(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Journal - British Archaeological Association"

THE JOURNAL 



3rrlj<irolo0if<il association 



ESTABLISHED 1843, 



ENCOURAGEMENT AND PROSECUTION OF RESEARCHES 

INTO THE ARTS AND MONUMENTS OF THE 

EARLY AND MIDDLE AGES. 



VOL. VI. 



ILotttion : 

PUBLISHED BY HENRY G. BOHN, 

AT THE OFFICE OF THE ASSOCIATION, 

} -ORK-STREET, CO VENT-GA RDEN. 




LONDON: 

RICHARDS, 37, GREAT QUEEN-STREET, 
LINCOLN'S-INN-FIELDS. 






CONTENTS OF VOL. VI. 



Report on Excavations in Barrows in York-) j -r" gs ' m n i 

shire ...... ) 

On the Effigy of a Lady in Worcester Cathedral . J. R. Planche . 5 

On the Coins of Cunobeline and of the Ancient ) T> -n i c 

-n , v ID. roste . . 16 

Britons. Part X ) 

On the Head of Janus found on a British Coin . William Bell . . 30 
On Roman Remains at Headington, near j Llewell j ^ ^ 

Oxford . . . . . . j 

On the Symbolical Character of Aleph and) T no 

,p -W,, [ i. Jessop . . 68 

Tau, or Thau ) 

On the Discovery of Roman Remains near)- p ,, < 

Towcester ..... j 

Discoveries of Medieval Paintings, etc., bylr Q \y 11 76 

F. Baigent . . . . j ' 

Notes on a Boss at Belvoir Castle . . J. R. Planche . 97 

On the Antiquity and Primitive Form of the) ^ & ,Q S 

Harp ...... j 

On Leicester Abbey and its Ancient Remains . J.Thompson . . 116 

On an Ivory Carving of the Thirteenth Gen-) A n v . , 

..{_ f^-, .. .i_ T> i o r A. C. Jvirkmann . \.26 

tury, with Observations on the Prick Spur) 

On a Leaden Ampulla in the York Museum . C. Baily . . .125 
On the Study of Archaeology and the Objects^ j Petti 136 

ot the Bntish Archaeological Association J 

On the History and Architecture of Man-) A . > ., i -, ^ 

i, n iv. j i fA. Ashpitel . .177 

Chester Cathedral J 

On the Stanley Crest J. R. Planche . 199 

On the Structure of the Norman Fortress in) T n -o 
E, i , YJ. L. >ruce . . 2uy 

England J 

On Roman Rochester. . . . { g*^ [ ;} 229 

On Recent Discoveries relating to Ancient ) -,, ORO 

British Chariots . . . . | B ' Poste 

On Local Nomenclature, chiefly Celtic, and) T ,,,- ^ r , ... , osc 

relating to Great Britain . . . JJ- W. Whittaker . > 255 

On the Tippets of the Canons Ecclesiastical . G. J. French . . 272 



CONTENTS. 

I'AGE 

Notes on Humfrey Chetham and his founda-1 j E Gregan . . 294 

tion ...... 

On the Barbican, in connexion with ourj^ Godwin . . 302 

Castles .... 
On the Ruins of the Cistercian Monastery of) E gh arpe 

St. Mary, in Furness . . j 

On the Badges of the House of Lancaster . J. R. Planche . 374 

On the Jewry Wall at Leicester . . . J. Thompson . . 393 
On the Origin of Windmills in Normandy W De ^ s i e 403 

and England .... j 

On Horse-Shoes .... . H. Syer Cuming 406 

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS : 

Poem on King Edward IV . . . S. R. . .127 

Confirmation Charter of Ranulf II, Earl of\ 



Chester 



131 



317 



Compact between Ranulf de Blondeville, Earl 

of Chester, and William de Fougeres . 
Grant of Leadenhall by Margaret de Neville . J. R. Planche . 143 

Warrants of Charles II, to Capt. Fasby . T. J. Pettigrew . 147 

On the Resignation of the Kingdom of Man) p Chalmers 323 

to the Pope, A.D. 1219 ... J 
Documents relating to Furness Abbey . . L. Delisle . . 419 

On Ancient Charters and Grants to the Bur-) T TT -, A i0e - 

/, rn.,1 r J. Harland . . 425 

gesses oi Clithero J 

Proceedings of the Association ..... 81, 147, 438 
Annual General Meeting, Auditors' Report, Election of Officers | ~ 2 

and Council for 1850-51 

Proceedings at the Congress held at Manchester and Lancaster . 330 
Statement of Council relative to a Proposal of Union of the Asso-j 

ciation with the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and r 350 

Ireland .......... 

Notices of New Publications ...... 159, 355 

List of Recent Archaeological Works .... 96,162,357 

Presents to the Association 467 

Index V . 461 

List of Engravings and Wood-Cuts 465, 466 

List of Subscribing Associates, Local Members of Council, Foreign ) _ 

Members and Correspondents r 

Errata . 460 



THE JOURNAL 



OP THE 



APRIL 1850. 



REPORT ON EXCAVATIONS IN BARROWS, IN 
YORKSHIRE, 

BY MR. JOHN TIS8IMAN, OP SCARBOROUGH ; COMMUNICATED BY 
LORD LONDE8BOROUOH, 1 K.C.H., P.S.A. 

THE tumulus at " Way Hagg", figured d in plate u, ac- 
companying this report, was opened in the autumn of 1848, 
its situation being upon the top of Ayton moor, and about 
a mile from Hackness. In diameter it was thirty-six yards, 
and in perpendicular depth eight feet; but, formerly it 
must have been considerably more, as the top of the mound 
was very flat, with a slight depression towards the centre. 
It was composed of sandy earth and loose stones, the upper 
part being principally sand, and a mass of loose stones at 
the base. The cutting was commenced on the north side, 
and about eighteen inches from the surface, and four feet 
from the top (on the slope) was discovered a small urn, 
which contained burnt wood ashes. It was embedded in a 
black greasy earth, with no stones surrounding it. This 
small vessel measures three inches in height, two and a halt' 
inches diameter on the top, and two and a quarter inches 
at the bottom, a representation of which is seen in plate I, 
fig. 1. There are two holes, one on each side, half an inch 
from the top, for the purpose, I should suppose, of attach- 
ing a piece of sinew, or skin, by which it might be carried 
about. 

1 To his lordship's liberality the Association is indebted for the engravings in 
illustration of this report. 

VOL. VI. 1 



2 EXCAVATIONS IN BAKKOWS. 

After cutting eight or ten feet towards the centre, the 
stone (plate n, fig. 2) was found set upright (as seen 
in the sketch), having five holes worked upon the side, 
the dimensions of which will be found annexed. A little 
beyond this were the three stones (plate n, figs. 1, 3, and 4), 
which being removed, the earth slipped from the top and 
exposed the large urn (plate i, fig. 3) standing upon two 
large stones. It measures fifteen inches in height ; twelve 
inches in diameter at the top ; bottom of rim, twelve and a 
half inches, and four and a quarter inches at the bottom ; 
breadth of rim, four inches. Its contents consisted of a 
mass of calcined bones, from amongst which were taken 
several broken flint arrow-heads, a perfect bone pin, and a 
bone or ivory ornament, through which had been drilled 
two holes, probably to admit of its being worn as a per- 
sonal decoration. There were also the bones of some small 
animal, which had been burnt with the body. Nothing 
further was discovered in this tumulus. 

The tumulus known as the " Ravenhill tumulus" was 
opened on the 21st August 1849. 

This mound is situated on the moor land to the right of 
the road leading to the hall, and is one of the three named, 
in the map of the Archaeological Institute, "Robin Hood's 
butts." It is formed of the yellow sandy earth found upon 
the moors in the neighbourhood, and measured forty-two 
feet^in diameter, whilst in depth it was eight feet. The 
cutting was commenced on the south side, and carried on 
towards the centre. After the sandy earth was cleared 
away, a mass of stones presented themselves, some of very 
large size, and apparently designed for some particular 
purpose, which was proved afterwards. Passing this wall 
of stone, our labours were rewarded by the discovery of 
two^ stones one having five holes worked in it, the other 
having two; and immediately after the urn (plate I, fig. 2) 
measuring in height six inches and three quarters ; in diam- 
eter four inches and a half at the top, and three inches and 
a quarter at the bottom. A little to the left of this was found 
the small vessel (plate i, fig. 5) embedded in burnt wood 
ashes, calcined bones and earth, having the appearance 
of a cannon ball; but being cleared of its extraneous mat- 
ter, was disclosed to our eyes in the beautiful form it now 
presents. It was quite perfect, and filled with calcined 



EXCAVATIONS IN BARROWS. 3 

bones and ashes. The measurements are, at the top two 
inches and seven-eighths ; the diameter outside, in the mid- 
dle, three inches ; and at the bottom two inches and one- 
eighth. It is marked on the outside to the middle with 
cross lines, where is a flattish bead, with two lines of in- 
dented ornament ; there are two similar lines near the 
bottom, and three on the upper edge. There are also two 
holes in the side. After this was found the urn, in frag- 
ments (plate i, fig. 4), which I have been able to restore. 
It is of an irregular oval form, and is the rudest of the 
whole : its height is seven inches and a quarter ; diameter, 
six and three-quarters, and five inches on the top; and 
three inches and three-quarters and three and a half at bot- 
tom. Next this was a stone, on which is cut a large spear- 
shaped cavity, and four lines in form of a V- The cavity 
has the appearance of having had fire in it. There were 
also two more remarkable stones : one with a large oval 
hole cut in it on one side, measuring seven inches long, 
three inches and seven-eighths wide, and three inches and 
a quarter in depth. On the opposite side is another hole, 
three inches and a quarter in diameter, and one and a half 
in depth. 

Shortly after finding these, we discovered a large urn, 
crushed down by a quantity of the superincumbent earth, 
which having been carefully cleared away, was found to be 
resting on two large stones. The urn contained a mass of 
calcined bones, amongst which was a spear, or arrow-head, 
in flint, very perfect ; a knife-like piece of flint ; a broken 
celt, in flint; broken arrow-heads, and a beautiful bronze 
pin, one and a half inches long. The measurements of 
this urn would be thirteen inches in height, nine to ten 
inches at top, ten inches and three-quarters to eleven and 
three-quarters at the shoulder, and seven inches at the 
bottom. It is marked with similar lines, as plate I, fig. 5. 
Not having completed the cutting through of this mound, 
I returned to it again on the 31st August, being desirous 
to turn the whole of it over; and after proceeding some 
distance from the east side towards the centre, a mass of 
large stones presented themselves, which being cleared 
through, I found was a perfect wall, about four feet square, 
encircling the whole mound. I also found two more urns, 
but they could not be preserved, falling to pieces imme- 



EXCAVATIONS IN BARROWS. 



diately upon clearing the earth away. They contained 
calcined bones, and were buried about midway between 
the base and apex, and perhaps eighteen inches from the 
surface. 




The necklace shewn in the annexed cut was discovered 
in a tumulus, near Egton, North Riding of York, and ^ is 
made from an inferior sort of jet, commonly called jet 
wood, excepting the centre piece, which is of the best qua- 
lity, and marked with lozenge-shaped perforations. There 
were also, an annular ornament of inferior jet, one spear, 
and two arrow-heads, in flint, as seen in the above cut. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE SKETCH OF PART OF THE MOOR, NEAR "WAY HAGG", 
HACKNESS. PLATE II. 

a, South Camp : Length, 103 yards ; breadth, 60 yards. Near the 
centre of this camp there has heen a small mound, b, North Camp : 
Length, 102 yards; breadth, 60 yards. On the outside is a ditch, three 
feet deep and four feet broad, c, First tumulus opened, in which a small 



EFFIGY OF A LADY, ETC. 5 

urn was found, d, Second tumulus opened, for description of which see 
report, e, Remains of a tumulus. /, Large bell-shaped mound unopened. 
g, Lines on bank of earth, apparently more recent, and not broken down 
like those marked a and b. 



MEASUREMENTS OF STONES TAKEN FROM THE TUMULUS OF "WAY HAGO". 

PLATE II. 

Fig. 1. Nearly even surface. Length, from 16 to 18 inches ; breadth, 
10 to 20 ditto ; depth, 8 to 9 ditto ; with large oval hole cut in the 
centre, 7 inches long, 4 inches broad, and 3^ inches in depth. On the 
opposite side are three holes, from 2 to 3 inches in diameter, and from 
1 inch to 1$ deep. 2. Uneven surface. Length, 23 inches; breadth, 
14 inches; depth, 13 inches; with five holes, from l to 8 inches in 
diameter, and 1 to 1^ inches in depth. 3. Uneven surface. Length, 33 
inches; breadth, 22 inches; depth, 10 inches, with four holes, the largest 
being 4^ inches in diameter and 3 inches deep ; the others, from 1 ^ inches 
to 2 inches in diameter, and 1 to 1^ inches deep. 4. Uneven surface. 
Length, 27 inches; breadth, 23^ inches ; depth, 10 inches, with 13 holes, 
from 1^ inches to 5 inches in diameter, and | of an inch to 3 inches in depth; 
also three lines at the end of the stone. 



ON THE EFFIGY OF A LADY IN WORCESTER 
CATHEDRAL. 

BY J. B. PLANCHlS, ESQ., F.S.A. 

THERE are few things to be more regretted by the archae- 
ologist, than the, no doubt well intentioned,but unfortunate, 
meddling of incompetent persons, possessing authority in 
our cathedrals and other sacred edifices, by which hundreds 
of our most interesting monumental effigies have been 
either lost to us for ever, or so altered in position, as to 
render their identification almost impossible. It is morti- 
fying in the extreme to wander through their aisles and 
contemplate the number of these relics nameless or, worse 
than nameless misappropriated. What a loss to history, 
to biography, to art ! It appears almost incredible that 



6 EFFIGY OF A LADY 

they should have been suffered not merely to decay or to 
be wantonly injured by the ignorant and the idle, but to be 
displaced and disfigured, by soi-disant improvers and re- 
storers : some actually removed from one church to another, 
without any official record of the fact, by which it might 
be possible to ascertain the name or rank of the persons they 
were intended to commemorate. Winchester, Gloucester, 
and Worcester, have presented to the Association too many 
sad examples of this deplorable practice. In Winchester 
cathedral, one of the most glaring and indefensible has been 
already commented upon by me, in my paper on the sin- 
gular and formerly magnificent monument, known as that 
of William de Foix (see this Journal, vol. i, pp. 216-223). 
Not only has it been bandied about the building till all know- 
ledge of its original position is lost, but an elaborately- 
sculptured portion of it, covered with armorial bearings, 
has been divorced from it, and actually set up in a distant 
chapel ; wherefore, the perpetrator of this vandalism only 
knows, or knew. Gloucester exhibits its apocryphal de 
Bohuns (the effigies of a knight and his lady, removed from 
Llanthony), and Tewkesbury its disputed Lord Wenlock ; 
not to mention the dozens of warriors, dames, priests, and 
merchants, who, in other sacred edifices, have had their 
good names filched from them, or been unceremoniously 
pushed about, literally, "from post to pillar", by dean, 
churchwarden, or architect, as the case may be. In the 
cathedral of Worcester, with the exception of prince Ar- 
thur's, there is scarcely a medieval monument which has 
not given rise to a controversy. The effigy of king John 
reposes on an altar tomb of another age, and far from its 
original position : those of the canonized founders of the 
two cathedrals, Oswald and Wulstan, and of their suc- 
sessors Cantilupe and Gifford, have been the subject of 
much dispute. The effigy of a lady in the ordinary cos- 
tume of the twelfth century, is set down as an abbess of 
White Ladies, having been transported from that place. A 
mailed warrior of the same date, is but presumed to be a 
sir James de Beauchamp. The splendid monument, of cer- 
tainly one of that family, near the north door, has yet to 
divulge its real occupants, whilst mitred abbot and coro- 
neted maiden swell the list of anonyma, till speculation 
ceases, in despair, at the sight of the exquisite cross of en- 



IN WORCESTER CATHEDRAL. 7 

caustic tiles in the chancel. I cannot for a moment doubt 
that any attempt, however humble, to throw a light upon 
some of these most interesting memorials, will be received 
with indulgence by the Association; and will, therefore, 
offer a few remarks upon one in Worcester cathedral, which 
has particularly attracted observation and occasioned con- 
troversy. 

On the south side of prince Arthur's monument, and 
canopied by a portion of it, are two tombs of the thirteenth 
century, so identical in material and similar in execution, 
that it can scarcely be doubted they are the work of the 
same sculptor. On the first is the effigy of a bishop, 
attired in pontificalibus, and considered by Abingdon and 
Thomas as that of Wulstan, but according to Green and 
later authorities appropriated with more probability to 
bishop Gifford, who died in 1301. 

On the second, immediately eastward of it, is the figure 
of a lady in the costume of the twelfth or commencement 
of the thirteenth century, which, from the circumstance of 
the double rose within the garter, introduced as an orna- 
ment of prince Arthur's chapel, being just above it, gave 
" some occasion", says Dr. Thomas, following Abingdon, 
" to a fable, that this was the countess of Salisbury, who, 
blushing at the loss of her garter in a dance, ministered 
matter to king Edward III to institute the most ancient 
and honourable order of the garter; never considering that 
the terrible dissension and union of these roses were many 
years after the death of king Edward III ; whereof, leaving 
these roses within the garter (signifying that noble knight- 
hood) as an ornament only of prince Arthur's chapel, I 
will digress and descend to this lady's raised monument, 
lodged in earth under this stately chapel On her head 
she hath a veil; on her chin a wymplet or deep muffler, 
which I conjecture to be an ensign of honour; in her 
hands, lifted up to heaven, a pair of beads dependant; on 
her inward garment, in divers small escutcheons, or, a 
fret, gules; on her mantle in like fashion chequee, or, and 
nznre ; at her feet, a talbot; the side of the tomb, consist- 
ing of five panes engraved with the image of St. Paul and 
other saints. I conjecture", he continues, "by the arms 
on her garment being the lord Verdon's, that she was of 
that noble family; and by those on her mantle being 



8 



EFFIGY OF A LADY 



Warren's, earl of Surrey, that she was countess of Surrey 
by marriage." In a foot-note it is added, "This is con- 
firmed by the following passage in a book entitled Nicolai 
Uptoni de Studio Militari", etc.; and then follows the 
passage in Latin from that work, being a note by Bysshe, 
beneath an engraving of the tomb and effigy by Lom- 
bart, to this effect : " Monumentum hoc ad austrum in 
choro ecclesise cathedralis Worcestria3 positum, in marmore 
summa arte excisum, ob antiquitatem (cum ab Henrici 
tertii temporibus duraverit, quod ex habitu istiits Doming, 
aliaque sculptura facile collegimus) hunc locum meruit. 
Paterrio genere ex familia Verdonorum fuit, et conjux 
cujusdam Coinitis SurriaB & Warrennis; vestis enim interior 
Verdonorum habet insignia, exterior Warrenorum. Per 
quern morem ortum, et conjugia heroine olim exprime- 
bant. Nee vetustius usquam temere reperias, itaque hujus 
loci merito est." 




Bysshe's work was published in 1654, and Dr. Tho- 
mas's Survey nearly one hundred years after it ; but 
large portions of the latter were copied, almost verba- 
tim, from Abirigdon's account of the cathedral, written 
in the time of queen Elizabeth ; consequently, earlier than 
that of Bysshe. Green, in his later history, repeats in other 
words the story of the error respecting the countess of 
Salisbury, and the suggestion (founded on the armorial 
bearings) that the effigy is that of a Verdon married to a 
Warren, but adds in a foot note : " The real fact is, that 
this figure represents Andela, daughter and heiress of 



IN WORCESTER CATHEDRAL. 



Griffin de Albo-Monasterio, or Blanche-minster, lord of 
Ichtefield, Salop; wife of John, son of Griffin de Warren, 
natural son of William VI, earl of Surrey"; and quotes 
Watson's History of the Warren Family, vol. i, p. 208, 
where this tomb is re-engraved. From the period of this 
publication (1 796) therefore, until within the last few years, 
the dictum of Watson appears to have been undisputed ; 
but a most intelligent and careful draughtsman, by whose 
early death we lost a worthy successor to Charles Stothard, 
in the course of his valuable labours to complete the series 
of English sepulchral effigies, came to Worcester and made 
an accurate drawing of this interesting figure, which, in 
his unfinished publication, appears simply subscribed, "one 
of the Clifford family". To this conclusion, Mr. Hollis 
doubtless felt authorized in coming, by the arms emblazoned 
on the mantle proving, upon examination, not to be simply 
chequee or and azure, for Warren, but 
chequee, with a fess; which, although 
not coloured, as it should be, gules, 
might fairly be considered intended to 
represent the coat of Clifford. No letter- 
press having appeared with the plates 
of Mr. Hollis's work, we are ignorant 
of any other authority he might have 
to support his assertion ; but it is clear 
that he considered himself justified in 
discarding the previous opinions. 

But though the accurate eye of Mr. 
Hollis discovered the fess on the es- 
cutcheons which emblazon the mantle, 
he appears to have been unable to de- 
tect the slightest trace of the shields 
bearing or, a fret gules, on the tunic, 
robe, or surcoat forming the under gar- 
ment of the figure, as described by 
Byssheand his cotemporaries, and which 
actually appear in the early engravings 
of the effigy. On my late visit to Wor- 
cester, I minutely examined the monu- 
ment, and as vainly sought for any 
evidence of such a decoration having formerly existed a 
circumstance more puzzling, from the fact of the preser- 




VOL. VI. 



10 EFFIGY" OF A LADY 

vation of the shields on the mantle, which are on the outer 
side, and exposed to many chances of destruction ; whilst 
those we look in vain for, would have been out of the reach 
of idle visitors, or any ordinary casualty. It seems to me 
quite impossible that " Time's effacing fingers" could have 
so completely obliterated every one of the Verdon coats, and 
left perfect all the other ; nor can any motive be conceived 
for the intentional and careful erasure of one particular 
armorial bearing. At the same time, we can scarcely doubt 
the assertions of Abingdon and Bysshe, or the burin of 
their cotemporary engraver. Errors as singular have, how- 
ever, been made by one man, and perpetuated by a dozen 
copyists; and I shall therefore give the result of my inqui- 
ries, as far as I have yet been able to make them, leaving the 
negative evidence to weigh for whatever it may be worth. 

In the first place, therefore, to dispose altogether of 
Mr. Watson's dictum, that the effigy is that of Andela 
(Audela?) Blanchminster, the wife of John de Warren; 
not only are the arms on the mantle those of Clifford, 
instead of Warren; but the said John de Warren bore 
chequee argent and sable (his father, Griffin, having 
changed the colours of the family coat, being only the 
natural son of William the sixth earl, as may be seen to 
this day in a quartering of the coat of Main waring) ; and 
the arms of Blanchminster were not or, a fret gules, but 
fretty argent and gules, with (according to a manu- 
script in the College of Arms, Philpot, viii, 76) a file of 
six points, azure. Add to this the rather important ques- 
tions, was the lady buried at Worcester? or had she any 
claim to such a magnificent monument in that cathedral ? 

In the second place, the pedigrees of Clifford and Verdon, 
which I have examined, show no match between those fami- 
lies ; but it must be admitted that they are defective in many 
instances, as far as omission of the family names of the wives ; 
as, for example, Henry, son of Richard, who was brother 
of lord Clifford of Frampton, county Gloucester, is simply 
said to have married Matilda, or Maud ; and Dallaway, in 
his Heraldic Inquiries, gives, but unfortunately without 
naming his authority, the seal of a Henry Clifford, dated 
1339, impaling a fret. But this Clifford is of the Framp- 
ton branch, distinguished by bearing a bend, gules, charged 
with three lions, or; and the engraving gives us no indi- 



IN WORCESTER CATHEDRAL. 11 

cation of the colours of the impalement, by which we could 
ascertain the owner ; a fret, or fretty, being borne by many 
English families. 

Foiled, then, in our attempt to identify the effigy by the 
armorial bearings still visible, or reported to have formerly 
adorned it, let us examine other evidence, and see how far 
it is possible to reconcile apparently conflicting traditions 
with the facts before us. The monument, you will re- 
member, was, according to one story, supposed to belong 
to a countess of Salisbury; and, from the accidental posi- 
tion of the Tudor rose within the garter, upon the portion 
of prince Arthur's chapel immediately above it, the infer- 
ence was erroneously drawn, that the effigy represented 
the lady Salisbury admired and complimented by Edward 
III. This error being exploded, the armorial bearings 
were considered sufficient authority for the assertion that 
it was the tomb of a countess of Warren and Surrey, who 
had been a Verdon by birth ; and Mr. Willis went so far 
as to state that she died in the reign of Henry III: 
" which", says Mr. Green, " is repugnant to history, both 
the countesses of Surrey, who died in the reign of that 
monarch, having been interred at Lewes, in Sussex." Mr. 
Watson, in correcting this error, fell, as we have seen, into 
another; and the last supposition was that of Mr. Wild, 
who suggested that the monument was more probably that 
of Maude, sister of bishop Gifford, who was buried in the 
cathedral in 1297, about four years before the bishop's 
death, and for whom he had selected a place of interment, 
close to the spot in which he wished his own remains to 
be deposited. A.D. 1297, xiii cal. Septembr: " Sepultus 
fuit in ecclesia cathedralis, Matilda de Evereus, juxta locum 
ubi episcopus frater ejus, deposuit sublimius sepeliri." 
(Annal. Wigorn. ) So far so good, but Mr. Wild must have 
overlooked the fact, that this Matilda or Maude could have 
no pretensions to the coat armour of Clifford, or Warren, 
or Verdon, as she was born a Gifford, married first a 
Treville, and eventually died the widow of sir William 
D'Evereux, slain at Evesham. The original position of 
bishop Gifford's monument was on the north side of the 
great altar, "juxta magnum altare a parte dextra" (Will 
of bishop Gifford, Thomas. Appendix v. 97), and after his 
death, it was removed to the south side ; for the raising of 



12 EFFIGY OF A LADY 

this sumptuous tomb gave great offence to' Winchelsea, at 
that time archbishop of Canterbury, as it had occasioned the 
removal of that of John de Constance, who had been consi- 
dered as a saint. The shrine of St. Oswald was also incom- 
moded by the new tomb, which had the appearance of a 
tabernacle over it. These circumstances, added to the en- 
croachment it made upon the choir, so as to obstruct the 
priests in serving at the high altar, induced the archbishop 
to issue orders to the prior to remove it. The prior by letter 
excused himself from doing it in the time of the bishop's 
last sickness, lest the grief occasioned by it might hasten 
his death ; but on the decease of Gifford, which happened 
26th January, A.D. 1301-2, the orders of the archbishop 
were fulfilled, and the tomb was taken down ; yet as he 
had been a noble benefactor in ornamenting the church, 
they could not refuse his remains a place near the altar, in 
a situation from which no annoyance could arise, and he 
was accordingly interred at the bottom of the south ascent 
to the high altar, over which his tomb was placed. ( Green, 
p. 66; Abingdon's manuscript, p. 38; Anglia Sacra, note, 
vol. i, 497). Now in this well authenticated account, you 
will observe no mention is made of the removal of his 
sister's tomb, or body. Indeed we have no evidence that 
a tomb that is to say a sepulchral monument of any con- 
sequence, had been erected to her memory. But there was 
another Maude nearly connected with bishop Gifford, of 
much higher rank than his sister, and who had preceded 
him to the grave some eighteen years. Matilda, sole 
daughter and heir of Walter de Gifford, of Corfham, and 
widow of William Longespee, the third of that name (who, 
though he never enjoyed the earldom of Salisbury, taken 
by Henry III from his father, was accounted earl by 
many), married secondly John lord Gifford de Brimsfield, 
in the county of Gloucester, nephew, or at least near kins- 
man, of bishop Gifford. In 55 Henry III, says Dugdale, 
"Maude Longespe'e (widow of William Longespee, son of 
William earl of Salisbury, and daughter and heir to Walter 
de Clifford), having by her letters made a grievous com- 
plaint to the king, that this John Gifford had taken her 
by force from her manor house at Kaneford, and carried 
her to his castle at Brimmesfield, and there kept her in 
restraint; he being thereupon sent for by the king, and 



IN WORCESTER CATHEDRAL. 1 3 

told what was informed against him, denied the charge, 
saying, that he took her not thence against her will, and 
tendered to the king a fine of three hundred marks for 
marrying her without his license, of which the king accepted, 
upon condition that she made no farther complaint." Apud 
Pat. Roll. 55 Henry III, m. 19. This Matilda Longespe"e, 
as she continued to call herself, was styled countess of 
Salisbury, as her first husband was earl. William lord 
Latirner, in 1381, gives to his daughter Elizabeth, a primer, 
covered with velvet, which had belonged to Maud Long- 
espee, countess of Salisbury. "There is nothing", says the 
reverend Joseph Hunter, "remarkable in the gift; but the 
description of the lady, to whom a century before the book 
had belonged, is well deserving notice: first, because of 
the name of addition given to her, which we should not 
expect to find given to the ladies of this house ; and 
secondly, on account of the rank of countess of Salisbury 
attributed to her, while it is said in the usual authorities 
that her husband William de Longespee was never allowed 
that dignity." Now herein I think we may perceive the 
origin of the tradition that this tomb was erected to the 
memory of a countess of Salisbury, whilst at the same 
time we discover an absolute authority for the display of 
her paternal coat of Clifford ; her Christian name also being 
the same as that of the bishop's sister, may have caused 
some confusion as to the personages. Her mother was 
Margaret, daughter of Llewellyn, prince of Wales, by Joan, 
the illegitimate daughter of king John. By her first hus- 
band, William de Longespee, she had one daughter, named 
Margaret, who married Henry de Lacy, earl of Lincoln 
and Salisbury, and was the mother of Alice, wife of Thomas 
Plantagenet, earl of Lancaster, son of Edmund Crouchback, 
and grandson of king Henry III. 

By her second husband, lord Gifford of Brimsfield, she 
had four daughters: Katherine, married to Nicholas de 
Audely ; Alienora, married to Fulco le Strange ; Matilda, 
married to William de Geneville ; and Elizabeth, who ap- 
pears to have died unmarried. So royally descended and 
nobly allied, a magnificent tomb and effigy would naturally 
be accorded to her; and under the date 1301 we find an 
entry in the annals of Worcester to the following effect: 
"iii Cal. Decembr. Domina de Clifford, dicta comifissa. 



14 EFFIGY OF A LADY 

sepultum habuit Wigorniae a dextera parte altaris in eccle- 
sia cathedralis." The words " dicta comitissa" decide the 
question as to the identity of the lady de Clifford here 
mentioned, as her first husband, William Longespee, 
never actually possessed the earldom; and consequently, 
though commonly called countess of Salisbury, her real 
name, as daughter and heir of Walter de Clifford of Corf- 
harn, is here given her in preference to her title of courtesy, 
or her second husband's name of Gifford, another wife 
having given him a son and heir to the lordship of Brims- 
field. At the same time we have to remark that Maud 
Longespee was dead in 1283, in which year lord Gifford 
founded Gloucester hall, at Oxford, for the health of his 
soul, and that of Maude, his sometime wife; but in the 
entry above quoted, the words used are simply " sepultum 
habuit", from which I infer that her body was removed at 
this period from the place where it had been deposited 
eighteen years previously, and laid in its present splendid 
monument on the dexter or north side of the altar; whence, 
together with the tomb, it was again removed, after the 
death of the bishop in 1302, when his own monument was 
ejected from the spot on which, during his life-time, he 
had erected it ; and both finally placed in the position 
they now occupy. I must leave it to my readers to decide 
whether my being at present unable to account for the 
fretted escutcheons, which are said to have been formerly 
visible upon the robe of this effigy, is fatal to the sug- 
gestion I have the honour to submit to them. The Verdon 
pedigrees I have examined exhibit no match with either a 
Clifford or a Warren, but Lord Gifford's mother was a 
Maltravers ; and his daughter, by Matilda Longespee, 
married an Audely, both of which families bore a fret. 
Effigies have been tampered with armorial coats have 
been incorrectly blazoned. The disappearance of every 
trace of such a decoration, whilst it increases the mystery, 
favours my suspicion that it was not an original one. The 
escutcheons still visible are all slightly incised : had those 
we miss been so, some faint outline would surely have 
been discernible. If executed at the same time, would not 
the same process have been followed ? The coat of Gifford 
of Brimsfield was the same as that given by the heralds to 
the Giffords, earls of Buckingham, gules three lions, argent; 



IN WORCESTER CATHEDRAL. 15 

but we are told by Abingdon, that the Giffords of Weston, 
in Gloucestershire, to testify the obligations conferred on 
his family by bishop Godfrey, took the arms of the bishop- 
ric of Worcester ; and in a roll of arms, as early as the 
reign of Edward II, I find sir John Gifford, of Worcester, 
de argent a les rondeles de gules ; whilst to another sir 
John Gifford, are assigned the three lions, argent, in a 
field gules ; and to a third sir John Gifford, surnamed 
" Le Boef ", of Oxfordshire, the same coat, with a label 
azure a " sir Esmourn Gifford" bearing it with a label 
sable. There is also the drawing of a seal of a sir William 
Gifford, temp. Edward III, in a manuscript in the College 
of Arms, which displays checquee or, and gules, a canton 
of the second ; and what is equally worthy of notice, the 
arms of Gifford, of Hampshire, are given by Abingdon as 
gules, fretty engrailed ermine. But there are between 
twenty and thirty varieties of the arms of Gifford, which, 
as well as the family, demand more inquiry than we have 
time or space for at present. Dugdale, in his descent of 
the Giffords, earls of Buckingham, and of the Giffords, 
barons of Brimesfield, makes no mention of the branch 
from which sprung an archbishop of York, a bishop of Wor- 
cester and lord high chancellor of England, an abbess of 
Shaftesbury, and the wife of a D'Evereux ; while the pedi- 
grees in the College of Arms and the British Museum have 
separated that branch from the family tree. But for a 
legacy to " Margaret de Neuville, uxore quondam domini 
Johannis Gifford nepti mee", in bishop Godfrey's will, we 
might have searched in vain, perhaps, for the link by which 
they were connected ; but Margaret de Neville was the 
second wife of John lord Gifford, and as it appears his 
widow in 1301. It is my hope that I may shortly be 
enabled to throw some new light upon the genealogy of 
this great family (the 'confusion in which has baffled the 
research and acuteness of the learned historian of Wilt- 
shire, Sir R. Colt Hoare), and furnish a few facts for a 
new biography of one of the most illustrious bishops of 
Worcester a city in which the Association was received 
with so much honour and hospitality, that the spirit of 
research receives an additional stimulus from the feeling 
of gratitude. 



1G 



ON THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE AND OF THE 
ANCIENT BRITONS. 



PART X. 
BY BEA1E POSTE. 



EXPLANATIONS OF THE LEGENDS ON CERTAIN BRITISH COINS 
INSCRIBED "TASCIIOVANI.F. COM.F", ETC. 

THE great variety of British coins discovered since the 
former parts of these papers were published, now an inter- 
val of several years, has suggested some considerable mo- 
dification of the explanations and interpretations of these 
legends at first proposed. Now the preferable explanation 
of them appears to be thus : 

i. The interpretation of TASC, TASCIO, TASCIIOVANVS, etc. 
is in all cases continued in the sense of sovereign ; the 
Erse taioiseach, which implies chief or leader, and various 
other corroborations, seeming to render this undoubted. 
But 

n. The F on the coins of the British Belgae, i.e. those 
inscribed COM.F, etc. is considered preferably explained as 
the commencement of some word signifying the name of 
that people ; and it will be here supposed, from various 
reasons, to have been the Celtic wordjirbolg, which formed, 
as appears from seemingly authentic grounds, their appella- 
tion. 

in. The like explication of the F is to be transferred to 
such coins of Cunobeline, whereupon that same letter ap- 
pears; unless the wordfilius, or son, should be preferred, 
of which the option is left. 

iv. The co, COM, and COMMI, of the Britannico-Belgic coins 
is interpreted as part of a Celtic word, implying state, dis- 
trict, or confederacy. This word we are unable to give 
with absolute certainty in its true and complete Celtic form, 
as, from the circumstance that no ancient literary works in 
this language have come down to us, we only know the 
ancient Celtic by the modern, which is in fact merely a 
species of approximation. As we, however, ascertain that 
the Latin words communis and communitas have their 



PLATE III. 



BRITISH CO. INS. 




DVMNOCO\POS 




DVMNOCOVfP 





ASVP AS 



VEP&CORF 





TICIION 



V M I 





COINS OF THE BRIGANTES. 



THE COINS OF CUNOBEL1NE, ETC. 17 

close cognates in modern Celtic dialects, we judge it was 
also thus the case in the ancient form of the language. 
This point will be further attended to presently: in the 
meantime we may observe that we appear to have the 
word Latinized on a Gaulish coin, inscribed AETVE(NNA) 
COM(M)VN(ITAS), i.e. the state or jurisdiction of Artuenna. 
See Lelewel's Type Gaulois, 8vo, 1841, pi. ix, 15. Also 
we have it fused and amalgamated in the legend on Gaulish 
coins, ANDECOM, (Lelewel iii, 44, and Lambert's Numisma- 
tique Gauloise du Nord-ouest de la France, 4to, 1844, 
x, 1), which has ostensibly the interpretation of the coun- 
try or district of Ande, or Ando. It appears that some of 
these types inscribed ANDECOM, have the addition BOS at 
the end of the legend (Duchalais, Medailles Gauloises de 
la Bibliotlieque Royale, 8vo, 1846, p. 116), which may be 
either the commencement of some other word, or the ter- 
mination merely of that here expressed : but we have 
Lelewel's authority, who knew, or partly knew, that it was 
thus prolonged (Type Gaulois, p. 238), that our views 
respecting the reading of the legend COM should not thereby 
be altered. On another Gaulish coin (Lelewel, p. 368, from 
Conbrouse's Catalogue, 422 g), we have it translated and 
Grecized as COINOS RICOM, i.e. the state of the Ricomagerises, 
a people of Gaul ; and the Greek word TO KOINON, in the 
sense of the community, or commonweal, occurs on ancient 
Greek coins. 

On Roman imperial coins it may be observed we have 
legends in the Latin, which seem to have much reference 
to our present purpose. On the reverse of a coin of Augus- 
tus, for instance, is read COM(MVNITATES) ASIAE ROM(AE) 
ET AVGVST(O). ( Vaillant, vol. ii, p. 35.) The date of this 
coin is A.U.C. 735, or B.C. 19, having been struck in the 
fifth year of the tribunitian power of Augustus. There is 
likewise a coin of Claudius inscribed on the reverse COM. 
ASI. ( Vaillant, vol. ii, p. 60. ) Both these coins have the 
representation of the front of a temple j also the same form 
occurs on types of Hadrian and Trajan. (Eckhel, Doctrina 
Nummorum Veterum, 4to, Vienna, 1795, vol. vi, p. 245.) 
These types may require some passing remark. 

As they all must have originated from the first of them 
mentioned, it may be observed that several temples were 
dedicated in Asia Minor to Rome and Augustus. One was 

VOL. VI. 3 



1 8 THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE 

at Pergamos, in Mysia ; another at Ancyra, in Phrygia; 
and a third was at Nicomedia, in Bithyriia ; and there 
might have been others. Dion Cassius mentions two of 
these, raised by concession and permission of the emperor : 
the one at Pergamos by the Asiatic Greeks, i.e. inhabitants 
of Asia Propria, which contained several subordinate divi- 
sions as Mysia, Phrygia, ./Eolia, etc.; and the one at 
Nicomedia, by the Bithynians, LI. 20. By the way they 
are spoken of, they were not raised by the Roman authori- 
ties. Indeed as Asia Minor appears at that time to have 
been not within the jurisdiction of the Senate, but under 
praetorian administration, or in other words, to have been 
in the emperor's own hands, in that case it could only have 
been considered as the act of the emperor himself, which 
might not have been wished. Thus the word province is 
not mentioned, but the term COMMVNITAS, implying the own 
government and polity of the inhabitants of the respective 
states. From this instance the inference seems allowable 
that there is no reason that any other ancient state govern- 
ment, or jurisdiction, when mentioned unconnected with 
Roman domination, might not have been styled on inscrip- 
tions and coins a "communitas", or its equivalent, accord- 
ing to the language of the country, as well as by any other 
usual form ; and there appear to be sufficient examples to 
confirm this. 

In endeavouring to trace the analogous Celtic term, it 
may be remarked that we have in the Gaelic the word 
" comunn", in the sense of communion, or society (Arm- 
strong's Dictionary). In the Erse we have " comann" in 
the same signification (O^Reill^s Dictionary) ; while in 
the Welsh we find " cymmun" expressing the Latin word 
communitas. In the same language "cwmmwd", in a 
diminutive sense, is still used in North Wales, to imply the 
word district. 

Further, however, there is every appearance that we 
have the Celtic word, which we seek in the form " com- 
mios", a word which it seems should be no longer con- 
sidered, as heretofore, a proper name, as it is now ascer- 
tained, as we shall see, to be put as an equivalent for a 
term signifying a district or tract of country. For exam- 
ple, a late publication informs us that the types of Carma- 
num have sometimes CAKMANO ANDOB, and sometimes CAR- 



AND OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS. 19 

MANO COMIOS (Ducfialais, pp. 86-88, and plate i, figs. 8, 9, 
and 10) ; and again we have the full legend ANDOBRV in the 
Catalogue of Conbrouse, No. 354. This, we are acquainted 
by M. Lelewel (pp. 239, 241), signifies in the Armorican 
language " pays Ande", or the Ando country or district. 
In confirmation, the word bro, in modern Welsh, is of the 
same meaning. It will be remembered that we have also 
had a legend before, which, similarly with this, was consi- 
dered to imply " Ando district, or country". 

The coins reading CARMANO COMIOS are ascribed by French 
writers either to Carmanum Castrum in Languedoc, or the 
Carmanum mentioned by M. De la Saussaye, now Chateau 
Renaud, near Blois. Inferences from our numismatic data 
seem decidedly in favour of the latter : for with a distance 
of only about forty miles from the confines of the Andecavi, 
this Carmanum might have been under their jurisdiction 
at the time of the striking of these coins ; or the name 
Andecavi might have been the generic appellation of several 
states in this part of Gaul, in the same manner as there 
were Cenomani and Aulerci-Cenomani. The great proba- 
bility of this makes all clearer and stronger: and thus, 
comparing the types CARMANO ANDOB and CARMANO COMIOS, 
now regarded coins of the Andecavi, and ANDECOM, together, 
the proof of the legend " commios", or " comios", having 
the sense of territory or district, seems complete. 

On this illustration afforded by the coins of Carmanum 
we may thus place reliance. Indeed it may be an indica- 
tion to explain another type, that of COMMIOS CARSICIOS, 
attributed by the marquis de Lagoy a few years since to 
Carcici in Provence, near Marseilles. If commios, on the 
coins of Carmanum, be equivalent to Andobru, with the 
sense of " pays", i.e. country or district, it certainly may 
have the same signification on the types of Carcici. 

As to the name of the Comius of Cffisar himself, princi- 
pally we may observe that there may have been but a 
trifling difference in the Celtic between the word which 
expressed the government and that which conveyed the 
title of the governor or ruler. For example, one term might 
have been COMMIOS, the other COMAN, or the like, as occurs 
among consular imitations in the Gaulish coinage. See the 
marquis de Lagoy's Essaie de Monographic, 4to, Aix, 1847, 
p. 16, and Lelewel, Type Gaulois, 8vo, 1841, pp. 244 and 



20 THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE 

323. There might in short have been so great a similarity, 
that the Romans calling him by his title may have ex- 
pressed his name by a slight variation, Commius, or Comius. 

As to the appearance of the word on British coins, be- 
sides on the present series, we have the newly-discovered 
coin in the British Museum, which reads COMVX, of similar 
type with those inscribed QVANGEO and CATTI (see the 
Journal of the British ArchaBological Association, vol. ii, 
pp. 23-4; and vol. iii, p. 201, pi. fig. 8). This may pos- 
sibly be interpreted COM(MIOS) or communitas, VX(ACONA) 
or Uxella; and BODVOC (vol. ii, p. 12), a legend now ap- 
plied to the Boduni, may possibly be explained BODVO 
C(OMMIOS) or communitas. 

The above are the four leading features of the new 
interpretation proposed, and one or two other matters 
closely connected with the subject. We may now advert, 
in illustration of the legend F, to the conquests of the 
Belgian Gauls, and their domination in Britain. Here the 
particulars come down to us rather more indefinitely than 
might be wished, but the general truth of them seems 
undoubted. 

i. The first invasion, colony, or immigration of the 
Belgae, was about three hundred and fifty years before 
Christ; the date somewhat uncertain, but the fact itself 
undoubted, from the ancient British Chronicles and Welsh 
Triads, which appear to place these people in Britain before 
the invasion, which will be mentioned next in order. The 
Belgae, on this occasion, are supposed to have occupied a 
great part of the southern and midland portion of the 
island, comprising the states of the Dobuni, Cassii, Attre- 
bates, Trinobantes, etc. ; in fact, nearly all the recognised 
territories of the Cunobeline, the Silures or Southern 
Welch excepted, who are reputed by Tacitus (Agricola, 
c. xi ) to have been a colony from Spain. 

ii. To these, about 150 B.C., succeeded the Belgse, called 
the Coranians. These are supposed to have occupied the ter- 
ritories of the Iceni, Iceni Coritani, Cangi, and Ordovices; 
in other words, the midland parts of the island north of 
Cunobeline's dominions, together with North Wales. With 
the Coranians an additional circumstance is connected, that 
a part of them appear to have passed over to Ireland. The 
particulars concerning them are gleaned from various 



AND OF THE ANCIENT BBITONS. 21 

sources : Tysilio's Chronicle, the Triads, Nennius (Dublin 
edit. 1847, etc). The invasion of the Coranians is admitted 
by the celebrated French historian Thierry (Norman Con- 
quest, Lond. ed. 8vo, 1841, p. 2). Their name Coranians 
in this country was derived from the accidental circum- 
stance of a great part of their territory being low and 
marshy ground : the distinctive word for marsh being cors 
in Welch. The words Coritani and Coranians, it also may 
be observed, are regarded as synonymous. 

in. The invasion of the Gaulish leader, Divitiacus, men- 
tioned by Ca3sar in his Commentaries ( Gaulish Wars, ii, 4), 
is supposed to have taken place about one hundred years 
B.C. They seem solely to have acquired a portion of the 
south-eastern part of Britain, as Hampshire, Wiltshire, etc. ; 
dispossessing possibly, or subduing some, of the former 
Belgian occupants. Ca3sar speaks of this invasion in these 
terms : " Dicebant apud eos (Suessiones) fuisse regem 
nostra etiam memori& Divitiacum totius Gallia3 potentissi- 
mum, qui quurn magnae partis harum regionum turn etiam 
Britannia obtinuisset" ; i.e. They said that among them, 
the Suessiones, there was a king, Divitiacus, even in our 
memory, who was the most powerful in all Gaul, and had 
obtained the dominion of a great part of these regions, as 
also (of a great part) of Britain. 

There were thus these three invasions, the occurrence of 
which seems authentic enough. It may perhaps simplify 
matters as to distinct recollection, to mention a noted king 
of each section of these invaders, recorded in history. 
Thus we have Cunobeline, king of several central provinces 
of Britain, which had been conquered in the first invasion ; 
Prasutagus, king of those conquered by the Coranians, in 
the second ; and Divitiacus, before mentioned, in the third, 
who held several provinces, but from Cesar's words might 
possibly have governed them by deputy. We may add, 
that with the disposal of Divitiacus's dominions after his 
death, we are not acquainted. Possibly after a generation 
or two they came under the sway of Cunobeline. 

Now it is singular that though almost half Britain was 
conquered by the Belgse, yet there was only one state of 
them which retained the name of the race, and that was 
the state of the Belga3 Proper, occupying Hampshire, Wilt- 
shire, etc. as has been mentioned. The rest were called 



22 THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE 

Cassii, Trinobantes, Iceni, Coritam, etc. Hence it is probable 
that those who were called Belgse by distinction formed the 
dominions of Divitiacus. The coins inscribed TIN COMF. VIB 
EEX COMF.EPPI COMF. etc. are found in the territories of these 
Belgse, and in the adjoining districts of Sussex and Kent, 
which formed the states of the Regni and Cantii. These, 
at the time of the striking of the coins, may have been 
dependants of the Belgaa, and have acknowledged the suc- 
cessors of Divitiacus for their rulers. 

Regarding the name " Belgae," there is scarcely a doubt 
but that in conformity to the custom of various European 
nations it had an addition to it, signifying men : as we say 
Scotchmen, or Englishmen, etc. at the present day ; or as, 
anciently, we had the names Normanni, Alemanni, and 
others. In this case the addition, a prefix, was the Celtic 
wordyzr, implying men. Thus we have the word Firbolg t 
or viri Belgici, or as it is also found in ancient manuscripts 
in another varied form, viri Bullorum. It is true that we 
have the term Firbolg, communicated wholly it is believed 
from Irish sources, nevertheless there is but little doubt 
but that it was the genuine ancient name of the race : that 
is to say, that it was so during the whole period they were 
connected with British history. 

It is easily seen why the prefix was omitted by the 
ancient classical historical writers and geographers, who 
always name this people Belgse, which was the generic term. 
On Britannico-Belgic coins there might be a probability of 
its being introduced, if it were peculiarly the style by which 
the Belgian population was known in this country. 

In ancient Irish sources, as well as Firbolg, the name is 
also varied to viri Bullorum, as has been just remarked, fir 
and viri having the same signification. It is observable 
that though the F begins no radical word in Welch, it is 
otherwise in the Erse, the V being often thus expressed, 
and proper names so beginning: thus, Fergil for Virgil. 
(Reeve's Antiquities of Down, Connor, and Dromore, 4 to, 
Dublin, 1847, p. 132.) 

The reader may now be prepared for the application of 
the above data for the interpretation of these mysterious 
legends, which being locked up in the obscurity of the 
ancient Celtic language, or otherwise Latinized Celtic, did 



AND OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS. 23 

not very readily admit of being before explained. Here will 
follow one of each class. 

i. Aur. obverse, EPPILLVS ; reverse, COM(MIOS) F(IRBOLG), 
or communitasFirbolg, which substitute ofcommunitas for 
commios will be understood to be the alternative in each 
case where the same form occurs. The whole inscription 
of this coin thus read is : obverse, Eppillus ; reverse, the 
confederacy or state of the Belgse. n. Aur. obv. VIR(IDOVIX) 
REX; rev. COM(MIOS) F(IRBOLG), i.e. Viridovix, king, reverse 
as before, in. Aur. obv. TINC(ONTIVM), rev. C(OMMIOS) 
F(IRBOLG), i.e. Tincontium, a city, probably Winchester, 
reverse as before, iv. Obv. VERIC COMF, rev. REX, i. e. 
Vericus, king of the state of the Belga3. Thus it will 
be easily seen by these examples how the legends of the 
other various types of the British Belgas may be supplied. 
But as well as a leader's name Yiridovix, there may have 
been also a city Viridunum, which might have been intended 
on those types in which the word REX does not appear. 

Respecting the name Vericus, it seems to be of a highly 
titular cast, and requiring to be understood on the same 
principle as the appellations of the medieval Caledonians 
Thane of Fife, Thane of Rosse, etc. ; and is to be consi- 
dered in this particular instance as analogous to the name 
of the Gaulish leader Vercingetorix, mentioned in Ccesar's 
Commentaries, for as that implied king-paramount, so this 
literally " high king" has much of the same import. Thus 
it may be concluded that Vericus, whose personal name we 
appear not to know, ruled over several minor states or sub- 
divisions of the Belgae of the south of Britain, to whom 
these coins apply. 

As to other British coins, on which the F appears, that 
is to say, various of the types of Cunobeline, a similar ex- 
planation of the letter seems by no means improbable, from 
the circumstance, that nearly all his subjects were also 
Belga?, though not of the same invasion or colony as those 
to whom the series of coins inscribed COM.F are supposed 
to belong. As there are several of Cunobeline's legends in 
this form, more or less contracted, CVNOBELINI, TASCIIO- 
VANI.F, we may now interpret this Cunobeline sovereign of 
the Belgae ; or, as the genitive case is used throughout, 
implying a word understood, we should rather express it 
the money of Cunobeline sovereign, or ruler of the Belgse. 



24 THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE 

Nevertheless, as to the F on Cunobeline's coins, the option 
of reading it Tasciiovani filii, or king's son, is always left, 
as he may possibly have coined in the life-time of his father. 
A coin of Caractacus, on which the word TASCIF occurs, 
(see the Journal of the British Archceological Association, 
vol. ii, p. 12), may also similarly be interpreted in either 
mode. 

Now who, historically, were these personages, kings of 
the British Belgae, whom these explanations thus introduce 
to us? Here we are confined within narrow limits, and there 
appears only the following to be observed on the subject : 

i. The lettering of the coins of Eppillus, on the whole, 
has the greater appearance of being most ancient, and might 
be of concurrent date with the Consular times. Viridovix 
must follow in point of date, as the lettering on the coins 
of Vericus seems the most recent as to form. 

ii. The name Eppillus, which is titular, is well known to 
imply " hereditary successor to the throne". See Lelewel, 
p. 246. Therefore, as Divitiacus acquired the dominions, 
as Ca3sar informs us, and as the date of the lettering might 
agree, Eppillus may have been the son of Divitiacus. Of 
Viridovix we know nothing. Vericus was probably the 
Bericus of Dion Cassius, who aided the Romans in the time 
of Claudius' invasion, having been some time previously 
driven out through sedition, as it is said. If this is to be taken 
literally, it is probably to be understood, that having sub- 
mitted and become a vassal to Cunobeline, he afterwards 
attempted an unsuccessful rebellion. 

It will be seen that the above views do not favour the 
conjecture of the supposed conquests of the Comius of 
Caesar, in Britain. Whilst this presumed fact appeared to 
be supported by numismatic evidence, it was obliged to be 
received : but now that the said coins have another expla- 
nation, there appears no reason that the idea should be 
further entertained. 

Indeed the Romans, during the trying times of the civil 
wars, would hardly have permitted so extensive a levy 
taking place, and so great a force to be raised, as would 
have been necessary for the purpose. Forces so large he 
could hardly have collected in his own two little states of 
the Attrebates and Morini; and the days of Gaulish mili- 
tary expeditions, on a large scale, from a concurrence of 



AND OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS. 25 

numerous states united together for one purpose, were now 
passed. We may therefore the more rely on the illustra- 
tions now offered. 

The foregoing are the author's endeavours to explain 
this class of coins, and consequently his contribution to- 
wards the illustration of this obscure century of the history 
of his country. The principal feature of his explanation, 
it will be seen, is the discarding the word COM, or COMMI, 
altogether as a proper name, and receiving it in the sense 
of a state, or government. In his explanations of the 
legends of Cunobeline, he retains his former view of the 
term TASCIIOVANVS, being convinced of its correctness. 

Though bidding farewell to the idea that the coins in- 
scribed COMMI. F, or COMF, have reference to the Comius 
of Caesar, yet there may be some brief animadversion 
as to whether, by possibility, the F in these legends can be 
interpreted as filius. Can it be possible that there is men- 
tion in them of the sons of Comius? On this point it may 
be said that these coins, with their unusual legends brought 
to notice by the discover}' of several new types eight or 
ten years since, having taken the antiquarian world some- 
what by surprise, many concurred in such an idea, seeing 
no other solution in the obscurity of the subject : otherwise 
it appears to possess no claims to be regarded as an esti- 
mable interpretation. For instance, it is to this effect : that 
there were four sons of the Comius of Caesar Eppillus, 
Viridovix, Tine, and Yericus, all reigning princes; and 
what would appear to be unusual, all in their separate 
dominions concurring by a species of impulse in one legend. 
Where can be found the parallel in history to this? Besides, 
chronologically between the said Comius and the Bericus, 
or Yericus of Dion Cassius, mentioned in his sixtieth book, 
there was an interval of ninety-four years. Compare this 
last author with Ccesar's Commentaries ( Gaulish Wars, 
viii, 39). More might be remarked on this head, but 
hoping to have afforded better data to the numismatic in- 
quirer by the foregoing observations, there may be the less 
occasion. 

In retrospect of our subject, it may be remarked that 
the solving thus the enigma which attends the legends 
COM.F, TASC.F, and others of the same class, removes the 
great obstacle which has of late prevented advance in the 

VOL. VI. 4 



26 THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE. 

knowledge of our ancient British coins. On no other 
grounds, it may safely be asserted, can solutions be pre- 
sented worthy the attention of a correct and duly cautious 
numismatist. Let the reader pay especial attention to the 
circumstance of the substitution in two instances of COM- 
MIOS and COM for words having the signification of com- 
monweal, state, or district, as also to the use of cognate 
terms on Greek and Roman coins. As to the one objection, 
and the only one worthy attention, that Ca3sar speaks of a 
Gaulish chief Commius, or Comius, it may be allowable 
briefly to revert to the reasons for considering it of no 
import. Had we to deal with appellations which absolutely 
admitted of being considered as nothing else than proper 
names, the case would be different ; but we have the autho- 
rity of M. Ame"dee Thierry, in his Histoire des Gaulois, 
vol. ii, p. 8, and vol. iii, p. 97, that the Gaulish chiefs are 
in most instances only known to us by their titles; and 
that their real names have not come down to us. This places 
us on quite different ground, and the explanation before 
afforded seems to come in unanswerably. There is nothing 
to contravene the proposition before dwelt upon, that with 
this particular chief the name of his title in the Celtic may 
have so closely approximated with that of his government, 
that the difference may not have been retained in the Latin. 



NOTES RELATIVE TO THE COINS ASCRIBED TO THE BRIGANTES, 
THE ANCIENT INHABITANTS OF YORKSHIRE, WESTMORELAND, 
DURHAM, NORTHUMBERLAND, CUMBERLAND, AND LANCASHIRE. 

THE obscure legends on the above coins, for which refer- 
ence may be directed to the plate prefixed to this article, 
do not admit, it seems, of satisfactory explanation : there- 
fore a few suggestions only on the subject are here intended. 
Some previous observations on them will be found in vol. 
iii of the Journal of the British Archceological Association, 
pp. 310-316. 

The legend ASVP (see fig. 3), seems to be the name of a 
place. A town of Nottinghamshire, of the present day, 
"Worksop", has a very similar ending. As to the com- 
mencing letter, the word "au", in its varieties, was a name 
for water in almost all primitive languages. Joining this 
word with the above termination, whatever its meaning 



AND OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS. 27 

may be, Ausup, or Asup, may easily be imagined of local 
import. 

CORF, fig. 4, and vol. iii of the Journal, p. 3 14. Should 
this legend be intended to be read in a retrograde form, it 
would lead to various striking results. For example, FROC, 
for YVROC, i.e. " y fforch", as in the Welsh, or York, which 
is supposed to be named from the fork of the two rivers, 
the Ouse and Fosse, on which it stands; 1 and with this 
interpretation some of the other legends might blend them- 
selves. The matter, however, seems so uncertain, that no 
more can be done than to suggest the possibility of this. 
In the meanwhile we can scarcely form other conjectures 
of this word, except that it implies some local name. 

TIGIION. This legend presents a new form of the G, 
made somewhat like the figure 6, with the bottom part 
however disjoined (see the plate, fig. 5). In Asser' s Life 
of Alfred we find that Tiguocobauc was the Celtic name 
of Nottingham, 2 and the double i and the u being nearly 
exactly similar in many ancient manuscripts, it is very 
obvious that instead of Tiguocobauc in Asser, we may read 
Tigiiocobauc. However, the translation of the word is 
given us " houses of caves", a name extremely applicable 
to that town, which is built upon a rock, with excavations 
or caves in it, very numerous. Here it would appear to 
be obvious that if the word " tigiio", or " tigii", implied 
houses or a town, "tigi ion" might mean the lord or governor 
of a city or town. 

VEPOS, figs. 1, 2, and 4. The meaning of this portion of 
the legend, which is put in the genitive case 3 after DVMNO, 
is unknown. The Welsh word " guepe", the nearest per- 
haps in sound, signifies face, and by that word, Baxter, in 
his Glossary of British Antiquities, 8vo, 1733, p. 139, is of 
opinion the East was expressed among the ancient Britons : 
but as he has no other argument except that the East may 

1 Remarks on the probable deriva- interpretatur, Latine autem spelunca- 

tion of the name of York, will be found rum domus : et in eodem loco eodem 

in the Gentleman's Magazine, April anno hyemaverunt, etc." Dr. Wise's 

47, page 371 ; May, the same year, edition, 8vo. 1722, p. 19. 

p. 458 ; and October, p. 338, ditto. 3 VEPOS is here considered the geni- 

The passage in Asser is as follows : tive case, from the particle co, which 

' Eodem anno (A.D. 868), Paganorum precedes it, which seems to be the ac- 

exercitus Northanhymbras relinquens companiment of the genitive case in 

in Mcrciam venit, et Scnottengaham the composite word Tiguocobauc, just 

adiit, quod Britannice Tigguocobauc quoted from Asser. 



28 THE COINS OF CUNOBELINE 

be considered the face of the world, he of course cannot be 
followed in his views. 

VOSILIOS, or VOSIMOS, which appears on the reverses of 
fio-s. 1 and 2, is undoubtedly a man's name ; but no such 
person is known in history. The coin fig. 2 seems to give 
the name in the first form ; but it is very probable that the 
reverse of fig. 5 also refers to this legend, which has VM 
and a following letter, and accordingly might easily be the 
word VOSIMOS abbreviated, there being a possibility that 
the letters read LI may be a disjoined M, inverted. It may 
also here be noticed, that there is an uniface gold coin in 
the British Museum obverse, a horse to the left ; and 
underneath the legend vosi, which possibly may apply to 
this person. 

As to the word Dummo, which appears among these 
legends : as there is VOSILIOS, or VOSIMOS, supposed a per- 
sonal name on the other face of the coin, it might be re- 
puted, according to the rule of many Gaulish types, to be 
the name of a place. There is, however, no certainty in 
this, as DUMNO co VEPOS may merely imply the title or 
jurisdiction of Vosilios. Further, by the same rule, that 
tigiion, from tigii, is supposed to signify governor, so 
Dumno, or Dumnos, from dun, or dunum, a fortress, cita- 
del, or metropolis, might be presumed to imply lord of the 
same. 

A Dumno, or Damno, is mentioned in the celebrated 
bilingual inscription at Angora, in Asia Minor, as a British 
prince ; and the contents of the inscription would well suit 
that he was a prince of the Brigantes, for this reason : that 
it is evident they were one of the principal states of the 
island, and with the principal states it is of course to be 
considered that Augustus made his treaty of commerce and 
friendship. For this inscription, which recorded the public 
acts of Augustus, see the Gentleman's Magazine for July 
and October 1847. 

As to the variations of this legend, the terminating I in 
the reading DVMNOIVEI (vol.iii of the Journal, p. 314), which 
should be rather DVMNOCOVEI, seems the imperfect p of 
VEPOS. Also the i in Mr. Fleming's coin (DVM)NOCOIVEP, 
p. 315, was apparently no more than a part of the figure 
of the horse. 

The Numismatic Chronicle, vol. i, p. 82, mentions the 



AND OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS. 29 

finding of sixteen or eighteen of these types, along with 
Roman family and consular coins, in number about two 
hundred. See also Mr. Wellbeloved's Eburacum, 8vo, 
1842, p. 136, where, the circumstance is noticed. Mr. Well- 
beloved has since kindly communicated the particulars to 
the following effect, from a memorandum preserved among 
papers relating to donations in the York Museum : The 
place of finding was three-quarters of a mile N.E. of Brig- 
house, a place lying on the north bank of the Calder, as 
also due north of Huddersfield. They were thus clearly 
within the boundaries of the Brigantine kingdom. There 
are stated to be no traces of a Roman road contiguous to 
the spot, but about a mile to the east are remains of a 
Roman camp. The coins came to light as some workmen 
were uncovering the rock for quarrying purposes : and 
were found twenty inches below the surface, between the 
black alluvial soil and the stratum of red clayey earth, 
which was immediately underneath. 

Regarding date. Consular and family coins seem to have 
ceased when Augustus obtained the empire. This, there- 
fore, would not particularly interfere with the idea that the 
Dumno, of the inscription, and the Dumno, of the coins, 
might have been one and the same person : that is, sup- 
posing the latter word to be a man's name. 

. asides the inscribed types of the coins, there are two 
others not inscribed, figs. 6 and 7 of the plate : and of the 
last of these there is an ancient forgery, fig. 8, a copper 
coin plated over with gold. Fig. 6 likewise itself may be 
regarded as the antiquated counterfeit of some other coin, 
having the appearance of being copper, thickly plated over 
with silver. It was purchased at York for the Museum 
there, about two years since, but the place of its discovery 
is not known. 



REFERENCES TO THE PLATE. 

The coins are engraved from the originals as follows : Fig. 1 , from the 
York Museum. Fig. 2, from the British Museum ; weight, 83 grs. Fig. 3, 
from the York Museum ; weight, 83 grs. Fig. 4, from ditto ; weight, 85 
grs. Fig. 5, from the British Museum; weight, 83^ grs. Fig. 6, from 
the York Museum. Fig. 7, from the British Museum ; weight, 82,0 grs. 
Fig. 8, from ditto. 



30 




ON THE HEAD OF JANUS, FOUND ON A 
BRITISH COIN. 

BY WILLIAM BELL, ESQ., PHIL. DOCT., FOREIGN SECRETARY. 

" Ex quovis ligno fit Mercurius". 

THE figure of the double-head god, Janus Bifrons, occurs 
on at least one undoubted Bri- 
tish coin; for the legend Cuno, 
with which it is accompanied, and 
the Camu on its reverse, do not 
allow a question as to the country 
of its production. 1 It seems of more frequent occurrence in 
France, for on a cursory review of the plates accompanying 
la Systeme de la Numismatique Frangaise, of our learned 
associate, Mons. Lelewel, I find, on plate in one fig. 19, and 
on plate v two figs. 15 and 16: there may be more, but 
that is not at present material, arid these French ones are all 
without legends of any kind. 

Nothing is more settled than that the Latins took the 
name of this god from Janua, a gate ; and even if, vice 
versa, Janua should be derived from Janus (which is more 
probable, though I shall not now go into that subject), it 
is sufficient for my present purpose that the verbal con- 
nexion betwixt the deity and gate is evident. The myths con- 
nected with the shutting of the gates of Janus' temple, in 
time of peace, and opening them by the consuls when the 
senate had determined to try the force of the Roman legion- 
aries against some unfortunate barbaric enemy, proves that 
the derivation is correct ; for the essential attribute of the 
deity is recognized that of opening and shutting the 
closing the old and commencing a new year, was another 
of his functions. The social position of this deity (if I may 
so term it) in the classic Olympus, was originally much 
higher than what he held when the intrusion of Homeric 
divinities and Grecian myths had usurped the places and 

1 Copied from Ruding's "Annals of British Coinage", pi. v, fig. 24; described 
vol. iii, p. 237. 



THE HEAD OF JANUS. 31 

names of the indigenous gods of Etruria and the Ossii. 
Yet even then the ancient traditions were not entirely lost ; 
and Ovid, in his Fasti (lib. i, v. 89), amongst much laud- 
ation, addresses to him the following remarkable couplet : 

" Quern tamen esse Deum te dicam Jane biformis ? 
Nam tibi par nullum Grsecia nomen habet". 

" How biformed Janus am I thee to call, 
Who of the Graecian gods surpasses all." 

Another poet makes him founder of Rome, whilst the 
parent of Jupiter is obliged to take up with Alba Longa as 
a client : 

" Hanc Janus Pater, hanc Saturnius condidit urbem 
Janiculum huic, illi Saturnia nomen." 

And it may be owing to an undercurrent of superstition 
and secret veneration, dating long before Romulus and his 
robber crew, that this hill of Janus, the Janiculum, is still 
the centre of devotion and reverence to the entire Catholic 
world : for the unsurpassed fabric of St. Peter's, and the 
Vatican palace, occupy nearly its entire site ; and the latter 
name is but a reminiscence of those vaticinations and augu- 
ries which the Romans received with their god from the 
Etrurians, and practised on this hill so successfully. 

In the elastic belief of Italy, bound by no creeds nor 
rigidly defined, they seemed easily to have found the powers 
and attributes of every foreign and imported divinity in 
their own indigenous Janus. It was, however, natural, 
that as supreme in rank and first in antiquity, 1 the limited 
prerogatives and actions of the inferior gods should all 
centre in his superior power: "quicquid major continet in 
se minus", is logical and necessary. Macrobius, Sat. lib. i. 
cap. ix, p. 225 (edit. Lugd. Bat. 8vo, 1670), has an express 
chapter : " qui deus Janus deque variis ejus dei nomini- 
bus et potestate". In a resume of the opinions of the learned 
on this divinity his title and his double form the author 
has collected with diligence sufficient to allow us, by an 
easy implication, to give him the signs and designations 
of all the later gods. He finds him identified with the sun : 
" Janum quidem solem demonstrari volunt" ; with Apollo 

1 Saliorum quoque antiquissiniis carminibus deorum deus canitur (Janus). 
Macrob. Sat. lib. i, cap. 9. 



32 THE HEAD OF JANUS. 

and Diana : "nara sunt qui Janum eundem esse atque Apol- 
linem et Dianam dicant"; and a number of expressive 
epithets identify him with the other denizens of their tem- 
ples : "In sacris quoque invocamus Janum geminum, Janum 
patrem, Janum Junonium, Janum Consivium, Janum Qui- 
rinum, Janum Patulcium et Clusivium"; the patrem is 
here put for dispater, or Jove, and though Mercury is riot 
mentioned in express terms, the exact conformity of the 
offices of both gives us an undoubted conformity. Caesar 
includes, in his attributes of the Gaulish Mercury: "hunc 
viarum et itinerum ducem", almost exactly copied by Ma- 
crobius for some features of his picture of the Bifrons: 
" nam et cum clavo ac virga figuratur; quasi omnium et 
portarum custos et rector viarum" : a meaning which 
Cicero's idea of the name will strengthen, who supposed it, 
" non Janurn sed Eanum, ab eundo". The Heimskringla of 
Snorro, in relating the passage of Odin from Asgard to 
the West, conforms remarkably in the predicates given to 
his hero with this description, and with the leader of his 
nation. Having found an identity with the Sun and Apollo, 
it would be allowable to introduce all their synonyms into 
the comparison, and then scarcely an adoration in any 
country could be excluded. Macrobius finds (cap. xx) 
Hercules the same as the Sun, even in name, ?fcae K\SOS. Cap. 
xxi. " Adonin Attinem Osirin et Horum aliud non esse 
quern Solem", cap. xxxiii. " Jovem quoque et Assyriorum 
Adad eundem esse quern Solem." 

Thus much it was necessary to premise, and to remind 
you of the high standing of this divinity amongst the ear- 
liest tribes of Italy. For in fact he occupies the same place 
there that Thor, the supreme god of the Edda and our 
British heathenism, possesses in the Scandinavian theogony. 
In still stronger terms of language than what I have ad- 
duced for Janus, and in infinitely surpassing wonders of 
arms and actions, are the greatness and supremacy of the 
arctic god celebrated through those remarkable poems. I 
should have to transcribe the whole, were I to relate all 
the feats attributed to him, which are in full keeping with 
those of the Olympic Jupiter : like him Thor could alone 
wield the lightning-bolts of heaven, or roll the dreadful 
thunder in the clouds. Our denomination of thunder is 
but his name sifted through the Dutch donder, the Teu- 



THE HEAD 01 JANUS. 33 

tonic donner, the Scandinavian and Anglo-Saxon tonar, 
contracted into Thor. Here the name becomes significant 
and highly expressive equally so and identically the same 
in meaning with that emphatic designation of the Supreme 
in Scripture, the Ancient of Days-, for Thor, or T'or, or 
'tor, resolves itself into the definite article the, contractedly 
't and or, which in all the Theotisc dialects signifies unde- 
fined and undefinable extension, either in time or space. 1 
Our corresponding English word is yore, by us now re- 
stricted to time, and at present obsolete, except adverbially 
with the preposition of, as of yore ; but in Spenser's time 
it had a more substantial position. He says (Fairy Queen, 
xii, p. 27) : 

" Which he hath polluted oft and yore". 

And in the Mirror for Magistrates, p. 105, we read : 
" No worse a death than I deserved yore". 

Thor, therefore, rendered into our present language, 
would be the yore the old or ancient. It is, too, a singular 
coincidence, in the superstitions amongst ourselves and our 
continental neighbours, that those curious fossils which the 
vulgar call thunder-bolts, have just the same name there 
as donner keule, or thunder shafts. Thor's great instru- 
ment, with which he ultimately destroys the giants, as Jove 
overthrows the Titans under a huge mountain, is his ham- 
mer, the dreadful Miolnr. 

We may add, that the now vulgar appropriation of this 
miolnr, as a mill, to mill, in the language of the ring, seems 
but the resurrection of a meaning and a serious expression, 
which has significancy in cognate dialects, most probably 
in use for two to two and a half thousand years. By this 
weapon, and the method of fighting, the Celt or framed is 
meant ; and the grinding and crushing process of their 
action is that of a mill-stone, to which Thor's miolnr gave 
its name and action. Its symbol is the almost universal 
and mysterious crux ansata, or broken cross ; which, for 
want of a better name, goes, I understand in England, 
under the corruption of philpot. 

Here, then, are two divinities of differing climes and very 
distant periods, in eminence, in attributes and power not 

1 Examples are in German : die Ur-welt : das Ur-alter. 

VOL. VI. 5 



34 THE HEAD OF JANUS. 

much dissimilar, in a remote antiquity and a mythic 
obscurity identical; sufficient considerations perhaps of 
themselves to establish a great presumption of identity of 
origin, but that there remains behind the strongest of all 
corroborative proofs identity of name. I have already 
shewn the congruity betwixt Janus and janua, a gate; 
and so is Thor also a gate, and by these four identical let- 
ters, THOR, do the sixty millions of people, who (exclusive 
of Britain), speak the German dialect still, and to this 
hour, designate a gateway, or what the French call a porte 
cocker. Their modification of this word, when they mean 
to express a smaller or inner entrance, is thur, pronounced 
when written to our eye, tier, and through this variation 
we have adopted the word door, with the same significancy. 

From the presence of our national shiboleth, th, or 0, we 
do not pronounce these four letters as our continental 
brethren, who can only say tor, not thor; yet when we 
consider the Anglo-Saxon th, or 0, differing only from a 
capital modern D, by a transverse stroke through the up- 
right limb, it may easily be accounted for, either by inad- 
vertence or ignorance, that we have dropped the h in our 
transference of the name to our own door. 

So exact is the classic congruity with our modern prac- 
tice, that we frequently find any opening or passage in a 
wall called Janus. Cic. de Nat. Deor. lib. n : " Ex quo 
transitiones pervi&jani nominantur". Sueton. in Domit. : 
" Jan os arcusque cum quadrigis et insignibus triumpho- 
rum". Ovid, Fast., i, 257 : " Cum tot sint jani, cur stas 
sacratus in uno?" 

We need not, therefore, be astonished to find the impress 
of this the earliest and most potent deity of the inhabitants of 
Italy (who passed successively under the name of Pelasgoi, 
Etrurians, Romans, Tuscans), on our own indigenous coins, 
when we find we have the same identical, verbal, and sym- 
bolical cause to place it there that influenced the Italian 
moneyers : with them it represented, as Janus, the gate or 
boundary of past and present; the finish of an old, the 
commencement of a new year; but with us exactly so as a 
Thor, the same gate, the same limit of a portion of time 
past and of time to come. It seems to me no identity could 
be more strictly proved. It is a mathematical certainty, 
according to Euclid's axiom, that two things equal to a 



THE HEAD OF JANUS. 35 

third are equal to another : Janus is a gate ; Thor likewise ; 
therefore Janus and Thor also are the same. Q.E.D. 

If we consider, too, the process by which this singular 
figure must have been formed, and that it may have been 
identical in both countries, if not carried over to both from 
an older religion and a distant clime, we may then account 
for its appearance among us without considering it as a 
mere Roman plagiarism, devoid of meaning or reason, and 
an imitation without a motive. In both countries it would 
be equally natural for a landholder to fix a post, or pillar, 
to mark his proprietary rights : his neighbour would but 
be led from a similar impulse to assert his conterminal 
privileges by a similar erection. 

The Roman practice was congenial to their fine percep- 
tion of the beautiful : a person or a parish, a canton or a 
country, defined the limits of their property and lands by 
a nicely tapering trunk, assuming by degrees the tracery 
of features, and ultimately exalted into the bust and orna- 
ment of the human face divine. To this form their ex- 
tended toleration and great powers of abstraction gave the 
prerogatives and worship of a god, and called him Termi- 
nus, or Hermes, and by a pardonable degree of national 
pride, for the idea was for a long period founded on truth, 
they feigned of the god Terminus of their Capitol (who 
symbolically represented the boundaries of the empire), 
that when all the other gods were compelled to retrogade, 
he alone refused to move : meaning by this myth to signify, 
what they then had some reason for assuming, that the 
limits of the Roman rule would never recede. 1 

I think to have thus proved, that when doubled as 
a Janus, he was a northern deity ; and it will now 
be my purpose to show the same fact of the moiety 
or Terminus, who also bore the name of Hermes : he again 
is identified under the title of Trismegistus, as the Tot 
Thaut of the Egyptians, who is identical with the German 
Teutates, the. undoubted Tuisco whom Tacitus, De Moribus 
German, chap, n, calls Tuisto, and says, "celebrant carmi- 
nibus antlquis Tuistonem deum terra editum" ; and the 
present name by which the Germans call themselves, 
Deutsche, or Teutschen, is the best evidence of the truth of 

1 The curious title of the rulers of the many : immer Mehrer des Reichts, is the 
resuscitated empire of the west in Ger- active expression of the same idea. 



36 THE HEAD OF JANUS. 

Tacitus, and the enduring properties of language. This 
would be of itself a satisfactory trace of the pantheistic in- 
fluence of this deity, under his substitute of Tuisco for 
Hermes ; but I have a still nearer proof, without recurring 
to distant Egypt or the Nile. It is found in the exact 
verbal conformity, at a comparatively recent period, be- 
tween this universal Hermes and the most general designa- 
tions of the deity prevalent in the northern regions of 
Europe. This name was Bog, the Slavonian word for god ; 
and with the combinations of the words in their language 
signifying good and bad, it represented the good and evil 
principle the duality of Ormuzd and Ahriman, as received 
from their Persian progenitors. The first is Biel, signify- 
ing white, the essential property of all things derived from 
or representing the great god Helios, the author of light 
and heat; and in this combination it became BIEL-BOG. 
White entered into the names of most of the Wendic deities, 
as Gero-vit or Hero-w, Pore-vit, Rugia-m, Swato-w or 
Swanto-m' and is but the translation of Biel (the Asiatic 
Bel) into a more modern dialect, and is still preserved in 
the names of many eastern European places, amongst which 
Biel-gorod (the white city), now Belgrade, is the most 
known. But the name in its entirety is still found in the 
village of Bielbog, in Pommern, which, till the Reformation, 
was a famous cloister, built, no doubt, upon the site of an 
equally famous heathen fane dedicated to this beneficent 
deity. The name of the opposing principle was Zerne-bog, 
equally significant; for zerni or zrini, in all the Slavonic 
dialects, still signifies black; and Bog, in the phrase, Po- 
meloi Bog, or " Bless you God", is the common salutation 
to a passer-by throughout Bohemia ; so much so, that their 
neighbours in the two Lausitz have taken it up as a nick- 
name, which they give the inhabitants of the Austrian side 
of the Riesenge Dirge, in the same spirit that " Herr God 
damme" is applied to all Englishmen on the Continent as a 
generic, from, I am sorry to say, not so laudable a practice. 
From the significance of this word as Bog or God, it has 
also descended to its visible symbol, the bock, as stein- 
bock, the gemse or ibex : this Bock received, no doubt, its 
name from the sanctity in which it was held before the 
introduction of Christianity, and which, in a subordinate 
degree, is exhibited in the classic veneration of Pan and 



THE HEAD OF JANUS. 37 

the Satyrs. The Puck of Shakespeare is of the same cast of 
names, and deserves an independent discussion. But the 
most curious and certain proof of the divinity of the bock 
is still in our language, in which, under the name goat, 
only as a variation of good and God, we still vindicate to 
this now despised animal his former supremacy of worship ; 
and in no other language is this curious verbal coincidence 
found. But, as I argue for an early uniformity of worship 
or tradition throughout every region of the globe, I should 
not have rested satisfied, or thought my theory convincing, 
had any doubt remained that this name of Hermes was not 
connected with the northern bock ; I am happy, therefore, 
to say, the union is most certain and satisfactory. Every 
one is familiar with the excellent tale of Reinecke the Fox, 
of which, if not the original, at least the best version, is 
found in the Platt Deutsch or Low German of the fif- 
teenth and sixteenth centuries. I possess a later version, 
dated Hamburgh 1606, which is in many other respects 
curious, but more especially for the notes and elucidations 
of the subject. At the back of page 61, first book and 
nineteenth chapter, is a long list of all the birds and beasts 
who combine to bring their complaints against Keinicke 
Voss before Nobel the lion, and is of itself as curious as the 
list of Grecian ships in the Iliad, to which poem Goethe, 
(who made a bad high German paraphrase from the low 
dialect), thought it in nothing inferior. At this place, then, 
to only cite a few lines of this obscure tongue, we find the 
following : 

" 5Dar quant STaeffrira tnit alle cpnen raajen 
J)jmt,je tie fcater, tonto 33ruen tie 33are, 
'Fnfc tier tieerte tin. grate cc&are : 
lampe tie |)ase ttnti lie Ccrl 38altietopn 
(IQndif rlcis He ttlcnc odx tie grate I) unto Him : 
^Hetlie tie C^ege imfc Barmen tie 33ocfc 
<tc|)|)arn, SSReaelfcen |)ermelfcen toeren tiar oife." 
A translation of a list of names is seldom entertaining. 1 
shall only remind you that Isegrim for the wolf Bruin for 
the bear, are still recognized in our own language ; but 
Harmen, or hermen, for the bock or goat, is new, and is the 
conformity I desired. The knowledge of natural history in 
antiquity was very restricted ; at all events, its nomencla- 
ture was very unsettled, of which I could bring many 



38 THE HEAD OF JANUS. 

and startling proofs, if I did not perceive that I was ex- 
tending these remarks beyond due bounds. But the pre- 
sent appropriation of this name of hermen, by the dropping 
of the aspirate (a very usual occurrence in etymology) 
become ermine, to the diminutive animal of the arctic 
regions, whose furry clothing is so purely white as fully to 
represent the white divinity, the Bielbog, and whose syno- 
nym it therefore assumed, cannot be passed over. The 
restriction of the use of its skin to kings and their repre- 
sentatives will be as much owing to its sacredness as to its 
scarcity; and when our immortal Shakespeare says, "so 
much divinity doth hedge a king", he may have fancied 
him clothed in the regal ermine mantle ; and the idea 
would then be not only metaphorically, but physically, 
appropriate. But we can ascend to the actual deities of 
the north for a verbal Hermen in their obscure Olympus. 
The great god of the Saxons, located on the Weser, which 
it took Charlemagne thirty years, with all his Prankish 
hosts, to reach and destroy, was named Irmen Saiile, or 
Hermen on the Pillar ; and, in our own country, the Irmin 
Straet is an undeniable vestige of the name and the divi- 
nity, under whatever shape he was adored : it may ulti- 
mately have taken the signification of the Via Sacra, which 
intersected the Roman Forum; but this must be the subject 
of an independent discussion. 

Having traced both the conjoint and single figure, as 
Janus and Hermes, to the sacred ideas of the north, we 
shall now see how, even at the present day, the idea of 
sanctity, majesty, and rule, remain and are traceable in our 
modern Janus or Thors our posts and gateways. 

The Icelandic chroniclers mention a curious circumstance 
respecting the first colony that settled there, flying from 
the conquering and harsh sway of Harald Harfager, to- 
wards the close of the ninth century. With a laudable 
desire of having some remembrance of their ancient settle- 
ments, and of the spots on which the bones of their ances- 
tors were buried, they carefully disengaged the lintels from 
the entrance to their temple (they were still heathens), and 
embarked thence in their cyauls, in which they crossed the 
Atlantic. On approaching the rocky coasts of Iceland, and 
being in doubt as to the most favourable spot for landing 
and founding their new homes, they trusted to the augury 



THE HEAD OF JANUS. 39 

of their gods, and throwing overboard the ancient door- 
posts, disembarked where these sacred emblems were found 
to have fixed themselves ; and there they built a new 
town, called Reikawig, and a temple, for which the posts 
formed the entrance. 

But, in the most venerated relic of heathendom in 
Britain, in Stonehenge, we find undoubted traces of this 
regard to Thor, both in its sacred and verbal application. 
It is well known that this venerable relic of antiquity con- 
sists of various concentric circles of stones : one of them is 
an aggregation of trigliths, or of two upright sides, with 
one horizontal crossing them at the top. What are these 
but so many Thors? It must be an independent inquiry, 
whether these lintelled doorways are like the subsequent 
additions to many of our cathedrals, a later augmentation 
of the original structure? Not the least cogent reason for 
such belief, would be the difference in the texture of their 
stone from the rest, which I state on the authority of Mr. 
Cunnington : their not standing concentrically with the 
others, arid, above all, their having been tooled, and pinions 
worked on their tops for corresponding holes in the horizon- 
tal beams, to fix them steady, which may be easily and satis- 
factorily ascertained, by ocular inspection of those fallen. 

The sanctity of posts, no doubt, was the origin of their 
being borne before persons in office as emblems of dignity. 
The state Cardinal Wolsey assumed was fully regal. In 
the original stage directions for the performance of Shakes- 
peare's King Henry VIII, his entry is described, and 
amongst his attendants, " two gentlemen, bearing two great 
silver pillars" ; and Steevens remarks, " Wolsey had one 
pillar borne before him as cardinal, and another as legate," 
which I doubt, and believe them to have been emblems 
rather of civil than ecclesiastical power ; for in an accom- 
panying citation from an ancient satirical poem, by William 
Kay, are the following verses : 

" With worldly pomp incredible, 

Before him rydeth two prestes stronge, 

And they did bear two crosses right longe, 
Gapyne in every man's face ; 

After them follow two lay men secular, 

And each of them holdyn a pillar 
In their hands instead of mace." 



40 THE HEAD OF JANUS. 

Here we find the ecclesiastical dignities signified by crosses, 
borne by priests ; and as laymen bear the pillars instead of 
the mace, it is but probable to conclude that they typified 
the dignity of chancellor and some other high office. In- 
dependently of maces being only these pillars crowned and 
ornamented, 1 I can adduce another instance, from the cor- 
poration of the borough of Hull, before the Reform Bill 
stripped off all the salutary emblems of authority and rule. 
Two high staves, surmounted with solid silver knobs, were 
borne before the mayor on state occasions, and, during his 
presence at the magistrates' office, affixed to the entrance ; 
at other times they were affixed to the posts of his private 
residence: and even the iron loops in which they rested 
were afterwards visible proofs of estimation and worth in 
the eyes of his fellow-burgesses. This would illustrate a 
passage from the Twelfth Night, act i, scene 5, where Mal- 
volio says of the disguised Viola, " He says he'll stand at 
your door like a post" ; and Warburton writes on this pas- 
sage : "It was the custom for that officer to have large 
posts set up at his door, as an indication of his office"; but 
when he adds, " the original of which was, that the king's 
proclamation and other public acts might be affixed thereto", 
I have no hesitation in saying he mistook a consequence for 
a cause. It is, perhaps, from the dignity such posts con- 
ferred, that they were actually assumed by those who only 
had the aspirations, without the actual office, which would 
account for the number standing isolated before houses in 
the side streets of Piccadilly and elsewhere, in London, and 
also in other old towns. In vol. xix, p. 383, of the Archce- 
ologia, are two very interesting drawings of old houses at 
Norwich, where the richly carved door-posts fully evince 
the superior respect and adornment bestowed upon them ; 
and I think it is there I met the apposite quotation from 
Beaumont and Fletcher's Widow, act iv : 

" I'll love your door the better while I know't. 

Widow. A pair of such brothers were fitter for posts without doors, in- 
deed, to make a show at a new chosen magistrate's gate." 

1 The prevalence of Latinity in the virgolretus : an office which under the 

church, induced them to name their title of merges, existed in that city to 

mace-bearer verger, from virga, a staff; the revolution of 1789. Their names and 

whence Caesar says, that at Bibracte, dates fill eleven pages (116 to 126) 

afterwards Augustodunum, now Au- of the Memoires de la Soc. Eduenne, 

tun, a biennial, magistrate was called 1844. 



THE HEAD OF JANUS. 41 

The very wands of stewards, chamberlains, and ushers, 
are only the post, reduced to portable and genteel size; and 
its literal meaning is the same, being derived from the 
German wand, which signifies a wall, but at a time when 
the walls of our houses and churches consisted but of up- 
right posts of wood, like the church of Greenstead, in Essex. 
Wand, in the hands of harlequin or a conjuror, is from a 
different application of the theotisc root, for change, which 
we still retain in wane, wander; and many winding rivers, 
Wandle,Wantsor but the change here is transferred from 
object to subject, from the change itself to the power of 
producing it. 

The transition was easy and natural in our ancestors, from 
a part to the whole, from the posts themselves to the doors 
and porches of their temples ; and this prestige of sanctity 
and reverence was carried over into the Christian creed 
and practice. The entrances, perhaps, in all our oldest 
churches, and most of the dwelling-houses of any preten- 
sions, are the most laboured, sometimes the only decorated 
parts of the edifice. In fact, many of our architects have 
gone so far as to surmise that they have been frequently 
left intact, when all the other portions of a building were 
levelled to the ground to be re-built. One of the most 
splendid and elaborate specimens of a doorway, particularly 
when the otherwise insignificant character of the church 
to which it is attached is considered, is that of St. Margaret, 
at York : it has been figured in the Fragmenta, in Drake's 
Eboracum, of course, and in Carter's Ancient Sculptures, as 
well as in innumerable minor publications ; and is, no doubt, 
known to most of our Society, at least from these engrav- 
ings. This church-entrance has caused much discussion, 
and the evident discrepancy of style, execution and orna- 
ment, with the other parts of the building into which it 
is included, have led to the pretty general supposition that 
it was originally a portion of another building. Under this 
impression, Mr. John M'Gregor was induced to send a let- 
ter to James Losh, esq., President of the Newcastle Archae- 
ological Association, which is printed in the second volume 
of the Archcpologia Eliana. In this the author labours to 
prove, from the nature of the emblems and figures, that it 
originally formed the porch to a Mithriacum, or temple of 
Mithras, at York, as a Mithriatic monument had been found 

VOL. VI. 6 



42 THE HEAD OF JANUS. 

there, which is depicted in Hargrove's history of that city, 
and lectured upon by the rev. C. AVellbeloved ; and it is un- 
doubted that scarcely any important station on the northern 
frontier of the Roman world was without one of those 
structures devoted to a species of mysticism, having many 
points in common with modern Freemasonry. Besides 
York, in Britain, Mithriatic caves have been found at Ches- 
ter, and at the Housesteads stations on the Roman wall 
(this latter surpassing in curiosity and sculptures any found 
in any other part of the world) : so also all along the 
Roman walls in Germany, variously called Heidenmauer, 
Pfalzgraben, by the peasantry ; at Hedderheim and Laden- 
burg, and many other places. It is not to be supposed that 
this appropriation of the principal feature of a Christian 
temple, at its origin, from a Pagan fane, could pass uncon- 
troverted. In 1827 Mr. John Browne published a quarto 
pamphlet in reply, in which he endeavours to vindicate the 
porch and its origin to the pure creed of Christ. It is not 
my present province here to chronicle or decide the dis- 
pute farther. I only adduce it as a remarkable proof of 
the idea that porches and doors are often considered more 
ancient, and preserved more carefully, than other parts of a 
building, from the sanctity which their verbal conformity 
with the supreme deity of the oldest British and Scandina- 
vian creeds induced ; as I may add upon the evidence of the 
coins under discussion, and of others of the same antiquity. 
I mention other coins besides the one under discussion, 
for it is not on this single type I rely. By the kindness of 
our most respected member, the rev. Beale Poste, I am 
able to offer another undoubted British coin, which, while 
the double-headed Janus bears its northern denomination 
merely as a rebus, furnishes the same in plain and unde- 
niable letters, for we have there the legend ATHORI. 

Now, independent of the 
simple form of TJior, the 
variations of the name as 
Athori, Authori, and Aiik- 
thori, continually occur in 
both Eddas, in the elder of 
Frode-Saemundr and the younger of Snorro Sturelson; and 
after the explanations I have given, I think no reasonable 
doubt can be entertained that we here have the prcesens 




THE HEAD OF JANUS. 43 

numen of the greatest of the northern trinity plainly 
pointed out in unmistakeable characters, and whose wor- 
ship endured in our island to the Christian period ; at least 
as we learn from the, in this case certainly unexceptionable, 
evidence of the venerable Bede. I could heap up proof 
upon proof, from our earliest medallic history, that its best 
exegesis is from the Eddas ; and I should be able to give 
much corroborative evidence, from the earliest myths of 
Greece and Rome. In fact, we have in the Greek name of 
Janus,ewpioc, the exact conformity of the northern name, and 
perfectly agreeing with my explanation, from his relations 
to door. Macrobius ( Saturnalia) says : "Et enim sicut Nigi- 
dius quoque refert apud Graecos Apollo colitur qui Gvptoc 
vocatur: ej usque aras ante fores suos celebrant ipsum exi- 
tusetintroitus demonstrantesperpetuum" ; and the previous 
sentence had already fixed the identity of Janus with Apollo 
and Diana. " Janum eundem esse atque Apollinem et Dia- 
nam dicunt et in hoc uno utrumque exprimi numen affir- 
munt". The Fasti and Metamorphoses of Ovid, and many 
tales in the philosophic reveries of Plutarch, are often cu- 
riously illustrative of parts of the great Scandinavian mytho- 
logy ; perhaps its best commentary, and vice versd. In fact, 
the above would embrace only part of a work, in which I 
shall endeavour to establish that our earliest history, after 
the more convincing proofs of dialects and words, is to be 
found in the numerous coins which have been dug out of 
our soil, and are treasured up in the cabinets of our archaa- 
ologists. The many conformities that may be deduced from 
them, and much of our popular superstitions, and their great 
expositors, the Sagas and Quiddas of the north will 
enable me to establish, I trust beyond a doubt, the identity 
of all the European races as branches of the great Irido- 
Germanic people, separating at different times and under 
various influences of soil and climate, yet still preserving 
unchanged an undercurrent of opinions, manners, tradi- 
tions, and language, that require only investigation to be 
brought to light and proved unbroken. My theory will, I 
am aware, disturb many notions that we now consider 
settled, fixed as holy writ, and will encounter many preju- 
dices, perhaps gain much obloquy ; but as I shall base 
what I advance only on undoubted monuments and estab- 
lished writings, and simply place known facts in a new light, 



44 THE HEAD OF JANUS. 

that are now inexplicable, and bring them into mutually 
explanatory contact, I shall openly state these opinions and 
fearlessly await the result. 

I feel, however, that I should not be doing justice to my 
subject, if I did not also point out another conformity in 
the northern and southern beliefs on this subject; the 
more important, as neither have hitherto been accounted 
for, nor are capable of explanation, without a joint consi- 
deration. 

The opening of the temple of Janus, at Rome, by the 
consuls, upon the declaration and commencement of a war 
after the Seriatus Consultum, has been already alluded to, 
and is well known ; but though so common as scarcely to 
be a metaphor in speech for the commencement of discord, 
and transferred as a compliment to a sovereign, it has 
hitherto eluded every attempt at a satisfactory explanation. 
Thus Horace, in Carm. lib. iv, car. xv: 

" Tua, Caesar, aetas 
Fruges et agris rettulit uberes 
Et signa nostro restituit Jovi 
Derepta Parthorum superbis 

Postibus ; et vacuum duellis 
Jamim Quirini clamit." 

The continuous wars of the commonwealth offered the 
blessings of universal peace, and the opportunity of closing 
these gates, only twice betwixt the reigns of Numa and 
Augustus. So politic or fortunate, hoAvever, was the latter, 
that he could order them to be shut thrice in a single reign ; 
though perhaps the resistance of the Cantabri and the 
Dacians, which were, when subdued, the two latest occa- 
sions, would by less servile flatterers have been termed 
revolts, not wars. Even this increased practice seems never 
to have engaged any Roman casuist or antiquary to inquire 
into the meaning and origin of the custom. But it is cer- 
tain that the closing of a door necessarily involves the 
possibility or power of its reverse that it should be also 
opened : if the temple was shut in peace, it must have been 
opened upon the commencement of a war. The difference 
of the two acts, in regard to the myth, was of no import- 
ance : the one practice was essential to the other. Of the 
Teutonic myths, which only give the opening action, we 



THE HEAD OF JANUS. 45 

have no right to demand the interior : its examination is 
only with them the exception to the general rule of being 
fastened ; but as the continuous opening of the Roman 
temple, gave their authors every opportunity of inspection, 
we demand a de jure description ; and Virgil (j?Eneid, 
lib. i), has drawn a frightful picture, which offers many of 
the horrors of the wolf's glen : 

" Aspera turn positis mitescent ssecula bellis. 
Cana Fides, et Vesta, et Remo cum fratre Quirinus, 
Jura dabunt ; dirae ferro et compagibus arctis 
Claudentur Belli portee ; Furor impius intus 
Sseva sedens super arma, et centum vinctis ae'nis 
Post tergum nodis, fremet horridus ore cruento." 

It is the moment of opening which the German fables pre- 
fer to contemplate. In Weber's beautiful opera of the 
Freischiitz, founded on and including many of the old 
traditions of his native forests and their Jager, whether as 
hunters arid woodsmen a class of society which such ex- 
tensive tracts of pines and noble beeches, and the necessity 
of their scientific nurture and systematic felling, as the 
universal and nearly sole fuel of the country, have raised 
into a much higher rank, as they likewise form a more 
numerous body than with us, their superstitions are, there- 
fore, more widely diffused and more respected than we are 
accustomed to regard them at home; and the diablerie of 
Weber's fourth act was for this reason more easily acknow- 
ledged and more readily appreciated as national, than we 
can pretend to. His dissuasive horrors rise in intensity to 
the final seventh, when they are consummated by the pass- 
ing- across the stage of the " wilde Jagd" an aerial troop 
of dogs, horses, and huntsmen, in a noisy and boisterous 
chase after a goblin deer. The transformation into a hunt 
seems the later adaptation of an earlier and more imposing 
cavalcade by these foresters : their substitution for an ear- 
lier version of the myth, where the principal actor is a 
knight and warrior. Griiter, in his periodical Idunna and 
Hermode (l ster Jahrgang, p 172), admits the relation of 
a knight, who having savagely repulsed his wife when near 
parturition, had caused her death. For this, his crowning 
and other sins, he was compelled to wander (an unquiet 
Spirit) from his residence, on one hill, to an opposite one, 



46 THE HEAD OF JANUS. 

on another, to the end of time. The connecting link, how- 
ever, of the Teutonic and classic stories was, that these 
dreadful visitations were never to take place, except when 
a war impended over the empire ; for, as the story conti- 
nues, he was then to sally out from the open doors of his 
own castle, to be the harbinger of the coming woes. It 
makes no difference, that the Italian practice hailed the 
shutting of these doors, as the forerunners of the blessings 
of peace. Grimm, in his Deutche Mythologie (ed. 1844, 
870), is very diffuse upon the subject of this wiithendes 
Heer, which he is inclined to bring under the modification 
of wuothendes, in direct connexion with Woden. The most 
complete relation of the popular story is contained in 
Weber's German Travels, copied into Lewald's Handreise- 
buck, vol. i, p. 20: " The Gorzheimer valley lies east; in 
it we find the town of Reichholz, with a ruined castle : after 
that the Ghost valley (Gespenster Thai) Lichtenfels, and 
the castle of Rodenstein, with the well-known ghost story 
of the Roden Wald the ghost of a knight of Rodenstein, 
who only lived for foray and following the hounds, and left 
wife and child to die in misery, and was after her death 
haunted by her, and thus addressed : l thou hast murdered 
thy infant and myself; be henceforth and for ever the 
herald of discord.' Ever since, he can have no peace, but 
moves before the outbreak of every war from the Schnellert 
to the Rodenstein (other relations give the contrary direc- 
tion) with his train. The noise of men, the tramp of 
horses, rolling of waggons, are intermingled with the beat- 
ing of drums and the sound of the clarion : as soon as it is 
peace he returns again to his castle of Rodenstein, and all 
is then still." 

The author of an Autumn on the Rhine gives some 
additional particulars, and the slight variation that parti- 
cular battles are frequently foretold, instead of the general 
warfare. " About nine miles N.W. from Erbach, between 
Weichelstein and Belstein, in a wild and secluded moun- 
tain district, surrounded by forests, lies the castle of Roden- 
stein, the seat of the singular superstition of the knight of 
Rodenstein, or the wildeJdger, who issuing from out of the 
ruined walls of the neighbouring castle of Schnellert, his 
usual abode, announces the approach of war, by traversing 
the air with a noisy armament to the castle of Rodenstein, 



THE HEAD OF JANUS. 47 

situate on a solitary mountain opposite." (It should be here 
observed that the author has transposed the name of the 
two castles). "The strange noises heard on the eve of 
battles are authenticated by affidavits preserved in the vil- 
lage of Reichelstein ; some are of so recent a date as 1743 
and 1796, and some persons profess to have been convinced 
by their eyes, as well as their ears. In this manner the 
people assert they were forewarned of the victories of 
Leipsig and Waterloo." Weber mentions whole piles of 
such vouchers in the registry of the amt, or the local 
court. 

The same, or very similar tales, are found in most Euro- 
pean countries, where their indigenous mythologies have 
been investigated. In Scandinavia the title of Wodens 
Heer (Woden's army) is applied to the same fully-credited 
aerial appearances. In Denmark, king Waldemar II is raised 
to the office of the god, and forewarns his country of ap- 
proaching calamity, by issuing from the ruins of his favour- 
ite castle of Wordenburg, in Sealand, with great noise and 
clatter. In France the scene is laid in the wide expanse 
of woods round Fontainbleau ; and his title of Grand, or 
Grosveneur, would bring him into relation with the mar- 
quisate of Westminster. In Garinet (Histoire de laMagie 
en France, 1818, p. 171), we find "En 1599, quelques jours 
auparavant le roi (Henri IV) e"tant a la chasse dans le foret 
de Fontainbleau avec quelques seigneurs, entendit un grand 
bruit du cors, de veneurs et de chiens, qui semblait etre 
fort loin, et qui s'approche tout-a-coup. Quelques uns de 
la compagnie rapporterent au roi, que s'etant approche du 
bruit, ils virent un grand homme noir dans le taillis, qui 
leur dit d'une voix affrayante et rauque, Amendez vous. 
Les paysans appellaient le pretendu demon le grand veneur 
de la foret de Fontainbleau." It is subsequently related 
that the whole was a court intrigue to render void the 
desire of the king for a marriage with la belle Gabrielle; 
but if a previous belief had not obtained a considerable 
currency in the country, a pretended apparition would 
have been ridiculous and unnoticed. The same may be 
said in England of the legend of Herne the Hunter, so 
cunningly interwoven by Shakespeare into his Merry Wives. 
The ghost of Herne, the features of the original legend, 
are somewhat distorted; but a hunter "walking" at the 



48 THE HEAD OF JANUS. 

witching time of night, as Mrs. Page hath it, smacks largely 
of the wilde Jdger : 

" There is an old tale goes, that Herne the hunter, 

Sometime a keeper here in Windsor forest, 

Doth all the winter time, at still midnight, 

Walk round about an oak, with great ragg'd horns ; 

And there he blasts the tree and takes the cattle, 

And makes milch-kine yield blood, and shakes a chain 

In a most hideous and dreadful manner. 

You have heard of such a spirit ; and well you know, 

The superstitious idle-headed eld 

Received, and did deliver to our age, 

This tale of Herne the hunter for a truth." 

It is true that we have here rather the perpetrators than 
the prognosticates of ills ; but Falstaif ' s disguise of a buck's 
head, and the train of fairies, "with waxen tapers on their 
heads", the German and goblin miners costume, and even 
the name of Herne himself, which is an easy contraction of 
Herman, a great mythic personage, and as Irmensaule, a 
principal Teutonic deity, seem to point to a German origin. 
In another play ( The Tempest} the allusion to the fable is 
more exact, but its introduction not so felicitous. Act iv, 
scene 1, at the end, we have as stage directions, "a noise of 
hunters heard: enter divers spirits, in the shape of hounds, 
and hunt them about", which might supply all the requi- 
sites for the fourth act of the Freischutz. Shakespeare was 
too enthusiastic an admirer of his national traditions, as 
evinced in every part of his writings, to pass over so re- 
markable and widely-spread and alluring a relation, if it 
had been current in his time; and as we find by a rela- 
tion, rubricked "Folk's Lore", in the Athenaeum (20th 
Oct. 1849), some good examples, to a very modern date, 
and in the southern counties, we may, therefore, safely 
conclude that they were also current and believed there in 
the sixteenth century. In the north counties, and in Scot- 
land, "that land of crag and mist", both climate and coun- 
try were favourable to the independent formation of legends, 
if they had not been imported ; but the exact conformity 
in the copy scarcely admits of indigenous sources, even in 
" the land of second sight", and where every social facility 
exists to 

" See God in clouds, and hear Him in the wind." 



THE HEAD OF JANUS. 49 

The following instances will prove that my assertion of near 
resemblance for England is fully borne out ; and it is imma- 
terial whether Speed spoke, in his Chronicle, from which we 
adduce them (edit. 1632), the language and opinions of his 
own times, or those of earlier writers. 

At p. 230 : " And in his (Bithric, king of Wessex) 
tenth year, were seen fiery dragons flying in the aire, which 
wonders some take to bee presages of the miseries following, 
both by the invasions of the Pagan Danes, that in these 
times were first seene to arrive in this island, and the ex- 
treme famine that afterward happened" : p. 754 " Events 
are the best interpreters of prophecies and prodigies; 
strange was that which Walsingham ( Ypodig. Neustr. in 
Hist.) hath written, of a fatal spectrum or apparition, in 
the summer time, between Bedford and Biggleswade, where 
sundry monsters, of divers colours, in the shapes of armed 
men, were often seen to issue out of the woods at morning 
and noone, which, to such as stood farre off, seemed to en- 
counter one the other in most terrible manner, but when 
they drew nere nothing was to be seene." 

In Mr. J. Clarke's Survey of the Lakes, p. 55 (fol. Lond. 
1787), is the relation of a troop of men on horseback, seen 
on Souter Fell, in Westmoreland, in which the sense of 
vision is only involved ; for noise and tumult are nowhere 
mentioned. The compilers of The Beauties of England 
and Wales (Cumberland, p. 58) are inclined to refer it to an 
optical delusion, analogous to the " Brocken Gespennst" on 
the Harz, referred to in Gotting. Journal der Naturwis- 
senschaften, vol. i, p. 3, and neatly explained in Murray's 
Hand- Book for Northern Germany, etc. p. 321. When 
we, however, find that Clarke's careful attestation of an 
event happening in 1744 is made by the parties for the first 
time in 1785; that these parties were illiterate and credu- 
lous peasants ; and that the document is evidently drawn 
up by the author in his own language, with motives and 
consequences which a peasant could neither have suggested 
nor understood, we may fairly be allowed to receive the 
narrative with considerable drawbacks ; and as the memo- 
rable rebellion by the Jacobites occurred in the following 
few months the great rebellion of 1745, which disturbed 
the north, and gave Britain its last experience of the hor- 
rors of war upon her own soil we may almost be per- 

VOL. VI. 7 



50 



THE HEAD OF JANUS. 



rnitted to believe, that in the interval of forty-one years, 
a story may have grown up in the imagination of the 
narrators, founded upon some under- current of prevalent 
superstition : this belief, the haze of so large an interval of 
time, and frequent repetition of what ought to have occurred 
according to the subsequent events, may have so deeply 
imprinted a fiction on the mind of the narrators, that they 
could, no doubt, have conscientiously given the testimony 
of an oath as to its truth and occurrence. 

For Scotland, I borrow the following relations from 
Scott s Demonology (p. 152): "Bessie Dunlop declared, 
that as she went to tether her nag, by the side of Restalrig 
Loch (Lochend, near the eastern part of Edinburgh), she 
heard such a hideous sound of a body of riders rushing past 
her, with such a noise as if heaven and earth would come 
together : all this while she saw nothing ; but Thomas Reid 
showed her that the noise was occasioned by the wights, 
who were performing one of their cavalcades on earth." 
The following Scottish poetical description, worthy of pre- 
serving for its own beauty, is thus introduced by sir Waltei 
Scott (Demonology, p. 43), from "Albania, a poem, in its 
original folio edition, so scarce that I have only seen a copy, 
belonging to the amiable and ingenuous Dr. Beattie, besides 
the one which I myself possess, printed in the earlier part 
of the last century" : 

" There, since of old, the haughty Thanes of Ross 
Were wont, with clans and ready vassals thronged, 
To wake the bounding stag, or guilty wolf, 
There oft is heard, at midnight and at noon, 
Beginning faint, but rising still more loud, 
And louder voice of numbers, and of hounds, 
And horns hoarse-winded blowing far and keen. 
Forthwith the hubbub multiplies ; the air 
Labours with louder shouts and rifer din 
Of close pursuit ; the broken cry of deer, 
Mangled by throbbing dogs ; the shouts of men 
And hoofs thick beating on the hollow hill. 
Sudden the grazing heifer in the vale 
Starts at the tumult, and the herdsman's ears 
Tingle with inward dread. Aghast he eyes 
The upland ridge and every mountain round, 
But not one trace of living wight descries, 



THE HEAD OF JANUS. 51 

Nor knows, alarmed and trembling as he stands, 
To what or whom he owes his idle fear : 
To ghost, to witch, to fury, or to fiend ; 
But wonders, and no end of wond'ring finds". 

The limits to which these remarks have extended, pre- 
clude me from producing many other conformities, and from 
commenting upon the peculiar sanctity or mysticisms of 
the locality in which the original German " wUde Jagd" is 
more especially known, viz., in the wood or wolds of Odin 
(Odenwald), with the Riesen Saule, and Riesen Altar, and 
the large circle of fourteen stones, called the Hainsaiilen 
the heathen pillars ; riese being in German a frequent 
synonym for heathen, as riesengraber heathen mounds or 
tumuli : nor to the name of the highest hill in the district, 
the Melibocus or Malchenberg, a granite cone, from fifteen 
to eighteen hundred feet high, and evidently taking its 
derivation from the Latin translation of Zernebog, as 
" Malus Bocus" ; though, as we find the same in the east 
for the evil influence, at Palmyra, in the plains of Turk- 
estan, and in direct opposition to Belbocus, it may have 
had a more deeply seated root. My authority herein is 
Montfaucon, vol. ii, p. 179, where the inscription of a Pal- 
myrenian is adduced, in which he mentions Eglebaal and 
Malecbalu as the gods of his country, and offerings to both 
for the preservation of himself, his wife, and children. 

Sufficient, however, has, I trust, been shown to prove 
the close connexion in many of the myths of all the coun- 
tries of Europe; and, were we not stopped by the absence 
of all evidence save conformities of language and custom, 
most of them would, doubtless, be found identical. I trust, 
also, it will not be considered unworthy of remark, how 
two specimens of the coinage of our earliest race have 
tended to elucidate much of our present manners, and of 
our favourite Shakespeare : still, the present remarks are 
but the opening of a rich mine of curious coincidences and 
unthought-of agreements, betwixt our own customs and 
those of countries and people at a great distance of time, 
and in localities widely apart from each other and ourselves, 
to be further worked, if time and opportunity be afforded 
me for the enterprise. 



52 



ON ROMAN REMAINS, RECENTLY DISCOVERED 
AT HEADINGTON, NEAR OXFORD. 

BY LLEWELLYNN JEWITT, ESQ. 

IN vol. v, p. 159, of The Journal of the British Archae- 
ological Association, a short notice was given of the dis- 
covery of some Roman remains at the above place ; and it 
is now proposed to give at greater length an account of 
the objects found during the excavations which were for a 
time carried on. 

The remains are situated at the distance of about three- 
quarters of a mile to the west of the Roman road from 
York to Bittern, near Southampton, as it passes from th 
station at Allchester to that of Dorchester; the distance 
from the former station being seven, and from the latter 
nine, miles. They are also situated on the line of an hithert 
undescribed Roman road, apparently leading from Islip, 
where numerous Roman remains are frequently found, 1 to 
join the Dorchester line, near Headington. A small portio 
of this road is mentioned by the rev. R. Hussey, 2 as existin 
in the fields between the Islip road and Headington ; bu 
he says, "here it vanishes suddenly; in Plot's time, too 
it seems, to have ended at the same point as suddenly as 11 
does at present ; there is small hope, therefore, of recover 
ing it now." It is hoped, however, that the present notes wi" 
assist in indicating the continuation of the road to its pr< 
bable junction with the main line before mentioned. 

By the side of the present Islip road, the Roman way i 
distinctly visible, and there crosses three narrow streams 
by means of small stone arched courses, or bridges, th 
roadway being formed of flag-stones ; from this spot th 
road appears to take a slanting direction across the presen 
turnpike, and is then distinctly traceable across the field 
to the portion, which has been referred to before, as notice 

1 See Journal, vol. v, p. 39 : " His- 2 Account of the Roman road froi 

tpncal Notices of Islip", by J. 0. Hal- Allchester to Dorchester, and othe 

liwell. I have also several Roman Roman remains in the neighbouring 

coins from this place. district. 8vo. 



ON EOMAN REMAINS. 53 

by Mr. Hussey, and where it is raised some feet above the 
level of the fields. Along this line, I have found many frag- 
ments of Roman pottery. From this point the road is still 
partially visible, and it has apparently crossed the streams 
in Colley pond, by means of two arched courses, similar to 
those before described ; beyond this, portions of the road 
may be seen in the hedge of a field adjoining the remains 
of the buildings now under consideration. From the villa 
to the village of Headington, the remains of the Roman 
road are scarcely discernible, although there are some indi- 
cations of the probable line, upon which fragments of pot- 
tery and coins have been found ; but beyond the village the 
ridge is still traceable for some distance, and appears to 
lead in a direct line to the main road on Bullingdon Green. 
It may be well to notice also, that there is a portion of a 
road crossing Stow wood, apparently forming a junction 
between the Islip road and the main line in the direction of 
Woodperry house, near Beckley. 

The fields in which the remains were discovered are 
situated in the parishes of Headington and Elsfield ; the 
hedge dividing the fields (and which grows on portions of 
the Roman buildings), also forming the line of division of 
the two parishes. The situation is one of the most desir- 
able in the neighbourhood, commanding as it does one of 
the finest and most extensive prospects which that part of 
the county affords. Immediately in front, on the opposite 
side of the valley, is seen the village of Headington, em- 
bosomed in majestic trees; to the right, on another hill, is 
the picturesque and wooded village of Elsfield ; whilst in 
the valley, between the two, lies the city of Oxford, with 
its many spires, domes, and towers. 

The walls which were laid bare will be seen from the 
accompanying plan ; but there are traces of walls and rooms 
covering nearly the whole of the two fields, and protected 
on the lower side by remains of earthworks of no ordinary 
extent. At A, on the plan, was a small bath, 1 the floor and 
sides of which were covered with a red plaister. Its dimen- 
sions were: length, three feet ten inches; width, two feet 
three inches and a half; and depth, one foot six inches. 
The floor was composed of a mass of coarse concrete, one 

1 Baths of very similar form were another has just been laid bare in a 
discovered at Hartlip last summer, and villa near Towcester. 



54 



ON ROMAN REMAINS. 



foot two inches and a half thick, covered with a finer layer 
of the same material, three inches and a half thick, on which 
was the plaister coating. In the bath was a quantity of 
small bones. Adjoining the bath, B had evidently been an 





arched doorway, and one of the key-stones was found lying 
in it ; the key-stone, which is four 
inches and three-quarters long, three 
inches wide at the top, and two inches 
at the bottom, and two inches in thick- 
ness, is ornamented with a kind of 
flower, formed of a circle of small 
holes. It is worthy of remark, that this stone is sand-stone, 
whilst most of the building is composed of the lime-stone 
of the neighbourhood. The stones by the side of the 
doorway were completely vitrified on their surfaces, which 
would tend to show that it must have been the entrance 
to a furnace. Underneath the building, at a depth of 
three feet below the foundations, was a stone drain. At c, 
was a large heap of wood-ashes and charcoal, covered 
with a flat stone, on which were the remains of a thick 
bar of iron ; at c and F, some floors of concrete ; and at D 
was a small room, fourteen feet long, by ten feet seven 
inches wide, the walls of which were two feet in thickness, 
and were remaining to the height of four feet six inches 
above the level of the flooring. The walls were covered 
with a red plaister, similar to that used in the small bath, 
and the floor was of concrete, ten inches in thickness. 
The ceiling of this room had apparently been arched, for 
masses of stone, firmly cemented together, were found 



ON ROMAN REMAINS. 



55 



in it. In this room were found a portion of a plaister mould- 
ing, or cornice of a room, a 
perfect flue tile, sixteen inches 
long, six inches wide, and 
four inches deep, and having 
two transverse square holes, 
two inches and three-quar- 
ters by two inches square, 
and the solid sides ornament- 
ed with straight and waved 
lines; a coin of Probus, and 




one of Postumus ; several 



*s^ iu ' ...72-- 



fragments of pottery ; some iron implements (plate iv, 
figs, i, n, in, and iv), a knife, two bone pins, etc. ; most of 
which articles are in the possession of the tenant of the 
field, Mr. Martin Tagg, of Elsfield. At E is a portion of a 
pitched path, three feet wide, which has apparently crossed 
the grounds of the villa. 

Amongst the remains found during the excavation, and 




which are in my own possession, was a clay mould of a 
female head, having a head dress composed of a wreath 
of vine leaves. The face has a remarkably pleasing ex- 
pression, and is beautifully formed. The mould is of a 
rough lump of red clay, and has been broken on its 
sides. 

The Umbo of a shield, which is one inch and nine- 
tenths in diameter (as shown in the accompanying en- 



56 



ON ROMAN REMAINS. 



~ 



graving), is of an elegant and unusual shape : it is of brass, 

with iron fixings, 
and is ornamented 

with three beaded 

y~ \ studs. 1 With it were 

found a few bits of 
thin brass. 

The smallglobular 
bronze bell, which is 
engraved of the full 
size of the original 
(see fig. 1), was 
found during the 
excavations, at the 
same depth as the 
other Roman re- 
mains. It is of the 
same shape as those 
used for horse bells at the present day. Bells of similar 
shape have been found with Roman remains at Heydon 
and Chesterford, by the hon. R. C. Neville, and at other 
places ; and I am informed by my friend Mr. Joseph Clarke, 
that there is one now preserved in the museum of the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, labelled as a " bead, found 
at Shefford with seven Roman urns". In the collection 
of Mr. E. B. Price, are two bells of nearly similar size, and 






Fig. 7. 



Fig. 2. 



two others, three inches and a half in diameter, of appa- 
rently much later manufacture ; there are also specimens 
in the Colchester Museum. 2 

1 Mr. C. Roach Smith has suggested, 2 As the subject of bells is one of 
that this might have been the boss of a great interest, it is hoped that par- 
coffer, or small wooden chest. ticulars of their discovery may be for- 



ON ROMAN REMAINS. 57 

A small leaden weight or plummet (fig. 2), with an iron 
loop, was also found : it was much corroded, and was burst 
on one side. It is here given of the full size. 

Half of a bronze clasp (plate iv, fig. v), of somewhat 
analogous character to others found at Wroxeter, was dis- 
covered ; as was also part of a bronze fibula (plate iv, fig. vn), 
and some thin plates of brass (figs, vm and ix). A large 
number of iron nails were also found in various parts of the 
building, varying considerably in form, and being from an 
inch and a half to six inches and a quarter in length. The 
round heads of some of the nails are flat, and of more than an 
inch in diameter, and some of them have heads of similar 
form to the common nails of the present day. Half a dozen 
examples are given in plate iv. 

An iron wedge, which had been much used (plate iv, 
fig. x), some bars of iron pierced with holes, for rivets or 
nails, and others solid, and some bolts, as well as a ring of 
the same metal, were also found. 

The whole of the pottery found during the excavations 
was, with one or two exceptions, broken ; and the vessels 
which are represented in the engravings are restored from 
the remaining portions. The fragments dug up in the 
small portion of the field which was opened would have 
filled a cart, and the material and form were extremely 
varied, comprising almost all the known varieties of Roman 
pottery. The most remarkable feature in the collection 
is the immense assemblage of the debris of those vessels, 
known as mortaria, portions of at least two hundred 
of these vessels having been found, varying in diameter 
from seven inches and a half to nearly two feet. Their form, 
and the material of which they are composed, differ consi- 
derably from any which are found in London, or indeed 
in any other locality which has yet come under my notice. 
They are principally formed of a fine clear clay, extremely 
hard and close in texture when compared with mortaria from 
other localities, and are of a light buff colour ; but others 
are of a lead colour, of that peculiar tint which the late Mr. 
Artis showed to have been produced in a smother kiln. 

warded. Bells of precisely similar whilst there is every reason for sup- 
shape have been ascertained to be posing others to be of Roman manu- 
of comparatively modern fabrication, facture. 



VOL. "VI. 



58 



ON ROMAN REMAINS. 



Others were of a fine red ware, but no fragments of Samian 
mortaria were found. The larger one, represented in the 
accompanying cut, is of the light buff colour, described 




above. It is one foot nine inches in diameter; the rim and 
lip are two inches and a quarter wide ; and the width of the 
spout, which is of a very remarkable form, is three inches 
and a quarter. The inside is thickly studded with broken 
quartz ; and it is worthy of remark, that not one instance 
occurs, in the whole assemblage of mortaria, of any iron 
scoria being used. The smaller mortarium in the same 
engraving is seven inches and a half in diameter, and it 
appears to have been partially burned. 

The mouldings of the mortaria, at Headington, are ex- 
ceedingly dissimilar to the general form of the mouldings 
found in other localities. This will be seen on reference 
to plate v, where numbers i to xvi inclusive are from the 
Headington specimens, whilst the others are from various 
places. Numbers xvii and xvm are from Iffley, three 
miles from Headington ; xix and xx are from London exam- 
ples, in the collection of Mr. C. Roach Smith ; xxi is from 
Caerleon, which, with xxn from Usk, has been kindly for- 
warded to me by Mr. John Edward Lee, of Caerleon, 1 for 
the purpose of comparison ; xxm is from a London frag- 
ment, for which, with several other excellent examples, I 
am indebted to my friend Mr. E. B. Price ; xxiv is also 
from a London example, in the collection of Mr. Chaffers; 
xxv is from Castor; and xxvi, which approaches very 
nearly to the Headington specimens, was found during 
excavations at Keston, in Kent, by Mr. T. Crofton Croker, 

l In whose recent work, " Observa- Icon" (8vo.), is an engraving of a Sa- 
tions on a Roman Building and other mian mortarium,with a perforated lion's 
remains, recently discovered at Caer- head. 



ON ROMAN REMAINS. 59 

in whose collection it is preserved ; No. xxvii is from 
Botolph Lane, London, which, with the Samian morta- 
rium, No. xxx, is in Mr. C. Roach Smith's collection ; 
No. xxvni is a lead-coloured example, with iron scoriae, 
found in London, and forwarded to me with the Samian 
variety (xxix) by Mr. Price. The sections have been 
selected as showing the most common varieties from the 
places referred to, and it may be observed that the exam- 
ples from Hartlip, from Colchester, and other places, all 
appear to partake of the general character of those of Nos. 
xvn, xix, xxn, and xxni. It is particularly worthy of 
remark, that although potters' stamps occur on the rims of 
mortaria, in all parts of the country, where the usual thick- 
lipped varieties are found, not one stamp has been met 
with on the rims of any of the vessels found at Heading- 
ton. The rims are mostly of a particularly elegant sec- 
tion, and have been formed by overlapping the edge, whilst 
the clay was in the lathe, as shown in the beautiful section 
marked i, the overlapping in many instances leaving the 
rim hollow, as in i, iv, and v. Comparison of specimens 
from various localities may assist us in appropriating the 
varieties to the potteries where they were manufactured, 
and it is in the hope of calling forth notices and observa- 
tions on the subject of sections that the present examples 
have been given. If a collection of the rims themselves, 
from all parts of the country, could be made, and arranged 
together, we should then be enabled to localise them at a 
glance ; but such a desideratum is not likely to be acquired. 
We must, therefore, content ourselves with whatever notes 
we can procure of the characteristics of specimens, which 
may at various times be found. 

Potters' kilns have, at various times, been uncovered 
in England, and have been attended with the most satis- 
factory and important results, in enabling us to fix with 
certainty upon the very spot where certain descriptions of 
pottery were made; and there is little doubt that, with 
proper attention on the part of excavators, many other 
facts tending to prove the existence of certain patterns and 
forms in particular manufactories, might be brought to 
light ; and we might ultimately be able to arrive at a correct 
conclusion regarding the state of the fictile arts in our own 
country, and to fix definitely on the localities where many 



60 ON ROMAN REMAINS. 

of those beautiful productions of former ages, which have 
hitherto been believed to have been of foreign fabrication, 
have been produced in England. 

Two kilns have been discovered of late years in the 
neighbourhood of Headington ; one at Shotover, the other 
at Fencot, on Otmoor ; and it is much to be regretted that 
no particulars have been preserved of the debris of pottery 
found in them. There appears every probability of a kiln 
having existed in the fields where the remains now de- 
scribed were discovered ; and I have little doubt that future 
excavations will prove that a pottery of no inconsiderable 
extent had existed on the spot. Large quantities of par- 
tially burned clay, masses of " crossilled" earth, and por- 
tions of vitrified flooring, as from a kiln, have already been 
found, and a considerable quantity of lumps of chalk, 
which must have been brought from a distance, has also 
been dug up. The discovery of the mould before described, 
would also tend to show that a pottery probably existed 
in the neighbourhood. 

Amongst the fragments of Samian ware found, were two 
pieces of embossed : on one of which was the well-known 
festoon and tassel ornament, but of a somewhat different 
variety from those given by Mr. C. R. Smith, in vol.iv of the 
Journal; the other is ornamented with a festoon of foliage 
and a bird (plate vi, figs, n, in). There were also portions 
of patera of elegant form, and of many other vessels. One 
of the fragments had the letters AVL cut through the glaze 
on its under surface. 

Of the cups with hunting pattern, as described in vol. i, 
page 7, of the Journal, only one portion was found (pi. vi, 
fig. i), containing a part of the body and the hind legs of 
a dog, and also the ivy leaf beneath. The body of which 
the vessel is composed, is a fine white clay ; the surface 
nearly black. The other fragments represented on pi. vi, 
are No. iv, of red ware; the stamped pattern impressed 
into its surface is different from any which has come under 
my notice from other localities. 1 The same remark will 
apply to No. v; No. vi appears to be somewhat similar to 

1 Mr. C. R. Smith says, in reference to observe, with reference to No. iv, 

to this, and to Nos. v, vn, xn, and xiv, that the whole pattern has apparently 

on the same plate, that their patterns been on one stamp, not each puncture 

are quite new to him ; it may be well indented separately, as in No. v. 




HEADINGTON. 




HEADIJVGTON. 



ON KOMAN REMAINS. 61 

examples from Upchurch; No. vn is of a stone colour, 
and has the waved lines indented ; No. vni, a variety of 
engine-turned pattern; No. ix, is of red ware, with the 
pattern pressed in. This pattern is of very great rarity ; 
the only examples of its occurrence, of which I am aware, 
being at Richborough and the present specimen. Nos. x and 
xi are red, with the pattern in white slips, as described by 
Mr. Artis ; xm has been coloured black, and then the 
white slip applied ; xn is of a buff colour, with the pattern 
painted upon it in red. Several examples of this kind of 
ware have been found at Headington ; and the rev. J. 
Wilson has specimens found at Woodperry, in the same 
neighbourhood ; xiv, is of the same kind of ware, of an 
elegant form, with a raised pattern running round its lower 
edge ; and another example is given on pi. vn, figs, i and n, 
where, on the bottom of a vessel, is the rude representation 
of a cock, painted in red on the buff ground, as before. 
The head of the bird is shewn on fig. n. Figs, in, iv, v, 
and vi, on the same plate, are farther examples of the same 
variety of pottery. 

The accompanying engraving exhibits a vessel of fine 
red ware, with the rim painted black, on which the white 




scrolls are laid. On the same cut, sections of other ves- 
sels of the same shape are given for comparison : 1, is red, 
with white pattern ; 2, is a fine red ware ; 3, has a metallic 
surface; and 4 and 5, are Samian. 

The fragments from which this vessel (see fig. 1, next 
page) has been drawn are of a chocolate colour; it is orna- 
mented with an indented pattern of lines of squares, alter- 
nating with flat circles. It appears to be of the greatest 
rarity, and the pattern is new to Mr. C. Roach Smith. 
It appears to have been six inches and three quarters in 
height, and five inches and a quarter in diameter. The 



62 



ON ROMAN REMAINS. 



next vessel (fig. 2) has been five inches and three quar- 
ters high, and its diameter five inches; it is of a very 
fine blue-gray clay, of the hardest and closest texture. 
The sides are indented, and the vessel is particularly 





Fig. 2. 

thin and light. Fragments of many other vases of simi- 
lar form, but different material, were also found ; and I 
am informed that others have been found at Islip. 1 The 
small vessel on the same engraving is of stone-colour, and 
is three inches and three quarters in height, and one inch 
and seven-eighths in width at the mouth. It was perfect 
when found, and is in the possession of Mr. Tagg, of 
Elsfield. 

The vessels here shown are formed of a fine black clay 




1 Since this was written, I have re- the rev. W. L. Brown, who has kindly 
ceived intimation of similar vessels forwarded me drawings of them, which 
being recently found at Allchester, by will be noticed in a future Journal. 



ON ROMAN REMAINS. 



63 



mixed with sand ; they are many of them beautifully 
formed, and are ornamented with surface lines traced on 
the soft clay without indentation. Fragments of upwards 
of forty vessels of this material were found. 
The two vessels 



here 



given, 



are of 




a fine red ware ; the 

taller one has had 

a surface coating 

of red, laid over 

the general body of 

which it is formed, 

and has had a han- 
dle ; the smaller one 

is five inches and a 

half in diameter at 

the top. 

The form of the next example is very similar to some 

of the ordinary soup plates of the present day. It is of 

a coarse red ware, and with a 
broad rim, as shewn in the 
section. It is ten inches and 
a half in diameter, and three- 
tenths of an inch thick. The 
fragments of this pot were 
found at various times, extend- 
ing over a fortnight, of the 
excavations, and in different 
fields. 

Of vessels of the next form 
given, three or four perfect 
ones, and the fragments of 
upwards of twenty others, 
have been found. The one 
here shewn is four inches and 
a half in height, and three 

inches and a half in diameter at the mouth. It is of a 

coarse stone-coloured ware, and has apparently been burned 

on one side. 

In the next engraving, No. 2 is of red ware, nine inches 

in diameter at the mouth, and eight inches in height. 

Fragments of many similar vessels were found, some of 





64 



ON KOMAN REMAINS. 



them of a blue-gray colour outside, and white within. Nos. 
6 and 7 are black clay, with sand and broken shells, and 




are ornamented with the usual diamond pattern; Nos. 4 
and 5, fine red ware, basin-shaped, seven inches and a 
quarter in diameter; No. 4 has an engine-turned pattern 
round the bottom in the inside; No. 3 is red, nine inches 
in diameter at the top, and six inches in height; No. 8 
is of a hard stone-coloured ware, nine inches and a half in 
diameter, and two inches high ; No. 9 is a Samian patera. 
Some interesting fragments of small cups, of the form 
here shewn, were found ; they are 
extremely light, and some of red, and 
others of chocolate colour; the rim 
and upper part of the vessels are 
smooth, the lower rough, being co- 
vered with little points. The one 
here engraved is three inches and 
a quarter in diameter. 

The three elegant vessels, here shewn, are of the kind 
described by Mr. Artis, as being formed with slips, and 
at the kilns near Castor, in Northamptonshire. The 
centre one is of a fine deep-blue colour, with engine- 
turned lines, and is ornamented with an elegant foliated 
ornament in white ; this vessel, as well as the other 




ON ROMAN REMAINS. 



65 



two, was apparently perfect, but broken into small 
pieces by the workmen, and many pieces lost. The cup 
to the left has a fine metallic surface of a silvery colour, 




with a pattern in white of circles and lines alternating ; 
the one on the right is formed of a remarkably fine red 
body, approaching in texture and hardness to the Samian : 
it has engine-turned lines, and is ornamented with ivy- 
leaves, very similar to those commonly found on the rims 
of Samian vessels; the vessel has been covered with a fine 
metallic glaze of a greenish tint. This vessel, from its 
pattern and material, is of great interest; and Mr. C. R. 
Smith says, that cups of this description are of the highest 
rarity. It is much to be regretted that por- 
tions only are remaining. 

The accompanying vessel is of stone-co- 
loured ware, two inches and three-quarters in 
height. 

The neck of a vessel, of very singular form, of a fine 
stone-coloured ware, is also here given. 

Many other varieties of pottery, besides 
those above described, have been found; 
but the examples given will serve to show 
the extensive character of the accumulation 
of fictile remains which were discovered in 
excavating. One farther variety, how- 
ever, remains to be noticed, viz., the green 
glaxed ware, many fragments of which were found. It is 
to be regretted, however, that many valuable and rare spe- 
cimens were lost, through the ignorant presumption of the 
tenant of the ground. 





VOL. VI. 



66 



ON KOMAN REMAINS. 



The coins found are of Helena, Tetricus pater, Tetricus 
jun., Constantine jun., Probus, Postumus, Constantius 
Chlorus, Constans, Gratian, etc. 1 

Among the potters' stamps, the first here given appears 
to be new; another has RUFIA; another ALBIN F; and a 
fourth has AIISTIVI'M. 






Fig. 1. 

A stone (fig. 2), which had evident remains of an in- 
scription upon it, and the upper edge of which was moulded, 
as shewn in the engraving, was found lying with several 
other sandstones ; one of which, three inches and a half 
thick, was nearly semicircular, with diagonal lines cut 
in on both sides, as shewn in the engraving (fig. i). 

In the room before described as D in the plan, in addi- 
tion to the plaister moulding, as of 
a cornice, ornamented with a beaded 
cavetto, were found several other 
fragments of plaister, and speci- 
mens of distemper colouring, in 
various parts of the remains ; some 
of a bright red, others green, and 
one fragment was white, with a 
foliated line of green alternating with one of red. 

Fragments of window glass were also met with, of ex- 
cellent quality; some of the pieces were one-tenth of an 
inch thick, and others one-eighth of an inch. Some of 

1 The rev. J. Wilson informs me, that a coin has lately been picked up, which 
he believes to be of Augustus. 





ON ROMAN REMAINS. 67 

these fragments were found 
at the depth of five feet below 
the surface, and level with the 
bottom of the foundations, so 
that there can be no doubt 
of their being of Roman ori- 
gin. 1 A part of the rim of a 
thin light-green glass vessel of elegant form was also 
found, as shewn in the accompanying engraving. The over- 
lapping portion of the rim is hollow. 

Besides the flue- tile, before mentioned (p. 55), fragments of 
several others, of different patterns, were found ; as were also 
curved tiles (as shewn in the same engraving), drain tiles, 
and a large quantity of stone roofing slates, of the kind 
still used in the neighbourhood, from the old quarries 
at Stonesfield : these slates had each a hole in one corner 
for fastening, so that the roof would be covered lozenge- 
wise. 

Besides the relics already described, a whetstone, part 
of a stone pestle, stags' horns of large dimensions, bones of 
the red deer, etc. ; skulls of oxen, sheep, and goats ; a con- 
siderable quantity of oyster-shells, and the shells of the 
snail, so often found in Roman remains, and portions of 
two human skulls, were dug up. 

I cannot close this account of the important and inte- 
resting discoveries which have been made, without express- 
ing my extreme regret, that selfishness, arrogance, and 
ignorant presumption, should at any time so far interfere 
with the proper progress of archaBological research, as they 
have done in the present instance. Many relics of the 
greatest interest were broken up, dispersed, and lost; and 
others, which, after being offered for sale by the tenant of 
the Headington field, at last, much injured, found their 
way into the hands of his landlord, have met with even 
a worse fate there. 

In the " Collectanea Antiqua", fragment of window glass, from Hart- 
vol. ii, pi. ix, Mr. Smith haa figured a lip, in Kent. 



68 






ON THE SYMBOLICAL CHARACTER OF ALEPH 
AND TAU, OR THAU. 

BY THE KEY. THOMAS JESSOP, D.D., VICAR OF WIGHILL, YORKSHIRE. 

IN the generality of phonetic, or alphabetical systems, 
aleph (&) is the first letter, and frequently tau (n) the 
last. From the extreme position of these letters appears 
to have arisen their somewhat hieroglyphical significancy. 
They are considered emblematical, not only of the beginning 
and the end, but also of the total or sum of a system. The 
Rabbins denoted primordial matter by a term compounded 
of aleph and tau (ntt). Moreover, they say that Adam 
sinned, from aleph to tau (n lyi KD), i.e. against the 
whole law. The names of these letters are also character- 
istic of their position, and seem to countenance their figu- 
rative application. In the Phoenician, and some other 
tongues, the word aleph signifies taurus, or bos. Also, 
generally, a chief, or leader. The word tau imports a 
terminus, limit, or boundary; and from a cognate verb it 
denotes a mark, or sign. Hence the tau is placed appro- 
priately, as the final symbol of the elementary sounds. 
There it stands, at once a glyphic and a phonic character. 
In the alphabets of Greece and Rome, tau (though not the 
final letter) is the last simple consonant; for the letters 
succeeding it are vowels, or double consonants, the elements 
of which precede the tau. In figurative application, how- 
ever, the Greek is in symbolism with the Hebrew, etc. Its 
AW (I breathe) is expressive of vitality, and may remind 
us of HIM Avho is the alpha and omega of HIM "in whom 
we live and move and have our being". Aleph and tau, 
alpha and omega, being the leaders and termini of their 
respective systems, were deemed of old symbolical of the 
whole compass of language. Bounding and including all 
their intermediates, they stood as representing them, and 
were deemed expressive of universality of the beginning, 
course, and end of the system. Long before the Christian 
era, the symbols aleph and tau were employed in the 
mythologies of Egypt ; and as the worship of the bull has 
always been a prominent feature in the idolatries of the 



THE SYMBOLICAL CHARACTER OF ALEPH AND TAU. 69 

east, the type aleph (N ) appears to have been generally 
recognized as the symbol of Apis, or Serapis. By the 
Egyptians and the Gnostics, who imitated them, it was 
employed as the monogram of the deity. Hence, in Coptic 
antiques and Gnostic memorials, we have satisfactory elu- 
cidation of some of the ancient mysteries a knowledge of 
which will enable us to explain such inscriptions as appear 
of a more recondite character. We learn from Dionysius 
Halicarnassensis, and others, that the Egyptian priests 
celebrated their gods by chaunting the seven vocalic sounds : 
namely, a, e, ??, t, o, v, <>. Now the Gnostics imitated this: 
they accepted the type Apis as an emblem of Christ, and 
accompanied the sign or monogram with some part of the 
vocalic chaunt. Many gems, metal plates, and amulets, 
now extant, exemplify this. The full chaunt required the 
whole seven : the monadic, one vowel ; the triadic, three ; 
and the tetrachtyc four. These were, however, rather sub- 
tleties of the Gnostics, than of the Egyptians. Aleph was 
(as a monogram) frequently associated with Coptic or Greek 
uncials. A seal, or amulet, in brass, of some antiquity 
(though probably only a copy of some genuine antique) 
exhibits on its two matrices the head of Apis. 
On the larger face is inscribed the legend 
+ K. TO ONN Ni CION o. OIE. That is: 

+ Aleph. Tb'Ovona 'at Stov. N O, w. i. e. That 

is, + Aleph (Sarapis), the name ever divine: 
the celebrated ! Here we have, first, the epochal cross ; then 
aleph, the symbol of Apis ; then a contraction for ovo/m. 
Next &f, jEolicefor & e \; then s^v for QCIOV (Stoc being put 
Dorice", vel Laconice, for e^oe). Lastly, an emphatic triadic 
chaunt the w , t, c, or w , , ?. The inscription, therefore, may 

be thus expressed : 1- N T^'O^a ad Qtlov. 'o, w, t, rj, or &, t, e. 

* e., + Sarapis, the name ever divine the Trisagion. 

Remark. After much consideration I incline to pro- 
nounce this amulet Gnostic, rather than Coptic. The aleph 
thrice expressed denotes the abstract, the concrete (or attri- 
butal), and the sempiternal character of the deity. As to 
the three vowels, preceded by the article, they agree indeed 
in number, with the above distinction, but must be con- 
sidered merely as an adapted portion of the vocalic 
chaunt. Some elucidation of this view may probably be 
supplied by the description of a seal, once in the posses- 






70 THE SYMBOLICAL CHARACTER 

sion of sir William Jones, and now the property of Mfss 
Milner (of Nun Appleton), to whose courtesy I am in- 
debted for an impression. This seal, on a cornelian, bears 
the human-formed head of Sarapis, with the usual cdld- 
thus. The legend in Greek uncials, of square form, is 
t o v 2apa7rtc, i. e. the great name i o u Sara- 
pis; or, hail ! Serapis. This 
seal, bearing the figure of a 
human head, is of course not 
attributable to the Gnostics. 
The Gnostics seem to have 
borrowed largely from the Py- 
thagoreans. Much of their doctrine is a jumble of Coptic 
mysticism, Platonism, and Christianity; and their fancies 
strikingly resemble the cabalistic reveries of the Jews. 

The name SARAPIS (which, though anterior to the Chris- 
tian era, is comparatively modern) consists of seven letters, 
answering to the number of the vocalic chaunt. Eusebius, 
in his Prceparat. Evang. (lib. ii) quotes from some un- 
known author the following : 

"Evrra pe fywvijtvTa Qeov /ulyav a(f>6iTov alrti 

Tpanfiara r&v TTOLVTW a/ca/iarov Ilartpa. 
E'i^tu (T eyw TTO.VTUV ^\j)e atyQiroQ $) ra Xvpujdr) 
'HpfjLaffapriv Sivrjt ovpavlow filXr). 

That is 

" Seven vocal letters Laud me, God, imperishable, great. 

Father of all unwearied. 

I am th' immortal lyre, which hymns all nature's harmony 
I tun'd the melodies of rolling spheres." 

These lines have been applied by some to the sacred Tetra- 
grammaton (niiT)> as increased by its three vowel points 
to seven. As authorities for what has been thus far said, I 
may refer to Plutarch (de Iside et Osiride), Diog. Laert. 
Macrobius (Saturnalia), Bochart, Bryant, Gale, etc. etc. 

Secondly. As to the tau, its figure as in the ancient 
Hebrew (now the Samaritan) is usually cruciform. This 
form was naturally, and perhaps conveniently, adopted to 
symbolize the import of its name a mark, or limit. By 
the ancients, especially the Egyptians, it was employed to 
designate 

1. An ordinary mark, or epochal limit. 



OF ALEPH AND TAU. 71 

2. A sign of infamy and death by the cross. 

3. A sacred and recondite mystery. 

First. By a terminal cross the Egyptians are said to 
have marked the extent of the Nile's inundation. With a 
cross the Egyptians branded their camels and horses on 
the neck, or thigh. The money of the Phoenicians and 
others, among whom may be named the Maccabees, often 
bore this sign; and the limbless Henna?, of the Romans, 
were sometimes placed at cross-roads. 

Secondly. The cross being, of old, the form of an instru- 
ment of death, was considered the emblem of reproach and 
infamy. Thus the early Christians were upbraided as the 
followers of the "crucified One". But this tau, of infamy, 
was 

Thirdly, The symbol of Egypt's holiest mystery. T, 
though resembling an instrument of death, was opposed to 
theta (e, or 0), and regarded as the symbol of freedom, of 
hope, and of life. In Ezekiel, c. ix, ver. 4, we read " and 
set a mark upon their foreheads". The margin, more lite- 
rally, " mark a mark". From the Hebrew (ninVE ?y ID 
JVVim) the 70 render "*<*} Soc mjfieiov Vt ra /ueYaW, and give 
(or place) a sign upon the foreheads. But Aquila and 
Theodotion translate not the word thau, but give it as the 
name of the symbol of life. ( Sr^ttWete v 0au M ra pfcwv*}, 
i.e. Thou shalt make the mark (or sign) of thau upon the 
foreheads (Origenis Hexap. etc.}. To the same effect, 
Jerome " Et signa thau super frontes". Tertullian deter- 
mines this to be the sign of the cross. " Scribe signum 
tau in frontibus nempe signum crucis". 

In the Archaeological Journal (No. n. pp. 169-176), is 
an interesting notice of a stained glass window in the 
cathedral at Bourges, in the thirteenth compartment of 
which, the paschal sacrifice is represented ; a figure is mark- 
ing the door-posts, and the words " Scribe tau" are on the 
glass. To suppose, as admitted by this writer (p. 173), 
that the mark placed by the Israelites on their doors was 
in the form of a cross, is perhaps too much. Yet, the 
designer of this emblem seems to have had in view the 
Latin version of Ezekiel (c. ix, ver. 3, 4), and possibly the 
! words of Tertullian, cited above. Hence, with much ele- 
gancy, he has alluded to the tau, or cross, as the sign of 
life. " Scribe tau", therefore, is equivalent to " sprinkle 



72 THE SYMBOLICAL CHAEACTER OF ALEPH AND TAU. 

blood, etc". Blood was shed as an atonement, and in blood 
is physically the life of an animal : whence the paschal 
blood was to Israel the sign of life, redemption, and peace. 
To proceed tau, the sign of life, was represented variously. 
The crux decussata (x), intromissa (+), commissa (T), 
and ansata ($), which last is the astronomical symbol of 
Venus. See Layard's Nineveh, vol. ii, 456, where Hera, 
the Assyrian Yenus, is represented holding a winged tau 
ansata in her hand. See also the same writer, vol. ii, p. 213, 
note. The tau ansata was also devoted to the younger 
Horus. In Bryant, vol. ii, p. 398, Horus is depicted as 
holding the crux ansata. This figure, also, was a symbol 
of Hermes ( 3 ) hence termed the Hermetic cross. This 
Hermes (not to speak of Hermes Trismegistus) is identified 
by Eusebius with QevO, Quvd, Theuth, Thouth, Thoth, Taut, 
etc. of the Egyptians. See also Plato's Ph ilebus. AndSuidas, 
in verb. The tau ansata, or Hermetic cross, has long been 
the subject of contemplation and research, respectively to 
the mystic and the antiquary. Of each the view is abstract, 
and therefore pure. The concrete is all sensualism. As to 
the form and application of the tau ansata, consult Lajard, 
Denon, etc. In this abstract I enter not into special proofs, 
yet I am prepared to show that the Assyrians, Medians, Per- 
sians, Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, and even Scandinavians, 
adopted the tau as an emblem of some divine person, or 
sacred mystery. In this form the Scandinavian Thor was 
fashioned, in connexion with the two similar representa- 
tions. Early in the Christian era, the temple of Apis, in 
Egypt, was destroyed, and certain cruciform characters on 
stone were brought to light. Some prediction was brought 
forward by the Coptic priests, to the effect that when these 
cruciforms appeared, they would symbolize a pure system, 
denoting more clearly, than of old, revivification, or life to 
come. These emblems, it is said, were claimed, both by 
Christians and Pagans, as symbols of their respective creeds. 
The former looked forward to the triumph of their faith, 
the latter to the renewed establishment of their ancient 
system. See Socrates, Scholast. Sozom. Ruffin, etc. 

Lastly. " Before the day of Christ, the tau has been 
considered predictive; now it stands a solemn record." 



73 



ON THE DISCOVERY OF ROMAN REMAINS, 
NEAR TOWCESTER, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 

BY EDWAED PRETTY, ESQ. 

IN the early part of last year, some workmen employed 
by his grace the duke of Grafton, in Whittlebury forest, 
had occasion for some stone for the purpose of repairs. 
In a part of the forest, called Holton Coppice, they appear 
to have observed that stones protrudedfrom the soil, although 
not in a situation where such a material would exist natu- 
rally. The men dug up and carried away a considerable 
number of these stones, which had evidently been hewn, 
without having their curiosity excited, until at length they 
arrived at a mosaic pavement, of which the accompa- 
nying plate will afford a better idea than any verbal 
description. 1 The duke of Grafton was not in Northamp- 
tonshire at the time, and the men very properly de- 
sisted from pursuing their excavations further, until they 
should have an opportunity of receiving instructions from 
his grace. Ultimately the pavement was wholly cleared 
and the excavations continued, disclosing the foundations 
of a building of considerable extent, probably the villa of 
some officer connected with the military occupancy of Lac- 
todurum (Towcester), from which it is distant about three 
and a half miles. The ground part of the building, so far 
as it has at present been exposed, includes, in addition to 
the room floored with the tessellated pavement, six other 
rooms, exclusive of a bath and hypocaust. The pavement 
room measures nine feet six inches by fifteen feet : a doorway 
leads into another room westward, fifteen feet square. Still 
further west is a third room. To the left, or south of the 
pavement-room, is another apartment, thirteen feet by ten. 
The bath adjoins this room southward, and still farther 
south is the hypocaust. On the right, or north of the pave- 
ment-room, is an apartment, ten feet six inches by fifteen 
feet, from which a narrow doorway opens west a site 
which has not hitherto been explored. Between forty and 
fifty yards north-east of this building appear the founda- 
tions of another structure, probably connected with the 

1 This plate will appear in the next Journal. 

VOL. VI. 10 



74 ROMAN REMAINS. 

first. It faces the south-west, and is entered by a porch- 
way, containing a mosaic pavement, six feet two inches 
square. The pattern consists of a guilloche border, of red, 
white, brown, and blue tesserae, within which is a pattern of 
red crosses, coupe, within squares or frets of red and grey, or 
blue tesserae. Within the building another pavement pre- 
sents itself, five feet square, consisting of squares divided 
by double lines of inch-square red tesserae, and four white 
tesserae at each intersection. Long passages extend right 
and left, and this portion of the building measures sixty- 
three feet and a half by thirty feet. Foundations extend 
to the north-west, which have not yet been fully cleared 
out, but the extreme length of the building in this direction 
is above ninety feet. 

Reverting to the building first-mentioned, it is necessary 
to state that a skeleton was discovered on the floor of the 
pavement-room, another near the entrance of the adjoining 
apartment, and a third in the room still farther west. In 
the room south of the pavement-room were two skeletons- 
one lying with the head to the west, the other to the north. 
In the bath was found the skeleton of a person about five 
feet ten or six feet in height, lying across the entrance; 
and at a short distance in the passage, the skeleton of a 
youth, of not more than ten years of age. In a room ad- 
joining were the skeletons of a child and a dog. Some flue 
tiles and charcoal were found in one of the westerly rooms. 
The number and distribution of the human remains may 
be taken as evidence that the inhabitants were destroyed 
by some sudden calamity, by which also the building was 
demolished. 

The neighbourhood abounds in evidences of Roman occu- 
pation. I have already described, in the second volume of 
the Journal of the British Archaeological Association (pages 
353-6), the Roman remains discovered on the borders of 
Northamptonshire and Buckinghamshire, with the Roman 
roads in the locality; and the account may be usefully 
referred to in connexion with the present discovery. The 
buildings are within the parish of Whittlebury, and 
about a quarter of a mile west of the Watling-street. The 
village church, near which Roman antiquities have been 
found, stands nearly three miles west. I have already stated 
that the site of the buildings is known as Holton (query, old- 
town) Coppice. The situation is well chosen, between two val- 



KOMAN KEMAINS. 75 

leys, on a somewhat elevated ground. The locality is known 
as " the gullet". The northern hollow has a little stream 
passing through it, which, to judge from the appearance of 
high banks across the valley, at an earlier age was dammed 
towards Plumpton, for the service of a mill, for the use of 
the inhabitants of the neighbourhood. If such a mill existed, 
it was at a time of remote antiquity, for the only two mills 
mentioned in Domesday Book are described by Baker as still 
existing at Cuttle Mill and Twitchett's Mill. In the valley 
to the south is a stream (which probably originated the 
name of "the gullet"), feeding an extensive fish-pond, 
called Bradlam pond, which is not unlikely to have been 
an appendage to the villa forming the subject of this 
paper. It is kept up by a dam, over which a road 
passes towards Wakefield. South of this valley is a 
wood, called King's Wood. Assuming the present cop- 
pice ground to have been anciently clear of wood (and 
no mention of the forest occurs in Domesday], the 
Brick hills would have been visible from this place; and 
a communication might have been maintained by signal 
with the station at Magiovintum, near Fenny Stratford. 
It is a singular circumstance, that the Roman road from 
Bicester, which comes up in a direct line through Stowe 
Park, and which appears to have been left unfinished on 
the east side, would, if continued, have passed near Honey 
Hill farm, straight through the forest, by the villa in Hoi- 
ton copse, where it would have reached another Honey 
hill in its way by Alderton Bury, through Hartwell, crossing 
the Port-way in Salcey forest, by the Stoneway copse, in 
which is an ancient paved way, and pursuing its final 
course to Irchester, near "VVellingborough. 

The relics found at the villa hitherto are but few. Various 
fragments of native pottery ; very little Samian ware, in- 
cluding the fragments of a bowl-shaped ornamented vessel ; 
fragments of thin white glass pateras, the bottom of a 
glass cinerary urn, the fragment of a handle of a glass 
prsefericulum ; three stone weights, found in and adjoining 
the bath ; a pair of scissors, or shears ; a knife, iron stanchions 
and nails ; an ivory style, or pin ; a columnar base ; frag- 
ments of querns ; and a few coins of the lower empire. For 
more minute particulars of all these, we shall wait until 
the excavations have been still further pursued. The intro- 



76 MEDIEVAL PAINTINGS. 

duction of the Christian emblem of the cross of Constantine, 
in the second pavement, is remarkable, and possibly indi- 
cates that this portion of the building was constructed 
subsequent to the time of that emperor. The pavement 
recently discovered at Harpole has also the Greek cross in 
its centre. 

Since the above description was in type, the excavations 
have advanced, and disclosed many extensive foundations 
east of the villa, and adjoining the riding. Immediately 
under the wall on the east side was found an urn about 
eighteen inches high, of a dark grey earthenware. It was 
covered with a flat stone. 



COMMUNICATION OF DISCOVERIES OF 
MEDIEVAL PAINTINGS, ETC. 

BY FRANCIS BAIGENT, ESQ. ; EDITED BY J. Q. WALLER, ESQ. 

DURING the past year, many interesting discoveries have 
been communicated to us by Mr. Francis Baigent, our active 
correspondent at Winchester. The discoveries in question 
have been chiefly confined to the neighbourhood of that 
city, and other churches in the county, and the first in 
importance is that of Winchfield church, Hampshire. We 
will give the account, as near as possible, in Mr. Baigent's 
own words: 

Winchfield is situated about two miles from the town of 
Odiham, called in Domesday Book "Wenesflet", the manor 
at that time being held by the abbey of Chertsey. The 
church is dedicated to St. Mary, and originally consisted 
of a tower, nave, and chancel, with two transept-formed 
appendages, which gave it a cruciform shape, one of which 
answered for a porch. In the east end of the chancel is an 
early decorated window, of three lights, and in the wall 
has recently been brought to view an early English aumbry, 
of Purbeck marble. In both the north and south wall is 
a deeply- splayed Norman window, the jambs of which are 
ornamented with a zigzag or chevron moulding. Beneath 
the sill of a lancet window, in the north wall, a range of 
six stone steps commences, leading to a small opening in 



MEDIEVAL PAINTINGS. 77 

the wall of the chancel arch ; this was, without doubt, the 
entrance to the rood-loft. 

The chancel arch is a very elaborate specimen of late 
Norrnan, and is composed of three receding semicircular 
arches, ornamented with zigzag mouldings, and others of 
a different character, the archivolt being enriched with a 
kind of billet moulding ; the zigzag is carried down the 
jambs, and the capitals are foliated. On either side of the 
chancel arch is a small squint, and on the south side of the 
nave an arched recess, one foot in depth, supposed to 
have been an altar. The soffit of the arch is ornamented 
with a scroll pattern, similar to that around paintings on 
the south wall, which will presently be noticed. To allow 
sufficient room for this recess, a portion of the nave wall 
has been cut away, forming as it were a second recess; 
and within this is painted the head of a queen. It is exe- 
cuted in the conventional style of the time, and is simply a 
broad red outline; the hair is long, and flows gracefully 
upon the shoulders : she holds a sceptre in her hand, the 
pattern of which is similar to what is frequently met with 
on encaustic tiles, and the date is about the beginning of 
the fourteenth century. 

The nave of this church bears evidence of its Norman 
origin, by the existence of some round-headed windows, on 
either side, and there is an early English doorway on the 
north side. The tower is at the west end, and is of Nor- 
man execution and of massive character. 

The church being under restoration, led to the scraping 
of the walls, and thence to the discovery of paintings, 
which had once covered the whole of them. "When I first 
visited the church", says Mr. Baigent, " the only fragment 
remaining on the north wall was near the chancel arch : it 
appeared to represent * Christ walking on the sea'. The 
figures were delineated with great spirit, and the folds of 
the drapery well cast, and bears strong resemblance to 
those I discovered in Winchester cathedral. On the south 
wall was the story of Lazarus and Dives, a favourite sub- 
ject, illustrative of and in relation to the doctrine of the re- 
surrection, and which is given in plate ix. Of this but one 
compartment was quite complete it represented the rich 
man sitting at a table, habited in a chequered robe, with a 
coif of the same character ; by his side are three ladies, and 



78 MEDIEVAL PAINTINGS. 

he is giving directions to a serving man, in a dark-coloured 
dress, and holding a stick in his left hand. The beggar, 
Lazarus, is close by the portal, leaning on a staff, and asking 
alms : his limbs are spotted all over with disease, doubtless 
intended to represent the leprosy, and dogs are licking his 
sores. The serving man, or porter, seems as if he is being 
directed to drive away the importunate Lazarus. The 
compartment is completed by the decease of Lazarus, who, 
extended on the ground with his arms crossed, is in the 
act of death ; and an angel receives his soul, which he is 
breathing forth under the form of a young child. The 
costume and accessories all point the date of this work to 
the thirteenth century; the head dresses of the ladies are 
varied, and at the feet of one are represented the crumbs 
of bread which have fallen from the table. The subject 
was continued on the adjoining part of the wall, but unfor- 
tunately, during the temporary absence of the clergyman 
for one day, it was ruthlessly destroyed by a labourer. It 
consisted of a venerable and majestic figure, nimbed and 
clothed in black, holding a naked child in his arms : this 
was Lazarus, in Abraham's bosom. The face of Abraham 
was impressive, and painted with great care; beneath this 
were flames, with evil spirits, and the lower part of the 
body of the rich man was visible. That portion of the 
subject which would precede this the Death of the Rich 
man, was entirely gone. 

The whole of the western wall, above the arch of the door- 
way, was decorated with the final doom, or Last Judgment 
(see pi. vni) . In the centre was represented our Saviour, wear- 
ing on his head a cap of maintenance, of crimson purple, 
turned up with ermine ; his hair long and of a brown colour, 
and he has a pointed beard and moustachios : around his head 
is the crucial nimbus. But a small portion of this figure 
remains, but it appears to have been nude, and probably 
seated upon a rainbow. At the feet is the globe, divided 
by a zone : the lower part water, and beneath this figures 
in white shrouds. On the right of the Saviour, is the figure 
of an angel holding the lance, but the upper part alone 
remains, shewing the head with a coiffure, similar to that 
worn by Christ, with the addition, however, of a cross in 
the centre. On the opposite side are the other emblems of 
the passion the cross, pincers, etc. borne by another angel, 



MEDIEVAL PAINTINGS. 



79 



whose form is less distinctly preserved. Behind the angel 
holding the lance are a crowd of figures, among whom are 
two mitred heads : the forms of the mitres are varied, one 
being of an early character, such as was worn in the thir- 
teenth century ; the date of these paintings being the close 
of the fifteenth, this is a curious circumstance. Among 
this group is also the figure, the head however only remain- 
ing, of a female saint, with a dark brown nimbus. The 
left side of the Saviour is much defaced, but there still 
remains part of a figure, with a nimbus, which may proba- 
bly be St. Francis ; and amid a group behind him is a head, 
with the tonsure. Beyond this is an angel in white clothing, 
wearing an amice and alb, the head surmounted by a cross 
and surrounded by a fiery red nimbus, holding a sword in 
his right hand, whilst with the other he is thrusting forth a 
crowd of nude figures, with imploring and despairing coun- 
tenances. This fragment, so exceedingly curious, as well 
as the other relating to the story of Lazarus, make us 
regret that when an opportunity occurs of uncovering any 
of these remains, more care and supervision is not employed. 
If this became a more common practice, we might expect 
much more information on the arrangement of paintings 
in our churches than we have hitherto been able to obtain. 




The diapered pattern, given in the above cut, is taken 



80 MEDIEVAL PAINTINGS. 

from the church of St. Cross, in the immediate vicinity of 
Winchester, and forms part of a decoration on the walls of 
a chapel, on the south side of the choir. There is very 
little doubt but that the whole of the walls of this church 
were richly decorated indeed, the patterns of some of the 
ornaments can be traced through the thick overlaying of 
whitewash. Among some portions of coloured walls recently 
laid bare, Mr. Baigent has discovered the impress of a seal, 
repeated at intervals; it consisted of a representation of 
the crucifixion, with a legend around the margin, but which 
was not legible. This, without doubt, was an impress from 
the seal of the hospital, or at any rate contained the same 
design. 

To the medieval sculpture, discovered at Stoke Charity, 
we have alluded in a former paper (see vol. v, p. 256). 
It was found in the wall between the chancel arch and the 
south wall of the nave, concealed in a niche, evidently 
hastily made for that purpose. When first found, the 
colouring of the whole was perfect, and had not sustained 
the least damage, save a portion of the base, which was 
broken away. The subject represented was St. Gregory's 
Mass, or St. Gregory's Pity, which forms a very favourite 
illustration to ancient missals, and the story of which is 
recorded in The Golden Legend. The sculpture measures 
forty-four inches in height, and nineteen inches in breadth, 
and is composed of a chalky .material. It is gratifying to 
know that it will be preserved, and that for this we are 
indebted to the zeal of Mr. Baigent, whose active exertions 
merit the approbation of the Society. 



81 



of tfy Association. 



JANUARY 9, 1850. 

MR. PETTIGREW communicated a paper on the antiquity and primitive 
form of our national instrument, the harp, by Charles Egan, esq., which 
was ordered to be read before the Association, and will appear in a future 
number of the Journal. 

Mrs. Forster, of Cheltenham, forwarded the impression of an ecclesias- 
tical seal of the fifteenth century, belonging to Oswald Grimston, esq. It 
represents the Salutation, and has also the name MARIA inscribed on it. 

Mr. Planche communicated the impression of a seal of the time of 
Edward I, belonging to Mr. Langton, of Manchester ; respecting which 
inquiries were directed to be made, and will appear in the next Journal. 

JANUARY 23. 

Mr. Pretty, of Northampton, forwarded the drawing of a Roman pave- 
ment, recently discovered at Harpole, being the largest hitherto found in 
Northamptonshire. It will be noticed and illustrated in the next number 
of the Journal. 

Mr. Frederick Chancellor exhibited a drawing of a Roman urn recently 
discovered in Chelmsford. It was found about four hundred yards from 
some excavations (there making, to display a Roman villa), in a gravel-pit, 
about four feet from the original surface of the land ; it was not embedded 
in the gravel, but just upon the top of it. Within two or three yards of 
it, was likewise found a small silver coin of Claudius : reverse, a man on 
horseback, galloping. Mr. Chancellor learnt, that several portions of urns 
and vases had been found in the immediate vicinity of the diggings from 
time to time, as well as several coins. He was inclined to think, that, 
near where the urn was found, there must formerly have been a cemetery; 
as it is pretty certain the old Roman road went from Widford to Danbury ; 
and a line on the map stretched from these points cuts the site where the 
urn was discovered. The urn (having nothing remarkable in its form) was 
perfect, with the exception of a small piece chipped out ; far more perfect, 
indeed, than any pottery that has been discovered at the villa ; it had been 
apparently very slightly burnt, and was of a dark-brown colour. When 
discovered, at the bottom of it, there was a small black lump, which had 

VOL. VI. 11 



82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

the appearance (as described by the men -who found it) of the burnt wick 
of a candle ; this had been thrown away and destroyed before Mr. Chan- 
cellor visited the spot. With regard to the excavations, but little has been 
done recently in the shape of digging, the weather having prevented their 
continuance ; but Mr. Chancellor is inclined to think that they have come 
upon the most curious part yet excavated. This consists of a portion of a 
circular wall ; but whether it formed a part of a circular or semicircular 
apartment, he is not yet able to determine. The diameter, however, has 
been ascertained to be twenty feet. The piers are composed of tiles about 
nine inches square, and one inch and a quarter thick, generally in five 
courses, and about two feet apart. Large tiles were placed, reaching from 
pier to pier, to form the bottom for the bed of concrete, upon which was 
placed the tessellated pavements. Fragments of very large tiles have 
been found, three inches thick, and which must have been quite two feet 
long. As soon as the open weather comes, it is intended to renew the 
researches. The coins, of which there are about fifty, are mostly in good 
preservation. Mr. Chancellor promises, as soon as he can get at the posi- 
tion of more walls, to make out a plan of the whole of the excavations ; 
but the walls yet discovered are so fragmentary, as to present no appear- 
ance of plan. 

Mr. Purland exhibited various Roman antiquities from the collection of 
Mr. Fillinham, of some of which drawings were directed to be taken for 
future reference. 

Mr. Long communicated, through Mr. C. Roach Smith, some badges 
belonging to horse-furniture, or harness, which were referred to Mr. Planche 
for consideration. 

Mr. A. H. Burkitt exhibited two keys, obtained from the Seine, at 
Paris ; but their forms had nothing peculiar to render their illustration 
necessary. 

Mr. George Milner exhibited the impressions of two seals, one of the 
city of Worcester, the other of the city of Lincoln. 



FEBB.UAET. 6. 

Mr. Christopher Lynch gave a notice of some remains supposed to have 
been of the ancient church of the Knights Templars, and other early build- 
ings, behind the house of Mr. Charles Griffith, of Holborn (near Middle 
Row, and opposite to Gray's Inn), and exhibited a specimen of antique 
green wine-flask, being one of five met with in excavating on the site. 
Mr. Baily and Mr. White undertook to make a survey of the place, and 
to report to a future meeting. 

Mr. Charles Moore Jessop forwarded the following account of a Greek 
altar obtained from Athens : 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



83 



AATOAAOCXA 
PlCTHPfON 




" The piece of sculpture now in my possession, which this drawing 
represents, was found among 
the ruins of a temple of Mi- 
nerva, at Athens, and brought 
to this country about ten years 
ago. 

"The material appears to 
be Athenian marble. The 
altar is a little mutilated at 
the top; but otherwise in good 
preservation. Its dimensions 
are height, nine inches and 
a half; basement and entabla- 
ture severally, six inches and 
a half ; and five inches and a 
half square. The column, or 
shaft, is nearly five inches by 
four inches and three quar- 
ters, and tapers slightly to- 
ward the top, giving to the 
whole a graceful appearance. 
At the top is a circular hollow 
three inches and a half in diameter, and half an inch deep. Its use was 
to contain the ball in the games ; and, as a domestic altar, to receive the 
libations. A figure, in high relief, two inches and a half in circumference, 
appears in the centre of each side. The weight of the altar is twenty- 
four pounds and a half. 

: " The inscription runs thus : ' Hpac\ct tirrjicooi ATroXXwvioc MunXjjveuoc 
Xaro//oc \a.pi(m>ipiov' ' To Hercules the propitious, Apollonius the My- 
tilenian, a worker in stone (dedicates) a thank-offering.' 

" Considering the great regularity with which the ancient Greeks en- 
graved their slabs and altars, and the irregularity of this, we cannot assign 
to it an earlier date than that of the Christian era." 

Augustus Guest, esq., LL.D., made the following communication through 
Mr. C. Roach Smith : " I take this opportunity of mentioning the exist- 
ence of a very curious piece of Saxon sculpture, which fell a short time ago, 
while in Wiltshire, under my notice. I was visiting an old friend at Sta- 
pleford Matravers, a very pretty and retired village, about eight miles from 
Salisbury, on the road to Bath; and while there, I made many antiquarian 
journeys to the numerous objects of interest in which that part of the 
country especially abounds. On one of these occasions I rambled across 
the meadows to the church of Little Langford, a hamlet lying on the oppo- 
site side of the valley, through which the river Wiley takes its course ; and 



CD. 



84 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

there, embowered in trees, I found the church I am now about to describe. 
Of the dedication I can say nothing ; the date, the early part of the four- 
teenth century. The style bears in places marks of transition from the 
early English to the decorated, but it requires a more accustomed eye than 
mine to fix with precision the period and characteristics of the original 
design. The abomination of reparation has here spoiled more than can be 
imagined; and the neglect of the east window is likely to be attended with 
equal mischief, for the mullions are in parts so attenuated, that were the glass 
removed, the whole of the stone-work must immediately fall. The ground 
plan is slightly cruciform, and the material rubble- work ; it consists of nave, 
transept, and chancel. The ancient porch seems to have been removed, 
and is now replaced by a modern one, of red-brick. The interior of the 
church is remarkable, chiefly for its extreme mutilation : the screen has 
long since disappeared, but the holes in the walls on either side shew that 
it must have been both large and massive. On the south there is a 
hagioscope, concealed by the pulpit, and in the transept an altar tomb, with 
a recumbent, but very mutilated figure, both of which are duly covered 
with a most elegant coating of eternal whitewash. The length of the 
building is about sixty feet. 

" I now proceed to describe to you the most interesting feature for which 
this church is remarkable ; and in order to convey more clearly the charac- 
ter of the sculpture, I shall have pleasure, if you think it worth having, of 
sending you the sketch of the design which I made at the time I visited it. 
(See plate ix). On the exterior wall, on the south side of the church, 
west of the transept, and under an imperfect Saxon (?) arch, is a very curious 
piece of sculpture, to which the surrounding country-people have attached 
the legend I shall presently communicate. The subjects are two, and seem 
to have no immediate connexion one with the other. That, above the 
spring of the arch on two distinct and rough stones, is first, a bishop in 
pontificalibus, with a crozier in his left hand, and with the right upraised, 
the first two fingers being extended in the act of giving the benediction. 
On his right is a rude lattice-work ornament, with three pellets in each 
half of the quarry. Above his head the remains of what no doubt was a 
canopy. The other stone has carved on it a figure, something like an 
anchor; and upon the shaft, as well as on the flukes, three birds are perched. 
It is evidently allegorical, and may perhaps represent the Trinity, as the 
anchor of Christian faith. The subject sculptured on the other stone 
extends quite across the arch, and is a grotesque representation of a wild 
boar hunt, as I take it, but there is ground for the belief that this also is 
an allegory. The animal is of vast size, and is hunted by three dogs ; 
one of them has fixed his teeth on the throat of the boar, while the other 
two are harassing him behind. The whole group may not inappropriately 
represent the church and the power of evil. There is no end to inventions 



Plate IT. 




Ufa f tVe Ongtnfcl /3 f* 4. in. x J/.* 6 tn. 

Scufo Tfalf' of tfte, My&, 



Church/. 



ARCH ON THE SOUTH WALL OF THE CHURCH AT LITTLE LANGFORD 




: 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 85 

of this kind amongst the ecclesiastical remains of that debased and vitiated 
period of church history, in which the practices of the first three centuries 
were as much unknown as the languages in which their doctrines were con- 
veyed. Hence the errors and puerilities that, amidst the splendour of 
architecture, fail not to arrest the attention of the student of our Christian 
annals. I might add some few instances, but as this is beside the subject, I 
will not at present trouble you with them. The legend attached to the 
bishop and the birds is as follows : The hamlet of Little Langford lies 
immediately under Grovely Wood, and about a mile and a half distant is 
the village of Steeple Langford. Here tradition fixes the residence of a 
certain fair and noble lady, who held vast possessions in the county, and 
claimed, in a spirit of avarice, what did not strictly belong to her; namely, 
a large portion of the forest of Grovely. One day she went to the wood 
and gathered some nuts, in one of which she found a maggot of unusual 
size ; and, in a fit of woman's caprice, took it home and nursed it with such 
care, that it grew to an enormous magnitude, but requited the lady's kind- 
ness by biting her finger so severely as to cause her death. The broken 
canopy they take for the maggot, the bishop for the lady, the pellets for the 
nuts, and the birds and anchor for Grovely Wood. This is the myth that 
finds implicit faith amongst the rustics of the neighbourhood !" 

Mr. Lynch exhibited a specimen of needle work of the time of Charles 
I ; and Mr. Chaffers and Mr. Burkitt illustrated the same by specimens 
from their collections, of a peculiar description of needle work, which pre- 
vailed during a limited period at the commencement of the seventeenth 
century, and not mentioned by lady Wilton, or any other writer upon the 
subject. 



FEBRUARY 20. 

Mr. Lynch exhibited two ivory carvings : one of the fourteenth century, 
representing the Crucifixion ; the other of the seventeenth century, being 
the story of king David and Bathsheba. 

Mr. Keet exhibited a large stone celt found in the Thames, at Lam- 
beth. 

Mr. Baily made the following report of his examination of the premises 
in Holborn, mentioned at a previous meeting : 

" By the desire of the Council, and in company with Mr. Alfred White, 
I have visited the premises No. 322, in Holborn, which have been in the 
occupation of Mr. Griffith's family more than a century. At the back of 
the same we found a large building, formerly consisting of one room only, 
measuring about forty feet in length from east to west, and twenty-one 
feet wide from north to south, within the clear of the walls. This room 
is now divided into two stories by a modern floor. 



86 PKOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

" Stowe 1 mentions buildings existing on this site. He says : ' Beyond 
the Barres (Holborn) had ye in olde time a temple huilded by the Tem- 
plers, whose order first began in the yeare of Christ 1118, in the 19 of 
Henry the first. This temple was left and fel to ruine since the yeare 
1184, when the Templers had builded them a new temple in Fleet-street, 
neere to the river of Thames. A great part of this olde temple was pulled 
downe but of late in the yeare 1595. The same was after the bishoppe 
of Lincolnes Inne, where he lodged when he repaired to the cittie ; and 
John Eussell, bishop of Lincolne, lord chauncelor in the raigne of Eichard 
the III, 1483-1485, was lodged there. It hath of late yeares belonged to 
the earles of Southampton, and is, therefore, called Southampton-house. 
One Mayster Roper hath of late builded there, by meanes whereof, part 
of the ruines of the old temple were scene to remaine builded of Cane- 
stone, round in forme, as the new temple by Temple-barre- Beyond this 
Southampton-house is New-streete, so called in the raigne of Henry III, 
1216-1272, when hee founded the house of Convertes, betwixt the old 
temple and the new. The same street hath sithence been called Chaun- 
cery-lane, by reason that king Edward the third, 1327-1377, annexed the 
house of Converts by pattent to the office of Gustos Rotulorum, or maister 
of the rolles, in the 15 of his raigne.' 

" We were told by Mr. Griffith, that this room has always been known 
to his family by the name of the Chapel, but why so, it does not appear ; 
nothing of an ecclesiastical character is to be seen, and it certainly could 
not have formed any portion of the old temple mentioned by Stow. 

" The framed timber ceiling is the only object worthy of notice ; it is 
now supported on shoring; and although the timbering is perfectly sound, 
it must very soon fall to ruin, on account of the great weight and the 
bad construction of the roof above it ; this ceiling is quite flat, and is 
divided into six large panels, having one longitudinal and two transverse 
moulded girders, or beams, of large size ; moulded cornice, or wall plates, 
to correspond with the girders, surround the north, west, and south sides ; 
but as the room appears to have extended formerly more eastward, there 
is no wall plate on this side, but a transverse girder, similar to the two 
before mentioned ; from the wall plates to the longitudinal girder, joists 
are framed, measuring seven inches by six inches, and seven or eight 
inches apart. The figures Nos. 1, 2, and 3, shew the forms of the wall 
plates, and the transverse and longitudinal girders ; and No. 4 shews a 
view of a part of the ceiling at the intersection of these. 

" On the north side in the upper part of the wall is an opening, now 
built up, it measures nine feet wide, and has the appearance of having 
been a window; a portion of a doorway with a pointed arch remains in the 
south-west corner of the room. 

1 " Survey of London", 1598, pp. 361^2. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



87 



" The construction I consider cannot be of earlier date than the year 
1500, and it may be twenty years later. 




" This room was most probably the chief apartment, or hall, in the resi- 
dence of the earls of Southampton. It is interesting as a relic of old 
London, which in a few more years most likely will be swept away." 

Mr. Chaffers exhibited a very fine specimen of ancient embossed alms- 
giving dish, from Germany ; upon which, and on two others of a similar 
character, Dr. Bell read a paper, which will appear in a future number 
of the Journal. 

Mr. Edward Pretty, of Northampton, communicated a brief notice of the 
discovery of some Roman buildings at Gullet Copse, situate near the fifty- 
sixth mile stone on the Towcester road. See pp. 73-76, ante. 

Mr. G. N. Wright exhibited the cast of a sculptured boss, in the centre 
of the vault of Staunton tower, at Belvoir castle ; an account of which, with 
illustrations, will appear in the next number of the Journal. 

A correspondent forwarded, through Mr. C. R. Smith, the following 
notice of a contemplated destruction near to the city of Salisbury: " I beg 
to call your attention to a contemplated act of barbarism, which, perhaps 
through your influence as an antiquary, may be defeated. It is no less 
than the wilful demolition of the oldest church in the diocese of Salisbury, 
and the proposed removal of the site of the new church to the vicinity of 
a future railway station. The church is that of Fisherton, in the immediate 
suburb of the cathedral city, and distant not more than one mile from the 
episcopal palace. As a student of ecclesiastical antiquity, I am much 
annoyed by this violation of Christian decency, as well as of canon and 



88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

civil law ; for under what plea soever the church be destroyed, it is nothing 
less than sacrilege. Nothing can justify such an act of stupidity and im- 
piety. I have done what I can to prevent it, but I fear the state of church 
discipline is such as to leave no hope of success. The foundation of the 
church is much older than the cathedral, and is mentioned in Domesday 
Book" 

Mr. Smith stated, there was a strong feeling against the needless 
destruction of old churches. In the present case, he was happy to say that 
the destructionists would probably be defeated, as people very properly were 
tardy in furnishing money for such a purpose. 

Mr. H. Syer Cuming laid before the Association a paper on horse-shoes, 
which, together with illustrations, will appear in the Journal. 

The rev. Beale Post forwarded the tenth part of his remarks on the coins 
of Cunobeline, for which see pp. 16-29, ante. 

Mr. Thomas Barton, of Threxton, Norfolk, transmitted the impression of 
a silver ecclesiastical ring, bearing the letters t&fi. 

MARCH 6. 

Mr. C. R. Smith exhibited four bronze rings, two small torques, and a 
celt, which had been dug up in Woolmer Forest, Hants, last summer. 
They were found about twelve feet below the surface of the ground. 

Mr. Lynch exhibited a coloured glazed tile from Alhambra, with an 
Arabic inscription : "Wa la Ghalab la Alia"; i.e. " There is no conqueror 
but God." 

Mr. Chaffers also exhibited a similar tile. 

Mr. Syer Cuming made some observations on Morisco- Spanish art, which 
forms part of the interior decoration of the palace Alhambra ; and remarked 
.that there was formerly preserved at Granada a fictile vase, of gorgeous 
design, embellished with shields similar to those found on the tiles of 
Alhambra ; and, like them, having Arabic legends. The arabesque pattern 
of Mr. Lynch 's and Mr. Chaffers's tiles is slightly raised above the surface, 
which is of a deep green colour. The tiles, however, offer an infinite 
variety of exquisite arabesque designs, in different colours white, yellow, 
blue, green, brown, etc. Mr. Lynches specimen presented a yellow shield, 
charged with an heraldic bend, bearing the inscription above stated. 

Mr. Cuming further remarked : " The tile now under consideration 
offers some curious points for comparison with those manufactured by 
Christian artificers. We find the encaustic tiles of the fifteenth century 
bearing shields charged with the sacred monogram of IHC precisely in 
the way the Morisco tile is charged with the citation from the Koran. 
Another point of interest to observe is, that the Morisco- Spanish tiles were, 
in all probability, the archetype of the rich polychromic tiles first manu- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 89 

factured in Flanders, in the sixteenth century. The bright intertwined 
arabesque pattern, on a deep blue, or green field, is to be found on the ear- 
liest examples of these ' gaily tiles', as they were formerly called. (Mr. C. 
produced a specimen of one of these tiles, which evidently manifested 
the influence of Saracenic taste in its design. The field was deep blue, the 
arabesques white, and it bore on it two representations of yellow fruit, with 
crimson crowns and calyxes, and yellow and crimson leaves, which it is not 
impossible may have been intended by the painter for pomegranates, the 
badge of Granada. It was found in making an excavation in Wood-street, 
Cheapside, in 1848). 

" If we look upon the Alhambra tile as a whole, we may perceive the 
influence which one hostile creed had upon the arts of the other. The 
Moslem and the Christian, ever at deadly antagonism, did not disdain to 
profit by each other's ideas. The follower of El-Islam adopted the Christian 
shield, with its heraldic bend, but stamped on it the precept of his pro- 
phet. The Christian caught the idea, and not only placed the sacred 
monogram within an escutcheon, but emblazoned it with the emblems of 
the passion of his Saviour; and covered the walls and floors of his edifices 
with the rich and beautiful arabesque ornamentations, designed by his bit- 
terest foe. 

" The love for richly-decorated glazed tiles has existed for ages in the 
east. They are extensively employed in China, both as coverings for the 
roofs of buildings, and as ornamental copings to walls, etc. Green is the 
most usual tint met with, but the imperial palaces and temples of Confucius 
are adorned with yellow tiles, denominated Hwang-wa. The celebrated 
' Porcelain Tower', at Nankin, receives its title from being covered with 
glazed tiles, which are of a green, yellow, and red colour. This temple was 
erected in the reign of Suen-tsong, fifth monarch of the Ming dynasty, in 
the year 1432. 

" Glazed tiles, variously coloured and embossed, are met with in the 
pagodas and other edifices of Pegu, Burmah, and Nepaul : and the mosques, 
in the ruins of Gour, one of the ancient capitals of northern India, are 
faced with embossed and coloured tile- work (three fragments of which were 
exhibited one piece was of a deep blue, another white, and the front edge 
of the third was moulded into the form of a baluster, and covered with 
yellow and green glaze. They were from the king's tomb and gateway, 
and the Nuttin Musjid buildings erected in the fifteenth century. These 
fragments were found in the jungle, near the mosques, by colonel Franklin, 
in 1826). At Damascus is an ancient structure, called the ' Green 
Mosque', from its minaret being entirely covered with enamelled tiles, of 
a bright green colour, which present a most splendid appearance when the 
sun is shining upon them. It is in Persia and the older buildings of Turkey 
that we must look for the most tastefully designed tile decorations. Tavernier, 
VOL. vi. 12 



90 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

in his Persian Travels (p. 22), speaks of a grand mosque at Tauris (Tabriz) 
being adorned with embossed and enamelled tiles : some bearing black 
flowers, on a green field ; others, white stars, on a black field. Fraser, in 
his Journey into Khorassan, describes the sahn, or square, in which stands 
the mausoleum of Imaum Keza, at Mushed, as being ' completely incrusted 
with mosaic work of tiles, painted and glazed, and arranged in figures of 
the most tasteful patterns and colours.' The dome of the mausoleum ' is 
covered with a coating of gilded tiles, relieved in some places around the 
neck with bands of azure blue, bearing Arabic inscriptions, in gold letters.' 
The interior of the building ' is highly ornamented with tiles of the richest 
colours, profuse of azure and gold, disposed in the most tasteful manner 
into garlands and devices of flowers, mingled with texts from the Koran.' 
The Kalif Houron al-Rasheed is interred in this splendid building. The 
magnificent mosque and tomb of Sultan Mahomed Khoda-Bendeh, at Sul- 
tanieh, in Persia, erected about the year 1583, displays some most curious 
and interesting examples of decorated tiles ; and the musjid ska, or royal 
mosque at Ispahan, built by order of Shah Abbas the Great, about the com- 
mencement of the seventeenth century, is also embellished with glazed 
tiles of the richest description. The interior of some of the more stately 
buildings of Turkey are adorned with most beautiful tiles, which frequently 
display much of Iranic taste in their composition." 

Mr. Cuming exhibited an exceedingly elegant wall-tile, admirable both 
for its florid design and brilliancy of colouring, obtained from a palace 
which belonged to the grand signior at Adrianople. It was painted with 
large white flowers, with green centres, upon a blue field, bordered with 
green bands. It measured between nine and ten inches long, and rather 
more than four inches and a half wide, and may probably have been the 
work of the sixteenth century. 

In apology for dilating upon oriental antiquities, Mr. Cuming observed 
that " Although we bear the name of the British Archaeological Associa- 
tion, let us not be deterred from sometimes extending our researches 
beyond the shores of our island-home. The antiquities of other countries 
frequently serve to elucidate those of our own land. These Alhambra tiles 
show us the origin of the gaily tiles, which once adorned the sacred edifices 
and mansions of our forefathers ; and again, the origin of these tiles must 
be sought amid the sunny regions of the east thus demonstrating that 
the antiquities of Arabia may even shed a reflected light upon those of our 
own country." 

Mr. M. A. Lower exhibited a small bronze object, which Mr. Smith 
conceived to have been the ornamental part of the handle of a knife, or some 
such instrument. " It is (he remarked) neatly made, and represents a 
two-fold subject, according as to the position in which it is held ; namely, 
a nondescript creature, and an equally unnameable beast seizing upon and 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 91 

swallowing the hind-quarters of a smaller animal. It is probably one of 
the Saxon exaggerations of a very common Koman design, that of a dog 
catching a rabbit, which is often found on pottery, and (more resembling 
Mr. Lower's relic) on the handles of Koman knives, from Keculver and 
Chesterford." See plate vi, Antiquities of Bichborough and Reculver, by 
Mr. C. K. Smith and Mr. Fairholt. 

Mr. Charles Ade, of Milton Court, Alfriston, addressed the following 
communication to Mr. C. R. Smith : " Within the last few days I have 
made an interesting discovery of what seems to be the remains of a Roman 
road, apparently leading from Pevensey castle to Lewes, it being in nearly 
a direct line between the two. My attention was drawn to the subject in 
the most accidental way. Not many days since, I was dining with the 
worthy vicar of an adjoining parish, together with several of my neighbours, 
when conversing about the antiquities of our more immediate vicinity, a 
respectable farmer present remarked, that in some of his fields he had 
noticed an appearance which he could not account for ; namely, a bed or 
layer of stones, reaching for a considerable distance, consisting of a mixture 
of sea-shingle and flints, which he observed must have been carried to the 
place for some unknown purpose. His remarks applied more especially to 
one of his fields, which has been recently ploughed. 

" The foregoing very naturally excited my curiosity, and in consequence 
I yesterday took an archaeological friend with me, to inspect the locality; 
and in the ploughed field alluded to we found the stones, as anticipated, 
and laying in a straight line across the field, in a right direction from 
Pevensey towards Lewes. Our examination was not confined to this one 
field, but we had not time to much extend it ; however, the result of our 
investigation was, that we could only account for what we saw by surmising 
it to be the remains of a Roman road, hitherto (I believe) unnoticed. Pro- 
ceeding in the inquiry, it has been reported to me that similar appearances 
have been observed at long intervals, for the space of several miles, extend- 
ing both east and west from the field we have noticed, and as it would 
appear in a straight direction from Pevensey (or Anderida) towards Lewes 
(or Mutuantonis) ? 

" It is a rather remarkable feature of the locality of our supposed line 
of investigation, that the land for miles together is meadow, or pasture 
land, which involves our research in the more obscurity (the ploughed field 
mentioned is an exception) ; yet the system of under-draining being now 
carried on to an unusual extent, may give us some assistance in this 
respect. I did not think to ascertain the distance across the ploughed field 
(where the traces are too evident to be mistaken), but I suppose it to be 
from thirty to forty rods, or perches. " 

Mr. Grove Lowe, of St. Alban's, communicated through Mr. R. S. Solly, 
V.P., some further intelligence respecting the excavations going on at 



92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Verulam. He observes : " Some labourers are now at work for lord 
Verulam, throwing down the hedge and bank between the theatre of Veru- 
lam and the road. I find they have discovered the wall which I always 
suspected to exist under the hedge, and forming the face of the theatre 
next the presumed Watling-street, which is now clearly shown for about 
one hundred yards formed of gravel, three feet, and perhaps more, in 
depth ; a slight mixture of broken brick, with the gravel, clearly shows that 
this stratum of road material is artificial. This discovery affords additional 
reason to regret the injury done to the old foundations before they were 
covered over, which will render it more difficult to connect the present 
with the former excavations." 

Mr. S. K. Solly, V.P., exhibited the rubbing of a brass of John Pecock, 
and Maude his wife, of which a representation was given in vol. v. To the 
present rubbing the armorial bearings are affixed. 



MAKCH 8. 

ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 
JAMES HEYWOOD, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A., IN THE CHAIR. 

THE following Report of the Auditors for 1849-50, was read : 

&utfitors' 



WE, the auditors of the BEITISH ABCHJEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION, hereby 
report, that having examined the account of receipts and payments of the 
Association for the past year, we find the receipts amount to 786 : 16 : 7, 
and the payments to 757:16:5, leaving, consequently, a balance of 
29 : : 2 in favour of the Association. 

We beg leave, at the same time, to express the satisfaction we have felt 
in witnessing the accurate manner in which the accounts are kept; in 
viewing the clearness and completeness of the information given respect- 
ing them ; and in observing the rigid economy practised in the Associa- 
tion's expenditure. 

It is, also, with much pleasure we advert to its prosperous condition, 
and the advances it has made, pecuniarily and otherwise, during the last 
year : the amount received on account of life and annual subscriptions 
during 1849-50, having reached to a larger sum than in any preceding 
year. 

It appears that sixty new associates, and this number including seve- 
ral gentlemen well known for their antiquarian taste and knowledge, 
have been elected during the year ; whilst, on the other hand, we have to 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 93 

deplore the loss of ten associates by death ; and to regret the retirement 
of thirty-seven other members, several of whom, however, had allowed 
their subscriptions to fall into arrear. 

It is satisfactory to find that the treasurer has been able to liquidate all 
claims upon the publication of the Winchester volume. There are, how- 
ever, subscriptions still due upon that volume, and also upon the Glou- 
cester volume, which, it is confidently hoped, will, by the exercise of the 
same discretion and zeal, discharge all obligations upon the latter work : 
the printing of which constitutes the only debt for which the Association 
is at this time responsible. 

And, in conclusion, we venture to feel assured it will be highly gratify- 
ing to the members at large, thus to see the precise condition of the 
affairs of the Association, and to know that, upon its general account, for 
which the annual subscriptions are applied, there is now no outstanding 
debt whatever. 

WILLIAM YEWD. 

JOHN WEBB. 
London, 8th March, 1850. 



The Treasurer delivered in an account of the members deceased, or 
withdrawn, and also of those elected during the year, which was received 
with great satisfaction. 

The thanks of the meeting were unanimously voted to the Treasurer 
for his valuable services and the deep attention he has always given to 
the welfare of the Association. 

The thanks of the meeting were also unanimously given to the Auditors 
for their copious and satisfactory report. 

The thanks of the meeting were unanimously voted to the President 
and Council for the past year. 

The thanks of the meeting were unanimously voted to the Secretaries 
of the Association for their valuable services. 

Upon the motion of Mr. Pettigrew, the recommendation of the Coun- 
cil to appoint a Registrar, Curator, and Librarian, was unanimously 
agreed to. 

It was also resolved, that the Public Meetings be held during the 
session, on the evenings of the second and fourth Wednesdays of the 
month, instead of Fridays, as heretofore. 

A ballot was taken for the Officers and Council for the ensuing year. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Ci O O O CO O CO O 

CO O CO O CO >O "* 1> 

I 1 I 1 rH 

Jr~ CD CO <N Tf O O 00 
^t*Or-l F-H 
(M T-H 

..... :'i o H 









. 






^ O 

CO 00 

I-H 

O 
O* N 

C>3 


















PL, 



<+J 



- 

1 



pq 



U) 



CO 
H 
P-l 



5 O O C 

P" 

* t O i-l OC 

< rH i-H 

> O O CM "1 
i CO rH f% CC 

oooooo ^ooooo > 
g - 


/ CC 
1 

) a 

c 
1 


>o 
c^ 

rH 

cq 

CM 
<0 

1 


^ - - 1 




j 


^ : ' : : : bo i 




03 


no :::::: g : : : : : a 2 
% : i : : : : ^ : : : : :>$ ' 










O 

O 


> rr\ m .."S zr 1 ^T cr 1 'y 1 **> S 2 2 t_r -r^ M " 
l"-' r^hMM^S" 2 !p- nSS" 13 ^"' 




oa 



^ 



fl 

s 
3 



i 



gj 

'""rf.'S 



PQ 



1th 



nd 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



95 



Mr. Gould and Mr. Newton having been appointed Scrutators of the 
lists, delivered in the following as elected : 

PRESIDENT. 

JAMES HEYWOOD, M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



SIR WM. BETHAM, F.S.A., M.R.I.A. 
BERIAH BOTFIELD, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
BENJ. B. CABBELL, M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

SlR FORTUNATUS DWARRIS,F.R.S.,F.S.A. 



R. MONCKTON MlLNES, M.P. 

T. J. PETTIGREW, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

S. R. SOLLY, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

SIR J. GARDNER WILKINSON, F.R.S. 



TREASURER. 

T. J. PETTIGREW, F.R.S., F.S.A. 



J. R. PLANCHE, F.S.A. 



SECRETARIES. 

I 



C. ROACH SMITH, F.S.A. 



Hydrographical Secretary CAPTAIN BULLOCK, R.N. 

Secretary for Foreign Correspondence WILLIAM BELL, PHIL. DOCT. 

Registrar, Curator, and Librarian ALFRED WHITE. 



W. H. Ainsworth 

Arthur Ashpitel, F.S.A. 

Charles Baily, F.S.A. 

William Beattie, M.D. 

Alexander H. Burkitt, F.S.A. 

F. H. Davis, F.S.A. 

George Godwin, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Nathaniel Gould, F.S.A. 

James O. Halliwell, F.R.S., F.S.A. 



A. C. Kirkmann 



Lord Londesborough, F.S.A. 

Thomas Lott, F.S.A. 

Major J. A. Moore, F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Benjamin Oliveira, F.R.S. 

E. Bedford Price 

James Prior, F.S.A., M.R.LA. 

John Green Waller 

William Wansey, F.S.A. 



AUDITORS. 



W. D. Haggard, F.S.A. 



Thanks were voted by acclamation to the President, for his attendance 
on this occasion, and for the interest he has manifested to promote the 
welfare of the Association. 



MARCH 13. 

Two papers, from Benjamin Gibson, esq., of Rome, Foreign Associate : 
one, on the monument discovered at Xanthus, by Sir Charles Fellows ; the 
other, an account of some discoveries of antiquities, recently made at Rome, 
were laid before the meeting, and referred to the printing committee, with 
a view to their publication in future numbers of the Journal, accompanied 
by the requisite illustrations. 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Henry Norris, of South Petherton, forwarded a sketch taken from 
an old stone adjoining a bridge over the river Parrett. It represents two 
children, respecting whom in the neighbourhood there exists a tradition as 
to their having been drowned by the breaking in of the bridge, when it 
formerly consisted of wood. It is probably a medieval sepulchral slab. 
Mr. Norris also forwarded the rubbing of a brass, in South Petherton 
church, to the memory of a lady Mary Daubney, who, he believes, was the 
mother of Giles, the first lord Daubney, to whom the manor belonged. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 



WORKS IN PREPARATION. 

By Subscription. In Foolscap 4 to., with numerous Illustrations, by L. Jevvitt, price 
10s. 6d.; or a few copies with the arms emblazoned, 15s. A Graphic and Histo- 
rical Sketch of the Antiquities of Totness. By William Cotton, F.S. A. London : 
Longman and Co. 

For Private Circulation. A New Boke about Shakespeare and Stratford-on-Avon. By 
J. 0. Halliwell, F.B.S., F.S.A. 4to. 

By Subscription. A Coloured Lithographic Print of the beautiful and richly designed 
Koman Tessellated Pavement, in Jurywall-street, Leicester. The drawing, by 
W. Bowman, jun., Lendal, York, will be lithographed by Messrs. Standidge and 
Co., Old Jewry, London. It is on such a scale as faithfully to illustrate the 
remarkably numerous patterns in all their detail and colourings. Price to Sub- 
scribers, 12s. Subscribers' names should be forwarded to the publisher, Mr. 
Henry E. Smith, 3, Parliament-street, York. 

By Subscription. In 1 vol., 8vo., with map and engravings, 5s. A History of the 
Town of Winchelsea (ancient and modern), in the county of Sussex. By William 
Durrant Cooper, F.S.A. J. Russell Smith. 

By Subscription. Price Three Guineas. The complete works of King Alfred the 
Great. Subscribers' names received by the Rev. Dr. Giles, Bampton, Oxfordshire. 

Just Published. Collectanea Antiqua. Part n, vol. ii. By C. Boach Smith. J. 
Russell Smith. 



ERRATUM. 
Page 33, line 37, forphilpot, read " filfot". 



PLATE X 




THE JOURNAL 



OP THE 



JULY 1850. 



BV J. B. I'LASCIIE, ESQ., F.S.A. 

IN December last, some rubbings were exhibited by 
Mr. George R. Wright to the Association, of a boss, or 
key-stone, existing in a vault beneath the Staunton tower, 
at Belvoir Castle, and a desire was expressed by several of 
the members that a cast should, if possible, be obtained 
from the original sculpture. 

This desire, Mr. George Wright has been enabled, by 
permission of his grace the duke of Rutland (who has ex- 
pressed himself lately to be much interested in the matter), 
to gratify, by placing before us a cast taken some years 
ago for the purposes of an investigation instituted at 
Cambridge ; but which does not appear to have produced 
any decisive opinion respecting its meaning and probable 
antiquity. 

In the cellar book at Belvoir, for the Staunton vault 
is now the private wine cellar of his grace, is preserved 
the following letter, written by the late Mr. Francis Douce, 
probably at the period of the above inquiry, which was 
kindly pointed out to Mr. Wright by Mr. Douglass, the 
steward : 

" The large letter on the key-stone of the vault under the old tower at 
Belvoir Castle, may be either for a T or an M. The T used in inscrip- 
tions from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century, certainly bore a great 
resemblance to the letter in question. 

VOL. VI. 13 



98 NOTES ON A BOSS. 

" It varied in its form, as did other letters used at one and the same 
period, according to the fancy of the scribe or the sculptor, and appeared 
in the following shapes. (See plate x, fig. 4.) 

" In an inscription in the church of Great Bookham, in Surry, it has 
this singular form. (See fig. 5.) 

"In a hook printed about 1450, by Fust and Schoeffer, there is a 
letter prefixed to that service of the mass, called ' Te Igitur', of which 
this is a reduced copy (see fig. 6). The authors of the Nouveau traite de 
Diplomatique, state, that this T is often used in old German MSS. 

" That as this letter cannot be traced to Norman times, I should think 
it will not fit Robert de Todenis so well as it would, as an M, a Manners, 
and particularly so with its accompanying coronet. 

" The lower part of Belvoir Castle is, most probably, the oldest, and 
where the architect would in preference record the memory of the founder, 
and of which I think instances are not wanting. As I am now writing 
without the Belvoir letter before me, what is here stated must be regarded 
with the necessary indulgence, the whole matter being left to the better 
judgment and experience of others. F. DOUCE." 

This letter, written with the usual caution of its learned 
author, unfortunately throws no light upon the subject. 
Mr. Douce evidently had seen only a drawing of the centre 
letter, and not of the border which surrounded it, or he 
would undoubtedly have alluded to the letters sculptured 
thereon. 

The rev. Irvin Eller, in his Guide, or Hand-Book to 
Belvoir Castle, speaking of the vault, says : " The roof is 
intersected with eight plain bevilled ribs, springing from 
the rock or floor of the cellar ; at the point of intersection 
is a key-stone, on which are rudely sculptured a monogram 
of Longobardic character, a coronet of fleurs-de-lis and 
leaves intermixed, surrounded by a belt, consisting of a 
similar monogram, and a rose alternately." And after 
summing up the evidence for and against its being of 
Norman origin, concludes by stating, that there is an 
accumulation of probabilities derived, from tolerably early 
data, that Thomas Manners, first earl of Rutland, was the 
rebuilder of this portion of the Staunton tower in the early 
part of the sixteenth century. 

presuming, however, that the vaulted chamber (for it is 
misleading one to call it simply a vault) formed no part of 
the most ancient portion of the castle laid in ruins by lord 
Hastings, circa 1461, the form of the letters, and the gene- 



NOTES ON A BOSS. 99 

ral character of the ornament of the key-stone, bear such 
evident mark of the workmanship of the fifteenth century, 
that it would require very conclusive testimony to induce 
antiquaries of the present day to assign it to any other 
period. See plate x, fig. 1. 

Let us see, therefore, what circumstances afford us, in 
the shape of collateral proof, in support of the internal 
evidence. 

There can exist no doubt, that the crowned letter is 
M, and not T. By a curious coincidence at the very 
time the cast of the boss was forwarded to the Council, a 
circular metal plate was also sent for exhibition, having 
on it a crowned M of precisely the same character. See 
fig. 2. 

The occurrence of a crowned M in ecclesiastical build- 
ings is frequent, as the initial of the Virgin Mary, " Regina 
Ccelorum"; an instance is herewith engraved from some 
painted glass at Little Worley church, Essex (see fig. 3). 
In the case of the boss, however, there is no reason to 
imagine that it has a sacred origin^ and but little to doubt 
that it represents the initial of the family name of the 
present noble owner. 

This circumstance, therefore, limits the field of inquiry 
to the latter half of the fifteenth century, as the castle of 
Belvoir only came into the possession of the Manners 
family on the marriage of sir Robert Manners, of Ethale, 
Northumberland, and sheriff of the county 1445, with 
Eleanor, sister and co-heir of Edmund lord Ros, of Ham- 
lake, in whose right George Manners, her eldest son by 
sir Robert, became twelfth Baron de Ros, A.D. 1487. 

The letter M being crowned, appears to have authorized 
the idea, that it must needs represent the family of Man- 
ners after the revival of the earldom of Rutland, in the 
person of Thomas Manners, thirteenth Baron de Ros, by 
letters patent bearing date June 1526. 

But putting aside the fact, that the coronet is not that 
of an earl, which even as early as the reign of Henry 
VIII, was composed of alternate leaves and pearls upon 
unequal heights, the custom of surmounting initial letters 
with arms or coronets prevailed to a great extent at this 
period. 

Impressions of seal rings are continually exhibited in 




100 NOTES ON A BOSS. 

illustration of this practice; that of one of the Colby 
family, herewith represented, is sufficient 
to prove, that it was in fashion amongst 
those who had no pretension to a coronet 
whatever. Vide also Proceedings, vol. v, 
page 359. 

Let us now examine the highly interesting ornament 
which surrounds the crowned M, and which Mr. Eller 
terms " a belt consisting of a similar monogram, and a 
rose alternately". If by similar, Mr. Eller meant the 
same monogram, he was certainly mistaken, for the letter 
alternately with the rose is in every instance an R, and 
the ornament altogether is not a belt, we conceive, but a 
family collar, one of those many royal or noble liveries 
which knight or peer did not disdain to wear when pre- 
sented by his feudal lord or liege sovereign. 

They first appear in effigies towards the close of the 
fourteenth century, and they multiply exceedingly in the 
fifteenth. About the period to which we are inclined to 
assign this piece of sculpture, namely, the contention of 
the houses of York and Lancaster, many celebrated ex- 
amples are to be produced. The collar of suns and (white) 
roses, badges of the house of York, is to be seen round 
the neck of the effigy of sir John Crosby, in Great St. 
Helen's church; of sir Robert Wingfield, painted in a 
window of East Hirling church, Norfolk, executed between 
1461 and 1480; of the countess of Arundel, at Arundel, 
Sussex; and in numerous other examples. The suns and 
roses in the last-named one are connected by oak-leaves, a 
badge of the Arundel family. 

In some instances, these collars had a pendant, such as 
the white lion of March, the white boar of Richard III, 
etc. Now, at the time Thomas Manners, lord de Ros, 
was created earl of Rutland by Henry VIII, he was a 
knight of the garter, having been elected a companion of 
that noble order on the 23rd of April in that year, and we 
cannot but suppose that had the initial M been that of the 
first earl, it would have been surrounded by the collar of 
the order of the garter ; family decorations having by that 
time wholly disappeared. 

Now, what, on the other hand, is the evidence in favour 
of its connexion with sir Robert Manners, the first of that 



NOTES ON A BOSS. 101 

family who was lord of Belvoir Castle, or of his son George, 
who succeeded him. Sir Robert Manners, the husband of 
lady Eleanor de Ros, as Mr. Eller himself tells us, was 
knighted in 1465. In 1466, he was made deputy to Richard 
duke of Gloucester, then admiral of England, Ireland, and 
Acquitaine. It almost follows, as a matter of course, that 
he would have been decorated with the livery collar of that 
prince, and the alternate R and rose form precisely such a 
combination as we should look for in such a decoration. 
He died about 1485, the year in which " Diccon, his mas- 
ter", fell in the battle of Bosworth Field, and his son George, 
who succeeded him, and became lord de Ros on the death 
of his mother in 1487, we find in the service of the Lan- 
castrian victor ; and though he married a grand-daughter 
of Richard duke of York, he was unlikely, after the union 
of the Roses, to command the sculpture of a party badge 
of so peculiar an origin, unless in commemoration of his 
father, as his personal ornament. 

After the accession of Henry VII, family collars, as 
I have before observed, seem entirely to have disap- 
peared, as we meet with none but those of the garter, 
or of SS, that mysterious decoration, the origin of 
which is yet to seek. There is one other derivation 
assignable with some probability to this collar; it may 
have been the family livery of De Ros, and therefore 
appropriated by that into which the heiress had mar- 
ried, in the same way that the De Ros's had centuries 
before assumed the arms of the Trusbuts of Wartre, on 
succeeding "de jure uxoris" to that barony. 1 An R and a 
rose would be as applicable to the house of De Ros as to 
Richard duke of Gloucester. 

The water bougets of the Trusbuts have so completely 
superseded the armorial bearings, whatever they might 
have been, of De Ros, that we have no indication left of 
them ; but it is in accordance with all analogy to presume 
that they should have been roses, or at any rate a rose 
would be a badge or cognizance likely to have been adopted 
by a family of that name. Roses were granted, in 1630, 
by the College of Arms, to Roos or Rosse, of Lyme Regis, 

. 1 Leland, in his Itinerary, vol. vii, p. 20, says, " the lord Trusbut gave in his 
anna three bolts." Qy. three boutz or bouts. 



102 NOTES ON A BOSS. 

county Devon. Crest A rose, gules ; seeded, or ; barbed 
vert; between two wings expanded, ermine. 

The crest of another Roos whose arms are azure, three 
water bougets, or, is stated to be three slips of roses, argent, 
leaved, vert. But granting that the collar should belong 
to the house of Ros, or that the roses and R's are merely 
arranged as an ornament around the M, in allusion to the 
union of the families, the genealogical facts before us pre- 
vent our dating the sculpture anterior to 1445, and the 
historical events do not appear to justify the supposition 
of its being executed later than the fifteenth century. 

It must not be forgotten that this opinion has been 
formed solely on the inspection of the cast forwarded to 
London, and that evidence more conclusive might yet be 
obtained from an examination of the chamber itself, which 
does not seem lately to have undergone any critical sur- 
vey. Mr. Eller describes the ribs of the arches as " spring- 
ing from the wall or floor of the cellar". Do they not 
rather spring from the capital of columns entirely con- 
cealed by the usual accumulation of earth, the bases of 
which may, with the original floor of this vaulted chamber, 
be found many feet below the present level, and afford 
undoubted proof of their age, or fresh matter for specula- 
tion? Formerly a guard-room, or perhaps even a ban- 
quet-hall, it is now a wine-cellar. Is it possible to ascer- 
tain, without injury to the vinous antiquities, (which 
Bacchus forbid !) the original height and form of this inte- 
resting apartment? Amongst the authenticated records of 
his Grace's princely hospitality, are entries of the rapid 
consumption of hundreds of dozens of wine and innumer- 
able hogsheads of ale. If, at the conclusion of any such 
noble revel, there should be the slightest appearance of " a 
hole in the cellar", might we most respectfully request his 
Grace to take the opportunity of allowing a competent 
archaeologist to make the necessary exploration? 



J'UazJI. 






103 



ON THE 

ANTIQUITY AND PRIMITIVE FORM OF OUR 
NATIONAL INSTRUMENT, THE HARB. 

BY CHAS. EGAN, ESQ., BARRISTER AT LAW. 

" Though the voice shall cease, and the harp be silent, their fame shall 
not be forgotten." Orran, an Erse Poem. 

THAT the Members of the British Archaeological Asso- 
ciation have, on former occasions, deemed the subject of 
Ancient Musical Instruments worthy of their consideration, 
the pages of their own Journal creditably testify; 1 but 
that fact is not surprising, when we recollect that the 
main objects of the Association are "to investigate, 
preserve, and illustrate, all ancient monuments of the 
history, manners, customs, and arts of our forefathers." 
Under these circumstances, therefore, it is hoped that a 
few remarks on the antiquity, and probable primitive 
form, of our national instrument, the harp, may not prove 
unacceptable. 

Of all the various musical instruments respecting which 
any information has been handed down to us, the harp is 
unquestionably the most ancient, as well as the most cele- 
brated; and whether we contemplate the instrument as 
regards its extreme antiquity as having been the favourite 
instrument of our forefathers in remotest times or as 
being deeply (perhaps we may say indelibly) interwoven 
with our national annals, any concomitant of its history 
must prove interesting to the British archa3ologist, as well 
as to the British patriot. 

Although it is not intended to enter into a minute 
disquisition on the history of our national instrument, it 
may, perhaps, be well to glance at a few historical notices 
of it, before offering our surmise as regards the probable 
original form of an instrument, which in most civilized 

1 See articles " On the Musical In- p. 291, and vol. ii, p. 221 ; and "On 
struments of the Middle Ages," vol. i, Phonic Horns," vol. v, p. 119 



104 ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HARP. 

nations, and in none more than in our own great 
nation, 

" Has gained the good, the fair, the wise, 
To weep and worship at its numbers." 

An attempt to trace the history of this noble instrument 
leads us far beyond the ordinary annals of nations ; indeed 
we may ascend to the august authority of the Bible itself, 
even in its first pages, to establish a proof of its high anti- 
quity ; for we find by the fourth chapter of Genesis, that 
Jubal " was the father of all such as handle the harp and 
organ." ' Jubal was the seventh descendant from Adam, 
and thus the Sacred Record furnishes an allusion to the 
harp at a very early period. 

Commentators on the Pentateuch are of opinion, that 
the harp and other antediluvian instruments were handed 
down from Jubal to Noah, whose sons, after the flood, car- 
ried it with them into Chaldasa, and from thence into Egypt, 
where it continued until the time of Moses. 

Under Moses, who was conversant with the arts and 
knowledge of the Egyptians, and who devoted particular 
attention to music, it may be fairly presumed that the harp 
was cultivated ; for we are told that Moses, having been 
educated by Pharaoh's daughter as her own son, " was 
learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians." (Acts, chap, 
vii, verse 22.) Clemens Alexandrinus particularizes the 
acquirements of that great prophet and legislator, by 
affirming that "he was instructed, in his maturer age, 
by the Egyptians, in all the liberal sciences, as arithmetic, 
geometry, rhythm, but above all, music." Stromata, 
lib. i. 

That the harp held a conspicuous place in the feasts and 
religious ceremonies of the Chaldeans, Assyrians, and He- 
brews, numerous passages in Holy Writ also fully demon- 
strate. 2 

Among the Greeks, whose love of music amounted to 
enthusiasm, and who deemed it a gift from the gods, 3 the 

1 " The Hebrews called him the c. xxv, v. 1 ; 1 Sam., c. xvi, v. 16 ; 
father of anything who was the first and also, throughout the Book of 
inventor of it." Bishop Patrick's Com- Psalms. 

mentaries on the Pentateuch. 3 Vide the Bishop of Gloucester's 

2 See Genesis, c.xxxi, v.27 ; 1 Chron. " Divine Legation", v. iii. 



ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HARP. 105 

harp was likewise a favourite instrument, as appears from 
the writings of various ancient authorities. 1 Plato men- 
tions, in his first Alcibiades, to that great man, in Socrates' 
name, how he was taught " to read, to write, and to play 
on the harp" (Malcolm on Ancient Music, p. 486). Cor- 
nelius Nepos, in his Life of Epaminondas, relates that the 
great Theban hero could dance and play on the harp, which 
were accomplishments justly esteemed in Greece. Cicero 
notices that Themistocles, upon refusing the harp at an 
entertainment, passed for one unlearned and ill bred. Mar- 
tianus Capella states (in Nuptiis Philolog.), that in seve- 
ral cities of Greece, the officer who published the laws was 
accompanied by a performer on the harp; and the prince 
of ancient poets, Homer, in a familiar passage of the Iliad, 
(lib. ix), thus alludes to a performance on the harp of his 
hero Achilles : 

" Amused at ease, the God-like man they found, 
Pleased with the solemn harp's harmonious sound 
(The well-wrought harp from conquer'd Thebae came, 
Of polished silver was its costly frame) : 
With this he soothes his angry soul, and sings 
The immortal deeds of heroes and of kings." 

That the harp was a popular instrument among the 
Romans, many celebrated writers certify. Suetonius, in 
his Life of Vespasian, tells us that that emperor gave the 
eminent performers on the harp, Terpnus and Diodorus, 
two thousand crowns in gold each. St. Chrysostom states 
that, among the emperor Constantino's musicians, were 
performers on the flute and harp ; and the celebrated writer 
and legist- Apuleius, in describing a musical entertainment 
of his own times (the second century), particularly notices 
the harp (Metam., lib. v). 

Although the Romans were later in cultivating arts and 
sciences than other great and powerful people, yet music 
was held in great estimation by them, and that science was 
cultivated with assiduity, and practised with e"clat, by some 
of the most learned and distinguished characters. Athe- 

1 " The Greeks, it is well known," A ttic ear, passed into a proverb for 
says Oswald, " had such a nice and that of a musical one." Rise and 
delicate ear, that the expression of an Progress of Music, page 33. 

VOI,. VI. 14 



106 ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HARP. 

nseus says of the celebrated lawyer, Masurius, whom he 
calls one of the wisest of men, and inferior to none in the 
law, that he applied himself diligently to music ; and Plu- 
tarch places music among the qualifications of Metella, the 
celebrated daughter of Scipio Metellus. The Laws of the 
Twelve Tables, instituted 450 B.C., also provided that a 
certain number of instrumental performers should attend 
the funeral ceremonies; and " that the praises of honoured 
men be displayed in an assembly of the people; and that 
mournful songs, accompanied with music, attend such 
praises." 

That the harp, or a similar instrument, was generally 
studied by that warlike people the ancient Germans, appears 
from the pages of Diodorus Siculus (lib. v, c. 8), Strabo 
(lib. iv), and Tacitus (De Moribus German, c. 2). 

In Finland, Norway, Denmark, and other northern na- 
tions, the harp was also a favourite instrument (Bartho- 
lini, Antiq. Dan., 173; Northern Antiq., vol. i, p. 380; 
Hist, of Denmark, lib. xii, p. 113) ; and we have the autho- 
rity of Dante and Galilei, that in their time (the fourteenth 
century), " among the stringed instruments in use in Italy, 
the first was the harp" ( Galilei's Dialogue on Ancient 
and Modern Music, Florence, A.D. 1581) j 1 and in France, 
likewise, at an early period, it was considered a pre-emi- 
nent instrument at court ; and the celebrated French writer, 
Guillaume de Machau, in his interesting production, Le 
Diet, de la Harpe, lauds the instrument in enthusiastic 
terms, saying that " it should be used only by knights, 
esquires, persons of rank, and ladies, and that its fine and 
gentle sounds should be heard only by the elegant and 
good." 2 But where, we may confidently ask, can we find 
more brilliant reminiscences of this ancient and charming 
instrument, than in the historical records of our own glo- 
rious isles? The annals of England, Wales, Scotland, and 
Ireland, unequivocally demonstrate, that the instrument 
had been, from the very earliest times, the refined delight 

1 Dante also states, that the Italians 2 Guillaume de Machu, according to 

received the harp from the Irish, " who the eminent critics, Abbe Lebeuf and 

had been for ages celebrated for their Count de Caylis, flourished about the 

superior performance on the instru- middle of the fourteenth century, 
ment." 



ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HARP. 107 

of our most celebrated ancestors ; indeed our poets tell us 
that 

" E'en kings themselves have mixed the bards among, 
Swept the bold harp, and claimed renown in song." 

Alfred the Great, the most enlightened monarch of his 
times, was an accomplished performer on the instrument: 
and our early writers relate, that he achieved one of his 
most splendid victories over the Danes through the aid of 
his musical acquirements. 

The kings and nobles of Wales were also its most enthu- 
siastic votaries ; and according to the early customs of that 
country, none could aspire to the character of a gentleman 
or freeman, who did not possess, and who could not per- 
form on, the harp. 1 Our historians also testify, that Wil- 
liam I, Henry I, Henry II, the chivalrous Richard I, Henry 
III, Edward I, Edward II, and Henry V, warmly patron- 
ized the instrument and its professors. It is recorded that 
William the Norman caused the harp to be continued as a 
court instrument; and that monarch's bounty to his bard, 
is alluded to in Doomsday Book (Anstis 1 Ord. Gart., ii, 
p. 304). Raherus, the bard of Henry I, is noticed by 
Leland ( Collectanea, vol. i, p. 99 ). 2 Madox says that Gal- 
fridus Cithar&dus (or the performer on and singer to the 
harp) received, temp. Henry II, a corody or pension from 
the abbey of Hide, near Winchester (Hist. oftheE.vcheq., 
p. 251). 3 

The records of Henry III mention, that Richard, the 
king's harper, received an annuity and a pipe of wine 
(Rot. Pip., an. 36, Hen. Ill)', and notwithstanding the 
hostility of Edward I to the Welsh bards, that king re- 

1 Bede's Hist. Eccles., lib. iv, c. 24 ; nevolence, his name was given to one 
Dr. Wotton's Leges Wallicoe ; and of the streets in that neighbourhood, 
Shakespeare alludes to the national viz., Rahere -street. 

custom of singing to the harp, in Owen 3 A corody was, in former times, an 

Glendower's Address to Hotspur. 1st allowance of meat, drink, and clothing, 

Part of Henry 1 V, Act iii, scene i. due to the king from an abbey or other 

2 Leland states that Royer, or Ra- religious house, for the sustenance of 
herus, founded the priory and hospital such person as the sovereign should 
of St. Bartholomew, in Smithfield, in bestow it on. The ancient writ, Coro- 
the third year of Henry I's reign. This dio hdbendo, is noticed by Fitzherbert, 
fact proves not only that his profession Nat. Brev., 230 ; and see Collier's Ecd. 
was a source of wealth, but also that Hist., vol. xi, p. 165 ; Throg 'morion's 
he entertained feelings of true piety; Case; Plowdeii's Commentaries; and 
and probably as a memorial of his be- Sir H. Finch's Law, book iii, p. 56. 



108 ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HARP. 

tained a minstrel, as we find his name (Robert) in the 
account of public expenditures. In the fourth of Edward 
II, we find him also noticed, when he performed before the 
Court at York. At the coronation of Henry Y, which 
took place at Westminster, the harp held a conspicuous 
place. Elmham, in his account of that regal ceremony, 
thus writes : " What festival, I beseech you, can be deemed 
more important than one which is honoured with the pre- 
sence of so many royal personages ; by such a multitude of 
chiefs and ladies ; where the harmony of the harpers, drawn 
from their instruments, struck with the rapidest touch of 
the fingers, note against note ; and the soft angelic whis- 
perings of their modulations are gratifying to the ears of 
the guests. The musical concert, also, of their instru- 
ments, which had learned to be free from all sorts of dis- 
sonance, invites to similar entertainment" ( Thomas de 
Elmham, Vit. et Gest. Hen. V, cap. xii, page 23). This 
writer also mentions, that the number of harps in the hall 
on that day was prodigious; and, from the general tenor 
of his observations, it would appear that the British harpers 
of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries had acquired a 
complete mastery over the powers of the national instru- 
ment, that they could, on such august occasions, 

" Call from their solemn harps such lofty airs, 
As drew down fancy from the realms of light, 
To paint some radiant vision on their minds, 
Of highest import." 

The annals of Scotland also furnish us with many inte- 
resting notices of the harp ; for among the ancient Caledo- 
nians the instrument was greatly esteemed, and it makes a 
conspicuous figure in the works of some of their most cele- 
brated writers: 

" Sweet was the harp, and lofty was its tone, 
To which the bards of Scotia's ancient race 
Warbled, in notes majestic, soft, and full, 
The tales of other times." 



The Gaelic poems, the traditionary stories of the High- 
landers, and the pages of their historians, fully testify the 
high estimation in which the harp was held in Scotland; 



ANTIQUITY AND FORM OP THE HARP. 109 

and in addition to many testimonies in its favour, we find 
that the instrument was cultivated by some of the most 
sage and illustrious of Scotia's sons, and by some of the 
most lovely and celebrated of Scotia's daughters. 1 

It is satisfactory to find, that there are still extant 
admirable specimens of the harp of Scotland, viz., the 
Caledonian harp, and the harp of Mary queen of Scots, both 
of which instruments are similar in form to the ancient 
Irish harp; and we feel great pleasure in stating, that it 
is to the patriotic exertions of the gentlemen composing 
the Highland Society of Scotland, we are indebted for 
public attention having been called to the existence of those 
antique and interesting relics of the musical instruments 
of Scotland. 2 

As regards Ireland, we find that the earliest records 
which have claims to authority, display the celebrity of 
that nation, not only in the cultivation of music generally, 
but of the harp more particularly. The fame of Erin for 
music has been long proverbial : there it was that " the 
charming art" was early nurtured with the most assiduous 
care, and advanced by the utmost excitation of encourage- 
ment ; and it may be observed as a singular fact, that most 
of the testimonies and proofs of the antiquity of the harp, 
and the celebrity of its performers in Ireland, are adduced 
from authors of other nations, who may be fairly presumed 
as impartial, and therefore entitled to full credence. 3 And 
further, as regards Ireland, it must also be satisfactory to 
the antiquary to know, that in that country, as well as in 
Scotland, there still exist interesting relics of " the harp 
of other days". One of the most interesting of these is 
the harp of Brien Boiromh (king of Ireland in the tenth 

1 When the Scotch king (Alexan- 2 Delineations of both these harps 
der III) met Edward I at Westmin- are given in plate xi (see figs. 1 and 
ster, he was accompanied by harpers 2), copied from Gunn's Historical In- 
and minstrels, and the attendance of quiry respecting the Harp in the High- 
his chief bard, Ely, and the pre-emi- lands of Scotland. 
nent reward conferred upon him is re- 3 See Giraldus Cambrensis, Top. Hist. 
corded. The historian, John Major, Dist., iii, cap. xii ; Brotnpton ; Galilei ; 
when enumerating the talents of King Dante ; Stanihurst ; John Good ; Bar- 
James, says, that " on the harp he was naby Rich ; Camden ; Polidore Virgil ; 
another Orpheus," De Gest. Scot., lib. Caradoc of Llancarvan ; Lord Bacon's 
iv, cap, xiv ; and amongst the various Si/lva Syloarum ; Selden ; Powell ; 
accomplishments of the unfortunate Wynne's Hist, of Wales, <&c. <&c. 
M;iry queen of Scots, was doubtless her 
performance on that instrument. 



110 ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HAKP. 

century), which is still preserved in the museum of Trinity 
College, Dublin. 1 

It will be observed, from the delineations of the most 
ancient harps extant in these kingdoms, viz., the Irish 
harp, the Caledonian harp, and the harp of Mary queen of 
Scots, that their forms are triangular ; and we believe that 
no European monuments give the instrument any other 
shape ; indeed, the opinion generally received hitherto, has 
been, that the form of the harp was always triangular. 

According to St. Jerome, the cythara, or harp, was 
shaped like the Greek letter A, had twenty-four strings, 
and was played on with the fingers. The trigonus is men- 
tioned by Julius Pollux (lib. iv, cap. 9), and by Athena3us 
(lib. iv), who states, that Sophocles calls it a " Phrygian 
instrument" ; and one of his dipnosophists tells us, that a 
certain musician named Alexander Alexandrinus, was such 
an admirable performer upon it, and had given such proofs 
of his abilities at Rome, that he made the inhabitants 
musically mad. The celebrated Eucherius (bishop of 
Lyons), who considered the subject worthy of his grave 
research, was also of opinion, that the instrument was 
shaped like the Greek delta; and Kircher gives a repre- 
sentation, after a specimen in the Vatican, of the kinnor, 
or harp of David, which is similar in form to the delta. 
Beauford, in his Essay on the Construction of the Harp, 
says, " the original figure of the instrument was probably 
like the harp of the Phrygians, a right-angle plain tri- 
angle" ; and sir John Hawkins, commenting on stringed 
instruments, asserts: "It is indisputable that the trian- 
gular harp is by far of the greatest antiquity." 2 

The writers just cited were doubtless influenced in their 
opinions by ancient diagrams, which represent the harp of 
a triangular form ; but surely it is but reasonable to sup- 
pose that, anterior to the triangular formation of the 
instrument, more simple and rude attempts were mani- 
fested in its construction ; and from a close investigation 
of the subject, we are disposed to consider that the original 
form of the harp was not triangular, but arcuatus. An 
able writer has observed : "It may be asserted with truth, 
that no one man was the inventor of any art, science, or 

1 A representation of this instrument is also given in plate xi, fig. 3. 

2 Hist, of Music, vol. ii, p. 272. 



ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HARP. Ill 

complicated piece of mechanism, without some precognitat, 
some leading principles, or assistance from others. The 
first house was, doubtless, a cavern or hollow tree; and 
the first picture a shadow. In music, the first attempt 
must have been rude and artless : the first flute a whistling 
reed; and the first lyre, probably the dried sinews of a 
dead tortoise." ! We, therefore, may perhaps be permitted 
to surmise, that the primitive harp was shaped like an 
archer's bow; and that the incipient construction of the 
instrument was first suggested by the vibration or twang- 
ing of the bow-string : 

" Th' impatient weapon whizzes on the wing, 
Sounds the tough horn, and twangs the quivering string." 2 

The most ancient harp of which we have any represen- 
tation, is the Egyptian; and in support of our opinion, 
that the primitive form of the instrument was arcuatus, 
we must have recourse to some memorials still extant in 
Egypt, that celebrated nation which numerous accredited 
historians testify was one of the first countries on the globe 
that cultivated arts and sciences. 

From the testimony of various celebrated travellers who 
have visited Egypt, it appears that the walls of the temples 
and tombs of ancient Thebes were adorned with antique 
paintings, representing historical and personal events, 
which throw considerable light upon the habits and pur- 
suits of the ancient Egyptians. Among the paintings 
still extant, are representations of various musical instru- 
ments, more particularly delineations of the harp : and it 
is pleasing to recollect, that the merit is due to a British 
subject (the celebrated and enterprising traveller, James 
Bruce), of having first called the attention of Europe to 
the existence of representations of the harp in Egypt. 
That spirited individual gave to the public two drawings 
of the Theban harp, copied by him from the paintings in 

1 Pausanius, In Aread. ad Calcem, tice of applying the shell of the tortoise 

says, that " there was an excellent to the lyre, was once common in Greece, 

breed of tortoises, for the purpose of as well as Abyssinia and Egypt." 

making lyres, upon Mount Parthenius; a Homer's Iliad, book iv, and also in 

but that the inhabitants, supposing book viii : 

these animals sacred to Pan, would ,, He ^ and tw angd the tiring. The 

neither use them, nor suffer strangers weapon flies 

to take them away." " This," observes At Hector's breast, and siugs along the 

Dr. Buruey, " is a proof tbat the prac- skies." 



112 ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HARP. 

the hypogeums, or sepulchres, of the ancient kings of 
Thebes ; and one of those extremely antique Egyptian 
embellishments he presented to the eminent musical his- 
torian, Dr. Burney. 

In a letter, written by Bruce to Dr. Burney, relative to 
the Theban harp, the traveller says : " I look upon this 
instrument as the Theban harp, before and at the time of 
Sesostris, who adorned Thebes, and probably caused it to 
be painted there, as well as the other figures in the sepul- 
chre of his father, as a monument of the superiority which 
Egypt had in music at that time over all the barbarous 
nations that he had seen or conquered." 1 

It will be seen from the drawing of the Theban harps, 
as given by Bruce, that the instrument is shaped like an 
obtuse angle ; it has the peculiarity of being constructed 
without a pillar, or fore-arm, and therefore indicates the 
fact, that the harp had not attained in Egypt, at the 
period when that instrument was constructed, the trian- 
gular form; 2 although, we should observe, there is little 
reason to doubt, that the harp did subsequently attain in 
that country a triangular form ; because Bruce himself, 
in the communication to Dr. Burney, just alluded to, 
observes : " The harp that approaches the nearest to this 
in antiquity, is represented upon a basso-relievo at Ptole- 
mais, in the Cyrenaicum, a city built by Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, and it is there twice represented. It has fifteen 
strings, or two complete octaves ; but adding the additional 
notes has occasioned likewise the addition of a fore-piece, 
or pillar, to sustain the cross-bar above, so that its form is 
triangular." 3 

But in addition to the information afforded by Bruce, 

1 According to Wilkinson, Champol- and the difficulties which at that time 

lion, and other writers, Sesostris flou- presented themselves to travellers. See 

rished about 1700 B.C. This monarch plate xn, fig. 1. 

was not only one of the most powerful 3 See Brace's Letter ; Dr. Burney's 

kings of Egypt, but one of the greatest Hist, of Music, vol. i, p. 223. The 

conquerors antiquity boasts of. Herod, popularity of the harp in Egypt is 

lib. ii, cap. 102-10 ; Diod., lib. i, p. 48- evident from numerous authorities. 

54 ; ^Elian, lib. xii, cap. iv. Athengeus, in his description of the 

z We are indebted to our learned celebrated festival, given by Ptolemy 

vice-president, sir Gardner Wilkinson, Philadelphus, at Alexandria, tells us 

for the drawing of one of the Theban that, among the musicians employed 

harps, from Bruce's tomb. In Brace's in the chorus, there were three hun- 

work, it is incorrectly given, probably dred performers on the harp. At/ten., 

from the haste with which it was taken, lib. v ; Edit. Casaub. p. 201. 



ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HARP. 113 

the researches of many other celebrated travellers who 
subsequently visited Egypt, are calculated to throw fur- 
ther light upon our investigation regarding the primitive 
form of the harp. 

When the French took possession of Egypt in 1798, the 
accomplished and celebrated Derion copied several figures 
of harps, in the Theban sepulchres : delineations of these 
instruments are given in the splendid work on Egypt, 
published by the French government; and judging from 
the apparent simplicity of their construction, we are dis- 
posed to consider, that some of the harps represented in 
that magnificent publication are more ancient than even 
those copied by Bruce. 1 

Champollion, who accompanied the Scientific Expedition 
to Egypt in 1828, also states, that he found similar paint- 
ings to those copied by Denon, among the tombs of Beni- 
Hassan ; and he particularly notices one picture represent- 
ing a chorocitharista}, or concert of vocal and instrumental 
music, among which are " musicians accompanying singers 
on the harp, and performers on the harp of both sexes." 2 
Mr. Madox, also, in his interesting work on Egypt, gives 
a sketch of a figure playing upon a harp, copied by him 
from a painting in a temple in the island of Phila3, in 
Upper Egypt. 3 This instrument has only ten strings, and 
is similar in shape to some of the harps described by Denon, 
Wilkinson, and Champollion. These latter instruments 
are exceedingly simple in construction, being formed 
like the letter C : they give, as we consider, the primitive 
form of the harp, and strongly support our hypothesis, 
that the instrument took its origin from the archer's bow. 
(See plate xu, figs. 2 and 3, from Dendera and Tel el 
Amarria, taken by sir Gardner Wilkinson, the second vo- 
lume of whose work, on the Manners and Customs of the 
Ancient Egyptians, furnishes us with various specimens 
of the Egyptian harp, in an arcuated form.) 

In further support of our surmise (one which we are 
not aware has been previously advanced) that the original 

1 See representations of harps in en 1828 et 1829. Par Champollion le 

Voyages dans la Basse, et la Haute pen- Jeune. Sixieme Lettre, p. 81. 

dant les Campagnes du General Bona- 3 Madox's Excursions in the Holy 

parte, pi. cxxxv. Land, Egypt, Nubia, etc., vol. i, page 

1 Lettres ecrites d'Egypte et de Nulie, 368. 

VOL. vi. 15 



1 1 4 ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HARP. 

form of the harp was derived from that of the archer's bow, 
it may not be irrelevant to notice here the extreme anti- 
quity of the bow. In all ages and nations the bow has 
been the principal missive weapon, and its origin may be 
considered as coeval with the first efforts of man's inge- 
nuity for the purpose of exercising his mastery over the 
animal creation, either for defence or aggression; and it 
may be observed, that from the same sacred source whence 
we derive the first notice of the harp, namely, the book of 
Genesis, we also derive the first notice of the bow : " Now, 
therefore, take, I pray thee, thy weapons, thy quiver, and 
tliy bow, and go out to the field and take me some veni- 
son," were the words of Isaac to his son Esau, Gen. xxvii, 
3. The bow is subsequently noticed in other passages of 
the Old Testament; and we have the authority of many 
eminent writers, that this weapon was in general use 
amongst the Scythians, Egyptians, and Persians. 1 

The bow particularly noticed as being the most ancient, 
is the Masotian or Scythian, and we learn that it was 
shaped like a crescent, or the letter C; and in the first 
volume of sir S. R. Meyrick's work on Ancient Armour, 
there is a drawing of the Maeotian or Scythian bow, the 
figure of which is similar to the representations of the 
simplest formed Egyptian harps, as given by Denon, Wil- 
kinson, Champollion, and Madox. 2 The brief allusion to 
the harp which appears in the book of Genesis, constitutes 
all the information we have of it as an antediluvian instru- 
ment; but the earliest representations remaining of the 
harp, are unquestionably those of the Egyptians, which 
people, perhaps, derived their knowledge of it from the 
Scythians, who probably fashioned it after their favourite 
weapon, the bow; 3 and one of our most celebrated lyric 

1 Diod. Sic,, lib. i, chap, iv ; Herod., " And swift from Teutarus' elastic bow 

lib. ii, p. 119 ; Potter's Archceol. Orcec., F b" winged shafts, and clangs the Scythian 

vol. ii, p. 41. To these nations may steel!" Cassandra, v. 60. 

also be added the Assyrians, whose 3 According to Herodotus, the Scy- 

warriors went armed with bows (see thians greatly excelled other nations 

Layard's Nineveh, and its Remains) ; in the use of the bow ; and some writers 

and so universal was the use of the consider that their name Scythian, or 

bow, that Pliny observed, " half the archer, was derived from the Teutonic 

world had been conquered by it." scheten or schuten, to shoot, owing to 

2 It would appear from Lycophron, their superiority in the practice of 
that the Scythian bow was formed of archery. It is certainly evident that 
steel : some of the earliest warriors were per- 



ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HARP. 115 

poets (Moore) may have, although unintentionally, hinted 
the origin of the harp, when he enunciated the sentiment, 
that 

" The string which now languishes loose o'er the lyre, 
Might have bent a proud bow to the warrior's dart." ' 

Brief as have been our remarks on the subject, we trust 
it has been made manifest, that the harp has been known 
and cultivated in almost every civilized state; and it is a 
most remarkable, as well as a most pleasing fact, that, not- 
withstanding the numerous great nations through which 
this celebrated instrument has passed, England stands con- 
spicuous as being the only nation that has permanently 
adopted the harp in the quarterings of her national arms. 3 
It is the opinion of many celebrated antiquaries, that our 
bardic customs and our harp were derived from that fertile 
source of the refined arts, the East ; but that " the harp 
and the bard" flourished at a very early period in the 
British isles, there is ample evidence to demonstrate. The 
claims of Britain to early excellence, not only in the scien- 
tific cultivation of literature, but also in the refined but 
abstruse study of music, is substantiated by innumerable 

feet ambidexters, as regarded the use though we do find the triangular harp 

of the bow ; for we are told (1 Chron. delineated and commented upon in 

xii, 2) that " the mighty men, helpers almost every polished nation. In addi- 

of the war, who came to David to Zik- tion, we may observe that there are 

lag, were armed with bows, and could strong grounds for assuming that the 

use both the right hand and the left in harp had acquired the triangular form 

shooting arrows out of a bow." previously to its introduction into Eu- 

1 Did we wish to dwell further on rope; and that its introduction to the 

our surmise, that the primitive form of British isles (more particularly) ema- 

the harp was derived from the archer's nated from the Egyptians, respecting 

bow, we might adduce the additional whom many writers are of opinion, 

fact, that the cords of the harp and that they carried on a commercial in- 

the strings of the bow have, from time tercourse with these isles at a very 

to time, been made of similar mate- remote era. The observations of the 

rials. late Mr. Bowles (who devoted consider- 

3 It would seem that the triangular able attention to antiquarian research) 

form of the harp was never departed would lead us to conclude that the 

from, in any civilized country, after its Egyptians had, at a very early period, 

first adoption ; for, with the exception established a communication with the 

of E^ypt, all knowledge of the primi- British isles, which that talented writer 

tive-shaped instrument appears to have considered to be " the Isles of the Sea" 

been lost; as neither in the sculptile mentioned in the book of Ezekiel. See 

or pictorial monuments of any other Hermes Britannicus, p. 23 ; and also 

country, nor in the historical or musi- O'Brien's Round Towers, chap, vi ; 

cal works of former times, do we find O'Flaherty's Ogygia ; O'Connor's Dis- 

any traces of the arcuatus harp ; al- sertation, etc. 



116 ANTIQUITY AND FORM OF THE HARP. 

accredited historical testimonies. 1 When the barbaric and 
merciless hordes of early nations spread far and wide, like 
a desolating torrent, over the fair regions of Science and 
Art, destroying all within their ruthless career, 

" When frighted learning saw the furious Hun 
Rush on the cultured regions of the sun, 
And, like the swelling of the mighty deep, 
In one wide wave her classic wonders sweep ; " 

Britain generous Britain ! proved the kind and soothing 
foster-parent, who endearingly received to her arms the 
expatriated genius of Harmony, whose dulcet melody after- 
wards diffused delight throughout her lovely valleys then 
it was that the harp again flourished, and may be said to 
have, in some degree, become regenerated : 

" When Albion heard the sweet enchanting tone, 
She chose the muse's emblem for her own ; 
Chose the bold harp, and justly proud unfurl 'd, 
The classical, unconquerable standard to the world." 



ON LEICESTER ABBEY AND ITS ANCIENT 
REMAINS. 

BY JAMES THOMPSON, ESQ. 

SOON after the conquest of England by the Normans, 
Leicester fell into the hands of Robert de Beaumont, and 
his descendants for several generations became the here- 
ditary lords of the place. His eldest son Robert, sur- 
named Bossu or the Hunchbacked, succeeded him in the 
earldom, and took a very active part in the civil dissen- 
sions of the troublous reigns of Henry I and Stephen. He 

1 " The British," says Erasmus, being the most accomplished in the 
' challenge the prerogative of having skill of music, of any people." Morice 
the most beautiful women, and of Encomium, p. 101, Basil, edit. 



I'JL 






Kg 3 



ON LEICESTER ABBEY. 117 

was a man, like others of his class, at once brave in the 
field and timid in the closet fearless in the presence of 
his foes, but the slave of priestcraft. He was a type of the 
lawless barons of his day, whom we can imagine to have 
run during their lifetimes a career of active violence, of 
exciting peril, and of passionate indulgence, " sparing 
neither man in his anger, nor woman in his lust," and 
then to have sunk into a remorseful monk or a drivelling 
dotard, the prey of supernatural fears, and the plaything 
of a crafty priesthood, whose legitimate victims such cha- 
racters were considered. But let this be as it may, Kobert 
Bossu founded the abbey of Leicester on a spot where 
(modern discoveries would lead us to believe) once existed 
the cemetery of Roman Leicester ; and the site was well 
chosen, for it was on the northern bank of the once flowing 
river Soar, now a nearly stagnant pool, filled with sedges, 
weeds, and swampy banks. It was within a short distance 
of the town, and was encircled by walls and turrets, 
whence might be seen the gates of Leicester, and, above its 
fortifications, the roofs of its houses, with the gilded spires 
of its churches ; while the ear could catch the hum of 
voices, the din of industry, and the ringing of the bells of 
the contiguous borough, as they carne over the level 
meadows which intervened. On its opposite side passed 
the ancient road which connected Leicester with the south 
and north of England, whereon king and beggar, merchant 
and pilgrim, soldier and priest, often journeyed. 

On this spot, then, did Robert the Hunchback commence 
the erection of an abbey in honour of the Assumption of 
the Virgin Mary, about the year 1143. It was intended 
as the abode of canons regular of the order of St. Augus- 
tine of black friars. Richly did the founder endow his 
abbey ; many were the meadows, the woods, the ample 
corn fields, and the fisheries, which yielded their produce 
for the benefit of the holy father and his brethren. Even 
some of the lands given to the church of St. Mary of the 
Castle, by his father, were transferred to the convent of 
St. Mary of the Meadows by Robert Bossu. And, when 
conscience pricked him for his misdeeds as he advanced in 
life, the earl sought the cloisters of the abbey as a place of 
refuge, and there did he chaunt religious hymns, repeat 
his orisons, and meditate on his past actions leaving, at 



118 ON LEICESTER ABBEY. 

last, his own remains within its precincts, there to await 
the doomsday. His lady founded a nunnery at Nuneharn, 
and there deceased. 

It would occupy a volume were I to relate how many 
earls and countesses gave lands and houses to this fra- 
ternity in succeeding times. Robert Blanchmains, the son 
of the founder, married Petronilla (the daughter of Hugh 
Grentmesnil) who erected a church in connection with the 
abbey, and was buried in the choir before the high altar ; 
giving as a proof of her affection to the convent a plait of 
her own hair, whereby the great lamp of the edifice was 
suspended. The principal tenants and vassals of the earls 
of Leicester also became great donors, and were interred 
within the edifice, near the remains of their suzerain lords. 
Its abbots were among the most noted ecclesiastics of their 
times, numbering on the list William le Cloun, Philip 
Reppington (the Wiclifnte), Gilbert Foliot, and others ; 
Henry of Knighton, the historian, being one of its canons. 

The abbey became also the resort of the kings and 
queens of the country, with their courts, as they travelled 
through it ; the hospitable doors being always open to the 
passer-by, whether royal or plebeian. Of the former, 
Richard II and his queen, with their retinue, may be 
named as instances. But to the poor people of the town 
close by, the convent was a great blessing ; for alms, me- 
dicine, and scholastic tuition, were found by its members 
for the destitute, the sick, and the young, of the adjoining 
community. A visitor more illustrious than Richard II 
has, however, conferred upon the abbey an undying fame : 
the death of cardinal Wolsey within its walls, comme- 
morated by the immortal Shakespeare, has associated the 
name of the place with the nation's history to the end of 
time. 

I need not here detail the circumstances connected with 
the overthrow of the institution in the reign of Henry VIII ; 
nor how, after the piety of generations of nobles and 
knights, and of princely ladies, had added to it chapel after 
chapel, and relic after relic, until it had become like some 
rich argosy floating down the stream of time, all these 
were wrecked and scattered abroad on the rocks of revolu- 
tion. The recital would only be painful and distasteful to 
the antiquary, or even to any reflecting Englishman. It 



ON LEICESTER ABBEY. 119 

may suffice to state in this place, that the abbey was given 
by Henry VIII to Mr. Cavendish, the attendant upon 
cardinal Wolsey in his last hours (whose account of the 
closing scenes in the life of his master presents the minute 
fidelity of detail of a Flemish painting) ; and that while it 
continued in the possession of this gentleman's descendants, 
the venerable fabric was destroyed. A mansion was erected 
near to it, probably in the reign of Elizabeth; but the 
ecclesiastical fabric was completely overthrown and extir- 
pated during the civil wars and antecedent periods. The 
present ruin is a fragment of the mansion : not the smallest 
vestige remains above ground of the once stately abbey of 
St. Mary of the Meadows, the hostelry of monarchs, the 
home of proud abbots, the mausoleum of a race of earls, 
the dying- place of cardinal Wolsey. 

As might be expected, soon after the cloisters had been 
deserted, the roofs stripped of their leaden covering, the 
tower of its bells, and through the empty windows 

The melancholy winds a death-dirge sung, 

the vulgar cupidity of the populace urged them to search 
openly and by stealth for the buried treasures with which 
they thought the site abounded. Nor is it surprising, that 
the minds of the ignorant multitude living in the neigh- 
bourhood, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
should have dreamed that countless stores of riches and 
jewels lay in the tombs and vaults, and might be made 
their own ; especially after a royal example had been 
afforded of such licentious conduct. An excavation was 
made on the spot a few years previous to the breaking out 
of the civil war, when the countess of Devonshire resided 
at the abbey. An account of this was drawn up in the 
early part of the last century, by a clergyman of Leicester, 
named Carte, who obtained the information he embodied 
in his statement from Mr. John Hasloe, the grandson of 
Arthur Barefoot, the countess's gardener. Hasloe's account, 
derived from his grandfather, was this : Part of the 
church stood at the east end of what was a little garden, 
in the orchard formerly called the * New Garden'. Ar- 
thur Barefoot and others, in digging here, found several 
stone coffins, the cavities of which were inverted. One of 
these was about six feet one inch long, four wide, and a 



120 ON LEICESTER ABBEY. 

foot deep; all had a small hole in the middle. Among 
them, one was fixed upon as cardinal Wolsey's; but the 
countess would not suffer it to be disturbed, and ordered 
it to be covered again. 

This is the substance of Mr. Carte's account, as it appears 
in Throsby's History of Leicester. The archaeological dis- 
coveries made since Mr. Carte wrote, enable us to perceive 
that the coffins here referred to were those of the Norman 
period ; while it is placed on record, that cardinal Wolsey 
was buried in a wooden coffin ; therefore, we may safely 
conclude, that the gardener did not turn up the latter, 
but, more probably, the " last house" of some earl, countess, 
or abbot, of earlier times than those in which the cardinal 
lived. 

The latest search made in the abbey gardens took place 
in the months of June and July 1845, when, in conjunc- 
tion with a few friends and acquaintances, the writer raised 
a subscription to defray the expenses of the proceedings; 
and two labourers commenced a series of "diggings", under 
the direction of one or two local antiquaries. I took notes 
of the progress of the excavations, from day to day ; and 
as they may present some points of interest to the reader, 
I purpose here to publish them in a condensed form. A 
few preliminary explanations are, however, necessary. 

The site occupied by Leicester abbey and its grounds 
was anciently enclosed by a strong stone wall, of oblong 
outline, occupying an area of a few acres. Three sides of 
this wall remain in a more or less mutilated and patched 
condition. (See plan, plate xm, fig. 1.) Within it, the 
ground is laid out for gardening and similar pur- 
poses, being held by Mr. R. Warner under the earl of 
Dysart. Parts of the gardens, bordering on the river, 
are divided from others by ancient walls, which run 
at right angles to the outer boundary one of the 
four sides of the old enclosure. One of the spaces 
thus confined is known as the " terrace" ; it rises towards 
the wall, and a view over the abbey meadow of the town is 
there afforded. A second (the " laundry") is filled with 
fruit trees of various kinds, and is, I suspect, that which 
was formerly known as the " new garden". A third, con- 
taining a pond, walks, and so on, is now called " the 
wilderness". The wall separating the whole of these divi- 



ON LEICESTER ABBEY. 121 

sions from the river, is evidently ancient; is (or was) 
guarded with picturesque turrets; and contains numerous 
apertures whence missiles and arrows might be discharged 
on an enemy. 

In undertaking the task of making the subterranean 
researches, we had the good fortune to be cordially seconded 
by Mr. Warner, the tenant, who lent all the help he could 
aiford ; but we had no other means of ascertaining where 
the old abbey church had stood, except those which the 
spade provided. Even tradition was silent as to the site 
of the fabric. Our first "diggings" were, consequently, 
made somewhat at random. 

On the 17th of June 1845, a trench, about twelve feet 
by five, was dug, nearly in the centre of the grounds. At 
the depth of a few feet, portions of black material (resem- 
bling decayed wood), and pieces of human and other bones, 
beneath a layer of sand, were found; then, lower still, a 
drain crossed the trench, a leaden pipe was discovered, and 
the tusk and jaw of some animal. The following day was 
a dies non. On the 19th, another trench, to the north- 
ward of the other, was opened, and large bones, mingled 
with slates and stones, came to light. While I was stand- 
ing near the trench, one of the labourers informed me that 
some " quarries", or glazed tiles, had been found in the 
"laundry", when a gardener had planted liquorice roots 
there some time before. In the afternoon, the labourers 
were directed to dig in the laundry, and turned up one 
or two tiles, bearing on their surface the cinquefoil. This, 
of course, rendered the excavations a little more interest- 
ing than they had been; but though trenches were dug, 
day after day, from the 20th of June to the 3rd of July, 
nothing was found to satisfy the curiosity of the antiqua- 
ries. The ground at the depth of a few feet was composed 
entirely of large stones. On the 4th, however, their droop- 
ing spirits were reanimated by the discovery of a flooring 
of encaustic tiles, at a depth of four or five feet. The 
design on those first taken up was a crowned head, resem- 
bling that stamped on the coins of the Edwards a full 
face with a beard, surmounted by a coronet (fig. 2). The 
next was ornamented with a shield, on which the cinquefoil 
was delineated (fig. 3) ; this was the escutcheon of the Nor- 
man earls of Leicester. Being on the right spot, the labourers 

VOL. VI. 16 



122 ON LEICESTER ABBEY. 

were told to continue their digging in the direction of the 
outer wall, as far as the pavement reached. On the Wed- 
nesday following they ceased, not having arrived at the 
termination of the pavement ; but not until they had un- 
covered it for more than twenty yards. 

It was now thought advisable to pause, and make inquiry 
whether the landlord would sanction further proceedings. 
One of the party (the late Mr. Stockdale Hardy, F.S.A.) 
placed himself in communication with his lordship's steward, 
with a view of ascertaining the fact. No satisfactory 
reply was, however, received. The excavations therefore 
ceased. The trench was filled up, and no further pro- 
ceedings were taken. 

Enough, however, was discovered, to prove that the 
actual site of the abbey church was at last found, and that 
much more might have been revealed. Here the inquiry 
will for ever rest, unless permission can be obtained for a 
recommencement of the search, and a larger number of 
subscribers come forward to defray the expenses necessa- 
rily incurred in the undertaking. 



REFERENCES TO THE PLAN, PL. XIII, FIG. 1. 



1. Site of pavement in Abbey grounds. 

2. Site of Elizabethan mansion. 

3. River Soar. 

4. Meadows. 

5. Area of town within the ancient walls. 

6. East Gate. 

7. West Gate. 

8. North Gate. 

9. South Gate. 

10. Abbey Gate. 

11. Low ground within Abbey walls. 

12. Ancient gateway in Abbey walls. 



This plan is only intended to shew the situation of the grounds round 
the site of the abbey ; the walls and ancient streets. The canal, modem 
streets, etc., are omitted. 



PlateX/V 




123 



ON 

AN IVORY CARVING OF THE THIRTEENTH 

CENTURY; WITH OBSERVATIONS ON 

THE PRICK SPUR. 

BY A. C. KIBKMANN, ESQ. 

I BEG leave to draw the attention of the Association to 
a very curious subject of archaBological inquiry, although 
perhaps one of no great utility : it is, whether the pryck- 
spur was used singly, or in pairs? 

I think the first doubt on this point arose on the disco- 
very of the remains of Udard de Broham, in Brougham 
church, Westmorland, in the month of October 1846; a 
most interesting account of which was communicated by 
William Brougham, esq., the Master in Chancery, to the 
Journal of the ArchaBological Institute, vol. iv, page 59. 
Udard de Broham was a crusader in the time of Henry II ; 
and on opening his tomb, an iron prick-spur was found 
attached to the left heel of the skeleton, but there was no 
trace whatever of there having been one on the right. In 
a note, by Mr. Albert Way, to Master Brougham's paper, 
a similar discovery is recorded to have been made near 
Lausanne in 1838 ; and I believe there is no instance of a 
pair of these curious spurs ever having been found toge- 
ther. Since the subject was first noticed, an authority has 
fallen into rny possession which sets the question at rest, 
and proves beyond all doubt, that in pursuance of some 
peculiar custom, or in compliance with the usage of some 
particular order of knights, a single spur was occasionally 
if not generally used. 

My authority is an ivory carving of the time of Edward 
I; it has probably been the back of a speculum. The 
subject it represents (see plate xiv) is divided into three 
compartments. The first exhibits the flight of a body of 
Turks or Saracens; the second, some European knights, 
apparently arming for pursuit all these knights have the 
spur only on one heel ; the third compartment represents 



124 ON AN IVORY CARVING. 

a sleeping knight. Unfortunately, about one-third of the 
carving is wanting. 

Since this curious relic came into my possession, I have 
spent considerable time in searching through the old his- 
torians of the Crusades, in the hope of finding some con- 
firmation of the fact it discloses, but in vain ; for although 
William of Tyre, Richard of Devizes, Vinsauf, and many 
others, occasionally mention the spur, it is always in the 
plural number, but this may arise from corruption of the 
old text. 

The Bayeux tapestry was another source from which 
I anticipated some light on the subject; but here, with a 
few rare exceptions, both legs of the horsemen never 
appear; and although in plate xv of the copy published 
by the Society of Antiquaries, the important figure of 
Tostein Fitz Rou le Blanc has the spur only on the right 
heel, there are two figures in plate xvi which have the 
spur on both; this, therefore, leaves the question, so far as 
that authority is concerned, just where we found it. 

Notwithstanding these difficulties, I am inclined to think 
a very plausible reason may be suggested for what, accord- 
ing to our modern ideas of chivalry, appears a very incon- 
gruous custom. On the first institution of the Order of 
the Templars, the rules of the order (which professed 
poverty and humility) assigned but one horse to two men ; 
now, the improbability that two men were allowed four 
spurs, is obvious looking at the care with which the 
early rules governing all the orders of knighthood were 
framed; it is much more probable that each man was 
allowed but one spur, and if this were so, we get at the 
origin of the custom, which might have continued one of 
the distinguishing marks of the Templar long after the 
reason for its adoption had ceased to exist. 



125 



REMARKS ON A LEADEN AMPULLA IN THE 
YORK MUSEUM. 

BY CHARLES BAILY, ESQ., F.S.A. 

THE very curious relic of antiquity represented on plate 
xv, is now preserved in the museum at York. It is a 
small vessel, or ampulla, formed of lead; where it was 
found is not known ; nor is there any history attached to 
it. The engraving is of the same size as the original. 

On one side is the figure of a bishop vested in his robes, 
with a mitre on his head, and holding a pastoral staff in 
his hands ; around his head is a nimbus, and above is what 
appears to me to be intended for the canopy of his throne ; 
the figure is enclosed in an areole ; around the ampulla is 
a narrow fascia, fastened to the centre portion by three 
bands ; on this fascia is the legend OPTIMVS EGRORVM 
MEDICVS FIT TOMA BONORVM ; which we may translate 
" The best physician for the good invalid, is Thomas". 

The date cannot be considered later than the middle of 
the thirteenth century, judging from the character of the 
costume of the figure, and particularly from the form of 
the mitre, which is short and low, and very much resem- 
bles that on the effigy of Hugh de North wold, bishop of 
Ely, in Ely cathedral, who died in 1254; and also that on 
the effigy of the bishop in the Temple church, London, 
which belongs to the same period. 1 

The question arises, as to the probable use of this vessel? 
The rev. Dr. Rock, a good authority in such matters, in 
answer to my inquiries, states : 

" I presume it to have been meant for a reliquary, to hold perhaps 
dust gathered about or off the shrine of saint Thomas of Canterbury, or 
oil from the lamps burning there, and employed for the sick : it is made 
to be thin, and easily worn by strings around the neck." 

Reliquaries, however, are more often formed with open- 
ings on one or both sides, covered with glass, or crystal, 

1 Stothard's " Monumental Effigies", plates xxvm and xxxiv. 



126 KOMAN PAVEMENT. 

so as to shew the relics without touching them with the 
hands. 

On the reverse, the Sacrament of Extreme Unction, 
that is, the performance of the last rites of the Romish 
church previous to death, appears to be the subject 
represented; and if so, there is every probability of this 
ampulla being a receptacle for the holy ointment used in 
that sacrament. Two monks are attending a sick person 
in bed, one of these holds a pastoral staff in one hand, 
and a book in the other, from which the second monk, 
standing on the opposite side of the bed, is reading; the 
head of the invalid is seen at the back above the monk to 
the left, an ornamented counterpane is thrown over the 
lower part of the bedstead, and the two handles may have 
been used as a means to suspend it over the altar. 



ON A ROMAN PAVEMENT DISCOVERED AT 
HARPOLE, IN NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 

IN 1846 (see Journal, vol.'ii, page 364), Mr. Edward 
Pretty, of Northampton, first made known to the British 
ArchaBological Association the discovery of a Roman pave- 
ment, in a field near the half-way house, between North- 
ampton and Weedon. In November 1849, he obligingly 
forwarded to the Association a further account (see 
Journal, vol. v, p. 375) ; and in January last, transmitted 
a drawing of the pavement (see plate xvi), by which it 
appears not only to be of larger dimensions than any 
hitherto discovered in Northamptonshire, but also dis- 
tinguished by some peculiarities which are deserving of 
notice. 

From Mr. Pretty's account, we learn that in the winter 
of 1849, the ploughing being deeper than usual, the plough- 
man came upon the pavement which had been first deve- 
loped in 1846. The earth being removed from its surface 



PLATE XV! 




vered m & field ueax Harpole, 



10 n . 11 u it ' u Fcrt 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 127 

and around it, the pavement presented the design seen in 
the accompanying plate. Mr. Pretty remarks, that in all 
the pavements found in Northamptonshire (and which are 
north of the river Nen in this locality, and at Castor), the 
designs do not represent any of the beautifully finished 
subjects from the heathen mythology ; from which circum- 
stance it may be concluded, that the pavements in this 
part of the country are of a later date; and from the 
Greek cross being introduced in the centre of the Harpole 
pavement, it is evident that it was laid down after the 
Christian religion became known to the Romano-British 
inhabitants. The field in which this pavement was found, 
is on the north side of the turnpike-road near the fourth 
mile-stone, and midway between the Watling-street road 
and Northampton. Harpole, in its etymology, may par- 
take of a military origin in its first syllable, that is to say, 
from Here, signifying host or army. It may also be re- 
marked, that Hoar-stone brook occurs at the adjoining 
village, Heyford. Morton 1 gives a plan and description 
of a mosaic pavement discovered there in 1699, in Hore- 
stone meadow. 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. No. I. 

THE following very curious poem on king Edward IV, 
is copied from a valuable manuscript of the fifteenth 
century, preserved in the library of the Society of Anti- 
quaries : 

[From MS. Bib. Soc. Antiq. 101, fol. 98.] 

To have in mynde callyng to vemembraunce 

The gret \vrongys doon of oold antiquite, 
Unrughtful hey res by wrong alyaunce 

Usurpyng this royaume caused gret adversit : 

1 Natural History of Northamptonshire, with an Account of the Antiquities. 
Lond. 1712, fol. pp. 527-8. 



128 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

Kyng Pdchard the seconde high of dignytee, 
Which of Ingeland was rightful inheritour, 

In whos tyme ther was habundaunce with plentee 
Of welthe and erthely joye without langour. 

Than cam Henry of Derby by force and myght 

And undir the colour of fals perjury, 
He toke this rightwys kyng, Goddes trew knyght. 

And hym in prison put perpetuelly, 
Pyned to deth alas ! ful pyteuxly ; 

Holy Bisshop Scrope, the blyssed confessour 
In that quarel, toke hys deth ful paciently, 

That all the world spak of that gret langour. 

Whos deth ys a very trew evidence 

To all Inegland for the just title and lyne, 
Which for the trowthe by tyranny and violence 

Was put doun and suspect holde venyrsyne (?) ; 
Many a trew lord then put to mortel fyne, 

Alway they have ben aboute with rigour, 
The lynage of Kyng Richard to undermyne 

That longe have lyved in gret langour. 

God smote the said Henry for hys gret fersuesse, 

With a lepre holdyng hym to hys ende fynally ; 
Next hym, Henry the Fyfte, of knyghtly prowesse, 

Named the best of that lyne and progeny. 
Howbeit, he regned unrightfully, 

3it he upheld in Ingeland the honeur ; 
Henry hys sone of Wy[n]desore, by gret foly. 

All hath retournecl unto huge langour. 

Callyng to mynde the fals engendred treson 

And myschyefs that were in hys dayes regnyng ; 
The good Due of Gloucestrie in the season 

Of the parlemeut at Bury beyng 
Was put to deth, and ay sith gret mornyng, 

Hath ben in Ingeland with many a scharp schour ; 1 
Falshode, rnyschyef, secret synne upholdyng, 

Which hath caused in Engeland endelez langour. 

1 Battle; conflict. Halliwell's "Dictionary of Archaisms", p. 711. 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 129 

Noo mervail thougli Engeland hath ben unhappy, 

Which hath be mysrewled jerys sertayne ; 
Scripture saith heritage holdyn wrongfully 

Schal never cheve ne with the thred heyr remayne, 
As hath be verified late ful playne, 

Wheras iij. kynges have regned by errour; 
The third put oujt, and the right brought agayn, 

Whos absence hath caused endlez langour. 

Also Scripture saith, woo be to that regyon, 

Wheir ys a kyng unwyse or innocent, 
Moreovyr wys right a gret abusion, 

A woman of a land to be a regent, 
Qwene Margrete I mene, that ever hath ment 

To governe all Engeland with myght and pour, 
And to destroye the ryght lyne was her enteut, 

Wherfor sche hath a fal to her gret langour. 

And now sche wenight so that sche myght detayne 

Though all Engeland were brought to confusyon, 
Sche and her wykked affynite certayne 

Entende uttyrly to destroye thys region ; 
For with theym ys but deth and distruccion, 

Robberye and vengeaunce with all rygour, 
Therfore, all that holde of that oppynion, 

God sende hem a schort ende with meche langour ! 

O it ys gretly agayn kynde and nature 

An Englyshman to corrumpe 1 hys awne nacion, 
Willyng straungiers for to recure, 

And in Engeland to have the domynacion, 
Wenyng thanne to be gret of reputacion, 

Forsothe they that soo hope least schalbe theyr power ; 
He that woold be high schalbe under subjecion, 

And the fyrst that schal repente the langour, 

Wherfore, I lykken England to a gardeyn, 

Which that hath ben overgrowen many yere 
With wedys, which must be mowen doun playn, 

And than schul the pleasant swete herbes appere ; 
Wherfore, all trewe Englysh peuple, pray in fere 

For Kyng Edward of Rouen, our comfortour, 
That he kepe justice and make wedis clere, 

Avoydyng the blak cloudys of langour. 

1 To corrupt (A. N.) See Halliwell, ib. p. 7. Recure, to recover, ib. p. 672. 

VOL. VI. 17 



130 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

A gret signe it ys that God lovyth that knyght, 

For all thoo that woold have destroyed hym utterly, 
All they ar myscheved and put to flyght ; 

Than remembir hys fortune with chevalry, 
Which at Northampton gate the victory, 

And at Mortimers Crosse he had the honour ; 
On Palme Sonday he wan the palme of glorye, 

And put hys enemyes to endelez langour ; 

And drave hys adversary ou3t of the lond, 

Aftyr cam to London and was crouned kyng ; 
Rightlaie God 3ef hym grace to understonde, 

The fals traytours agayn hym ymagynynge. 
The prophecie saith, there schal dere hym noo thinge, 

He it ys that schal wynne castell toun and tour ; 
All rehellyous undyr he schal hem brynge, 

Willyng to hys highnesse any langour 

Richard the erl of Warwyk of knyghthode, 

Lodesterre born of a stok that evyr schalbe trewe, 
Havyng the name of prowes and manhoode, 

Hath ay ben redy to helpe and reskewe ; 
Kyng Edward in hys ryght hym to endewe 

The commens thereto have redy every houre ; 
The voyx of the peuple, the voix of Jhesu, 

Who kepe and preserve hym from all langour ! 

Now blyssed Saint George, pray the virgen immaculat, 

To be good mediatrix, prayng her sonne, 
That Edward of Rouen may be victorieux and fortunat, 

With all the trew lordes of hys region, 
That they may se a good way and direction, 

To make peas in Engeland, that riche and power 
May joyfully synge at the conclusyon, 

Welcom everlastyng joye, and farewel langour ! 

S. R. 



131 



1. CONFIRMATION CHARTER OF RANULF II, EARL OF CHES- 

TER, FROM THE MUNIMENT-CHAMBER OF THE MARQUIS 
OF WESTMINSTER, EATON HALL, CHESHIRE. 

2. COMPACT BETWEEN RANULF DE BLONDE VILLE, EARL OF 

CHESTER, AND WILLIAM DE FOUGERES, HARLEIAN 
CHARTER, BRITISH MUSEUM ; WITH REMARKS, 

BY J. K. I'hAM'HK, ESQ. 

BY the great kindness of the marquis of Westminster, I 
have been enabled to lay before the Association an original 
document, of great interest to antiquaries in general, but 
more particularly to our friends at Chester. When in that 
city, during the Congress of 1849, the rev. Mr. Massie, of 
St. Mary's-on-the-Hill, drew my attention to a passage in 
a Chester Guide-book, containing an account of an original 
charter, with the seal appended to it, of Hugh Lupus, first 
Earl Palatine of Chester, preserved in the muniment-room 
at Eaton Hall. Lord Westminster having most kindly 
given instructions that I should have access to that valu- 
able collection, I lost no time in availing myself of such a 
permission to obtain a sight of the precious relic, so mi- 
nutely described by the local historian, but at first without 
success. Eventually, however, it was discovered by Mr. 
Allen, of Eaton, and kindly brought to me at Chester, but 
unfortunately too late for proper examination and com- 
ment during the congress. Lord Westminster has since 
been so obliging as to have it sent up to town ; and I had, 
therefore, the pleasure of exhibiting it to the society, and 
will now briefly call your attention to the principal points of 
interest contained in it. In the first place, we are enabled 
to correct an error into which the author of the local work 
alluded to had fallen, either from mis-information, or but 
a hasty glance over the document. It certainly contains 
a charter by the first Hugh, earl of Chester ; but the in- 
strument itself is not of that date. It is, in fact, a con- 
firmation charter by the second Ranulf (surnamed de Ger- 
non or Gernons), earl of Chester, in which the grant of 
Hugh is, as usual, recapitulated. But although not the 
great desideratum of all Cheshire archaeologists, it pos- 
sesses scarcely inferior claims on their admiration. I have 



132 OKIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

the authority of our erudite and excellent associate, Mr. 
Black, whose illustration of the records at Chester afforded 
us so much information and gratification, for stating, that 
he has never seen its parallel, either for beauty of hand- 
writing or peculiarity of form, being written in columns or 
pages, for the facility of folding. The charter occupies 
nine, and commences with the copy of the original grant 
of " Hugone Cestrensi comite, anno ab incarnatione Do- 
mini milesimo nonagesimo" (the name and date which evi- 
dently caused the error above stated), to the abbey of St. 
Werburgh, which was witnessed by Anselm, archbishop 
of Canterbury, followed by the grants of several of the 
other witnesses William Malbanc, Robert Fitz-Hugh, 
Richard de Yernon, etc. etc. ; and it concludes by the con- 
firmation of them all by the second Ranulf: ("Ego se- 
cundus Rannulfus comes Caestrie concede et confirmo has 
omnibus donationes quas mei antecessores vel barones 
eor'm dederunt"), with additional grants from himself, the 
witnesses being Robert the Dapifer, Norman de Verdon, 
Robert Banaster, Gilbert de Yenables, William Malbanc, 
William Fitz-Duncan, Cadwalader, king of North Wales 
("Chadwaladro, rege Norwaliarum"), William de Mannil- 
warrin, Robert de Maci, and Simon his brother, Robert 
Fitz-Picod, " and many others". 

As the charter will be copied and printed in the next 
number of the Journal of the Association, I will not 
occupy more time at present with its details, which are 
highly curious, and very valuable to history and biogra- 
phy, but must say a few words on the seals appended to 
it. The principal one, I regret to say, is utterly destroyed ; 
only a few crumbling pieces can be felt in the bag which 
contained it ; and as no information could be afforded by 
such minute fragments, I have scrupulously forborne to 
disturb them. It was, no doubt, the seal of Ranulf " se- 
cundus", or "junior", as he also calls himself, towards 
the conclusion; and we fortunately possess engravings of 
it from the original matrix, which was discovered in the 
great aisle of St. Edmondsbury, in 1774. Vide Journal, 
vol. v, p. 240. 

The other seal is perfect. It is of green wax, and exhi- 
bits a mounted warrior, with sword and shield, surrounded 
by the legend : " SIGILL .... BEETI D . . . . IN(?)" The 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 



133 



other letters are broken off or effaced. It may be the seal 
of Robert the Dapifer, or Gilbert de Venables ; but the last 
two letters, which look like IN, are not at present recon- 
cilable with either. There are three other Roberts, wit- 
nesses to the charter; but the terminations of Banaster, 




Maci, and Fitz-Picod, are equally unpromising. Under 
the horse there is a floral ornament ; but the shield is 
without device or mark of any description. Whether it 
was this seal or the one in the bag, at that period perhaps 
in better preservation, which the author of the local work 
describes, I have no means of ascertaining. Ranulf is re- 
presented on his seal on horseback, with a drawn sword, 
and therefore either would have suited the description. 
That it is the identical document alluded to, however, its 
peculiar pagination distinctly points out, and I am much 
indebted to the writer, as well as to the rev. Mr. Massie, 
for the indication of its existence. Whilst on this subject, 
I cannot do better than correct another error respecting 



134 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

the seal of Hugh, first earl of Chester, which has long been 
current in the county, and received the sanction of the 
local press. In the glass case containing the splendid gold 
torques, kindly exhibited by the marquis of Westminster 
at the congress, was a very beautiful brass matrix of a seal, 
ticketed, " The seal of Hugh Lupus". An engraving of this 
seal is now before you, and you will perceive that it is a 
seal of the fifteenth, instead of the eleventh century ; that 
it exhibits a shield, bearing a co&tfretty, supported by two 
lions, and having, on a tilting helmet of the period, a demi- 
lion for a crest, circumscribed, as I read it, " s. (SIGILLUM) 

ADRIEN DE SALAVURT", Or " SALECOURT". By what CX- 

traordinary stretch of imagination, or lack of investiga- 




tion, this relic can have been attributed to Hugh Lupus, I 
am at a loss to conjecture ; but as it has been recorded as 
such in the pages of local works, and was so exhibited at 
Chester, I take this opportunity of dissipating the illusion. 
I am sure you will all cordially join me in thanking the 
marquis of Westminster for the liberality with which he 
has placed the valuable charter, exhibited to you, in my 
hands, for the service of the Association ; and now I have 
much pleasure in laying before you a copy of another 
highly interesting document, illustrative of the biography 
of the ancient earls of Chester, namely, a compact made, 
in the year 1200, between Ranulf, the third and last of that 
name, surnamed Blundeville, and William de Fougeres, 
whose relative, Clemence de Fougeres, the earl took for his 
second wife, she being the widow of Alan de Dinan. It 
has been printed by Mr. Ormerod, in the first volume of 
his History of Cheshire, as a portion of the prolegomena 
of sir Peter Leycester ; but as there are several errors in 
that copy, and no comment upon its contents by the learned 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 135 

editor, I presume its republication will be acceptable to the 
Association. 

The original is amongst the Harleian charters in the British 
Museum, marked 52, A 15. It is called in the Catalogue, 
11 A Pacification", and, in fact, contains the terms on which 
some dispute respecting the marriage-portion of the countess 
Clemence was settled between the parties. It commences : 
" Sciant omnes ad quos presentes littera? pervenerint quod 
contentio quaa fuit inter R. comitem Cestriencem et Wil- 
lielmus de Filgeriis super maritagio Clemencia de Filgeriis 
uxoris pradicti comitis et pronepotis pradicti Willielmi hoc 
modo pacificata est" ; and proceeds to state that the said 
William agrees to surrender to Geoffrey de Fougeres, the 
brother of Clemence, all the lands of which Ralph de 
Fougeres was seized, in the valley of Moreton, when they 
were given Alan de Dinan in marriage with the aforesaid 
Clemence, with certain exceptions afterwards rehearsed, 
amongst which is the patronage of the abbey of Savigne, 
misprinted Savierguen in Onnerod. 

" Sciant omnes ad quos praesentes litterae pervenerint quod contentio 
quse fuit inter K. Comitem Cestriensem et Willielmum de Filgeriis super 
maritagio Clemencise de Filgeriis uxoris praedicti Comitis et pronepotis 
praedicti Willielmi hoc modo pacificata est : scilicet quod prsedictus Wil- 
lielmus reddidit Gaufrido de Filg. pronepoti suo ad dandum in mari- 
tagio cum Clemencia sorore sua, praedicto Comiti totam terram quam 
Radulphus de Filg. habuit in valle Moretonii, et sic de ea seisitus fuit anno 
et die quo earn dedit Alano de Dinam in maritagio cum praedicta Clemen- 
cia, excepto dominio abbatiae Savigneii et exceptis LX solidis andegaven- 
sium quos idem Radulphus dedit Aeline nepti sue quae est monialis 
apud Moret. habendos quam diu ipsa vixerit per manum servientis de 
Romeigneio, et post decessum ipsius monial. revertentur praedictse C. et 
haeredibus suis. Et prseterea dabit praedictus W. praedicto Com. centum 
libras Andeg. annuatim a natali Domini quod est anno verbi incarnati 
millesimo ducentesimo primo usque ad quinque annos in nativitate Sancti 
Johannis Baptiste solvendas. Praeterea concessit praedictus W. praedicto 
Com. unum maritagium in denariis par taillie de Augusto habendum per 
totam terram Filg. excepta villa Filg. quae combusta erat. Inter praedic- 
tum vero W. de Filg. et Gaufr. pronepotem suum hec est conventio per 
consilium amicorum ejusdem G. facta. Videlicet quod praedictus W. totam 
terrain de Filg. sicut Radulphus de Filg. earn illi commisit fideliter custo- 
diendani tenebit a praedicto natali usque inquinque annos. Et si quis ei 
super hoc coutrarire aut eum vexare voluerit praedictus Com. et Willielmus 



136 OKIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

de Humet et alii amici Gaufridi et homines terre Filg. qui hanc conven- 
tionem fideliter tenendam juraverunt praedicto W. erit auxiliantes et con- 
sulentes pro posse suo. Completis autem quinque annis praedictis pras- 
fatus W. reddet prasdicto G. prouepoti suo totam terrain Filg. sine contra- 
dictione sicut Rads. de Filg. earn illi commisit custodieridam fideliter. 
Quam cum reddiderit idem G. quum a praedicto W. requisitus fuerit de jure 
suo terre Filg. per consilium amicorum utriusque partis et hominum terras 
Filg., illi faciet quod facere debebit. Et si per consilium amicorum suorum 
et hominum terre inter se concordari non poterint, per judicium curie 
Domini Britannum sine contraditione illi faciet quod facere debebit. Et si 
alter uter illorum contra hoc venire voluerit, tarn homines terras Filgerii, 
quam amici utriusque partis auxiliantes erunt illi qui hanc conventionem 
tenere voluerit, et nocentes ei qui earn tenere recusaverit. Si autem contigerit 
C. uxorem praedicti Comit. Cestr. decedere infra quinque annos praedictos 
ipse Comes dicto Will. mo de Filg. terram de Valle Moret quiete reddet si 
de prsedicta C. heredem non habuerit. Et si Galfr. de Filg. infra praedictos 
quinque annos decesserit, idem Willielmus terram Filg. integra et sine con- 
tradictione aliqua et absque termino Clemencie et . . . reddet et ipsa C. et 
sponsus ejus tenebunt prasdicto Willielmo conventionem quam G. de Filg. 
et amici sui ei tenere debebant. Amplius Willielmus . . . nibus quoscunque 
posuerit in castello Filg. infra quinque annos jurare faciet. quod si ipsum 
in fata quiescere contigerit, ipsi . . . . et Gaufro. de Filg. vel prasdicte C. 
sorori sue si ipsa ei superstes fuerit. Et in hac conventione remanserunt 
.... maneria in Angl. scilicet Tuiford et West Kinton que Eadulphus de 
Filg. frater ejus illi dedit pro homagio suo et ser- .... Radulfi legitime 
testantur et insuper eidem Willielmo remanet manerium de Belington quod 
fuit maritagium .... contingit iure hereditario ex parte matris suss. Has 
convenciones fecit Willielmus de Filg. ad Scaccarium apud . . . . et C. 
uxore ejus et cum Willielmo de Hum. quern idem Com. et C. uxor sua loco 
suo assignaverunt .... super hoc ageret ratum habituri, i praesentia Sam- 
sonis Abbatis Cad. etHug. de Chaucu. et . . . . Guiterie de Mota, et Decani 
Sancti Juliani tune Justiciariorum Domini Regis. Has con . . . tarn prae- 
dictus Com. Cestr. quam Wilielmus de Filg., et ex parte Com. juraverunt 
isti, Hugo . . . Praer Petrus de Sancto Hilario. Petrus Roand. Ex parte 
Willielmi de Filg. juraverunt . . . ial Hervius de Vitreio. Gaufr. de Sancto 
Bricio. Willielmus de Sancto Bricio. et hoc ipsum ju . . . Rice, de Fontenai. 
Ut autem has conventiones firme et inconcusse permaneant .... or Com. 
Cestr. . . . onest Norm, et Willielmi de Filg. et Alani filii Com. et Guidon 
de Laual confirmate. Actum est autem hoc nonis Octobris anno Incar- 
nationis Domini M.CC. 

To this compact, which contains much interesting mat- 
ter connected with the family and estates of the seigneurs 
de Fougeres, were formerly appended three seals, one of 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 137 

which has disappeared; the two remaining are those of 
William de Fougeres and Guy de Laval, one of the wit- 
nesses, misprinted "de Avail", in Ormerod. The latter 
exhibits no particularly interesting feature; 1 but the seal 
of William de Fougeres is exceedingly curious. It is of 
green wax, and presents us with a heart-shaped shield, 
on which is engraved branches of fern, Fougere ; such 
being the arms of the family of Fougeres, as may be seen 




by the seal of William de Fougeres, engraved in Lobineau's 
Histoire de Bretagne, and also of the town of Fougeres, 
to the present day; at least they are so given by Menes- 

1 There is a knight on horseback, with a plain shield ; and on the secretum, 
or counter seal, is a lion passant. 

VOL. VI. IS 



138 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

trier, in the last century. In the case before us, the fern- 
stalks or branches are differenced or debruised by a bend 
or bendlet, affording us one of the earliest instances (per- 
haps the earliest) of this mark of cadency, for such I con- 
sider it. Cleinence de Fougeres is said, by Yincent and 
others, to have been the daughter of a William de Fougeres ; 
but pere Anselm, in his Histoire de la Maison de France, 
and Lobineau, Histoire de Bretagne, state her to have been 
the daughter of Raoul (Ralph) de Fougeres ; and the Wil- 
liam of this deed expressly uses the word " pronepos", both 
in speaking of her and her brother Geoffrey. The meaning 
of nepos and pronepos is very uncertain, it being applied 
to all sorts of relatives, from the grandchild to the cousin- 
german ; it is mostly used, however, in mediae val documents, 
to signify the issue of a sister or brother, and I take this 
William de Fougeres to be the uncle or great-uncle of 
Clemence and Geoffrey. It is, at least, evident he is not 
their father; and as no mention is made of another Wil- 
liam, it may be worth inquiry whether his name was really 
William, or whether the Ralph de Fougeres, who is men- 
tioned as having given certain lands, in the valley of Mor- 
ton, to Alan de Dinan, on his marriage with Clemence, was 
the father of that lady, as evidently considered by Lobi- 
neau and pere Anselm. 

I have had no time to make further inquiry. The seal 
has great interest as a very early heraldic authority. 
There is a blazing star of six points on each side of the 
shield, one of the badges of the house of Anjou, and seen 
upon several seals of our Anglo-Norman monarchs. Alto- 
gether, I think you will admit the charter of Ranulf the 
second, and the compact with Ranulf the third, additions 
to the archaeological history of Chester and its earls ; and 
I consider myself most fortunate in being the medium of 
this communication to our kind friends " on both sides of 
the Dee". 



139 



GKANT OF LEADENHALL BY MAEGABET DE NEVILLE, EIGHTH 
OF EDWARD II (1315); WITH REMAEKS. 

BY J. B. PLANCHE, ESQ., F.S.A. 




I LATELY had the honour to communicate the result of 
y inquiries respecting the misappropriated effigy in Wor- 
cester Cathedral (see p. 5 ante), which, I think, may now be 
undoubtedly considered that of Maud de Clifford, widow of 
William Longespee, and afterwards wife of lord John Gif- 
ford, of Brimsfield, in the county of Gloucester, who, sur- 
viving her, married, secondly, Margaret de Neuvil (Nevil), 
by whom he had issue John Gifford, who succeeded him in 
1299, being at that time thirteen years of age. No pedi- 
gree or charter which I had hitherto met with, however, 
threw any light upon the identity of this Margaret de Nevil ; 
but a few weeks ago, my attention was attracted by a seal 
of a Margaret de Nevil, attached to a document of the reign 
of Edward II, amongst the Add. Charters in the British 
Museum, marked L. F. c. xxm. 16. On opening the deed, 
it proved to be a grant of certain property, in the city of 



140 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

London, by the very lady I was interested about, to her 
son Hugh de Nevill, in the eighth year of Edward II (1315), 
and witnessed by her other son, issue by her second hus- 
band, sir John Clifford, of Brimsfield. By this grant, we 
learn, therefore, that Margaret* de Neville was a widow 
when she married lord Gifford. That her first husband 
was of the branch of the Nevils of Essex, who bore azure 
a lion rampant or, and that the property which she hereby 
gave to her son Hugh de Nevil, was no less known a man- 
sion and appurtenances than that of Leadenhall, affording 
us earlier information respecting that ancient locality than 
Stowe or Strype were able to hand down to us. The deed, 
which is in old French, runs as follows : 

" Conue chose soit a tote genz qe le dezime iour de Mail en le an du 
regn. le Roy Edward fiz le Roy Edward vtisme Acouint entre Darne Mar- 
garet de Neuill dune pt. et Hugh de Neuill soun fiz dautre pt., Isint(?) qe 
lauant dyt Dame Margaret ad bayle et graunte a lauaunt dyt Hugh sun 
hostel et majssouns oue le Gardyn rentes et totes autres choses apurti- 
naunz al dyt. hostel en la uile de Loundr. quest appelle la Sale de Plum 
suz Cornhulle A auoir et tener lauaunt dyt hostel et maissouns oue le 
Gardyn rentes et totes autres choses apurtinaunz al dyt hostel a lauaunt 
dyt Hugh a terme de sauie, Salve alauant dyte Dame Margaret les auoue- 
sons de les eglises en ladyte ville de Loundr. a tote sauie qe sunt porti- 
nanz al dyst hostel. Et sy auingne qe lauant dyt Hugh se lesse morir 
auaunt la dyte Dame Margaret : dounz le auaunt dyt hostel oue totes les 
apurtenauntes cu. suz est nomee, saunz nul conterdyt des heyrs assignez 
ou exsicuttours lauauntdyt Hugh retourne enterement alauant dyt dame 
Margaret al terme de sa vie. Et apres le deces lauant dyte dame Mar- 
garet le dyt hostel oue totes les apourtenaunces de suz nomez ensemblem 
oue les auouesonns de les eglises de demouerge a les heyrs le dyt Hugh a 
touziours. En tesmoynaunce des ques choses a cest. escryt. endente entre- 
chaungablemt. les parties auaunt nomez. onnt. mys la prente de lour seals. 
Ayces tesmoignes Sire Johan Gifford de Brimesfeud, Sire Joh. de Wylling- 
ton, Sire Henr. de Willyngton, Jon. de Bureford, Robt. Pson., Thomas 
Palmer, Johan Barbour, et autres. Don. a Boyton en Wyltes. le iour et le 
an auat nomez. 

The first notice we have of Leadenhall, in Stowe, is 
dated 1309. " The next," he says, " is Leadenhall, of 
which I read that, in the year 1309, it belonged to sir 
Hugh Nevil, knight of Essex." Now, he does not tell us 
where he read that; and we find, by Margaret de Nevil's 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 141 

grant, that she did not give it to sir Hugh before the year 
1315. It is probable, however, if Stowe did not mistake 
the date, that Hugh Nevil might be residing there. It 
could not have been his father ; for Margaret de Nevil was 
the widow of her second husband in 1299, and must have 
lost her first husband before 1286. Stowe goes on to say: 
" That the lady Alice, his (that is, sir Hugh's) widow, made 
a feofment thereof by the name of Leadenhall, with the 
advowsons of the church of St. Peter on Cornhill, and other 
churches, to Richard, earl of Arundel and Surrey, 1362"; 
thus showing that, in strict accordance with the grant of 
Margaret, the advowsons especially excepted by her, during 
her life, had passed, with the rest of the estate, to sir Hugh 
de Nevil, at her decease, and to his heirs for ever. The 
feofment made by the first Alice to lord Arundel was 
confirmed, in the year 1380, by another Alice Nevil, 
widow to sir John Nevil, of Essex, to Thomas Cogshall 
and others. 

In the year 1384, Humphrey de Bohun, earl of Hereford, 
had the said manor; and in the year 1408, Robert Rikeden, 
of Essex, and Margaret his wife, confirmed to Richard 
Whittington, and other citizens of London, the said manor 
of Leadenhall, with the appurtenances, the advowsons of 
St. Peter's church, St. Margaret Pattens, etc. ; and, lastly, 
in the year 1411, the said Whittington and others con- 
firmed the same to the mayors and commonalty of London, 
whereby it came to the possession of the city." Stowe, 
vol. i, p. 84. The same industrious antiquary further in- 
forms us, " that there was a house close by Leadenhall, 
called the London porch, and divided into two tenements, 
one of which, a cook's house, retained the name. This, 
with a large garden, house, and chapel, on the west side of 
Lime-street, was all the property of the Nevils in Edward 
Ps time." " The garden," says Stowe, " is now the green- 
yard of the Leadenhall." From this mention of the leaden 
porch, in conjunction with the French appellation " la 
salle de plomb", we may presume that the mansion obtained 
its name from some particular use of lead in its construc- 
tion, and in those days, when London was nearly all built 
of wood, was distinguished for its leaden roofs, goutieres, 
water-spouts, etc. Another curious point of inquiry arises 
respecting this branch of the great family of Nevil, the 



142 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

genealogical history of which is exceedingly confused in 
Dugdale, and may be illustrated by the document before 
us. 

We have no knowledge of the name of sir Hugh's father, 
the first husband of this Margaret, nor of whose family she 
was herself; but it is evident how Leadenhall, and the adja- 
cent property, came into the possession of the N evils of 
Essex, from the following fact, stated by Dugdale, on the 
authority of a pipe roll of the fourth of king John, in which 
it is stated that Hugh (son and heir of Ralph Nevil, founder 
of the priory of Hoton, in Com. Ebor.) gave one hundred 
marks for the heir of Richard de Cornhill, a rich citizen of 
London, whom he afterwards married ; and by a confirma- 
tion grant of his son John, of Thornden, which his father 
had given to the canons of Waltham, in Essex, we find her 
name was Joan. This John died before the fourth of Henry 
III (1220); for his widow Isabel, daughter and co-heiress 
of Robert de Meynil, in that year, re-married Ralph Mu- 
sard, who, if we may trust Dugdale, must have been her 
third husband ; for he tells us she was, when John Nevil 
married her, " the widow of Sewall, the son of Henry pro- 
genitor of the Shirleys." An Isabel de Musard was the 
first wife of Elias Gifford, of Brirnsfield; but as she brought 
him three daughters, it is scarcely possible she could be a 
daughter of Isabel de Meynil ; she must either have been 
that dauntless widow herself, who was for the third time a" 
widow in 1230, or there must have been an Isabel de 
Musard not mentioned in any pedigree of that family. 
By the proofs of the Freschville family, published in 
the Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, it appears 
that this Ralph Musard had a sister, whose name is not 
mentioned. She is simply called the daughter of Has- 
culf Musard, and Johanna his wife, in a pipe roll of the 
thirty-first of Henry II, 1185, the date of her father's 
death. 

I shall feel much obliged to any one who can furnish 
me with any information on these points, equally interest- 
ing to our London, Gloucester, and Worcester Associates, 
and shall now conclude with directing your attention to 
a copy of the seal of Margaret de Nevil, attached to the 
grant I have described to you (page 139 ante). It is of 
green wax, and presents us with the figure of the donor 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 143 

in the costume of the early part of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. On her robe or super-tunic, as well as on a shield 
on her right hand, are the arms of Gifford of Brimsfield 
gules, three lions passant regardant, argent. On the 
left of the figure is another shield, with the lion rampant 
of the Nevils of Essex, above which is apparently some 
leaf or flower. The only portion of the legend remaining 
is " s. MARG." 



WARRANTS UNDER THE KING'S SIGN MANUAL, DIRECTED TO 
CAPTAIN WILLIAM FASBY, COMMANDER OF THE KING'S 
YACHTS, THE CHARLES AND THE CLEAVELAND, 1673-78. 

VICE-ADMIRAL SYKES, of Castle Hill, Inglefield Green, an 
eminent naval officer, and one of the intrepid crew who, 
with the celebrated Vancouver, engaged in the voyage of 
discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and round the world 
in 1790-5, has in his possession a very fine model of a royal 
yacht, and kindly shewing the same to me, produced also 
a manuscript book containing eight warrants, directed to 
the commander Fasby, of which the following is a sum- 
mary account : 




1. Our wish and pleasure is, That you saile with our yacht 
under yo r comand unto Rye, and there receive on board 
the Earle of Sandwich, with his company, goods, and ser- 
vants, and transport him unto Diepe; and having landed 
him there, you are to returne with our yacht to Green- 
wich, For which this shallbe yo r warrant. Given at our 



144 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

court at Whitehall, this eighteenth day of September 
1673. 

To Capt n . Faseby, comander of our 
yacht the Cleaveland. 

By his Ma ts comand, 




2. Warrant, signed and countersigned as before. To 
proceed to Calais, to attend for, and to receive on board, 
the lord Douglas, together with his company, baggage, 
servants, etc., and bring him into such port in England as 
he shall desire. Dated, Whitehall, Jan. 11, 1674. 

3. Warrant, signed and countersigned as before. To 
sail to Rye, and there receive on board the lady Henrietta 
Hyde, together with her company, goods, and servants, 
and transport her unto such port in France as she shall 
direct. He is ordered to continue four days for the bringing 
back such persons as the lady Henrietta Hyde shall order, 
and thence return to Greenwich. Dated from " Our 
Honour, of Hampton Court", July 3, 1674. 

4. Warrant, signed and countersigned as before. To 
take under protection the two yachts lately built at Ports- 
mouth by sir Anthony Deane, one of the commissioners of 
the navy, together with what other things he shall put on 
board relating to the said yachts, which he is to deliver at 
Havre de Grace, for the use of " our good brother the 
most Christian king"; and with the first opportunity to 
proceed in company with " our ship, the Greyhound", to 
give them convoy unto Havre de Grace, where having 
seen them in safety, he is directed to send the Greyhound 
to the Downs, and then to return to Portsmouth, there to 
receive further orders from sir Anthony Deane, in order 
to the transporting him to Havre de Grace. " Given at 
our court, at Hampton Court", July 21, 1675. 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 145 

5. Warrant, signed and countersigned as before. To 
receive on board the yacht at Portsmouth, the lady Gore- 
ing, together with her company, etc., and to transport her 
to Diepe, and thence to return to Portsmouth. " Given 
at our court, at Windsor", Sept. 1, 1675. 

6. Warrant, signed and countersigned as before, directed 
to Capt. Faseby, commander of our yacht, y e Charles : 

" Whereas, by our order of y e 12th of May last, you are 
appointed with our yacht under your comand to transport 
y e marquise de Bethune, with her company, baggage, and 
servants, to Dantzick ; our will and pleasure is, That in 
passing by y e castle of Cronenbourg, yon doe upon no con- 
sideration whatsoever strike your topsaile, but salute the 
said castle, according to the agreem* on that behalfe, made 
at Copenhagen y e 31st Octo r . 1671 (a copie whereof, 
attested by S r Joseph Williamson, kn*., one of our princi- 
pall Secretarys of State, is herewith given you), by which 
it is agreed, that our ships soe saluting, shall be answered 
by a salute from y e said castle, according to custome. And 
our further will and pleasure is, That in case of meeting 
with any of y e ships of warr of our good brother the king 
of Denmark, within the Baltick Sea, wearing a flag (and 
not otherwise), you are, in passing by, to salute the said 
shipp, or shippes, soe wearing flaggs, in expectacion of 
your being re-saluted by them in like manner, according 
to custome. And, lastly, whereas wee are informed that 
a certaine vessell belonging to our subjects, called the 
Fame of Yarmouth, whereof Thorn. Paris is master, is 
taken up for y e transporting of goods from the port of 
Diepe, in France, into y e Baltick Seas, on behalfe and 
acco* of y e king of Poland, w th purpose of being dispatched, 
soe as to sett forth on her said voyage, in company of our 
said yacht ; our will and pleasure is, That for y e better 
security of said vessell and goods, you doe (wind and 
weather permitting) take the said vessell into yo r com- 
pany, arid keep her soe during yo r said voyage ; giving her 
what countenance and proteccion therein you can, without 
ingaging yo r self in any acts of hostility, or violence, on 
that behalfe. And for so doing, this shall be yo r war- 
rant. Given at our court, at Whitehall, this 1st day of 
June 1676." 

7. Warrant, signed and countersigned as before, direct- 

TOL. VI. 19 



146 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

ing Capt. Faseby to proceed unto Diepe, where being 
arrived, he is permitted to continue 4 days, after the 21st 
inst., and in case the lady Goreing shall arrive there within 
that time, to receive her on board, together with her com- 
pany, etc., and convey her to Rye or Portsmouth, as she 
shall desire. Thence to return to Greenwich. But should 
she not arrive at Diepe within the time named, he is to 
forthwith return to the river Thames. Dated from White- 
hall, May 9, 1677. 

8. Warrant, signed and countersigned as before, direct- 
ing Capt. Faseby to receive on board the earl of Fevers- 
ham, together with his company, baggage, etc., and pro- 
ceed to the Brill, or such port in Holland, or Flanders, as 
he shall desire, where having put him on shore, he is 
directed to put in execution such orders as the earl shall 
give for his further stay there, or returning back. Dated 
from Whitehall, July 18, 1678. 

In an account of commissions granted to capt. Win. 
Fasby, bound up with the preceding warrants, it appears 
that Mr. Secretary Pepys' name was pronounced Pipps, it 
being in three instances spelt in that way. 

T. J. PETTIGREW. 



147 



^Proceedings of t&e Association. 



APRIL 3, 1850. 

GEORGE MILNEB, esq., F.S.A., of Hull, exhibited a drawing of the 
sculptures on the font of Kirburn, near Driffield ; the upper series of 
which related to baptism and other Christian subjects ; whilst the latter 
one appeared to be illustrative of some ancient romance, probably that of 
Reynard the Fox. Referred for further consideration. 

Messrs. Lawes, of Monkwell-street, Cripplegate, exhibited some tiles, 
found in excavating beneath their house, which is situate about fifty feet 
south of the Barber Surgeons' Hall. It is probable, that these tiles may 
have belonged to the chapel of St. James, which formerly stood near the 
north end of this street. 

Mr. David Falcke exhibited a beautifully carved ivory comb of consi- 
derable size, and evidently a production of the fourteenth century. 

Nathaniel Gould, esq., F.S.A., exhibited thirty-one Roman coins, being 
portion of a quantity said to have amounted to 130 Ibs. in weight, turned 
up by the plough, in a field about eight miles north-west of Brest, during 
the last summer. They are reported to have been found in an earthen 
vase, the pottery of which resembled the old pottery of the district. The 
specimens exhibited were presented to Mr. Gould by sir Anthony Perrier, 
H.M. consul at Brest, who, hearing of the discovery, was fortunate enough 
to secure about 30 Ibs. weight. Sir Anthony endeavoured to find the 
appearance of Roman works, but the spade-work effectually prevented 
him. A necklace and beads, and some small bronze ornaments, one of a 
bell-shape, are, however, reported to have been found. Mr. C. R. Smith 
delivered the following report of his examination of the coins : 

" They are all the third brass and billon, of Gallienus and Salonina, 
A.D. 253 to A.D. 258. 

GALLIENUS. 

Style. 1. Gallienus Aug. 2. Imp. C. Gallienus Aug. 3. Imp. C. P. Lie. 
Gallienus Aug. 4. Gallienus P. F. Aug. 

Reverses. 

1. Apollini. Cons. Aug. A griffin - 1 

2. Idem. A centaur - - 1 

3. Dianoe Cons. Aug. A stag - 1 

4. Idem. A stag, with head turned - - 1 

5. Libero Cons. Aug. A panther - 1 



148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

6. Neptune Cons. Aug. A centaur, holding a rudder - - 1 

7. Soli Cons. Aug. Pegasus - - - - I 

8. Mquitas Aug. Type of Equity, standing - 1 

9. Fortuna Aug. Fortune, with rudder and cornucopia - 1 

10. Fides Militum. A woman, standing, holding a military standard in 

one hand ; in the other, a cornucopia - 1 

11. Abundantia Aug. A woman, pouring fruits from a cornucopia - 1 

12. Marti Pacif. Mars Pacifer, standing, holding an olive branch and 

spear - - - - 1 

13. Securitas Aug. Security, leaning on a column ; in the field the 

letter N. - ___-._2 

14. Pietas Aug. A woman, with hands extended, standing by an altar - 2 

15. Pax Aug. Peace, standing - - 1 

16. Virtus Aug. A soldier, holding an olive branch and a spear - 1 

The three of larger size denarii. 

17. Jovi Conserva. Jupiter, standing 

18. Germanicus Max. V. A trophy and captives 

19. Salus Aug. A figure, standing, leaning on a staff, round which a 

serpent is twined - 



, 



SALONIKA. Reverses. 

20. Juno Cons. Aug. A stag ------ 1 

21. Juno Regiua A female figure, standing, holding a globe and the 

hasta pura - - 1 

22. Juno Aug. A female, seated in a chair, holding a child in her arm - 1 

23. Fecunditas Aug. A woman, with a child in her arm - 1 

24. Pietas Aug. A woman, standing by an altar - - - 1 

25. Venus Victrix ; in the exergue, MS. Venus, standing, holding a 

helmet and spear ; behind her, a shield - - 2 

26. Venus Victrix. The same, with spear held horizontally, and the 

shield on the left side - - - - 3 

" I have described these coins minutely to shew the variety of types. 
It is true, they are all well known and common ; hut among so many 
thousands, it is very probable there may have been at least a few unpub- 
lished varieties, which would have well repaid their investigation. An 
examination of a great number of coins thus discovered in a mass, is always 
sure to be attended with some scientific result ; but, unfortunately, it is 
extremely seldom that such trouvailles find their way to the table of the 
numismatist. Even the specimens before us, trite and common as they 
are, are replete with information, and curiously suggestive of inquiry into 
the mythological tenets of the ancients. 

" It would be useful to know if the hoard consisted entirely of coins of 
Gallienus and Salonina. If so, they must have been buried shortly after 
they were minted, probably on some occasion of alarm, during the trans- 
mission of the money to some of the provincial soldiers." 



PALATE XVTR 




C ha? Baity FSA 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 149 

A. C. Kirkmann, esq., exhibited a beautiful ivory carving of the thir- 
teenth century, and made some observations on the \vearing of the prick- 
spur. For these, see p. 123 ante, and plate xiv. 

T, J. Pettigrew, esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., exhibited a manuscript volume 
belonging to admiral Sykes, consisting of a series of warrants relating to 
the royal yachts in the time of Charles II, and bearing the sign manual 
of the king, and also that of the secretary of the admiralty, Samuel Pepys. 
For these, and fac-similes of the signatures, see pp. 143-5 ante. 

Mr. Edwards, of Red Cross-street, exhibited the impression of a bronze 
seal, representing a crown between two letters S ; beneath it a rose, and 
circumscribed " S. Majoris Stapul 8 Ciestriensis". See plate xvm, fig. 3. 

George Isaacs, esq., exhibited a cane of Venetian enamel, of the fif- 
teenth or beginning of the sixteenth century, called Schinelze, varied 
with mille fiore. 

Nathaniel Gould, esq., F.S.A., exhibited six Burmese, or Chinese, 
figures, cut in steotite, and which in many respects resembled the porce- 
lain figures occasionally found in Ireland. 

Charles Ainslie, esq., laid before the Society a large collection of arms, 
principally consisting of daggers and arrow-heads, found in the Thames 
whilst digging for the foundation of the new Houses of Parliament. Also 
several early keys and other antiquities found on the site of Eaton-square. 
Some of these will be found represented on plate xvn, figs. 4, 5, 6. 

Mr. M. A. Lower, of Lewes, exhibited an instrument in bronze, orna- 
mented with representations of grotesque animals biting each other. It 
appears to have been the handle of a knife. 

James Thompson, esq., of Leicester, forwarded an interesting account 
of Leicester abbey and its ancient remains. See pages 116-122 ante, and 
plate xiu. 

John Rooke, esq., of Akehead, and the rev. W. Pattinson, communicated 
an account of an entrenchment, in Avhich were two enclosures, near the 
line of the Roman wall from Bowness to Wallsend, two miles from 
Dykesfield, called Faulsteads, and which appear to have been used as 
places of refuge for flocks, etc., from the incursions of the borderers in 
after times. Also a drawing of a portion of a Roman altar, found in the 
same neighbourhood. These communications were referred for further 
consideration. 

Charles Ade, esq., of Alfriston, communicated a few particulars relating 
to the discovery of a Roman road between Lewes and Peveusey castle, 
concerning which further inquiries were directed to be made. 

Wm. Rolfe, esq., of Sandwich, exhibited a silver cochlear, found at the 
landing-place, Richborough castle, March 30, 1850, for a representatio u 
of which, full size, see plate xvui, figs 1, 2. 

Dr. William Bell read a paper on the contents of a parchment roll 



150 PEOCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

measuring 31 1 feet long, and 12 inches in breadth, exhibited by Joseph 
Mayer, esq., F.S.A., of Liverpool, at the Chester Congress. From a 
collation of it, with some fragments published by Hearne, at Oxford, in 
1719, Dr. Bell pronounced the manuscript to be the Chronicle by Thomas 
Sprott, who lived in the thirteenth century. It is probably unique, as no 
complete copy is to be found, either in the Cottonian or the Harleian 
collections, and deserves to be printed entire. Enlarged drawings of 
some of the illuminations with which the roll is illustrated, were exhibited, 
and from the cross-legged figure of Brute, Dr. Bell was induced to give 
some new views concerning that peculiar position of some of our monu- 
mental effigies, illustrating the subject by some legal customs formerly 
observed in Germany. 



APEIL 17, 1850. 

Mr. S. Kedfern exhibited three Roman coins, found on the site of a 
Roman villa, near Droitwich. They are of Vespasian, Lucius, ^Elius, and 
Commodus. The first is in second brass ; reverse, Securitas Augusti, s.c. 
The second, in first brass; reverse, a figure of Hope, s.c.; legend effaced. 
The third, first brass ; reverse, Liberalitas, four figures. 

Mr. Wm. Edwards exhibited a large collection of pennies of the last 
coinage of Henry II, selected from above two thousand, lately found in 
Bedfordshire. With them were also a few of William and Alexander of 
Scotland. These coins were formerly given to Henry III. 

J. R. Planche, esq., F.S.A., communicated the following observations 
on a spur, dagger, and arrow-heads, exhibited at the previous meeting by 
Charles Ainslie, esq. : " The spur is of the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, tempore Henry VI (see plate xvn, fig. 1). In Skelton's engravings 
from the Meyrick Collection, is an equestrian figure of St. George, sculp- 
tured on an ivory cross-bow of German manufacture (date, circa 1450, see 
fig. 2), wearing such a spur ; and in the same work will be found two ori- 
ginal spurs of that period, one five inches, the other seven inches long in 
the shank ; the first having a rowel of eight points, and the second one of 
six. The great length of the shank was necessary, in consequence of the 
mode of barding or caparisoning the horse, whose sides could not have 
been reached with a shorter spur ; vide the figures in plates CLXXIV, CLXXV, 
CLXXVI, of Montfaucon, Monarchic Frangaise, engraved from the splendid 
MS. of Gilles le Bonnier, bevis herald to Charles VII, of France ; all of 
whom wear these long spurs (see fig. 3, of the Count de Samcere). In the 
following reign of Edward IV, in England, the difficulty was obviated by 
curving the shank and lengthening the spikes of the rowels. 

" The dagger (fig. 4) appears to be of the early part of the sixteenth 
century, the guard being of a fashion dating from the reign of Henry VII 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 151 

to that of Elizabeth ; a period with which the shape of the shield, engraved 
upon the blade, will also correspond. 

"The upper portion of the blade has been rudely, but elaborately, 
engraved and gilt on both sides : on one, is an equestrian figure of St. 
George spearing the dragon ; and immediately behind the saint, a plain 
St. George's cross : on the other side, is the shield before mentioned, 
charged with the letters I.H.S., and surmounted by a crown. The orna- 
mentation of a portion of this side has been destroyed by corrosion. A 
border of scroll-work terminates the engraving, and a short distance above 
it, on each side, is a crowned X, in gold, most probably the initial of the 
holy name of the Redeemer. 

" The same collection presents us with a couple of iron arrow-heads (see 
figs. 5 and 6), or indeed one may have been the head of a small pike or 
javelin, the dates uncertain." 

James Thompson, esq., exhibited the impression from a gold coin re- 
cently found in Leicester. One peculiarity of it consists in its being com- 
posed of two plates, the edges of one overlapping that of the other. Around 
the effigies of the emperor, we read DN . HONOEIVS p. F. AVG., and on the 
reverse, VICTORIA AUGG. ; in the exergue, CONOB. ; on the field, M . c. (?) A. 
piece of pottery and several tessera? were found with the coin. On one of 
the pieces of pottery was inscribed OFFACEE, which was probably intended 
for officina Aceri or Ageri. 

Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, of Plymouth, forwarded an enamelled badge of 
copper, and of a beautiful green. The dragon, represented on each side, 
is in white enamel. It is figured of the full size, in plate xvm, fig. 8. 

Mr. John Adkins Barton, of the Isle of Wight, transmitted the follow- 
ing letter to Mr. C. R. Smith : " I have much pleasure in sending to you 
a set of the coins found at Mr. Perress's, which the friendship of that gentle- 
man has placed at my disposal. Within these few weeks, nearly two thou- 
sand of these coins have been sent to me, and I have, at leisure, examined 
and reviewed them individually, without any change of my opinion as to 
what they are, or the time of their deposit. You will find types of four 
different kinds belonging to London and Canterbury, Edw., Edwa., 
Edwar., and Edward, but not of the other mintages, which are sometimes 
of the one, sometimes of the other. Of the Edward type, I have not found 
fifty altogether in all the mintages ; and I am very strongly inclined to 
think all these four varieties appertain to the two first Edwards alone, and 
that none are of the third Edward, in which I am strongly borne out by 
the contemporary coins of Alexander III and John Baliol, of which class 
there are about fifty or sixty coins, and but one of Robert I (which I have 
only by hearsay, not having seen it) ; also by the Flemish count, of which 
class there are, perhaps, three or four dozen, including Namur, Brussels, 
Mons, Alost, Luni, (?) Porcien, and others. I cannot concur in the re- 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

marks of Mr. Bergne (see Journal, vol. v, p. 378), as to these foreign coins 
(at least such as I see in this hoard). I affirm them to be true and good 
money, as the variety of their workmanship proves ; some have buildings, 
some heraldic or armorial bearings, some crowned heads, some heads un- 
crowned, and all are as unlike, as they possibly can be, in their fabrication 
and style, to the current sterlings of the Edwards. Mr. B.'s suggestions 
are very ingenious, but they fall to the ground before these pieces of 
money, which bear their own evidence as to their authenticity. Indeed, 
it should be asked, why are we to suppose the Flemings (then a great com- 
mercial people) sunk so low as to have no better occupation than counter- 
feiting our money ? Are we to suppose that they had no currency of their 
own ? or is there anything very extraordinary in the supposition that spe- 
cimens of their money might occasionally find their way to England ? I 
am not inclined to think so. Since I last wrote to you on this subject, 
the only very rare or valuable coin contained in this hoard, as far as my 
judgment goes, has been put into my hands by a gentleman of Newport, 
who had purchased it of one of the boys of the town (no doubt one of those 
carried off by the workmen), and he has since deposited it in the museum 
attached to the institution. It is a veiy perfect halfpenny of the Dux 
Aquitaine type, and in excellent condition. I will make one or two fur- 
ther remarks on coins I have lighted on, and then conclude. Amongst 
the London type, I met with eight or nine having EDW. REX ANG., etc., of 
which you will find an example pretty perfect a somewhat singular man- 
ner of placing the title. I also met with one coin having EDW B'B' ANG, 
etc. Can this be any imitation of the Koman AVGG. ? Edward III was 
proclaimed king during the lifetime of his father ; and may this not relate 
to the fact that there were two kings of England of the same name ? It 
is not a bungled coin, but very clear, and the two B'S particularly so. A 
few mint-marked coins turned up. Of Durham, the cross moline, and the 
crozier ; of York, the cross, with the quatrefoil in the centre ; and of Lon- 
don, one having a dot before the name of the city ; but they were very 
limited in number. The GVIDO EPISCOPVS, on a closer examination, turned 
out to be of Cambray. Mr. Hearn mentions a London halfpenny and a 
Ludovicus ; but nothing of the kind occurred to me, the great mass of the 
coins being of the usual types, with the exceptions I have pointed out, and 
these, all included, Scotch, Flemish, Montmartre, etc., did not exceed 
one hundred in the whole three or four thousand coins." 

Upon the preceding, J. B. Bergne, esq., F.S.A., has favoured the Asso- 
ciation with the following remarks : " I ought, before now, to have re- 
turned Mr. Barton's letter ; I now, however, enclose it, with many thanks 
for the perusal. He has examined the coins, found in the Isle of Wight, 
with the patience and skill of a well-practised numismatist ; and I hope he 
will not think that I intended any disparagement of his labours by those 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 153 

remarks of mine, which were printed in the Journal, vol. v, page 378. 
Now, as to the foreign sterlings, it is, if I mistake not (for I do not pre- 
tend to pronounce on a matter to which I have never paid much atten- 
tion), considered at least doubtful whether such of these pieces as closely 
imitate the type of English and Scottish coins of the period, were really 
struck by order of the petty princes whose names they bear, or whether 
they were mere private speculations. That the object of the close imita- 
tion in question was to obtain for such pieces a concurrent circulation with 
the veritable English pieces, seems, I think, abundantly clear, especially 
when it is considered that even such an exceptional type as that of the 
Irish coins of Edward was closely imitated, as well as the English type. 
Of course the charge of counterfeiting can only apply to those coins in 
which the English type was thus closely imitated. Within the last week 
or two, I have heard of another and most remarkable instance of the imi- 
tation or counterfeiting of an English type. Mr. Thomsen, of Copenhagen, 
has sent to Mr. Akerman drawings of some coins lately found in Denmark, 
which at first glance would be taken for pennies of Henry III, type, Rud- 
ing, plate n, No. 18 ; but, on examination, the obverse legends are " Hen- 
ricus Comes," " Salve Reginam," etc. The reverse, if I remember right, 
in one instance is here with a moneyer's name ; but the others were unin- 
telligible to me. I conceive that these pieces were also struck with a view 
to secure to them a circulation among true English coins. If it ever hap- 
pens that I should have the opportunity of examining any large quantity of 
these foreign sterlings which may turn up, I might, by comparing their 
weight with time English coins, and by other circumstances, be able to 
offer a more decided opinion whether the striking of them was a venture 
of the prince or of an individual. Supposing the prince struck them, his 
seignorage or profit of mintage would benefit by the extent to which he 
could push the circulation of his coins ; in fact, even supposing his imi- 
tation was of as good silver and as full weight as the real English coin, 
the Flemish count would, to the extent to which his pieces circulated 
here, get the mint-profit, instead of the English king, and that seems a 
fraudulent motive. 

" I cannot think that the occurrence of R'R' on one of the Isle of Wight 
coins, is anything more than a blunder. Examples are known where Lon- 
don is spelt Dondon, the syllables of Civitas misplaced, and the like." 



MAY 1. 

Mr. Joseph Warren, of Ixworth, Suffolk, exhibited a Saxon silver ring 
(see plate xviii, fig. 10), bearing the characters represented in fig. 11, 
sioERiEHET MBA GEWiRCAN, which probably may be read as Sigerihet 
had me made or wrought. It is likely to be as early as the ninth or 

VOL. VI. 20 



154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

tenth century. In reply to a suggestion that it had been cast, Mr. Warren 
has observed, that he is ready to admit that, as far as it regards the ring 
itself, but not as to the characters inscribed on it. He states, that if the 
metal is examined with the point of a graver, or any very sharp instrument, 
instead of cutting a tough shaving, it crumbles before the instrument used ; 
and he has found this to be the case also with many very old silver coins 
which have lain long in the earth. He conceives this to be a proof of the 
genuine antiquity of the ring. No history unfortunately attaches to it, for 
it was purchased of a travelling dealer, who said he did not know where 
it came from. 

Mr. George Isaacs exhibited the ornamented side of a book, the enamel 
on it representing St. James, and being the work of the twelfth century ; 
whilst the metal-work was of a later date, and including gems, crystals, 
and an intaglio, probably antique. 

Mr. Isaacs also exhibited the upper part of a book-cover, with ivory 
carving, of the Ascension. This was of the eleventh century. 

Mr. Christopher Lynch exhibited several pennies of Edward the Con- 
fessor, Harold II, and William I, found at St. Mary-at-hill, in 1774. 

Mr. Samuel Pratt exhibited a sword of the time of Henry V. This was 
referred for future consideration. 

Dr. W. V. Pettigrew produced some moulds for casting Roman coins. 
They had been found at a Roman station, situate at Lingwell-nooke, 
Wakefield-out-Wood, Yorkshire, and are so formed, that, when fitted toge- 
ther, the melted metal could be poured into many at one time. 

Mr. David Falcke exhibited a remarkably beautiful jug of cut ruby 
glass, of the seventeenth century, with silver mounting of the same period. 

Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt presented some drawings of Roman pottery, found 
in the area of the station at Alchester, Oxfordshire, by the rev. W. L. 
Brown. Some of the fragments were interesting, and the subject was 
referred for future inquiry. The rev. Mr. Brown kindly forwarded the 
following note with the drawings : " I should have replied before to your 
letter, had I not wished to take advantage of a few fine days, before the 
farmer crops his ground, to explore a small portion of Alchester, which has 
hitherto been accessible. I am sorry to say the plough has now overtaken 
us, so that, for the present, all further operations must be abandoned. 
Excepting traces of building, walls, etc., we have not found much. The 
accompanying sheet contains the best copies I can execute, of whatever 
seemed curious in the way of pottery. I have given the outlines of six 
specimens of mortaria, two of which strike me as larger than I have usu- 
ally seen. The curves (traced from the outer rim) will show the size, the 
figures indicating to which each curve belongs ; the piece unnumbered is 
remarkable for a very close studding of the quartz, almost to the edge of 
the vessel. Nos. 1, 2, and 3, are of coarse whitish clay (Nos. 1 and 2 very 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 155 

coarse) ; No. 4, pale red, with a yellowish coating ; No. 5, fine red, with- 
out quartz. There are also some fragments, which were not worth draw- 
ing, of a fine red glazed outside, with quartz ; and a coarser red, showing 
the blue clay in the middle, and yellow outside, with quartz. At the bot- 
tom of the same page. I have given two sections of a piece of stone, found 
at Alchester. The smaller end towards it is conical, gradually flattened 
towards the other end till it becomes sharp, and polished on one side, 
while it is rough on the other. The stone is something like granite. It 
has occurred to me that such a thing might have been used for bruising 
boiled grain in these mortaria, the quartz pebbles serving to grind it. 
I have never seen anything like a pestle, nor any vessels strong enough 
to bear blows sufficient for the trituration of dry corn. 

" I have also sent specimens of various pottery, showing at least how 
many different moulds must have been used for what you tell us is the 
Samian (the figures are of an Egyptian character), and exhibiting a pretty 
outline of the ivy-leaf pattern, as well as a portion of the potter's stamp in 
No. 2. No. 8 is the under side of a bowl, with part of the ring on which 
it stood, I fear very unintelligibly drawn. No. 11 is in very high relief; 
9, merely coloured; 10, deeply grooved between the diagonal ribs. The 
lower, No. 6, belongs rather to the other page. 

" The plate of sections sent me (see plate v, in the last Number of 
the Journal] will be valuable in classing what I may hereafter find ; but 
has the material been attended to ? for I believe the shape of the rim 
must depend much upon the tenacity and stiffness of the clay." 

J. R. Planche, esq., F.S.A., read a paper on the origin of certain armo- 
rial bearings, in which he showed that interesting, historical, and genealo- 
gical facts, may be substituted for the wild legends and absurd tales in- 
tended to account for their assumption. This paper will appear in a 
future Number of the Journal. 

Thomas Lott, esq., F.S.A., exhibited some Roman coins of Gordianus II 
and III, Hadrian, Trajan, Antoninus, and Aurelianus, found during an 
excavation for a drain in the upper part of Cheapside. 

Charles Baily, esq., F.S.A., described an ampulla of lead, now in the 
museum at York, for which see p. 125 ante, and plate xv, in illustration 
of the same. 

Mr. Purland made some observations on four gilt metal candelabra, 
upwards of ten feet in height, which are placed before the altar in the 
cathedral of St. Baron, at Ghent, one of which is represented in the His- 
toric Reliqites, by Mr. J. M. Williams. The notice accompanying this 
representation extends not beyond a tradition, that the four candelabra 
had been once the property of Charles I. Mr. P. remarked, that on that 
part of the shaft rising above the vase, were the arms of England. Above 
the arms is the badge of the Tudor roses, the red and the white roses 



156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

conjoined. The heraldic devices appear to show the time when the cande- 
labra were manufactured, and from their richness, excellence of fabric, 
etc., Mr. P. was disposed to regard them as having been intended as deco- 
rations at the angles of the tomb in Henry VII's chapel, but sold, under 
one of the many ordinances to that effect, between the years 1649 and 
1652. 

The rev. Mr. Massie, of Chester, reported, through Mr. C. K. Smith, 
that there have been recently found, in Eoman work, a bronze eagle, about 
two inches in length, very solid and perfect; a Corinthian capital, near 
which was a perfect silver coin of Trajan ; a copper medal, which he sup- 
poses to be of Crispus, son of Constantine, having on the reverse an altar 
and crown on it with a cross, and " VOTIS" on the altar, small and in good 
preservation. 

Mr. James Harrison, of Chester, communicated a sketch of a floor lately 
discovered in Bridge-street, closely adjoining the garden of St. Michael's 
rectory. There was a monastery of St. Michael's which was burnt, but 
there now remain no particulars as to the site of it ; and Mr. H. thinks it 
very probable that the rectory stands on the site occupied by the monas- 
tery, and that this may have been a floor of some of the buildings. The 
sills, composing the pavement, are shown in the exact position in which 
they were found, but they do not form a correct pattern. Another portion 
of the floor is arranged in a regular pattern. 

Mr. Fillinham exhibited a large and fine flint celt, found at Malta. 

Mr. Robert Cook, of York, exhibited a variety of antiquities found at 
different times in York. Some of these are figured in plate xrx, of the 
full size. Fig. 1, is a remarkably fine specimen of bronze Roman steel- 
yard ; fig. 2, a portion of a bone comb, probably Roman ; fig. 3, an orna- 
ment in jet, also probably Roman. 

Dr. Thurnam, of York, exhibited several Roman antiquities from the 
museum of the Leeds Philosophical Hall, presented to that institution 
some years since by Win. Glover Joy, esq., of Springfield Mount, who has 
favoured the Association with the following account of them : " Being on 
a visit at York during the time the railway was formed, in 1838 or 1839, 
I made it a point daily to visit the excavations then making in the mound 
near the railway bridge. On examination, I found that the top of the 
mound was covered to the depth of about two feet with vegetable mould ; 
below which appeared to be an artificial layer of lime about two inches 
thick, with a slight covering of gravel, as though it had been intended for 
a terrace. In the centre of this mound, and about eight or ten feet below 
this layer, was found a coffin, formed by driving down oaken planks about 
three or four feet long into the ground, so as to form the sides of it; 
these were again lined inside with oak boards ; the top and bottom being 
of the same material. In the coffin was found a skeleton. Near this 




6 



Sim 






fc Iff.. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 157 

coffin were likewise found the skulls and bones of men, children, horses, 
etc., now in the museum. The small collection of round pieces of turned 
bone, like small draught-men, twenty or upwards in number, were found 
near the skull of a child. The broken glass-bottle, knife-handle, and 
other matters, were also found much below the surface. There were a 
great number of earthen jars, similar to the broken one in our museum, 
which was the best I could get, as the overlooker would not give the men 
time to take them out entire, containing ashes. All the articles I got 
are in our museum, except two small pieces of finer red pottery, which I 
gave to a relative of mine who was over from America, only last month ; 
on one of these was the figure of a bear, very well done, and on the other 
a naked figure throwing a spear. 

" I believe one or two coins were found, and were in the possession of 
my brother, though he now knows nothing of them." 

The fibula in bronze (see plate xix, fig. 4), is somewhat uncommon ; 
the knife was probably of the time of Henry VIII, or Elizabeth. The 
bone needle is shewn in fig. 5 ; the bone pin, fig. 6 ; and the bone tessera 
or pellet, which is curious, fig. 7. These are all represented of their 
full size. 

MAT 15, 1850. 

The rev. sir Henry Dryden, bart, forwarded a plan of the Roman villa 
discovered at Whittlebury Forest (see Journal, pp. 73-6 ante), and Mr.. 
Edward Pretty further accounts of the discoveries. These were referred 
for arrangement and future publication and illustration. 

Mr. Samuel Pratt exhibited two silver sacramental cruets of the early 
part of the sixteenth century, one for the reception of water, marked A ; 
the other for wine, designated by the letter v. On the bottom was 
scratched ARNOALDUS SUM DONOR LUFT DONOR. See plate xvm, fig. 9. 
Half size of the original. 

William Langton, esq., of Manchester, exhibited some medieval seals, 
which were referred for more particular examination. 

Charles Baily, esq., F.S.A., exhibited a copper dish, with a supposed 
Runic inscription, belonging to Mr. Wetton, and described in the Archce- 
ologia. This was referred for further consideration. 

Mr. Goddard Johnson, of Norwich, exhibited a variety of antiquities 
found in several localities in Norfolk. These were referred for future 
illustration. 

Mr. Barton, of Threxton, also exhibited an extensive series of antiqui- 
ties obtained from various parts of Norfolk and Suffolk, viz. : 

British. Two bronze daggers; gold breast-plate; small gold box, found 
in a tumulus at Little Crossingham, Norfolk ; stone celt, from Wetton. 



158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Roman. Spear-heads, from Carbrooke, etc. ; cornelian head of Minerva, 
found at Threxton ; agate (cat's eye), from Sporle ; two fibulae, one in 
the form of a fish, from Threxton ; several bronze ornaments, from the 
same place. 

Saxon. Iron boss of a shield ; spear-head and knife, from a tumulus 
at Northwold, Norfolk ; there were about forty bosses found, also many 
beads, etc., at this place a few years since; knife-handle, found in Norfolk; 
knife, in Suffolk ; amber beads, etc. 

Mr. James Clark, of Easton, near Woodbridge, Suffolk, exhibited to 
the Association three ancient rings (see plate xvin). Fig. 6 is in gold, 
and set with a red-coloured stone ; it was taken off the point of a harrow 
at Leiston Abbey Farm, near Saxmundham. Fig. 4 represents a silver 
ring of the fifteenth century. Fig. 5 shews the legend on the same, 
which is I.H.S., N: R:I., i. e., Jesus of. Nazareth the king of the Jews. The 
device of the two hands joined is curious. Fig. 7 is also in silver, but of 
an older date ; it may be as early as the thirteenth century. These were 
found at Hempstead, in Essex, in 1849. 



159 



Notices of Ncfo publications. 



THE COLLEGIATE CHURCH OF MAIDSTONE RESTORED TO THE DATE OF ITS 
COMPLETION, A.D. 1400. 

THIS is an exceedingly beautiful lithograph, from a drawing by our asso- 
ciate, Jno. Whichcord, jun., esq., F.S.A., exhibiting this fine building in 
the state in which it was probably left at its completion by the founders. 
Much research has been given to the subject, and considerable difficulties 
have been encountered in consequence of the unusual position of parts of 
the building. The pitch of the roof has been settled by the remains of 
one of the stories ; the design is in accordance with the style of the period, 
and is rich, without being too ornate. The existing roof has a plaster 
ceiling in the worst taste of the middle of the last century, and it is to be 
hoped that funds may be raised to restore the open roof, as here designed. 
The church has the remains of two beautiful screens, which have been 
taken as authorities for designing the choir, screen, and rood. Fortu- 
nately, also, there is sufficient colour remaining to settle exactly the poly- 
chromy, which has a very nice effect. One of the most peculiar features 
relative to the screen-work, is the circumstance that a stone staircase, with 
a doorway, which evidently led into the church at the exact height of the 
screen-work, exists at the second buttress from the choir, in the north 
aisle. Mr. Whichcord has conjectured, that here was the chapel of St. 
Mary, which is known to have existed in the church in the reign of Henry 
VIII. The Corpus Christi chapel, it is known, was in the north aisle of 
the chancel, and that of St. Thomas of Kent in the south aisle of the same. 
The chapel of St. Katherine was probably in the south aisle of the nave, 
where there is a piscina and a canopied niche on the outside of the north 
aisle of the same, in which, tradition asserts, was formerly a statue of the 
Virgin, and with the greatest probability points of the chapel of St. Mary. 
Here there must have been a screen, from the circumstance of the position 
of the door before mentioned ; and there is very little doubt that it was 
continued and led to the great rood screen or jube gallery, passing round 
behind the large piers. In fact, there is no other way of communication 
between the rood or jube stair, and the rood itself ; and it must be remem- 
bered that this was not merely a parish church, used only for Mass and 
vespei-s, but a collegiate establishment for secular canons, where, of course, 
the breviary services were read every three hours, and, no doubt, portions 
chauuted from the rood loft, as in monastic churches. The next point 



160 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

which attracts our attention is the position of the pulpit, which is drawn 
on the north side of the church, contrary to the general practice. We, 
however, have seen several examples of this kind, particularly one in the 
large collegiate church at Wolverhampton. Mr. Whichcord has been 
induced to place it in this position, from the circumstance that the sacristy 
is on the south side of the church (and, by the way, we may add, so is the 
tower), contrary to the usual practice, and because it would seem to inter- 
fere with the screen of St. Mary's chapel, if placed in the usual position. 
We cannot compliment the taste of those who have lately erected, in the 
church, a very poor, meagre pulpit, and most indescribable stair ; and we 
think the design before us infinitely superior to that which has been 
adopted. We think, too, that the canopy over the pulpit, as designed by 
Mr. Whichcord, very much improves the effect. The members of the 
British Archaeological Association will remember the splendid stone canopy 
at Worcester. A very pleasing effect has been given by diapering the 
chancel with the sacred monogram I.H.C. This decoration was found on 
the walls of the chancel, on taking down the tomb of the Dixon family in 
1845 ; they had evidently been done with what is called a stencil, and 
were ranged triangularly, about nine inches apart. It is a common deco- 
ration in mediaeval architecture, and, with its bright colours, very much 
relieves the bareness of a large unbroken surface of wall. The same remark 
applies to the colours on the screen-work. It is, in fact, by the contrast 
of the bright colours of glass, or polychromy, that the effect of stone-work 
is relieved far better than by covering the piers and arches with gaudy 
paintings, which take away from the reality of the construction, and make 
one mass of arabesque work, looking, after all, no better than paper- 
hanging, instead of showing the architecture as it is, and assisting it by 
coloured decoration. 

The print is published as a completion of Mr. Whichcord's history of 
this church (London: Weale, 1845), which was founded by archbishop 
Courtney in 1395, and is a very pm-e and unmixed specimen of the archi- 
tecture of that period. We hope its publication may lead to the demoli- 
tion of the wretched plaster ceiling, which so much disfigures this fine 
building. A. A. 



LITHOGRAPHIC-COLOURED PRINTS OF ROMANO-BRITISH TESSELLATED PAVE- 
MENTS. By H. Ecroyd Smith, Saffron Walden. Plates iv and v. 

THE first of these plates illustrates one of the most beautiful pavements 
preserved in this country. The design is as rich and gorgeous as it is 
chaste and classical ; it comprises nine octagonal compartments, enclosing 



NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 161 

quadrilateral and triangular figures, interlaced by a rich guilloche of various 
colours. The pavement appears to have been about twenty-four feet 
square, and was discovered in 1830, about one hundred yards north-west 
of the Roman wall called Jewry-wall, in excavating for the foundations of 
a cellar. Mr. Ecroyd Smith remarks, that there is reason to believe the 
corporation of Leicester, or the Philosophical and Literary Society, may 
soon secure this valuable pavement from the risk of further injury. It 
has now been discovered just twenty years, so that the corporation of 
Leicester has taken considerable time to estimate its merits. It may be 
remarked, that the pavement discovered in Paternoster-Row some few 
years since, and immediately cut to pieces by the excavators, was a much 
finer specimen even than that of Leicester, inasmuch as the heads of 
deities and their emblems were introduced. The second plate is more 
curious than beautiful ; it is also from Leicester. It represents a group 
of three figures, one of which is a female ; the second, Cupid drawing 
his bow ; the third, a stag : the design may possibly have been intended 
to allude to the amours of Diana with Endymion. We hope the support 
Mr. Ecroyd Smith has received for his commendable exertions will war- 
rant his continuing the series, and adding to it some of the specimens 
recently discovered at Cirencester and at other places, and perhaps some 
continental examples for comparison. c. R. s. 



ROMAN PAVEMENT. At the present moment, the lovers of classical art 
may be gratified by the inspection at 1 1 , Pall Mall East, of one of the 
most superb specimens of tessellated work ever discovered. It was dug 
up at Autun, in France (the Augustodunum of the Romans), at the depth 
of nine feet. The subject is Bellerophon killing the Chimoera. The hero 
is mounted sideways upon Pegasus, and is represented in the attitude of 
piercing the monster beneath the horse with a long spear. The entire 
composition is extremely fine ; the drawing is almost faultless ; the action 
spirited ; and the colouring, considering the materials, really wonderful. 
The position of the young horseman is graceful, easy, and resolute ; the 
wounded chimaera is a perfect study in itself ; one head is pierced, and 
the relaxed folds of the serpent which forms the tail, its protruded tongue 
and half-closed eye, reveal the approaching close of the conflict. Altoge- 
ther, perhaps it is finer than any specimen we possess in this country ; 
and we trust the exhibitor may be repaid for bringing it to England. 

c. B. s. 



VOL. VI 21 



1G2 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 



WORKS PREPARING FOR PUBLICATION. 

In imperial 8vo., illustrated by upwards of forty engravings on steel and wood, from 
original drawings, and six maps. A History of the Parish of Saint Pancras, in 
the county of Middlesex ; containing a full account of its ancient and modern 
state. Compiled from authentic sources, many hitherto unpublished. By Alfred 
W. Ingpen. Price to subscribers, payable on delivery : small paper copy, 
1. 16s.; large paper copy, with proof impressions of the plates, 2. 5s. Taylor 
and Walton, Gower-street. 

Antient British, Roman, and Saxon Antiquities, and Folk-Eore of Worcestershire. 
By Jabez Allies, esq., F.S.A. Second edition. Price not to exceed Fifteen 
Shillings. Subscribers are requested to send their names and addresses, directed 
either to the author, 31, Halliford-street, Islington, London ; or to Mr. Grainger, 
Bookseller, 18, Foregate, Worcester. 

A Graphic and Historical Sketch of the Antiquities of Totness. By William Cotton, 
F.S.A. 

By Subscription. Illustrations to the Catalogue of the Manuscripts in Gonville and 
Caius College : consisting of Notices of the writers of the several pieces ; of the 
writings themselves ; specimens of remarkable texts, illuminations in coloured 
lithographic engravings, autographs and portraits ; Memoirs of several distin- 
guished members of the College. The work will be comprised in Six Parts, 
price Ten Shillings each Part ; to be published at regular intervals during two 
years, commencing March 1851. Names of subscribers received by the editor, 
the rev. J. J. Smith, Loddon, Norfolk ; or by his publishers, Mr. Deighton, Cam- 
bridge, and Mr. J. Russell Smith, Old Compton-street, Soho, London. 

Elements of Scottish Archaeology. By Daniel Wilson, Secretary to the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland. 8vo. 



JD8T PUBLISHED. 

The Antiquities of Richborough, Reculver, and Lymne, in Kent, including an account 
and plan of the Roman Castrum, called Stutfall Castle, recently excavated. By 
C. Roach Smith, F.S.A. ; with illustrations by F. W. Fairholt, F.S.A. Small 
quarto. J. Russell Smith, Old Compton-street, Soho. 

Collections towards a History of Pottery and Porcelain. By Joseph Marryat. With 
coloured plates and woodcuts. 8vo. Murray. 

A Letter addressed to R. Monckton Milnes, esq., M.P., on the condition and unsafe 
state of ancient Parochial Registers in England and the Colonies. By W. Down- 
ing Bruce, esq., K.C.S., F.S.A. London. 8vo. 1850. 

The Ancient Laws of the Fifteenth Century, for King's College, Cambridge, and for 
the Public School of Eton College. Collected by James Heywood, M.P., F.R.S., 
F.S.A., and Thomas Wright, M.A., F.S.A. 8vo. London : Longman. 1850. 

Illustrations of the Remains of Roman Art in Qirencester. By Professor Buckman, 
F.L.S., F.G.S., and C. H. Newmarch, esq. 8vo. and 4to. London : Bell. Ciren- 
cester: Baily and Jones. 



THE JOURNAL 



JSrttist) 8reJ)aecilo0icaI assoctatton. 



OCTOBER 1850. 



ON THE STUDY OF ARCHEOLOGY, AND THE 
OBJECTS OF THE BRITISH ARCHAE- 
OLOGICAL ASSOCIATION. 

BY T. J. PETTIGREW, ESQ., F.R.S., F.8.A., VICE-PRESIDENT AND TREASURER 
OP THE ASSOCIATION. 

ALTHOUGH the establishment and prosperity of the 
British Archaeological Association, during a period of seven 
years, may be considered as affording irrefragable evidence 
of the necessity of its formation, and of the benefits which 
have been derived from its exertions, I have much pleasure 
in acceding to the desire of the Council, that, from having 
been associated with it from its birth to the present time, 
and given much attention to its pursuits and interests, I 
should lay before you a few remarks on the course we 
have pursued, and the objects we have attained. When I 
had the honour of addressing the members of this Asso- 
ciation and our visitors at the Second Annual Congress, 
held at Winchester in 1845, I endeavoured to depict the 
different spirit which actuated the modern antiquaries 
from those of a preceding generation, as to their modes 
of inquiry into the monuments and remains of antiquity. 
The researches of the antiquaries of the present day, it 
must be recollected, are no longer directed to the accumu- 
lation of antiques, or to the mere development of the 
characters of an ancient inscription, but have reference to 
their relation to history, and the illustrations they afford 

VOL. VI. 22 



164 THE STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

of the habits and customs of former times. The pursuit 
of the true antiquary demands a knowledge and exercise 
of various attainments. To render his labours effective, 
he must possess no little acquaintance with heraldry, with 
genealogy, with various languages in which inscriptions 
are to be found either on monuments or in manuscripts, 
with numismatics, with history, in general and particular 
manners and customs, and a variety of other attainments 
too numerous to be expected to be efficiently combined in 
any one individual. Hence arises the necessity of such 
associations as the present, where persons of different 
attainments, and knowledge in different departments of 
science and art, combine together to elucidate the events 
and memorials of past ages. 

The times in which we live are peculiarly favourable to 
these exertions; the general advancement of knowledge in 
the mass of mankind favours the antiquary in a remark- 
able manner, as those difficulties, which from the igno- 
rance of the people in former times, operated destructively 
to the monuments of antiquity, no longer exist; but, on 
the contrary, we find in their stead a spirit of inquiry, to 
search into the mysteries of the past, and to protect and 
preserve that which is likely to throw light upon any sub- 
ject deemed worthy of investigation. It is clearly in 
evidence upon that which relates to our public buildings 
and collections, that the more widely they are thrown 
open to the inspection and examination of the public, the 
more tender and careful have that public become of their 
integrity, demonstrating clearly, that it is only necessary 
to let a general interest be manifested to ensure protection 
for that which the nation possesses. In like manner, we 
have seen at every Congress held by this Association, that 
the display of the antiquarian treasures of the places in 
which we have assembled, has, in all instances, excited an 
interest in the inhabitants, or beholders, for objects which 
before possessed no attraction whatever, and towards which 
a disposition, tending rather to spoliation than protection, 
previously existed. 

The establishment of various associations to unfold 
ancient treasures, as shewn in the formation of the His- 
torical, the Camden, the Shakespeare, the Percy, the Hak- 
luyt, the Chetham, and other societies; the Roxburgh, 



THE STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 165 

the Bannatyne, the Maitland, the Surtees, and other clubs, 
manifest the spirit which has been awakened, and the 
demand excited for more intimate inquiries than have been 
hitherto instituted. 

Antiquities have, by lord Bacon, one of the greatest 
philosophers that ever lived, one 

" large of understanding, 

Of memory infinite, of judgment deep, 
Who knew all learning, and all science knew ; 
And all phenomena in heaven and earth 
Traced to their causes" 

been called the " wrecks of history" ; and to the collection 
and assemblage of these we must necessarily look for the 
illustration of man, and the progress of the arts and 
sciences. How wide the field which is thus opened to 
our view, and what knowledge and discretion are requisite 
to render examination available for useful and sound pur- 
poses ! It is the province of the antiquary, by his erudi- 
tion and his knowledge, to collect, assort, and connect 
together, the various particulars which he finds scattered 
either in the pages of history or in the search for anti- 
quities, so to elucidate each other, and to bring the whole 
into one system. Much learning may be possessed, and it 
may be carried out by great ingenuity; but unless the 
advantage of extensive experience be added to a know- 
ledge of details, and an acquaintance with collections, 
very unsatisfactory indeed will be the result. Societies 
alone can amass this knowledge ; the united efforts of the 
many, in all parts of the globe, are essential to enable any 
generalization of the subject to be made. 

No one will, I think, be disposed to question, that much 
benefit has been derived to the country, and to learning 
in general, by the establishment of the Society of Anti- 
quaries ; and although we may regret that the labours of 
this body, which has now existed in its form as an incor- 
porated society, enjoying royal patronage, holding regular 
and undisturbed meetings, for just one century, having 
been established in 1751, have not been more extensive 
in their character; it must yet be admitted, that its esta- 
blishment has tended to promote true and useful learning 
to extend researches into real and practical knowledge 



166 THE STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

to illustrate the laws arid customs of our country and to 
pourtray the advances that have been gradually made in 
the arts during different periods of its history thus form- 
ing a most interesting chapter in the history of man, by 
the display of the various contrivances and inventions to 
meet his varying and multiplied wants. It might perhaps 
reasonably be expected, that the Society of Antiquaries 
should have carried out the purposes for which our Asso- 
ciation has been formed, that investigations should have 
been made of all the antiquities of the kingdom, and 
labours instituted for the development of many that still 
lie hidden. Perhaps the Charter of Incorporation of this 
body may render such objects difficult of accomplishment; 
though, I confess, I cannot view it in this light. Charters 
are excellent things in general, as applicable to bodies, at 
the time in which they are given ; but they are often worse 
than useless, as offering impediments when a century shall 
have elapsed, being then inapplicable to the wants and 
necessities of the times. That our body is not working 
peripatetically, I may perhaps be permitted to say, with 
the Society of Antiquaries in this pursuit, is not the fault 
of our Association, for we entertain no hostility to that 
body, or feel any desire of opposition to its success ; on the 
contrary, we number among our subscribing associates no 
less than eighty-two of the fellows of the Society of Anti- 
quaries ; and we have been not only individually, but also 
collectively, as an Association, the means of furnishing to 
the published transactions of the society, the Archceologia, 
some very valuable papers. In truth, there is no lack of 
material for the contemplation of the antiquary ; our 
quarterly Journal demonstrates that fact; and the only 
difficulty or want which we feel is, that of a deficiency of 
funds to illustrate in the complete manner we could wish 
the various communications which are daily brought under 
our notice. That we do not possess funds adequate to such 
purpose, does not arise from indiscretion or a profligate 
expenditure on other objects, as will be clear to every one, 
when I state, that no officer of this society receives a 
salary that with us, the love of the pursuit beguiles all 
the labour of it, studio fallente laborem, as Horace 
expresses it; and that every farthing we receive into our 
treasury is expended in the printing and illustration of 



THE STUDY OF ARCHEOLOGY. 167 

our Journal, and the steps we take to maintain ourselves 
as a body. And when I pause to reflect upon what has 
been accomplished by such small means when I consider 
the small amount of our subscription, being one guinea 
only annually, or ten guineas as a life subscriber; and 
that for this sum each member receives four quarterly 
Journals, constituting a volume of large bulk, and pro- 
fusely illustrated by excellent engravings, I am sure it 
will be acknowledged, that those to whom has been en- 
trusted the conducting of the affairs of the Association, 
have been rigidly faithful to their trust, and deserve well 
of society at large. 

A glance at the volumes to which I have thus alluded, 
will shew how many barrows have been opened, how many 
Roman villas have been exhibited, and what collections of 
antiquities have been procured throughout the country. 
The discovery of these, combined with judicious historical 
remarks, has served to give a certainty to antiquarian 
research of which it was formerly not possessed. Our 
experienced associates are now enabled, with a precision 
that is almost marvellous, immediately to assign to the 
several objects thus brought to light, their nature and 
arrangement, either as Roman or Danish, ancient British 
or Saxon. Plain and simple as many of these antiquities 
appear rude and irregular as many of them must be 
admitted to be uninviting to the eye, and exciting but 
little emotion in the mind of the ordinary or uninformed 
spectator to the antiquary they present features of the 
highest interest, inasmuch as they are illustrative of the 
history of the human species. 

The accumulation of such various and varied treasures 
now carefully stored up and recorded, designated also by 
their proper localities, only raises in our minds feelings of 
deep regret, that archasological associations had not been 
earlier established, from a consciousness of how much has 
been lost. Let us not, however, flatter ourselves, that 
much has yet been accomplished. It is doubtless no 
inconsiderable matter to have essayed the first step towards 
the preservation and arrangement of British antiquities; 
but much remains behind, to the accomplishment of which 
I trust every zealous effort will be made. We are abso- 
lutely at this time, in the middle of the nineteenth century, 



168 THE STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

without any collection that can be called truly British. It 
is true, that we have a British Museum, but in vain will 
you seek, within the walls of that now gigantic build- 
ing, any collection of British remains. Particular speci- 
mens only are there to be seen, and nothing like a series 
or arrangement in relation to any description of our 
national antiquities is to be found. I will, however, hope 
for better times, and for a more extended spirit, and I 
believe that associations of the nature, respecting which I 
am now speaking, will do a great deal towards carrying 
out the object so greatly needed. A collection of our 
national antiquities, so much to be desired, could not but 
be of the highest benefit to archaeological knowledge the 
examination of individual specimens is of little value, 
unless in comparison with others, and connected with the 
study of the several localities whence they have been 
obtained; and I therefore look upon the establishment of 
our Journal in the light of a Diary of Archaeology, by 
which a true and faithful record is kept of archaeological 
discoveries, and by which the proper localities of the 
various antiquities are duly established. By this means, 
we are forming a storehouse and treasury of materials for 
future inquirers, and for the information of the historian. 
With much pleasure, however, I refer to a step taken 
during the past months by the Society of Arts, in whose 
rooms, under the influence and by the assistance of our 
archaeological societies, a collection of medieval antiquities 
was brought together, and excited a most laudable inte- 
rest. Had a little more time been allowed for the collec- 
tion and arrangement of the specimens thus accumulated, 
I doubt not the exhibition would have attained a much 
greater magnitude; and I trust that the example thus set 
with respect to the medieval period, may be followed by 
those of an earlier and a later date, so that the links by 
which they are connected together may be rendered appa- 
rent. Much praise is due to those who so readily and so 
liberally came forward to combine in this work; and it 
must be truly grateful to every Briton to know, that the 
earliest offer on the occasion to contribute to this useful 
purpose, emanated from her most gracious majesty the 
Queen, and that her illustrious example was speedily fol- 
lowed by the duke of Devonshire, duke of Buccleuch, 



THE STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 169 

marquis of Douglas, lord de Mauley, lord Hastings, sir 
John Boileau, the hon. Mr. Neville, Mr. Bernal, Mr. Ste- 
venson, many of our associates, etc. ; whilst it is pleasant 
to record, that our public bodies and companies were also 
alive to the interest of such an exhibition ; and that the 
Board of Ordnance, the burgesses of Westminster, the 
Society of Antiquaries, the corporation of Lynn, the col- 
leges of Oriel, Pembroke, Emmanuel, Clare Hall, etc., of 
Oxford and Cambridge ; and the clothworkers, fishmon- 
gers, ironmongers, carpenters, mercers, sadlers, and drapers, 
of the city of London, contributed valuable specimens of 
interest on the occasion. 

As in the arrangement of their museums foreign nations 
must be admitted to have excelled us, we cannot be sur- 
prised that we should also have been preceded in the esta- 
blishment of congresses. What had been so successfully 
done in France and Normandy, the British Archaeological 
Association attempted to accomplish at Canterbury in 
September 1844. Considering that the society had then 
not attained more than nine months' existence, it was a 
bold attempt, but the end justified the effort. The ad- 
vantages arising from the assembling together of a number 
! of antiquaries, of concentrating the antiquarian force of 
I the kingdom, as it were, on one spot, to examine into the 
| antiquities of the place, to discuss their nature, and bring 
to their elucidation the learning and the comparative 
1 observations of different individuals, became speedily 
apparent; and the interest excited by the inquiry on this 
i and future occasions, has been productive of the preserva- 
i tion of many valuable antiquities, which would otherwise 
' have been lost, or suffered to perish. Added to this, it 
I may also be stated, that by such a proceeding, the creation 
of a taste for antiquities has led to the diffusion of a know- 
; ledge of, and a consequent desire for, the preservation of 
our national monuments and antiquities. We have by 
these meetings, which have now been successively held at 
Canterbury, Winchester, Gloucester, Warwick, Worcester, 
and Chester, also tended to establish local societies, co-op- 
erating with the parent institution, and diffusing either by 
our Journal, or through their own publications, a knowledge 
of their local antiquities. Out of our Association directly, 
or emanating from the spirit of inquiry to which we have 



170 THE STUDY OF ARCHEOLOGY. 

given birth, I may mention the establishment of the 
Archa3ological Institute, the Norfolk and Norwich Archae- 
ological Society, the Sussex Archaeological Society, the 
Bury and West Suffolk Archaeological Institute, the His- 
toric Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, the Architectural 
and Archaaological Society for the county of Buckingham, 
the Archaeological Societies of Canterbury, Cheltenham, 
Chester, Derbyshire, Gloucestershire, Ipswich, Lincoln, 
Leeds, Scarborough, Somersetshire, St. Alban's, York, etc., 
and the Cambrian Archaeological Association. 

I should trespass too long upon the time devoted to this 
meeting, were I to attempt to particularize the researches 
that have been made in the various parts of the country 
by the members of this Association ; suffice it to say, then, 
there is scarcely a county in which some matter of interest 
has not been brought forth ; and there are many in which 
discoveries of importance have been elicited, and demoli- 
tion of ancient monuments prevented. Much light has 
been thrown upon the real nature of the barrows so pro- 
fusely scattered over this island. The too hasty conclusions 
of the antiquaries of earlier days have been corrected, 
and the people identified to whom their contents formerly 
belonged. The display of Saxon antiquities in the county 
of Kent alone, by the labours of our esteemed associate 
Mr. Rolfe, has excited our wonder ; but the knowledge 
of the intermixture of these with Roman remains has added 
much to our store of information. Within the last year 
only the Association has been engaged in the investigation 
of several Roman villas, which had not been previously 
explored. In the elucidation and illustration of these, we 
have to render thanks to the liberality of the hon. Mr. 
Neville, and other associates of our body, and to express a 
hope that the excavations now going on at Richborough 
and Lyrnne, under the direction of our members Mr. J. 
Elliott, of Dymchurch, and Mr. C. Roach Smith, a notice 
of which will be laid before this congress, may be attended 
with a success proportionate to the zeal of those now 
engaged upon that exploration. 

Our efforts have, during the past year, not been con- 
fined merely to our native soil. A correspondence with 
foreign antiquaries has been established, and is now carried 
on by our learned foreign secretary, Dr. William Bell. 



THE STUDY OF ARCHEOLOGY. 171 

Already M. Boucher de Perthes, president de la Socle* te* 
d'Emulation d' Abbeville, has transmitted to us his valuable 
work on Celtic and antiquarian remains, and accompanied 
this interesting present with a collection of specimens 
illustrative of his researches. 

M. Joachim Lelewel, of Brussels, well known by 
various learned works, has supplied us with an important 
geographical desideratum, in the form of a collection of 
medieval maps, and he has made the collection more 
complete and valuable by adding to it maps of the medieval 
Greek and Arabian geographers, forming altogether a 
manual of medieval chartology of great interest and 
value. 

L'Abbe Cochet, of Dieppe, author of many important 
publications, has communicated to us the account of a 
Roman cemetery discovered in Normandy. 

M. de Caumont, the founder of the society for the 
conservation of historical monuments in France, to whose 
exertions must primarily be attributed the establishment 
of archaeological congresses, and which may truly be said 
to have introduced a taste for conservatism in the place of 
a disposition for destruction, has cpntinued to furnish us 
with his valuable Bulletin Monumental, a treasury of 
archaeological information, and has also supplied us with 
accounts of the congresses of antiquaries held in France. 

The Societe des Antiquaires du Nord; de Normandie; 
Royale d'Emulation d' Abbeville ; Academie Royale de 
Stockholm ; de Picardie ; de L'Ouest ; de Copenhague ; have 
not been inattentive to us during the last year, sending to us 
their numerous publications, whilst M. de Gerville and 
M. Leopold Delisle, of Valognes; M. Comarmond, of 
Lyons; Prof. Arneth, of Vienna; M. Lecointre Dupont, 
of Poitiers ; M. Fillon, of Fontenay ; Dr. Rigollot, of 
Amiens ; M. Hermand, of St. Orner ; herr Worsaee, of 
Copenhagen, have presented to us their several works in 
archaeology. 

M. Charma, Prof, of Philosophy at Caen, has honoured 
the Association by dedicating to it his admirable biography 
of Lanfranc. 

Our intercourse with America during the past year 

has been rendered more than usually interesting and 

! important, by the establishment of a communication with 

VOL. VI. 



172 THE STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

the Smithsonian Institution, established at Washington. 
The illegitimate son of an English duke, who was for a 
considerable time an active Fellow of the Royal Society, 
was induced, late in life, to transfer, by a posthumous gift, 
a sum exceeding 100,000 to the United States of America, 
and to leave the entire controul of the expenditure of its 
income to the president and congress. The first fruits of 
this bequest have now reached us, in the form of a large 
4to. volume, containing much curious matter relating to 
the early archaeology of the western hemisphere, and is to be 
followed by a Bib liographia Americana, embracing a descrip- 
tion of all books printed prior to the year 1700 relating 
to America, and of all books printed in America from 1543 
to 1700. An agreement, mutually advantageous to the 
Smithsonian Institution and the British Archaeological 
Association, has been entered into, by which the labours of 
each will be communicated to the other, and an account of 
the first contribution is given in the last volume of our 
journal. 

To the establishment of local archaeological societies, to 
which I have alluded, and to their communication with a 
larger central body, it is impossible to speak but with great 
satisfaction and pleasure ; yet I cannot help expressing 
my deep regret, that at this distant period from the establish- 
ment of our Association, there should still exist divisions 
which have created two great central bodies, having the 
same objects in view the same intentions and purposes to 
fulfil yet not unfrequently acting adversely to each other, 
and even operating, though in a trifling degree on the 
present occasion, to the non-appearance of some in this 
county, whose names can never be mentioned without 
feelings of respect and admiration for their public muni- 
ficence and their private worth. That the spirit of emula- 
tion may be regarded as the soul of intellectual activity, is 
true ; and as long as the labours of the British Archaeological 
Association, and the Archaeological Institute of Great 
Britain and Ireland, shall be directed only to the carrying 
out of the objects for which they were originally esta- 
blished, no harm can arise; but the division has fomented 
a party-spirit, has set not only body against body, but, in 
some few instances, individual against individual, and 
must therefore be deeply deplored. We are either of us 



THE STUDY OF ARCHJEOLOGY. 173 

sufficiently strong to do the work of our society, but the 
funds, which united, might be adequate to carrying out 
with proper vigour the purposes for which we are asso- 
ciated, are not to be found in either. I regret that all 
attempts made to reconcile the differences which originally 
bred dissension and led to separation have not been met by a 
corresponding desire for amity on the part of the Archaeo- 
logical Institute, and that all efforts to promote union 
by arbitration or public meeting made by the British 
Archa3ological Association have been rejected. We must, 
therefore, rely with confidence on our own powers, which 
have been steadily increasing during the past five years, 
and continue to advance; and having shewn what can be 
done with small means hitherto, entertain equally good 
expectations as to the future. The work in which we are 
engaged is not of the description given by Cowper, 
consisting of 

" Letting down buckets into empty wells, 
And growing old in drawing nothing up." 

but is productive of great and lasting interest, and accom- 
panied by much pleasure. It is certainly true that time 
gives a venerable air to all things; to men, to trees, to 
buildings, and to books; and though, to employ the 
language of Pliny, 1 it is indeed no easy task to give novelty 
to what is old, and authority to what is new; brightness 
to what is become tarnished, and light to what is obscure ; 
to render what is slighted, acceptable, and what is doubtful, 
worthy of our confidence ; to give to all a natural manner, 
and to each its peculiar nature ; it is sufficiently honorable 
and glorious to have been willing even to make the 
attempt, although it should prove unavailing. In con- 
ducting our researches, the essential spirit of the Baconian 
theory, which is that of utility, must be kept in mind by 
our associates ; nothing must be regarded as too insignifi- 
cant for the attention of the wisest, which is not too 
insignificant to give pleasure or pain to the meanest. The 
ancient philosophy has been well described as a treadmill, 
not a path-, incessant toil and labour, yet never getting 

1 " Res ardua, vetustis novitatem fidem, omnibus vero naturam, et na- 
auctoritatem, obsoletis nitorem, obscu- tune su* omnia." Hist. Nat, lib. I. 
ris lucem, t'ustiditis gratiain, dubiis 



174 THE STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

forward ; always remaining at the same point : " revolving 
questions; controversies which were always beginning 
again." The human mind, instead of marching, merely 
marked time, and it may truly be said that " words, and 
more words, and nothing but words, had been all the fruit 
of all the toil of all the most renowned sages of sixty 
generations." Lord Bacon rectified the mode of philoso- 
phising, and pointed out the method of induction as the 
true mode of increasing knowledge. In making these ob- 
servations, I must not however be regarded as slighting or 
wishing to depreciate the labours of the earlier writers ; 
and though I may not be prepared to go the whole length 
with the learned author of The Guesses at Truth, who 
declares that " much of this world's wisdom is still acquired 
by necromancy, by consulting the oracular dead ", I am 
yet one who admire the ancients, though I trust not so 
blindly as to despise the ingenious productions of our own 
times; for nature is not, as it were, weary and barren, so 
as now to bring forth nothing worthy of praise. Neque 
enim, quasi lassa, et effoeta natura, ut nihiljnm laudabile 
pariat. It will be found to be with antiquities, and 
especially I fear in relation to those which are architectural, 
as described by sir Wm. Temple, when he says that 
" whosoever converses much among the old books will be 
something hard to please among the new", for some of our 
modern buildings may be certainly denominated as of a 
class " finely confused and alarmingly obscure." 

The importance of ancient and classical learning has been 
admirably handled by perhaps the most extraordinary man of 
the present day, in an inaugural discourse on being installed 
Lord Rector of the University of Glasgow : " Study, then, 
I beseech you (says lord Brougham in his address to the 
pupils), so to store your minds with the exquisite learning 
of former ages, that you may always possess within your- 
selves sources of rational and refined enjoyment, which 
will enable you to set at nought the grosser pleasures of 
sense, whereof other men are slaves; and so imbue your- 
selves with the sound philosophy of later days, forming 
yourselves to the virtuous habits which are its legitimate 
offspring, that you may walk unhurt through the toils 
which await you, and may look down upon the ignorance 
and error that surround you, not with lofty and supercilious 



THE STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 175 

contempt, as the sages of old times, but with the vehement 
desire of enlightening those who wander in darkness, and 
who are by so much the more endeared to us by how 
much they want our assistance." And again, among other 
most remarkable and felicitous observations, which must 
have given equal delight to all those to whom they were 
addressed, as to all who may peruse that masterly produc- 
tion : " Be you assured, that the works of the English 
chisel fall not more short of the wonders of the Acropolis, 
than the best productions of modern pens fall short of the 
chaste, finished, nervous, and overwhelming compositions 
of them that resistless fulmined over Greece." 

By the introduction of the philosophy of Lord Bacon, 
and the labours of the enlightened men of our own days, 
philosophy has been completely popularized, and mingles 
with every order of society, from the palace to the cottage : 
all approach its illumination ; all participate in its benefits. 
The pleasures of knowledge and intellect are, as the eloquent 
Robert Hall expressed it, " noble in their nature, exquisite 
in their degree, arid permanent in their continuance." 
This, I am assured, will not be denied by those who have 
sufficiently experienced and who are competent to estimate 
them. Let us therefore seek out and peruse that which 
is truly excellent, and by contemplating always this, and 
this alone, the mind will insensibly become accustomed to 
it, and find that in this alone it can acquiesce with content. 
This is the labour this the work : there is pleasure in 
the success, and praise even in the attempt. Erasmus was 
once asked " How a man might become learned?" and he 
replied : " If he should live constantly with the learned ; 
if he should listen to the learned not less submissively 
than respectfully ; if he should read the learned attentively ; 
if he should get the learned by heart ; if he should never 
think himself learned." 1 

But I must hasten to a close. The study of antiquities 
is almost unlimited in its subject, and requires the assistance 
of learning of varied kinds to its elucidation. To display 
the various steps by which the arts have acquired their 
present perfection to demonstrate the general diffusion 

1 Si doctis assidue conviveret ; si legeret ; si doctos diligenter edisce- 
doctos audiret non minus submisse ret ; denique si se doctuni nunquam 
quam honorifice ; si doctos strenue putaret. 



176 THE STUDY OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 

of useful science to a variety of purposes will form 
subjects for the several papers which will be laid before 
this congress ; and I cannot but anticipate that under the 
presidency of one who feels not only so deep an interest in 
the locality selected for our meeting this year, but who has 
also ever manifested so great a desire to promote the 
happiness of his fellow creatures by the extension of useful 
learning and knowledge, we shall at least manifest the 
necessity of our Association now assembled on the site of 
the ANCIENT MANCUNIUM, demonstrate the value of its 
formation, and enable every individual to communicate 
his share to the stock of general information and antiquarian 
learning. 

This universality of co-operation ; the readiness afforded 
to all connected with our body to communicate, however 
crude, their suggestions, has formed a very distinctive 
character of our Association, and has not unfrequently 
manifested under what unpropitious circumstances know- 
ledge has been acquired and discoveries effected. It is no 
less the duty than it is the interest of those whose lot in life 
has been cast in a happy mould to assist those who have 
been less fortunate ; for it must be admitted that some of 
the best contributions we have received have been, I may 
say, from the operative rather than the speculative anti- 
quary. " The valuable pearl is shut up in a mean shell; 
the diamond has a rough outside ; and gold and silver are 
enveloped in earth and stone, and mean materials. Men 
are not discouraged by these external appearances, because 
they know the excellence of what is contained within." 1 



at ingenium ingens 



Inculto latet hoc sub corpore." Horat. 

It would not be uninteresting to record some of the 
difficulties that have opposed themselves to the acquisition 
of knowledge, and to display how such obstacles have been 
surmounted ; but it would partake too much of a personal 
character to enter upon this field, and I therefore quit it 
with observing that these cases afford additions to the 
many illustrations of the remark of the immortal Sir Isaac 
Newton, that " if there was any mental habit or endowment 

1 Theodoret, nEPI NOMQN. Disp. IX, p. 924. 



THE STUD? OF ARCHEOLOGY. 177 

in which he excelled the generality of men, it was that of 
patience, in the examination of the facts and phenomena 
of his subject." This constitutes the only way of over- 
coming prejudices or the sway of pre-conceived theories, 
which but too frequently lead the imagination astray, and 
warp the judgment. The distinguishing characteristic of 
wise men is to banish prejudices; not to confine them- 
selves to the customs of their fathers, but to seek truth, 
and collect what is useful, wherever it may be found. 

Examination into the origin of the arts will perhaps 
occasionally offer to us instances of the effect of chance or 
accident ; but these lucky discoveries are of extremely rare 
occurrence; far more rare than is generally esteemed, for 
the human mind is naturally prone to an admiration of the 
marvellous, and it is our nature to delight in antiquity and 
fable. Poets have assisted to hand down the record 
popular tradition has established; but depend upon it, 
that minute investigation into the greater number of the 
instances that may be cited, as demonstrative of the mar- 
vellous and mysterious, will, upon close inspection upon 
being subjected to rigorous examination be found to have 
been the result of slow and successive efforts, gradually 
leading to a development so unexpected and so complete, as 
to appear rather the effect of sudden inspiration than the 
result of the regular proofs arrived at by the exercise of 
the reasoning faculties. 



ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE OF 
MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 

BT ARTHUR ASHPITEL, F.S.A. 

THEY only who have entered into lengthened archaaological 
investigations, particularly such as unite historic and 
architectural features, they who know how much may 
turn on what appears to be so little, and what seemingly 



178 ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE 

trifling information as to dates and facts may establish or 
overthrow a theory, they only can understand with what 
anxiety and diffidence I must approach my subject, when 
they are informed that all the precious documents con- 
nected with this cathedral, its charters, rolls, leiger 
books, all those valuable manuscripts which the industry 
of the monks had amassed in their cloister, and could alone 
satisfactorily elucidate our subject, were unhappily de- 
stroyed during the civil wars. The difficulty of this 
branch of archaeological research is not so much the dis- 
covery of facts, and the reasoning thereon, as the certainty 
that the whole of our evidence has been collected ; that all 
the facts are before us ; that nothing is hidden which, when 
brought to light, may shew that, however ingenious our 
reasoning may be, there is some tertium quid, some un- 
looked-for event, or some undiscovered fact, which destroys 
all our preconceived notions. When, therefore, I state 
that, in consequence of the deplorable loss of those memo- 
rials, I have been compelled to collect from any sources I 
could such stray notices as documents indirectly bearing 
on them could afford, wading through the disjecta membra 
of chartularies, rolls, the records of other places, and the 
jottings of the antiquaries of other localities, I feel assured 
that my audience will pardon me if I state many things 
simply as conjecture, supported only by strong pro- 
babilities, and being too often deficient in authorities 
on those points which most seem to demand them. No 
investigation of this nature is worth anything, unless the 
historic account agrees with, and, as it were, dovetails in 
with, what I may be pardoned for calling our professional 
education on the matter. The mere reliance on the 
manuscript will often attribute too much or too little as 
the work of the bishop or prior whose undoubted labour it 
records. The mere reliance on the eye, will throw the 
whole work too late, or push it forward too early, by 
perhaps half a century, just as the preconceived notions of 
the architect may be biassed. As in other studies, it is only 
a union of sound theory and laborious practice that ca,n be 
relied on. It is by this retrospective second-sight alone 
we can declare the era of our buildings ; it is by this 
alchemy we transmute the dust of some old charter into 
the gold of the knowledge of those principles, practices, 



OF MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 179 

and feelings, which governed the arts of our medieval 
ancestors, and enable us to follow them in the sciences they 
created. 

I fear I have also some little prejudice to surmount. 
The old collegiate church, which so fitly adorns the con- 
fluence of your ancient streams, the Irwell and the Irk, 
has of course less pretensions than those mighty piles 
erected as the seats of the ancient and powerful sees of our 
old bishoprics, and in consequence has been spoken of slight- 
ingly, and almost with contempt. To compare it with 
Canterbury, York, or Lincoln, would be doing injustice to 
both. You would laugh at me should I attempt it. But 
I trust to shew you, if you will lend me a patient and in- 
dulgent ear, that it not only possesses many points of 
interest, in common with other medieval buildings, but 
that it has many circumstances connected with its history, 
and many beauties in itself, which are far more worthy of 
your attention and admiration than perhaps you may at 
present be aware of. 

It is too much our custom in prosperity to forget and 
undervalue our early history. In a town, whose extent 
and population rival many of the celebrated cities on the 
continent, and whose wealth and resources are greater 
than many an ancient and time-honoured principality 
nay, I might say kingdom whose commerce extends to 
the uttermost parts of the earth, and whose influence is 
felt in the most powerful senates, it is not surprising that 
such a present state, and the prospect of a more prosperous 

I future, should make us forget, or think lightly, of the past. 
But this is no new or upstart town ; not one of those whose 

1 prosperity is as sudden as the springing up of the mush- 
room, and to which the envious might augur as speedy a 
decay. It is in fact one of the oldest towns in this empire. 

i It was the Mancenion of the ancient British it was the 
Mancunium of the Romans. It was here, on the banks 
of the little river Medlock, in the days of king Arthur, as 
recorded by the old romances, sir Tarquin kept his castle, 
and challenged all comers, till his overthrow by sir 
Launcelot du Lake. It received from the Saxons the 
proud affix to its name of Chester, which indicates a 
Roman castrum stativum, or large military station, 
adopted by their successors as the site of a superior 

VOL. VI. 24 



180 ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE 

town. From that period Manchester has steadily increased 
in importance: it has been the cradle, as it now is the 
throne, of manufacturing science. As early as the wars of 
the Roses, we hear of Manchester rugges and frizes ; and 
such was their importance, that we find in 5 and 6 of 
Edward VI, more than three hundred years ago, there 
were parliamentary enactments to regulate the commerce 
of this city. 

These, however, are matters that bear but indirectly on 
my subject. Its position as a British and as a Roman 
town will be ably elucidated by other members. It is my 
task to confine myself to its ecclesiastical history. 

The first authentic record which we possess is from the 
celebrated Domesday Book. It runs thus : " Salford- 
scire Hund. Eccles. S. Marise et eccl. S. Michael ten 1 in 
Mamcestre unam carucam terrge quietam ab omni con- 
suetudine preter Geldam." In the hundred of Salford. The 
church of St. Mary and the church of St. Michael hold in 
Manchester one carucate of land, free from all customary 
tax, except Dane Geld. We see that at that period 
Manchester had two churches ; and that this property was 
exempt from payment of any tax to the king, or any one 
else, except the Dane Geld. It is perhaps somewhat 
beyond the present question to go very deeply into this 
matter. Dr. Whitaker has entered at very great length, 
and with an extraordinary degree of acuteness and dis- 
crimination, into the question of the situation of these 
churches. He supposes them to have been on the site of 
the original Roman town, in what is at present, or was very 
lately, called the " Castle Acre", and in old documents by 
the word Acca. The situation of this is of course familiar to 
every one. I shall not enter into his most acute investiga- 
tion, further than to say that his opinion (and it is 
still uncontro verted) is, that St. Mary's was situate near 
what is now called St. Mary's gate, and St. Michael's church 
was at Alport. The carucate of land is supposed with 
great reason to be what is now called Kirkmans-hulme. 

At the general and wholesale confiscation of all the 
lands in England by the Conqueror, this town of Manches- 
ter and the country adjacent was granted to Roger de 
Poitou, who was called lord of the honor of Lancaster. 
There seems to be some greater degree of respect given to 



OF MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 181 

this district at that time than usual, for it is called Christ's 
Croft ; and an old distich is cited by many early writers 
that exactly fixes its locality, 

41 When all England is aloft, 
Weel are they that are in Christ's Croft ; 
And -where shud Christ's Croft be 
But between Kibble and Mersee." 

It appears that Roger de Poitou created Albert de Gresley 
the first baron of Manchester ; and although the superior 
lord fell into disgrace with the Conqueror, and the lands 
between Ribble and Mersey passed to the earls of Chester, 
the family of the Gresleys continued to enjoy their estates 
and honors as barons of Manchester for many years. In 
1150 we learn from the famous Testa de Nevil, which has 
not long since been published by the record commission, 
that Albert Gredle (as it is there spelt) gave to the church of 
Mancestre four bovates, or oxgangs, of land, " in elee- 
mosinam", or free alms. There has been much dispute 
among antiquaries as to the quantity or extent of the 
bovate, or oxgang; and it has been variously stated at the 
very wide differences of ten to twenty-four acres each. 
Some consider four bovates to be equal to a carucate. If 
so, the quantity of the land belonging to the church must 
have been doubled ; and it is probable the living was then 
one of considerable consequence. It is worthy of remark, 
that we hear only of one church not of two, as in Domes- 
day. Of the old Saxon churches we have no account, nor 
is there any authentic record of the original foundation of 
the church on the present site. Our materials now, alas ! 
become very scanty. The utmost that ingenuity or industry 
can develope is, that the incumbents of Manchester are 
mentioned in several charters under the title of deans, 
i A charter of Hugo, bishop of Coventry, April 1192, is 
witnessed by J. Decanus de Mancestr. In 1235, another 
is witnessed by J. Decan. de Mainscestre and Jurdan 
capellan (or chaplain) ejusdem villse, and so they are 
continued in many evidences 1 as late as 1421, in which 

' I have to express my thanks for the charters to the meeting with him, 
politeness of our esteemed associate, and exhibited it at the end of my dis- 
Mr. Owen, who brought one of these course. 



182 ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE 

Thomas La Warre is called dean of the deanery (decanus 
decanatus) of Manchester. 

In the famous Taxatio of pope Nicholas, made between 
the years 1288 to 1292, from which, as an authentic 
source, all the taxes in England were assessed for many 
years, we find this passage, 

Decanatus de Mainscestre et Blackburn. 

Coventr. Taxatio. Sp. Decima. 

Ecclesia de Mainscestr . . . 53 6 8 568 

Ecclesp't's ... 20 200 

In the deanery of Manchester and Blackburn, the church 
of Manchester is worth 53 6s. 8d. per annum, and its 
appurtenances 20 per annum in those days a very large 
sum. Still we hear of only one church. 

In consequence of the failure of the male line, the 
barony, which had been held by the Grelleys, Gredleys, 
or Gresleys (it is spelt in many ways), in 1313 came 
into the family of La Warre. 

Meanwhile the town seems to have been removed, or 
rather perhaps to have extended itself, further north. The 
pleasantness of the situation, and the strength of the place, 
surrounded as it was by the two rivers, and the small 
stream called Hanging Ditch, seems to have induced the 
baron to build himself a small castle, or hold, called after- 
wards for many years the "Baron's Hull", just on the 
confluence of the Irk and Irwell. It seems also clear that 
here was the rectory house; and there is but little doubt 
the church was also here. The Hanging Ditch is now 
arched over. It derived its name from the hanging bridge, 
or drawbridge, which was then the only means of access 
to the ground, which in fact formed an island. The 
baron's hull seems to have been on the site of the present 
Chetham college. 

In pursuance of the famous statute, Extenta Manerii, 
4th Edward I, a survey was made in 1322 of the barony 
of Manchester : an account of this is given in Kuerden's 
MS., fol. 274, and also in Hollingworth, page 32. " The 
church of Manchester, worth 200 marks, is at the lord's 
presentation, to which lord John de la War now last 
presented John de Cuerden (Hollingworth calls him 
Deeverdon, which is evidently a mistake of the editor), 



OF MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 183 

" who having been instituted in the same, possesses the 
endowment consisting of eight burgages in Manchester, and 
the vills of Newton and Kermonshulme, with the meadows, 
woods, pastures, and other appurtenances." This survey 
also mentions the manor, a place of pasture without the 
gate, the wood of Alport; and Hollingworth, who evi- 
dently was well read in it (ut supra), states: "It joynd 
to the rectory of Manchester, saving that a place called 
Blenorchard, or Wallegreenes, was between them. The 
manor house" (says this excellent chronicler) " stood in, 
or neere to, the place where the colleage now stands, and 
was called Baron's Court, or Baron's Yerde, and place was 
called Baron's Hull." I shall shew presently my reasons 
for believing the church also to be on this site. 

But before proceeding with the account of the architec- 
ture of the Church, it is necessary to call to your minds 
the great change that was working throughout all society 
at this time. The Saxon line of kings had long been 
restored, Saxon laws and Saxon feelings revived ; but more 
than this, literature had made great progress on the con- 
: tinent, arid science, which had been driven, by the irruption 
i of the hordes of Goths and Vandals, to the east, was 
1 returning to Europe. The famous pope Sylvester had 
edited works on geometry, the Arab universities of Spain 
1 were giving to the world the theories of Diophantus, 
of Euclid, and the philosophy of Aristotle and Galen. 
1 Petrarch and his friends had opened new lights of study. 
In our own country, a class of literature was attempted, 
I which afterwards blazed forth in the glowing pages of 
Gower and Chaucer. The Norman noble, who considered 
1 himself as lord over the Saxon serf, had been long gathered 
I to his fathers, and the successors even of his blood were 
proud to be known as English, to bear the banner of 
English chivalry, and to be supported by English yeomen 
such, let me add, as the far famed Lancashire bowmen. 
Two great changes were wrought at this time, or rather, 
1 grew noiselessly out of altered circumstances, in men's 
minds and thoughts. They grew silently, as the tree 
grows in the cleft of the wall ; and like it, they silently 
overthrew and thrust out many old and weighty customs, 
that it seemed could hardly be moved. 

The first was the steady increase of commerce and ma- 



184 ON THE HISTOKY AND ARCHITECTURE 

nufactures. A change but little noticed at first, but which 
ultimately was the real cause of the destruction of the 
feudal power of the nobles, and the introduction of what 
has since been called a middle class ; one which held a rank 
between the lord and the vassal. The second was the still 
greater change of the Keformation, and the undercurrent 
almost equally unobserved and equally powerful that pro- 
duced it. 

It is not my intention to describe either. It is not the 
place to enter into any disquisition as to these changes, to 
express regrets for what has been lost, or to talk of what 
has been gained ; I must confine myself to the effects upon 
Manchester. 

The union of Edward with Philippa of Hainault was the 
means of bringing the Low Countries into immediate con- 
nexion with England. Many industrious and enterprising 
Flemings flocked to this country, particularly to the mid- 
land counties, where they were received with open arms, 
partly on account of their hostility to the French, and still 
more so from their talent in arts and manufactures. I can 
hardly do better than quote the quaint language of old 
Fuller on this subject. He says : " Happy the yeoman's 
house into which one of these Dutchmen did enter, bringing 
industry and wealth along with them. Such who came in 
strangers within doors, soon after went out bridegrooms 
and returned sons-in-law, having married the daughters of 
their landlords who first entertained them. Yea! these 
yeomen in whose houses they harboured, soon preceded 
gentlemen, gaining great estates to themselves, arms and 
worship to the estates." The manufactures the Flemings 
imported, or rather improved, were weaving and spinning. 
To them, and to their arts, the present wealth of Man- 
chester owes its origin. From this period we may date 
the rise of such families as the Byroms, the Bexwikes, the 
Galleys, the Becks, and the Chethams. 

The other change to which I alluded had especially 
worked in the midland counties. It was here that Wycliff 
preached, and it was the great duke of Lancaster that 
protected him. The clergy of these parts seem deeply to 
have been imbued with his spirit. About this time, a change 
took place of so little general remark, that I think no 
historian has thought it worth while to notice. I allude to 



OF MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 185 

the general establishment of colleges of secular canons. 
This order, founded by S. Augustine himself, consisted of 
members who lived together in a community, but mixed 
with the world in other respects, gave great attention to 
the education of youth, and busied themselves actively 
in the duties of their profession, instead of burying 
themselves in the refectory and cloister. They more 
nearly (with the exception of the vow of celibacy) re- 
sembled our cathedral clergy than any other body 
I can liken them to. Under our Saxon forefathers many 
of these colleges, as they are called, of secular canons, were 
established ; after the Conquest they were mostly dispos- 
sessed by the Benedictines ; but at the period I refer to, 
the latter Plantagenet and Lancaster reigns, there seems to 
have been an immense revival of the orders of secular 
canons. If any one runs his eye down the lists given in 
the last volume of Dugdale, he will find that much the 
largest number of colleges of secular canonries were esta- 
blished after the middle of the fourteenth century, and that 
between that period and the Conquest scarcely any colleges 
were founded. Each age has its exigencies. We often 
attribute great changes to the last and least causes, and 
not to a long chain of antecedent circumstances. 

In 1421, Thomas La Warre, the last heir male of that 
family, who had made themselves so famous in the wars 
with France, himself an ecclesiastic, founded the collegiate 
church, which is now the chief ornament of the town, and 
almost the only remains of its medieval architecture. The 
popular account of this foundation is given by old Fuller, 
in his Worthies, p. 120 of the folio edition. It runs thus : 
" Thomas West was younger brother to lord de la Werre 
and parson of Manchester, on whom the barony devolved, 
his brother dying issueless. The pope allowed him to 
' marry for the continuance of so honourable a family, upon 
condition that he would build a colledge for such a number 
i of priests (fellows under a warden) as the bishop of 
1 Durham and Lichfield should think fit, which he accord- 
ingly did at Manchester. The endowment of this col- 
legiate and parochial church were the glebe and tithes of 
the parsonage, and besides them scarcely any other consi- 
derable revenue." Very much talk has been made of this 
account. The unusual, the almost solitary instance of 



186 ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE 

such a dispensation as to permit a clergyman to marry, has 
naturally attracted much attention. But alas ! for the 
lovers of a marvellous tale, old Fuller's version is wholly 
unsupported. Not only is there no account of anything of 
the kind, in the king's charter and that of the bishop, but 
every chronicler, Kuerden, and Hollingworth, are silent on 
the subject. No such papal dispensation has been found. 
No account of such a marriage having taken place exists ; 
and I think every man's calm judgment would set this 
negative testimony against the quaint account of old 
Fuller, who seems to have been a sort of ecclesiastical 
Pepys. His gossiping propensities inclined him to listen to 
and collect a number of tales quite unsupported, except by 
vague report. However, thanks to the industry of the late 
Dr. Hibbert Ware, a deed has been discovered, dated a few 
years only before this period, whereby La Warre inalienably 
settles in trust on the heir male of his sister's family the whole 
of his estates. That an elderly man should do this, and 
afterwards make the application to the pope we are told of, 
is absurd. 

The causes which induced La Warre to found this esta- 
blishment are told us plainly in the charter of the bishop. 
They are the considerations thnt Manchester is a large and 
populous parish; that it has been governed by rectors, 
some of whom rarely, some never cared to reside ; and some 
strong animadversions follow on the irregularities likely to 
arise from such proceedings. The remedy proposed by the 
charter is " the erection of the parish church of Manchester 
into a collegiate church." How far their designations are 
or are not compatible has lately been matter of debate. 
The subject has been fully discussed ; and, moreover, does 
not bear directly upon my subject. 

La Warre obtained a license from the king, Henry V, 
dated 1421, to surrender the property into the hands of 
the bishop of Durham and other feoffees for this purpose. 
The parishioners assented, and in the same year, 14th of 
June, sent an address to the diocesan, praying his assent 
to the scheme. This was given by a charter, dated the 5th 
August also in the same year, by which the church is 
created into a college, consisting of a warden, or, as Hol- 
lingworth calls him, keeper or master, eight fellows chap- 
lains, four clerks, and six choristers. The church was 



OF MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 187 

dedicated to S. Mary, according to most accounts ; but the 
famous Handle Holme, Harl. MS., 2129, says : " This 
church was formerly dedicated to S. Dionyse y e patron of 
ffraunce, and S. George y e patron of England, y e sd. De 
La Ward being ptly. a ffrenchman and ptly. an English- 
man." The first warden was Huntington, appointed 23d 
Nov. 1422. It will be beside my purpose to pursue the 
documentary history of this church much further. The 
confiscation of its revenues at the Reformation, the restitu- 
tion by Queen Mary, the charters of Elizabeth and Charles 
the First, have no bearing on the existing building ; I, 
therefore, at once turn to the second portion of my sub- 
ject, the elucidation of its architectural features. 

The first authority which gives any clear and undoubted 
information on this point is the valuable old chronicle of 
Hollingworth. He says, page 43 (I quote from the paging 
of the reprint of the Mancuniensis, as more convenient) : 
" This John Huntington, bachelor in degrees and rector of 
Assheton-under-Lyme, was warden near forty years, a man 
learned in the learning of those times, very devout and 
magnificent ; hee built the chancel or quire, in the midst 
whereof, and just before the high altar, as it then stood, he 
lyes buried, with the suitable inscription, ' Domine dilexi 
decorern dornus tuse'. His rebus or name-devyse (a cus- 
tome borrowed of the French) is to be seene on either syde 
of the middle arch as it looketh eastward ; on one syde is 
an huntsman with dogges, whereby he thought to expresse 
the former two syllables of his name; on the other syde, a 
vessell called a tonne, which being joined together, makes 
Huntington." On my examination of the building some 
weeks back, for the purpose of preparing for to-day, I was 
much struck by finding under the tower a doorway which 
must have been at least one hundred years older than 
Huntington's time. I made a careful section of the mould- 
ings ; and on comparing with those the best authenticated, 
I feel sure it is about the date 1330. In fact, it almost 
exactly coincides in character with one of that period given 
in Paley's admirable little manual. On seeing this, I was 
induced to look further, for it puzzled me to find evident 
indications of earlier work than what had always been 
considered to be the earliest part of the building. At the 
east end of the church, in the piers of the Lady chapel 

VOL. VI. 2f 



188 ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE 

arch, and in fact of part of the arch mouldings (for there 
are two sets, the upper of later date and of different pitch) 
there is also evident decorated moulding, such as pre- 
vailed from 1330 to 1360, sixty or seventy years before 
Huntingtoii's time. It was my first visit to Manchester, a 
visit I shall not forget, on account of the kind and un- 
affected courtesy with which I was received by every one. 
I was but then commencing my investigation. I felt I was 
met on the threshold by some serious doubts. I then 
proceeded to the Chetham library, which was most kindly 
thrown open to me, and I had the opportunity of com- 
paring closely the manuscripts of Hollingworth and Kuer- 
den with the reprints. I also examined the very curious 
collections amassed by your local antiquaries, one of whom, 
Mr. Burritt, I was informed, had been a saddler in the 
town. From these I got but little information. I then 
turned my attention to the beautiful work got up by your 
able townsman, Dr. Hibbert Ware. In this work there 
are some remarks on the architecture of the church, by the 
late Mr. Palmer. I hoped this would assist me much ; 
but I was much staggered by the view this gentleman took 
of the subject. He states, from the authority of Holling- 
worth, that Huntington built the choir and its aisles, but 
that the choir only went up to the lower arches, and did 
not include the clerestory. He then states, strange to say, 
and without quoting any authority, that warden Stanley, 
who succeeded Huntington, only about twenty years after 
his death, pulled down nearly all Huntington's work, and 
rebuilt it. 

I should here mention that warden Huntington was 
succeeded by Booth, who remained at Manchester a very 
short time, having been fined by Edward the Fourth for 
taking part with the house of Lancaster; he was deposed, 
and was succeeded by Langley, or Longley, in 1465. In 
1481, Langley resigned the mastership to James Stanley, 
who died in 1485, and was succeeded by another James 
Stanley, brother to the powerful earl of Derby, the great 
favourite of Henry the Seventh. It is well to keep these 
dates in mind. 

It was clear, then, the most important thing for me to 
consider was, what building was on the spot before 
Huntington's time, and so to follow downwards in chrono- 



Tig- I 










JL-L-LJL 
Mnduw cut Stand 



OF MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 189 

logical order the different evidences on the subject. And 
here I met a very curious circumstance, and if my informa- 
tion and conjectures are at all correct, one of the greatest 
interest, not only to this town, but to every architectural 
archa3ologist in the kingdom. In my previous search in 
the British Museum, I found among the MSS. collected 
by Dr. Cole one giving some account of the wardens of 
Manchester, which seems quite to have escaped the attention 
of every one who has written on this subject. It is among 
what are technically called " the additional manuscripts", 
and is numbered 5,836. This MS. states that " the 
present church consists of a stately stone building, being 
formerly a very large edifice, but of wood." And this is con- 
firmed by Hollingworth. He says it was " formerly a vast 
wooden building, not much unlike (save probably it was 
more adorned) to the booths where the court leete, court 
baron of the lord, and the quarter sessions are now kept." 
Credible tradition, he goes on to state, says that portions of 
the old wooden church were removed to Ordsall and other 
places, particularly to Trafford, where in his time it was 
standing, and called the great barn. On making careful 
inquiry in the neighbourhood, I was informed this barn 
was standing not many years ago, and that the same tradi- 
tion had attached to it, but no vestige of it was now left. 
I was however told that considerable portions remained at 
Ordsall and at Stand. I went immediately to Ordsall, and 
was received with the greatest politeness by the proprietor, 
Mr. Martindale, who immediately took me to a large barn 
which he said a very old tradition had always pointed out 
as part of the original church ; and he called my attention 
to the very great age of the oak, and the peculiarities of 
the framing. I made a hasty sketch of it, which is in Plate 
xx, fig. 1. It will at once be seen how much it partakes 
in character of a nave and side aisles. In fact, it resembles 
a church with piers and arches, as much in character 
as timber supports and raking braces can do, and would 
be most admirably suited for our colonies, or any 
place where timber is abundant, and all other material 
scarce. But more of this hereafter. I next pro- 
ceeded to Stand, where I found a similar tradition. I 
was immediately shewn what was stated to have been 
part of the old church at Manchester, but it is in one 



190 ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE 

span only, and much more ornamented than that at 
Ordsall. I made a hasty sketch of this, and of its windows, 
which are also in Plate xx, fig. 2. If the part at Ordsall 
was the nave, it is not improbable this was the chancel. 
The character of the work is quite that of the decorated 
period. The roof is the exact counterpart of that at 
Adderbury, in Oxfordshire, a drawing of which is given in 
Bloxam's Manual, and which was built in 1350; and the 
wind braces, purlins, etc., are exactly like those of the 
Guestern Hall at Worcester. 

There is no record of the date of the erection of the 
wooden church near the Baron's Hull. In the survey of 
the manor in 1322, no mention is made of the baron's 
residence ; but Hollingworth speaks of it in the very next 
paragraph ; so that it is not likely to have been built be- 
fore the date of the survey, and probably was shortly after. 
It is also probable that the wooden church was built about 
the same time, and if so, the similarity to Adderbury 
would be at once explained. We have now, first, the 
authority of the chroniclers as to the removal of the old 
church ; next, the tradition handed down from father to 
son (" Percrebuit vetus et constans opinio" to use the 
words of Suetonius); next, we have the resemblance in 
style with other work whose date is known ; and besides, 
there is another material fact Stand Hall belonged to 
the Stanley family, and was built by one of them at the 
period Stanley was warden of Manchester ; at the time, in 
fact, when the wooden church was being cleared away. 
Of course, among so much conjectural evidence, it would 
be wrong to speak too positively; but if their united 
testimony be correct, and if we have under our considera- 
tion part of the old wooden church at Manchester, it cannot 
fail to be of the deepest interest, not only to the in- 
habitants, but to every architect and antiquary, as shewing 
the character of the timber churches of our ancestors. 

This country, it is well known, was once filled with 
erections of this kind, in those parts where stone was 
scarce. It has generally been considered that Greenstead, 
in Essex, is the only existing example ; but my friend, 
Mr. Charles Baily, has made some researches in Worces- 
tershire, and has found a church at Besford entirely of 
wood, fitted and framed in every respect like this. These 



OF MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 191 

examples, if collected, will do much to enlighten us as to 
the methods employed by our ancestors in these erections. 
The church at Greenstead has a timber head and cill, filled 
in with upright boards, but at Besford and at Stand they 
are framed of oak, hewn square in large square panels, with 
braces at the angles, and the sides are fitted in with plas- 
tering, or parget, like our ancient timber houses. The 
original window at Besford is of two lights, square-headed, 
and with pointed decorated cuspings at the heads. The 
one at Stand is similar, but has four lights. It will be 
seen at once that the nature of the framing is such as to 
make it very difficult and expensive to use the pointed 
window. The nature of the material would render it im- 
possible to have buttresses, and consequently necessitate a 
level tie beam. In every respect they would be suitable 
for the colonies. I have materials before me now whence 
I could design churches quite of medieval character, and 
which would be exactly suited for Canada and Australia. 

One more relic of the old church remains. It is an 
ancient carved head, which formerly was fixed up in some 
old timber house adjacent, but which, by the care of the 
rev. canon Wray, has been preserved and placed on the 
screen behind the altar. It is a boldly carved head in oak, 
and is a very curious relic of the old fabric. (See Plate xx, 
fig. 3.) 

We must now return to the present church. I think 
there is irrefragable proof that part of a stone building was 
commenced long before the wardenship of Huntington. 
Not only does the tower doorway prove this, but the whole 
of the lower part, as high as perhaps two-thirds of the way 
up the great west window, is of the decorated period. The 
gablets to the buttresses at this stage are quite of this cha- 
racter ; above, they are decidedly perpendicular. Besides, 
at this height, the stories are of larger size, and the tooth 
of time has not gnawed them so much as it has in the 
lower part of the walls of the tower. It is true we have 
no account of the commencement of such a building ; but 
we rather fill up a gap in the history than run counter to 
it by our theory. 

There is one curious circumstance that will be seen on 
the plan; the choir of the church is not exactly in the 
middle. The columns on one side range with those of the 



192 ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE 

nave, on the other they are considerably drawn in; they 
coincide with the Lady chapel, and not with the main body 
of the church. This also will favour the supposition that 
the Lady chapel and tower were commenced at the same 
time, at opposite ends, and without due regard to the 
future church. This kind of chapel is of late introduction ; 
I do not remember anything of the kind in any early 
Norman building ; later, however, there is scarcely a church 
of any size or pretension without one. My impression is 
that these works were commenced and were going on when 
Huntington was elected. I have no doubt that it is from 
having overlooked this point that Mr. Palmer, in his trea- 
tise, which is an admirable tract, considering how little was 
known comparatively at the time, has so confused his sub- 
ject. He found decided alteration in the Lady chapel arch, 
and he also found upon the tower the remains of a water 
table, one of those courses of projecting stones which run, 
in a raking direction, up the side of the tower, close to the 
lead or slating, and whose use is to prevent the water 
getting between the roof and the tower. He also noticed 
the rebus of Huntington in the spandril of the roof on the 
east side of the chancel arch. 

I have no doubt it was from these circumstances Mr. 
Palmer formed his theory ; for he quotes no authority 
whatever to prove the startling facts he relates. He admits 
that Huntingtou built the choir; this cannot be contro- 
verted from the passage in Hollingworth given in page 43 
(the same account is also given in the British Museum 
manuscript) ; but he builds this strange theory on all this, 
that a Stanley pulled down all Huntington's work, rebuilt it, 
and replaced the roof with Huntington's rebus in it. I 
have no doubt that the lower part of the arch in the Lady 
chapel was the original work before Huntington's time; 
and that the water table was part of the original tower, and 
intended to protect the roof of the old wooden church. 
But there is a proof that Huntington raised the Lady 
chapel arch, and not Stanley, and a very simple one; and 
it is astonishing that Mr. Palmer should have overlooked 
it. Huntington's rebus is placed over that arch, as well as 
at the chancel arch, not in the woodwork, but actually 
worked in the stone itself. What, then, becomes of the 
theory that the present work is Stanley's? My own im- 



OF MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 193 

pression is, Hollingworth's account is strictly correct, that 
Huntington built the choir and its north and south aisles; 
and I go farther; I have no doubt that he intended to 
have added two transepts, and made a cruciform structure 
of the whole. The eastern walls, at the end of the St. 
James' and Byrom's chantry, have a plinth moulding or 
base table moulding on them, which evidently has been 
intended for an external moulding. Such a thing has 
never been seen as an internal moulding. There can be no 
doubt that these walls were intended to be parts of the 
north and south transepts. 

We now pass on to the wardenship of Langley. Mr. 
Palmer says, he expended the sum of 28/. 13s. 4d. on that 
part of the church between the pulpit and the steeple, and 
that though the record is ambiguous (and he does not say 
whence he gets it), it is probably meant for the church at 
Manchester. The British Museum manuscript says no- 
thing of the sort, but it does say that Langley gave to the 
church bells and chimes. Old Dr. Cole has written in the 
margin : " This cannot be correct, as chimes were not 
used so early." Now if bells were given, there most pro- 
bably was a tower to put them in ; and as to chimes, the 
abbot of Evesham, within a few years after that period, 
placed not only chimes, but figures to strike on the bells, 
something like the old St. Dunstan's clock, as this Associ- 
ation saw there at the time we had the pleasure to make 
our excursion thither from Worcester. If the manuscript 
be correct, and there seems no reason to doubt it, Man- 
chester is the first town in the kingdom which possessed a 
set of chimes ; and it is probable that Langley completed 
the tower. 

The nave is of course of later date than the choir; all 
authorities seem to confirm this ; but it is designed closely 
in the same style, and no doubt is the carrying out of the 
original purpose of Huntington by other hands. Mr. 
Palmer states that Langley laid out 28 on it, which in 
our money, he thinks equal to 400. This is certainly 
overstated, but even if it be so, 400 would go but little 
way towards building so large a nave. The probability is 
that Langley commenced the nave upon the plan of his 
predecessor, and that it was finished by the rich and pow- 
erful Stanley. 



194 ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE 

That Stanley built the chapel which bears his name, we 
have the authority of all the authors, but the style does not 
correspond exactly with that of the nave. And here let 
me pause to remark, that while many are framing long and 
intricate systems of nomenclature to express the different 
styles and their transitions ; while we are subdividing the 
Norman, early English, and decorated, in a way that seems 
to savour of almost hypercritical nicety, and torturing our 
ingenuity to vary their nomenclature, no one seems to en- 
deavour to discriminate the differences of the perpendicular. 
The style in which there were such changes as the intro- 
duction of the four-centred arch, the air-hung pendants, 
and the fan-tracery groining, seems wholly to have escaped 
the notice of those whose attention seems directed to the 
tracery of windows, and to this alone. In the Stanley 
chapel, the arches over the new piers are struck from four 
centres, while those of the nave are of similar ones to those 
of the choir; to a close observer, it would indicate the 
difference of architectural feeling of nearly half a century. 
Unfortunately the clerestory windows have been so altered 
that we cannot pronounce with certainty the period of 
their completion. Still these arches are much depressed, 
their general character is that of a late perpendicular, and 
as far as we can tell from their altered character, all 
strengthens the theory that Stanley completed the nave. 
The beautiful little chapter-house is also his work ; whether 
it has ever been groined it is impossible to say ; the vault- 
ing shafts are there, but there are now no traces of ribs or 
cross springers. The entrance is peculiarly chaste and 
beautiful ; and it is to be regretted that the modern monu- 
ment has been inserted above the spandrils of the arches. 
This was originally a small vestry, as may be seen by the 
junction of the earlier and later work. 

We will now turn our attention to the Stanley chantry, 
which was built by the bishop for his own monumental 
chapel. The Cole MS. mentions this in two places. In 
one place he describes it thus, under the head of Stanley's 
mastership : " Also that another chapel he built at Man- 
chester, on the north side of the church, between St. 
James' chapel and the east of the church, in which chapel 
and tomb he would have 100 bestowed." Again, in 
another place he says : " At Manchester he built a most 



OF MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 195 

sumptuous chapel on the north side of the church, being 
twenty-eight yards long, and nine yards broad (these dimen- 
sions agree exactly), and a square chapel on the north side 
of that again. He builded the south side of the wood work 
in the choir, the seats for the wardens, fellows, and church- 
men, being thirty seats on both sides, and Mr. Richard 
Bexwike, that builded Jesus chapel, builded the other 
side." The chapel is frequently called the Derby chapel, 
and is full of the different badges and emblems of that rich 
and powerful family. The work has been restored so en- 
tirely, that it is impossible to pronounce on it with cer- 
tainty; but if Mr. Palmer's account be correct, that with 
the exception of the bit of Batty-Langley-ism in St. George's 
chapel, and the porch, the rest of the work has been 
restored as closely copying the old as could be, I should 
imagine the windows to have been those of Huntington's 
old choir removed northward, and that the piers and 
arches are Stanley's. Perhaps I may here remark, that 
the north and south windows of the Lady chapel have 
evidently been copied from decorated work, an additional 
proof that this building was commenced before Hunting- 
ton's time. 

Bishop Stanley's example seems to have created a feeling 
in Manchester for which I do not remember a parallel 
anywhere else. Before his fine chapel could have been 
completed, the Jesus chapel was built by Bexwith, a 
merchant of Manchester, in 1506. The Trafford chapel 
next it was, according to Hollingworth, built in the same 
year; the St. George's chapel was built by Galley in 1508 ; 
the Strangeways chapel in the same year; the Oldham 
chapel before 1519, and the Bibby porch very shortly 
after. The church, in fact, became surrounded, I 
could almost say incrusted, with these different chantries, 
as may be seen in our plan, Plate xxi. If the modern 
galleries and screens could be removed, it would have the 
most picturesque effect. The only buildings at all like it 
in England are, Chichester cathedral, and St. Michael's, 
Coventry. The effect of the former is much injured by 
the huge Norman piers which obstruct the perspective view : 
a portion only of the latter has five aisles. Could but the 
unfortunate piece of tapestry be removed, and a proper 
screen be substituted, could we but get a fair view of the 

VOL. VI. 26 



196 ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE 

building, catching arch behind arch, and pier behind pier, 
we should have an effect unequalled perhaps in England, 
and possessing one of those features which so fascinate the 
visitors to the Arabian mosques ; such as that at Cordova, 
for instance, where the eye seems lost in an endless per- 
spective of column and arch, with bright and reflected 
lights, and depths of shade, alternating, and intermixed in 
a way we can get in no other style of building. 

The choir at Manchester is certainly of remarkable 
beauty, the architecture extremely light and pure, the roof 
excellent in design and execution, while the wood-work of 
the stalls is fine in the extreme. That on the south side, 
as has been before stated, was built by bishop Stanley. 
The stall end near the west entrance contains the curious 
carving of the eagle in the tree with the child, upon which 
Mr. Planche has written so able a paper. The eastern stall 
end on the north side bears the merchant's mark, etc., of 
Richard Bexwike, who, as has been stated before, built 
this side of the stalls. The mark has been wrongly de- 
scribed ; instead of a triangle fretted with an annulet, it is 
the A and 0, intended for Alpha and Omega, interlaced 
and surmounted by a cross patee, fitched in the foot, 
between the gothic letters r and b; this is borne on the 
dexter side of the shield, per fess above the grocer's arms; 
a chevron between six cloves in chief, and three in base, 
and impales a demi-virgin, with her hair dishevelled, issu- 
ing from the clouds ; the arms of the mercers' company. The 
wood-work on each side of the choir is alike, except that 
there is a richly carved member at the top of the canopies 
on the north side, which does not exist on the south side. 
This work is very superior in design and execution to that 
of the screens in the other parts of the church, and evi- 
dently has been executed by different hands. In fact, 
that in the choir bears exactly the appearance of the work 
usually called Flemish carving, of which we possess 
examples in many of our cathedrals. The great trade of 
Manchester with the continent renders this a very probable 
supposition. The carvings under the miserere seats are 
extremely good. They bear marks of the usual turn for 
ridicule usually found in such a situation, without the gross- 
ness we so often observe. The schoolmaster's seat has an 
old fox instructing a parcel of cubs, one of whom is being 



OF MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 197 

chastised with a rod. The first cantor's seat has a bear 
worried by dogs ; they have got him by the ears, and he 
seems to be roaring lustily probably a sly quiz at the 
quality of the cantor's voice. 

The chapels, and in fact nearly the whole exterior, has 
been cased and repaired in that sort of way as to make it 
impossible to speak with certainty of any architectural 
peculiarities. Hollingworth describes the painted glass in 
the interior to be of great beauty. He mentions a large 
statue of St, George in the chapel called by that name; 
" the horse from which was lately", he says, " in the sad- 
dler's shop. The statues of the Virgin Mary, St. Dyonyse, 
the other patron saints, were upon the two highest pillars 
next to the quire ; unto them men did bow at their coming 
into the church." Perhaps the most remarkable record is 
that of the Strangeways chapel. u In it there is a pardon 
under the picture of the resurrection of Christ from the 
sepulchre. The pardon for five paternosters, five aves, 
and a creede, is xxvj thousand, and xxvj days of pardon." 

Although there have been extensive repairs, in some 
instances almost rebuilding, going on from 1685 to the 
present day; and although we may perhaps lose many 
matters of archaeological interest in the process, still it 
must be confessed that the restorations have been carried 
on here in an infinitely better spirit, and with more suc- 
cess, than it has been the fortune of this association to 
meet with elsewhere. There are one or two places where 
what is done offends the eye ; but when we consider that it 
is only within a few years, and owing alone to the laborious 
researches bestowed on the subject, particularly the study 
of mouldings, which is, as it were, the comparative anatomy 
of architecture, that we are arriving at something like a 
definite knowledge of the details of Gothic architecture, 
when we reflect on this, we must confess that the greatest 
credit is due to all concerned in carrying them out. It 
certainly would have been satisfactory had we been able 
to speak as to the original state of the clerestory windows ; 
and there is one very picturesque feature, evidently a 
restoration, but probably, like the rest, as nearly re- 
sembling the old work as can be. I allude to the three 
pinnacles on each angle of the tower. These clusters have 
a very beautiful effect. I know nothing like it in England, 



198 ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE, ETC. 

except great St. Mary's, at Cambridge. The whole tower 
top is indeed very fine. With an increasing veneration 
for the relics of the past, and with the increased knoAvledge 
we have of Gothic architecture, I am sure the same paths 
will be pursued with better effect. It is impossible for any 
inhabitant of Manchester, when he looks round his vast 
city and sees that this is the only ecclesiastical relic of the 
days of his forefathers; and when he considers its his- 
toric interest and intrinsic beauties, not to regard it with 
reverence, I could almost say, affection. As it is impossible 
for a stranger, however well he may be skilled in his sub- 
ject, in so short a time to collect all the points of interest 
in so wide a range, let me hope that the local antiquary 
will not forget to follow it out. If my address has awak- 
ened any interest in the building, and may lead to its 
further preservation, restoration, or illustration, I am in- 
deed more than amply repaid for the trouble I have taken 
in its investigation. 1 



EEFERENCES TO THE PLAN OF MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL, 

PLATE xxi. 
A. The tower . . . 



. , oon 

B. St. Mary's or Lady chapel circa 1330. 

c. The choir 



D. St. James's chantry, formerly the > built by John Huntington, circa 1440. 

north transept . . . . ) 

E. The nave ..... built by bp. James Stanley, circa 1490. 

F. St. John the Baptist's or Derby } 

chapel ..... > built by the same, circa 1500. 

G. The chapter-house . . . ) 

H TPSHS' rhanpl ! tuilt ^ Bexwith, a merchant of Man- 

H. Jesus napel . j che ster, in 1506. 

i. The Trafford Chapel . . . built in 1506. 

K. St. George's chapel . . . ) , ., , . , KAO 

i, The Strangeways chapel . . J ^ilt m 1508. 
M. The Oldham chapel . . . built in 1518. 

N. The Bibby porch .... built in 1520. 



1 I took the opportunity at the meet- librarian of the Chetham college, Mr. 

ing, which I gladly take again, to ex- Jones. However pleasing it is to ac- 

press my thanks for the kind and knowledge a debt of gratitude, it is 

courteous assistance afforded me by the doubly so when it has been conferred 

lord bishop, the dean, the rev. canons on a stranger ; and is not only a kind- 

Wray and Johnson, and the learned ness, but a valuable assistance. 



PATR .Jiff. 




GROUND PLAN 



MANCHESTER CATHEDRAL. 



199 




ON THE STANLEY CREST. 

BY J. R. PLANCH^, ESQ., F.S.A., HON. SEC. 

THE crest of the Stanleys, earls of Derby an eagle, 
with wings expanded, or, feeding (or, according to some 
heralds), preying on, an infant, swaddled, gules, banded 
of the first is familiar to us all; but more especially to 
the inhabitants of Lancashire : the county of which the 
venerable and venerated chief of that illustrious family is 
the lord lieutenant, and wherein the scene has been laid of 
the events tradition has handed down to us as the origin 
of this heraldic curiosity. 

The elaborate and valuable essay on the Stanley legend, 
written by the historian of Cheshire, Dr. Ormerod, for the 
Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, and which has 
been reprinted separately, is, I should imagine, almost as 
well known as its subject to a large proportion of my 
auditors. 

It will be necessary for me, however, not only for the 
sake of those present, who may not have heard the legend, 
but of those whose recollections of it may not be suffi- 
ciently perfect, to tell the story in as few words as possible. 



200 ON THE STANLEY CKEST. 

The earliest authority for it, known to be extant, is an 
historical poem on the Stanley family, written by Thomas 
Stanley, bishop of Man (between the years 1510-1570), two 
centuries after the assumed date of the incident. An imper- 
fect copy of this poem is contained in the Harleian MS., No. 
541, and a modernized transcript of a larger portion in Cole's 
MSS., vol. xxix, with this memorandum attached to it: 
" Copied for me by a person who has made many mistakes, 
and sent to me by my friend Mr. Allen, rector of Toporley, 
in 1758." T^he bishop's account is simply, that lord 
Lathom, dwelling at Lathom hall, was a man of fourscore 
years of age, and his lady as old ; and that being without 
hope of issue, God did send them an heir most miraculously. 
For an eagle had her nest in Terlestowe wood, in which 
were three fair birds that were ready to fly; and one day 
she brought to them a goodly boy, " swaddled and clad 
in a mantle of red"; the news of which reaching lord 
Lathom, he rode with all speed to the wood, and found 
the babe preserved, by God's grace ; and causing it to be 
fetched down, he brought it to his lady at Lathom, where 
they took it as their own, and "thanked God of all". The 
child was apparently unchristened, for salt was bound I 
round its neck in a linen cloth. They had it baptized, j 
therefore, by the name of Oskell, and made it their heir j 
after them. " From whence the child came", saith the 
bishop, " the truth no man can show ; neither where nor / 
what place it was fetched fro' : " but the foundling grew 
up to manhood, and became the father of Isabella Lathom, 
with whom sir John Stanley fell in love ; and " within 
short time", runs the poem, " he stole her away"; or, as the 
right reverend prelate jocosely suggests: 

" She stole him, I know not whether, 

But they were not well till they came together." 

Sir Oskell, however, was a good-natured man, and a tendc 
father. He forgave the young couple; and having honoi 
ably lived, he godly made his end, leaving sir John 
Stanley and the fair Isabella to mourn his decease, and 
enjoy his property. 

Various versions of this story are related by Dr. Ormerod 
and also by Mr. Mark Anthony Lower, in his Curiosities of 
Heraldry ; in one of which it is stated that the child was 



ON THE STANLEY CREST. 201 

an illegitimate son of the lord of Lathom, who, having 
abandoned and exposed it in the nest of an eagle, dis- 
covered, to his astonishment, that the bird, instead of 
devouring the helpless infant, had protected and fostered 
it ; upon which the cruel parent relented, took the boy 
home, and made him his heir. In another it is said, that 
sir Thomas Lathom, having no male issue by his wife, and 
wishing to adopt an illegitimate son, resorted to the ruse 
of having the infant placed in an eagle's nest, and then 
taking his lady into the wood, discovered the child as if 
by accident, and causing him to be rescued from his 
perilous couch, presented him to his lady, who, ignorant 
of his consanguinity to her lord, joyfully acquiesced in his 
proposal to make the miraculously preserved foundling 
heir to their estate. 

In Seacorne's history of the house of Stanley, there is 
a similar account, derived from another branch of the family, 
with the important addition that the adopted child was 
discarded before the death of sir Thomas, who repented 
the fraud he had practised on his legal heirs. It is further 
stated that on the adoption, sir Thomas Lathom had 
assumed for his crest, an eagle upon wing, turning his head 
and looking " in a sprightly manner" as for something 
she had lost; and that on the discovery of the fact, the 
Stanleys (one of whom had married the legal heiress of the 
estate), either to distinguish or to aggrandize themselves, 
or in contempt or derision, took upon them the eagle and 
child, thus manifesting the variation and the reason 
of it. 

Dr. Ormerod, however, has utterly demolished all these 
ingenious fabrications, invented, no doubt, to account for 
a singular cognizance, the origin of which was lost in the 
shades of antiquity. He has proved by incontestable official 
documents that the sir Thomas Lathom of the legend was 
succeeded by a son, also named Thomas, who enjoyed, 
indisputably, Knowsley and Childwall at least, with other 
manors, and at his death, in 1383, left an infant heiress, 
named Elena, whose claims, as " cousin 1 and next heir", 
were opposed by virtue of an alleged entail by Isabel 
Lathom, wife of sir John Stanley, who entered irregularly 
on Lathom, John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and as 

1 By which, in medieval documents, meant any blood-relation, and not 
it is perhaps as well to mention, is as we now understand the phrase. 



202 ON THE STANLEY CREST. 

such, superior lord of Lathom, steadily opposing him. 
It further appears that the question was litigated as late 
as 1386, when it turned in favour of Stanley, and he was 
in undoubted possession of Lathom, and Knowsley, and 
their dependencies, before the ninth of Henry IV, 1407-8. 
All foundation, therefore, for the scandal of a spurious 
heir, is gratuitous, as no such charge is known to be 
made in support of the claim of sir John Stanley in right 
of his wife, and we must consequently look for the explana- 
tion of this celebrated crest to history, and not tradition 
to facts, and not to fiction. 

In the reign of Edward III, the seal of sir Thomas 
Lathom, confounded by Vincent with the sir Oskell, or 
sir Oskatell, of the legend, (but who, if the story were 
true, would be the adopter, and not the adopted), presents 
us with an eagle displayed, charged on the breast with an 
escutcheon of the arms of Lathom (see plate xxii, fig. 2), or, 
on a chief indented, azure, three plates, or besants, 
supposed by Dr. Ormerod to be derived from the arms of 
Butler, from which family the Lathoms trace their maternal 
descent. (Vide seal of sir Robert de Lathom, 1250, Plate 
xxii, fig. 1.) The Torbocks of Torbock, issuing from 
Richard Fitz-Henry, brother of Robert de Lathom, founder 
of the priory of Burscough, bear the same coat, with the 
difference of an eagle's leg erased, gules ; ] and in the visi- 
tation of the county of Lancaster, Harleian MS., 6159, 
their crest is an eagle displayed, vert, beaked and mem- 
bered, gules, and collared, or. (See plate xxm, fig. 1). 

The Lathoms of Irlam, stated by Seacombe to 
descendants of the sir Oskell, or Oskatell de Lathom, 
the tradition, are said to have inherited a signet from hii 
of which the biographer gives an engraving, exhibiting 
" on a wreath an eagle rising" (see plate xxni, fig. 2), and 
eagle either with or without the swaddled child, repre 
serited in various attitudes, "preying", "rising", "close" 
or " displayed ", was assumed by, or granted to, every 
branch of the family; but with the exception of the seal 
of sir Thomas de Lathom before mentioned, and one of 
William de Torbock, on which is seen an eagle with folded 
wings, or, as heralds term it, "close" 2 (see plate xxii, fig. 3), 
there is no authority, that I am aware of, earlier in date 

1 An easrle's lee, erased, or. is one of Chester Cathedral. 




THE STANLEY CREST. 



PLATEXXHI. 




THE 



S TANLE Y 



CREST 



ON THE STANLEY CREST. 203 

than the metrical history of bishop Stanley, in which the 
story first appears. The windows in Astbury church, 
Cheshire, formerly exhibited figures of several of the 
Lathom family with their armorial bearings. These win- 
dows Dr. Ormerod states to have been " nearly of the time 
of Edward III"; but in the Harleian MS., No. 2151, are 
drawings of these figures by the indefatigable Randal 
Holmes ; and the costume and ornaments, even had we 
no other evidence, prove that they are upwards of one 
hundred years later than Dr. Ormerod dates them. The 
persons represented in them were living in the middle of 
the fifteenth century, and the windows were put up, or 
painted, in commemoration of them by their descendants 
in the reigns of Richard III and Henry VII; and those 
exhibiting the effigies of sir Robert Massey in the same 
church, and precisely similar in execution, are dated 1493. 
In one of these instances the crest of Lathom is an eagle 
standing on an empty cradle. (See plate xxii, fig. 8). 

We next come to the windows of Northenden church, 
Cheshire. " It may be difficult", says Dr. Ormerod, " to 
select a much earlier instance of the Stanley bearing than 
are given in the windows of Northenden church, in the 
memorials for sir John Stanley, of Elford, and Humphrey 
Stanley, canon of Christchurch, where both eagles, that is 
to say, the eagle preying and the eagle rising, are given as 
a matter of heraldic indifference, with infants underwritten 
Ostell and Oskell Lathom". These crests are also drawn 
in the same Harleian MS. ; and in one instance you per- 
ceive that the eagle is standing over the child in a nest; 
in the other it is depicted in an attitude approaching that 
which the heralds term preying, and in the centre of a 
tree (see plate xxii, fig. 9 & 10). Here again the dates are 
very late; John Stanley having died in 1508, and Hum- 
phrey in 1557 ! A much earlier example, however, I have 
now the pleasure of pointing out to you, through the 
kindness of Mr. Langton, who possesses a cast of the seal 
of sir John de Stanley of the time of Henry V, A.D. 1415, 
about thirty years only after the termination of the suit 
(see plate xxii, fig. 4). Here are also diagrams from casts 
of seals in the same collection of Thomas lord Stanley, 
A.D. 1477 and 1484 (see plate xxii, fig. 5, 6). And here is 
another, copied from an exceedingly interesting heraldic 

VOL. TI. 27 



204 ON THE STANLEY CREST. 

MS. in the Harleian collection, No. 6163 (see woodcut, 
page 199). The achievement is superscribed " Lord of 
Darby", and therefore cannot be older than 1485, in which 
year Thomas lord Stanley was created earl of Derby ; but 
even this is earlier than the Northenden windows, and 
perhaps of the Astbury. Here is also a seal of the same 
noble earl, from Mr. Langton's collection. (See plate 
xxn, fig. 7.) 

It would be idle to speculate upon the reasons for so 
many variations of this celebrated crest. They may have 
been either heraldic differences, to mark the particular 
branches of the family, or alterations made according to 
the fancy, or in consequence of the ignorance, of the artist. 
My object is to point out a probable origin of the crest in 
its complete and most popular form, and the clue to it I 
think is to be found in the following passage in Camden's 
Britannia. 

" After Chatmosse appears Holcroft, which gave both 
name and residence to the illustrious family of Holcroft, 
which was anciently enlarged by the heirs of Culchit. The 
last place is in its neighbourhood, and was held by Gilbert 
de Culchit, in fee of Alrneric the cupbearer, who held it in 
fee of the earl de Ferrers, in Henry Ill's time. His eldest , 
daughter and heir being married to Richard Fitz-hugh, 1 
he took the name of Culchit, as did Thomas his brother, 
who married the second daughter, that of Holcroft, from 
the estate, another for the like reason of Peasfalong, and a 
fourth of Risely." 

Now here we find that Richard and Thomas, sons of 
Hugh de Hindley, married two daughters of Gilbert de 
Culchit in the reign of Henry III, and assumed the names 
of Culchit and Holcroft from the estates they had with 
their wives; and that the husbands of the two other 
daughters of the same Gilbert assumed, for the like reason, 
the names of Peasfalong and of Risely. It does not appear 
that the Lathom family intermarried with, or were in any 
way connected with, the Culchits, the Holcrofts, or the 
Riselys ; but in the arms of all these families a bird and a 
child hold a conspicuous position, not as a crest, but as a 
coat. Singly, as that of Culchit (plate xxni, fig. 4) ; some 

1 De Hindley. Barrett's MS., Pedigrees of Lane. Fam., in the Chethan 
library, Manchester. 



ON TOE STANLEY CREST. 205 

times in conjunction with a tree, in that of Risely (plate 
XXIIT, fig. 6); and impaled or quartered with argent, a 
cross, and bordure engrailed sable, in that of Holcroft 
(plate xxin, fig. 5). In the Testa de Nevil we have evi- 
dence to the fact of William, son of Robert de Risely, 
holding part of a knight's fee in Risely, of Alicia, countess 
of Anjou, of whom Robert de Lathom is also a tenant in 
Alfreton and Normanton. Alina, formerly the wife of 
Almeric Butler, holds a knight's fee in Crophul with 
Walter de Staunton, of Thomas de Gretly. The family of 
Keckwich, or Kekwyk, are said, in the Harleian MS., 6159, 
to have borne the same coat as Culchit ; and in the copy of 
an inquisition amongst the Townley MSS., we find mention 
of John de Kekewyke dying, seized of land in the township 
of West Derby. (Ormskirk, July 3, 1383. ) In short, there 
is great reason to believe that the Lathoms, Gilbert de 
Culchit and his heirs, were all holders under the same 
feudal chiefs, and as such, were likely to assume, or 
have granted to them, as arms of affection, the heraldic 
insignia of their superior lords. Mr. Ormerod has him- 
self suggested this circumstance as the origin of the coat 
of Lathom. "It is clear", says he, " to every heraldic 
eye that the arms of Boteler are the basis of those of 
Lathom, with a difference no more than an early filial 
one." He has shown that Robert Fitz-Henry, lord 
of Lathom, and founder of Burscough priory, married 
apparently the daughter, and finally heiress, or co-heiress, 
of Orme Fitz-Ailward and Emma Greslie Gretly, or Gredle, 
his wife; and that Fitz-Ailward's grandfather was the 
Orme magnus who married Alice, sister of Herveus 
Walter, who was the father of Theobald Walter, lord of 
Ainounderness, and chief butler of Ireland, ancestor of 
the dukes of Ormonde and earls of Carrick, and whose 
descendants to this day bear, or, a chief indented, azure. 
Well, then, the Lathoms, who bear the Butler coat, 
I with a difference of three plates in chief, and who, in the 
reign of Edward III, placed their escutcheon on the breast 
I of an eagle displayed, arefound, when crests become general, 
I bearing the remarkable one which forms a charge in the 
arms of Culchit, Holcroft, and Risely, the tenants of the heirs 
of one of a Butler family named Almaric, or Aumari, and 
it may be connected with that family by marriage, as well 



206 ON THE STANLEY CREST. 

as feudal tenure. That the eagle and child have been 
derived from the same source in both cases, I cannot for a 
moment question. That it was a coat, before it was a 
crest, is no more to be doubted, as crests were not common 
before the fourteenth century ; and the arms of Gilbert de 
Culchit were assumed by his heirs apparently as early as 
the reign of Henry III. In the Visitation of Lancaster, 
A.D. 1664, the shield of arms here exhibited is drawn at 
the head of the pedigree of Risley, and attached to it 
is this memorandum : " These arms are cut on the old 
waynscote in the hall at Risley" (see plate xxm, fig. 8). 
They are curious as proving that the same variation was 
practised in the representation of the Risely arms as in 
that of the Lathom crest. The tree which is seen in other 
examples is here omitted, as it is in the case of the crest in 
the windows at Northenden. The bird also in this instance 
is blazoned sable; and to make assurance double sure, the 
modest draughtsman has considerately written beside it, 
" A raven", but elsewhere it is called an eagle, and the 
colour may have given rise to the less noble epithet. There 
is another interesting point in the escutcheon : the second 
and third quarters are argent', three ancient drinking 
horns, azure. On a brass in Great Shelford church, 
Cambridgeshire, a tracing from which was kindly sent to rne 
by our valued associate Mr. Waller, we find the Risely 
arms, tree and all, impaling three drinking horns of a more 
humble and familiar form, but undoubtedly intended for 
the same coat (see plate xxin, fig. 9). I have not yet been 
able to identify this coat by any researches I have made 
either in the Ordinaries at the College of Arms or in the 
British Museum ; but the affinity of the three drinking horns 
to the three cups borne as allusive arms by so many 
of the name of Butler, is not to be observed without re- 
calling the tenure of the Culchits under Almeric Pincerna. 
The pedigree of Lathom of Lathom is defective at the very 
point to which we must look for the complete proof of 
their connexion with the Butlers. The pedigrees of 
Culchit, Holcroft, and Risely, which I have seen, scarcely 
ascend into the fifteenth century. 1 The family name of 
the husband of the heiress who had Risley to her portion 
is yet to ascertain, as also is that of him who assumed the 

1 Vide seal of a Risely. Temp. Philip and Mary. Plate xxin, fig. 7. 



PIATF. 




PLATE . XX.V. 




BADGE OF STANLEY AND LACLE IN NEST FROM WARDEN'S STALL 



ON THE STANLEY CREST. 207 

name of Peasfalong. But heraldry is a clue, which rightly 
handled, can guide us to the very heart of the labyrinth. 
The foundling of Terlestowe wood has been dispossessed by 
an antagonist as redoubtable as a Stanley ; but the names 
of Orrne and Ailward conjure up visions of an elm tree 
and an eagle's ward, which further researches may give 
more substantial existence to. The marriage of Orme, the 
father of Ailward, with Alice, the daughter of Herveus, is 
a fact to start from. The typifying names or possessions 
by the representation of things, animate or inanimate, bear- 
ing similar appellations, is a fact too well known to need 
more than an allusion to at present; but a more appropriate 
example cannot be afforded than the one in the carving, 
representing this legend, on the Warden's stall in Manchester 
cathedral, executed by order of James Stanley, bishop of 
Ely, where we find a procession of stonemasons with their 
tools introduced, merely to signify the name of the family, 
by its conformity in sound to "Lathomi" 1 (see plate xxiv). 
My impresssion I repeat is, that we shall discover this 
singular crest to be but an Anglo-Norman rebus of the 
name of a Saxon ancestor, and that it was a cognizance of 
one of the families of Pincerna, or le Boteler (if, indeed, 
they were not the same family), which was assumed by, or 
granted to, the Culchits for a coat, and the Lathoms as 
heirs general for a crest, surmounting the arms of Botelor, 
with the necessary difference. Permit me to conclude 
these very superficial observations with a hope that local 
antiquaries will take up this subject, with all the advantages 
they possess in the shape of private family documents. 
The result in any case must prove of considerable im- 
portance to the history of the county palatine of Lancaster ; 
and should I have been fortunate enough to have directed 
their researches in a new and right direction, I shall have 
great additional cause for the gratification I feel in having 
been allowed to address you on the present occasion. 



The folloAving notes, in further illustration of the pedi- 
gree of the Lathom family, have been kindly communicated 
to me by Mr. W. Langton, of Manchester : 

" Dodsworth has preserved four inquisitions, which throw 

1 Vide Lower's Curiosities of Heraldry, p. 190. 



208 ON THE STANLEY CREST. 

some light on the family history of the Lathoms. One of 
these, held at Ormsldrk, July 3rd, 1383, records that sir 
Thomas (fils Thome) de Lathom, then deceased, had 
married Isabella, daughter of Roger de Pilkyngton, and 
that after that, he had been seised of the manor of Lathom, 
until he vested it in trustees. We have here, therefore, 
the name and parentage of the lady whose daughter 
Isabella became ultimately the heiress of the property, and 
conveyed it into the family of Stanley. Sir Thomas appears 
afterwards to have contracted a very unhappy marriage 
with a lady named Johanna, and supposed to have been 
of the family of Venables. By an inquisition, held at 
Lancaster, March 6th, 1835, we find that during sir 
Thomas de Lathom's last illness, she grossly misconducted 
herself, and, after his death, buried him with indecent 
haste, marrying immediately her paramour, Roger de 
Fazakerlegh." 

" Thomas de Lathom, son of the above sir Thomas (fils 
Thome) de Lathom, appears also to have married one of 
the Pilkington family, named Mabilla, the daughter of a 
sir Roger de Pilkington (there were two in succession, 
son and grandson of sir Alexander de Pilkington, who 
lived in the reign of Edward I), and to have died in 
November 1383, leaving as his heir an infant named 
Ellena, who, in the inquisition, taken at Manchester, 
March 15th, 1384, is stated to be six weeks old." 

" In another inquisition, taken at Lancaster, February 
22nd, 1385, Elleria is found to be heir of entail to the first 
Thomas de Lathom, son of Robert de Lathom, and to be then 
aged one year and one month. She must have been alive ii 
1387, as is gathered from an inquisition on R. de Torbock, 
but we have not been able yet to discover when she died." 

These facts are of the utmost value in clearing up severe' 
dubious points of the Lathom descent ; and the informatioi 
we derive from them enables us to decide that sir Thorru 
de Lathom had two wives, and that Isabella de Lathom, 
who married sir John Stanley, was not the daughter of 
Johanna, his second, but of Isabella de Pilkington, his first 
wife, daughter of sir Roger de Pilkington the elder, an( 
mother also by sir Thomas, of Thomas de Lathom, his soi 
and heir. That this last Thomas married a daughter of the 
younger sir Roger de Pilkington, and consequently his cou- 



ON THE STANLEY CREST. 



209 



sin, named Mabilla, according to Dodsworth and Townley, 
and Isabella, according to the documents quoted by Dr. 
Orrnerod, and died in November 1383. That Elena, his 
daughter, was consequently a posthumous child, being 
born on or about the 1st of February 1384, as she is 
proved to have been six weeks old on the 15th of March 
in that year, and one year and one month old on the 22nd 
of February 1385. The state of sir Thomas de Lathonrs 
health, which is minutely detailed in the inquisition of 
March 6th, 1385, was probably the origin of the scandalous 
story on which one version of the legend was founded, as 
well as the great age and hopelessness of issue ascribed 
to " the lord Lathom" in the more decorous account of 
bishop Stanley, and the posthumous birth of his grandchild, 
Elena, might also partly account for the opposition of the 
Stanleys. 



Sir Alexander de Pylkington 
living temp. Edw. I. 



Thomas Lathom=Eleanor de Ferrers. 



Sir Roger de Pylkington= 



Sir Roger de Pylkington 



a,bella=Sit 



Isabella=Sir Thomas Lathom Johanna, 2nd wife, 
1st wife afterwards married 

to Sir Roger de 



Mabilla, } 
or > = 
Isabella ) 

Ele 
] 




I azakerly. 


= Thomas Lathom. 
Obiit Nov. 1383. 

na, born circa 
i'eb. 1, 1384. 


Isabella=Sir John Stanley. 



ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE NORMAN 
FORTRESS IN ENGLAND. 

BY THE EEV. J. COLLINOWOOD BRUCE, M.A. 

THE study of antiquities is confessedly a branch of his- 
tory. From the mouldering ruin, or the partially defaced 
inscription, not only do we occasionally glean facts which 
bear upon the story of our race, but we acquire impressions 



210 ON THE STKUCTUKE OF THE 

more vivid than any that we can derive from the perusal 
of the mere lettered narrative. 

One object of the migratory meetings of this Association 
is the diffusion of a taste for the study of antiquity. One 
way of doing this, is to shew, practically, its utility and 
interest. With this in view, I address myself at once to 
the subject I have selected, and shall, in the brief space 
allowed me, lay before you such facts relative to the 
Norman fortress as may seem important, without regard to 
originality of view. 

The accession of William the Norman to the throne of 
England was a turning point in our history. It was a 
terrific but a needful visitation. Intestine strife seemed 
for a time to paralyse the capabilities of the Anglo-Saxon 
race ; but, after a brief period of anxiety and suffering, the 
sons of Cerdic and of Offa shewed themselves to the world 
as more than ever fitted for performing the part which 
subsequent events have shewn it was the will of Providence 
they should sustain in the great drama of this world's 
history. 

The Normans, who landed upon our shores in 1066, 
were few in number compared with the native population ; 
and it being at all times, but especially then, a difficult 
matter to recruit the forces of an invading army, it was 
requisite to adopt every precaution to economise the ex- 
penditure of military force. 

The buildings of the Saxons, whether castellated or 
ecclesiastical, were of an unambitious character; the Nor- 
mans were great builders, and in this respect had a decided 
advantage over their antagonists. It was chiefly by their 
skill and industry in the erection of strong fortresses, they 
were enabled to retain that hold of this country which the 
chances of a disputed succession afforded them. Let us 
examine the structure of a Norman castle. 

The Norman castle did not consist of a single building, 
such as in modern times we often understand by the term, 
but of a series of fortified erections. The keep, which we 
now frequently designate the castle, was but a part of the 
stronghold, and was the resort of the garrison only in times 
of pressing danger. The castle consisted of the central 
building, or keep; the upper and lower courts, or baileys, 
in which were the garrison buildings ; with the walls, 



NORMAN FORTRESS IN ENGLAND. 211 

gates, barbicans, and ditches, intended to promote the 
general safety. 

The area occupied by a castle was often very consider- 
able. At Newcastle it is about five acres. Norwich castle 
covered a space of not less than twenty-three acres. Lin- 
coln castle occupied nearly as much. It is recorded that 
one hundred and sixty-six mansions were destroyed to 
clear the ground for its erection, and seventy-four more 
were demolished to give it the advantage of standing alone. 

The site chosen for it was usually an elevated spot of 
ground, naturally defended on two or more sides. The 
eminence on which Durham castle stands furnishes a good 
example ; it is lofty, and is nearly surrounded by the river 
Wear. 

Excepting in situations where the ground was very pre- 
cipitous, a ditch was drawn around the enclosure. Where 
the nature of the level would admit of it, the moat was 
filled with water. 

On the inside of the ditch a strong wall was raised. 
This was sometimes thirty feet high, and had a thickness 
of six or eight feet. On the top of it was a platform, pro- 
tected by a buttress, for the evolutions of the garrison who 
manned the fort. The curtain wall of the Norman fortress 
of Richmond is in a nearly perfect state. Its masonry is 
of a rougher character than the keep, a large portion of the 
facing stones being undressed. The erection of it has 
evidently been the first care of the garrison, as the build- 
ings which have been placed against its inner margin have 
not been tied into it. 

One or more gateways, of course, gave access through 
the wall to the interior space, each of which was defended 
by a tower and other appliances. These will require a 
little examination. The drawbridge and the portcullis 
belong rather to the Edwardian than the Norman castle, 
yet examples of them are met with of this period. When 
the foe attacked the fort, the ditch had to be filled up with 
hurdles or earth before the gate could be reached; and 
Nvhen it was, the uplifted drawbridge formed an additional 
harrier. The method of attacking a closed gateway was by 
the battle-axe and by fire; whilst these modes of forcing 
nn entrance were being applied, the garrison from the 
bittlements above were lavish in the use of heavy stones, 
VOL. vi. as 



212 



ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE 



melted lead, or boiling oil, or were engaged in breaking 
over the casqued heads of the assailants below, earthen 
vessels filled with hot lime. 

In addition to the tower defending a principal gateway, 
a barbican or advanced work was occasionally added. This 
was sometimes furnished with a ditch and drawbridge. 

Besides the principal entrance into the castle, other 
apertures which convenience dictated were provided. These 

were often very nar- 
row, and were placed 
in situations so pre- 
cipitous as to be ea- 
sily defended. At 
Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, the south pos- 
tern gate (see cut) of 
the Norman period 
has for eight hun- 
dred years survived 
the chances of war 
and weather a very 
rare case. 

Not unfrequently 
two or even three 
walls, each of them 
provided with a moat, 
surrounded the for- 
tress. This was the 
case at Norwich, 
where the gateway 
through each wall 
was defended by a 
tower on each side of the entrance. 

Where concentric walls did not form independent in- 
closures, a wall was drawn across the general space, divid- 
ing it into two courts, called the inner and outer bailey. 
This enabled the garrison, in case of the outer court being 
taken, to retreat into the inner. 

Immediately within the outer walls of the castle the 
garrison buildings seem to have been placed. These con- 
sisted of the residences of the several officers, a common 
hall, a place of abode for the soldiery, stables for the 




NORMAN FORTRESS IN ENGLAND. 213 

horses, and a chapel for the use of the garrison. At Rich- 
mond most of these yet remain. The general character of 
them is dark, gloomy, and comfortless; bearing more the 
appearance of dungeons than of the abodes of conquerors. 
We now come to the most remarkable part of the for- 
tress the keep. This was the retreat of the garrison in 
the event of the outer and inner baileys being carried by 
the enemy, and on it accordingly the utmost skill of the 
military architect was lavished. 

It was generally placed in the centre of the fortification, 
as at Norwich, London, and Newcastle. This was not 
universally the case. At Porchester it is placed on an 
angle of the castle wall, and at Richmond it secures the 
entrance into the outer bailey. 

When circumstances allowed of it, it was placed upon a 
site more elevated than the rest of the fortress. If the 
ground did not naturally assume the required form, a 
faced mount was prepared of the materials taken out of the 
moats. The elevated position of the Round tower at 
Windsor, which doubtless occupies the situation of an older 
keep, is familiar to most of us. In ascending from the 
courtyard of Lincoln castle to the ground floor of the keep, 
you go up sixty steps. Clifford's tower at York is so 
placed. 

The general form of the Norman keep is that of a qua- 
drilateral figure, nearly approaching to a square. The 
great thickness of its walls, and the strength of its masonry, 
almost superseded the use of buttresses. Those which 
were used seem to have been added for the sake of appear- 
ance rather than utility. They consist usually of the 
common flat Norman buttress, rising from a general plinth, 
and dying into the wall below its summit. The end 
pilasters of each face generally unite, and rising above the 
walls, form turrets at each angle, as at Hedingham and 
Rochester. 

In buildings of the larger class, a smaller tower is 
attached to the main structure, in order to defend the 
entrance. The cautious policy of the Normans suggested 
that the doorway of the keep should not be on the ground 
floor, but at a considerable elevation. It is sometimes 
placed on the ground floor, as at Colchester arid Bain- 
borough, but this is the exception to the rule. It is gene- 



214 ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE 

rally placed upon the second story ; at Newcastle it is on 
the third. By this means the lower parts of the building, 
which were more exposed to the battering rams of the 
besieging party than the higher, were kept in unimpaired 
strength; and the attacking party, before reaching the 
entrance, had to climb a steep staircase, exposed mean- 
while to the fire of the garrison. In small buildings the 
entrance stair is left uncovered, as at Conisborough, though 
this building is of later date than the true Norman period; 
but in large fortresses it is uniformly protected by a tower 
attached to the keep, but still entirely independent of it. 
The whole of this subsidiary building might be in the hand 
of the enemy, while the integrity of the citadel remained 
unimpaired. 

The masonry of the keep was of the most formidable 
character imaginable. At Newcastle there is reason to 
believe that the whole area of the site has been built up 
solid from a depth of about fourteen feet to the surface of 
the ground. The thickness of the walls is in most cases 
enormous. Twelve and fourteen feet is a common thick- 
ness ; but there are cases, as at Colchester, where they are 
thirty feet thick at the bottom. They generally taper off 
in stages, so as to give to the upper apartments increasing 
size. 

The stones employed in building these walls are of uni- 
formly excellent quality, and were not unfrequently 
brought from a considerable distance. They were not 
usually "of a size larger than could be conveniently lifted 
by a man, and were for the most part square in the face. 
This is well seen at Norham, where the form of the stones, 
in the older or Norman part of the building, contrasts with 
those used in subsequent repairs. The face of the wall 
only consisted of regularly squared stones, the interior was 
composed of gravel. The strength of the whole structure 
chiefly depended upon the character of the mortar em- 
ployed. In making it the Roman method was adopted 
a method which has long been lost, but which the exi- 
gencies of modern railway works have forced our engineers 
to rediscover. The usual method of making mortar is to 
slack it by throwing water upon it. It is then mixed with 
earth, or fine sand, and worked into a thick paste with 
more water. In this state it is frequently allowed to stand 



NORMAN FORTRESS IN ENGLAND. 215 

days or weeks until it is required, when it is again worked 
up with water. By this means the settling properties of 
the lime are as nearly as possible destroyed. The mortar, 
placed in its bed, quickly dries, and forms a crust little 
more tenacious than a mass of clay. The ancient method, 
doubtless, has been to grind the lime as it came from the 
kiln, and after mixing it with coarse sand and gravel, to 
exclude it from the action of water until the time of its 
being used. When wanted, it has been mixed very freely 
with water, and poured, in a sort of semi-fluid state, in its 
bed, loose rubble being thrust in amongst it. In the 
course of a few hours the mortar would become solid, and 
in a few days the wall would present to an enemy a breast- 
work capable of resisting a battering ram. If these build- 
ings had been constructed of mortar made after the mode 
usual among builders of the present day, a few pieces of 
iron hoop would have enabled a besieging army to pene- 
trate any castle even twelve months after it had been built. 

Nothing can exceed the firmness of Norman masonry. 
It is, if possible, harder than unhewn rock. Recently it 
was necessary to breach the walls of the White tower in 
London, in order to introduce a tram way into it for the 
conveyance of ordnance stores. It took a party of sappers 
and miners six weeks to effect their purpose. We may 
thus readily conceive how difficult a thing it was, before 
the invention of gunpowder, and whilst exposed to all the 
annoyances which the practised ingenuity of the garrison 
devised, to force an entrance into a Norman keep. 

The same policy which suggested that, excepting on 
very rare occasions, no doorway should exist on the ground 
floor, required the very sparing introduction of windows. 
In some instances, as at Richmond, there are none on the 
ground floor. The room has depended entirely upon arti- 
ficial light ; the staples fixed in the centre of the vaulting 
shew the places where the lamps have hung. 

Where windows are introduced, they are of the smallest 
possible size, being little better than arrow loops. The 
light which was admitted through the aperture was care- 
fully economized by the increasing width of the window as 
it approached the inner margin of the wall. By this means 
the precious rays were allowed freely to expand them- 
selves. As these holes served the purpose of arrow loops, 



216 ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE 

as well as windows, the bottom of them was generally 
formed into steps, and on their upper margin was not 
unfrequently a recess provided to protect the head of the 
soldier, who stood at it watching his opportunity to pro- 
ject the deadly bolt. In order to defend the garrison 
within the keep from the action of the missiles thrown 
through these apertures, an ingenious contrivance may 
often be noticed. The upper portion of the window aper- 
ture is made to curve downwards as it approaches the 
inner margin of the wall, or a stone curtain drops directly 
down. Against these projections an arrow sent from 
below would necessarily strike and drop harmlessly down. 

As there is no access for us to the interior of the keep 
except by the usual stairs of entrance, we must needs adopt 
this course. A party coming with a hostile view would 
have several gates to break open, would have to overcome 
the thrust of the lances of the garrison from the steps 
above them, and slowly to run the gauntlet of showers of 
arrows from every loop, and stones from every battlement, 
while melted lead or boiling oil streamed down at intervals, 
insinuating itself between the folds of the armour. Not 
unfrequently, still further to increase the difficulty of ap- 
proach, an angular turn occurs on these stairs, as at j 
Rochester and Newcastle. At the head of the stairs of i 
entrance, but outside the main building, an apartment is 
usually situated which may have been occupied by the 
officer to whom was intrusted the duty of seeing that only 
duly authorized persons were admitted within the precincts 
of the keep. This apartment, as not being essential to the 
safety of the garrison in time of a siege, enjoys the luxury 
of more spacious windows than the same floor of the keep 
does, and is generally more highly decorated than the 
other rooms. At Rochester the entrance into this apart- 
ment is defended by a drawbridge arid a portcullis. 

We are not yet arrived at the main entrance of the 
citadel. As in the churches of the Norman period the 
west doorway is usually the most highly decorated portion 
of the building, so in the castles of the same time the 
grand entrance, which is usually placed on the south side, 
is the member of the fortification on which the builder has 
chiefly displayed his artistic skill. Some of them are very 
beautiful. They of course exhibit the semicircular arch of 



NORMAN FORTRESS IN ENGLAND. 217 

the Norman style, and the characteristic zig-zag orna- 
ment. 

The windows of the building, when windows are ad- 
mitted, as they usually are on the second and third stories 
especially on the side least exposed to the enemy are 
generally comparatively small, and nearly devoid of orna- 
ment. At Newcastle the windows of the third story are 
provided with double lights, and though quite plain, are 
nevertheless beautiful in their simplicity. 

But we are still on the outside of the grand doorway. 
Whilst an enemy who has forced his way thus far is busily 
engaged in hacking to pieces with his battle-axe the iron- 
studded door, the garrison within are not idle. They are 
barricading it in the inside with every available material, 
so as to render, if possible, the labour of the foe nugatory. 
A method occasionally adopted was to choke it up with 
barrels of earth; on these of course the battle-axe and 
blazing faggot could make but little impression. 

The internal arrangements of the keep may now obtain 
our attention. 

In large buildings the interior area is divided into two 
or three compartments by strong stone walls, rising from 
the ground to the summit of the building. The White 
tower of London is divided into three sections, of unequal 
size, the partitioning wall being seven feet thick. The 
interior of Rochester castle is divided into two large rooms, 
communicating however by open arches on each floor. 
The object of this arrangement has been not so much its 
economical convenience as its military advantages. These 
divisions seem to have served a purpose similar to that 
fulfilled by the water-tight bulk-heads in our steam ships. 
In the event of one compartment of the castle being taken 
possession of by an enemy, the other might be successfully 
held out against them by closing the gates of communica- 
tion. Holinshed furnishes us with an instance of this. 
'' King John, in his wars with his barons, laid siege to 
Rochester castle with his whole army, enforcing himself by 
all ways possible to win the castle, as well by battering the 
Avails with engines, as by giving thereto many assaults; 
but the garrison within, consisting of ninety and four 
knights, besides demilances and other soldiers, defended 
the place very manfully, in hope of rescue from the barons. 



218 ON THE STKUCTUBE OF THE 

At length they within, for want of victuals, were con- 
strained to yield it to the king after it had been besieged 
the space of three-score days." And true it is, there had 
been no siege, in those days, more earnestly enforced, nor 
more obstinately defended ; for after that all the limbs of 
the castle had been reversed and thrown down, they kept 
the master tower, till half thereof was overthrown, and 
after kept the other half, till through famine they were 
constrained to yield, having nothing but horseflesh and 
water to sustain their lives withal. 

From the top to the bottom of the building a newel 
staircase usually ran. In the lower part of the building 
this was the only means of communication with the several 
stories, for the builders have evidently contemplated the 
possibility of an enemy getting possession of the ground 
floor, and yet being kept at bay. In the upper part of the 
building, where the same reason could not exist, greater 
freedom of communication is enjoyed, and two or more 
staircases exist. 

The structure of the newel staircase is curious; it is 
turned round a central pillar, and is vaulted above. The 
erection of this spiral vaulting must have been a work of 
some difficulty. The arch here, as is uniformly the case 
throughout the building, is composed of rough stones laid 
in edgewise. The mode of proceeding has evidently been 
to place the wooden centering in its position, and having 
covered it with a plentiful supply of mortar, to arrange 
hastily the stones in their places, putting more mortar 
upon them, and perhaps another arch of stones. The cen- 
tering was allowed to remain until the whole was consoli- 
dated, and when it was removed, it necessarily left the 
impression in the mortar of the roof of the rough boards of 
which it was formed. This may yet be noticed in many 
of our Norman castles. 

Another essential requisite in a Norman keep was the 
well. Without it no garrison could maintain a siege. In 
many cases the labour involved in this proceeding was 
very great. 

At Carisbrook castle, in the Isle of Wight, the well is 
said to have been three hundred feet deep. At Barn- 
borough castle the well is sunk to the depth of one hundred 
and forty-five feet through a whinstone rock. On lowering 



NORMAN FORTRESS IN ENGLAND. 219 

ft light down it, you see the sharp crystalline masses of the 
basalt projecting from the sides, thus evincing the extreme 
difficulty with which the builders had to contend. 

It was not sufficient, however, that a well was provided 
to which access might be had in the basement story, the 
comfort of the garrison required that it should be easily 
accessible from the higher parts of the building. At 
Rochester the pipe of the well is continued from the ground 
to the highest floor of the building; an arched opening 
communicates with each story. A similar plan seems to 
have been adopted in the keep of Carlisle castle. At New- 
castle a contrivance is adopted which is probably peculiar 
to this keep : the well is only accessible from the third 
story, the pipe enclosing it being continued up to this 
elevation without there being any intermediate opening in 
its solid masonry. The builders have evidently contem- 
plated the possibility of the lower portions of the building 
being in the possession of the assailants without their being 
obliged to surrender. This precaution, however, not only 
involved the labour of raising every bucket of water that 
was wanted for any part of the castle to this elevation, but 
the additional labour of carrying to the apartments below 



: 




The guard chamber at Newcastle, down the ccuiral column of which a pipe has run, 
to distribute the water from the well.' 

1 The strong central pillar is hoi- third story. The internal cavity is 
low, and through it the water has been nearly a foot in diameter ; it has its 
conveyed from the well room in the exit by a small pipe near its base. It 

VOL. VI. 29 



220 ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE 

what was required there. To remedy, in part, this incon- 
venience, pipes have been laid in the walls and pillars of 
the building from the well-room to the lower parts of the 
structure : some portions of them yet remain. 

In describing the apartments of the keep, it is difficult 
to recognize any general principle, they vary so much 
according to circumstances. 

In castles of a moderate size, the principal room of the 
lower story is vaulted, a central column supporting the 
radiating ribs of this arrangement. Richmond and New- 
castle furnish examples of this. At the latter place, the 
character of the room, though dark and gloomy, has a 
degree of grandeur which could not be looked for in such 
a situation. In time of a siege, this apartment was pro- 
bably the residence of the common troops of the garrison. 
Pent up here day and night, in considerable numbers, their 
situation would not be of an enviable kind. 

In buildings of a medium size, the second story has 
probably formed the private residence of the commandant 
of the castle and his family. It is generally the most 
secure and the most comfortable part of it. At Newcastle, 
an assailant who forces an entrance at the grand doorway, 
and wishes to get to the second story, has to fight his way 
across the great hall; getting out at a small doorway, he 
has to descend the newel staircase to a point below the 
level of the floor he wishes to reach, and then to ascend 
several steps through a very narrow entrance, which intro- 
duces him, not into the body of the room, but into a 
window niche. A single man, with a well-tempered battle- 
axe in his hand, could maintain this position against a 
whole host of mailed warriors. 

All the floors, excepting the first, are usually formed of 
timber. It is a common arrangement of the second story 
to have a couple of arches resting upon a central column, 
to support the superincumbent rafters. It is so at Heding- 
ham, and probably was so at Newcastle. At Richmond, 
there is a central pillar only. As being a little removed 

is scarcely necessary to observe that it anciently was ; in its inner margin 

the fire-place represented in the cut, the wall is made to droop at the top, 

and which so sadly disfigures the room, and forms a sort of curtain, against 

is quite modern; and it must be re- which arrows entering the room from 

marked that the window on the south without would strike ; the garrison by 

side of the room is much larger than this means being preserved harmless. 



NORMAN FORTRESS IN ENGLAND. 221 

from the immediate source of danger, more light is usually 
admitted into the second story than the first. This, how- 
ever, is done with some care. At Rochester, nothing larger 
than an arrow loop is allowed in the second story. 

In addition to the principal apartments in the interior 
area of the keep, we have smaller ones situated within the 
thickness of the walls. The massive nature of the building 
admits of the formation of tolerably convenient apartments 
in these situations. They are uniformly vaulted in the 
roof. In order to prevent the strength of the wall being 
materially damaged by this arrangement, care is taken not 
to have these rooms similarly placed in consecutive stories. 
If the mural chamber is in the south wall on the second 
story, it is probably in the north wall in the third. These 
chambers have probably been used as the retiring rooms of 
the chief occupants of the fortress. At Newcastle, one of 
these, on the third story, is called the King's fortress ; here, 
probably, Edward I and Edward III have repeatedly sought 
that repose which so often refuses to alight upon the eye- 
lids of kings. 

We occasionally meet with fireplaces on the second 
story. In Rochester, there is a fireplace in each of the 
large apartments, and one in a small guard room in the 
thickness of the wall. These often consist of little more 
than a hearth, from which a funnel-shaped channel, termi- 
, nating in an opening resembling an arrow loop, takes the 
smoke to the outside of the building. 

It is a curious circumstance that in some keeps no traces 
of a fire-place are to be found in any part of them. This 
is the case at Richmond, and, more remarkable still, in 
the Tower of London. 

This seems to be a proof, that excepting in times of 
i peril, or on occasions of great state and ceremony, the 
baronial occupant of the stronghold inhabited more com- 
fortable lodgings than the keep afforded probably in one 
!of the gate towers. 

But admitting this, it seems certain that the luxury of 
ia fire was less generally enjoyed in ancient than in modern 
times. The hardy sea kings of Norway thought it effemi- 
nate to sleep beneath a roof; and a warrior of the middle 
ages considered a blazing hearth as unbefitting the profes- 
sion of arms. The banqueting hall at Warkworth, as 



222 



ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE 



originally constructed, had no fireplace; the one which is 
there now, is manifestly a more recent erection, and occu- 
pies the place of a window of similar dimensions to that 
which still remains. 

The monks of old seem also to have accustomed them- 
selves to a like degree of hardihood ; a single fire, in the 
parlour or conversation room, being considered sufficient 
for the occasional resort of the numerous members of a 
convent, even in the severest weather. 

Charcoal fires might, however, be occasionally intro- 
duced, after the continental fashion, into those rooms of a 
castle which were unprovided with fireplaces. 

In many Norman keeps, a pillar, placed in the centre of 
the floor of the second story, furnishes a support on which 
to lay the beams that bear up the floor of the room above. 
This has been the case at Richmond. In others, an arch 
spans the room, as at Hedingham. In Newcastle, the 

central column and 
the arches springing ; 
from it are modern, i 
but probably they ' 
have been construct- 
ed in accordance with | 
the indications fur- ; 
nished by the ruin of 
its former state. 

The grand hall, in 
most castles of im- 
portance, occupies 
the third story. As 
at this elevation the 
strength of the walls 
is of less importance 
than below, windows 
are more freely in- 
serted. 

At Newcastle, this 
room occupies the 
whole remaining 
height of the build- 
ing. 1 At the south 

1 The great hall above represented is lighted by a window in the northern 




NORMAN FORTRESS IN ENGLAND. 223 

side of the great hall at Newcastle is a room in the thick- 
ness of the wall, which is denominated the King's chamber ; 
it has a handsome fireplace, and communicates with some 
small closets, which have been appropriated to a variety of 
convenient uses. 

At Rochester, the height of the state apartments, which 
are upon the third story, is twenty-eight feet. Here the 
strong partition wall, which in the lower stories divides the 
building into two sections, is pierced by four large semi- 
circular arches, which open a communication between the 
apartments. The arches are decorated with rich zig-zag 
mouldings. 

The grand hall at Hedingham is of interesting charac- 
ter. A large arch, twenty-eight feet in span, with several 
mouldings, extends across it from east to west. The 
height of the room from the floor to the centre of the arch 
is twenty-one feet, and to the top of the ceiling twenty- 
eight feet. In the walls between the upper and lower 
range of windows, there are evidently holes for timbers, 
which have induced some to suppose that this part of the 
castle has consisted of two floors. In this case, the beau- 
tiful effect of the arch would be utterly destroyed. Side 
galleries have probably extended round the interior, which 
on occasions of state ceremony would be crowded with 
spectators. 

It was probably in the state room of Hedingham castle 
that John de Vere, earl of Oxford, gave to Henry VII that 
entertainment which cost him so dear. Contrary to a 
recent ordinance, the old earl, thinking to do honour to his 
master, had assembled his tenantry and decorated them 
with his arms and cognizances. The king, on finding that 
instead of menial servants he was surrounded by retainers, 
exclaimed : " By my faith, my lord, I thank you for your 
good cheer ; but I may not have my laws broken in my sight ; 
my attorney must speak with you." He was fined fifteen 
thousand marks. 

The uppermost story of the White tower, London, con- 
tained the state rooms. The largest of them is named the 



w;ill. and by two windows of large di- The north window is divided into two 
mansions and at a considerable height lights, and probably presents the typeof 
above the ground iu the southern wall, all theother large windows of the castle. 



224 ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE 

Council chamber, from its having been the room in which 
the council used to assemble when the reigning monarch 
held his court at the Tower. It is a room, says Bailey, 
which has few rivals. The massive timber roof and sup- 
porters have every appearance of high antiquity, and har- 
monize well with the grand and substantial features of the 
other part of the building. It is said to have been here 
that the council was sitting in 1483, when Richard, duke 
of Gloucester, the protector, ordered the execution of lord 
Hastings, and the arrest of the archbishop of York, the 
bishop of Ely, and lord Stanley. Poor Hastings was taken 
into the courtyard of the Tower, and without judgment, or 
long time for confession or repentance, was beheaded on a 
piece of timber that accidentally lay there. 

Near the upper part of the keep, and within the thick- 
ness of the walls, a passage ran entirely round it. This 
has probably been to enable the garrison in time of a siege 
freely to communicate with every part. It is usually well 
supplied with arrow loops, which facilitated observation 
and permitted of the projection of missiles on the foe. 
This gallery has for the most part apertures looking into 
the great hall, so that during the progress of an attack the 
soldiery engaged above could readily communicate with the ; 
officers below, and receive the requisite orders. 

The roof of the castle seems to have been of the kind 
called the ridge and valley. The parapets being much 
exposed to forcible removal in time of war, as well as to 
the action of the weather, few specimens remain to tell us 
of their nature. They were probably plain, though some- 
times embattled. They were always flush with the walls 
of the keep. Projecting or machicolated parapets were 
the invention of a subsequent period. 

On the roof of the building important operations were 
conducted in time of a siege. In addition to hand missiles 
and bolts from crossbows, ponderous masses of stone were 
projected against the besiegers by means of catapults and 
balisters, similar in their construction to those made use of 
by the warriors of the primeval age. The roof of Richmond 
castle exhibits marks where the beams had been inserted 
which secured these implements of war. 

There remains but one more warlike contrivance which 
calls for remark. Several instances of the sally-port of 



NORMAN FORTRESS IN ENGLAND. 225 

the keep remain. Whilst the attention of the besieging 
party was concentrated upon a particular point, such as 
the storming of the main entrance, a detachment of the 
beleaguered party would issue out by some unobserved 
doorway, and attack them from behind. It was requisite 
that, whilst the sally-port was so planned as readily to 
admit the return of the garrison party, it should as easily 
exclude the foe. 

It is difficult to describe the contrivances which give 
security to the sally-port at Newcastle, the most perfect 
one I have seen. I will, notwithstanding, endeavour to 
trace a party in their movements when about to attack the 
assailants. Ascending a flight of steps which forms the 
sill of a window, they proceed from the window niche by a 
narrow passage, provided with a strongly barred door, into 
a small chamber, lighted only by a single arrow slit. 
Here the party might muster and form. Proceeding out 
of this room by a very low doorway one so low as to 
require them to stoop considerably they would have to 
turn at right angles into a short and very narrow passage, 
up several steps, to the sally-port door. This door is 
about thirteen feet above the ground. To get down, a 
ladder would be used, which the sentinel on duty would 
raise the moment his party had descended. On their return, 
it would again be lowered, to be raised as soon as they 
were once more in safety. The narrowness of the sally-port 
passage, the number of the sharp turns in it, the general 
darkness of it, as well as its continually varying level, 
would render it almost inaccessible to a foe who was not 
intimately acquainted with its arrangements. Supposing 
the external door to have been left open, a single sentinel, 
in the niche which is provided for him, would have no 
difficulty in despatching all intruders as fast as they could 
approach him. 

It but ill accords with our usual ideas of consistency to 
i find, that in a building so replete with contrivances adapted 
for the security of the garrison and the slaughter of the 
, foe, provision is uniformly made for having the services of 
! religion conducted. In addition to the chapel in the outer 
bailey, we generally find one in the keep itself. At New- 
castle, it is under the stairs of entrance ; and is a building 
of singular beauty when the unadorned character of the 



226 



ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE 



rest of the structure is taken into account. Usually the 

chapel is in the keep 
itself, and on the se- 
cond or third story. 
The chapel at Col- 
chester is a spacious 
apartment, grand in 
its massiveness and 
simplicity. 

The chapel of the 
White tower is one of 
the most interesting 

portions of that noble 

I 

set 




Mouldings of the chapel at Newcastle. 



structure. It also is 
without ornament ; 
but its columns and 
its aisles and arches, 
while they are characteristic of the sternness of the Norman 
warrior's mind, shew that he had an imagination sus- 
ceptible of impression. In this spot some of our mightiest 
monarchs have bowed the knee. 

It is a matter of public regret that the Tower of London 
is not accessible to the people of England. We pay our 
sixpence, and are shewn, as we fancy, through the Tower, 
With the exception of a few feet of surface, displaying some 
scratches on the wall of the room in which sir Walter 
Raleigh is said to have been confined, we see absolutely 
nothing of the interior of the Norman part of the 
building. 

The lower parts of it are used for ordnance stores. 
Those most interesting chambers, the council chamber a 
the chapel, so beautiful in themselves, and so full of h 
toric interest, are made use of as lumber rooms for stowing 
away old chancery records and log books of ships of war. 
For this purpose they are divided into stalls, and tho- 
roughly crammed with their uninteresting contents. For 
the greater economy of space, the chapel is supplied with 
a second floor, midway up its spacious height. Every 
attempt that you make, by peering between the piles of 
books and papers, to get a glimpse of the structure, is 
attended only with chagrin and disappointment ; I speak 
of that which I have experienced. 



NORMAN FORTRESS IN ENGLAND. 227 

Is this right ? Might not the old chancery papers and 
the log books be kept elsewhere, if they are worthy of 
being kept at all, and those who feel an interest in their 
country's story be permitted to traverse these stately 
apartments, and in imagination to evoke from these walls 
the narrative of the stirring scenes and the thrilling events 
of which they have been witnesses ? Would not our 
government do well if they opened all the apartments of 
the White tower, as well as of the interesting mural towers 
of the Edwardian period which surround it, and by so 
doing, cultivate among the people a love for the study of 
history? With exceeding good effect, one at least of our 
local Norman strongholds has been laid open to the investi- 
gation of those curious in antiquities ; and were the matter 
pressed upon the attention of government, the object to 
which I refer might be accomplished. 

There is one adjunct of a castle that we do not usually 
find in the Norman keep the underground dungeon. I 
refer to those pits those dreadful sinks which entirely 
exclude light, and let in just air enough to sustain exist- 
ence, which you find in many castles of the Edwardian 
era dungeons into which the ill-fated prisoner was low- 
ered from a trap in the floor above, and then allowed to 
i groan out his existence amidst increasing foulness, until he 
iwas again dragged up to day, or death released him. 
| These underground dungeons are not generally found in 
the Norman keep. At Rochester, there is a small room 
below the basement story, which may have been used as a 
prison; at Colchester, there are extensive underground 
i\ T aults, but they are too spacious to have been used for 
isuch a purpose ; at London and elsewhere, there are small 
dark rooms on the basement floor, but not underground 
dungeons. At Kenilworth, considerable excavations were 
made in the expectation of striking upon a vaulted prison 
below the surface, but none was found. I have bored in 
cveral places the floor of the basement story of the castle 
of Newcastle, in hopes of making some discovery of this 
<ind, but all to no purpose. 

I have at length come to the conclusion that under- 
round dungeons were the invention of a subsequent 
icriod the Edwardian ; and, strange as the assertion may 
ppear, that they were proofs of advancing civilization. 

VOL. VI. 30 



228 ON THE STRUCTURE, ETC. 

In the fearful struggle between Saxon and Norman, that 
followed the advent of William to our shores, human 
life was esteemed a thing of nought. No Norman was safe 
outside the walls of his keep except he were accompanied 
by a strong guard ; and when policy dictated, the Normans 
did not hesitate to exterminate every living thing, and to 
subvert every habitation in extensive districts. Dungeons 
were of little use to the Normans. If they caught a foe 
that was worthy of their attention, they gave him six feet 
of earth, or if he were a tall man seven. 

I have now enumerated the principal features of a 
Norman fortress. 

If I have at all succeeded in my object, I have shewn 
you that they are interesting historical documents, which 
tell us more powerfully of the state of society than words 
can do. As such they are worthy of preservation, as much 
so as the precious manuscript or the unique volume. 

They are landmarks in the tide of time. They are me- 
morials of the past, which call upon us to be grateful for 
present mercies. How miserable the condition of these 
Norman nobles ! Look at the gloomy pile, and say if it is 
not a prison a prison into which we would now shudder: 
to put a felon. Yet these prisons these above-ground, 
pits the Norman nobles built for themselves; they volun- 
tarily incarcerated themselves, and unlike modern criminals, 
they used their best endeavours to keep their prison doors 
fast, and to resist the efforts of those without to throw 
them open. How piteous their lot when compared with 
the cottager of England at the present day ! he is free to 
go where he likes, and when he likes ; and should the hand 
of violence uplift his latch, or affect his person, the might 
of Britain is put forth to protect him. 

Long may we enjoy our present comforts let these 
enjoyments go on in an increasing ratio : but to under- 
stand and appreciate them, let us preserve and study our 
Norman castle. 



229 



ON ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 

BY JOHN JUST, ESQ., AKD JOHN HABLAND, ESQ. 

THE name of Ribchester, the nature of the place, and 
the numerous Roman relics, which from time to time have 
been discovered there, plainly indicate that the Romans, 
during the days of their dominion in the land, have inha- 
bited the spot. Two Roman military roads intersecting 
each other at or in close proximity to the place, confirm 
such indications, and denote that Ribchester was a Roman 
station. The names of most such so situated have been 
given in the Itinerary or Way Book of Antoninus ; in the 
parallel work of Richard of Cirencester, either taken from 
more authentic manuscripts than we possess, or from the 
same or similar authority, in the Notitia, and in Ptolemy, 
the Chorography of Ravenna, etc., etc. One line of the 
Roman military roads runs from the north to the south- 
ward, and has Mancunium, or Manchester, on it, as the 
next station to the south. Mancunium occurs but in two 
Itinera of Antoninus the Second and the Tenth. In the 
second, the next station to the northward therein men- 
tioned is Cambodunum, on the road thence through York 
,to the Roman Vallum or the Picts AVall. Of course, as 
the line near Ribchester takes not this direction, it cannot 
l)e the site of Cambodunum. The tenth iter, which passes 
from the north through Cumberland, Westmoreland, and 
the whole length of Lancashire, and is identical with the 
line now under consideration, gives Coccium as the name 
of the station nearest to Manchester. As there are no 
remains of a station on the line of Antonine's Tenth iter 
from Ribchester to Manchester, and as the remains of the 
Roman military road are easily traceable throughout the 
whole space between these two places, Ribchester can be 
the site of no other Roman station than the Coccium of 
I Antoninus. Richard's parallel iter, though defective in 
the names of the stations northward, gives Coccium also as 
-he name of the station next to Manchester northward in 
-hat direction. 

These remarks might have been of no moment, if num- 
HTS of previous writers on this subject had agreed about 
he Roman name of the station at Ribchester. But as now 



230 ON ROMAS RIBCHESTER. 

the whole length of the military road on which Cocci um 
stands has been accurately and minutely traced out, and as 
no other Roman military road is traceable in any direction 
from Manchester to the northward, the proof is indubitable. 
The authority is on the ground, marked out in lines which 
now cannot perish, and henceforth we must be satisfied 
with the evidence as it exists, though the distances may 
not accord with such as are given in the Itineraries. 

Another line of Roman military road has been mentioned 
as intersecting this. No account of such a line exists in 
Antoninus. Richard, however, gives us an account of it I 
in his seventh iter. This line begins at the Portus Sistun- 
tiorurn, and runs eastward to York. A Roman military 
road commences near Poulton in the Folde, and has been j 
traced out in its remains to Ribchester, and thence east- i 
ward throughout Lancashire, furnishing as evident and 
satisfactory remains as any line of road within the kingdom. 
This is a fact of considerable importance. It serves to 
corroborate Richard's testimony, and to shew, that he has 
had access to genuine documents where he deviates from 
Antoninus. It also accounts for the difference in the name 
he gives to the station at Ribchester as taken from different; 
sources. In his seventh iter, he gives Rerigonium as the ( 
name of the first station on the line after the Portus Sis-; 
tuntiorum. And this can be no other place than Rib- 
chester. Besides, some value is to be attached to his 
authority here, as the line of his iter fixes upon the es- 
tuary of the Wyre as the site of the " Portus Sistun- 
tiorum", contrary to the conjectures of others, who ima- 
gine it to have been on the Ribble. 

Testimony from authorities is in favour of Coccium 
being the Roman name of the station at Ribchester. GUI 
next inquiry seems to be what kind of station it was, 
when the conquering legions of Rome passed through, win- 
tered there, or exercised themselves as garrisons withir 
its walls. 

Granting the same authority to Richard of Cirencestei 
in his description of Roman Britain, as actual remains she^ 
that he possessed respecting the lines of the Roman roads 
we find Coccium included in the country of the Volunti 
and Sistuntii, two confederate tribes of people within th< 
nation of the Brigantes. Rerigonium, perchance for th< 



ON ROMAN RIBCIIESTER. 231 

reason assigned already, is kept distinct. The same author 
also includes Coccium among the thirty-three more cele- 
brated and conspicuous cities of the Britons, and inserts it 
among the ten cities under the Latian law during the 
times of the Romans. It does not occur in Nermius' list. 
It would hence appear that Coccium was an important 
station during Roman sway, possessing privileges, and 
enjoying certain laws unknown to the other stations on the 
same line of military road. If so, it should shew a greater 
extent of area, and richer and more numerous remains, than 
any other station included in the tenth iter of Antoninus. 

According to the admeasurement of the Ordnance 
Survey, the rectangle marked out by the agger where stood 
the ramparts of the station, included about ten statute 
acres. This area is larger than that of Mancunium, or 
Manchester, to the southward, or than those of Breine- 
tonacae, Golacum, etc. to the northward. So far area is in 
proof of the accuracy of the site. And as to remains 
pillars and shafts of columns belonging to a Roman temple, 
baths, a helmet, coins, altars, and other stones, with in- 
scriptions, to be hereafter enumerated, will shew that in 
comparison with such remains hitherto discovered on the 
other stations of the line, it stands as preeminent as the 
descriptions of it left to us could lead us to expect from it ; 
and altogether proves itself, spite of all previous disputa- 
tions, to be the Coccium of Antoninus and of Richard. 

The first modern notice of this ancient Roman station, 
truly described by Whitaker as a " celebrated and yet 
unexhausted mine of Roman antiquities", 1 is by Leland, 
who visited Ribchester within the years 1544-1550, and 
who says : " Ribchestre is now a poore thing; it hath 
bcene an auncient towne. Great squarid stones, voultes, 
and antique coynes be founde ther; and ther is a place 
wher the people fable that the Jues had a temple." 2 But 
in these popular traditions the Jews and Romans were 
often confounded; the Roman wall at Leicester is called 
" the Jewry wall". The next account we have of Rib- 
chester is by the most learned and observant Camden, who 
visited it twice; the first time in 1582. He says: 

1 " Richmoudshire", vol. n, page 2 " Leland's Itinerary", vol. iv, part 
8. 1, fol. 39. 



232 ON ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 

" Here the Ribell, presently turning west, gives its name to a village 
called at present Riblechester, where so many remains of Roman anti- 
quities, statues, coins, columns, capitals, bases of columns, altars, marbles, 
and inscriptions, are continually dug up, that the inhabitants seem not 
much mistaken in their lame rhyming proverb : 
" It is written upon a wall in Rome, 
Ribchester was as rich as any town in Christendom. 1 

" The inscriptions have been so abused by the country people, that 
though I met with several, I could scarce read above one or two. At 
Salesbury Hall, in the neighbourhood, the seat of the noble and ancient 
family of the Talbots, I saw this on the pedestal of a pillar, (i.) DEO j 
MARTI, ET VICTORS DD. AVGG. ET cc . NN. 2 [Horsley says this was removed 
to Salesbury Hall, but the inscription was effaced when he saw it.] In the 
adjoining wall is another stone, with Cupid and another small figure on it. 
From the back of it was copied for me the following unintelligible in- ! 
scrip tion." 

This having been erroneously copied for Camden, we 
pass over his print of it, and come to Whitaker's redis- 
covery of it. He says : 3 

" The removal of a very fine sculptured stone from Salesbury Hall, in 
1815, led to a discovery. Camden had loosely mentioned a stone existing 
there, with a Cupid and another little image," etc. I had long sus- ] 
pected that if ever the stone containing the sculpture of Apollo, which 
stood as a corner stone at Salesbury, were removed, one of the two con- ' 
cealed sides would exhibit Camden's inscription ; and when, by the favour 
of lord Bulkeley, the stone had been detached from the situation it had 
occupied during two centuries, I beheld the original, which had been so 
strangely misrepresented. The connexion between the sculpture and the 
inscription now became obvious. On the front side is a basso-relievo of 
Apollo reposing upon his lyre, better designed than any work of a Romano- 
British artist I have ever seen. On a second are the figures of two priests 
in long robes, holding the head of some horned animal between them ; on 
the third is the inscription; the fourth is rough, had been originally 
attached to a wall. It now turns out to be a dedication to Apollo Aponus, 
or the indolent Apollo (or, as it may be read, Apollo the Healer), the god 
of medicine, who restores health by relaxation or repose, on behalf of an 
emperor who unfortunately is not mentioned. This accounts for the 
reposing attitude of the principal figure." 

After referring to some warm springs near Padua, long 
frequented by the Romans, under the name of Fontes 

1 " Britannia", vol. in, p. 129. Ed. 2 Ibid. p. 130. 
by Gough. Lond. 1789, fol. 3 " Richmondshire, n, 461. 



ON ROMAN RIBCIIESTER. 



233 



Aponi, and still retaining the name of Poni, which he sup- 
poses to be the waters from which a cure was in this case 
supplicated, Whitaker reads the inscription thus : 

(ll.) DEO SANCTO APOLLONI APONO OB SALVTEM DN AL. Q. Q. SARM. 
BRENETEN. SVB DIANIO ANTONINO 0. LEG. VI VIC. DOMV ELIBEB. Deo 

sancto Apollini Apono ob salutem Domini nostri Ala Equitum Sannatarum 
Breneten. Sub Dianio Antonino centurione legione sextae victricis. 

Camden says : 

" When I was here again in 1603, I met with the largest and finest altar 
I ever saw, with this inscription, in the house of Thomas Khodes : (in ) 

DEIS MATRIBVS M. INGENV1 VS ASIATICVS DEC. AL. AST. SS.LL. M. 




reads this, ' Deis Matribus Marcus Ingenuinus, Asiaticus, Decurio alae 
Astorum, susceptum solvit libentissime merito.' He says he believes this 
was removed to Salesbury Hall, but the inscription in his time was 
effaced." 

1 " Britannia Romana", p. 303. 



234 ON ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 

It was subsequently taken from Salesbury Hall to 
Dinckley Hall, and the rev. Mr. Allen acquaints me that it 
was removed thence to Stonyhurst College in 1822. Cam- 
den continues : 

" I likewise saw a little altar there, turned out among rubbish, with this 
inscription : (iv.) FACIFEBO MARTI 'ELEGAVRBA POSVIT EX VOTO. 

" This was so small that it seemed to have been some poor man's 
portable altar, and used only for incense or salt flower cakes, whereas the 
other was much larger, and fit for offering the greater sacrifices of animals." j 

Horsley observes as to this, that " Mars Pacifer" is met 
with in several coins of the lower emperors. He reads it, 
" Pacifero Marti Elegans Aurelius Bassus posuit ex voto". 
All three names are found in Gruter? To return to 
Camden, he says: 

" Here also was lately dug up a stone, on which was carved a naked 
figure on horseback, without saddle or bridle, brandishing a spear in both 
hands, and insulting over a naked man on the ground holding in his hand 
something square. Between the horse and the prostrate figure are D. M.I 
under the figure GAL. SAEMATA. The rest of the many letters are so 
decayed as not to be read, nor can I form any conjecture about them." 3 

Horsley suggests the reading : " Dis Manibus Eques 
[Q. AL.J Ala3 Sarmatarum". 

" It seems by the foregoing inscription, and the following, found here- 
abouts many years ago, that the Ala Sarmatarum was stationed here. 
[The following is from Lambarde's papers] : (v.) 

"HIS TERRTS TEGITVK AEL MATRONA QV. . . VIX. AN. XXVIII. M. II. D. VIII. 
KT M. IVLIVS MAXIMVS FIL. VIX. AN VI. M. III. D. XX. ET CAMPAN 7 IA DVBBA , 
MATER VX. AN. L. IVLIVS MAXIMVS . . A'LM. SAR. CONIVX CON1VGI INCOME 
DILI ET FILIO. PATRI PIENTISSIMO ET SOCERAE TENACISSIMAE MEMORIAE 

Horsley observes, as to this incription, that the woi 
" l His terris tegitur' stand here in the room of Dis Manibus. 
' Mater' must here mean the wife's mother, who is after- 
wards called Socera, instead of the real name ' Socrus'. 
' Patri pientissimo' for 'in patrem'; 'very dutiful to his 
father', is perhaps as uncommon. Nor is ' tenacissinue 
memorias', ' of very dear memory', less remarkable in this 
passive sense." 

Dr. Charles Leigh, author of a " Natural History of 

1 o LEG AVR. See Gruter and Reinesii Ind. Gale, MS. n. 
* " Brit. Rom." p. 303. 3 Ib. p. 130. 




ON ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 235 

Lancashire, Cheshire, and the Peak, with an account of the 
Antiquities in those parts", who visited Ribchester in 1699, 
describes what he saw there in his third book, p. 6, et seq. 
Leigh is of little authority, but he supplies a few facts. 
He says: 

" The first remarkable piece of antiquity I took notice of was a fortifi- 
cation called ' Anchor Hill,' ' because anchors have sometimes been found 
there under ground, with rings and nails of small vessels, Roman patera, 
of a metal like that of our china teapots, with the effigies of wolves and 
flowers upon them ; and at the bottom of some, these letters, ' Fab. Pro.' 
which, doubtless, must be in the time when one of the Fabii was pro- 
consul or procurator. 2 From Anchor Hill there goes a way to Preston 
and a road to Lancaster, where there was another fortification and a 
Roman wall ; another road likewise directs to Mancunium. Not far from 
Anchor Hill I saw a common sewer, and a floor composed of Roman tiles, 
which demonstrates the river there was never navigable ; for had it been 
so, the city and the country called the Fylde, must unavoidably have been 
under water. Near this sewer I saw a pillar, about seventeen inches 
diameter, with letters upon it, but in a great measure erased, and not at 
I all legible. The Roman coins I met with there, which are discovered as 
the hill shelves into the river, were one of them Augustus Caesar's ; the 
(rest Titus, Vespasian, Diocletian, Coccius Nerva, Domitian, Trajan, 
Adrian, Severus, Commodus, Marcus Antoninus, and Julia; some in 
i copper, and some a mixed metal, in which last the letters are very legible ; 
likewise one Saxon silver coin ; amongst these was likewise found a 
, ruby, with Mars on the reverse, the genius of the place, as appears by a 
Roman altar dug up there, which is now removed to Dinckley, a seat not 
far from thence. On this altar these words are inscribed : DEO MA.KTI ET 
VICTORIA. 

" There is another Roman altar, but on that the letters are erased, and 
,are not legible. I saw likewise two coins found at the same place, with 
(crosses on the reverse, and the head of an emperor, but the letters too 
nl KI ure to be read. At the same place are frequently found several 
pieces of Roman urns and flower pots, all which considered fully demon- 
strate the great antiquity of the place. Its greatness may appear further 
'rom the finger of a copper statue, found amongst the ruins. These fol- 
owing pieces of antiquity were communicated to me by Mr. Oddy, school- 
master at Blackburn, and the rev, George Ogden, fellow of the collegiate 
:hurch of Manchester, and present vicar of Ribchester. Besides the 

1 Whitaker says : " All the nautical * This is a fair specimen of Leigh's 

remains discovered about Anchor Hill blunders. The words abbreviated are 

nothing more than the existence a well known potter's mark. " Fahrica 

a ferry." Probi", the workshop of Probus. 

vol.. vi. 31 



236 ON ROMAN EIBCH ESTER. 

engraven altars here mentioned, I saw another when I was last over there, 
with this inscription : (vi.) DEO MARTI ET VICTORIA DEC. ASIATIC. AL. 

SARMAT. SS LL. M. I. T. CC. NN. 

" This seems to be an altar dedicated to Mars and Victory, by one of 
the decurions, by birth an Asiatic, commanding in a wing of the Sar- 
matae ; and the six last letters may be ' Imperatori Triumphanti Cresari 
Coccio Nervae' (to the triumphant Emperor Coccius Nerva)." 

Whitaker corrects this blundering. It is " Imperatori 
et Cassaribus nostris." 1 

" There was one very eminent piece of antiquity dug up at Pdbchester, 
viz., a large stone, now a corner stone in Salisbury Hall, which anciently ' 
belonged to the Talbots. On one side is Apollo with his quiver on his 
shoulder, leaning on his plectrum or harp, with a loose mantle or ve- \ 
lamen; and on the other side two of his priests in the same habit, with 
an ox's head in their hands, sacrificing to him likewise, the heads of 
various animals lying prostrate at his feet. That this altar was erected 
here in Dioclesian's time is probable from the great number of his 
coins found here." 3 [In his plates, Leigh figures a number of Pdbchester 
and Lancaster coins, without distinguishing where each was found.] 

Dr. Stukeley, in his Itinerarium Curiosum, after a per- 
sonal survey of Ribchester, made with Roger Gale in 1725, 
says : 

" The river Kibble is very broad at this place, rapid and sonorous, run- \ 
ning over the pebbles, and, what is much to be lamented, over innumer- 
able Ptoman antiquities ; for in this long tract of time, it has eaten away 
a third part of the city. I traced out the old ground plot, and where the 
wall and ditch went round it, it lay in length east and west along the north 
side of the river upon its brink eight hundred feet long and five hundred 
broad" (forming an area of from nine to ten acres for the city within its walls). 
" Originally I apprehend two streets ran along its length, and three crossed 
them on its breadth. By symmetry I find the whole channel of the river, 
at present, lies within the precinct of the old city, the original channel 
the other side being filled up with the city walls and rubbish, for it bei 
with a great elbow towards the city. The eastern limit of the city, or that 
upward of the river, lies against a brook, there falling in ; and the two 
streams playing against that angle, have carried it away, and still threaten 
them. At the western end of the city, or down the stream, a whole road, 
and some houses too, by a barn, are absorbed, and great quantity of ashler, 
the remains of the wall, has been carried off for building. Much remains 
in the ground, and on the edge of the stream. Farther up the land and 
all along the west side of the church wall, the ditch is perfect, and the 

i " Hist, of Whalley", p. 21, note. 2 " Nat. Hist." p. 10, book 3. 



OX ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 237 

rampire where the wall stood pretty high, and the foundation of the Avail 
a little apparent. They tell me the ashler stone still lies its whole length. 
They call this Anchor Hill, and when digging hy the house that stands 
upon part of it, they found anchors and great quantities of iron pins, of all 
sizes, for ships or barges. The north-west angle of the city is manifest, 
and where the northern wall turned round the north side of the church. 
A little way down a lane at that angle, a great bank runs westward, made 
of stone, like a Roman road. There is a lane goes down north of the city 
to the brook, called ' the Strand'. At the end of this lane is a street, 
which is the Roman road running directly northward up the fell called 
Green Gate. It passes over Langridge, so through Bowland forest : it 
appears green to the eye. The eastern wall over the brook stood likewise 
on a sort of precipice. Just under the Red Lion a subterraneous canal 
[sewer] comes into the river, so high that one may walk upright in it, 
; paved at the bottom. 1 The stream here is frequently very impetuous, and 
two or three bridges have in modern times been swept away by floods. 
At the door of the Red Lion, I saw the base of a pillar and a most noble 
(shaft, seven feet long, handsomely turned, which was fished out of the 
river. It was doubtless Roman originally, though the base has, I guess, 
been used as the stump of a later cross. There is a Scotia and two 
(toruses [small cylinders, annexed to a large middle one, in the shaft] at the 
bottom, though not very elegantly formed. The whole is two feet and a 
lhalf high, and twenty -two inches diameter, seventeen inches diameter at 
'one top. The frustum of the column lay in the alehouse yard, where the 
jweather and other accidents have obliterated an inscription of three or four 
Ilines towards the top. 

" One corner of this house has a Roman partition wall, built of pebbles 

UK! hard mortar as usual. This house now [1725] is by the brink of the 

river, leaving only a scanty road between ; but within memory a great 

y houses opposite (and among them the chief inn of the town) were 

washed away. Farther on down the river, a great part of an orchard fell 

Iowa last year (i. e. 1724). Viewing the breach of the bank exposed 

hereby, I saw the joists and beards of a floor of oak, four feet under the 

I present surface, with many bits of Roman bricks, potsherds, etc., and such 

s are to be seen along the whole bank ; whence most antiquities are 

'mmd in the river. 

" The late minister of Ribchester, the rev. Mr. Ogden, collected all the 
ins, intaglios, and other antiquities, found here in great quantities; but 
is widow, as far as I can learn, disposed of them to Mr. Prescot of 
Chester. I was shown the top of a great two-handled amphora or wine 
ir [now in, the possession of the rev. S. J. Allen], of whitish clay, taken 
ut of the river. I saw another like fragment. I saw a large coin of 

1 Iter Boreale", p. 37. 



238 ON ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 

Domitian, of yellow brass, very fair, found in the river : obv. ' IMP. CJES : 
DOMIT : AUG : GERM : cos. xvi. CENS . PEE . pp.' Rev. Jupiter sitting in a 
curule chair, the hasta pura in his left, an eagle on his right hand, ' JGVI 
VICTORI'. Exergue : sc. Another pedestal of a pillar found in the river. 
Many urns have been found hereabouts ; but they are all lost and disre- 
garded since Mr. Ogden died, who collected such things. They know the 
track of the Roman road all the way over the hills. In a garden by the 
Unicorn's head, a gold finger was found, and another brass finger as large 
as a man's. Two intaglios of Mercury with wings on his feet, the Cadu- 
ceus, etc , were found near Anchor Hill. Much ashes and bones were 
found about the city. Digging in the churchyard, silver coins have been 
often turned up. Half of one longitudinal street, and two latitudinals, 
have been consumed. 

" All the inscriptions (says Stukeley) have been carried away from 
Salesbury. I found a large stone in a corner of the house, which has been 
a Roman monumental stone, foolishly placed there for the sake of the 
carving. [This is the Apollo Aponus, elsewhere noticed.] At Dinkley 
I saw two altars [probably those described by Leigh], the inscriptions of 
both obliterated, but well cut. One stood in a grass-plot in the garden, 
covered over with moss and weeds, and was used in the house as a cheese- 
press. The late Mr. Warren was careful of these relics." 1 

It seems that in Stukeley's time, the Warrens had 
three seats, Salesbury, Dinkley, and a house near Stockport, 
to which last, the antiquary supposes the other Ribchester 
relics in their possession had been removed. 

Horsley figures two of the Ribchester inscriptions. The 
first 2 is as follows : 

" IMP. CA. IMP. CA. VEX EG. SVB. SEX. (vil)." 

Which fragment he reads thus : 

" Imperatori Csesari. ImperatoriCaesari. Vexillatio legionis. Sub sex 
He says : 3 

" This is yet in the town, lying at the door of a dwelling-house. It has 
probably been an honorary monument to Severus and Caracalla, for the 
other inscriptions to these emperors begin much after the same manner. 
It has been erected by a vexillation of one of the legions, but which oJ 
them is not so certain. The place lies most in the way of the twentieth 
legion, quartered at Chester. The L and E are expressed by one charac- 
ter." [Vexillatio sometimes signifies an ala or horse ; at others, it relate; 
to a single legion, as " Vex. legionis, xx. v. v."] 

The other fragmentary inscription figured by Horsley is 
the following : 4 (vin. ) 

1 Page 38. 2 p age 192, N. 61, fig. 2. 3 n>. p. 302. * Ib fig. 3. 



, 



ON ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 239 

" IMP. CAES. MA ... CO. PMVTI OM I Cl^ f . . . 8EIFE." Im- 

peratori Csesari. Marco Aurelio. Consuli, pontifici maximo, Tribunitia 
Potestate. 

He says, 1 " The form of this looks somewhat like a milliary pillar. It 
was lying in a garden at the west end of the town and near the river. So 
much of the inscription is quite effaced as makes it hard to guess at the 
meaning of the -whole. I think by the letters MA in the second line, it may 
have been erected to one of the Antonines, either Marcus Aurelius, Commo- 
dus, or Caracalla. What follows seems to express usual titles, ' Consul, 
Pontifex Maximus, Tribunitia potestate', etc. The letters at the bottom are 
so confused, I could make nothing out of them. This inscription, I believe, 
has not been published before." 

Dr. T. Whitaker, in his " History of Whalley", after 
describing Ribchester, (pp. 16 et seq. of first edition), refers 
to the inscriptions given in Caraden, reading the first as 
does that antiquary; and as to the two Augusti and two 
Caesars at the same time suggests that they correspond 
with Dioclesian and Maximian, augg., and Coristantine 
and Galerius, ccess. He states, that the Asti or Asta3 were a 
people of Thrace ; and on the authority of Vossius (de Anal. 
2, 4), he adds, that Deis instead of Deabus, is held to be 
pure Latin, where there is another word expressive of the 
sex. The next inscription copied by Camden, (No. iv), 
Whitaker reads like him, except that the first line he makes 
PACIFIE; and adds, that the word Elegaurba is very 
ingeniously read by Professor Ward, apud Horsley, p. 303, 
;< Elegans Aurelius Bassus" Whitaker next copies the 
last of Camden's inscriptions, which he says that antiquary 
i transcribed out of the papers of Lambarde, who had most 
probably recorded it for his friend Lawrence Nowell. 
Whitaker remarks on its very peculiar style, which he 
says, has been justly conjectured by Ward to belong to a 
very low period in the empire. The words " mater" and 
" socera" he says, intimate the same person in two rela- 
tions. " Pientissimo patri", for " in patrem" or " erga 
, patrem" is very barbarous ; and " tenacissima? memoria3 
in a passive sense, is altogether unauthorized. But the 
I style of this inscription is not only late, but deformed by 
' provincial barbarism." 2 

As to the inscription first copied by Leigh, (No. in), 

1 Ib. p. 302. 8 " Hist, of Whalley", p. 21. 



240 ON ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 

the last line is conjectured by Horsley to have been com- 
pounded of the last lines of two already given, viz., ss. LL. 
M, (susceptum solvit, libentissime merito), of one found by 
Cainden in 1603, and an ET cc. NN. (et Caesarum nostro* 
rum, No. vi), of one of the three seen by him in his first 
visit to Ribchester. 

As to the imperfect votive stone (No. vn), Whitaker 
mentions that in his time it was remaining (though the 
letters were more than half effaced) in a garden wall within 
the village. He adds, that it was impossible to discover to , 
what two emperors it was inscribed ; the form of the letters 
seemed to him to point at Severus and Caracalla. 

As to the inscription LEGXXW FECIT (Legio xx Valerian i 
victricis fecit, No. ix), Whitaker says it has been the corner 
stone of a building, and was in his time remaining in an 
outhouse near the church. It has two sides exposed, and 
on the second is a rude figure of a boar, the well-known 
cognizance of the twentieth legion, who, though usually 
stationed at Chester, might be quartered here at intervals. 
The rev. Mr. Allen believes this stone still to be in the 
possession of T. D. Whitaker, Esq., of the Holme. Whita- 
ker first published this inscription, which is figured in his i 
Richmondshire, n, 462. He mentions that a Roman cyathus '. 
or diota, found at Ribchester, was then in the possession of , 
Dr. St. Clare of Preston. He adds : 

" Besides inscriptions, the smaller antiquities discovered here are innu- 
merable ; the coins, of "which many are found of the large brass, are 
generally so much corroded as to be scarcely legible. Denarii of the 
upper empire are not uncommon. A very pretty intaglio in a ruby, is 
engraved by Leigh ; and I have a gold ring, found here some years since, 
set with a cornelian of many faces, with a dove in the centre, and 
round it the words, ' Ave mea vita'; the present, as it should seem, of 
a lover to his mistress. Tradition also records a singular discovery at 
Kibchester, viz., the skull of an ox, covered with some remains of leather, 
and studded with gold. It is very possible that such a preparation might 
have been used for some sacrificial purpose, and it was an idea not likely 
to occur to an inventor." 

Whitaker also describes 1 a rude figure of Hercules, 
wrought into the wall of Osbaldeston Hall, nearly opposite 
to Ribchester. This, according to Mr. Allen, was removed 

1 " Hist of Whalley", p. 541, 3rd edit. 



ON ROMAN RIBCIIESTER. 241 

to the Old Hall, Tabley, Cheshire, and he pronounces it a 
Mars with his spear, not a Hercules with his club. 

One unquestionably of the most important discoveries of 
Roman antiquities at Ribchester occurred in 1796, the par- 
ticulars of which were detailed in 1798, by Charles Town- 
ley, esq., in the Vetusta Monumental published by the 
Society of Antiquaries. The remains were chiefly of bronze, 
and found in a hollow that had been made in some waste 
land near to the church, and to the bend of the river. The 
principal article was a helmet, of beautiful workmanship, 2 
and along with it, in a heap of red sand, were various other 
remains. It would seem that these antiquities had been 
placed in this situation for the purpose of concealment and 
protection at some former period, but the hand of time had 
now occasioned much corrosion by damp. They were acci- 
dently discovered, and sold to Mr. Townley. The helmet 
is now in the British Museum. It has been figured in the 
Vetusta Monumenta, and subsequently in Whitaker's His- 
tory of Whalley and Baines 1 Lancashire. It is therefore 
unnecessary, in this place, to give any description of it, be- 
yond that it consisted of two pieces, one of which is the skull 
part, ornamented with figures of eleven combatants on foot, 
and six on horseback ; the other part is the mask or vizor 
to cover the face, which has very effeminate features, and 
joins exactly to the skull part, to which it is fastened by 
rings and studs, some of which still remained. It is ques- 
tionable whether the helmet was ever destined for real 
combat, or only for the enrichment of occasional trophies, 
which were enacted in the celebration of military festivals, 
or carried in procession amongst the Greeks and Romans. 
The helmet appears to be too slight for defence, and would 
not admit of air sufficient to enable its wearer to sustain 
'any considerable exertion. The mask is of very superior 
workmanship to that of the head-piece, and of an earlier 
, period. The crest of the helmet is conjectured to have 
'been a sphynx, but was unfortunately lost. The different 
articles which were found along with it, consisted of pateraB 
of various dimensions, the remains of vases, basons, a bust 
of Minerva three inches in diameter, with the remains of 
nails and cramps by which it was fastened to a circular 

1 Vol. iv, pp. 1-12. quity were exhibited in the museum at 

* The original drawings of this anti- the Congress. 



242 ON ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 

disk ; four circular plates with mouldings ; three circular 
plates of smaller size, furnished with a hinge ; remains of 
a tongue, etc., by which they would appear to have been 
fibulae ; a colum or a colander; a circular bason of earthen- 
ware, furnished with a spout, and having on it inscribed 
BORIEDCF, (Boriedi officind), doubtless the name of the i 
maker; two portions apparently of a candelabrum; a cir- 
cular plate with hinges for four buckles, enriched with 
carved work and gilt ; a piece of wood ten inches in length ; 
the tusk of a boar ; a piece of leather, etc. 

We now come to the remains discovered in the present 
century : 

" In 1811", says Baines in his History of Lancashire, (vol. iii, p. 379), 
" some workmen employed to stop the encroachments of the Piibble, nearly 
opposite to the church, found, at the depth of about a yard beneath the 
surface, the foundation of two parallel walls, lying nearly north and soutl:, 
at the distance of about twenty -four yards from each other, and very strongly 
cemented. Among the rubbish were five human skulls, and a correspond- 
ing quantity of other bones. Within the wall was a flagged floor, and near 
the south end the remains of a large flat stone, which the workmen inad- 
vertently broke, but when the fragments were united it was found to bear 
an inscription, which Dr. Whitaker, after much learned investigation, reads 
thus, (x) : 

" DEAE MINERVAE PRO SALVTE IMP ALEXANDRI AVG ET IVLI MAMMEAK 
MATRIS DNET CASTR SVOR ET VAL CRESCENTIS FVLVIANI LEG EIVS PP PR PR T 
FLORIDVS NATALIS LEG PRAEP N ET REGINAE TEMPLVM A SOLO EX RESPONSV 
REST1TVIT ET DEDICAVIT." 

" Dea3 Minerva? Pro salute Imperatoris Alexandri Augusti, et Juliae 
Mammeae, matris Domini nostri, et Castrorum suorum, et Valerii Ore 
centis Fulviani Legati, Provincise Praesidis, Proprsetore, Titus Floric 
Natalis Legatus, Prsepotenti numini et Eeginae templum a solo restituit 
dedicavit." 

" On the whole", says Whitaker, " this inscription is extremely valual 
as it adds one if not two names (for Natalis was probably the successor 
Fulvianus in the province) to the catalogue of imperial legates in Brit 

"The inscribed flagstone, found in 1811, having sufficiently proved the 
existence of a temple, of which the inscription (says Whitaker) must have 
formed the tympanum, further search was determined upon, and in the 
summer of 1813, leave having been obtained to dig in the adjoining gardens, 
between the river and the churchyard, the first appearances, at the depth 
of about three feet, were a stratum of charcoal, evidently formed by tho 
conflagration of the roof, and nearly in the centre a cavity in the earth hiul 




ON ROMAN RIBCHESTKR. 243 

been made, by the uniting of the ends of the beams at their fall, large 

enough to contain a man sitting. Beneath this was a confused mass of 

large amphorae, some almost entire at first, and many beautiful remnants 

of paterae in the red Samian ware, mingled with which lay several human 

skeletons, all of the largest size, in every direction. [Of the red Samiau 

ware, the Rev. S. J. Allen, formerly of Salesbury but now of Easingwold, 

possesses a few fragments. One has the potter's mark MXIMI. Two are 

of white earth, bearing the words, BINVS and VAL ix on their curved 

edges.] Every appearance about the place indicated that it had been taken 

by storm, and that the defenders had been buried in the ruins of the roof ; 

but the absence of tiles or slates seemed to prove that the outer covering 

of the building had been previously stripped by the assailants. Here too 

; was found a very curious Roman statera or steelyard, very exactly graduated, 

and a singular bodkin of polished stone. The progress of discovery was 

once more suspended, till the sexton, digging a grave where no interment 

had taken place before, on the left hand of the entrance of the churchyard, 

found the base of a column and an anta^ or square moulded corner of the 

naos itself, upright, and in their original situations. Measurements were 

now accurately made from the place where the inscription was found, 

[which must have been the front of the building) to the base of the column. 

This gave the entire length, except one intercolumniation, for the whole 

[had evidently had a peristyle. The distance of the anta from the column 

|by rules of architecture, gave the distance also between column and column ; 

by which data, with the help of a very conspicuous line of mortar, about 

I'orty-five feet westward in the churchyard, the site of the west wall was 

iiscertained, a ground-plan of the building was laid down, after which, by 

,\nown proportions of Doric architecture, a complete elevation was obtained ; 

Baines says this investigation showed that the temple had been of an ob- 

ong shape, with sixteen columns in front, and that it was one hundred 

.nd twelve feet in length] ; but every appearance about this work indicated 

t mice provincial barbarism, and a declining age in art; for the column 

i^as ill-wrought, and the different diameters so varied from each other, as to 

hew that it had never been struck from a centre. Let all these circum- 

|tances be laid together, and it will scarcely be doubted that this was a 

emple of Minerva, restored by command of Caracalla ; that the helmeted 

ead of brass was that of the goddess ; that the temple had been stormed 

nd burned in some irruption of the Caledonians, during the last period of 

"' Unman power in Britain; and that the precious object of worship itself 

ad been carefully deposited ia the earth, on the approach of the threatened 

anger. 

" Within a few yards of the east wall of the temple was disclosed the 
iituo of a lion, of tolerable workmanship, which, from the roughness of 
1(1 Bide, must have been an architectural ornament." 

VOL. VI. 32 



244 



ON ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 



CVVTSVSV 




In August 1818, Dr. Whitaker, while examining the contents of a 

dilapidated chimney, 
immediately adjoining 
to the west side of the 
peristyle, discovered 
the lower half of an 
altar, on which, un- 
fortunately, nothing 
remained but the let- 
ters, (No. xi), CVM svis 

V S LM. 

" Cum suis votum 
solvit libens merito." 

" On the 28th Feb. 
1833, a fine Roman altar, two feet and a half in height, one foot ten inches 
in breadth, and one foot seven inches in depth, was dug up in the church- 
yard at Ribchester, (figured by Baines, in, 380) ; and which is the finest! 
and most perfect relic of Roman Ribchester yet remaining in the nowi 
insignificant village. It is placed in the entrance hall of the Vicarage, and 
the rev. B. T. Haslewood is so courteous as to let it be seen by any intel- 
ligent stranger, taking an interest in such relics. 1 (xn.) 

" The sides of this interesting and ancient relic, which has survived the 
changes and mutilations of sixteen centuries, are ornamented with vine 
branches, and the front by the inscription. The lower part of the stone is! 
mutilated, so as to destroy one line of the inscription, and a small portion 
of what remains appears to have been chiselled over ; but in general the 
inscription is clear and distinct. The same marks of burning which else 
where presented themselves, were here also most apparent. Besides tht 
altar, a small fibula and ring of brass, a bulla, apparently inscribed wit! 
some characters, but now illegible, and three coins, one of Trajan, of brass 
much corroded ; the second of Valerian, also of brass, very perfect, aiu 
inscribed on the obverse, ' P. Lie. VALEEIANOS P. F. AVG'. On the reverse 
' Felicitas Aug'; the third, bearing the head of a young man, but the nam 
effaced, were found on this occasion." 

In January 1829, two Roman coins, a Saxon styca o 
Keanred, thirteenth king of Northumbria, and fragment 
of a Saxon cross, about a foot and a half high, were foun< 
together at the Anchor Hill. Omitting the Saxon relics 
we learn from the rev. S. J. Allen, who, while in th 



1 As various readings are given of 
the inscription on this altar, and as it 
is intended to examine it more mi- 



nutely than has hitherto been done, 
is purposely omitted in this notice < 
Ribchester antiquities. 



ON ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 245 

neighbourhood of .Ribchester, took great interest in, and 
succeeded in preserving many of, its relics, that of these 
coins one had Obv., IVL. CRISPVS CON.; Rev., within a 
wreath, VOL .x. ; and around it, C^ESARVM ICON AVORVM. 
The other, Obv., MARCVS AVRELIVS AVG; Rev., a standing 
female figure, with the cornucopia and the legend " ABVN- 
DANTIA AVG". 

In 1830, in digging up the Bowling Green, a silver coin 
was found, Obv., IMP. CAES. NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM.: 
Rev. P.M. TR. P. cos. ii. P.P., with a sitting figure, holding 
in her right hand a garland, in her left a cornucopia. 

Mr. Allen writes : 

" What other pieces of sculpture, etc., I had, were at the same time sent 
to T. H. Whitaker, esq., of the Holme, near Burnley, in whose possession 
they now are. They were not of great interest. The first was, I believe, 
I' the top of the great two-handled amphora' mentioned by Stukeley (vide 
\Hist. Whalley, page 21, note), the mouth six inches in diameter, and the 
whole fragment about one foot and a half in height. 

" The second had for some time been used as a stand for milk at 
: Salesbury Hall, and seemed from the mouldings to have been part of a 
building. It bore faintly traced a patera or sacrificial implement of some 
kind. 

" The third was a portion of a cylindrical column, with a capital and 
(remains of foliage, having a rude resemblance to the Corinthian style. I 
icould not quite satisfy myself whether it was Roman or of later date, and 
( cannot put my hand on any delineation of it, though I think I made one 
ibefore I parted with it. I found it at a cottage in Salesbury, and have a 
clear recollection of having seen one with similar foliage at Salesbury 
Hall, both probably brought from Ribchester. 

" These were all the Ribchester antiquities which were ever in my 
jpossession. 

" I have seen notices in the newspapers of the discovery of two small 
gold coins by a person named Swarbrick (of Claytons-court, Preston), about 
|0ne hundred and fifty yards from the church going up the river, one 
bearing on the obverse, ' NERO CAESAR AVG.' on the reverse, a sitting figure ; 
end, ' JUPPITER COSTOS'. The other (Dec. 1834), obverse, ' DIVA FAUS- 
TINA'; reverse, a full-length female figure, holding in her right hand, 
with extended and elevated arm, a bowl, and having a ring or circle pen- 
lent above the elbow of the left arm. Legend, AETERNITAS ; the letters 
1 figures in high relief and excellent preservation. 
" A silver coin was also discovered, circ. 1834, on the bank of the Ribble 
'1'poisite to Ribchester, bearing the legend, ' A. SEP. SEVER. AVG'. 



246 ON ROMAN RIBCIIESTER. 

" And a small silver coin (June 1840) of debased metal and workman- 
ship, bearing on the obverse, HADBIANOS AVO. cos. in. PP. ; on the reverse a 
figure of Komulus bearing spoils, with the legend, ' BOMOLO CONDLTOKI'. 

" A beautiful and perfect fibula of bronze was also discovered in March 
1834, in the grounds of Harwood Fold, Clayton-le-Dale, through which 
the Roman road from Manchester to Ribchester passed (v. Hist. Whalley, 
p. 12). It is or was in the possession of J. Eccles, esq., of Leyland, near 
Chorley." 

" You will doubtless have heard on the spot that to the south-west of 
the chancel, about midway between the chancel and the churchyard wall, 
five steps were discovered at the same time with this altar, each four feet 
in length, one foot four in width, and four inches in depth. The altar 
was discovered about twelve yards westward from the spot where the 
remains of the temple were excavated in 1813, surrounded by the appear- 
ances of burning soot, etc., which have usually attended such disclosures 
at Ribchester. Near one of the stiles to the churchyard (I think to the 
east) is a stone resembling a low-backed seat, two feet and a half in 
height, one foot ten in breadth at the front, and one foot five at the sides, 
which is said to have been found near the pillar of the temple in 1813; 
perhaps it may be the corner anta described by Dr. Whitaker, Hist. 
Whalley, p. 19. 

" An altar was found in the cellar of the White Bull inn, in Ribchester, . 
A.D. 1818. This will probably still be found at the White Bull, where I ' 
saw it some years ago, as also the base of a column in the street, nearly 
opposite the front of the house, and another in the Vicarage yard. 

" But there has been a sad disappearance of late years of Ribchester 
remains once on the spot, or within a short distance of it." 

From the twelve inscriptions now given, many of them 
fragmentary, we find (Nos. I and vi being probably the 
same) dedications of altars to Mars and Victory, to Mars 
Pacifer (or the Peacemaker), to Apollo Aponus, the Indo- 
lent Apollo), or Apollo in his character of Healer by means 
of repose), to those mysterious divinities the Mother God- 
desses, and a restoration and dedication to Minerva alone, 
of a temple in the ancient Coccium. 

Besides altars to gods arid votive stones to emperors 
and caisars, we have in the Ribchester relics a sepulchral 
and monumental stone (No. v) ; a legionary stone (No. ix), 
and a milliary stone (No. vm). Amongst these inscrip- 
tions we find named or indicated Marcus Aurelius, Severus, 
Caracalla, and others. Nos. x and xn seem to refer to the 
same persons. 



ON ROMAN RIBCHESTER. 247 

Amongst the bodies of troops named or referred to, are 
the sixth legion, victorious (n) ; thetwentieth legion, mighty 
and victorious ; a wing of Sarmatian horse, u the cossacks of 
the Roman armies" ; and a wing of the Asti. The head 
quarters of the sixth legion, it is well known, were at York, 
and the legion is only incidentally named ; one of its centu- 
rions being apparently in command of a wing of Sarmatians 
at Ribchester. The twentieth legion was stationed at Ches- 
ter, and it is very likely to have thrown out a portion of 
its force northward to Ribchester. Amongst the other 
officers named, are Dianio Antonino, a centurion of the sixth 
legion; Ingenuinus Asiaticus, a decurion of the wing of 
the Asti; Asiaticus, a decurion of the Sarmatian wing; 
Lucius Julius Maximus, an officer of the same rank in the 
same wing ; and the vexillation of a legion, whose number 
is lost, was under Sextius. 

To these notabilia may be added the acquisition of the 
names of one or two imperial provincial legates, not before 
known, viz., Valerius Crescentius Fulvianus, and Titus 

, Floridus Natalis. Ribchester has therefore contributed its 
full quota of information to modern times, relative to the 

i Roman era of Britain. 

Many more scattered coins and fragments of pottery 
might be enumerated, but the catalogue already given has 

i swelled this paper too much. Dr. Whitaker (third edition, 

, p. 28, note) speaks of a figure of a Roman standard-bearer 
at Standen Hall, near Clithero; but whether it is there 
still, we have not ascertained. A fibula, a buckle, several 
coins, and two handles of amphora? stamped c I i i s, are 
I to be seen at the vicarage. It is much to be regretted that 
i these remains, instead of being scattered to various parts 
of the kingdom, had not been all collected together in one 
museum for preservation. Had there existed such a recep- 
tacle in this county, as the admirable museums at Newcastle 
and York, the monuments of the Roman Coccium and 
Mancunium, with its dependent fort of Melandra, might 
lave borne their silent testimony to wondering thousands 
n every succeeding generation, for centuries past and to 
come, of the marvellous works of that extraordinary people, 
who have left so many records of their footsteps and their 
Conquests in Britain. 
At present the river Ribble has encroached vastly upon 



248 ON ROMAN RIBC HESTER. 

the area of the station. Taking the extent of the fosse on 
the western side as a complete side of the station, and from 
the angle close to the river at the southern extremity, 
making a straight line perpendicular to this side, we find 
that the other angle to complete the rectangle would be on 
the other side of the river, just over the fence of the field, 
and directly opposite to the brook which forms the boun- 
dary of the station on the east. At an estimate by the eye, 
there may have been one-fourth of the area of the station 
washed away by the river; burying within its sandy bed 
Roman treasures and relics, probably for ever. In a line 
with this, or nearly so, the fishermen state that the Roman 
wall of the rampart extends into the river, and that at low 
water they can stand, about middle deep, on the sunken i 
remains; when off the remains, on each side, the water is 
beyond their depth. The northern rampart has run from 
the angle at Anchor's Hill, along the fence of the field north : 
of the church, in a direct line through the town to the 
brook, at the eastern side of the town. This has consti- 
tuted the longer side of the rectangular area on which the 
station stood, and measures about three hundred yards. 
The shorter side measures about one hundred and thirty 
or one hundred and forty yards. 

Most of the relics discovered, have been washed bare by 
the encroachments of the river. Little remains of Roman 
antiquities above ground. The bases of the shafts of two 
Roman pillars are within the vicarage-yard. Four smaller 
ones, taken out of the river, form the front of the doorway 
of the White Bull Inn, within the town. An altar, dug u{ 
in the church-yard by the present clerk of the church, stanc 
in the passage of the vicarage-house. In 1836, in the 
treme north-eastern angle of the station, a Roman bath 
opened; the tiles, stones, etc., were taken away, but the 
floor was left untouched, and covered up again. Some of 
the stone props of the tiles are yet to be seen in the garden 
of a resident surgeon. 

The walls of the ramparts around the station, abo~\ 
ground, have wholly disappeared. Most of the houses of 
the town have been built out of their remains. Besides, 
these have been robbed to build up the greater portions of 
Salesbury Hall and Osbaldestone Hall in the neighbourhood. 
At these places inscriptions have been found, and figures, 



ON ROMAN ROCHESTER. 249 

etc.; though nothing Roman is now to be seen at the 
modernized buildings, but a quern at Salesbury, and per- 
chance some short pillars in the beehouse in the garden. 
Being a quarry for such extensive and so many buildings 
the church itself included no wonder that nothing is 
left above ground of the handy-craft of the conquerors of 
the ancient world. 

The excavations lately undertaken, with the view of 
obtaining information for this congress, have laid bare the 
outer wall to its foundation on the western side. Unlike 
the foundations of the walls of the ramparts at Borrow 
Bridge, Melandra Castle, etc., it consists of loose stones, 
without mortar, or the cement grouting common to 
such foundations. On the opposite side, in the angle 
between the river and the junction of the brook, a large 
quantity of Roman pottery was found, consisting of nume- 
rous fragments of Samian ware, chiefly of paterae, many 
marked with the potter's name; one ampulla, with both 
handles perfect, and others broken ; fragments of glass, of 
common pottery, nails, bones of animals, in which were 
tusks of boars and swine ; five Roman coins, three of which 
are of silver, but much corroded ; two appear to be coins 
of Vespasian and Titus, the third of Vitellius; two of cop- 
per, much corroded, but apparently of the same period, etc. 

Another curious circumstance in connexion with this 
station is, that the channel of the river Ribble has changed 
as much at the ford near Ribchester bridge as at the station 
itself. The line of Roman military road, on approaching 
the Ribble from the south, makes an angle at the first 
point where the channel becomes visible, turns towards the 
east, and runs straight along a ridge of ground in a line 
bearing upon the pasture ground about forty yards on the 
northern side of the river. Here it is intersected by the 
river from the west. This point in all probability would 
be the south side of the ford of the river at the time the 
military roads were formed ; so that the river has left as 
much space on the northern bank at the ford as it has 
j taken away from it at the station ; such strange facts do 
little incidents frequently bring to light. 

Except to the west, no line of military road can now be 
traced up to the station. This enters it midway of the 
rampart on the northern side, where stood the Decuman 



250 ON ROMAN RTBCHESTER. 

Gate. The Pra3torium was opposite this, and hence stood 
where the Ribble now flows. So active are the encroach- 
ments of the stream during floods, that houses have disap- 
peared from the bank in my own recollection ; many more 
in that of several of the oldest inhabitants. Unless man 
more successfully opposes the action of such floods, in a 
few generations the station at Ribchester will disappear, 
not swallowed up by an earthquake, as tradition affirms of 
its pristine glory, but by the stream which, serpent-like, 
now insidiously winds past it. 

The era of the foundation of Cocci um was probably 
A.D. 79, when Agricola conquered this part of the country, 
as related by Tacitus. It is just such a site as the Romans 
always fixed upon when left to the guidance of their own 
military skill and judgment. It is not a spot likely to have 
been previously occupied by the Britons. Their strong- 
holds were either duna, or in the interior of vast woods, 
and not necessarily flanked on two sides by streams of 
water. It never was a port, though tradition ascribes to 
it such importance on account of an anchor being found 
within the fosse near Anchor's Hill. If vessels could na- 
vigate the Ribble so far as the station during the occupa- 
tion of the Romans, they would never have constructed to 
it from the estuary of the Wyre a Roman military road for 
the transit and protection of their troops in visiting the 
spot. 

The only difficulty now remaining connected with this 
great station is, that of satisfactorily accounting for the 
name of Rerigonium, mentioned as the first station from 
the Portus Sistuntiorum inland, in Richard's seventh iter. 
No Roman station but the adopted one at Kirkham can be 
traced out on the line, arid this is far too near the Portus 
Sistuntiorum to agree with the distance given in Richard's 
Itinerary. Besides, if we adopt the notion that Rerigonium 
was situated at Kirkham, we then raise the difficulty of 
having the line of the road running through Ribchester 
without any notice of the station there a kind of conclu- 
sion more at variance with probability, than Richard's 
omitting altogether any mention of the Roman station at 
Kirkham through which his line of road passes. Kirkham 
has undoubtedly been occupied by the Romans on the site 
of an ancient British city or dunum, but being in after 



ON ROMAN RIBC HESTER. 251 

times of little consequence to the protection of the country, 
it might, when the document whence Richard's borrowed 
account in his Itinerary was drawn up, have been eva- 
cuated, and therefore not deemed worth noticing. It is 
useless however to conjecture. The remains left to guide 
us in our search after truth, as far as now known, lead us 
to such statements as have now been made, and beyond 
these it is hazardous to make even suppositions, however 
probable and ingenious. The lines are all beset with diffi- 
culties, being wrong in the distances between the stations, 
in consequence of inaccurate copies. One station on the 
line of the tenth Iter of Antoninus, situated at Low Bor- 
row Bridge, exists even without a name ; and except what 
we ourselves have examined of the remains of the Roman 
military road, and the direction it takes, hitherto most 
has been blind conjecture and surrnisings, without even the 
clue of the line of the road to guide the several perplexed 
antiquaries out of the labyrinth. Suffice it to say, that 
with one or two exceptions, the lines of the military roads 
within this district, are as easy to trace out as any within 
the kingdom, and until they have been accurately gone 
over, throughout their whole extent, guessing is arrant 
folly. 

Roman roads, with their chains of stations, communi- 
cated, throughout the entire length and breadth of their 
extent, Roman civilization the cement of the materials 
[out of which they constructed and bound together the 
varied portions of their vast empire. They framed them, 
as they did the foundations of their mighty city, for eter- 
'nity ; and both yet remain, but fallen in their fortunes, and 
lying low in their present estates. Parallels to them may be 
found in our present roads, constructed for higher and nobler 
purposes ; theirs were to bind the nations of the earth in one 
entire chain of servility, ours to carry forth liberty to the 
nations, emancipation to the world. Relics of Roman 
'history, Roman roads, remain in our land; ours may be 
perpetual facts, active scenes, busy with energy and life 
to the end of time, circulating amity and brotherly love, as 
the fruits of Christianity, acting like the very arteries of 
the globe around its vast and varied surface, till time is 
swallowed up in eternity. 



VOL. vi. 



252 RECENT DISCOVERIES RELATING TO 



RECENT DISCOVERIES RELATING TO ANCIENT 
BRITISH CHARIOTS. 

BY BEALE POSTE, B.C.L. 

GREAT light has been thrown on the subject of ancient 
British chariots by the researches of a distinguished fo- 
reigner, the marquis De Lagoy, a resident at St. Remy, 
near Avignon, who enjoys a high reputation for his literary 
talents, and his taste for the fine arts ; and, in particular, 
for the success with which he has illustrated in his publi- 
cations many interesting topics connected with antiquity. 

With this as a preliminary, we may now state the basis 
on which the discoveries in question rest. They are 
derived from the numismatic researches of the marquis, 
who ascertaining that Julius Ca3sar is authentically known 
to have contended with two nations who used chariots in 
their warfare, and that chariots very different in form and 
appearance are delineated on two of the medals attributed 
to this commander, has succeeded very happily in assigning 
the chariot of the one as being of that kind used in the 
kingdom of Pontus, while he shews the other to have been ; 
British. The work in which he has treated of this subject 
is one which has recently appeared on the continent, in the 
preceding year 1849, On the Arms and Instruments of 
War of the Gauls, in which his inquiries are extended to 
other nations, and among them to the Britons. 

The line of research he has adopted is one requiring an 
extensive acquaintance with medals, access to the finest 
and best preserved specimens, as well as a very familiar 
acquaintance with ancient military affairs. All these 
requisites the marquis De Lagoy seems fully to possess, 
and having ascertained that the trophies of arms, coats of 
mail, swords, bucklers, and chariots, delineated on the 
Roman consular and imperial series, are actual representa- 
tions of such objects, and by no means pourtrayed uncha- 
racteristically, or at hazard, he has from this source, by his 
sound judgment and artistic skill, produced one of the 
most valuable works of the present day. Nothing similar 
has yet appeared in our own country; we may therefore 
the more readily apply and appropriate his labours. 




ANCIENT BRITISH CHARIOTS. 253 

Among the medals of Julius Caesar of the consular series 
is one commemorating his conquests in Britain. 
On this a trophy is represented, composed of 
such arms as might have been used by a British 
chief; a helmet, sword, spears, a carnyx or 
military trumpet of the Britons and other 
Celts, two shields of a large size, a military 
vestment made in the form of a cuirass ; and last but not 
least for our present purpose, a chariot stands at the foot 
of the trophy, which the marquis assigns as well as the 
other implements of war to the Britons. This chariot, 
according to the comparative scale of the objects, is ex- 
tremely small, and from the limited diameter of the wheels, 
but little raised above the ground. It conveys the idea 
that what it was intended to represent was nothing more 
than a small framework of boards sufficiently large for a 
combatant to stand upon ; but it shews a peculiar raised 
ledge or bordering at each side in a semicircular form, in 
the part opposite the wheels, intended to prevent their 
circumvolutions from incommoding the occupant of the 
chariot. 

The good and well-preserved impression used by the 
Marquis de Lagoy verifies these particulars ; but it is 
inecessary to make the remark, that the engraving of the 
.coin by Vaillant, and that in Morell's Thesaurus, pi. in, 
fig. 7, are both unfaithful, being taken apparently from 
badly preserved specimens: there is, however, sufficient 
corroboration in another instance, which is to be found 
|in the series of Roman family coins. 

We have, on this second occasion, the medal of Lucius 
Hostilius, in which the same form of chariot 
makes its appearance. In this the chariot is 
represented in rapid retreat, and the combatant 
facing round, appears to be contending with 
an enemy who is pursuing him. The explana- 
tion is to be regarded as connected with some 
circumstance which occurred to Lucius Hostilius : it is a 
kind of hieroglyphic for us to decipher, and the most ready 
solution seems to be, that Hostilius having accompanied 
Caesar in his expedition to Britain, and having himself been 
engaged in some of the battles with the British chariots, 
here commemorates the circumstance by representing one 




254 RECENT DISCOVERIES RELATING TO 

in retreat, on his coin. This recording of personal acts, 
there is scarcely need to say, was one of the characteristics 
of Roman consular and family coins. 

Having then this small and peculiarly shaped chariot on 
this second medal, and it being identified with that on the 
first by general appearance and certain points of corres- 
pondency, we are enabled to supply one or two particulars 
with which the former one did not furnish us. The pole is 
pointed very much upwards, being raised up high at the end 
to be connected with the yoke commonly used by the an- 
cients, in fastening horses to carriages. The charioteer 
drives his horses sitting apparently on a small seat fixed to 
the pole, though the same is not visible from the minute 
scale in which the figures on the coin are delineated. This i 
is quite on a par with the light and unincumbered, and at 
the same time, primitive nature of the vehicle. The second 
medal also shews us the semicircular borderings before 
mentioned somewhat filled up with a kind of framework. 
They must, indeed, have been filled up in some way to ; 
afford due protection from the wheels. 

Enough has now been done to shew that, from a trophy 
on a medal of Julius Caesar and from a family coin of a 
Roman officer, we are made better acquainted with thej 
ancient British chariots than we were before. The princi-,; 
pie of them seems to have been, that while they were drawn 
by two active horses, and conveyed two persons, the body 
of the vehicle was diminished to as inconsiderable a size as 
possible. Great numbers of them could thus collect on a 
comparatively limited extent of ground ; and their evolu- 
tions apparently could have been performed in almost as 
small a space as those of cavalry. From their light and 
simple construction they must have had great advantage 
in traversing the country freely in all directions ; and the 
feats of dexterity performed by the Britons with these 
vehicles, mentioned by Csesar, must be attributed to the 
same cause. 

One further observation may be added on the subject ol 
the ancient British chariots. Several classical authors 
describe them as armed with scythes ; but as Julius Csesai 
says nothing of this, we may rather conclude that the con- 
trary was the case. Indeed, he speaks of so large a num- 
ber of them being employed on one occasion, (in the fifth 



ANCIENT BRITISH CHARIOTS. 255 

book of his Gaulish wars, c. 19), that the inference appears 
obvious that they were frequently used in the same way 
as cavalry, to act in dense bodies together ; to which the 
apparatus of the scythes would hardly have been congru- 
ous. Nor does he, when lie mentions their movements and 
mano3uvres on other occasions, make allusion to their being 
thus armed. One testimony may therefore be placed against 
another ; and credence rather given to that of the Roman 
commander, who himself fought against the British chariots, 
and may be supposed to give a true account of what he 
saw. 



ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE, 

CHIEFLY CELTIC AND RELATING TO GREAT BRITAIN. 

BT JOHN WILLIAM WHITTAKEB, D.D. 

THE remarks which are thrown together in the following 
pages refer to many localities which possess great interest 
with the antiquary, whether referring, as they chiefly do, 
to the more northern part of our island, or other portions 
of it, or foreign places. It is hoped they will not be found 
more discursive and unconnected than is almost necessarily 
the case in a fugitive composition like the present, which 
professes only to treat of the etymology of the names of 
(districts, mountains, and cities, -which happen to have 
(attracted, fortuitously or in the course of casual investiga- 
tion, the writer's attention. 

Yet he wishes it to be understood that the inquiries 
which have led to the results which he intends to detail, 
have not arisen in any degree from a desire, entertained by 
ihim at the outset, gratuitously to hunt out the remnants 
of our ancient Celtic language, concealed under still exist- 
ing local appellations. They have rather had their origin 
from the notice which has been at various times forced on 
iiis observation, of the glaring violence done both to ety- 
mology and orthography by ignorance and carelessness in 
:he lapse of time, and the wanton recklessness by which 



256 .ON LOCAL NOMENCLATUKE. 

genuine nomenclature has been obliterated, or depraved 
into a senseless jargon. The attempt to trace and expose 
these corruptions has incidentally brought to light many 
interesting Celtic denominations, which, but for such a 
scrutiny, would soon have disappeared in the oblivion into 
which they had for a long series of years been hastening. 

A few hints may be useful on this subject to those whose 
tastes may lead them into this line of inquiry. Many 
names are so obviously of recent English date, or clearly 
traceable to our Saxon forefathers, that they can give no 
clew whatever to the primary Celtic denomination. Nothing 
can be done in such a case by any process of analysis. It 
is hopeless. But something may now and then be brought 
to light by diligent inquiry among the neighbouring pea- 
santry, labourers, shepherds, or aged village sages, whose 
memories can call up some other name which was in use, 
though then beginning to be discontinued. It was thus 
that Southey recovered the old Celtic name of Saddleback, 
a picturesque mountain in immediate juxtaposition with 
Skiddaw : and it is much to be wished that the original name, 
so rescued by his diligence, may replace in ordinary use the 
discordant appellation given by the Saxons, under the con- 
ceited notion that the outline of this hill had some resem- 
blance to that of a saddle. On other occasions, when we 
meet with a name that has no obvious meaning whatever, 
or sounds like mere gibberish, we may be almost certain 
that a genuine ancient name (in Great Britain a Celtic or 
Cymric name) lies hid under it. In order to discover it, 
the first requisite is to ascertain its proper pronunciation, 
which is always to be learned from the labouring people, 
especially old shepherds. These simple people generally 
preserve with fidelity the old broad expression of the vowel 
sounds of the ancient accents. Never place any reliance 
on persons in a higher rank, on sentimental tourists, guide 
books, or the orthography of local histories, the great aiders 
of innovation in all these respects. The main object of the 
writer then, originally, was to discover and restore ancient 
nomenclature, rather than to investigate etymological roots. 
For this latter department of inquiry he has little inclina- 
tion, and gladly leaves it to others, conceiving the profitable 
knowledge to be so acquired very disproportionate to the 
trouble encountered 



ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 257 

The causes of corruption in the names of places are very 
numerous. Sometimes they seem attributable to some ac- 
cidental resemblance, in sound, of words in an unknown or 
disused language, to others of a totally different significa- 
tion in the more recent vernacular tongue. This is a 
common case. That such a violent transference makes 
stark, staring nonsense, is no impediment whatever to the 
alteration, which is generally accompanied by some change 
in the mode of pronouncing. At other times, the sense 
of the old word being unknown, a new one in the latter 
language, of precisely the same import, is added to it : and 
the new appellation is an absurd commixture of two lan- 
guages, forming in fact a reduplication of the same idea. 
In our own county we have a case of a triplication of this 
nature in the instance of Pendle Hill. The name of Mount 
./Etna is undergoing a similar transformation. It is not 
usually so named by the Sicilians. There is reason to 
suspect indeed that this was its appellation rather as a 
volcano than a mountain. It seems to have been commonly 
termed simply " II Monte", being the only large mountain 
in the island. During the time that the Moors overran or 
occupied the country, they of course gave it the equivalent 
name in Arabic, Al Gibel or Gibel. Its ordinary appellation 
now is Mongibello, a strange compound of Italian and 
Arabic an evident reduplication of the same idea. Some- 
i times a political event has caused a new name to be em- 
ployed to the utter abolition of the old one : or the celebrity 
of some ancient hero has been supplanted by the renown 
of a modern adventurer. So Calpe has been metamorphosed 
into Gibraltar, and the Moorish invader of Spain has fixed 
'his name on one of the columns of Hercules. The expression 
r corruption", however, is not here applicable ; for the 
ichange is complete, purposed, and avowedly notorious, 
pot so, when a direct fraud on popular credulity has been 
practised, for the purpose of palming an historical falsehood 
the public, in the days when religious imposture was 
"eckoned a cardinal Christian virtue. Some of the results 
)f this dishonesty are sufficiently ludicrous, and may be 
Cleaned in abundance from mediaeval hagiography. It 
vould be a curious speculation to inquire how far it has 
Contributed to the depravation of local nomenclature. The 
bllowing is one specimen of the kind, and perhaps many 



258 ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 

more might be found, if any sagacious person would un- 
dertake the research. Among the higher mountains of 
Switzerland is one, of remarkable outline and dimensions, 
the condition of which is an indication to the people of an 
approaching storm. Before Monte Rosa and Mont Blanc 
are enveloped in mist, a dark ominous cloud covers the 
stern brow of this singular mountain when a particular 
wind prevails, and this dismal cap frowning on its summit, 
while its Alpine brethren remain in clear relief on the blue j 
sky, portends one of those terrific hurricanes to which Helve- 1 
tia is subject. This has been described in a very masterly | 
manner by Walter Scott, in one of his charming romances : | 
and the circumstance above mentioned caused the mountain ! 
to receive from the Romans a name very significant, which \ 
means " the capped mountain". In a few centuries the 
meaning of the Latin name fell into complete oblivion ; and / 
possibly a slight deviation in respect of pronunciation might i 
consequently occur, of which the churchmen or monks took 
advantage, and made subservient to a pious fraud. Their 
fable was thus contrived : All who had participated in 
the betrayal and death of the Redeemer Judas, Herod, 
and the populace of Jerusalem, and even that singular' 
personage the wandering Jew, had been dealt with by) 
signal judgments, except one, the chief offender, who 
had passed the unrighteous sentence from the tribunal of 
outraged justice. What really became of this representa- 
tive of the Roman family Pontia, no one to a certainty 
knew. But the story invented for the purpose was this: 
that" being afflicted with a judicial madness, as a direct 
visitation from heaven, he wandered as a maniac over the 
Alps, tortured by an accusing conscience, and ended his 
wretched life by casting himself down a terrific precipice, 
from the summit of this very mountain into a lake beneath 
which was caused, for that particular occasion only, tc 
burn with fire and brimstone. And so " Mons Pileatus" 
the " capped mountain", became " Mons Pilatus", in me 
mory of the Roman procurator of Judaea in the reign o 
Tiberius, and bears that name at the present day. Indeed 
there is some reason for suspecting that the story of hi: 
having been exiled to Massilia was an invention, for th' 
sake of rendering this legend of his insane wandering ove 
the Alps less outrageously improbable. Whatever, a 



ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 259 

Christians, we may think of the moral complexion of his 
conduct, we can scarcely be so extravagant as to think that 
either Tiberius, Claudius, Caligula, or Nero, would regard 
it in the same light, or punish him for it in such a manner. 
We have at present, as before observed, no special con- 
cern with the etymons of Celtic nomenclature : but we are 
directly interested in the manner in which the Romans, 
Saxons, Danes, or Normans, might happen to intermeddle 
with Celtic names, let their radical forms be what they 
may. Some of these names have scarcely been altered at 
ill by those who have occupied our island since its invasion 
3y Julius Ca3sar. Such is Ravenglass " Ri avon glas", 
'the river of blue streams". Three remarkably clear 
>treams, the Irt, the Esk, and the Mite, without uniting 
.heir waters through their whole course, fall into the sea 
'it this place. The name has belonged to one of them, and 
.low designates the little village at its confluence with the 
|)ceari. There is a transference here, but no corruption. 
j?enningeiit, the name of a hill in Yorkshire, remains 
maltered, "Pen y gwynt" the hill of storms; and its 
omrade Whernside has suffered very little, for " Gwern- 
jiad" is good British for the "head of alders", which tree 
;rows in profusion and is indigenous in the skirts of this 
lill on its north side. 

Morecamb, " Mawr Cwru", the great hollow or bay, has 
Iso remained unmutilated ; though it is pitiful to see what 
orrid work the antiquarian etymologists have made of it ; 
t the head of whom stands Mr. Baxter, as positive and 
logQiatic as he is preposterous. 

The above cases show, that in a considerable number of 
uses the appellations of places or hills were originally 
i escriptive, having reference to local peculiarities, circum- 
^ances, and other obvious accessories, sufficiently open to 
l)servation. There is another case of this kind, if we 
listake not, near Lancaster. Between that place and the 
reat chase of Bolland (or Bowland) is a hill, the name of 
'hich is pronounced " Gloufagh" or " Cloufagh". This has 
ot been seen in print, so no one can vouch for the modern 
rthography: nor should we care for it, if we had it 
uthenticated. But the word is good British "Glawog", 
nd means " rainy", or " abundant in showers". And sure 
nough, the clouds, borne over the Irish sea by the westerly 

VOL. VI. 34 



260 ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 

winds, pour out their contents on the adjacent country in 
great profusion, as soon as they impinge upon the long 
ridge of this mountain, the first obstacle to their progress 
which they have to encounter. 

The next example that occurs is one of decided corrup- 
tion, both as to pronunciation and orthography ; yet is 
there scarcely any deviation from the original name. Take it 
as follows : the valley of Langdale, watered by the Brathay, 
which there divides Lancashire from Westmoreland, ex- 
tends from the Roman castra estiva of Dictis, at the head 
of Windermere, to Elter Water, and, below that lake, 
divides into two smaller valleys, Great and Little Lang- 
dale, each of them bounded by considerable mountains. 
Between these two vales are hills of considerable eminence, 
one coming forward in advance towards the small lake just 
mentioned, and another, called " Wry Nose", of larger 
dimensions, behind it to the West. The name is so spelled 
in the guide books to the lakes ; it is so pronounced by all 
people in the better rank of life: but, doubting these 
questionable and suspicious authorities, reference was made 
to the shepherds and country folks, who are slow to alter 
ancient names; and it was found that they never pro- 
nounced it "Wry Nose", the absurd nonsense of which , 
had caused the inquiry to be instituted, but invariably 
" Rennos" the accent on the first syllable, and the final 
letter a soft s, not z, as in the English " nose". This mode 
of pronouncing the name of the mountain instantly led to 
the discovery of its ancient name, " Re Nos", the meaning 
of which is " Rex noctis", " the King of Night", a most 
appropriate descriptive appellation: for at the particular 
season of the year when the twilight is very brief, and as soon 
as the sun sinks behind this huge mountain, his shadow is 
cast in deep gloom over the valley to the eastward of him, 
and night speedily settles down upon the whole length of 
Langdale. Who would not lament that the " Ruler oi 
Night" should have been degraded by the senseless and 
ill-sounding name of Wry Nose, which figures in all the 
guide books to the English lakes; whose authors nevei 
once asked themselves what the expression could mean, 01 
whether it was appropriately descriptive of the objeci 
designated. 

Another name, very common in this same lake district 



ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 261 

is Lingmoor, the last syllable of which, " Mawr", is a sure 
indication of a British origin. The genuine meaning of the 
word is " the great lion", " Lleon Mawr". And yet, though 
we have here an actual identity of the expression, this 
interpretation is capable of a serious doubt. True, there 
seems no impropriety in calling a huge recumbent mass of 
primitive grauwacke by the name of the king of beasts, to 
which its form may bear a fancied resemblance. But it is 
very remarkable that there should be in the same imme- 
diate country, three or four mountains of the same name: 
and it must be confessed that whenever the epithets 
" Mawr" or " Da", " great" or " good", are found in com- 
bination with another etymon in a local appellation, there 
,is good reason to think the latter to have a mythological 
i reference. But, in this instance, no plausible conjecture 
occurs with any such reference to the religion of our 
ancestors. 

We must not however forget a subject, already alluded 
jto, how the Romans dealt with the names of places which 
ithe subdued Britons had established. We know they were 
ifond of imposing their own, and suppressing, where they 
;could, the native appellations of cities and places. But it 
jwas a difficult matter. Old habits, among a large popula- 
jtion, with respect to household words in daily use, are not 
.easily eradicated, even when no national prejudices are 
Strong in their favour. Many fruitless attempts of this 
:description might be enumerated. The Romans attempted 
to give the name of Colonia Augusta to London; but it 
(proved a failure. Those to which they did give Roman 
jnames that had any permanence, may be surmised to be 
(entirely new cities, which they have founded ; such as, in 
(Spain, " Caesarea Augusta", which has been corrupted into 
j" Zaragoza", and " Ara Jovis", which has melted down 
itto " Aranjuez". 

There is, however, no difficulty in instantly recognizing 
|i genuine Roman name, which betrays its origin on first 
inspection. With the exception of the provinces Flavia 
|ind Valentia, and Aquas Solis (Bath), 1 we have hardly any 

them. No one could possibly imagine Isurium, Reg- 
ium, Durovernum, or Cambodunum, to be Roman. All 
hat you have to do, is to dock such words of the rolling 

1 " Praetorium", now Patrington, aud a few others. 



262 ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 

termination, which they added, and which euphony required 
for Latin ears, and you have the Celtic name of the place 
in its purity, as Iseur, Dwr-vern, Reg, Cambod. The re- 
tention of the Roman termination will infallibly mislead 
the etymologist. But if the Romans have left us few 
Roman names of towns and cities, they have left us their 
own names, which their lineal descendants still bear, and 
which cannot, on any intelligible principle, be traced to 
another origin, Saxon, Danish or Gorman. This will not 
appear strange when it is recollected that the Legio vr 
Victrix was in Britain for about two hundred years. No 
serious doubt can be entertained that the families, which 
are here put down at random recollection, viz., Marsh, 
Mounsey, Tully, Rosse, Cecil, Porch, Antony, Pouncey, 
and Manly, derive their names and their blood from the 
Roman families, some patrician and some plebeian, viz., 
Martia, Montia, Tullia, Roscia, Coecilia, Portia, Antom'a, 
Pontia, and Manlia. These and many others are descended 
from the Roman legionaries. 

As the Britons were wont to name their mountains from 
the peculiarities of form, situation, and circumstance, so 
they were in the habit of naming their cities and strong 
places from the rivers in their neighbourhood. These are . 
not to be supposed places of ordinary occupation, as towns 
in modern times, habitual places of residence, but stations 
prepared in the deep woodlands and marshes, not easy of 
access, and commonly defended by ditches and wooden 
stockades, to which in times of warlike aggression the pro- 
perty of the tribe might be conveyed, and which were 
defended with all the desperate self-devotion and bravery, 
that have been shown by the Mahrattas or Affghauns in 
our own times. 

Some etymological embarrassment, with youthful anti- 
quaries, has arisen from the adjunct ive syllables which 
both the Britons and also the Romans have added to the 
original etymon. " Wick", or " vie", the same as the 
Latin " vicus", has been supposed to be always Gothic, 
whereas it was also a Celtic term for a town or city, only 
it was usually added in a more curt and abridged form. 
Sometimes the letter (k) alone indicates its presence. Take 
the following examples York, Hexham, Manchester, and 
Papcastle. The Roman appellatives are Eboracum, Epia- 



ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 263 

cum, Mancunium, and Pepiacum. Strike off the Latin 
termination, and the process gives you Eborik, Epiak, 
Mank, and Pepiak, that is, (after the Saxon fashion), 
Eborzm'cA-, Epiwick, Mani^zcAr, and Pepiwic/c. Respecting 
the second and fourth of these, the meaning of the etymon 
is not ascertained. Of the first and third we have a satis- 
factory knowledge. That of the former is the name of the 
river, that of the latter is mythological. The first we will 
instantly consider, and leave the other for a more suitable 
place in this memoir. As to York, then, the name of the 
river is " Wre", as now written, which in British would be 
' Ywr", 1 and the city on its banks would naturally be 
Ywrk for Ywreiw'cA;, as the Saxons would have written it. 
But the name of the river must have had an E, or a v, or 
something like a digamma in it ; for on Saxon coins struck 
at York, we find it spelled EOFB or EFOR. This F or v easily 
slips into B, and this, when augmented by a Roman termi- 
nation (euphoniaB gr.), gives us Eboracum, or rather 
Eburacurn. Baxter calls the name of the river Ebura. 
We may pretty safely conclude that the British name of 
the city was " Ywrk", very slightly if at all different from 
that which it bears at present, but with a strong aspirate 
on the third letter. 

Another source of perplexity in Celtic etymology arises 
from the variety of the etymons for water, ab, av, au, ak r 
ask, usk, on, avon, abon, aun, laun, ui, mui, etc., often com- 
pounded with independent consonants as augments, such 
is the flexibility and fertility of the languages of this family. 
Then again, the same word is found to designate totally 
; different things. "Don" means either a fortified town, as 
in " London", or a hill, as in " Hameldon", or a wood, as in 
" Caledon." This was not so originally. The words were 
,once distinct. In the sense of a city, it is identical in 
i import with the Latin termination " dunum" or " dinium"; 
or by dropping the first letter " unium" or " inium." But 
the true British word was " Din", an abbreviate in com- 
position for Dinas. "Don" in Celtic is a mountain; and 
Dean or " Dyn" a wood, as Hazledean, Hawthorndean, 
and the forest of Dean. " Londin" or " Lundin" was then 

1 In modern times the Ure has during the greater part of its course, 
acquired the name of Ouse, though it until it approaches the metropolitan 
still retains its original appellation city. 



264 ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 

the name of the capital on the banks of the Thames, and 
belonged to the Trinovantes, a tribe of the Britons, supposed 
to be different both from the Iceni and the Casii, respecting 
which there has been much unsatisfactory disquisition. 
We are confidently told that " Lundin" means the city of 
"mud" or clay: and there is no disposition to doubt the 
signification of the etymon. The term may be explained 
in either of two ways ; first, that the houses were built of 
clay, or secondly, that the city rested on a foundation of clay. 
The first of these is untenable, because if such were then 
the practice of the Britons, all their houses and cities would 
be equally constructed of the same material, and so it could 
not be applied as descriptive of this city in particular. And 
the second is not true in the sense here intended. True, 
there is a large deposit of clay under our present metropolis, 
called the basin of London clay ; but London is not built 
immediately upon it. There is a tolerably thick bed of 
gravel on the top of this London clay, which crops out to 
daylight about Kensington, and you must dig through this 
before you reach the real London clay, at least in most 
parts of the city. It is not likely that Caswallon, whom 
Ca3sar calls Gassibelaunus, or any of his predecessors, was ; 
aware of this bed of London clay ; neither were they likely , 
to be animated by so much geological zeal as to care what 
kind of materials lay beneath the surface. A different 
mode of accounting for the name of London must there- 
fore be sought for. 

In the consideration given to the causes which have 
apparently led to the names given to places and to moun- 
tains, more especially by our British ancestors, the most 
important of them has been left to the last, and purposely, 
because it is the most important, and, it is believed, the 
most extensive. Throughout all pagan mythology you 
will find the mountains consecrated to the gods. They 
are, as we read in Scripture, the " high places" where they 
were worshipped. Other reasons might be assigned, did 
space and time permit. Suffice it to observe that all 
heathen superstition had one common source, and took its 
origin from one grand superstition, the original seat of 
which was Asiatic ./Ethiopia, from which, as a centre, 
the different tribes of mankind diverged to people the face 
of the whole earth. Doubtless, each sept or tribe that 



ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 265 

departed thence, adored only one God, but we should much 
err, were we to suppose that the self-existent author of the 
universe was the object of their worship. He was but a 
hero-god, a deceased man of peculiar eminence, raised to 
the sphere by the superstition of man, and identified with 
the solar orb. Polytheism arose from local changes in the 
name and character of this deity; and the people of one 
country, without forsaking their own, imported the god of 
another, without being aware of their identity. That they 
were in reality virtually the same, the accounts which have 
come down to us abundantly testify; and the Pantheon of 
India, Greece, Italy, Germany, and Britain, are essentially 
the same. But when we consider the nomenclature of 
these divinities, the endless variety almost confounds us. 
Buddhism seems to have pervaded the whole world, no part 
of it more than Britain. The chief deity of the Celtic 
Britons was called " Hu", 1 the solar god, the British 
Phoebus Apollo, but known by many other appellations. 
One of these was " Ila", another " Beli", or " Veil", or 
' Velin", or " Belin". He is precisely the same with the 
Indian Buddha (who is identified with Thoth, the Egyptian 
divinity, or Taut, or the German god Twisto), and whose 
peculiar and appropriate appellation was Saca or Sacya. 
He was also called Codom, or Godom, from whence comes 
the Persian word Khoda, the Gothic term Gott, and our 
own " God". Another name of the British Phoebus was 
Prydain. 

For all these and similar details we must be excused for 
making reference in a summary manner to Davies' Celtic 
\ Researches, a learned work, in which the subject is ad- 
i mirably treated. Of this mythology the mountains of our 
island bear very unequivocal testimony, especially in those 
hilly districts to which the British were driven by their 
warlike conquerors, whether Roman or Saxon. In Cum- 
berland is a mountain consecrated to the British Phoebus, 
i under the name of " Hu Coch", the high or exalted " Hu", 
which has been corrupted into " Haycock". Two other of 
I his peculiar names, <: Ila" and " Beli", are thrown together, 
as was customary, in the name of another mountain in 
Westmoreland, which is now called " Hill Bell". It is 
certainly a hill, but it has no resemblance to a bell. There 

1 Pronounced " Hee". 



266 ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 

is reason to suspect that Helvellyn has the same origin, the 
first syllable being the Saxon Hill, substituted for the 
British Pen ; and " Pen Velin" is the hill of Beli, Veli, or 
the Chaldean Baal. Of Buddha there are many traces. 
His most distinguished appellative Saca, is found in " Sea" 
Fell, and Skiddaw is nothing but " Saca Da", the " good 
Sacya". 

Tacitus (De Moribus Germ.), expressly tells us that the 
Germans, who were undoubtedly of Scythic origin, were 
worshippers of a deity named Mannus. Now this name, 
Man, was an appellation of Buddha, commonly used in 
immediate combination with one of his other numerous 
names, especially Codorn, or Godom. These names, se- 
parate or in conjunction, we find continually and repeat- 
edly in our island. Godmanton, Godmansend, Godman- 
chester, Godalming, Godstow, are examples. And for 
the word "man", by itself, we have it beyond dispute in the 
two names Mancunium or Manwick, and Manduessedo or 
Manceter, though in the latter it is combined with another 
etymon of unknown signification. Mancunium, therefore, 
is Manek, the city consecrated to the god Mannus, men- 
tioned by Tacitus. 

We are well aware that another interpretation has been 
adopted. Mr. Baxter, in his glossary, says very confi- 
dently that the British name of Manchester was Mancenion. 
Here he has not taken the precaution of casting away the 
Roman termination, and this omission has caused his 
blunder. He tells us that Man-cenion means the place of 
skins or tents, and asserts that this is good British ; and 
he has led a far better man than himself, the learned his- 
torian of Manchester, into the same mistake. It is not 
British at all, but Greek. There is hardly a word in the 
British lexicon that has reference to domestic comforts or 
the arts of social life, that does not betray an origin either 
Latin or Greek. And, supposing the Britons to have 
learned the art of roofing their round huts with skins in 
the form of conical tents, and to have adopted the Greek 
word <7/ojj/j/, the regular (British) plural of the Greek word 
would be " scenion", not " cenion", and the name of the 
place would be " Manscenion". But, were the derivation 
ever so good, instead of faulty, it would still be worthless, 
because, if the Britons had this practice, which is not 



ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 267 

denied, it would be an universal one, and not peculiar to 
Manchester. The names of particular places, if descriptive 
at all, should express something distinctive ; otherwise 
they have no meaning or pertinence. 

The embarrassment arising from the various senses of 
the British etymon " don", is almost equalled by that 
caused by the Saxon " borough". The word " berg" means 
a hill; " burgh", a fortress or fortified city. So " Konigs- 
berg" is the king's hill ; and " Konigsburgh is the king's 
castle, fortress, or fenced city. But the former has been 
well nigh lost among us, and our hills are " boroughs" and 
" barrows". " Burgh", which some persons tell us is the 
Greek Tri/pyoc, is now " borough", " bury", " brow", and 
"brough". In the Saxon language it was " byrig", which 
has been transformed into " bridge", as in " Cambridge", 
" Cowbridge", and other examples. 

Another example remains, and perhaps the most remark- 
able of British nomenclature, derived from the superstition 
of our heathen ancestors. I refer to the mountain in 
Cumberland, to which allusion has been made already, viz., 
Saddleback. Southey rescued the Celtic name of this hill 
from obscurity : and the old shepherds were his authority. 
But he seems to have himself corrupted it, as soon as dis- 
covered. The true name is " Blencathern". He made it 
" Blencathara", which certainly is more an Ossian-sounding 
word, has more of Indian peculiarity, but is nevertheless 
erroneous. " Blaen y Cethern" means the peak of witches, 
spirits, demons, or genii. The mountain itself is only 
divided by a narrow gulley from Skiddaw, which we have 
shown derived its name from one of Buddha's most distin- 
guishing titles. At no great distance to the south, a very 
few miles removed, is a Druidical circle, in remarkably 
good preservation. We have here a very strong indication 
of the sanguinary character of the religion of the British 
idolators. For immediately in the vicinity, almost under 
the very shadow of Blencathern, there are two gloomy 
valleys, Glenderamara and Glenderaterra, the names of 
which are sufficiently indicative of the purposes to which, 
like Tophat of old, they were subservient. " Glynn Dera 
Munv" is, in British, literally, " the valley of the angel or 
demon of death" ; and " Glynn Dera Taraw" is literally, 

VOL. VI. 35 



268 ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 

" the valley of the angel or demon of (execution or) 
killing." 1 

The last instance which we shall present you with of 
local nomenclature belongs to none of the classes already 
mentioned, and is perhaps the most curious of them all. 
It is the case of one mountain, which had lost its own 
name, and has stolen and appropriated to itself that of 
another, its next neighbour. As this is a matter of the 
writer's own personal investigation, he shall speak for him- 
self. Every one knows, or has at least heard of, " Conis- 
ton Old Man". 

All the mountains in the lake district have either a large 
rude stone on their peaks, set up on end, or in default of 
one such, a pile of stones, raised as high as possible. 2 I 
had soon reason to doubt whether " Old Man" was the real 
name of the mountain, not because, in respect of its signi- 
fication, it appeared inappropriate, but because it was Eng- 
lish and not British. There seems to be something pecu- 
liarly suitable in the appellation, especially if a venerable 
pile of granite be covered with snow, reminding the spec- 
tator of the silver hairs that so gracefully become man's 
latest years of life. Thus " Djibel Shiekh", the old man's 
mountain, is the modern name of Mount Hermon. Scep- 
ticism, however, having been thus excited, was soon ripened 
into disbelief, when I found that the name " Old Man" is 
popularly and universally given to every such large co- 
lumnar stone or heap of stones on the tops of the mountains 
of that country. Every one of them is termed an old man. 
It is truly singular to notice with what pertinacity an 
ancient name, in a language that has been forgotten for 
centuries, will sometimes continue in vernacular use ; which 
it will the more readily do, if accidentally it has in sound 
something like a vague semblance of meaning in the exist- 
ing language. The fact of these stones at the top of tl 
mountains having each of them the name of Old 

1 Taraw "ferire, percutire". Da- Egypt, the Greek Hermes, and the 
vies, Lex. Latin Mercury. This accounts satis- 

2 Such a rude, shapeless, unhewn factorily for these piles of stones on 
mass of stone, is throughout the east, the top of our highest mountains, 
especially in India, Cashgar, and Most of them have been dedicated to 
Thibet, used as a representation of Buddha, and the practice has become 
Buddha, and receives the worship of universal, though its Pagan origin has 
his followers. The same practice pre- been forgotten. 

vailed in the worship of Thoth in 




ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 



269 



instantly pointed out the original British name, not of the 
mountain, but of the stone. The British expression is 
" Alt Maen", a high stone, or a heap of stones in a high 
situation. Alt Maen is exactly the Cumberland pronun- 
ciation, " Auld Men". 

Now that which is an universal appellation for a monu- 
ment or an ornament, be its object what it may, on the 
top of every considerable hill, cannot possibly be a distinc- 
tive appellation of a particular mountain. " Alt Maen" 
therefore was not the special distinctive name of the Co- 
niston Hill, and could not possibly have been. "Old 
man", in the English sense of the word, also could not, 
because the word being English, would require one of no 
similarity in pronunciation to express the same idea in the 
British language. I conclude, therefore, that the original 
Celtic name of the Coniston mountain has been lost in the 
pool of oblivion. At least, all my inquiries, and they have 
not been few, have been as yet met by signal discomfiture. 




The outline of this mountain is very graceful and pic- 
turesque, the height of it being 2577 feet above the level of 
the sea. The above sketch may serve to give an idea of its 
form as seen from the east. In front of it is another 
1 mountain, which looks something like its converse, or the 
former transposed : the long-swelling rise of the former, 
i arid its sharp precipitous descent from the apex being from 
1 north to south, and those of the other just the reverse. 
, These two hills are distinct, yet close together, and joined 
i together, or as it were soldered to one another, at their 
junction by a mountain mass of primitive rocks, in which 
are the Coniston copper mines. I was anxious to learn 
the name of this mountain, very little inferior to the Old 
Man in height, and equally imposing in his figure. The 
' Tiblerthwaite fells" was the reply to my questions, which 
only referred me to the name of the small vale district that 



270 ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 

lay underneath it. Pressing for a more distinct name of 
the mountain, I was told that its name was " Weatherlam." 
This was the only result of many inquiries. At last a 
gentleman told me that he had discovered, having made 
an investigation at my particular request, that the most 
ancient name of the hill was Hen toe. Here, at last, I had 
what I was in search of. " Hen" in British is an old man, 
" senex grandasvus." Thus Llywarch Hen, a celebrated 
British bard, is Llywarch " the aged". And " Twr" is a 
mountain, as all the inhabitants of Derbyshire are well 
aware. " Hen Twr", not Hentoe, then, is the real British 
" old man mountain", and the other is an impostor. 

It has been observed above, that in this region, and I 
suppose in all mountainous countries, the shepherds or 
agricultural labourers are the best authorities for ancient 
nomenclature. And so they are when the object is to dis- 
cover a forgotten ancient name, for they retain them best 
and longest. And so they are, when you wish to correct 
a vicious pronunciation or detect a corruption, for they 
adhere to ancient sounds, and keep the old accents in full 
perfection. But you must use this authority cautiously, 
and not trust them too far ; and never as to the actual 
names. For the shepherds are continually inventing new 
ones. In their daily occupations among their flocks, scat- 
tered over the mountains, they have special names not only 
for each separate hill, but for every knoll and projection, 
scarped rock, bold precipice, or gently grassy declivity. 
Travellers are always curious to know the names of the 
mountains. A tourist who makes inquiries in one valley 
what is the name of that mountain, asks of a peasant for 
its name, pointing to it. On the other side, being then in 
a different valley, he receives a totally different name for 
the same mountain. How comes this? Neither of the pa 
ties, to whom the inquiry was addressed, gave the queri 
in all probability, the real name of the mountain as a whol 
He looked only in the direction to which the querist's finger 
pointed, and gave him the shepherd's appellation for that 
particular part of the hill to which his attention had been 
specially drawn. Thus, the name " Weatherlam" has been 
surreptitiously assigned to " Hentwr", the legitimate and 
original " Old man mountain", arid has got into most of 
the guide books. But upon close investigation I found it 



tor 





ON LOCAL NOMENCLATURE. 271 

was only a shepherd's name for a particular crag at its 
northern extremity, given to it because it was calculated 
to afford shelter from the storms to the young sheep, which 
it protected from the weather. It was confessed at last 
that the name had arisen and come into use within the last 
fifty years, and that " Hen Toe" was, in point of fact, the 
name of the entire mountain. 

I have now brought this memoir to a close. For the 
length to which it has extended, I must apologize to my 
hearers, and candidly admit that in that respect it has 
exceeded both my intentions and wishes. 

I will make no apologies for making no distinctions as to 
language, nation, or tribe, in any etymological research 
connected with mythological systems. In matters relating 
to this subject I hold it a matter of perfect indifference 
whether the original etymon, which enters into composi- 
tion, be Celtic, or Scythic, or Scandinavian, Roman, Greek, 
Persian, or Indian. The religions of pagan nations are 
derived from one common source, and varied as they 
are by national peculiarities, refer, if traced to their real 
source, to one hero-god, one deified parent of the human 
race, fabled to reappear at special intervals, and raised to 
the character of the solar god. His names, however 
numerous and varied, are all of the same antiquity, and 
may be easily traced up to it; and consequently may be 
met with more or less in all languages on the face of the 
earth. 

It was my intention to have also entered into an inquiry 
'into the origin of the name of this our beautiful and happy 
iisland, " Britain", its people the " Britons", and their 
capital city, London, subjects on which I have the mis- 
fortune very materially to differ in opinion with all who 
mve previously written on them, and on which I hope to 
>e permitted, on some future occasion, to offer some 
'emarks to your notice. 



272 



ON THE TIPPETS OF THE CANONS 
ECCLESIASTICAL. 

BY GILBERT J. FRENCH, ESQ. 

IN many quarters considerable misapprehension prevails 
as to the meaning of the word "tippet", which occurs 
more than once in the canons of the 
English church : it is the purport of 
this paper to point out, as far as possi- 
ble, the origin of this ornament, and 
the different uses to which it is ap- 
plied. 

The modern and lay signification of 
the word tippet, is a rather small cape 
encircling the neck and covering the 
shoulders. In this form it is still oc- 
casionally used, and will be easily re- 
membered as a portion of the dress of 
many female charity schools. The 
tippet of the middle ages was a very 
different and more important ornament of the person. It 
formed a curious and conspicuous part of the hood or 
capucium, which was then worn almost universally by 
both sexes and all ranks as a covering for the head and 
shoulders. Its parts and uses will be easily understood 




Fig. 1. 






Fig. 2. 



Fig 3. 



Fig. 4 



by referring to the description of the antiquary Stow: 
" These hoods," he says, " were worn the roundlets upon 
the heads, the skirts to hang behind in their necks to keep 
them warm, the tippet to lie on the shoulder or to wine 



THE TIPPETS OF THE CANONS ECCLESIASTICAL. 



273 



about their necks." 1 It was, however, worn in various 

fashions, and applied to curious uses. 

Chaucer tells us, that the miller in the 

" Reve's Tale" wore on holidays " his 

tippet ybounde about his hede"; 2 and of 

" The Frere", we are told that 

" His tippet was ay farsed ful of knives 
And pinnes, for to given fayre wives." 3 

The tail-like appendage, called the liri- 
pipe, or tippet, varied in its length and 
breadth, according to the fluctuating 
fashions of the time. One of its purposes 
appears to have been to indicate the rank 
of the wearer. This is illustrated by the 
enamelled ornaments on the celebrated 
cup belonging to the corporation of 
Lynn, which was recently exhibited at 
the Society of Arts. The noblemen and 
ladies of a hunting party are there repre- 
sented in hoods, with tippets reaching all the way down 
their backs, while attendants, huntsmen, and abigails, have 
the same ornament, varying from a minimum length of a 
few inches. 







Fig. 7. 



Fig. 8. 



So important was this formerly considered, that the 

1 Stow's " Survey of London", edited by Strype. Book v, chap. vii. 
" Canterbury Tales", The Reve's Tale. 
" Canterbury Tales", The Frere, in prologue. 



274 THE TIPPETS OF THE 

fashion of tippets, particularly with respect to their length 
and breadth, was made the subject of repeated royal ordi- 
nances. Thus we find that the queen of Henry VII was 
entitled to wear a tippet, " lying a good length on the 
trayne of her mantle, and in breadth a nayle and an inch." 
Peers of that time might wear tippets a yard and a half 
long. The gentry were required to wear them a yard long 
and an inch broad, while inferior persons were ordered 
" to have no manner of tippets found about them." 

It must be confessed, however, that these sumptuary 
laws were never strong enough to resist the more power- 
ful influence of fashion ; as we find, in numberless illumin- 
ations of the period, the tippets of the medieval damosels 
and dandies trailing upon the ground, and growing out to 
the most inconvenient and preposterous dimensions. 





Fig. 10. 



The custom of cutting the edges of the dress in a leaf- 
like pattern, which prevailed during the reigns of Henry V 
and Henry VI, was extended to the tippets. Camden, 
quoting a satirical writer of that period, says : " The liri- 
pipes or tippets pass round the neck, and hanging down 
before, reach the heels all jagged." 

As additional proof that the old tippet was an orna- 
ment of considerable length, and not a mere covering tc 
the shoulders, it is only requisite to mention, that the lasi 
implement of the law was known until lately under th( 
slang name of a " Tyburn tippet". 

The tippet, or liripipe, is easily recognized in the hood 



CANONS ECCLESIASTICAL. 



275 





Fig. 11. 



Fig. 12. 





Fig. 13. 



Fig. 14. 



VOL. VI. 




276 THE TIPPETS OF THE 

worn by graduates of Cambridge and Dublin ; though less 
noticeable, it is also to be seen in the Oxford hood; and 
it is not a little curious that while 
these hoods have entirely departed 
from their original shapes in the 
parts intended to cover the head 
and shoulders, so that they now 
serve no other purpose than that 
of a mere badge, the tippets should 
have remained comparatively un- 
altered. It may be remarked, 
that the present mode of wearing 
the University hood, hanging by 
a ribbon, and reaching nearly to 
the ground behind, is of question- 
able taste, as it has entirely altered the character and uses 
of the habit. At the time that the canons were promul- 
gated, the hood was worn upon the shoulders, and retained 
in its place by about three inches of the portions which 
meet at the chest being sewed together, a more ele- 
gant and consistent arrangement than that which is now 
usual. 

It is, perhaps, not unworthy of notice, that the append- 
age known in medieval times as the tippet, is by no means 
peculiar to that period nor to this particular country. It 
would almost seern as if humanity in every age and climate 
has an inherent ambition to assume this tail-like distinc- 
tion of the lower animals, though it is wisely worn " with 
a difference", as an ornament to the head. Liripipes, or 
tails, may be traced in the dress or armour of the ancient 
Egyptians, Greeks, Jews, Romans, Persians, and other 
eastern nations ; in the hair of the modern Chinese, Maho- 
medans, American Indians, Hindoos, and Swiss maidens, 
as well as in the queues, pig-tails, club-tails, and bag- wigs 
of English sailors, soldiers, and gentlemen, only fifty years 
ago. May it not still be recognized in the horse-hair 
appendages flowing from the helmets of the Life Guards, 
and in the ever-changing lappets, ribbons, turbans, stream- 
ers, and toques, of modern female fashion ? 

During the reign of Henry VI, the hood began to b( 
superseded by the use of hats among the higher classes 
In this change, however, the tippet retained its importance 



CANONS ECCLESIASTICAL. 



277 




Fig. 17. 



Fig. 16. 



Fig. 18. 





Fig. 21. 




Fig. 19. 



Fig. 20. 



Fig. 22. 




Fig. 23. 



Fig. 24. 



Fig. 25. 



278 THE TIPPETS OF THE 

and was frequently appended to the hat, a fashion which 
originated the still universally used hat-band. 

In an inventory of the effects of sir John Fastolffe, we 
find enumerated among other articles of dress, " A node 
of damask felwet with 1 typpet fastyed with a lase 
of silke," showing that the hood and tippet could be 
separated, "A russett hode of satyn withowgt a typ- 
pet," and " a typpet halfe russet and halfe blake felwet," 
indicating their complete separation and independent use. 
When this separation took place, it appears that our ances- 
tors were for a long time puzzled as to the best mode of 
disposing of the tippet. The first lord mayor of London 
who wore a hat, suspended his tippet from his neck. Ladies 
frequently presented theirs to favoured knights, who wore 
them in their helmets or as streamers from their lances. 
Some gentlemen wore them tied on the left arm, over 
their armour j 1 others arranged them like a baldric, fastened 
on the left shoulder; 2 and sometimes they were knotted 
under the left arm, like the ribbons of the orders of knight- 
hood, which may probably owe their origin to the same 
source. The military sash may be recognized as another 
adaptation of the tippet fastened round the waist. 

Mourning habits are always the last to be influenced by 
changes of fashion. At such a time many customs and 
relics of bygone days still cling around us, which have 
quite disappeared from the costume of the gay world. The 
hood, in its simplest form, and the antique black cloak, are 
still used at funerals in some parts of England; and the 
long solemn hatband of crape or silk is but a variety of the 
more ancient tippet. 3 Such hatbands, under the name of 
tippets, are even now a part of the recognized mourning 
for royalty, and such as were, until lately (if they are not 
still) under the surveillance of the heralds, among whose 
duties their regulation is particularly enumerated. By the 
royal letters patent of king James II, appointing sir 
Henry St. George, knt., Clarencieux king of arms, he is 

1 Vide portrait of Richard earl of over the shoulder, curiously marks the 

Warwick, ob. 1658, in Lodge's " For- extravagance which has crept into 

traits". such ceremonies. They both repre- 

* Vide portrait of sir Walter Ra- sent the original tippet, which, when 

leigh, ob. 1618, in Lodge's "Portraits", hoods were discarded, retained .its 

3 The modern custom of wearing at place as a hatband in mourning cos- 
funerals both a hatband and a scarf tume. 



CANONS ECCLESIASTICAL. 279 

authorized to " reforme and controule all such as at any 
funeralls or interrments shall use or weare any mourning 
apparell, as gowns hoods or tippetts, or such like, contrary 
to the orders limited or prescribed in the time of the most 
noble prince king Henry the seaventh, otherwise, or in 
any other sort, than to their estates and degrees doth or 
shall appertained' 1 

It is, however, to the tippet as a part of the modern 
ecclesiastical costume that our attention is in the present 
instance to be directed. There are three separate orna- 
ments, having different origins, and applicable to different 
uses, which appear to be included under this general name 
a circumstance which has caused no slight confusion in 
their use. The first of these is the chaplain's scarf. 

It was a custom of the middle ages, when the nobles 
trusted less to law than to their own strong hands for the 
protection of their real or supposed rights, to engage, in 
addition to their ordinary retainers, the services of nume- 
rous persons of all ranks, but particularly tradesmen and 
artizans, who undertook to assist them with arms or other- 
wise, as they might be required, to swell the ranks of a 
pageant or add to the strength of a military force. And 
these parties in their turn expected the good offices of their 
patron to aid and countenance them in their ordinary avo- 
cations. The usual badge of this alliance was a hood of 
the livery colours of the patron, presented by him, and 
worn by his humble retainer at all such times as his services 
! were required. Stow quaintly informs us that " these 
, livery hoods were in old times made in colours, according 
' to their gownes, which were of two colours, as red and 
! blew or red and purple, murray, or as it pleased their 
i master to appoint. But now of late they have used to be 
i all of one colour, and that of the saddest, but their hoods 
being made the one half of the same cloth their gowns be 
on, the other half remaineth red as of old time. And so I 
end as wanting time to travail farthur in this work." 2 

Numerous instances are related of the citizens of London 
assuming hoods of the royal colours in compliment to the 
king, on such occasions as his coronation, marriage, or 
return from a successful war. When Henry V returned 

1 Dallaway's " Enquiry into the Ori- s Stow's " Survey of London", edited 
gin and Progress of Heraldry", p. 311. by Strype, book v, chap. vii. 



280 THE TIPPETS OF THE 

from the battle of Agin court, he was met " by the mayor 
of London, with the aldermen and crafts to the number of 
four hundred, riding in red with hoods red and white." 
And, in 1432, king Henry VI, after being crowned in 
France, returned to London, and " was met by the mayor 
in crimson velvet, a great velvet hat furred, a girdle of 
gold about his middle, and a bawdrick [tippet or scarf] of 
gold about his neck trilling down behind him. The alder- 
men in gowns of scarlet with sanguine hoods, and all the 
commonality in white gowns with scarlet hoods", 1 etc. etc. 

This custom was not confined to the laity. The ecclesi- 
astical barons bestowed their liveries on immense numbers 
of adherents. And chaplains wore the livery hoods of 
their lords of like material and colours, though differing 
somewhat in form from those of lay servants. It is pro- 
bable that chaplains, ranking above servants and trades- 
men, would, as a distinction, have liripipes to their hoods 
of considerable length. In a curious satire of the time of 
Henry VIII, called " The Wyll of the Deuill", there occurs : 
" Item I geve unto the best parte of the cleargie, every che 
a red bloody gowne, and every other of them, a long greene 
gowne, or a fyne blacke gowne with everyche their tippettes 
of velvet and sarcenet, downe to the grounde, to be knowne 
from other men followinge me to my buriall." 2 

As a farther illustration of the custom, we abstract from 
the Household Book of the Earl of Northumberland, during 
the reign of Henry VIII, the following items from the list 
of articles prepared against " My Lord's going over the sez 
with his prince." 

" Item ix Cotys of White Damaske Satten of Brigis garded 

Grene Satten of Brigis for my Lords petty Captaynes. 
" Item ix pair of riche rosses, of crosses of crimson velvet with 

many white cressaunts to yeme, for to set upon the foresayd 

Cotys of Silk. 
" Item xi yerds and i q rter of rede cloth for iii gownes for iii Chaj 

laynes y l went over with my Lord. 
" Item iii Bendys of White Sarsnett and Grene, with vi Cross. 

Ross and vi Cressaunt for the saide iii Chaplaynes." 8 

1 Stow's " Survey of London", book 3 Northumberland Household Book, 
v, chap. vii. The Plantagenet livery in the " Antiquarian Repertory", vol. 
colours were white and red. iv, page 365 ; cressents, etc., were the 

2 Of this curious satirical pamphlet, badges, green and white the livery 
there is an unique copy in the Advo- colours of that noble house. 



CANONS ECCLESIASTICAL. 281 

The green and white sarsnet were probably for the chap- 
lain's hoods, or tippets, so that my Lord Percy's "petty 
captaynes" and his chaplaynes wore his peculiar livery and 
badges, as did also " Esperaunce his purcyvaunt", his 
grooms, footmen, and soldiers. 

This very objectionable custom, however, was not con- 
fined to the persons of the clergy, but was irreverently 
extended even to the most important ornaments of the 
church. Fox tells us that, in the second year of queen 
Mary, the rood having been set up in St. Paul's church 
with much ceremony, " not long after this a merry fellow 
came into Paul's, and spied the roode with Mary and John 
new set up, whereto, among a great sort of people, he 
made low curtesie, and said : ' Sir, your mastership is wel- 
come to towne ; I had thought to have talked forther with 
your mastership, but that ye be here clothed in the 
queene's colours ; I hope ye be but a summer's bird, in that 
ye be dressed in white and greene.'" 1 

Chaplains are now appointed, under certain regulations 
as to number, by royalty, the nobility, bishops, sheriffs, 
and other civil functionaries ; the office is instituted by the 
presentation of the patron's scarf, or tippet, which is worn 
by the chaplain. It is, however, no longer of livery 
colours, but of plain black silk, in three folds, reaching to 
the skirt of the clerical gown, over which it is worn. The 
ends are usually deeply notched with mitre- shaped open- 
ings. The chaplain's scarf is frequently confounded with 
a scarf, or tippet, peculiar to the clergy of cathedrals and 
1 collegiate churches, and to certain academical degrees, 
, afterwards to be described ; and great irregularity in the 
use of both has been practised ever since the Reformation. 
A letter in the Spectator shows the abuse of the scarf in 
the last century, and likewise proves that the idea of its 
being a kind of livery worn by chaplains was at that time 
commonly entertained : 

" As I was the other day walking with an honest country 
gentleman, he very often was expressing his astonishment, to 
see the town so mightily crowded with doctors of divinity; 
upon which I told him he was very much mistaken if he 
took all those gentlemen he saw in scarfs to be persons of 
that dignity ; for that a young divine, after his first degree 

1 Fox's " Ecclesiastical History", vol. iii, p. 104. 



282 THE TIPPETS OF THE 

in the university, usually comes hither to show himself; 
and on that occasion, is apt to think he is but half equipped 
with a gown and cassock for his public appearance, if he 
hath not the additional ornament of a scarf of the first 
magnitude to entitle him to the appellation of doctor from 
his landlady and the boy at Child's. . . . When my 
patron did me the honour to take me into his family (for I 
must own myself of this order), he was pleased to say he 
took me as a friend and companion ; and whether he looked 
upon the scarf, like the lace and shoulder-knot of a foot- 
man, as a badge of servitude and dependance, I do not 
know, but he was so kind as to leave my wearing it to my 
own discretion. . . . The privileges of our nobility to 
keep a certain number of chaplains are undisputed, though 
perhaps not one in ten of these reverend gentlemen have 
any relation to the noble families their scarfs belong to." 1 

Another correspondent of the Spectator concludes a letter 
complaining of improper expressions introduced by the 
clergy into the prayer before the sermon, in these words : 
" There is another pretty fancy. When a young man has 
a mind to let us know who gave him his scarf, he speaks a 
parenthesis to the Almighty : ' Bless, as I am in duty 
bound to pray, the right honourable the countess." Is not 
that as much as to say, ' Bless her ! for thou knowest I 
am her chaplain?' " 2 

It appears to have been sometimes thought that a patron, 
on presenting his scarf to a clergyman, and thus constitut- 
ing him chaplain, removed him from the surveillance of 
the higher church authorities, and even beyond the reach 
of ecclesiastical law : thus we find that, " when the reverer 
Mr. Romaine was turned out of St. George's, Hanove 
square, but reluctant to part with many that were dear 
him, and who wished still to profit by his labours, he me 
them at the house of a Mr. Butcher; for which pretende 
irregularity, being threatened with a prosecution in tl 
most apostolic spiritual court, the excellent Lady Hunting 
don, supposing she had a right to protect him from thi 
fresh oppression, gave him her scarf, and as her chaplain 
he continued to preach to the poor in her kitchen." 3 It is 

1 Spectator, No. 609. This paper was a Spectator, No. 313. 

published on the day of the coronation 3 " Life of Selina, Countess of Hun- 

of king George III ; the author (a tingdon", vol. i, p. 133. 
clergyman) is unknown. 




CANONS ECCLESIASTICAL. 283 

also stated that, under somewhat similar circumstances, 
this eccentric lady "bestowed her scarf, patronage, and 
protection on Mr. Whitfield." 1 

During mourning, the black silk scarf, or tippet, of the 
chaplain is often exchanged for one of crape, the form 
being exactly the same. It should be worn over the black 
gown only, and (though the arrangement is seldom attended 
to)not over the surplice, because it then usurps the place 
of other tippets of at least equal, if not greater, importance, 
which we now proceed to describe. 

THE CHOIR TIPPET. For many centuries before the Re- 
formation the clergy of cathedral and collegiate churches 
were accustomed to wear over their surplices, partly as a 
distinction, but more especially as a protection from cold 
during the early morning and the nocturnal services, a 
vesture of fur and cloth, which varied in form and colour 
in different places and at different periods. Its most fre- 
quent form was a kind of fur hood, with long ends or 
tippets, sometimes of fur, but more frequently of cloth or 
silk, which hung down before. It was, however, quite 
different from the hoods of monastic orders or from those 
}f the laity, which usually had the long tippet behind 
n stead of in front. 

This particular hood was not worn by the priest offici- 
iting in the more solemn services of the church, but by 
the cathedral clergy, of whatever rank, in their 
places in the choir. It was called the almuce, 
aumess, or amys ; and the name is so much like 
that of another ornament of the officiating priest, 
the amice (amictus), differing only in orthogra- 
phy, that there is a necessity to point out the 
distinction between them, particularly as they 
ave been confounded until very recently by the most 
minent authors on liturgical subjects. The amice (amic- 
ns) was an oblong square of tine linen placed by the priest 
pon his head at the time he assumed the usual eucharistic 
^stments. On that portion which covered the forehead 
as sewed an embroidered ornament called the apparel, 
ad, when so worn, the appearance of the amice was nearly 
lat of the Jewish philactery. 

1 " Life of Seliua, Countess of Huntingdon", vol. i, p. 192. 

VOL. VI. 37 




284 



THE TIPPETS OF THE 




When the more important vestments were put on, the 
amice was thrown back upon the neck, in 
which state the apparel appears exactly 
like, and is frequently mistaken for, a 
collar on the chesuble. Numerous exam- 
ples of this occur on the brasses of priests. 

The aurness (almuncium) or choir tip- 
pet worn by canons, was usually made of 
the fur of the gray squirrel, those of the 
inferior cathedral clergy of common brown 
or black fur, while dignitaries wore them of sable, and 
members of noble houses of ermine. The hood portion of 
this vesture appears to have been early disused, arid in its 
stead a square cap was worn in choir, which could with 
greater ease be lifted from the head when the sacred name 
occurred in the services. This cap was retained in the 
Reformed Church of England until after the accession of 
James I, and is still used by the Roman Catholic clergy. 
The choir tippet is also worn by the clergy of Continental 
cathedrals, though the form and colour vary in almost 
every church. We learn from the rev. Mr. Webb's Sketches 
of Continental Ecclesiology, that at the cathedral, Ratisbon, 
" the chapter wear red silk tippets in the stalls" ; at the, 
Duomo, Milan, " the canons wear over the surplice a scarlet 
cape and mantle, the minor canons carry furred capes over 
the arms, and the singing men wear over their surplices 
hooded black mantles faced and lined with green" ; and al 






Fig. 28. 



Fig. 29. 



Fig. 30. 



" the Duomo, Verona, the clergy wear blue cravats, ca; 
socks, and short laced surplices tied with ribbons of diiferer 



CANONS ECCLESIASTICAL. 



285 



colours". Such are some of the varieties of the ancient 
aumess, as now worn by the clergy of the Roman Catholic 
Church. 

The choir tippet occurs frequently on the brasses of Eng- 
lish canons in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ; it may 
be distinguished from the stole by the rounded terminations 
of its long tippets, whether of fur or 
cloth, and by small plummets of lead 
frequently appended to weigh them 
down ; it is usually worn over the 
surplice and under the splendid pro- 
cessional vesture called the cope. 
This, however, was not always the case, as in numerous 
instances it is found without any superior covering. In 
very early examples a kind of bell-shaped ornament is 
found attached to the aumess, which at a later period was 
represented by the tails of the animals whose skins formed 





Fig. 31. 



Fig. 32. 




\ 



Fig. 33. 



Fig. 34. 



Fig. 



ihe cape. This was particularly the case in the reign of 
lenry VII, about which time the long tippets were severed, 
,jst as the tippet disappeared from the lay hood. Perhaps 
is to this bell-shaped ornament of the aumess that Chau- 
er alludes, as enabling him to recognize the canon in the 
Canterbury Tales 



286 THE TIPPETS OF THE 

" In my herte wondren I began 
What that he was, till that I understode 
Now that his cloke was sewed to his hode, 
For which when I had long avised me 
I demed him some chanon for to be." 

Clok, it must be remembered, was the old name for a bell 
or bell-shaped ornament, as the clok of a stocking. 

It is just possible that at an early time the canons' hoods 
had real bells attached to them, which we know was the 
case with the robes of the Jewish priesthood, and the cus- 
tom was adopted by Christian ecclesiastics both of the 
Eastern and Western Churches. Dr. Rock informs us that 
a few years ago he " was shown, in the inner sacristy at the 
great church of Aix-la-Chapelle, an old cope trimmed at 
the bottom with a row of silver bells beautifully made, of 
a slender tapering form, both in shape and size very 
much resembling the unblown flower of the graceful fuchsia 
fulgens." 1 

There is a triangular shaped piece of stuff worn attached 
to the hood by certain university officers, and by the 
preachers at St. Mary's, Oxford, which has been for some 
time a kind of archaeological puzzle. It is shaped like the 
clok of a stocking, and may probably be such an ornament 
as Chaucer's canon had sewed to his hood, though this is. 
merely offered as conjecture. It may be remarked that 
Chaucer did not intend to say, as most of his commentators 
have supposed, that the cloak or mantle was sewed to the 
hood ; this would have been no distinguishing mark of the 
canon, as it was an ordinary custom among all classes at 
that period ; nor would that accomplished master of lan- 
guage be likely to describe a larger garment as sewed to a 
smaller; had he meant what the commentators supposed, 
Chaucer would have said, " his hode was sewed to his cloke." 

To show that the choir tippet was adopted into the Re- 
formed Church of England, I quote portions of the account 
which archbishop Parker has left us of his own consecratior 
to that office at Lambeth Chapel. " The archbishop", he 
says, " enters the chapel about five or six through the west 
ern gate, clothed with his scarlet gown reaching to his feet 
and with his hood". 2 After morning prayers and a sermoi 

1 " Church of our Fathers", vol. i, which took place at the consecration c 
page 418. archbishop Parker. Published by th 

2 Account of the rites and ceremonies Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 



CANONS ECCLESIASTICAL. 



287 



by Scory, bishop elect of Hereford, communion was cele- 
brated by the bishop elect of Chichester, in a surplice and 
silken cope, assisted by the archdeacons of Canterbury and 
Lincoln similarly vested. The consecration having taken 
place, he continues: "At length these sacred rites being 
finished and completed, the archbishop goes out by the 
northern porch accompanied by the four bishops who had 
consecrated him, and forthwith, attended by the same 
bishops, he returns through the same porch, clothed with 
the white episcopal surplice l of a bishop, and ' chimera', as 
they call it, made of black silk, about his neck, but on some 
part of his collar were sewed precious skins they commonly 
call sables also the bishops of Chichester and Hereford 
being clothed in their own episcopal garments, viz., with 
the surplice and chimera". In the same document we are 
told that Miles Coverdale, who assisted in the consecration, 
" used nothing but a woollen gown reaching down to his 
ankles." 





Fig. 36 



Fig. 37. 



In the chimere of the episcopal habit, the ancient choir 
ippet or aumess will be readily recognized, though it ob- 
tained upon this occasion a new and secular name, in 
deference, probably, to the known opinions of Coverdale 
land others who were parties to the consecration. The 
identity of this chimere of archbishop Parker with a 
urred scarf or tippet worn by preceding church dignita- 
ries may be seen from the portrait of Parker, where the 

1 The rochet. 



288 THE TIPPETS OF THE 

scarf without the sable is sufficiently evident, and that of 
archbishop Warham, where the sable collar and the silk 
scarf may be both distinguished. The chimere has since 
grown into a robe of black satin nearly covering the rochet, 
and to it the lawn sleeves are now attached. The choir 
tippet, however, has not been discarded ; it is still a portion 
of the episcopal costume worn in addition to the chimere ; 
it also continues to be used by prebends and canons of 
English cathedrals over the surplice, irrespective of any 
appointment as chaplain, or of their academic status. 

The modern English choir tippet and the chaplain's 
scarf resemble each other, not only in form and material, 
but in the circumstance that they may both be worn as a 
part of the everyday arid outdoor costume of the clergy, 
neither of them being essential to the offices of the church, 
nor intended to be used in administering her more solemn 
services. The one serves to mark connexion with a cathe- 
dral or collegiate body, by whom a regular service with 
daily prayers is performed ; the other is the badge of an 
engagement to offer prayers for, and to superintend the 
religious duties of, some particular person or family. 

The seventy-fourth canon ecclesiastical, enjoining " de- j 
cency in apparel to ministers", appears to refer both to the , 
chaplain's scarf and choir tippet now described. By it 
" deans, masters of" colleges, archdeacons, and prebendaries, 
in cathedral and collegiate churches, being priests or dea- 
cons", are instructed to wear gowns with hoods or tippets 
of silk or sarsnet and square caps, an injunction applicable 
in all respects to the choir tippet. " Doctors in divinity, 
law, and physic, bachelors in divinity, masters of arts, and 
bachelors of law having any ecclesiastical living", are enti- 
tled to wear the same costume. This appears to be a 
permission granted by the church in compliment to their 
academic rank, irrespective of connexion with any cathedral 
church or of any appointment as chaplain ; all other minis- 
ters, who have not the requisite academic degree, are " to 
wear the like apparel as aforesaid, except tippets only", 
that is, gowns and tippets, but not the hood, that being an 
indication of university rank distinctly prohibited to minis- 
ters who are not graduates, under pain of suspension by the 
fifty-eighth canon. The tippet permitted to these non- 
graduates is presumed to be the scarf presented by patrons 



CANONS ECCLESIASTICAL. 289 

to their chaplains, and which may be worn by priests or 
deacons, whether graduates or otherwise. 

TEE PEIEST'S TIPPET OK STOLE The fifty-eighth canon, 
which regulates the dress of the clergy " reading divine 
service and administering the sacraments", directs gra- 
duates to wear upon their surplices the hoods of their 
degrees, and permits such ministers as are not graduates 
to wear " decent tippets of black". It is presumed that 
this particular tippet does not refer to the chaplains' or 
canons' scarfs, neither of which would be applicable under 
such circumstances according to the ancient usages of the 
Christian Church, but rather to the orarium or stole, one 
of the earliest symbolical vestures of Christianity. To 
identify this ornament of the clergy with 
the tippet of the Reformed Church, it may 
be only necessary to mention that Bingham, 
in a translated quotation, says that " the 
deacons resembled the wings of angels with 
their veils or tippets on their left shoulders, 
running about the church and crying out, 
Let none of the catechumens be present at 
the celebration of the mysteries." 1 And 
I again, " The council of Laodicea has two 
canons concerning the little habit called 
orarium, which was a scarf or tippet to be worn upon the 
shoulders, and might be used by bishops, presbyters, and 
deacons," etc. 

The stole .in the earliest days of the Christian Church 

was called the orarium ; it then consisted of a strip of linen 

hung over the neck. Some writers derive its name from 

ora, because it was employed to wipe the face by those 

Iwho ministered in public ; though its more probable origin 

is from orare, as it was ever the peculiar symbol of prayer, 

find is said to have been worn by females during public 

|prayers as a covering for the head, in accordance with the 

admonition of St. Paul : " Judge in yourselves : is it comely 

hat a woman pray unto God uncovered?" 2 The orarium 

had purple borders, a custom derived from the classical 

garments, which were but slightly modified when first 

" Antiquities of the Christian Church", vol. i, page 646. 
2 1 Corinthians, xi, 13. 




290 



THE TIPPETS OF THE 




Fig. 39. 



used by the early Christians. Indeed 
examples are frequently met with of 
an ornament exactly similar to the 
modern stole worn upon the shoul- 
ders of the ancient Romans when 
offering sacrifice. 

The orarium or stole, by which 
name for a long period it has been 
known, is a part of the sacerdotal 
costume which has always been held 
of the highest importance by both the 
Greek and Latin Churches. Its pur- 
pose was to symbolise the priestly 
office and authority ; for though worn 
by deacons, it was over one shoulder only, as indicating 
the limited powers of that office. All orders above that of 
deacon invariably used it in the solemn services of the 
Church. The modern stole of the Church of 
Rome has greatly widened ends, with crosses 
embroidered upon each, and a third in the centre. 
Those used in the thirteenth and early in the 
fourteenth centuries had frequently a broader 
piece placed upon the ends, and fringed. But 
the best examples from brasses show the stoles Fig - 40> 
of uniform width, or of very slightly and gracefully in- 
creased dimensions at the ends. It is rare to find on them 
at that period the three crosses now considered indis- 
pensable by the Roman Catholic clergy, though doubtless 
every stole was marked with one cross in the centre where 
it rested on the neck, a custom which was extended to all 
vestments set aside for sacred purposes. No satisfactory 
reason has been assigned for the broad ends of the modern 
Roman Catholic stole, which cannot be compared for 
elegance of form with those of the fourteenth centui 
The stoles were made of the very richest materials, 





CANONS ECCLESIASTICAL. 



291 




Fig. 51. 



broidered in gold, silk, or jewels, and in colours corre- 
sponding with the vestments used at the particular seasons 
of fast or festival. It is presumed that the Reformed 
Church, in repudiating this custom, ordered the tippets of 
hor ministering clergy to be decent (i. e. plain) and uni- 
formly black. During mass, the officiating priest of the 
Roman Catholic communion crosses the 
ends of the stole upon his breast, fas- 
tening it under the girdle, while the 
deacon pins the ends under the right 
arm. These customs, however, are of 
comparatively recent introduction, and 
were not practised in the early Church ; 
nor, except in a few recent instances, 
has it ever been the custom of the Re- 
formed Church in England. Numerous 
examples of the form of the ancient 
stole may be met with on the monu- 
mental brasses of bishops and priests; they are seen with 
the ends terminating in a fringe worn under the cope, or 

falling beneath the edge 

of the chesuble, and al- 
ways corresponding in 

shape and ornamentation 

with the maniple hung 

over the left arm. The 

clergy of the Reformed 

Church of England, who 

adopt the tippet as a stole, 

wear it in the form of a 

strip of black silk about 

four inches wide, a little 

more than three yards 

long, and simply fringed 

at the ends. It is of course 

never worn over the gown, 

but only with the surplice. 
In the Latin version of 

the canons, the word ftri- 

pipium corresponds with 

the English tippet. It is 

difficult to account for the 





VOL VI. 



292 THE TIPPETS OF THE 

origin of this word, which has been supposed to be derived 
from cleripeplum ; probably it may be a compound of lira, 
a ridge between two furrows, and peplum, a long robe of 
white or purple worn by the goddesses, which nearly cor- 
responds with the ancient classical vestment, with its 
purple borders upon the white linen. This, however, is 
mere conjecture. 

The canon further restricts non-graduates to the use of 
" some decent tippets of black, so it be not silk" This is 
a clause from one of the sumptuary laws which attempted 
very unsuccessfully to regulate the inordinate passion for 
extravagance in dress so frequently complained of by early 
English writers, arid, like many other of the canonical 
regulations, is no longer applicable to the present altered 
state of society. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fig. 1. " Thomas Bedel of Redburne", engraved in Strutt's English 
Dresses. Plate cix. 

Fig. 2. Traveller in hood, from Strutt's English Dresses, edited by 
Planche. Plate LXXIV. 

Fig. 3. Hood twisted round the neck, from English Dresses. Plate 
LXXIV. 

Fig. 4. Hood fastened round the head, engraved in Boutell's Monu- 
mental Brasses, p. 162. 

Fig. 5. Gentleman with hood, from Strutt's English Dresses. Plate 
LXXIV. 

Fig. 6. Rustic of the fourteenth century. 

Figs. 7, 8. Figures from the Lynn cup, reduced from the enlarged 
engraving in Carter's Ancient Sculpture and Painting in England. 

Figs. 9, 10. Figures from the Lynn cup. 

Fig. 11. Person of rank, engraved in Strutt. Plate ex. 

Fig. 12. Female, engraved in Strutt. Plate cxi. 

Fig. 13. Lady of rank, engraved in Strutt. Plate cxxm. 

Fig. 14. A statue in the chapel of Henry V in Westminster Abbey, 
engraved by Carter, showing the jagged tippet. 

Fig. 15. Lady in eared hood and long tippet, from an engraving in 
Fairholt's Costume in England, p. 204. 

Figs. 16, 17, 18. The Cambridge, Dublin, and Oxford modern M.A. 
hoods, laid flat. 



CANONS ECCLESIASTICAL. 293 

Fig. 19. Mode of wearing the B.A. hood, from an engraving in Speed's 
Maps, about 1610. 

Fig. 20. Mode of wearing the M.A. hood, from an engraving in 
Speed's Maps, about 1610. 

Fig. 21. Figure of a Trojan, from a tracing by D'Agencourt. 
Fig. 22. A Jew, from an illumination in an ancient Greek MS., en- 
graved by D'Agencourt. 

Fig. 23. A hood with tippet attached, from Strutt's English Dresses. 
Plate LXXVII. 

Fig. 24. Tippet appended to the hat. Temp. Hen. VI. 
Fig. 25. A secretary in hood, from illuminations in Strutt's English 
Dresses. Plate cxiv. 

Fig. 26. A priest in amice, worn on the head, engraved in Picard's 
Religious Ceremonies. 

Fig. 27. Priest, with the apparel of the amice on the neck, from a brass, 
Figs. 28, 29, 30. Canons from brasses, in surplice, aumess, and cope. 
Figs. 3 1 , 32. Ends of tippets weighted with plummets of lead, from 
I brasses. 

Fig. 33. Canon, in aumess, bordered with bell-shaped ornaments, from 
|a brass. 

Fig. 34. Canon, from the titlepage of Fox's Martyrology. 

Fig. 35. Canon, in furred aumess, with a fringe of tails, from a drawing 

trick, engraved in the Antiquarian Repertory, vol. i, representing pro- 

sion to the christening of prince Arthur, son of Henry VII. 

Fig. 36. Archbishop Parker, from an engraving in Lodge's Portraits. 

Fig. 37. Archbishop Warham, from a painting at Lambeth Palace, 

ived in Lodge's Portraits. 

Fig. 38. Deacon with stole on the left shoulder, from an engraving in 
)'Agencourt's collection, reduced from the original manuscript of the 
eventh century. 

Fig. 39. Centurion offering sacrifice, from a Roman bas-relief engraved 
Fairholt's Costume of England, p. 52. 

Fig. 40. End of a stole, part of a set of Spanish vestments in the 
ithor's possession. 
Figs. 41 to 50. Examples of the ends of stoles, from ancient brasses, 

ived in Boutell. 

Fig. 51. Deacon in crossed stole, from a black letter pontifical in the 
ithor's possession. In further illustration of this practice vide mutilated 
;ffigy in Furness Abbey. 

Fig. 52. Priest in crossed stole and cope, from a brass. 
i Fig. 53. Priest in chesuble and stole, from a brass. 



294 



NOTES ON HUMFREY CHETHAM AND HIS 
FOUNDATION. 

BY JOHN E. GREGAN, ESQ. 

IT is not my intention, on the present occasion, to occupy 
your time with any lengthened or minute statement respect- 
ing the history of the building within the walls of which 
we are now assembled j 1 for the details are within the easy 
reach of every one who wishes to inform himself on the 
subject. At this late period of the congress your time is 
valuable ; I shall therefore merely allude, and that as 
briefly as possible, to a few of the leading events in the 
life of that good man, to whose large and enlightened 
benevolence, this charitable foundation owes its existence: 
concluding with a few remarks on the architectural pecu- 
liarities of the building. 

Humfrey, fourth son of Henry Chetham of Crumps-all, 
was baptized in the collegiate church of Manchester, on 
the 10th of July 1580. It has generally been supposed 
that he received his education in the Manchester Free 
Grammar School, and that he was afterwards apprenticed 
in the town along with his brothers George and Ralph. 

The Chethams appear to have been the principal buyers 
of fustian in the town, supplying the London dealers with 
this article of clothing, then in general use throughout the 
country, and for the manufacture of which the towns of 
Manchester and Bolton were, at that time, much celebrated. 
Eminently successful as a merchant, Mr. Chetham was no 
less remarkable for integrity and uprightness in his deal- 
ings, than for the piety, benevolence, and general charity 
of his character. He amassed a large fortune, and expended 
a considerable portion of it in the purchase of estates in 
this county, residing chiefly at Clayton-Hall, within a few 
miles of the town of Manchester. 

In 1634 Mr. Chetham, being then a man of consideration 
in the town, and held in very general respect, was nomi- 
nated to fill the office of high sheriif of the county. From 

1 This paper was read in Chatham's acted as local secretary to the Con- 
hospital by the author, who kindly gress. 



NOTES ON HUMFREV CHETIIAM. 295 

the modesty of his nature, he sought however to shun 
rather than court the honour thus pressed upon him ; and, 
moreover, from the troubled political aspect of the times, 
he was sagacious enough to forsee that the dangers and 
difficulties of such an office would, in all likelihood, be 
greater than he cared to encounter. He endeavoured, 
through the influence of a friend, to induce the privy 
council to substitute some other name for his own ; but 
the application was unsuccessful. His appointment was 
confirmed by the king in the February of the same year; 
and in December following, he was nominated collector of 
the first levy of the obnoxious tax of ship-money. 

Notwithstanding the general discontent of the people at 
this imposition, Mr. Chetham so discharged his arduous 
duties as to retain the good will of the county, acting 
throughout with great moderation, fairness, and ability; 
" insomuch", it was said, " that gentlemen of very good 
birth and estate did wear his cloth at the assize, to testify 
their respect for him". Indeed, during the whole of this 
trying period, the course he pursued was such as to gain 
the confidence and esteem of all parties; for on the esta- 
iblishment of the Commonwealth, he was called to the office 
of county-treasurer, his appointment, notwithstanding his 
petition to parliament to be excused " on account of his 
many infirmities", being dated the 6th of September 1643. 
He spent his later years in the retirement and tranquil- 
lity of his country residence at Clayton Hall, and on the 
12th of October 1653, this good man died, in the seventy - 
'third year of his age, and was buried in the Lady Chapel 
of the collegiate church, now known by the name of the 
i" Chetham Chapel". 

Fuller classes him amongst his worthies, and tells us 
that " he was a diligent reader of the Scriptures, and of 
the works of sound divines ; and a respecter of such 
ministers as he accounted truly godly, upright, sober y 
Uscreet, and sincere". From the many wills which he 
nude from time to time, we discover that his thoughts 
vere constantly employed in schemes having for their 
)bject the good of his fellow-men ; and his liberality 
ncreased with his fortune, for each successive scheme was 
nore comprehensive than the preceding. Never having 
narried, he adopted the children of his poorer neighbours,. 



296 NOTES ON HUMFREY CHETHAM. 

and throughout the greater part of his life he maintained 
a number of boys, lodging them with respectable house- 
holders in the town, and paying for their food, clothing, 
and education. 

His last and greatest act was the foundation of this 
hospital, now called after his name. He bequeathed the sum 
of 7,000 for the purchase of an estate, the proceeds of 
which were to be devoted for ever to the maintenance and 
education of forty poor boys, from the age of six years 
to that of fourteen ; and on leaving the hospital they were 
to be apprenticed, or otherwise provided for. 

Another bequest of Mr. Chetham's was the sum of 1000 
to purchase books, and the sum of 100 for the purpose 
of providing a suitable building to contain them, forming 
a library for the free and unrestricted use of the public for 
ever. And further, for the maintenance and continual 
enlargement of this library, he bequeathed, after the pay- 
ment of certain legacies, the residue of his personal estates, 
amounting to more than 2000.* In addition to this, he 
bequeathed the sum of 200 for the purchase of " Godly 
English books", to be chained upon reading-desks in the 
churches of Manchester and Bolton, and in the chapels of, 
Turton, Walmersley, and Gorton. Within the last forty . 
or fifty years, the broken fragments of the desks and chains, 
and a few tattered leaves of the books, were all that re- 
mained of this generous gift of the good old merchant. 

It was a great object with Mr. Chetham, during the 
later years of his life, to secure a convenient building in 
which to carry out his charitable views; and the place of 
our present meeting was selected as the most suitable which 
the town of Manchester at that time afforded. It was 
originally erected for the residence of the clergy of the 
neighbouring collegiate church, on the same spot where 
the old manor-house of Manchester had previously stood, 
and which had been for centuries the residence of the 
Grelleys and De la Warres, lords of Manchester. 

1 The library, which is lodged in ries in the country perfectly free and 

the hospital, has greatly increased since open to the public, who enter and reai 

the time of its establishment, and is when they please ; the only formafit; 

now one of the finest collections in the binding on the student, being that o 

county, containing many works of asking the librarian for the volume h' 

great worth and rarity. It is a boon wishes to peruse, and entering his 

of incalculable value to the neighbour- name in a book, which lies continually 

hood, being one of the very few libra- open for the purpose. 



NOTES ON HUMFREY C1IETHAM. 297 

Hollingworth, who was a fellow of the College of Man- 
chester, during the latter half of the seventeenth century, 
says, in his Chronicle, that " the manor house stood in or 
neere to the place where the colledge now stands, and was 
called the Baron's court or Baron's yerde, and the place 
was called Baron's Hull, as the neighbouring banke, now 
called Hunt's banke, was then called Hunt's Hull." 

Thomas, lord de la Warre, the founder of the college, 

left a considerable sum of money to be expended on the 

erection of the buildings, for the accommodation of the 

warden and fellows. According to Hollingworth, " this 

Thomas being lord of the manner and parson of the parish, 

as well as patron, considering that the parish was large and 

populous, and that the former rectors, some never did 

reside, bethoughte himself, as well for the greater honour 

of the place, as the better edification of the people, to erect 

a collegiate church in Manchester." " Then the sayd 

Thomas de la Warre made a deed of gift and feoffment of 

his lands and rectory of Manchester to Thomas bishop of 

Durham, (who was also chauncelor of England, etc.)" 

' This Thomas bishop of Durham, etc., founded a collegiate 

church", etc. And further : " Then Thomas de la Warre 

presented to William bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, 

John Huntingdon, to bee the master or keiper of the sayd 

college; and the sayd Thomas bishop of Durham, etc., did 

/ive, grant, and confirm unto the sayd John Huntingdon 

five messuages and ten acres of land, which were parcels 

)f the manor of Manchester, one messuage with the appur- 

:enances, with one acre and twenty-four pearches, called 

Baron's Hull and Baron's Yerde", etc. etc. 

The old Baron's Hall was then demolished, and the main 
)ody of the present building, i. e., the part surrounding and 
^closing the quadrangle, was probably erected during the 
jfe-time of the first warden (Huntingdon), in Henry VI's 
ime. 

The situation must, at that time, have been picturesque 
md beautiful ; on the summit of a precipitous rock, at the 
Confluence of the rivers Irk and Irwell. The demesne 
ttached to the college was ample in its extent, and pos- 
jessed the privilege of affording protection to those who 
tad offended the laws of their country. Bounded on the 



298 NOTES ON HUMFREY CHETHAM. 

south and east by the ancient ditch 1 of the Baron's Hall, 
and on the other two sides by the Irk and Irwell, its iso- 
lated position offered many advantages to those who sought 
the shelter of its sacred precincts. 

The warden and fellows continued to reside here till the 
College was dissolved, in 1547, the first year of the reign 
of Edward VI, who conveyed the buildings to lord Derby, 
in the possession of whose family they remained until the 
time of the civil war, when they were seized by the seques- 
trators on behalf of the parliament. 

Mr. Chetham, considering the college buildings suitable 
for the purposes of the charitable foundation which he 
contemplated, entered into negociations with the parlia- 
mentary commissioners, with a view to a purchase. But 
certain conditions being attached to the sale, 2 which were; 
considered too dictatorial, and moreover, indicative of dis- 
trust on the part of the commissioners with regard to the! 
honour and purity of Mr. Chetham's intentions, the nego- 
ciations were broken off; and in the meantime Mr. Chet- 
ham died. His executors soon afterwards renewed the 
application, and the purchase seems to have been completed 
about the month of November 1654. 

In due time, the boys, who had been boarded 3 at Mr., 
Chetham's expense, in the houses of certain inhabitants of, 
the town,were transferred to the college, which now became 
" Chetham's Hospital" ; and the benevolent intention of the 
venerable founder was consummated. 

At the beginning of the first minute book kept by the 
feoffees, there occurs the following interesting record of 
the meeting held in the hall for the dedication of 
building to its present charitable uses. 

" Thursday, the 5th day of August, 1651 
" MEETING FOB THE DEDICATION OF THE HOSPITALL. 

" When many of the ffeoffees and other persons were assembled i 
hall of the said hospitall, Mr. Richard Hollingworth, one of the ffeoffees 
(and two other ministers assisting in prayer and praising of God), did first 
hriefely show the lawfulness and fitnesse of dedication of houses (especially 

1 The Hanging Ditch. in the accounts of that time, still pre- 

2 By Mr. Birch, of Birch Hall, one served ; and many of which are iu 
of the sequestrators. Mr. Chetham's own handwriting. 

3 Or " tabled", as the term stands 




PLATE. 2 




NOTES ON HUMFREY CHETHAM. 299 

of publick houses) ffrom the 20th of Deuteronomie and the 5th verse, and 
the 30th Psalm and the 1st verse, and the manner of such dedication. 
And afterwards in a large speech shewed that the house had formerly been 
the haule or manor house of the Grelles or Gresleys, lords of Manchester, 
and was then called Baron's court or Baron's yerde ; and afterwards it was 
built colledge wise for the inhabitation of the warden and ffellows of the 
collegiate church of Manchester, and called the colledge : and about one 
hundred years agoe was alienated to the earl of Derbie, and was accounted 
the earl of Derbie's house in Manchester; whence he took occasion to 
complain of the late sale of the lands of the appropriated rectory in Man- 
chester, which he affirmed was most unjust and illegal. Hee shewed 
alsoe that from henceforth the sayd house could fytly and justly bee called 
by noe other name than by the name of Mr. Chetham's Hospitall. Hee 
shewed further that God had not only a general title and interest in the 
house, as was the case in all other houses, but that he had alsoe a speciall 
and peculiar title to it above other houses by virtue of former grantes, of 
Mr. Chetham's late donation, and this present dedication ; and he shewed 
alsoe what an abominable and accursed thing it would bee, for any one to 
alienate or injure it. Hee gave several directions and exhortations to the 
ffeoffees, to the governor, to the hospitall boyes, and to the people present. 

" And then having several tymes sung certain verses selected out of 
David's psalmes suitable to the occasion, hee (as the other ministers alsoe 
did) prayed God that gave unto Mr. Chetham both mind and means to doe 
ithis great good worke, prayed to God for his blessing on the hospitall, 
.the ffeoffees, the governor, and hospitall boyes, and soe dismissed the 
;assembly. 

" This day, being the 5th day of August 1656, the hospitall boyes were 
removed from their severall private quarters, where they had been tabled, 
into the hospitall and lodged there." 

Few charities have been so well managed as this ; for by 
the skill, integrity, and careful economy of many successive 
generations of feoffees, the value of the original endowment 
das been greatly increased ; so that instead of forty boys, 
is at the beginning, there are now no fewer than one hun- 
Ired continually maintained and educated within the walls 
)f the building, and sent forth into the world in a credit- 
ible and respectable manner. 

The accompanying ground plan (see Plate xxvi) shews 
he general arrangement of the buildings ; the parts built 
it different times being indicated by the different tints 
vith which they are shaded. The dark tint, distinguishes 
he original erection of warden Huntingdon's time ; the 

VOL. VI. 39 



300 NOTES ON HUMFREY CHETHAM. 

light tint the additions of a subsequent date, probably 
towards the close of Henry the seventh's reign. A few 
alterations, of comparatively trifling extent, appear to have 
been made when the college was converted to its present 
uses as a hospital ; but these have only very slightly 
affected the appearance of the old collegiate buildings. 
Indeed few of the ancient architectural monuments of the 
country have undergone less change than this; for with 
the exception of the present library, and the rooms oc- 
cupied as residences by the governor and the librarian, it 
remains in almost the very condition in which it was left 
by those for whose convenience it was originally erected. 

The most interesting architectural feature of the building 
is the beautiful little cloister (see Plate xxvn) which 
extends round three sides of the quadrangle ; peculiar from 
the fact of its being two stories in height; the cloister of 
St. Stephen's at Westminster being almost the only, if not 
the only other case in England where a similar arrange- 
ment occurs. In one instance or two a room is found over 
a cloister, but scarcely ever one complete cloister over 
another as it is here. The cloisters belong to the later 
portion of the edifice, having been added, no doubt, for the 
purpose of affording a convenient and covered communica- 
tion between the various offices and apartments of the 
college. The openings retain evident traces of having 
been glazed, and in the upper story a window is placed in 
each alternate bay only. A range of rooms communicating 
with the upper cloister by separate doorways, and which, 
in all likelihood, were the dormitories of the clergy, 
now thrown into one continuous apartment, forming tl 
library already alluded to. It is noticeable that the 01 
ginal partitions between these dormitories did not go up 
the roof, so as to effect a complete separation betwe 
them, but were carried up to the level of the wall he 
only ; the angular space, from this level up to the slopii 
line of the roof timbers, being left open from end to em 
This mode of securing privacy to the occupant of each 
dormitory, and, at the same time, giving him the advantage 
of the ventilation of a large and roomy apartment, is a 
refinement generally supposed to belong to modern times; 
but that such an arrangement existed in the college^ is 
evident, not only from the construction of the roof, which 




B 






NOTES ON IIUMFREY CHETHAM. 301 



is continuous, as if over one long room, but also from the 
fact that similar partitions are yet to be found in other 
parts of the building : the governor's and librarian's 
rooms are so divided, the space from the top of the old 
partitions upwards being filled in with work of compara- 
tively modern date. 

The date of the more recent parts of the building (indi- 
cated by the light tint on the ground plan), is not exactly 
known, but from their style they may be referred, as has 
been said, to the latter part of Henry the seventh's reign. 
The room now called the audit-room (probably the war- 
den's room, in the days of the college), and the room over 
it (used as the reading room of the library), are interesting 
apartments ; the former having an oak panelled ceiling of 
excellent character, and wainscot lining on the walls. 
The bay window of the reading-room, though small in 
dimension, is also remarkable for its beauty: it is square 
in plan, with a three-light window on each side, and a 
groined ceiling, the central boss of which is carved with 
the portcullis. 

The hall is a well-proportioned apartment, with lofty 
windows on one side, a dais at the upper end, and a bay- 
window on the side next the cloister ; there is a wide fire- 
place on the same side, and a massive oak screen across 
the lower end, concealing the doors to the buttery, the 
kitchen, and other domestic oifices. 

Another set of alterations belong to the time when the 
college buildings were prepared for the purposes to which 
they are now devoted. The most important was the 
removal of the partitions between the dormitories, so as to 
form a long room for the library, which now extends from 
A to B, of an L shape : with the enlargement of the old 
dormitory windows, for the better lighting of this room. 
The staircase at the north-east angle of the cloister seems 
also to belong to the same period, and was doubtless erected 
for the purpose of aifording to the public convenient access 
to the library ; the original staircase which is near the door 
of the audit-room, being too remote from the entrance, as 
well as somewhat too small for the accommodation required. 
Che door into the cloister-yard must have been in the bay 
now occupied by this new stair, as the only present entrance 



302 ON THE BAKB1CAN. 

is through one of the windows, which has been opened for 
this purpose ; as shewn in the accompanying engraving. 

The long line of buildings extending eastward from the 
kitchen to the gate, consists of various offices, now devoted 
to the different uses of the hospital. The kitchen, which 
goes the whole height of the two stories, is of very ample 
dimensions ; and there is one fine room on the upper floor, 
now used as a dormitory, but still known by the name of 
the "garner", which is of considerable size and of good 
character. The roof remains, (as elsewhere throughout 
the building), in its original condition, and consists of well 
moulded arch-ribs and collar, springing from a moulded 
wall-plate. 

The college was unfortunately erected with a soft friable 
sand-stone, from Collyhurst, in the vicinity of Manchester, 
and many parts of the exterior are consequently much 
worn by the weather; but as funds become available for 
the purpose, the feoffees are wisely carrying on a gradual 
and continual course of repairs, so that no part is ever 
allowed to fall into decay ; and the whole is kept in a sound 
and perfect condition. 



ON THE BARBICAN, IN CONNEXION WITH 
OUR CASTLES. 

BY GEOEGE GODWIN, ESQ., P.R.S., F.S.A. 

IF we look into a dictionary for the meaning of the wci 
barbacan, or barbican, we shall find it called " a nan 
opening left in the walls of buildings liable to be ove 
flowed, for the water to come in and go out at, or to di 
the water from off a terrace ; or an outer defence or forti- 
fication to a city ; a kind of watch-tower ; any outwork at 
a short distance from the main works ; arid a cleft made in 
the walls of a fortress to fire through upon the enemy." 
We do not from this get a very clear idea of what a barbi- 
can really was, and it may be worth while to try and make 
this more definite. 



ON THE BARBICAN. 303 

Grose, in the preface to his Antiquities of England and 
Wales, says, " To begin from without, the first member of 
an ancient castle was the barbican, a watch-tower, for the 
purpose of descrying an enemy at a greater distance. It 
seems to have had no positive place, except that it was 
always an outwork, and frequently advanced beyond the 
ditch; to which it was then joined by a drawbridge, and 
formed the entrance into the castle. Barbicans are men- 
tioned in Framlingharn and Canterbury castles. For the 
repairing of this work, a tax called barbecanage was levied 
on certain lands." 

Again, in Military Antiquities, vol. ii, p. 2, the same 
writer says, " Next the bayle was the ditch, foss, graff, or 
mote" " the passage over it was by a drawbridge, fre- 
quently covered by an advanced work called a barbican; 
sometimes the barbican was beyond the ditch covering the 
head of the drawbridge." 

There is a small stonework covering the gate of Bodiam 
Castle, in Sussex, still called the barbican ; and the Walrn- 
gate-bar and barbican at York will occur to the recollection 
of some. At Carlisle Castle, Cumberland, there is also an 
outer work to defend the gate, which is known as the 
barbican. 

The etymology of the word is doubtful. It has been 
sought in barbacana, low Latin and Spanish; barbacane, 
French; lock-in-einer-maver, German, etc. Spelman, the 
antiquary, derives it from the Saxon burgh and kenn, a 
place to view or ken from. 

There is a street in London, near Redcross-street, in 
Cripplegate, still called " Barbican", from a watch-tower, 
md where, by the way, Spelman died, in 1640. 1 

Camden, in his Britannia (published 1586), says, when 

describing London : " The suburb also which runs out on 

! ;he north-west side of London is large, and had formerly a 

natch-tower or military fence, from whence it came to be 

Called by an Arabick name Barbacan." 2 

Stow writes of the same place : " On the west side 
f the Red Cross" (whence Red Cross-street), "is a street 
ailed the Barbican, because sometime there stood on the 
orth side thereof a burgh kenin, or watch-tower of the 

1 John Milton lived also at one time in Barbican. 

2 Gibson's translation, 1695, p. 321. 



304 ON THE BAKBICAN. 

city, called in some language a barbican, as a bikening is 
called a beacon". 

In the Promptorium Parvulorum, written circa 1440, 
recently edited by Mr. Way, " barbican" is explained as 
"byfore a castelle, antemurale". The editor says in a 
note : " Spelman explains the barbacan to be ' munimen d 
f route castri, aliter antemurale dictum ; etiam foramen in 
urbium castrorumque moeniis ad tragicienda missilia. 
Sax. Burgekening. Vox Arabica\" Pennant asserts that 
the Saxons called the barbican to the north-west of 
Cripplegate, burgh-kenning ; other writers have suggested 
a different etymology. A. S. burk-beacn, urbis specula. 
Bullet would derive it from the Celtic, bar, before ; bach, 
an enclosure. Lye gives barbican as a word adopted in 
the Anglo-Saxon language, and we must certainly not see 
thence its derivation." 

As early as 1232, according to Britton's Architecture 
Dictionary, we find in a charter, " Antemurali qui diciti 
barbacana, qui est murus brevis ante murum nostri orti. 

Spenser, in the Faerie Queene (b. ii), has 

" Within the barbican~a, porter sate, 
Day and night duly keeping watch and ward ;" 

And Ben Jonson uses the term in his Epithalimion, 

" That far all-seeing eye could soon espy 
What kind of waking man He had so highly set, and in what barbican.' 

An anonymous writer of the time of Henry V, 
the British Museum, quoted by sir (then Mr.) Han 
Nicolas, in his History of the Battle of Agincourt (1415] 
describing the fortifications of Harfleur, says : " before tl 
entrance of each of the three gates, the prudence of 
enemy had erected a strong defence, which we term 
barbican, but commonly called bulwarks: that towarc 
the king was the strongest and largest, being defende 
without with round thick trees, nearly to the height of th< 
walls of the town, fastened around, bound, and girdec 
together very strongly. * * * * The structure of i 
was round, containing more in diameter than the cast of ' 
stone, with which our common people in England are won 
to amuse themselves by the road-side : water of great deptl 
and breadth surrounded it, being about two lances' lengtl 



ON THE BARBICAN. 



305 



"broad in the narrowest part, having a bridge for ingress 
and egress towards the town." 

And Lydgate has in his Story of Thebes, 

" And made, also, by werkmen that were trew, 
Barbicans and bulwerkes, strong and new, 
Barreres, chains, and ditches wonder deepe, 
Making his auow the city for to keepe." 

The extracts I ha\ e quoted refer to the barbican mainly 
as a watch-tower or outwork of defence, and this is the 
idea which generally attaches to it. In a letter, however, 
addressed (June 1837) to the Society of Antiquaries by 
Mr. Planche, on a curious portrait supposed to represent 
Charles the Bold, but which he ingeniously showed was 
his brother Anthony, Bastard of Burgundy, Mr. Planche 
pointed out what he thought was a representation of a 
barbican of different appearance. He had identified the 
.portrait by an engraving in Montfaucon's Monarchic 
Frangaise, which showed also Anthony's badge and war- 
cry. Montfaucon de- 
scribed the badge as 
\une espdce de Pavilion 
(a sort of tent or flag), 
.surrounded by flames, 
and the motto " Nul 
ne si frote". On the 
back of the picture in 
question was found 
what Montfaucon had 
thus described (see fig. 
,1), but which there 
had the appearance of 
being composed of 
planks of wood, with 
Eire coming through 
:lie centre. Mr. Planche* 
found that Oliver de la Marche says, that at the siege 
f Oudenarde, A.D. 1452, Anthony bore a great white 
tandard embroidered with a barbacan; and at the Pas 
ie FArbre d" 1 Or, sixteen years afterwards, the same 
mthor describes him as issuing from his pavilion, on a 
lorse trapped with tawny velvet, embroidered with large 




306 ON THE BARBICAN. 

barbacanes, with flames issuing out of them, and letters of 
his device, all worked in gold thread. Remembering that 
barbican was explained by Roquefort to mean not only a 
tower, but a loop-hole, and any sort of outwork ; and that 
Cotgrave, under the same word, says " Some hold it to be 
a scutrie, scout-house, or hole" ; he suggested it as probable 
that the figure before us was intended to represent, not a 
tent, but the barbican described by Oliver de la Marche, 
with flames coming through the centre. Mr. Planche 
afterwards went to the ruins of the castle of Tournehem, 
in Artois, the residence of Anthony, and there he found 
the same badge on various portions of the building, notice 
of which he communicated to the Gentleman's Magazine, 
with the accompanying cuts (figs. 2, 3, and 4). 1 

There can, I think, be no doubt of the correctness of the 
supposition, that Montfaucon evidently did not understand 
the bridge he described ; for it is much more like a pent- 
house of wood to protect an opening in castle walls than a 
tent or flag. Figure 5 is a drawing of a movable tower of 
the fifteenth century, from a manuscript in the British 
Museum, which shows, in the upper part of it, just such an 
arrangement as a protection for archers, and illustrates what 
were really understood as barbicans in early times. Other 
instances, however, can be adduced. There is an exceed- 
ingly interesting illuminated manuscript, in three volumt 
preserved in the British Museum, written in French pros 
by Robert de Borron and Walter Mapes, 2 and which was 
made known to the general reader by Mr. Wright, in the 
first volume of the Archaeological Journal, p. 301. The 
date of it is probably 1316. Some of the illuminations in 
this show, as will be seen by the annexed copy of one of 
them (fig. 6), these barbicans exactly like the badge of 
Anthony of Burgundy. 

In all the cases, too, that I observed when looking through 
the manuscript, these penthouses are on the outermost work 
and over the gateway, so that I think we may say these 
were really the original barbicans, and that afterwards the 
name took a wider significance in England, and came to 
express also the outer work, either of wood or stone, to 

1 The Association are indebted to Magazine for the use of the cuts rc- 
the proprietors of the " Gentleman's ferred to. 

2 Additional MSS., Nos. 10,292, 10,293, and 10,294. 



ON THE BARBICAN. 



307 









VOL VI. 



308 



ON THE BARBICAN. 



which they would have been attached. Abroad, however, 
it was less so. Florio, in his Italian Dictionary, 1598, 
explains barbacane to mean only " an out-nooke, or corner, 
standing out of a house ; a jettie" ; and a jetty, in medieva' 




buildings, we know was a part of a building that projected 
beyond the rest, and overhung the wall below. The pro- 
jection of an upper floor beyond the lower, which we see in 
old houses, was called a jetty. The only meaning given by 
Koquefort, in his Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Langue 
Frangoise, is "Fente perpendiculaire pour 1'ecoulement 
des eaux ; ouverture pour tirer sur 1'ennemi sans se de- 
couvrir"; and in any ordinary French dictionary the only 
translation of the word barbacane is, " a hole made in a 
wall from space to space, thereby to drain the water; also 
a loop-hole in a wall to shoot through." This view is 
further borne out by a translation of Grosteste's " Chasteau 
d 1 Amour", in a manuscript of the end of the fourteenth 
century, 1 wherein a castle is described, and which goes on 
thus : 

" This castil is ever ful of love and of grace, 
To al that any nede has socour and solace, 

1 MS. Bibl. Egerton, in Mus. Brit., No. 928, as quoted in " Archaeological 
Journal", ut supra. 



PLATE XXVIII. 








X '> 

Ground Plan of the ^ Abbots Chapel 



i 




P [ 



3 C A.JL T. . 

10 30 +4 tO ff 70 00 tO 10O 

1 ~\ 




HfUU I* ' f ' * 




j & '-r-rnr 

i ^T 1 

* dbtb^^r^A^^r^t* 



111 





To face page, 30$. 



A IB 3 3E IT. 



PLATE XXVIII 




RUINS OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 309 

Four toures ay hit has, and kernels fair, 

Thre bailliees al aboute, that may no3t apair ; 

Nouther hert may wele thinke ne tung may wel telle, 

Al the bounte and the bewte of this ilk castelle. 

Seven barbicans are sette so sekirly aboute, 

That no maner of shoting may greve fro withoute." 

A description which evidently refers to such pent- 
house defences as I have described, and not to 
watchtowers or outer works. 

I will simply add, that the manuscript from which 
the illustration No. 6 is taken, contains many curi- 
ous illustrations of the architecture of the period, 
as well as of its manners, and deserves further 
examination. 

Fig. 7 represents a buttress, from the seal of 
William de Botereaux (Bysshe's Notes on Upton, 
page 57), in which the barbican appears to be a 
portion of the building. 



ON 

THE RUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY 
OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 

BY E. SHARPE, ESQ., M.A. 

" Oppida Franciscus, magnas Ignatius urbes, 
Bernardus valles, montes Benedictus amabat." 

IT is probable that there are many persons present here 
;his morning whose acquaintance with the architecture of 
,;heir native country is very limited. Indeed, it would 
liot be surprising if a considerable majority of those who 
'ompose this meeting, and who may from accidental cir- 
I'-umstances have been induced to join the congress of this 
Association on the present occasion, possess but a slight 
knowledge of the subject. 

Now it is always a difficult matter for a lecturer so to 



310 KUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONASTEEY 



. 



frame his observations as to render them at the same tim 
interesting and intelligible to the whole of his audience; 
it is always a question with him, whether, on the one 
hand, addressing himself to the more learned portion of 
his hearers, he should make the immediate object of his 
remarks a means of advancing the study of the whole 
subject; or whether, on the other hand, he should, ad- 
dressing himself to the unlearned portion of his auditory, 
and discussing it in a more popular manner, make use of 
the opportunity as a means of enlisting their sympathies, 
and of enlarging thereby the number of those who take 
interest in the study. 

I propose on the present occasion to pursue the latter 
course; and instead of entering at once into a critical dis- 
cussion on the architectural merits of Furness Abbey, in 
terms which would be all but unintelligible to the greater 
part of my audience, I propose to preface my remarks on 
these interesting buildings by a short account of the dif- 
ferent periods into which the history of our national archi- 
tecture may be divided, and then to point out to which of 
these periods the several portions of these ruins respect- 
ively belong. And I cannot help thinking, that by thus 
enabling the uninitiated practically to illustrate for them- 
selves, by means of these buildings, a certain portion of 
the whole subject, I shall be doing more real service to 
the study of archaeology, than if I were simply to confine 
myself to a historical account of the foundation of Furness 
Abbey, of its possessions, and dependencies ; or enter into 
a merely technical description of its different buildings. 

There is another point in which these buildings may be 
made instructive to us : I mean, that which relates to their 
arrangement, their relative disposition, and their respec 
ive uses. 

Indeed, a most interesting lesson may be read by tb 
light which such a series of buildings is calculated t 
throw on the monastic life of the middle ages, and th 
peculiarities which distinguished the conventual arran 
ments of the different orders of these times. I propose, 
therefore, after having explained the principal divisions of 
English architecture, to give a short account of the ordi- 
nary plan of a Cistercian monastery ; and I will then 
review the whole of the buildings of Furness Abbey in 



OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 311 

succession, explaining, in the one case, to which of the 
several periods of our national architecture each part re- 
spectively belongs ; and pointing out, in the second place, 
what portions of the general plan of a Cistercian abbey 
are preserved to us in the example before us, and what 
was the probable nature and extent of those which have 
been destroyed. 



CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 

The history of English architecture may be divided 
into seven distinct periods, the duration of which was as 
follows : 

A.D. A.D. TEAKS. 

Saxon period, from to 1066, prevailed 

Norman , 1066 to 1145, 79 



Transitional 

Lancet 

Geometrical 

Curvilinear 

Rectilinear 



1145 to 1190, 45 

1190 to 1245, 55 

1245 to 1315, 70 

1315 to 1360, 45 

1360 to 1550, 190 



Of these seven periods, the remains of the first are so 
few, and left in such a fragmental condition, that its 
comparative illustration is impossible. Of the remaining 
six, the following may be said to be the principal charac- 
teristics : 

ii. The NORMAN PERIOD is distinguished by the use of 
the circular arch in every part of a building. 

in. THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD exhibits the contem- 
poraneous use of both circular and pointed arches in the 
same building. 

iv. THE LANCET PERIOD is characterized by its windows, 
which were invariably of the lancet form, whether used 
i singly, or in groups of two, three, five, or seven. 

v. The GEOMETRICAL PERIOD is distinguished also by 
,its windows, which carry tracery in their heads, in which 
(simple curves only are employed, and the circle usually 
predominates. 

vi. The CURVILINEAR PERIOD exhibits tracery in its 
vindow heads of a flowing character, in which the sinuous 
iurve of contra-flexure usually predominates. 

vn. The RECTILINEAR PERIOD is remarkable for the 



312 RUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY 

introduction of straight lines, both vertical and horizontal, 
in the tracery of its windows and in panelings. 1 

Of these seven periods, the remains of Furness Abbey 
furnish us with very interesting and excellent examples of 
the third, the TRANSITIONAL PERIOD ; \hefourth, the LANCET 
PERIOD ; the fifth, the GEOMETRICAL PERIOD ; and the seventh, 
the RECTILINEAR PERIOD ; which shall all be noted in their 
proper place. 

CHARACTER OF CISTERCIAN ARCHITECTURE. 

IT is not unnatural to suppose, that, differing as the 
several monastic orders did in their habits and modes of 
life, some indications of this difference should find their 
way into the architecture of their buildings. It is many 
years since my attention was first directed to what 
appeared to be the peculiarities in the architecture of the 
churches of the Cistercian order of monks ; and having 
subsequently had opportunities of visiting a considerable 
number of the abbeys of that order, both abroad and in 
England, I was enabled to come to the conclusion that a 
uniformity in the design of the buildings of that order 
prevailed throughout Europe, which, if it was not the 
result of positive regulation, was, to say the least of it, 
very remarkable, and worthy of record. 

As the value of any such discovery would appear to be 
materially enhanced by the further discovery of any docu- 
mentary evidence bearing upon the point, I spared no pains 
in obtaining access to the early chronicles and records of 
the Cistercian order. In the course of this inquiry, ren- 
dered less easy from the difficulty of meeting with any of 
the authentic histories of the order in this country, J 
ascertained the important fact, that the rules which were 
drawn up by the early Cistercian abbots, in the infancy of 
their order, and which were enlarged and confirmed at 
subsequent, but still early periods, contained directions 
relating, not only to the discipline and mode of life to be 
followed within the walls, but also the choice of site, and 
to the architecture and form of their buildings, as well as 

1 For a further description of the Seven Periods of English Architec- 
peculiarities of these periods, see " The ture", by E. Sharpe, M.A. 



OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 313 

to the degree and nature of their ornaments and internal 
decoration. 

As the whole of these directions are borne out and con- 
firmed by all the examples with which I am acquainted, as 
there appears indeed to be scarcely a single case in which 
a variation from these rules occurred within the first two 
centuries of the existence of the order, I conceive that so 
interesting a fact, established, as it would appear to be, by 
the concurrent testimony afforded by the internal evidence 
of the buildings themselves, and the external evidence of 
contemporaneous historical record, and unnoticed, as I 
believe it hitherto to have been, is worthy of particular 
mention and illustration. 

This is not the time and place for entering into the 
proof of what I have asserted ; but as Furness Abbey cor- 
responds, in many of these particulars, with all the other 
large abbeys of this order, I will mention a few of them. 

And first as regards the site of a Cistercian abbey. 

It was ordained that they should never be built in 
towns, or even in hamlets ; but in secluded valleys, remote 
from the haunts of men. 

All who remember the sites of any of our principal 
Cistercian abbeys, will notice how strictly this rule is com- 
plied with : they generally lie high up the valley, often in 
the narrowest part ; and it appears to have been the prac- 
tice of the monks usually to clear out the bottom of the 
valley for pasturage and cultivation, leaving the sides 
clothed with wood. 

This rule is most stringently complied with in France 
and Germany; and although, in England, situations of this 
kind would be in some parts difficult to meet with, yet I 
know of no instance in which it has been absolutely de- 
parted from, or the valley deserted for the high land. 

Next as regards the church. 

They prohibited everything that had a vaunting ambi- 
tious character. Thus towers, which abounded in the abbey 
'churches of the Benedictines, were eschewed by the Cister- 
cians. They permitted indeed a low tower, at the intersec- 
tion of the arms of the cross, or over the crossing, as it was 
called, rising one stage above the building; but nowhere 
else : and the tower we now see at the west end of Furness 
Abbey church stands, like that at the end of the north 



314 RUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY 

transept of Fountains, a monument of the degeneracy, so 
to speak, of the order ; and an example of their departure, 
in the sixteenth century, from the rules they had laid down 
and observed in the twelfth and thirteenth. 

The churches were invariably dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary, and to her alone. They were nearly all uniform in 
plan, built, without exception, in the form of the cross; 
having nave, with side aisles, north and south transepts, 
and choir; and having also three small chapels, forming a 
sort of eastern aisle to the transepts, but separated from 
one another commonly by a partition wall. 

I now come to a very important point of their regula- 
tions : they permitted no sculptures of figures, or of the 
human form, no images, no carvings, save that of the 
crucifix, no pictures, no gold ornaments, no stained 
glass, that is to say, of a pictorial character, and no pro- 
stration in their churches. Now, although the period in 
which the whole of these rules were strictly carried out 
was possibly short, yet there is not one of their churches 
of early date upon which great severity of treatment is not 
plainly stamped; and I have searched in vain for such 
sculptures as are here prohibited in any of the Cistercian 
churches of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, whilst 
contemporaneous buildings of Benedictine origin abound 
with such carvings. Take, for example, the nearly contem- 
poraneous buildings of Rievaulx and Whitby, situated 
within some thirty miles of one another : in the one you 
will find grotesque figure-heads and a profusion of carved 
ornament ; in the other, extreme simplicity in these respects, 
numerous elegant mouldings, but no sculpture, no heads, 
no figures. 

So also, in the church of Furness Abbey, you will find an 
almost entire absence of sculptured ornament, and the effect 
made dependent upon excellent proportion and purity of 
design, along with great niceties of detail. 

So far as regards the church. The conventual buildings 
were laid out with the same regularity and uniformity : of 
these the* principal were 1. The CHAPTER HOUSE; where 
all the business of the convent was transacted. 2. The 
COMMON REFECTORY and day room of the monks. 3. The 
KITCHENS. 4. The PRINCIPAL REFECTORY. 5. The Hos- 
PITIUM or GUEST HOUSE. These were the most important 



OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 315 

buildings of a Cistercian monastery. There were also 
many others of minor importance, as well as some of more 
pretension, such as the Abbot's Lodge, which varied much 
in their position ; but the above mentioned buildings were 
almost invariably disposed round the quadrangle of the 
cloisters, in certain fixed situations, so that we always 
know where to look for them in a ruined convent. 



FURNESS ABBEY. 

The abbey of St. Mary in Furness was founded in the 
year of our Lord 1127, and was an affiliation of the abbey 
of Savigny in France ; which abbey, in the year 1148, with 
all its dependent establishments, adopted the Cistercian 
rule, at a general chapter of the latter order, held in that 
year at the abbey of Citraux. Of the monasteries of this 
order in England, Furness is recorded to have been second 
only to the abbey of Fountains in Yorkshire: and the 
remains that are left fully justify this account. 

SITE. The principal approach to the abbey was origi- 

; nally from the north, along the winding valley of Night- 

> shade, the level bottom of which has been cleared out for 

I cultivation, while sheltering woods cover the sides; on 

nearing the precincts, it is impossible not to be struck with 

'the truly Cistercian character of the approach and site. 

The valley gradually closes in, the opposite woods ap- 

iproach, its narrowest part is reached ; and there, in the 

very gorge of the valley, hedged in between the vertical 

rocks of red sandstone (whence the buildings were quarried), 

on the one side, and the steep woody banks rising abruptly 

from the very base course of the buildings on the other, 

stands Furness Abbey ; sunk so entirely beneath the sur- 

ace of the surrounding country, that its highest walls are 

nvisible ; and exhibiting the most perfect picture of 

mmility and repose. This, at least, was its condition a 

ew years ago, before the red mine and the railway changed 

he face of this retired district, and opened out new sources 

f wealth and employment to its inhabitants : and whilst 

*e cannot help lamenting the inroad which the latter inno- 

ation has made upon the former appearance of this 

iteresting valley, we must not forget that we owe our 

jisit here to-day to the facilities which it offers, and which 

VOL. VI. 41 



316 RUINS OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 

have been rendered available to thousands, to whom this 
interesting spot would otherwise have been inaccessible. 

What may have been the nature and extent of the 
buildings originally erected by the monks, on the founda- 
tion of the convent, it is difficult to conjecture, for no 
vestiges of them remain ; probably they were, as in many 
other similar cases, only temporary, or at all events small 
and insignificant : certainly, however, of those which at 
present exist, none can be said to be of an earlier date than 
the commencement of the abbacy of John Cantefield, who 
presided over the convent from the year 1152 to the year 
1175. 

Of these, the first in point of importance, and with one 
exception perhaps in point of date, is 

i. THE CONVENTUAL CHURCH. After the foundation of 
a convent, some time usually and naturally elapsed before 
the proper steps could be taken, the grants confirmed, 
the designs matured, and the funds collected, for com- 
mencing a work of this importance ; indeed, in most cases, 
these preliminary preparations appear to have consumed 
almost as much time as the building of the church itself. 
We have no account of the ceremony, either of the found- 
ing or consecration of the church; but judging entirely 
from the style of the work, it is probable that it could not 
have been commenced before the year of our Lord 1160. 
In this case it belongs to the latter part of the earlier half 
of the TRANSITIONAL PERIOD, and seems to have been en- 
tirely completed in every part although subsequently 
altered according to the original design. 

We have, therefore, in this building, a consistent, and 
very nearly perfect example of this, the third period of our 
national architecture, which exhibits most of the principal 
characteristics, not only of the period, but of the order to 
which it belongs. I say very nearly perfect ; for although 
the greater part of the piers, and the whole of the arche: 
and the main walls of the nave are gone, yet indicatior 
and data of this part of the building, and actual types in 
other parts, remain sufficient to indicate to us the nature 
of that which has been destroyed, and to enable us, by the 
help of that analogy, derived from other buildings similar 
in size and date, to restore, with the exception of the east 
and west fronts, the entire design, and the original appear- 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 317 

ance of every part of this once magnificent monument of 
the twelfth century. 

On reference to the plan (Plate xxvni), it will be seen 
that the construction in the fifteenth century of the west 
tower (A), has caused the entire obliteration of the west 
front of the nave, which originally extended one compart- 
ment further to the west than it now does; a small portion 
of the wall of the north aisle (b) being left, to indicate, as 
it were, its original extent. 

Towards the east, again, the enlargement of the choir in 
the same century, and probably by the same abbot, has 
destroyed all vestiges of its original termination in this 
direction. The construction of the chapel (H) on the north 
side of the choir, the porch (f) covering the north door- 
way ; and the buttresses to the west crossing piers at (D) (D), 
have been the only other alteration of the original plan. 
"With these exceptions, and the insertion of later windows, 
in different parts of the walls, we have before us the per- 
fect plan of the original conventual church. We perceive 
at once that the design has been formed after the true 
Cistercian type, and in exact correspondence with those of 
its sister abbeys of Rievaulx, Fountains, and Kirkstall, of 
nearly contemporaneous date. 

{To be continued?) 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. No. II. 

IONFIEMATION CHARTER OF RANULF II, EARL OF CHESTER. 
(Vide pp. 131-138 ante.) 

IN nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. Amen. Sanctorum prisca 
uctoritate patrum qui in nomine Patris et Filii et spiritus sancti in sancta 
cclesia regiminis gubernacula hactenus tenuerunt quique suos adjutores 
ancte que ecclesie fundatores sua nobis industria suorumque scriptorum 
3nga tradicione cognitos reddiderunt adinoneri videmur ut ea que a tern- 
oraneis nostris in Sancte ecclesie matris exaltatione facta sunt presentibus 



318 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

per nos manifestentur posterisque dinoscenda nobis scribentibus, reserven- 
tur Nos igitur majorum imitantes exempla jam quedam pietatis opera refe- 
ramus quse in Anglica terra gesta sunt a Hugone Cestrensi comite anno ab 
incamacione Domini millesimo nonagesimo tercio regnante potentissimo 
rege Wullelmo atque in archiepiscopatu Cantuariensi pontificante Anselmo 
atque in Eboriacensi pontificante volumus vero ut religiosi atque fideles 
Christiani cognoscant quia idcirco nobis ista describere placuit ut qui ea 
relegerint vel audierint dum supplicabiliori afFectu pro sancte ecclesie 
fundatorum salute implorent et ut presentes ad regna celestia tendentes 
etiam inter etatis hujus primates quos sequantur inveniant. Igitur ad 
laudem et gloriam summe et individue Trinitatis atque incomprehensibilis 
divinitatis, jam preferamus quod nos dicere spopondimus. Hugo Cestrensis 
comes atque ermentrudis cometissa devotioni religiose pia mente subditi 
piissimaque Dei visitatione inspirati in quadam ecclesia que constructa est 
in honore Sancte Werburge virginis in civitate Cestre monachos religiose 
viventes posuerunt. concedente rege Wullelmo que dum assidue exorarent 
tarn pro utilitate anime regis Wullelmi et Wullelmi patris ejus nobilissimi 
regis et matris ejus Mathildis regine fratrumque et sororum ejus atque regis 
Eduuardi quam pro animarum suarum salute et pro animabus patrum et 
matrutn et antecessorum heredumque et parentum et baronum suorum 
omniumque Christianorum tam vivorum quam defunctorum. Huic vero 
ecclesie Sancte Uuerburge Hugo supradictus comes et ermentrudis come- 
tissa possessiones priores liberas in perpetuum et quietas concesserunt et 
de suis augmentaverunt babitationique monacliorum abilem reddiderunt 
eamque abbatiam nulli omnino abbatie subditam fecerunt postea in ea 
monachos et abbatem Deo donante et supradicto rege Wullelmo concedente 
constituerunt. Hanc etiam et quicquid ad earn pertinet abbati et monachis 
dederunt. Videlicet Ynes Saltonem. Suttonam. Ceveleiam. Huntitonam. 
Bostonam. Uneuenam. Chrostonam. Trochfort. Clistonam. Estoriam. Vuis- 
deleth. Hodesleiam. Weupram. et demidiam Eabbi. et terciam partem de 
Nestima. et terciam partem de Salhala, et terciam partem de Staneia et dimi- 
diam partem deLeche etunamcarruscamterre ad Pulforth. et terciam partem 
de Burewardesleia. et Edinchale. et Sotewica. In super etiam dederunt huic 
ecclesie in ipsa civitate de suo dominio vicum a porta de North usque ad 
ecclesiam. et locum unius molendini ad pontem civitatis et duo maneria : 
Anglisi unum autem in Ros. unum in Wirhalle erberiam. Et in Linde 
terram decem bourn et post obitum comitis vel cometisse Westonam ci 
appendiciis suis in Debbesrraa (?) Et rectam decimam de piscotorio Etoi 
Et omnium que ei pertinent et decimam de Frodesham de molendino 
piscatoria et de pullis equarum et de Weverham et de Ufre, et de Lech, et 
de Roecestra et de Haurdina, et de Colesul, et Bissopestred et de Uppe- 
tuna de Estham. et de Campedene. et decimam piscatoriarum de Ruelent. 
et decimam Anglisi de dominio suo. etiam de navibus. Ecclesiam et ter- 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 319 

ram ecclesie et decimam de dominio de Danefort. et de moleudinis Horum 
omnium supradictorum maneriorum rectam decimam in omnibus dederunt 
in pullis, in vitulis, in ovibus, in porcis, in lana, in caseis et in aliis rebus 
que decimari debent. Domini Westune ermentrudis comissa jussa comitis 
Hugonis posuit super altare coram domno Anselmo archiepiscopo Cantuarie 
et baronibus suis Ea die sesierunt sanctam Werburgam de Nuestona per 
decimam ejusdem Nuestone et per ecclesiam et terram ecclesie Estone et 
per terram unino carruce quam tune presenter exhibuerunt. reliquam vero 
partem omnem liberam et quietam in elemosina semper in posterum post 
discessum illius qui prius obiret concesserunt. Quin etiam baronibus suis con- 
cesserunt ut unusquisque post obitum suum rectam partem omnis substantie 
sue prefate abbatie daret. et centum solidatas terre. aliis autem secundum 
posse suum. Teste reverendo domino Anselmo archiepiscopo. Herveio epo 
Balduino monacho. Rodberto filio Hugonis. Willelmo constabulario. Willel- 
mo Malbanc. Ranulpho Dapifero. Eadulfo Dapifero. Hugone filio Osberti. 
Ricardo Banastro. Hamane de Maceio. Gilleberto de Venables. Ricardo de 
Vemon. Ricardo de Rullos. Bigod des Loges. Ranulfo Venatore. aliisque 
quam plurimis Willelmus Malbeench dedit huic abbatie Sancte Werburge 
vviteberiam et terciam partem vveupre et ecclesiam et decimam de Tatenala 
et terram duobus bobus et decimam de Salchale et de claituna et de Yraduc. 
Teste cometissa. Ricardo Banaste. Hugone Osberti filio. Bigod des loges 
:Ricardo Pincernario et Sirardo Rodbertus filius Hugonis capellam Cristen- 
,tune et terram capelle et terram cujusdam rustici ipsumque rusticum et 
ljuoddam molendinum terramque ipsius molendini et chotam Ordrici ipsum 
Drdricum et quendam campum junctum huic cote et crya et quandam 
ialinam in Fuleuvic et duas masuras in civitate et paululum terre juxta 
Bochtunestan. Hoc donum concessit Hugo comes. Teste Wullelmo 
S T igelli fiUo et fratre ejus Ricardo. Ranulfo Dapifero. Bigod. Hamuone 
le Maceio. Hugone Osberti filio Hugone Normanni filio Fulcone de 
xivinvilla. Unfrido de Costentin ; Hugo filius Normanni et Radulfus 
jrater ejus partem suam de Lostoch et eulesia de Cotituna et terram ecclesie 
t decimam et de Lay. Teste Wullelmo Malbeench multisque aliis. 
ticardus de Vernon decimam estone et Pichetone Ricardus de Rullos. 
odesiam et decimam Winveretone et Hottone et Clotone et molendini 
'Intone. Billeheld uxor Baldrici perfortunam. Teste Normanno de 
n-trio multisque aliis. Radulfus venator terram trium carrucarum in 
taochetuna. Hugo de Mara reddeclinam concedente comite. Teste 
imetissa. Willelmo Nigelli filio multisque aliis. Nigellus de Burceio 
bcimara de Stortuna et de Gravesbyri et quartam partem de Gravesbyri 
im de luco quam de piano. Teste Garatim fratre ejus. Ricardo de 
ullos. Willelmo filio Huberti. Gisleberto de Blayne. Radulfus Er- 
umi filius et uxor ejus claricia terram in adecerce ad octo boves et deci- 
^am de Bertestona in Wurhale et de Verulestane in Wicesfeld et de 



320 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

equabus suis ubicunque sint Peste Godefrido mercatore et Nigello multis- 
que aliis Rodbertus de Tremonz Tidelvestan. Teste Rannulfo fratre suo 
Rodberto Dapifero. Wascelenus nepos Walterii de Vernon quendam 
agricolam et terrain quatuor bourn in Nessa et decimam de Prestona et 
terciam partem tocius substantie sue ; et uxoris ejus. Teste Gisleberto 
Wulmaro Archidiacono. Sirard capellam de Bedintone et terrain quatuor 
bourn et decimam illius manerii et decimam de Bromhale et de Waleie et 
de Maynes et de Westone et de Wille. et post obitum omnem substantie 
sue et uxoris sue de cestresyra et de manuis. Teste Willelmo Conestabu- 
lario. Hugone Osberti filio et Wimundo de Col. Ricardus de Mesnil- 
warin decimam de Blachenoth de Annona de piscatoria et de omnibus de 
quibus decima debet clari. Teste Rogero fratre suo et Rannulfo de Beu- 
rello et Rannulfo de Walebruno. Rannulfus filius Goselini concessit 
decimam suam sicut pater suus dedit earn. Rodbertus Putrel terrain 
unius carruce a Maclesfeld. Teste Waleranno de Baro. et multis aliis. 
Walterus de Vernon decimam equarum suarum. Comes nanim unam cum 
decem retibus ad piscandum in Anglisi imperpetuum liberam et quietam. 
Ad festum Sancte Werburge in estate concessit feiriam trium dierum. 
Teste cometissa Willelmo Pincerna. Hugo Camerario Willelmo Mai- 
beenc. Ricardo Banastro. 

TESTIMONIUM ANSELMI ABCHIEPISCOPI. 

Decet quemque Christianum de his que ad honorem Dei in futurum 
stabilia esse decerni presens audivit testimonium perhibere ne aliquis dum 
minus amans ea possit quavis occasione in sequenti tempore pervertendo 
mutare. Unde ego Anselmus gratia Dei Sancte Cantuariensis ecclesie 
Archiepiscopatus testimonium fero quod quando Hugo Cestrensis comes 
posuit monachos in ecclesia Sancte Werburge concessit et confirmavit ut 
eadem ecclesia et omnes res ejus quos habebat et quos ipse vel homines 
sui tune dederunt vel postmodum darent ita libere essent et quiete Athe- 
loneis et omnibus operibus et omnibus aliis consuetudinibus ut Nichil 
meis sibi aliquam tenus retinuerit Statuit etiam ut homines ad ipsam 
ecclesiam pertinentes nulli pro qualibet causa nisi domino Ricardo quern 
de abbatia beccensi monachum unde ego tune abbas eram rogatus ab ipso 
comite abbatem ibi fieri concessi et successoribus ejus respondeant depne- 
bendis autem canonicorum constituit ipsis concedentibus et me et Rodberto 
episcopo et baronibus suis testibus ut post discessum uniuscumque eorum 
prebende eorum libere sine ulla contradictione in domininium monachorum 
ad usum eorum venirent siquis autem aliquid horum infringere voluerit 
anathema sit et cum Juda traditore Domini per hemiter dampuetur et cum 
Symone Mago et demonibus in inferno crucietur Post obitum Hugonis 
comitis. Ricardus comes filius ejus dedit pro anima illius Deo et Sancte 
Werburge terram Ulfrici propositi foris portam de North et molendinum 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 321 

de Beche et tres mansuras quietas et pacatas duas in civitate et unam 
extra muram. Teste Willelmo Conestabulario. Waltero Devernona. 
Radulfo Dapifero etaliis multis Willelmus Constabularius dedit Neutonam. 
Teste Radulfo Dapifero et aliis multis. Hugo Malbeench dedit unam 
salinam in Wico suo. Teste Adalria matre sua. Ricardo de Praeres. et 
Gutha. et aliis multis. Hugo filius Normanni dedit Gosetro et Lantonam. 
Teste Hugone de Lacis. et Rogero filius Normanni et Sirardo. et aliis 
multis. Ricardus de Praieres dedit Cuoctyrum. Teste Willelmo et 
Adam filiis suis et Lamberto. Corbin dedit unam carrucam terre in 
Wirwella Roes uxor Pigoti et Hamundus de Maci dederunt Norwedinam 
et ecclesiam cum omnibus que ei pertinent concedentibus et testibus filiis 
eorum. Rogerus de Mannilvuarum dedit Plumleyam cum Widone filio 
suo. Teste Willelmo Ranulfo filiis suis. Ricardus Pincerna dedit ecclesiam 
Sancti Olafi et duas mansuras in civitate. Ranulfus Venator dedit Brade- 
fort et unum Salinam in Norhtwich concessu Ricardi comitis et Hugonis de 
Verne. Bourel dedit ecclesiam de Haliewelle et decimam suam et de molen- 
dino suo. Herbertus Wombasarius dedit terrain quatuor bourn in Hole. 
Rogerus de Sancto Martino dedit terrain duorum bourn in Bebintona. Wil- 
lielmus de Punterleya dedit Butavari cum omnibus apendiciis suis id 
est ecclesia et totam manerium solidum et quietum et silvam Lestone 
ad rogum faciendum et ad commune usum domestici operis concessu. 
Herbert! filii sui et Alveredi domini sui et Ricardi Comitis. Teste 
iWillelmo Constabulario Ricardo Banastro Willelmo Pincerna et aliis 
"nultis. Hugo de Vernon unam mansuram in testra solidam et quietam. 
[lannulfus comes nepos Hugonis Comitis dedit Uppetunam cum omnibus 
ippendiciis suis, et omnibus ad earn pertinentibus solidam et quietam pro 
mima Hugonis avunculi sui et pro anima sua et uxoris sue Lucie et pro 
umnulfo filio suo ; et pro animabus omnium antecessorum et successorum 
uorum concessu Rannulfi filii sui Teste Willelmo fratre ejus Willelmo 
tabulario. Rodberto Dapifero Warino Banastro. Hugone filio 
>sli<>rni. Osberto filio Hugonis et aliis multis. Willelmus Meschinus 
edit Deo et Sancte Werburge ecclesiam de Dissart. Concessu Rannulfii 
lii sui. Teste Willelmo clerico de Ruelent. Willelmo Flandrensi 
(Villelmo Pincerna. Matheo de Ruelent. Ricardo filio Berlei ; et aliis 
uiltis. Mattheus de Ruelent dedit ecclesiam de Thurstanestona cum 
nnibus que ad earn pertinent. Teste Rodberto de Petra Ponti. Rod- 
Tto Banastro. Ricardo filio Berley. Hugo filius Osberti dedit unam 
pansuram in testra, et unum pratum quod vocatur Kingeshie. Suein 
'lit duas bovatas in Wetenhala concedeutibus filiis suis. Ricardus de 
ruce dedit unam mansuram in cestra et Morsetonam. Willelmus de 
uhald Deo et sancte Werburge de Lay dedit pro anima sua et parentum 
orum. Teste Hugone Malbeenc. Ricardo Pagarno et aliis multis qui 
ueruiit. Leticia de Malpas dedit Deo et Sancte Werberge parvam 



322 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

Cristentonam et Bechiam et unam mansuram in civitate. Teste et conce- 
dente domino suo Ricardo. et fratre suo Ricardo Mailardo. Rodberto 
Grefesac. Nigello Chaldel, et aliis multis. Sweinus Faber dedit unam 
mansuram ante ecclesiam Sancte Werburge. Hugo filius Osberti dedit 
alteram juxta illam pro dimidia Wereburtuna. Willelmus filius Andree 
dedit cum Andrea filio suo Deo et Sancte Werburge magnam sopam scili- j 
cet inter domum Winebaldi vicecomitis et Hamundi Utredus Walensis 
dedit unam mansuram cum croplitis liberam et quietam ab omni re. In 
nomine domini nostri Jhesu Christi. Ego secundus Rannulfus comes 
Cestrie concede et confirmo has omnes donationes quas mei antecessores vel 
barones eorum dederunt, dans etiam ex meo proprio dono pro salute anime. 
mee parentumque meorum decimum denarium universi redditus mei de 
civitate et de omni pisce qui capitur in aqua dede. Ad hue concede Deo 
et Sancte Werburge ut loges mercatorum fiant ante portas monachorum 
ita quod monachi accipiant inde redditus percipiens super meum forisfactum 
ne aliquis emat vel vendat aliquid in mundinis Sancte Werburge nisi ibi. 
Do etiam ecclesiam Sancte Marie de Castello et duas mansuras ante 
portas monasterii, unam scilicet Hugonis presbiteri que vocatur le Leure, 
et alteram Suargari pelliparii et terram. Conague de Chel. Et de- 
cimam molendiuorum meorum de Cestrasiria. Teste Roberto Dapifero. 
Normanno de Verd. Rob. Banaster. Gileberto le Venables. Willel- 
mo Malbanc. Willelmo filio Dunecan. Chatwaladro rege Nortwaliarum. 
Willelmo de Manulnurien. Roberto de Maci et Simon frater ejus, et Ro- 
berto filio Picod et aliis multis. Robertus de Maci et Simon frater ejus 
dederunt Deo et Sancte Werburge, octo bovatas in Bacfort cum omnibus 1 
rebus illis bovatis pertinentibus solutas et quietas ab omni servicio et ab 
omni re. Simon filius Willelmi dedit decimam molendini sui de Bretebi 
Testibus et concedentibus filius suis et Hugone de Petra ponte. Alanus 
de Vilers dedit Deo et Sancte Werburge litegade cum omnibus rebus eid 
ville pertinentibus solutam et quietam ab omni servicio et omni re. 

Teste Ricardo Pincenna, et Ricardo Firun, et Willelmo filio Dui 
Et sciant tarn presentes quam futuri quod ego junior. Rannulfus 
Cestrie turn pro utilitate et honore ecclesie turn pro abbatis et monachor 
fratrum nostrorum prece turn quod maximum est pro salute anime in 
Confirmo et corroboro mea autoritate et meo sigillo quecumque continent 
in hac carta, scilicet omnes donationes quas mei anticessores comites 
barones vel milites ; vel Burgensis, dederunt Deo et Sancte Werburge 
hanc confirmationem in cesauris ecclesie in testimonium posteris rej 
Et precor amicos et precipio super fidem mihi debitam meo heredi or 
busque meis ominibus tarn futuris quam presentibus quatibus hec or 
tarn mea quam antiquorum dona sint stabilia, integra et rata et ita ab omn 
re et consuetudine libera sola et quieta. Ut nichil libertatis nee in placiti- 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 323 

nee in consuetudinibus vel in aliqufbus rebus possit eis addi ulterius. 
Valete. Valeant omnes fideles in Christo. 

[This concluding Charter is in a later hand.] 

Ledb. Dei gratia Cantuar. Archiepiscopus et tocius Angliae primas. Om- 
nibus sancte ecclesie fidelibus, salutem. Noverint universitas presentium 
et futurorum quam abbatiam Sancte Werburge Cestrie quam Comes Hugo 
Cestrensis et Ermentrudis comitessa uxor sua in honorem Dei et Sancte 
Werburge construxerit et omnes possessiones quas servuli Christi monachi 
qui in ejusdem Beate Werburge ecclesia divinis sunt obsequis mancupati 
juste et canonice ex predict! com. et comitisse donatione sive aliorum 
principum largitione seu fidelium quorumcumque oblatione in presentia- 
rum possideret sive in future canonice adipisci poterunt confirmavimus et 
presentis scripti munimine corroboramus. Hoc aditiensis et suum opere 
.monentes libertates quas sanctissime memorie Beatus Anselmus venerabi- 
.lis pater et predecessorum noster prefate ecclesie scripto suo confirmavit. 
Stabiles permanere et a nullo diminutionem aut conturbationem sustinere. 
3i quis igitur patris nostri predicti Beati Anselmi confirmationem aut 
nostrum ausu temerario infestare aut irritare attemtaverit Dei et nostre 
mbjaceat maledictioni. Conservantibus autem et predictorum monacorum 
)ona augentibus Dei benedictionem et nostram et vitam eternam opta- 
nus. Vale. 



ON THE RESIGNATION OF THE KINGDOM OF MAN TO THE 
POPE, A.D. 1219. 

BY PATRICK CHALMERS, ESQ., F.S.A. 

HAVING recently had under my notice some documents 
fhich appear to supply a new fact in the history of the 
'shopric of Man and the Isles, viz., the subjection of that 
to the archbishop of Dublin as its metropolitan, I pro- 
>sed to myself the pleasure of laying them before the 
"itish Archa3ological Association. Before doing this, how- 
,1 wished to try to reconcile some of the conflicting dates 
id statements with which one meets in the histories of 
see ; but to do this, requires a reference to authorities 
I have not yet had an opportunity of consulting with 
icient care ; and some of which indeed, I have not yet 
m able to see. 
The remarks which accompany these papers will there- 

VOL. VI. 42 



324 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

fore tend rather to elicit discussion than to give informa- 
tion. As the resignation of the sovereignty of the Isle of 
Man into the hands of the pope in 1219, to be held there- 
after of the holy see, is well known, I shall subjoin only 
the names of the witnesses, which, I believe, have not 
hitherto been printed. The other documents, of which I 
send copies, are letters of pope Honorius III, addressed to 
the bishop of Carlisle, and the bishop elect of Norwich, i 
legate of the apostolic see, touching the consecration and ; 
admission to the episcopate of the successor to Nicholas, 
bishop of Man, who died in 1217. The initial of the bishop 
consecrated, is not given in the transcript made from the 
register in the Vatican, and, perhaps, had not been inserted 
in the register, an apparent omission of frequent occur- 
rence, and especially unfortunate in this instance, since 
there seems to have been a rival presentation, and, perhaps, 
an attempt to set aside the capitular right of election of 
bishops of Man and the Isles, granted to the monks of 
Furnes by Olaf, son of Godred, and confirmed by his son 
Godred, son of Olaf. 

At this period (1219), Reginald, the usurper, was king, 
of Man, and his half-brother, Olaf the Black, king of the 
Isles. Olaf had presented Nicholas, abbot of Furnes, to: 
the archbishop of York, for consecration, as bishop of the , 
Isles, about 1203 (Ann. Furn., p. 169) ; and Nicholas 
probably also procured a like presentation from Reginald, 
as king of Man. The two kings may also have concurred 
in presenting their nephew Reginald to the archbishop 
York, as successor to Nicholas ; while the chapter of Furm 
may have elected some other person as bishop ; and this 
may account for the pope's letter to his commissioners, 
give effect to the election of the chapter, followed, as it 
had been, by consecration by the archbishop of Dublin. 
But it is to be observed, that the commission speaks of the 
presentation to this prelate, " metropolitanum loci", as ii 
he were the true metropolitan; not "tanquam", or "prc 
hoc vice", as the style would probably have run, had he 
been substituted only for a time ; neither does it appear, 
that he had given consecration in his character of legate 
(legatus natus). Reginald, however, held the bishopric 
until his death, about 1226. At this time, a bishop John 
appears, who is not very satisfactorily accounted for, and 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 325 

may have been the former elect of the chapter of Furnes, 
whose right, or claim, may have been in abeyance during 
Reginald's tenure of the dignity. 

The right of metropolitan jurisdiction over the see of 
the Isles, if such right existed in early times in any parti- 
cular see, appears to have changed hands frequently, and 
to have been fertile of disputes. That, in the early stages 
of its existence, the bishops of this see were consecrated by 
those of Dublin or Armagh, is highly consistent with pro- 
bability; and, perhaps, the letters of pope Honorius may 
imply a recognition of an ancient metropolitan right : but 
it is clear that both York and Trondhjem were in use to 
consecrate the bishops of the Isles in after times ; and the 
fact of the earliest Ostman bishops of Dublin having been 
consecrated by archbishops of Canterbury may account for 
the resort of bishops of the Isles to other sees for consecra- 
tion during the pagan occupancy of Dublin. Olaf, king of 
Man, 1102-1142, who gave to the abbey of Furnes, as is 
known, "Episcopalis electionis dignitatem, set et totius 
juris mei Christianitatis observantiam, salva semper sedis 
iapostolica3 reverentia", sent the bishop then elected to 
Tlmrstan, archbishop of York, for consecration. In 1120, 
WMalcolm HI, king of Scots, restored the bishopric of Whit- 
hern ( Candida Casce}, separating it from the see of the 
Males, in which it had become merged during the Scandi- 
navian invasions. In 1154, the archbishopric of Trondhjem 
If Ecclesia Nidarosiensis} was constituted, by pope Anas- 
:asius IV, and the see of the Isles made suffragan to it; 
Itorhich arrangement was confirmed, in 1253, by pope Inno- 
IpentlV. (Dip. Norv.) But, in 1244, the monks of Furnes 
'eern to have protested against this, and to have asserted 
'heir right to elect the bishop of the Isles, and to send him 
i'|o the archbishop of York for consecration. The pope, 
nnocent IV, authorizes the archbishop of York to conse- 
rate the bishops-elect of Man, but with consent of the 
rchbishop of Trondhjem. (Dip. Norv.) In 1247, Laurence, 
Irchdeacon of Man, went to Norway for consecration by 
he archbishop of Trondhjem, and to obtain his presentation 
oiii Harald, king of Man, then at the court of Hakon, 
ing of Norway ; but Harald refused the presentation until 
e should ascertain that the election had been properly 
An attempt seems to have been made at this time 



326 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

to take the election out of the hands of the chapter of 
Furnes. In 1266, when the sovereignty of Man was trans- 
ferred to Alexander III, king of Scots, the patronage of 
the bishopric of Man was conveyed along with it, saving 
such rights as the church of Trondhjem ( Ecclesia Nidaro- 
siensis) might have of jurisdiction over it ; but nothing is 
said of the rights of Furnes. (Chron. Man.} In 1275, 
Alexander presents Mark of Galloway, bishop-elect of Man, 
to the archbishop of Trondhjem for consecration. (Ibid.) 
In 1348, William Russell, abbot of Ruffin, was consecrated 
bishop of the Isles, by pope Clement VI, at Avignon. He 
was probably elected by the chapter of Furnes. It is 
likely that, both before and after this consecration, some of 
the bishops of the Isles had been consecrated by Scottish 
bishops ; perhaps irregularly : but, in 1472, St. Andrew's 
was erected into an archbishopric, and the sees of Orkney 
and of the Isles were, with others, assigned to it as suffragans. 
The archbishop of Trondhjem protested in respect of Ork- 
ney, but seems to have made no claim of jurisdiction over 
the see of the Isles. (Dip. Norv.) 

The question whether Man and the Isles constituted one 
bishopric has occasioned much discussion, and is yet, per- 
haps, undecided ; but it seems to be clear, from the words 
of Jocelin, in his life of St. Patrick (by whom there is no 
good reason to doubt that the see was founded), that 
German was set over the Isles as well as over Man. 

" Renavigans Hiberniam ad insulas maris convertendas divertit : e qui- 
bus Euboniam, id est, Manniam, tune quidem Britannige subjectam, salutari 
praedicatione ac signorum exhibitione ad Christum convertit. (I omit : 
miracle.) Quendam discipulorum ejus virum sanctum et sapientem, Gc 
manum nominatum, in Episcopum promotum illius gentis Ecclesise novel 
regendae preposuit : et in quodam promontorio, quod adhuc Insula Patric 
dicitur (eo quod ipse ibidem aliquantulum demorabatur) Episcopalem sede 
posuit. Aliis autem Insulis ad fidem Christi conversis ; singulis singulc 
aut etiam plures praefecit presides de discipulis suis, sicque Hiber 
repetiit." 

The distinction between "Episcopum" and "Prajsu- 
lem" is certainly clearly made here. The styles of bishoj 
of Man, bishop of the Isles, or bishop of Man and the Isles, 
seem to have been used indifferently, from the earliest 
times, to denote the same see. The foundation of a sepa- 
rate bishopric of the Isles by churchmen of lona, if ever 



OKIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 327 

made, must, as in the case of the annexation of Candida 
Casa, be attributed to exceptional disturbing causes. Any 
separation or division of the see, " Mannia? et Insularum 
Sodorensium" (down to the final one), seems to have been 
but temporary, and unauthorized by any sufficient ecclesi- 
astical authority. 

Train's History of Man contains a very full list of the 
bishops of the Isles ; and so far as I have been able to test 
it, it seems to be pretty well vouched, though there are, 
almost necessarily, occasional errors of date. It does not 
appear by whom Bernard de Lin ton, abbot of Arbroath 
and chancellor of Scotland, was elected, nor by whom con- 
secrated; his election occurred about 1328. 



Names of Witnesses present at Resignation of the Kingdom of Man to the 

Pope by Reginald, King of Man. 1219. 

Et in hujus rei testimonium has litteras patentes fieri fecimus, hiis 

testibus. C. Bagoren. Episcopo cle Wallia (blank) Officiali de (blank) 

Johanne Clerico. Juone filio Zollwed. Magistro Juone, Zolano Senes- 

callo domini Regis de Man. Supplicamus autem Sanctitati vestre, quod 

privilegium illud et petitionem, quam aliis Regibus censualibus et Vassallis 

ecclesie Romane conceditis nobis mittat Sanctitas uestra. Nos enim parati 

sumus omnia prsedicta secundum mandatum uestrum seruare. Interfuerunt 

lutem huic nostre donationi de familia domini Legati, Magister Petrus de 

'"llemede, domini Pape Cappellanus, Magister Ardingus papien. eiusdem 

lomini Subdiaconus, Magister Petrus de Babert, Magister Jacobus Sciptor 

Scriptor?) domini Pape, presbiter Lucas de Wytsande domini Legati 

'uppellanus, Pandulfus nepos ipsius domini Legati, Thesaurarius Cices- 

nTi. Magister Johannes de Venafro, Stephanus nepos domini Stephani 

3asilice duodecim Apostolorum presbiteri cardinalis, Martinus Cicestren. 

scallus domini Legati, Contardus clericus domini Gregorii de Crescentio 

ancti Theodori diaconus Cardinalis, Rusticus et Johannes de London Scrip- 

jres domini. Actum London, in domo militie Templi x. Kalendas Octobris, 

imo domini MO. cc. xix. Et ne super hiis aliquis possit dubitare has 

ttoras fieri fecimus, et sigillo nostro muniri. Monumenta Historica Bri- 

,mca. Add 1 . MSS. Brit Mus. Vol. ii. 

'"iiorius Episcopus, etc Episcopo Karleolensi et P. Noruricensi 

Electo Camerario nostro Apostolice Sedis Legato. 

Anno iv, epist. 608. 

Venerabilis frater noster, Episcopus Insularum in nostra proposuit pre- 
ntia constitutus, quod bone memorie. N. Insularum Episcopo, prede- 



328 OKIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

cessore suo, viam universe carnis ingresso, dilecti filii conuentus de 
Furnesio, ad quos Insularum Episcopi electio pertinebat conuenientes in 
unum, inuocata Spiritus Sancti gratia, ipsum in Episcopum Insularum 
unanimiter et concorditer elegerunt, ac ipsum cum decreto electionis con- 
firmandum ad venerabilem fratrem nostrum Dublinensis Archiepiscopum 
Metropolitanum loci, Legatum Sedis Apostolice transmiserunt per suas 
litteras humiliter supplicantes ut electione confirmata ipsius impehderet 
munus consecrationis eidem, qui examinata electione pariter et Electo, 
cum ei de ydoneitate persone ipsius, ac electione canonica constitisset, 
electionem confirmauit eandem sibi munus consecrationis impendens, ac 
eum ad Episcopatum Insularum cum litteris destinauit, dans Prioribus, 
Abbatibus, Archidiaconis, et uniuerso Clero Insulane diocesis in mandatis, 
ut eum tamquam patrem et pastoreni animarum suarum recipientes humi- 
liter et deuote, honorem et obedientiam sibi debitam exhiberent. Princeps 
autem terre ipsius, et quidam alii diocesis 1 Insulani non attendentes quod 
laicis quamuis religiosis super ecclesiis, vel personis ecclesiasticis nulla est 
attributa potestas, quos obsequendi manet necessitas, non auctoritas impe- 
randi, ut eum impedirent quominus possessionem ipsius Episcopatus 
obtinere valeret ne ipsum recipereut Clero prohibuere prefato, alias 3 sil 
et ecclesie sue dampna gravia et iniurias irrogando. Quia vero fratrur 
et coepiscoporum nostrorum gravamen indebitum conniuentibus oci 
pertransire nee volunius nee debemus, discretioni uestre per apostolic 
scripta mandamus, quatinus prefatum Principem et alios ut presumptior 
huiusmodi desistentes, nullatenus per se uel per alios impediant quominus 
predictus Episcopus episcopatus sui pacifica ualeat possessione gaudere, 
competenter satisfacientes sibi de dampnis et iniuriis irrogatis, moneatis 
prudenter, et efficaciter inducatis, et si necesse fuerit, ipsos ad hoc per 
censuram ecclesiasticam appellatione remota compellatis. Non obstante 
constitutione concilii generalis, qua cauetur nequis ultra duas dietas ext 
suam diocesim ad iudicium trahi possit. Datum Viterbii v. Idus 
vembris, Pontificatus nostri anno quarto. 

Anno iv, epist. 608, pag. 141v. Ex Eegistro Bullarum. Honorius 

Episcopo Karleolin. et P. Norwicen. Electo Camerario nostro Apostolice 

Sedis Legato. 

Venerabilis frater noster Episcopus Insularum in nostra presentia con- 
stitutus quod bo : me : N. Insularum Episcopo predecessore suo viam 

uniuerse carnis ingresso etc., as in other deed with some slight 

verbal differences, not affecting the substance. 

Datum Viterbii v. Idus Novembris Pontificatus nostri anno quarto 
(1219.) 

1 " deuoti", in other deed. a " alios", in other deed. 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 329 

Honorius, etc., illustri Reyi Manie. Anno vu, epist. 76. 

Ad hec Rex regum et Dominus dominantium Jesus Christus, a quo tibi 

concessa temporalem debes recognoscere potestatem, ad Regni te solium 

sublimavit. ut ecclesias et loca religiosa per tuum regnum existentia dili- 

gas, et honores. munificentie tue manum eis tarn liberaliter quam ylariter 

porrigendo, et alia in eis pietatis opera exhibendo. Cum igitur sicut 

ostris est auribus intimatum quedam ecclesie Regni tui, quarum omnium 

s patronus, non habere terram liberam asserantur, Serenitatem tuam 

ogamus. monemus. hortamur attente quatinus, cum indecens omnimodis 

videatur. ut ecclesie memorate competent! dote penitus sint expertes, ipso- 

rum cuilibet saltern triginta passus terre iuxta canonicas sanctiones in 

iberam elimosinam extra cimeterium a parte qualibet earundem ad domos 

lericorum faciendas ibidem liberaliter largiaris, ut eedem pro te teneantur 

Dei misericordiam implorare, ut semper sit ubicumque ambulaueris ipse 

,ecum, suamque tibi concedat gratiam in presenti, et gloriam in futuro. 

Datum Laterani xin. Kaleudas Februarii, Anno septimo. (Hist 1 , year, 

L.D. 1223). 

Monumenta Historica Britannica ex autographis Romanorum 
Pontificum deprompta. Add 1 . MSS. Brit. Mus. 



330 



i&rftt'sfy 



3&ton'atiom 



SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING. 

MANCHESTER AND LANCASTER. 1850. 

AUGUST 19TH TO 24TH INCLUSIVE. 



Patrons. 

THE EAEL OF DERBY, K.G., Lord-Lieutenant of Lancashire 
The Right Rev. the LORD BISHOP or MANCHESTER, F.R.S. 

President. 

JAMES HEYWOOD, ESQ., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents. 



The High Sheriff of Lancashire 

The Earl Ducie 

The Earl of Wilton, G.C.H. 

The Earl of Ellesmere, F.S.A. 

Lord Skelmersdale 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Manchester 
*The Mayor of Manchester 
*The Mayor of Lancaster 
*The Mayor of Preston 
*The Mayor of Salford 
*T. B. Addison, Esq. 

Sir Elkanah Armitage 

R. B. Armstrong, Esq., M.P., Q.C. 

William Atkinson, Esq. 

Sir William Betham, F.S.A., M.R.I.A., 
Ulster King at Arms 

Beriah Botfield, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

John Bright, Esq., M.P. 

Joseph Brotherton, Esq., M.P. 

William Brown, Esq., M.P. 

B. B. Cabbell, Esq.,M.P., F.R.S.,F.S.A. 
*The Rev. Thomas Corser, M.A. 
*James Crossley, Esq. 
*Pudsey Dawson, Esq. 

Rear- Admiral Sir W. H. Dillon, K.C.H. 

Sir Fortunatus Dwarris, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
*R. Fort, Esq. 

The Rt. Hon. T. M. Gibson, M.P. 



Thomas Greene, Esq., M.P. 

C. Pascoe Grenfell, Esq., M.P. 

Alexander Henry, Esq., M.P. 

Sir Benjamin Heywood, Bart., F.R.S. 
*Thos. Heywood, Esq., F.S.A. 

E. G. Hornby, Esq. 
*J. Johnson, M.D. 
*William Langton, Esq. 

R. Monckton Milnes, Esq., M.P. 

Sir Oswald Mosley, Bart., D.C.L. 

R. Townley Parker, Esq. 
*Rev. Canon Parkinson 

J. Wilson Patten, Esq., M.P. 

S. M. Peto, Esq., M.P. 

T. J. Pettigrew. Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Mark Philips, Esq. 

Robert Philips, Esq. 
*Rev. Canon Raines 
*Ed. Sharpe, Esq., M.A. 
*Sir Jas. Phillipps K. Shuttleworth, Bt. 
*Samuel Simpson, Esq. 

S. R. Solly, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Sir George Strickland, Bart., M.P. 

Charles Towneley, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Rev. John W. Whittaker, D.D. 

Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson, F.R.S. 

Matthew Wilson, Esq., M.P. 






Treasurer Thomas Joseph Pettigrew, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 



Hydrographical Secretary Captain Bullock, R.N. 

Secretary for Foreign Correspondence William Bell, Phil. Doct. 

Registrar, Cwrator, and Librarian Alfred White, Esq. 



331 



Officers of Local Committees. 

*John Potter, Esq., Mayor of Manchester, Chairman 

"Thomas Peet, Esq., Treasurer 

*John E. Gregan, Hon. Sec., Manchester 

"Thomas Howitt, Esq., Hon. Sec. and Treas., Lancaster. 

General Committee. 

Those names to which an asterisk is prefixed are also Members of the Local Committee. 



Ralph Ainsworth, M.D. 

W. F. Ainsworth, Esq. 

W. H. Ainsworth, Esq. 

Arthur Ashpitel, Esq.. F.S.A. 
*Thomas Bayley, Esq. 

Charles Baily, Esq., F.S.A. 

Thomas Baylis, Esq. 
*William Beamont, Esq. 
*James Beardoe, Esq. 

William Beattie, M.D. 
*Rev. St. Vincent Beechey 

W. H. Black, Esq. 

Henry Brown, Esq. 

Rev. J. C. Bruce. M.A. 

A. H. Burkitt, Esq., F.S.A. 

S. Cartwright, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Wm. Addison Combs, Esq. 
*J. R. Coulthart, Esq. 
*Rev. F. B. Danby 

F. H. Davis, Esq., F.S.A. 
*Matthew Dawes, Esq. 
*James Dearden, Esq., F.S.A. 
*Edw. D. De Vitre, M.D. 

James Drew, Esq. 

Joseph Durham, Esq. 

Joshua Edwards, Esq. 

Charles Egan, Esq. 

William Euing, Esq. 
*James Fenton, Jun., Esq., M.A. 
*William Fleming, M.D. 
*John Fletcher, Esq. 
*G51bert J. French, Esq. 
*William J. Garnett, Esq. 
George Godwin, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Nathaniel Gould, Esq., F.S.A. 
W. P. Griffith Esq., F.S.A. 
George Gwilt, Esq., F.S.A. 
*W. D. Haggard, Esq. 
j J. 0. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

*John Harland, Esq. 

*J. S. Harrison, Esq. 

*01iver Heywood, Esq. 
Roger Horman-Fisher, Esq. 
Rev. Abr. Hume, LL.D., F.S.A. 
George Isaacs, Esq. 



Rev. Stephen Jackson, M.A. 
*P. M. James, Esq. 

Charles Moore Jessop, Esq. 

Michael Jones, Esq., F.S.A. 
*Thomas Jones, Esq. 
*John Just, Esq. 
*J. P. Langshaw, Esq. 

Eleazar Lawrance, Esq. 

John Lee, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

Thomas Lott, Esq., F.S.A. 

J. Macdonald, Esq., M.A. 
*Rev. F. H. Mackreth, M.A. 

Joseph Mayer, Esq., F.S.A. 

Major J. A. Moore, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
*B. D. Naylor, Esq. 

William Newton, Esq. 

Benjamin Oliveira, Esq., F.R.S. 
*John Owen, Esq. 
*E. G. Paley, Esq. 
*Thomas Peet, Esq. 

Wm. V. Pettigrew, M.D. 

H. C. Pidgeon, Esq. 

James Prior, Esq., F.S.A., M.R.I.A. 

W. D. Saull, Esq., F.S.A. 

Charles Swain, Esq. 
*Rev. J. J. Tayler 

James Thompson, Esq. 
*James A. Turner, Esq. 

Rev. Joseph Turner, M.A., Vicar of 

Lancaster 
*Rev. Dr. Vaughan 

Sir Edward Walker 

John Green Waller, Esq. 

William Wansey, Esq., F.S.A. 

John Webb, Esq. 

John Whichcord, Jun., Esq., F.S.A. 

Thomas Hordern Whitaker, Esq., F .S. A . 

Charles Wickes, Esq. 

F. H. Wolley, Esq. 

Albert Woods, Esq., F.S.A., Lancaster 

Herald 
Rev. F. H. Woolrych, M.A. 

G. R. Wright, Esq. 
William Yewd, Esq. 



VOL. VI. 



332 



of t&e Congress. 



MONDAY, AUGUST 19, 1850. 

THE General Committee met at the Town Hall, Manchester, to make 
arrangements for the day ; they then proceeded to the Cathedral an 
attended Divine Service, after which the members and visitors inspected 
the edifice, preparatory to attending Mr. Ashpitel's discourse. 

The General Meeting was held at the Town Hall at three o'clock, P.M. 
when the President, JAMES HEYWOOD, ESQ., M.P., delivered an address, o 
which the following is an outline : 

The President stated that one object of the Association was to blen 
amusement with instruction ; and that, in his opinion, it could not 
uninteresting to the inhabitants of a large commercial town like Manches- 
ter, to look back into past history, and trace the vestiges of the British 
race in former periods of time. We might go back first to the aboriginal 
inhabitants, who had left to us their old camps, like that known as the 
Herefordshire beacon, near Malvern, showing the skill and power they 
possessed. Next, we find the remains of an elegant and refined race, the 
Eomans and there were traces of art found in pottery, in metals, and in ; 
other remains, which showed that they were a people almost as highly 
refined as ourselves, and that arts and manufactures had greatly advanced 
amongst them. Afterwards came the Anglo-Saxon period, when there was 
a ruder state of society, the principal characteristics of which were the free- 
dom of their manners, and the popular power which they possessed. Then 
we come to a period always interesting to the historical inquirer, that of 
the Normans and chivalry ; which was succeeded by an extension of 
ecclesiastical power, so great, as to gain the possession of a large portion of 
England, and which raised such a feeling on the subject of the power which 
it possessed, that it led ultimately to the Keformation. He did not know 
any period at which the inhabitants of Lancashire came forward in a dis- 
tinct manner before the time of chivalry. He first found traces of them 
as a distinct race in the battles of Cressy, Poictiers, and Flodden Field, 
where the Lancashire bowmen much distinguished themselves ; and from 
this time he considered might be dated the foundation of the Lancashire 
race. The present inhabitants of the city of Manchester were perhaps one 
of the most mixed races in any part of the empire, congregated as they had 
been from Scotland, and Ireland, and from Germany, Italy, and other 
foreign countries. The next period of considerable interest in the history 
of Lancashire was the Puritan period, and they owed great obligations to 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONGRESS. 333 

the Chetham Society for the researches they had made and the works they 
had published, respecting that period. He considered that the Puritans 
were as brave a race in their way, as the Lancashire bowmen had been in 
another line before them. We might trace onward the history of Lan- 
cashire until a totally different period, when the commercial interest arose, 
when, as Mr. Cobden (he thought) had said, men changed their swords into 
shuttles ; and the same sort of competition was now maintained in weaving 
and in the arts and manufactures, which formerly went on with swords and 
with lances. Until of late years, the science of archaeology had not been 
attended to in England in the manner it had been on the continent. He 
considered it a very great advantage which the Germans, and particularly 
the Prussians, had enjoyed in having a minister at the court of Rome. 
M. Niebuhr especially refers, in the dedication of his History of Rome to 
the late king of Prussia, to the advantages which he had gained from his 
long residence there, and the archaeological researches there carried on. 
Niebuhr certainly was, in his lifetime, at the head of his profession ; and 
his history was in point of fact the re-writing of the history of that inter- 
esting country. His secretary and pupil was the chevalier Bunsen, now 
the Prussian minister at St. James's. The chevalier formerly gave great 
attention to Roman antiquities ; and latterly, in a period of leisure, he had 
given his time to the subject of the antiquities of Egypt. After much 
study, he had recently brought out a work which traced more clearly than 
any other in existence, the immense antiquity of Egypt. He carried back 
his researches to a period three or four thousand years before Christ, and 
he proved that the Egyptians had had a regular line of kings for at least 
three thousand years of that period. This was such an entire change of 
our pre-conceived notions, and we must in consequence give so much longer 
a period to the duration of the human race on the earth, than we had been 
in the habit of doing, that he (the president) thought we should need to 
have our chronology re-written. No discoveries in archaeology had, in 
fact, been more surprising than those of Bunsen and Wilkinson, with 
I to the immense antiquity of Egypt. We owed a great deal to our 
Kn-lish writers for bringing forward in England in a popular shape, what 
had lieen done in Germany ; Arnold had made Niebuhr's Roman discoveries 
[popular with us in a way which they never could have been in this country 
without his assistance, so that we repaid the debt we owed to Germany, 
by bringing forward the researches of her writers in a more popular and 
tangible shape. We are also much indebted to the arts of wood engraving 
and lithography in making archaeology popular, by supplying such beautiful 
illustrations with which archaeologists may illustrate their papers. The 
Society of Antiquaries had great difficulty one hundred years ago, in esta- 
blishing itself; but now there was so much attention paid to archaeology, 
that there was room in this country for two separate societies one the 



334 PROCEEDINGS OF 

Archaeological Association, and the other the Archaeological Institute. 
They belonged to the Association ; hut most of the members wished and 
he certainly joined with them that they should, if possible, endeavour to 
bring about a union of the two. He believed the researches of each would 
be found equally valuable they had each, among their members, dis- 
tinguished men who had exerted themselves to a great extent, and many 
of the individual members of each had given up a great portion of their 
time to antiquarian research on Roman and Anglo-Saxon remains, as 
well as on those of a modern date. Many admirable papers had been 
read to each body, and the only cause of regret was that the two societies 
should not meet in the same place and work harmoniously together. He 
would be very happy himself to do everything in his power to bring 
about such a union. The interests of the societies appeared identical, and 
he did not see why the differences which existed might not be referred to 
arbitration. 

After referring to the arrangements for the week, the president said he 
had not himself done much in the way of archaeological research. The 
line he had taken was one which archaeologists had not generally taken, 
researches into old statutes and laws of Oxford and Cambridge, of whic 
he had made a pretty large collection. The archaeology which was mor 
popular and more capable of illustration was the subject of the remains 
manufactures and arts of a former period. A museum had been commenc 
at the Mechanics' Institution, by the kindness of Mr. Langton, Mr. Pett 
grew, and others, who had sent valuable specimens ; and he had no doubt 
it would be visited with interest. He hoped that the result of the meet- 
ing would be an increased attention to antiquities in Lancashire. He did 
not know that we ought to say that we would form a separate society for 
the promotion of this subject ; but he had not forgotten that, in old times, 
archaeology had received very valuable assistance from the Literary and 
Philosophical Society of Manchester. In the time of the first presider 
Dr. Percival, there were several papers on archaeological subjects. 
1792, one was read, " On the cairns of Scotland"; in 1823, Mr. R. Gi 
read one, " On the round towers of Ireland"; Mr. William Greg, on 
return from Greece, read papers on Mycene and Sardis ; and Mr. Ji 
had read others on the Roman roads in this neighbourhood. His 01 
opinion was, that the best plan would be to form an archaeological depar 
ment in connexion with the Literary and Philosophical Society. He was 
not anxious to see the number of societies in the neighbourhood increased; 
and he even thought that if they were reduced by amalgamation, it would 
be for the benefit of science and literature ; because, the larger the body 
could be without being unwieldy, the more advantageous it was for the 
objects which it pursued. He knew that many of the inhabitants of the 
county were taking considerable interest in the subject ; and he believed 



THE CONGRESS. 335 

that the result of the meeting would be, that more would be known about 
the antiquities of Lancashire than had been known before. 

The President then introduced A. Ashpitel, esq. to the meeting, who 
delivered a discourse on the History and Architecture of the Cathedral. 
See pp. 177-198 ante. 

In the evening, the Association assembled in the theatre of the Me- 
chanics' Institution, the President in the chair ; when a paper was read 
" On the Study of Archaeology, and the particular objects of the British 
Archaeological Association", by T. J. Pettigrew, esq., Vice-President and 
Treasurer (see pp. 163-177 ante). In reference to the notice respecting 
the want of a Museum of British Antiquities, contained in the paper, the 
President observed that he had just received a letter, by which it appeared 
that it was in contemplation to establish a Museum for the reception of 
British Antiquities at the University of Oxford. 

J. R. Planche, esq., Honorary Secretary, then read a paper " On the 
Stanley Crest". See pp. 1 91-209 ante. 

Thomas Heywood, esq., F.S.A., expressed the pleasure he felt in hear- 
ing Mr. Planche's excellent essay. The subject was interesting to the 
Lancashire antiquaries, and would now particularly occupy their attention. 
Bishop Stanley's poem gave the received family tradition as to the origin 
of the crest. Of that poem there were two old copies, differing materially, 
and a modern version, of the time of James I, by a person at Chester. 
> Mr. Halliwell had rendered a great benefit to the county, by printing, for 
i the first time, the bishop's verses in the Palatine Anthology ; but the vari- 
: ation in the old copies deserved more notice than they had received in his 
book. In carrying back this device of the eagle and child to a period 
antecedent to the use of crests, and proving it to be an ancient charge on 
the coats of arms of more than one Lancashire family, Mr. Planche had 
greatly assisted the inquiry, and certainly shown the legend of Oskatell 
I Latham to be a myth. The various ingenious suggestions he had made, 
towards accounting for so singular a crest, would be carefully examined, 
and probably, at some future period, the device would be traced to its 
origin. In the meantime, in the name of the Lancashire antiquaries, 
Mr. Heywood moved the best thanks of the meeting to Mr. Planche, for 
liis valuable essay. 

The rev. J. C. Bruce, M.A., of Newcastle-on-Tyne, then delivered a 
1 1 rt ure " On the Structure of the Norman Fortress in England." See pp. 
409-5228 ante. 

TUESDAY, AUGUST 20. 

The Association proceeded to inspect the antiquities of Whalley and 
libchester, previous to their arrival in the evening at Lancaster. At 
Vhalley they were received by the rev. Mr. Whitaker, son of the historian 



336 PROCEEDINGS OF 

of that place, together with Mr. Taylor, the proprietor of the grounds ; and 
the particulars relating to the locality and its antiquities were pointed out. 
The whole of this once magnificent monastic building covered a space of 
from five to six acres, and was erected for a brotherhood of Cistercians, 
who first settled at Birkenhead, but who, finding the situation unhealthy, 
had petitioned Henry de Lacy, their patron, for a new location, and obtained 
a grant of this beautiful sequestered spot in the twelfth century. The 
building occupied nearly three hundred years in its erection, and appeared 
to have been built in the earlier and later decorated English styles of 
architecture. It was approached on the western and eastern sides by 
splendid gateways, which are perhaps in a better state of preservation than 
almost any other parts of the abbey. It appeared to have consisted of a 
quadrangle, having a spacious conventual chapel on the east ; the buildings 
devoted to the use of the monks, with refectory, cloisters, and dormitories, 
on the north ; the abbot's residence on the south ; and a corn-mill belong- 
ing to the abbey (the course of the stream for which is still existing between 
the building and the river) on the west. The roofs and upper floors of all 
these portions of the abbey are gone ; but several of the walls remain 
almost entire especially those opening to the cloisters with beautiful 
specimens of the Gothic arch, both in windows and doorways, in good pre- 
servation. Mr. Whitaker pointed out the position of the great conventi 
chapel of the abbey, and the spot where stood its high altar, the positic 
of which was determined a few years ago by his father, who dug down 
the tombs of the abbots (known to have been buried there), and which had 
not been disturbed. This chapel, he supposes, from the remains which 
have been discovered of its interior carvings and fittings, to have been very 
magnificent ; and thinks that if excavations were made in the earth now 
covering its floor, many interesting fragments might be recovered. The 
site of its kitchen and offices is now a kitchen garden. A curious old stone 
staircase, which had been hid in the thickness of the wall at the west end 
of the abbey, with concealed doorway, and terminating in a large stone 
flag at the bottom, attracted much attention, but whether it was a place of 
punishment, or of concealment, can only be a matter of conjecture. The 
grounds in immediate connexion with the abbey were about thirty-six acres 
in extent. After inspecting various portions with much care, for nearly 
two hours, the members took a hasty view of Whalley church, a building 
of yet more ancient date than the abbey, and in a fine state of preservation. 
There are some fine carvings in black polished oak in some old pews near 
the altar, consisting of groups of figures and quaint devices, similar to some 
of the grotesque carving in the chapel of New College, Oxford, and other old 
ecclesiastical edifices, but mostly conveying some useful, though not always 
very obvious moral. One of these is a blacksmith shoeing a goose, and 
another is a woman striking at a man's head with a ladle. The chancel is 



THE CONGRESS. 337 

a fine specimen of the early English style of architecture, and contains 
some old screen work from the abbey. In the churchyard are several 
stone crosses, curiously ornamented and carved, and of a very old date. 
These are figured in Whitaker's History of Whalley, and are considered 
as belonging to the Saxon period. 

From Whalley the members proceeded to Ribchester, where excavations 
had been previously made, by Mr. Just and Mr. Harland. This was for- 
merly a Roman station, as its name denotes, and one of the strongest 
holds which that people established in this part of the country. (For par- 
ticulars respecting Ribchester and the antiquities exhibited, see the paper 
by Mr. Just and Mr. Harland, pp. 229-251 ante.} 

Having quitted Ribchester, the party proceeded to Lancaster, where a 
meeting was held at the Music Hall, kindly provided for the accommoda- 
tion of the Association by E. Sharpe, esq., M.A. 

J. R. Planche", esq. read a paper " On the Badges of the House of Lan- 
caster", which will appear in the next Journal. A paper was also read on 
the History of Witchcraft ; but as it did not contain any matter of archae- 
ological interest, and has already appeared in the Literary Gazette, is not 
necessary to be further particularized. 

The meeting terminated by the reading of a short paper, by George 
Godwin, esq., F.R.S., F.S.A , " On the Barbican, in connexion with our 
:Castles". See pp. 302-309 ante. 



WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 21. 

By the admirable arrangements made by the Local Committee at Lan- 
caster, a portion of the Association were enabled, early in the morning, to 
visit the village of Heysham, and inspect some very remarkable and 
undent tomb-stones, and view the graves there hewn within the rock. 
(Drawings of these have been taken, and are referred for future considera- 
:ion. The greater number of the members and a large party of Lancaster 
Vic Tills assembled at Poulton le Sands, where they embarked by steamer 
!'or Piel Castle and Furness Abbey. The former, however, could only be 
from the water, the tide not admitting of the party effecting a 
muling. It is now a mere skeleton of the ancient building, which was built 
u the fourteenth century, by the abbots of Furness, as a refuge during the 
>order contests. Having reached Piel pier, a special train conveyed the 
nembers and visitors to Furness, where, after a discourse from E. Sharpe, 
sq., on the Abbey (see pp. 309-317 ante], a minute examination of the 
aguificent remains was made. 

Returning to Lancaster in the evening, though at a late hour, a meeting 
as held, the President in the chair. A short paper on the Antiquities of 
'urness generally, by W. D. Haggard, esq., was read ; a paper on the 



338 PROCEEDINGS OF 

Vestigia Vetusta de Pilling, by the rev. R. Bannister ; and another on the 
History of Ancient Lancaster, by Dr. James Johnson. 

The rev. Mr. Bannister's communication was as follows : " We naturally 
wish, on becoming the inhabitants of a new locality, to learn who have 
been the occupiers of the soil before ourselves, to investigate their customs 
and habits, as well as to inspect the works they have left behind them. 
And no parish is so barren in the productions either of nature or of art as 
not to contain something to attract an inquisitive mind. Great battles may 
not have been fought therein, or barons have ruled with feudal sway, yet 
we meet with some traces of antiquity or some feature in geology worthy 
of record. 

" The extensive section of the country called Pilling has hitherto escaped 
the notice which it deserves. The Grange, or Peel, now Pilling Hall, 
whence it derives its name, its vast moss, which has given birth to the 
saying, ' God's grace and Pilling moss are endless', its ancient church- 
yard, and tombs on the sea beach, the fact that the hay of the district 
was granted to Cockersand abbey by its second founder, Theobald Walter 
or Butler, that ' does' were found wild on the moss until a late period ; 
but more especially its geology, unique path across the morass, der 
minated ' Kate's Pad', and almost innumerable horns of the red de 
deposited in the soil beneath the clay, a fresh-water subsidence and 
all invite the attention of the geologist and palaeontologist, antiqi 
and historian. 

" Its geology is remarkable. At a remote period it evidently was an 
estuary of the Lune, and probably also of the Wyre ; but when the waters ' 
of the sea commenced their retreat we do not pretend to guess. That, how- 
ever, they receded gradually, in the same manner as they do at present, is 
evident, from the ridges or sea beaches, and deep layers of cockle-shells in 
the interior, as well as the retiring of the channel of the Lune farther and 
farther from the shore. The hollow of this ancient bay consists of a de 
deposit of a clayey nature, tinged with blue ; then a fresh- water subsider 
in which are found the stools and trunks of trees, their roots being 
tened by the hardness or uncongenial nature of the clay ; and then, al 
this, a deep bed of turbary. Now we invariably find the horns and boi 
of the red deer lying in a silty deposit, beneath this bluish clay and 
But how came they there ? Were they indigenous ? They are the 
as the red deer of Scotland, and may have wandered from that country 
along the ridge of the English Apennines, or, dying on these heights, been 
washed by the mountain flood into the Lune and Wyre, and so carried intc 
the hollows of the Pilling and Thornton marshes, etc. One thing, how- 
ever, is worthy of remark, that these horns and bones are not found hi 
Marton moss, which was not washed by the sea, but are continually found 
where the sea once held its domain ; and the heads of the legh have beer 



THE CONGRESS. 339 

taken out of tbe low bed of the brook Dow, under Kirkham Hill, which 
was formerly washed by the overflowings of the river Kibble, and was the 
site of the metropolis of the British and Roman Setantii. Again, it may 
be asked, at what period did the red deer range this district. It must have 
been before the planting of the Pilling Forest, and long before its destruc- 
tion, which a Scottish author on subterranean forests ascribes to Severus, 
when he was harassed by the lurkers therein on his march to Caledonia ; 
but was more probably owing, at least that part of it more distant from the 
shore, to the winds of heaven and the moisture of the soil, because they 
Ilie in the silt beneath the bluish clay, under the peat. Early was the 
period therefore at which these red deer existed ; yet might they not be 
i3oeval with the Britons who made the pavement or platform of blue holders, 
.which, lying beneath the bluish clay, and on a level with a great collection 
)f horns, skulls, and bones, were discovered, within the last ten years, in 
,he immediate vicinity of each other. The architects of this pavement 
pnust, however, have been the fathers of the Britons who wielded this celt 
vhich I here exhibit, and of the brazen spear-head, which were dug out of 
he peat, in the neighbourhood of the remains of the red deer and pavement, 
low altered is the face of the country of these times, the surface of 
he moss has greatly sunk, the water having been drained off by Broadfleet 
ml other deep ' dykes', by which Pilling was recognized in ancient song 
ip the days of chivalry. The agriculturists also of the present day have 
tot been backward ; and what was once a pathless morass is now wav- 
tig with cornfields, and good highways cross it from every quarter. This 
rings me to what I wish particularly to direct your attention to, although it 
m>t be in a very cursory manner, viz., to give you some account of a 
ingular pathway of wood across Rawcliffe and Pilling Mosses, designated 
v the country people under the names of ' Danes or Kates Pad'. It 
'iisists of a barrow bridge of rudely riven oak trees, all of them being 
illy scooped out like a spout by long usage. These planks lie on cross- 
rs, and are alternately pegged down through the sleepers, in the 
ntre of a twelve feet deposit of peat. The ' Pad' commences at Hailes 
all, and runs in the direction of Pilling Hall. Many persons suppose it 
be Danish, from its traditional name of ' Danes Pad', although much 
ight must not be laid on this : every thing curious is here ascribed to 
1 )anes, probably in remembrance of their constant inroads to the inte- 
n- from the foreland of the Fylde, and from its connexion with Hailes 
all, viz., ' Ailsa', a Danish chieftain in those parts. It must, say they, 
vo been formed at an early period, on account of the great quantity of 
trees expended in its construction. Others say it is Roman, and 
me some brazen instruments discovered along its line as a proof, which 
jy fancy is strengthened by a Scottish writer on mosses having described 
t imilar one as Roman. Indeed, since it is now agreed that the Wyre 

VOL. VI. 44 



340 PROCEEDINGS OF 

must have been the Setantian port, during the sway in Britain of that 
great nation ; and four hundred denarii of Severus, Geta, Caracalla, etc., 
have been found in the silt under the sand at Fleetwood : this ' Kates 
Pad' may possibly have been a vicinal road to Lancaster by Ashton, where 
Roman statuary have been discovered, a road leading into the agger, that 
ran from Preston, by Garstang, to Lancaster. Now if its date be so early, 
it may have derived its appellation from cath ; therefore ' Kates Pad' 
will be the war path, and cath, cad, and cath, all synonymous, are com- , 
pounds in the names of many places in the line of the Roman causeway 
that runs from Ribchester, from Cadley Moor, by Kirkham and Preston, 
to the Wyre. Or, if you choose, you may derive the cognomen ' Kates 
Pad' from coet, cat, signifying a wood, therefore it will be Wood Path. 
A third party are desirous to bring it down to a more recent date ; and 
proofs are not wanting to strengthen this opinion. This portion of the 
country, as well as nearly all the parish of Poulton, formerly belonged to 
the church. Now we read in the records of the first Edwards, that Adam < 
Bannister had many quarrels with the monks of St. Mary's Lancaster, 
account of his debarring them the right of roads to their granges throu 
his demesnes. After a long struggle between this turbulent baron and 
monks, it was agreed that a passage should be allowed through his 
of Singleton, Poulton, and Rossall by the Aldwath, viz., the Shard 
bleton, and another by the ford of Bulk, opposite to Hailes Hall, near 
commencement of ' Kates Pad'. Was this the communication of the 
monks with Lancaster ? Indeed they could not pass this morass without 
such an expedient, unless by taking a very wide circuit. That this wooden- 
pathway was a road to Lancaster, an ancient tradition of the origin of the 
' Pad' testifies. I pretend not to explain why this singular and great work 
was constructed ; to others I must leave the solving of the enigma ; only 
I will add, that as the inhabitants of this quarter held intimate connen 
with Cockersand abbey, paying to it the tithes of Pilling, rents, etc., 
probably frequenting it for religious purposes, as well as to inter 
friends within its sacred precincts, seeing that many grants are made " i 
corpore meo', may we not conjecture with probability, that, for these 
sons, with many others, the dwellers on this side of the Moss constructed 
with the aid of the monks (and spurred on by enthusiasm), this pathway, 
which, from its singular formation, its huge riven oak planks, and the 
quaggy ground over which it has been carried, is the admiration of every 
antiquary. " 

Dr. Johnson's paper on ancient Lancaster commenced with a descrip 
tion of the old northern province of Brigantia ; contrasting the tactics oJ 
Agricola in the subjugation of this province, with the ill success of a dif 
ferent line of tactics employed by Cyrus and Darius in their unfortunate 
efforts against the old Scythians ; and after adducing many coincidences 




THE CONGRESS. 341 

in the described manners of the people, he proceeded to suggest, that the 
Brigantes of old, the people north of the Mersey and Humber, might 
have been of Gothic origin ; and that the amount of organization among 
them, which elicited many tributes of respect from the Roman writers, 
'was probably on the Gothic model. At the same time, as far as the 
western coast is concerned, he did not deny the possibility but it might 
have been visited, for the sake of the metals, by some of the old navi- 
gators ; and derived the name of Lancaster, or Loncaster, anciently, from 
the same source as Luna, in Italy, London, Boulogne, Cephalonia, Vitu- 
lonia, etc. The names of Belisama and Moricambe, applied by Ptolemy 
'to the estuaries on this coast, must be from roots of a very old language. 
In going over the well-trod path of its Roman antiquities, an inscription 
was adduced, in corrupt Latin, recording the re-building of the bath and 
basilica, which had fallen down through old age : as the Romans did not 
luilcl by contract, this would indicate a long possession, corroborated also 
iy the dates on coins. The name of Sabinus occurs in an altar to Mars, 
'omul near a mound two miles above Lancaster, and also on this altar an 
nscription referring to the Notitia; also, Longovica was stated to be gar- 
isoned by a numerus Longovicarii, and the words " Deo IALONA" were 
11 evident allusion to the name of the place or ruin ; although the frequent 
iirning up of altars, statues, etc., in the neighbouring country, would 
'-jivo with the probable early occupation of the land by the Roman soldiers. 
lalton, the place on the Lune where the altar to Mars was found, in con- 
ox ion with the numerus Barcarii, appears in Domesday Book, as the 
Mine of the Saxon honour under which Lancaster is included as a ville. 
comparison of the ecclesiastical remains found here, and in other places, 
itli the names of the parish church, in the grant of Roger of Poitou, to 
ie abbey of Sieyes, in Normandy, would give a high amount of proba- 
lity to these remains being purely Saxon. A lengthened detail was 
entered into, to show the primitive distinction between foe-land and 
^-land, with a view of introducing Domesday Survey, and the Saxon 
nnes of places contained in that document; and the last effort of the 
man arms, as shown by the altar referring to the Barcarii, at Halton, 
i- contrasted with the peaceful occupation of the site by a Saxon parish 
urch. The Norman fort of Roger de Montgomerie, led to a history of 
1 Norman barons, with a minute reference to the near relation in which 
li stood to the throne, and a personal sketch of their lives and the part 
y played in the drama of English politics. This was accompanied 
' li a contemporary account of the successive endowments of the hospital 
St. Leonard's, the Friars, the charter of John, and the enlarged privi- 
l;es granted by the same ; the charter of Edward II after the Conquest ; 
enclosure of Quernmore Park, on condition of abandoning other 
st rights, by Edmund Crouchback. Lancaster first returned members 



342 



PROCEEDINGS OF 



to parliament to sanction the wars with Scotland, temp. Edward I, and 
continued to do the same until the end of Edward II, when it ceased to 
be represented for more than two hundred years, during the calamitous 
period of the wars with Scotland. 

Dr. Johnson concluded his paper by reading the subjoined list :- 



Lancastrian Lords and Dukes. 

Roger de Poitou was half cousin to . 
Stephen of Bologne, cousin to . 
William, earl of Moreton, son of 
John, brother of .... 
Peter of Savoy, uncle to the queen of 
Edmund Crouchback, brother to 
Thomas of Lancaster and Henry of 

Lancaster, cousins to . 
Henry, first duke, half cousin to 
John of Gaunt, son to ... 
John of Gaunt, uncle to 
Henry Bolinbroke, was 



Contemporary Kings. 

WILLIAM. 

WILLIAM II & HENRY. 

STEPHEN. 

RlCHABD I. 

HENEY III. 
EDWARD I. 

EDWARD II. 

EDWARD III. 
EDWARD III. 
RICHARD II. 
HENRY IV. 



THURSDAY, AUGUST 22. 

The members of the Association and their visitors, amounting to nearly 
one hundred in number, met at the Assembly Room, and partook of an 
elegant breakfast, to which they had been invited by the Lancaster local 
committee. As the Association were this morning to inspect Lancaster' 
castle ; St. Mary's church ; to pay a visit also to Hornby castle, and theii 
proceed to hold a meeting at Manchester in the evening ; immediately after 
breakfast, votes of thanks and appropriate acknowledgements were made for 
the hospitality that had been exercised, and the zealous attention devoted to 
the interests of the meeting. The thanks of the Association were given 
the mayor and corporation of Lancaster ; to the local committee ; to 
hon. local secretary, Thomas Howitt, esq. ; to Edward Sharpe, esq. ; to 
rev. F. B. Danby ; to the county members, J. Heywood, esq., and J. Wil 
son Patten, esq. ; after which the Association proceeded to inspect the 
tie, now converted into a prison, over which they were conducted by 
governor. The site of the castle is of considerable antiquity, and the 
Romans had selected it as a strong position. Hadrian, up wards of one 
thousand seven hundred years ago, ordered the construction of the preseir 
ditch. Some portions of the castle are supposed to have been then erected 
and to have been subsequently enlarged by Constantino Chlorus (father o 
Constantino the Great). It was further extended by John, earl of Mortoi 
and Lancaster. The keep was said to have been built by John of Gaunt 
and the assizes of the county to have been held within its walls for a perioi 






THE CONGRESS. 343 



of five hundred and eighty-three years. In the grand jury-room a variety 
of articles were exhibited, among which may be mentioned, a sixty-eight 
pound cannon shot, found in the earth in the middle of the castle yard ; 
the brand with which the malefactors were in olden times " burnt in the 
hand"; a variety of shackles and handcuffs, comprising, the heavy double 
irons, the light double irons, the basil, shackle bolt handcuffs, letter B 
handcuffs, rivet cuffs, and figure of eight cuffs ; a set of pillory irons, set 
up with a wooden figure in the attitude these articles compelled their un- 
happy tenant to assume ; the old keys of the old gates of the castle ; a 
rifle carabine, of the date of 1651, a highly-finished and beautiful piece of 
antiquity, the curiously constructed " wheel lock", giving fire unfailingly. 
Some pieces of Roman pottery, dug up within the castle ; a portion of a 
handsome Norman stone cross, found in the churchyard. A medal in 
bronze, commemorating the defeat of the Scotch rebels by the duke of Cum- 
berland ; this was said to be unique, and was found in the Ford of the Lune 
near Scale lane ; a halfpenny of Lancaster, dated 1610 ; angels of Edward 
IV and Henry VI, found on the site of the priory of St. Leonard ; a bronze 
celt, found at Meathop ; a silver seal of the reign of Edward I ; an antique 
personal seal in brass ; many valuable impressions of seals of the corpora- 
tion, abbeys, etc. A quantity of Roman coins Domitian, A.D. 81, Con- 
stantine the great, Tetricus the elder, A.D. 267, Nero, Julia Domna, Tra- 
jan, Hadrian, Aurelian, Jovianus, Commodus, Vespasian, Maximilian, etc. 
| A coin of Antoninus Pius, bearing on the reverse the figure and name of 
' Britannia, found in the churchyard. An interesting relic of early times in 
the shape of a betrothal ring in silver. Drawings, plans, and views of 
Lancaster and its noble castle from very early to the most recent dates. 

After visiting St. Mary's, Lancaster, in which a most beautifully carved 
1 wood roodscreen was examined, the members of the association departed 
'on a visit to Hornby castle, the seat of Pudsey Dawson, esq. It is built 
I upon a high rock, commanding an extensive view of the surrounding dis- 
trict ; the original castle is supposed to have been built by Roger de Mont 
r>'<f<)n, but the old tower is all that remains of the ancient fabric, and that 
was erected by Edward Stanley, the first lord Monteagle (to whom the 
mysterious letter was sent which led to the frustration of GuyFawkes' design 
upon the parliament of that day) ; and on one of the walls is that noble 
lord's motto, " Glav et giant. E. Stanley". In 1617, king James visited 
jthe castle on his way from Edinburgh to London, and Mr. Dawson exhi- 
bited to the company a pair of boots, presented to one of his ancestors by 
1 Imry the Sixth, with other presents, in a box, on which is this inscription : 
i ' The gift of king Henry VI of England to sir Ralph Pudsey, of Craven 
ll, Yorkshire ; his boots, spoon, and gloves the only gifts in his power 
X) bestow on a faithful and loyal adherent, having remained under his 
hospitable roof for several weeks after the fatal battle of Hexham." Mr. 



344 PROCEEDINGS OF 

Dawson also showed his visitors, among other family muniments, a letter 
signed " Oliver Cromwell", and addressed to William Dawson, one of his 
ancestors, who was mayor of Doncaster in the Protector's time, and to the 
corporation. It is dated Bipon, 16th August 1631, and says: "Gentle- 
men, I intend, God willing, to be at Doncaster with y e army on Wednesday 
night or Thursday morning ; and forasmuch as y e soldiers will need a 
supply of victuals, I desire to give notice to the country to use your best 
endeavours to raise bread, butter, cheese, and flesh, to be brought in and 
to be in readiness against their coming. Not doubting of your care herein, 
I rest, your very loving friend, 

" OLIVER CROMWELL." 

Mr. Dawson also produced a letter, written by Thomas Lord Surrey, 
who commanded at Elodden in 1513, to Thomas Pudsey, who rested at 
Newcastle with part of the army. 

After partaking of the hospitality of Mr. Pudsey Dawson, the company 
returned by train to Lancaster, stopping, however, by the way to visit 
Koman " milliarium", in the orchard of Mr. Gregson, of Caton, t 
inscription on which is still legible, though much worn. It is in capital 
and runs thus : IMP. AUG. THRA. HADN. PONT. MAX. coxs. vin. MIL. p. 
QUATOR", which was read by Mr. Just, thus : " Imperator Augustus T 
janus HadrianusPontifexMaximus Consul OctiesMillia Passuum quatuo 

The company also stopped at Halton to inspect a votive tablet of 
Romans to Mars, probably erected previously to undertaking one of the 
campaigns. It is as follows (allowing for the letters between parenthesi 
and which are doubtful) : " DEO MART(J) SABI(KUS) p.p. ET MILIT(ES) N. BARC. 
s. . . . EII. v.s. P.O." This is usually read " Deo Marti Sabinus Pater 
Patrie", or, as Mr. Just reads it, pro praetor, " a milites numeri Barcorum 

(s EII) Voto Saluto Posuit". The company reached Lancaster again 

at half-past three, and finally left it for Manchester. 

The Association held a meeting at the Town-Hall, the President in 
chair, who reported the examinations made, and the papers which 
been read at Furness and at Lancaster ; after which, J. Just, esq., 
J. Harland, esq., read their joint paper on Roman Ribchester. See p| 
229-251 ante. 

Dr. William Bell read a paper on .ZEolophiles, illustrative of the earl; 
application of steam to the purposes of superstition. 

Dr. Bell commenced by stating his conviction, that the power of st 
was far better known by the ancients than was generally supposed. He 
had succeeded in tracing this knowledge for twenty-one hundred years 
before the present time, and two centuries and a half anterior to the 
Christian era, from which period the moderns had certain accounts to b 
depended upon as to the properties and effects of steam, not as recently 






THE CONGRESS. 345 



found out, but simply explaining certain " tricks", or experiments, with 
it, as facts of every-day occurrence. A treatise by Hero the Elder, of 
Alexandria, who lived under the second Ptolemy, or his successor, conse- 
quently in the 365th Olympiad, or one hundred and fifty years before the 
birth of Christ, was published in Greek on pneumatics, in which many 
curious experiments are recorded; besides three, which most decidedly 
were effected by the expansive and explosive power of steam, where the 
steam was described as passing from the dragon's mouth. Hero mentions 
ihv ;is an agent in this theorem. The introduction by the sacrificing 
priests of steam issuing from a dragon's mouth, points out not only the 
means by which these effects might have been produced, but also its evi- 
dent use for the foundation and retention of a dark and terrible supersti- 
tion. Before, however, turning to the barbaric evidences of a dubious era, 
he should call attention to the description of the steam-engine exhibited 
at Rome under Leo X, who held the papacy from 1513 to 1531, as given 
by Marcellus Palingenus, in Latin hexameters : 

" Vidi ego dum Romae decimo regnante Leone 
Essem, opus a figulo factum juvenisque figuram 
Efflantem augusto validum ventum oris hiatu 
Quippe cavo infusam retinebat pectore lympham 
Qua; subjecto igne resoluta exhibat ab ore 
In faciem venti valide longeque furebat 
Ergo etiam ventis resoluta emittitur unda 
Dum yapor exhalens fugit impellante calore 
Namque fugari solent sese contraria semper." 

The doctor then proceeded to describe what he termed " the actual evi- 
dfiire still existing of the adaptation of this abstract principle, and the 
nunner in which, by its application, the crafty and unscrupulous priests 
if the old world acted on the fears of an ignorant, rude, and barbarous 
"'ople." This consisted in the employment of images of various forms, 
luniiin and bestial, with one of its two orifices, for the purpose of pouring 
11 iluid, afterwards hermetically closed, and with another and a narrower 
rilice at the mouth, which they might fairly suppose to have been plugged 
vitli a piece of cork, or some other elastic substance, which could be 
riven out with the greatest velocity, when the fire placed under the figure 
rr> ught the steam suddenly up. He exhibited a drawing of a figure, " der 
"ostrich", which had been the subject of research and inquiry by all 
"Tinany for nearly two hundred years. It was found in the castle of 
Gothenburg, in 1554, hidden under rubbish and stones, in a crypt that 
ras suddenly broken into, and situated beneath the oratory. He next 

'it on to refer to the well-known " Jock of Hilton", described in Plot's 
"/ History of Staffordshire, and illustrated the subject by reading 
from several German writers, and a quotation from Mr. J. O. 



346 PEOCEEDINGS OF 

Halliwell's popular rhymes. He then made some observations on a figure 
of this nature, found in the digging of the Basingstoke railway, which is 
preserved in the presses of the Society of Antiquaries, and likewise on 
several other ancient remains of this description found in different coun- 
tries. The bestial figures referred to by Dr. Bell consisted of a tiger-cat, 
found in a tumulus near an urn, and that of a lion (perhaps more modern) ; 
next, three figures dug up in Norway, a knight equipped in the most 
ancient armour placed on a horse, a dragon with a small knight in its 
web, and an unicorn with a horn representing a steam-pipe . The figures 
were illustrated by accounts of the immolations betwixt the Teutonic 
knights and the heathen inhabitants of Prussia. The concluding remarks 
were principally confined to the damage done by superstition in casting a 
veil over the principle of steam power, and thereby preventing a know- 
ledge of its great and useful properties for, at least, two thousand years 
before it attained its present importance. 



FEIDAY, AUGUST 23. 

At a meeting held at the Town Hall in the morning, the President 
the chair, the rev. J. W. Whittaker, D.D., vicar of Blackburn, read 
paper " On Local Nomenclature, especially Celtic" (see pp. 255-271, 
ante] ; after which some observations were made on the discovery of Koman 
remains at Lymne in Kent, under the direction of J. Elliott, esq. of 
Dymchurch, and C. Koach Smith, esq., F.S.A. As the particulars relating 
to this discovery have from time to time appeared in the Times newspaper 
and the Literary Gazette, we refer such of our readers as may feel inte- 
rested in this branch of antiquity to those publications. 

Wm. Beamont, esq. of Warrington, read a paper " On the Traces of 
the Romans along the Banks of the Mersey", which is reserved for a future 
journal. Mr. Pettigrew read a paper communicated by the rev. Beal 
Poste on Ancient British Chariots (see pp. 252-255, ante). The mee 
adjourned at four o'clock, P.M., and re-assembled for dinner at the Albio 
tavern at six o'clock, the president in the chair, supported by the 
rev. the lord bishop of Manchester; the mayor of Manchester; 
admiral sir W. Henry Dillon; Mark Philips, esq.; Jas. Crossley, esq, 
etc., etc. Upon the toast of the patrons of the Congress being propose 
an apology was made for the earl of Derby (whose health does not permit o: 
his being present at public meetings). The bishop of Manchester expressed 
his regret that he had been unable at an earlier period to give his attendance 
and trusted it would not be attributed to any lukewarmness on his part ii: 
the pursuits of the Association, as it had arisen from circumstances ove) 
which he had no controul. He desired to be proposed as a member, am 
should be found at his post the following day, being convinced that then 



THE CONGRESS. 347 

was no branch of study more useful to mankind than the study of archaeo- 
logy, and he believed no one afforded more opportunity for the exercise of 
the inductive process of reasoning. Various other speeches were made by 
the president, sir H. Dillon, Mr. Pettigrew, Mr. Mark Philips, the mayor 
of Manchester, Mr. Planche, Mr. Crossley, Mr. Gregan, Mr. Harrison 
Ainsworth, Mr. Wansey, Mr. Ashpitel, Mr. C. Baily, Mr. White, etc. 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 24. 

The business of this day commenced at an early hour by a meeting at 
Chetham College, where the Association was met by the bishop of Man- 
chester and the officials of the College. The party was conducted over 
the building and the library, and in a room which Mr. Crossley remarked 
was that in which the celebrated Dr. Dee received sir Walter Ealeigh and 
sir Henry Saville, Mr. Gregan delivered a paper on Humfrey Chetham 
and his Foundation. See pp. 294-302, ante. 

Adjourning to the Town Hall, the papers were proceeded with, THE 

BIGHT REV. THE LORD BlSHOP OF MANCHESTER IN THE CHAIR. Mr. 

Planche (on the part of G. J. French, esq., who was absent from indis- 
position) read a paper " On the Tippets of the Canons-Ecclesiastical ". 
See pp. 272-293, ante. 

James Thompson, esq., of Leicester, read a paper " On the Remains of 
the Roman (Jewry) Wall at Leicester", which he intends to publish, and a 
notice of which will appear in a future number of the Journal. A paper 
by Edw. Pretty, esq., of Northampton, was read by Alfred White, esq., 
" On Roman Discoveries in Northamptonshire", which will also be printed 
in the Journal. 

Mr. Pettigrew, on the part of J. A. Repton, esq., F.S.A., laid upon the 
table some excellent drawings of ancient tapestries in his possession. " They 
appear (Mr. Repton says) from the costume to be about the date of 1500. 
1 The duckbill shoes especially confirm this period, as we find them as early 
as the time of Henry VII superseding the pouland shoes, worn between 
1 the reign of Edward I and Henry VII. 

" In old romances, the ladies are described as being of a fair complexion, 
as 

"Ladyes whyt as swan"; or 

" Bryght as blosse on brere"; and 

" Sche was as whyt as lylye yn May"; or as 

" Snow that snoweth yn wyntery day." 

"But in the tapestry, the complexion of the ladies is represented by black 
or dark brown, as the object was to shew off the splendour of their dresses, 
and the jewels ; and if there be any landscape, it is kept subdued, as we do 
not find any bright clouds or water to distract our attention from the rich 
composition of the figures. 

VOL. VI. 45 



348 PROCEEDINGS OF 

" In ancient tapestries we must not always expect correctness, as many 
of the figures are out of drawing, the hands distorted, and the eyes in some 
appear to be squinting, or the figures out of perspective, and in one of them 
a kneeling figure appears to be taller than the little constable who is stand- 
ing. Some of the leaves and flowers at the bottom of the tapestries are 
so highly-finished and well shaded, that they must have been previously 
designed by some expert artist for the ' ladies of the household' to copy. 

" There is a favourite ornament frequently introduced in old tapestry, 
that is, a representation of a pine apple, or thistle, which is surrounded 
by a border composed of five flat Gothic arches. This pattern is not only 
found on the walls, but also as a covering to a sofa, and is sometimes 
represented on the robes or cloaks." 

Mr. Planche observed that these tapestries were exceedingly interesting, 
and involved a curious point of inquiry. It was quite evident that those 
from which Mr. Repton's beautiful drawings had been made, were of the 
same date as the tapestry in St. Mary's Hall, Coventry ; of that under the 
music gallery in cardinal Wolsey's hall, at Hampton Court; of those pub- 
lished by Mons. Jubinal, as the tapestries of Nancy, and of the pieces 
formerly in the possession of the late Mr. Yarnold of Great St. Helen's, 
London, one of which was known as " the Plantagenet tapestry", and said 
to contain portraits of Richard III and various members of the York and 
Lancastrian families. Now the tapestry in St. Mary's hall was supposed 
to have been presented to the city of Coventry by Henry VI, and those of 
Nancy to have belonged to Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy : but Mr. 
Planche believed that a comparison of all these would prove that the period 
of their execution was quite the close of the fifteenth century, (tempore 
Henry VII in England), and that, consequently, neither the Coventry 
tapestry nor those of Nancy, were of the date assigned to them. The 
Coventry tapestry contained undoubtedly portraits of Henry VI, Margaret 
his queen, cardinal Beaufort, and other personages of the Lancastrian party; 
but it was most probably acquired by the city after the accession of Henry 
VII. The so-called " Plantagenet tapestry" on the contrary contained, 
Mr. Planche's opinion, no portraits of historical personages ; but would, he 
thought, prove on examination to represent some incidents in mythology, 
or perhaps of the " siege ef Troy", which is known to have formed the 
subject of some other of the pieces in the late Mr. Yarnold's possession. 

J. Harland, esq. read a paper " On ancient charters to the burgesses of 
Clitheroe", which will be printed in the original documents of the next 
Journal. 

J. R. Planche, esq. closed the readings with some observations on the 
helmets placed in the museum of the congress, and promised a paper on 
the subject for the Journal. 

James Crossley, esq., president of the Chetham society, then proposed 



THE CONGRESS. 349 

the following resolution, which was seconded by the rev. T. Corser, M.A., 
of Stand, and carried unanimously : " That with a view to the advance- 
ment of archaeological science and the formation of a central museum of 
British antiquities, it is desirable to promote a union between the British 
Archaeological Association and the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and that this meeting strongly recommend the council of the 
British Archaeological Association, to take such steps as to them may seem 
expedient, to accomplish these important objects." 1 

Mr. Pettigrew and Mr. Planche, as officers of the Association, expressed 
their desire to aid in carrying it into effect. 

The thanks of the Association were then severally voted to the patrons, 
to the mayor and corporation, to the president, the vice-presidents, the 
treurer, the secretaries, the general committee, the c urator, registrar, 
and librarian, the local officers and committee, the contributors of papers, 
and to the museum, the Mechanics' Institute, the feoffees of Chetham 
i College, the Royal Institution and Natural History Society. 

The congress terminated by a vote of thanks, carried by acclamation, to 
the lord bishop of Manchester, for his attention in presiding over the con- 
cluding meeting. 

The treasurer announced that he had received applications requesting 
the Association to hold the next congress at Derby, at Rochester, at Dur- 
ham, at Ludlow, and at Plymouth. The selection of the place would be 
Imade by the council, and announced in due time. ' 

It remains only to record, that an exceedingly interesting museum had 
:been collected for the congress at the rooms of the Mechanics' Institute, 
the contents of which excited much interest, and will probably form sub- 
jects for future papers. 

A medal commemorative of the congress at Manchester and Lancaster 
lad been designed and struck by Mr. J. Taylor, and the president most 
iln -rally presented one to each member and visitor present at the congress. 

A lithographed map of part of Manchester, shewing remains of the site 
if the Roman Mancunium, as surveyed by Mr. Edward Corbett, was pre- 
nird by the local committee, and impressions presented to the members 
unl visitors at the congress. 

1 The proceedings taken in reference to this resolution are detailed in 
'ages 350 4. 



350 



STATEMENT OF THE COUNCIL 

IN REFERENCE TO A RESOLUTION PASSED AT MANCHESTER, AUG. 24, 1850. 

(See page 349 ante.) 



THE Council of the British Archaeological Association submit the following 
statement of proceedings taken in consequence of the Resolution passed at 
the concluding meeting of the Congress, held at Manchester, Saturday, 
August 24th, J 850. 

THE RIGHT REV. THE LORD BISHOP OF MANCHESTER in the Chair. 
At this Meeting it was moved by James Crossley, Esq., President of 
the Chetham Society ; and seconded by the Rev. Thos. Corser, M.A., of 
Stand : 

" That with a view to the advancement of Archaeological Science, and the formation 
of a Central Museum of British Antiquities, it is desirable to promote a union between 
the British Archaeological Association and the Archaeological Institute of Great Britain 
and Ireland, and that this meeting strongly recommends the Council of the British 
Archaeological Association to take such steps, as to them may seem expedient to 
accomplish those important objects." 

This Resolution was carried unanimously, and without a single expres- 
sion of dissent. Mr. Pettigrew and Mr. Planche, as officers of the Asso- 
ciation, stated, after it had passed, their willingness to co-operate in the 
object proposed, and expressed also their belief of the existence of the 
same feeling on the part of the Council of the Association. 

At the first meeting of the Council held after the Congress, Sept. 4th, 

T. J. PETTIGREW, ESQ., F.R.S., F.S.A., V.P., in the Chair, 
it was unanimously resolved ; 

" That the President of the British Archaeological Association be requested to com- 
municate to the President of the Archaeological Institute, the copy of a Resolution, 
unanimously adopted at a Meeting of the Congress, held at Manchester, upon the 
motion of James Crossley, Esq., seconded by the Rev. Thomas Corser, M.A., (the Right 
Rev. the Lord Bishop of Manchester presiding) ; and to assure the President of (' 
Institute, that the Council of the British Archaeological Association will be happy 
aid in any way that shall be agreed upon, in order to carry into effect the recommeni " 
contained in that Resolution." 

James Hey wood, Esq., President of the Association, on the 9th of Sept. 
communicated to the Marquis of Northampton, President of the Institute, 
the Resolution passed at Manchester, and also a copy of the Resolution 
passed by the Council on the 4th, and alluded to several individuals, 
members of the Institute, who were anxious for the union of the societies. 
He also solicited the aid of the Marquis as most important in the negocia- 
tion, from his knowledge of, and experience in, public business ; and 
suggested that it might be desirable to appoint a committee of three 01 
four of the Institute to meet a similar number of the Association on the 
subject. Mr. Hey wood hoped by this step to aid in the restoration oi 
harmony and good-will among archaeologists. 

On the same day (the 9th), the Marquis of Northampton acknowledgec 
the receipt of Mr. Heywood's letter and the Resolutions, and stated lii- 
willingness to communicate them to the Committee of the Archeeologica 




STATEMENT OF THE COUNCIL. 35 1 

Institute, who would of course take them into consideration ; but at the 

same time expressed his opinion that there was no quarrel to be reconciled, 

though there might have existed a little warmth at the first moment of the 

division. He considered the societies now as exercising some degree of 

emulation, hut exhibiting no hostile feeling, and thought it probable that 

more archaeological work was done by meetings in two places than when 

confined to one. He expressed his apprehension that at this time of the 

il year he could not expect any very early meeting of the Committee of the 

,| Institute to consider the letter, as so many people were away from town ; 

and his Lordship also acquainted Mr. Heywood that the Trustees of the 

British Museum having provided a room for the reception of British 

antiquities, that object expressed in the Kesolution of Aug. 24th, would be 

i unnecessary and inadvisable. 

Mr. Heywood acknowledged the receipt of the Marquis's communication 
on the 14th. He agreed with his Lordship on the subject of the collection 
of British antiquities in the British Museum, and considered the proposed 
union of the societies as favourable to such a result. Mr. Heywood, on 
his own part, was even willing that the united societies should bear the 
name of the Institute ; and that the next Congress should be held at 
Bristol, as proposed by the Institute. Mr. Heywood, however, urged that 
tthe step most required consisted in the appointing a quiet conference to 
6 'promote a reconciliation between the two bodies ; and alluded also to the 
Bishop of Chester, who took an active part at the Congress of the British 
\rchaeological Association at Chester in 1849, who considered the union 
i matter of great importance. 

On this day (Sept. 14) the following advertisement appeared in the 
Gazette and the Athenceum: 



"ARCH.EOLGICAL INSTITUTE OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. The Central Com- 

litt'-e of the Institute have considered a Resolution, passed at a recent Meeting of the 

iritish Archaeological Association at Manchester, (August 24th), in reference to the 

iii-ncy of promoting a union between the Association and the Institute. The 

''numittee desire to give this public notice, that they are ready, as they have always 

''!i, to admit members of the Association desirous of joining the Institute. They have 

I'tt.Tinined accordingly that, in order to offer reasonable encouragement to the Members 

f the Association, they shall henceforth be eligible, without the payment of the cus- 

| binary entrance fee, on the intimation of their wish to the Committee, to be proposed 

>r Election. Life Members of the Association shall be eligible as Life Members, on 

I laymen t of half the usual composition. All Members of the Association thus elected, 

iall likewise have the privilege of acquiring the previous publications of the Institute, 

tin- price to original subscribers. 

"Apartments of the Institute, 26, Suffolk Street, Pall Mall, September 9th, 1850. 
" By order of the Central Committee, 

" H. BOWYER LANE, Secretary." 

< hi the 17th Sept. the Marquis of Northampton addressed Mr. Heywood 
p state that he had heard from Mr. Albert Way, one of the Secretaries of 
ie Institute, to whom he had sent Mr. H.'s letter (of the 9th), and that 

therein learnt that a General Committee of the Institute had passed a 
esolution, and that the same had been inserted in the Literary Gazette 

1 the Athenaum. The Marquis expressed his hope that Mr. Heywood 
>ul<l think the terms proposed liberal and fair. The Marquis had likewise 
^ceived a letter from Mr. Wright, and he had also considered his plan 
union, as put forth in the Literary Gazette of the 7th inst., which how- 
f er he thought beset with many difficulties, and the discussion of which 

'it create difference of opinion among the members of the Institute. 
preferred the simple plan of fusion proposed to that of union. 



352 STATEMENT OF THE COUNCIL. 

On the 18th Sept. the Council of the British Archaeological Association! 
(S. R. Solly, F.R.S., F.S.A., V.P., in the Chair), having learnt from their! 
President that he had received a letter from the Marquis of Northampton! 
of the 9th of Sept., acknowledging the receipt of the Manchester Resolu- 
tion of Aug. 24th, together with the vote of the Council of the 4th Sept.; 
and being unable to reconcile the information conveyed in that letter with 
the appearance of the advertisement of the 14th (bearing the date of the 
9th), which implied that the Committee of the Institute had considered 
the Resolution passed at Manchester ere it had been transmitted to them 
by the Council of the Association to whom it was alone addressed, requested 
the President to forward to the President of the Institute the following 
Resolution which had been unanimously adopted : 

"That this Council having seen with great surprise a Public Advertisement, signec 
by the Secretary of the Archaeological Institute, by order of the Central Committee, 
dated September 9, respecting a Resolution which it appears to this Council could noi 
possibly, at that time, have been officially communicated to the Central Committee 
request Mr. Heywood to be kind enough to draw the attention of the Marquis of North 
ampton to the subject." 

Mr. Heywood being away from home, it was not until the 23rd that h( 
communicated to the Marquis the above resolution ; and in doing so 
expressed his hope that if there had been any omission of due form in th( 
official communication of the public notice of the 9th of Sept., that sucl 
informality might be considered an additional reason for the fair conside 
ation by the whole of the governing body of the Archaeological Institut 
the conciliatory resolution passed at Manchester on the 24th Ai 
Mr. Heywood agreed with the Marquis of Northampton as to the possil 
difficulties attending the plan suggested in the Literary Gazette, but! 
could not entertain the opinion that men of learning, talent and distinc 
in the world, would be " reasonably encouraged" to join a society whe 
they have to intimate their wish to the governing Committee to be pro, 
posed for election, and were then merely to be indulged with a sort o 
admission at half-price by a reduced scale of payments. The question, In 
thought, not so much a case involving money as dignity ; and he therefori 
asked that the Resolution of the Manchester Meeting should be consi 
dered by the Committee of the Archaeological .Institute after due notic 
and with deliberation. 

On the 23rd Sept. the following communication was forwarded by 
Marquis of Northampton for the Council of the Association : 

" ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OP GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, 

" 26, SUFFOLK STREET, PALL MALL, September 23, 18 
" At an ordinary Meeting of the Central Committee of the Archaeological Insti 
tute, the President in the Chair, it was unanimously Resolved, ' That the Committe 
having taken into consideration the Resolution of the British Archaeological Association 
passed at their Congress at Manchester, and also of their Council of the 4th of September 
and communicated by the President of the Association to the President of the Institute 
are of opinion that the position and prospects of the Institute are such, as to rencle 
inexpedient any essential modification of its existing rules and management. 

" The Committee disclaims all unfriendly feeling towards the Association ; they ar 
of opinion that the field of Archaeology is sufficiently wide for the operations of sever? 
societies without discord ; but if the Members of the Archaeological Association shoul 
be disposed to unite with the Institute, the Central Committee will cordially receiv 
them on the terms announced in the Advertisement of September 9th, which vit 
intended to be conciliatory ; feeling assured that such a course cannot fail to meet wit 
the entire approbation of the Members of the Institute. 

" By order of the Central Committee, 

" H. BOWYER LANE, Secretary." 



STATEMENT OF THE COUNCIL. 353 

In communicating this resolution (which also appeared as an advertise- 
ment in the Literary Gazette and the Athenauni), the Marquis of North- 
unj (ton objected in strong terms to the tone and spirit of a letter written 
>y Mr. Wright, and printed in the Literary Gazette of the 21st Sept., and 
.issured the President of the Association that nothing offensive was in- 
< 'in led by the Resolution of the 9th Sept., which was passed to mark a 
riendly feeling, and to facilitate, in case of the meetings of the Association 
M -ing discontinued, the power of the members following their pursuits in 
iiinpany with the Institute. The Marquis admitted that the Committee 
f the Institute had been deficient in point of form in not signifying more 
ireotly to the Association their intentions, but urged in excuse that they 
hen had no official information from the Association, and only knew what 
;dd in the papers. The Marquis objected to any proposal of a junc- 
' if Committees ; and stated that if the Association, in their individual 
llajpcities, joined the Institute, they would be as eligible as any of the 
lembers of the Institute to sit on committees and to be officers. The 
nstitute, he said, did not ask the Association to discontinue its meetings ; 
nd not having received any expression of any wish from their own con- 
jpgated body, he saw no reason why they should be called on to exceed 
> jieir own powers for the sake of tempting the Association, or run the risk 
' producing a discussion in their own body by a special general meeting. 
he Marquis expressed a desire to heal any remaining soreness of feeling, 
I j any remained, between the two bodies. On his own part, the Marquis 
iggested that if the Association should, at the time of the Institute 
1 eeting at Bristol, have announced its intention to dissolve itself, he saw 
; :) objection to an absolute right being given to the Members of the 
,ssociation being admitted into the Institute by the simple expression of 
eir wish to be so, without the form of an election. The Marquis desired 
IB letter to be shewn to the Council of the Association, and trusted that 
a all events a friendly feeling would be established between the Members 
"the Association and the Institute. 

jOn the 2nd Oct., at a Council of the Association (T. J. Pettigrew, 
}R.S., F.S.A., V.P., in the Chair), the foregoing letter of the Marquis of 
vrthampton, and Resolution of the Committee of the Institute, were 
t:en into consideration, and it was unanimously resolved : 

' That the Council of the British Archaeological Association having, in accordance 
iwi a Resolution passed at the late Congress, held at Manchester, August 24th, made 
ortures to the Archaeological Institute, in reference to a union between the two bodies 
Sjiseful in the promotion of Archaeological researches, regret to find that the Central 
Cjimittee of the Institute, by their Eesolution of the 23rd September, deem it inexpe- 
d it to take any steps calculated to promote so desirable an object. 

That, as it appears by a Letter from the President of the Institute, erroneous 
us are entertained with regard to the position and intentions of the Association, 

jtter explanatory of the circumstances be addressed to the Marquis of Northampton, 
a> that the same be printed together with the proceedings in the forthcoming number 
olhe Journal, for the information of the Members of the Association and of the 
Ii itute." 

"he following letter has been addressed to the Marquis of Northampton. 

" MICHAEL'S GROVE LODGE, BROMPTON. 

" October 3, 1850. 

jMi LORD, Your Lordship having desired Mr. Heywood to lay your Lordship's 
Jei r before the Council of the British Archaeological Association, I have the honour, 
ty ic direction of the Council, to convey to your lordship their thanks, for the courtesy 



354 STATEMENT OF THE COUNCIL. 

with which you have communicated the Resolution of the Central Committee of the 
Archaeological Institute, in reply to that of the Association, forwarded by Mr. Heywood 
to your Lordship. 

" At the same time they feel it their duty, to call your Lordship's attention to certain 
points of your Lordship's letter, from which it appears to them, you are labouring under 
an erroneous impression respecting the position and intentions of the Association. 

" With the letter published by Mr. Wright, the Council beg to observe they have 
nothing to do. They decline being considered in any way responsible for the taste or 
spirit of the composition of any individual member of the Society, and as your Lordship, 
equally with the Central Committee, has declared that the Advertisement of the 9th oi 
September last was intended to be conciliatory, the Council have much pleasure in; , 
receiving that acknowledgment. 

" But your Lordship does not seem to be aware that the Resolution passed at Man- 
chester, which gave rise to that Advertisement, did not originate with the Association, 
but with Gentlemen entirely unconnected with it, encouraged by the frequently expressed 
desire of many eminent members of the Institute itself, (one of whom was actually the 
seconder of the Resolution), and in the belief, that a junction was earnestly desired bj 
a large majority of that body. 

"With such an understanding therefore, the members of the Association present a' 
the Congress, agreed that the motion of Mr. Crossley and the Rev. Mr. Corser should bi 
carried unanimously, in order that no difficulty whatever should be thrown in the wa; 
of healing the unhappy differences which had so long existed between the Societies, 
it might more justly be said, between certain members of them. 

" It must surely have been obvious to every one, that such a desirable consu: 
tion was only to be arrived at by the dissolution of both Societies ; and their 
blishment as one and the same body under the original or an entirely new title. In 
as if no separation had ever taken place ; not by the mere admission of Mem" 
the Association into the Institute, or the entire sacrifice of one body to aggrandize 
other. 

" The Council request your Lordship distinctly to understand, that they f< 
from the first the inferences which would be drawn from this proposition for a 
and therefore would have respectfully declined taking the initiative, had they not 
the Association was strong enough to enable them to do so. When, therefore, 
Lordship hints at the probable dissolution of the Association, it appears to the 
that the consciousness of power and progress which justified them in offering an alii 
has been misinterpreted as they anticipated, and considered an acknowledgment c 
weakness, which compelled surrender. It is in no boastful spirit therefore, but simpl 
with the desire to set your Lordship perfectly right on that point, that the Council be 
me to inform your Lordship, that the Association was never in less danger of dissolutio 
than at the present moment ; that the increase of Members during the past year ha 
exceeded that of any former year, and includes several valuable Members of the Inst 
tute ; that it numbers eighty-two Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries, and what i 
perhaps the strongest guarantee of its success and stability, that it has no debt it car 
not discharge ; a fact as honourable to its management as it is encouraging to it 
supporters. 

" Under such circumstances it would be, as far as pecuniary interests are concerns 
as inexpedient for the Association to change its existing regulations as for the Institutt 
and nothing but the laudable desire to be the first to forget and forgive, could ha\ 
induced the Council to have listened for a moment to the recommendation urged upo 
them. 

" Reciprocating the hope your Lordship expresses, in conclusion, that at all events 
friendly feeling will be established between the two Societies, 
"I have the honour to be, 

" MY LORD, 

" To the Most Honourable " Your Lordship's most obedient Serv*n 

The Marquis of Northampton, &c., &c. " J. R. PLANCHE, Hon. Sec. 






355 



Notices of Nefo publications. 



THE ARCHITECTURE OF ANCIENT EGYPT. By Sir Gardner Wilkinson, 
F.R.S., etc. London : J. Murray. 1850. 8vo. Plates in folio. 

Ims work supplies a desideratum in regard to Egyptian architecture. It 
oroceeds from the first Egyptian archaeologist of the present time ; and its 
>bject is, to arrange the columns in different orders, to classify the temples, 
ind to describe the principal peculiarities of Egyptian architecture. It also 
hows the error of attributing to Greek influence those various changes in 
Egyptian architecture -which were the natural result of its progress, and 
?hich find a parallel in those that have taken place in the monuments of 
Ither people, of ancient and modern times. The style of building preva- 
ent in various ages, and among various nations of antiquity, is also corn- 
ered ; from which it is evident that horizontal courses of stone date, in 
jgypt, far earlier than the polygonal work of Italy and Greece ; and the 
jfluence there exercised by the Egyptians is pointed out, as well as the 
ict of the ancients having derived much from each other, and having been 
reatly guided in taste by the example of that country which, at the time, 
njoyed the reputation of being the most advanced in civilization and the 
ts. 

I The extraordinary character of the Egyptian columns, some of which 

[re so dissimilar as to appear to belong to a totally distinct style of archi- 

I'ture, and the gradual process by which those different kinds of columns 

I pew out of the original square pillar, are well explained ; together with 

\ te various gradations through which their temples advanced, from the small 

ic-diambered sanctuary to the complicated plan given to the large 

mot ores of the eighteenth Dynasty, when Egyptian power and civiliza- 

'ii were at their zenith, and the conquests of the Pharaohs had extended 

to the heart of Asia and Africa. 

The work does not profess to exhaust the subject ; but merely to give a 
ueral view of Egyptian architecture : the expense of one so comprehensive 
|uld be far greater than any individual could be expected to incur ; and 
e author has been obliged to express his regret at being unable to avail 
tnself of all the materials he has collected. The large plates, however, 
this work, contain full illustrations of the subject; some present the 
umns, with their most minute details, which, being all drawn to the same 
lie, show at once their relative dimensions ; and others exhibit the nume- 
is peculiarities of Egyptian architecture. 

VOL. VI. 4!) 



356 NOTICES OF NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

It is a matter of congratulation, that such a work should have been under- 
taken by one so competent to the task, and at the present time, when so 
many monuments are being destroyed to build palaces, manufactories, and 
other edifices. The author notices, indeed, a remarkable instance of the 
almost entire disappearance of one kind of monument the peripteral 
temples of early time ; and which, from being small, and situated in places 
where government buildings chanced to be wanted, have been entirely de- 
stroyed. The total destruction of Memphis is to be explained in this way ; 
and who can say what light upon the history of the country, and upon 
Egyptian architecture, might not have been thrown, had that celebrated 
city continued to this day ? 

The author traces the columns primarily from the square pillar derived 
from the mass left to support the roof of a stone quarry, to the forming it 
into a polygonal shaft by removing the angles, and thence into the round 
fluted column ; and so on, by ornamental details, as to produce a classifi- 
cation of eight several orders, terminating with what he calls the Osiride 
pillar. The history of the progress of these orders is only to be explained 
upon the knowledge of the employment of columns in Egyptian architec- 
ture ; the columns being equally with the walls subservient to the depict- 
ing of various subjects and devices which afterwards became sculptured i 
relievo. To comprehend this, however, in a satisfactory manner, the woi 
itself must be consulted ; and it is to be hoped that the author, having 
solved to put forth at his own expense what publishers were unwilling 
undertake, may meet with sufficient encouragement to induce him to 
tinue the subject, and to give all those extensive illustrations, which 
has expressed his regret to be unable to introduce into the present woj 
We trust he may be able to fulfil his own wishes, and present to us 
entire Egyptian temple, with proper elevations and sections ; to exhibil 
the varied character of the Egyptian portico ; and to represent the singu- 
larly mysterious and gorgeously coloured interiors of the tombs of 
kings. The plates are beautifully executed, and the coloured poi 
faithful and magnificent. T. J. P. 



357 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 




WORKS IN PREPARATION. 

By subscription, nearly ready. An Account of the Roman Wall, which extends from 
Wallsend to Bowness, containing the substance of the Lectures recently delivered 
before the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and 
before the British Archaeological Association at the Chester Congress. By the 
Rev. J. C. Bruce, A.M. Beautifully illustrated in tinted lithography, and en- 
gravings on wood, plans, etchings of implements, and of fictile manufactures. 
Price Sixteen Shillings. To be raised on the day of publication to One Guinea. 
Fifty copies will be printed on a fine thick quarto, price One Guinea and a Half. 
London : John Russell Smith. Newcastle-upon Tyne : Bruce and Sang. 

Nearly ready. By subscription. In 2 vols., to be published in Parts. Imperial 
folio, Two Guineas ; plates tinted, Two Guineas and a Half; richly tinted, Three 
Guineas; tinted impressions, atlas folio, Four Guineas each Part. Architectural 
Illustrations of the Spires and Towers of the Mediaeval Churches of Great 
Britain. By Charles Wickes, Architect, Leicester. Names to be sent to the 
Author. 

ing for publication, by William Bell, Phil. Doct, Foreign Secretary of the 
British Archaeological Association, the inedited Chronicle of Thomas Sprott of 
the History of the World to about 1372, in fac-similc of the Original, the property 
of Joseph Mayer, Esq., F.S.A., in complete preservation, with all the beautiful 
Illuminations and Heads, etc., which the roll contains. It is about thirty-two feet 
long by ten inches wide, written in a firm bold hand, with numerous contractions, 
which will be faithfully retained, and on the other side for about half its length is 
the more immediate ecclesiastical History to the Crucifixion. It is hoped that 
the entire work, with a translation and notes by the editor, will be ready shortly 
after Christmas, and will strikingly exemplify the superior means possessed by 
the present age in producing the works of mediaeval authors so much more perfect 
than by common types, unless at a cost as was the fac-simile edition of Domesday 
Book, beyond the means of any but regal or national establishments, 
akespeare's Puck and his Folks Lore, illustrated from the superstitf ^s of all 
nations, but more especially from the earliest religion and rites, / jrthern 
Europe and the Wends. Illustrated with numerous woodcuts. T / aprised 
in two vols. 12mo., and to be ready early in the spring. By TV, iam Bell, 
Phil. Doct. 

imperial quarto, price Twelve Shillings. Five elaborately tinted Plates, printed in 
gold, silver, and colours, being exact fac-similes of an Ancient Irish Ecclesiastical 
Boll, which is supposed to have belonged to St. Patrick, and the four sides of 
the jewelled Shrine, in which it is preserved; accompanied by a historical and 
descriptive essay by the Rev. William Reeves, D.D., M.R.I. A., Ballymena. 
London : Thomas Hodgson, 13, Paternoster Row. Dublin : Hodges and Smith. 
Belfast : Marcus Ward and Co. 



358 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL PUBLICATIONS. 



The first Part of the Museum of Classical Antiquities, a quarterly journal of archi- 
tecture and the sister branches of classic art, will appear in January, and contain 
an essay on the antiquities of Xanthus by Benj. Gibson, Esq., of Rome, accom- 
panied with numerous illustrations. This paper has been entrusted to the Editor 
of the Museum of Classical Antiquities by the Council of the British Archaso- 
logical Association ; and the attention of the members is requested to the pub- 
lication as one likely to prove very useful in the promotion of archaeology. A 
subscription of 1. will entitle the subscriber to four quarterly Darts. The 
names of subscribers may be sent to the publisher, Mr. John W. Parker, 445, ' 
West Strand. 




NORTH DOORWAY FURNESS ABBEY 




THE JOURNAL 

OF THE 

Association, 



JANUAEY 1851. 



|N THE RUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONAS- 
TERY OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 

BY J. E. SHAIIPE, ESQ., M.A. 

(Continued from page 317.) 

| THE plan is after the form of the Latin cross, of which a 
>rt choir (F! without aisles, forms the eastern limb ; 
isepts (G G), with three eastern chapels (g g g), sepa- 
id by partition walls, and each containing its altar and 
:ina, the north and south limbs ; and the nave (B), with 
side aisles (c c), the western limb ; the crossing (E), or 
lion common to both beams of the cross, being covered 
a low lantern or tower, rising one stage only above 
[^intersecting roofs of the church. 
~ie first thing that arrests the attention on entering 
church, is the apparently anomalous union of the two 
LS of arch, the circular and the pointed : a circumstance 
ich has frequently led archeeologists to describe such 
Idings as belonging partly to one style and partly to 
ther, but which is, in fact, a characteristic feature of 
architecture of the transitional period, in the earlier 
|t of which, a discrimination is exercised in the use of 
two forms, which is worthy of note. 
Ul arches may be divided into two classes : i. Those 
w.ich form part of the frame- work of the fabric, and may 
threfore be called " arches of construction"; and n. Those 
iflch are used for panelling, or piercing or ornamenting 
th! walls, and which may be termed accordingly " arches 

VOL. VI. 47 



360 



RUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY 



of decoration". Now, in the earlier part of the transi- 
tional period, the arches of construction are usually pointed, 
and the arches of decoration circular ; a law which not 
only seems to indicate sufficiently the cause of the adop- 
tion of the pointed form, but also the lingering preference 
that was still felt for the circular form. 

The example before us corroborates this rule ; inasmuch 
as the arches of construction are all pointed. They con- 
sist of : i. The four large arches of the crossing, supporting 
the lantern, and opening into the four limbs of the cross ; 
ii. The pier-arches in the transepts ; in. The pier-arches 
in the nave (now destroyed) ; iv. The arches of the vault- 
ing of the transeptal chapels ; and v. The vaulting of the 
side-aisles of the nave, as shewn by the wall-rib in the 
westernmost compartment on the south side. 

So, also, the arches of decoration are circular : they 
consist of: i. The clerestory windows, which, although 
filled up, are still to be traced on the upper walls of the 
transepts ; n. The triforium-arch, which, although 
stopped, is still to be seen on the east wall of the nortl 
transept ; in. The lower windows of the church, as seei 
in the west wall of the transepts ; iv. The fine north door- 
way ; v. The south doorway, leading into the cloister ; 
and vi. The side-aisle windows of the nave, one example 
of which is still left in the westernmost compartment of 
the south aisle, under the pointed wall-rib of the vault- 
ing. 

In the nave, the piers consisted alternately of a large 
cylindrical pillar, and a cluster of eight cir- 
cular shafts, in which the departure from the 
heavy Norman pier is perceptible ; this ad- 
vance is further indicated by their bases, 
which have a well defined profile of peculiar 
character. 

All the arches, and the upper part of the 
piers in the nave, being destroyed, with the 
exception of the easternmost pier on the 
north side, this remaining fragment, in con- 
nexion with the corresponding piers of the 
transepts, which also consist of a cluster of 
JHHBKH eight shafts, affords the best evidence that 
Base of nave piers. i s left, of the nature of the upper portion of 







OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 



361 



the piers, their capitals, and arch-mouldings ; and these 
latter are fortunately left in so perfect a condition, that 
little doubt can remain as to the nature of these members 
of the ground-story of the nave. 

This north-west crossing pier has, on its west side, the 
half of a cylindrical pillar, corresponding, no doubt, with 
the cylindrical piers of the east of the nave ; and the 
capital which it carries is similar, in all probability, to 
those of the remaining circular piers which are destroyed. 




North-west crossing pier, west side. 



Ditto, north side. 



On its north side, this same pier has a cluster of shafts, 
carrying the arch which separates the north transept from 
the north aisle of the nave, which, making allowance for 
the difference of site, probably correspond in their general 
i character, in the same way with the alternate clustered 
piers of the nave. 

If to these two authorities we add that afforded us by 
the perfect piers of the north and south transepts, which 
present a cluster of eight shafts, corresponding with those 
in the alternate piers of the nave, we shall have a tolerably 
perfect conception of what this part of the ground-story of 



362 



RUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY 



the nave was like. In 
these examples there are 
three features which 
strongly mark their tran- 
sitional character : the 
first is the occurrence of 
a square abacus, carrying 
the profile, so common in 
this period, and which is 
used as frequently in the 
string-courses and hood- 
moulds, as in this posi- 
tion, and which occurs 
again in the latter form 
in the transept arches : 




Piers in transepts. 




Hood-mould of nave. 



the second is the shape of the capital itself, 
which shews under this abacus a square 
block, hollowed down to the circular shaft 
below, a form quite peculiar to the period : 
and the third is the nature of the only carved 
ornament which is displayed on these capitals, 
and which consists of a plain leaf, enclosing 
the neck of the capital, and finished at each 
corner with a curled end, resembling a vo- 
lute : an ornament of peculiar character, 
which was in use for a period of about 
arches, and s. doorway twenty years only, at most, and which serves 
therefore to identify the date of the building still more 
closely. 

The mouldings of the arches carried by these capitals 
have precisely that profile which we are accustomed to 
look for in works of this period. They consist of three 
orders, and a hood-mould of the form already referred to. 1 
These mouldings, whilst they are disposed after the square 
form of Norman mouldings, have lost all the heaviness of i 
the latter, and exhibit a considerable advance in the art ; the 
second order exhibits in its centre moulding a form suffi- 
cient in itself to mark the date of the building ; it consists 
of a cylindrical roll, having its outermost portion cut out 
by the intersection, as it were, of another cylinder. The 
same thing occurs in a pointed roll in the third order ; and 
again in the second order of the north doorway. 2 

1 See wood-cut, p. 363. 2 See wood-cut, p. 364. 



OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 



363 



On reviewing these principal elements in the construc- 
tion of the ornamental portion of the design of this fine 
building, we cannot fail of being struck with their extreme 




Mouldings of pier-arches in transepts. 

and truly Cistercian simplicity, and with the excellent 
eifect produced by the proportionate fitness of their mi- 
nutest details. 

All that can be said of the triforium or blind-story at 
present, is that it consisted, in the transepts at least, of one 
large circular arch, covering, in all probability, two smaller 
ones ; these were, however, obliterated when the rectilinear 
windows were inserted in the walls ; and all that can now 
be seen of them, is a portion of the outer arch-moulding, 
which, if further uncovered, would probably shew a pro- 
file of similar character to that of the pier-arches. The pro- 
secution of a further investigation in this matter would be 
a matter of interest. 

The clerestory windows were like the aisle-windows, 



364 



RUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY 



broad, plain, and circular, with plain splayed jambs, and a 
simple hood-moulding. 





Corbel of vaulting, south aisle. 



Arch mouldings of north doorway. 

The vaulting of the side-aisles was 
carried on single shafts, of which an 
example remains in the south aisle; 
on triple shafts, of which 
the remains are visible in 
the north aisle ; and on 
corbels, of which an ex- 
ample, containing an in- 
stance of early plain foliage, 
is left towards the west end 
of the south aisle. 

The principal string- 

congisted Q f ft 




OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 365 

moulding on a flat surface, with a hollow above and 
below. 

Having thus restored, as it were, from the data which 
remain, an entire compartment of the nave, we may 
after contemplating for a moment, in imagination, the 
effect that the restored series of compartments, as seen 
from the great arch of the west tower, would present 
turn our attention to such subordinate features of the 
building as formed part of the original design. 

Of these, the most important and interesting is the north 
doorway in the north transept, represented in the accom- 
panying plate (see plate xxix). 

This doorway contains within itself many of the prin- 
cipal features of the building, and the period to which it 
belongs. The pier arches are represented in the splendid 
series of richly clustered but simple mouldings of four 
orders of which the arch is formed, and which may be ad- 
vantageously compared with those before given : the piers 
themselves, and their capitals, are seen on a smaller scale 
in those forming the jamb of the doorway, the latter car- 
rying the same square abacus, square block, and voluted 
I leaf, which are seen in the former ; and the whole design 
(presents as agreeable a specimen of the ornate work of 
[this period as exists in the kingdom. 

What may have been the character of the western en- 
j trance, the construction of the tower has put it out of our 
power to conjecture. The south doorway, however, open- 
ling as usual at the east end of the south aisle into the cloister, 

of plain design ; consisting of a few large plain mould- 
igs, carried down without shafts or capitals to the 
round. 

Before leaving the church it will be necessary to notice the 

*ht of stairs (h) in the south transept, which is invariably 
found in Cistercian churches, and which afforded access 
for the monks during the nocturnal hours of service, from 
le dormitory to the church. 

Leaving then the later chancel and tower for future 
remarks, we issue from the church by the south doorway, 
jthe ordinary entrance of the monks during the daytime, 
jmd find ourselves on the site of the destroyed cloister ; 

id taking a few steps along its eastern wall, we come 
bo the entrance of the 



366 



RUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY 



in. CHAPTER HOUSE, which is approached by an arch- 
way of a character similar to that of the north doorway, 
but somewhat more advanced, having on each side an arch 
of almost similar design. These three archways (i i i) are 
found in the same position in most Cistercian convents. 
The exact use of the compartments or cells, to which those 
on the north and the south sides lead, is somewhat doubt- 
ful. Inasmuch, however, as the sacristy, absolutely indis- 
pensable, was almost invariably situated between the south 
transept and the chapter-house, the vaulted cell on the 
north side of the chapter-house was in the present case 
probably its site, whilst that on the south side was pro- 
bably a penitential cell. 

The vestibule to the chapter-house, and the chapter- 
house itself (i), are very elegant specimens of the architec- 
ture of the succeeding or lancet period ; to which period 
also the whole of the adjoining building, the common 
refectory (K), and the intervening passage (k), entirely 
belong. The difference of treatment exhibited in the 
details of these two contemporaneous buildings, is remark- 
able. 

In the chapter-house and its vestibule we find the greatest 
care and elegance displayed, in the plan of the light clus- 
tered shafts; the arrangement of the deeply moulded arches; 
the sculpture of the simple foliage, distributed, however, 




Arcade in Vestibule of Chapter -house. 



SO 



_ sparingly ; the disposition of the numerous shafts and 
corbels ; and the remarkable variety in the profiles of 
the different mouldings. The elegant trefoiled arcade 



OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 



367 






String-course. 



Diagonal rib. 



Transverse rib. 



in the vestibule has small shafts carrying delicately 
moulded Purbeck capitals, having profiles 
differing from one another, but strongly cha- 
racteristic of the period. 

The Chapter-house is lighted by double 
lancet windows, which on the inside have 
an arch thrown over them, with foliated 
circles in the spandrel. 

The vaulting of this graceful apartment 
consisted of twelve simple quadripartite 
vaults, carried on two rows of light clustered shafts. 

A large quantity 
of the debris, con- 
I -| sisting principally 
[~ Hp of the rib-mould- 
ings of this vault- 
ing, which fell 
down half a cen- 
tury ago, lies on 
the floor of the now 
roofless building ; the profiles of these ribs and the string- 
courses, shew very elegant and characteristic curves. 

iv. THE COMMON REFECTORY. As is usually the case, 
this building is remarkable for the almost entire absence 
of ornament ; it is a long apartment, with a row of plain 
octagonal pillars down the middle, carrying a series of plain 
quadripartite vaults, resting on equally plain corbels. 
This apartment usually corresponded in all these particu- 
lars with the hospitium and guest-house on the opposite 
side of the quadrangle. 

Between the penitential cell and the common refectory, 
there was usually a passage to the offices at the back; 
which is also found here. The entrance from the cloister 
to this passage, as well as that to the refectory, consists 
of a large enriched circular arch, similar in character to 
the three already described ; the whole five standing in 
immediate contiguity and forming a fine series, in which a 
certain advance of style in those lying to the southwards, 
is clearly perceptible. 

Retracing our steps, now, along the east walk of the 
joloister, entering the church again by the south doorway, 
md turning into the south transept (G), we ascend the 

VOL. VI. 48 



368 RUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY 

flight of steps (h) leading into the upper part of the build- 
ings we have been examining below. On reaching the top 
of the stairs, and passing through a doorway in the south 
wall of the transept, we find ourselves in a broad passage, 
situated over the vestibule to the chapter-house and the 
cells adjoining. On the east side of this passage, and im- 
mediately over the Chapter-house, lies 

v. THE SCRIPTORIUM, or library of the convent ; a low 
chamber, corresponding in extent with the Chapter-house, 
and lighted with broad single lancet windows. On the 
south side of the passage, and immediately over the long 
common refectory, is situated 

vi. THE DORMITORIUM, or common dormitory of the 
monks; lighted also on both sides like the others, with 
single lancet windows, and covered originally with a timber 
roof. Neither of these latter buildings exhibit ornamented 
shafts, vaulting, or mouldings of any kind. 

Having now completed our survey of the east side of 
the cloister quadrangle, we have, on turning to the other 
two sides, little left but foundation walls to guide us in 
our further restoration. This is the more to be regretted, 
inasmuch as some of the largest and most interesting 
buildings of the convent were usually placed on these 
sides. Of these the most important was 

vn. THE HOSPITIUM, or Guest-house (T), which formed 
the west side of the quadrangle, and extended from the 
south side of the church to a considerable distance, fre- 
quently beyond the whole of the other attached buildings. 
In Fountains abbey it is no less than two hundred and 
seventy feet in length. It is right to explain, that a very 
general supposition prevails that the building marked N 
on the plan, was the hospitium of Furness abbey ; bi 
there appears to be no sufficient ground for assigning 
remote and unusual a site to the hospitium ; nor can we do 
so, simply from the circumstance of the apparent size and 
importance of this building (N), and the difficulty of assign- 
ing to it a better designation. In order, however, that nc 
doubt might remain that a building of the usual characte 
existed at Furness on the very site on which the hospitii 
invariably occurs in the other Cistercian abbeys, excava- 
tions have been made on the south side of the church, 
amongst the rubbish which is there heaped against the 



OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 



369 



western-most compartment, a few days previous to the visit 
of the Association ; which have brought to light the re- 
mains of a portion of vaulting, a central respond shaft, 
the angle shafts, with their remarkable capitals, and the 
jamb of the first window of this building, which it is impossi- 
ble to believe can be any other than the original hospitium 
of the monastery. From these data, it appears probable 
that the building was one of the usual character, having 
a central row of pillars, carrying simple quadripartite 
vaulting, and in all other respects similar to the hospitium 
in other Cistercian abbeys. This discovery is the more 
interesting, as it establishes the fact that the hospitium 
was at least as early as the Conventual church itself: this 
supposition is derived from 
the early character of the 
capitals of the vaulting shafts 
at the sides of the building, 
which consist of a cubical 
block, with a plain abacus, 
i shaped in its lower part into 
[three distinct capitals, of a 
j form common in late Norman 
and transitional work, which 
; rest upon three distinct shafts, 
I of which the centre one and largest is engaged in the wall ; 
: and the two outer and smaller ones stand detached. But 
i for the latter arrangement, we should have been inclined 
(to assign this building to an almost earlier part of the 
| transitional period than the church. 

The further prosecution of this discovery becomes now 
' a matter of interest ; for it seems to be most probable that 
[the bases, at least of some, if not of all the central piers of 
this hall, will be found, if searched for at the proper inter- 
nals, and probably more extensive remains of its western 
wall. 1 




Capital of side shafts in the hospitium. 



1 Since the above was written, the 
further prosecution of the discovery 
above related has been undertaken. 
On the 27th November, the rev. R. 
Gfwyllim, of Ulverston, having organ- 
zed a party for the purpose of explor- 
ing the site of the supposed hospitium, 
ind having obtained the consent of the 
2arl of Burlington, the noble owner of 



the site, to make the necessary excava- 
tions, invited the writer of this paper 
to accompany the party, and to verify 
his assertion. The imaginary ground- 
plan of the hospitium having been 
marked out, the supposed sites of the 
first three central columns were pegged 
out, and fixed upon for the commence- 
ment of operations. The sod having 



370 



RUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY 



The next important building of the cloister court w? 

vin. The PRINCIPAL REFECTORY ; an apartment usualb 
second only, of the domestic buildings, in point of appear- 
ance and workmanship, to the Chapter-house. Of this 
structure no remains whatever have yet been discovered ; 
it probably however stood on the site marked z. This 
at all events is its usual position. 

ix. THE KITCHEN occupied usually the space interven- 
ing between the principal refectory and the common refec- 
tory ; of these two nothing has hitherto been discovered. 
Nothing however is more probable than that, if the original 
level of the cloister court were regained, and the rubbish 
which now occupies both this quadrangle and the site oi 
their supposed buildings cleared away, not only would 



been removed to the extent of six feet 
square over these centres, which were 
taken at a distance of 14 feet 2 inches 
from one another, a mixed party, con- 
sisting of excavators, clergymen, and 
amateurs, commenced the search ; and 
in the course of an hour, and at a 
depth of six feet from the surface, 
their Californian assiduity was reward- 
ed by the discovery, in succession i, 
of the bases of the three piers, standing 
in situ; n, of the original stone floor 
of the building ; and in, of the broken 
half of one of the capitals of the cen- 
tral piers. Subsequently, the floor of 
the building was cleared next the 
church, and the bases of the shafts, 
above described, laid bare ; a portion 
also of the west wall of the building 
was traced for a short distance, and 
the lower part of the window, its jamb, 
and the string-course below it were dis- 
covered. Lastly, as it was now proved 
that 14 feet 4 inches was the real dis- 
tance from centre to centre of the com- 
partments, a venture was made at a 
distance of 215 feet, or fifteen com- 
partments, from the south wall of the 
church, and in a direct line with the 
discovered piers, to ascertain whether 
any traces of the building existed to 
this extent ; and exactly below the 
spot indicated, was discovered an octa- 
gonal column, standing in situ. Whe- 
ther this column forms part of the 
same, or an additional building, ap- 
pears at present to be somewhat doubt- 
ful : the discovery, however, of so 



much as is now brought to light, ena- 
bles us to restore with tolerable cer- 
tainty the general plan and sections oi 
the building ; and fully justifies the 
prosecution of the excavations, to the 
extent of laying bare the whole of the 
floor, and so much of the walls as re- 
main. It seems extremely probable, 
that in carrying out this search, many 
important discoveries will be made , 
such as the discovery of considerable 
portions of the west wall, with the 
bases of its respond shafts, string- 
courses, and window-sills ; the discovery 
of portions of the central piers, their 
shafts, bases, and capitals, complete ; 
and remains of the capitals of the side 
shafts ; as well as portions of the vault- 
ing ribs. 

That these discoveries are not im- 
probable, may be concluded from the 
circumstance, that the recent excava- 
tion leaves little or no doubt, that the 
building lies now as it originally fell, 
and that it has not been since dis- 
turbed. It appeared, moreover, from 
the existence, in those parts of the 
floor that were uncovered, of a layer 
of black charred matter, which was 
composed of burnt timber and other 
combustible materials, that the interior 
of the building, and probably all it 
contained, had been fired before it fell. 
The entire mass below the soil consists 
of the debris of the building, and the 
depth from the surface of the ground 
to the floor varies from five to six 
feet. 



OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 



371 



the foundations, if not part of the walls of these buildings, 
reappear, but the breadth of the cloister itself, its pave- 
ment, and its inner wall, be discovered. 

We have now to turn to those additional buildings which 
remain, that formed no part of the general plan of the col- 
lection of the principal buildings round the cloister quad- 
rangle. Of these the most interesting is the building 
standing to the south of the common refectory marked o 
on the plan, and which has generally gone by the name of 
the school-house. That it was a chapel of some kind there 
can be little doubt, not only on account of its being placed 
east and west, and of its having a large east window ; but 
because it has a double piscina of very elegant and unusual 
character, which at once denotes its character. It forms, 
together with a smaller building adjoining its north side, 
the object and use of which it appears difficult to discover, 
the eastern termination of a long and apparently hand- 
some apartment (N), of considerable size and pretension, 
which must have ranked amongst the most important 
buildings of the convent. This circumstance, as well as 
the evident connexion between the two buildings, disposes 
me to consider them to be 

x. THE INFIRMARY (N) and 

xi. THE INFIRMARY CHAPEL (o). They both belong to 
the geometrical period, and are very remarkable examples. 
The chapel, with the exception of the east window, is in a 
tolerably perfect state for a ruin, and the whole of its 
elegant vaulting remains 
entire. Over the chapel 
was an upper apartment, 
of which little more than 
the walls remains. The 
most characteristic and 
original feature of the 
building, as it now stands, 
is the design of the tracery 
of the side windows, which 
: are of two lights, covered by 
a straight-sided arch, con- 
jtaining the description of 
i tracery usually denomi- 
I nated cusp-tracery, of simple geometrical character. 




Side windows in infirmary chapel. 



372 



RUINS OF THE CISTERCIAN MONASTERY 



The whole of the mouldings of this building and its 
adjoining neighbour are of a very graceful character, and the 






Vaulting shaft capitals. 



profiles of the three capitals, and the string-course, which 
are here given, contain curves as characteristic of their 
period as those of the three capitals in the vestibule of the 
chapter-house, with which it will be interesting to com- 
pare them. 




Vaulting-rib. 




Base of shafts. 




The vaulting, which has a span of twenty feet, is ad- 
mirably constructed, and carries a rib moulding of good 
profile, which, as well as that of the string-course, may 
also be compared with those of the chapter house (see p. 
367). What remains of the infirmary itself, leads us to 



OF ST. MARY, IN FURNESS. 373 

regret that more is not left : little more than the east wall, 
carrying on its upper part a fine arcade, on small triple 
shafts, with three good doorways below, has been pre- 
served. A brook, running the whole length of the infirm- 
ary, passes under the chapel, and joins the main stream 
of the valley in front of the east window. 

Of the various fragments of offices which lie at the back 
of the common refectory, and on the opposite side of the 
brook, much might be conjectured, with a greater or less 
degree of plausibility. They are none of them essential to 
the plan of a Cistercian monastery, and scarcely on other 
accounts worthy of more than a passing notice. Of the 
whole of these, one marked Q on the plan, presents some 
elegant fragments of lancet work. 

There remains still one small building of some interest 
to notice ; this is 

xn. The GATEWAY CHAPEL, a ground-plan of which is 
given in the general plan (x), where it is improperly called 
the abbot's chapel. It belongs to the early part of the 
geometrical period : the east window is gone, but the two- 
light side windows exhibit one of the earliest examples of 
nascent tracery, consisting of a simple foliated circle, car- 
ried by two foliated lancets. It contains also three sedilia, 
and a piscina, of equally early workmanship. 

We have yet to make mention of the works that were 
commenced apparently in the fifteenth century, on a scale 
and of a character equal to those of any earlier period, at 
the east and west ends of the conventual church. They 
consisted of a considerable enlargement of the choir, and 
the construction of a gigantic tower at the west end of the 
nave. 

The former comprised a noble rectilinear east window 
of great size, of which nothing now but the opening is 
left ; two handsome and lofty side windows ; and a magni- 
ficent series of canopied recesses, serving for the sedilia 
'and piscina, which, for excellence of design and work- 
manship, may be said to be unsurpassed. 

The tower, so far as it has ascended, and it is doubtful 
whether it was ever carried much higher, is commenced 
3n a plan of unusual grandeur. This will be best under- 
stood, when it is explained that the height of its base- 
bourse is no less than sixteen feet. The whole of its 



374 BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 






mouldings, and those of the west and east windows, are 
bold and fine examples ; and the whole of the details are 
of corresponding character. 

In concluding this hasty sketch of these interesting 
ruins, it would be an injustice to the native material of 
which they are built, and to the judgment with which it 
has been selected, to omit to notice the remarkable state 
of preservation in which all the ornamental parts of the 
work remain, up to the present time. The greater part of 
the capitals, mouldings, and carved work, are as fresh as 
they were the day they were quarried ; and although taken 
from the bright red sandstone of the district, a material 
never looked upon as possessed of much durability, so 
carefully has the stone been selected and set, that time 
and exposure seem to have made little or no impression 
upon them. 1 



ON THE 
BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 

BY J. R. PLANCHE, ESQ., F.S.A. 

(Read at Lancaster, Tuesday, Aug. 20, 1850.) 



re- 

I 

10- 



LITTLE as is the authentic information we possess re- 
specting heraldry in general, our knowledge of that ve: 
interesting and curious portion of it, the badges of o 
royal and noble families, is still more limited. Whi 
scores of volumes have been written respecting the armo- 
rial shields of the sovereigns, barons, and knights of Eng- 
land, no author has treated critically the subject of badges; 
and but one (Mr. Williment, in his Regal Heraldry} pre- 

1 For the illustration of this paper the proprietor of the whole of the re- 

the use of a plate, selected from Mr. maining copies of that valuable work ; 

Beck's History of Furness, showing the which, from the care and diligence with 

general ground-plan, and another of the which the documentary evidence has 

north doorway (from which a reduced been collected, and the admirable na- 

copy has been made), have been kindly ture of the illustrations, may be looked 

accorded by Mr. Soulby, of Ulverston, upon as a model for all local histories. 



BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 375 

sented us with an indiscriminate collection of those said to 
have been assumed at various periods by the members of 
the blood royal only. I must, therefore, preface the 
remarks I shall have the honour to make to you on the 
present occasion, by requesting your attention to an impor- 
tant object in all such investigations the separation of 
assertions unsupported by facts established by existing 
memorials or unquestionable contemporary authority. The 
great labour of the modern archaeologist is to unlearn to 
avoid repeating the errors of others. To give confidence 
to his hearers or readers, by the honourable acknowledge- 
ment of his ignorance on points respecting which he has 
been unable to obtain satisfactory data, and not by the 
oracular proclamation of opinions, which have no founda- 
tion in fact. It must be obvious that the cause of science 
is better served by the honest admission, that a point has 
yet to be explained, than by assuming it is already so. In 
a large and mixed assembly, like the present, for one who 
will critically examine the matter, twenty will take it for 
granted, and thus the most serious errors may be perpe- 
tuated. But some will say, perhaps, you come here to 
teach us, and you are bound to know, before you pretend 
to do so. They must permit me to answer, such is not ex- 
actly the case. We are here to learn as much as to teach ; 
and the greatest advantage those who take an interest in 
this pursuit can receive from our coming, is the impetus to 
inquiry consequent on the discovery of how much is yet to 
be done in illustration of the history of our native country. 

" Crests, badges, devices, and mottos, form", says an 
intelligent recent writer, " an interesting though neglected 
branch of heraldic inquiry. The three last named 
are often taken to mean the same thing ; at least, 
badges are confounded with devices, and devices with 
mottos, owing to the confused notions entertained upon 
the subject by writers on heraldry, who have not suffi- 
ciently attended to the distinction made between them in 
the time when their use generally prevailed." Badges are 
also often confounded with crests ; but they are a perfectly 
distinct species of heraldic decoration, and should never be 
borne on a wreath, because they were never placed on the 
helmet, of which the wreath was a special ornament. 

The word " badge" is familiar to us all in its ordinary 

VOL. VI. 49 



376 BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 

acceptation, as a mark or token of anything ; but its ety- 
mology, like that of so many heraldic terms, is most uncer- 
tain. Mr. Lower, in his Curiosities of Heraldry, has col- 
lected the principal derivations suggested by the philolo- 
gists, preferring that of Johnson, who derives it from the 
Italian "bajulo", to carry. The Norman term for it is 
much more explicit, " le cognoissance"; Anglicised, " cog- 
nizance"; and in many instances it was probably the first 
armorial bearing displayed by the assumer on his shield or 
banner ; but when the heraldic escutcheon became more 
elaborately charged, convenience, economy, and other 
obvious reasons, combined to render it necessary to distin- 
guish the retainers and servants of royal, baronial, and 
knightly personages, by some simple and striking mark of 
the family to which they belonged. " Might I but know 
thee by thy household badge," says Clifford to the earl of 
Warwick, in the second part of King Henry VI. This 
household badge or cognizance was therefore either a 
figure selected from the family coat, or one quite distinct 
from it, bearing some obvious allusion either to the name 
of the owner, or to one of his principal estates or offices ; 
and whilst the banner, shield, and jupon of the knight, and 
the tabard of his herald, displayed the whole armorial 
coat, the badge glittered upon the standard and pennon- , 
celle, and on the sleeve, back, or breast, of the soldier, ' 
the domestic, or the adherent, sometimes on a ground of 
the family colours, if the whole dress was not composed of 
them, and in later times engraved or embossed on metal 
plates fastened on the arm, as we see the badges now 
worn by firemen, watermen, postilions, etc. The occa- 
sional use of the crest, where families had not assumed a 
badge, has caused the confusion of these otherwise distinct 
ensigns, and the modern innovation of embroidering the 
sleeve or embossing the plate with the entire coat of arms, 
has increased the difficulty which besets the subject. To 
the household badge or cognizance properly belonged the 
" cri de guerre", motto, mot, or word of the family, now most 
absurdly placed under the shield of arms; a situation 
which, of course, it could never have occupied. The object 
of both badge and motto was publicity ; and herein is the 
great line of demarcation to be drawn between this sign of 
company, and the occasional and purely personal heraldic 



BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 377 

decoration with which it is so confounded ; namely, the 
device, with its accompanying legend, assumed for the very 
opposite purpose of mystification, or, at least, of covertly 
alluding to the immediate motive or sentiments of the 
bearer. Both the badge and the device are occasionally 
termed " a rebus"; but the epithet is more strictly applica- 
ble to the latter, as it was, in fact, a pictured riddle, or 
" painted metaphor", as Dallaway calls it ; and its legend 
was emphatically described by the French as " 1'ame du de- 
vise", the soul or spirit of the device. The extravagance 
of fancy displayed in some of these emblematical decora- 
tions amounts sometimes to the ridiculous : with such, 
however, we have nothing to do at present, beyond this 
general definition, which is necessary for their separation 
in your minds from the legitimate object of our considera- 
tion, the household badges or family cognizances of the 
royal line of Lancaster. 

The catalogue of royal badges which has been frequently 
printed, and most commonly followed without question, is 
found in various manuscripts in the College of Arms, the 
British Museum, and the Bodleian Library ; but the date 
of these manuscripts is, in no instance, earlier than the 
fifteenth century ; and though there is no reason to ques- 
tion the existence of many of the cognizances therein 
enumerated, there is no satisfactory information touching 
their origin, or consistent explanation of their meaning. 
Sir Henry Ellis communicated, several years ago, to the 
Society of Antiquaries, a paper containing a list of the 
badges of the house of York, copied from a manuscript of 
the time of Henry VI, in the Digby Collection in the Bod- 
leian, marked No. 82, which appears to have been the au- 
thority, as far as it goes, for some of the later manuscripts 
alluded to ; and sir Henry prefaces the list by the wish, 
that " we could discover another such memorandum, ex- 
plaining the badges of the house of Lancaster". Although 
not in a collective form, they are to be found recorded in 
various documents of nearly as early a date, and with 
pretty much the same " explanation' attached to them, if 
the most contradictory and unsupported assertions can be 
called explanation. Mr. Williment, Mr. Montague, and 
others, have gathered them together to the number of a 
dozen, viz., a red rose, a swan, an antelope, the root of a 



378 BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 

tree, an ostrich feather, ermine, a fox's tail or brush, a 
crescent, a cresset or beacon, an eagle or falcon, a padlock 
or fetterlock, a gennet, and a panther. This catalogue is 
quite as complete as that furnished of the house of York ; 
the value of which has yet to be tested, for the omission of 
several well-known badges of that house will either tell 
for or against its accuracy, as the case may turn out. Even 
contemporary documents are not to be credited implicitly. 
Errors and wilful misrepresentations were made in the 
olden time as well as now ; and in such matters as those 
under consideration, the grossest mistakes were sometimes 
perpetrated, the most unfounded assertions promulgated. 
We will commence our examination with the most familiar 
of the Lancasterian badges, " the red rose". In the York 
list just mentioned, we find it stated that the white rose of 
that house was borne as representing the castle or honour of 
Clifford : " The bages that he bearyth by the castle of 
Clifford is a white rose." And sir Henry Ellis suggests 
that " the red rose had most probably a similar origin, anc 
was, perhaps, nothing more than an ancient tenure", 
agree with sir Henry as to the probability ; but in order 
judge from analogy, it would be necessary to ascertain how 
the white rose was connected with the castle of Clifford, 
and to reconcile that statement with the contradictory one 
of other writers, who assert that the white rose was the 
badge of Mortimer, earl of March ; and that riddle is yet 
to read. In a manuscript in the College of Arms, as late 
as the reign of Henry VII, a red rose is surmounted by 
the word " Richmond"; and a member of that College, to 
whose kindness I have been frequently indebted, suggested 
to me that the red rose might have been a badge of the 
honour of Richmond, which was actually possessed by Jol 
of Gaunt, he having been created earl of Richmond Sept. 
20, 1342. But the appearance of the rose on the seal of 
Henry I, duke of Lancaster, who never enjoyed that 
honour (vide pi. xxx, fig. 4), militates against that otherwise 
most probable solution. Camden also, in his chapter on 
impresses, says : " Edmund Crouchback, second son of 
Henry III, first earl of Lancaster, took a red rose, where- 
with his tombe at Westminster is adorned". I regret to 
say, I have been unable to discover any traces of roses 
upon the monument of Edmund Crouchback at West- 



PL ATE XXX. 




CHARLES BAILY. F.S.A . 1851. 




PLATE XXXII. 





tx > '> 



BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 379 

minster, unless the small floral ornaments between the ribs 
of the arch can be those he alludes to, in which case I 
cannot conceive them to have any heraldic signification, 
as they are commonly found in architecture of that period. 
There may have been, however, paintings on the tomb in 
Camden's time, which are no longer discernible ; and he 
afterwards tells us John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, took 
a red rose to his device, as it were by right of his wife, the 
heir of Lancaster, as Edmund of Langley, duke of York, 
took the white rose. Sandford, in his Genealogical History r , 
quotes this latter portion: but neither he nor Camden 
appear to have known, or, if they did know, to have 
credited, that the white rose of York was a sign of the 
tenure of that honour by the castle or tower of Clifford. 
There is yet a third derivation of the rival roses, handed 
down to us by a writer who had, no doubt, some popular 
tradition for his groundwork. It occurs in the first part of 
the historical play of King Henry VI, and the scene is laid 
in the Temple Gardens, London, where Richard Plantage- 
net, afterwards duke of York, and John Beaufort, earl of 
Somerset, are made to speak as follows : 

Plantagenet. " Let him that is a true-born gentleman, 

And stands upon the honour of his birth, 
If he suppose that I have pleaded truth, 
From off this briar pluck a white rose with me. 

Somerset. Let him that is no coward, nor no flatterer, 
But dare maintain the party of the truth, 
Pluck a red rose from off this thorn with me." 

Jpon which Warwick, Vernon, and the lawyer, gather 
vhite roses, and Suffolk a red rose ; and Warwick pro- 
phecies 



This brawl to-day, 



Grown to this faction in the Temple Gardens, 
Shall send, between the red rose and the white, 
A thousand souls to death and endless night." 

Now it appears to me, that whether this scene be 
bunded on history or tradition, it does not affect the origin 
f the badges of York and Lancaster; but simply the 
lection of those particular cognizances as signs of corn- 
any for the partizans of the rival houses in the fatal war 
lat followed. There is not a line, throughout the scene 



380 BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 

which can be taken as intending to shew that these badges 
were then for the first time assumed. Richard Plantagenet, 
as grandson of Edmund Langley, duke of York, naturally 
proposes that those who think with him should signify 
their opinion by adopting the badge of his house which 
is by accident blooming beside him. John Beaufort, a 
descendant of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, as natu- 
rally selects the badge of his family, the red rose, as the 
token of adherence to his side of the question. The scene, 
if entirely the invention of Shakespere, is, like all his in- 
ventions, full of truth and character ; and, in any case, 
testifies to the pre-existence of those family cognizances, 
rather than to their derivation from this accident. But 
there is a passage in another scene of this play which de- 
serves notice, and rather involves the question. It is in 
the fourth act, when the demand for trial by combat is 
made to Henry VI by Vernon and Basset. In that scene 
the king says, putting on a red rose : 

" I see no reason, if I wear this rose, 
That any one should therefore be suspicious 
I more incline to Somerset than York." 

And after the king's exit, York, in answer to Warvvk 
says: 

" I like it not, 

In that he (the king) wears the badge of Somerset" 

Now this is worthy of remark, because the author of these 
lines (whether Shakespere or not, for, as you know, that 
point is disputed) the author, I say, whoever he was, lived 
at a period when many men, if they could not themselves 
remember the wars of the Roses, had heard their fathers, 
who had actually fought in them, tell the story of the 
quarrel ; and yet the red rose is not called the badge of 
Lancaster, but distinctly that of Somerset. King Henry 
does not claim any connection with it ; he adopts it as an 
indifferent ornament, deprecates the idea of being sup- 
posed to incline to Somerset on that account, and after his 
departure no plea is set up for him by his apologist on the 
ground that it was one of his own family cognizances, and 
might therefore be borne by him without offence to York, 01 
pledging him in any way to support the cause of Somerset. 
Let us now go back and see where the rose first appears as 



BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 381 

a royal badge. On the seal of William Rufus,two floral orna- 
ments are seen within circles, one on each side of the figure 
of the enthroned sovereign. (PI. xxx, figs. 1,2.) Neither, I 
confess, can be said greatly to resemble a rose. Each has five 
leaves, those of one being indented round the edges, while 
those of the other are plain. The seal of Henry I presents 
; us with a quaterfoil having petals between the leaves, and 
less like a rose than either of the two former. (PI. xxx,fig. 3.) 
No floral emblems occur on the seals of Stephen, Henry II, 
Richard I, John, or Henry III ; and the legend of the seal of 
Edward I is divided only by a fleur-de-lys. A manuscript in 
the Harleian Collection, No. 304, asserts that " Edward I, 
after the conquest, gave as a badge a rose, gold, the stalk, vert; 
but no authority is quoted for the statement. On the reverse 
Df his private seal is the figure of a bear, standing against 
i tree ; but no instance of a rose occurs in any relic of this 
sovereign that I have met with. The seals of Edward II 
ire equally barren of information on this point. But on 
Dne of his queen, Isabella, daughter of Philip IV, king of 
France, a rose is visible on each side of an escutcheon of her 
irms, dimidiated with those of her husband. (Plate xxx, 
ig. 5.) To Edward III a host of badges and devices 
lave been ascribed, on more or less foundation ; but the 
>un-beams issuing from clouds, mentioned by Camden, is 
;he only one for which there is positive authority. The 
A-ardrobe accounts of this magnificent monarch contain 
nany entries of singular ornaments, embroidered upon the 
oyal habits for the masque or the tournament, and amongst 
hem we find mention of both white and red roses ; but it 
nay be questioned if they are heraldic any more than the 
tlier ornaments enumerated. A large bed for William of 
>\ incisor, the king's son, is ordered to be made of green 
afteta, embroidered with red roses, figures, and serpents. 
V " hailing", that is, a suit of hangings for a hall, is or- 
lored for the lady Joan the king's daughter, of worsted, 
worked with popinjays, and another with roses, the colour 
ot mentioned. For the jousts, at Lichfield, a harness 
flM made for the king's person, powdered with roses and 
ther work of silk ; but, as on this occasion the harness is 
istinctly stated to have been of the arms of sir Thomas 
e Braderton, which the king had for some reason assumed, 
; is probable the roses had also a reference to the knight 



382 BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 

so honoured. The king in another hastilude at Windsor 
wore the arms of sir Stephen de Cosyngton, which were 
azure, three roses, argent. A harness was made " of blue 
velvet, with a pall of red velvet, and within the said pall 
a white rose" for the king's hastilude at Windsor ; but here 
again we are left in doubt as to the reference of the white 
rose, as this garment was made expressly to be worn by 
" the Lord David, king of Scotland". 

We next arrive at the reign of Richard II, whose effigy 
in Westminster Abbey is covered with royal badges, but 
the rose is not amongst them. The legend on his great 
seal, however, is divided by two crowns, a hand, and under- 
neath the hand a rose (pi. xxx, fig. 6) ; yet if it be a cogni- 
zance, why not also include in the list the hand and the 
two crowns "? Henry IV appears to have used the same 
seal with a new inscription ; but, at all events, we ha 
now reached the reign of the first sovereign of the ho 
of Lancaster, without distinctly recognizing a rose as 
badge of a king of England. 

Having thus placed the facts of the case before yo 
I may perhaps be permitted to express an opinion, t 
value of which you must yourselves decide. The asserti 
in the Harleian MS., No. 304, that Edward I. gave a ro 
gold, the stalk, vert, is, as I have stated, unsupported by 
any authority known at present to exist by those who 
have written on the subject ; but there are several reasons 
for our believing the assertion has some foundation in fact. 
The mother of Edward I was Eleanor of Provence, and I 
am strongly inclined to believe we are indebted to that 
land of song and chivalry, not only for the fragrant " roi 
centifolia" which perfumes our gardens,but also for the floral 
emblem of the house of Lancaster. The tomb of her second 
son, Edmund Crouchback, earl of Lancaster, is stated by 
Camden to have been in his day adorned with red roses, the 
difference of colour being a usual heraldic distinction. To 
his children, Thomas and Henry, the county of Provence 
descended by grant from the said Eleanor their grandmother, 
and her grant was confirmed to Henry earl of Lancaster 
by king Edward III, in the ninth year of his reign. On 
the seal of Henry I, duke of Lancaster, the son of Henry, 
earl of Lancaster, Leicester, Derby, and Provence, a branch 
of roses is placed beside his crest of a lion. The duke's 



BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 383 

eldest daughter, Maud, married William, the fifth duke of 
Bavaria, earl of Holland, Zealand, and Friesland, but died 
without issue ; and John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, 
assumed the red rose in right of his wife Blanch, the 
younger daughter and co-heiress of Henry. The county 
was claimed by John of Gaunt during the reign of Joan I 
)f Naples, in the right of Eleanor, from whom he had 
iescended, and of the heir of Henry, duke of Lan- 
caster, whom he had married. He bequeaths however, 
in 1397, to the altar of St. Paul's cathedral, his great 
,)ed of cloth of gold, powdered with golden roses ; and 
rlumphry de Bohun, who married Elizabeth, daughter 
>f Edward the First, bequeaths to his sister, the countess 
: )f Devonshire, a green bed powdered with red roses, 
"sow, though we do not find the title of earl of Pro- 
ence assumed by the first two dukes of Lancaster, the 
!>adge might still be borne by all the family as a mark of 
naternal descent, at the same time that the sovereigns of 
^n^land would hold it secondary in importance to such 
ither cognizances as appertained expressly to the throne 
hey occupied, or to their own matrimonial alliances or 
(Tritorial pretensions. In this way, whilst the fourth, 
iftli, and sixth Henrys, the son, grandson, and great 
.randson of Blanch of Lancaster, might make a greater 
isplay of swans, antelopes, etc., the rose of Provence 
light have been retained by the Beauforts and Somersets, 
:i token of their descent from John of Gaunt, the husband 
f Blanch, in preference to the favourite cognizances borne 
y their half-brethren, to whom had been strictly limited 
ic right of succession to the crown of England. The re- 
ssumption of the red rose by the whole line, would have 
een naturally influenced by the display of the white rose 
f York ; and the fact of the livery colour of the Plan- 
igenets being white and red, rendered the opposing hues 
the rival flowers most singularly applicable to the 
vision of the family. I am afraid you will think I have 
id too much to you " under the rose", but I shall be 
uch less diffuse on the other badges, their origin being 
ther more obvious, or at present defying all speculation. 
The swan, argent, collared and chained, or, is derived, 
"cording to all genealogists, from the family of the De 
ohuns; Henry Bolingbroke, duke of Lancaster, after- 

V<>!.. vi. 50 



384 BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 

wards Henry IV, having married Mary de Bohun, youngest 
daughter and co-heir of Humphrey earl of Hereford, Essex, 
and Northampton. Here we are all agreed : but whence 
did the De Bohuns derive the swan 1 A manuscript, of the 
time of Henry VII, in the Harleian Collection, in the list of 
badges of Henry V, says : " Also he gave the swan, as his 
father did by the earldom of Hereford". This is not cor- 
rect, I imagine. The swan was undoubtedly the badge of 
the De Bohuns (pi. xxx, fig. 8) ; but not as earls of Here- 
ford, but of Essex, they having received it from the Man- 
devilles, or Magnavillas, earls of Essex, to whom they had 
succeeded, by the marriage of Maud Fitzpiers, grand- 
daughter and heiress of Beatrice, sister of Geoffrey de 
Mandeville, earl of Essex, with Humphrey de Bohun, the 
fifth of that name, earl of Hereford. Thomas of Woodstock, 
duke of Gloucester and earl of Buckingham, youngest son 
of Edward III, was also earl of Essex and Northampton, in 
right of his wife, Eleanor de Bohun, the eldest sister 
of Mary, who married Henry Bolingbroke ; and his seal is 
diapered with swans and ostrich feathers. Their daughter 
Anne became countess of Stafford; and in this way the 
swan became an heraldic symbol of that house. But we 
have to go a step higher yet. The Mandevilles and the 
Nevils appear to have had a common ancestor in Adam 
Fitz Swanne, the son, as his name imports, of Swanne, or 
Swanus (perhaps originally Sweyn or Swayn, a common 
Danish name), who was seised of large estates in the north 
of England, temp. William the Conqueror, and, amongst 
others, of Hornby, in the county of Lancaster. Emma de 
Mandeville, who was the second wife of Robert Fitz Mal- 
dred, who married the heiress of the Nevils, and assumed 
their name, calls in her charta Ranulph de Nevil her lord, 
and founds a perpetual mass for his soul in the abbey of 
Staindrop ; and the seal of Cecilia de Nevil, who married 
Richard, duke of York, has a swan, bearing on its breast 
the shield of York, impaling Nevil (pi. xxxu, fig. 3). Thus 
we find the swan holding its stately course down the stream 
of time, as the arms of the Mandevilles, the badge. of the 
Nevils, the De Bohuns, and the royal house of Lancaster. 
The crest of the Staffords, the Buckinghams, the Beau- 
champs, the Bourchiers, and a host of noble families, de- 
rived from them to the present day. I cannot conclude 



BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 385 

this notice of the swan without alluding to the circumstance, 
often mentioned, of Edward III having caused to be made 
for one of his hastiludes, A.D. 1348, a harness of white 
buckram, tinselled with silver, and the tunic and shield 
worked with the king's motto, 

"Hay, Hay the white swan, 
By God's soul I am thy man. 

This has been considered by some writers as a challenge or 
defiance : on the contrary, it is an expression of homage, 
" I am thy man" being the words always used in the per- 
formance of that act; and this motto was doubtlessly 
assumed by the king, in compliment to some queen of 
beauty, presiding or present at that tournament, whose 
cognizance was " the white swan". It is worth notice also, 
that swans with ladies' heads formed the border of a hall 
of tapestry, bequeathed by Edward the Black Prince to the 
church of Canterbury. 

The third badge on our list is the antelope, " a beast", 
says sir William Segar, " belonging from antiquity to 
the house of Lancaster". What a pity he, like so many 
other writers of his time, did not condescend to give 
us his authority for such an assertion; for Mr. Willi- 
ment, in his Regal Heraldry, conjectures that the antelope, 
as well as the swan, was derived from the De Bohuns, in 
which case the house of Lancaster could have no right to 
it previous to the marriage of Henry Bolingbroke to his 
first wife, Mary De Bohun. Mr. Williment's opinion is 
founded, with some reason, on the assertion, that at the 
meeting of king Henry VIII and the emperor Maximilian, 
before Touraine, llth of August 1513, Edward Stafford, 
duke of Buckingham, heir general to Eleanor De Bohun, 
appeared "in purple satin, his apparell and his barde" 
(i.e. the housings of his horse) " full of antelopes and swans 
of fine gold bullion". " The antelopes", he adds, " still 
remain on the gates of Maxtoke Castle". These circum- 
stances, coupled with the account of the duel between Henry 
Bolingbroke and the duke of Norfolk, in Richard II's 
time, when Henry entered the lists at Coventry, his horse 
caparisoned with blue and green velvet, embroidered sump- 
tuously with swans and antelopes of goldsmith's work, 
appear certainly to connect the antelope with the De 
Bohuns ; as we find it always in company with the swan, 



386 BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 

which they had derived from the Mandevilles. The ante- 
lope was perhaps their own immediate cognizance, as it 
afterwards became a supporter of the arms of their princi- 
pal descendants : of Katharine, queen of Henry V ; of 
their eldest son, king Henry VI ; of John duke of Bedford, 
and Humphrey duke of Gloucester, his brothers. For the 
conveyance of king Henry the Fifth's body to England, the 
coursers are said to have been trapped with trappers of 
party colours : one side was blue velvet, embroidered with 
antelopes drawing in mills ; the other side was green vel- 
vet, embroidered with antelopes sitting on stires (sw?), with 
long flowers springing between the horns. This last pecu- 
liarity appears, I think, on the seal of queen Katharine 
before mentioned, unless it be the mere ornament of the 
ground on which the supporter is placed (plate xxx, 
fig. 9). On the original derivation of this badge I will 
not hazard a speculation. But I must mention, as a 
curious fact, that Menestrier has engraved the arms of] 
Philippe le Bel, king of France, father of Isabel, queen of 
Edward II, and mother of Edward III, as they were 
painted, with others, on an old house in the valley ofl 
Quetas, in the representation of a tournament given onj 
the occasion of the marriage of the baron de Faussigny 
with Marie (or Bonne) de Savoie, daughter of Amadeus V, 
1282; and that the crest is the head of an antelope (pi. xxx, 
fig. 10). The fourth and fifth badges I think I can throw 
a little light upon, which, considering they are a moon and 
a beacon, they really ought not to require at my hands. 
Mr. Williment quotes Hollingshed, to prove that Henry 
IV used the badge of a crescent in the year 1400. The 
passage runs thus : " Henry, having notice of the conspi- 
racy of the earl of Kent, retired from Windsor Castle, 
upon which the earl went to Sunnings, and declared that 
Henry of Lancaster was fled, and that king Richard was at 
Pomfret with a hundred thousand men. To cause his 
speech the better to be believed, he took away the king's 
cognizances from them that bare the same, as the collars 
from their necks, and the badges of cressents from the 
sleeves of the servants of his household ; and throwing 
them away, said that such cognizances were no longer to 
be borne." Now, if a crescent were so particular a badge 
of Henry IV, as to be worn upon the sleeves of the ser- 
vants of his household when he was king of England, it is 



BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 387 

singular that it should not be mentioned by any other 
author, or appear as an heraldic decoration on any monu- 
ment of his reign. Hollingshed, of course, must have 
copied somebody : but I am. of opinion that for cressent we 
should read cresset; for a cresset or beacon was a badge of 
his son Henry V ; and I find it spelt cressant in several 
manuscripts of the fifteenth century. Sir W. Segar says : 
" Henry V, by reason of his dissolute life in the time of 
his father's reign, when, after the death of the said king 
his father, he was anointed monarch of this realm, betook 
unto him for his badge or cognizance a cresset light, burn- 
ing, shewing thereby, that although his virtues and good 
parts had been formerly obscured, and lay as dead coal, 
wanting lights to kindle it, by reason of tender years and 
evil company, that notwithstanding he, now being come to 
his perfect years and riper understanding, had shaken off 
his evil connexions, and being now in his high imperial 
throne, that his virtues, which before had lain dead, should 
now, by his righteous reign, shine as the light of crescet, 
which is no ordinary light ; meaning also that he should 
be a guide and light to his people, to follow him in 
all virtue and honor." Now, is it not vexatious, that, 
instead of a plain reference to a contemporary authority, we 
should meet with this long-winded tautological specimen 
of lame English, conveying to us no information on which 
we can place the least reliance, the pure invention, pro- 
bably, of Segar himself, or of some preceding writer, who 
was unable to account for the origin of the badge. Ano- 
ther herald tells us " that Heniy bore the cresset as signi- 
fying his sudden and hot alarms in France". The advan- 
tage of such contradictory evidence being, the conclusion 
that neither had the least authority for their statement. I 
have never yet been able to discover that badges originated 
in any such conceits. " The cresset with burning fire", 
according to Harleian MS. 104, "was the badge of the 
Admiralty". This assertion is probably founded on the 
fact, that the badge of John Holland, duke of Exeter, was 
a cresset, as appears by the sarcastic verses, written in the 
reign of Henry VI, in which it is said, " the fiery cressett 
hath lost its light", the word " cressett" being superscribed 
" Exceter" ; and in another poem of the same period, dated 
1458, in Trinity College, Dublin, we find him alluded to 



388 BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 

as " a fyre cressant that burneth bright"; affording an ex- 
ample also of the spelling before mentioned. 

But the badge of Henry V, as represented on the frieze 
within the chantry, over his tomb, plate xxxi, fig. 1, is not a 
cresset, which was a portable light, but a permanent beacon, 
to which are chained the swan and the antelope ; and I 
know of no other contemporary authority for a cresset as the 
badge of Henry IV or V, if this be not it. The cresset of 
the Hollands, earls of Kent, and dukes of Surrey and 
Exeter, was probably derived from the lordship of Wake, 
such lights being carried by the watch of the middle ages, 
and the motto of the Wakes of Somerset being still " Vigila 
et ora," watch and pray. 

The sixth badge is the tree root, or ; and herein we have 
an excellent specimen of that species of cognizance which 
was called a rebus not one to puzzle, but inform (pi. xxxn, 
fig. 2). There are those, however, who tell us that Edward 
III bore the root of a tree, sprouting, to typify " his flour- 
ishing issue". I am not aware of any authority for Edward 
bearing this badge at all, beyond the assertion here quoted ; 
but the root or stock of a tree is evidently the rebus of the 
royal manor of Woodstock, at which Edward of Wood- 
stock, son of Edward I, Edward the Black Prince, sur- 
named also of Woodstock, and Thomas of Woodstock, his 
brother, sixth and youngest son of Edward III, were born. 
On the seal of the latter his escutcheons are pendant on 
branches from the trunk of a tree (plate xxx, fig. 7) ; and 
the badge was also borne by John of Lancaster, duke of 
Bedford, son of Henry IV, from which circumstance it is 
called by the French, " le racine de Bedfort" (plate xxxi, 
fig. 2). There is no existing example, however, of this 
badge being borne by any other personage of the house of 
Lancaster, though it is depicted on the standard of Henry 
IV, in Harleian MS. 4632, with an assertion, that he 
"gave the tree rote, or" (pi. xxxi i, fig. 4). 

The next badge on our list is a very singular one. " A 
fox tail, of its proper colour, dependent", which Henry IV 
is said, by Camden and Segar, to have borne, " following 
Lysander's advice, if the lyon's skin were too short, to 
piece it out with a fox's case". This is a very ingenious 
explanation of the badge ; but that Henry IV, whose title 
to the crown was more than questionable, should have 



BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 389 

assumed a cognizance for the express purpose of showing 
how much he was indebted to the cunning of the fox for 
piecing out what he wanted in right of the lion, is not in 
accordance with his known sagacity. It is much more 
likely to have been a satirical explanation of the cognizance, 
by a partizan of Richard II. Mr. Montague, in his Guide 
to Heraldry, says, " this device was derived, I have no doubt, 
from his maternal ancestors of the house of Lancaster ; for 
in a manuscript in my possession, entitled ' Arms of the 
Founders of the Garter', there is a representation of a badge 
of Henry Plantagenet, duke of Lancaster, a square tablet 
divided into two equal parts by a perpendicular line, and 
coloured white and blue. In the first, or white compart- 
ment, is a red rose, and in the other, the blue, appears a 
fox's brush, painted in its proper colours"; and in Brooke, 
Somerset Herald's Collection, College of Arms, I find : " The 
Bohuns, earls of Hereford, bore a fox's tail, couped, which 
Henry IV retained as his heir" (pi. xxxi, fig. 4). Mon- 
strelet tells us, that when Henry V entered Rouen, he was 
accompanied by a page, who rode behind him on a very 
fine courser, carrying a lance, near to the point of which 
was fastened the tail of a fox, in manner of a penoncel, 
which the wise heads saw a great deal in". Walter Hun- 
gerford, steward of the household to Henry V, received a 
grant of the castle and barony of Hornet, in Normandy, by 
the service of providing the king and his heirs, at the castle 
of Rouen, with a lance, with a fox's tail hanging from it : 
and a manuscript in the British Museum contains a copy of 
an information against one Harry Glomyng, haberdasher, 
for saying that if he were at Rouen with three thousand men 
he would break the siege, and make them of Rouen dock 
the king's tail. Elmham, the chronicler, attempts an ex- 
planation of the badge, by telling us, that when Henry V 
kept his Lent in the castle of Kenilworth, he caused an 
arbour to be planted in the marsh there, for his pleasure 
amongst the thorns and bushes, where a fox beforehand 
had harboured, which fox he killed, being a thing then 
thought to prognosticate that he should expel the crafty 
deceits of the French king. If Elmham, who was a con- 
temporary writer, has really got hold of the right tale of the 
fox, there is an end to the assertion that it was a badge of 
Henry IV ; but I can only consider this as another example 



390 BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 

of the provoking practice of inventing stories to explain 
what, to the writer, appeared inexplicable. 

A marginal note in the Harleian MS. 4632, says: 
" Henrye, son to the erle of Derby, fyrst duke of Lan- 
caster, gave the red rose, crowned, whose ancestors gave 
the fox tayle in his proper cooler, and the ostrych fether, 
the pen ermine". The Henry here mentioned was the 
father of Blanch, wife of John of Gaunt ; and therefore 
the entry is curious in more points than one ; for if it be 
worthy of credit, it shows the existence of the ostrich 
feather as a royal cognizance long before the battle of 
Cressy, and renders questionable the later and better 
founded belief, that it was a cognizance of the counts of 
Hainault, and introduced by Philippa, queen of Edward 
III. All that is known at present on this most interesting 
subject is, that the badge of an ostrich feather has not been 
traced higher than the reign of Edward III, at which period 
we find it borne by all his sons, and afterwards by their 
principal descendants and connexions. In a border of a 
south window of old St. Paul's cathedral, opposite the 
tomb of John of Gaunt, and his wife, Constance of Castile, 
was a roundel sable, charged with three ostrich feathers, 
ermine, a figure of which has been fortunately preserved to 
us (plate xxxi, fig. 5). The feathers are differenced with 
ermine spots, in consequence, we are told, of the earldom 
of Richmond, which had been formerly held by the dukes 
of Bretagne, whose arms were ermine ; and that the label 
of three points round the neck of the lion, borne as a crest 
by John of Gaunt, was also of ermine for the same reason. 
In his will, however, we find that on the great bed of cloth 
of gold, which, as I have before mentioned, he left to the 
altar of St. Paul's cathedral, the gold roses were "placed upon 
pipes of gold, and in each pipe two white ostrich feathers." 

I have not met with an example of the feathers as borne 
by Henry IV previous to, or after his becoming king of 
England; but Henry, his son, whilst prince of Wales, 
appears to have discarded the ermine, and probably his 
father and grandfather had previously done so ; for John 
of Lancaster, duke of Bedford, his brother, who was created 
earl of Richmond by Henry VI, also bore them plain or 
argent, as did Margaret countess of Richmond, the mother 
of Henry VII. On the seal of Henry of Monmouth, 



BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER 391 

prince of Wales, an ostrich feather in a scroll, but with- 
out a motto, is held by a swan on each side the shield of 
arms (pi. xxxi, fig. 3); but as king, the whole ground of the 
seal is diapered or ornamented with feathers. Henry VI 
is said to have borne two feathers in saltire, the one argent, 
surmounted by the other or; but I have not met with a 
contemporaneous example. The feathers do not appear in 
triple plume within a coronet earlier than the reign of 
Henry VII. They are to be found in plume, and singly, 
on the tomb of Arthur, prince of Wales, his eldest son, in 
Worcester Cathedral, and from that period have been ap- 
propriated as the personal badge of the prince of Wales, 
to the exclusion of every other branch of the royal family, 
| as if in accordance with the dictum of Randal Holmes, 
who insists that the feathers and motto of " Ich dien" are 
purely of Welsh origin. 

One of the most celebrated badges of the house of York, 
is the falcon and fetterlock, which the Digby MS. informs 
us is the special cognizance of " the dukeship of York", 
and Anstis quotes from an ancient manuscript in his pos- 
session the following story. " This fedder locke was de- 
vised to the first duke of Yorke, lockyd, which was the 
fourth son of Edward the thirde, as who seyeth he was 
farre from the inheritance ; and one a day this reversed to 
his son Edward, called the good duke of Yorke, and he 
asked what was Latin for a fedder locke, and he answered 
himself and sayd : ' Hie hsec et hoc taceatis' was Latin for 
a fedder locke, as who sayeth no man could tell of the 
grace of Godde, which purveyed so that the king's good 
grace (Edward IV) is descended of that noble house, and 

in remembrance of the sayd he will that his sonne the 

duke of Yorke shall beare the sayd fetter locke open and 
not locked". 

Sandford and others have endeavoured to make sense 
of this story, but it is scarcely worth the trouble ; and 
Bucke's grosser derivation, given in his History of Richard 
III, though more in the licentious character of the 
age, is as little worthy of credit, as we find John of 
Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, bore a padlock for a badge, 
with an eagle instead of a falcon (pi. xxxn, fig. 1) ; it 
is therefore probable the fetterlock was not derived from 
the dukedom of York, although it eventually became one 



VOL. VI. 



M 



392 BADGES OF THE HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 

of the badges of that house, and Edmund of Langley, first 
duke of York, built Fotheringay castle in the shape of a 
fetterlock, a conceit arising, as my friend Dr. Bell suggests, 
in the jingle of " Fotheringay" and Fetteringyve ; but 
the origin of the badges of the padlock and fetterlock 
must be sought for, I suspect, in Spain. John of Gaunt 
and Edmund of Langley, are the only sons of Edward III 
who bear such a cognizance, and they both married 
daughters and coheirs of Peter, king of Castile and Leon. 
The eagle and the falcon may have been added to them by 
the English princes. The eagle was used by king Henry II 
as a device on the wall of the palace at Westminster. 
Edward III granted his personal crest of the eagle with 
great solemnity to William de Montacute, earl of Salis- 
bury, who regranted it to Edward's son, Lionel, duke of 
Clarence, with equal form, and to the great gratification of 
the king. John of Gaunt bequeaths to his daughter, the 
duchess of Exeter, "his velvett bed of silk, with Urn 
eagles displayed". An eagle volant appears on the tomb 
of Henry IV, and was the pendant to his collar of SS, 
and king Henry VI is called " our eagle" in the satirical 
verses written about the year 1449. The imperial bird of 
Jove has therefore been a royal cognizance in England 
from the time of Henry II, whose mother Maud we know 
was empress of Germany. 

The two remaining badges may be dismissed in a few 
words. On the canopy of the monument of Henry IV and 
Joan of Navarre, at Canterbury, is painted an animal, which 
some have called an ermine, some a gennet, and some a 
sable. Mr. Williment has a long note on the subject, and 
inclines to the gennet, as it is believed to be "an old device 
of an English king", in allusion to the name of Planta- 
genet; but although the animal is painted on the king's 
side, if it be a gennet, I think it more likely to be a cogni- 
zance of the queen, and like the mulberry-tree of the 
Mowbrays, in allusion to her name " Jeanette". The last 
badge mentioned as Lancastrian, is " the panther", which 
is attributed by Sir Wm. Segar to Henry VI, and blazoned 
"passant guardant, argent, spotted of all colours, with 
vapour issuant from his mouth and ears" ; but there is no 
authority quoted for it, and there is no example extant. 
The only collateral evidence being the supporter of the 
arms of the Somersets dukes of Beaufort, who are supposed 



Ou-tlirLZ of the. WdlLs of 





THE JEWRY WALL AT LEICESTER. 393 

to have used it as a token of their Lancastrian descent. 
It was my intention originally to have said a few words 
upon the livery colours of the house of Lancaster, and on 
the mysterious collar of SS, which is still food for con- 
troversy, but the great length of this paper must be my 
apology. I feel I have taken up an unconscionable por- 
tion of your time, and yet I know not how I could have 
said less on subjects each of which would deserve a volume 
of commentary. As I premised to you, I have perhaps 
given you little new information; but I have carefully 
separated unauthorized assertions from proven facts ; and 
as it is my hope that I may at no distant period be enabled 
to solve some of these national enigmas, I will rest my 
claim on your favourable consideration, not " on my 
deserts"; but " what I will deserve", should life and health 
be spared me. 



ON THE JEWRY WALL AT LEICESTER. 

BY JAMES THOMPSON, ESQ. 

IN the western quarter of the town of Leicester stands a 
massive pile of ancient masonry, known by the inhabitants 
as the " Jewry wall". It is dark with the wear of ages. 
Its face is broken into unseemly scars and furrows. It 
seems to be tottering to its fall. Modern buildings ware- 
houses and manufactories hem it in on three of its sides, 
while a fourth is guarded from approach and mutilation 
by the church and church-yard of St. Nicholas. Dark 
shadows hang over the origin of this perishing frag- 

1 ment of antiquity. The lamp of history is carried into 
the very night of ancient days, in search of it, and is 

I there extinguished. Geoffrey of Monmouth speaks of a 
temple of Janus, which was in existence when king Lear 
was buried in a vault under the river Soar, near Leicester, 
about eight hundred years before the Christian era ; but 
this of course is fabulous. Burton, the topographer of 
Leicestershire, who wrote his work about the year 1622, 



THE JEWRY WALL 

says, in reference to the fact of Leicester having been a 
Roman station, that the Roman antiquities there found 
will give confirmation to it ; and he proceeds : 

" First, the ancient temple here, dedicated to Janus, which has a 
flamen, or high priest, here resident, in which place great store of bones 
of beasts (which here have been sacrificed) have been digged up and 
found, and the place yet called hereof, the Holy Bones, which all histo- 
rians do agree to have been here, and surely was the foundation of the 
Romans, as appeareth by their god Janus Bifrons, to whose honour the 
first temple was built in Rome by Romulus and Tatius; or, as others 
say, Numa Pompilius, in a place called Argiletum. And not founded by 
that feigned king Lear to the honour of Janus, as Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
and (of latter days) John Harding and John Rous of Warwick, will have 
it ; which, how fabulous and improbable it is, any ordinary capacity may 
conceive, in that it is known to all that Janus was not adored, or thought 
of ever, of any but the Romans." 

Now, it is evident that Geoffrey of Monmouth is the 
source of the tradition relative to the temple of Janus, and, 
as he is supposed to have published his history about the 
year 1147, we may infer that he derived his story from 
some more ancient though unknown writer. He would 
also be aware of the existence of the fragment over which 
the legend hovered ; and the linking of the name of Lear 
with its history, though anachronic, does not prevent the 
statement of its having been a temple of Janus from being 
believed, nor have we any evidence to disprove the possi- 
bility of some Roman, or Roman-British governor, having 
erected the building during the time when the Mistress of 
the World held this country under her sway. Stripping 
the account of its chronological character, and allowing it 
to stand as the statement of a temple having been erected 
to the god Janus, by a personage endowed with the chief 
authority of the central states of England, resident at Ratse 
the metropolis it is not at all improbable ; and the 
fact (if fact it were) would be transmitted from father to 
son, and become incorporated with the lore of the districts, 
mingled with the fancies of the people, from whom the 
original chronicler would learn the story. 

The next matter for consideration is, in what part of the 
station it was, and why it was placed in the peculiar posi- 
tion it occupied. This renders a reference to a modern 




AT LEICESTER. 



395 



map of Leicester necessary. An examination of this shews 
that three sides of a parallelogram may be yet discerned in 
the outline of the modern streets. One side the north 
is formed by Soar-lane and Sanvy-gate. At the point A 
in the plan annexed (see plate xxxni), the north gate of 
the town was standing less than a century ago. 




Along this side I have traced from point to point frag- 
nents of the ancient wall. The east side is bounded by 
'hurch-gate and Gallowtree-gate, and is intersected at B 



396 THE JEWRY WALL 

by the East-gate, which was also taken down within 
the last hundred years. The south side was formed by 
Horsefair-street and Millstone-lane, and its gate stood at 
the point c. Portions of these two ancient walls are now 
to be found. 

Now, it is a singular fact, that if a dotted line (D) be 
drawn from the point E in the north wall, near the river 
Soar, to a corresponding point F near the south gates 
parallel with the eastern wall, that line will pass through 
the Jewry wall at G, .and thus complete the quadrangular 
area, giving to the whole enclosure a circuit of about 
2,800 yards the extent of some of the ancient Roman 
stations. 

With regard to the fourth and incomplete side of the 
supposed boundary of Leicester (represented by the dotted 
line D), it is to be observed, that this is not obvious in the 
modern map ; as streets cross the line in many parts. A 
feature similar to this may be noticed in the map of 
Chester, where the three sides of the Roman castra appear 
clearly enough, and the gates occur at the regular intervals 
in the walls ; but the line of the wall on the river side of 
the city is not apparent, having probably been enlarged to 
admit of an expansion of its limits. This seems also to 
have been the case at Leicester ; the site of the keep of 
the Norman castle H being out of what we may consider 
were the original walls, but included, in all likelihood, at a 
later date. Of course, when this enlargement of the town 
took place, the original western wall of the station would 
be removed, and the space built over, the river affording 
its protection from the sudden inroads of an enemy to the 
population on that side; nor is it unlikely that in the lat 
Roman period a defence might skirt the place on this sic 
between the buildings and the Soar. 

The frequent discoveries of Roman remains, fragment 
of masonry, pavements, coins, and pottery, on the 
lying between the river and the dotted line on the plan, 
attest that the district was once a populous one. 

Assuming, then, that the dotted line was the primitive 
western wall, another aspect of the plan requires attention. 
If a second dotted line be carried forward from i to J (the 
present Bow bridge), it will connect the street, commenc- 
ing at the East gate, and running westwardly to the Jewry 




AT LEICESTER. 397 

wall, at G, with a road that runs directly into the ancient 
fosse road. As was suggested some years ago by the 
bishop of Cork, the point i might have been the site of 
the original western gate, connected by a via vicinalis with 
the bridge, at j, where the road leads to the fosse way. 
Certain it is that the two points may be united by a right 
line that they connect the main street directly with the 
old Roman road and that the remains of a pavement 
have been found on the south side of the supposed via 
vicinalis, near to Danett's Hall. 

It may be objected to this view, that the inner branch 
of the river would interrupt the passage at M, and that the 
West bridge, at L, near which the West gate stood, was 
the original and only porta of the primitive city in this 
quarter. This, however, is answered by the fact, that the 
streets lying between the point i the continuation of the 
main road from east to west and L, are crooked and 
indirect, while the dotted line i j is the reverse; and it 
has been supposed, not without argument (which it is 
needless to repeat), that the inner branch of the river is a 
work of art, excavated in times more modern than those of 
which we are speaking. 

From the foregone considerations, the inferences them- 
, selves start out, without needing any logic to help them, 
that the old Jewry wall, with its niches, was one side of 
the temple of Janus, and that somewhere about the spot i 
stood the western gate. It seems only natural, that the 
itemple hi honour of its guardian deity, should be near at 
hand ; and there would the stranger merchant or husband- 
man, on entering the city, proceed to offer up his prayers, 
beseeching the favour of the god on the enterprise or 
transaction he was about to enter upon in its walls ; and, 
laying on the altar the cakes, the barley, the incense, and 
ithe wine, so grateful to the sense and so approved by the 
pupreme sanction of the divinity, he would leave the por- 
tals of the fane with a confident step, and a mind self- 
satisfied, duly prepared for the execution of his duty or 
:he prosecution of his business. 

I now proceed to an examination of the outline of the 
>vall, and of the remains recently excavated near to it, on 
he premises of Mr. Rust, as described on the plan annexed 

V plate xxxui). The measurements are given with 



398 THE JEWRY WALL 

exactness, from actual survey by an associate of our body, 
Mr. C. Wickes, my fellow-townsman, to whom I am in* 
debted for the trouble he has taken in the matter. It will 
be seen from this plan, that the wall (lying north and 
south) has four openings in its eastern face. The width 
of that marked No. 1, is fourteen feet ten inches ; of No. 2, 
eleven feet nine inches ; of No. 3, the width is eleven feet 
six inches ; and of No. 4, six feet six inches. The height 
of the wall is about eighteen or twenty feet, and its length 
about twenty-five yards. On the western side two arches 
were formerly visible, corresponding, though somewhat 
irregularly, with Nos. 2 and 3. Unless, then, the mass is 
composed of two parallel walls built close together, the 
openings in the western side were formerly the entrances 
from the suburb to the temple, and two of the large 
recesses (Nos. 1 and 4), were niches intended to be used 
for sacrificial purposes. No. 4 contains traces, however, 
of two smaller openings. Now, it is found that the 
masonry is throughout compact and homogeneous : there- 
fore, the former supposition of there being two walls, is 
erroneous ; and the latter is probably correct. 

Another fact which supports the idea that the fragment 
is part of an ancient temple, is the discovery of a pave- 
ment, composed of bricks of a peculiar shape, in the 
church-yard northward of the fabric, at a depth of five or 
six feet from the surface. If the church of St. Nicholas 
occupy the site of the extensive quadrangle, which it may 
be supposed the temple stood upon, then the pavement 
would constitute its flooring. 

Leaving the wall and passing to the recent excavations, 1 
we notice that the masonry last discovered is precisely of 
the same kind as that of the Jewry wall. It is composed 
of alternate layers of tiles and fragments of granite, held 
together by cement, and forming an almost inseparable 
mass, the cement being nearly as impenetrable as the brick 
or stone. The character of the masonry is similar to that 
found in other parts of the country ; and, as delineated by 
the able pencil of Mr. Flower, of Leicester (one of our 
associates), in his sketches of the Jewry wall and of a por- 

1 Since the communication of this a quantity of Roman masonry, in- 
paper the excavations have been ex- mensely thick and of almost insepar- 
tended a little, and are found to reveal able tenacity. 



AT LEICESTER. 399 

tion of the subterranean fragment lately found, will be at 
once recognized by those who are accustomed to the inves- 
tigation of Roman-British antiquities. 

Unfortunately, however, for the thoroughly satisfactory 
solution of the problem before us, the recently-discovered 
remains do not enable us to decide of what edifice they 
formed a portion. One thing is clear the projecting 
walls, Nos. 5 and 6, run at right angles to the line of the 
Jewry wall. It is also on record, that a sewer, which was 
found in the year 1793, midway between the wall and the 
river, would, if continued, have run to the very spot now 
under notice, on Mr. Rust's premises. The sewer con- 
tained many remains of undoubted Roman origin mor- 
taria, jars, red ware, broken columns, and so on. The 
potters' names (Macrina. Albinus, Albusa, Cicur, and 
Marina) were distinctly marked upon some of the objects. 
The passage would empty itself in the direction of the 
current of the river, not at right angles with it. 

Another passage (marked No. 7 in the plan) also led to 
the river, and subterranean fragments in a line with it 
have been discovered between it and the Soar. 

Mr. W. Gardiner, of Leicester, informs me, that he 
remembers the occurrence of a discovery, between sixty 
and seventy years ago, which bears upon our inquiry. To 
the southward of the remains just mentioned, at a few 
yards' distance, partly below the surface of St. Nicholas- 
street, and partly below the brewhouse, situate on the 
'premises of an inn known as the " Recruiting Sergeant", at 
i depth of five or six feet, a large quantity of what he 
calls "Roman rubbish" was turned up, and among it a 
'coin of Heliogabalus. Under the street, the foundations 
of a wall, like the Jewry wall, were met with, and run- 
img at right angles from it. Westwardly were two other 
vails resembling those of an apartment. 

The next question arising is when were these walls 
n orthrown ? This, I think, may be easily answered ; for 
ve have historical testimony to aid us in the inquiry. 

In the year 1173, in the reign of Henry II, when the 
lions of that monarch conspired for his overthrow, Robert 
planchmains, earl of Leicester, took part in the unnatural 
; t niggle, arraying himself and his forces against the sove- 
viijn. While the earl was in Normandy, the king sent 

VOL. VI. 52 



400 THE JEWRY WALL 

Richard de Lucy, his chief justiciary, to besiege Leicester, 
which resisted him for some time ; but owing to the break- 
ing out of a fire in the town, the inhabitants were com- 
pelled to surrender. The besieging forces then destroyed 
the defences. Matthew of Paris says, that " when the 
walls of the city (wanting a good foundation) were under- 
mined, and the props burnt which sustained them, the 
pieces and fragments fell down, which remain to this clay 
indissoluble." As the mortar remained fixed to the stones, 
the pieces of ruin had the strength and appearance of a 
solid rock. 

Here, I think, is internal evidence, that the walls of 
this date were those which the Roman legionaries had 
erected some centuries before. The peculiar character of 
the masonry is strikingly indicated in the words of the 
chronicler. 

I may here mention, that on the spot marked No. 8 
the plan, a solid mass of masonry, a portion of a wall \i 
with one of its sides downwards, as if it had been hurle 
with violence, or fallen from some eminence, to the eartl 
Its appearance bore emphatic testimony to the occurrcnc 
of some convulsion, either of nature or of war. It was at 
least seven feet long by as many broad, and of the width 
of the Jewry wall. 

The first of the inferences, consequent on the position 
that the walls destroyed by Richard de Lucy were those 
of the Roman period, is, that the adjoining church of St. 
Nicholas was constructed out of the materials of the temple. 
The traces of Roman tiles and rubble in the fabric are 
evident. On the north side are two small closed arches, 
the semicircular borders of which are entirely composed of 
these tiles. The character of the tower is that commonly 
known as Norman. Assuming, then, that the greater part 
of the temple of Janus was in existence when the siege 
took place, and was then destroyed with the walls, it does 
not appear improbable, that when the town was rebuilt 
and again populated, a new church would be erected. 
From the ashes of the heathen temple, a phoenix would 
arise in the shape of a Christian church. Whether the 
old edifice was used as a place of worship or not, cannot 
now be positively stated ; but it may be conjectured, that 
if it were so used, it might have been dedicated to St. 



AT LEICESTER. 401 

Nicholas, at an early period in the history of the British 
church, in the same spirit and policy as that which might 
have prompted the Romans to substitute the god Janus 
for the sun, the saint being regarded as the protector of 
tradesmen and the people generally. 

A second inference, suggested by the passage quoted 
from Matthew of Paris, is, that the Roman walls being 
destroyed by Richard de Lucy, and the materials being 
removed to be employed afterwards in the erection of 
i other buildings, this would account for the non-appear- 
ance of any superterranean remains of them in other parts 
i of the town. 

With regard to the name of the relic the Jewry wall 
it is sufficient to state, that the quarter was most pro- 
bably occupied by the outcasts of Israel during the reigns 
of the sovereigns of the Norman race in this country. As 
in London and elsewhere, a " Jewry", or Jews' district, 
existed in Leicester, in which the people of that faith were 
compelled to live, isolated and apart, the bitter prejudices 
of the Christian forbidding any social intercourse or 
friendly communion with them. The part of Leicester to 
which they were driven, was in all likelihood the most 
i deserted, inconvenient, ill-built, and unhealthy. In testi- 
mony of the antipathy of the burgesses of Leicester to the 
Jews, I may cite the charter of Simon de Montfort, granted 
about the year 1250 A.D., and now extant, in which the 
earl provides, that no Jew or Jewess shall inhabit or 
remain, or obtain a residence, in Leicester, during his life- 
time, or that of any of his heirs, to the end of the world, 
i After the date of this charter of exclusion, therefore, the 
1 Jewry would be forsaken, though for six centuries it has 
retained its name unaltered. 

The relics turned up on the site of the new warehouse, 
were pottery Tone piece marked with the name of Primani), 
i two pieces of glass of a colour approaching to a bright 
blue tessera, of stone (about three-quarters of an inch 
square), tiles bearing the impress of some quadruped's feet 
upon them, two pieces of bone (supposed to be hair-pins), 
and coins. Of the latter, one is of copper, the size of a 
half-penny, and bears on the legend the name of the em- 
peror Vespasian, the head occupying the centre ; on the 
reverse is an eagle, with wings expanded, resting on an 
orb. The inscription on the other coin is undecipherable. 



402 THE JEWRY WALL AT LEICESTER. 

Having mentioned the historical notices of the Jewry 
wall, and given reasons for believing that the relic is that 
of a temple, while the recent excavations are assumed to 
be on or near the site of the ancient western gateway of 
the Roman-British ratse ; having described the existing 
state of the wall and the late excavations; and having 
stated all the correlative facts and corroboratory testimony, 
connected with the theory advocated, I leave the matter 
to the consideration of the Association. It is impossible 
to dismiss it without having received deep impressions of 
the skill, the knowledge, and the power of the Romans. 
When one contemplates the pile, it is not without a wish, 
that this mute memorial of eld would answer our ques 
tionings, and tell us of the scenes which have been enact* 
in its presence, and once more echo the language tl 
reverberated among its recesses, when the priest and the 
people assembled on the spot, or the sounds that wei 
heard when the heathen first imbibed the Christian doc 
trine, or the din of war that has often reached its mos 
sacred penetralia. Nor can any one, who is inspired witl 
the spirit of archaeology, view without veneration this 
strange fragment, which may, perchance, have been gazec 
upon by the earliest apostles of our faith, and which may 
have formed part of a building wherein Hadrian himself 
has offered his prayers to the gods ; while the neighbour- 
ing relics, recently discovered, linked with the age of 
Vespasian by the upturning of one of his coins, remind us 
of that emperor and his conquest of Jewry. The fanq 
may yet invoke from their hiding-places the shades of the 
departed great, whose forms were once witnessed on this 
site ; and we may imagine we see the imposing array 
of the victorious legions of Rome, filing through the 
portals on their way to some new conquest, headed by the 
glittering eagles, and preceded by the trophies of theii 
triumph over the downcast Britons. But the conqueror 
and the conquered have given place to another race, of 
probably more enduring power and grandeur, and an age of 
greater peace and light has happily succeeded, wherein 
the mists of superstition are dispelled, and the usages of 
barbarism abandoned, and it is our more fortunate lot to 
speculate upon these, which once might have claimed us 
for their subjects or their victims. 



403 



ON 

THE ORIGIN OF WINDMILLS IN NORMANDY 
AND ENGLAND. 

BY MONS. LEOPOLD DELISLE, OF VALOGNES, IN NORMANDY. TRANSLATED 
FROM THE FRENCH BY WILLIAM BELL, PHIL. DOCT., FOR. SEC. 

THE first introduction of windmills is surrounded by 
darkness, the abbe Lebeuf, 1 D. Tassin, D. Toustain, 2 and Le 
i Grand d'Aussy, 3 carry up their existence to the earlier part 
of the twelfth century. They found their opinions on the 
charter of foundation of the abbey of Blanche, near Mor- 
tain, dated in 1105. 4 In it Guillaume Comte de Mortain 
authorizes the construction of mills driven by the wind. 5 
But when we examine this document attentively, we per- 
ceive in it marks of forgery. Thus, Vital is still called 
ibl>ot of Savigny; yet the abbey of Savigny was not 
founded until seven years later. We cannot therefore in- 
voke its authority to prove the existence of windmills at 
hat period. To find an authentic mention of them we 
mist descend to the later years of Henry II, which is fur- 
lished by an undated act of Alexander de Lieville, 6 who, 
ibout 1180, gave to the abbey of St. Sauveur de Vicomte 
i k piece of land near a windmill, most probably at Mont- 
nartin en Graine. 7 
About ten years later, Samson, abbot of St. Edmond, had 

1 Dissertation sur 1'etat des sciences furnos, stagna, molendina, ad aquam 

cpuis Robert jusqu'a Philippe le Bel. et ad ventum. 

* Nouveau traite de Diplomatique, 6 Concerning whom see Cartvlaire 

iii, ]>. 668. de Saint Sauveur, preserved in the Ar- 

3 Histoire de la vie privee des Fran- chives du departement de la Manche a 

is, ed. de 1815, 1. 1, p. 63. St. Lo, Nos. 301, 348, 358. Before the 

The original of this charter, of year 1186, he ranked among the bene- 

lich there remains only a fragment, factors to the abbey of Lessai, Gattia 

preserved at Paris in the Archives Christiana, t. xi, instr. c. 228 A. 
.itionales, carton L, 1146, 18. It has 7 Totam jllam terrain de dominico 

>en printed by D' Achery, Spicilegium, meo quam habebam in monte monas- 

xiii, p. 298 ; and in the Gattia terii quse sita est inter monasterium 

hrigtiaiui, t. xi, instr. c. 108. See also Sancti Martini et molendino (sic) de 

abillon AnnaUs Ordinis Sancti Bene- vento quam via de villa ad ecclesiam 

v, p. 474. sequat. Cart, de S. Sauveur, Fo. xxv, 

Possint edificare, construere domos, No. 125. 



404 



ON THE ORIGIN OF WINDMILLS. 



a windmill, which the dean Herbert, at Haberdon, had built, 
pulled down. 1 On the 3rd of December, 1199, king John 
authorized the construction of a windmill on the posses- 
sions of Wade. 2 In 1201 the royal profits from the wind- 
mill, which William Poignat possessed at Langrune, near 
Caen, were sold ; their price was six livres of the money of 
Anjou, equal to about one hundred and twenty francs of the 
moneys of the present day. 3 In the charter of Geoffry de 
Dorlens, in 1207, for the customs of Fienvillers, it is fixed, 
that if the brethren of the hospital wish to have a windmill, 
or a horse-mill, they may build one at their own proper cost. 4 
Towards 1210, R., lord of Ivetot (for it was not until later 
that they took the title of kings), permitted the canons 
St. Honorine de Graville to build a windmill at Beauvoir. 
A charter of Nicolas Baligan, preserved with those of the 
commandery of St. Stephen de Renneville, mentions 
windmill in 1214. At the two sessions of the Exchequer 
Normandy, held during the year 1216, the right of buildii 
windmills was restricted. Towards 1225, Roger le Roi 
gave to the abbey of Montebourg a windmill at TurqueviLU 
with the compass of seven feet round it from the steps. 7 

In 1212, the monks of St. Taurin had recently built a 
windmill. 8 The constitutions of Giles of Bridport, bishop 
of Salisbury in 1216, teach us, that in his diocese tithes 



1 Herbertus decanus levavit molen- 
dinum ad ventum super Hauberdun. 
Chronica Jocelini de Brakelonda, cu- 
rante Jo. Gage Rokewode (Lond. 1840), 
p. 43. 

2 Possint construere molendinum 
venti in libero tenemente suo de Wade. 
Rotuli Chartarum, t. i, p. 36, c. i. 

3 Et de vi Libris quas recepit de 
venta in molini ad ventum de Len- 
grona ejusdem Wilhelmi. Magni 
Rotuli Saccarii Normanniae, ed. de M. 
Stapleton, t. ii, p. 569. 

4 Sifratres hospitalisfacerevoluerint 
molendinum cum vento vel equis sumptu 
suo, facient. Archives Nationales a 
Paris, S. 5059, No. 21. 

5 Concessi eis quod facerent sibi 
molendinum ad ventum in terra mea 
apud Belveier in loco quern sibi ad hoc 
competenciorem eligerent, et ego eis ad 
illud faciendum lignorum materiem 
invenirem. Cartulaire de Graville, pre- 
served in the Archives du depart, de la 
Seine InfSrieuro, & Rouen, fo.110, v. 



6 Dimidiam acram terre ad molen- 
dinum venti, Titres de Renneville, pre- 
served in the Archives Nationales of 
Paris ; formerly marked No. 1 of the 
13th bundle, carton s. 4995. 

7 M. L'EchaudS d'Anisy Grand 
Roles des 6chiquiers de Normandie, 
139, c. 2 ; Marnier Etablissements, 
132, et 158. 

8 Molendinum meum et terrain 
qua situm est,desuper mansuram Sarra- 
ceni cum semitis et viis et omnibus 
ad idem molendinum pertinentibus 
large et plenarie habendis cum 
septem pedibus terre extra Scalani 
in circuitu molendini libere ab omni- 
bus ad me et haeredes meos pertinenti- 
bus. Cartulaire de Montebourg, pre- 
served at the Chateau de Plein Marais, 
p. 165. 

9 Molendinum de vento quod mo- 
nachi fecerunt fieri de novo. Petit 
Cartulaire de Saint Taurin, preserved 
in the Archives du depart, de 1'Eure & 
Evreux, p. 103. 



ON THE ORIGIN OF WINDMILLS. 405 

wcro payable on wind and watermills. 1 Mathew of Paris, 
in his picturesque description of a storm which happened 
in the same year, does not omit to mention the ravages 
made amongst the windmills. 2 In 1268, the religious of 
Fecamp acquired a windmill, with its site and the sur- 
rounding ground ; to wit, seven feet beyond the entrance 
gate. 3 We must not forget that the mill of Turqueville, 
of which mention has been already made, had for its ap- 
pendage a similar space of ground. 4 The windmill at 
Crequeville is cited in an act of 1290. 5 The judges of the 
Exchequer, in 1292, ordered the destruction of a wind- 
mill built by the Seigneur de la Barre, to the detriment of 
the monks of Lire. 6 The disasters caused to the watermills 
by the winter of the year 1302, turned to the advantage of 
the windmills. 7 

It is unnecessary to continue this enumeration further, 
and we will only mention that it is beyond a doubt that 
we find the earliest representation of a windmill in the 
Psaultier de Louterell. 8 It exhibits the most striking corres- 
pondence with those of the present day. 

Our modern authorities are generally in accordance that 
our knowledge of windmills was brought from the east by 
i the crusaders. 9 This opinion is sufficiently probable. Even 
at present the Normans give the name of " turquois" to a 
.species of windmills, answering in our ancient dialect suf- 
ficiently to oriental. The expression " Moulin turquois d 

1 De molendino ad ventum et aqua- 6 Charters of the abbey of Lire, in the 
ticis. Labbe, Sacrosancta Concilia, t. Archives du depart, de 1'Eure. 

xi, col. 770 B. 7 Ce lau trebucha maidt moulin 

2 Videres rotas molendinorum .... Qui tout hiver n'avoit moulu 
per impetus aquarum transportatas . . . Qui le giel lor avoit tolu ; 

et quod aqua in molendinis aquaticis Si gaingnierent moulins a vent 

fecerat, ventus in molendinis qu Plusque n'avoient fet devant. 

vento volvuntur facere non pepercit. 

oria major, Lend p. 623 c. 2. ^^ Translat{on . 

> Quoddam molendinum ad ventum 

icum fundo terre et terra adjacente Many a mill fell in this year, 

eidem, videlicet septem pedes ultra Which winter's time was out of gear, 

ursum scale. Cartulaire de Fecamp, When frost congealed all to ice. 

preserved in the Archives du d&- And gaindd then our windmills more 

partement de la Seine Inf6rieure, fol. Than they had ever done before. 

4 See note 8, p. 404. Godefroi de Paris, Chronique, r. 1700, 

5 Butent au molin du vent ; Censierde ed. de Buchon, p. 66. 

. Vigor de Bayeux, No. vi, xx. 1111, 8 Plate xxiii, No. 7. 
n the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, 9 See Michaud, Histoire des Crois- 
bnds des Cartulaires, MS. sades, l.xviii, ed. de 1822, t. v, p. 299. 



406 ON HORSE-SHOES. 

vent", is found already in an acknowledgment made in 1408 
by the Seigneur de Torigni. 1 

To these details on the history of windmills, we will add 
some facts concerning mills driven by the tides of the sea, 
which were used during the flood and stopped at the ebb. 
Le Grand d'Aussy attributes their invention to a car- 
penter of Dunkirk, who lived in the last century. 2 But in 
the reign of William the Conqueror, a mill of this kind 
had been established in the port of Dover. 3 In 1235 there 
existed one at Veulles. 4 In the fourteenth century the 
archbishop of Rouen had two mills " de maree" at Dieppe. 8 
Until 1619 there were many at Ponte d'Ouve, near to 
Carentan. In 1277 Philippe le Hardi confirmed them to 
Guillaume 1'Archier. 6 



ON HORSE-SHOES. 

BY H. STER CUMING, ESQ. 

THE slight attention which has hitherto been paid by 
archaeologists to the History of Horse-Shoes, has induced 
me to bring before the Association a few old examples, 
accompanied with some rough notes, in the hope of exciting 
an interest in this curious but neglected subject. 

The Centauri, a people of Thessalia, were in all pro- 

1 Item en la dite terre vouloit avoir Book, cited by Sir Henry Ellis, in his 

un moulin turquois & vent qui du tout general introduction to Domesday 

est cheu ; Archives Nationales & Paris, Book, v. i, p. 124. 
registre 306, No. xiii. 4 Viam que ducit ad molendinum 

a Histoire de la vie priv6e des Fran- maris. Cartidaire de Fecamp, ft 

5013, t. i, p. 57. xxxvii, 2. 

3 In introitu portus de Dovere est 5 Cartulaire de Philippe d'Alen?on, 

unum molendinum quod omnes pene MS. des Archives du depart, de U 

naves confringit per magnam turba- Seine Inferieure, fol. ccccxlvi. 
tionem maris et maximum damnum 6 Tr^sor des Chartes, CARENTJ 

facit regi et hominibus et non fuit ibi No. 1, carton J. 222, des Archives Ni 

teinpore regis Edwardi. Domesday tionales & Paris. 



ON HORSE-SHOES. 407 

bability the first who secured and reduced the mid horse 
to the service of man, hence arose the fable of the Cen- 
taurs, who were represented as half man and half horse. 

For a time the horse was employed without any protec- 
tion to its hoofs ; but the rider must have soon discovered 
that they became injured by long journeys over rugged 
ground, and every care was therefore taken to obtain horses 
with the strongest hoofs, and every means was resorted to, 
to render them hard. 1 Ancient authors speak of horses 
becoming useless after travelling a long distance. Accord- 
ing to Diodorus Siculus (lib. xvii, 94), the horses in the 
army of Alexander the Great had their hoofs totally broken 
and destroyed by uninterrupted travelling. And Appian 
(in his De Bello Mithridat.)* relates that when Mithridates, 
king of Pontus, was besieging Cyzicus, he was forced to 
dispense with the use of his cavalry, because the hoofs of 
the horses were entirely worn out. These instances show 
how necessary it was to provide some strong defence for the 
hoof ; and various contrivances seem to have been resorted 
to for this purpose at an early period. Amongst the first 
were probably shoes which enclosed the whole hoof, and 
which were woven of hemp, rushes, etc. The Romans 
called this kind of shoe solea spartea? from its being made 
of the Spanish broom, spartum. It probably closely re- 
sembled the horse-shoe still in use in Japan, which consists 
rf a basket in the form of a hoof, which is put upon the 
foot of the animal, and tied round the fetlock with a cord. 
Kaempfer, who visited Japan in 1690 and 1691, says in his 
listory of that country, that " The horses' shoes are made 
)f straw, and are fastened with ropes of the same to the 
eet of the horses, instead of iron-shoes, such as ours in 
Europe, which are not used in this country. As the roads 
-re slippery and full of stones, these shoes are soon worn 
lit, so that it is often necessary to change them. For this 
'urpose those who have the care of the horses always carry 
nth them a sufficient quantity. They may, however, be 
mnd in all the villages, and poor children, who beg on the 
3ad, even offer them for sale, so that it may be said there 

For contrivances to make the hoofs cap. xxviii and xxx ; also, lib. n, cap. 
horses harder and more durable, see Ivii and Iviii. 
euophon, De re Equestri, cap. iv ; 2 Edit. Tollii, p. 371. 
>'l Vcgetius, lib. r, cap. Ivi, 2 ; and 3 See Columell. vi, 12, 3 ; and Vege- 

tius, Vet., lib. i, 26, 3 ; lib. n, 45, 3. 
VOL. vi. 63 



408 



ON HORSE-SHOES. 



are more farriers in this country than in any other, though, 
to speak properly, there are none at all." 

The solece spartece must have required continual renewal 
in the course of a journey, and no doubt soon led to a more 
durable contrivance, for we find mention made of solece 
ferrece, or iron-shoes, 1 and even shoes of more costly mate-' 
rials. Suetonius says that Nero had his mules shod with 
silver ; 2 and Pliny tells us that his empress Poppsea had 
hers shod with gold. 3 But of what form were these 
metallic shoes ? Were they an addition to the basket- 
work-covering of the hoof ? or did they resemble those of 
modern times 1 

Mr. A. Rich, in his " Companion to the Latin Dictionary 
and Greek Lexicon", observes, that " the concurrent testi- 
mony of antiquity, both written, sculptured, and painted, 
bears undeniable evidence to the fact, that ; neither the 
Greeks nor the Romans were in the habit of shoeing their 
animals by nailing a piece of iron on to the hoof as we now 
do. 4 The contrivance they employed was probably a sock 
made of leather, or some such material, being passed under 
and over the foot, and bound round the pastern joint and. 
shanks of the animal by thongs of leather, like the carbatincB^ 
of the peasantry. This sock was not permanently worn, 
but was put on by the driver during the journey, in places, 



1 Catullus, xvii, 26. 

2 "Nunquam carrucis minus mille 
fecisse iter traditur, soleis mularum 
argenteis." Sueton., Vita Neronis, 
cap. xxx. 

3 " Nostra setate Poppsea, conjux 
Neronis principis, delicatioribus ju- 
mentis suis soleas ex auro quoque in- 
duere." Plin., His. Nat., lib. xxxm, 
cap. xi. An example of this ancient 
ostentation occurred as late as the 
eleventh century. It is related of 
Boniface marquis of Tuscany, one of 
the richest princes of his time, that 
when he went to meet Beatrix, his 
bride, mother of the well-known Ma- 
tilda, about the year 1038, his whole 
train was so magnificently decorated, 
that his horses were not shod with 
iron, but with silver. The nails even 
were of the same metal ; and when 
any of them dropped out they belonged 
to those who found them. See Vita 
Mathildis, a Donizone Scripta, cap. ix. 



This life of Matilda is given in Leib- 
nitii Scriptores Brunsuicenses, vol. i, 
p. 629 ; and also in Muratori Rerum 
Italicarum Scriptores. Mediolani, 1724; 
vol. v, p. 353. The anecdote is like- 
wise to be found in Beckmann, vol. ii, 
p. 291 ; ed. 1817. I have somewl 
read a story of an English ambass 
to the court of Paris, who had 
horse shod with silver shoes, but 
slightly nailed to the hoof, that 
soon came off, and became the pris 
the gazers. 

4 Does not Homer allude to she 
when he speaks of "brazen-foot 
horses " (^a\Koiro^iQ i-meot). Iliad 
xiii, 23, and viii, 41. Mr. Cureton in- 
forms me, that he has seen horse-shoe; 
of bronze. In the ninth century, th< 
Greeks called the iron horse -shoe 
fftXfvaia, and the nails with whicl 
it was fixed, (capita. See the Tactiu 
of the emperor Leo, lib. iv, p. 61.' 



ON HORSE-SHOES. 409 

or upon occasions, when the state of the roads required, 
and taken off again when no longer necessary. When the 
underneath part of the sock was strengthened by a plate of 
iron, it was termed solea ferrea. It is consequently an iron 
plate of this kind which Catullus speaks of as being left in 
the mud, by getting detached from the sock under which 
it was fastened, and not one nailed on to the hoof, like a 
modern horse-shoe. 

Our late vice-president, sir S. Meyrick, in his Critical 
Enquiry into Ancient Arms and Armour, vol. i, p. 10, tells 
us that " the Normans introduced the art of shoeing horses 
as at present practised in England ; for though the Britons 
had been taught the use of them by the Romans, their 
pedolau were probably considered too clumsy to be adopted 
by the Saxons. The Roman horse-shoe, or pedillum, lapped 
over, and was tied round the hoof of the horse, and, there- 
fore, occasioned a rattling sound." 

Positive as these assertions are, we may yet be pardoned 
for inquiring whether there be not some evidence of the 
employment of the modern-fashioned horse-shoe at an earlier 
'period than the Norman conquest, and even in the time of 
'the Roman occupation of Britain. The Romans might, and 
i probably did, at first, attach a metallic sole to the sock of 
'their horses, but afterwards they secured the shoe to the 
,hoof with nails. 

Beger, in his Thesaur. Elect. Brandenburg., vol. iii, p. 597, 
has figured a family coin of bronze, on the obverse of which 
,are two snakes with their tails entwined, and between them 
itwo horse-shoes of a plain arched form, each pierced with 
eight nail-holes, and having calkins at their heels. On the 
'reverse is a tree between the words 10, 10, and the legend 
iiRivMpf^J. By whom, or on what occasion, this curious 
itnedal was struck, is doubtful ; but certain it is, that this 
is one of the earliest indications of the modern-fashioned 
horse-shoe that we meet with on any Roman monument. 

In the ArcJweologia, vol. xiv, p. 4, mention is made of 
he discovery at Colney, in Norfolk, of Roman urns, iron 
spear-heads, and " a horse-sJwe of unusual shape, round and 
broad in front, narrowing very much backward, and having 
its extreme ends brought almost close behind, and rather 
minting inwards, with the nail-holes still perfect." It is to 
regretted that no engraving is given of this horse-shoe. 




410 ON HORSE-SHOES. 

In making an excavation in Lothbury on July 5th, 1847, 
at the depth of sixteen feet below the surface, the workmen 
came upon a number of Roman reliquiae, consisting of iron 
keys, Samian and other pottery, and various other articles, 
amongst which was the iron horse-shoe (plate xxxiv, fig. 1). 
It is of small size, measuring only about three inches six- 
eighths long, three inches five-eighths wide, and about 
three-quarters of an inch at the broadest part of the toe, 
narrowing very much at the ends. It is rather thin, having 
on each side three deep oblong indentations, punched in such 
a way as to cause the outer edge to bulge; and in the centres 
of these hollows are the nail-holes, which are of a rather 
square form. The interior of the shoe is in the shape of a 
Norman arch of the twelfth century. The peculiar make 
of this horse-shoe, the depth at which it was discovered, 
and its being mingled with undoubted Roman reman 
proves that it must be of high antiquity, pointing to t 
Romano-British period as the age of its fabrication. 

Another horse-shoe of iron, fig. 2, is much of the s 
fashion as the one exhumed in Lothbury, but of rath 
larger size, measuring about four-and-a-quarter inches long. 
It is perforated for six nails, bulges at the outer edge, and 
has prominent calkins at the heels, made by doubling over 
the iron and welding it. It was discovered some years 
back in Moorfields, in the line of the old London wall. 
In the British Museum is an iron horse-shoe, which may be 
safely regarded as belonging to the same age as the t 
examples before us. It was found with fragments 
Roman pottery, boar's tusk, etc., in making the sewer 
Fenchurch-street in 1833. Mr. Roach Smith informs 
that a horse-shoe has been discovered within the Rom 
encampment on Hod Hill, Dorsetshire. If these specime: 
exhumed along with Roman remains, do not establish t 
fact of their Roman origin, they are nevertheless suificie 
to make us pause ere we assent to the notion that t. 
Romans were unacquainted with the modern practice o: 
shoeing horses. 

Two exceedingly curious horse-shoes, similar to those 
found in London, were discovered some years back near 
Sidbury Hill, in Wiltshire. Two or three very large-headed 
nails remained in the holes, and were singularly bent round, 
showing that they were clenched after being driven through 



ON HORSE-SHOES. 411 

the hoof of the horse. Mr. Bracy Clark published a plate 
and short account of these shoes. 

That the Britons were familiar with some kind of pro- 
tection for the hoofs of their horses, either at the time of 
the Roman invasion, or soon after it, is evident from their 
possessing a name for such an article. They called the 
horse-shoe pedol, pi. pedolau, from the Celtic ped, a foot. 
Fosbrooke states, that " Sir R. C. Hoare found the half of 
two horse-shoes in a British barrow", in Wiltshire. 

It is said that horse-shoes have been found in the graves 
of some of the old Germans and Vandals, in the northern 
countries, but their age has not been determined. 1 In the 
British Museum is an ancient iron horse-shoe, found in a 
mine in Hungary, which had become incrusted with copper 
from long lying in water impregnated with that substance. It 
is of a small size, broader than the shoes found in Lothbury 
and Moorfields, is pierced with square nail-holes, and the 
heels beat up into calkins, calks, caukers, or cramps, as the 
points at the extremities of the quarters are termed. 2 

The earliest horse-shoe the date of which can be fixed 
iwith precision, is that which was discovered in the tomb of 
Childeric, king of France, at Tournay, in 1653. He suc- 
ceeded his father Meroveus in 458, and died in 481. This 
'shoe was of iron, of a small size ; and if we are to trust the 
.representation given of it by Montfaucon, in his Monumens 
ie la Monarchic Frangaise, p. 235, it much resembled the one 
found in Hungary. It had four square nail holes on each 
<ide, and calkins at the heels. 

If, then, the Germans, the Vandals, and the Franks, em- 
>loyed iron shoes which were nailed on to the foot of their 
lorses, we might naturally expect to find them in use 
imong their consanguinei the Saxons. There is, however, 
'jut slight evidence that they shod their horses in the 
,nodern manner. I have indeed seen a shoe very like 
In form to that found in the grave of Childeric, which was 
said to have been discovered with Saxon weapons in Kent, 
t was of a small size, very thin, and much oxidized. Dart, 
n his Eboracum, page 84, states, that at Battle Flats, six 
11 ilcs east of York, the scene of the conflict between Harold 
ind the Norwegian invaders, 1066, are frequently found in 

1 Bcckmann, vol.ii, p. 293. Ed. 1817. the " Museum Britaunicum". Tab.ix, 
1 It is engraved by Rymsctyk, iii page 26. 



412 ON HORSE-SHOES. 

ploughing, a very small sort of horse-shoes, which would 
only fit an ass, or the least breed of northern horses. These 
circumstances would incline us to believe that the Teutons 
shod their horses. 

The idea that the Normans introduced the practice of 
shoeing horses into England, probably arose from the great 
importance which they seemed to attach to farriery, which 
is clearly evinced by the privileges granted to certain 
persons for attending to the shoeing of the royal horses. It 
is said that Henry de Ferrariis, or Ferrers, who came over 
with the Conqueror, received his surname from being 
entrusted with the inspection of the farriers, and that the 
king bestowed upon him the honour of Tutbury, in the 
county of Stafford. It is also recorded that William the 
Conqueror gave to Simon St. Liz, a noble Norman, the 
town of Northampton, and the whole hundred of Falkley, 
then valued at 40 per annum, to provide shoes for his 
horses. 1 We also find it stated, that Gamelhere held two 
carucates of land in Cukeney, c. Nottingham, of the king 
in capite, for the service of shoeing the king's palfrey upon 
four feet, with the king's nails, or shoeing materials, asi 
oft as he should be at his manor of Mansfield ; and if he 
put in all the nails, the king should give him a palfrey of 
four marks, or he was to have the king's palfrey, giving 
him five marks of silver, as the jury, 3 E. Ill, found the 
service ; 2 as he was also, if he lamed the horse, pricked him. 
or shod him strait, etc., inclaudet, or ineludet, as it was found 
23 E. I, not so agreeably. 3 We learn from the Plac. Cor. 13. 
Edw. I, that " Henry de Averyng held the manor of Morton, 
in the county of Essex, in capite of our lord the king, by t" 
sergeantry of finding a man with a horse, value ten s 
lings, and four horse-shoes, one sack of barley, and o: 
iron buckle, as often as it may happen that our lord t 
king should go with his army into Wales, at his own pro 
expense, for forty days." 4 

The above notices manifest the importance attached to 
farriery by our early monarchs. 

The oldest horse shoes with which we are acquainted 
are of a small size ; nor must we look for large ones until 



1 Dugd. Bar., i, 58. 3 Thoroton's Nottinghamshire, p. 447. 

2 Esc. 3 E., iii, n. 108. 4 Meyrick's " Critical Inquiry", vol. i, p. 1 



" 



ON HORSE-SHOES. 413 

the commencement of the thirteenth century, when the 
stout Flemish breed of horses began to be imported into 
this country. The earliest figure of a mediaeval horse-shoe 
that I have been able to find, is of the time of Henry III, 
and occurs upon the seal of Walter Marshall, seventh earl 
of Pembroke, who died in the keep of Goodrich Castle in 
1246. It is represented as formed of a bar of equal breadth 
throughout, with calkins at the heels, and pierced on each 
side with four square holes for the nails. Within the shoe 
is shown one of the long nails used in attaching it to the 
hoof. (See fig. 3.) 1 On a seal of the time of Edward III 
belonging to the corporation of Gloucester, there is on 
each side of the king's head a horse shoe, and also several 
.nails. Guillim, speaking of the horse shoe as an armorial 
ensign, says : " This bearing of horse shoes in armoury is 
very ancient, as the arms of Robert Ferrars, earl Ferrars, 
,testifieth, who lived in the time of king Stephen, and bore 
for his arms, argmt, six horse shoes, sable." 

The figure of a horse shoe was painted upon the wooden 
'shield against which the burgesses and yeomen used to tilt 
3n foot ; the rules of chivalry not admitting any person, 
under the rank of an esquire, to enter the lists as a com- 
patant at the jousts and tournaments. 2 In a manuscript in 
,Jie Bodleian Library, No. 264, dated 1344, there are delinea- 
ions of both the fixed and moveable quintain, upon each 
)f which a large horse shoe is painted ; but of a form vary- 
ng very much from that of the shoes found with Roman 
I'emains, or in the tomb of Childeric, or on the seal of the 
parl of Pembroke. The shoes depicted in the manuscript 
,ire remarkable for their length, their equal breadth, 
heir ends turning out and somewhat upwards, and from 
,)eing pierced with nail-holes throughout their entire 
length. It is this formed horse shoe which is generally 
net with in heraldry, and which, according to Guillim, is 
)orne by the families of Borlace, Cripps, Crispe, Ferrers, 
-landall, and Shoyswell, and is also seen in the arms of the 
Company of farriers. 3 But Guillim figures the horse shoe 

1 The original matrix is in the col- 9 Strutt's " Sports and Pastimes", 

sction at Goodrich Court. Sir S. R. p. 117. Ed. 1838. 

-leyrick informed me, that it " was 3 This company bear for their arms, 

truck up by the iron-shod heel of a argent, three horse-shoes, sabU. We 

oy while trying the extent he could may here note, that St. Eloy, Eligius, 

ump." or Euloge, bishop of Noyon, is the 

patron saint of farriers. 



414 ON HORSE-SHOES. 

in the arms of Okeham of a diiferent shape, being almost 
a circle, with eight square nail-holes placed at nearly equal 
distances. He says of Okeham, that it is " the chief town 
in Rutlandshire, seated in a rich valley, an indifferent 
good and well inhabited town. Here is an ancient privi- 
lege or custom which the inhabitants claim, that is, if any 
noblemen enter their precinct or lordship, as an homage, 
he is to forfeit one of his horse's shoes, unless he redeem it 
with money; and the truth of this is apparent by the many 
horse shoes nailed up on the shire-hall door; and then- 
badge is a horse shoe." 

This custom appears to have some reference to the ori- 
ginal possessors of the estate, the De Ferrers, who bore 
six horse shoes in their escutcheon. There were formerly 
to be seen some very curious horse shoes nailed to the 
hall-door, some of which were gilt, and a few had the 
name of the donor stamped on them. One of the old Oke- 
ham shoes was preserved in the Leverian Museum; but it was 
wrongly described as being " taken from the old castle of 
Oakingham, Berks, where it is the custom for every noble- 
man who passes that way the first time after succeeding 
to his title, to present one to the lord of the manor." 1 

We may here mention a curious septennial custom re- 
garding horse shoes still observed in the city of Lancaster. 
It was stated in a number of the Preston Pilot, in 1834, 
that " a large assembly congregated for the purpose of 
witnessing the renewing of the horse shoe, at the Horse 
Shoe Corner, Lancaster ; when the old shoe was taken up, 
and a new one put down, with ' 1834' engraved on 
Those who assembled to witness the ceremony were ente 
tained with nut-brown ale, etc. Afterwards, they had 
merry chairing, and then retired. In the evening the 
were again entertained with a good substantial supj 
This custom is supposed to have originated at the tii 
John O 'Gaunt came into the town upon a noble charge 
which lost its shoe at this place. The shoe was take 
up and fixed in the middle of the street, and has ever 
since been replaced with a new one every seventh year, 
at the expense of the townsmen who reside near the 
place." 

1 The Leverian Collection contained are enumerated in the " Companion to 
a curious series of horse-shoes, which the Museum", pp. 2, 3. 



ON HORSE-SHOES. 415 

The most ancient horse -shoes found in this country 
appear to have left the frog of the hoof much more ex- 
posed than was done in later times ; for after the middle 
of the fourteenth century, the central opening of the shoe 
seems to have been made more contracted. An early ex- 
ample of this change, is shewn in a little specimen which 
was discovered in Fleet Ditch in 1847. (See fig. 4.) The 
inner edge no longer presents the figure of a Norman arch, 
which seems to be the character of the older shoes, but 
that of the pointed arch of the fifteenth century ; thus 
giving an increased covering to the hoof. This specimen 
is very thin, made without calkins, and is pierced with six 
'square nail-holes. 

During a long period, almost to the middle of the six- 
teenth century, it was the fashion to secure the shoes to 
the hoofs of horses with large-headed nails, generally of a 
'square form, and of such a size that they are distinctly 
shown in several old illuminations. In excavating for the 
'sewer in the Walworth-road in 1825, the workmen dis- 
covered, at the depth of ten feet, some bones of a horse 
tmd a large iron shoe (see fig. 5), the inner part of which is 
nuch like a Gothic arch of the thirteenth century in form. 1 
ft is pierced with seven or eight holes, in one of which a 
lail still remains ; this is driven in as far as it will go, but 
he broad end is of such a size that it projects nearly 
'hree-eighths of an inch from the surface of the shoe, in 
lie way indicated in the figure of the horse upon which 
'lenry VIII rides, given in a Tournament-roll in the 
[leralds' College, bearing date 15 II. 2 

Whatever the form of the horse-shoe may be, if it is 
irovided with a sunken groove round the margin to admit 
he heads of the nails, its great antiquity must be looked 
pon as questionable. One of the earliest examples that 

have seen with a groove, is represented in fig. 6. It was 
mud ten feet deep in making the Walworth sewer, but 
ift'rrs altogether in form from the other specimens dis- 
avered in this locality, and is palpably of a much later date. 

1 I must here state, that whenever 2 An engraving of this figure is 

lave compared the form of a shoe to given in Dallaway's " Inquiries into 

Gothic arch of a certain period, I do the Origin and Progress of the Science 

t mean to imply that it is of the of Heraldry in England", 1793, page 

me age, but only resembling it in 179. 
;ure. 



VOI,. VI. 



416 ON HORSE-SHOES. 

It is of a large size, nearly circular, with a broad surface, 
grooved close to the edge, and pierced for eight nails ; it 
is stamped with the letters HI, and it has calkins at the 
heels. This shoe is of German manufacture, and from 
the fashion of a buckle found with it, we are justified in 
assigning it to the first half of the seventeenth century. A 
similar shoe to the above was found twelve or fourteen 
feet deep in making the sewer by the " Plough and 
Harrow" public-house, Kennington-lane. 

Various minor changes have taken place in the fashion 
of horse-shoes during the eighteenth and nineteenth cen- 
turies, and the names of Clark, St. Bel, Taplin, Coleman, 
Moorcroft, and others, have become famous for their sug- 
gestions in regard to the form of the shoe best suited 
the hoof of the horse ; but it is quite beyond our provinc 
to enter upon these details. 

There are few objects the dates of which are so diffici 
to fix as those of horse-shoes. Not but that great 
marked changes have taken place in their form and fabi 
as may easily be seen by comparing the earliest with the 
latest of those alluded to ; but the difficulty lies in the fact 
that no one has attempted to follow out the subject in a, 
truly archaeological spirit. In the present state of our 
knowledge, it is almost impossible to ascertain the age of 
a horse-shoe, unless it be found accompanied with some 
relic which points to the period. The most certain way of 
arriving at a knowledge of the dates of horse-shoes, will be 
to try and exhume them from our old battle fields ; speci- 
mens obtained from such localities would afford us in- 
valuable assistance in the endeavours to establish their 
chronology. 

Little change has probably taken place in the fashic 
of horse-shoes in Asia and Africa for many years. In soi 
parts of Bokhara, the people shoe their horses with 
antlers of the mountain deer. They form the horn inl 
suitable shape, and fix it on the hoof with horn pins, neve 
renewing it till fairly worn out. 1 

In Egypt and the surrounding countries, the horse-shoe.' 
are made of iron, much smaller and thinner than those ol 
Europe, and nearly round, with a very small circular hole 

1 See The Mirror, vol. xxv, p. 224. 



ON HORSE-SHOES. 417 

in the middle. The same fashion is also in use in Asiatic 
Turkey. In the museum of the United Service Institu- 
tion are a pair of horse-shoes, with the nails used in fixing 
them, in common use in Syria. These afford good ex- 
amples of the Asiatic horse-shoes. 

In conclusion we may observe, that some few years back, 
the itinerant farrier used to wear across his breast a broad 
canvas belt, painted with yellow horse-shoes on a bright 
blue ground. A person so accoutred is to be seen in 
Hogarth's Enraged Musician. 1 The horse-doctor was also 
known by his having a little iron shoe fastened in front of 
the hat. 2 

The farrier's smithy 3 was once distinguished by a large 
iron horse-shoe being suspended above the door; it was 
sometimes gilt. The horse-shoe is still retained as a tavern 
sign ; witness the " Old Horse-Shoe Inn", Southwark ; 
:the " Horse-Shoe", Goswell-street; the " Horse-Shoe and 
Magpie", Fetter-lane ; and the " Black Boy and Horse- 
Shoe", Nicholas-lane. 4 

Throwing the horse-shoe used to be a favourite rustic 
pastime ; but both in town and village, the main use of 
the shoe when not employed to protect the hoofs of horses, 
was as a charm against witches. Nailed either on, above, 
but most commonly below the door of the dwelling, the 
iCow-house, and the barn, it was believed to prevent the 
entrance of any of the weird sisterhood. The potent power 
3f the horse-shoe is alluded to by Butler in " Hudibras" 
[b. ii, c. 3, 291), where he declares of the conjuror that he 






" Chase evil spirits away by dint 
Of Cickle Horse-shoe, hollow flint." 

>ir Walter Scott, too, makes mention of the employment 

1 The rat-catcher used to wear a si- 3 Fosbroke states, that farriers "had, 

jtiilar blue belt, painted with large rats, in 1267, open shops, as now, by the 

8 The horse-shoe is still retained as road side". See Du Cange^v. Clua- 

he horse-doctor's sign. On the gate- rium, Travallum. A farrier's paring 

j'ost of the Talbot inn, Southwark, is and incision knife is engraved in Mont- 

umted a yellow horse-shoe on a red faucon, iii, p. 2, b. v, c. 8. 
round, and the words, " Evans, Vete- 4 The horse-shoe has not only been 

: nary Surgeon, down this yard". On used as a sign, but has given name to 

ie gate-post of the White Hart inn, certain localities, as for instance, 

iere is also painted a horse-shoe, with " Horse-Shoe Court", Ludgate-Uill ; 

ie words, " Shepherd, Veterinary " Horse-Shoe Alley", Moorficlds ; etc. 

or ge". etc. 



418 ON HORSE-SHOES. 

of the horse-shoe as a charm against witches, in his novel 
of Redgauntlet (chap, v), where Summertrees, addressing 
Provost Crosbie, says : " Your wife's a witch, man ; you 
should nail a horse-shoe on your chamber door." It was 
once considered a good omen to find an old horse-shoe, 
for one thus acquired was regarded as being peculiarly 
efficacious against witches. 1 A miniature horse-shoe of gold 
was formerly worn as an amulet by ladies, and this bauble 
has of late been revived as an ornament for the modern- 
antique chatelaines. In 1848 the horse-shoe was adopted 
as a form for ladies' shawl brooches, and became very 
fashionable. They were wrought of both polished steel 
and silver, and of a size large enough in some instances to 
have nailed on to the hoof of a Shetland pony. 

These reminiscences might be continued to an interim] 
able length, but must now be brought to a close ; for I 
not pretend for an instant that these rough notes embo< 
anything like a detailed history of horse-shoes. My 01 
aim has been to show that the practice of shoeing hoi 
in England, is of far higher antiquity than the elevent 
century ; and to bring forward a few ancient examples 
and remarks, with the hope of awaking the archaeologist 
to an investigation of the subject, and to prove to you' 
that some interest is even to be found in a rusty old 
horse-shoe. 

1 At the present day, in the south must be picked up and thrown ot 
of Ireland, it is considered very fortu- the left shoulder, "just to bring go 
nate to meet with a bit of old iron ; it luck" to the finder. 



419 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. No. III. 

DOCUMENTS RELATIVE TO THE ABBEY OF FURNESS, EXTRACTED 
FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE ABBEY OF SAVIGNY. 

INTRODUCTORY LETTER PROM M. LEOPOLD DELISLE, OP VALOONES, 
IN NORMANDY. 

ON the occasion of the visit of the members of the 
British Archaeological Association to Furness Abbey, I 
have deemed it advisable to communicate some documents 
on the relations of this monastery with the abbey of Savigny. 

Founded by Stephen of Blois, count of Mortain and 

Boulogne, the abbey of Furness was subjected by its 

founder, after his elevation to the throne, to the abbey of 

Savigny : this is the purport of the first charter which I 

Ihave the honour of submitting, No. 1. 

After the union of the abbey of Savigny in 1147 to that 
'of Citeaux, the abbot of Furness, Peter of York, made 
vain efforts to maintain this independence, and dared so 
'obstinate a resistance that the pope pronounced a sentence 
! of excommunication against him. Hugh, archbishop of 
Rouen, and Arnulph, bishop of Lisieux, were commissioned 
to decide the suit betwixt the mother abbey and its filial. 
They pronounced in favour of the former, and, as we learn 
from the Bull of Eugene III, 1 of Anastasius IV, 2 of Adrian 
IV, 3 of Alexander III, 4 Furness was compelled to remain 
subjected to Savigny. It was on account of the above 
process that the three letters (II, III, and IV,) were 
written. 

A short time subsequently, new discords arose betwixt 
the two emulous monasteries. This time it was a question 
concerning the abbey of Belland in the diocese of York. 
The abbots of Savigny and Furness pretended, each on his 
(own part, that the abbey of Belland ought to be subjected 
|to himself. This time, too, the gain accrued to the Nor- 

1 Archives Nationales de France, 2 Chartul. Savig., f. cliij, Priv., No. 

1146, 1. Chartul. Savign. aux xn. 
Vrch. de la Manche & Saint Lo, f. clj, 3 Ibid., fol. civ, v. No. xv. 

1'rivil., No. ix. 4 Ibid., fol. clx, v". Priv., No. xxv. 



420 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

man abbey, for Alured, abbot of Rievaulx, deputed by the 
abbot and chapter of Citeaux, declared that the abbey of 
Furness had no right over that of Belland. The sentence 
of Alured is the last of the pieces which I send. 1 (V.) 

Amongst the chartularies of Savigny is another document 
of " A. dictus abbas de Deuldacresse", in the month of 
July 1231, to which the signature of" Robert (abbot) of 
Furness" is affixed. L. D. 

Valognes (Manche), October 11, 1850. 



I. 

Stephanus, rex Anglie, archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbati- 
bus et omnibus prelatis et fidelibus sancte ecclesic 
salutem. Sciatis quod dedi et concessi in perpetuam elemc 
sinam abbatie de Saviniaco et monachis ibidem Deo serviei 
tibus, abbatiam de Furneis cum omnibus appendiciis suis 

Testibus Roberto de Ver et Ricardo de Cure 

Apud Eboracum. 

II. 

H., Dei gratia, Rothomagensis archiepiscopus, et Amul- 
fus, Lexoviensis episcopus, dilectis in Christo fratribus, 
Petro et conventui Furnesii, salutem, gratiam et bene- 
dictionem, si obedierint. Sicut, frater Petre, nosti, litteras 
ex parte domini pape nobis attulisti, quibus precipiebat, 
ut proxima sancti Michaelis festivitate causam, que inter 
abbatem Saviniacensem et teipsum versabatur, audiremus, 
et auditam sine canonico terminaremus. Prefixum etiam 
fuit in litteris,quod,antequam dominus papa ab excommuni- 
catione qua tenebaris absolveretjuramentum eidem faceres, 
quatenus mandate ejus obedires. Ceterum, prout atestatus 
ex prepediente infirmitate, in redeundo multam moram 
feceras, et, ex mandate ipsius domini pape, ad regem Scotie 
et ad archiepiscopum Eboracensem, mandata et litteras ejus 
celerius preferre habebas, et, ut requisisti, prefatum ter- 
minum usque in festum beati Martini prolongavimus, atque 
litteras nostras inde abbati Saviniacensi per te ipsum trans- 
misimus. Eodem vero termino, festo sancti Martini, abbas 

1 Archives Nationales de France, 2 Chartul. Savign., f. cxxxiij, r. in 
L. 1146, 6. diversis episcopatibus, No. xi. 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 421 

Saviniacensiscum pluribus abbatibus et multis,ut credimus, 
religiosis et honestis personis ante nos venit, et causam 
suam seipsum paratum prosequi presentavit. Tu vero nee 
venisti, nee aliquem qui pro te ageret transmisisti. Trans- 
actis denique aliquot diebus, cum defecisses nee appareres, 
ostendit nobis prefatus abbas Saviniacensis cartam regis 
Anglie Stephani, testantem donationem factam fuisse super 
abbatia Furnesiensi Saviniacensi abbatie, et privilegium 
doniini pape confirmans locum ilium eidem abbatie Savinia- 
censi. Cum igitur, sicut diximus, religiose ibi essent 
persone, productis in medium sacrosanctis evangeliis, sur- 
rexerunt abbates, priores et alie plures religiose persone, 
qui in verbo Domino contestati sunt se vidisse ecclesiam 
Saviniacensem investitam fuisse de abbatia Furnesiensi, et 
usque ad tempus tuum possessisse. Suscepto itaque eorum 
testimonio, cum super omnia defecisses, adjudicavimus et 
restituimus abbatiam Furnesiensem abbatie Saviniacensi. 
Unde tarn tibi quam vobis omnibus fratribus, qui in pre- 
dicto loco commoramini, auctoritate domini pape, qui vices 
suas in causa ilia nobis commisit, mandamus atque preci- 
pimus, quatenus abbati Saviniacensi et ecclesie sue amodo 
obediatis, et ab invasione et presumptione et rebellione 
iVestra, visis litteris ipsis, omnino desistatis, atque liberam 
facultatem disponendi de rebus et possessionibus Furnesii, 
pro voluntate et arbitrio suo, eidem abbati Saviniacensi 
habere permittatis. Quod nisi feceritis infra xv dies post- 
quam mandatum nostrum susceperitis, sententiam excom- 
municationis in vos et in omnes qui vobis obedierint poni- 
;mus, et licentiam vos ipsos excommunicandi et complices 
vrstros, vice domini pape qua in causa ista fungimur, eidem 
abbati Saviniacensi concedimus. 1 

III. 

H., Dei gratia, Rothomagensis archiepiscopus, omnibus 
monachis et conversis de Fumesio, salutem et gratiam si 
>bedierint. Causam quam commiserat nobis et filio nostro 
A.rnulfo, Lexoviensi episcopo, dominus papa tractandam 
inter abbatem Saviniacensem et fratrem Petrum qui vobis 
prefuit, assistentibus multis religiosis et honestis personis, 
ractavimus, et, quoniam prefatus Petrus ad diem prefixam 

3 Archives Rationales de France, L. 1146, 16. Chartul. Savign., f.cxxxiij, 
'. in diversis episc., No. xin. 



422 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

inter eos non affuit, nee aliquem qui pro se ageret idem 
habuit, adjudicata est et restituta abbatia Furnesiensis, 
judicio personarum que affuerunt, abbatie Saviniacensi. 
Postea vero supervenit preceptum apostolicum, ut ipse 
Petrus et vos ad obedientiam Saviniacensis abbatis cito 
rediretis, nee ulterius ab ea recederetis. Ceterum si facere 
iiolletis, precepit ut vice ejus tarn ipsum Petrum quam vos 
excommunicaremus et anathematis scientia innodaremus. 
Petrus autem mandate apostolico obedivit, et sese ad obe- 
dientiam et preceptum abbatis Saviniacensis reddidit. 
Unde vobis mandamus et auctoritate apostolica precipimus, 
quatenus juxta mandatum apostolicum ad obedientiam 
abbatis Saviniacensis absque dHatione aliqua redeatis, nee 
de cetero eidem rebelles vel inobedientes existatis. Ve- 
rumtamen si scieritis, vice ejus quam in causa ista tenemus 
vos ipsos absolvimus ; si non feceritis, anathematis vincuk 
innodamus. 1 

IV. 

Reverendo et venerabili patri Henrico, Dei gratis 
venerabili archiepiscopo universe que Eboracensis ecclesi< 
capitulo, Hugo, eadem gratia, Rothomagensis sacerdc 
salutem, prosperitatem et pacem. Quod canonice et 
rationabiliter factum esse dignoscitur, nulla debet occasione 
convelli, sed ratum et stabile in posterum debet obser- 
vari. Placuit domino nostro pape Eugenio controversiam 
quamdam inter abbatem Savigniacensem et abbatem 
Furnesiensem exortam, nobis et venerabili fratri nostro 
Arnulfo Lexoviensi episcopo committere, et ut vices ejus 
in causa ilia obtineremus voluit precipere. Ipsius itaque 
precepto, dies eis prefixa est. Abbas Savigniacensis ci 
munimentis suis ad diem venire non distulit ; sed Peti 
Furnesiensis nee venit neque qui pro eo ageret transmisit. 
Nos autem nichil prepropere agere volentes, abbatem Savi- 
gniacensem aliquantis diebus expectare fecimus. Tandem 
Petro moram faciente, conditione personarum que aderant 
considerata, abbas Savigniacensis causam suam et rei 
ordinem in medium exposuit, dicens abbatiam Furnesi- 
ensem a prima fundatione sumptibus et expensis Savi- 
gniacensis monasterii edificatam fuisse, et multo tempore 

1 Archives Rationales de France, L. 1146, 16. Chartul. Savign., f. cxxxv, 
r"., in diversis episc., No. xxm. 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 423 

earn in pace possedisse. Inde ordinis sui sex abbates pro- 
tulit testes qui ita esse dixerunt et coram sancto evan- 
gelio in verbo veritatis hoc idem comprobaverunt. Hoc 
autem pacto adjudicata est abbati Savigniacensi possessio 
sua, ipsumque judicio ecclesiastico de abbatia et perti- 
nentiis ejus, vice domini pape, investivimus. Post aliquot 
dies supervenit Petrus Fumesiensis causam illam, sicut 
prediximus, terminatam retractari expostulans. Ipso itaque 
ad hoc laborante, supervenerunt Httere a domino papa 
directe, precipientes prefato Petro judicium quod factum 
fuerat observare, ipsumque ad obedientiam Savigniacensis 
ecclesie redire, vel excommunicationi subjacere. Hac 
itaque Petrus severitate correctus, obedientiam quam 
Savigniacensi ecclesie debebat recognovit, et ad ipsam, 
tanquam obediens films, redire non distulit. Nos autem 
rei ordinem et veritatem ideo vobis intimare voluimus, 
ut, cognita veritate, earn teneatis, et si quod vobis con- 
trarium super hoc fuerit intimatum, respicere cognoscatis, 
et abbatie Savigniacensi jus suum integre, sicut ei adju- 
dicatum est et a domino papa preceptum, conservetis, 
iet, si quis super hoc contra earn insurgere temptaverit, 
justitiam ecclesiasticam ei facere non dedignemini. 1 

V. 

Venerabilibus in Deo dilectis dominis et patribus L. 
abbati et universe sancto capitulo Cisterciensi, frater A. 
>rrvus fratrum qui sunt in Rievall, debitam subjectionem 
et obedientiam. De causa inter dominum Ricardum ab- 
ba tern Saviniacensem et dominum Johannem abbatem 
Fumesiensem, pro monasterio Bellelande, quam nobis 
vostre Sanctitatis delegavit auctoritas, vocatis venerabilibus 
patribus et coabbatibus nostris diligenti sollicitudine et 
ura tractavimus. Auditis autem intente utriusque partis 
ationibus, cum de loci donatione et abbatis subjectione 
ontenderent, dominus Fumesiensis locum sibi ex dona- 
ione, quam suis monachis factam dicebat, abbatis autem 
ubjectionem ex filiali reverencia, quam sibi persere, ut 
pse affirmabat, idem abbas exhibuerat, vendicare laborabat. 
U abbas Savigniacensis manifestam donationem loci ab 
nitio domui sue factam et in generali capitulo Savignia- 

1 Archives Nationales de France, L. 1146, 2 et 16. Chartul. Savign., 
vxiij, vo., in diversis episc., No. xir. 
VOL. vi. 



424 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

censi presentatam, consilio que ejusdem capituli susceptam 
asserebat. Sed et Geroldum abbatem primum ejusdem 
loci, qui monachus fuerat Furnesiensis, consilio et provi- 
dentia ipsius annui capituli domui Savigniacensi concessum 
et datum ad ipsius loci regimen affirmabat. Adjecit insu- 
per predictum abbatem in ipso capitulo, quasi specialem 
subjectum abbatis Savigniacensis curam ipsius domus sus- 
cepisse et in ipsa subjectione usque ad obitum suum 
perseverasse, ipsumque qui nunc est, Rogerium scilicet, 
predecessoris sui vestigiis hactenus inheruisse. Hac igitur 
allegatione cum domini Furnesiensis rationibus obviasset, 
et auctoritatem capituli generalis, cujus diffinitioni vel 
dispensation! vel judicio nulli abbatum aut monachorum 
suorum fas erat tune temporis obviare, validis rationibus 
ostendisset, diligenter pro modulo scientiole nostre que 
utrisque proposita fuerant estimantes et examinantes, p 
ea que a domino Savigniacensi proposita sunt, si probare 
tur, ea que allegaverat abbas Furnesiensis infirmari pos 
censuimus. Proinde, cum dominus Furnesiensis null 
sue assertionis testes idoneos haberet, testes quos dominus 
Savigniacensis de his que affirmaverat producebat, quoniam 
idonei ipsius etiam abbatis Furnesiensis testimonio invent! 
sunt, audiendos et suscipiendos existimavimus. Igitur sub- 
jectionem abbatis Belle Lande domui Savigniacensi adju- 
dicavimus, domino Furnesiensi hanc sententiam cum omni 
humilitate et benevolentia sustinente. Interfuit autem 
dominus Godefridus abbas Geroldonensis, quern loco abbatis 
Waverlensis pro judice pars utraque susceperat. Affue- 
runt etiam dominus Ricardus abbas Fontanensis, Gille- 
bertus de Holanda, Robertus abbas de Novo monasterio, 
Radulfus de Parco, Gillebertus de Besingwert, Philippus 
de Sancto Laurentio, Alexander de Kirchestal, Robertus 
de Wida, Adam de Melfa, Helias de Ruthfordia, Johannes 
de Jurivallibus. Affuerunt etiam Turstiiius prior Rie- 
vallis; Mauricius, Galo, Daniel, monachi Rievallis; Ri- 
cardus, Robertus, monachi Savigniacenses ; Walterius, 
Ricardus, monachi Furnesii ; Robertus, Landricus, monachi 
Bellelande ; Robertus, Alanus, Ricardus, monachi de Fon- 
tibus ; Alanus de Revesbe et alii plures. 1 



1 Archives Nationales de France, L. 1146, 16. Chartul. Savign., f. cxxxiv. 
v., in diversis episc., No. xvm. 



425 



ON SOME ANCIENT CHARTERS AND GRANTS TO THE BOROUGH 

OF CLITHERO. 

BY JOHN HAELAND, ESQ. 

CLITHERO, says Dr. Whitaker, in his History of Whalley, 
is distinguished by a bold and insulated rock of limestone, 
crowned with the keep of its ancient castle. It is a 
borough by prescription, of considerable but uncertain 
antiquity ; the name of which he regards as British, from 
Cled-dtvr (the hill or rock by the water), to which in later 
times the Saxon word how (hill) has been added, as explan- 
atory. He supposes the castle to have been erected by 
Robert de Lacy the first, in the reign of William Rufus. 
The present object is, however, briefly to notice the prin- 
cipal charters and grants to the burgesses of Clithero. 

Henry de Lacy the first, who died some time after the 
year 1147, granted, according to Dr. Whitaker, the first 
charter to the burgesses of Clithero. But there is no trace 
of this charter itself in the municipal archives recently 
entrusted to our care ; though in the oldest extant charter, 
i that of Henry de Lascy, earl of Lincoln and constable of 
iChester, there is a distinct confirmation to the burgesses, 
iof " all the liberties and customs which they have hereto- 
fore had of the gift and grant of Henry de Lascy, our 
ancestor". The documents intrusted to our care are twelve 
in number, enclosed in a small oaken box, in which have 
probably been lodged for centuries all the archives of the 
ancient borough of Clithero. The oldest of these is a 
square piece of parchment (eight inches by six inches and 
ft quarter), with seal of dark green wax, dependent from 
(the centre foot by a braid of flax, with light-blue silk 
t border. The seal (which is enclosed in a small bag) has 
been round, two inches and a quarter in diameter. It 
Contains the effigy of Henry de Lascy on horseback, armed 
>il>--pie, with vizor down, bearing a heater-shield, and his 
sword drawn. Legend, in Longobardic characters, s. : 
iENRic (rest wanting). The secretum stamped at the back 
which might be covered by a sixpenny piece) has the 
cgend, SECRETUM HENRICI DE LACY. 4" The deed occupies 
wonty lines, seven inches and a half in length, in the 



426 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

small neat hand of the period, in ink, now a yellow brown. 
It is in Latin, of which the following is a translation : 

" Henry de Lascy, earl of Lincoln and constable of Cheshire, to all to 
whom this present writing shall come, greeting. Know ye, that we have 
granted, and by this our present writing, have confirmed, to our free 
burgesses of Clithero, all their burgages, lands, and tenements, with all 
their appurtenances, within the town of Clithero and without it, with all 
their liberties, commons, and easements, to the said burgages, lands, and 
tenements, belonging, excepting our wood of Salthul, in which they shall 
have no common or ingress. Provided that the said wood be enclosed 
by a hedge or a ditch ; so that the cattle [averid] of the said burgesses 
may not enter into the same. And if, from defective inclosing, they 
enter therein, they shall be put out, without being impounded. We 
have also granted and confirmed to the said burgesses all the liberties 
and free customs which they have heretofore had of the gift and grant of 
Henry de Lascy, our ancestor, that is to say, those which the free bur- 
gesses of Chester have, and which they freely use, and which at any 
time they have freely had or have, or have used. We grant also and 
confirm to the said burgesses, the farms of the town of Clithero, and the 
pleas of the court of the same town, with the issues and amerciaments to 
the said pleas and court of the town belonging, except whatsoever toll. 
[thelonio~\ (there may be), which we retain to the use of ourselves and 
our heirs ; and saving to us and our heirs all plaints and trespasses made 
to our friends by the said burgesses and others in the said town, that is 
to say, in their bodies ; so that they who offend shall make full amends 
before the steward, or our bailiffs, according to the custom and law of 
the land. We have also given to our said burgesses turbary, to take 
turf and burn it within the limits of Bacshelf (now Bashall), without 
waste, gift, or selling, to their own proper use, with free ingress and 
egress, without any stop of us or of our heirs, or of any one for us. To 
have and to hold, all the aforesaid, as is aforesaid, with all their appur- 
tenances, to the said burgesses, their heirs or assigns, freely, peaceal 
honourably, and wholly, of us and of our heirs for ever. The said bi 
gesses and their heirs or assigns, paying yearly, therefore, to us and 
our heirs, ten marks of money, at the feast of St. Michael the Archa 
for all services to us and to our heirs belonging ; saving to us and 
our heirs tallage of the said town, when the lord makes tallage of his 
demesne, and the rest of the customs, which the free burgesses of Chestei 
do to their lord. And I, the aforesaid Henry de Lascy, earl of Lincoln 
and our heirs, all things aforesaid, with all the appurtenances aforesaid 
to the said burgesses, their heirs or assigns, will warrant, acquit, anc 
defend. And that this our grant, gift, and the confirmation hereof, maj 
remain firm and stable, we have caused our seal to be affixed to this 




ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 427 

writing. These being witnesses : Sirs John Becke, Thomas de Mole- 
ton, Alexander de Mountfort, William the Vavasour, Robert Banastre, 
knights ; Adam de Blakeburne, John de Herice, William de Hackyeng, 

and others." 

If there had been any difficulty in deciphering this 
original charter, it would have been obviated by the several 
copies of it, existing in subsequent royal grants or confirm- 
ations. Another of the deeds in this collection is an 
inspeximus of the 15th June, 20th Edward III, which (as 
do all such documents) sets out the original grant at 
length, and confirms it. The next in order is not in this 
collection ; but a copy of it, in Whitaker's Whalley, p. 266, 
states, that it is an inspeximus and confirmation in the 
Tower Records, of the date 1st Henry V (1413-14). 
'Whitaker copies it, because, as he states, the original 
charter was not then extant in the records of the borough. 
I Another copy of De Lacy's charter will be found in a deed 
in this collection, being an inspeximus of 10th June, 34th 
Henry VIII (1542), also confirming the original grant. 
And lastly, a fourth copy is found in an inspeximus of 
'llth May, 2nd James I (1604), confirming the original 
charter, and all subsequent royal confirmations thereof. 
There are but few variations in these copies, and those 
chiefly verbal; some of them the errors of the copyist, as 
whore the abbreviated form of the word averia (cattle), has 
been given by Whitaker, animalia. 

As to the wood of Salthill, which the charter reserves to 
:he lord, it appears from Whitaker's Whalley, that the 
lemesnes appertaining to an ancient manor-house of the 
amily of Cliderhow (and subsequently of the Radcliffes), 
f palled " The Alleys", consisted of sixty-four Lancashire 
u res, including a small park of fourteen acres, called 
i' Salthill-hey Park", and was sometimes conveyed as the 
minor of Cliderhow. The term " hey" shews that this 
>ark was originally wood. In a translation of the charter 
nade in the reign of Henry VIII, and forming one of the 
ocuments of this collection, the rendering the word averia 
goods'', makes a singular mis-translation of one clause 
f the charter, viz., "And so that the said wood be enclosed 
rith hedge and ditch, so that the goods of the said bur- 
i-s may not enter or come into the same. And if for 
rant of enclosing the same, they (t. 0., the goods) enter 



428 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

therein, or if it be enclosed, they shall be put forth." The 
whole is intelligible, if for "goods" we read "cattle". 
The original grant of the first Henry de Lacy gave to the 
burgesses of Clithero the same liberties as those of the 
free burgesses of Chester. What these were, are shewn 
by a subsequent deed. 

As to the farms of Clithero, it seems that by an inquisi- 
tion taken in 1240, after the death of Edmund de Lacy, 
the father of our Henry, there were in Clithero sixty-six 
free burgesses, a considerable number in those days. 
After the death of Henry, in 1311, the amount of the 
annual value paid by the " burgesses for all the burgage- 
houses and the rest of the town, in fee farm", was 
6 13s. 4:d. As to the court of Clithero, our grantor was 
called upon, in the 20th Edward I (1291-2), to show b 
what warrant he claimed, for himself and vassals, to b 
exempt from fines and amerciaments of the county, a: 
suits of the county, and suits of the county and wape 
take, etc. The earl, as to his wapentake of Blakebu 
shire, averred, that he had his free court of Clithero, co 
monly called the wapentake of Blakeburnshire, where a 
his vassals ought, and had been wont, to plead from time 
immemorial, as the sheriff pleads in other wapentakes. 
He also claimed to make distresses and attachments belong- 
ing to his court at Clithero by his own bailiff, etc. He 
claimed further to be free from common fines and amer- 
ciaments of the county for all his lands and fees in Blake- 
burnshire (with two exceptions), and for his demesne 
lands in the hundreds of Leyland, Amounderness, and 
West Derby, and to be free from suits of counties 
wapentakes, except for his lands of Rochdale. The wo: 
thelonio usually implies toll, and is less comprehensive 
the word tallagium, which occurs afterwards, and whic 
according to Coke, implies all taxes. The tallage of f 
deed, however, would seem to be levied at longer int 
vals, for it is to be paid when the lord makes tallage of his 
demesne. The next privilege granted is the right of 
getting turves from the lord's turbary of Bacshelf. In the 
Domesday Survey, it seems that Bacshelf is stated to con- 
tain four carucates of land, and it was then dependent on 
the manor of Grinleton ; but it is now, under the modern 
name of Bashall, a dependent of Slaidburn, and was for 




ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 429 

centuries a residence of an old family of the neigh- 
bourhood. 

The acknowledgment to be paid by the burgesses of 
Clithero to their lord, for all the privileges granted them 
by his charter, was ten marks yearly, at the feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel, i. e., 2 13s. 4e?. on Michaelmas 
Day, September 29. This sum would purchase thirteen 
and one-third quarters of wheat in 1302; and its money 
equivalent, therefore, at this day would be about 27 105. 
As to the witnesses to this charter, the first, sir John 
de Bek or Beck, is also first witness to a charter of Henry 
de Lascy, of September 1277, and to another of 1283. 
Sir Thomas de Moleton, or Multon, is one of the earl's 
retinue of knights, celebrated in the siege of Carlaverock. 
Sir Alexander de Montefort occurs as a witness to some 
undated deeds. Sir William the Vavasour is a witness to 
many deeds of the period, and was one of the earl's war- 
like followers. We find one of this name witnessing deeds 
of his lord in 1277 and 1283, and several others without 
date: to one of 1295, we have as a witness, William le 
I Vavasour, senior ; and to one of 1360-61, William de 
'Vavasour. In a deed without date, he is styled " dapifero 
nnxtro", i. e., our chief or head bailiff. Sir Robert 
Banastre is one of a succession of the same Christian name, 
iof a family settled at Prestatyn, in Wales, but who, driven 
out by the Welsh, settled in Lancashire, where, in the time 
>f Edward I, they were still called Le Westrays. This is 
(probably Robert, the son of Robert, who succeeded his 
father prior to February 1242, claimed Prestatyn of 5th 
Edward I (1276-7), and died before the 21st Edward I 
1 29 2). He made a grant of ten acres in Walton, on 13th 
Vugust, Hth Edward I (1283). He also witnessed a deed 
n 1283. Adam de Blakeburn is the next witness, and 
ic is not a knight. We find him, with his son John, 
vitnessing a deed about 1240, and also a witness to an 
uulated grant to his own daughter Beatrice ; and to 
11 other grant to the same, he and his brother Henry are 
vitnesses. He also witnessed a deed in 1283, and several 
indated deeds. An Adam de Blakebume also witnesses 
deed of February 2nd, 20th Edward III. The seventh 
tness is John de Herice, or Herys. We have his name 
undated deeds, sometimes as John le Herice, sometimes 



430 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

as John de Herys. In a charter of Henry de Werdehull, 
the first witness, John de Herice, was then steward of the 
county of Lincoln. The seventh and last witness to our 
deed is William de Hakyeng, or Hakkyng, who witnessed 
various undated deeds, and one of 1283. 

We have enumerated these witnesses and dates chiefly 
to obtain a key to the date of this charter of Henry de 
Lacy to his burgesses of Clithero. One of them, sir 
Robert Banastre, brings it within the fifty years, 1242- 
1292. Most of them signed deeds either in 1277 or 1283. 
Henry de Lacy would reach his majority about 1270. In 
charters of 1286 and 1296, he adds to his titles of earl and 
constable, that of lord of Roos and Rowenock, being prc 
bably part of the Welsh possessions, granted him in 
by Edward I. This charter has no such title, and then 
fore may be taken as prior to 1284. For these and othc 
reasons, we are inclined to think that this charter we 
granted between 1273, when earl Lacy was besieging 
Ferrers in his Staffordshire castle; and 1283-4, when 
went to aid the king in his Welsh war. The charter 
in all probability, made in Lancashire, and most of its 
witnesses, as shewn by other deeds, were in Lancashire in 
1283, which seems a likely period for making this grant, 
the earl being then thirty-three years of age, and in Lan- 
cashire. 

The next deed to be noticed is a grant by the same 
Henry de Lacy, in Norman French, dated London, 13th 
June, 35th Edward I (1307). It is an indented parcl 
ment, bipartite, ten and three-quarters inches wide, 
six and three-quarters deep. The deed occupies eightet 
lines in clear, brown ink. A series of capital letters aloi 
the indented top and the indented side, have been bisect 
by the indenting. From the centre foot depends 
parchment bands, an oval seal, of vermillion colour, repi 
senting on a heater-shield the lion rampant, purpure, of the 

Lacies. The words seem to be " si gil LUM SEC RETE'" 

It differs from the small seal engraved in Whitaker's 
Whalley, to face p. 142, the legend of which is " S. Comitis 
Henrici Lacy", but which has the same armorial bearing. 
Whitaker, referring to this as No. 9 on the plate, said he 
had never met with more than one impression of the great 
seal of this earl. The one to his Latin charter to Clithero, 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 431 

Whitaker never saw. This parchment is endorsed in 
English : " Grant of Salthill Wood, Cop. law, and Turbary 
de Penhull." The following is a translation : 

"This indenture witnesseth, that my lord Henry de Lasci, earl of 
Lincoln, for him and for his heirs, hath granted to his burgesses of 
Clyderowe, and to their heirs and to their assigns, all the soil and the 
woods of Salthille, Parisounge, and Halloclawe, to make their profit 
thereof in the best manner they can. Saving to William Heryce wood 
for hunting purposes (venables estovers], for his manor of Salthille, to 
get in the said woods, as of right he was wont to do. And the said 
burgesses, for them and their heirs, agree to save the said earl and his 
heirs from damage, towards the said William Heryce. Beyond this, the 
said earl wills, that the enclosure which he has made in the part towards 
the west of the castle of Clyderowe shall be thrown open (desaprove ; to 
approve, is to enclose from common), and remain in common for ever; 
leaving to the said earl and to his heirs the seignory of the town of Cly- 
derowe, as well in demesne as in service, as the said earl has been 
(accustomed to have it. And the said earl grants, for him and for his 
iheirs, to the said burgesses and to their heirs, that they may lay up and 
Icut brushwood (bushoims] in the field of Clyderowe everywhere. Beyond 
|this, the said earl grants to the said burgesses and to their heirs, the 
Isplitting or cutting (Jente) of turf, in his turbary on the mount of Penhill 
(Pendle), to carry and burn it, to their own proper use, at Cliderowe ; 
paving to make sale by free cry (sauvez ventefaire dfraunche voye\ with- 
put disturbance, in allowance for (or instead of) the turbary which the said 
>arl formerly granted to the said burgesses in Bagsholfe. And the said 
mrgesses agree for them and for their heirs, as to the said cutting (fente) 
pf turf, to take from the Mount of Penhill, in place of the turbary of 
'Bagsholfe, which formerly to them was granted. Provided that neither 
( he said burgesses nor their heirs shall not think to have or to challenge 
Anything in the said turbary of Bagsholfe, at any time. In witness of 
his indenture, to the part remaining with the said burgesses, the said 
arl has put his seal. And the said burgesses, by the assent of them all, 
bive chosen six burgesses, that is to say, Hugh de Cliderowe, Richard 
he son of Henry (or Fitz-Henry), William the son of Henry (or Fitz- 
lenry), Master Richard, of Cliderowe, Adam de Dynele, and Thomas de 
tandone, who, by the common assent of all of them, for themselves and 
>r all the others, to the part (of this indenture) remaining with the said 
arl, have put their seals. Given at London, the 8th day of June, in the 
ar of the reign of king Edward, the 35th" (8th June, 35th Edward I, 
307). 

Time will not serve to examine this deed with the same 
linuteness as the earlier and more important charter. Not 

Tor,, vi. 58 



432 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

being acquainted with the vicinity of Clithero, I am unable 
to say whether such names as Parisounge and Halloclawe 
yet exist. The woods so named in this deed must have 
disappeared centuries ago. The custom of selecting six 
or twelve of the chief burgesses to act for all, prevailed in 
that age. 

The next deed is a grant by letters patent, from Henry 
IV, of two fairs to Clithero ; and this grant seems to have 
been accompanied by a prohibition any longer to hold fairs 
in the churchyard of Whalley. The following is an ab- 
stract of a Latin deed : 

" Henry, etc., greeting: Know ye that we (for certain con- 
siderations specially moving us, and our council of our ow 
duchy of Lancaster), have granted two fairs at our town 
Cliderhowe, in a more fit and convenient place. One, viz., 
on the eve, day and morrow of the Conception, and the 
other on the eve, day and morrow of the Annunciation of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary." 

Then follows the grant of the usual matters appertaining 
to fairs : quiet passage for all honest subjects doing lawful 
business there, and protection for their bodies, goods, mer- 
chandise, etc.; a command to escheators, sheriffs, bailiffs, 
etc., to apprehend and confine all violent persons, and that 
traders be not oppressed or molested. The sheriff of Lan- 
caster is commanded to see these fairs held on the said 
days, and in the said place, and to cause public proclama- 
tion to be made thereof. 

" Witness myself at Lancaster, the 4th December, in t 
eleventh year of our reign (1409). By bill, signed 
the king's hand." 

Another document properly accompanies this, in whi 
the precept to the sheriff of Lancaster to make procla: 
tion is in Latin, and the proclamation itself in Englis 
An abstract of the latter will suffice : 

" Whereas of late it is come unto the knowledge of our sovereign 
Henry, etc., and to many and diverse of his subjects of his county pala- 
tine of Lancaster, at the feasts of the Conception and Annunciation, which 
had their assemblies and meetings at his monastery of Whalley, and there 
in the cymytories and places near unto his said monastery, without anj 
grant or other auctorite, have of late made common, and used buying and 
selling of goods, catalles, and merchandyses, in semblable manner, as 
there were or had been lawful fares ; whereby many in convenyentyse? 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 433 

have of late ensued to grete displeasure of our said soveran lord, and con- 
trary to his laws, and also to the great inquieting of the religious persons 
of the said monastery, which our said soveran lord may, neither will not, 
in no wise, any longer shall continue." 

The king prohibits any further holding of the fair at 
the monastery of Whalley, on pain of forfeiture of all the 
goods, etc., so sold or set to sale ; and further to be punished 
according to law. The proclamation then sets forth, in- 
; stead of the fairs thus put down, the grant of two on the 
same days at Clithero ; but neither in the proclamation or 
the letters patent is the precise site of the fair prescribed. 
This proclamation is dated the 6th December, two days 
after the letters patent. 

The next deed, an inspeximus of Henry VIII, of the 
original charter of Henry de Lacy, is only noticed as a 
specimen of the calligraphy of the time. It is on fine vellum, 
of large size, the seal gone ; the first six words engrossed 
in letters an inch high, the capitals two-and-three-quarter 
inches, and the initial H. of the sovereign's Christian name 
about seven-and-a-half inches high, and nearly six inches 
! wide, enclosing a pen-and-ink delineation of the king 
on his throne, crowned and robed, with orb and sceptre; 
^ver the letter, in scroll, " Vivat Rex". The cypher 
" E. P." refers to Edward VI, then prince of Wales : his 
insignia, the plumes and motto, still used. 

We come next to a document marked on parchment, 
which is, in fact, a translation of the inspeximus just 
'noticed ; but this translation also contains an English copy 
,of the old grant by the earl to the citizens of Chester, 
which is called " The Liberties of Chester". Of this sin- 
Igular chart and charter of burgage privileges and immu- 
jnities, we subjoin the translation : 

The Liberties of Chester, as foUoweth : That is to say : First, The 
% of Chester is a free city, and that the foresaid citizens may, by their 
>\\n power, choose yearly a mayor, upon the Friday next after the feast 
f St. Deonise. But, having first made his oath of the law of the king- 
lorn, and sworn to the said citizens to preserve the liberties of the fore- 
aid city. And also, that they may of their own power, choose two 
heriffs, upon the day before-named, and in manner aforesaid, which, at 
he command of the said city, the mayor and citizens thereof do make 
md perform their oaths : 

"Juntmrnt. Major et Ballivor. ut seqmtur. You shall swear that 



434 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

well and duly you shall serve the king in the office of mayor in the city 
of Chester, and the same city shall keep surely and safely to the use of 
our sovereign lord the king of England and his heirs, kings of England, 
and be ready to do to the king all things which to you helongeth to he 
done. And the right of the king, and that which belongeth to the crown, 
or the said city, shall lawfully keep. And you shall not assent to any 
hurt, concealment of the rights, nor of any franchises of the king. And 
if you know the rights of the king or the crown, be it in land, or in rent, 
or in franchises, or in suit, to be concealed or withholden, you shall do 
your endeavour the same to redress. And if you cannot redress the 
same, then you shall make the same known to the king or to his council, 
that you may be sure the king may be told of the same. And you shall 
well and rightfully use and handle the people under your office of mayor, 
and do right to every one, as well to strangers as to others your neigh- 
bours, as well to the poor as to the rich, in that which belongeth to yoi 
to be done. And you shall not do wrong to any man in respect of mighti- 
ness, nor for riches, nor for gifts, nor for rewards, nor for favours, nor 
malice, whereby right may be hindered, neither shall take anytl 
whereby the king shall have loss, or any right impeached. And in 
things which to the mayor of the said city belongeth to be done, yoi 
shall well and truly observe and keep. You shall preserve the libertie 
of the city as much as in you lieth ; you shall keep two leet courts in the 
year, if God shall lend you life. You shall look that the officers do their 
duties under you to the uttermost of your power." 

And also they challenge to have two markets every week of the year; 
that is to say, upon the Wednesday and Saturday, and all things apper- 
taining to a market. And also they challenge to have two fairs in every 
year in the said city ; that is to say, one to be holden upon the feast day 
of the nativity of St. John the Baptist ; and the other upon the feast 
St. Michael the Archangel, and all things belonging to a fair. The mayor 
and citizens of the aforesaid city do also challenge to have this liberty 
underwritten, that is to say, acquittances, releases, recognizances, wi 
their appurtenances, and the pendice (a court), in the aforesaid city, f< 
them, their heirs, and successors, for ever. And if any citizen of the 
aforesaid city die, his will, being reasonably made, shall be accounted 
strong and sure, in what place soever he die. And if any citizen, etc., 
do buy anything upon the eighth day, and before witness, and some man 
afterwards shall come out of France or England, who can reasonably 
reprove the thing bought by the citizen, the citizen shall be quit from 
the foresaid earl of Chester and his bailiffs, losing only and restoring the 
things bought. And if any man shall come unto the bailiffs, which can 
reasonably disprove the thing bought, he shall pay the price of it to the 
citizen, which the citizen can reasonably prove he paid for it. And if 
any citizen, etc., have lent to any man any of his goods and chattels, it 




ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 435 

may be lawful for him to take no man in the city for recovering of his 
goods, without the license required of the sheriff or any bailiff of the said 
earl. And if any citizen be slain in the service of the king, his goods 
shall be disposed as and if he have made a will lawful, and that no man 
shall trouble them, their heirs, or successors, upon pain of 20, to be 
paid to the earl. And that no man shall buy or sell any kind of mer- 
chandise which shall come to the city by sea or by land, except them- 
selves, their heirs, and successors, or by their grant, unless in the fairs 
holden upon the feast-day of St. John Baptist or St. Michael; and 
that no man shall hinder or trouble them of the aforesaid liberty, upon 
pain of 10, to be paid to the said earl for his own use. And the said 
city doth challenge all their liberties and free customs to be holden of 
the said earl, etc., to the said citizens, etc., for ever. Yielding yearly to 
the said earl, etc., the sum of 20, at the feasts of Easter and St. Michael, 
by equal portions. And also they challenge to them, etc., that they may 
of their own power choose coroners in the said city so often as need 
requireth, who shall swear before the mayor of the city, that they will 
faithfully do and execute attachments and pleas of the crown, and of the 
said earl, within the said city and liberties thereof, and other things 
belonging to the office of coroners. And to have and hold all pleas of 
the crown which shall happen within their liberties, to be pleaded before 
the mayor and bailiffs of the said earl in the court of the said city, and 
to receive all amerciaments and all other things which belong to the said 
earl in this behalf, or which they know the predecessors of the said earl 
to have been accustomed to receive before time. And also for them, 
and they claim to have for ever, the sacke, toll, and the infangthief, and 
outfangthief, and quiet being through the dominions of the said earl, 
from theolonio, passagio, lastagio, marrigio, passagio, pontagio, et stal- 
lagio, daingilt, gailtbitt, and all other customs, as well within England 
as in all other dominions of the said earl. And also they challenge, that 
if any do die testate or intestate, the said earl, nor his heirs, etc., shall 
cause their goods to be confiscated; but their executors or nearest friends 
shall have them wholly. And also, that no bailiff or officer of the said 
earl of the said city shall attach or distrain within the liberties of the 
said city, or execute the office of bailiff, in default of the foresaid citizens 
or bailiff. And also they challenge, that if any. man be attached or 
apprehende within the liberties of the said city, [he] shall be brought 
to the prison of the said earl of the said city, that is to say, to North- 
gate, there to be detained and kept until he be delivered according to 
the law and custom of the said city. And also they challenge, that they 
themselves or their goods, in what place or dominion soever of the said 
carl, shall not be arrested for any default, whereto they stand not either 
as sureties or principal debtors. And also they challenge, to have their 
merchantable guild, with all liberties and free customs, which they ever 



436 ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 

freely and quietly have had in the time of the ancestors of the said earl 
in the said guild. And also they challenge, to have all the goods of 
felons and fugitives within the liberties of the said city, which do amount 
to the value of 30 or under; and if the said goods do exceed the value 
of 30, the said earl shall have all the residue. And also they challenge, 
that the mayor of the city shall have the office of escheator of the said 
earl within the liberties of the city, and shall be as escheator ; that every 
mayor at the time when as he is chosen, shall come into the exchequer of 
the said earl, before the justice of the earl, or his deputy, and the cham- 
berlain of the said earl and his heirs, or at the least before the chamber- 
lain, and shall swear faithfully to execute the said office, and to make a 
true account thereof to the said earl. The mayor and citizens of the said 
city by these words, acquittances, releases, recognizances, and patents, 
do challenge to have record, and to receive all manner of recognizances, 
as well for peace-keeping, as for all manner of debts, to what sum soever 
amounting, before the mayor for the time being, in their court there, 
called Portemote, and to record, receive, and make releases and acquit 
tances of the premises in the said court. And also to determine of 
indictments and forfeitures in the said court, and to take issues, amercic 
ments, and fines thereof, to their own proper uses. And by these words 
" merchantable guild", with all liberties and free customs, which they 
ever freely and quietly have had, they challenge, that upon the Friday 
next after the Feast of St. Deonise, they may of their own power choose 
every year two stewards of the same guild, which be of the fraternity of 
the same guild ; who then shall swear before the mayor and sheriffs, and 
other citizens, that they will truly and sufficiently make account of all 
moneys by them received, of any persons coming into the guild, and of 
all other customers of the said guild, which have been received time out 
of mind, and appertain to the said guild. And that every one that is 
the said guild shall be a free man in the said city, and may buy withii 
the liberties of the said city all kinds of merchandize coming to the sa 
city by sea or land. Also, that no man admitted into the said guile 
shall buy anything within the liberties of the said city, without consei 
of the said stewards of the said guild. And for the maintenance of 
said guild, they may take, and their predecessors time out of mind ha\ 
taken, these customs : Every ton of iron, 4d. And by this woi 
" sacke", they challenge to hold pleas in their court, called the Pendic 
before the sheriffs of the same city. And all manner of complaints and 
pleas personal between parties of every cause arising within the liberties, 
etc., which do belong to a court baron. And by this word " portemote", 
they challenge to have and to hold a certain court in the said city every 
fifteen days, called Portemote, in the common hall, before the mayor of 
the said city, and there to hear and determine all plaints and pleas, real 
and personal, of all lands and tenements within the said city and the 



ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS. 437 

liberties thereof, arising or being, and to make execution thereof. Also, 
to receive all articles, which do belong to the view of frank pledge, by 
indictment in rolls or inquiry, and then to hear, and determine, and 
execute. And also, to have and to hold to their proper uses, all issues, 
fines, and forfeitures, whatsoever, proceeding out of the said court. And 
by this word "toll", they challenge to have and take toll for all kinds of 
merchandize bought or sold within the liberties of the said city. That is 
to say, for every ship coming within the liberties of the said city, with 
any merchandize or victuals, called "keel", toll, 4d., and to the clerk, Id. 
And for every merchant having merchandize in the said city, exceeding 
the value of 6*. 8d. ; for his toll and all his merchandize, 4d., and the 

clerk, Id. ; and for every tun of wine, 4d. ; and for every of any 

kind of melidge coming in or going out of the said city and the liberties 
thereof, 4d. ; and if there be more merchants, every one of them, 4d. ; 
and for every horse carrying in or out of the said city any load or fardel 
(bundle) of merchandize, or victuals, to be bought or sold, Id. ; and for 
every horse bought, 4d. ; for every ox, cow, or heifer, Id. ; for three 
sheep, 4d. ; and if there be more, 4d. ; and for every pair of wheels, 4d. 
, And by this word "thein", they challenge, that any one born within 
the liberties of the city, shall continue quiet within the franchises and 
liberties of the said city, a year and a day him and his goods shall be 
i quiet from the earl, and from any others in the city of Chester. And by 
this word " infangthiefe", they challenge, that felons apprehended within 

,the liberties of the said city . And by this word "outfang- 

, thief", they challenge, that if any felon of the said city be apprehended 
'for felony, without the said city and county, the felon shall be delivered 
'to the officers of the said city to take execution. And also, they chal- 
lenge by this word " theolonio", that they may be free for all toll for any 
ikind of merchandize, or any other things bought or sold by them, in any 
fairs or markets, or other places, as well within the city of Chester, as 
through all the county of Chester. And also as well through all Eng- 
land, as in Wales and the marchesses thereof. 

The other documents in this collection are all of the 

>i'venteenth century. They comprise an agreement as to 

the reversion of the bailiffship of Blakeburneshire (1606) ; 

i document relating to sir E. Phelipps (1607) ; a precept 

fa the bailiffs of Clithero relating to some pleas in the 

ourts (1668) ; and an order of the court leet of the 

Bhmdred of Blakeburne as to a highway between Worston 

nul Clithero. To name them may suffice, as they possess 

ittle interest, save of a purely local kind. 



438 



of tfje teoctatton. 



JUNE 5, 1850. 

R. GROVE LOWE, ESQ., of St. Alban's, exhibited a bronze female bust, 
found near the amphitheatre recently discovered at Verulamium. 
here represented of the size of the original. 



It is 




Charles Baily, esq., F.S.A., gave an account of some rude engraving 
or marks, found upon some of the jambs of Goodrich Castle. Thej 
represent a man hawking, together with various animals ; and from an 
inscription, appear to have been the work of one Master Adam Hastun. 
A detail of the objects represented, will form the subject of a separate 
notice in a future number of the Journal. 

Mr. Baily also called the attention of the Association to a rude and 
early basin, of a square shape, bearing an inscription, which is, however, 
illegible. The basin was placed on the north side of the communion- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 439 

table, at Tretire church, Herefordshire, in the place usually occupied by 
the piscina ; the purpose, however, for which it may have been employed 
is uncertain. 

Mr. Ernest P. Wilkins, of Newport, stated, that an antique brass 
cannon, cast in the reign of Edward VI, for the parish of Carisbrooke, 
had been lately sold by auction, by order of the vestry ; it realized 30, 
and is now valued at a much higher price, merely for its metal. It had 
for many years been deposited in the church tower, and is a very beau- 
tiful piece of workmanship. Its dimensions are as follow: length, 
seven and a half feet; circumference of breech, thirty-four and a half 
inches ; of the muzzle, twenty-four and a half inches ; bore, three inches. 
It bears two inscriptions on its breech ROBERT and IOHN OWIXE 

BRITRINE MAD THIS FACONE ANNO 1549, CARESEBROWKE. 

Upon this subject, Worsley, the historian of the Isle of Wight, says : 
" The island was also possessed of a small train of artillery, every parish 
providing one piece of brass ordnance, which was kept in a small house 
built for that purpose, or in some part of the church. About eighteen 
of these cannon still (1781) remain; they are of different calibres, from 
one to six pounds, and some of them appear by their dates to have been 
made in the time of Edward VI ; others in that of Elizabeth. The car- 
riages and ammunition were provided at the expense of the parishes ; 

| and particular farms were charged with the duty of finding horses to 
draw them. They were usually brought into the field in a general 

, muster ; and the islanders, by frequently exercising themselves in firing 

, at marks, became very expert in the use of them as well as their small 
arms." 

A cannon still remains at Bradyig, and is deposited in a small building 
in the church-yard ; the vicar, the rev. D. J. Heath, refusing to have it 

I removed. It is due to this gentleman to record, that at his own expense, 
he has had the whitewash removed from the walls, etc., of the ulterior of 
the church (in part the oldest in the island), and a complete restoration 
effected. 

Mr. Wilkins also exhibited impressions of a Roman coin, having some- 
what the character of the Grecian style of art, which was found at New- 
town, Isle of Wight, by him. The obverse seems to bear the head of 
Minerva, with the letters DOS, which he supposes to be an abbreviation 
of Dossenus ; while the reverse bears a quadriga resembling a triumphal 
carriage. The coin is of silver, and appears to have had its size dimin- 
ished by wear. 

Alfred Pryer, esq., of Hollingbourne, forwarded a leaden seal, which 
had been affixed to a papal bull. On one side were the heads of St. 
Paul and St. Peter, having the letters SPA and SPE above them ; and on 
the other, INNOCENTIUS PP. HI. It is in good preservation, and was 
found in April last at Mailing Abbey, Kent. 

Vi'I,. VI. 4r 



440 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Mr. Samuel Pratt exhibited a wooden casket of the fourteenth or fif- 
teenth century, distinguished by letters usually known as napkin-pattern, 
being folded over in a particular manner. On one side was represented 
the figure of a stag, well known as a royal badge in the time of Richard II. 
The sides of the box exhibited also a well-executed diaper work. 

Mr. Pratt also exhibited an enamel plate of the latter part of the 
fifteenth century, representing Charles VIII, or Louis XII, of France ; 
also a saint, probably St. Louis. 

Llewellynn Jewitt, esq., of Plymouth, forwarded a drawing of a 
gypsere, found at Bigsbury, Devonshire, and now deposited in the 
museum at Plymouth. The legend consists of ATE MAKIA GKACIA 
PLENA DO, which is continued on both sides of the bar. On one side of 
the shield are the letters IKS. 



JUNE 19. 

H. Syer Cuming, esq., exhibited an impression from a signet ring 
of an earl of Shrewsbury, now in the possession of Dr. Iliff, of Ken- 
nington. 

Mr. Cuming also made some observations on carvings in Morse ivory, 
so generally used by the Scandinavians in place of the ivory of the 
elephant. Four interesting carvings of this description, representing 
figures of Faith, Hope, and Charity, and forming knife-handles, were 
exhibited, and will be figured and given, together with Mr. C.'s remarks, 
in a future Journal. 

T. J. Pettigrew, esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., exhibited a specimen of the 
above kind, from the United Service Museum, at Whitehall, which, with 
a curiously carved abbot's ivory-handled knife, exhibited by Mr. Pratt, 
will be noticed and figured in Mr. C.'s forthcoming paper. 

Charles Warne, esq., of Milbourne St. Andrews, communicated that 
the rev. Mr. Fry had brought to light a piscina and two or three recesses 
in (he chancel of Sumpting church. The piscina is in a niche or recess, 
with a triangular head (similar to some of the small windows in the 
Tower), the stones of which are ornamented with an interlacing pattern 
one of the other recesses (rectangular) has somewhat of a similar pattern. 
Another (a small double recess) is circular headed, formed by one stone, 
which is rudely ornamented with a pattern of running foliage; also a 
border, much like the pattern on the fragment of fig. 11 of plate vi, of 
the Headington remains (see pi. vi ante). Mr. Warne was quite satis- 
fied that architects would place the sculptured stones as belonging to a 
very early period. 

Mr. Warne also stated, that at Arundel church they have been 
scraping off whitewash in some parts and laying it on in others ; 
the scraping has now brought to light some frescoes, traced in red chalk 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 441 

or paint. Two are tolerably perfect ; one, a male figure standing, from 
whose body are dragons or demons emanating, about to engulph in their 
open jaws the wretches doomed to destruction, who are representations 
of the seven carnal sins ; the other fresco is more complicated and inter- 
esting, a circle parted in divisions, within which the subjects are pour- 
trayed, one appears to be the administration of the sacrament to a sick 
or dying person, another the laying out of the body, a third the entomb- 
ment, etc. of the dead. 

The Chevalier Zahn laid before the Association a series of beautifully 
executed litho-chromatic plates, representing the frescoes and mosaics of 
Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabia, the result of ten years' investigation 
of these interesting remains. 

J. R. Planche, esq., F.S.A., submitted a grant of Leadenhall by Mar- 
garet de Neville, in the year 1315. See Original Documents, p. 139 
ante. Mr. Planche also made some observations on the confirmation 
charter of Ranulf II, earl of Chester ; and on a compact between Ranulf 
de Blondeville, earl of Chester, and William de Fougeres. These 
remarks are printed, pp. 131-138, and the charter itself, pp. 317-323 
ante. 

Alfred White, esq. produced a curious carved boss, formerly in the 
east cloister of the priory of St. Bartholomew the Great, in West Smith- 
field. It represents an abbot or prior and an abbess, standing face to 
face, with their staves over their shoulders, and holding up a beam of 
wood, which passes longitudinally before the figures. Mr. White brought 
the general history of the priory and hospital before the meeting, and 
illustrated the subject by plans and drawings. A more particular account 
of these will be rendered in a future Journal. 

Mr. E. B. Price also exhibited two other bosses of a smaller size from 
the same cloisters ; one representing a mermaid, with a comb and mirror, 
the other an angel, playing upon a stringed instrument resembling a 
guitar. These three sculptures were rescued from destruction some time 
since, during the excavation of the site of this cloister for the purpose of 
storing wood. 

JULY 3. 

Goddard Johnson, esq., of Norwich, exhibited a spear-head in black 
flint, weighing nearly four ounces. It was found in Burnt Fen, by 
Prickwillow, Ely, and is now in the possession of Mr. Barr of Ely. 

John Lindsay, esq., of Cork, transmitted drawings of an "ancient 
crucifix, silver, originally gilt, but from which the gilding has been 
nearly worn away. It contains a relic in a square compartment over the 
head of the figure (see pi. xxxv, figs. 7, 8). This figure," Mr. Lindsay 
says, "appears to me to be one of the most ancient of the extremely 



442 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

numerous specimens which, have come under my observation, and can 
scarcely, I think, be of later date than the thirteenth century. With the 
drawings I enclose one of the reverse of a coin of Henry I (fig. 9) ; and 
you will also find, in my work on the Irish coinage, a similar type on a 
bracteate coin (pi. iv, No. 86) ; and I think you will agree with me in 
opinion that the age of these coins, and of the crucifix, which presents a 
similar cruciform figure on the reverse, cannot be far distant." Similar 
figures may be seen on the coins of Stephen (see Numismatic Chronicle, 
No. 51, pi. in). 

Mrs. Graham, of Chichester, forwarded a coin of Allectus (third brass), 
which had been found between the lead lining and stone of the font in 
West Wittering church. 

. John Moore, esq., of West Coker, Somerset, exhibited a skull and 
other human bones, found in the fissure of a rock, about fifteen feet from 
the surface, at Ham-hill, near Yeovil. From examination of the skull 
made by Mr. and Dr. W. Pettigrew, it was clearly apparent that it had 
belonged to a young Roman female, corresponding in all its characters to 
the distinguishing marks of that people. 

Mr. J. F. Baigent, of Winchester, forwarded the drawing of a fresco, or 
rather distemper painting, which he discovered beneath the whitewash, the 
1st June last, on a visit to Soberton church, in the deanery of Droxford, 
Hampshire. It is painted on the north wall of the chantry chapel built 
on the south wall of the aisle, and now occupied as a private chapel, as it 
were, by Dr. Burney and his pupils of the military academy at Holywell. 
This pattern is mostly to be admired for its extreme simplicity, consisting 
of quadrangular compartments represented by lines, measuring about 
eight inches and a half by six inches, with only a cinquefoil, or as some- 
times, quatrefoil pierced, placed in the centre of each ; the whole is 
painted of a dark brown; the general idea of the pattern is something 
similar to that he discovered last year at St. Cross, for representation 
which see p. 79 ante. 

Mr. Baigent also exhibited a series of coloured drawings of 
paintings found in Wellow church, Hants, consisting of two crowned 
heads from the spandrils and scrolls round the jambs of the windows, 
belonging to the thirteenth century ; also a drawing of a tile now 
in the library of Winchester cathedral, of about the same date, re- 
presenting an archbishop, and a drawing of a coin found in the garden of 
the Benedictine convent at Winchester. Some observations on these 
antiquities, from the pen of J. G. Waller, esq., will appear in the next 
Journal. 

Charles Baily, esq., F.S.A., exhibited the stone base and capital of a 
column, also part of a vessel formed of Purbeck stone, most probably a 
mortar, found in digging the foundations for a building on the west side 
of Mincing-lane, London. At about twelve feet from the surface the 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 443 

workmen came to small portions of a tessellated pavement, laid in a 
pattern surrounded with a border formed of coarse red tesserae, each 
about one inch and a quarter square ; beneath this pavement, and mixed 
with earth, were quantities of rubbish, in which was mixed broken Roman 
pottery, tiles, and concrete, to the extent of about two feet in depth. At 
this level there was a floor, formed of fine gravel, lime, and powdered 
tile, of a rich red colour ; this was lying on the natural gravel. Between 
the two floors, the fragments Nos. 1, 2, and 3, on pi. xxxv, were found. 
This discovery appears to be the more worthy of notice, because it proves 
the existence of Roman remains of two distinct periods. The lower floor 
of concrete must have belonged to a building destroyed before that of 
which the tessellated pavement formed a part could have been erected ; 
and although in many instances fragments of Roman works have been 
discovered in connexion with remains to which they could not have be- 
longed, yet such strong evidence of Roman buildings of two periods do 
not appear to have been before noticed in London. 



JULY 17. 

Mr. Joseph Warren, of Ixworth, exhibited a bronze weight found at 
Pakenham. On one side is represented a lion passant, and on the other 
a castle, from which it is suggested that it might have been a weight 
belonging to the city of Norwich. It weighs exactly seven ounces avoir- 
dupois. An inscription runs round on both sides, but very few letters 
are sufficiently distinct to be decyphered. 

James Elliott, esq., of Dymchurch, exhibited a drinking jug with 
figures and inscriptions in German : they relate chiefly to dancing, and 
other gymnastic performances. It is probably of the sixteenth century, 
and was found on the shore at Dymchurch, Kent. 



AUGUST 7. 

Mons. Delisle, of Valognes, forwarded some observations on the early 
introduction of windmills into Normandy and England (see pp. 403-406, 
ante.} 

Mr. S. Pratt exhibited a helmet of the early part of the thirteenth 
century, temp. John or Henry III (see plate xxxvi, fig. 1 and 2). 1 It was 
found at the foot of a stone staircase, or flight of steps, by some workmen 
whilst clearing away the ruins of Eynsford castle, Kent. Mr. Planche 
congratulated the Association upon the remarkable fact that, during the 
last two years they had had the good fortune to see upon their table the 
most interesting series of helmets that had ever been exhibited in this 

1 Fig. 4 represents the top of the helmet. 



444 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

country. Here was one of nearly the earliest form after the Conquest, 
an undoubted English specimen. Eynsford castle had been the residence 
of a family of that name. William de Eynsford possessed the castle and 
manor in the twelfth and thirteenth years of king John : and the helmet 
before them was of the form used at that period, as would be evident to 
any member who would take the trouble to compare it with that on the 
effigy at Durham, engraved by Stothard ; with those of two effigies in 
Furness abbey ; or any of the numerous illuminations representing armed 
knights of the first half of the thirteenth century. It covered the entire head 
and face, and rested on the shoulders ; so that, when forced round by a 
vigorous stroke of the hand, the wearer was severely hurt by it. In the 
romance of Launcelot du Lac, the helmet of a knight is said to have been 
so turned, that the edges grazed his shoulders and covered his armour 
with blood. 

" Ses armes estoient toutes ensanglantees." 

A few months previously, a helmet of the immediately succeeding period, 
the reign of Edward I, had been exhibited to them by Mr. Knight of 
Clerkenwell (see plate xxxvi, fig. 3). Every means had been taken 
to throw discredit upon that interesting relic. Rival dealers had asserted 
that it was "made out of old boiler plates", and Mr. Planche had been 
told there were persons who would ' take him to the man who made it", 
etc. etc. Mr. Planche had tested all this evidence, and had ascertained 
its utter falsity. He was satisfied, as he was from the first moment that 
he saw it, that it