black hair 
tied up as a bundle, which had been cut off from the back 
of the head. On the ends of two of the bandages some 
hieroglyphical characters were found, giving the name of 
the individual embalmed, and bearing reference to the date 
of the operation. They read, KHONSOTA, deceased Year 
Month Pharmuthi (corresponding to our March). 
A portion of the lotus plant was found separately rolled 
up and placed among the envelopes. The bandages re- 
moved, the body was exposed ; the features, though 
shrunken, were expressive, and gave the character of the 
deceased. Enamelled eyes were found beneath the eye- 
lids. The brain had been extracted through the nostrils ; 
and the viscera from the abdomen, by an incision in the left 
flank, and returned into the cavity, which was filled with 
the dust of some bitter wood. The nails were perfect, and 
had been stained with the hennah. No scaraba?! or other 
ornaments were upon it; and the lecturer declared it to 
be a second class mummy, agreeing with the remarks he 
had previously made. 



349 



ON THE CHARGE IN HERALDRY, CALLED A 
"REST", OR "CLARION". 




Encaustic tile from Neath abbey. 

So little is really known respecting the origin or date 
of assumption of the hereditary coat-armour of even the 
most illustrious English families, that any suggestion or 
observation on the subject is likely to be acceptable to the 
curious in this branch of British archaeology. During 
the Gloucester Congress, in 1846, I read, at Cheltenham, 
a paper on early armorial bearings, in which those attri- 
buted to the first consuls or earls of Gloucester were inci- 
dentally noticed. Amongst them a peculiar coat, quartered 
by many of our modern nobility but especially by those 
of the name of Granville had for some time occupied my 
attention ; and on the occasion just referred to, I took the 
opportunity of visiting the abbey church of Tewkesbury, 
in the hope of gaming some information respecting it. 
The coat to which I allude, is that given by Guillim, 
Brooke, Sandford, and other heraldic writers, to Robert 
Consul, base son of Henry I, viz., gules, three rests, 
clarions, or suiflues (as they are indifferently called), or. 
The only authority I had been able to find for attributing 
these arms to earl Robert, was the statement of Sandford, 
who, in his Genealogical History, says : " They were 
anciently depicted on the covering of a tomb in the Abbey 
of Tewkesbury, wherein was interred the body of Gilbert 
de Clare, earl of Gloucester, deriving his descent from the 
heir-general of this Robert." 1 It was, therefore, a consi- 
derable disappointment to me, on my arrival at Tewkes- 
bury, to find not a vestige remaining of either the tomb or 
the covering mentioned by Sandford ; and the only memo- 
rials of the Clare family, the figures painted in the win- 

1 Book i, cap. 7, page 45. 



350 CHARGE IN HERALDRY. 

dows of the choir, executed, apparently, as late as the 
commencement of the reign of Edward III. 

The question then arises as to the date of the tomb and 
canopy, or covering, on which these arms are said to have 
been emblazoned, and how far, even did it exist, it would 
have assisted us in this inquiry. Sandford does not specify 
the Gilbert de Clare to whom it was appropriated ; and 
there were three of that name earls of Gloucester, and all 
buried at Tewkesbury. The first was son and heir to 
Richard, earl of Clare and Hertford, by Amicia, second 
daughter and coheiress of William Consul, and grand- 
daughter of Robert, the first earl. He died in 1230. The 
second Gilbert was the grandson of the first, surnamed the 
Red, and the husband of Joan of Acres, daughter of Ed- 
ward I. He is said to have died at Monmouth, and to 
have been buried at Tewkesbury in 1295. The third Gil- 
bert was the last earl of Gloucester and Hertford of that 
name and family, and the eldest son of the second Gilbert 
and Joan of Acres. He was killed at the siege of Stirling 
Castle in 1313, in consequence of his neglecting to put 
his surcoat of arms over his armour ; and his body being 
sent to King Edward II at Berwick by the chivalric Robert 
Bruce, it was carried to Tewkesbury and buried beside his 
ancestors. It is probable, therefore, that the vanished 
monument might be little anterior in date to the painted 
windows ; but, relying upon the statement of Sandford 
that the arms in question were to be seen upon it, we are, 
at any rate, justified in drawing the conclusion that they 
had, either by marriage, lineage, or assumption, become a 
portion of the family arms of Clare. But how of Gran- 
ville ? no match which would account for it being re- 
corded in any pedigree of that house I have had the 
opportunity of examining. 

Of this, however, by and bye. My first suggestion re- 
specting this remarkable coat, is, that it was not borne by 
Robert, earl of Gloucester, as stated by Brooke and others ; 
for, as he died in 1146, it is a question if he had assumed 
any heraldic insignia ; and if any, as the natural son of 
Henry I, most probably a lion, as his own son William 
did : witness his seal, a drawing of which I exhibited at 
Gloucester. My next suggestion is, that these arms were 
first assumed by one of the family of Clare ; but whether 
previously to the adoption of the well-known coat, or; three 



CHARGE IN HERALDRY. 351 

chevrons, gules ; or, as a variation from it, to mark, ac- 
cording to a common practice in those days, before differ- 
ences were introduced, a peculiar branch of the family, I 
will not yet pretend to assert, though the probability, as I 
hope to prove, is in favour of the latter. 

In another paper on early armorial bearings, which I 
read at the Winchester Congress in 1845, and which has 
been published in the volume of our proceedings there, I 
drew the attention of the association to the shield of Gilbert 
de Clare (son of Gilbert de Pembroke, as he is described 
on his seal), which is of the kite shape and " chevrony," 
or, as Spelman blazons it, " capreolis plenum" not limited 
to three chevrons, as in other instances of later date ; to 
which number they were probably reduced, in accordance 
with a prevailing fashion, by the Clares, lords of Tonbridge 
in Kent, and earls of Hertford and Gloucester, the elder 
branch of the family, although a Richard, earl of Hertford, 
is depicted on his seal, as copied in the Cotton MS., Julius, 
C. 7, bearing on his shield a simple cross pometty. I have 
no means of ascertaining if this be the Richard, earl of 
Clare and Hertford, who married the daughter of William 
Consul, of Gloucester; but whether or not, it shews that 
every Clare did not invariably bear the chevrons. 1 

My principal reason for believing that the arms, gules; 
three rests or clarions, or ; are a personal coat of Clare, is 
founded, I admit, upon my conviction that all the early 
armorial bearings, except such as are called honourable 
ordinaries, were, if not arms of concession, by which we 
understand the whole or portion of a coat of a superior, 
granted to one holding lands under him, serving under 
his banner, etc., of that particular class called by the 
French " armes parlantes" or, as in English heraldry, 
canting arms : that is to say, indicating, by some similarity 
of sound in the name of the charge, the family name of 
the bearer. The instances are so numberless and noto- 
rious, that I need only, in this company, advert to the 
practice. Let us see if we cannot add one to the list. 

The three figures in this shield are called indifferently, 
as I have already said, rests, clarions, and sufflues. One 
thing only is certain : that they do not resemble any object 
in art or nature with which we are acquainted, in any of 

' A rffent; a cariton, gules; is given in Clare, Temp. Henry II, but without 
a M.S. catalogue of arms, to Roger de citing an authority. 




352 CHAEGE IN HERALD11Y. 

the types, and they are various, as you perceive, which the 

heralds have handed 

_?: a *JL down to us. Rests for 

the lance they cannot be, 
as their appearance is 
earlier than that of the 
invention, which is as 

1. Heylro; 2 MS. College of Arms ; 3. Bayley; 1 Q .j. p j.U_ -fiffoonfVi nan 

4. MS. College of Arms. lace as me Hiieentn cen- 

tury; but let us at once 

hear Gibbon on the subject, as he has collected all the 
opinions in his Introductio ad Latinam Blazoniam, under 
the article "Rests," and given us his own into the bargain : 
" Rests : I never met with this kind of bearing in any 
foreign coat, save only De Jarques of France, and Arandos 
of Spain ; and, indeed, our English masters accord not well 
among themselves what they are. Leigh (p. 51), in the 
arms of Verst (quartered by Lord Delawarr), calls it a 
sufflue. So Boswell (p. 124), in the arms of Grenvile; 
and describes it, to serve to carry the wind from the bel- 
lows to the pipes of the organ ; and if so, the word comes 
from the French verb, souffler, to blow ; yet the same 
author says, some take it for a rest to a horseman's staff: 
and accordingly, Ralph Brooke, in the arms of Robert 
Consul, earl of Gloucester (which are the same with Verst 
and Grenvile aforesaid), styles them ' restes des armes.' 
Guillim places them among musical instruments, and says, 
in old Rolls they are called clarions (now clarion was no 
other than a trump, and this is a strange shape for a 
trump). The same author, therefore, hints, as if they 
might more properly be taken for a rudder indeed, they 
are semblable ; but there are here no eyes or ringles to 
fasten upon hooks, which ought to be in a rudder. An 
old alphabet I have, as also a delineated MS. which I have 
seen (with blazons annexed to each coat), terms them (in 
the arms of Arthur) claricimbals, or clavecimbals, which 
the Latins call clavecymbala. Now, for my part, I am of 
opinion, that, as the author of the Sphere of Gentry (by 
mistake) calls them, in the arms of the present earl of Bath, 
clarendons, instead of clarions : so the old Rolls (Guillim 
speaks of) mistook clarions for claricords (claricords or 
clavicords being, by Minsheus and others, rendered the 
English of clavecymbalum or clavecordium), who also gives 
this etymological reason for the name, viz. : Quia ejus 



CHARGE IN HERALDRY. 



353 



chorda extenduntur et circum volvuntur clavibus, which 
directly answers to harpsichords and virginals : these two 
differing only a little in the external form, but nothing in 
relation to the nature of their strings or manner of playing. 
The proper Latin blazon, then, for the said arms of Robert, 
earl of Gloucester, Verst, and Grenvile, is: ' Tria clave- 
cymbala aurea in scuto rubro.' But, if any be so wedded 
to their old nmmpsimus, that they will have them still to 
be rests, let me request them to let go their opinion for a 
horseman's staff or lance, and take up that of a bracket; 
for such do they really and absolutely resemble, far be- 
yond what they do to a rudder. And because we will 
continue our relation to musick, let them be brackets, or 
rests to an organ (the divinest of instruments), hinted by 
the fore-cited Sphere of Gentry; and accordingly will I 
blazon the arms of the worshipful family of Bessing, of 
Staffordshire : ' Tria organorum fulcra cyanea, in solo 
aureo ': or, three organ rests, blue" Gibbon's Introductio 
ad Latinam Blazoniam, p. 56. 

Notwithstanding this opinion, I am in favour of their 
being clarions : an instrument of which we have often 
heard, but of which I at least have never, unless this be 
one, seen a representation. " A clarion,'' says Gibbon, 
" was no other than a trump, and this is a strange shape 
for a trump." Granted ; but heralds rejoice in strange 
shapes ; and, after all, it is not a very strange shape for a 
musical instrument, as it actually resembles a pandean 
pipe, or mouth-organ, more than anything else that I am 
aware of, except in one instance, where the pipes or tubes 
are placed apparently downwards (vide fig. 
2, p. 352). * Still, until we know how it was 
played, whether the tubes were blown into, 
as in the Paris pipe, or through, as in a bugle 
or horn (vide figure from Dallaway), this 
objection cannot be raised against it. Cla- 
rion, in French, is clairon, " du Latin 
clarus, clair, parceque le son du clairon," 




inquiry. 



1 I have since lighted upon a second The similarity of the 
instance, in the coat absurdly assigned figure to the letter J 
by Morgan to " Jubal, inventor of the may have been a con- 
harp and organ," which he blazoned as ceit of the designer, 
azure ; a harp, or ; on a cheif, argent ; suggested by the name 
three rests, gules. The rest is given of Jubal. 
in this form, the tubes downwards. 




354 CHARGE IN HERALDRY. 

says Landais, in his Dictionnaire General, " est fort clair. 
Sorte de trompette dont le son est aigre et pedant. II n'a 
plus d'usage qu'en poe"sie." He also adds : " Jeu d'orgue 
harmonieux qu'imite cet instrument." But, to quote a 
higher author, Du Cange, who is still more explanatory and 
illustrative . . . Under the word " clarasius, clario, claro" 
we have lituus a claro quern edit sono . . . Gallis, clairon; 
Anglice, clarion, etc. Tuba. " Clarasiorum melodia per- 
strepente." William of Malmsbury. Hist. Angl. " Sta- 
timque clanxerunt clariones et tuba3." HenricusKnighton. 
A.D. 1346. " Clangentibus tubis et clarionis et aliis instru- 
mentis musicis personantibus." 1360. " Le roi qui venoit 
a ung terrible tempeste de trompettes clerons et cors." 
Joinville, in his Life of St. Louis. " From the same 
origin we have," add the editors of the new edition, " the 
words, clarain, clare, and clarine, which signify bells, which 
it is the custom to hang round the neck of cattle." 
" Guillemin Chastellain a acoustume menir un sien chien, 
au col duquel par esbattement il pendi une soimette ou 
clare, que ont accoustume" de porter vaches brebis ou mou- 
tons." Lit. remiss, ann. 1383. 

It is evident that the figure must be reversed if we are 
to suppose it a sort of bell to hang to the neck of cattle, 
and although much more humble insignia than sheep bells 
have been used to typify names by their owners, still a 
clarion, it must be admitted, would be more appropriately 
used by a warrior, and the name of Clare as perfectly sym- 
bolised by " trois clairons" as an Anglo-Norman knight or 
herald could desire, hundreds of lamer devices being fami- 
liar to every student of the science of armory. Further 
evidence of a decisive character I have none at present to 
offer, but something like corroboration of my opinion is to 
be found in the collections for a history of Neath and its ab- 
bey, lately made and printed, but not published, by George 
Grant Francis, esq., F.S.A., of Swansea, and therein we 
find also, I imagine, the link between the Clares and the 
Granvilles. The castle of Neath, it is presumed, was built 
by Richard de Granavilla, to whom, in the reign of Henry I, 
the lordship was allotted. He was one of the twelve 
knights who assisted Robert Fitzhamon in his conquest of 
Glamorganshire from Justin ap Gurgan, in the reign of 
Rufus. 




CHARGE IN HERALDRY. 355 

Neath abbey was founded about 1129, and we are in- 
formed the patronage of the abbey was in the great family 
of the Clares, earls of Gloucester and lords of Glamorgan, 
the lordship being conveyed to Richard earl of Clare by his 
wife Amicia, daughter arid coheiress of William consul of 
Gloucester, whose mother was one of the four heirs of 
Robert Fitzhamon ; and on the common seal of the abbey 
we find these very arms, the three clarions, 
either as a coat of the Clares, patrons of 
the abbey and lords of Glamorgan, or of 
the Granavillas, holding under them. The 
Granvilles by their pedigree also claim a 
common ancestor with Fitzhamon, in a lord 
of Corboil in Normandy, and were therefore 
distantly connected with the Clares through 
Mabel Fitzhamon countess of Gloucester. From common Sea i of 
The armorial bearings allotted by medi- 
eval heralds to the Fitzharnons, are or ; a lion rampant, 
azure ; and such are depicted impaled with a very singu- 
larly formed cross on the tiles round his monumental chapel 
at Tewkesbury, but that monument is of the fourteenth 
century, arid there is no proof that Fitzhamon ever bore 
an heraldic coat. Now the question is, by whom were the 
arms gules, three clarions or, first assumed. That they 
are of more recent date than either of the two consuls of 
Gloucester appears evident, and there is not the slightest 
evidence that 1 am aware of to support the assertion that 
such arms were ever borne by them. That they have been 
from a very early period the arms of the Granville family 
cannot be for a moment disputed. They must therefore 
have been originally assumed by them, or conceded to them 
by some feudal superior. That the De Granavillas held 
lands at Neath is an historical fact ; and it is equally cer- 
tain that the earldoms of Pembroke and Gloucester and the 
lordship of Glamorgan were at the same period enjoyed by 
the family of Clare. As the arms of De Granavilla, there 
would be no reason for their appearing on the monument 
of Gilbert de Clare at Tewkesbury ; and from that circum- 
stance, coupled with the affinity in sound between the 
name of the family and the heraldic charge, if admitted to 
be a clarion, I venture to suggest the probability of the 
coat of arms before us having been originally assumed by 



VOL. IV. 



356 RECENT DISCOVERIES AT 

a de Clare or granted by one to a de Granavilla. If I am 
correct in my supposition, the arms in question acquire a 
more general interest from their affording the only repre- 
sentation, however rude, of an instrument of music with 
the name of which alone we have hitherto been acquainted ; 
if I am in error, I shall be happy to be proved so, as the 
only object of the modern antiquary is truth ; and even an 
erroneous suggestion becomes valuable, if, by provoking 
discussion, it leads to the establishment of it. 

J. E. PLANCH 1 



RECENT DISCOVERIES MADE AT 

ICKLETON AND CHESTERFORD, ON THE BORDERS 

OF ESSEX AND CAMBRIDGESHIRE, BY THE 

HON. R. C. NEVILLE, F.S.A., ETC. 

THE members of the Association, and other readers of 
our Journal, have been enabled by the kindness of Mr. 
Neville, to keep pace with his very interesting and suc- 
cessful explorations in the neighbourhood of Audley End, 
and particularly in the district of Chesterford. The third 
volume contains a review of his own printed account of 
excavations made in and about the Roman station at Ches- 
terford during the winters of 1845 and 1846, and the 
spring of 1847; a notice of a Roman villa excavated in an 
adjoining field (coloured drawings and a plan of which 
have since been prepared in illustration of a second pri- 
vately printed essay, by Mr. Neville) ; an account of the 
exhumation of sepulchral deposits, and of a pit containing 
broken pottery, animals' bones, etc., on the exterior of the 
north-eastern side of the Roman station; and a commu- 
nication of the discovery, near the Borough-ditch, as it is 
called, of nearly two hundred large brass Roman coins. 
The present volume of our Journal also contains several 
notices of explorations made during the year just passed, 
which, by permission, we are enabled thus early to describe 



ICKLETON AND CHESTERFOKD. 357 

more fully; and at the same time, by a continuation of 
that generous patronage which we have heretofore received, 
to illustrate with cuts, presented by Mr. Neville. This 
liberality will be the more appreciated, when it is under- 
stood that the antiquarian world may, ere long, expect 
from the pen of Mr. Neville, a second part of the Antigua 
Explorata, giving a detailed account of the discoveries. 

The object of the present paper will be to aiford a general 
notion of the nature and character of the remains brought 
to light, with such observations -as I may consider calcu- 
lated to direct inquiry, as well as to make the subject com- 
prehended by those who did not avail themselves of the 
opportunity afforded to visit the excavations. The pre- 
scribed limits of our Journal, as well as inability to avail 
myself of the privilege of attending the progress of the 
works so often as I could have wished, will naturally pre- 
clude, and it is hoped will excuse, the insertion and dis- 
cussion of many interesting particulars which oiFered temp- 
tation to a wider and fuller range of inquiry. 

Our first cut is a bird's-eye view of the chief portion of 
the foundations of a Roman villa, situate at Ickleton, in 
a field called South-field, in the occupation of Mr. Samuel 
Jonas, lying somewhat less than half a mile from 
Ickleton, on the left of the road from London to that 
village. The field rises from the high road by a gentle 
ascent; and its position between Chesterford and Ickleton 
will be readily comprehended by reference to the engrav- 
ing, which includes the towers of the churches of the two 
villages, the former on the right, and the latter on the 
left. The site of the Roman station at Chesterford is 
almost opposite, on the other side of a valley, through 
which runs the river Cam, or Granta. In the lower part 
of the field, on the fight, are indications of the foundations 
of a building, which, when the sketch was made, had only 
been partially excavated ; and on the nearer right-hand 
corner of the villa are three rooms, annexed to the villa by 
a wall. Both of these will be explained by the plan in 
page 365. The field on the opposite side of, and border- 
ing the high road, which, as before remarked, runs at the 
bottom of South-field, is called Sunkin Church-field, now 
commonly shortened to Church-field, an appellation which 
reminds us of the Sunkin Church-field of Hadstock, where 



358 




ICKLETON AND CHESTERFORD. 359 

was found the tessellated pavement described in the Antigua 
Explorata, and adds another instance to the very many 
on record, of the constant occurrence of Roman remains 
in localities known as "church-fields". In that of Ickleton, 
I believe, Mr. Neville has detected the existence of a 
Roman wall, or mass of masonry. No tradition attaches 
itself to this district ; nor does it appear that any one ever 
previously suspected the buried monuments of Roman 
occupation, which have recently been laid open. Salmon, 
however, seems to refer in the following paragraph, either 
to one of the foundations in South-field, or to some on the 
opposite side of the road : " By the road side," he states, 
" which leads from Chesterford to Hogmagog, and crosses 
the Ikening-street, are some ruins of a building, by the 
neighbourhood called Sunkin-church. This, probably, was 
some cross which fell by time, or was demolished." 1 The 
difficulty now is to know which road Salmon called the 
road to Hogmagog. Does it still exist? In Gough's addi- 
tions to Camden, mention is made of " a camp" on the 
Ickleton and Duxford side of the river; by which brief 
and vague reference the remains under consideration may 
possibly have been alluded to. 

The bird's-eye view shews seventeen apartments of the 
villa; but it will be seen by the subjoined plan, that addi- 
tional ones originally existed, the vestiges of which at 
some remote period have been ploughed or dug up. Only 
two of the rooms are paved, namely, that in which the 
figures are sketched, and the one immediately to its right ; 
and in these the pavement is of the commonest description, 
being composed of a thick layer of concrete, strewed with 
pieces of tiles and grit stone of irregular shape, mixed 
with small stones, a description of flooring frequently 
met with in subordinate rooms of the highest class of 
Roman villas, but occurring almost exclusively in nume- 
rous villas which have been discovered throughout this 
country in the superior and spacious class, as well as in 
those of more contracted extent. 

Two apartments, those in front to the right and left, 
were warmed by means of hypocausts ; the position of the 
furnaces to each of which being still traceable. The floor- 

1 " The History and Antiquities of Essex", etc. By N. Salmon. London. 
Folio, 1740, pp. 137. 



360 



RECENT DISCOVERIES AT 



ings to these rooms, which it is probable were ornamented 
with tessellated pavements, had been entirely destroyed. 
Some of the columns of square tiles, adapted for pillars, 
remained, and the external walls of the room on the right 
shewed the places of insertion of flue-tiles for carrying the 
heated air up the wall: a similar contrivance was noticed 
in the room on the left. In this latter apartment a saving 
of the tile columns had been partly effected, by rows of 
the native chalk soil being left standing to serve for the 
purpose of walls. This arrangement will be better under- 
stood by means of the annexed cut, which shews on a 
larger scale the irregular supports of native chalk; the 




remains of the rows of tiles ; openings in one of the lateral 
walls for the long hollow flue-tiles; and the entrance to 
the furnace. The walls of the rooms were about two feet 
thick, and were composed of flints, pebbles, and chalk, with 
the occasional insertion of tiles, especially at the angles, 
where they were placed in regular layers, and in the con- 
struction of the furnace were used almost exclusively. 

Most of the apartments had a neatly turned moulding 
of plaister, running round the bot- 
tom, which, together with the walls, 
had beeix painted. A considerable 
quantity of fragments of the wall 
paintings have been preserved. Mr. 
Neville remarks, that a hole appears 
to have been dug, and all the frag- 
ments of painted walls flung in ; and 
that on many the marks of a pick-axe or some blunt iron 
instrument, evidently used in demolishing the walls, are 




ICKLETON AND CHESTERFORD. 



361 



manifest, which, he adds, may partly enable us to conclude 
that the final destruction of the place was wanton and 
systematic. Some notion of the variety, as well as of the 
elegance and good taste of these paintings, may be afforded 
by a few specimens selected from a great number now 
deposited in Mr. Neville's museum; the colours are indi- 
cated by the lines being disposed heraldically. 




The prevailing colours are red; red and white, with 
black stripes; blue; a greyish blue, spotted with red and 
yellow; yellow, red, and white. 1 The walls of some of the 
rooms appear to have been ornamented with a ground of 
deep rich red, divided into panels by borders of various 
colours, in which were interspersed birds, flowers, stars, 
and fanciful objects. On those of other apartments were 

position seems precisely similar to those 
id other localities in this 



1 I find, from analysis, that some of 
the duller red colours are ochres the 
brighter, a vermillion ; the blue con- 
tains copper (peroxide), silica, and an 
alkali ; one of the green is also com- 
posed of copper. Their chemical com- 



of London anc 

country, as well as abroad; and the same 

striking uniformity is to be noticed in 

the composition of the mortars, tiles, 

etc. 



362 RECENT DISCOVERIES AT 

human figures or nymphs and genii. There is a very 
remarkable resemblance in the drapery flowing round the 
ankle of a female, to that of the well-known bacchante, or 
dancing nymph, in one of the pavements of the Bignor 
villa. Those who are familiar with the high excellence of 
the paintings discovered at Pompeii and Herculaneum, 
many of which, for beauty of design, skilful drawing, and 
gorgeous richness of effect, throw all modern attempts at 
imitation into the shade, will at first be disposed to un- 
dervalue those of our own country. But it must be 
remembered, that the examples we possess are seen under 
the most disadvantageous circumstances ; while those refer- 
red to in Italy are preserved intact, and possess all the 
advantages of the original arrangement of the artist ; here 
also in no instance have we been quite certain of the pro- 
per disposition of the various patterns and designs which 
we meet with dislocated and in shattered pieces. In such 
vast quantities were the mural paintings from Roman 
houses discovered in London a few years since, that I have 
seen carts literally laden with them carried away as rub- 
bish, although examples might have been preserved which 
would have been a prize to any museum of antiquities. 
Some few in fresco, which I possess, among a great variety 
in distemper of inferior design, are of very fine work, and 
rival those of foreign production. King, in his Munimenta 
Antiqua, while continually denouncing prejudice in favour 
of one class of antiquities, shews himself to be on the other 
hand quite as unjustly influenced and prejudiced against; 
he much underrates the value and beauty of the Roman 
frescoes ; but it is very evident from those which he cites, 
that he was not really cognizant of the finer varieties dis- 
covered in this country. 

The excavations of the villa brought to light but few 
objects of art which need particular description. An iron 
key with bronze handle, of good workmanship, may be 
mentioned. There were a few coins picked up chiefly of 
a late period. But we may be allowed to notice particu- 
larly the fragments of pottery, which were found in great 
abundance. Speaking within compass, there were portions 
of at least two hundred varieties of fictile vessels. Of 
these, a considerable number belonged to the class of which 
specimens have been engraved in pages 7 and 8 of vol. i 



ICKLETON AND CIIESTERFORD. 363 

of the Journal, and in pages 213 and 331 of vol. iii. The 
predominance of this peculiar description is worthy of 
note, because it belongs to a class of great beauty and 
marked character in form and ornamentation, the parent- 
age of which we have been enabled to appropriate by the 
aid of the late Mr. Artis's discoveries, to a district in our 
own country; and from the manufactories there it is pro- 
bable these examples found at Ickleton and Chesterford 
were brought. There were, on the contrary, among them, 
scarcely any, if any, of the equally marked and distinct 
class found on the site of the potteries on the Medway (see 
Journal, vol. ii, pages 134 and 136). Neither were there 
observed examples of other classes of pottery which have 
been procured from Ewell, in Surry, and other places. It 
is by availing ourselves of the opportunities afforded by 
such discoveries as these, that we are enabled to form a 
notion of the extraordinary extent of the Roman potteries 
in Britain, and of the peculiar fashions which, in these 
works of art, prevailed in the different localities in which 
they were established. King, whose opinion on the Ro- 
man frescoes has been cited above, equally disparages the 
Romano-British pottery, in comparison with the china and 
European earthenware of the present day. Had he allowed 
that, for the uses and customs of the moderns, the modern 
works are more appropriate, his judgment and taste would 
not have been disputed ; but when he makes the ancient ex- 
amples inferior in point of elegance to the modern, we may 
question whether he had given himself the trouble to examine 
the numerous beautiful forms which must strike us as far 
superior in chastity of design to those of the present day. 
It is, indeed, among the preeminent qualities of the ancient 
vessels, that, in their almost infinite diversity of form, it is 
very seldom we can detect a positive instance of want of 
grace or elegance; and the inventive powers of the modern 
artificers seem unable to imagine a single type which 
had not ages ago been common upon the humblest board. 
To shew the immense superiority of the ancient fictile 
vessels over similar works in the middle ages, it is only 
necessary to place them in juxtaposition, when the latter 
will appear positively uncouth and barbarous. When good 
taste, in later times, was revived, nothing of consequence 
was achieved, that was not in imitation of the classic. It is 

VOL. IV. 47 



364 RECENT DISCOVERIES AT 

very unfortunate that in this country we have no public 
collection of the various fictile and other productions of 
ancient art, classified and arranged under the head of their 
proper localities. The Museum of Economic Geology offers 
every facility for forming such an useful collection, and we 
hope its directors may be persuaded to countenance this 
suggestion. Mr. Neville has deposited specimens of the 
Ickleton and Chesterford pottery in the excellent museum 
of Saffron Walden, an example which cannot be too much 
eulogized ; for antiquities are nowhere so well attended to, 
and so useful for reference and study, as in the neighbour- 
hood of the localities which have produced them ; and if 
individuals who have the power would foster their respec- 
tive local museums, or establish them where wanting, pos- 
terity would not have to lament, with us, the loss of some 
of our most valuable national antiquities. 

I cannot quit the villa without presenting an inscrip- 
tion picked up among the shattered household stuff. 
It was engraved with a stylus, or some sharp instrument, 

below the upper rim of a large 
drinking cup, while the vessel 

was i* 1 use f r convivial P U]> 
poses, as the words shew : 

CAMICI BIBVN(T). There is a 
portion of a letter before the c, 
which may have been a v; but, as Mr. Neville suggests, 
the meaning is obviously, Ex hoc amid bibunt, "from 
this cup, friends drink". The vessel had been devoted to 
the potations of friends at the domestic board, and some 
one of them had traced this simple dedicatory record, 
which may have been at one time more complete, by the 
addition of the name of the place, or of the inscriber. 
Conventional convivial inscriptions on Roman drinking 
cups, such as " Bibe", "Imple", "Reple", "Ave", etc., the 
work of the potter, and usually executed in white paint, 
are by no means uncommon. They never excited such 
reflections as arose when, surveying the ruins of the spa- 
cious villa, and\ the temple, and the outlines of the site of 
Iceanum, I read upon this relic, whose insignificance had 
preserved it, a record of its humble history, brief and 
simple, but eloquent, from its simplicity and suggestive- 
ness, where all else was silent. 




ICKLETON AND CHESTEKFOKD. 



365 



VILLA. 




.... 62 -.ft~ - 




fc 

t IS 

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ft | 



i 

P GQ 



..5 

S'S 



.S3 2- 



i I 

^ PM 

a w 



aqo ox 



ox 



3G6 



RECENT DISCOVERIES AT 



The length of the villa shewn in the cut is ninety-seven 
feet, and the width sixty-six feet. The plan given above, 
shews three additional rooms at the right angle, occupying 
a space of fifty-six feet by twenty-three feet nine inches. 
These rooms were laid open after Mr. Fairholt had made 
the bird's-eye view, as was also the building therein indi- 
cated, and fully shewn in the annexed general ground 
plan. The walls of the villa for the most part are twenty- 
two inches thick, but not always regular ; at r, in the plan, 
they do not run straight. 

The foundations of the building in the lower part of the 
field, which have been commonly designated as the remains 
of a temple, are situated eighty feet in a diagonal direction 




from the villa, and 88 feet from the high road, being in 
itself 81 feet 6 inches in length, and 41 feet wide. The 
walls are of irregular thickness, varying from somewhat 
over two, to three feet ; they are composed of flint, 
chalk, and drift stones, collected from the spot, such as are 
at this present day found and used for building ; at the 
corners tiles are used, as shewn in the above cut, which 
represents the upper angle nearest the villa; this corner 
has a kind of footing. Upon a rough masonry of flints are 
squared stones of unequal sizes, but for the most part 
twenty-three inches in diameter ; they are not very straight 
in the line, or rather they do not range accurately, and the 
four uppermost ones are considerably above the level of the 
other four. The centre of the building and one side must 
have been open, on the other are cross foundations as if for 
cells, and a wall also has run across and united the two 
upper columns : whether this was merely to give strength, 
or for some arrangement to divide the area for sacred or 



ICKLETON AND CHESTERFORD. 367 

other duties, is by no means apparent. Nothing was 
discovered that could possibly determine the original 
destination of the edifice, and we are only justified in 
styling it a temple, because, from its somewhat isolated 
position and the absence of all domestic features, it would 
appear to have been devoted to some public purpose, and 
there seem more reasons for believing it to have been a 
place of worship than a hall of justice or court for public 
business. The locality is just such as would be congenial 
to a temple of a humble kind, and it is to be regretted that 
its destruction has been so complete that no record has 
survived to give us a shadow of its history. An obliging 
friend, to whom we are indebted for the plans given in the 
preceding page, also supplies information given him by Mr. 
John Brown the geologist, of Stan way, respecting the mate- 
rials of the structure. The pier stones are oolitic, of that 
description called the Rutlandshire oolite, or they may have 
been brought from Kettering ; vast quantities of that stone, 
commonly called Ketton stone, are used in this country at 
the present day, but of a finer sort, the ova-like particles 
in the Ickleton foundation stone being larger. The flat 
pieces of grit stone, about half an inch thick, with holes 
through them, used for roof covering, are of calcareous form- 
ation, and must have come from Colley Weston or Stones- 
field, near Woodstock ; the holes were for fastening them on 
with plugs. Some of the houses in Oxford are covered with 
the same kind of stone, and in Wales also. These hexagonal 
roof tiles, formed of a kind of slate, have been found among 
the debris of Roman buildings in Gloucestershire and in 
other parts of England; and tiles of a precisely similar 
description, both as regards form and material, may be seen 
upon some of the houses in Treves at the present day. 

The situation of this building by the road side at such 
a convenient distance from the walled station, and com- 
manding a view of it in front, is very favourable to the 
opinion of its having been a temple; less so to its claims 
to be considered a basilica, or hall for public business, but, 
unfortunately, as before remarked, nothing could be gleaned 
from any remains found in and about the foundations that 
could at all throw any light upon the use for which it was 
intended. That another building was connected with it is 
apparent from the branch wall which abruptly terminates 



368 RECENT DISCOVERIES AT 

at the distance of about thirty-six feet from the temple, and 
as there is a considerable widening of the masonry rather 
more than midway, it is very evident that much is wanting 
to help us form a correct notion of the original plan. In 
the upper part of the temple the labourers found bones of 
several infants an unexplainable occurrence, unless we may 
therefrom conjecture that at some period after its destruc- 
tion, the place, from its seclusion or a superstitious idea of 
sanctity, had been resorted to for burial. 1 

CHESTERFORD. 

At the commencement of this paper reference has been 
made to Mr. Neville's former discoveries and to his own 
essay, the Antigua Explorata, descriptive of them. In 
order that the situation of the Roman station, its form, and 
relative position to the villages of Chesterford and Ickleton, 
Dr. Stukeley's plan, published in his Her Curiosum, or 
better still, Mr. Neville's copy, should be consulted, as the 
latter marks the situations where in 1818 and 1825 sepul- 
chral urns were discovered. This plan, of course, does not 
include the sites of cemeteries more recently discovered by 
Mr. Neville on the E. and N.E. sides. And, it may be 
mentioned, that a gravel pit on the S. side, between the 
Crown Inn and the river, has been dug a considerable 
distance into the station. In this pit urns were also found 
many years ago, but I am not in possession of the facts 
which attended their discovery. If they were funereal, we 
should infer they were deposited at an early period, and 
before the settlement had become walled. I am informed 
there is yet another cemetery, where a windmill now stands, 
at a considerable distance to the S.S.W. 

Stukeley, to whom we are indebted for much information, 
made from personal survey, on the Roman remains in this 
country, and for many plans and sketches of objects which 
were in his time rapidly disappearing before the growing 
spirit of destruction, has laid down in his plan of the 
Chesterford station, the outlines of a subterranean building, 
which he terms templi umbra, from a notion that it had 
been a temple. In the autumn of last year Mr. Neville, by 

1 I understand the tower of Ickleton from Roman buildings, or are tiles 
church contains many Roman tiles ; made more romano, I have not had an 
but whether they have been brought opportunity of ascertaining. 



ICKLETON AND CHESTEEFOKD. 



369 



permission of Mr. 0. H. 
Edwards, 1 the proprietor, 
laid open these founda- 
tions, and through the 
usual freedom of access 
granted to the excava- 
tions, we have here a 
plan, carefully taken by 
one of our members, of the 
foundations, which are 
those of a dwelling-house, 
and not, as supposed by 
Stukeley, a temple. 2 

Although this building 
appears regular and com- 
plete, there is good rea- 
son to believe that it was 
originally more extensive. 
At G the wall is thick- 
ened, and more tiles are 
introduced. Here was 
probably the entrance 
from the furnace to the 
hypocaust (H), and this 
would presume one exte- 
rior room at least. As 
in the Ickleton villa, no 
traces of doorways to any 
of the rooms remain, and 
the floorings or pave- 
ments of most are en- 
tirely gone. In the 
apartment marked H, the 
substructure constituting 
a hypocaust is shewn 




PLAN OF THE ROMAN VILLA AT CHESTF.RFORD. 

(Scale 24 feet to the inch.) 



H Hypocaust built of rough pieces of hard chalk. 

I. Room with a piece of tessellated pavement very much 
worn. The tessellso are of tile and hard grit stone squared 
to a full inch 

K. A narrow space, nearly 52 feet long and from 13 to 
15 inches wide, between two walls, each 2 feet thick. 

The tiles at the angles are left black in the cut. The 
walls average somewhat above 2 feet in thickness, but at 
G, where there was probably an entrance, they are widened. 



1 The Association had previously 
occasion to express its obligation to 
Mrs. 0. H. Edwards for the exhibition 
of local antiquities in her possession, 
and for polite attention to several of 
the members during their visit to Ches- 
tcrford. 

2 In justice to our predecessor, I 



must quote an opinion given by a 
friend of mine, in a letter dated 
Nov. 28th. " I took Stukeley with me, 
and convinced myself by admeasure- 
ment on the ground, and by the scale 
appended to Stukeley's map, that Mr. 
Neville had only laid bare that por- 
tion which in his plan is a parallclo- 



370 



RECENT DISCOVERIES AT 



in our plan by the lighter lines. It was composed of 
irregular masses or walls of hard chalk; the darker lines 
shew the narrow hollow spaces between them, or flues, as 
they may be termed, sixteen inches deep; the portion left 
white shews where the chalk foundations had been removed, 
probably by the excavators, before they had ascertained 
their real character and use. The parallel walls at K are 
extremely difficult to explain. We have, in the descrip- 

gram surrounded merely by straight 
lines (see the plan in " Antiqua Ex- 
plorata"), and that he had not yet 
touched upon what are represented as 
bases, possibly for pillars. If you take 
a pair of compasses, you will find by 
applying them to the interior building, 
that it measures about 100 feet by 40 
wide ; now this is about the size of the 
developed foundations." 

It may not be out of place to give 
the precise account of Stukeley. He 
says : "Going upon the Icening-street 
the other way, just upon the edge of 
Cambridgeshire, we come to Chester- 
ford, upon the river going to Cam- 
bridge, near Ickleton and Strethal. In 
July, 1719, I discovered the vestigia 
of a Roman city here : the foundation 
of the walls is very apparent, quite 
round, though level with the ground, 
including a space of about fifty acres : 
great part of it serves for a causeway 
to the public Cambridge road from 
London : the Crown inn is built upon 
it : the rest is made use of by the 
countrymen for their carriages to and 
fro in the fields : the earth is still high 
on both sides of it : in one part they 
have long been digging this wall up 
for materials in building and mending 
the roads : there I measured its breadth 
twelve feet, and remarked its compo- 
sition of rag-stone, flints, and Roman 
brick : in a little cottage hard by, the 
parlour is paved with bricks ; they are 
fourteen inches and a half long, and 
nine broad. In the north-west end of 
the city, the people promised to shew 
me a wonderful thing in the corn, 
which they observed every year with 
some sort of superstition. I found it 
to be the foundation of a Roman tem- 
ple very apparent, it being almost har- 
vest time : here the poverty of the 
corn, growing where the walls stood, 
defines it to such a nicety, that I was 



able to measure it with exactness 
enough : the dimensions of the cell 
or naos were fifteen feet in breadth, 
forty in length ; the pronaos, where 
the steps were, appeared at both ends : 
plan taken Aug. 21, 1722, and the 
wall of the portico around, whereon 
stood the pillars. I remarked that the 
city was just 1000 Roman feet in 
breadth, and that the breadth to the 
length was as three to five, of the 
same proportions as they make their 
bricks : it is placed obliquely to the 
cardinal points, its length from north- 
west to south-east, whereby wholesome- 
ness is so well provided for, according 
to the direction of Vitruvius. The 
river Cam runs under the wall, whence 
its name; for I have no scruple to 
think this was the Camboritum of An- 
toninus, meaning the ford over this 
river, or the crooked ford ; in Lincoln- 
shire we call a crooked stick, the 
butchers use, a cambril. They have 
found many Roman coins in the city or 
borough field, as they call it; I saw 
divers of them." 

The following is from Gough in re- 
ference to Chesterford. 

" Roman coins of the early as well 
as the later emperors have been found 
here; and, 1769, in digging down the 
walls to mend the road, a large parcel 
of very fine ones was found in a pot. 
Here have been also found a bronze 
bust, fibulae, and other brass utensils, 
several gold instruments resembling a 
fetterlock or staple; one weight 8lb. 
was found under a thick rude piece of 
bronze about seven years ago by a 
miller, who immediately sold it. About 
sixty years ago many urns and entire 
skeletons were dug up, and a small urn 
of red earth, containing several written 
scrolls of parchment, but dispersed 
before any account or explanation 
could be obtained. The instruments, 



ICKLETON AND CHESTEKFORD. 371 

tion of one of the villas of the younger Pliny, an instance 
of the use of double walls to secure quietude from noise 
without ; but this would hardly apply to those under consi- 
deration, and, moreover, they border a long passage, into 
which, apparently, six of the rooms opened. It is more 
likely the inner wall may have been designed for affording 
additional heat or strength ; but, unfortunately, there was 
so little of its elevation left, that opinion as to its use can 
be but mere conjecture. 

It would be unsafe to attempt a general explanation of 
the uses to which the various rooms and divisions of these 
villas were intended, further than to decide that some of 
the larger apartments, and especially those provided with 
hypocausts, were used as sitting-rooms. In this climate, a 
people, like the Romans, coming from the south, would 
severely feel the cold and long winters : and thus we find, 
in almost all their houses, ample provision made to ensure 
warmth. It is a common mistake to confound the substruc- 
tions, which were a part of the usual contrivances to ensure 
heat, with baths, so that hypocaust and bath are taken 
almost as synonimous. It is not sufficiently considered 
that descriptions of Roman villas in ancient writers apply 
generally to a high class of buildings, something remark- 
able even in Italy ; and that the luxury of a range of 
baths of various kinds, with their refined appendages, 
would be out of place in such a country as Britain, where 
climate and other circumstances must have demanded a 
modification of architectural arrangements, even in the 

pi. i, figs. 13, 14, 15, 16,* and the in- and others quietorium (see " Journal", 
scription, fig. I7,t lightly hatched on a vol. iv, p. 64). Besides the large camp or 
brick, were in the hands of Mr. Shep- city, a smaller may be traced by the 
herd, a farmer, near the church, who church. The name of Borough field 
had a large collection of coins, etc. comprehends the adjacent grounds, par- 
found here. A stone trough, the only ticularly all between the great camp 
one of the kind perhaps in England, and the river, in which is supposed to 
discovered here, and some time used have been an amphitheatre, the corn 
for water at a smith's forge, was in the growing there in a circle of eight yards 
hands of the late Dr. Gower of Chelms- wide, including a space of a hundred 
ford, who supposed it a receptacle of yards diameter.]: 
ashes of the kind called by Montfaucon 

* These are two fibulae, a spoon, and a key. 

t This is in four lines, and commences LITIIGIINVS MACCVSTOK but it would 
not be satisfactory to give an explanation of the remainder, as the accuracy of 
the engraving is questionable. A portion is in a cursive hand ; altogether the 
inscription resembles one I noticed on a tile found at Silchester, executed with 
a sharp instrument while the clay was soft. 

J Camden's " Britannia", by Gough, 1789, vol. ii. p. 62. 

VOL. IV. 48 



372 RECENT DISCOVERIES AT 

buildings of the more wealthy. In a villa recently opened 
at Hartlip, in Kent, of which a notice will follow in the 
present Journal, two baths were found, in a good state of 
preservation : and as this villa was one of considerable 
extent, they may be taken as fair examples of the baths 
generally used by the Romans in Britain. 

The accounts of villas given us by Pliny and others, and 
the discoveries at Pompeii and other places in the south, 
are, however, very valuable as affording us notions of the 
domestic buildings of the Romans, in a perfect state, if we 
bear in mind that here we have seldom more than the mere 
foundations to contemplate, and also consider how difficult 
it would be for us, at the present day, to undertake to 
describe a modern house and its appliances, from a foot or 
two of its ground-work. We are struck with the number 
of small rooms in our Roman villas. Many of these were 
doubtless cubiculi, or sleeping-rooms, which we know were 
often of very contracted dimensions ; and it is very obvious 
that many of the internal walls, which appear so complex 
and crowded, had openings for light and for curtains, to 
make temporary divisions between different rooms : thus, 
as Pliny observes (in speaking of the zotheca), " by open- 
ing the windows and curtains, a cubiculum is either added 
or separated." 

One of our colleagues has drawn my attention to the 
marks on the curve-edged tiles found at the Chesterford and 
Ickleton villas. He observes : " In looking over the quan- 
tities of broken roof-tiles, 1 I find certain marks on the 
upper sides of these tiles, which, at first, might seem to be 
accidental, but, on looking carefully at these marks, and 
finding them in many instances to resemble each other, 
I was led to the conclusion that there might be some design 
in them. They are evidently made with the fingers, before 
the tile was burned and while the clay was yet plastic ; 
and, I imagine, marks of a different kind, made with a 
knife, may be traced on some of the smaller tiles or bricks. 
These potters' marks may bear some analogy to the ' ma- 
sons' marks' of after ages." The writer has forwarded 
eight varieties of these marks, to which, probably, we shall 
direct more specific attention on some future occasion. 

1 These tiles, it may be noted, were as common building tiles in walls, and 
not exclusively used for roofing ; we for foundations of rooms, for water 
find them in all situations; often used courses, etc. 



ICKLETON AND CHESTERFORD. 373 

The tiles, for the most part, measure fourteen inches by 
eleven, and in thickness about an inch and a half; two at 
Ickleton were sixteen inches by twelve. 

Among the objects dug up during the excavations of 
this building, may be mentioned a broken shaft and base 
of a stone pillar, about three feet high and eight inches in 
diameter ; a skeleton, of large proportions ; bones of dogs, 
oxen, goats, etc., in abundance ; fragments of fictile ware, 
in great variety ; some knives in iron ; a small iron hammer- 
head, keys, and iron implements : the uses to which some 
of the last were applied, are by no means apparent. A 
friend informs me there are several spurs or rowels, com- 
posed of six spikes of iron, each starting in a different 
direction from a common centre. He is inclined to think 
they were attached to the ends of the straps of horses when 
racing ; and he illustrates the manner of their application, 
both in ancient and modern times, from M. Gaiel's print 
of the Carnival Races at Rome, and from Fowler's print 
of the Races in the Hockstow tessellated pavements. 
Fragments of querns, or hand-mill stones, were found ; 
they are of three different kinds of stone, namely : Ander 
nach lava, Herefordshire plum-pudding (so called), and a 
coarse kind of granite. The Andernach stone was im- 
ported in large quantities by the Romans, as it is met with 
in all parts of our country among the debris of their build- 
ings. I possess many specimens of it in mill-stones found 
in London, some of which are of large size, and were pro- 
bably worked by horses. 

After the excavation of this building, Mr. Neville moved 
his workmen to some distance, in the direction of Ickleton : 
that is to say, further to the N.E.N. exterior of the wall of 
the station ; and, opening the ground on the verge of one 
of the cemeteries, discovered eight funereal urns, seven of 
which contained burnt bones. In one of these, of very 
capacious size, were placed three smaller vessels, namely : 
a bottle-shaped stone-coloured flagon, with a handle ; a 
small vessel, of coarser red ware ; and a very perfect 
specimen of the Castor pottery, 2 four inches in height, 

1 I ' have to acknowledge the receipt den, member of the Association, to 
of a very accurate coloured view of whom we are indebted for constant 
this villa and the surrounding country, cooperation and assistance in local re- 
by Mr. Thomas Frye, of Saffron Wai- searches. 
2 See " Journal", vol. i. 



374 



RECENT DISCOVERIES AT 



ornamented with a well-executed representation of a stag 
pursued by a dog with open mouth. Below this deposit, 
lay a quantity of burnt bones of animals. Subsequent 
explorations in the same locality have, I understand, 
brought to light similar deposits, together with human 
skeletons. Some pits on the N.E. borders of the station 
were also excavated. The contents were of a character 
similar to those examined on a former occasion, and de- 
scribed by Mr. Neville in the Journal, and confirming the 
opinion which he then gave as to their being rubbish-holes. 
They were of considerable depth, and were filled with a 
fine mould, largely impregnated with animal and vegetable 
matter; many bones of oxen, sheep, goats, and other ani- 
mals ; oyster and mussel shells ; broken pottery, iron 
knives, etc. 

Mr. Neville's zealous and well-directed researches have, 
in a comparatively brief space of time, been rewarded by 
the acquisition of much information relative to the ancient 
state of this once-important station and its suburbs, and 
of numerous interesting objects of ancient art which, in 
his private museum, will often be referred to by the 
archaeologist. It is rather remarkable that the history of 
a station of such importance, and a district so populous, 
as this must have been, should not be illustrated by a single 
monumental inscription. Even the extensive burial-places 
have not as yet furnished the name of one 
of their numerous tenants. Much care 
was, in many instances, expended on their 
funerals; we find their remains interred 
in coffins of lead, in coffins of wood care- 
fully bound with iron, and in urns ; but 
not one inscribed stone has survived the 
indifference and destructiveness of suc- 
ceeding generations themselves, in turn, 
swept into the common grave of oblivion, 

I am enabled, by the kindness of Mr. 
Neville, to add to the illustrations of my 
paper, cuts of some of the objects, in his 
museum, found at Chesterford. The an- 
nexed is one of several bone knife-handles, 
well carved, with various designs. This 
before us represents Hercules leaning 
upon his club. 




ICKLETON AND CHESTERFORD. 



375 



Two earthen vessels are selected for their elegant and 
novel shapes and patterns. That to the left is of a 
dark red clay, with ornaments in white paint ; that on the 
right is of light yellowish clay, the pattern being in raised 
lines. 




inches in height ; 6 inches in diameter. 



7 inches in height ; seven inches in diameter. 




The third is particularly remarkable for its imitation 
handles. 

The following is a list of potters' 
names on the red-glazed ware found 
at Chesterford l : L.ADN.ADGENI. 

ALBVCIANI. ATOLAVSTI. CINTVS- 

MVS.F. CONSERTI.M. CVCALI.M. 

DESTER.F. MARTI.M. MICCIO.F. 

OF.NERT. IVL.NVMIDI. PATRICI. ^ inches *" hei ht; 5 * ' m diam - 

RIIGVLI.M. ROTTLAI.IM. (sic). SABINI.M. SACRILI.M. 

OF-SVLPICI. TALLINI. VICTORI.M. 

It was my intention to have given a catalogue of the 
coins ; but it would far exceed the prescribed limits of my 
paper. It will, therefore, on the present occasion, be 
sufficient to observe that they comprise a series ranging 
from Claudius to Arcadius : thus embracing the entire 
period of the Roman domination in Britain. But I shall 
be excused in reverting to the discovery of the 194 large 



1 Many of these names will be found published in the " Collectanea Anti- 
iu the extensive Loudou collection, qua", vol. i, p. 150 et seq. 



376 RECENT DISCOVERIES AT 

brass coins, in December 1847, in the Borough field, being 
able to append an engraving of the bronze colander in 
which they had been deposited. 




One of the chief features of Mr. Neville's discoveries, 
certainly the most striking, has been the rectification of 
the errors of several topographers, with respect to the 
position of some of the stations in the fifth iter of the 
itinerary of Antoninus, and the confirmation of the opinion 
of Horsley, who seems to have been the first to include in 
it Chesterford, which, with the neighbouring hamlet, Ickle- 
ton, may now be satisfactorily included, both by distance 
and by the remains brought to light. 

The fifth iter of Antoninus is a long one, of upwards of 
four hundred miles, leading from London to Luguvallium, 
near the wall, taking its course through the counties of 
Essex, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Lincoln, York, and Cum- 
berland. It proceeds through Ccesaromagus to Colonia, 
Colchester. It is here that Camden and others have first 
been at fault ; and by them the next two stations, Villa 
Faustini and Icianos, have been fixed at Bury St. Ed- 
munds and at Thetford, in Norfolk, almost entirely without 
the support of any existing remains to warrant their deci- 
sion. The Villa Faustini is evidently one of those subor- 
dinate stations which, without the aid of ulterior ones of 
greater importance, it is so difficult to determine the sites 
of. It was probably merely a mansio, or place for a relay 
of horses, as well as for rest and refreshment ; or one of 
those extensive villas the remains of which are still brought 
to light yearly, spreading over a wide expanse, and which 
served probably, when located by the side of the high road, 
the twofold purpose of a domestic villa and public inn 



ICKLETON AND CHESTERFOKD. 877 

Some copies of the Itinerary read xxv miles instead of 
xxxv, as the distance of Villa Faustini from Colonia. 
Horsley adopts the former, which, reduced into English 
measure, would accord with his notion of its having been 
on or about the site of Dunmow. Camden states, that 
" from Durimowto Colchester is a direct road, wherein are 
still to be seen, in some places, the remains of an old Ro- 
man way, called the street. In an old perambulation of 
the forest, in the reign of king John, it is said to be 
bound, on the north, super stratum ducentem a Dunmow 
versus Colcestriam." Horsley, after observing that the 
distance of eighteen Roman, or fourteen English miles, 
would answer exactly for the site of Iceanos, at Chester- 
ford, observes : " The distance and way seem plainly to 
point to Chesterford for Iciani, which name seems to be 
retained in that of Ickleton, a town in Cambridgeshire, 
but on the border ; and the large fortified ground lies 
between Chesterford and Ickleton. The town of Chester- 
ford is in Essex, but on the border of Cambridgeshire. 
It lies on the north-east side of the river Granta. The 
large fortified ground is of an oval figure : and from this, 
and other circumstances, I suspect this fortification to be 
Saxon or Danish, though they call this field the Borough, 
and Roman coins are found within this fortified ground, 
called Brugh money. 

The ancient Roman fort, I believe, has been that which 
is at the east end of the oval one. This is of a square 
figure, the wall enclosing the churchyard stands on the 
north side of it, and the mill at one corner ; another side of 
it runs close to the river. Roman coins are also found 
here ; and I discovered, lying in the mill, a curious piece of 
Roman antiquity, 1 inserted in the collection. So that the 
Saxons seem to have taken the same measures here, as they 
appear to have done in many other instances ; that is, to 
make a fort and settlement just by the place where the 
Romans had one before." 

It will be noticed that Horsley was entirely ignorant of 
the full extent and character of the remains at Chesterford, 

1 This is now in the British Museum, mentions a smaller camp (?) where the 
and has been figured in the " Journal", churchyard now is. Here have been 
vol. iv, p. 64. found amber beads, a beam of a steel- 

2 " Britannia Romana", p. 429. Gough yard, and various other antiquities. 



378 RECENT DISCOVERIES AT ICKLETON, ETC. 

and neither he nor Stukeley seems to have knoM r n of any 
vestiges of Roman buildings at Ickleton. 

The two stations of Villa Faustini and Icianos do not 
come into either of the routes of Richard of Cirencester. 
In his third iter from Londinium to Lindum (Lincoln), he 
proceeds from Colonia (Colchester) to the banks of the 
Stour (ad Sturium amnem), to Venta Icenorum by way of 
Cambretonium and Sitomagus, and thence to Camboricum, 
which, as before mentioned, was reached in the fifth iter of 
Antoninus via Villa Faustini and Icianos. The direct 
route in Antoninus from Venta Icinorum to Londinium is 
through the stations in the third iter of Richard, cited 
above, except that in place of ad Sturium amnem is placed 
ad Ansem. The omission of Icianos by Richard is there- 
fore simply to be accounted for in the fact that he nowhere 
includes in his itinerary any portion of the direct road from 
Colonia to Camboricurn, upon which it was situated. 

The word Icianos demands a passing observation. It is 
remarkable for its being in the accusative case and in the 
plural number. As Ward suggests, it is possibly a mistake 
for Iceano or Iceanis, the stations being usually in the 
ablative ; but if we venture to adopt a rectification, the 
plural will demand the preference, as being the number in 
which the word actually stands in the itinerary. We have 
several instances of the names of stations in the plural 
number, and it will be perceived that the remains at Ches- 
terford and those of Ickleton are at a considerable distance 
apart, and both of sufficient importance to have been termed 
Iceani rather than Iceanum. There was probably in the 
time of the Romans about the same distinction between the 
two settlements as there is at the present day between the 
villages of Chesterford and Ickleton. We now see but faint 
glimpses of the departing ruins of the two places, but faint 
as they are, they point to a period when on the one side of 
the valley stood a strongly fortified station, the area of 
which was doubtless well covered with public and private 
buildings : on the other side, where the public building and 
villa have been brought to light, were probably numerous 
dwelling-houses, the vestiges of some of which future re- 
searches may disclose, but of the greater part the last 
traces have most likely been long since swept away. 

C. ROACH SMITH. 



379 



of tfje Association. 



JUNE 14. 

MR. E. B. PKICE communicated the following papers, and exhibited the 
fictile vessels therein described and referred to : " As all matter tending 
in any degree to illustrate or throw light upon the early occupancy of this 
island by the Romans, must be interesting to all who direct their attention 
to archaeological investigations, I make no apology for obtruding some 
remarks upon the Roman remains which so extensively abound in the 
marshes and creeks situated on the south of the Medway. By the kind- 
ness of our zealous colleague, Mr. Humphrey Wickham, I was invited 
to form one of a little party, including himself, Messrs. Coulter, 
Smith, Keet, Lock, etc., in April last, for the purpose of making some 
further researches in the localities alluded to. A former number of our 
Journal details the results of a visit by some of our members, in July 
1846, to Otterham creek, a short distance from Upchurch. On the 
present occasion, in addition to revisiting this neighbourhood, our examina- 
tion extended in a south-west direction towards Gillingham, to a small 
island, known as ' Bishop's Marsh.' Here, besides a vast number of 
fragments of earthenware vessels, of almost endless variety of form, pattern 
and colour, we ascertained that a funereal deposit, which I have now the 
pleasure of exhibiting, had been recently discovered. The situation of 
this island will be better explained by reference to a plan kindly furnished 
me, together with some valuable notes, illustrative of the history of the 
Medway marshes, by our friend and associate, Mr. Grafter of Gravesend. 
From this elaborate plan, drawn upon the scale of an inch to a mile, some 
idea may be formed of the enormous extent of surface covered with frag- 
ments of Roman pottery. Judging from the remains which have been 
discovered from time to time, it would seem that the whole district now 
known as the Gillingham and Upchurch marshes, must have been exten- 
sively occupied by manufactories of earthenware, much of which must 
necessarily be submerged by the gradual encroachments of the river ; and 
when we consider the geological character of the stratum, a remarkably 
fine yielding clay, we can sufficiently account for the almost innumerable 
creeks, as well as the gradual wearing away of the banks. 

" With the evidence of remains so extensively diffused, it is not too much 
to infer the existence of habitations of the potters in the same locality, 
and which some future investigations may tend to confirm. It certainly 
is no outrageous stretch of imagination to suppose that the human remains 

VOL. IV. 49 



380 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

contained in the urn now exhibited, may be those of some eminent artificer 
in the fictile art, who exercised his calling upon this spot some fifteen 
centuries ago. Near this urn (which it will be seen is of a pale red colour) 
were found three other vessels, together, with two Samian paterae perfect, 
one nearly so, besides fragments of another. The potters' stamps are 
SACEE . VASIII (VASEI ?) CALAVA. FLOBVS F. This discovery was made a 
short time since in digging upon Bishop's marsh, 1 by an individual who 
resides upon the island, of the name of Buddie. Hasted (edit. 1782), 
quoting from Harris's Kent, says that ' upwards of one hundred years ago, 
was dug up, in the salt marshes, in this parish (Gillingham), a large urn, 
holding about the quantity of a bushel, in which were fragments of burnt 
bones and ashes.' Excavations on these marshes would doubtless reveal 
many similar interments. The large black urn, now on the table, was 
obtained, on our return, from two boys, resident in Chatham, and who had 
recently found it in one of the marshes between Gillingham and Upchurch. 
It appears to be exactly similar to the one figured in the Archaologia, 
vol. xv, 1806, and which was found in digging in lord Dartmouth's garden 
at Blackheath in 1802. It is stated that his lordship presented it to the 
British Museum, but unfortunately my researches and inquiries there 
concerning it have not been successful. Since our return, some fresh 
discoveries have been made in Bishop's marsh by Mr. Constable, who 
accompanied us in our voyage, and whose valuable services deserve honour- 
able mention. By the kind exertions of Mr. Humphrey Wickham, I am 
enabled to lay the results before the Association. They consist of a cine- 
rary urn, and a large quantity of fragments, exhibiting an almost endless 
variety of shape and ornamentation, as well also as some extraordinary 
examples of external colouring or glazing. The contents of the urn (which 
is black, and of rude workmanship) are worthy some attention. It at first 
sight appeared as though the burning had reduced the bones literally to a 
fine white ash, which had been tightly compressed into the urn. From 
numerous pieces of charcoal, and occasionally a fragment of bone, together 
with the almost absence of any weight when dried, I think there can be little 
doubt as to the question of combustion, and that the greater portion of the 
mass consists of wood ashes. Among this large collection, both from 
Otterham creek and Bishop's marsh, it will be seen there are numerous 
fragments of the fine red, or ' Samian ware.' Now without presuming to 
assert that we have indisputable evidence of its having been made in this 

1 Some stone cannon-balls, varying tance westward from Bishop's marsh), 
from three to four inches in diameter, against the Dutch fleet in June, 1667; 
were shewn to us as having been also on which occasion the fort at Sheer- 
found in this island. These, as Mr. ness, and several of our men of war off 
Grafter conjectures, were probably fired Chatham and Upnor castle, were burn- 
from a fort at Folly Point (on the op- ed and destroyed, 
posite bank of the Medway, a short dis- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 381 

locality, we have certainly strong reasons to conjecture it. In the first 
place, we have now certainly ascertained that there is an abundance of frag- 
ments to be met with ; and, in the next, a few experiments will soon con- 
vince the inquirer that the same material will produce the fine red as well 
as the fine black. I will even go so far as to say that I believe, notwith- 
standing the immense variety on the table, that all these specimens were 
produced from the same stratum of clay. The external coating or glazing 
forms no part of the present question, for in that particular we see an 
almost endless variety in the specimens before us, ranging from a delicate 
white to an intense black ; and it is, moreover, a branch of the art which, 
in the hands of the same school of workmen, could have been as well done 
in Kent as in Italy. With respect to the fine black pottery of the 
Medway, there are some characteristics worthy of note. Two pieces, appa- 
rently alike, when submitted to the fire, will sometimes exhibit different 
results. In the one case, we may have a bright red, like the fracture of a 
piece of Samian ware ; and in the other, we have the surface white, demon- 
strating that in this latter instance an external coating had been applied, 
and that if the vessel had not been fired in what the late Mr. Artis appro- 
priately termed a smother-kiln, it would have turned out the same as some 
of the specimens on the table. In the former instance, we see that the 
smother-kiln forms the difference between the red and the black ware, for 
we may reverse the experiment by reburning a piece of the Samian ware 
with some coal or charcoal in a close vessel, and the result is a fine black. 
We meet occasionally with illustrations of this fact among the exuviae from 
Koman London. I have many fragments of this blackened Samian ware 
in which the discolouration has extended quite through the material, 
resulting from an intense and long-continued heat in what may be termed 
a smothered fire. On some of these fragments is a species of decoration, 
as if done with a pencil and white paint ; it is occasionally met with on the 
' Samian ware.' This is doubtless a thin layer of another clay (the Devon- 
shire or ' pipe clay* probably). On other specimens we have red stripes 
on a white ground. It seems on the whole very evident that the Romans 
were well acquainted with the nature of the material in which they worked, 
and the various combinations and modifications it was capable of. 

" It is worthy of remark that a striking resemblance exists between the 
clay about Bishop's marsh and that in the neighbourhood of Whitstable, 
especially as regards the impregnation of iron, which we observe oozing 
through the banks in all directions. The clay in both places is of that 
beautiful texture, that it will take an impression equal to the finest 
plaister ; and it must be borne in mind that in the neighbourhood of Whit- 
stable, at what is called the Pudding Pan Piock, has been dredged up from 
time to time an immense number of ' Samian' pater. These facts and 
their inferences are worthy consideration." 



382 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Thomas Barton, of Threxton House, Norfolk, forwarded notices of 
the discovery of some Saxon swords and bosses of shields at Northwold, in 
that county ; eight urns dug up in the neigbourhood ; flint and brass celts 
dug out of the fen at West Denham ; and also two potters' stamps 

and EOAB on rims of mortaria, found at Threxton. 

CVS . FE 

Mr. Rolfe exhibited an ancient plated coin (brass, covered with a thin 
lamina of gold), found between Sandwich and Eastry. Around a head, 
which appears to be a copy of that on some imperial Roman coin, is 
inscribed, VEBVS IMP . o. The reverse bears the figure of a horseman 
with spear. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith stated that, in consequence of a communication he 
had received from Mrs. Shedden, of Bittern Manor, relative to a discovery 
of some ancient foundations, he and Mr. Joseph Clarke made a personal 
examination of the site, and ascertained that during some excavations, 
then still in progress, on the exterior of the Roman wall, and bordering 
the river Itchen, the labourers had brought to light, at the depth of nine 
feet, what appeared to be the wharf, or quay, of the Roman station (Clau- 
sentum). It was composed of a stout framework of wood, divided into 
chambers, or compartments, filled with calcareous stones, and in front was 
a row of piles. Coins of the Antonines, and Roman pottery, were found 
in excavating the ground ; and a considerable quantity of rope, composed 
of the fibres of wood, in the opinion of Mr. H. W. Diamond and Mr. 
Queckett, the inner bark of the lime-tree. Mrs. Shedden, at much sacri- 
fice of time and labour, had given orders for the careful preservation of 
the remains until they should be completely laid open, when, Mr. Smith 
stated, he hoped to be able to make a more ample report. 

Mr. George Keet presented sketches of medieval pottery, in the pos- 
session of Mr. Jesse King, recently dug up in the cellar of a house in 
Abingdon. 

Mr. Fairless, of Hexham, communicated a descriptive catalogue of Nor- 
thumberland stycas, found, several years since, at Hexham, and now in 
his possession. 

JUNE 28. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith stated that, in consequence of information received 
from Mr. Prideaux, through Mr. Saull, he had made application to the 
mayor and corporation of Southampton, on the part of the Association, 
with a view to secure the preservation of an ancient galley which had been 
lately discovered in the bed of the Itchen. The following letter had been 
received in reply : 

" Sir, I am desired by the mayor to inform you, that considerable 
time having elapsed since the portion of a vessel was raised from the bed 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 383 

of the river Itchen, it has been broken up, and almost entirely destroyed, 
scarcely anything else remaining than the keel and a few of the timbers. 

" Yours, etc., J. L. BROOKS." 

Mr. C. Havell, of Reading, exhibited some medieval rings and other 
objects of various periods, found at Silchester. Among them was a 
small metal figure of an eagle with expanded wings, which had been 
pronounced Eoman, but it was considered by the Council as rather late 
medieval work. 

A note was read from Mr. J. Bell, of Gateshead, as follows : " I send 
you some impressions of the third brass Roman coins, which I informed 
you had been found about a month or six weeks ago, in cutting the Alstone 
branch to the Newcastle and Carlisle railway, that you might see what they 
were ; and also to send you rubbings from two fragments of a stone, which 
I placed in that part of our Society's collection on Thursday last, and 
which was found within the last fortnight in taking down the chancel of 
Saint John's church, in Westgate-street, Newcastle, to be rebuilt, and had 
been used as two of the walling-stones of that building. Brand, in his 
History of Newcastle, vol. i, page 106, after speaking of another parish 
church, says, this is alike unknown by whom, or at what time it was 
founded ; but Bourne, who wrote his history of the town above fifty years 
before Brand, says that it was built in 1287, so that this stone must have 
been a monumental memorial in some prior church before that date." 

The following letter from Mr. E. G. Squier, of New York, dated May 
26th, and addressed to the Secretary, was read : " I take the liberty of 
forwarding to you herewith, a copy of a brief memoir upon the ' aboriginal 
monuments' of the United States, which I had the honour, not long since, 
of presenting to the Ethnological Society of this city. I pray your accept- 
ing it upon behalf of the British ArchaBological Association, as a slight 
evidence of my appreciation of the objects for which that learned institu- 
tion was organized. I esteem myself fortunate in having its published 
transactions in my possession ; and trust that the time is not far distant 
when the archa5ological students of America shall possess an equally credit- 
able vehicle of announcing the results of their researches to the world. 

" I have now in press a large quarto volume, comprising the results of 
my own explorations in this department, which will be issued sometime 
during the present season. If you will be good enough to inform me in 
what manner I may transmit a copy to your Association, I shall take great 
pleasure in doing so." 

Mr. Smith stated, he had received a communication from the rev. James 
Penfold, respecting the discovery of a leaden coffin at Croydon ; and also 
one from Mr. Henry Thompson, of University college, which, as it gives 
particulars, is here printed at length : " I spent an hour or two at Croy- 
don the other day, in looking over the remains discovered there, and in 



384 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

making inquiries respecting them. The following contains all the par- 
ticulars I elicited. About a month since some labourers, who were making 
excavations on the property of Mr. Joseph Aris, of Croydon, situate on the 
east side of the High-street, discovered a lead coffin and the remains of 
several human skeletons, imbedded in the gravel, at a depth of about four 
and a half to five feet beneath the surface. The coffin was removed with 
tolerable care, and when washed and cleaned presented the following 
appearance. The lid was forced in upon the skeleton beneath, evidently 
by long continued pressure, so as to exhibit clearly its size and form in 
relief. The head, the curve forwards of the spinal column, the pelvis, 
and the knees, being all most distinctly indicated by corresponding eleva- 
tions in the lid. The workmanship of the coffin is of exceedingly rude 
character, and the lead of unequal thickness ; but the average weight has 
been ascertained to be about sixteen pounds to the square foot. The sides, 
which appear to have been originally entire plates, are roughly jagged 
at the borders, and overlap each other considerably at some places, and the 
corners are strengthened by additional plates of metal placed vertically. 
There are no signs of ornament or inscription, though a very careful and 
minute search has been made. A few rather questionable marks are found 
on the lid, over the breast of the skeleton, of which a rough sketch is sub- 
joined. The entire length of the coffin is six feet. The end for the head 
about twenty inches in breadth, and the opposite end sixteen inches. The 
depth is thirteen inches. The skeleton measured five feet three inches. 
Some of the bones are in very good preservation, as part of the skull 
with several teeth, the bones of the arm and the vertebrae. Those of the 
cranium are thicker than bones in the ordinary condition ; those of the 
limbs are slender, and are considered by some who are able to judge, to 
indicate a female skeleton. 

" Two small copper coins were found, which are described below. Within 
a few yards of the coffin the remains of nine other skeletons have been 
found up to the present date. All were lying in one direction, viz., east 
and west, and at the same distance from the surface, with the coffin above 
mentioned ; but no traces of shell or envelope of any kind could be dis- 
covered. A few pieces of iron, much encrusted with rust and gravel, were 
turned up ; but besides these and the coins nothing has been seen, although 
Mr. Aris has used every means to facilitate the discovery." 

The coins referred to were Roman small brass ; one Magnentius, the 
other has since been lost or mislaid. 

JULY 12. 

Mr. H. Norris, of South Petherton, presented a drawing of a bronze 
Roman lamp of elegant shape, which, a few days previous, had been dug 
up by a quarry man on Hamdon hill. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 385 

The following letter was read from Mr. C. Eoach Smith, on discoveries 
of Saxon antiquities at Gilton, near Ash, in Kent, and in Gloucester- 
shire : " The glass tumbler and copper bowl, of which Mr. Fairholt will 
exhibit drawings, were dug up last week, and fell immediately into the 
possession of Mr. Reader, of Sandwich, one of our associates. It was 
stated they were found, with another glass vessel which was broken, by 
people digging gravel, but no particulars as to their position in the ground, 
or whether they were alone or with other remains, could be procured. 
Even the precise locality could not be ascertained. From Douglas and 
Boys, and from discoveries made since the days of those careful observers, 
we are well certified that the Saxon remains from Ash, Gilton, and the 
neighbourhood, have been procured from burial-places ; from one of 
which we may be assured the tumbler and basin under consideration were 
procured. The former is a new variety of those with which we were 
hitherto acquainted, as will be seen on referring to our Winchester Book, 
to our Journal, and to the Archceologia. In the last mentioned valuable 
work (vol. x, p. 170), a specimen found at Dinton, Bucks, is described and 
figured ; but the writer remarks, ' to what nation it is to be attributed, I 
shall not presume to determine.' Since those days, the distinction between 
Roman and Saxon glass vessels has been accurately determined by the 
process of careful observation and comparison, and hesitation and doubt 
have given place to decision and confidence. The shapes of some of the 
Saxon drinking cups are distinctly shewn in illuminated manuscripts of 
the tenth century, preserved in the Cottonian library. A calendar which 
gives designs of agricultural operations, and festive ceremonies charac- 
teristic of the months, symbolizes April by the representation of a drinking 
scene. We have here the horn, with cups of an oblong form not unlike 
those we find in the Saxon graves, and one of a globular shape exactly re- 
sembles another extant variety. Of course, in such pictures only the general 
outline is given. The Saxon glasses are distinguished not only by their 
forms, but also by an ornamentation formed of lines of thin glass affixed 
to the exterior surface either spirally, or horizontally, in wavy pattern, or 
in complex arrangements. The metal bowl presents no new feature that 
I am aware of. We cannot survey these relics from the graves of our 
Saxon forefathers, accompanied as they usually are, by the spear, the 
shield, and the sword, without being forcibly struck with the conviction, 
that no objects could have been better selected to indicate two prominent 
features of the Saxon character, love of war and love of drinking. 

" To our collections of Saxon antiquities, I am just enabled to add, by 
the kindness of Mr. William Meyrick, a very remarkable example of a 
sword, forty inches and a half in length, which had been buried in its scab- 
bai'd, of wood topt with bronze ; the bronze point yet remains, together with 
a gilt band surrounding the scabbard near the haft. With it were spear- 



386 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

heads, and a shield or target boss, somewhat differing from examples in 
our collection. 1 I have again to regret the want of particulars as to their 
discovery ; nor do I know anything of the locality. It is by no means 
improbable, that the term Battle Edge may have been given to the spot 
where these and similar remains are found, from a notion that they were 
deposited after some engagement, a common popular error. 

" To shew the progress we have made in the classification of antiquities, 
I need only indicate pages 3SS-3 of vol. x of the Archceologia, A.D. 1791 
(referred to as being at hand), for one of many instances of misappropriation 
of Anglo-Saxon remains. Here the boss of a shield, of a common conical 
shape, is termed ' an urn in iron', and the Society of Antiquaries accepted 
the discovery as ' very singular and curious ' ; and remains precisely such 
as those just described, were commonly received as ancient British ! 

" Excuses may be made for the errors of former days ; but now so 
many materials have been supplied to guide the student in archeology, it 
is rather surprising we should still find a series of blunders equally gross 
with those thus alluded to, frequently put forth at the present day even by 
bodies who profess to instruct." 

Mr. Smith also forwarded a notice, from information procured from Mr. 
Lasseter, of Steyning, Sussex, of the discovery of a Eoman building, with 
hypocaust, etc., at Whiston, near Steyning. It appears also, that Saxon 
remains are often found upon the hill adjoining ; but there is no member 
of the Association near enough to pay any attention to the antiquities of 
this interesting and secluded district, and consequently many valuable 
objects are continually destroyed or lost. Mr. Lasseter's account is as 
follows : " The Koman remains were found this spring, in a field about 
two miles north-east of Steyning, in laying down some drain-tiles : this 
led to an excavation of the place. When about three feet below the sur- 
face, the remains of what I presume to be an hypocaust, were found ; it 
was built exclusively of tiles ; it measured about eighteen feet long (east 
by west) by fifteen wide ; down the centre was an alley three feet wide, 
from which ran five longitudinal openings, about four feet long, one foot 
wide, and eighteen inches high : as far as I could learn there were no 
coins found." 



JULY 26. 

The hon. E. C. Neville informed the Council that, on the 8th instant, 
some labourers digging close to the junction of the Newmarket with the 
Eastern Counties line of railway at Chesterford, about two hundred and 

1 These interesting remains are in who will be happy to shew them to 
the possession of Mr. Grimshawe, 6, members of our Association. 
Dorrington-strect, Cold Bath Fields, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 387 

fifty yards of the north-west of the Borough-field, came upon a small 
deposit of Roman pottery in excellent preservation. It included a Samian 
cup and patera, with many fragments ; on one of which was the potter's 
name, PATEICI. 

Mr. Warren, of Ixworth, forwarded the following account respecting the 
burial-place of sir Simonds D'Ewes : " No doubt you are aware there was 
a sir Simonds D'Ewes, a great antiquary in the reigns of James and 
Charles I. Of late years it has not been known where he was buried. 
He died in London, 1650. He was owner of the parish of Stowlangtoft, 
and resided at the Hall in that parish ; so it was thought likely he was 
buried in that parish church ; but there is not any monument for him, 
though there is for others of the family ; and the parish register of that 
time is lost from the church, and was thought to be burnt at a fire in 
London, in the Six Clerks' office, in 1621. But that was not the case; 
for as I was looking over some old books in a church chest, I saw in one 
that sir Simonds d'Ewes was buried in the chancel of Stowlangtoft church 
(I think it was April, 1650), and in looking more particularly, I found it 
to be the lost register from the church of Stowlangtoft. It appears to 
have lost a leaf or two, but begins in 1559. From that time it is quite 
perfect, and finishes in 1709. In the church at Stowlangtoft, the next 
register begins in 1710, and is signed by the same clergyman, whose name 
I find is at the close of the other register." 



SEPTEMBER 13. 

Mr. Francis Baigent forwarded a coloured sketch (kindly executed at 
the suggestion of the Council) of a painting, eleven feet in height, recently 
discovered on the south wall of St. Lawrence church, at Winchester, and 
destroyed almost immediately afterwards. The subject of the painting is 
the legend of St. Christopher, one of the most common selections for 
medieval church paintings, and of which an interesting example was 
furnished to our Journal from Shorwell church, in the Isle of Wight. 
This appears to be of the same period ; and the mode of treating the sub- 
ject is very similar; only the accessories to the principal figures are not 
so numerous. There is the same good drawing in parts, the same neglect 
of proportion in the objects represented, and the same total disregard of 
the rules of perspective. St. Christopher is dressed in a dark blue tunic, 
buttoned in front, and a red mantle with a yellow border; the infant 
Saviour wears a red tunic with a yellow border, and holds the right hand 
in the attitude of benediction. On one side of the river is a house, or 
cell, with a lantern by the side of it, which is as high as the roof; on 
the other side, a rustic, in red tunic and long painted shoes, is drawing 
a pike to the shore over the mast of a ship, which is not quite so long 

VOL. IV. 50 



388 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

as the pike ; various other fishes are sporting in, or rather out of, the 
water. 

Mr. Warren at the same time presented an impression of a circular 
brass seal, found in Norfolk some time since. It reads, * CEEDE PERENTT 
around the device of a lion couchant, and below it some nondescript 
reptile. 

Mr. Grafter exhibited, through Mr. Burkitt, a bronze statuette of Her- 
cules carrying a Cupid upon his shoulders. The person who sold it to 
Mr. Grafter, asserted it had been dug up in Cannon-street ; but this state- 
ment was not supported by any evidence that could be relied on. 

Mr. E. Peacock, of Bottesford, Lincolnshire, exhibited an impression 
of a circular bell-shaped seal, bearing a motto, * LOVE ME AND LVE, round 
two heads, face to face, divided by a sprig or flower. It was found, four 
or five years ago, in the grounds of the old manor-house at Messingham. 

Mr. A. Stubbs, of Boulogne, presented an impression from the silver 
matrix of a seal of the fifteenth century, found in Flanders, and now in 
the possession of a gentleman at Boulogne. It is circular, and inscribed, 
s . SECEETVM : civiTATis : AMARSwiLEK, round a representation of St. Martin 
dividing his coat with a beggar. Mr. Stubbs asks if it be not unusual to 
find the word secretum on a civic seal. 

The hon. R. C. Neville forwarded an account of discoveries at Ickleton, 
and at the same time politely invited the members of the Association to 
inspect the excavations. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith reported the discovery of very extensive Roman 
remains in Suffolk-lane, city, opposite Merchant Taylors school, to which 
his attention had been drawn by the rev. J. B. Deane ; and exhibited a 
coloured drawing by Mr. J. G. Waller, of a very beautiful piece of mural 
painting found there, representing a winged youthful head. This frag- 
ment, and others, are in the possession of Mr. F. Blunt, of Streatham. 
The excavations, which brought these and many other Roman remains to 
light, were for a sewer; but they were carried on, as has ever been the 
case in the city of London, under circumstances which placed investiga- 
tion, or even close examination, out of the question. It could alone be 
ascertained that the excavators cut through the foundations and debris of 
a Roman dwelling-house of the better class, which appeared to have been 
well provided with all those conveniences and luxuries which were common 
to the domestic buildings of the Romans ; but the civic pick-axe and shovel 
soon annihilated what time had spared, and the very ruins of the villa 
were soon cut through and carted away. The colours of the paintings 
found here were particularly fresh, and the designs with which the walls 
of the villa had been decorated were in good taste ; the pigments used in 
the composition of the paintings were chiefly vermillion, yellow ochre, 
colcothar, terra vert, and lime for white. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



389 




Mr. Crofton Croker exhibited a silver gilt finger ring, which he had 
purchased at Gloucester. It has the letters W. and A., tied by a true 
lovers' knot, engraved on it. This ring was 
said to have been found at Stratford-upon- 
Avon. 1 

Mr. Croker observed, that there could be 
no doubt that this ring was of the Elizabethan 
period ; and the device upon it shewed that 
it was a gimmel or betrothing ring. He 
was not then prepared to enter into a discus- 
sion respecting all the varieties of this class 

of ornament, or the symbolic meaning of the interlaced cords termed true 
lovers' knots, which were familiar to our ancestors, and might be alluded 
to in the popular lines of 

" If you love me as I love you, 
No knife shall cut our love in two." 

He would, therefore, merely state the fact, that the custom of betroth- 
ment before marriage was considered in the time of Elizabeth a solemn 
ceremony ; nearly as solemn as that of marriage. A ring called a gimmel 
ring, or a crooked piece of coin, was broken between the contracting parties, 
or their parents, or representatives, and rings were interchanged ; and the 
sacrament was sometimes taken previous to such betrothment ; or when 
the betrothing parties were considered to be too young to be partakers of 
the holy communion, they pledged their faith in cake and wine. The 
betrothment was recorded, and the marriage ceremony was delayed only 
until circumstances rendered it convenient or desirable that it should 
take place. 

Shakespeare has made the priest in Twelfth Night thus describe a 
betrothment : 

" A contract of eternal bond of love, 
Confirm'd by mutual joinder of your hands, 
Attested by the holy close of lips, 
Strengthen'd by interchangemmt of your rings" 

With respect to the true lovers' knot which interlaces the letters W. 
and A., Mr. Croker stated that the Stafford badge, 
or simple true lovers' knot, was thus figured ; and 
to this knot the bride-favours of the present day 
have been ascribed. 

On the clock sold at the Strawberry-Hill sale, 




1 The cut represents the ring ex- the W. A. is reversed in the die to be- 
actly as it appears to the eye, therefore come right in the impression from it. 




390 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

and purchased for the queen, the device of a true lovers' knot, with the 
initials of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, is thus 
represented, or duplicated, with the motto, " THE 

MOST HAPPYE." 

Upon a drinking cup of queen Elizabeth's, which, 
before it was sent out of England to India, Mr. 
Croker hoped to be able to exhibit to the Association, a more elaborate 
true lovers' knot occurs, interlacing the royal monogram, and so secured, 
that it could only be discovered by unscrewing the three balls, or feet, on 
which the cup stands, and removing a secret covering from the bottom. 

In allusion to a knot of the simple form, probably made of hair, and 
sportively sent to the poet Herrick, he replies in the following lines : 

" THE JIMMEL-RING, OB TRUE-LOVE KNOT. 

" Thou sent'st to me a true-love knot ; but I 
Return'd a ring of jimmals, to imply 
Thy love had oue knot, mine a triple tye." 

This triple tie is remarkable in the heraldry, if it may be so called, of 
true lovers' knots. There was a meaning in the single tie (or Stafford 
knot) of an entanglement of the affections, or a declaration of love; 
which, when the betrothment took place between the two 
parties mainly concerned, became doubled for the emblem of 
the vow of faithfulness. When no cohabitation followed, the 
tassels or ends of the knots were set wide apart ; but when 
(as in the case of Mr. Wheeler's so-called Shakes- 
peare ring) cohabitation before marriage had oc- 
curred, the tassels were brought together, and the knot issued 
from the form of a heart. And subsequent to marriage, if the 
device of a true lovers' knot was continued, the tassels became 
united, after forming a triple tie ; as thus. This triple tye, 
we are told, was the ordinary symbol among the northern 
nations of love, faith, and friendship. It is impossible to 
conceive a more beautiful allegory. Gay alludes to the 
popular notion when he says, 

" Three times a true-love's knot I tie secure ; 
Firm be the knot, firm may his love endure." 

It now remains to be shewn in what way the ring bear- 
ing the initials W. A. can be conjecturally connected with 
Shakespeare. One of the best authenticated relics of our 
immortal bard, with which we are acquainted, is the pane of glass repre- 
sented in The Home of Shakespeare, illustrated and described by F. W. 
Fairholt, F.S.A., where the initials appear tied in a true lover's knot of 
three ties and one tassel. Mr. Fairholt tells the history of this piece of 






PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 391 

paiuted glass and its connexion with New Place so clearly, that no ques- 
tion has been raised respecting it. 

In Mr. Halliwell's Life of Shakespeare, an engraving of the ring found at 
Stratford-upon-Avon, in the possession of Mr. Wheeler, and supposed to 
have belonged to Shakspere, is given. It has the letters W. S. tied by a 
true lovers' knot of two ties, issuing from a heart, the tassels nearly meet- 
ing. In respect to the manufacture and engraving, it closely resembles 
the one in Mr. Croker's possession, except that the latter is of superior 
workmanship. As in the case of contracting parties the Christian names 
alone were used, it becomes probable that W. and A. were those of Wil- 
liam Shakespeare and Ann Hathaway upon betrothment, which after coha- 
bitation were changed to W. S., and upon marriage restored to S 
a mode of marking the plate and linen of married persons not yet W.A., 
quite obsolete. 

SEPTEMBEB 27. 

The President communicated an account of recent discoveries of Koman 
remains at Amiens, and exhibited drawings of gold ornaments, lachryma- 
tories, and other objects, found in leaden coffins with skeletons. The 
Council expressed a wish, that some of the foreign members of the Asso- 
ciation would supply drawings or descriptions of the Roman leaden coffins ; 
several examples of which, found in this country, have been engraved in 
the Journal. 

Mr. Wright exhibited impressions from a beautiful gold ring found at 
Wigmore. It has four sides, which are ornamented with figures of saints, 
and their emblems delicately worked and well finished. 

Mr. Sprague presented a drawing of an amphora of very elegant shape, 
lately found near Stanway, in Essex, and now in the possession of Mr. 
Bryant, of Colchester. 

Mr. Crofton Croker exibited some flint arrow-heads, sent him from 
Argyleshire, and three Roman bronze fibulae, found in Sussex, near 
Worthing. 

Mr. C. Roach Smith exhibited eight gold coins of the emperor Justi- 
nian, which, with a few more, had been dredged up from the bed of the 
river, near Kingston-upon-Thames. They were all of common types, but 
well preserved ; the only peculiarity deserving of note, is, that two or three 
of the coins had evidently been struck by the Frankish kings, who, at this 
period, imitated the Roman coins, but added symbols, or monograms, or 
mint-marks, by which they can be easily detected from the coins minted 
at Constantinople. 

Drawings and plans of Mr. Neville's discoveries were exhibited by Mr. 
Fairholt, prepared during a recent visit to the works, in company with 
Messrs. Burkitt, Clarke, and Roach Smith. 



392 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



OCTOBER 11. 

Mr. Edward Stock, of Poplar, communicated the following letter, ad- 
dressed to the Secretary: "Feeling it a duty to rescue as much as 
possible, a spot so interesting to antiquaries as Old Ford, from total 
oblivion, and to which I had the pleasure of calling your attention in the 
year 1844, by the discovery of the leaden coffin 1 found near the same 
locality ; and where I told you many Roman urns, containing calcined 
bones, had been occasionally dug out; together with the fact, that hun- 
dreds of Roman coins had been found ; and of which I then presented 
some I had procured to the Society of Antiquaries of London, I am 
induced to pen these few lines to you, and if you think them worthy of 
your notice, you are at liberty to use them. 

" That the Roman road, now traversed by the works going on upon the 
East and West India dock Birmingham junction line, led to the Old 
Ford over the Lea, Middlesex, there can be no doubt ; and that the field 
through which the cutting is carried was once a Romano-British burial 
place is fully borne out by the perfect urns and broken pieces of Samian 
paterae and cups now brought to light, and of which I enclose a sketch of 
some I happen to possess. The field in which these interesting remains 
were found is rather elevated ground, and presents an excellent section 
of the gravel and sandy soil with which the eastern parts of the metropolis 
especially abound ; and I regret to say, that several specimens have been 
destroyed by the workmen, in their haste to accomplish the cutting. They 
are chiefly of ordinary dark clay ; while some are of a lighter coloured 
earth. The Samian paterae have the makers' name stamped on the inside. 

" These remains, as well as numerous Roman coins discovered there, 
would lead to the conclusion, that the Romans must have had a station 
near the Ford, which, it is well known, was the only way into Essex, 
especially to West Ham, Barking abbey, etc., until the erection of the 
bridge at Bow. The name of the great Roman road is well authenticated 
in history. Bow bridge was erected in the eleventh century, by order of 
Henry I, whose wife Matilda was nearly drowned at the Old Ford : and 
mention is made, that in the year 685, the body of St. Erkenwald, who 
died at the abbey of Barking, was stopped, on its way to London for burial 
at Stratford, by the flood of waters then out in the marshes, and had to 
wait until the Ford was passable : this event took place three hundred 
years after the Romans left Britain. 

" Morant gives, in his History of Essex, a full and particular account 
of the Old Ford being discontinued on account of the danger attending 
the crossing the river Lea." 

1 An account of this, with an engraving, was published in the " Archseologia". 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



393 



This communication was accompanied by a plan of the locality, shewing 
the spots where several discoveries of Roman remains had been made. 
Since the above was written, Mr. Stock has acquired several more urns 
and vases. The most remarkable in his collection, and of which no pre- 
cisely similar examples have been given in our Journal, are shewn in the 
annexed engraving. 




1. Dark clay. Height, 7 inches ; diameter, 5. 

2. Light red. Height, 6 in. ; diameter, 4J. 

3. Black clay. Height, 8J in. ; diameter, 9. 

4. Ditto. Height, 3 in. ; diameter, 3. 



5. Yellow. Height, 10 in. ; diameter, 7. 

6. Ditto. Height, 5 in. ; diameter, 7. 

7. Yellow, with red stripe. Height, 8 in. ; 

diameter, 4J. 




Mr. Stock also exhibited a bronze seal, 
found at the same locality, during recent 
excavations, and of which we annex a 
cut. 

The inscription, J< s . PETRI TEDEKADE 
CANONIC . CRETENSIS, Mr. Burkitt explains 
as " The seal of Peter Tederade, canon of 
Chalk"; and considers the "Chalk" to 
mean Chalk in Kent, near Gravesend. 

Mr. Burkitt laid before the council a report on his ami Mr. Grafter's 
researches at Higham, Kent, accompanied by a sketch and plan of the 
locality : " On the 4th of October, in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Higham church, Kent, at the invitation of Mr. W. Grafter, who had 
obtained permission of Mr. Styles, the owner of a field, to make excava- 
tions, I accompanied Mr. Grafter, and we opened the ground in several 
places, and had the satisfaction of making some interesting discoveries. 
In the course of our excavations, which occupied two days, we dug up a 
great variety of Roman pottery, including large coarse sepulchral urns, 



394 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

containing burnt bones, domestic utensils of many patterns, as well as 
beautiful fragments of Samian ware, highly ornamented. At a depth of 
three feet six inches from the surface, I dug out a large portion of a quern, 
formed of lava, besides pieces of iron much corroded, and masses of a me- 
tallic substance, mixed with clay, probably refuse from potters' kilns. The 
ground, opened in various directions in the same field, as well as on the 
surface in parts which had been formerly disturbed, exposed vast quantities 
of similar deposits, covering a space of at least four acres, and although the 
most considerable quantity of fragments occurred within one foot of the 
surface, at a depth of three feet there was still a plentiful supply. At the 
latter depth our labours were arrested by land springs. Although there 
may be some difficulty in attempting to account for this enormous accumu- 
lation, the fragments of the finer sorts of ware seem to favour the notion 
of its having been the site of a Roman pottery ; while the urns, with burnt 
human bones, indicate a place of sepulture. It may not be improbable, 
however, that it might have been used for both purposes. The old pottery 
ground having been deserted, would readily afford convenient pits for 
depositing the ashes of the dead, reconciling the instance recorded by 
Matthew where he relates the purchase of a ' potter's field for burying 
strangers.' It may be worth noticing the fact, that in Higham church, 
which is within two hundred yards of this spot, Roman tiles may be found 
worked up in the walls, and that the high road running between the church 
and this spot, leads in a direct line to the Higham ferry, where Roman 
remains have been discovered." 

Mr. Thomas Kent, of Padstow, Cornwall, wrote as follows, at the same 
time sending several sketches of antiquities found near Padstow : " The 
Roman fibula of bronze is, I should think, of the third or fourth century. 
I found it in a burying ground on the cliff, about a mile and a half west 
from the town of Padstow. The lower row of skeletons were buried north 
and south without coffins, the heads to the south, the feet to the sea. The 
higher rows had coffins of slate stones, and were buried east and west. 
The metallic substance, of which I send a sketch, I found near Padstow, 
among the various articles which form the rubbish and scoria of the site of 
an ancient town. There are found a great variety of pottery, small glass 
vases, beads, fibulae, and fragments of bronze, the age of which cannot be 
ascertained ; together with coins of the Roman emperors. The piece of 
metal has on it several Phoenician or Punic characters, some of which I 
have met with on coins of Carteia, and others are in the Phoenician and 
Samaritan alphabets of Montfaucon and Walton." 

Subsequent to this communication, and in answer to inquiries made by 
the Council, Mr. Kent forwarded a plan of part of the harbour of Padstow 
and estuary of the river Camel, on which are marked the sites of the places 
which have produced the antiquities referred to. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 395 

Mr. Kent at the same time sent the following potters' marks on Roman 
pottery found at Carteia : ATEI. AEI . XANT. CAKITI. OFCOCI CENT . 

AI . E. OFMASCVL . MVRRI. PYLADES. CLIVINT1O. OF . VITA. OF . VITAL!. 

ZOIL. ZOLVS. There are two more which Mr. Kent considers to be in 
Celtiberian or Turdetan characters. These are all stamped across the 
bottoms of vessels of the bright red ware. The two following are on the 
exterior of embossed varieties IIVST. XANTHI. 



OCTOBEB 25. 

A note from Mr. W. H. Black, dated the 17th instant, was read: 
" This afternoon the navigators, employed in opening the ground for a 
branch sewer in Swan-street, Minories, have opened into a cellar, or rather 
perhaps the basement floor of an old building, in which I perceived the 
upper part of a pointed arch, athwart the street, at an angle with the wall, 
which must be very strong, as the heavy weights continually passing over 
have never shaken it. "There is a very intelligent man, Mr. Davidge, 
who lives at the corner house (a cheesemonger's shop), and who says that 
the existence of the cellar was utterly unknown ; and he has promised to 
give me or you information of what may come to light. I looked at the 
place at eight o'clock, p.m., and found the men at work : they had dug 
deep, all the soil being artificial, the rubbish of buildings. The corner 
house is an old timber and plaister building of two hundred years' standing, 
therefore the building now laid open must be of considerable antiquity." 

Mr. Burkitt announced the discovery, during recent repairs in the 
church of Harrow-on-the-Hill, of ornamental work of a doorway, and of 
some sepulchral brasses found in removing the pews. 

Mr. Burkitt also laid before the Council drawings of the wooden church 
at Chipping Ongar, now about to be pulled down and restored. A detailed 
account of the church, illustrated by an etching and woodcuts, will appear 
in the next part of the Association's Journal. 

Mr. George Isaacs exhibited a silver-gilt chef, or head, of the twelfth 
century, which once held the relics of St. Eustace in the church of Basle. 
Mr. Isaacs also exhibited a rare crystal goblet of the eleventh century, 
procured by him in Paris. 

NOVEMBER 8. 

Mr. Edward Peacock, of Bottesford Moors, Lincolnshire, communicated 
a notice respecting the discovery of a bronze British or Celtic shield : 
" Henry Healey, esq. informs me, that in the year 1843, as some labourers 
were employed cutting a drain on Burringham Common for warping, they 
found, at about six feet below the surface of the ground, the metal coating 

VOL. IV. 51 



396 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

of a British shield, which at the time of its discovery was quite perfect, but 
the discoverers not knowing its value, it was somewhat injured by taking 
it up. The interior part of the shield was not found ; probably it had 
been made of wood, and so decayed through the length of time it had lain 
buried in a very damp soil ; neither were any weapons or human bones 
found near it. The brass is very thin, not so thick as a sixpence, of cir- 
cular form, with a conical boss in the middle, which is the centre to twenty 
circles which cover the face of the shield ; the edge is rather bent over, 
perhaps for the purpose of holding it more firmly on the substance be- 
neath ; each of the circles is studded with little bosses, like nail's heads ; 
the brass was made fast to the other part of the shield by small nails 
similar to the bosses, but the heads going to a very blunt point ; only one 
nail is preserved. 

" The dimensions are as follows : diameter, twenty-six inches ; centre 
boss, four inches and a half; width of each circle, about half an inch; 
bosses in the circles, a quarter of an inch." 

Mr. Healey has been kind enough to give an extract from Meyrick's 
celebrated book on ancient armour, describing a British shield, which seems 
to tally with this in almost every circumstance. I here subjoin it. 

" ' Exterior bronze coating of an ancient Tarian, being the earliest form 
of British shield; it is quite flat, whence it is called aes, and is orna- 
mented with nineteen concentric circles that surround the umbo, and 
studded with little knobs beaten up from underneath.' Interior. ' The 
boss was to admit the hand when clasped round the handle. It was sus- 
pended round the neck by a thong, fastened at one end, and having a loop 
at the other, to put it on a hook.' 

" It is, perhaps, not worth remarking that the shield in question differs 
from the one described by Meyrick in having twenty rows, and not nineteen, 
as Meyrick says there are. 

" At a place, about five miles hence, called Manton, many flint arrow- 
heads have been found, and at Butterwick a very large brass celt, which 
is now in my father's possession." 

A note from Mr. Pretty, of Northampton, was read as follows : " Last 
Wednesday I visited the pit where Mr. Saull and I discovered Roman 
remains. The occupier had filled it up again, but I found a fragment of 
Samian ware with the lotus leaf on it. The ploughman stated that besides 
building materials between that spot and the villa described by Dr. Butler 
at Gayton, they found two very fine gravel walks leading to the place. I 
then proceeded to the place on the road between Towcester and Abthorpe, 
(see vol. ir, Journal, p. 355) and discovered, among the relics of brick and 
tile, a fragment of a mortaria, with the potter's name, PERTVI . M. (?) The 
bricks were of very fine manufacture, thicker than usual, and one found in 
quarter circle, the whole diameter nearly twenty-four inches, and about 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 397 

three and a half inches thick. There were fragments of foundation tiles, 
which were large and overlapped, like the great tiles in the museum of 
Mr. Charles, of Maidstone, from Allington castle. Roof tiles also of a 
smaller size, like the modern fragments of black urns, were found." 

Captain W. T. P. Shortt, of Heavitree, Exeter, contributed a note in 
explanation of a Roman monument at Caerleon : " Having lately perused 
a very interesting essay by my friend Mr. C. Roach Smith, pages 240-264 
of the present volume of our Journal, in which I was reminded of the 
numerous Roman inscriptions of note from Bulmore, near Caerleon, pub- 
lished by Mr. J. E. Lee in 1845 (the transcripts of which had been previ- 
ously forwarded to me by my friend J. Parker, esq., of Mount Radford, near 
this city), I am induced to give an explanation of the hitherto inexplicable 
one, which appears in Mr. Lee's work, and was originally given in Descrip- 
tive Excursions through South Wales in 1804, by E. Donovan, F.L.S. (the 
author of British Zoology), but not very correctly, possibly from the 
' scanty rays of light' which the transcriber tells us he met with in the 
edifice where the inscription was preserved. It appears that several in- 
scribed and ornamented stones are inserted in what he describes as ' the 
wall of Mr. Butler's cold bath Caerleon,' and that the one in question 
bears an ' ambiguous' inscription of remote antiquity, which he refers to 
the primitive Bardic alphabet of the early Britons, or to Celtic or Runic 
characters, and to British letters intermixed with Roman. 

"Sir Samuel Meyrick thought the inscription was a Bardic one, in the 
Ogham or Irish characters. 

" It is, however, my opinion that it is a Roman tablet, commemorating 
the Ala Indianorum, or Indian wing of horse, which served in the Roman 
armies, and of which remains are met with in inscriptions at Manheim in 
Germany, and at Cirencester. An explanation of these was given in the 
ArchcEologia some years since. It was found at Watermore, on June 
the 14th, 1835, with two others. That at Cirencester reads thus : 

DANNICVS . EQES . ATAE . INDIAN . TVB . ALBANI . STIP . XVI . GIVES . BAVBCVE . FVL- 
VI VS . NATALIS ILF. . . VI VS B1TVCVS . EB . TESTAME H . S . E. DanilicuS Was a 

trooper of the Indian wing, a Gaul by nation, from Basil on the Rhine 
(Augusta Rauracorum) ; his executor possibly a native of the old French 
province of Guienne (Bituricus). 

" The tablet at Caerleon reads thus, the letters much interwoven, and 
ligated into monograms : ALAE . iNDiANo(rMw). The second line is 
FITAD C , which might be FI Felix Julia, TA Turma, the title of the troop at 
Isca Silurum ; D Deciani or Decii, the name of the officer in command." 

Mr Fitch, of Ipswich, presented engravings of some Saxon sculptures 
recently found at Ipswich. 

Mr. Purland presented a privately printed etching of the seal of St. 
Giles's hospital, at Norwich. 



398 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Nov. 29. 

Mr. C. Koach Smith communicated an account of excavations carried on 
during the autumn up to the present time, in Dane's Field, Hartlip, by 
Mr. W. Bland, of Hartlip Place, member of the Association, and of the 
discovery, in consequence, of very extensive remains of Roman villas, or 
of one villa of very spacious dimensions, the foundations of which, as far 
as they have now been laid open, ramify over several acres of land. Mr. 
Bland had spared no expense in making the excavations, and had very 
kindly invited Mr. Smith to examine the remains, who, in company with 
Dr. Faussett, the rev. W. Vallance, Mr. C. T. Smythe, Dr. Plomley, and 
Mr. Bland himself, made a minute inspection of the building, together with 
many interesting objects in Mr. Eland's possession dug up during the 
progress of the works, and subsequently sketched the more remarkable 
architectural details. 

It will he remembered that, in the autumn of 1845, Mr. Bland exca- 
vated some rooms of this villa (a notice of his discoveries appeared in our 
Journal, vol. i, page 315, with an engraving). On that occasion a portion 
adjoining the part described in Hasted's History of the County of Kent, 
p. 540, vol. ii, folio edition, was laid open. This was situated to the 
south-west, as you enter Dane's Field from the road to Hartlip Place. About 
eighty yards' distance to the north-east, by trenching the field, the founda- 
tions shown in the subjoined plan were laid open, together with others 
adjoining, and also at considerable distances in various directions, to which 
on the present occasion we can only allude. 




A B 

Scale 15 feet to the inch. 



The plan is on a scale of fifteen feet to the inch. A and B show the 
substructions of two apartments, composed of square hollow tiles filled 
with earth and mortar, and serving as pillars for floors of which no traces 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 399 

remained. These apartments were heated by a furnace, the mouth of 
which was at c. There had been another furnace at D. Adjoining, or 
rather within the semicircle in B, was a foundation of large tiles, which 
seemed to have been used as a support, but for what it was impossible to 
say. E and F are two baths ; E, six feet two inches by four feet ; F, three 
feet one inch wide at the top, and two feet nine inches at the bottom, but 
decreasing towards the bottom, which measured near the external wall two 
feet nine inches, and at the other end two feet ; it was provided with a 
seat six and a-half inches wide, and a neatly worked skirting ran down the 
sides and along the bottom. E, which was much more shallow, had also a 
seat composed of a row of hollow tiles, which had been covered, together 
with the sides and bottom, with well-tempered thick plaster, and painted 
red. 

The leaden pipes, which carried off the water from these baths through 
the external wall, were in their original situation, and quite perfect. At 
G, a long hollow circular tile passed through the wall, evidently to create a 
draught of air from the furnace. Adjoining these rooms are walls of a 
building of about seventy feet by fifty, one angle of which is composed of 
the intersecting walls H H, which form a compartment in the square room 
shown in the plan. This very spacious building has two internal walls 
lengthways, twenty feet apart, each with three abutments of masonry as 
if for columns, and similar foundations were met with externally on one 
of the side walls, and they had probably been originally attached to the 
other. These and other foundations, covering at intervals a wide space 
of ground, it would be almost useless to attempt to describe without the aid 
of an engraved complete plan, and we must, on the present occasion, con- 
tent ourselves with a few general remarks. 

The external walls of the portion of the villa shown in our plan appeared 
to have been covered with stucco. The internal walls had been painted 
in various colours, as was ascertained from fragments thrown out during 
the excavations. There were found several keys and knives in iron, fibulae, 
needles and hair-pins in bronze, pottery, and a fragment of a circular thin 
bronze plate, which had been ornamented with figures of a marine nymph 
holding a wreath in each hand. There was also a piece of moulded win- 
dow-glass, which is highly interesting, as furnishing an additional evidence 
that glass was at least partially used by the Romans for windows in their 
houses. Similar pieces of glass have been frequently found in the ruins 
of Roman villas in England. Among the pottery there was a large quantity 
of fragments which contrasted strikingly with the bulk of that found at 
Ickleton and Chesterford, and to those who are familiar with the peculiar 
kinds found on the banks of the Medway, they can be immediately recog- 
nized as having been fabricated there, in the potteries to which we have 
so often had occasion to direct attention. Only a very few coins were 



400 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

obtained ; namely, one each of Nero, Hadrian, Pius, Victorinus, Tetricus, 
Claudius Gothicus, Allectus, and Constantine. 

Mr. Bland has very kindly signified his intention to present specimens 
of the various remains to the Maidstone museum, and, with like good 
taste, he has taken care that the better-preserved portions of the buildings 
shall not be destroyed. 

Mr. John Taylor, junior, of Colchester, reported that recently, in digging 
for gravel and for planting, on some ground adjoining the Lexden road, 
and near St. Mary's Lodge, the residence of Mr. Vint, numerous Roman 
urns, and other remains of a sepulchral kind, had been discovered. The 
locality had long been noted as included in the extensive range of ceme- 
teries which bordered the high road from Colonia to Londinium. In 
February 1847, Mr. Vint communicated a discovery of similar remains in 
an adjoining paddock (see Journal, vol. iii, p. 57), and from time to time 
since that period, other interments have been found in his grounds. The 
following is Mr. Taylor's report : 

" List of Roman Remains found at West Lodge, Colchester, October and 
November 1848. 

" In the ground before the house, near the Lexden road, from eighteen 
inches to two feet six inches below the surface, about twenty cinerary urns 
of various capacities, from two quarts to two gallons, many of which were 
broken in pieces, others partially broken, and several exhumed in a per- 
fect state. Of the two latter classes were the following : 

" 1. A sepulchral um of dark pottery, of about two gallons' capacity, 
which, on examination, was found to contain a round wide-mouthed bottle 
of thick greenish glass, embedded in the earth, which filled the urn, and 
containing some incinerated bones of small size with earth and stones. 
The bottle would hold rather more than a quart. This is the only 
instance in which the bones were enclosed in a second or inner vessel. 

"2. A smaller urn, containing bones mingled with earth, and above 
them, near the mouth of the urn, an earthen bottle lying on its side. 

"3. An urn of similar material, with a cover of hard, light-red pottery, 
about one-third filled with incinerated bones quite dry and clean : the only 
instance in which the urn was not filled up with earth. The cover was 
broken by the spade, but restored. 

" 4. An urn of hard red pottery, differing in shape from all the others, 
and having handles : the only urn of this colour found : filled as the 
others with fragments of bones and earth. 

"5. An urn of dark pottery covered with a patella of the same mate- 
rial, filled with bones and earth. 

" 6. A small tomb, formed of four bricks, about fifteen inches by ten 
inches set on edge, with neither bottom nor covering ; about half-full of 
small bone ashes, with some fragments of thick glass. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 401 

"7. Flue of a hypocaust, the exterior ornamented with scroll-work. 

" 8. A small drinking-cup, of dark hard-burned pottery, with indented 
sides. 

" On the south side of the ground 

" Five urns of dark pottery, all filled with burnt bones and earth, lying 
at distances from each other varying from three feet to six. 

" Close to the smallest urn were found two small bottles, differing in 
size and shape, one of red, the other of yellow earth. 

" A small lamp, or lamp-stand, of lead. 

" All these are more or less injured ; three of the urns destroyed. 

" Only one Roman coin (Faustina, in brass) and two English (silver) have 
been found." 

Mr. Taylor has since forwarded notices of further discoveries, which 
have increased the number of urns to nearly eighty. As almost every day 
is still adding to the collection, it has been deemed advisable to postpone 
the account to a future part of the Journal, in order that it may be given 
in one view, and as complete as possible. The council trust also to be 
enabled to illustrate Mr. Taylor's interesting discoveries with engravings 
of some of the more remarkable objects, and feel much pleasure in being 
authorized to announce that Mr. Taylor intends presenting this collection 
of antiquities to the Colchester museum. 

Mr. W. H. Quelch wrote to say that some men, digging on the Downs 
leading from Marlborough to Broadhinton, had recently found a human 
skeleton, above the skull of which was a red jar and a brass coin. Mr. 
Quelch also states that at Folleyhill, about a mile from Marlborough, the 
peasantry frequently find Roman tiles, tessellated pavement, and coins. 

Mr. Gomonde presented drawings of flint arrow-heads and a knife from 
bogs in Ireland. 

The hon. R. C. Neville communicated an account of a discovery, a few 
days since, of eight funereal urns, at Chesterford. 

Mr. Lott exhibited a shield carved in wood, which had been found in 
the official residence of Mr. Temple, the keeper of Guildhall. 

Mr. Wire, of Colchester, informed the council, that he had recently 
obtained from a Roman grave, in the neighbourhood of that town, a pair of 
bracelets and two rings, two bone pins, and a bracelet made of Kim- 
meridge coal. 

Mr. Campkin exhibited a coloured drawing, made at the expense of Mr. 
Poulter, of the Reform Club, of a Roman tessellated pavement, found in 
September 1848, at Aldborough, Yorkshire, accompanied by the following 
remarks: "The pavement is situated in the garden of Mr. Somerton, 
an innkeeper at Aldboi-ough : it is about twelve feet square, is in beautiful 
preservation, and perfect. The tesserae are somewhat larger than those of 
any pavement previously found in the neighbourhood. It is now covered 



402 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

in again, on account of the lateness of the season ; but the ground will be 
reopened in the spring of 1849, when means will be devised for the per- 
manent safe keeping of this valuable relic of Koman art. Probably no 
spot in England, as every archaeologist must be aware, presents a more 
interesting assemblage of evidences of the wealth and splendour of the 
great conquerors and colonizers of our island than Aldborough ; and 
although time's ruthless finger, and the march of modern civilization 
combined, have effaced many specimens of their energy and enterprise 
from the vicinity of the once great town, enough still remains to attest the 
former magnificence of this classic spot ; and it is gratifying to know that 
it now belongs to a gentleman, of whose well-directed efforts to arrest the 
destroyer's hand, Aldborough exhibits honourable testimony ; its owner, 
Andrew Lawson, esq., the late member for Knaresborough, having already 
devoted considerable attention to the conservation of the antiquities in his 
neighbourhood." * 

Mr. Alfred White read the following report : " Having been appointed 
by the council to investigate the truth of a paragraph in the public jour- 
nals, relative to the destruction and removal of sundry monuments in 
Westminster Abbey, we visited the church this morning, in company with 
a member of the Association. Great attention was paid to us by the con- 
servator of the monuments (Mr. Owen), who proceeded with us to each of 
those mentioned. The original stone inscribed ' BARE BEN JONSON,' has 
been removed now many years, and in its place is a small stone with the 
same inscription. The grave-stone of Cowley was removed, at the same 
time, a few feet, but not quite off the resting-place of the poet. The 
screen or back-ground of the monument of Dryden has been taken away, 
with the consent of the representative of the family, and with the inten- 
tion of throwing open the chapel of St. Benedict. The bust and inscrip- 
tion remain entire. The monument of Sir Godfrey Kneller has been 
removed from under the north-western tower to a position over that of Sir 
Cloudesley Shovel, in the south aisle. In our opinion, that part of the 
building from which the monument has been taken is much improved, and 
the monument itself in no way injured. At the same time, we made 
inquiry respecting the alleged removal of a monument to Anne of Den- 
mark, and find that such a memorial never existed there, and it is an error 
to suppose it has been figured. The chapel and monuments to the child- 
ren of James I, exist as represented by Dart. We cannot conclude with- 
out expressing our satisfaction at the way in which the monuments generally 
are preserved, and, when possible, detached portions of them reinstated ; 
and, from the manner in which our suggestions were received by those 
having the care of the Abbey, we invite the members of the Association to 

1 A coloured lithograph of this pavement has since been published by Mr. H. 
E. Smith, of York. 



PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 403 

assist the authorities in carrying out their projects of conservation." 
(Signed) CHARLES BAILY. ALFRED WHITE. In the course of some obser- 
vations which followed this gratifying report, it was admitted by Mr. White 
that portions of a screen which may have resembled a monument in West- 
minster Abbey, did get into a stone-mason's yard in the neighbourhood." 

Mr. W. S. Fitch exhibited a gold pocket compass, date 1572, and two 
semi-globular crystals, mounted in silver setting, and joined by a silver 
chain, the property of the Rev. T. Mills, of Stutton, Suffolk. 



DECEMBER 13. 

Miss Cresswell, of Winchmore Hill, exhibited to the Association a curious 
wooden cup, accompanied by the following remarks : " The wooden chalice 
I offer to your notice belongs to Mr. James Sell, of Winchmore Hill, who 
bought it at the sale of captain Hickman's property, in the parish of East 
Barnet, Herts, about the year 1829. The height of the chalice is thirteen 
inches ; the diameter of the cover, six and a-half inches ; the weight of the 
whole, twelve ounces and a-half. There are eleven different arabesque 
patterns carved round the chalice, besides a hymn and two prose sentences 
contained in ten lines, five on the outside and five under the foot, the date 
1608. The inside is stained with wine, and the outside is painted in 
shades of brown, which causes some difficulty in ascertaining of what par- 
ticular wood it is made." 

Mr. Chaffers was of opinion, that it was wrongly described as a chalice ; 
his reasons for doubting its ever having been used at the altar, were, in 
the first place, that wooden chalices were repeatedly and strictly forbidden 
at a very early period, probably on account of the absorbent nature of the 
wood, which could not be kept so free from dirt as chalices of metal. 
Secondly, he thought it would be found that the form of the chalice 
differed from that now exhibited, the foot being generally wide and spread- 
ing, that it should stand firmly, whilst the upper part, or bowl, was com- 
paratively small ; also, that instead of a high cover, the paten was usually 
placed upon the top of the chalice when it was full. Mr. Chaffers further 
remarked, that religious sentences on drinking cups were of frequent 
occurrence, and that this elaborately carved cup was a wassail cup or mazer 
(as wooden cups and bowls were called), and that it had doubtless been fre- 
quently well filled with the renowned lambs' wool, so much in esteem during 
the Christmas season, and composed of ale, nutmeg, sugar, and roasted crabs 
or apples ; he observed, numerous quotations could be adduced in refer- 
ence to this ancient custom, one more particularly would be in the recol- 
lection of most people, it was an extract from that popular work, Pej)ys l 
Diary. " On the 4th January, 1G67, Mr. Pepys had company to dinner, 
and at night to sup, and then to cards, and last of all to have a flagon of 

VOL. IV. 52 



404 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



ale and apples, drunk out of a wood cup, as a Christmas draught, which 
made all merry." The following is the inscription on the cup : 

INSCRIPTION ON THE CUP. 

>$< The lord of lyfe, his Precious bloud hath shed ; 
from Death and hell his Chosen to redeeme : 
Such as from Sinne, are risen from the Dead : 
For that from so Great Death they are % set free : 
they shun all Sinne, and serve him thankfully. 
*%* Gods word sincerely, often preacht and read : 

true Christian Soules it doth moste truely feede. 
!< Therby they learne a Blessed life to leade : 
To them Christ giveth worthy drink indeede : 
His own deare bloud } Doth dense them from all sinne, 
Salvation good, they so are sure to winne : 

" Because they do Jfa feele the Power of Christes death working effect- 
ually the death of all sinne J and the Power of his rissurrection raising 
them up to newnes of lyfe Jfr to serve God with a faithfull sincere loving 
and obedient hart J< So runne that ye may obtayne 1608." 

Mr. G. C. Rawlence, of Fordingbridge, Hants, 
exhibited a silver seal of the fourteenth or fif- 
teenth century, set with an antique engraved gem 
in cornelian, and looped for suspension. In the 
annexed cut it is given of the actual size in two 
views. The inscription, J< VEKBA SALVTIS 
AVE, probably bears reference to the well known 
salutation of the Virgin, Ave Maria gratia plena, 
Dominus tecum. The engraved gem closely re- 
sembles one in the possession of Mr. Akerman, 
who suggests their being of the same date, and also of the same place, 
namely, Smyrna. The griffin on Mr. Akerman 's gem has his foot on a 
wheel, the symbol of Apollo or the sun ; but on the specimen before us, 
that object is omitted, owing, no doubt, to the rudeness of the engraving. 

Mr. M. A, Lower exhibited a small brass figure of St. Michael, or St. 
George and the Dragon, of the fifteenth century, originally part of a key, 
but long since converted into a tobacco -stopper ; a brass statuette of Venus 
lately found at Lewes ; and a Roman buckle found on the Wiltshire downs. 
Mr. Jesse King exhibited some perforated baked clay weights, varying 
from three to five inches in diameter, found, with Roman remains, in Long- 
wittersham Field, near Abingdon ; and an iron chain, apparently Roman, 
found in the parish of Ashbury, a mile from Wayland Smith's cave, in 
digging stones for the road ; it was surrounded with loose stones, animal 
bones and ashes, and three or four much-corroded Roman coins. 




PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



405 



Mr. S. E. Solly announced that a discovery of a Roman sepulchral in- 
terment had just been made in St. Stephen's churchyard, near St. Alban's, 
by Mr. Southwell, the vicar. It consisted of an hexagonal glass jar, con- 
taining bones and ashes ; a lamp, and several pieces of red pottery, and 
one of the small glass bottles termed " lachrymatories." The glass jar is 
about eight inches in diameter, and the same in height ; the handle very 
massive. The whole of these objects were found together at the depth of 
about six feet, in digging a grave. 

Mr. Syer Cuming made a communication on crystals of augury or 
divination, in illustration of some exhibited at a previous meeting by Mr. 
Fitch. 

Mr. Goddard Johnson exhibited a large collection of stone and bronze 
celts, fibulae, bronze spear heads, and a variety of other antiquities found 
in Norfolk. 

Mr. George Milner kindly presented a woodcut of a brooch of the fif- 
teenth century, together with the following illustrative remarks : " An 
antiquarian friend at Driffield has sent 
me a drawing of an ancient brooch which 
was ploughed up a few months ago in a 
field in that neighbourhood ; it may possi- 
bly prove interesting to some members of 
our Association, I therefore transmit it 
to you. 

" Driffield, in Yorkshire, is a place of 
considerable antiquity, or rather I should 
say places, since there are two, viz., Great 
and Little Driffield, situated about one 
mile distant ; in the church wall at Great 

Driffield is a sculptured effigy of an ecclesiastic with a pastoral staff in the 
left hand. Dr. Stukeley and other archaeologists suppose this figure to 
represent Paulinus, the first archbishop of York ; at Little Driffield the 
present church has evidently been rebuilt out of the remains of one of 
much earlier date, since in the walls may be seen many remains of ancient 
tombstones with floriated crosses upon them, which have been built in with 
the other masonry, without any attempt to deface the sculpture, or conceal 
the violation. In this church is a monument to Alfred or Aldfrid, king of 
Northumberland, who died A.D. 705, and is traditionally said to have been 
buried here. 

" I mention these circumstances to shew the antiquity of the place. Mr. 
Browne, in sending me the drawing, thus describes the brooch. ' The 
circle appears to have been cut out of a solid piece of brass ; and the space 
for admitting the pin has been filed out, and a pivot left for the pin to 
move on. The pin is slit at the end to admit the pivot, and the slit ends 




406 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



have been again compressed. The inscription and ornaments appear to 
have been chipped or chiselled out.' The late Dr. Young of Whitley, to 
whom the brooch was sent for examination, says : ' I am inclined to think 
that the inscription must be read in full, JESUS NAZARENUS BEX. There can 
be no question but this ornament has been worn by some ecclesiastic, or 
other religious personage, and that the above will be the correct reading of 
the motto is most probable. The first and last characters, representing 
Jesus and King, are most distinct ; the others not quite so easily made 
out.' " 

Mr. W. Grafter of Gravesend announced the discovery of a large number 
of Roman vases near Shorne, with fibulae and large iron nails. Mr. Grafter 




had by prompt exertion and liberality saved nearly fifty of these vessels 
from destruction, or, what is almost equally bad, from being carried 
away by persons who, actuated by a spirit of puerile curiosity, see in such 
objects nothing beyond their mere antiquity, and fancy that possession im- 
plies all their worth and interest, not reflecting that it is in properly 
reading, and in applying the knowledge gained to the farther promotion of 
science, the chief end and aim of antiquarian researches exist. Mr. 
Grafter having submitted his collection to the Council, the types shewn in 
the annexed cut have been selected as presenting the most novelty. One 
of the fibulae has been also thought worthy a cut. It is in bronze, and is 
engraved the actual size. 




The rev. D. M. Hulbert, of Ramsgate, communicated a paper on the 
etymology of Lammas. Mr. Hulbert adopts the Saxon derivation suggested 
by Spelman, Blount, and Kennett ; and recommends the study of philology 
as a mental exercise peculiarly adapted to strengthen the youthful powers 
of reasoning. 



407 



Notices of Nefo publications. 



AKCH^OLOGICA HIBEKNICA. A Hand-book of Irish Antiquities, Pagan 
and Christian : especially of such as are easy of access from the Irish 
Metropolis. By William F. Wakeman. With numerous illustrations. 
Dublin, James M'G-lashan ; London, W. S. Orr and Co. 1848. 

To us in England, Ireland and the Irish are less known than any part 
of Europe. Disastrous political circumstances, more repulsive than the 
stormy sea which separates their shores, have kept the two nations in 
almost total ignorance of each other ; and although Ireland contains monu- 
ments of antiquity of the highest interest, they have, in consequence of 
continual political disturbances and intestine commotions, remained to the 
present day but little known, and but little cared for. The works on 
Irish antiquities are also by far too costly for the general reader or stu- 
dent; and Government reports, which we hear have been drawn up, or 
are now under preparation, like most which have hitherto been made, are 
neither so accessible, nor in any way so satisfactory as they should be. 
This little work will do what Government reports and publications should 
do ; namely, by cheap form, and by sound and attractive information, draw 
the attention of the people of Ireland to their own valuable monuments, 
and induce the English antiquary, and the man of taste and inquiry, to 
visit and study them. The antiquarian student upon his arrival in Dublin, 
Mr. Wakeman remarks, is referred, by the guide-books, to two cathedrals, 
the castle, and one or two more structures in the city, or its immediate 
vicinity; while sepulchral tumuli of rude magnificence, stone circles, crom- 
lechs, pillar stones, and other remains of early times, within a journey of 
less than two hours, are passed over. 

The book is very judiciously arranged, and the illustrations well selected, 
as will be exemplified by the introduction in this notice of a few which 
Mr. Wakeman has kindly lent us. The attention of the antiquarian 
world, since the formation of our Association, has been especially directed 
to the primeval monuments of Brittany and the Channel isles, through 
the valuable papers of Mr. Lukis. In the description of Gavr' Innis, 
reference was made to Newgrange mound, in the county of Meath, which 
in very many respects bears a remarkable affinity to the remains at Gavr' 
Innis. It cannot but be highly acceptable to our members, here and on 
the continent, to be able to draw comparison between the two monuments, 



408 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



and we therefore present several of Mr. Wakeman's illustrations ; the first 
being a view of the cairn from the east. 




Cairn of Newgrange, from the east. 

" The cairn, which even in its present ruinous condition measures about 
seventy feet in height, from a little distance presents the appearance of a 
grassy hill, partially wooded ; but upon examination, the coating of earth 
is found to be altogether superficial, and in several places the stones, of 
which the hill is entirely composed, are laid bare. A circle of enormous 
stones, of which eight or ten remain above ground, anciently surrounded 
its base; and we are informed that upon the summit an obelisk, or enor- 
mous stone pillar, formerly stood. The opening represented in the next cut, 




Mouth of the passage leading to the chamber within the great cairn of Newgrange. 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



409 



was accidentally discovered about the year 1699, by labouring men^ em- 
ployed in the removal of stones for the repair of a road. The gallery, of 
which it is the external entrance, extends in a direction nearly north and 
south, and communicates with a chamber, or cave, nearly in the centre of 
the mound. This gallery, which measures in length about fifty feet, is at 
its entrance from the exterior four feet high, in breadth at the top three 
feet two inches, and at the base three feet five inches. These dimensions 
it retains, except in one or two places, where the stones appear to have 
been forced from their original position, for a distance of twenty-one feet 
from the external entrance. Thence towards the interior its size gradually 
increases, and its height, where it forms the chamber, is eighteen feet. 
Enormous blocks of stone, apparently water-worn, and supposed to have 
been brought from the mouth of the Boyne, form the sides of the passage ; 
and it is roofed with similar stones. The ground plan of the chamber is 
cruciform ; the head and arms of the cross being formed by three recesses, 
one placed directly fronting the entrance, the others east and west, and 
each containing a basin of granite. The sides of these recesses are com- 
posed of immense blocks of stone, several of which bear a great variety of 
carvings." 






Ornaments on the roof of the eastern recess. 



The two annexed cuts represent examples of the work on the roof of 
the eastern recess. Their resemblance to those figured in Mr. Lukis's 
paper on Gavr' Innis, in the third volume of our Journal, will be imme- 
diately recognized. Mr. Wake man observes, " The majority of these 
carvings must have been executed before the stones upon which they 
appear had been placed in their present positions." Mr. Lukis has ex- 
pressed a similar opinion as regards the engraved patterns on the crom- 
lechs of Brittany. The cuts in next page (figs. 1, 2) represent ornaments 
of a somewhat different description, which are found upon the sides of the 
eastern recess ; and which, as well as that shewn in the cut, fig. 3, which 



410 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 




Fig 1. Carved stone in the eastern recess. 




Tig. 2. Ditto. 




Fig. 3. Stone upon the exterior of the mound. 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



411 



represents a stone now lying upon the surface of the mound, a little above 
the mouth of the entrance to the mound, have a certain resemblance to 
works of a later date than that to which these monuments have been 
referred. 

Having thus drawn attention to one of the most interesting portions of 
the primeval division of this Guide-book, we notice that another huge 
cairn, that of Dowth, is at present being explored at the cost of the Koyal 
Irish Academy, and promises to be as important as that of New Grange, 
while the objects which are being discovered will probably tend to throw 
some light on its history ; and observe that the early Christian antiquities 
are equally well epitomized and exemplified, and that the chapter on wea- 
pons, ornaments, etc., contains remarks and information on the state of 
archaeology in Ireland, which place the Royal Irish Academy in a highly 
creditable point of view, and our government in a very unfavourable light. 
The antiquities in the museum of the academy are admirably classified, and 
are worthy the name of a national collection, while their great variety 




and number make them invaluable for reference and study. Of these, we 
give two examples, an ornamented sword of the Danish type, found in 
digging for the Cashel railway, and an axe from the bed of the Shannon. 



c. R. s. 




VOL. IV, 



412 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



THE ILLUSTRATED COMPANION TO THE LATIN DICTIONARY AND GREEK 
LEXICON : forming a Glossary of all the words representing visible 
objects connected with the Arts, Manufactures, and every-day life of 
the Greeks and Romans, with representations of nearly two thousand 
objects from the antique. By Anthony Rich, Jun., B.A. London : 
Longman and Co. 1849. 

THE importance of this attractive and well-digested volume will be 
admitted by all who appreciate the value of the Greek and Latin languages, 
and those systems which contribute to render their acquirement easy and 
agreeable, instead of tedious and repulsive. To give the scholar correct 
meanings of the words presented to him, and their proper application in 
former times, so that he may acquire some taste for the true spirit of 
antiquity, such a book as this is almost indispensable, and should be at 
least within the reach of every student. To the antiquary and historian 
it will prove a most useful manual, containing a copious vocabulary of 
terms referring to the social customs and the costume of the ancients, the 
utensils they used, the houses in which they dwelt, and the objects by 
which they were surrounded when alive and in their daily intercourse one 
with another, exhibited by well-executed engravings, many of which possess 
an additional charm from having been prepared from drawings made by 
Mr. Rich himself during a long residence in Italy, where he collected a 
large portion of the materials for his volume. Referring to the previous 
labours of German and English scholars who have directed their researches 
to classical antiquities, Mr. Rich observes, " the greater portion of their 
works is devoted to investigations respecting the political institutions of 
the ancients, comparatively little attention being bestowed upon social 
manners and every-day life, which it is especially the aim of these pages 
to describe and depict ; and no attempt has yet been made to illustrate 
systematically, and word by word, the language of ancient literature by 
the works of ancient art." 

To adduce an instance from many, of the value of this book, and of the 
wide range taken by the author, we cite the word pres&orium, a clothes- 
press, and quote Mr. Rich's remarks thereon : " Beckmann, in most res- 
pects an extremely estimable authority, gives it as his opinion, in the 
History of Inventions, that presses for cloth were not invented until the 
tenth century ; because, as he states, he had not met with any passage in 
which such machines were mentioned. But when the fulling establishment 
was excavated at Pompeii, the representation of a cloth-press, exactly 
similar in construction to those now in use, was discovered amongst other 
pictures exhibiting different processes of the trade, upon a pilaster of the 
building; and Ammiauus Marcellinus, though a late writer as regards 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 413 

Latinity, yet considerably anterior to the period fixed by Beckmann, (for 
he lived in the fourth century) distinctly gives the name pressorium to a 
contrivance of the kind in question." We may afford one more striking 
example of the manner in which the discerning writer illustrates his mode 
of making the monuments explain the written language, and vice versa. 
" The expressions hasta amentata," he observes, "and hasta ansata, are 
met with as descriptive of some peculiar kind of spears ; and both of which 
are set down as synonymous in the dictionaries, although the elementary 
notions contained in the respective adjectives are entirely distinct, the 
substantive amentum implying something in the nature of a straight thong; 
the other, ansa, something bent in the form of a loop or handle. Conse- 
quently, the language itself indicates that the two objects are not identical ; 
but the distinction could not have been positively established, and probably 
might never have been ascertained, but for the discovery of two ancient 
designs, the one upon a Greek vase, which exhibits a spear with a straight 
thong (amentum ) attached to the shaft, the other on the walls of a tomb 
at Paestum, which exhibits a spear with a semicircular or looped handle 
(ansa) affixed to its shaft." We trust the sale of this book will be com- 
mensurate with its utility and necessarily heavy cost, and remunerate 
both author and publisher. c. R. s. 



SIGILLA ANTIQUA. Engravings from Ancient Seals attached to Deeds 
and Charters in the muniment room of Sir Thomas Hare, Bart., of 
Stowe Bardolph. A.D. 1847. Privately printed. 

THE great value of such works as the present is too well appreciated by 
the readers of this Journal to render it necessary for us to descant on the 
subject. The archaeologist is deeply indebted to all gentlemen who, like 
sir Thomas Hare, permit the inspection of their MSS., or who, like 
the rev. H. S. Dashwood, can properly avail themselves of such liberality. 
The collection before us, printed for private distribution only, contains a 
most interesting series of engravings of seals attached to the deeds and 
charters of the Bardolph and upwards of seventy other families, besides 
the seals of the abbey of Monsterol, in the diocess of Amiens, and oi ? 
Thomas Percy, bishop of Norwich 1354; the great seal of William the 
Conqueror attached to a privilegium confirming the rights, etc., of the 
abbey of Ramsey ; and a beautiful one of Elizabeth de Burgh, Domina de 
Clare (third daughter of Gilbert de Clare, sumamed the red), which is 
exceedingly interesting to the herald. It displays five shields, the centre 



414 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

being that of sir Roger d'Amory, of Ainory, in Ireland ; her third husband, 
Barry, nebulee of six, with a bend (a coat generally attributed to the 
Damories, of Somersetshire), surmounted by the figure of a lion passant. 
On each side is an escutcheon of her paternal arms of Clare ; at the bot- 
tom, the arms of Theobald Lord Vernon, her second husband ; and at the 
top, an escutcheon charged with " a long cross re-crossed," which is given 
by some heralds as the crest of Damory. The arms of her first husband, 
John de Burgh, earl of Ulster, do not appear, unless the said cross be 
intended to represent them. 

One of the most remarkable features in this collection is the prevalence 
of the fleur-de-lis, which is seen in every variety of form as a device upon 
the greater portion of the earlier seals, whether of men or women, afford- 
ing further food for controversy respecting the derivation of this celebrated 
symbol. The specimens are very nicely drawn and engraved by Mr. W. 
Taylor. A slight mistake occurs on plates ix and x, the numbers of 
which should be reversed to correspond with the letter-press. 

J. B. P. 



415 



RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 



NUMISMATICS. 

The Numismatic Chronicle, No. XLII. Contents : i. Chorographical Greek Coins. 
By W. Watkiss Lloyd. 11. Proposed Interpretation of the Numerals XCVI. on 
the Coins of Diocletian. By G. Sparkes. in. Pehlevi Legends on Sassanian 
Coins. By Professor H. H. Wilson. iv. On certain Gaulish Coins with the 
Type of the Charioteer. By the Editor. v. Note on the Gold Coin inscribed 
VERIC. COM. F. By the Editor. vi. The Sale of the Pembroke Collection of 
Coins and Medals. By the Editor. 

Revue Numismatique, 1848, No. II. Contents : I. Nouvelles observations sur un 
ornement represents au revers de quelques monnaies gauloises de 1'Armorique. 
Dissertation sur les phaleres, par M. de Longperier. n. Lettres a M. de Saulcy 
sur les plus ancieus monuments numismatiques de la serie Merovingienne, par M. 
Ch. Lenormant. in. Notice sur les monuments numismatiques de 1'expedition de 

Charles VIII en Italic, 1474-1495, 2eme article, par M. E. Carder. No. III. 

I. lie Lettre a M. Lecointre-Dupont sur les magistrats et corporations preposes a 
la fabrication des monnaies: par M. A. Barthelemy. n. Ill 6 et IVe Lettres a 
M. de Saulcy sur les plus anciens monuments numismatiques de la serie Mero- 
vingienne, par M. Ch. Lenormant. m. Notice sur quelques jetons du XVIe siecle, 
par M. E. Carrier. IV. I. Restitution a Ephese et a PEgypte de cinq mon- 
naies autrefois classees a Arsinoe de Cyrenaique et a Eleusa de Cilicie ; par M. 
Duchalais. n. Hie Lettre a M. Lecointre-Dupont sur les magistrats et les cor- 
porations preposes a la fabrication des monnaies ; par M. A. Barthelemy. m. 

Note sur quelques monnaies lorraines inedites ; par M. Laurent. V. I. Le 

type du denier Douisien est-il d'origine celtique? II. Les types monetaires des 
Gaulois ont-ils eu quelque influence sur les tyj::es monetaires du moyen-age ? par 
M. Duchalais. in. Second supplement a 1'Essai sur les monnaies du Maine ; par 
M. Hucher. Bulletin Bibliographique. Numismatique des Croisades, par M. de 
Saulcy. Supplement to the Illustrations of the Anglo-Erench coinage. Publi- 
cations Numismatiques. 

Iconographie d'une Collection choisie de Cinq Mille Medailles Romaines, Byzantines, 
et Celtiberiennes. Par J. Labatier. Londres, chez Barthes et Lowell. 



The Saxons in England. A History of the English Commonwealth till the Period of 
the Norman Conquest. By J. M. Kemble, M.A. 2 vols. 8vo. Longmans. 

The Life and Times of Alfred the Great. By the Rev. J. A. Giles, D.C.L. 8vo. Bell. 

An Historical Account of the Worshipful Company of Carpenters of the City of Lon- 
don, compiled chiefly from Records in their Possession. 1 vol. 8vo. Engrav- 
ings and Woodcuts. By Edward Basil Jupp, Clerk to the Company. Pickering. 

The History of Ireland, from the earliest period of Irish Annals to the Present Time. 
By Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A. Tallis. 



416 RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

Proceedings of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. Session I. Nos. I 
to III. Contents:: 1. Inaugural address by the Rev. A. Hume, LL.D. 2. On 
the ancient family of Wyche, or de la Wyche, with a descriptive account of their 
seat at Alderley, in Cheshire. By Richard Brooke, Esq., F.S.A. 3. Original 
documents. 4. Anglo-Roman fibula in the Chester Mechanics' Institution (with 
a cut). By Mr. Mayer. 5. On brooches in general (with a plate). By Mr. 
Pidgeon. 6. A descriptive account of the historical decorations now putting up 
in the Grammar School, Preston. By Frank Howard, Esq. 7. On the Quern 
recently presented to the Society, and on Hand-mills in general. By the Rev. A. 
Hume, LL.D. 8. On the best mode of carrying out the objects of the Society. 
By H. C. Pidgeon, Esq., Hon. Sec. 

Memoires de la Societe des Antiquaires de Picardie. Tome IX. 1848. Contents: 
1. Discours prononce par M. Guerard, president. 2. Rapport du secretaire-per- 
petuel, M. J. Gamier. 3. Rapport sur les memoires envoyes au concours de 
1 846, par M. Hardouin. 4. Description de quelqucs monnaies de Picardie, par 
M. Adrien de Longperier. 5. Notice historique et archeologique sur le village 
d'Orville et sur ses dependances, par M. 1'abbe Bourbon. 6. Iconographie des 
plantes arotdes figurees au moyen age en Picardie, et considerees comme origine 
de la fleur de lis de France, par le docteur Eug. Woillez. 7. Les clotures de. 
choeur de la cathedrale d'Amiens, par MM. Jourdain et Duval. 8. Lettre de M. 
Danse, sur son voyage archeologique en Picardie, en 1758, publiee avec notes 
par M. Le Mareschal. : 9. De 1'apparition de 1'ogive dans les monuments reli- 
gieux de 1'ancienne Picardie, par le Dr. Woillez. 10. Notice sur 1'ancienne 
abbaye du Lieu-Dieu, par M. 1'abbe Cochet. 1 1. Inventaire de quelques papiers 
provenant du chateau d'Heilly, par M. le Gamier. 12. Observations sur des 
noms de potiers et de verriers remains recueillis a Amiens, par M. Ch. Dufour. 
13. Recherches sur 1'epoque ou Ton a commence a se servir de la langue vul- 
gaire dans les actes publiques, etc., par M. Dorbis. 

Collectanea Antiqua, No. XII. By C. Roach Smith. 1. British and Gaulish coins. 
Ancient and sepulchral relics at Barming, Kent (completing vol. i). 

Revue Archeologique, 1848. Contents: No. I. Observations sur la langne dans 
laquelle sont cogues les inscriptions cuneiformes du premier systeme, par M. J. 
Oppert. Premiere partie. Restauration de la cathedrale de Leon, par M. P. 
Merimee. Memoire sur la Queue en Brie, par M. Vergnaud-Romagnesi. De 
1'invention de Varron. Les anciens ont-ils connu la gravure en taille-douce et 
1'art d'imprimer des dessins en couleur ? par M. Letronne. Notice historique et 
descriptive sur la cathedrale de Toul, par M. 1'abbe Balthazar. Premiere partie. 

Histoire. Chasse de Lunebourg. No. II. Observations sur la langue dans 

laquelle sont cor^ues les inscriptions cuneiformes du premier systeme, par M. J. 
Oppert. Deuxieme partie. La reconnaissance d'Oreste et d'Electre, peinture de 
vase grec expliquee par M. E. Vinet. Notice historique sur 1'ancien hotel de la 
Trimouille, par M. Troche. Notice sur un fragment d'ecriture demotique, faisant 
partie du cabinet de feu Champollion le jeune, par M. de Saulcy. Statistique 
Monumentale de Vaucluse, par M. J. Courtet Etymologic du nom propre 
EYMI1N02 sur des medailles de Syracuse, par M. Letronne. Des difterents 
genres d'impression connus des anciens, par M. L. de Laborde. Lettre de M. 
Letronne a M. de Witte sur les noms d'un fabricant de vases. No. III. Explo- 
ration de la province de Constantino et des Zibans, par M. C. Texier. Notice 



RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 417 

sur la Cathedrale de Toul, par M. 1'abbe Balthazar (2 e partie). Lettre de M. 
Vattier de Bourville a M. Letronne, sur les premiers resultats de son voyage a 
Cyrene. La rue des deux Ermites, a Paris, par M. T. Pinard. Hecate, 
IIANAEINH, sur les medailles de Tenna et d'Hipponium dans la Grande Grece, 
par M. Letronne. Lettre de M. Chaudruc de Crazannes a M. L. de Ruville sur 
1'origine du nom des Andelys. Inventaire des reliques de la Sainte Chapelle de 

Paris, document de 1573 par M. L. Douet-d'Arcq. No. IV. Inventaire des 

reliques de la Sainte Chapelle, document de 1573 public par M. L. Douet- 
d'Arcq. (Suite et fin.) Notice sur les arcs de triomphe de Vaucluse, par M. J. 
Courtet. Lettre de M. Letronne, a M. le Colonel Callier, sur 1'inscription d'une 

borne milliaire trouvee a Lalla Magrenia pres de la frontiere du Maroc. 

IV. Note sur un vase Panathenaique, receminent decouvert a Bengazi, termine 
par une rectification numismatique sur des medailles des Evesperites ; par M. Ch. 
Lenormant. Monographic de 1'eglise de Ceffonds, par M. T. Piuard. Sur 1'usage 
Grec de consacrer la statue d'un dieu a une autre divinite ; par M. Letronne. 
Corne d boire, en ivoire, conservee a 1'hotel de ville de Lunebourg ; explication 

par M. A. Maury. V. Notice sur un mouton d'or inedit, frappe en Normandie 

pour Henri V, roi d'Angleterre, par M. Ad. de Longperier. Notice historique et 
descriptive sur la cathedrale de Toul, par M. 1'abbe Balthazar (suite et fin). 
Quelques notes sur la lettre de M. de Bourville, relative d. 1'exploration de la 
Cyrenaique, par M. Letronne. Deux inscriptions grecques de 1' Arabic Petree, 
trouvees a Constantine, expliquees par M. Letronne. Du personnage de la Mort 
et de ses representations dans 1'autiquite et au moyen age. La mort chez les 
Chretiens du moyen age, par M. Maury. Lettre de M. S. Birch & M. Letronue, 
sur 1'expression hieroglyphique de deux noms propres egyptiens. Lettre de M. 
Pellissier a M. Hase, sur ses excursions dans la Regence de Tunis. Inscription 
hieroglyphique des rochers de Semne, par M. E. de Rouge. Nouvelles Observa- 
tions sur les collections du Louvre et le palais des Tuileries. VI. Lettre de M. 

de Rouge a M. de Saulcy, sur les elements de 1'ecriture demotique des Egyptiens. 
Antiquites de la ville de Cherchel (Algerie), par M. de Bliniere. Lettre de 
M. Letronne a M. Lebas, sur le tombeau des deux cavaliers atheniens Melanopos 
et Macartatos, decrit par Pausanias, et sur la composition trinitaire de 1'aine hu- 
maiue, selon les idees de Platon. Notice, sur 1'identite des Fatuse, des Deae 
Matres ou Matronse, et des Fees, par M. A. Maury. Piscine de la Sainte Cha- 
pelle de Paris, explication de la plaiiche 97, par M. Guenebault. Sur le tombeau 

de Reparatus, par M. Prevost. VII. Lettre de M. Pellissier a M. Hase, sur les 

antiquites de la regeuce de Tunis. (Suite et fin.) De la monnaie arabe frappce 
dans le moyen age, par les eveques de Maguelone; par M. Chaudruc de Crazannes. 
Des Castes, et de la Transmission hereditaire des professions dans 1'ancienne 
Egypte, par M. Ampere. Praetorium de Lambsesa, explication de la planche 98, 
par M. Ch. Texier. Lettre de M. Delzons a M. Letronne sur quelques passages 
anciens relatifs a 1'invention de Varron. Sur la restauration de 1'eglise de Saint- 
Denis, par M. P. Merimee. Deux nouvelles inscriptions grecques de la Cyre- 
naique, expliquees par M. Letronne. Veritable emplacement de la ville de Cyrene 
retrouve par M. Vattier de Bourville. Congres tenu a Worcester par 1'Association 
archeologique de la Grande-Bretagne. Un musee a Vitry, par M. Etienne 
Gallois. 



418 RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 



WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION. 

By Subscription. The History of Romney Marsh, shewing its Gradual Preservation 
from the Sea, from the Time of the Romans down to the Year 1833 ; with a Dis- 
sertation on the Original Site of the Ancient Anderida. By William Holloway, 
Author of the History of Rye. 8vo. Maps and Plates. ( J. R. Smith.) 

By Subscription. The Antiquities of Richborough, Reculver, and Lymne. By C. 
Roach Smith and F. W. Fairholt. In small 4to, profusely illustrated. Subscribers' 
names should be sent, as early as possible, to Mr. C. Roach Smith, 5, Liverpool- 
street, City. 

By Subscription. The Coins of Carausius and Allectus. By C. Roach Smith. Unpub- 
lished or rare types would be thankfully received and acknowledged by the 
Author. 

By Subscription. Three Plates coloured, of the Roman Tessellated Pavements recently 
discovered at Aldborough, in Yorkshire. By H. E. Smith, 3, Parliament-street, 
York. Early application is desired. 

By Subscription. Tradesmen's Tokens of the Seventeenth Century current in London, 
with numerous illustrations. By J. Y. Akerman, Sec. Soc. Ant. Lond, etc. (J. 
R. Smith.) 



INDEX TO VOL. IV. 



ABERGAVENNY, sepulchral remains at, 313 
Abingdon, medieval pottery found in, 382 
Adze of stone from the Feejee islands, 157 
Aldborough, Koman tessellated pavement found 

at, 401 
Ancient British sword found at Tiverton, 147 

brooch found at Driffield, 405 

galley found in the river Itchen, 382 

sun-dial, etc., exhibited by Mrs. Davies, 

307 
Anglo-Saxon remains in Gloucestershire, 74 

vase found at Belle Vue in Kent, 158 

weapons in iron, 71 

ARCH.:OLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS, 192, 415 
ARDEN, Mr. J., presents an Egyptian mummy to 

the Association, 317 
ASHPITEL, Mr. A., on Worcester cathedral, 302 



B 

BAIGENT, Mr. F., on a Norman font, 63 

- on a fresco in St. Lawrence's 
church in Winchester, 387 

Barrows at Clifton, 57 

- near Scarborough, discoveries in, 101 
BARTON, Mr. T., exhibits British remains found 

at various places, 153 

- on Saxon swords and bosses of 

shields, 382 

BATEMAN, Mr. T., on a Saxon barrow, 276 
Bath museum, antiquities in, 147 
BELL, Mr. J., on Roman coins found in cutting 

the Newcastle and Carlisle railway, 383 
Belts, ornaments appended to, 158 
BETIIAM, Sir W., on Etruscan coins, 71 
Betrothing rings, observations on, 389 
BLACK, Mr. W. H., on the state of the walls of 

Worcester, 270 
----- on an ancient building in the 

Minories, 395 

BLAND, Mr., on a Roman villa, 398 
Britanny and Wales, on the communications be- 

tween, 229 
BRITISH ARCH.KOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, Audi- 

tors' Report for 1847, 85 

- Annual Congress at Worcester, 
287 



President's opening address, 288 
Papers by J. F. Ledsam, F. W. 

Fairholt, C. R. Smith, T. Wright, A. Ashpitel, J. 

M. Gutch, J. O. Halliwell, J. R. Planche, F. C. 

Lukis, W. Yewd, J. G. Waller, E. M. Rudd, J. 

White, W. H. Rolfe, T. F. Dukes, T. J. Pettigrew. 

L. Jewitt, P. B. Pumell, 287-322 

Exhibitions by Mrs. Davies, T. 



Eaton, J. F. Ledsam, C. R. Smith, T. J. Petti- 
grew, J. Arden, T. C. Croker, G. Rogers, W. 
Dent, J. Dent, Lord A. D. Conyngham, W. H. 
Rolfe, J. Moore, T. F. Dukes, J. Thurnam, J. 
M. Gutch, Sir Thomas Winnington, bart., Jabez 
Allies, W. S. Fitch, Rev. W. Cooper, W. J. Tay- 
lor, The Cloth Workers' Company of Worcester, 
W. W. Lewis. J. White, R. Johnson, Millie, 
389-322 

Presents to, 195 

British bronze shield found at Burringham com- 
mon, 395 

VOL. IV. 



British gold coin found near Billericay, 74 

remains found at Marham, Franscham, 



etc., 153 

Bronze box found at Colchester, 84 
seal found at Old Ford, 393 



BROWN, Mr. J., on discoveries made at St, Pan- 
eras, 151 

T. C., on discoveries at Cirencester, 



69-71 

BUCKINGHAM, Mr. J. S., on the mummies of 
Thebes, 317 

BUBKITT'S, Mr., observations on Roman remains 
at Higham, 393 

on an ornamental doorway at the 

church of Harrow-on-the-Hill, 395 

on the wooden church at Chip- 
ping Ongar, 395 



Caerleon, Roman monument at, 397 

Caerwent and Caerleon, notes on, 246 

CAMPKIN, Mr., on a Roman tessellated pavement 

found at Aldborough, 401 
Canon of Chalk, the seal of, 393 
Carausius, thirty-four coins of, from Rouen, 79 

- silver coin of, found near Richborough, 

144 

CARLEY, Mr., on coins found concealed at Wro- 

tham, 63 
Carvings in cathedrals and collegiate churches, 

remarks on, 203 

Celt found on Frittenham common, 153 
CHAFFERS, Mr., on a Roman building in Lower 

Thames-street, 38-75 

observations on a wooden cup, 403 

Channel islands, on the sepulchral character of 

cromlechs in, 323 

Charge in heraldry, observations 011 a, 349 
Chesterford, eight funereal urns discovered at, 401 
Chinese bottle found in Thebes, 321 
Cirencester, Roman discoveries at, 69-71 
CLARKE, Mr. Hyde, on a coin of Ethelred II, 80 
Joseph, on Roman remains found iu 

Essex, 76 

Clothiers' company at Worcester, 311 
Coins found at Sutton Baron, 69 

of James I, Elizabeth, Charles I and II, 

concealed at Wrotham, 63 

Colchester, bronze box found at, 84 

copper coin found at, 144 

Roman pottery found at, 82 
remains at, 400 



skeletons and urns found at, 79 



CONYNGHAM, Lord A. D., address upon opening 
the Worcester Congress, 288 

remarks on discoveries 



in barrows near Scarborough, 101 
CORNER, Mr. G. R., on an incised slab in Mat. 

lock church, 78 

Couvre-feu, observations on, 133 
CRAFTER, Mr., on a bronze statuette of Hercules, 

388 
on Roman vases found near 

Shome, 406 

on a bronze Roman fibula, ib. 

observations on Roman remains 

at Higham, 393 
CROKKR, Mr. T. C., on Irish gold ring money, 316 



420 



INDEX. 



CHOKER, Mr. T. C.,on a silver-gilt ring, presumed 
to have belonged to Shakespeare, 389 

Crucifix of the thirteenth century, 75 

observations on, 

by Mr. Rogers, 75 

Crystals of Augury, observations on, 405 

CUMING, Mr. Syer, on the couvre-feu, 133 

Cunobeline, on the coins of, 107 

CURT, Mr. Joseph, exhibits thirty-four coins of 
Carausius, 79 



D 

Denarius of Elagabalus found at Rochester castle, 

75 

Denarii found in Warwickshire, 151 
DENT, Messrs. J. & W., their reception of the 

Members of the Association at Sudeley castle, 

307 

D'Ewes, Sir S., burial place of, 387 
Dineley MSS., Observations on, 318 
DURAND, Mr., on a circular seal, 78 



EATON, Mr., his collection of antiquities at Wor- 
cester, 291 

Effigy of a knight of the thirteenth century, 319 
Egwin, bishop of Worcester, autobiography of, 297 
Egyptian embalmings, observations on, 337 

mummy unrolled, 317 

Enamelled crucifix, on a, 58 

Roman fibulae, 57 

English philology, contributions to, 20 

Essex, Roman bronze bust of Jupiter found in, 81 

Roman remains found in, 76 

Ethelred II, coin of, found at Dorset, 80 

penny of, 75 

observations on, by Mr. W. G. 

Tomkins, 75 
Etruscan coins, on, 71 



F. 

FAIRHOLT, Mr., remarks on mural paintings, 91 

on a stone cross in Hants, 157 

on early monumental effigies, 291 

on various rubbings of monumen- 
tal brasses communicated by the rev. G. Y. 
Osborne, Mr. C. Bridger, and Mr. Sprague, 310 
FAIRLESS, Mr., on Northumberland stycas, 3&2 
FENNELL, Mr. W., on a hoard of Northumbrian 
stycas, 127 

stycas found in Yorkshire, 151 

Fictile vessels discovered at Truxillo, in Peru, 81 

found in the Medway, 379 

Flint arrow-heads found in Argyleshire, 391 
Font in All Saints' church, Claverley, Shropshire, 

152 

Forest of Dean, Roman coins found in, 73 
Fresco in St. Lawrence's church, Winchester, 387 

paintings in Watford church, 71 

FULCHER, Mr., on an antique oak pulpit, 69 



G 

Gavr' Innis, on the stones at, 60 

GERVILI.E, M. DE,on the communication between 

Bi itanny and Wales, 229 
Gloucestershire, Ang'.o-Saxon remains in, 74 
Goblet, rare crystal, of the eleventh century, 395 
Gold British coin found near Romsey, Hants, 157 

at Steyning, Sussex, 16. 

near Grantley, Surrey, 158 

pocket compass of 1572, 403 

ring found at Ipswich, 76 

Wigmore, 391 

Ilchester, 315 

Wroxeter, 316 



GOMONDE, Mr., on flint heads and a knife from 
the bogs in Ireland, 401 

GUTCH, Mr., on queen Elizabeth's visit to Wor- 
cester in 1575, 307 

on the Clothiers' company at Worces- 



ter, 311 



on a gold Roman ring, 316 

on the Dineley MSS., 317 



H 

HALLIWELL, Mr. J. O., contributions to English 
philology, 20 

on the Vernon MS., 115 

the Worcestershire custom 



of Gathering, 307 
passages of Shakespeare's 

first love, 317 

Harold, penny of, found at Rochester castle, 75 
Hartlip, Roman villa found at, 398 
HASTINGS, Lord, exhibits a copper-gilt crucifix of 

the thirteenth century, 75 
HAVELL, Mr., exhibits antiquities from Silchester, 

383 
HEALY, Mr , observations on a bronze British 

shield, 395 

Hercules, bronze statuette of, 388 
HULBERT, Rev. D. M., on the word Lammas, 406 
HUNT, Mr., exhibits a gold ring found at Ipswich, 

76 
HUXTABLE, Mr., on gold British coins found in 

Surrey, 157 



Ickleton and Chesterford, on Roman discoveries 

at, 356 

Incised slab in Matlock church, 78 
INSKIPP, Mr., on barrows at Clifton, in Bedford- 
. shire, 57 

on Roman potters' stamps, 143 

Irish gold ring money, exhibited bv Mr. T. C. 

Croker, 316 

Iron, on the manufacture of, by the Normans, 265 
ISAACS, Mr. GEO., on a silver-gilt head of the 

twelfth century, 395 
crystal goblet of the eleventh 

century, ib. 
ISAACSON, Rev. S., on an adze of stone from the 

Feejee islands, 157 

on incised slab of Authonie 



and Agnes Woolley, 145 
on. Roman remains at Colville 

manor, 156 
Itohen, ancient galley found in the, 382 



Jersey, on the discovery of four hundred Roman 

coins in, 272 
JEWITT, Mr. L., on heraldic decorations of tile 

paving, 216 
JOHNSON, Mr. G., exhibits British remains dis- 

covered in various places, 153 
antiquities found in 

Norfolk, 405 

Jupiter, Roman bronze bust of, found in Essex, Hi 
Justinian, eight gold coins of, found in the Thames, 

39 



KEATS, Mr., on an antique head and bust of a 

Roman youth, 79 
KENT, Mr., on Anglo-Saxon weapons in Ireland, 71 

on Boman remains at Padstow, 394 

pottery found at CUM 

KING, Mr., on perforated baked clay weights, 404 
KIRKMANN, Mr., on Roman cuins in lead, 65-57 



INDEX. 



421 



Lammas, on the etymology of the word, 406 

LASSETER, Mr., on a Roman building discovered 
at Steyning, 386 

Leaden coffin found at Croydon, 383 

Old'Ford, 392 

LEATHES, Mr. H. M., presents drawing of Roman 
vessel from Suffolk, 155 

LEDSAM, J. F., on antiquities found in Worcester- 
shire, 291 

LOTT, Mr., exhibits a carved shield from Guild- 
hall, 401 

LONG, Mr. H. L., on the foundations of Roman 
buildings, etc., at Farley Heath, 158 

LOWER, Mr. M.A., on the manufacture of iron by 
the Normans, 265 

on a brass figure of St. Michael, 404 

LUKIS, Mr. F. C., on the discovery of Roman 
coins in Jersey, 272 

cromlechs in the Channel 

Islands, 307, 323 

LUKIS, Mr. F. W., on the stones at Gavr' Innis, fiO 



M 

Medieval pottery found in Abingdon, 382 
Mercury, statue of, in stone found at Newcastle- 

upon-Tyne, 144 
MEYRICK, Mr. W., on an ancient burial-place in 

Orkney, 143 

Saxon sword, 385 

MILNE R, Mr., on the custom of blowing a horn , 

149 

Brooch of the fifteenth century, 405 

Monumental brasses, on the study of, 227 

rubbings of, from Colchester, etc., 310 

effigy of king John, in Worcester 

cathedral, 292 
MOORR, Mr. J., on a gold Roman ring found at 

Ilchester, 315 
Mortaria, on, 58 

Mural painting found in Suffolk-lane, 388 
remarks on, 91 



N 

NEALE, Mr., on a Roman bronze bust, 74 
NEVILLE, Hon. R. C., on Roman coins found at 
Chesterford, 59 

Roman sculpture in Essex, 63 

on discovery of Roman pottery at Ches- 
terford, 386 

eight funereal urns found at Chester- 



ford, 401 
NEW PUBLICATIONS, NOTICES OF : 

A Series of Monumental Brasses, from the reign 
of Edward I to that of Elizabeth, by J. G. and 
L. A. B Waller, 88 

Helps to Hereford History, Civil and Legendary, 
by J. Dacres Devlin, 90 

Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden Time, by 
Daniel Wilson, 160 

An attempt to discriminate the Styles of Archi- 
tecture in England, from the Conquest to the 
Revolution, by the late Thos. Rickman, 185 

Description of the Roman Theatre of Verulum, 
by R. Grove Lowe, 187 

Ancient Sea Margins, as memorials of changes 
in the relative Level of Sea and Land, by 
Robt. Chambers, 189 

Archfeologica Hibernica, a Hand-book of Irish 
Antiquities, by W. F. Wakeman, 407 

The Illustrated Companion to the Latin Dic- 
tionary and Greek Lexicon, by A. Rich, 412 

Sigilla Antiqua, from the collection of Sir Thos. 

Hare, Bart,, 413 

NEWTON, Mr. W., on Roman fictile vessels, 72 
NICHOLS, Mr. G., on a gold British coin found in 

Hants, 157 
Norman font, 63 



NORRIS, Mr. H., on a fragment of sculpture of the 
fifteenth century found near Ilchester, 159 

on a bronze lamp found at Ham- 
don Hill, 384 

Northumberland stycas, descriptive catalogue of, 
382 

Northumbrian stycas, on a hoard of, 127 

Northwold, Saxon antiquities found at, 382 



O 

Old Ford, leaden coffins, urns, etc., found at, 392 
Orkney, Mr. Girdwopd's observations on an 

ancient burial-place in, 143 
Ornamental doorway at Harrow-on-the-Hill, 395 



Padstow, Roman remains at, 394 
Painted glass at Worcester, by Mr. G. Rogers, 301 
PEACOCK, Mr. E., on a circular bell-shaped seal, 
388 

bronze British shield, 395 



PENFOLD (Rev. JAS.) on a leaden coffin, 383 
PETTIOREW, Mr. T. J., onEgyptian Embalmings, 

337 

PLANCHE, Mr. J. R., on early female head-dresses, 
307 

the effigy of a knight in 

the abbey church of Pershore, 319 

charge in heraldry, called a 



rest or clarion, 349 
POSTE, Rev. BKALE, on an ancient sepulchral in- 
terment, 05-68. 

the ancient walls of Roches- 



ter city, 30 

. Roman coins and sepulchral 

remains found at Eccles, 81 

the coins of Cunobeline and 



the ancient Britons, 107 
Potters' stamps on Roman ware, 143 
PRETTY, Mr., on seals of the fourteenth century, 60 
on a thuribulum, 142 

on Roman remains between Towces- 



ter and Abthorpe, 396 
PRICE, Mr., on an ancient British sword, 146 

on the antiquities in the Bath mu- 



seum, 147 



on fictile vessels found on the south 
of the Medway, 379 
PRYER, Mr. T., exhibits a Roman bronze bust of 

Jupiter, 81 

Pulpit, an antique oak one at Sudbury, 69 
PURLAND, Mr. T., exhibits a flint arrow-head, 
found at Ramsgate, 152 

a seal of St. Giles's 



hospital, at Norwich, 152 
PDRNELL, Mr., on Roman architectural remains 
at Gloucester, 58 



Q 

QUELCH, Mr.,on Roman remains found at Folley- 
hill, Marlborough, 401 



R 

RAWLENCE, Mr. G. C., on a silver seal, 404 
Richborough, silver coin of Carausius found near, 

144 

Ripon, custom at, of blowing a horn, 149 
arms of, 151 



Rochester city, ancient walls of, 30 
Rock of Cashel going to decay, efforts for its re- 
storation, 144 

ROGERS, Mr. H., on an enamelled crucifix, 58 
ROLFE, Mr., on enamelled Roman fibtilee, 57 

on Saxon and Roman fibulte, 144 

on coins found between Sandwich 



and Eastry, 382 



422 



INDEX. 



Komaii amphora, found at Stanway, in Essex, 391 

architectural remains at Gloucester, 58 

bronze bust, found in Essex, 74 

bronze fibulee, found in Sussex, 391 

bronze lamp, found at Hamdon hill, 384 

vessel found at Prickwillow, 153 ; Mr. H. 

Bogers's observations on, ib. 

buckle, found on Wiltshire downs, 404 

building in Lower Thames-street, remarks 



on, 38-45 



found at Steyning, 386 



coins found at Chesterford, 59 

found in the forest of Dean, 73 

found in cutting the Newcastle and 

Carlisle railway, 383 

in lead, found in the Thames, 55-57 

and sepulchral remains, found at 



Eccles, 81 

discoveries at Cirencester, 69-71 

fibulae found at Springhead, 74 

keys, 156 

fictile vessels, on, 72 

medicine stamps, remarks on, 281 

monument at Caerleon, 397 

pottery at Chesterford, 387 

found at Colchester, 82 



remains found near Abingdon, 404 

at Amiens, 391 

. at Colchester, 400-1 

at Colville Manor, 156 

at Farley Heath, in Surrey, 158 

at Folley Hill, 401 



at Higham, in Kent, 393 

at Padstow, 394 



at Rawreth, 156 

in Suffolk-lane, 388 

near Towcester, 396 



401 



sculpture in Essex, 63 

sepulchral interment near St. Alban's, 405 

statuette found at Colchester, 60 

stone, described by Rev. Mr. Rudd, 312 

tessellated pavement, found at Aldborough, 

theatre at Verulam, 73 
urns found in Essex, 74 

- vases found near Shorne, 406 
vessel from Suffolk, 155 

vessels in dark clay, found near Chiches- 

ter, 158 

villa discovered at Stancombe Park, 320 

found at Hartlip, 398 

wall at Bittern Manor, 382 

youth, head and bust of, 79 

British coins, found at Harlowe, 156 

Romano-British urns, found at Dalston, 79 
Romans, on the red glazed pottery of the, 1 
RUDD, Rev. E. M., on a Roman stone, 312 

S 

Saxon antiquities found in Gloucestershire, 385 
at North wold, 382 

barrow, on the contents of one, 276 

fibula, found between Folkstone and Dover, 

159 

remains in Gloucestershire, remarks on, 50 

sculptures found at Ipswich, 397 

sword, observations on, 385 

Seal, a circular one in the museum of Calais, 78 

bell-shaped, found at Messingham, 

388 

brass one, found at Ixworth, 144 

in Norfolk, 388 

of the chapel of Morden Foliot, 316 

Seals of the fourteenth century, on, 60 
Sepulchral Interment, an ancient one, near Maid- 
stone, 65-68 

Shakespeare, presumed betrothing ring of, 389 
SHAW, Mr., on a bronze spearhead, found at Hull 

Bridge, 74 
British gold coin, found near 

Billericay, 74 



SHAW, Mr., on Roman urns, found in Essex, 74 
SHORTT, Capt, on a Roman monument at Caer- 
leon, 397 
Silchester, medieval rings and other objects found 

in, 383 
Silver-gilt ring, found at Stratford-upon Avon, 389 

seal found in Hampshire, 404 

of the fifteenth century, found in Flan- 
ders, 388 

SILVESTER, Mr., exhibits some Roman fibulte, 74 
SMITH, Mr. C. R., on Roman coins in lead, 57 

mortaria, 58 

sculpture in Essex, 



69 



Baron, 68 



excavations made at Sutton 

a Roman building disco- 
vered in Lower Thames-street, 45, 75 

a Roman bronze vessel with 



155 



ornamented handle, 154 

recent discoveries in Essex, 

on gold British coins, found 
at Steyning, Sussex, 157 

Roman vessels, found near 



Chichester, 158 



leon, 246 
Romans, 1 



notes on Caerwent and Caer- 

the red glazed pottery of the 

Roman medicine stamps, 281 

on injuries done to ancient 

leaden matrices for the seals 
of Alexander bishop of Lincoln, William bishop 
of Durham, and Rodulf archbishop of Canter- 
bury, of the twelfth century, 316 

a Roman villa at Stancombe 



monuments, 297 



Park, 320 

Roman discoveries at Ickle- 

ton and Chesterford, 356 

the Roman wall at Bittern 



Manor, 382 



Saxon antiquities at Gilton, 



in Gloucestershire, 385 

some Roman remains found 



in Suffolk-lane, 388 



nian, 391 



some gold coins of Justi- 

Roman villa at Hartlip, 398 
SOLLY, Mr. S. R., on the Roman theatre at Veru- 
lam, 73 

Roman antiquities near St. 



Alban's, 405 
SOUTHCOTT, Mr., exhibits some Romano-British 

urns found at Dalston, 79 
SQUIEK, Mr. E. G., on aboriginal monuments of 

the United States, 383 

StEustace, silver-gilt head holding the relics of, 395 
St Michael, brass figure of, 404 
St. Pancras, Mr. J. Brown on discoveries made 

at, 151 

Stafford lodge, observations on, 389 
STOCK, Mr., on Roman remains, etc. found at Old 

Ford, 392 

Stone cross at Ludgershall, Hants, 157 
STDBBS, Mr., on the matrix of a silver seal of the 

fifteenth century, 388 
Sudeley castle, visit to, 307 
Suffolk, Anglo-Saxon weapons found in, 71 
Sutton Baron in Kent, excavations made in, 68 
coins found in, 69 



TABRAM, Mr. J.A., on Anglo-Saxon remains, 74 
TAYLOK, Mr., on Roman remains at Colchester, 

400 
Thanet, Saxon and Roman fibulse found in the 

isle of, 144 
Thebes, observations on the mummies at, by Mr. 

Buckingham, 317 



INDEX. 



423 



THOMPSON, Mr. HENRY, on a leaden coffin, 383 
Thuribulum found at Brixworth, 142 
Tile paving, on heraldic decorations of, 216 
Triple-tie in heraldry, remarks on, 390 
True lovers' knot, remarks on, 389 
Truxillo, fictile vessels discovered at, 81 
TURNER, Mr. D., Roman vessels from Suffolk, 
exhibited by, 155 



Venus, statuette of, found at Lewes, 404 
Vernon manuscript, account of, 115 
Verulam, Roman theatre at, 73 



W 

WALLER, Mr. J. G., on the study of monumental 

brasses, 227 
WARREN, Mr., on the burial place of sir Simonds 

D'Ewes, 387 

on a circular brass seal, 388 

Warwickshire, denarii found in, 151 
Watford church, fresco paintings in, 71 
Westminster Abbey, report concerning several 

monuments in, 402 
WHITE, Mr. JOHN, on sepulchral remains at Aber- 

gavenny, 313 
WICKHAM, Mr., exhibits a denarius of Elagabalus 

and a penny of Harold, found at Rochester 

castle, 75 



WINDLE, Mr., on a font in All Saints' church, 
Claverly, Shropshire, 152 

WIRE, Mr., on a Roman statuette found at Col- 
chester, 60 

on a skeleton and urns found at Col- 



chester, 79 

on a copper coin found at Colchester,144 

on Roman remains found at Colches- 
ter, 401 

Wooden cup, exhibited by Miss Creswell, 403 
Woolley, Anthony and Agnes, incised slab of, 78; 

observations on, by rev. S. Isaacson, 145 
WOOLRYCH, Rev. H., on fresco paintings in Wat. 

ford church, 71 

Worcester, antiquities found at, in Mr. Eaton's 
collection, 291 

- Mr. GUTCH on the Clothiers' company 

- on the state of the walls of, in 1768, 270 
cathedral, early monumental effigy of 

king John in, 292 

lecture on, by Mr. Ashpitel, 302 



at, 311 



CONGRESS HELD AT, 288-322 

address of the mayor of, 288 

president at, it>. 



various exhibitions of antiquities made 

at, 287, 322 

Worcestershire, antiquities found in, 291 

WRIGHT, Mr. T., on Saxon remains in Gloucester- 
shire, 50 

on the carvings of the stalls in 

cathedral and collegiate churches, 203 

on the autobiography of Egwin, 

bishop of Worcester, 297 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



1. Ornamental scrolls on Samian pottery, found 

in London, (frontispiece J 
2-7. Potters' names, 3 
8. Roman bowl, ib. 

1-2-2. Various types of Samian pottery, 4 
23-29. Variety of borders on ditto, 5 
30. The Goddess Fortune on ditto, 6 
31-36. Combats on ditto, 7 

37. Ditto, 8 

38. Winged figure on ditto, 9 

39. Scroll of foliage on ditto, ib. 

40. 41. Warriors on ditto, 10 

42-43. Two specimens of high relief on ditto, 11 

44. Yellow coloured pottery, 12 

45. Deep overlapping rim, an unique specimen, 13 

46. Fine specimen of pottery from Colchester, 14 
47-49. Ditto from Fabroni, 15 

50. Arretium, 16 

51-55. Mr. Chaffers's collection, with 

stamp of potter's mark, ib. 

56-59 Potters' names at Lillebonne and Arezzo, 17 
60-63. Moulds and stamps, 19 



64-65. Inscriptions on embossed vessels, 20 

66. Plan of the original walls of Rochester, 31 

67. Roman building discovered in Lower Thames- 

street, 38 

68. Plan of ditto, 39 

69. Hypocaust in ditto, 41 

70. Pillars supporting the floor of a room, ib. 
71-73. Pin and other implements found in the 

same, 46 

74-75. Modes of affixing the hair pin, 47 
76-78. Flue tiles found in Thames-street, ib. 
79-80. Ditto, 48 

81. Saxon beads found in Gloucestershire, 51 
82-83. Bosses cf Anglo-Saxon shields, 52 
84-85. Ear and other rings, Anglo-Saxon, 53 

86. Bronze fibula, gilt ditto, ib. 

87. Roman statuette found at Colchester, 60 
88-90. Roman sculpture found at Chesterford, 64 

91. Ancient sepulchral interment near Maidstone, 

65 

92. Stone sarcophagus containing a vase, 70 

93. Monumental stone, ib. 



424 



LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. 



94. Bronze Roman bust from Essex, 74 

95. Roman remains found in Essex, 76 

96. bronze bust of Jupiter found in ditto, 81 

97. pottery found at Colchester, 84 

98. bronze box, ib. 

99. mural painting in Salisbury, 93 

100. Illumination illustrative of mural painting, 99 

101. Urn from a barrow in Scarborough, 102 
102-3. Ditto, flint arrow heads, etc. ditto, 103 
104-7. Flint celts from ditto, 105 

108. Urn of soft clay from ditto, 106 

109. Ditto of different type from ditto, 107. 

110. Plate of British coins (to face page}, ib. 

111. Gold coin found at Oxmead, 113 

112. Couvre-feu from Mr. Cuming's collection, 141 

113. Thuribulum found at Brixworth, 142 

114. Ancient British sword found at Tiverton, 147 

115. Arms of Ripon, 151 

116. Font at Claverley, Shropshire, (to face page) 
152 

117. Bronze celt found on Frittenham Common, 
153 

118-121. Roman keys found near White Netting, 
156 

122 Roman vase found near Chichester, 158 

123-124. Anglo-Saxon vase and green glass gob- 
let, found at Belle Vue in Kent, ib. 

125-126. Ornamental appendages bronze gilt, ib. 

127. Saxon fibula found between Folkestone and 
Dover, 159 

128. Carving on a stall, from Stralford-on-Avon, 206 

129. . Great Malvern, 207, 

130. Worcester, 208 

131. , Great Malvern, 209 

132. Gloucester, ib. 

133. Ludlow, 210 

134. Ditto, 211 

135. . Hereford, 212 

136. Gloucester, ib. 

137. . Winchester, 213 

138. Winchester school, 214 

139. Ludlow, 215 

140. Plate of heraldic tiles, to face page 226 

141. . tiles selected from Worcester cathe- 

dral, to face page ib. 

142. Ground plot of Caerwent, the Venta Siluria 

of the Romans, 248 

143. Bastion at ditto, 254 

144. Buttresses at ditto, 255 
145-46. Sepulchral slabs at ditto, 256 

147 Gold British coin found at Chepstow, 257 
148.' Third brass coin of Carausius found at Caer- 
leon, 263 



149. Intaglio from the same, ib. 

150. Silver binding from a leather cup discovered 

in a Saxon barrow in Derbyshire, 276 
151-4. Enamelled and bone ornaments from do. 277 
155-9. Helmet and cross from the same, 278 
160. Chain work from ditto, ib. 
161-3. Roman medicine stamps, 280 
164-5. Handle of a knife found at Kenchester, 2*5 
166-7 Beads in jet, ditto, ib. 

168. Bronze fibulre, ditto, ib. 

169. Rare coin of Carausius, ditto, 286 

170-72. Gold Roman ring, found at Ilchester, 315 

173. Gold Roman intaglio ring, found in Shrop- 

shire, 316 

174. Sepulchral effigy of a knight in armourin the 

abbey church of Pershore, 319 

175. Mode of fastening the mail, 320 

176. Effigy of the knight in its perfect state, ib. 
177-78. Plans of the cromlech De Hus or DeTus, 330 
179. Chamber in ditto, 331 

180-81. Newly discovered cromlech in Guernsey ,334 
182. Encaustic tile from Neath abbey, 349 
183-86. Four types of clarions, 352 
187-88. Two ditto, 353 

189. Common seal of Neath abbey, 355 

190. Foundation of Roman villa at Ickleton, 358 

191. Apartments in ditto, 360 

192. Portion of the walls, ib. 

193-97. Specimens of painting from the walls, 361 

198. Inscription on a drinking-cup, 364 

199. Plan of the Roman villa and temple at Ickle- 

ton, 365 

200. Foundations of the building, 366 

201. Plan of Roman villa at Chesterford, 369 

202. Carving of Hercules found at Chesterford, 374 
203-5. Specimens of earthen vessels from ditto, 375 
206. Bronze colander from ditto, 376 

207-8. Elizabethan ring probably Shakespeare's, 

389 

209. True lovers' knot the Stafford badge, ib. 
210. Henry VIII and Anne Bo- 

leyn, 390 

211-13. Three triple knots, ib. 
214-20. Specimens of Roman vessels found at Old 

Ford, 393 

221. Bronze seal, ditto, ib. 

222. Roman villa discovered at Harttip, 398 

223. Silver seal found in Hampshire, 404 

224. Ancient brooch found at Driffield, 405 
225-29. Roman vases, fibuloe, etc., found near 

Shorne, 406 
230. Bronze fibulae, ib. 



ILLUSTRATIONS TO NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 



Fifteen Illustrations to Memorials of Edinburgh in the Olden Time, 160-185 
Nine Illustrations to Archseologica Hibernica, 408-411 



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W. A. H. Hows, Esq. 99 Kingsland-road 

John G. Hudson, Esq. 4 Elm-court, Temple 

Rev. Daniel P. M. Hulbert, M.A. 9 Chapel-place, Ramsgate 

Rev. Abraham Hume, LL.D , F.S.A., 9 Clarence-street, Everton, 
Liverpool 

Thomas Hunt, Esq. 224 Regent-street 

W. Powell Hunt, Esq. Ipswich 

J. H. Hurdis, Esq. Newick, near Uckfield, Sussex 

J. Huxtable, Esq. 104 St. John-street 

Thomas Inskip, Esq. Shefford, Bedfordshire 

Thomas Irwin, Esq. 18 Pelham-place, Old Brompion 

George Isaacs, Esq. Villa, Turnham Green 

Rev. Stephen Isaacson, M.A. 2 Tavistock-street, Bedford-square 

Rev. Stephen Jackson, Ipswich 

George P. R. James, Esq. Walmer 

Jas. James, Esq. Aylesbury ; and 7 New Palace-yard 

E. Janson, Esq. Clapham-common 

Rev. Henry Jenkins, Stanway, Essex 

William Jerdan, Esq. M.R.S L. 21 Beaufoy-terrace, Edgeware-road 

William F. Jerdan, Esq. 32 Golden-square 

Zadoc Jessell, Esq. 1 Saville-row 

Charles Moore Jessop, Esq. 27 St. Saviour's Gate, York 

Rev. T. Jessop, D.D. Greenham-Merton, Boroughbridge, York 

Llewellyn Jewitt, Esq. 6 Robson-place, Kennington-road 

Richard Johnson, Esq. Hereford 

Alexander Johnston, Esq. 46 Camden-street, Camden-town 

John Jones, Esq. 6 Regent-street 

Charles Kean, Esq. Key Dell, Horndean, Hants 

Edwin Keet, Esq. 7 Gloucester-terrace, Kensington 

Charles King, Esq. 15 Serjeant's-inn 

Jesse King, Esq. Appleford, Abingdon, Berks 

Thomas W. King, Esq. F.S.A. College of Arms, Doctors' Commons 

Henry Kingsford, Esq. Canterbury 

G. S. Kingston, Esq. Adelaide, South Australia 

G. G. Kirby, Esq. 11 Waterloo-place 

A. C. Kirkmann, Esq. 89 Chancery- lane 

J. B. Knight, Esq. Nethercerne, Dorchester 

J. P. Knight, Esq. 9 Duke-street, Borough 

William Knight, Esq. 85 St. James's-street 

RIGHT HON. LORD LEIGH, Stoneleigh Abbey, Warwickshire 

Henry Lake, Esq. 10 New-square, Lincoln's-inn 

J. A. Latham, Esq. 34 Castle-street, Leicester-square 

John Laurie, Esq. 1 Hyde Park-place 

Eleazer Lawrence, Esq. Ipswich 

George Lawton, Esq. Nunthorp Hall, Yorkshire 

J. F. Ledsam, Esq. Chad House, Birmingham 

John Lee, Esq. LL.D., F.R.S. . F.S.A., Doctors' Commons 



SUBSCRIBING ASSOCIATES. 

T. J. Leeson, Esq. 58 St. John-street 

W. Le Grand, Esq. Peckham 

Alex. Lemonnier, Esq. Sanvie, pres le Havre 

Rev. T. T. Lewis, M.A. Bridstow, near Ross 

John Lindsay, Esq. Maryville, Blackrock, Cork 

W. Alford Lloyd, Mr. 56 St. John's-square 

Robert Logan, Esq. Master Wingfield's Office, Chancery-lane 

Henry Lawes Long, Esq. Dover 

Thomas Lott, Esq. F.S.A. 43 Bow-lane 

Mark A. Lower, Esq. Lewes 

Frederick C. Lukis, Esq. Guernsey 

Harry Lupton, Esq. Thame, Oxfordshire 

Coryndon H. Luxmoore, Esq. 21 Keppel-street 

THE EARL OF MALMESBURY, Whitehall-gardens 
THE VISCOUNT MAIDSTONE, M.P. 20 Wilton-crescent 
THE LORD JOHN MANNERS, M.P. 4 c Albany 
L. SIR FRANCIS W. MYERS, K.C.S. 52 Eaton-square 
Archibald Maclellan, Esq. Glasgow 
Mrs. McNaughten, Bittern Manor, Hants 
C. J. Major, Esq. Barnsbury Park 

J. C. Mansell, Esq. Smedmore House, Corfe Castle, Dorsetshire 
Rev. Benjamin Mardon, 1 Boxworth-grove, Barnsbury-road 
Rev. Herbert Marsh, M.A. 3 St. Mark's-terrace, Fulham-road 
William Calder Marshall, Esq. A.R.A. 6, Upper Belgrave-place 
John Mee Matthew, Esq F.S.A. Gray's-inn-square 
W. T. Maunsell, Esq. 1 Pump-court, Temple 
John Mclntosh, Esq. Milton Abbey, Dorset 
Augustus William H. Meyrick, Esq. Goodrich Court, Ross 
Col William Henry Meyrick, the Cove, Torquay 
William Meyrick, Esq. 39 Eastbourne-terrace, Hyde-park 
George Milner, Esq. F.S.A. Hull 

R. Monckton Milnes, Esq. M.P. Vice- President, 26 Pall Mall 
John B. Millington, Esq. Boston 
Mrs. Mills, Lexden Park, Colchester 
Joshua Minty, Esq. 11 Eastbourne-terrace, Hyde Park 
Henry Moody, Esq. Winchester 

Francis G. Moon, Esq. Alderman, 20 Threadneedle-street 
Major J. A. Moore, F.R.S., F.S.A. 19 Portland-place 
J. Copley Moore, Esq. 29 Southampton-street, Co vent-garden 
John Moore, Esq. West Coker, Yeovil 
Thomas Morgan, jun. Esq. 24 Savage-gardens 
William John Mountain, Esq. Admiralty 
Edward Moxhay, Esq. Threadneedle-street 
Richard Mullings, Esq. Cirencester 
Peter Murray, M.D. Scarborough 

THE MARQUIS OF NORMANBY, G.C.H., M.A. Castle Mulgrave, Whitby 

THE VISCOUNT NEWPORT, 30 Wilton-crescent 

HON. R. C. NEVILLE, F.S.A. 10 New Burlington-street 

Rev. G, M. Nelson, Boddicott Grange, Banbury 

C. N. Newdegate, Esq. M.P. Arbury Hall, Warwickshire 

William Newton, Esq. 66 Chancery-lane 

Rev. G. C. Nicolay, 9 Sloane terrace, Sloane-street 

John Toller Nicholetts, Esq. South Petherton 

John Nicholl, Esq. F.S.A. Cross-street, Islington 

J. Noake, Esq. London-road, Worcester 

George Norman, Esq. Bromley 



SUBSCRIBING ASSOCIATES. 

HON. COL. ONSLOW, Woodbridge House, Guildford 

P. 0. Callaghan, Esq. M.D. llth Hussars, Weston House, Thames 

Diiton 

Michael O'Connor, Esq. Berners-street 
John Lane Oldham, Esq. Audley End, Saffron Walden 
Benjamin Oliveira, Esq. F.R.S. 8 Upper Hyde Park-street 
Harry Oliver, Esq. 33 Great James-street, Bedford-row 
George Ormerod, Esq. LL.D , F.R.S., F.S.A. Sedbury Park, Chepstow 

THE EARL OF PORTARLINGTON, Earns Park, Queen's Co. Ireland 

THE VERY REV. JOHN PEEL, Dean of Worcester, Palace, Worcester 

J. S. Padley, Eaq. Lincoln 

Rev. J. Papillon, Lexden, Essex 

Thomas Gambier Parry, Esq. F.S.A. Highnam Court, Gloucester 

John George Patrick, Esq. 15 Park-road, Stockwell 

Edward Peacock, jun. Esq. Bottesford, Gainsborough 

Rev. Edmund Peel, Compton-Dando, Pensford, Bristol 

Apsley Pellatt, Esq. Holland-street, Blackfriars 

Rev. Thomas Penrose, D.C.L. Writtle, Chelmsford 

Rev. Charles Penny, West Coker, Yeovil 
L. Richard Percival, Esq. F.S.A. Highbury Park 

Samuel M. Peto, Esq. 47 Russell-square 

L. Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, Esq. F.R.S., F.S.A. Vice-President and, 
Treasurer, 8 Saville-row 

William V. Pettigrew, Esq. M.D. 7 Chester street 

William Phelps, Esq. 24 Goulden terrace 

John P. Phillip, Esq. 30 College-place, Camden Town 

J. Phillips, Esq. Hastings 

Samuel Phillips, Esq. 7 Hamilton-place, St. John's Wood 

Thomas Pitt, Esq. Huddersfield 

James Robinson Planche, Esq. F.S.A. Michael's Grove Lodge, 
Brompton 

Lewis Pocock, Esq. F.S.A. Gloucester-road, Gloucester Gate 

Rev. Beale Poste, M.A. By dews-place, Maidstone 

Edward Poste, Esq. B.A. Oriel College, Oxford 

E. J. Powell, Esq. 5 Raymond's-buildings 

George Pownall, Esq. 7 Bedford-row 

Samuel Pratt, Esq. New Bond-street 

Edward Pretty, Esq. Northampton 

E. B. Price, Esq. 29 Cow Cross-street 

Walter Prideaux, Esq. 12 Park-lane 

James Prior, Esq. F.S.A. 10 Cambridge-terrace, New Road 

Rev. Mervjn Prower, Purton, Swindon, Wilts 

Alfred Pryer, Esq Hollingbourne, Kent 

Thomas Pryer, Esq. F.S.A. Artillery-place, Finsbury 

John Purdue, Esq. 14 Hemingford-terrace, Islington 

Theodosius Purland, Esq. 59 Mortimer-street 

James Puttock, Esq. Shaftesbury-street, New North-road, Hoxton 

THE LORD RENDLESHAM, M.P. Rendlesham Hall, Sussex 

Alexander Rainy, Esq. 2 St. James' s-square 

Rev. T. Rankin, Huggate Rectory, Pocklington, Yorkshire 

Rev. George Rashleigh, Horton Kirby, Dartford 

George Curtis Rawlence, Esq. Fordingbridge 

E. F. S. Reader, Esq. Sandwich 

Charles Redfern, Esq. Warwick 

J. Adey Repton, Esq. F.S.A. Springfield, Essex 

Edward Priest Richards, Esq. Cardiff 

Thomas Richards, Esq. 100 St. Martin's-lanc 



SUBSCRIBING ASSOCIATES. 

G. B. Richardson, Esq. Grey-street, Newcastle 
William Rickards, Esq. Portland-place, Clapton 
David Roberts, Esq. R.A., F.S.A. 7 Fitzroy-street, Fitzroy-square 
W. Harry Rogers, Esq. Carlisle-street, Soho- square 
L. W. H. Rolfe, Esq. Sandwich 

Rev. E. F. Neville Rolfe, Great Ormwell, Herts 
John Rooke, Esq. Akehead, Wigton 
W. J. Duff Roper, Esq. Vane House, Hampstead 
F. W. L. Ross, Esq. Broadway House, Topsham, Devon 
Archibald Colquhoun Ross, Esq. M.D. 13 Henrietta-street, Caven- 
dish-square 

Jesse Watts Russell, Esq. D.C.L, F.R.S., F.S.A. Islam Hall, 
Staffordshire 

THE EAKL OF STRADBROKE, 18 Queen-street, May Fair 

THE LORD SOUTHAMPTON, 66 Mount-street 

SIR JOHN E. SWINBURNE, BART. F.R.S., F.S.A. Grosvenor-place 

SIR CUTHBERT SHARP, Newcastle 

Frederick Salmon, Esq. M.R S.L. 18 Lower Berkeley-street, Man- 
chester-square, and 12 Old Broad-street, City 
L. William Salt, Esq. F.S.A. 9 Russell-square 

William Salter, Esq. 26 Conduit-street 

Charles Sandys, Esq. F S.A. Canterbury 

W. D. Saull, Esq. F.S.A. 15 Aldersgate-street 

Henry Ker Seymer, Esq. M.P., D.C.L., Hanford House, Blandford, 
and 36 Chesham-place 

Montague Shearman, Esq. 8 John-street, Adelphi 

S. Shepherd, Esq. F.S.A. Marlborough-square, Chelsea 

Major Sheppard, Arundel House, Percy Cross, Fulham 

William Shipp, Esq. Blandford 

W. T. P. Shortt, Esq. Heavitree, Exeter 

W. B. A. Sleigh, Esq. 77th Reg. Infant., Stamford Brook House, 
ChiswicV 

Capt. Henry Cmncu, R.M. Portsmouth 

Charles Roach Smith, Esq. F.S.A Sec. Num. Soc. Secretary, 5 Liver- 
pool-street, City 

Henry Ecroyd Smith, Esq. York 

J. R. Smith, Esq. Old Compton-street 

R. J. Smith, Esq. 1 North-terrace, Brompton 

Edward Solly, Esq. F.R S. 33 Bedford-place, Russell-square 

Samuel R. Solly, Esq. M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., 10 Manchester-square 

Thomas Spencer, Esq. Dorking 

A. F. Sprague, Esq. 19 Upper John-street, Watney-street, Com- 
mercial-road East 

Clarkson Stanfield, Esq. R.A. Mornington-place 

Robert Stephenson, Esq M.P. 34 Gloucester-square, Hyde Park 

Henry J. Stevens, Esq. Derby 

S. W. Stevenson, Esq. F.S.A. Surrey-street, Norwich 

Edward Stock, Esq. Poplar 

A. Stubbs, Esq. Boulogne-sur-Mer 

Clement Tudway Swanston, Esq. Q.C., F.R.S., F.S.A., 52 Chancery- 
lane 

L. THE LORD THURLOW, Ashfield Lodge, Suffolk 
SIR J. EMMERSON TENNENT, Ceylon 
SIR W. H. TONKIN, Teignmouth 
J. A. Tabram, Esq. Nails worth, Gloucestershire 
John Taylor, jun. Esq. Colchester 



SUBSCRIBING ASSOCIATES. 

W. J. Taylor, Esq. 33 Little Queen-street, Holborn 

John Evan Thomas, Esq. F.S.A. Lower Belgrave-place 

James Thompson, Esq. Wray, Lancaster 

James Thompson, Esq. Leicester 

Thomas Thurnam, Esq. M.D. York 

John Tisseman, Esq. Scarborough 

Rev. J. M. Traherne, M.A., P.R.S., F.S.A., Coedriglan, Cardiff 

Richard Tress, Esq. 23 Little St. Thomas Apostle 

Stephen Tripp, Esq. Cardiff 

Martin F. Tupper, Esq. D.C L., F.R.S., Albury, Guildford 

E. A. Turley, Esq. M.D. Worcester 

Dawson Turner, Esq. F.R S., F S.A., Yarmouth 

David Urquhart, Esq. M.P. Bittern Manor, and 28 Clarges-street 

Frederick Valle, Esq. 21 Haymarket 
L. Henry Vint, Esq. F.S.A. Colchester 

SIR J. GARDNER WILKINSON, F.R.S. Vice-President 

Lieut. T. Waghorn, R.N. Snodland, Kent 

C. E. Wagstaff, Esq. 30 Argyll-street, King's Cross 

Thomas Wakeman, Esq. Graig, Monmouth 

John Green Waller, Esq. 22 Charlotte-street, Fitzroy-square 

Rev. John Walsh, Finsbury-circus 

William Wansey, Esq. F.S.A. 1 Riches-court, Lime-street 

Charles Warne, Esq. Milbourne St. Andrews, Blandford 

Joseph Warren, Mr., Ixworth, Suffolk 

Francis Watts, Esq. F.S.A. 45 Parliament-street 

John Webb, Esq. 1 Lawrence Pountney Hill 

William Webster, Esq. Russell-street, Covent Garden 

Rev. C. Wellbeloved, York 

John Wertheimer, Esq. Finsbury-circus 

John Whichcord, jun. Esq. F.S.A. Maidstone 

John Whippy, Esq. The Lodge, Wottington, Uxbridge 

Alfred White, Esq. 15 Cloudesley-square, Islington 

Charles Fenton Whiting, Esq. Beaufort House, Strand 

Wolrych Whitmore, Esq. Dudmestone, Bridgenorth 

Humphrey Wickham, Esq. Strood, Kent 

G. J. de Wilde, Esq. Northampton 

Rev. John S. Wilkinson, West Butterwick, Bawtry 

B. M. Willcox, Esq. M.P. Dorset-square 

Evan Williams, Esq. Knighton, Radnorshire 

William Burke Williams, jun. Esq. 15 Earl's-terrace, Kensington 

James Wilson, Esq. F.S.A. Belmont House, Bath 

Busick Winbolt, Esq. 75 John-street Road 

Richard Windle, Esq. Bank of England 

Eric Windus, Esq. Stamford Hill 

Samuel T. Winstanley, Esq. Church-street, Liverpool 

John Wodderspoon, Esq. Poole 

John Wood, Esq. Red Lion-court, Watling-street 

George Woodhouse, Esq. 89 Hamilton-terrace 

Albert Woods, Esq. F.S.A. Lancaster Herald, Herald's College 

Samuel Woods, Esq. Shrewsbury 

F. W. Woolley, Esq. Camden House, Kensington 
Rev. H. F. Woolrych, Sunderland 

G. N. Wright, Esq. 60 Pall Mall 

Rev. J. H. C. Wright, Stockport, Cheshire 



SUBSCRIBING ASSOCIATES. 

Thomas Wright, Esq. M.A., P.S.A., Member of the Institute of 

France, Foreign Secretary, 24 Sydney-street, Brorupton 
Matthew Wyatt, Esq. 5 Porteus-terrace, Paddington 
Benjamin Wyon, Esq, 287 Regent-street 

Eev. J. A. Yatman, M.A. 18 Norfolk-crescent Winscombe, Sidcot, 

Wells 
William Yewd, Esq. 30 East-street, Red Lion-square 

THE EARL OF ZETLAND, 19 Arlington-street 



END OF VOL IV. 



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