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:X7^d 3 . 3 


fgarbarH College l^ittrarg 



(OlMS of 181S). 

This fund is $ao,ooo, and of its income three quarters 

shall be spent for books and one quarter 

be added to the principal. 

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j„N 2 isy'j()URNAL . 

OF THE ^*^^ 





VOL. yil. PART I. 

No. 23. 

<* The dadgn of the Sodety is to institate tnd promote enqoiries into the Hiftory, 

Belifioo, Literature, Arts, and Social Condition of the present and former 

Inhabitants of the Island, with its Geologj', Mineralogy, its Climate 

and lieteorology, its Botany and Zoology." 




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/'<X(juA^-«(rt a>f4tU<.<X 









No. 23. 





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JAN' 2 m\. -j iv^r, tuo^AQ. 



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Hindu Astronomy: as compared with tlie European Science.— 

By S. Mervin ... ••• 1 

Sculptures at Horana.— By J. G, Smitheb, F.B.I.B.A. ... 9 

Gold.— By Alex. C. Dixoi*, B. Sc. (Honors), London ... 12 

Specimens of Sinhalese Proverbs — By Louis De Zoysa, 
Maha Mudaliyar ; continued from No. 17, Vol. V. 
(1871-72), p. 32 ... •.. 15 

Ceylon Bee Culture. — By S. Jayatilaka, Mudaliy&r ... 27 

A Short Account of the Princi{>al Religious Ceremonies 
observed by the Kandyans of Ceylon.— By C. J. R. 
Le Mesurier, CCS. •.. ... 32 

Valentyn's Account of Adam*s Peak. — By A. SpencbMoss^ 

P.W.D. ... ... 49 

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By S* Mervin* 

{Read April 7<A, 1881.) 

Astronomy was discovered and cultivated in the early period 
of the world. It spread from one country to another, and seems 
to have come from Chaldea to India and China. 

The Rev. H* Hoisington, of the American Mission at Jaffna, in 
his work entitled Tke Oriental Astronomer , says : — " Chaldea 
may be considered as the cradle of astronomy, A series of 
observations was made at Babylon during a period of 1,903 
years preceding the capture of that city by Alexander. This 
would carry back the origin of astronomy in Chaldea to at least 
2,234 years before Christ." 

" The Chinese possess the oldest authentic records of astro- 
nomical observations. They invented their cycle of 60 years 
as early as 2,900 years B,C., and they were able to predict (or 
calculate) the eclipses as early as 2,128 years B.C." 

** The early part of Hindu astronomy is involved in great 
obscurity. The lunar mansions, or Nadckattirams, are the 
most ancient part of Hindu astronomy found on record. They 
date somewhere between the years 1528 and 1371 B.C." 

* The Society decline to be responsible for the statements of |the author. 
The Paper is printed (in r^sumS) having been read at a General Meeting. 

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2 JOURNAL, R. A. S. (CEYLON). [Vol. VII., Pt. 1. 

True Hindu astronomy is very different from Hindu mytho- 
logy. Some Europeans seem to think that the mythology and 
the astronomy of the Hindus are identical. 

Hindu mythology is mingled with legends and exaggera- 
tions of poetry, which are utterly fantastic and absurdly false. 
But the true science of astronomy is found in other works which 
are really scientific, such as : — 

Brahma Siddhantam. 
Suriya Siddhantam. 
Soma Siddhantam. 
Vashda Siddhantam. 
Rdmuka Siddhantam. 

yiydsa Siddhantam. 
Posa Siddhantam. 
Vardka Siddhantam. 
A'riya Siddhantam 
Siddhdnta Siromani. 

There are several other works among the Hindus on astro- 
nomy, but these are the important ones. 

1 do not pretend to say that I have read all these books. 1 
have read only two of them, from which I will give quotations 
and authorities, to prove that many of the doctrines of the 
Hindu science do perfectly correspond with those of the Euro- 
pean science. 

The 59th verse of the 1st chapter of Suriya Siddhdntam 
reads as follows : — 

" Twice 800 ydjanas are the diameter of the earth ; the 
square root of ten times the square of that is the earth's 

Here it is plainly said that the earth's diameter is 1,600 
yojanas, which at 5 miles each* will give 8,000 miles, 

* The measurement of the ydjana is not exactly settled. According to 
some authorities, it is equal to 16,000 yards ; accordiog to others, to 
8,000 jards. The Chinese traveller Hieuen Thsang, who visited India in 
the middle of the 7th century, reports that in India, according to ancient 
tradition, a ydjana equalled 40 li (a It being about 550 yards). According 
to the customary use of the Indian kingdoms, it is 30 li. But the yojana 
mentioned in the sacred books contains only 16 li; which smallest ydjana 
is equal to 5 English miles. 

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No. 23. — 1881.] HIN1>U ASTRONOMY. 3 

and its circumference 25,298 miles. According to European 
science the diameter is 7,917 miles, and the circumference 
24,856 miles, shewing a very close proximity to the Hindu 

Again^ the 52nd verse of the 3rd chapter of Siddhdnta 
Siromani reads thus : — 

" The circumference of the earth has been pronounced to be 
4^967 ydjanas, and the diameter of the same has been declared 
to be 158124 yojanas.'* 

According to this, the diameter is 7,905.j^ miles, and 
the circumference 24,835 miles, which figures are very much 
nearer to the European than those given in Suriya Siddhdnta^ 
the difference being very insignificant. 

II. — According to Hindu mythology, the earth is a cir- 
cular, flat body, supported by the serpent ^^Atichedan^'* 
&c.; but the 32nd verse of the 12th chapter of Suriya Siddhdn- 
tarn says that the earth is a globe and a self-supporting 

The same description is given in the 2nd verse of the 3rd 
chapter of Siddhdnta Siromani : — 

" This globe of the earth is perfectly round, and encom- 
passed by the orbits of the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, 
Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, and by the constellations. It has no 
(material) supporter, but stands firmly in the expanse of 
heaven by its own inherent force," &c. 

The 4th verse demonstrates the self-support of the earth: — 

" If the earth were supported by any material substance or 
living creature, then that would require a second supporter ; 
and for that second, a third would be required. Here, we have 
the absurdity of an interminable series. If the last of the 
series be supposed to remain firm by its own inherent power, 
then why may not the same power be supposed to exist in the 
first— that is, in the earth ? " 

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4 JOURNAL, R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. L 

III. — According to Hindu mythology, the earth is said to be 
motionless, and the day and night are caused by the sun moving 
round the earth ; but Ariya Siddhdntam says that the earth 
moves round on its axis, and that thereby the day and night are 
caused. This verse of Ariya Siddhdntam is quoted by Professor 
Colebrook in his Essays, Vol. IL, page 392. 

IV.— The mythology states that the sun is nearer the earth 
than the moon;but the 2nd verse of theSrd chapter oiSiddkdnta 
Siromaniy read before, says that the earth is encompassed by 
the orbits of the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter 
and Saturn. By the order of the planets, as given here, it will be 
seen that the moon is nearer than the sun. The order is the 
very same as that given in the European science, except that 
the sun and the earth have been transposed. 

Besides, the 5th verse of the 10th chapter of the same work 
says that the distance of the moon from the earth is 51,566 
ydjanas, and that of the sun 689,377, shewing that the moon 
is much nearer to the earth than the sun. 

V. — The diameter of the moon's disc is said in the 1st verse 
of the 4th chapter of Suriya Siddhdntam to be 480 yojanas or 
2,400 miles, whereas according to European science it is 
2,162 miles, shewing only a slight diflference. 

VI. — The common idea of the people and the poetical ex- 
pression in almost all the Tamil epic poems are that the clouds 
go to the sea, drink its water, and then pour the rain on the 
earth. But a verse in Raku Vamsam says : ^* The sun 
evaporates the waters and moisture of the earth, and then 
gives it back"— i. e., it rains. 

European science is the same. 

VII.— According to the European science, a year is caused 
by the earth revolving once round the sun in 365 days, 5 hours, 
48 minutes, and 48 seconds; and according to the Hindu science, 

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No. 23. — 1881.] HINDU ASTRONOMY. 6 

itis caused by the sungoingonce through the twelve (12) signs of 
the zodiac in 865 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, and 29 seconds. 
Whatever may be the difference in the theory, the result is 
almost alike in determining the length of a year, the difference 
being only about 24 minutes^ 

VIII.— The 2nd verse of the 4th chapter of Siddkdnta 
Siromani says: "The atmosphere extends to the height of 
12 yojanas from the earth; within this limit are the clouds, 
lightning, &c." Twelve y6janas are equal to 60 miles. 

European science also says that the atmosphere surrounds 
the earth to the height of 50 or 60 miles. 

IX. — The cause of the motion of the planets is explained in 
the first five verses of the 2nd chapter of Suriya Siddhdntam. 

(Verse 1.) " Forms of time, of invisible shape, stationed in 
the zodiac (bkagana)j called the conjunction (si^^revc^r^a^, apsis 
(mand6chcka)y and node (pdta), are causes of the motion of the 

(2.) ^* The planets, attached to these beings by cords of air, are 
drawn away by them with the right and left hand, forward or 
backward according to nearness, toward their own place." 

(3.) " A wind, moreover, called pravdAa impels them towards 
their own apices (tcckcAaJ; being drawn away forward and 
backward, they proceed by a varying motion," 

(4.) " The so-called apex (tickcka), when in the half orbit in 
front of the planet, draws the planet forward; in like manner, 
when in the half orbit behind the planet, it draws it backward." 

(6.) " When theplaneti^ drawn away by their apices (ticAcAa) 
move forward in their orbits, the amount of the motion so 
caused is called their excess (dhana) ; when they move back- 
ward, it is called their deficiency (rina. )" 

There is some sort of agreement between European and 
Hindu sciences in this intricate and abstruse part of astronomy. 
European science says that the planets take their circular 

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6 JOURNAL, R. A. S. (cKYLON). [Vol, VII., Pt. T^ 

orbits from the combined effect of their centrifugal and centri- 
petal forces^ 

In the verses referred to jost now the following descrip- 
tion is given: — *^The so-called apex, when in the half 
orbit in front of the planet, draws the planet forward ; in like^ 
manner, when in the half orbit behind the planet it draws it 
backward. Being drawn away^ forward and backward, they 
proceed by a varying motion.'^ 

The accelerated motion and retarded motion are conveyed 
by the terms " aighrochchanC'^ and *^ rruinddckckamy' whicb 
mean respectively " swiftness" and " slowness." 

Thus, it will be seen that the European and Hindu sciences^ 
although the expressions are different, agree as to the causes 
of the motion of planets in circular or oval orbits.. 

X. — Though the motions of planets and the figure of 
their orbits had been determined by Copernicus and other 
astronomers, yet the cause, or power, which carries them ia 
their orbits, was unknown at that time. The discovery of this- 
cause was made by Sir Isaac Newton. 

The principle on which the planetary revolution is founded is- 
gravitation. The laws of gravitation were known to the Hindus^ 
long before Sir Isaac Newton's time. Thus, the 6th, 7th, and 
9th verses of the 3rd chapter of Siddhdnta Siromani state :— 

(6th.) " The property of attraction is inherent in the earth. 
By this property the earth attracts any unsupported heavy 
thing towards it. The thing appears falling, but it is in a 
state of being drawn to the earth. The ethereal expanse being 
equally outspread all around, where can the earth fall? " 

(7th.) " Observing the revolution of the constellations, the 
Buddhas thought that the earth had no support ; and as na 
heavy body is seen stationary in the air, they asserted that the- 
earth goes eternally downwards in space. " 

(9th.) ^'Observing, as you do, Buddha, that every heavjr 

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^O. 23. — 1881.] HINDU ASTRONOMY, 7 

body projected into the air comes back again to^ and overtakes, 
the earth, how can you idly maintain that the earth is falling 
down in space? If true, the earth being the heavier body, 
would perpetually gain on the higher projectile, and never 
be overtaken." 

B&skara-dsdriyir, the author of this work, was born in the 

year 1036 of Saliv&hana era, and composed it in the year 1072, 

corresponding with the year 1 150 of the Christian era, or about 

' 600 years before Sir Isaac Newton made the discovery of 


XL— Now, lastly, about the Solar and Lunar Eclipses. The 
doctrine is the same in the European and Hindu sciences, though 
in Hindu mythology it is said that two serpents, called Raku and 
KetUy are hiding the stn and moon, and are causing the eclipses. 

Of all the phenomena of the heavens, it is the eclipses of the 
Bun and moon that attract the attention of man more than any 
other. In early ages of antiquity eclipses were regarded as 
alarming prognostications of public calamities and tokens 
of divine displeasure. 

In Mexico, during the times of eclipses, the natives fast and 
afflict themselves, thinking that the great spirit is in deep 

Some of the Indian tribes of North America imagine that 
the moon has been wounded in a war. 

The prevailing notion among the Hindus, which they derived 
from the mythological legends of poetry, is that certain serpents 
swallow the sun and moon, sometimes partially, and sometimes 
entirely. But the true Hindu science accounts for the eclipses 
just in the same way as European science does. 

Suriya Siddhdntam, 4th chapter, 9th verse : — "The moon is 
the eclipser of the sun, coming to stand underneath it like a 
cloud; the moon moving eastward enters the earth's shadow, 
and the latter (i. €., the shadow) becomes its eclipser." 

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8 JOURNAL) K. A. S. (CEYLON). [ Vol ViL, Pt. L 

This doctrine is in perfect accordance with the European. 

It has been shewn that in many respects there is a perfect 
accordance between the Hindu and European astronomy. 
There are discrepancies in the theory and principles as regards 
some points, as inculcated in the Hindu science, but in 
almost all cases the result of the calculations as regards the 
several phenomena is the same as that of European astronomy, 
such as the lunar and solar eclipses, the position of planets, 
the retrogradation in planetary motions, &c. 

It is not known what instruments were used by the ancient 
Hindus, but it is an undoubted fact that they had the use of 
some sort of instruments, without which it would not be 
possible to make the several calculations. 

The 11 th chapter of Siddhanta Sirdmani speaks of the use of 
certain instruments, such as armillary sphere, nodi valaya^ 
yasktiy chanka, ghati^ circle, semi-circle, quadrant, swayam vdka 
yantra^ syphon, &c. 
■ To once more quote Mr. Hoisington : 

"The Egyptians, Chaldeans, Indians, and Chinese early 
possessed many astronomical facts, many observations of im- 
portant phenomena, and many rules and methods of astrono- 
mical calculations; and it has been supposed that they had the 
ruins of a great system of astronomical science, which in the 
earliest ages of the world had been carried to a great degree 
of perfection, and that while the principles and explanations 
of the phenomena were lost, and isolated, unconnected facts, 
rules of calculation, and phenomena themselves remained." 

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Na 23.— 1881.] BCTTLPTtTMS A^ fiORANA* 


By JaMks O. Smithbrj F.R.LB.A. 


Baying recently had occasion to visit Borana, a place distant 
atout twelve miles inland from Pdnaduri, I took the opportunity 
of inspecting some sculptured stones, which, with a few 
mouldings and some other fragments of an ancient building, lie 
half concealed by high grass and weeds behind the Govern- 
ment rest-house. There is nothing remarkable about the 
mouldings, but the sculptures are, I think, of sufficient interest, 
to warrant my forwarding to the Society the following short 
description of them* 

The sculptured stones form the vertical face of the stylobate 
or raised platform, on which, doubtless, formerly stood a 
structure, of which all vestiges have entirely disappeared* 

The platform (only 35 feet square) was originally about three 
feet high above the paved open court round about it, and was 
approached by a single flight of steps at the end towards the 
east. The court or enclosure measures 58 feet from north to 
south, and 66 feet from east to west. It was surrounded by a 
stone wall, now broken down, and was entered at the east end 
opposite the above mentioned flight of steps leading up to the 
platform. The wall of the stylobate consisted of a moulded 
base, a sculptured die 14 inches high, and a moulded cornice, 
the latter nowhere now in position. Most of the stones forming 
the die have been removed quite away from the spot, but the 
sculptures upon the few which remain diflfer entirely from any 
in the same position which have hitherto come under my notice, 
and are particularly interesting. 

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10 JOURNAL, R. A. S, (CEYLON), [VoL VII., Pt. L 

The subject represented is a procjession, in honor probably, 
of some august personage who most;[likely figured in part of it. 

The occasion must have been an important and joyous one, 
judging from the great length of the procession, (which, with 
figures under a foot high and closely following one another, must 
have extended more than 100 feet,) and the wild demonstrations 
of delight in which all who are taking part in it are indulging. 

Upon one stone, which measures 10 feet 6 inches in length, 
are nine male figures and two animals. This series commences 
with four dancing figures with musical instruments, followed 
by one who appears to be running in and out of the 
procession. Then comes a man leading a horse — probably a 
led horse of the honored personage — ^and holding an umbrella 
over the head of the animal ; then a walking figure immediately 
followed by an elephant ; and behind the elephant two men 
fencing with swords, each furnished with a shield. 

On another stone measuring 4 feet 6 inches in length are five 
figures, all in the wildest dancing attitudes ; one holds his left 
leg over his head with his right hand, and another flourishes a 

One stone, 3 feet 4 inches long, exhibits three dancing- figures; 
and another, 3 feet long, two figures, one performing with a 
sword or stick which he holds with both hands. 

A stone measuring 6 feet 4 inches in length differs from those 
abov^ described, and must, I think, have formed one of the angle 
stones of the course. At one end of the stone is a narrow panel, 
and near the other end a similar panel, each containing a seated 
lion, the interval between the panels being occupied by three 
running nondescript horned animals somewhat resembling goats. 
In the small space left at the extreme end of the stone beyond the 
small panel stands a man blowing a horn, with his face turned 
away from the panel and in the direction of the advancing 
procession, which doubtless commenced on the next stone. The 

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1^0.23. — 1881.] SCULPTURES AT HOKANA. 11 

three horned animals occur again on another stone, and are most 
likely part of a similar composition to that above described. 

Unfortunately the whole of the sculptures are so much weather- 
worn and defaced, that it is very difficult to make out what some 
of them are intended to represent, and the details of dress, 
musical instruments, &c., are scarcely distinguishable. The 
absence of the stones which would complete the subject is much 
to be deplored, as well as the lamentable condition of those 
which remain; but the latter, even in their present state, are of 
so much interest, that they should certainly be preserved if 
possible, and the best means of doing so is to deposit them in 
the Colombo Museum. 

The ruins at Horana have evidently been us^d as a quarry for 
some time past, and I observed that a fine carved stone doorway 
and other ornamental stones, which must have formed part of 
some ancient structure, (probably that under notice,) have been 
built into the walls of a Buddhist Temple, a most unsightly 
edifice, which has been very recently erected within 50 yards of 
the ruins. 

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12 JOURNAL, R. A. fl. (CETLON), [VoL VIL, Ft, L 


By Alex. C. Dlxon, B. So. (Honors), London. 

( Read April 7tA, ISSl,} 

Tbb Island of Ceylon is referred ta by Ptolemy as containing^ 
gold, and Solinu<J, a noted historian, makes mention of it in hit^ 
works, A.l>. 238. The early inhabitants of Ceylon were not 
ignorant of its presence. It is referred to in the Mahiwanso,. 
while during the foondrng of the Ruwanveli Ddgoba at 
Anuradhapura there was a sudden appearance of sprouts of 
gold above and below the ground, and of silver in the vicinity 
of Adam^ft Peak. 

It is also referred to in the Sinhalese worka entitled Kador 
yimpoty as being found in several localities ; and the names of 
many places either have reference to it& occurrence or to their 
glistening appearance resembling gold, such as Bzmanvellaj 
Ramboda (formerly Rangbodtx). 

The Sigthalese name for gold is ran; for gold ore the term 
amurau, signifying not ripe or unextracted gold; while ratran 
refers to melted gold. 

In 1854 it was found in the Maha-oya and at Nuwara Eliya, 
and still later again at Nuwara Eliya. 

There is a great similarity between the hill regions of 
Ceylon and the South-East Wynaad district at the North* 
West base of the Neilgherries, which ha& recently become so 
prominent on account of its auriferous reefs. As to the probable 
age of these districts we are uncertain^ but there can be no 
doubt that the two regions are contemporaneous, consisting of 
granitoid schists or gneissoid rocks, that they are highly meta- 
morphosed, and that quartz reefs form a conspicuous feature. 

The reefs are often white, occasionally somewhat brecciated^ 
and not unfrequently bound together by he&matite or limonite. 

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No. 23.— I88I.] GOLn. IS 

Although the strike of the rock is peculiar in the Neilgherriea 
E.N.E., yet the auriferous reefs run N.N.W., corresponding 
with the gneiss a little further to the North. The general run 
of the rocks here is N. to N.W. 

As on the Wynaad, weTiave an absence of intrusive rock — no 
dykes^ porpbyritic masses, or basalts. It has been observed 
that the auriferous belts are richest where micaceous and 
chloritic rocks occur. Strange to say, in the cuttings of the 
railway into our hill district, and the various cuttings on the 
public roads, no prominent reefs have been crossed. Probably 
one or more may be met with on the extension of the railway 
from Nawalapitiya to N&nu*oya. In several parts the country 
is traversed by large persistent reefs of quartz, with numerous 
narrow seams and veins diverging from them and often trace- 
able into decomposed lithomargic earth. Some good examples 
of these are to be found in the Balangoda, Pusselliwa^ 
Ramboda, and Dolosbdgfi districts. 

The character of the vegetation in prospecting for gold is of 
great assistance in Australia where each formation is charac- 
terized by distinct forms of vegetation, but in Ceylon we have 
00 guidance, as the mountainous zone is but one formation. 

Gold -occurs in three chief forms : — 

1. — As scattered grams or nuggets in alluvial deposits^ 
having been set free by natural causes from its matrix. 

2.— In grains and leaves in numerous veins, chiefly quartz, 
still in the matrix, but not with other metals. This is called 
free gold 

3. — Associated (but not chemically combined) with numerous 
other metallic compounds, such as arsenides, sulphides, &c., 
generally classed under the term pyriteSy found in veins of quartz 
and other rock. 

In the first form, I have met with it in the alluvium of the 
Deduru-oya beyond Kurun^ala. The particles were exceed- 
ingly small, and other metallic matters were not uncommon. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

14 JOURNAL, K. A. &. (cKYLON). [VoL VII,, Pt. I. 

This must have come from some quartz reefs further up in 
the hills. Its occurrence in this river i» referred to in the 

A second instance of its occurrence in this form was in the 
Galle District, where a small nugget was taken from the alluvium 
accumulated in one of the ravines ;. it weighed over 6 grains, 
and was associated with fragments of gems, such as sapphire,, 
garnet, chrysoberyl, tourmaline, zircon, as well as of sulphides 
of some rare metals. This deposit was due to disintegration 
from the matrix in which they occurred originally. I followed 
up the ravine to its head with the expectation of finding a 
quartz reef from which the gold must have beendi&lodged, and 
found two small reefs crossing it. I took specimens from 
these and found traces of gold, but not in sufficient quantity to 
warrant its being worked. I have had further specimens froia 
this reef of a much better character. 

In the second form it occurs in the Ramboda district, Central 
Province, where several remarkable reefs strike across the 
valleys. In one of my tours T gathered numerous specimen* 
of quartz of various hues, chloritic and micaceous rocks. 
On breaking them up and examining, I found in the quartz traces 
of gold, a specimen of which is on the table. I am unable to 
give the precise locality. 

In the third form it occurs in the pyrites of the gem-pits ia 
the Batnapura-Bakw&na districts, but only in very small 

From the little I have seen, it is my opinion that considerable 
quantities will yet be brought to light. 

Specimens exhibited. 

1 . Nugget of gold. — Q«,lle District. 

2. Associated Minerals of ditto. 

3» Gold in quartz.— Central Province, 

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No. 23.— 1881 .] SINHALESE PROVERBS* 


By Louief De Zoysa, Maha-MudaliyIr. 

Continued from No. 17, Vol. V. (\^1U12), p. 32. 

{Read April 1th, 1881.) 

167. ^Sfi3<^(^ §00 ^^Q 

168. Cp6> ^5D3^QS53(^e3 

169, cfs^^e^ QtJ)iSoQ8trfQ 

170. cfo ©e^eS S« 


171. cf^c^w «cjoa, 

1 72. cf ^«J«i« §©9 '^i«J 

173. cf^trf^ed cfi©«J 

167. The water in an un- 
filled pot makes a noise. 

".^ litt^t learning is a dan^ 
gerous thingj** 

168. One cannot (expect 
to) move the mouth without 
moving the hands. 

One cannot obtain a living 
without working for it. 

169. Do not give your 
hand, and then grin. 

Do not give a man an un- 
due advantage and ajterwards 
repent of it, 

170. After looking at the 
hand (he) looks at the face. 

The allusion is to the practice 
of receiving presents, or bribes^ 
especially by men in authority* 

171. Sweet cakes are bit- 
ter, but sweet are misfortunes. 

Adversity is more enjoyable 
than prosperity. 

172. What one has not 
in one's hands may as well be 
looked for beyond the seas. 

"^4 bird in the hand is 
worth two in the bushJ*^ 

173. It is said the mote in 
another's eye appears like a 

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18 .JOtTR^AL, R. A. S. (CEtLOij). [Vol. Vll.> Pt. L 

^C3©€^^OSDg) fS)^'f^(59Sl Cfi rice-pounder: that in one^s 
^fsi J^^ epS)s)(^ (5!S^Q73^ own eye like a mustard flower 

174. o^iff^ei ®^(^cO ^^^' Come on the wedding 
€^^x^«^ ft^^ «..^^;^ ^^-^ ^^y ^^ another to show my 
e^^td e^C5J eya^0<*r ^Oirf ,ove(toyou). 

'5DtrfQ. Liherality at the expense of 

vthers. Like tJie English prooerh^ 
'^ Cocks are fret of horse-torn.^^ 

175. Gigtd^?d §53 1^^^^ 176. Even the headache of 
^cao€;a ' another is good, 

176. cp©®a Cf^«} «5te;:f«!j 176. Will the child starve^ 
^©03«S35^© ^diSo ©ScStrf if the mother has the spoon in 
^trf^^oSzS? her hand? 

177. ef§85)(g ®8Si®^ld 177. Those who have sown 
Cp§ ®C!0-€S*oO^, 9 SS^^g ©^ «w» (fine grain) will reap awi«, 

<5^SJ S ©C53^C3«J, T\fT Tl^'' ''^''f '''''''' ^'^ 

(paddy) will reap vL 

Men are rewarded accord* 

ivg to their deserts. 

178. a9g(33©erf e;(5iS?rfO 178. Who teaches (needs 
8^© C^^^^rf©^ «5§q? *^ teach) the alligator's young 

to swim ? 

" Teach your grandmother ta 
suck eggs, " . 

179. a^Qo epi®«s5 ^©303 179. Like using small bait 
®«3®3g ®(52rf«D S3©(3J. *"^ killing large fish. 

180. a?D3^QcaS5g5SDO ^®3 180. What does it signify 
Q^ ©©Q«si «a^0 20i^«©. ^^ ^^ called Kusolhdmi, if one 

cannot procure a single meal. 
" Kusal'hdnii " means ^ thefor^ 
tunate one^ 

181. d8S5 cpiftDiS^O Cfi2rf 181. When one eye is 
'W3® Cp^CJ qa^^oo^esi -85)gg pricked, tears flow from the 
t55D©3g. other eye also. 

Spoken of the sympathy 
existing between the members of 
one family or community. 

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No. 23.— 1881.] SINHALESE PROVERBS. 17 

182. e«5)8a (^ejaa (?i-« 182. When one blow fol- 
^tsX)Q ^ ODQ©^ CD®trfooS, lows another, even the griacK* 

ing-8tone will begin to move. 
18a. e^8 2^(30368 ©CJSjS ] 83. Tou must say '' one ' 
aSoQjrf©^. before you (can) say ^ two.' 

^^Rome was not built in a day^^- 

184. a® C)^C!D«aO (g^^ 184. They say that if you 
aixrf^o®, ej&>e)(5Qo«S)Q ©COD- jump into a well on one 
©dirfO Siie. provocation, even ten provo- 

^' cations will not enable you 

to get out of it. 

Difficulties increase with 

185. «^4^ cScSaQ 0t5)3Q 186. Although the bridge 
CQ csSq ? be washed away, will the ferry 

go too ? 

All hope is never lost, 

186. €^6if560 ©C53^© 186. Though a cat be taken 
€ai ©^,(33 «s,© ^© zSoCoS. *o^ Europe, it will cry flaw- 

ndw (mew-mew).* 

187. d«^0 «)oG5d ©C3dO 187. When it(good fortuned 
Kd^cd dS, oO^D^a ?©-C}«^o comes, it comes along a wire; 
®a sgC^csS. ^^^° ^^^ Soes, it breaks even 

^^ ropes of hemp. 

In prosperity slight efforts 
succeed; in adversity even the 
highest fail, 

' 188, »COo aSSerf «a«S3, 188. The cobra will bite 
«dS«D3® 2S©«J «s^«©3. (yo") whether (you) call (it) 

Nayi (cobra) or Nayihdmi, 

(^Sii- Cobra). 

189. «(Sc»3c) ^Q§« ^ 189. Like a fowl caught 
a?(g3 8D^e5. by a jackal. 

190. «<5c3So 8cQD«3q ^(£3 190. Like the jackal that 
©3©<sJ. imitated the roar of a lion. 

191. 4038SQe3®i©<5jrf^««J 191. The old man does not 
«T, cpi^ ^©3g <5©trf0«fiJ <lie, nor is the bed available 
^iCSM. (foj^ others). 

* Ccelum, non animum, mutant qui trans mare currunt. 

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18 JOUBNAL, R. A. s. (ceylon), [Vol. VII., Pt. I. 

192. ^esjed w©S^S)55 192. Even a headache is 
<§co<i(oC^^ <50O3^g. g<>od, they eay, if (only it can 

be had) gratis. 

193. ^Q05Dt^ ^§00393^C5J. 193. Likeaclawlesscheta. 

194. ^SS3 ©iS ®2S3QDaQ 194. They say a man of too 

^G-^^S)^ ooerfO -©KJe- ™"^^ caution cannot cross an 
^ ^ Sdanda.* 

196. «^§?rf dbfffiQQ ^Qo© 196. One mustlook to one's 
d^trf^aj ^^^ interests before regard- 

ing those of others. 

^■Charity begins at home.^^ 

196. ^ aS(^90302S}2!3 6)(g(^S. 196. Oats give (true) evi- 

dence in favour of curds, 'tis 

Used when interested parties 
speak well of their friends. 

197. ^S©8eQ (^QodSoOo. 197. £r^yya (Hurrah I) for 

the winning side. 

Spoken of time'SeroerSy men 
who swim with the current. 

198. g«5c3«Jas)® §@(^ g 198. Poverty is lighter 
S ^QqQ^ coiajK^gS. even than silk-cotton. 

199. e)4^ efi« 00(^^09 199^ ^1^^ the bull that 
SS)^Q ®i(5iS3©3©(5:f, has grass but cannot eat. 

200. C^CiOQO iaS^^oQOT 200. When will a single 
«55®©Q ? tree become a grove ? 

201. 6^d&> «)§?rf «QcS, 201. Anger (in a man) 
^©eO Cp^jrf ^Q5d8. ruins himself; wisdom (cun* 

ning) others, 

202. f^2Qf^09Sl 6^iS)($^ 202. Other people's gold I 
%9Siq6iSi ®8s!«34xrf. Why should I take it? (or) 

What shall I do with it? 

It is not right to covet the 
riches 0/ others. 

* A log of wood placed across a stream, to serve as a bridge. 

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No. 23.— 1881.] SINHALESE PROVERBS. 19 

203. cps^Q «S5(g^^ C)§ 203. What you have done 
^Q OQ^d. *^ others will bear fruit on 


204. Cp§© «^oQef^ CftS) 204. Why burn your 
53edo33CS)?rf©^ OiS? fingers when you have the 
^^ ^ pincers? 

205. efSodiSO o8e2<^i©iQ 205. Like clutching Hin- 
Cfi^g&D Sd^csJ. guruwela (a thorny creeper) 

when in trouble. 

206. ep§4^ 2S5xg^^9 206. What is the use of 
«i« «^®oSi ^®oQe? relations who do not help you 

^ when your dam is broken r 

207. ^^(54^fsi «^i(3oSC3i 207. It is reported that the 
^^fS)^ ©i(^<sr^^oo ©aw^^S j«ckal said, that although the 
.Ar^^ •c^s<r^ ,AS\ ^ yield for an amuna* is but a 

255GSD ^OQQo SSSaJGJ. ''7. + 'x • u xx x 1 u 

a n€bi/a,j It IS better to plough 

on the (sea) beach. 

This proverb is often in the 

mouth of people living on the sea 

coast to show their preference 

for it to interior districts, 

208. cpg§ 2S)do(^«s5 fs^x 208. Will the dog that has 
©(^©^9 SS GSD^^sJ ij^tdej? eaten a ship-load of dung, 

notice a little bad smell? 

209. fS^x^(D(S^'Si fS)x(s5(^ Q 209. The gift of a gift is 
eg® ^^csJen. the best gift. 

210. <3fD03(5o3Dc) ®853Dto® 210. If the blacksmith does 

aao«)© ®(^(S5 Qd&Q^fboo. "^* °^^.?, *^^ bellows my dog 
^^ even will not care for it. 

Much less do 1 care, 

211. «p8(©co3(^(3 d«S5<p» 211. The A'ndit are of 
®© ^^)2sJ3S5a^© oSoo ®I>5D one tribe, but each has a 
0©^5D©©. separate Kokkdnanpayiya,^ 

• The *' amuna " equals about six bushels. 

f The ^^n^liya " equals J. of a bushel. 

\ A tribe of Muhammadan fakfrs who are professional beggars. 

§ A bag in which a beggar puts his things. 

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20 JOURNAL, R. A. S. (CBYLON). [Yol. VII., Pt. 1. 

212. Cf^t^^fS)oQ 8 «®C, 212. It i& said that a man 

«i@cflO ©erf «^a(g(fle, a^ (fourmea8ure8)ofm(unhusked 
1^ w WW <^-.zwv^w^, ws^j rice); the timbafrive^ him one 

W^SgooQ q)«J eag. n^liya of Aa/ (husked rice) ; . 

this nelij/a of hdl gives him 
one Tiibiliy^a'* of ia< (boiled 
rice), which gives him one 

This is intended to shew the 
domestic value of a wife to her 
husband. The bachelor, or the 
widower, is robbed by every one 
whom he deals with, 

213. ^i;6@ COO® e^^co 213. Are the five fingers 
C0i8 ? of the same length ? 

All men have not equal 

214. ®6^^ 0CJoa^S, €?» 214. Murder is better than 

(gQ0/€^8a «(5s)8. defamation. 

215. efig<5r«53Qg ^8€^^6 215. The infant must cry, 
^^^^ they say, for milk to rise in the 

mother's breast. 

216. cpi<Ox(g^C3dCDi(^Q (^ 216. It is said that some one 
<^G5ef lefq ^003 d2sJ©«S5<&4^2sJ asked whether tom-toms were 
e <Ki©DC beaten at the Ehela Perahera. 
^^^ ^* (July-AugustfestivalinKandy) 

The beating of tom-toms 
forms a prominent part of this 

217. «5)a?68a §cO^-SJ©Q« 217. Like the crab's sport 
€?5^«sJ «)4^®code®©^Grf- ^'JJ^ pot) till the water is 

It is the practice to boil 
crabs alive^ The proverb is 
applied to any shortlived en- 
joymejity to be succeeded by 
much suffering, especially to the 
enjoyment of sensual pleasures. 

Nebiliya, an earthen diah in ^ hich rice is served. 

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No. 23,— 1881.] SlJ^HALESE PROVERBS, 21 

218. »0 «t«J«D© «<5 218. If not for his mouth 
©^^ga-Qj <5C5>€f&'oS^, (loquaciousness) jackals and 

doers would carry him off. 

ISpokenoftipoorand helpless 
man J but who is full oj bluster. 
The idea is that the man 
appeared so weak and helpless 
that if he did not speak people 
would take hiin for a carcase, 

219^ »c)cfi«J«)^OS 6Qtsi, 219. They say. that those 

who have the mouth (braggarts) 
have also the country for 

220. »0 ©S)3di!@o0ft5)«r 22(). Althou</h the mouth 
^0 ©S)odi«S3oSid<^e5 ^iQOi. niay (intend to) speak a lie, the 

tongue will not utter it. 

Spoken of a man who unin^ 
tentionally speaks the truth. 

221. »g®Strf ®ga (»jrf 221. If a thorn be not 
.jjDSaSos €F t5^©©®J^CiO©«Drf removed by a thorn, can it be 
«)aa CS>5)7?5fc 9 extracted by a rice-pounder ? 

^ ^ ' A delicate matter requires 

delicate treatment. 

222. iagcrfoco^crf fs^^S " 222. Like the bit of gold 
©i?rfQ d^de^SiS) ©D^csf. tied to the neck of the lizard. 

Applied to an upstart proud 
of the positvjn he has acquired.'^ 

* << He that has but impadence, 

To all thin^ has a Mr pretence ; 
And put among his wants bat shame, 
To all the world may lay bis claim.** 

Hudibrds, Part II., *" Epistle to Sidrophel" 

f The following story has given rise to the above. — A certain kingr going 
to his pleat^ure garden observed a liznrd nodding towards him, seated on the 
top of the gite-way. He enquired of the prime minister what the lizard 
meant. The minister replied that the lizard wished to pay obeisance to his 
majesty. The king, pleased, caused a bit of gold to be tied to its neck. A 
few days afterwards, the king passing through the same gateway saw the 
lizard seated as before, but it took no notice of the king. The kini? again 
enquired of the minister why the lizard did not salute him as before. The 
minister repUed that the lizard thought that he was now on a par with the 
king, as he himself wore a gold ornament, and that he was not therefore 
bound to pay homage. 

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22 JOTJKNAL, R. A. S, (cBYLON). [VoI. VII., Pt. I. 

* 223, iS)^Q ^csyy^Qy QifSi 223. Like the dumb man 
eSo^oJ. saluting the blind man, 

224. fS)^0 ®QO&C3&5^Qo 224. Like pointing out the 
S):i^(si. way to a blind man. 

225. «5^€^3?Q §2S<S8q 225. Like the description 
Cs^iQ iSiQ:>Qoe(s5. ^^ Dihiri (curds) which (a 

certain man) gave to a blind 

226. 2S5S)frrD Q^S ®q 226. Like (the man who) 

gg^rfO ge:^@8©8 sS&Dea^crf, ^^^^ oiihe flower he was un- 

able to pluck: ** Let it go as an 
offering to Buddha." 

Compare the story of the 
fox and the sour gropes. 

227 S5^ri ts^x^Qi ^^ @ 227, Those who (formerly) 
e5)5DC)3. ^^^ pingo-loads (of presents) 

(have now to)eat pingo-sticks. 
Commonly said of men in 
authority losing their emolu- 
ments when once out of office, 

228. ^e5>3S33 ©oJSJfTfa Qej 228. Like the crane who 
ce®^«^2rf c^^3Sa®cs5. waited to pick fish till the 

sea dried up. 

229. «S3^C03©Q cp3^oS3 229. Like the gift of the 

* A blind man asked a friend whf^t sort of a thinf^ Di kiri was. The 
other replied that it was ''white as a chank." ^* Wh it sort of a thing is the 
chank ?" was the next enquiry. The friend closed his han), and held it out 
to the blind man, saymg that the chank was " like his fist." The blind man 
felt it, and exclaimed : *'0h! bow difficult it must be to swallow curds, if 
like this?", 

f The story alluded to is as follows :^A man who had been much 
emaciated by sickness went to a house to beer. The mistress of the house, 
struck with his appearance, enquired of him, ** What is the matter with 
you ?*' The man replied, " I have returned from the other world" — a 
common expression amongst the biphalese, meaning that one has been very 
ill and narrowly escaped death. Then said the old woman, " You must 
have met my daughter Kalubami." The man, perceiving that the old woman 
was a simpleton, said, *^ O yes, I am now married to her.** The woman then 
collected all the jewellery which belonged to her deceased daughter, and, 
tying it in a bundle, handed it over to the man, saying, " Give this to your 

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Ho. 23. — 1881.] SIlSrHALKSE PROVERBS. 23 

230. iS5(^^a50 QOd(SoS«sJ 230. Of what use is a torch 
x5®oQci ? • to a blind man ? 

231. ^?rf^C3QD(3®<g efiC^o 231. Like opening up a road 

F) ®Kf phant, which died at the foot. 

^ ' Adopting an absurd or im" 

proper course, or beating about 
the busfu 

232. tSi^^Q ©de^ ®<^i 232. Will the mountain 
©30 «5)2rf^ S)3©8q? grow smaller because the dog 

barked at it ? 

233. «S5gd3e^cd gc^o ©ef 233. ' Tis said there is no 
©D^d <^irf«3Q coecsDCO^^trJStench when the ira;>iira^^^^^ 

>: eases himijeli in the Devdla. 

234. 255g(^x«?o@ aSSoO ©®a 234. What is the good of 
Oe s>Q c»ec»«5eO©3eO©. calling a man Kapuruhami if 

• his mouth (breath) stinks ? 
*' Kapuruhami*^ — a very com." 
mon name amongst Kandyans^ 
lire/ ally means ^^ Master Cam- 

235. Sgc^i ^S)c3®S3©<rf. 235. Like the boa-constric- 

tor's lighting upon a prey. 

A mere chance — a god-send. 

The Sinhalese believe that the 

boa constrictor does not search 

Jor prey, but trusts to accident 

to procure it. 

236. 8D<^ ®3 ©8(33CO^. 236. The boa constrictor 

has seized me ! * 

wife.*' On her husband's return home, she told him what had happened. 
The man, vexed at his wife's simplicity, mounted his h< rse and pursued the 
Tflgrant, who, seeing that he was followed, climbed a tree. The man left 
bis horse at the foot of the tree, and climbed it to seize the thief, who, 
dexterously dropping down on the horse's back, rode ofi. Thereupon the 
old man shouted to the galloping rascal: * Don't forget to tell Kaluhdmi, 
that it was I who gave you tne horse I " 

♦ The f )llowing story has given rise to the proverb. — A woman was in the 
habit of crying out, " The boa constrictor has seized me I The boa con- 
strictor has seized me I" whenever she went to the well to draw water. 
Many a time her neighbours ran to her rescue, but, finding she onlv mocked 
them, ceased to notice her cries. One day she was actually seized by a 
boa constrictor, and, no one coming to her assistance, strangled iu its folds. 
Compare " Wolf ! Wolf !" 

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24 JOURNAL, R. A. s. (cbtlon). [Vol. VIL, VL L 

287. «©jrf ®S3a«JS«f®«f 237. "Jack-garden" by 
S)tdQ ®03(3eo«J «i«)0«f. name, he has not (even) a 

tender fruit to eat 1 

238. O4q0 og© «itg©D 238. Heart-less as a ParfrfA. 

239. ®(g«5 2S©D^<55 CfiO 239. 'Tis the bone of a wild 
qqQ^ (buffalo), dead though (he) be* 

Although fallen J a great 
man should not he despised. 

240. C3-€«^«©GDJ-€g?rfOcd 240, Do not (trouble to) 
&QQ9Si'0 doo. P"t stakes in the way of leap- 

ing stag8. 

A mischievous man will come 
to grief without the interference 
of others, 

241. o«J9cdoa«I 880Q08, 241. Five and twenty (of 

the one) and twenty-five (of 
the other). 

242. 6«Qc3atrfc9»trfOS)7, 242. One's good luck can- 

not be kicked off. 

243. ga^^i^QtrfcfiQ) 2S§ 243, Like the saying: 
d@ aS5©o©3(5c&r. ' ThtvQ may be alligators even 

in a jug of water.' 

244. Ci^ CfittJ«© CfiS)© 244. Where there is honey, 

245. C^ §§00 ©09(33 0S)o 245. Like drinking muddy 

(^§00 ^(5)Dtrf«3 ©o®(rf. ^^^^^ w^^^®^ looking at clear 


246. 0O«aoQ ®Qd^®0 cpi^ 246. Like refraining from 
©«D3€ro3Je (5trf«3Sj©(sJ. washing the body, to make the 

river feel. 

247. CS)CS5 S9S^Q 8C3C0 Wo 247. Will the sight of (a) 
6^ee ? river quench (one's) thirst ? 

248. o©d §03 <»ig(5S3esJ , 248. If you strike (your) 
_ _ ej^'^.^'A c=a head against ai rock, (you) may 
§M €fO:S®S«0o®C6 (5)0®oo break your head, but not tbi 
S^©jrf02rf ^1^0. rock. 

* Video meliora proboque deteriora lequor. 

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N(K 23.— 188L] SiyHALESB PROVERBS. 25 

249. coco C® ®0S ^853(33 249. 'Tis said (he) licked 

m^C^e (&e©S3^©30. ^^« ^^g^^' seeing a bee-hive on 

-T V-/W v^ g^ tree.* 

250. oo^od S)9© C^®^ ^^^" You need not sharpen 
^Odoa. the tree's thorns. 

251. (B€i(§C3^t^i^Q C"^ 251. "Tis the same whether 
QzsQ^f^ dg8«J Cfi^©€e^<5' (yo") ^ip a firebrand in hot, or 

252. c3q9 003©3^C55 fi^ttg^ 252. The hare that has 
«QQ^ escaped Had eight legs. 

253. cSoO (s^fS^SQ «DS)tff 253. Cry not for the 
0trf, «C0« <»«S(5 d6«S)C53©OTaJ.Jaggery (you have) lost; take 

careofthejaggery(you) have. 

254. 05^1 jrf «it8© O0«?(5i 254. They say that (one) 
f!$^fSiQ^ S)i5g. cannot even eat jaggery with- 
out a teacher. 

255. ^G33S) §^0O-€^ &Sx 255. Like upsetting boats 
^Oc5©jrf«3 ©3^crf. whilst remaining on land. 

Spoken of men who pretend 
to take part in the ventures of 
others J while avoiding risk 
for themselves. 

256. ®cS)3-€^«f ®®«r ^g 256. Like yoking together 
©D ©90oo8. bull and buffalo. 

257. ©c»dO©d s9 oS^trf 257. Like the dumb man's 
©oi^crf. ** dream. 

258. ^i^jrf^ ^^S«3(^etsf 258. The quarrel between 
^crf wtrfg© a«f«3igoO Oi^«D husband and wife lasts only 

Conjugal quarrels are of 
short duration. 

*Cf. Hudibras, Part U., Canto III., 923-4 :— 

" To swallow gudgeons ere they're catch^d, 
And count their chickens ere they're hatched. 

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26 ^otjUNAL, n. A, s. (cetlon). [Vol. Vll., 'Pt I. 

259. dS^oO^ ^OOtrfO d 259. One individual can 
<5«5)2Si cpi«. r^i° a whole community. 

260. (5® ®<^i^^«f <iO 260. If yoii die, the country 
Cfi^gtrfQ oOoS* will ^o to the elephants. 

That w, " lou speak so much 
of yourself that one would think 
on your death the human race 
will become extinct ^ and the coun-- 
try will be left to wild beasts.^^) 

261. ^00301© m®<o^ tS^ 261. Like drinking water 

262. ©C^oOoog©© C^trf 262. What is the use of 

WdQ ^®jQe a-€^ai<S«D®. '^^i^g ^^^^ ** Totagamvway if 

you are not versed in £ami( 
(Buddhist scriptures) ? 

Totagamuwa * u^a* ^Ae birth- 
place cf Sri Rdhula Sthavira, 
the welUknoton author of 
Kavyasekhara, 8fc» 

263. ®» «i© oS« S^<^ 263. Tiny boats (even) 
«dS)o ®<5i«J oS«©3. venture on the sea where large 
^^ ships sail. 

264. §§osx»frf0 C>i««S«J 264. Why have one place 
ecs))<5© jrfO C>i«a5^ri ^i8 ? *<> sleep, and another to groan? 

265. ^a3^i©9 cpigco ^JDt, 265. A lie is short-lived. 

266. ©a(^Q«ite5) «>id(3 266. How can the neckless 
Cf^&i(S^ <^as5D©CDD® <; ? wear a neck-lace ? 

♦ Tbis village, situated twelve miles from Galle on the high road to 
Colombo (Qangaboda-pattu), obtained a few years back so unenviable a 
notoriety for cattle stealing, burglaries, and highway robberies, that the 
proverb was commonly quoted in the district : ** To(agamuw6 upanndta 
mo^ada horakama berinam ' — ** What*s the use of being born at Totagamuwa, 
if you know not (the art of) stealing r 

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No. 23. — 1881.] BEE CULTURE. 27 


By Samuel Jayatilaka, MudaliyAr. 

(Read April 7th, 1881.) 

I have been interested in the culture of the honey bee of 
Ceylon for about the last 25 years, from accidentally observing 
at first the mode of bee-keeping by bee-hunters and others in 
the Wanni, a remote part of this district (North- Western 
Province.) I set myself to work at once in trying to improve the 
system. By the courtesy of Mr. Ferguson, the senior Editor 
of the " Ceylon Observer/' I was enabled to secure works on 
practical bee-keeping, and by carefully reading these I endea- 
voured to improve the primitive means adopted by the native 
apiarists, but without success. My thanks are also due to 
E. T. Sharpe, Esq., and R. Morris, Esq., who encouraged me 
much in the pursuit of my experiments by getting out for me 
English bee-hives and apparatus for working them. 

There are four species of honey-bees in Ceylon : — 

1.— -Ml— ®: Apis Indica; 
2. — Danduwel — <;§8i^: Apis Florea; 
3. — Bambard — ©SCb: Apis /Jorsata; and 
4. — Kana Veyiyd — jk^sjds^QSjdo : TrigoTice. 

The Mi Messd (Apis Indica) is the common honey-bee of 
Ceylon, and the only species kept by natives. I have had a few 
colonies of these from the very beginning, and in the way of 
improvement I have transferred them to pots of quite a 
different shape from the ordinary narrow-mouthed pitchers 
used by natives, which required the destruction of the pot to 
get at the honey, thereby causing considerable destruction to 
bee-life. The pots I substituted are in two sections : the first 
section or entrance narrow-mouthed and oblong, which fits 

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23 JOURNAL, R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VIL, Pt. I. 

into the second, which is flat and deep. When the first section, or 
mouth-piece with an opening of about 10 in. across, is taken up,, 
the honey-combs are easily removed without any injury to the 
combs or to the bees, eaving the brood combs intact within it» 
Directly the honey-combs are removed the mouth-piece i» 
again replaced, tied fast, and placed in its proper position, when 
all the bees return to it and begin to work as if they were never 
disturbed. At this critical stage, however, they are fed for a 
few days with jaggery and water, which is made into a thin 
light syrup, and placed close to the mouth of the pot in a flat 
vessel. In this manner I have always had a &upply of honey 
for house use, and occasionally to spare for my friends. With 
regard to the English bee-hives, I have made little or no progress 
with them. The bees take to them easily, but it is an effort to 
keep them in long, as they shew a disposition to get out. , By 
continual feeding they may be regularly established in them^ 
and when once established they keep on and build their comba 
and fill the stock hive ; but I have never been successful in 
inducing them to take to supers, which may be attributed to my 
want of ingenuity and experience to adapt the frames to their 
mode of comb-building, or to the bees preferring pots, which are 
I believe cooler than the boxes. 

The bees are easily moved about in combs in frame boxes, and 
hence it is my impression that they can be by competent persons 
easily reared according to the European system, and with 
profit and advantage. 

The native system of bee-keeping is very simple indeed. 
They invariably sweeten the pot intended to be used as a hive 
by fumigating it with resin, and place it in a cool elevated 
position, smearing the mouth of the pot with a little honey 
during the swarming season. The wild bees take to them 
without the least trouble and begin building their combs, and 
filling them. When the proper season comes round they break 
the pots, blow into them to drive the bees aside, and abstract 

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No. 23.— 1881.] BEE CULTURE. 29 

all the honey as well as the brood combs ; the former they 
retain, and the latter are thrown away, a great waste of material 
and reckless destruction of bee-life. When the next swarming 
season comes round, which is between March and April, a 
fresh pot is fumigated with resin, is placed in the same position 
for the next supply of honey, which is obtained in July or 
August, The largest aupply the natives so obtain is about three 
or four bottles of liquid honey. With regard to the wild bees 
they always build in the crevices and hollows of rocks and trees, 
and, if not removed by bee-hunters in proper season, they them- 
selves consume the produce of their labour, and abandon the 
empty combs and betake themselves to the woods ; and it is 
firmly believed by the natives, that when the swarming season 
comes round they return to their old haunts and set to work 

inA.'^Danduwel (Apis Florea) is an unprofitable bee, pro- 
ducing very little honey. It attaches its solitary semi-circular 
combs 9 in. by 5 in. to the branch of a tree. Its honey is 
esteemed by the natives as being cool and nice, but this species 
is not at all adapted for rearing purposes, as its produce is very 

3rd.— J5awiam (Apis Dorsata) is a large bee prettily marked 
with yellow and black, and makes a large quantity of honey 
varying from two to three gallons. It constructs its hive, a large 
thick comb about 3J ft. by 2J ft. in a peculiar shape, attaching 
it to the branches of very lofty forest trees, or securing it to the 
ledges of high rocks with its two ends fastened up, and having a 
narrow opening in the middle. It is with great difficulty got 
at by bee-hunters, and only by those used to such kind of work. 

At the proper season three or four experienced men start on 
the expedition armed with knives and ropes and a quantity 
of straw and other materials (for smoking and burning the bees). 
Having reached the woods where the bees are located the 
hunters commence operations on a calm day. First they smoke 

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30 JOURNAL, R. A. S, (cEYLON). [Vol, VIL, Pt. I. 

out the bees by a heavy fire of straw, when the bees fly high in 
the air in a straight lioe ; meanwhile one of the hunters cuts 
the hive, and lowers it down by means of a rope attached to a 
basket, and hastens down in time to avoid being stnng ; his 
companions, who preceded him, throw the hive into the fire 
directly it comes down, in order to burn all the straggling bees 
in the comb, and remove away the hive at once, for the Bambara 
when provoked are very persistent in stinging, and the poison 
is as virulent as that of a wasp. People are known to have 
been stung to death by swarms of these. This is not to be 
wondered at, considering that they go to work without any 
protection to their naked bodies. It is believed — and my ex- 
perience corroborates the belief — that they do not rebuild their 
hives in the same place unless a portion of the comb is left 
behind with the queen bee uninjured. The honey of this bee is 
very rich in flavour and highly esteemed, and is considered an 
uncommon luxury among the natives. It is not however so thick 
as the common bee honey. I have never heard of any attempts 
being made by natives to domesticate them like the common 
honey bee of Ceylon ; and it is my impression that any amount 
of exertion to domesticate them will prove fruitless. One of the 
peculiar characteristics of this species is that, unlike the common 
bees, they go about gathering materials for the construction of 
their hives only during the evening twilight, and myriads of 
them are seen at that hour in the Mora, Kon^ and other flowering 
forest trees during the season. 

ith.^Kana Veyiyd (a tiny bee belonging to the Trigonsa), 
produces a small quantity of honey which it makes in the 
hollows of rotten trees and crevices of rocks and dilapidated 
buildings. I have seen and examined a great many of these 
combs, which are irregular in shape; they never yield more than 
a tea-cupful of honey, which has a rather acid taste, and is only 
used for medicinal purposes. Their combs are generally about 
four or five inches in circumference, and the cells partially filled 

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ifo. 23.— 1881.] iEK cutTURti. 31 

with honey and the rest with their brood, like other honey bees, 
and kept separate. When interfered with or disturbed, they 
would buzz about one*s ears and nostrils, but in other respects 
they are perfectly harmless and may be easily handled. 

Since writing the above I have been taken by surprise by Mr. 
Benton, a good authority on Bee Culture. His visit to Kuru- 
n^gala is for the purpose of hunting up the Bambar& (Apis 
Dorsata). A narration of his valuable experience has afforded 
me much information, and I indulge in the hope that 
this will enable me to compete with my difficulties more 
•successfully in the future. 

• A person of Mr. Benton*s acknowledged ability and ex- 
perience would do much for Ceylon in opening up a branch of 
industry so easily conducted and yielding so large a return, 
but of which the natives are so lamentably ignorant. 

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32 JOURNAL, R. A. s. (ceylok). [ VoL VIL, Pt. L 




By C. J. R. LBMBSURito, CCS, 

{Read May 1th, 1881. J 

1. — TBte religions tjeremonies of the Kandyans begin with 
that of New Year - the Anmrudu Mangaliya. This commences 
at a lucky hour, fixed by the astrologers, on the 11th of ApriL 
During the short interval that precedes it, while the old year 
is passing away, no food is eaten save that which has been 
prepared before that interval; and the people do not wash^ work, 
spend money, or give alms. At the lucky hour (the Nekata) 
a gun is fired from a parapet on the walls of the temple con- 
taining the Sacred Tooth at Kandy, and the New Year begins. 
The customary daily ceremonies are then observed, but with 
more show than usual. The tom-toms are more vigorously 
beaten, the tenants of the temple and the priests put on their 
best clothes; and the services are more sumptuously performed. 
Milk is boiled in the main entrance to the temple, and is afber^^ 
wards sprinkled over the floors. During the days of the 
kingdom, the king himself used to attend the opening services; 
but now the Diyawadana Nilam6 and other influential Bud- 
dhists take his place. 

The offerings are much better than usual, and more neatly and 
extravagantly prepared. If the lucky hour is in the morning,rice 
and curry and sweetmeats are offered; the curry being of thirty, 
and the sweetmeats of tiiirty-two kinds. If the lucky hour 
falls in the evening, drinkables are presented. Besides these, it 
is usual for the wealthy to offer robes, fans, cloths, and other 
articles of value to the priesthood. At the beginning or the 

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No. ^3.— 1881.] SANDTAN CfcREMONTES. S3 

year all Buddhists wash, and confine themselves to certain 
victuals prescribed by the astrologers. All work is abandoned 
for a certain specified time; and after the usual religious rites 
have been performed, the people engage in games of various 
descriptions. These they break off and resume at stated 
periods. During the intervals they pray, or have the scriptures 
read to them by their priests^ or visit their friends, according 
as their fancies or opportunities dictate. The priests confine 
themselves for the most part to their religious duties : or they 
keep away from the busy world and meditate ; it being con- 
sidered that the New Year is a peculiarly fitting time for the 
exercise of this duty. 

2.— The next in importance is the Perahera Mangalyaya, the 
great processional festival of the Kandyans, This festival is 
begun at Alutnuwara in the BaduUa district on the first day 
after the full moon in May; and is repeated at different times 
in different parts of the Kandyan province. The forms in all 
cases are the same, though of course the magnificence of the 
ritual varies with the place and the means of those who engage 
in it. The most magnificent and complete is that at Kandy, 
which begins at a lucky hour on the first day after the new 
moon in the month of Esala (July- August). A jack tree, the 
stem of which is three spans in circumference, is selected 
beforehand for each of the four d^wdla — the Kataragama, Ndta, 
Saman, and Pattini ; and the spot where it stands is decorated 
and perfumed with sandal-wood, frankincense, and burnt raisins, 
and a lighted lamp with nine wicks is placed at the foot of the 
tree. At the lucky hour a proce.ssion of elephants, tom-tom 
heaters, and dancers proceeds to the spot; the tree is cut down 
by one of the tenants (the watt6rurala) with an axe, and it is 
trimmed, and its end is pointed by another with an adze. It is 
then carried away in procession, and placed in a small hole in 
a square of slab rock, buried in the ground or raised on a plat- 
form in the small room at the back of the d6wA16. It is then 

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34 JOURNAL, R. A. s. (ckylon\ [Vol. VII., Pt. I. 

covered with a white cloth. During the five following days 
the procession is augmented by as many elephants, attendants, 
dancers, tom-tom beaters and flags as possible; and it makes 
the circuit of the temple at stated periods. The processions of 
the several temples are then joined by one from the Daladi 
Mdligfiwa (the temple of the Sacred Tooth), and together they 
march round the main streets of Eandy at fixed hours during 
the five days next ensuing. On the sixth day, and for five days 
more, four palanquins— one for each d^w&l^^are added to the 
procession, containing the arms and dresses of the gods ; and 
on the last day the bowl of water (presently to be explained) 
of the previous year, and the poles cut down on the first day of 
the ceremony. On the night of the fifteenth and last day, the 
Perahera is enlarged to the fullest limits which the means of 
the several temples will permit, and at a fixed hour, after its 
usual round, it starts for a ford in the river near Kandy, about 
three miles distant from the temple of the Sacred Tooth. The 
procession from the M&lig&wa, however, stops at a place called 
the A'd&hana Malu wa in Trincomalee-street, and there awaits the 
return of the others. The ford is reached towards dawn, and 
here the procession waits until the lucky hour (generally about 
5 A.M.) approaches. A few minutes before its arrival the 
chiefs of the four temples, accompanied by a band of attendants, 
walk down in Indian file under a canopy of linen and over 
cloths spread on the ground to the waterside. They enter a 
boat and are punted up the river close to the bank for some thirty 
yards. Then at a given signal (i. ^., at the advent of the lucky 
hour) the four jack poles are. thrown into the river by the men on 
shore, while each of the four chiefs, with an ornamental sil^^r 
sword, cuts a circle in the water; at the same time one attend- 
ant takes up a bowl of water from the circle, and another 
throws away last year's supply. The boat then returns to the 
shore, the procession goes back to Kandy, the bowls of water 
are placed reverently in the several d6w& la, to remain there 

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No. 23. — 1881.] KANDYAN CEREMONIES. 35 

until the following year; and the Perahera is at an end. The 
neict day, however, there is a grand winding up procession in 
the afternoon, after which the chiefs all pay their respects to 
the Government Agent of Kandy as the representative of the 

3. — The Was Mangalyaya. On the day after the full moon 
in July, the elders of the village visit their village priest, 
or any other priest they may have selected, and ask him 
to stay with, and minister to, them for three months. They 
promise to give him a place of residence, to feed him and 
render him any service he may require during that period. The 
request is complied with, and a procession is organized to 
conduct him to the place prepared. Here he remains for the 
stated period. He cannot leave except under certain ceremo- 
nies ; and at no time can he be absent for more than seven days. 
On a fixed day in October, determined, on beforehand by the 
elders of the village and communicated to the priest, he is 
requested to invite a certain number of his brotherhood to the 
last ceremony. The number varies according to the means and 
generosity of the villagers. On the day named, these priests 
assemble and are sumptuously fed in the morning by the vil- 
lagers. After the meal is over a sheet of white cloth, twenty 
cubits in length, is presented to the priests, who thereupon divide 
it into fifteen rectangular pieces, and these they join together 
again into the shape of a priest's robe— a large rectangle, five 
cubits long, and four and a-half cubits broad. The object of this 
division and re-joining being to destroy the value of the cloth, 
and to carry out the rule that no priest may wear a robe of one 
piece. It is then taken by the dhoby of the village under a 
canopy to a neighbouring stream, and publicly washed ; tom- 
toms and trumpets being sounded in the meanwhile. When 
washed, it is brought back to the hall where the priests are 
assembled, and placed in a small vessel containing the proper 
yellow dye. After it has remained in this a sufficient time^ it 

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S6 JOURNAL, R. Jl, s. (ckt£on). [Vol. VII., Pt. L 

is taken out and presented by the chief elder of the village as 
a common offering to the priesthood. The chief of the assem- 
bled priests thereupon puts the question, '* Who here requires 
a robe ?" to which all but the Was priest reply, " We have robes 
already." Then another priest says: "They have kept the 
Was priest so long here; let us give it to him." This is agreed 
to, and two other priests at once rise and chant the refrain : — 
" A robe has been presented to the priesthood, and we have- 
agreed to present it to [naming the Was priest.]" One of thenoi 
accordingly takes the robe, hands it round to each priest in 
turn, so that all may touch it, and Jthen gives it to the Was 
priest. He puts it on, wet as it is, over his shoulder, makes 
a mark in a corner, repeats a stanza of Bana (the sacred 
scriptures), presses it over his other robes, and then hangs it 
up to dry in view of all. He is obliged to carry this robe, 
either on his body or in a bundle, for three months before it 
can be washed; and he itlways looks upon it with a certain 
degree of pride. A second robe is, however, usually presented 
afterwards to him; the first being considered as an offering to 
the priesthood in general, the second as a present to the 
individual priest. 

4.— Next in order is the Keti Mangalyaya : so called because 
on this day the full moon and the Keti Nekata (the lucky 
hour) come together. It takes place on the full-moon day 
immediately after the termination of the previous— i.^., the Was 
festival. On this day all the temples are brilliantly illumi* 
minated. This is done by means of small oil lamps, placed 
close together all round the buildings. During the night a 
procession of elephants, flags, tom-toms, etc., and a large 
number of torches, is kept up for many hours ; the effect in 
Kandy, in conjunction with the illuminated temples, being very 
striking. It is customary also at this festival to make offerings 
of fans, robes, begging bowls, cloths, etc.^ to the recent Was 

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No. 23.— 1881.] KANDYAN CERKMONIKS. 37 

5. — The A lutsdl Mangalyaya^ or festival of the new rice. This 
festival takes place on the full-moon day in January. At the 
appointed hour, a large procession consisting of certain oflScers 
and the representatives of certain temples, with their attend- 
ants, elephants, etc., proceeds to the village of Gurudeniya in 
Lower H6w4heta, and there receives a fixed share of the new 
rice and of the rice of the previous year ; the villagers of 
Gurudeniya having originally obtained their lands from the 
king of Kandy on condition of devoting a certain portion of 
their harvests to this purpose. A fixed quantity is given to 
each; bat as this in many cases is very small, it is seldom that 
all the temples and oflScers are represented. I however annex 
an interesting list (vide Appendix) shewing how the rice should 
be distributed, and during the time of the kings all the persons 
to whom rice was due were compelled to be present. The dis- 
tribution takes place at the ddwdU at Gurudeniya ; and in the 
case of temples the rice is taken home in procession and cooked 
on the following morning. It is then oflfered at the shrine, and 
afterwards distributed to the diflferent priests and oflScers. 

Q.—NdnuTnura Mangalyaya: the ceremony of purification. 
This is performed every Wednesday morning in every temple 
erected by the Kandyan kings, as follows. Some lime juice is 
made before the daily rice is oflfered, and is mixed with cuscus, 
sandal, and other fragrant herbs and bark. Hie oflSciating 
priest takes a looking-glass, and, holding it in front of the 
shrine, anoints the reflected image with the preparation. A 
vessel is held under to catch the liquor as it drops, to prevent 
it from falling to the ground. The liquor is then thrown away 
and the daily oflTerings are made. 

7. — The reading of J?ana, or the sacred scriptures. This is 
done for the most part on the '^ p6ya" days of the month— t.^., 
the four phases of the moon. The oflSciating priest, being seated 
on an elevated seat made for the purpose, recites passages from 
the Buddhist scriptures, generally from some portion of a 

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38 JOURNAL, R, A. s. (ceylok). [Vol. VII., Pt. I. 

Pitaka* and then explains the meaning to his aadience. For 
this service he is lodged and fed during the time of his ministry 
and is afterwards presented with rohes, white cloths, handker- 
chiefs, etc., and sometimes money. 

8. — Pirity a ceremony to ward off evil. This is generally 
performed on the occasion of some epidemic, or in the case of 
serious illness. A large hall, called a Bana Maduwa, is pre- 
pared and decorated, and as many priests as possible are invited 
to take part in it, the number never being less than thirty. 
The floor of the hall is covered with mats, over which white 
cloths are spread. Cushions are placed all round for the 
priests, two for each, one to sit upon and the other to lean 
against. A low platform is erected in the middle, on which a 
table is placed, with two chairs on one side. This table is 
covered with a cloth, and the Pirit book is put upon it. A 
relic in the usual bell-shaped casket, called a karanduwa, is 
placed on a second table close by, and a bowl of water, taken 
from a newly-dug well in the vicinity, is put on a bench beside 
it. A piece of string is attached to the karanduwa and to the 
Pirit book, and is then carried up to a ring in the ceiling and 
thence down to the ground. It is of suflSicient length to be held 
by all the priests when they are assembled, and sitting round the 
room; and during the ceremony they all hold it. On the 
appointed day the priests are brought in procession to the hall; 
their feet are washed at the entrance, and they are escorted to 
their places along stretched-out cloths. The place is conse- 
crated and the deity is invoked, while the hall is perfumed with 
incense and tom-toms are beaten. An elder of the village then 
steps forward, and requests the priests assembled to open the 
Pirit, and to continue it for seven days. The priests assent, 
and thereupon dedicate the hall to that purpose. They then 

* Tbe records of the teachings of Buddha are contained in the three 
Fitakas— 1.6., the Sdtra, Vinaya, and Abhidharma Pitaka. 

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Ko. 23.— 1881.] KANDYAN CEREMONIES. 39 

return for the night to the place prepared for them. At day- 
break next morning they re-assemble, and begin the Pirit. 
This is done by two of their number seating themselves at the 
table, and reciting the opening service of the Pirit-book ; the 
other priests in the meantime holding their fans in front of 
them, and the string above described over their knees. When 
the invocation and one S6tra* have been read, the two seat 
themselves by the others, and all joining in chorus recite 
three particular S6tras : the Ma^gala (of festivals), the Ratana 
(of the means of warding off disease), and the Earaniya- 
metta (of the methods whereby dangers may be avoided and 
prosperity obtained by gods and men). When these are ended 
two other priests come forward, seat themselves at the table, 
and go on with the next Sdtras, while the others all re- 
tire. Every two hours the readers are relieved ; and three 
times a day all re-assemble, and repeat in chorus the three 
Siitras before mentioned. There is no break in the continuity, 
as this would mar the whole effect; and the reading continues 
for seven days. On the sixth night the last seven Sdtras in 
the book are read over and over again, either by twos or fours ; 
if the latter, two more chairs are brought in and placed at the 
table opposite the first two. On the morning of the seventh day 
after the early meal, one of the priests reads the vih&ra Asne, 
the list of the names of the ancient temples in Ceylon and 
elsewhere; and then the assembled priests, with the exception 
of those who are reading the Pirit — for the reading still goes 
on — compose the Diwdla Patraya. This is a letter written 
on an ola, and addressed to the presiding deity of a neighbour- 
ing temple. It sets out the name of the d^wdl^, and invokes the 
deity to attend the Pirit with the other gods. This is taken 
in procession to the temple— or, if there is no d&w&U in the 

* The Sdtras are a collection of the counsels of Buddha and form a 
portion of the three Pi^akas* 

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40 Journal, r. a. e. (ceylon). [Vol. Vll., Pt 1. 

neighbourhood, to a b6-tree, where a god is supposed to 
reside, and carried by a villager, dressed to angel, 
in many-coloured cloths and a Kandyan hat. The priests, 
except those who are reading, accompany the procession if 
desired. A portion of the water from the bowl in the hall is 
taken too; and this is sprinkled over any sick persons that 
may be met with along the way. On arrival at the dawdle, 
the letter is presented, and is hung upon the wall. The pro- 
cession returns; and the " angel" reports at the door of the 
hall that he has presented the letter, and that the gods have 
come. One of the priests blesses the gods, and the Ma^gala 
Siitra is read over once, after which the A'tdndtiya t^iitra is 
read over and over again by fours till dawn. The ceremony is 
then at an end; and the priests are conducted back to their 

9. — G6d6na Mangalyaya i the ceremony performed for the 
very aged, or those who are about to die. The relations of the 
dying man are assembled, and offerings of different kinds are 
collected. These consist sometimes of cattle, sometimes of 
furniture, such as the bed of the sick man, sometimes of his 
implements of agriculture or of his trade, but more often they 
are merely cloths, robes, fans, etc. 

The priest of the neighbouring pansala (residence of the 
priesthood), and any others that may be selected, are summoned 
and entertained; and the offerings are made to them. They 
read a portion of the scriptures suitable to the occasion, and 
bless the sick man; after which, escorted by the assembled 
company, they depart with their presents. 

10. — Mataka Dana : the ceremony of conferring merit on 
the dead. 

On the seventh day after death the priest of the neighbouring 
pansala is invited back, and is entertained as before. Bana is 
read till midnight, when he retires. In the morning after the 
early meal a cloth is presented to him, and he is escorted by 

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No. 23. — 1881.] KANDYAN CJBJBBMONIKS. 41 

the friends and relations of the deceased to a prepared spot 
near the house. Here the plate and cap that had been used 
by the dead man are deposited; and cake and rice are put into 
the plate, and water is poured into the cup. A light is set up 
by their side, and incense is burnt; while the priest invokes 
the deceased in the following words: "Take this rice, water, 
cake, light and fragrance, and release thyself from the condi- 
tion of an evil spirit." At the same time he takes the cup of 
water and pours it on the ground. The plate and cup are 
washed; and the priest carries them off to his residence. The 
object of the ceremony is to confer merit on the departed, in 
whatever condition he may have been re-born. 

10. — Area Mangalyaya. A day is fixed, a month, forty-five 
days, or three months after the 66ddna; of which due notice 
is given. A number of priests are invited, through the priest 
of the neighbouring Pansala, the number varying with the 
means of the family; and rice, cakes, fruit, etc., are collected. 
The priests are brought in procession to the house, where 
they read the scriptures for several hours. After this, robes, 
beggiJ^g-bowls, cups, handkerchiefs, etc., are presented to 
them; and a common offering, consisting of a load of vege- 
tables, cakes, an adze, a mamoty, an axe, an arecanut-cutter, 
a chunam-box, and (if the deceased was an old man), a 
betel-pounder, is placed before them, A cloth not less than 
16 cubits in length, and held at one end by the relations of the 
deceased, is then tied to the load, a priest holding it meanwhile 
near the other end. Another priest takes his seat close by ; 
and, holding his fan in front of him, recites the following 
words, the people repeating them after him : — " These offer- 
ings, which have been procured by just means by us and the 
dead man, we offer to you, the descendants of the great 
Buddha, in order that we may obtain merit in the name of the 
deceased." The cloth is then rolled up and placed on the 
offering, and the eldest priest intones the stanza : " As thie 

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42 JOURNAL, R. A, s. (ceylok). [Vol. VII., Pt. I. 

rain from the sky falls on hills and mountains, rolls down the 
valleys, and thence to the rivers, which carry the waters to 
the ocean; so may the merits of this great act descend on the 
dead man." Upon this the remainder chime in with the 
prayer : " If there be anything you wish to obtain by these 
offerings, may you be blest with it as with the full moon.'* 
Bana is then read for about an hour; and after it a priest closes 
the ceremony with the words : — " By these virtuous acts may 
you all obtain prosperity here and in the next world, and attain 
Nirwdna at last," 

I was going to add a short account of the ordination and 
confession ceremonies of the priesthood; but my paper has run 
out to too great a length already. An exhaustive account of 
these will, however, be found in two papers contributed to the 
Royal Asiatic Society by Mr. J. F. Dickson in 1873 and 1876, 
and I need do no more here than merely refer to them. 

Kandy, 2nd April, 1881. 


The new rice (Alutsdl) is distributed as follows : — Half 

^ ' Measures. 

To the Dalad& Mdligawa, the temple of the Sacred Tooth ... 10 

Ga^gdrdma Vihdr^, a temple in Kandy ... ... 2 

Kundasdie Yihar^, a few miles from Eandy in Lower Dumbara 2 

Degaldoruwa Vihdr^ do. do. ... 2 

Ndta D^wdl^, in Kandy ... ... 4 

Maha D^wdl6 do. ••• ^^ ... 4 

Pattini D^wdI6 do. ... ... 4 

Kataragam D^wdl^ do. ... ... S 

Ganadewi Kdwila, a Hindn temple near the Post Office, Kandy 1 

Pi wa Nilam6, the lay officer in charge of the Tooth Temple ... 30 

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No. 23.— 1881.] APPENDIX. 43 


The four Baendyaka Nilames, the lay officers in charge of the 
Ndta, Maha, Pattini^ and KaUragama D^wala ... 32 

The four Kapuralla, the lay officiatiug officers of the same ... 4 

The Tamb<$ruk4ray&, the officer who beats the drum (tambdrvtoa) 
on all P6ya days, on Wednesdays, and on the four festival days, 
(the Awurudu, Perah^ra, Katti, and Aluts&l) ... 1 

The Gurudeniya Viddne, the officer who supervises the cultiva- 
tion of the Mdiigawa mutte|tu fields (t. e. the fields that are 
cultivated for the benefit of the tismple only), the gathering of 
the crop and the storing in the granary (atuwa) ... 6 

The Gurudeniya L^kama, the officer who keeps the account of 
the annual yield of the temple fields and of the new rice 
distributed ••• ... ... 6 

The Gurudeniya Ganmah^,an assistant to the Yidini ... 5 

The Gurudeniya Man&rdla, the officer who measures the crop of 
every temple field when it is gathered, and the receipts and 
issues of the granary. He also measures the new rice ... 5 

The Gurudeniya Eapur&la, the lay officiating officer of the 
Gurudeniya Dewal6 ... '" ... 2 

The six Milakdray6 of Gurudeniya,. the villagers who cultivate 
the temple fields and who prepare the new rice .••24 

The tom-tom beaters of Gurudeniya ... ... 12 

The Astrologer of the Tooth temple ... ... 6 

The Kariyakaranardla, the officer in charge of the minor pro- 
perty of the Tooth Temple, who has the general supervision 
of the temple afiairs ••• ... ... 6 

The Geparala, the officer who carries the silver water vessel used 
for officiating purposes, who cleans and lights the lamps of the 
upper story of the Tooth Temple, who has to take care of and 
account for all the ofierings delivered to him by the Wat^dru- 
rdla (see below) ... ... ... 5 

The Three Mohottalla. They are the Udam&l^ (of the upper 
story), the Gabadaw6 (pf the store) and the Walawnw6 (of the 
Diwa ^ilam^'s house. The first has to keep an account of all 

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44 JOURNAL, R. A. S. (CBYLON). [ Vol. VIL, Pt. L 


things (not being food or drink) offered or received at the 
Tooth Temple; the second of all eatables and drinkables; and 
the third of the income and expenditure of the establishment... 15 
The Watt6rur&la : Has to keep the keys of the upper story, to 
assist the two officiating priests, to open the doors of the tem- 
ple every day, and to clear the offering table of flowers, &c., 
thrice a day ... ... ... 5 

The Kankdnardla : Holds the keys of the store and issues pro- 
visions ... ... ... 5 

The four Kattiyanar&lld: bring the new rice from Gurudeniya in 
decorated loads to the tempte, fill the golden bowls with it, and 
deliver these bowls to the officiating priests ... 12 

The Pallemalerdla, the ofiicer in charge of the lower story of the 

temple with the same duties as the Wa|(6rur41a ... 5 

The three officiating pnests at the Tooth Temple, two for the 
upper, one for the lower story ... ... 15 

The Kiribatp&ttar&, large bowls which are filled with the 
allotted quantity of rice, and boiled by the Nilak4ray6(t.e. the 
cultivators of the temple fields) of the ten Nindagam — {vide 
below) ... ... ... 80 

[When boiled, the rice is ofifered at the Tooth Temple and after- 
wards distributed amongBt these JSilakarayd] 
The dancers of the Mdligawa ... ... 5 

The Badd^ Viddn^: Has to give six large chatties to the six 
Nilakaray6 of Gurudeniya, to boil the paddy for the Alutsal, to 
present a load of chatties at Gurudeniya on the Alntsal day, and 
ODce a month to the Mdligdwa, and two at the end ofthe year — 
one for the Diwa Nilam6 and the other for the Edriyakarana- 
rala ... ... ... 5 

The Hakgedikara Appuld, the officers who blow the conch and 
clear away the rubbish from the temple... ... 4 

The Alattiyd. [I am not quite sure what the functions of this 
officer are] ... ... ••. 5 

The Hora^-^k&ray i, the trumpeter of the temple ... ^ 

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No. 23.— 1881.] APPENDIX. 45 


The LibrariaD of the Oriental Library ••• ... 5 

1 he watchers at the. temple ... ... 4 

The head watcher at the temple ... ... 2 

The dhoby at the temple ^ ••• ... 6 

The Si^gdrakkara Mubandirama, the officer who provides and 

appoints tbe tom-tom beaters of the M&ligdwa ••• 5 

The four Fanikkiy6, the foar principal tom-tom beaters : Of 1| 
Ihala Dolospattu; 2, Pahala Do{ospattu; 3, Mdtal^; 4, Dam- 
bara ... ... ••• 12 

The man who fires the festival cannon at the Malig&wa ... 2 

The two Vihara, the Malwatta and Asgiriya temples in Eandy... 70 
The two Mahanayaka, the chief priests of these ••• 15 

The two Annnayaka, the second chief priests of these ..• 15 

The ten Nindagam: t.e. villages to which there are temple fields, 
1, Ealugomuwa in U4apalata; 2, Piligalla in Four K6ra1^s; 3, 
Alapald in Yatinuwara ; 4, Radagoda in Ya(inuwara ; 5, 
E'danduwawa in U^unuwara ; 6, MuQwatugoda in Yati- 
nuwara ; 7, Angoda in Hdrispattu ; 8, Aludeniya in Udu- 
nuwara ; 9, Pitigoda in Uda Dumbara ; 10, Kitulp^ in 
Uda H6w4heta ... ... ... 20 

The Vidan6 of Gandahaye, the officer who supervises the cultiva- 
tion in these villages ••• ... •..20 
The dhoby at Gurudeniya ••• •.. 5 

The watcher at the granary at Gurudeniya ... 2 

The tailor who has to prepare the elephants' trappings, the fiags, 

canopies, &c., for the different festivals ••• ... 2 

The constable (a private constable who accompanies the proces- 
sion and keeps guard over the Mdligawa). ••• 2 
The two Kattiyanardlld at Gurudeniya on duty during the Aluts&l 
(ride above) .. .. •••4 

7 lie two Mulutenr411a, who prepare the rice, cakes, &c., that are 
offered ••• ••• ••4 

The Muluteng^ Murakaray&, who deans the cliatties and other 
kitchen utensils, sweeps the kitchen, Ac. ... ^ 

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46 JOURNAL, R. A. S, (CEYLON). [Vol, VII., Pt. I.. 


The two Ranketta^ the drawers of the sweet toddy offered mom* 

ing and evening at the M4lig&wa ••• — 1 

The Yiddne of Holumbuwa in Four E6rales *.. 2 

The VidfeneofNelundeniya do. .,.• ... 2 

The Yidan^ of Mutugala in Seven K6ral&..« ..« 2 

1 he Viddn^ of Dambadeniya do. •.. ...2 

The dhoby of Mu^watugoda in Yatinuwara, who washes the 

clothes, &c., of the Mdligawa, spreads the cloth over which 

the Diwa Nilam^ walks, ties the cloths over the place where the 

elephants are decorated, where processions stop, &o. ... 2 

Ttie Nilakaray<5 of Holumbuwa ••• ... 2 

The Nilakdrajd of Nelundeniya •«• ••• 2 

The above shews the distribution of the new rice. There is in 
addition a distribution of the rice of the previous year, called the old 
rice (Hamba) as follows :— 

(a.) — As Wages for taking part in Ike ceremony. 
To the Nilakaray<$ (i.e, the cultivators of the temple fields) of — 


1. The Dalada Maligdwa, the temple of the Sacred Tooth in 

Kandy ... 20 

2. „ Gangdrama Vibar^, a temple in Kandy ... 2 

3. „ Eundasal^ Vihar^, in Dumbara ... ... 2 

4. „ Degaldoruwa Vibire do. ... ... 2 

5. yy Alutwihar^, a temple in the Asgiriya monastery in 

Kandy •*• ... 2 

6. „ Parana wihar6, do. do. ..^ 2 

7. ,, Ndta Dawdle in Kandy ... ... 2 

8. „ Katai'agam D^wale in Kandy ... „. 2 

9. „ Maha D6w4[^ do. ... ... g 

10, „ Pattini D^w4i4 do. ... ... 2 

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No. 1^3.-1881.] 



ib,) — In consideration of office. 
To the Nilak4ray6 of— 

1 1. The Daladd Maligdwa (see above) 

„ GaDgdrdma Vihdr^ do^ 

„ Kuudasdle Vihdr^ do. . 

,, Depaldoruwa Vihdr6 do. 

„ Alutwihdr6 do. 

„ Parana Vihdr^ do. 

„ Gedige Vihdr^, a temple in Eaody 

,, I^dtaD^wdl^ Pi]image (a small room in 
the D^wdl^ in which the image of Bud- 
dha is placed) ••• 
Maha D6wal^, a temple in Kandj 
Eataragama D^wal6, do. ••• 

Pattini D^wdl€, do. 

Hnduhnmpola Yihdr^ in Yatinuwara in Eandy 
Nittawela Vihdr^, a temple in Tatinuwara •• 
G6nawatta Vihdr^ in Lower H^wdheja 
Laykatilaka D6wale in Udunuwara 
Gadaladeniya D^wdld do. 

Embekke Pi}imag^ do. 

Morap^ Pilimag6 in Kotmal6 
U^uwela Vih4r6 in Lower H^wahfta ..* 

Ampitiya Vihdr6 do. 

Sagama Vihar^ in Upper H4wdhf|a 
Ndta D^wal^ in Kandy 
Maha D6wi\& do. 
Kataragama D^wdld in Kandy • . • 

Do. Palled^ wdle in Kandy 
Pattini D^wdl^ do. 

Ganadewi K6wila do. ••• 

Alutnnwara D^wdl^ inTatinnwara 
Hanguranketa Maha Dewdl6 in Uda 

Hangnranketa Pattini D^wdl^ do. 
Pasgama Ndta D^wdl^ do. *•• 














































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48 JOURNAL, R. A. s. (cicylon). [VoL VIL, Pt. I. 

Rice. Paddy. 

42. Embekk^ Dewale in XJ^unuwara ... 2 

43. Do. Pall^d6w£l6 do. ... 1 

44. Dodanwala D^wdl^ do. ... 2 

45. Do. Pattini D^wdl^ do. ... 1 

46. Lagkdtilaka D6w416 in UduDuwara ••« 2 

47. Gadalddenija D6wdl6 do. — 2 

48. Do. Pall^ D6w&U do. ... 1 

49. W6giriya D^wal6 do. ..• 2 
60. Alawatugoda D^wal^ in Four Korales ... 2 

51. Gan^goda D^waie in Udapalata ... 2 

52. Do. PaUe D6wi\6 do. ... 1 

53. Wallahagoda Dewdl^ do. ... 2 

54. Morap6 D^wal6 in Kotmal^ ... 2 

55. Gurudeniya D&yf&ii in Lower H^wdh^ta ... 2 

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No. 23.— 1881.] VALBNTYK ON ADAM's PEAK, 49 


Bt A. Spkncb Moss^ P.W.D. 

( Read 7th May, ISSl.) 

A»TiR treating at some length the history of the Island, he 
proceeds to give a sort of review of the mode of Government 
under " VimalaDharma SAriya Ada'* (whom he calls Don Joan) 
and a description of the Coart, from which I extract as fol* 
lows : — 

This Emperor, from fear of hU own sabjects^ confines himself now 
(1604) to the mountain city of Diyatilaka, where he is surrounded by a 
large force of soldiers under the nobles, and by his higher officers of 
state; but he relies chiefly for his personal safidty upon a special body 
guard of Moors, who keep watch continually at his chamber-door. 
Besides these he has many other guards, whom he selects from the 
best families, and who are the bravest and smartest young fellowa in 
the country. They have long straight hair, go alvvays bareheaded, 
and are generally about him wherever he goes. 

His revenues are very great. Thrice a year must his f^ubjects pay 
him tribute. The first he draws in March, at the time of their New 
Year ; the second is taken from the first-fruits ; and the third from a. 
sort of ofiering which they make in November to the honour of 
their god. 

In addition to these taxes every one is bound to provide for the 
Emperor whatever he may further require for use in his palace ; and 
the nobles take advantage of this prerogative to practise extortion 
in his name wherever they think it is worth while. 

All tribute and presents are covered with white cloth as a mark of 
respect, and are brought first to the Emperor after he. has washeJ his 

Valentyn (F,) Ond «» Nieuw Oost Inditn, 1724-20. 

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50 JOURKAL, R. A- B. (CBtLON). [Vol, VII., Pt, I. 

head and bathed at the New Year ; when he shews himself publicly 
to the whole army assembled together for this purpose, and to the 
nobles also, under a salute from the whole of his artillery. After 
this the nobles and people come, in order, and offer him their presents 
of gold, silver, precious stones, arms, silk, stuffs, and cloth, besides 
the tribute proper, of which they then have to pay the first instalment 
in gold, palm wine(? arrack), oil, rice, honey, wax, iron, elephants' 
teeth, tobacco, or in other kind ; and they dien have often to remain 
a very long time about the Court before their gifts are accepted by 
the Emperor or his servants, in consequence of which great crowds 
are collected and commotions arise* 

Besides these revenues, which are fixed, he has many others which 
are uncertdin or adventitious ; as when, for instance, a man dies leaving 
cattle behind him, he (the Emperor) takes therefrom according to the 
law of the land and his own prerogative, one ox, one cow, and a pair 
ofbuffaloes, which are punctually claimed by certain officers appointed 
for the purpose. 

At the time of the harvest in each year every one roust pay to the 
Emperor a certain measure of com, or rice, according to the extent of 
his land, which is sometimes commuted for all time by payment of 
a sum of money, though this latter custom is now no longer followed. 
The estates of soldiers however who die in battle are free from this 
tax, but not otherwise. 

All farmers also of the land, in addition to the prescribed grain 

tythe, must pay a certain sum of money; but, on the other hand, those 

lands are not liable which have been given to a priest or to a charity. 

In olden times he had also the tolls at Kottiyar or Trincomalee, 

Port des Gailes, and Portaloon, &c., &c., &c. 

After describing the religion of the Sinhalese he allades to — 

Trincomalee, which means either the hill of the three Pagodas, or of 
the world-famed Pagoda called the Pagoda of ^Uhree stories.'' • . . 
One oi these (three temples) was appropriated to the use of the 
pilgrims who came thither by thousands to practise their idolatry, and 
of whom some in the fervour of devotion precipitated themselves 

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No. 23.— 1881.] VALKNTYN OK ADAM's PEAK. 51 

from the rock into the sea and were drowned, firmly believing that 
this was the straigh'est and shortest way to come at heaveD, and that 
the waters wherein they found their end had little less sanctity than 
those of the Ganges. 

There is a tradition, which the writer will endeavour to 
obtain in its correct form, still extant in Trincomalee, that an 
European soldier entered and defiled by his presence the old 
temple on the rock, and that this soldier may now be seen by 
the faithful, down under the sea in the ruins of the old temple, 
when the priest after sacrificing holds his torch over the edge 
of the precipice when it is dusk or nearly dark. 

Of Adam's Peak, Valentyn goes on to give the following 
remarkable description, figuring Arangala or N&landa Peak by 
way of illustration. From enquiries of the old priest at Aluwi- 
hAre, the writer has not been able to find any tradition of 
sanctity attaching to Arangala, so that Yalentyn's mistake is 
the more remarkable : — 

This mountain was esteemed most sacred not only by the Si^halese^ 
but also by all the Grentiles and heathen of India, and even by many 
Mahometans as their chief sanctuary. On the top of this mountain 
stands a beautiful Pagoda, concerning which the Sinhalese have 
many traditions, and where they say Buddha [whom he calls through- 
oat " Budhum"], a disciple of the Apostle Thomas, dwelt. They say 
that he stood with one foot on this, and the other foot on a moun~ 
tain near Tuticorin, and that he made so much water that thereby 
the Island of Ceylon was divided from the coast. 

From the same tradition they proceed to say of him that he was 
26 cubits in stature • • » . . 

Of the same kind and size footprints of Buddha are found here and 
there upon the rocks in Ceylon, and also whole figures hewn out, from 
which many of them hold that Adam lived there ; but most of them 
hold firmly to this, that Buddha went up to heaven from this hill 
(Adam's Peak), taking this account from the ascension of Christ, 
whereof they have obtained the tradition either through the 5/, 
Thomas* Christians or through the Portuguese. 

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62 JOURNAL, R. A. S, (cBTLON). [Vol. VII., Pt. L 

Up the Peak or Mount of Adam one has to climb by mn iron chain, 
serving for the pilgrims and travellers who wish to make the ascent. 
This chain is made with shackles, by the help of which one can 
climb as if by the rungs of a ladder. 

On the top of the mountain is a plain, 150 paces long and 110 
broad, in the mi<ldle of which lies a stone nine palms high from the 
ground and twenty-two long, wht^reOn they say the footprint is ; 
although others testify, on the contrary, that they found there nothing 
but a dirty depression be-oiled by tiie lamps which the pilgrims leave 
there, who as they go down always take a little of the earth, 'which 
they consider sacred. Although many Sinhalese ascribe it [the foot- 
print] to Buddha, Herr Baldaens states that not only they, but also 
the people of Siam, are in the habit of talking about Adam, and to this 
day shew his footprint impressed upon a stone on the summit of a 
mountain (of which we have spoken before), being 1^ ell long, | eli 
broad, and the sole of the foot going ^ ell down in the stone. It is 
set round the edge with silver, and there is an elegant temple built 
near^ around which many Siamese priests and other people of the 
country dwelL These priests shewed a party of our people in March^ 
1654 . • • • . a gold plate representing the length and breadth 
of the foot, on which were various figures which they said were to be 
seen formerly in the footprint itself, but that after the priests allowed 
them to be engraved on the gold they disappeared from the stone. 
These figures were 68 in number, and may be seen figured by Baldaena 
in his description of Coromandel, Vol. 1 54, with several other matters 
relating thereto. 

Compare the §ri Pdda stones engraved in Fergns8on*» 
" History of Eastern Architecture." Valentyn then describes 
in great detail two galleries of rock-cat chambers containing 
figures of Buddha (** Adam"), and minutely specifies the 
dimensions of eyes, nose, mouth, head, hands, arms, fingers, 
nails, &o. In the lower gallery were two chambers hewn out of 
the cliff, and each containing one colossal figure in the usual 
Hirwdna attitude, with various smaller erect and sitting figures. 
In the upper gallery were four chambers, the largest called 

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No. 23. — 1881.] VALENTYN ON ADAM's PEAK. 53 

Raja Maha wihdre. Then he describes a detached rock-chamber 
on the other side of the inonntain : — 

• . . . wherein lies a figure 9 ft. 10 in. in length, called after a 
certain Sinhalese woman (* Diegoda Mahage') who caused it to be 

Then again : — 

On the top of this mountain [which he now calls '^ Mokeregalla'' 
otherwise called ** Adam's Peak"] stands a white tower, which is 
44 feet 3 in. in circumference, and 1 6 feet high. This mountain is 
fiat on the top, and planted with several trees, and was at times sown 
with kurakkan. The sea can also be seen from its summit, although 
it is several miles distant. 

It is worthy of remark, with regard to the large and small figures 
of the Sinhalese, that thej shew the same attitudes reclining, standing, 
or sitting, and also the same expression, with their hands uplifted or 
olded and upraised fingers, as the idols of the Siamese. 

The following letter from Mr. Helmont to H. E. Governor 
Symons gives us further light on this subject : — 

Noble, Honourable, &c., &c.. Sir, — In conformity with Your Excel- 
lency's command, I reply thereto with all respect that Adam's* Peak, 
as far as I remember, lies two days' journey from MStara> and close by 
the Company's estate of Markatta. At the foot there is a large hewn 
chamber divided by a wall into two portions ; in the one lies a huge 
naked figure with a yellowish body, brown eyebrows, red lips, and 
long ears, with the hand under the head, and the. legs one above the 
other, called Adam by the Sinhalese ; in the other a corresponding 
figure, of similar shape, a woman, called Kva ; and I remember well 
that the nose of the former was measured out of curiosity in my pre- 
ience, in the year 1690, by the Rev. Predicant Feico Wylsma, and 
found to be over a foot in length. From this cave you proceed by a 
flight of freestone steps, built dry without lime, up above where, on 
account of its steepness, you cannot go round the mountain. There is 
little space to walk and only to follow your guide. There are two 
smaller chambers: in the one Adam, with the Patriarchs, dressed as 

* Baljadoors' of a heathen Pagoda, painted on the wall, and in the 

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64 JOURNAL, R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. I. 

next one Eva, with her legs crossed under her body, on a stone shelf 
like an altar, and an erect snake going up behind her back and over 
her head as if picking her brains, in the midst of her sons, of whom 
the eldest is discerned bj his size, being the same as his mother life- 
size hewn out of stone. Outside there is a square shelf of which the 
border is inscribed with characters which no one can read, but which 
were explained. Mear one of these small chambers one climbs 
up by means of a great iron chain soldered into the mountain [proba- 
bly on standards, for which the sockets were seen by the writer on his 
recent ascent] and hewn steps, to near the top, which is reached by 
an ugly crevice in the following manner. Five, or six, or more blacks 
go up on their bellies climbing over each, other the lower one holding 
the upper by the legs. The topmost reaches out his hand, grasps the 
handle at the end of the chain, and so pulls up to the top, where there 
is nothing but a sham Pagoda and Devil's tree, the leaves of which are 
like the points of pikes. This tree shoots through a deft in the rock 
an ever-flourishing root, whose sap is caught drop by drop in a chatty 
set near, and is considered of great value for many purposes, and held 
in great esteem as a cure for impotence. 

He then describes the truly miraculous effect of a few drops 
npoD women, but adds that he has not had an opportunity of 
observing its effect upon their virtue. It would be extremely 
interesting to know, whether these caves really exist, either on 
Adam's Peak itself or in some of the hills of the Peak range. 
Perhaps, if some of the gentlemen connected with the Revenue 
Service, of whom several are members of this Society, were to 
enquire from priests and headmen, some tradition would be 
discovered which would lead to their identification. The writer 
has been informed by the old priest of Aluwihdre that there 
are rock- cut shrines at the base or half-way up Adam's Peak, 
that the approaches are now overgrown with jungle, and that 
no one dare make the ascent ; that they lie on the west side. 
Possibly the priest has framed his answer in accordance with 
what he saw was the anxiously-expected answer, regardless of 
strict truth. 

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No. 23.— 1881.J VALENTYN ON ADAM's PEAK. 65 

It would appear that the caves, or rock-hewn chambers, now 
used as shrines in Ceylon are not of any great antiquity as 
shrines from the following considerations : — 

(1) The principal figure is in all cases the Buddha in Nirw^na* 

(2) The figure is of colossal size. 

(3) It is not of hewn stone, but of composition, and is painted 
and plastered. 

(4) The erect or sitting figures where found are mere 

(5) That the caves are immensely older than the figures in 
them is evident from the figures not being hewn in situ, but built 
up of chunam and brick, &c. 

(6) That the caves are of recent use as Buddhist shrines may 
be inferred from the character of the faijades by which they are 
closed in. These are plain to meanness, devoid of all attempt 
at decoration, being generally sun-dried brick laid in mud, 
rubble stone dry or in lime, or even plain mud walls. 

But the writer is of opinion that these caves are of great 
antiquity, and have been used in past ages as refuges from 
floods and wild animals in the low-country, and from wild 
animals and hostile tribes in the hill -country. By mere diffi- 
culty of access q^ at Adam's Peak, Dambulja, Aluwihdre and 
Dunumadalakanda, Ac, they are eminently fitted as places of 
refuge; and from the commanding view which they in all cases 
give of the country round by which the smoke of the fire of any 
pursuing party by day, and the flame by night, could be readily 
detected, they would serve as natural forts in a primitive age. 

At the caves of Aluwih&re, near Matale, may be seen a stone 
exactly similar to one discovered among some cave-dwellings 
in the Bhone valley, and figured by Mons. Louis Figuier in 
his " L'Homme Primitif " as a polishing stone used for polish 
ing flint weapons. 

When by gradual civilization the forest aborigines learned 
to make huts without the help of Nature, and to fortify their 

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66 JOURNAL, R A. S, (cfitLON). [Vol. VII., Pt. I. 

hamlets in a rude way, these refuge places would naturally 
be adopted with the first uprising of any primitive form of 
natural religion as places pre-eminently fitted for the performance 
of worship. It has struck the writer when, in travelling in the 
Northern forests for miles under overarching trees, he has come 
upon some bald black rock, and, ascending its summit, has 
found a scooped-out water tank, a ruined ddgoba, and a lovely 
view of nature, that the tank which has outlived the flimsy dry 
brick ddgoba was in existence centuries before the religion was 
revealed to which the ddgoba was dedicated, — that the hill is 
the holy place of some primitive worship , probably of fire, and 
has been adopted by a later faith in a manner common through* 
out the world. 

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|aU %ni %uUi% 


Hon. Trcaaurer— W. W. HUNTER, Esq., C.I.E., L.L.D. 
Son. Secretiupy— U, R BRODRIBB, Esq., B.A., 3 Brick Court, Temple, E.C. 

( WUh power to add worliers to thei/r number,') 


TT is proposed to start a PAli Text Society on the model 
-*- of the Early English Text Society, in order to render 
accessible to students the rich stores of the earliest Buddhist 
literature now lying unedited and practically unused in the 
various MSS. scattered throughout the Public and Univer- 
sity Libraries of Europe. 

The Society looks forward to publishing, within a no 
very distant period, the whole of the texts of the Pali 
Pitakas. Professor FausbOU having completed the Dham- 
mapada, is already far advanced with his edition of the 
Jataka Book, the longest of the texts of the Sutta Pitaka ; 
and Dr. Oldenberg has the Vinaya Pitaka well in hand. 
The remaining texts of the Sutta and Abhidhamma Pitakas 
lend themselves easily to distribution among various editors. 
The project has been most heartily welcomed by scholars 

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throughout Europe ; and Professor FausbCll and Dr. Olden- 
berg (when their present undertakings are completed), 
Dr. Morris, Dr. Trenekner, Dr, Thiessen, Dr. Frankfurter, 
Dr. Hultsch, Professor Ernst Kuhn, Professor Pischel, 
Dr. Edward MUller, Professor H. Jacobi, M. L6on Feer, 
M. Senart, Professor Kern, and Mr. Rhys Davids, have 
already pledged themselves to take part in the undertaking. 

It is proposed to include in the Society's series those of 
the more important of the earlier Jain and nncanonical 
Buddhist texts which may be expected to throw light on th^ 
religious movement out of which the Pitakas also arose. 

Analyses in English of the published Texts, Introductions 
to them, Catalogues of MSS., Indices, Glossaries, and Notes 
and Queries on early Buddhist History will appear from 
time to time in the Society's Publications. 

The subscription to the Society will be One Guinea a 
year J or Five Guineas for six years, due in advance ; and no 
charge will be made for postage. 

Those who wish to join in this important undertaking 
should at once send their subscriptions to the Honorary 
Secretary, as the work cannot proceed until a certain sum 
is in hand. 

The price to Non-Subscribers will be about double the 
price of the subscription. All profits from the sales to 
Non-Subscribers will be devoted to increasing the number 
of volumes to Subscribers, who will receive each year more 
than the value of their subscriptions. 

Professor Max Muller, Professor Oowell, Professor Weber,, 
and Dr. Rost, have expressed their cordial approval of the 
objects of the Society ; other influential support is also pro- 
mised ; and a first list of Subscribers will shortly be issued. 

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The Committee, in submitting this proposal to your 
earnest consideration, ask you to fill up and return the 
annexed application. 

DflAR Sir, 

I enclose a * for S. , ' «., 

and request you to enter my name as a Subscriber to the 
Pali Text Society. 


U. B. Bbobbibb, Esq., 

3, Brick Court, Temple, EX. 

* Cheques to be crossed '* London Joint Stock Bank/' Post Office 
Orders or Notes to be made payable to the Honorarj Secretary, at the 
General Post Office, St. Martinis -le-G rand. 

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— ♦ — 
The price of the Journals of the Royal Asiatic Society (Ceylon 
Branch) is in Ceylon, to Members, Rs. 1 each ; to Non-Members, 
Rs. 2 each. 

Journals are obtainable from : — 

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Ko. 24. 

' The design of the Society is to institate and promote enquiries into the History* 

Religion, Literature, Arts, and Social Condition of the present and former 

Inhabitants of the Island, with its Geology, Mineralogy, its Climate 

and Meteorology, its Botany and Zoology." 



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'^</<j6C y«yyt^/ 



The great delay in the issue of the present Number ofj 
the Journal (for which an apology is due to Members) has beeaj 
unavoidable, and mainly caused by continued heavy pressure of | 
urgent work in the Government Printing Office. 

In addition to the Journal each Member receives the^first parti 
(Vol. L Part I. pp. 1-41) of a new edition of FdninVs Stitra^fl 
published by Mr. W. Gnnatilaka of Kandy with the assistance 
of the Society. 

H. 0. P. BELL, 
September, 1881. Hon, Sec, 

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The Ancient Emporium of Ealah, &c., with Notes on Fa- 

Hian's Account of Ceylon. — By H. Nevill, c.c.s. ... 57 

The Sinhalese Observance of the Kaldwa. — By L. Nell ... 85 

Note on the Origin of the Vedd&s, with Specimens of their 

Songs and Charms. — By L. De Zoysa, Maha Mudaliydr . . . 93 

A Hdniyam Image* — By L. Nell ... ... 116 

Note on the Mird Kantiri Festival of the Muhammadans. 

— By A. T. Shams-ud-di'n ... ...125 

Sericulture in Ceylon. — By J. L. Vandebstraaten, m.d. .. 137 

Siyhalese Omens. — By S. Jayatilaka, Mudaliyar ... 147 

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rAwaj^ta; with 
By H. Nevill, Esq., CCS- 

In the very complete compilation of ancient accounts of 
Ceylon, which Sir E. Tennent gives in the first Volume of his 
work on the Island, he proceeds (after giving most interesting 
notices of the emporium in Taprobane, or Serendib, through 
which the luxuries of Eastern Asia were gathered for the 
markets of the West) to adduce reasons, which appeared to him 
plausible, as to the identification of the ancient Kalah with 
the modern Galle. 

He first clearly shows the errors into which Bertolacci and 
other authors had fallen, and then suggests the fresh site, in 
which, as I now hope to prove, he was deceived by a mere 
similarity of sound. . 

In the first place, we at once fail to trace on our S. W. coast 
the numerous Islands lining the shore, which form so striking 
a portion of the description of the earlier writers. 

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58 JOURNAL R. A. S. (cEYLON). [Vol. VII., Pt. 11. 

Again, the crjtmped and rocky creek known as Galle Har- 
bour can scarcely be identified with the capacious ^ limerC or 
lagoon, and tranquil inland water, which is often spoken of in 
connection with the emporium of Kalah. 

Further, we have every reason to regard the Galle neigh- 
bourhood as of comparatively recent civilization, and possessing 
few ancient historical traditions, and no ancient historical 
Temains. Neither in the extreme corner of the kingdom ever 
guarded for its legitimate Sovereigns by the loyal, brave, and 
independent mountaineers of Ruhima, can we trace the half 
Tamil district of Kalah, which owned the sway of the Maha- 
rdjds of Zabedj, the Sultans of the Isles, who, as Cosmas in 
A. D. 550, (supported by Abou Zeyd in A. D. 900,) tells us were 

* ivdvTioi dXkriXuv ^opposcd to, or independent of, each other/ when 
spoken of in conjunction with the King who had the Hyacinth. 

It may be well to remark here that the recurring expression 

* the King who has the Hyacinth,'* scarcely refers to the great 
gem that was mounted on the pinnacle of a lofty ddgoha^ and 
is celebrated by the travellers to the royal city ; or yet to the 
blue statue of Buddha described by Fa Hian, but rather means 
^the King who had the country where the Hyacinth was 
found,' i. e. Sabaragamuwa and the adjacent Highlands, 
anciently included in Ruhuna. 

Further, as we are told by Abou Zeyd, between the kingdom 
with the emporium and the Hyacinth country lies the pepper 
country — a remark positively not applying to Galle, but at 
once understood. If we admit, as I hope hereafter to show is the 
case, thoLt Kalah is the N, W. coa^t between the Arippu river 
(the ancient Kadamha) and the Deduru-oya ; when the expres- 
sion may be amplified into, between Puttalam District and 
the Adam's Peak District lies the plain of the Kelani river and 

* " ^ ric h)(yiv rhv va/cjvOov" (Cosmas Indicopleustes) — Teunent, Ceylon, 
Vol. X. p, 59i. 

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No. 24.— 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH, ETC. 59 

the Mah&K)ya, which through all tradition has been and still 
is, the * pepper country'; or, in still conciser terms, between 
Kalah and Ruhuna is the Mdyd-rata, 

Many other arguments might here be adduced, and some 
will be alluded to further on, but I think it is even already 
sufficiently shown that Galle was not the ancient centre of 
Kalah, the Tarshish of Solomon's fleets, and the rendezvous of 
Arabs, Fersiauis, Indians, Syrians and Chinese. 

We will now proceed to cpnsider a number of facts, which,, 
when aggregated, render it probable, or even certain, that the 
district alluded to on the N.W. coast was the great emporium 
of the Eastern trade — the Kalah kingdom. In A.D. 50, when 
Claudius was Emperor at Rome, a ship sent to collect the 
revenues of Arabia was caught by the winds and borne to 
Hippuros, the bold point still known as Kutiraimalai or ^ Horse 
Hill,' and which has from the dimmest dawn of tradition been, 
what it still is, the landmark of sailors, and a sacred spot at 
which they to this day make suitable offerings to appease 
winds and waters. 

Here the mariners were hospitably received, and after a 
short stay returned to Rome with an embassy from the King 
of that district, which, as Pliny tells us, consisted of four per- 
sons, the highest bearing the name of Rachia. 

CasieChetty (Jour. A. S., Ceylon, 1848, p. 78.) has proved that 
Rachia is^ a corruption of -4 Va^Ac^?ya, and not as Sir E.Tennent 
fancied, a form of R&ja, since that title was never used for 
persons of the rank selected for such missions. 

Now in this very remarkable embassy to Rome from a point 
of N.W. Ceylon, we have the most extraordinary confirmation 
of my views regarding the site of the ancient trade. 

For though Pliny gives us a full account and minute descrip- 
tion of the Ambassadors, and the details they gave of their 
country, yet he never even gives a hint that Hippuros was an 
out of the way and unknown port, but on the contrary we 

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60 JOURNAL R. A, s. (cbylon), [Vol. VII., Pt. IL 

are naturally left to believe that once there, the mariners 
recognised the country, knew their way home, and ran no 
further risk. 

Also had there not been regular intercourse between that 
port and the Red Sea, how would the Romans have found 
their way home ? and is it likely an embassy would have been 
sent had it not been recognised that there was no difficulty in 
the relations of the two countries? On the contrary, once 
arrived, having recruited their strength, the sailors start off 
home as if on a beaten track, and without comment on their 
safe return, bring an embassy and presents. Further, from 
Pliny's silence, there can be no doubt the embassy went horae^ 
and was not condemned to a perpetual exile at Rome ; and in 
consequence doubtless of its sate return with presents, we find 
another arriving in Rome, when Julian was Emperor. 

Fifty years later still, in A. D. 110, Ptolemy gives his 
wonderful map taken down from the narratives of sailors, 
which clearly shows how well our N.W. coast was known even 
in its minutest details, and the course of its rivers inland. 

In A.D. 410 Palladius writes, on the faith of a Theban mer- 
chant, that in the neighbourhood are a thousand islands, 
one group called Maniolae, and five large rivers. 

Now, in the boundaries assumed for Kalah we have a chain 
of islands recently joined and forming the Akkara-pattu of 
Kalpitiya, the long island of K&ratlvu (no doubt then a group 
of detached islets), and various others scattered from Puttalam 
to Kutiraimalai, while on the North are Manndr, Rdmessaram, 
and the adjacent group, parts of which are now connected 
by sandbanks, and form Adam's bridge ; doubtless the Ma- 
niolsB. Beyond these again are the islands of Jaffaa,Delft and 
many others. 

By this hypothesis the untenable supposition of Sir E. Ten- 
nent and M. Landresse, that the far distant Mdldiveg were 
referred to, is at once avoided." 

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No. 24. — 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH, ETC. 61 

The five rivers accurately answer to the Arippu or Kadamba 
river, the Kald-oya, the Morachchikatti river nearKutiraimalai, 
the Ml-oya and the Deduru-oya. 

In A. D. 550 Cosmas, writing the travels of Sopater, tells 
how on that trader's arrival at the emporium he learned that 
the Hyacinth was found beyond the pepper country. This, the 
ancient Mdyd-rata, the Mahdwapsa tells us was bounded on the 
North and South respectively by the Deduru-oya and the Kelani- 
gapga, accurately enclosing and dividing the 'pepper* from the 
^gem' districts and the district in which was the emporium. 

Again, he says around it are a multitude of small islands 
containing fresh water and thickly covered with palms pro- 
ducing the Indian and the aromatic nuts. 

In the islands now forming the Akkara-pattu as far as 
Kalpitiya are abundant proofs of ancient groves of cocoanut 
and palmyra palms, and the latter from which palm-sugar, 
and a sweet paste called punatUy is prepared, was perhaps the 
aromatic nut, and not theareka, which is a hill-growing species 
and not likely to have been valued by the Western traders. It 
is also of course possible the aromatic nut was not grown 
but imported for export, and Cosmas' informers mistaken in 
their statement. 

With regard to the special notice of the abundance of fresh 
water even at this day, all visitors are surprised to find that 
excellent water may be got in all the islands, and the Akkara- 
pattu, at a foot or so in depth, while on the mainland water is 
extremely scarce, only obtained by deep wells and ancient tanks. 

Sopater was presented to the King of the district in which 
was the emporium, who was independent of, or opposed to, the 
King that had the Hyacinth. 

In A. D. 850 Soleyman, a trader who had made many 
voyages, described Adam's Peak and the district around as that 
which produced the gems, thus identifying the Hyacinth 
country of Cosmas with that part of Ruhuna. 

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62 JOURNAL R. A. 8. (cEYLON):. [Vol. VII., Pt IL 

The Island was then (A. I>. 850) still suhgect to its two 
Kings, he tells us. When in his continuation of this work 
Abou Zeyd describes Ibn Wahab'a voyages (Tennent's Ceylon, 
Vol. 1, p» 587) the still water lagoons in which he so de%hted^ 
and where he spent months in coasting about, could only have 
been one of the lagoons either of Jaffna, Kalpitiya, or Batti- 
caloa, " and it is evident from the narratives of Soley man and Ibn 
Wahab, that ships availing themselves of the nK)n80onato cross 
the Indian Ocean, crept along the shore to Cape Comorin,. and 
passed close by Adam's Bridge to reach their destined ports." 

At page 591 of the same work it is sadd : — '^ The assertion of 
Abou Zeyd as to the sovereignty of the Maharaja of Zabedj^ 
at Kalah, is consistent with the statement of Soleyman^ that 
^ the Island was in subjection to two monarchs.* ** 

In this we find still another strong support for our argument,, 
since the whole N.W, coast and Jaffna has from the most 
ancient times been peopled by Tamils and Moors, thus account- 
ing for the district being under the MahSrdjas: of Zabedj, who 
from B.C. 100 to A. D. 700 extended their empire and ruled 
the Malay Islands, Kalah, and Travancore ; and it satisfactorily 
accounts for the silence preserved by the priestly annalists of 
the Kings who possessed the Hyacinth, as to the commercial 
wealth of their rivals who governed the territory in which was 
the great emporium. 

Sir E. Tennent also quotes the " Garsharsp-JVamah^' of about 
the 10th century, in which the Mahdrdjd having requested 
Persian aid against the " Shah of Serendib," one Baku, a fleet is 
sent, which lands at Kalah and obtains a signal victory over 
Baku ; and this seems authentic, as the empire of Zabedj was 
then breaking up, and the Kalah Viceroy likely to seek aid 
from Persia, whose merchants profited so largely by its trade, 
and indirectly proving the old enmity between Ruhuna and 
Kalah, a feud at once understood as between the Tamil port 
and the Siyhalese capital, but not applicable to Galle. 

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No, 24.— 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH) EtO. 63 

This Baku may have been only a General, or he may have 
been the Pardkrama Pdndi or Bahu, who in 1059 was Viceroy 
of Ruhuna according to the Mahdwa^sa, which also refers to 
the Solian conquest and frequent irruption of foreigners 
during the end of the 10th century. 

Baku in either case is no doubt a corrupt spelling of Bdhu, 

Still later hi 1347 Ibn Batuta visited the district where the 
traders went for cinnamon, and landing at a place called * Bat- 
tala' (either Puttalam or some port nearer the Battala-oya) 
whence he crossed a river (the Deduru-oya) and reached the 
port of ^ Salawat,' still called in Sinhalese by that name, a 
little on the Battala side of which the infidel King's territory 
ceased, thence turning inland he reached * Kankar' (? Gapgd 
sripura), either Gampola or one of the Sabaragamuwa towns on 
the Kelani-gapga, and ascending Adam's Peak he descended 
to ' Dinaur' {Denhnuwara^ Demindara), or Anglice Dondra, 
whence he returned by ^Kali' and * Kolambfi,' then a flourishing 
port, to ^ Battala.'* 

This route would have been from Dondra, by the ancient 
port of Weligam and the village of Hinidum, through the 
Walalldwiti-koral^ to Kalutara, and not Glalle ; and ^ Kali,' 
doubtless is a corruption of the word Kalu-gapga-tara= Kalu- 
tara, L e. the ferry over the black {kalu) river. 

I would here invite special attention to the expression ^^ the 
infidel King" used by Ibn Batuta, when contrasting the 
King of the district in which was the port with the Buddhist 
King who ruled the rest of Ceylon. Its use by the Arabian 
in this contect shows the King of Kalah was not a Buddhist, 
but of a religion hostile to that of the priestly annalists, who 
drew up the chronicles of the Kings of Anurddhapura and 
Polonnaruwa, and accounts for their silence upon the flourishing 
port and busy commerce settled in the maritime state of 

• Lee's "Travels of Ibn Batuta," 1829, pp. 183—191. 

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64 JOURNAL R. A. S. (CEYLON). [Vol. VII., Pt. II. 

Kalah, the point cTappui as it were of the hated Tamils, so 
hostile to their religion. 

Having pointed out haw well the site I have given corres- 
ponds with ancient descriptions, I will adduce analogies to its 
ancient name of Kalah, far surpassing that of ^ Kali' (Kalutara) 
and Galie ; for though a more fallacious ground could not be 
selected as the base of an argument, yet it may be a corrobo- 
rative proof of value when taken in connection with other and 
more direct proofs. 

In the district between the Arippu-river and Deduru-oya the 
principal river is the Kald-oya, or ' Kalah-river' — the port of 
Kalpitiya is still called by the natives Kalputti, i. e. Hhe Kala 
sandbanks'—the opposite point on the mainland is Kdratfvu, 
r & I being mutable, and the name signifying ' Kalah Island.' 

In the commencement of this paper I have alluded to the 
absence of ancient historical remains, and traditions in the 
neighbourhood of Galle ; let us see how far the proposed site is 
supported by such corroboration. 

When Wijaya landed and founded the historical dynasty of 
Ceylon, he arrived near the mouth of the Mi-oya at the present 
Puttalam, B. C. 643. 

He thence proceeded a short distance inland, where, after 
marrying the daughter of one of the Native Chiefs, he gradu- 
ally extended his power, till from his capital of Tammanna 
Nuwara he acquired possession of the greater part of the 
Island, and ultimately became so strengthened by bands of 
adventurers from the coast, that he repudiated his wife and 
native allies, reducing many to the rank of slaves. 

Although the annalists of the Mahdwa^sa confine the narra- 
tive to the conquerors, and have only sneers for the aborigines, 
the so-called Yakkhos and Ndgas, yet it is clear the assertion of 
their previous utter barbarity i^ quite unfounded, and we have 
abundant proofs that they had attained considerable civiliza- 
tion, although inferior to that of their Aryan invaders. Thus 

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No. 24.— 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH, KTO. 65 

we are told that one of their towns was called La6kApura, and 
was the capital of the kingdom ; hence they had a King and 
Chiefs under him, they had gathered into towns and were not 
mere savages or (as one popular idea supposes) the same as 
the present Kock Veddas ;* also they understood jewellers* 
craft, since a " throne of gems" was an object of strife. 

Where Wijaya first landed, the Princess whom he married 
was met near the tank, though this tank was doubtless used 
merely as a reservoir of water and not for irrigation ; while 
— most important— here the Princess or Chieftain's daughter 
distributed rice to his followers, which was obtained from the 
shipwrecked boats of mariners. Now, had there not been 
considerable commerce on the shore of the lagoon, it is clear 
rice would not have so occurred, not from one special wreck, 
but from the wrecked boats, as if such were of frequent occur- 
rence. This, too, is supported by the tradition extant (Pien-i' 
tieriy Book LXVI.) when the Chinese travellers Hiouen-Thsang 
and Fa-Hian heard that Wijaya had come as a merchant to the 
district, and there, by his tact gradually acquired royal power. 
I think we must deduce that the emporium of Ceylon existed 
as a trading station long prior to his advent. 

It may be well at some length to notice the tradition as 
recorded by these ancient Chinese authors. Hiouen-Thsang, who 
— unlike the simple matter-of-fact Fa-Hian — has always a ready 
ear for, and pen to record, the romantic, says the tradition was 
that a South Indian Princess on her way to be married, with 
her retinue, was waylaid by a King of the lions, and carried 
off captive to his mountain home, where she bore him a son and 
daughter. When the son attained puberty, he consulted with 
his mother and arranged to escape with her and his sister to 
her people. With this object he carefully explored the mouur 
tain paths, and at last succeeded in his plan and escaped with 

* S. ©iffje^-f, veddo. 

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66 JOURNAL R. A. s. (obtlon). [Vol. VII., Pt. II, 

his mother and sister. The mother, however, having warned 
him his parentage wonld disgrace him in the eyes of her 
countrymen, they concealed the real nature of his father. 
Meanwhile the King-lion ravaging the neighbouring lands in 
search of his family, the King of the land to which the lion- 
son had gone was in extreme peril from him, on which the 
lion-son treacherously killed his own father with a dagger — 
the father dying with forgiving love to his son. 

On the eelaircissement that ensued, the King deciding he 
must not break his pledge of reward, and also refusing to 
allow the parricide to remain in his territory, equipped two 
^vessels, and in one sent off the lion-son with a retinue of men 
to seek his fortune, and in the other sent off a retinue of women. 
The history is here silent, but as the ships were sent off in this 
manner, each on its own course, it is only natural to suppose the 
lion-son's sister and mother were banished in that with a female 
retinue, which is said to have gone towards Persia. That 
which contained the lion-son and his male retinue reached "the 
isle of jewels," and as many valuable articles of merchandize 
were procurable there, they settled, and after killing some of 
the chief merchants already settled there, married their widows 
and established a kingdom, calling it " the Lion-kingdom." 

We have only here to understand by lion, not the quadruped 
but a Gangetic hill chieftain, with the title of Si^iha (not un- 
common), and the tradition is a highly probable partial account 
of the origin of the Tamil coast race (which I assume to be 
the Yakkhos of ancient accounts) as settled in N.W. and E. 
Ceylon, in the country of the Ndgas or aboriginal snake 

This is again supported by a passage in Upham's Rdjdwali 
(p. 168) not hitherto connected with the above tradition. In 
this second legend the Rdjdwali says that the Yakkhos came to 
Ceylon when the country was lying devastated and depopulated 
by the wars between Rama and Bfiwana. 

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No. 24. — 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH, ETC. 67 

In combination we have from these traditions a very consis- 
tent story, that when the aboriginal f Naga) race of Ceylon was 
weakened by the Indo- Aryan invasion perpetuated in the R4ma- 
yana, a subsequent Tamil colony came from the South of 
India, established itself as Yakkhos, and was organised by an 
out-cast Prince of mixed Ghtngetic and South Indian blood, 
who landed at a port frequented by merchants already settled 
there, attracted by productions affording a lucrative trade. 

This we may call the pre-Wijayan era, and accounts for Ae 
Qangetic and Brfihman Wijaya arriving at its port when the 
Island was inhabited by two races — Nigas (snake worshippers)* 
and Yakkhos (probably a form of Saivites). 

Hiouen-Thsang goes on to relate that 500 demon 
women, who lived in one of the towns, seduced a party of 
merchants who had arrived to trade, and each bore a son to 
her paramour* Their Queen, who seduced the chief merchant, 
bore a son who, after his father, whose name was Seng-kia 
(Si^ha) was called Seng-kia-lo. 

The legend goes on to tell how Seng-kia-lo secretly deserted 
his wife after her lavish kindness : how she followed him to a 
neighbouring kingdom and implored him to return to her, and 
upbraided him with his ingratitude : how he replied she was of 
demon origin, justifying his repudiation : and how on her 
appealing to the King, he, struck with her beauty and moved 
with pity, took her to wife and protected her : how during the 
night all the inmates of the palace were murdered and muti- 
lated, and on the next morning the refugee announced to the 
people that his wife was a devil, and in the night had flown to 
Ceylon, and fetched a party of other devils, who had killed 
and eaten the inmates of the palace and the King who had 
just married her. On this he was elected King, and proceeded 
at once to form an army and return to Ceylon, where he 
entirely conquered the Island, exterminating many of its 


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68 JOURNAL B. A. S. (CETLON). [VoI. VII., Pt. II. 

inhabitants, and driving away the others to a neighbouring 
Island, and then, having destroyed their town, established a 
kingdom in his name " Seng-kiorlo'^ (Si^ihala) to which people 
rapidly collected from other countries. Let us treat this as a 
true tradition, merely garnished by the persons who gave it to 
Hiouen-Thsang with the false representation that the unhappy 
wife was really a devil, as it suited her betrayer to represent 
when he effected the murder of the King, who had taken her 
pirt against him, together with the inmates of the palace. 
It is scarcely surprising the Buddhist annalists omitted 
to record in their chronicles this horrible crime and the 
successful conspiracy that brought Seng-kia-lo back from India 
again, to the land of his birth, as a conqueror of the whole 
land ; nor, priding themselves on their pure Gangetic race, 
would the Kings descended from Wijaya care to see it re- 
corded that Wijaya was the son of a Grangetic Chief and a 
Yakkho Princess. On the other hand, there was absolutely 
no inducement for Hiouen-Thsang to invent the story, had it not 
been the current oral tradition. 

I should also here refer to the extract from the Pradi- 
pikdTva, given by Alwis at page xxv of the Introduction to 
his Sidat Sangardwaj in which Gurulugomi* quotes from the 
lost Aturoda (original Sinhalese commentaries on the Pdli 
Scripture) compiled B.C. 92. 

He says : " ^ Since King Si^hab&hu took the Si^ha (lion) 
captive, he was (called) Si^hala, and his descendants were (thence 
also called) Si^hala,' so the name Sinhala is derived from the 
circumstance of the lion being taken captive by Si^habdhu, 

* Gurulugomi, the learned Thero of Aluvihare (Mdtal^ District), Bays the 
legend, wrote Amdwatura at his sister's request for the instruction of his 
nephew. Said the mother : — " Brother, the diction is not good ; my son's 
style needs improving." Then he wrote Pradipikdwa ; and yet the student 
of Sinhalese prose " undefiled" (Elu) may perhaps best study Gurulu- 
gomi's earlier work.— IT. C. P. J5., Hon. Sec. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 24. — 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH, ETC. 69 

who was begotten by a lion and was conceived in the womb of 
a Royal Princess, the daughter of Kalinga Chakrawarti." I 
give Alwis's translation, but he should have translated it, 
* daughter of the King of Kdlinga, King of Kings ;' as Ckakra- 
wartti (©39^)^8^} is a King to whom other Kings are vassals. 

Gurulugomi goes on to quote Sanyut Sangiya: " So likewise 
both King Wijaya, the son of the Si^ihala [this we must bear 
in mind is grandson of Siyha] who having subdued the Yaksha, 
took Lakdiva [Lanka], also his younger brother King Sumit, 
who reigned in Si^ihapura, also his son Panduwas D^va, who 
having left Si^hapura became King of Lakdiva, and his sons 
and grandsons, were Si^ihala." This passage I have translated 
afresh as Alwis's version fails to convey the original correctly. 

It indicates that Wijaya,* grandson of Si^ha, leaving his 

* It may be well here to append an amended table of the successors of 
Wijaya, which I suggest as probably correct :— 

Dcv4naQpiyatissa, B. C« 241, is a well-established date, and may be taken 

as the starting point. B. C. 

Devdnanpiyatissa ... ... ... 241 

Mutasiva ... ... ... ••• 27 1 

Pandukdhhaya ••• ... ... 306 

A*bhaya and Gunatissa ... ... ... 343 

Pan^uwasa ... .. ... ... 873 

Upatissa ... .•• ... ... 374 

Wijaya ... ••. ... ... 412 

I quite agree with Turnour in regarding the reigns of Mutasiva and 
Pandukabhaya (60 and 70) as preposterously long, and it will be seen by 
halving these we get a reduction of 65 years, which sum has proved to be 
an introduction fraudulently inserted to carry back the Wijayan era. 

I have followed the Mahdwarisa in allowing 37 years between Panduwasa 
and Pandukibhaya, though this interval is open to doubt, and I shall per- 
haps elsewhere be able to elucidate it. With reference to the reign of 
Wijaya, I follow the Mahdwar^a in giving it as 38 years. May we not 
suppose the Sulu Raja Ratndkara gives it as 30 years, because the former 
dates his reign from his accession on his father Siphab^hu's death, and the 
latter from his return from India at the head of an army to conquer the 
Island ? The new light thrown upon the subject by the Chinese accounts 
renders this explanation highly probable. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

70 JOURNAL R. A. S. (cEYLON). [Vol, VIL, Pt. II. 

younger brother Sumit to rale the paternal kingdom Si^ha- 
pura, established the kingdom of Lakdiva (La6kd), but was 
succeeded by his nephew (Panduwas D^va), son of Sumit who 
left Si^hapura to ascend the throne of Lakdiva. 

I think I can scarcely leave this part of my subject without 
alluding to another legend of the Rdjdwali that is also 
unnecessarily regarded as an idle falsehood. This is the story 
that during the life of Gautama Buddha he caused a fire to 
break out in Ceylon which drove away the Yakkhos who had 
subsequently to the Bama era taken possession of the part of 
Ceylon, where Buddha foresaw his religion would be greatly 
cherished. This fire, we are told, drove the Yakkhos to the 
sea and to the Island of Yahgiridivayinay and by depopula- 
ting the land of these Yakkhos prepared the way for its 
settlement by the race destined to introduce the Buddhist 

Let us merely suppose that Mahinda and his disciples 
learned when building their temples at Anuradhapura, that a 
former city had existed on that spot, the inhabitants of which 
were driven from the country by an excessive period of heat 
and drought, during the life-time of Buddha himself. Can we 
wonder that such enthusiastic missionaries should seize the 
tradition, and by saying the drought and heat was a fire sent 
by Buddha, and not accidentally happening during his life, 
thus obtain a hold upon the faith of the newly-converted 
people and a special halo of sanctity upon their own mission^? 
Nor in this connection must we forget the Abhayagiri monas- 
tery was itself founded on the site of an ancient temple of 
the former religion ; and that in days before the large irriga- 
tion works were constructed there is nothing whatever forced 
or improbable in the tradition of such a drought. 

♦Upham, "Sacred and Historical Books of Ceylon,'* Vol. II., pp. 169-70. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24. — 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH, KTO. 71 

I think then these legends, thus connected, are all consis- 
tent, and show that after the wars of Bdma a second race, 
the Yakkhos, intruded in Ceylon from South India, drove out 
the enfeebled Ndgas from the Anurddhapura district, as they 
spread in from the N.W. coast and the trading ports, and 
were again driven back to the Coast and Islands by excessive 
heat and incessant drought, but subsequently, and about the 
Wijayan era, an Aryan race spread back again to the interior, 
where Wijaya's descendants formed again the city to which 
their Gangetic kinsmen came to preach the law of Buddha. 

Fa-Hian naively tells us : — " This kingdom was originally 
uninhabited by man ; only demons, genii [Yakkhos] and dragons 
[Ndgas] dwelt there, NeverthelesSy merchants of other countries 
trafficked with them. When the season for the traffic came, the 
genii and demons appeared not, but set forward their previous 
commodities marked with the exact price; if these suited 
the merchants, they paid the price and took the goods. As 
these traders went, and came, and sojourned^ the inhabitants 
of other kingdoms learned that this country was very beauti- 
ful ; these also came, and eventually established a great 

Fa-Hian who went to Anurddhapura about A.D. 410 direct 
from To-mo-li-ti in the Ganges (the Tdmalitti of the Mahor- 
wansa and almost on the site of Calcutta) says that he sailed 
thence by a trade wind to Ceylon in fourteen days and nights, 
(a surprisingly short time which accounts for the frequent 
intercourse between Ceylon and the Ganges). He took pas- 
sage in one of some large vessels going on a merchant voyage 
to this Island. He proceeds to say that, arrived at Ceylon, 
" to the right and to the left there are small islets to the 
number of a hundred; their distance from each other is in 

• Laidlay's " Pilgrimage of Fa-Hian," translated from the Foe koue ki of 
MM. Remusat, Rlaproth, and Landresse, 1848, pp. 332-3. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

72 JOURNAL R. A. s. (cbylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. II. 

some cases 10 //, in others from 20 to 200 li; all are dependent 
.upon the great Island."* 

These islets answer perfectly to the islands of Jaffna, Delft, 
Iranaitfvu, &c., on the one side of the Straits of Manndr, and 
on the other to Manydr and the connected islands with Kara- 
tfvn, Ipantivu, Dutch Bay, and the long peninsula of the 
Akkara-pattu of recent geological formation, and very likely a 
line of islands in A.D. 400, and the small islets of the Puttalam 
lagoon, and the present peninsulas opposite Negombo and 
Chilaw, Fa-Hian goes on to say of the islands, " Many 
precious things and pearls are procured there." 

He further says :— " There is a district which produces the 
jewel mo-ni [a red gem probably, by the context, ruby] and 
which may be about 10 li square. The King sends people 
thither to protect it, and when they have gathered the jewels 
he takes three pieces out of every ten." 

Ten li would be three miles,* and this district of red gems 
was possibly Nuwara Eliya, and not Sabaragamuwa. 

This independent testimony of a Chinese pilgrim to Anurd- 
dhapura, in A.D. 410, is surely convincing proof that ^* the large 
ships" then traded with the North- Western coast of Ceylon as 
the emporium, and his account identifies the islands of the 
Arabian voyagers, and the King who had the hyacinth, as 
already quoted from their narratives. 

It was not until A.D. 850, when Soleyman visited it, that 
we hear of any traveller actually visiting and identifying the 
gem district, no doubt jealously guarded as a secret monopoly 
by the Kings of Anuradhapura. 

The fact that former writers overlooked our islands North 
and South of the Straits of Manner is not surprising, — they are 

* Laidlay's " Pilgrimage of Fa-Hian," translated from the Foe koue ki of 
MM. Remufat, Klaproth, and Landresse, p 330. 

♦ " Cinq li (1643 mSt,) font un peu plus d'un mille anglais (1609 m^t.)'* 
(Stanislas Julien), — Hon, Sec. 

•Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24. — 1 88 1 .] ANCIENT KALAH, BTC. 73 

SO very small upon a map, althongh as I know myself, having 
boated amongst all of them, after actual inspection, they leave 
no mean impression upon one's mind, and Fa-Hian expressly 
tells us they are quite small. 

Fa-Hian, Lmay add, returned from Ceylon to China in a 
trading boat which held 200 men, and halted for six months 
in Java, and thence he proceeded in a similar trading vessel 
direct to China.* 

' In this connection we must not lose sight of the disputed 
narrative professing to be Philo's translation of SanchonicUhon,\ 
— a narrative which to me seems beyond a doubt genuine— if not 
genuine as Sanchoniathon's, at least as that of some ancient 
traveller. The stress laid on Sanchoniathon styling Ceylon 
*Hhe island of Rachius" as an evident plagiarism from Pliny is 
to me a false argument, and the whole of his treatise on Ceylon 
is literally a correct account of an ancient journey from tlie 
Puttalam coast to a town near the modern Kurun^gala, one of 
the most ancient districts of fbrmer civilization. Philo's 
island of Rachius may clearly be ^ the Rajd's Island,' while 
Pliny's Rachia is * A'rachchiya,' an approximation at once 
perceptible. All throughout the N.W. coast of Ceylon, and 
as far in the interior as Anurddhapura and KurunAgala, the 
whole country is one continuous scene of ancient settlements. 
The extensive ruins of Tammannd Nuwara near Puttalam, and 
the adjacent town and tank of Mahd-tabuwa are known, and a 
constant succession of reservoirs and hewn stones mark the 
site of old villages and towns. 

These reservoirs are principally tanks made solely to preserve 
water, and not like the historical ones of the Buddhist annals 
as sources for 

Ion," Vol. I. pp. 571-7. 

Digitized by^ 

74 JOURNAL R. A. B. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. IL 

We can scarcely expect, however, the trading ports of the 
coast to afford ruins, such as are seen on the site of the Bud- 
dhist cities of the interior, for the trading cities on the coast 
are said to have been singularly tolerant of all religions, and 
hence it is probable none were very dominant, while the King 
being only a Viceroy his palace would be a modest one. Now, 
except temples and palaces, it is well known no other buildings 
were built in a permanent way in ancient tiroes, and so we 
must not be surprised that the trade which swept our coasts 
has left no very elaborate traces of its progress. 

Again, perhaps I may notice as singularly illustrative of the 
hereditary nature of many qualities, that the villagers in the 
Tamil Wanni and Demala-pattu preserve to this day their 
characteristic hatred of any intrusion and their love of retire- 
ment. Just as in the days of the merchant sailors of Kalah 
the Yakkhos are described as hiding from sight, and leaving 
their merchandise on the shore for exchange : so we still find 
them withdrawing their housfes from the busy high roads that 
now connect Puttalam with Kurunegala and Anurddhapura, 
and altogether abstaining from mixing in the commerce 
around them or the colonies of settlers that have come among 

I must also notice that at Kalaputti, or Kalpitiya, during 
various excavations, large quantities of coins, gold and copper, 
have been brought to light, and of the latter the commonest 
bear the name of Sdhasa Mallawa, who reigned over Ceylon in 
A.D. 1202, though the Mithdwai^sa tells us that he was deposed 
after two years,— two facts apparently at variance with each 
other and requiring explanation ; others are of Llldwati and 
Dharm&soka D6wa. 

From the vast amount of treasure buried through some miles 
of the country shortly after A.D. 1202, it is clear there must have 
been at that tim« some ^reat and unexpected calaqaity aud 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 24. — 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH, ETC. 75 

invasion, so that it is probable that when the mle of the 
Mah^rdjds of Zabedj finally collapsed and their wide domains 
fell under different sway, the protection withdrawn from Kalah 
was the cause of successful forays and inroads from the oppo- 
site coast of India or the Sinhalese capital, and that the 
wealthy community was then broken up and its trade 

Erom^ the absence of buried hoards of any extent before or 
after this date, there is no doubt no such previous invasion took 
place, and never since, for probably never again did it recover 
from the blow received. 

Within four square miles in the memory of the older people^ 
there has been found near Kalpitiya probably as much as a 
thousand pounds' worth of hidden treasure, gold coins and 
copper being the principal, but even a gold statue having been 
dug up by the father of the present Tamil Mudaliydr of the 

To conclude, I have endeavoured to show that the emporium 
of Taprobane or Serendib, from B.C. 500 until a comparatively 
recent time, was not Galle, but the coast from Mannar to the 
Deduru-oya (the Northern limit of the Mfiyd-rata ) : that it was 
separated from the capital of the Si^ihalese by jealousies that 
account for the silence of the Sinhalese chronicles : and that it 
forms the Kalah so often referred to. 

As to which point on its coast we are to regard as the 
emporium, I cannot on the data yet known decide. I incline to 
think however, that the coast around^ and opposite to^ Kalpitiya 
f&rmed the centre^ of trade^ and that the emporium was not 
one defined spot, but a cluster of petty ports all bartering the 
luxuries of the Far East for silver, and the wares of Europe, 
Persia, and Ethiopia ; while the site of Tammannd. Nuwara with 
the adjacent ruins of Mahd-tabuwa was the Capital of the ruler 
who governed under the Sultans of Zabedj. 

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76 JOURNAL R. A. S. (OEYLO^). [Vol. VIL, Pt. II. 

Biere remains only one farther matter in relation to my subject 
to which I need still refer in recapitulation, and that is the bear- 
ing on it of the ancient accounts of the inhabitants of Ceylon 
before the Aryan immigration under and subsequent to Wijaya* 

They are described as of two classes, Yakkhos and Ndgas. I 
think it is now universally accepted that N&gas were an abori- 
ginal tribe of snake worshippers, and formed, with an infusion 
of Aryan blood, the bulk of our present Sinhalese. What 
then were the Yakkhos ? Have I not succeeded in showing there 
was from the Islands of Adam's Bridge on the North, down to 
the Deduru-oya near Chilaw on the South, an ancient trading 
district forming an emporium for the East and West, and under 
a separate ruler of its own, opposed to the Chief King of the 
Ndgas at Ladkapura and the Kings who succeeded Wijaya ? 
What more natural than that the people of this colony of the 
empire of Zabedj should be the Yakkhos, or demon worshippers 
(? Saivites), as opposed to the Ndgas, or snake worshippers, who 
were the aborigines of the rest of the Island ; and what more 
probable than that as the Sinhalese of to-day represent the 
race of Ndgas, so the Tamils of the Jaffna Wanni, Eastern 
Province, and the Puttalam District represent the Yakkhos who 
held the country in which was the port, and who were opposed 
to the Ndgas who held the rest of the Island. 



I thiok the references here made to the Ceyl«n Ndgas, as snake 
worshippers, perhaps justify the following note: — 

In the Ceylon Museum will be found the pottery image of a coiled 
cobra and also what looks like a lamp. These are of a peculiar and 
heavy pottery different to any I have yet seen from Ceylon. They 
were the only relics found under a crumbling heap of brickwork 
excavated on a little quoin rock in Bintenna, and are^ as far as I know, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24.- 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH, ETC. 77 

the only such recorded relics of the Ophid, or Nagn, cnlt in Ceylon. 

I was for a long while struck with surprise that the Ophid, or 
Kaga, image should have been enclosed in a mound of brick like a 
Buddhist relic, but on reading the notes in Fa-Hian's account of the 
combination of the Buddhist with the ancient Ophid cult at Samkassa 
(chapter xvii of Laidlay's translation ) in this connection, I unex- 
pectedly found Cunningham describing the ruins of the Ophid shrine 
as follows : ** It is a small mound of ruined bricks dedicated to the 
worship of the Naga. Nothing whatever is erected there ; but 
whenever rain is desired the people proceed to the spot and pray for 
it. The period of annual worship however is the month of Bysakh, 
[? Sinhalese, Wesak, s^eec«5] just before the commencement of the 
seasonal rains, when the village women go there in procession and 
make offerings of milk, which they pour out on the spot. This is no 
doubt the identical dragon (Naga) which Fa-Hian mentions as 
appearing * once every *y ear,' from whose favour the people of Seng- 
kia-shi [this is Samkassa] obtained propitious rains and abundant 

I shall be excused for here further quoting the text of Fa-Hian 
(A.D, 400) to show the conclusive grounds for believing the Ophid 
cult actually witnessed by Captain Cunningham was practically 
identical with that witnessed by Fa-Hian. " Their stay being ended, 
the dragon assumes the form of a little serpent with two ears 
bordered with white. When the ecclesiastics perceive him, they 

present him with cream in a copper vessel He comes out once 

every year." And again ante: " It is he who confers fertility and abun- 
dance on the country by causing gentle showers to fall upon the 
fields, and securing them against all calamities.*' 

I italicise two points in these accounts as worthy of attention : the 
one is the ascendancy of ** women" in the Ophid ceremony, and the 
other is the expression " two ears bordered with white." With reference 
to the former I draw attention to the ascendancy of woman as quite 
antagonistic to the usual Indo- Aryan customs, and suggest an addi- 
tional deduction from it, that the Ophid cult was not of origin among 
an Indo-Aryan race ; as to the snake, local knowledge enables me to 

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78 JOURNAL R. A. S. (cEYLON). [Vol. VIL, Pt. 11. 

point out that there is a peonliar word always for the hood, or pene* 
of the cobra, which would have no Chinese equivalent, and which it 
would be difficult for Fa-Hian to translate or express without a very 
long explanation. No doubt Fa-Hian when he says "white ears" 
means * white sides to the hood' ; and it is well known that in India 
and Ceylon this albino, or partially albino, cobra is not very uncommon^ 
and regarded with special veneration. 

It is generally known that if enquiry be made from any intelligent 
old Sinhalese villager as to the habits of the cobra, he states that it 
has a special passion for new milk, and can always be enticed from 
its lurking place by a bowl of this delicacy. Are we to regard this 
belief as arising from fact, and originating milk as the offering made 
to the Naga P or has a tradition that milk is the offering made given 
rise to the popular belief ? 

This is a most interesting question, and it is much to be wished 
one of our Members would experiment and report on the attraction 
milk or cream may, or may not, possess for the cobra. 

In this connection I have asked my friend Mr. Haly, Director of the 
Ceylon Museum, if possible, to exhibit the Naga and lamp presented 
by me to the Museum at the reading of this Paper, and also to 
exhibit for me two especially fine and ancient masks of the mythical 
King and Queen of the Nagas procured by me in the interior of the 
Southern Province, and still in my collection. I think it is possible 
what appears to be a lamp (found just in front of the snake) is ia 
reality the dish for the offering of milk. 


This Paper is so largjely mixed up with matter extracted from 
Fa Hian's travels, that the following notes on his account of Ceylon 
may be here appended : — 

(i.) Firstly, observe the hitherto (as far as I know) neglected 
passage in which he, a devout Buddhist Priest, says the tradition in 
A. D. 400 was that the sacred B6 tree was grown at Anurddhapura 

♦ S. ©o®5:f, * the cobra's hood,' and e««)eK5)5©, perwgoba, * the inside 
of the extended hood.'— ^on. Sec, 


No. 24.— 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH, ETC. 79 

from '* seeds'' specially fetched from theGangetic District. Fa-Hian's 
careful account of it throws much doubt on the otherwise miraculous, 
and to a horticulturist improbable, story, that the tree was a cutting 
from the original. No doubt, I think, the Siyhalese chronicles 
have been tampered with, and the origin of the tree embellished 
since Fa-Hian wrote. 

(ii.) " The Mountain without Fear" is correctly identified in the 
notes to Laidlay's edition (p. 342) as the Abhayagiri Vihdr6. 

(iii.) With regard to the chapel " Po-thiy' should we not read this 
*' Bodhi" ? The Samanean's name we may safely read as " Dharma- 
joti," for Tha'tnO'ktH-ti as it id written in Chinese — a language 
unfitted to express Sanscrit more precisely. The " stone house" in 
which Dharmajoti lived with his rats and snakes is no doubt the 
literal rendering of *cave,' still called by the Sinhalese gaUge, cr^s^csf, ' 
* stone house.' 

(iv.) Who were " the merchants Sappho'* ? I think this is worth 
enquiring, but, as far as I can see, the word must be a Chinese sub- 
stitute for the original. 

(v.) As to the statue at the Abhayagiri Vihar^ made of " blue 
jasper" and over 18 feet high, of what was the lustrous image really 
made ? It is not conceivable so large a block of lapis lazuli could 
have found its way to Ceylon irom North Asia, nor have turquoise 
or sapphire ever been heard of of such size. 

The only approximate artificial product then known was the rare 
and beautiful blue glass used for the celebrated Portland vase, and 
the Theban pottery coated with a brilliant blue enamel like turquoise, 
of which small gods and amulets form the exquisite speciality of 
Egyptian antiquity. Is it possible this statue was made in Egypt 
for sale in Ceylon ? Or that an ancient Egyptian god was brought ta 
Ceylon for sale after its worship had died out in Egypt. 

Any fragment with blue enamel on it found among the debris near 
the Abhayagiri Vihar^ should be carefully preserved, as its origia 
could at once be decided if Egyptian, and by encouraging a further 
search of the debris might lead to the partial recovery of an unique 

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80 JOURNAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. II. 

(vi.) It is also desirable to nofe the tradition that the '* great 
tower 40 chang* high" (? the Brazen Palace) was built over a 
footstep of Buddha. 

(vii.) The visit of I he King to the Treasury of the Priesthood 
where the coveted " J/o-»t" (?ruby) was kept, will be found 
described in the Sinhalese chronicles, which, if my memory can be 
trusted, say the treasure chamber was under a Dagoba to which they 
had access by a secret passage. 

(viii.) Fa-Hian describes the Dalad& temple at Anuradhapura in 
A. D. 410, as decorated *• with the seven precious things." It may 
not be out of place to draw attention to the Chinese interpretation 
of these. (See Fa Hian, Laidlay's edition, chapter xiii, and note 
(4) by Klaproth.) 

Two series are here given from the Chinese Buddhist writings, but 
I think they are scarcely in each case rightly translated, and propose 
the following corrections : — 

First series. 

1, — Sou'fa-lo — (suvama;=gold. 

2. — A' lou-pa — (r 6piy a)=si 1 ver. 

3. — Lieou-li — in the Kouan-king-seu called Fel-lieou-li-yey^hich 
signifies " not far." This is explained as identical with Vatdurya 
(Sanscrit) —the mountain Vidura on which Vatdurya was found 
being " not far" («. c, " Vidura") from Benares. Bumouf translated 
Vatdurya as "lapis lazuli." This I think is wrong. The hardness, 
the colour (green or blue), and the locality, all point to Oriental 
turquoise as the mineral here denoted, and there can be little doubt 
LieoU'li mxifii be read ** turquoise" and not " lapis lazuli." I doubt 
the identification with Vatdurya^ which I have always elsewhere 
construed as corundum or sapphire. 

4. — Pho-li, or Se-pho-ti-kia (6phatika)=rock crystal. 

5. ^^Meou-pho-lo-kie-la-pho. This is star sapphire or asteria, not 
fossil, ammonite as somewhat wildly conjectured ; the rays of the 

* " A chang is a measiure of 10 Chinese feet, and the Chinese foot is 8 
lines shorter than ours." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 24.— 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH, BTC. 81 

star foim the spokes of the wheel. May we not recognise in the 
wheel formed by the star on a round gem of asteria, the sacred 
symbol of the wheel, which accounts for the present belief among 
some Oriental races that there is a god in the asteria^ although they 
have forgotten the reason for their superstition^ and substitute the 
god for the symbol ? 

6.— Jf o- lo-kiiz- /t=»agate . 

7. — Po-mo-lo-hia (padmardga)=ruby. 

We must here notice this ancient origin of the still existing Ceylon 
superstition, that the finest rubies lie in the head of cobras. This 
extraordinary myth seems to have been an accepted matter when the 
Chinese authors wrote. 

May we not now translate this myth as simply the exaggerated 
form that arose when the Indo-A'ryan races began to confuse the 
Ndgas (of^id cult) and Yakkhos (perhaps an early form of Saivites) 
with actual snakes and demons, in which secondary sense the original 
name of the races evidently came after a time jto be used by the 
A'ryan invaders ?* It might then simply mean, the Nagas with whom 
rubies are found in a secret and jealously guarded place, instead of 
the rubies hidden in the head of the cobras and jealously guarded, as 
we have recently been too literally interpreting it. 

Second Series. 

1 — Po./o.5o=»(prabala) coral. Here I ask your attention to 

the Chinese account, that it was found on an Island to the S.W. [of 

the Gangetic countries or ? of China] and dredged by iron nets from 

submerged rocks [evidently at a great depth, or divers would have 

♦ " Naglok (snake land) was at an early period a Hindd name for hell. 
But the Ndgas were not real snakes— in that case they might have fared 

better- "" ' 

serpent c 

very vaguely. Mr. Talboys 
(History of India, Vol. I p. 147), says : - ' In process of time these Ndgas 
became identified with serpents, and the result has been a strange confusion 
between serpents and human beiniis.' In the * Padma Parana' we read of 
* serpent-like men.' The dreaded powers wfere from another tribe desig- 
nated YakhhoB * demons; "—Conway, " Demonology and Devil-lore," 
Vol.1., f, im.'^Bm.SeQ. 

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82 JOURNAL R. A. S. (cBYLON). [Vol, VII., Pt. IL 

been employed]. This account agrees with fact. On the S.W. coast 
of Ceylon at Balapi^iya, a considerable quantity of small pieces of 
valuable red coral, much water- worn, are annually washed up during 
the S.W. monsoon. The site on which it grows is no longer known, 
possibly it'may come from a great distance S.W. of our coast, though 
I am inclined to think not from such a distance as the Maldives. 

I have asked Mr. Haly to exhibit some coral picked up by me as 
above described. 

2. — A-^hy-ma-kie-pho (? asmagarbha). This is I think wrongly 
identified as amber. This transparent red substance should be 
translated carbuncle or garnet. It was in carbuncle that ancient 
Indian intaglios were cut, the translucency of the stone when cut 
thin giving great efiect to the workmanship. 
3. — Ma-ni or »to-»2=pearl. 

4. — Chin-shou-kia — a gem like the flower of the kimsuka tree 
(Butea frondosd) [see First Book, Indian Botany, 011iver],that is of 
an orange red colour. This unidentified substance should be trans- 
lated Oriental topaz (yellow, pink or orange corundum), one variety of 
which satisfactorily answers to the description. 

5. — Shy-kia-pi'ling-kia — not translated. This may be read 
diamond. The word ^^ pi-ling -kia'^ is evidently of common origin 
from Sanskrit, with the modern Sinhalese palingu (o§C!b), which is 
used for crystal, 

6. — Mo'lO'kia-pho — translated marakata, or emerald. I would 
suggest another interpretation of chrysoberyl, or cat's-eye. 

The Indian cat's-eye (quartz) is of remarkable softness, and is cut 
even by a pen-knife. The two forms of cat's-eye may have been 
confused. Has the Chinese form " Mo-lo-kia" any origin in the 
Indo-A'ryan word "soft" (S. molok^ ©^s^a^c^iesJ) ? lam not myself 
scholar enough to say whether this word was then used in the Gan- 
getic District in the sense of softness — easy to cut. The same word 
occurs above possibly in Mo-lo-kia-H (agate), from which we learn 
vases were cut. I recall a passage in some old Oriental book — I 
forget which, but think it is in the Ummagga Jataka — in which this 
word moloka is used in 'reference to the softness of a thigh as a 
pillow. Perhaps oue of ovir Members may be abje to rectify mj 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24. — 1881.] ANCIENT KALAH, ETC. 83 

ignorance by stating whether such a word for * soft' was in Indo-A'ryan 
usage in above sense of ' easy to cut.' 

7. — Pa-che-lo. — This is translated vajra, or diamond, and is 
clearly erroneous. The colour, we are told, is like that of an amethyst 
and the stone is used for engraving others. It must be translated 
sapphire or corundum. 

We have in these (what the learned annotators of course could 
not see with the imperfect light then thrown on the minerals) a 
parallel series in colour, thus : — 
^ . , f gold=Oriental topaz^? sun=»? life. 
® lsilver==pearl«=? moon=? death, 

r Crystal=diamond=? ether. 
I Asteria=(emerald or) cat's-eye«»? air. 
Five elements -{ Turquoi8e==8apphire=? water. 
I Ruby=carbuncle='? fire. 
L Agate«=coral=? earth. 
Both gold and silver have in the ancient books one four-fold attribute, 
of which ** changeless," *' indestructible," " incorruptible," and "omni- 
potent" would be the euphonious transcription. 

*' The seven precious things" might thus symbolise the five ele- 
Ijaents :~ eiker which is supported by (? generating) air, air supported 
by C? generating )^re resting on water, and water supported by (gen- 
erating) earth f all adorned by the attributes of gold and silver : that 
is changeless, indestructible, incorruptible, and omnipotent, in one 
sense, and combined with light—*, e., sun and moon — in another. 
This is a well-known ancient symbol of the elements. 
A, ether — B, air — C, fire — D, water — ^and E, earth — which, by 
adoption among Buddhists give rise to the present Ddgobas, 
originally no doubt erected over his remains, and sym- 
^lically used to show the return of Gautama Buddha 
to the five primitive and indestructible elements. We 

B should thus have the shape of the Ddgoba borrowed from 
the symbol of creation of an older cult by the Buddhists, 
and iurtber illustration of it by the seven precious ornaments. 

In addition, then, to the question of the colours probably symbol- 
ising the five elements with neither beginning nor end, I would suggest 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

84 JOUBNAL R. A. 8. (cEYLON). [VoI. VII., PL It. 

the study amongst our Members of the question, whether in our 
ancient records there is any account showing that the five colours 
were applied separately to the different parts of the Stupa or Da- 
goba, which I suggest they may symbolise. Thus, whether the 
rectangular case was painted red, the dome was painted blue, &c. 

It is quite possible the colouring pf a Stupa may have been so 
arranged and a record preserved thereof. 

To recapitulate. I suggest these ** seven precious things" are the 
symbol of a cult which taught that the five elements combined with 
light (sun and moon) are the origin of all things and source of creation. 
In detail we may read the symbol that by action of (light causing) 
fire ( heat) on water resting on earth proceeds air penetrated by the 
apex of the triangle of fire (heat), above which rests ether from which 
the triangle fire radiates but into which it does not enter ; thus giving 
us in ether, or the firmament above our atmosphere, combined with 
sun and moon, or light, the creative power which shaped the earth 
into its four other distinct elements. Bearing this in mind, a special 
interest will follow the work of local students, who will take the 
trouble to record the exact shape of the various Stupas or Ddgo- 
bas still existent, or adequately described in ancient rec(H*ds, as they 
gradually diverged from the primitive type. 

My view of the original Buddhist symbolised theoi^ of creation, 
here suggested, accounts for the early Buddhist writers classing 
the theory of creation of the contemporary sect they call "fitrong- 
mouth" as an heresy. This sect, existing in and established 
before the lifetime of Gautama Buddha, taught that ether begat air, 
air begat fire^ — fire, heat — heat, water— water, ice — and the ice solidi- 
fied begat earth — and earth begat five kinds of grain, which pi:<3tduce 
life, which when ended returns to ether. 

It will be seen then " the hsresy" would consist in the ipterp6la- 
tion of a glacial period in the earths stage of development into dry 
laud, and the mediation of vegetation derived from land ; thus the 
meaning veiled in the seven precious things of early Buddhism is 
closely akin — but brings in the action of sun and moon, and omits 
glacial and vegetable influence on creation. 

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No. 24.— 1881.] sii^HALKSE kalAwa. 86 


By L. Nell, Esq. 

Some time ago my attention was drawn to the belief of the 
common people amongst the Sinhalese in the kaldwa (ajgo©). 
This, according to the impression left on my mind, was some 
moveable principle or predisposition, moving in a certain 
coarse in the human body in accordance with the lunar calendar. 
The believers in the kaldwa assert, that when it is in position 
on the crown of the head, the scratch of a pin on that part 
would be sufficient to cause death ; so, on the day -of this 
kaldwa, women in some parts of the interior of the Island 
will decline to carry loads of firewood on the head. In like 
manner, on the new moon day labourers will not go into the 
jungle to clear it, on account of the risk of injuries to the toe 
of the foot. On the 6th day of the first half, and the 10th 
day of the second half, of the lunar month, it is considered 
dangerous to take a purgative medicin?, the seat of the kaldwa 
being then supposed to be in the belly. On the 7th day leeches 
should not be applied to the region of the chest. 

In the case of a marty the kaldwa rises, with the moon, from 
the big toe of the right foot, from part to part, till, on the 
15th day of the moon, it reaches the crown of the head. It 
then descends in corresponding parts on the left side, till, on 
the 30th day, it reaches the big toe of the left foot, ready again 
to ascend on the right side. In the case of a womariy the 
movement is reversed, since it ascends on the left side and 
descends on the right, the positions being otherwise the same : 
that is, the kaldwa ascends from the left great toe upwards 
to the crown of the head, then descends by the same degrees 
to the right toe. This corresponds to a principle Jn native 

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86 JOURNAL R. A. s. (cbylon). [Vol. VIL, Pt. II. 

palmistry, according to which the fortune of a male is told 
from the lines on his right hand, of a female from those on the 
left hand* 

I found subsequently that Tables of the kaldwa had been 
published in a Sheet Almanac, printed in a native vernacular 
press in Galle,—in a Sinhalese Epheraeris for the year, printed 
in a pamphlet of 54 pages, — and in a Sheet Almanac published 
by the press of the Lakrlviklrana newspaper. Though this 
led to the idea that the subject was well known, I was surprised 
to find discrepancies when the Tables were translated. This 
led me to make personal enquiries during a short visit to the 
Bentota District, where I questioned the learned priest, Koho- 
mala Indusara, and a native Vedardla or medical practitioner. 
I was surprised to find that the latter had little or no know- 
ledge of a subject so important, apparently, in native medical 

In the discussion with the priest, a difficulty arose from 
his division of the lunar month into sixteen kald; namely, 
(1) Amawaka^ cf9o©85), the day on which the moon does not 
appear ; (2) P^lamya, o^sSoo, the day on which the moon 
first appears ; (3) Dlyawaka, iJooS^S), the second day ; (4) 
Tiyawakay ^o3©S3, the third day ; (5) Jalatcaka, e5@S«5, 
fourth; (6) FFisewiya, 8@Fd^Q0, fifth; (7) Satawaka^ O3C>0S); 
(8) SatcCToaka, ootJ^Qs) ; (9) Atawaka, cp©S«a ; (10) Namawaha^ 
«^®©855; (11) Dasawaka, qwSasi ; {\2) Ekaloswaka, ^ts^- 
®^(garf©2a ; (13) Dojoswaka, ©<!i<5(gori©2S5 ; (14) Teleswaka,^tS) 
^(§jtiQ2S^;{}5) Tuduswaka, ^go53^; and (16) Pasaloswaka, 

This, of course, omitting the day on which the moon does 
not appear, is the lunar calendar— the full moon with the 
common people being known as the pahaloswaka-poya (oto^go 
tJ©2S> ©oJoe) or ^poya of the 15th lunar day.' The counting 
of the kald on which the moon does not appear introduces a 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24. — 1881.] siJSTHALESE kalIwa. 87 

difficulty, since the kaldwa can ordinarily be only counted with 
30 lunar days. The sixteen kald, enumerated by the priest, 
therefore refer to the intervals between these " days," and 
correspond to the 16th part of the disc of the moon, which 
will be referred to in a definition to be here quoted. 

In the month duriog which I was making these enquiries, 
the new moon had risen on Wednesday, the 30th of March, 
at 3*52 P.M. : the first quarter, on Wednesday, the 6th of April, 
at 9*14 P.M. : the full moon on the next Thursday, at 5*9 p.m. : 
and the last quarter moon on Thursday, the 28th of April, at 
3*44* P.M. So that, even taking the particulars given in an 
English Almanac, it must be a matter of difficulty for ordinary 
natives to fix the exact time of the commencement and close 
of each kaldwa^ granting that it corresponds with a particular 
lunar day. This probably led to the neglect of this part of the 
native science in the empirical practice of the Vedai^dlas. It 
will also appear that even with the assistance of the native 
Tables (translations of which are appended), the science will 
be of difficult application till the limits of each kaldwa are 
more accurately limited. The duration of a particular kaldwa 
may, of course, be roughly recognized during some part of a 
lunar day, and the most ignorant native is usually aware of 
the principal phases of the moon from the practice of faithfully 
observing the poya days. 

L. De Zoyza, Maha-Mudaliyar, after kindly making en- 
quiries at my request, wrote :— " I have received the explanation 
of two of the best Vedardlas here about the kaldwa; but they 
are somewhat contradictory, and I cannot make much sense 
of them. The truth is that their ideas of the matter are 
very vague." 

Under these circumstances the derivation of the term is 
calculated to throw some light on the subject. According to 
the priest, i^lreadjr referred to, the term kald may be Sanskrit, 

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88 JOURNAL R. A. s. (cbylon). [Vol. VIL, Pt IL 

Pdli, or Elu, and means ^ a share.' De Zoyza, MaharMudaliy^r, 
pronounces it a Sanskrit, or Pali word, to which the following 
meanings have been given in the Dictionaries : — (i) * a part' ; 
(ii) ^ a fraction' ; (iii) 'the 16th part of the Moon's disc'; (iv) *a 
mechanical act;' (v) * a division of time.' The kald, C503, or 
Kaldma, WqdS, in Sinhalese, of which we are now treating, 
hej' renders as Hhe sixteenth part, or digit, of the moon's 
disc, which in some mysterious way ascends and descends in 
the human body.' As it is always difficult to apply a term of 
one language to translate a term of another accurately, each 
in its native use being associated with ideas foreign to the 
other, we must modify this definition. I think my original 
conception will consist with taking kalarva as a derivative 
from kald, and the idea obtained will therefore be, that of 
some moving principle, or local predisposition, following a 
course in the human body in relation to the course of the moon 
in her increase and decrease. 

In the examination of the calendar of the kaldrcay many 
discrepancies occur in the various versions received by me. I 
propose to add translations of the two published versions, as 
they are probably more generally accepted on account of their 
publication. The principal discrepancies in the various 
accounts are in the fourth kalawa^ described as " the calf or 
*' the knee-cap" ; the eleventh described as " the lip," "the 
lower lip," "the cheek." This second discrepancy may spring 
from the general application of the term tola ^tr^og to the 
region of the fore-teeth, the lips, cheek, and chin. 

But besides these discrepancies in details, I found that my 
original information, disti nguishing the MuUkaldwa^ ^(^^©3© 
from the Amrita-kaldwa, cpSat5>fS)@39 (erroneously called 
MrzUa-kaldwaj e)a6>8S)(3D£)) was altogether wrong. It 
appears that in Sinhalese popular medical works the Amrita- 
kaldtva me&na literally ' the ambrosial' or * good' kaldmi.. The 

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No. 24.— 1881.] si]^HALESE kalIwa. 89 

Visa-kaldwa, 8w;5S5@dS, I would translate as Hhe baneful 
(literally, ^ poisonous') kaldwa.^ It will be seen in the Table 
taken from the Lakrivikirana Sheet Almanac that the Fm- 
kaldwa is said to ascend on the left side in males, and on the 
right in females. This Table and that from the Lita or 
Ephemeris for the year give both the Visorkaldnxi and Amrita" 
kaldwa, which I have not obtained from other sources. There 
can be no doubt that the MuUkaldwaj commonly spoken of, is 
the same as the Amrita-kaldwa. The Siigihalese Lita (page 
60) advises that if the Amrita-kaldwa locates itself in any part 
of the body, care should be taken of it, as " life" then chiefly 
exists in it. In the case of Visa-kaldroa it is asserted that 
any wound or hurt to the part where it is located will bring 
calamity or death. The distinction of eflfect is not very clear, 
except that a hurt in the latter case appears to be considered 
as more directly baneful. The only explanations remaining to 
be made are : first, that when the kaldwa is in the arm- 
pit or shoulder, the whole arm and hand are involved ; and 
secondly, that the Amritorhaldrm moves at a certain distance 
from the Visa-kaldwa. 

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00 JOURNAL R. A. S. CEYLON. [Vol. Vll., Pt. II. 


The Kaldwa Table appearing 


in the Sheet Almanac of the Lakri- 

vikirana is as follows : — 

Ascending Visa-kaldwa, 

Ascending Amrita-kaldwa. 

«S^ S63£aC3&* 

^S& ^®9^«3)C33* 

1 Toe 


1 Toe (bottom) 


2 Instep 


2 Toe (back) 


3 Calf 


3 Heel 


4 Knee-cap ... 


4 Calf 


5 Ydniyi 


5 Knee-cap ... 


6 Middle of belly 


6 Hip, waist. 

or loins ... 


7 Pap 


7 Near Ydniya 


8 Ann-pit 


8 Ydniye ... 


9 Neck 


9 Abdomen ... 


10 Cbin 


10 Palm of hand 


11 Lip ... 


11 Pap 


12 Root of tooth 


12 Shoulders ... 


13 Upon eye 


13 Neck 


14 Forehead ... 


14 Lip 


15 Crown of head 


15 Crown of head 

I §»§g(sv«:f 

Descending Visa-kaldwa, 

16 Crown of head 9ttg§<s^es:f 

(right) {<i^^) 

17 Forehead ... eJDC^^d 

18 Eye ... ^l<?«^ 

19 Lip ... «^oiJc§0 

20 Root of teeth i^ogc 

21 On the chin seeogB^ 

Descending Amrita-kaldwa, 
1 6 Forehead . . . «j© ?d 

17 Ear 

18 Neck 

19 Shoulder 

20 Pap 


21 Back of hand e8<pd«^d 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24.— 1881.] SINHALESE KALAWA, 


22 Neck 


22 Palm of hand ^fi^d^d'^d 

23 Arm-pit ... 


23 Stomach ... 


24 Pap 


24 Back 


26 Middle stomach ®S)®t^ 

25 Knee-cap... 


26 Ydniye ... 


26 Instep 


27 Knee-cap... 


27 Heel 


28 Calf 


28 Sole of foot 


29 Instep 


29 Below toe 

©DtjecBdy^d CS0 

30 Toe 


30 Back of toe 

S)3O0cSd$^d C«^ 

** Visd-kalawa commences from the left side in males : from the 
right side in/ema/e*.'*^ 

The following Tables, taken from the Lila or Ephemeris'published 
at Galle by one Philip De Silva, an Astrologer, must explain them- 
selves : -- 

The manner in which the Visa-kaldwa 

Moves up. 

Moves down. 




In Males. 

In Females. 


In Males. 

In Females. 




Left ear 

Right ear 


Left neck 

Right neck 


„ mouth 

„ mouth 


„ pap 



„ nose 

„ nose 


„ heart 

,, heart 


>» eye 



M belly 

„ belly 


„ eyebrow 

„ eyebrow 


„ linguva 

„ ydni 


„ head 

„ head 


,, knee 

„ knee 


Kight head 

Left head 


„ ankle 

„ ankle 


,» eyebrow 

„ eyebrow 


,, sole 

„ sole 


» eye 

» eye 


„ toe 

„ toe 


„ nose 

„ nose 


Right toe 

Left toe 


„ mouth 

,, mouth 


,, sole 

„ sole 


„ ear 

„ ear 


„ ankle 

„ ankle 


„ neck 

„ neck 


„ knee 

„ knee 


„ pap 



,, rahase 

,, rahase 


,, heart 

„ heart 


„ belly 

„ belly 

• Abbreviation of Am^waka {(^^^SSi) i. e, no moon or visible disk. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



The manner in which the Amrita-kaldwa 

Ascends from the first appearance 

Descends after the Full | 

of the Moon. | 



From the toe of 

From the toe of 


From the left 

From the right 


the right foot 

the left foot 


of the head of 

of tlie head of 


of Males. 

of Females. 





Right head 

Left head 


Left head 

Right head 


„ forehead 

„ forehead 


^, forehead 

yy forehead 





„ eye 



„ nose 

„ nose 


,, nose 

„ nose 


„ cheek 

„ cheek 


„ cheek 

„ cheek 


„ ear 



„ ear 



„ neck 

9, neck 


„ neck 

,y neck 


>, pap 

,, pap 


>, pap 

,, pap 


„ heart 

„ heart 


„ heart 

„ heart 


„ navel 

„ navel 


„ navel 

„ navel 


„ linguva 

„ ydni 


y^ linguva 

„ ydni 


„ calf 



„ calf 



„ ankle 

„ ankle 


„ ankle 

9, ankle 


„ sole 

„ sole 


„ sole 

„ sole 


„ foot 

„ toe 



„ toe 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 24.— 1881.] ORIGIN OF THE VEDDAS. 93 




By Louis De Zoysa, Mahd-Mudaliyfir. 

{Read July ^th, 1881.; 

In submitting the following Note to the Society, it is not 
my intention to enter upon the vexed question of the origin of 
the Veddds, but simply to call attention to an important pas- 
sage in the Mahdwa^so relating thereto, the true meaning of 
which has been long hidden from the readers of that work by 
an erroneous rendering in Mr. Tumour's translation. 

The 6th chapter of the Mahfiwaijso gives an account of the 
arrival of Vijayo, the first monarch of the Sinhalese dynasty, 
B. C. 543. The 7th chapter relates his encounter with an 
aboriginal Princess named Kuveni, how he married her, and how 
he conquered the Island by her means. 

When she had borne him two children, a son named Jiva- 
hatto and a daughter named Blsdla, the King wished to divorce 
her and marry a Princess from Southern Madura. For this 
purpose he sent ambassadors to King Pandavo of Madura, 
soliciting his daughter in marriage, and duly obtained his con- 
sent. On the arrival of the Princess from-India, Vijayo "thus 
explained himself to Kuw^ni : ^ A daughter of royalty is a 
timid being ; on that account, leaving the children with me, 
depart from my house.' She replied : ' On my account, having 
murdered Yakkhos, I dread these Yakkhos ; now I am discarded 

(^ It is due to Mr. De Zojsa to record that he had no opportuniQr of 
perusing the Papers on the V^ddds — only very recently received from 
England— of Messrs. J. Bailey (Trans. Ethnological Soc, Vol. II. «.«., Art. 
xxvi., 1863), and B. F. Hartshorne (Fortnightly Review, Art v, March, 
1876), prior to writing the " Note** now printed. Mr. De Zoysa's Paper has 
been delayed, whilst in the press, to enable the Honorary Secretary to add 
(necessarily as Notes) some extracts bearing thereon. 

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94 JOURNAL R. A. S, CEYLON. [Vol. Vll^ Pt. 11. 

by both parties, whither can I betake myself?' 'Within 
my dominions/ said he, * to any place thou pleasest, which is 
unconnected with Yakkhos ; and I will maintain thee with a 
thousand bali offerings.' She who had been thus interdicted 
(from re-uniting herself with the Yakkhos) with clamorous 
lamentation, taking her children with her, in the character of 
an inhuman being, wandered to that very city (Lankdpura) 
of inhuman inhabitants. She left her children outside the 
Yakkha city. A Yakkho who detested her, recognising her 
in her search for a dwelling, went up to her. Thereupon 
another fierce Yakkho, among the enraged Yakkhos, asked : 
' Is it for the purpose of again and again spying out the peace 
we enjoy that she is come?' In his fury he killed the 
Yakkhini with a blow of his open hand. Her uncle (a Yakkho 
named Kumdro) happening to proceed out of the Yakk'ha 
city, seeing these children outside the town — ' Whose children 
are ye ?' said he. Being informed ' Kuw^ni's,' he said : ' Your 
mother is murdered : if ye should be seen here, they would 
murder you also — fly quickly.' Instantly departing thence, 
they repaired to the (neighbourhood of the) Sumanta moun- 
tain. The elder having grown up, married his sister, and 
settled there. Becoming numerous by their sons and daugh- 
ters, under the protection of the King they resided in that 
Malayd district. This person ( Jiwahatto) retained the attri- 
butes of the Yakkhos."* 

Now, I submit that the rendering of the words " d<5»3 
g@>2D^«oQS 03®e^^©D" [^Eso pulinddnan hi sambkavo] by "this 
person (Jiwahatto) retained the attributes of the Yakkhos," is 
erroneous, and that the words should be rendered " This is the 
origin of the PulindA'' —i. e., the Veddds.^ 

♦ Tumour's « Mahdwa^so,'' Vol. I., p. 52 : Cotta, 1837. Followed by 
Forbes* ''Eleven Years in Ceylon/* Vol. II., p. 81 ; Pridham's "Ceylon, &c.," 
Vol. I , p. 27 ; and Tennent's »' Ceylon," Vol. I , p. 371. — Hon. Sec. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24.— 1881.] ORIGIN OF THE veiddAs. 96 

In the first place, the word "gS^2D^" [jPulindd] which Mr. 
Tumour renders by "Yakkhos" (who are supposed to be 
supernatural beings), is never applied to Yakkhos, but means 
Veddds. The following is the meaning given by. Professor H. 
H. Wilson in his Dictionary of the Sanskrit language, p. 545 : 
" S. V. Pulinda, a barbarian ; a ml6chch'ha ; a savage or 
mountaineer ; one who uses an uncultivated and unintelligible 
dialect, &c."2 The Sinhalese vocabulary, the Ndmdvaliya^ 
gives " Pulindu'' as one of the synonyms for Veddds, 

[Vedi, mal, pulindu, vanasara (nam veddanta).] 

Strangely, this word does not occur in the Pdli language. 
It is not found in the Abhidkdnappadipikdj the only author- 
ized vocabulary of the Pdli language, nor in Childers' Pdli 
Dictionary, nor in any other Pali work I have seen. But this 
need not excite much surprise, as Sanskrit words, not found in 
the Pdli vocabulary, are sometimes found in Pdli writings; 
e, g.y in this very chapter of the Mahdwaigiso the word 
" g35joC20o" \_8urunga\, which is pure Sanskrit and not found 
in the Pdli vocabulary, is used for a " subterraneous abode." 

In the second place, "03©K5®e)D'* \sambhavo]y which Mr. 
Tumour translates "attributes," means, according to Childers' 
Pdli Dictionary (p. 431), "production, birth, originy cause, 
union, &c., &c." 

The demonstrative adjective "d^wo" [eso] (nom. sing, 
m.) Mr. Tumour refers to Jiwahatto understood, but the more 

* Alwis' Ndmdvaliya^ p. 59> v. 225. Colombo, 1858. As also the Nava' 
ndmavaliyay p. 14, v. 109 : — 

Veddanta ... Sahara, v§df, pulindu^ vanasara, maladaru (da) 

Milindu, l^vi (m^ nam sata v^diha^a nami da). 

Note by Hon. Sec, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

06 JOURNAL R. A 8. CEYLON. [Vol. VIL, Vt II. 

nataral construction, I think, is to connect it with the noun 
mmbhato (nom. sing, m.) "origin." 

I discovered this erroneous rendering many years ago, but 
for obvious reasons I have refrained from calling public atten- 
tion to it. The truth is, I was extremely reluctant to do so 
from fear that I might unwittingly lead others to think that 
Tumour's translation of the Mahawa^iso is generally incorrect. 
Such is not my opinion. The few mistakes found in this great 
work are mere " spots on the sun," and I do not think there is 
a better translation of a historical work in the East. It is not 
too much to say that this " gifted Englishman" has, by his 
writings and researches, undoubtedly done more for the develop- 
ment of the historical literature of India and Ceylon than all 
his predecessors and successors, both European and native. 

My belief is, that Mr. Tumour's Kandyau Pandits, not know- 
ing the meaning of this unusual word "g(ga^"[P«^?mrfa] which, 
as I stated above, is not found in the Pdli vocabulary, erro- 
neously interpreted it to mean ^'Yakkho''^ instead of ^'Vedddy 

I may here add that I have had the satisfaction of discover- 
ing that my reading is confirmed by the Commentary on the 
Mah&wa^so, which has the following gloss on the passage in 
question : — 

"g(g«^«oQB wS)e^<58o« d36c8ffi33©<^ fs^^64^^tA o9:s®3 
^«3 §g(g«[^«o cp^a^wo <3^®a «^«S ©8og ocdSo ded 

8« Cp(5S&3." 

^^Pulinddnan hi sambhavotu Etthahikaro k&ranatthe. Yasm&te 
Fulindana^ &di purisa hutva tattha vasipu. Tasmd ettha Pulindina^ 
eso sambhavo ayuppattiti vinfieyyo ahosi ti attbo." 

^* ^ Pulindatian hi sambhavoti.* — Here the letter * hi^ signifies 
* cause' or * reason.' On what account did they, becoming the pro- 
genitors {ddi purisd) of the Pulindd, reside here (Malaya Division), 
on that account it should be known that this is the origin, first 
existence, of the Pulindd.^* 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24.-1881.] ORIGIN OF TOE v^ddAs. 97 

It will be seen from the above exegesis that they (Ku- 
vgni's children, Jlwahatto and Disdla) are spoken of by the 
commentator as "the progenitors" [^A'di purisa]^ of the 
Pulindas (Veddas). 

I am, moreover, in a position to add that the tradition that 
the Veddds are the descendants of Kuv6ni's children by 
Vijayo, is still current in some parts of the Kandyan country. 
In 1879, when 1 visited the Ratnapnra and U va Districts to 
inspect Temple Libraries, I made it a point to collect informa- 
tion about the Veddas, whenever an opportunity occurred. 
When at Pelmadulla Vih4r6, I enquired from the incumbent, 
Induruw^ Piyadassi Unndns^, whether he knew anything about 
the origin of the Veddds, and, to my surprise, he said at once 
that the tradition is tkat they are descendants of Kuveni*8 
children by Vijayo. On my enquiry, whether he had read the 
passage in the Mahdwapso which forms the subject of this 
note, he replied he had never seen it, but that his information 
was derived from a Sinhalese work on the Veddds, which he had 
seen long ago in the possession of a native. He added that, 
according to that work, the Veddds first settled in Sabara- 
gamuwa, and hence the name for the district from Sahara 
* a Veddfi,' and gamuroa ^ a Village,' in strict conformity with 
the tradition, recorded in the Mahdwapso, that Kuveni's chil- 
dren settled themselves in the country near Samantaktita 
mountain (Adam's Peak), and became "numerous by their sons 
and daughters."^ I made every possible endeavour, both at 
Ratnapnra and Badulla, to trace the work referred to, but 
unfortunately without success. 

When at Badulla, a low-country Sinhalese man, who had 
travelled much in Bintenna, and from whom I collected infor- 
mation about the Veddds, their songs, charms, &c., also stated 
the tradition current in. Bintenna is ^ that the Veddda are 
descendants of Krtv^ni's children.' ' He further informed me 
that the Veddds themselves claim to be descendants of royalty. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


and considered the Siighalese, whom they call ^Hingalu^' to be an 
inferior race.* 


No. 1. 

Uda kadan^ mal pipi 
Pail^ ka(Jan6ta vetin ^ 
Fall^ kadda6 mal pipi 
Uda ka4an6ta vetig6 

U4a nil vinn6 ii& mal pipi 
Pall^ nk vinnata v^tigo 
Pall6 nd vinn6 nd mal pipi 
Uda nft Tinnaja vetig6 

Flowers blossom in the upper thicket, 

They fall into the lower thicket : 

Flowers blqssom in the lower thicket, 

They fall inta the upper thicket. 

Nd^ flowers blossom in the upper nd forest, 

They fall into the lower nd forest : 

Nd flowers blossom in the lower nd forest. 

They fall into the upper nd forest. 

No. 2. 

«sy)®S)45:f C33S)(3 oossJ cs)® ®9 

iB33@ti)^ 03Q)(3 C9£St CS)i) 6^3 

cog ©^5^«>l 

cog o^-crf-fiOj 
®®3 QeO^ cog ©^i5:f«3') 

GKSSJ'GOa 90e)3 '8S)g ®)q-C^<Q93 
^C5>:f 6£)3@ g0c)3 £S)g ^^^S^ 
e\(Siis^6 Q€e)3 -80g ®«5^«)3 

Mamini mdmini rai deyyd 
Mamini mamini ma deyyd 
Kaben pabala yak gama v6 
E4ben pabala yak gama y€ 

Yamu denna 

Yamu delind. 

Bimen yannata bolpini berinam 
Vadand mima lanu b^ndagan 
Mimd piten yamu dennd 
Gobindu kele yamu denn& 
G6yd puchchd kamu dennd 
G6 tombu puchchd kamu denna 
G6 kura puchchd kamu dennd 
G6 badav^l tika tata denna 
G6 akumd fika ma^ kannd 

• Each line of the songs should be repeated twice, and the yowela lengthened or 
shortened in pronunciation according to the« exigencies of the metre, 
t X09 [«4j4— Ironwood tree (Metua ferrea, i.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24.— 1881,] veddA songs. 99 

©irfovcja^Sb ©ic Q^^ «®3o«> Velkobba vela dunna namdgana 

d^®^ ®C®C ®3®C'«?®«)^ Enn^ Olagaia M4 Lokuv6 

d«^^ ®5®C ®30K5^^G^2)^ Enii6 Olagaia Md Lokuv6 

I%1<'S? ^^^^^^ Angara nitum natana nangHa 

dtS)<5^g©«)^®o# Rdbaranetumnatlp6 

©d <p^^^ ^03<s«# Val atten Aatdp6 * 

<poc)^ e«)^^e ®S)q,eo# Apatat vettila beddp6 ' 

®©3rfC«^ ®Sb0«rf«) 9^«f^«f Gollat bos^ma indinnan 

©dC^ «a<^«)3 «)3c)3o«t Vallat karaka ndtdpan 

®®«raK) <p3©3 ®S)ac ®<[ccf0«5;r Mettata ava bola* deyy^ 

00 «)|«)3©»3:f «§^3®c:r Ta^ tadindn^ tadindn^ 
«o «)§<03®c:r a^«3®a:f Ta^ tadindn^ tadindn€ 

O great man ! great god I ♦ 
O great man ! O great god ! 
♦ ♦ ♦ # 

, ♦ ♦ ♦ * t 

Let us two go. 
Let us two go. 
If we cannot walk over the ground on account of the mist 
Tie Vadand, the buffalo, with a string;! (lit. dew\ 

Let us two ride on the back of the buffalo. 
Let us two go into the iguana-abounding jungle, 
l^t us two roast and eat the iguana :5 
Let us two roast and eat the iguana's tail: 
Let us two roast and eat the iguana's legs (lit. hoofs) : 

1 will give thee the iguana's entrails : 
I will eat the iguana's liver. 

It is Md Lokuw6 of Olagaia who is coming. 
Bending a velkobbd creeper into a bow !6 
Play fine tunes on the tom-tom, 
For the sister who dances graceful dances. 
Dance choice dances : 
Dance with the bundle of leaves: 
Dance fine, fine dances. 
Give us also betel§ leaves. 
Lo ! many people around ! 
Dance twirling the bunch of leaves ! 
Fellow ! The gods have come hither ! 
Tai} tadindne tadindne 
Taj} tadindni tadindne. 

* ®3®4^ tmdmiifi] Bailey translates "my gem." 
I i,S?" offer no reasonable translation of these lines. 

. a'N -''~~^— "*« MBuojawuu 01 uiese lines. 

8 ^^^Ir t*^^^ miwaJ—Perhaps "the coming bnffalo.»» 
songjll^^ [w«i^],^Thi8 is the only TamiJ word I have found in these 

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JOURNAL R. A. S. CEYLON. [Vol. VII., Pt, 11. 

No. 3. 

S>3®^ i)D®4S^ ^e^dcaa 
C53c5©s)(^Bc) ®«a^®S)8®aol 

Q'^Sh Q^SH S^Sli 9©S)t 

6)3^^ £03^^ £S33<833e^CS:t 

Mamini mamini ma deyya 
Mamiigii mamini ma deyya 
T&r^velpita k6beyiy6 
Tdravelpita k6beyiy6 
Kuturuu kuturu^ kiyannan ^ 
Kutuni^ kuturu^ kiyannan 
Humb^ humb6 humb6 humb6. 

T4nini tdoini tdnan^ 
Tdnini tanini tanan^ 

great man ! great god ! 

great man ! great god ! 

The wood pigeons of Tdravelpita, 

The wood pigeons of Tar4velpita> 

Sing kuturun, kuturun ! 

Sing kuturv^i kuturu^ ! 

HumbSy — humbly — humbi^ — humbd. 

Tdnini tdnini tdndnS, 
Tdmni tdnini idndu^. 

No. 4. 

®i®4S^ 03®43^ i)3 6M^G^GS3 
«)3®43^ «)3®4)^ e)3 ®k^G^G93 

GQfe^ «3C'^ -cS©S)3 

Mamini mamini mi deyyd 
Mamini mdmini mi deyyd 
Mam chonda baduvak deka 

Mokade mokadekirin^n^ 
E'mma kiyana baduvak n^vey 
Pallfe tal4v6 tibbd* 
Matat kiydpan ran kuru n^n6 
Na^gi dum bona dum kudikkiya 
[bola n6ne 

great man ! great god ! . 

O great man ! O great god ! 

"I have found a fine prize !" 

"What is it, what is it, (my) milk (dear) cousin?" 

^'It is not a thing so easy to tell, 

** It was found on the lower plain I" 

«* Tell me too, my golden little cousin." 

** O dear cousin, it is the smoking pipe of my sister !" 

♦ Originally ptiblished by Mr. De Zoy sa in the " Ceylon Observer" (October 16th, 
1876), to refute the supposition that the VeddlU never smoke.— fliwt. See, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24.— 1881.] VEDDA SONGS. 101 

No. 6. 

«>d®<?5r? ©3®-^ ®3 6^0^053 Mdmini mamini mA deyyd 

eb®<^ ®3®-^ eb ©k^cd'coi Mamini mamini md deyyd 

©^S)0c:f ©(^®(5 ^^ SoO'fiDc^ Dematan vall^ bendi viyanaj 

■cyi eaai(3 ©(^©(5 Sh^ 8c3«)c^. Na kola vall6 b^ndi viyanay 

®S):f e^asiC^ ©(^®(5 Sh^ ©c8«dc^ B6 kola vaire bendi viyanaj . 

oOocSO S)i^jg ®(5 ©cooDcrf Naggi^a bendapu mal viyanay 
'COocSO SH^^ S/(5 ®GO«)crf ' >fa9gita bendapu mal viyanay 

«5o(S0 ©1^9 ©c? 8co«)csf .Naggita bendapu mal viyane 

©S^ aoS>i ©loOcrf^ Malut kadd vetenna 

®id®a(580 cosf®®S)(5 Tdrdvelpita yakgammal 

<foO^ iScoiCc^ «>0;5:r6v^ Apatat kiydlay natanne 

S)i®co ®i«3o(sa ®o-c9 «>«>®© Mdmiya kote peti kanave 

Gi£Si3Q>) sssiSiOG^ q& t^'ie^ Kotd kantay api av6 

6\«>«:f§«>i«vc:r ®«3^«Di®^ ' Tendindn^ tendinan^ 

&Gi:sf^^3etCi e^tSi€^4Doe^ Tendindn6 teodindne. 

O great man ! great god ! O great man ! O great god ! 

A canopy hung with bundles of demafa* flowers : 

A canopy hung with bunches of nd leaves : 

A canopy hung with bunches of B6* leaves : 

A canopy stretched for the sister : 

A canopy stretched for the sister. 

See ! from the flower-canopy raised to the sister flowers break 

and fall. 
The devil-dancers of Tdrdvelpita ! 
Tell us too before dancing; 
To take kanave^ (bee) hives in the mdmiya stump we have come. 

Tendindne iendinane, 

Tendindnd tendindne. 

No. 6. 
£>i(^©»ffl33©S)3 £)i(5 g^oD «>i)iGD 03 Velkobbd vela dunna namdga na 
®«))5coa:r ®«a©©ct -sod ©a^^®'^© Moriyan kechchak kara vaturdgana 
OiC^ 9©©»ffl3Sco3 880 <;e)3® ^ Vel ichakeyiyd pitata damdga na 
•K^tf^ e^d^ei ^©€)<5 -aado «d Ddni kellak ichchara karaga na 
i^^^<t ®®CD gaa -896S)i «33 Endalu mage puta kiri b6 nd 

Bending a velkohbd creeper into a bow. 
Hanging an arrow on the shoulder, 
Letting the creeper-like hair fall on the back. 
Leading m front a little girl of a daughter. 
You are toJd to come, my son, my milk (dear) nephew. 

♦ ®^0 {demata],—^ plant with yellow flowers (Gmelvna Asiatica, L). 

©SJ [Jd]. — Metis religiosa, 
t «)4lD©i© [*<J?kir^].— A speciea of Ceylon bee. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

102 JOURNAL B. A. S. CEYLON. [Vol. VIL; Pt. IL 


No. 7. 

e<3i'i6@^<5 ^e\B e^e&x^ ®^m3<; ®<d evso^® ^ ^d 

@e)i ©^«5(3e5;f^O ®c3i«j ©ao^j gewo^ d ^3 

Sorabora vev^ sonda sonda o}u nelum ^ ti 

Miwd nelannata sonda sonda liyo e ti 

Kalu karald hudu karala uji de ti . 

0}u sal6 bat kannata malu ne ti 

Fine, fine water-lilies and lotuses grow in Sorabora tank I 

These to gather come fine, fine women. 

Thej make them into black and white curries; 

To eat the water-lily- seed rice there are no curries. 

No. 8. 

CC8 ©>^oS©«j8 ®© ®3e)i(5®«aj 9^ 

^d ®Cf ^^^ ^<* ©ffljg'fiOa ©iSb ®S3^ 

Obat obat oba Sorabora v§v4 n<J 

Anda diya duvana Maveliganga n6 

Diya nosindeyi oba Mdveligangd n6 

Nil mal bisav diya kelina veva n6 

Yonder, yonder spreads the Sorabora tank ! 

O ! Maveliganga whose waters cry as they run ! 

O ! Maveliganga thy waters never fail ! 

O ! tank in whose waters sports the queen of blue flowers ! 


No. h 

CpgoODO. For an Elephant} 

^©©0 ©dccrf Ichchata vaUay 

C3©©0 ^dOd- Pachchata vallay 

•t^C ^^dQ^ • D61a dev'allay 

eg <|pdoi eg. Situ app4 situ 

A hanging member in front— (trunk) 

A hanging member behind — (tail) 

On two sides two hanging members— (the two ears) 

Stay^ beast^ stay ! 

Digitized by Vj'OOQIC 

No. 24.— 1881.] 

veddA songs, etc. 
No. 2. 


For a wild Bufalofi 
Iri deyjann^ ok ma 

Sanda dejyann^ okm& 
Pas6 Budunn^ okma 
Situ okmd situ 

Okmd of the Sun-god ! 

Okmd of the Moon-god ! 

Okmd of the Pas^ Budu ! 

Stay, Okmd, stay ! 

No. 3. 

Mdmini mdmini ma deyyd 
Mamini mdmini mk deyyi 
G6ya puchchd k^ tenadi 
Chulangak vanne 
Chulangak vann^ 
Mlminnk puchcha k6 tenadi 
Chulangak vann^ 
G6na puchchd k^ tenadi 
Chulangak vann^ 
Adi alia nadi alia pana ralla 
O great man ! O great god ! 
wind blew ! 

O great man ! O great god ! 

Where the iguana was roasted and eaten, a 

wind' blew ! 

Where the moose-deer* was roasted and eaten, a wind blew ! 
Where the elk was roasted and eaten, a wind blew ! 
Adi alld nadi alld pana ralld. 

dawo ©zg® g^c8® 

■6«M0 Shg® g^co® 

gcsf®(S)9g(3 g^iSoo© 
^a3«3 Shg® g;:9c8© 

No. 4. 

E'ka kod^ chuniyam 
Ira madal^ chuniyam 
Etaua belimi chuniyam 
Etanat neta chuniyam 

E'ka kod6 chuniyam 
Chanda madal^ chuniyam 
Etana belimi chuniyam 
Etamit neta chuniyam 

E'ka kod^ chuniyam 
Liggedi mula chuniyam 
Etana belimi chuniyam 
Etanat neta chuniyam 

• Moschug meminna. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

104 JOURNAL R. A. 8. CEYLON. [Vol. VIL, Pt. IL 

Where is tbe huniyam ?♦ 
Is it iD the orb of the Suq ? 
I have looked for it ther^ ; 
It is not there. 

Where is the huniyam ? 
Is it in the orb of the Moon ? 
I havo looked for it there; 
It is not there. 

Where is the huniyam f 
Is it at the fire-place ? 
I have looked for it there; 
It is not there. 

No. 5. 

^^sisyas^ S5s6^ 6t^^ci <|pt)^3GK5^ S)€) ^de^S ^^^ e^ e^^ e^dd 

^f)«n^e<0 S<5S)iQ®«n? C®S)ig®«o^ <pirfC«»? SScfC*®? «)€)®«:r©09 
ea^ ©^e)s:f©cMa§ d^oicada®^ §os®ffl5(§c8«s3§ ^ci)©KS)lc)3©«S5§ S<^S>icf 

©^^ a4s:f<5 €^©©3. 

O'n nara6 chat miide ed^che inut epita d^ch^ ranvan pokun^ 
v&chattdn6 karana ranvan dndage bada varaleji adat to me gejja 
kutiama bandinn6. 

O'n nam6 ekara ed^ch^ Mallavad^h^ manilmal vil6 v&chattdn^ 
kara^navu nava kela nava kotiyak Kadavara V^di ch^niva Kalu 
Vedd4 Golu Veddd Kapulu V^dda Randunu Vedda Keterigat 
V§dda Laggal^ Vedda Loggal6 Vedda I'nyagal^ Veddd D'rdgal6 
Vedda Mara^gala V§dda Ddheyijagal^ V^ddd Kumbuhugal6 
Veddd Bopattalawe V^dda Ununugal^ V§dd4 Fant^rugal6 Vedda 

* g)^c8© IcHniyarn] (S. jgsSa?^ [«/«iyam])— 'speiror 'incantation.' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 24.— 1881.] veddA songs, etc. 105 

Bavuddagal^ Vedda Atukola V^dda Pitakola Vfdda Runu Mdgama 
Vedda meki noki Vedi chenavagen meki dturapandach kande^a 
durab^lumakadi langa belumakadi ^llakadi pichillakadi mach- 
maodijakadi l^maDdijakadi ratikelijakadi dijakeliyakadi anda- 
gdchdvakadi dura belmak langa belmak ela chitijd nam adat mama 
kepa kara dena ran mini kukuja dola pida bill kepadi dishti aragana 
dturapandach kandeta chanipa chantdcha kara denna meki Kadavara 
hetahatara kattuvagon yarami. Gunachil banda banda echch&. 

0*m ! namd ! Tbou tiest to-day, this gejjakuttama* in the fins of 
the golden eel who lives in the golden pond in the country beyond 
the seven seas, and in the country even beyond it ! 

O'm ! namd ! A host of Kadavara Veddds in number nine mil- 
lions, and nine millions who reside in the water-lily pond, in the 
country of Mallava, in the country beyond the sea ! Also black 
Vedda, dumb Vedd^, Kapuju Vedda, Vedda of the golden bow, 
Vedda armed with an axe, Vedda of Laggala, Vedda of Loggala, 
Vedda of I'riyagala, Vedda of U'ragala, Vedda of Marapgala, Vedda 
of Ddheyiyagala, Vedda of Kumbuhugala, V^dda of Bopattaldva, 
Veddd of Ununugala, Veddd of Pant^rugala. Vedda of Bavuddagala, 
Atukola Vedda, Pitakola Vf dda, V§ddd of Buna and Mdgama ! 

If this host of Veddds, named and unnamed, had cast a distant or 
near look on the body of the patient, from a distant or near point 
of view, at a stream, at a waterfall, at a place of fiesh, at the sham- 
bles, whilst sporting in love, whilst sporting in water, at a place of 
noisy tumult, — it is the wish of the sixty-four legions of Kadavara 
(Veddas) that you should accept this excellent fowl {lit, golden gem 
fowl), which I dedicate to you as an offering and victim, and restore 
the patient tp health and joy. Gunachil banda banda dchchd,^ 


No. 1. 

CP^ ®ffl»®(5 g«33 c^ Uyan kol^ pund Ik 

CMD ^^®veo^ e)€)3 c^ Pana atten vachd Id 

s)g<5i -s^CC? -^^^ C^ Vanduru kulal kavald 

^§ €)®«5«:f a«3i C^ Nidi varen putd Id 

Having lulled (thee) to rest on the uyan leaf, 
Having covered (thee) with a branch of pana (leaves), 
Having fed (thee) on monkey's flesh ilit, neck), 
Come and sleep (my) son ! 

• ©oeyc^-e^QO® {gejjakutfama\, A pair of small tinkling ornaments worn 
by dancera. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

106 JOURNAL R. A. S. CttYLON. [Vol. VIL, Pt. IL 

No. 2. 

i)gd gd£) c© (Sc3<t6 ^4 ? Vandurd gacha uda liyadalu kad di 

©1^6' GD© gc -^SS 6od<^ ^ V^ndiri gacha mula kandulu perad di 

€fxe\(s^ qdi^l ®ss3a®(5 «50<^ 4 E'g6 daruv6 kol^ natad di 

C«^2sf«S -8S)af®C3^^ ^©otf ®S)<^4 Udakki kanpotu diy6 obad di 

What time the male monkey eats the tender leaves on the tree, 
What time the female monkey sheds tears at the foot of the tree. 
While her young ones dance on the leaves, 
And dip their t/c^aAAt-shaped ears in the water. 


No. 1. 

'* The following is a literal translation of the same passage, 
in the copy of the Makdwanso, in the Asgiri Vihdra in Kandy : — 
* They repaired to the rock Samanta kuta ; and, being permitted by 
King Vijayo to dwell there, they became man and wife, and had 
children and grandchildren. Thus, a wansaya (race) sprung up> 
called Pulinda.' ''—J. B. 

No. 2. 

" Vide note at page 185 of Wilson's Vishnu Purdna. * Pulinda is 
applied to any wild or barbarous tribe; and they are met with in 
the deserts along the Indus, the mountains and forests across Central 
India.'"— J: 5. 

No. 3. 

'*I have made careful inquiries, both in these [[Rayigam and 
Fasdun] K6ral^s and the district of Saf&agam, and though traces of 
their former existence there are evident and numerous, there is every 
reason to believe that many centuries have passed since they were 
there. Fields, villages, and families yet retain the name of Vedd^s, 
as Vedi'pangUy V^dde'kumhura^ Vedde-wcUtq, Vedde-ela, Vedde- 
gala, Vedde-gi, &c., in the district of Safi&agam, which is the 
country at the foot of Adam's Peak, and in the Ea'yigam K<5ral^. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24.— 1881.] veddX songs, etc. 107 

Indeed, Saffiragam or Habardgamuwa meanis * the district of Veddds' 
or ^barbarous people'; and in this form of the word the former 
existence of Vfddds can again be traced as Hahara-goda, Hahara- 
kadfjiwa^ &c It is traditional throughout Safiragam that once 
Yeddis predominated over Sinhalese in that district, and that, as the 
latter gained ground, the former withdrew towards Bint^nna and 
Wellassa. But Mr. Macreadj, of the Civil Service, has given me 
very important proof of the existence of Veddds near the Samanta 
mountains. He has given me the translation of some stanzas from 
a Sinhalese poem, written about 400 years ago, called the Paravi- 
sand^sa^a, or * the Dove's message,'* The poem treats of a message 
sent^ by means of a dove, from K6tt^ (near Colombo) to Vishnu at 
Dondra, at the extreme south of the Island. The dove takes its 
course exactly over the districts lying below Adam's Peak. The 
poet addresses the dove, and tells her she will see [at Fotupifiya] 
< the daughters of the Vfdd&s' clothed in rifi^ bark, their hair adorned 
with peacock's plumes. So wild are they that the poet describes the 
herds of deer as being startled at the sight of them." — J. B, 

[The following are the stanzas referred to, with a tilanslation : — 

jcd ^ <|pg^ Old 6S 08^ <pi^ ^. ic9 

©vD (S3 ©<5(S 82S8(5 aeo S)(5 ssn^ ^ 

" See the lovely daughters of the Veddds (Malakidu) passing to 
and fro through the forest tracts, constantly clothed with riti bark 
beaten out and prepared {liL disentagled), gay {lit. shining) with 
yellow tilaha (mark) on their foreheads, entwining their hair with 
peacock plumes and clusters of flowers. 

♦ Paravi»sand4§aya [odSae^^qocs]. Stanzas 65^ 5^^ Colombo, 1873. 
t mti [SS]. Antiaris innoxia or A, saccadora. 

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108 JOURNAL R. A. S. OEYLON. [Vol, VII., Pt. II. 

"The herd of deer, startled at the sight of the crowd of Veddas 
{Sahara sen) in that forest, seem to eat the blood-like tender buds in 
anger as resembling their (V^ddds*) lips ; the female swan enters 
the forest tank o'ercome by their (speed of) movement ; the pea-hen 
seems to cry (as if complaining that) their locks are blue."* — H. C 
P. B., Hon. Sec."] 

No. 4- 

** The bare assertion bj a naked savage in the rudest state of 
barbarism, that he is the descendant of Kings, seems, at first, a sheer 
a surdity, though it naturally suggests the inquiry how the claim 
to so ambitious an origin could have arisen, and, having arisen, how 
it should be so pertinaciously adhered to by tribes unknown to each 

" The custom which sanctions such revolting marriages [between 
brothers and younger sisters] seems, at first sight, simply a proof of 
the extreme depth of barbarism to which the race has sunk. But 
when we consider the tradition in connection with the fact that the 
Sij^halese invariably admit the Veddds to be of the highest caste, 
while they in turn affect to look down upon the Sinhalese; and 
when we regard the custom in connection with the story of the 
marriage of the son and daughter of Yijayo, himself the offspring of 
a similar connection ; when we read the legend of their fiight from 
both father's and mother's kindred to the forests, where, resuming 
the wild life of their maternal ancestors, they founded a wild race ; 
when we find even yet the district which tradition gives as their 
refuge, still called by a name indicative of their former existence in it, 
and still abounding with traces of them — though not a Yedd& can be 
remembered there ; and when we can trace among the Veddds of the 
present day the remains of Brahmanism — Vijayo's creed — inter- 
mingled with the N&t worship, practised by Kuv^ni's nation ; and 
when there are still in use among them names of Sanskrit affinity, 
common in India, though, rare among themselves, unknown in Ceylon ; 

* /. e., that she has been robbed of the blueness of her own plumage by 
the peacock*B feathers tied up with their hair. 

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No. 24. — 1881.] v^ddA songs, btc. 109 

it is impossible to resist the conclusion that the wild tribes of the 
Yeddas are not the mere remnants of the untamed aborigines, but the 
descendants of the ill-fated Kuv^ni and the faithless Vijajo ; that 
Ihey are indeed, as they profess themselves, * the descendants of 
Kings.' "-J^. 5. 

" The Kandjans universally agree that they [ V^ddds] all belong to 
the royal caste, and it is said that they used to address the king by 
the now obsolete title * Hurdy or ' cousin,* the term which they 
applied to myself in conversation."* — B, F. H, 

No. 5. 

** The V^Jdds eat the flesh of elk, deer, monkey s^ pigs, iguano, 
and pangolin-*all flesh indeed but that of oxen, elephants, bears, 
leopards, and jackals ; and all birds, except the wild or domestic 
fowl. They will not touch lizards, bats or snakes. The most choice 
food in their estimation is, of land animals, the flesh of the pangolin, 
or of the iguano,'^ — J. B. 

No. 6. 

" They principally use [for their bows] the wood of dunumadala 
(^Sterospermum chelonoides), the kekala {Cyathocalyx Zeylanicus), 
and a creeper called hobbd vfl, or the pandiro tree. The strings, 
which are exceedingly strong, are twisted chiefly of the fibre of the 
niyada {Sanseviera Zeylanica), and the bark of a creeper called 
arafu'VeL*^ — •/. B, 

No. 7. 

" They have a great dread of meeting elephants at night, and 
have charms to protect them from them— not only to turn them from 
their path, but to render innoxious the bear, the leopard, and the wild 
boar."— j; A 

No, 8. 

'^In their charms the sun and moon are frequently invoked, 
although in their daily life neither luminary is respected."— J» B, 

* Hurd massind [^Od ©edS^Cs] is still a common familiar expression among 
the Sinhalese.— /f(wi. Sec. 

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110 JOURNAL B. A. S. CBTLON. [Vol. VIL, Pt. II. 

There is a similar charm used even hj the low-country Sinhalese in 
cases of tooth-ache. It is as follows : — 

Iri deyiyann^ ^y4 

Sanda deyiyann^ iyk 

Pas^ Budunn^ ^yd 

Dat6 nositu dat ^yd 

Worm of the sun-god I 

Worm of the moon-god I 

-Worm of the Pas^ Budu ! 

Stay not in the tooth, O tooth- worm ! — Z. De Z, 

[This charm (No. 2) and the almost identical one known to the 
Sinhalese are given by Mr. Bailey : — 

^* It not only invokes the sun and moon, but Pas6 Budu — the 
only single allusion to Buddhism among them ; but the very meaning 
of this and other charms is unknown to the Yfddas. They are 
repeated by rote ; they do not pause to understand them, and could 
not if they would. It is enough for them, as for most Oriental people, 
that a particular formula is to serve a particular purpose. These 
[charms] are identical ; yet the Y^dd&s and the Sighalese certainly 
do not associate so closely as to borrow one another's charms. Have 
they descended in each race since the time they were one ? The 
term okmd I can get no satisfactory explanation of. It is not Sinha- 
lese certainly. I assume it means ^ wild boar/ as this is the charm 
to arrest a boar in the path ; but it is not the term used by the 
Vedd&s for a boar in ordinary conversation. The allusion to the 
Pas^, or Pach^, Buddha, is curious as occurring in both ; the one 
people being anything. but Buddhists, while Buddhism is the religion 
of the others. As Gautama Buddha visited Ceylon long anterior to 
the final establishment of Buddhism in Ceylon, and descended in 
Bintenna, may not this solitary allusion to the religion have been 
handed down in this form among the Yeddds from a period even 
before the invasion by Vijayo ? In the form of a charm which is 
repeated by rote, such an allusion would be most naturally retained. 

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No. 24. — I88I.3 VgDDi SONGS, ETC. Ill 

So far as having any Buddhist tendencies, they do not even show 
the slightest outward respect in the presence of a Buddhist priest. 
The other Yeddd charms are, I believe, quite unlike those of the 
Siijhalese." — Hon. Sec."] 

No. 9. 

I have found this mantra or charm in a collection of Vedda 
songs and charms I procured at BaduUa. The use in it, however, 
of a Hindu-religious term, and the corrupted form of a Buddhist 
metaphysical term, may raise a doubt whether this charm be a 
genuine Yedda production or not. 

The Hindu term alluded to is O'm namd! — * Salutation to the 
triune deity T The following is the explanation given of this term 
by Wilson in his Sanskrit Dictionary :-^ 

* 0'm\ — The mystic name of the deity, prefacing all the prayers 
and most of the writings of the Hindus : A., a name of Vishnu, U., 
of §iva, and M. of Brfihma. It therefore implies the Indian triad, and 
expresses the three in one. The Buddhist term is t$c5^^^^($^q 
[chhandachkande'\, which is a corruption of the Siijhaleseword o«:f^e^ 
*SW5^«*^ \jpandaskande']y which again is corrupted from the Sanskrit or 
Sinhalese word o:a^df©«S) [^panchaskandha\ * the five constituent 
parts of the human body.' These terms may have been interpolated 
by the village Veddas, or more probably by their neighbours, the 
Kandyan Sinhalese, but the contents of the charm are peculiarly 
Vedic — if I may use the term — and the interesting information it 
gives of the seats or localities of the various Vedda demons or 
chieftains throughout the Island is unique, and is not now procurable 
from any other source. 

The mantra also seems to afford information which may possibly 
enable us to settle a long-disputed point in the early history of 
Ceylon, namely, as to whence the aborigines (Yakkhos or demons of 
the Mahdwayso, who are doubtless the ancestors of the Veddds) 
came to Ceylon. 

It wUl be seen that the V^ddfi demons are called here «>&0(5 
01^ ®'€)e{9d9 \_Kadavara V§di chendva'], I cannot find the meaning of 
the word Kadavara, but the expression shows that they are identical 

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112 JOUBNAL R. A. S. CEYLON. [Vol. VIL, Pt. II. 

with the Veddaa ( V^ddd). It is well known that there is a tribe of 
demons called Kadavara Yakku, "Kadavara demons," to whom 
offerings are made in some parts of the Kandyan country. If the 
songs and prayers {yddini or kannalav), used by the Kadavara devil- 
dancers, are examined (which I have no means of doing at present), 
I have no doubt they will throw light on the early history of the 
Yakkhos, or V^ddas, and probably lead to very important ethnological 
results. Again, "nine millions, nine millions" (a vast number) of 
these Kadavara or Vedi demons are said to reside in a " far distant 
land beyond the seas," in a country called Mallava desa, possibly a 
corruption of Malaya desa, the * hilly country,' 

Does not this show that the Veddas of Ceylon have a faint tradi- 
tion that their fatherland is the ** hill country" of India ? 

I may here mention a curious legend related in the Rdjdvali and 
Kuveni Asna (a little work on the history of Kuvdni, in Sinhalese 
blank verse), which seems to have some connection with the history 
of the Veddas. Panduvasa (B. C. 504), nephew of Vijayo, and 
third in succession to him, became ill with a combination of diseases, 
** cough, asthma, fever, burning, rheumatism, &c.," the result 
of perjury committed by his uncle, Vijayo, who swore that he 
would not renounce Kuveni, the aboriginal Princess whom he first 
married, but afterwards violated his oath, by repudiating her and 
marrying a princess from Southern India. When the Xing wad 
afflicted with this disease, Sakra, King of the gods, (Indra of the 
Hindu mythology) ordered the Eahu, the Asura (the ascending node) 
to assume the form of a wild boar, in size like a huge mountain, and 
devastate the pleasure garden of the King of Malaya (the hill-country 
in India), who was versed in all the arts of necromancy. When 
King Malaya saw the destruction of his pleasure garden, he pursued 
the boar with bow and arrow, accompanied by his three brothers and 
a retinue of archers or Veddds, through the continent of India. The 
boar crossed over the sea near Tuticorin and made the circuit of the 
Island, followed by the King, and when it reached the vicinity of 
Anurddhapura, the boar was turned into a mountain ! The King of 
gods then appeared to Malaya Rdj&, and conducting him to King 

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No. 24. — 1881.] v^ddA songs, etc. 113 

Panduvas, got bim to perform certain demon ceremonies^ and 
restored the king to his wonted health. — Z. De Z. 

[Since writing the above I have seen some of the songs used by 
the Kadavara devil dancers, which not only confirm the identity of 
the Kadavara demons and the Veddas^ but also in a remarkable 
manner strengthen the opinion I have ventured to express, that the 
legend of the Malaya Baja is connected with the history of the 
Veddds. It is stated in these songs that Malaya Rajd on his visit to 
Ceylon was accompanied by 2,000 Veddds, and when he performed 
the devil ceremonies for the King, 36 Veddds stood around him 
assisting at the ceremonies. — Z. De -Z.] 

" The result of the most patient enquiry is, that the Veddds have 
a vague belief in a host of undefined spirits, whose influence is 
rather for good than for evil. Still, vague as this belief is, not even 
the wildest Yeddds are without 'an instinct of worship.' They believe 
that the air is peopled by spirits, that every rock and every tree, 
every forest and every hill — in short, every feature of nature— has its 
genius loci, but these seem little else than mere nameless phantoms, 
whom they regard rather with mysterious awe than actual dread. 
But besides this vague spirit- worship, they have a more definite 
superstition, in which there is more of system. This is the belief in 
the guardianship of the spirits of the dead Every near relative 
becomes a spirit after death, who w^atches over the welfare of those 
who are left behind. These, which include their ancestors and their 
children, they term their nehiya yakuriy * kindred spirits.' They 
describe them as * ever watchful, coming to them in sickness, visit- 
ing them in dreams, giving them flesh when hunting.* In short, in 
every calamity, in every want, they call on them for aid, and it is 
curious that the shades of their departed children, bilindu yakun^ or 
infant spirits,' as they call them, are those which they appear most 
frequently to invoke. 

^' It is a pretty belief, and contrasts favourably with the superstitions 
of the Kandyans, who have spirits enough in their system, but almost 
all thoroughly malignant, and needing constant propitiation. But 
the Veddd spirit-world is singularly free from evil. I can find only 
one absolutely malignant spirit in it, whom they really fear, though, 

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114 JOURNAL R. A. S. OKYLON, [Vol. VII., Pt. II. 

like all savages, they have an undefined awe of the nameless spirits 
whom they believe to haunt the darkness. The shades of their 
ancestors and of their children seem to be purely benevolent. The 
ceremonies with which they invoke them are few as they are simple. 
The most common is the following. An arrow is fixed upright in 
the ground, and the Veddd dances slowly round it, chanting this 
invocation, which is almost musical in its rhythm :— 

" M4 miya mi miya mi d^jk 
Topang koyiheti mifigan yan4a." 

" My departed one, my departed one, my God ! 
Where art thou wandering ?" 

" The spirit of the dead is here simply called upon, without 6ven 
the object for which it is invoked being mentioned. And thi» 
invocation appears to be used on all occasions when the interven- 
tion of the guardian spirits is required,— in sickness, preparatory to 
hiinting, &c. 

^* Sometimes, in the latter case, a portion of the flesh of the game 
is promised as a votive ofiering in the event of the chase being 
successful, and they believe that the spirits will appear to them in 
dreams, and tell them where to hunt. 

'< Sometimes they cook food and place it in the dry bed of a river, or 
some other secluded spot, and then call on their deceased ancestors 
by name : ^ Oome, and partake of this I Give us maintenance as 
you did when living ! Come, wheresoever you may be ; on a tree, 
on a rock, in the forest, come !' And they dance round the food, 
half chanting, half shouting, the invocation 

** They have no system of medicine, though they will accept medi- 
cine when given. In cases of sickness, they sprinkle water on the 
patient, invoking their deceased ancestors to heal him. Sometimes 
they simply utter the names of spirits as they dance round the sick 
man. Sometimes a garland of flowers is offered to the spirit who has 
afflicted him. 

"They invoke the GaUyakd, * spirit of the rock'; Vedi-i/akd, 
* spirit of the chase' ; Ifnapdna^yakd^ of whom I have no knowledge; 

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No. 24.— 1881.] v^ddA soNas, ETC. 115 

and the shade of their grandmother. They also propitiate Mahd^ 
yakinniy who appears rather an evil personage. It is to her that 
thej offer a garland of flowers. They describe her as a ^foreigner* 
and say that they know nothing about her, but acquired their awe of 
her from the Sinhalese. 

** The Vedi-yahd is known to the Sinhalese ; hunters offer 
flowers, blood, and burnt meat to this spirit, before hunting, to 
secure their success. Unapdna-yahd is known to the Sinhalese of 
the Vediraftty but I do not think he is generally known to the 

" They believe in the efficacy of what are called devil-dancers, but 
are ignorant of the art of a Kattddiya, or devil-dancer." — J. B. 

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116 JOURNAL R. A, S- CKYLON. [Vol. VII., Pt. II. 


By L. Nell, Esq. 

{Read July 6tAy 1881.) 

Long residence amongst the native Si^^halese and careful 
observation of their superstitious practices and expressions of 
superstitious ideas lead to the conclusion that, amongst the 
lower castes, who have also hitherto been the most ignorant, 
Buddhism has not existed as a religion. The tom-tom beaters, 
the toddy-drawers, the jaggery-makers, have only lately at- 
tempted to build Buddhist temples of their own. The Amara- 
pura sect of Buddhists is a modern importation to satisfy the 
social ambition of the Mahabadde people, candidates of whose 
community for priestly ordination would have been refused by 
the previously existing Siamese sect. The latter, though 
heterodox in this exclusiveness, had confined the right of 
ordination to pupils drawn from the GoyxgamcL caste. 

The liberal and orthodox principle of the Amarapura sect 
extended in time from the Mahabaddi and Kardwi to lower 
castes. As an instance, the jaggery people ( Vahumpura) near 
Galle have built a temple, and their pupil-priests in yellow 
robes and with begging-bowls in their hands are now seen 
obtaining the food of mendicants from the hands of their own 
friends. The profound meditative air of the young mendicants, 
and the evident pride with which their friends give alms and 
honor the new priesthood are very striking. This is quite a 
reform, and Buddhism, perhaps for the first time, is subverting 
what other missions have not hitherto observed as a likely field 
of conversion. Before this reform the priests of the very low 
castes have been the Yakadurds^ commonly called KattddiydSy 
belonging to the tom-tom beater and Oliya castes. Kapurdlas 
belong to all castes, and FaUinis also belong to all castes. 

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No. 24.— 1 88 1 .] hu'niyam image. 1 1 7 

These remarks apply to the practice of Kapurdlas, The 
priests undergo a training — which, if they hav^ a good memory, 
is of not long duration— namely, the committing to memory of 
certain charms, invocations, and songs to be accompanied on 
the tom-tom, drum, and by violent dances. One must live in 
the neighbourhood of these devil-worshippers to appreciate the 
form of nuisance known as a * devil-ceremony.' The tom-tom 
is beaten violently to accompany the discordant song, and the 
noises are very violent during the intervals of dancing. The 
family having the ceremony keep it up from sunset till past 
dawn the next morning. If any remonstrance is used with 
respect to such practices, they will excuse themselvea on the 
ground that it is their " religion" or " faith." But the Yaka^ 
durds are in no way respected for being priests, and their 
remuneration is very little. 

Besides the performance of these devil-dances the Yakadurds 
practise Huniyam charms,* by which harm — such as disease — 
is inflicted on one's fellow-creatures. To counteract Huniyam 
charms counter-charmsf are muttered over a cup of oil or 
a thread, and three limes are cut with an arecanut-cutter 
whilst charms are muttered.^ The failure of such counter- 
charms strengthens the belief in the potency of the Huniyam. 
In most of these Huniyam charms a ^mall image, made of vrax 
or wood or drawn on a leaf, is necessary. Nails made of five 
metals§ (usually gold, silver, copper, tin, and lead) are driven 

* " Ko^ivina [eisaaSS-ao] or Huniyam [q^oo©] is the name given to 

evils of whatever kind inflicted by the agency of charms There are said 

to be 84,000 [Huniyam charms] of every degree of malignity, most of which 
more or less contribute to bring to an untimely death the person affected 
by this influence, though that event may be deferred for many years. 
(C. A, 8. Jour. 1865-6, p. 68.)— -How. Sec. 

t Huniyam h^pima [gij^iJcD© «»i8S)]. 

{ C. A. S. Jour. 1865-^6, pp. 70-1. 

% Pas 16 \pti 9^i]. ' 

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118 JOURNAL R. A. S. CEYLON. [ Vol. VIL, Pt 11. 

into the image at important parts of the body, such as the 
head or heart. These images, after the process of charming, 
are bnried nnder a stile so that the intended victim may pass 
over it* and be thus affected. This "passing over*' of the buried 
image is generally indispensable. After the charms have 
taken effect, the image is otherwise secreted,* 

The image I now send was found in the trunk of a Rukattana 
tree.t An oblong hole corresponding in shape to the tin box 
holding the image had been neatly cut into the trunk of the 
tree in a direction 8.S.W., and about two feet high from the 
ground. The box containing the image had been inserted 
inside this hole and a tin plate, covering the hole, neatly nailed 
over with copper nails. J It is of course absurd to suppose 
that this contrivance could have had any effect, but should the 
intended victim have met with an accident or stroke of disease, 
there would have been another instance of the potency of the 

In the Society's Journal for 1865-66 will be found an 
exhaustive treatise on " Sinhalese Demonology" by Dandris 
De Silva, Mudaliydr. This short introductory sketch is only 
intended to introduce the Huniyam image now sent, which is 
interesting as a specimen of one which had been actually 
uttered with malicious intent. When discovered it had 
evidently been long imbedded in the tree, and unless the 
particular Yakadurd who performed the devil-ceremony in 
this instance will volunteer a confession, no further light will 
be thrown upon the subject. 

* Parmavanavd [o^oaSoaSb]. C. A. S. Jour. 1865-6, p. 71. 

f AUtonia scholariSj R, Br, 

I The annexed plate gives an exact size photograph of the image by the 
side of its tin " coffin.'* Nails pierce the head, heart, right side, chest, and 
feet, and threads are wound round the body from the neck downward. — 
Hon, Sec. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

IJourn. JR. A. S. Ceylon, Vol. VIL, Pt. //.] 

(To/ace p. 118.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 24.— 1881.] hu'niyam image. 119 

It may be noted that the natives of the M&ldives, though 
they have been converted to the Mnhammadan faith, still 
continue to practise the same class of incantations as the lower 
classes of the Sinhalese. This Huniyam image may therefore 
possibly have been made by a native of the Maldives, many of 
whom live near the neighbourhood where the image was 
discovered, though this is unlikely. This is one of the many 
points of resemblance between the low-country SijJialese and 


[ The M&ldive Islanders — ^particularly those living on the Southern- 
most Atols, Huvad6 (Suv&diva) and Addd, which have been least 
affected by foreign influence — retain to this day the character of 
being "great necremancers/'f as old Duarte Barbosa (A. D. 1501-17) 
described them three and a half centuries ago^ and as the captive 
Frenchman Pyrard found them a century later (A. D. 1602-7)4 

The difficulty all the world over of eradicating long-established 
customs and deeply-rooted beliefs — ^more especially when these enter 
Into the exigencies of every-day life — is an accepted fact, confirmed 
by the experience of ages. 

* At Mr. Nell's request a brief note is added with the intention of 
partially illustrating the similarity between the superstitious practices of 
the Sinhalese and Mftldivians. The subject may be more fully dealt witii 
hereafter,— jET. C. P. B., Hon. Sec. 

t " As gentes dellas nao tern armas, e sao homens fracos, mas muito 
engenhosos, e sobre tudo grandes encontadores" — Noticias das Nagoes 
Ultramarinas, Tomo. IL, p. 352, Lisboa, 1812. 

I « Les Mathematiques y sont enseign^es, et ils en font aussi grand estat, 
notanmient de T Astrologie, k laquelle plusieurs persones estudient, d*autant 
qu*il tout propos on consulte les Astrologes : il n*y en a pas vn qui voulust 
rien entreprende sansleur en auoir demand^ aduis.'*— Voyage de F, Pyrard, 
p. 135, Paris, 1679." 

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120 JOURNAL R. A. S. CEYLON. [Vol. VIL, Pt, IL 

It need not, therefore, be a matter of surprise to find the rigorous 
monotheistic faith of Isldm existing to this day side by side on the 
Mdldive group with ''the relics of idolatrous superstition,"— nay, 
more, to see the sacred Kurdn itself prostituted to the unholy objects 
of devil worship. 

The pilgrimage to Mekka and " the silly and ridiculous" ceremonies 
which haye ever formed a necessary part of it, were but original 
threads of Arab idolatry, which expediency prompted the Prophet to 
interweave with his fabric of a purer religion.* 

Nearly all orthodox Muhammadans have an implicit belief in what 
is termed "Divine magic" {Ar-Raimdni\ "the sublime science" 
employed only for good purposes, but sternly denounce the practice 
of enchantment (-45-5aAr) and of** Satanic" (5Aai<^wt) and ''Natural 
magic" {As'Simiyd) in generaL All forms alike are supposed to 
derive greater efficacy from interlarding the usual mysterious words, 
numbers, diagrams, &c,, of charms, with names of the Deity and 
passages from the Kuran.f 

The two following philtres or love charms j; come under the Sanskrit 
category of Stamhhana or of Vibhishana — those intended to procure 
illicit sexual intercourse and effect discord. § The appropriate demons 
invoked by the Sinhalese are Madana Vaksaniydy ' the She-Demons 
of Lust' " These demons, when worked upon by certain charms, and 
propitiated with certain offerings and ceremonials, are supposed to use 
their power of seducing the affections of a man or a woman in such a 
manner that the person so influenced is said to find the power perfectly 
irresistible. There are hundreds of ways in which it is pretended 
this can be done."|| 

* See Sale's Koran, Preliminary Discourse, p. 94 ("Chandos Classics'* 
• Edition), London. 

t Lane's "Arabian Nights," Vol. L, pp. 58-9, London, 1877. 

} The transcript in Roman characters of the Mdldive (Acjdil Atol) charms 
and the rough glossary, given below, will further enable Sinhalese scholars 
to trace the philological connection between the two languages. Ad^d 
orthography differs considerably from the M416 (Sultan's Island) standard, 

§ Dandris De Silva Gunaratna, Mudaliy&r, in Jour. C. A. S., 1865-6, 
pp. 53-4, g Idem, p. 31. 

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No. 24. — 188L] HU'NIYAM IMAGE. 121 

MAldiyb Mantras.* 
No. 1. 
Gada istiri vari tara' kardkan haivakaru abaku de mthuoge rdfa 
kurahai hadduru harruli nuvd gihi badili elagodi abu gahani.. 

" To completely estrange a desirable woman (from her husband)— 
make a teak nail (and) an image of both peri^ons^ (mutter) ^hadduru 
harruli nuvd gihi badili elagodi,^ f and drive in the nail/* 

Abaku, abu, * ijail.' Cf. Malay ^Atf. 
Istiri, * woman,' * wife* : S. css§ [siri."] 

Kurahai, lit. * having made,* = kura/d (M&l^), p. part, of kwa^: S. fi)dQ9 

Kurdkan — See t^ra^kurdhan, 

Oada, lit. * health' : not improbably = S. ^gd^ \agada'] (<^, negative, o^ 

Gahani, * strike*: S. ©©ooSj [gahanavdl, 

Tura' (kurdkan) * to dismiite* : S. zs^d^ oad^S) liura^ kara^4a'], 

De, * two,' 'both:' S. e^ [de^. 

Mihunge, gen. pi. of rnihd; S. ®^g^0korf [minisungi]^ gen. pi. of 
®^eoj [miniha] 'man,' 

Rafa, 'image*: 8. dtO [rupa'\. 

Vari, ? adv. * greatly*: S. ©id [v^ra"] ; but vari kuroQ. ♦ to divorce' (M&l^). 

Haivakaru, 'teak,* (Tectona grandis, L.). Cf. Hind, sdgaun. 

No. 2. 

Gada istiriye' liame karhi male' fari nuvanis kaddgen au yalie' 

hanulaigen mi mala effurhu Al Kadr Sura lie ane' furhumati 

Vajahatu lie mi mala rufa kurahd vdhaka vara o]un lie Al Rahmdn 

Sura huswdden lie' vd* r6na' fas tan bede rakas bo^e' katildeige lein 

* "Sorcery** is with the Mdldivians fa^ita^S. o-^sJS-w Qoap^ete],— * Me 
learned (science.)' 

t The mantra or incantation proper ; unintelligible. All else is " a sort of 
rubric,** as with Sinhalese charms(vtc^e C.A.S. Journ., 1865-6, p. 57), in which 
the object is stated, and directions given for ihejiwama^ or *' winding up." 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

122 JOURNAL B. A. S. CEYLON, [Vol. VII., Pt. U. 

ka}iko' dumarhi bdvvai hikkai tin duvas vimdi nagaigen gos miidu 
a]ani kaku fenu e]i nama balai fonuvani f&ju fenu eli nama audeL 


" Write (the name of) a desirable woman ; pluck an unopened 
bud of the screw-pine flower ; sharpen a new knife ; on one side of 
this flower write -4/ Kadr Sura .•* on the other side write Vajahatu^^ 
make an image out of this flower ; write particulars of the horoscope ; 
write Al Rahmdn SuraX from beginning to end ; tie (the image) in 
five places with left-hand-(twisted) coir ;§ cut the throat of a blood- 
sucker (lizard) ; | smear its blood (on the image) ; place it on a loft ; 
dry (it) for three days ; (then) take it and enter the sea — if (you) go 
in knee-deep (she) will send a message; if (you) go in to the waist (she) 
will come.** 

* " Verily we sent down the Koran in the night of Al Kadr, And what 
shall make thee miderstand how excellent the night of Al Kadr is ? The 
night of JZ Kadr is better than a thousand months. Therein do the Angels 
descend, and the spirit Gabriel also, by the permission of their Lord, with 
his decrees concerniug every matter. It is peace until the rising of the 
morn." — Sale's Kor^, Chap, xcvii, p. 451. 

t The Vajaliata is always recited by Muslims before commencing prayers. 
It forms part of -4Z Bakr ("Cattle") SHra:-^**! direct my face unto him 
who hath created the heavens and the earth ; I am orthodox, and not one 

of the idolaters • Say, Verily my prayers, and my worship, and my life) 

and my death, are dedicated unto God, the Lord of all creatures; He hath 
no companion. This have I been commanded : I am the first Moslem." — 
Sale's Kordn, Chap, vi, pp. 96, 104. 

} The Sdra entitled " The Merciful," containing 78 verses. It somewhat 
resembles Psalm cvii, but is vitiated by including adoration for blessings 
of a sensuous paradise assured to 'the faithful.'^ — *' Which, th^efure, of 
your Lord's benefits will ye ungratefully deny?" See Sale's Eor4n» 
Chap. Iv, pp. 394-6. 

§ Fa, vdi or vdlu rdnuy is coir twisted by the left hand upon the right: 
as opposed to right-hand-twisted coir called kandi or kandtu rdnti. 

] A blood-sucker or a chameleon plays a part in the Sinhalese Aiiniyam 
charm called L4 Kama handhanaya [e^ «)d® ^<£&)coco]. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24.— 1881.] BU'NIYAM IMAOB. 123 


Au, *new': S. q^isi [a/w/]. 

Audeiy * (will) come.* At M&14 dde is imp., 'come.* Cf. S. ^Q [^tn]. 

Ane, * other': S, ^^9^ [aniQ. 

Alaniy * enter*: perhaps contracted from atolaniy «» S, ffiJS^(^iS^^Q^y 

JEffurhu, * (on) one side* -» eke' -hjurhu : S. ^«5 Qm^ [eka pifi] ; 
fwrhumati. Cf. S ©^sgBO [maftiptYa], 

Eli, pret. of aZap (?) * to enter.* 

Olun,? The phrase vdhaka vara olun (translated, * particulars of the 

horoscope,*) apparently means the day and hour of birth, and the auspicious 

or inauspicious position of the moon and planets, as affecting the victim, 

deducible from (her) horoscope. Compare the Sinhalese use (C. A. S. Joum. 

1865-6, pp. 71-2). 

Kaku, *knee*: S ss^ss^^ [kahula'] Meg*; kakufenu, 'knee-deep water.* 

Ka^agen, pres. part of Aa^?, * to pluck,* ' break*: S. awD30D4J5 [JkaidganLal, 

Katildeige {f katilaigen)^ pres. part. • cutting the throat,* 

Karhi^ ^^ karhikeyo, Pandanus odoratusimus, L., ' screw-pine* : S. ^lO 
®8o8oM Ivflakeyiyd], 

Kafiko, *hav. smeared,* Cf S. CD(fQ3 [gdld"], 

Gos, 'hav. gone,* p. part, of ddi} * to go* : S. 9<S>iti [gos}. 

Tan, pL of tana, * place,* S. Oi«3 [/ffw]. 

Tin, 'three*: S. ^^ [/wn]. 

IJumarhi, '(on) a loft*: S. g® [duma'], 

Duvas, 'days*: S. ^©cd Idavas}, 

Nama^ 'if*: S. 'CD^ [naml. 

Nagaigen, pres. part, of nagai^ * to take.* Cf.S. <|^cs>4l6 [ara^aeui]. 

Nuvanis, 'unopened.* Cf. S. 03i)® [itaoam], 03ig® [iiftwm] 'new.' 

Fart, ' bud* : S. o^£> [palu]. 

Fas, * Jive' I S. oti [pasy 

Furhumati. See alcove effurhu. 

Fulu, ♦ navel,* ' YfMBi'ifulufenu, 'waist-deep water.* Cf. S. ©QCD [valaga'], 
' waist.* 

Fenu, ' water: 8 Oi«f [pfw]. 

Fonuvani, * (will) send.' Cf. S. dS^coSb [et«nw»rf]. 

Ba/at, 'message,' 'messenger.* Of. P41i, halaithoi but also S. ^iC^B) 
lb flay a"], 'hireling,* 

Bdwai, p. part. 'hav. placed*; S. SbQacu [ftcwUa]. 

.B6(2&, p/part. ' hav. tied*; S. SH^ \b9nda'\, 

Boife (rakas botfe), 'blood-sucker' (lizard, ealotss): S. ©iSbiWOJg [6o- 
710^4^1 'chameleon.* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

124 JOURNAL R. A. fl. CEYLON. [Vol. VII., Pt. II. 

itft, 'this*: S, »® [me]. 

Male, maluy 'flower'; S. ®(3 \rnala\, 

MudUy 'sea': S. g^ [miiflffl]. 

Rakas^ forms compound with 5o^c (q. v.)» probably = S. d^^t^ [ra^iw], 
« demon.* 

iEdnw, • coir': S. (3i«3 [r^na], * string,' * cord/ 

iwme. 2i>, *hav. written,' p, part, of Ztya?,— correct form liyd, Uyafd 
(M£le)— S. goM \liya]; me (in liyame) perhaps ■« S. ® [ma], intensive aflix. 

Lein, *with blood'; S. ©(38^3:^ [leyvi]. 

Vara, P See above, olun» 

Valie, * knife.' Cf. Malay pisau vali, 

FaAaAo, * words '—ra^aAa-da^Aa? (M41^) *to talk.' Cf. S. Sjffite [»aAya]. 
See above, o^un. 

Fa, 'left-hand'; S. ©® [rama]. At Maliku (Minakai) written vdi or vdtu, 

Vimdi, lit. * there having been (3 days).' Cf.- use of S, ©^03 [yeld\. 

Hanulaigen, pres. part. * sharpening'; S. fln45^ \hai3La'\, *whet-stone,' (33GD4Ss5 
[Ugajia'], 'placing; ©aO-^ [g'ag'a^^]* * rubbing,' used instead. 

Hikkaiy^ hav. dried,' p. part. o£hika^ *to dry.' Cf. P&li sukka, 

Huswdden^ adv. * from beginning to end. Cf. S. cSd© [^wra], * empty.'*] 

♦ Many words occurring in these mantras differ entirely from their 
equivalents given by Christopher in his " Vocabulary of the Mdldivian 
Language" (J. R. A. S., Vol. VI. o. s., pp. 42-76), probably compiled at 
lli\L The dialect of tiuvadii aad Addii Atols approaches Sinhalese more 
closely than that of the rest of the group lying to the North. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 24. — 1881.] mi'rA kantiri festival. 125 


By a. T. Shams-ud-di'n. 

{Read October Qth^ 1881.) 

This feast is annually held in Colombo at the Maraddna 
Mosque during Jamad-uUdkhir, the sixth month of the Muham- 
madan year, in memory of the saint MlrA Sdhib, whose miracles 
are well known to the Muhammadans, and whom they esteem 
as a great WaliJ* His sepulchre is at Ndgiir, near Ndgapatam. 

The festivalf commences on the evening the new moon 
becomes visible in the month of Jarndd-ul-dkhir^ and lasts till 
the tenth of the lunar month. Five or six days previous to 
the new moon they erect a flag-staff, and in the evening of the 
new moon day the sacred banners are conveyed in solemn 
procession, attended by a ceremonious display of music, artificial 
trees, &c. After having perambulated the town in great pomp 
and state, the procession returns to the place where the flag- 
staff is erected. There the Fdtkihah or opening chapter of the 
Kurdn is recited in the name of the saint, and the sacred flag 
is hoisted. 

In other parts of the Muhammadan world also, as at Ndgiir, 
those Musalmdns who venerate this saint set up a flagstaff and 
annually repeat the Fdtkihah in his name. On the night of the 
10th a great feast is held on account of its being the day that 
the saint departed this life. The Mosque is illuminated and 
all kinds of sports take place, which attract crowds of people 

* " The favourite of heaven." 

t Regarding these annual festivals (Mdlids) held in commemoralion of 
the birth of Muslim Saints, see Lane*s Arabian Nights, Vol., I., Chap, iii., 
Note 63, p. 2l6,^Han, Sec. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

126 JOURNAL R. A. S. CEYLON. [Vol. VII., Pt. 11. 

to the spot. In short, the whole town is awake that night, and 
presents a scene of bnstle and confusion. The slow murmur 
of human voices rising at times like the waves of the ocean, 
and mingling with the clear voices of the ubiquitous sherbert 
vendor and roasted gram seller— the invariable concomitants 
of a Ceylon crowd — renders the scene perfectly picturesque. 
Moreover a kudu is constructed |n honour of this saint. This 
is a frame-work of bamboo, in the shape of a pagoda, made 
with a sort of network of paper nicely clipped and pasted on 
it. It is further ornamented with different kinds of coloured 
paper, formed into various devices, tinsel fringes, &c. When 
the whole is lighted up within and without, it has a beautiful 

The Musalm&n ship captains and sailors are in the habit 
of making vows and oblations in the name of this saint; e. g.j 
when they meet with any misfortune at sea, they vow that 
should the vessel reach the desired haven in peace, safely with 
their property and cargo, they will spend a certain sum of 
money in offering Fdthihah to him.* 

There is a tradition in general reception among the Moors, 
that in former times the inhabitants of the M&ldives were 
tormented by a demon, to whom they were compelled to sacrifice 
a female every year; but this saint, a descendant of the prophet, 
having arrived in the Island, attacked and overcame the demon, 
and that in return for this service the whole of the inhabitants 

* << Before a voyage is undertaken, an offering is made to some saint for 
success, and in danger or distress the mariners trust chiefly in the efficacy 
of vows or offerings to the tombs of some personage (dead or living) 
eminent for piety. We are informed of large sums given as votive offerings 
made during boisterous weather to an old priest resident at Calcutta. 
All moneys paid at M^6 in fulfilment of such vows go to the priest.'* 
(Christopher and Toung, Memoir on the M&ldive Islanders, Trans. Bombay 
Geo. Soc. 1836-8, p. 75.)^B(m. Sec, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 24. — 1881.] mi'rA kantibi festival. 127 

became converted to Isldm, the propagation of which Mlrd 
Sdhib had in view in visiting them. 

The Mdldivians pretend that this saint is buried in their own 
soil, but the Moors will have it that he was buried at K&gtir 
on the Coromandel coast, where there is a stupendous mosque 
erected in honor of him, and which is the resort of vast 
multitudes of Muhammadans from various parts of the world. 
The miracles performed by this saint were innumerable. 


[According to a Tamil version of an Arabic biography of this saint,* 
Mir4 Sdhib was born at " Manikkapuri" on the 9th Jarndd-uUdkhir^ 
A. H. 910"(A. D. 1504), and died on the 10th of the same month, 
A. H.978 (A. D. 1570). He is known to his votaries under several 
names, f.^.,HazratMfrd Sdhib, Shaikh 'Abd-ul-Eddir, S&ul Hamid,&c. 

Among the miraculous adventures attributed to the Shaikh is 
included a visit to the M&ldives, where, after thwarting the treachery 
of the King and his subjects, he was enabled to win them over to 
Isldm by ridding the Islands of a dreaded Jinni,\ 

It should be noted, however, that the account of this conversion, 
though sufficiently quaint to warrant its insertion here in extenso, is 
manifestly nothiog more than the plain unvarnished legend related 
by the Arab traveller Ibn Batuta, as then (circa A. D. 1344) 
current among the Island ersj: popularised and assimilated to the 
familiar Arabian Nights' Tale of the Fisherman^ the ^Ifrit, and the 
bottle of brass. 

• Kalarattu Mirdn Sdkipu A'ffdavaravarkal kdrarta-sarittiram, E&raikk&l, 
A. H. 1293 (A. D. 1876). 

t Evidence is addncible that the M^ldivians were converted to Mubam- 
madanism not later than A. D. 1244. See *^ The M41dive Islands** (Ceylon 
Sessional Papers, 1881) and Gray, J. R. A. S., Vol. X. n. s, 1878, p. 177. 

t See Lee*8 *' Travels of Ibn Batdta,** p. 179, London, 1829 ; and Gray 
(J. R. A. S., Vol. X., N. s. pp. 180*1) translatbg the French Editors* Ibn 
Batoutahy Tome IV., pp. 126-9. Paris, 1879. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

128 JOURNAL R. A. S. OKTLON. [ Vol. VIL, Pt. IL 

The Tamil- Arabic storj runs as follows :— 

^f iimp QffdjtiS^ eauF^^^aor ld(^^ (tpfisQiusu&a^^tQs^eofnh uoj 

^oNjr£-€iiFej'rc6fr (ipuirpsnesr fii//7ii9(^5u /sQu(r^€si(r^2eir ^msSi^B 

a&oijTuSisSQ^'iaisesBr® uS(^^ff u^&ipB'^^Qjbn'GirL^itn'ShTi , ^^JBsit^ 
usipQpseGiu s(Ti3ps(^ ^6op^fi6ua€m ^sllLi^^jd^-sbt eu^^q^uuesifis 

Qjrn'QL-irQ^euiT Gu^«0«6Kjrff® ^sutr^'^Qujebeoii ^ ^^^uQan^Q^ 

esT jF(^<Bra^srr (oUjpj6l Qiu(Slfi^<kQ^[r6SGr(D ^ir^6ar(Lpfi^jFsjriTa^Q6tr&) 
cufr®«£&-L9. €r^/rtfir«jcr euQ^usbiTdttsnuQufreo seop^fi^a^t&fii^^^pQjF 

LSeiouSp Q'ff=ir&)€S ^LJusfTiffi^isiasifi^ ^lasctiBssr (Lf^uapsir^Bt affji 
6a>fi6S)eij^Q^Q^^Lj L^^^j^sSC® u^ppekin'^^k^iji Qd>iT(Bss ^eujr 
^(Ts^ih L\&iffi LD8Lps'^3iL.iT^fiirirs&r, ©^ aesarQ ^ojeujT'fek Qpa 


The Visit to Mdldive Island.* 

Hazrat Saul Hamid, bidding farewell to Sayyid Zain-ud-din 
Makhazam and the rest who dwelt at PoQn^ni^f left that place, and 

'^ Zt7.^' The account ofenteriDgM^dive Island*; Qj^meieo^^ [MukalUi' 
tixm\ =» Mahal'divay i. e., M^^ (Sultanas Island). 

t Ou/r«r@)«Rjfia30ir Poni}d$iyin^ * at Ponnfii^i,' on the Malabar coast. 
^'It is inhabited almost exclusiyely by Muhammadans (Moplis) .. and is 
the centre of Musalm&n education on the coast."— Hun ter*s ** Imp. Gaz. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24. — 1881.] mi'rI kantiri festival, 129 

feeding on the various fruits of the leafy grove, surrounded by his de- 
votees, reached the sea-shore. Perceiving that the sea was boisterous 
and having a mind to visit Maldive Island, (the Shaikh,) after 
meditating upon God and performing the prayers of two rdkcCt^^ 
looked at Hazrat Yusuf Sahib and the others, and said : ^ Shut ye 
your eyes> and placing your feet in the salt sea follow me." The 
Sdhib— exclaiming *In the name of God If — first set his lotus-like 
feet in the water and walked, the others following him. Before the 
twinkling of an eye the Shaikh with his holyj: mouth commanded 
the devotees to open their eyes. When they looked and saw that 
they were on the shore of Mdldive Island they rejoiced exceedingly. 
Bat the Ruler of that country and the other infidels, § seeing Hazrat 
Sahib come with a company, spoke one with another : " They 
are come to make war on our land"; and, intending to kill them by 
stratagem, introduced deadly poisons into fruits and other eatables. 
Taking these, the King and the rest of the inhabitants approached 
Hazrat Sdhib with great respect, as though they had come to welcome 
them, and set before them the poisoned viands they had brought. 
But the Sahib — although cognizant (of their treachery) — feigning 
ignorance, saying ' In the name of God* I and laying his holy hands 
on the food, ate it, and handing to the others they too ate and rejoiced. 
Seeing this, that King and his subjects were perplexed and departed, 

* " The Muslim has to perform [five times a day] certain prayers held 
to be ordained by God, and others ordained by the Prophet; each kind 
consisting of two, three, or four *rek*ahs,' which term signifies the 
repetition of a set form of words \Farz^ Sunnat^ Nafl^ or PFi^r], chiefly 
from the Kuran, and ejaculations of 'God is most greatM &c., accom- 
panied by particular postures.** — Lane*s "Arabian Nights,'* Vol. I., p. 16. 
Introduction, Note 1. See too Hughes* ''Notes on Muhammadanism,*' 
pp. 104-118, London, 1877. 

t lS&vuQ&j IPismil] ; Arabic Bismilldh — the usual Lluslim ejaculatory 
prayer preceding any important action. 

X Qfiun-fD&nesr Imupdrakdna]: Arabic muhdrak, "holy,** "blessed," 

§ &{n3ps&r \_Mp%rhaJf\ : Arabic Aa/Jr, " infidel," 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

130 JOURNAL K. A, S. CEYLON. [Vol. VII., Pt. II. 

sayiDg "These men are saints,* who, though aware of our deceit, 
did not reTeal it,"t 

0(SirsSLJT /gsQir^'jD ^Q^jsn&ir ^eop^tEor^ar ffffQueuvrA&r Seou&Q^s 

jy^ 915 eu(t^L.iS^pQair(rj^fiirLh ^oj^ruqp uQQ^^Qsisrp Q^sufreo 
iu^Sp(^6ii'T^u>y ^fip^ir^ 90 Ousizr26sar<F Q^nu^i^u QueSQ^irQ 

QptBipeusAreaanoirSiB ^ssr eaf^&v^if^s^eir Qan(Bi0£n^(;r^&Q(jr^i£uQutr^ 
gjuQuesfesSssr QpoDptutreBrfi^Qeo uSib^aan^fi^ ^uQiuessr^ssBTiatQatr 

LSirs'2efrQj5ir'9 Q **^a>Q^®jSiufre6r ^niBiu^aifi^Q^iuiu QeusarL^rrQu^** ear 
jpisSeo,iQ ''^uQusardssar Qojirjrin^eu^iifSiQ u^&sorQpi^^^^ QohtQsjss 

jFeoiQiAirifiesiiu eQsreuSMiTLiidj €Tu(ouir^(^ QjFL^^Qufr^ ^u 

Bs ^iri^iumaar apw^ tsnQ^eofreQ eedrunpoppp ^^^^fl>^Bir 
^uQussof^essr Gneu^^sQil.{reu(rm e^eoe^pQm^fiai^&r^ @<f<^/S7^ 
fisZea- aeop^s LB(rr^sif^(r8u6Ufraen' (^Tesr^o^i^uS^eo/Sl^ffi ^^'^ 
Qj^pp ^jn^sar^eaar ^pLffi^ssr ^si^Qeoskrok) ^^fiu^^pA.GSi^ 
&^^iiiLD8tfi^Q/g(B^ffi ^fi^LDtraeiBsarfiS Qfi^^Quppoj&retreb fietsB 
QiujBL^JB^ jstfuQusar ^sy/hp eSL^iffpQ^carjpjpQr^irA&r* ^Sff^fiQ^ 
tSBTfifieo ^fifi sS^^SBTj^ ^^^mi^i QfiiredfltqL^ear ^k^beinG^ 
9s>ttjQiBir&Q ^jTMe&TL. iBsrirck siBQ^treQ ^smueuF^ir^ar ^^fi 
tSsar^ssr Qj5fri>8 **^u.n\ es>^0^irQ€sr fi Quirg^^Q^dj; ^uQunaar 

LO0«sr® ^u.ppeahJ5jgi np^(^'ff'fruLSI ^ssmt-.^treuireeifisir urr^ 0ir 
Ui€B>Fa9p ^fTQ^LjrfBi^^ O^iu^^, ^eopfi^0Qjni^&r ^^fS ^i^^ssr 

(Qi8airp ^(BuS ppvAt £si^ QjrQ^^eutT** Qa/sgr^; e.i-.(?«or ^0^ sfWr 

£k.€a>^£S 6Q>tfuSQcU0^^ lJa^fil^UIEiQsiTGSSr(Bl ^euQ^^[^ pQ4F€9 jpi 

* QuiFIQajrrirs&r [pMydrkaly^y lit. "great men." 

t Compare the adventure of Es-Sindib4d and his companions (4th 
Voyage) on the Island of the Cannibals (5eA«ar ■- P Sumatra).— >Lane*8 
"Arabian Nights," Vol. III., p. 87. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 24. — 1881.] mi'rI kantiri rasTiVAL. ISl 

A.ss3^uSiLL®^ fisssf^ffmetr^ ^euQ^Su^ar /gmresi^jJ't^iass^Lh a.6^ 

Q^trekT® ^i^iqui ejebeueireifLa js^jriTfi^i^Qeo ^^ eiieSi'-^esip^^ 

«6rr ouLf^a&ihQuti^ ^^(Trf^'aFtrir^fij^p @i-fS7^&Ssvr c\(Bl0^-sQ^(r 
GsarQ ^eaeresi^sFmefr ^6u^euffi<sa6S)jr6a)iu fBeaaresS Q/Bir&^dSi^fi^ 

^00 ^)cor 0sar^fl)A,u^iu unLi^&}> ^QajQ)!^ £3 u^ ^jr/re^majir^ 

Q^aeijeQ JSirQu^eaarQetitr ** Qsueks; ^SkvQuirdj ^^^(TfSliupjSl H€fsrp 

*^^6ati^euiT<95Q&f, ^ia^^^^GT jsaeirjpeaiip^ffi unass ^fSfijr&jfisrQoi 
jSsir^piuZso QiufrQ^Qs &S^pitLL^(^0^^, seop^^euira&r ^ssn.0 

LMfT^^i/^i^^^^y ^LJu^>sSn'6S)fi §)jrec,6uuS^ e^^^^^Quw p &sSsS^ 
(^uueo^Js s eaoi ® n^GSLDajfrSliueij'bsir tu(B^^Q^^£i jpi^^fieansii/FeSQeo 
ears; ^^aesieaf) ^jr€B>&juS&) JB*^^^ airjTessrib^isffiS'Q^fr^eo ^eu^wtrv 
Q€lJB *'^^fi^sor (oJ^2au3(ij^^(§Qfi^* ^ s ^eummeop^fieniir s'bsa ^4^iL 
1^ ^*^<ki3Bii FGSi^affldr iff-(LpsfijSeofruj seo^^fieaL^uiLi^Q^^&pQfi" 601(0^ 
err. ^fi^sS^&ririr uQBL£i8i^0^Bii^&H(r^^j ^uQuexr&si^sar ^BtlQm 
2enujsSLp^^ fiia<i^L-egrA.iLu^&Qs-iTsasr® ^pi^fi&aL^^eifisar ^Q^tLsrjr 
^0 Quirpi^^ &€xr&r0Sear Quif&a&STiS^ €ueaana8 l£I^ ^ffi^u^fnujSL,^^ 

^^LatrQ LaJB^jrfrL]QFn 8/srr Lppjpj^^^euir aj669f)«^(^^ tffreu jsesn^ 
lutra ^QLJTu^tijLD^^£S ^GsoTL.euFeun^'^^ £sm(B ^^(sik^^i^pp ^m 

QeuetsarQih jSirms^Eism j>jba>L-i>^eoL^ir8Q^LDj fiirit^ietf^iLL^aiLL^^ea' 
LJutfL fieii(ir^jgi jBL-uQuirQLa" m^^ssisr^^ ^«8r(^/r«sfr, eeop^ LEjnrear 
iF/rfiu6i/fr«6rr ^eusujr^&sf Qp^eHujCouira^^Q'S^eoinh seSLdirQeussr 

metr Q^nuSps'^QujebeufrLSli^^ffi U3fr&fisui^eS^^ ^^jeuir^dssrQjsir 
&8 "^Qiu Qs^ikQ^fT pQ-fiuffi (si^uea)L^a^'£ Qan ^fifr&s><ffiuiT& eiiQ^** 
Qsu^(rr^8&,lSi' 8G0jB(Tmk^p(rrfiT^&r. @ir(r^fr (tpfieStueuiram ^^£1 
seop^^cresBru.QJFsuir&tea' QtBff&8 "(STisi4Beffieifr fSfnusQis^ ^^^^^(t^ 
euirSuj ^ecr^ssr u9ik8eueufr^ esuoifS^d^fi^irp t^Gsr^s^&Q&^esrQuifr 
^^Q^iu\L\QiQnQQia!fp en^s-Qio&^teir LDesfeoifi^ &eo^&€arpj^l fiirita 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

132 JOURNAL R. A. 8. CEYLON. [Vol. VII,, Pt. II, 

(SlojiTd^ikiiSsQea** esr<3s;^^j5€bjrna ^^^^asri^mraCo&r jstniD^s&rsTfiQ^irQjh'Ja 

i€BlT^(51 SI^gQoV ^QujfT&iB^(UuSsv2sv^* QtfJSBT^, ^^j^intfT ^eop^fi 


The Destruction of the Jinni.^ 

In order to convert the infidels dwelling in Mdldive Island, and also 
to remove the danger in that country (Hazrat Miraa Sahib performed 
the following miracle) : — 

Passing one day down the street, attended by a few Fakirs, (the 
Shaikh) observed in a house the soldiers of the King of that country 
and the inhabitants together going to bind a maiden with ropes, and 
the mother of the girl sad of heart crying piteously in her distress. 
Seeing this, Hazrat called to those persons, *'What meaneth this?" 
They replied, " In this country there is a monstrous Jinnif who once 

♦ For the legendary account of the conversion of the Mdldive Islanders 
to Muhammadaniam by Abiil Barakdt, the Barbar, see references under 
J ante p. 127. 

j: The Muslims in general believe in three different species of created 
intelligent beings, viz : — Angels (Mdldikah) who are created of light; Genii 
(Jinn), who are created of fire ; and men (/««), created of earth. Some 
hold that the Devils (Shaifdns) are distinct from Angels and Jinn, The 
species of Jinn (said to have been created some thousand years befure 
Adam) consists, according to tradition, of five orders; — 1. J ana; 2. Jinn; 
3. Shaifdn; 4. ^Ifrlt; 5. itfdrtd— the most powerful There are good and 
evil Genii, If good, they are exceedingly handsome: if evil, horribly 
hideous. At pleasure they become invisible, or disappear in earth or air ; 
and appear to mankind commonly in the shapes of serpents, dogs, cats, or 
giants. Their chief abode is said to be in the mountains of Kdf, which 
encircle the earth, (See the full Note 21, Lane's Arabian Nights, Vol I„ 
pp. 26-33. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 24. — 1881.] mi'bA katiri festival. 133 

a year comes to the temple which is outside the city.* On that 
account a virgin is adorned and offered to him as a sacrifice; otherwise 
that Jinni will enter our country and harass us. This custom has 
obtained from the titne of our ancestors. We therefore give our 
maidens by turns. As it is now this girl's turn, we have conje here 
and are preparing to take her away." Hazrat, looking on the infidels, 
forbade them, saying, " Do not this wicked act, but marry ye the 
maid to a young man," and went away. 

But those infidels disregarded the righteous words of the Sahib, 
being quite ignorant of his previous miraculous acts. According to 
their wont they adorned the girl, bound her tightly, and having placed 
her in a palanquin paraded her through the country with music and 
lighted torchesf; finally, leaving her in the temple which is outside the 
town, they departed to their respective houaes. 

Hazrat Miran Sahib, aware of these circumstances by divine iu" 
tuition, meditating on the wonderful God, in the dread night took a 
goglet joyfully in his hand, and walked alone to the place where the 
girl was kept.J At that juncture the Jinni approached with fearful 
noise, coming to gaze on the maid, li^irdn Hamid seeing him said, '^O 
Shaitan, be patient; approach not the girl." Hearing those words the 
Jinni, alarmed, confused in mind, trembling, with face distorted, made 
obeisance at the lotus feet of the Sdhib.§ Hazrat looking on the Jinni 
said "Take this goglet, O Accursed, || and fetch water from the tank 
which is opposite." The Jinni, at once assuming human shape, took 

* " There appeared to them every month an evil spirit, who came 
from the sea, resembling a ship filled with lamps.*' (Gray, J. R. A. S., 
Vol. X. N. s. p. 180, translating Ihn Batoutah, Tome IV., p. 126). 
QjgwieviULc \Tevdlayam\ = A temple dedicated to Hindu or local Deviyd 
or gods. Ibn Batuta has boudkhdnak (Arabic), " Idol temple." 

f " carried as a bride. 

With music and with litters gaUy dight.*' 
J Abu-*1-Barakat, it will be remembered, took the place of the old woman's 
daughter, and worsted the demon by reciting " the glorious Kur^n." 

§ " for spirits feel all force divine, 

And know the sacred presence of the pure." 
II meo^Q^ [malvune] : Arabic malvun, " curse." 

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134 JOUBNAL B, A. S. CEYLON. [Vol. VII., Pt. li- 

the goglet in his hand and went to the tank. But when he dipped 
the goglet to draw water, ail the water of the tank flowed into it. 
Perceiving this the Jinni was filled with wonder, because the 
goglet did not come with his hand nor yield in the least though he 
lifted it with all his might. While the Jinni was standing with 
diminished strength without releasing his hold on the goglet, the 
Islanders, taking their waterpots as usual and going to the tank to 
draw water at the third watch, seeing the tank dry and the Jinni 
in human form standing tugging at the goglet, stood terrified. 
Because the goglet did not yields although he tried his utmost to lift it, 
the Jinni returned to the holy presence of Hazrat and informed him 
of what had happened. " Go, Shaitdn," said the Shaikh, ** and say 
our {MvLslim) ^Bismilldh* (*In the name of God!'), and the water 
in the goglet will run out ; again say 'Bismilldhy draw water 
and come." The Jinni went, did as directed, and bringing water 
placed it before Hazrat, who took it and made his ablutions.* 
The Jinni, in his foolishness thinking * I will enter the goglet and 
see the wonder inside^' as soon as the Sdhib had finished, said 
^' Master, be pleased to allow me to enter this goglet" As Hazrat 
said " Well, enter," the Jinni contracted his body and crept into 
the goglet.'l' Whilst the Shaikh, having clapped on the stopper, 
was performing his prayers J those Islanders, as usual, brought 
the requisites for taking away the corpse. But when they saw the 
girl alive, as left the night before, they were astonished, approached 
her and asked what had occurred. Having heard her relate 

♦ ^^ \olu] : Arabic umzUy " the ablution of face, bands, feet, &c., 
necessary before every time of prayer.*' (See Hughes' Notes on Muham- 
madanism, p. 105.) 

f iflL-^/r \hu8d'\y an earthen water-bottle; whereas the one which 
contained the 'Ifrit in the " Story of the Fisherman " (Arabian Nights) 
was of brass (humhum^) 

% «flrL/(g [jsupukul^ the Muslim morning prayer. "Glorify God when 
it is evening {masa) and at morning (jauhK) — and to him be praise in the 
heavens and in the earth — and at afternoon (^ashi) and at noontide (zuAr).** 
^Sdrat-ur-Rum (xxx), 17. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 24. — 1881.] mi'rA kantiri festival. 135 

the events of the night, the Islanders asked, **Where is the Jinni?" 
She replied, "He is shut up in the goglet which is in the presence 
of the deliverer," pointing to Hazrat. The Islanders, rejoicing 
exceedingly, with gladdened minds untied the bonds of the girl, 
and taking her with them worshipped the golden feet of the bounti- 
ful benefactor who abounded in the favour of the wonderful God ; 
then very hastily went and narrated the circumstances to the King 
of the Island. He, rejoicing when he heard, surrounded by his 
ministers, other chief men, astrologers, and merchants, came quickly 
on foot, and seeing the Shaikh, worshipped him, saying " O lord 
who hast removed the danger that threatened us, be pleased to save 
us : we are come under thy protection: we will without fail perform 
whatever thou commandest," Hazrat Mirlin Sahib, having fed that 
King and all his subjects with the divine ambrosia called Kalimah, 
caused them to come into the right way,* and, having broken down 
all the temples in the Island, built mosques. Looking at that King 
he said, " Do thou reign alone and be a help to thy subjects"; (then) 
blessed them, and abode (there) a few days.f The King and the 
other inhabitants, however, came to the Skhib and said *' O lord, 
the fear of the harm he will work in the future distresses our 
minds, should we keep our enemy the Jinni here thus ; we will 
do whatever thou biddest us." Hazrat replied, " Load the goglet in 
which the Jinni is enclosed in a gundara,X and having taken and 
sunk it (in the sea) beyond 6alle,§ return." But those people said 

* "When any one ia conTerted to Isl&m he is required to repeat 
the Kalimahy or Creed : — Ld-ildhd'U'lal'laho Muhammad-ur'Rasul' Ullah, 
* There is no deity but God, and Muhammad is the Apostle of God.' '*— 
Hughes* Mubammadanism, p. 102. 

f Ibn Batiita who styles the Mdldive Sovereign, converted by the 
Maghrabin, Ahmed Chenourdzah [Shanur4zah ass P Senarat],saw the record 
of the conversion in the chief Mosque at M416 (A. D. 1344). 

} ^^0(Tr^ [Attiiterd], the term applied to M^ldive boats. The Sigi- 
halese cdl these Islanders commonly Oundarorhdrayd Hhe gundara (boat) 

§ «/rcS [^a^<]> ^^ modem Point-de-Galle. 

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136 JOURNAL R. A. 8. CEYLON, [Vol. VII., Pt. IL 

^*0 master, we are always traversing the sea; should this Jinnl 
remain in the sea, how much hurt he will do us !" " He will do no 
hurt to you or your gundaras hereafter," replied the Shaikh, 
The inhabitants, thinking that the words uttered by the holy 
mouth of Hazrat will not fail, rejoicied, and shipping that goglet 
on a gundaray sank it in the sea, as directed by the Sdhib; then 
returned praising and applauding him. — H, C, P. B,, Hon. Sec. 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No, 24. — 1881.] SBRICITLTtJRE IN CEYLON, 137 


By J. L. Vandbrstraatbn, m.d. 

(Read October 6thy 1881.) 

Sericulture, or, the raising of silk-worms, is derived from 
SereSy 'Chinese,' and culturay 'culture,' because "silk" came 
from the Chinese word Se^ which signifies ^silk.' The name, 
therefore, of the great Empire of China derives its name from 
the great silk industry. The discovery of the uses to which 
the cocoon of the silk-worm might be applied appears to 
have been first made in China by an Empress, who was the 
first to unravel the filmy thread, and to work it into a web of 
cloth, about 2,700 years before the Christian era. 

In the middle of the 6th century, the Western world received 
the great boon of a supply of silk-worms' eggs. These were 
secretly conveyed from Semida, between Tartary and China, to 
Constantinople, by two Persian monks, who concealed the eggs 
in a hollow cane. At the proper season they were hatched, and 
the caterpillars were fed with the leaves of the wild mulberry 
tree. From this small commencement the myriads of silk 
worms have sprung, which, throughout Europe and "Western 
Asia, have met the continual demand for silk. The introduc- 
tion of silk into Europe occurred about the year A. D, 552, in 
the reign of Justinian, and we find from Tennent's History of 
Ceylon, (Vol. L, p. 569) that the earliest record made of the 
introduction of silk into the Island of Ceylon, was in the 
reign of Justinian, by Cosmas, an Egyptian merchant, who 
published the narrative of Sopater, a Greek trader, whom he 
had met at Adulein Ethiopia, when on his return from Ceylon. 
Sopater told Cosmas that, from China and other emporia, 
-silk and other articles named by him were imported into 

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188 JOURNAL R. A, S. OBTLON. [Vol. VIL, Pt. II. 

I have searched for information on the subject of Sericulture, 
or silk, in all the works relating to Ceylon that I could find 
in the Library of this Society, and in the Colombo and 
Colonial Medical Libraries. I have looked into BaldsBus, Knox, 
Valentyn, Percival, Cordiner, Davy, Lee's translation of 
Ribeyro, Marshall, Forbes, Knighton, Pridham, Hoffmeister and 
Tennent, but I have only been able to glean the following 
scanty information on these subjects. 

In Valentyn'sJEistory, published in 1663, there is the follow- 
ing reference to Sericulture : — *^ In Jaffnapatam experiments 
are made to nourish the silk-worm, and obtain by it a source of 
livelihood. Mulberry trees have been planted here and in 
many other places, and they appear to thrive well. In January 
and February the worms are transported from JaflFna, and 
other small insects can be collected here. These are occupa- 
tions which are interesting, and can be undertaken with little 
pains and at small cost."' 

I find from the Appendix to Lee's translation of Ribeyro's 
History of Ceylon, that in March, 1740, the Governor Baroa 
Van ImhofF left the following memorandum on silk for the 
information of his successor : — 

" Silk has not been so successful as we anticipated when we 
began to grow it here." 

In 1849, Pridham mentions (Vol, I., p. 374) that "on account 
of the dryness of the Northern Province, the culture of the 
mulberry plant might be almost indefinitely extended by the 
introduction of the silk- worm, and silk be rendered one of 
its leading staples, instead of being, as is now the case, 
completely neglected. The mode of culture practised in 
Hindostan, as being the most simple, will be at first the best- 
adapted for the native agriculturist, who has to acquire skill 
and practice ere he can be expected to improve upon Oriental 
methods. Much depends upon the abundance of cooly labour, 
which may be further cheapened by employing children to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24.— 1881.] SERIOULTURK IN OKTLON. 189 

prepare and lay down the sets as soon as the nurseries of the 
mulberry plant are sufficiently stocked to admit of the 
operations of the planter." 

From Sir J. E. Tennent's "Natural History of Ceylon" I 
have obtained the following description of the Silk Moths 
found here : — 

"Among the strictly nocturnal Lepidoptera are some gigantic 
species. Of these, the cinnamon-eating Atlas often attains the 
dimensions of nearly a foot in the stretch of its superior wings. 
It is very common in the gardens about Colombo, and its size, 
and the transparent talc-like spots in its wings, cannot fail 
to strike even the most Qareless saunterer. But little inferior 
to it in size is the famed Ttisseh silk-moth lAntherosa mylitta, 
Drury,] which feeds on the country almond (Terminalia 
eatappa) and the palma christi or castor-oil plant ; it is easily 
distinguishable from the Atlas, which has a triangular wing, 
whilst its is falcated, and the transparent spots are covered 
with a curious thread-like division drawn across them. 

" Towards the Northern portions of the Island this valuable 
species entirely displaces the other, owing to the fact that the 
almond and palma christi abound there. The latter plant 
springs up spontaneously on every manure-heap or neglected 
spot of ground ; and might be cultivated, as in India, with 
great advantage— the leaf to be used as food for the caterpillar, 
the stalk as fodder for cattle, and the seed for expression of 
castor oiL The Dutch took advantage of this facility, and gave 
every encouragement to the cultivation of silk at Jaffna. 

" The Portuguese hadmade the attempt previous to the arrival 
of the Dutch, and a strip of land on the banks of the Kelani 
river, near Colombo, still bears the name of Orta Seda, the silk 
garden. The attempt of the Dutch to introduce the true silk 
worm, the Bomhyx mori, took place under the Governorship of 

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140 JOURNAL B. a: S. OBYLON. [Vol VII., Pt. II, 

Ryckloff Van Qoens, who, on handing over the administration 
to his successor, in 1663, thus apprises him of the imitation 
of the experiment : — ^At Jaffna Palace a trial has been under- 
taken to feed silk- worms, and to ascertain whether silk may be 
reared at that station. I have planted a quantity of mulberry 
trees, which grow well there, and they ought to be planted 
in other directions.' — Valentyn, chap. xiii. The growth of 
the mulberry tree is noticed the year after in a report to 
the Governor-General of India, but the subject afterwards 
ceased to be attended to; but it never attained such a develop- 
ment as to become an article of commercial importance. 

Ceylon now cultivates no silk-worms whatever, notwithstand- 
ing this abundance of the favourite food of one species; and the 
rich silken robes sometimes worn by the Buddhist priesthood, 
are imported from China and the Continent of India. 

In addition to the Atlas moth and the Mylitta, there are 
many other Bomhycid(B in Ceylon ; and though the silk of 
some of them, were it susceptible of being unwound from the 
cocoon, would not bear a comparison with that of the Bomhyx 
moriy or even of the Tusseh moth, it might still prove to be 
valuable when carded and spun. If the European residents 
in the Colony would rear the larvae of these lepidoptera, and 
make drawings of their various changes, they would render 
a possible service to commerce and a certain one to ento- 
mological knowledge. 

In connection with the subject of Sericulture in Ceylon, I 
have obtained the permission of the Revd. Father Palla, of 
Galle, to illustrate my paper by the exhibition of a card of 
silk-worm eggs as originally received from Japan, through. 
Government, in December last. 

In November, 1879, the Rev. Father Palla applied to His 
Excellency the Governor, Sir J. R. Longden, to use his influence 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24.— 1881.] SERICULTUBE IN CEYLON. 141 

in obtaining a supply of eggs from China or Japan. In a few 
days he received the gratifying information that His Excellency 
would have much pleasure in applying to the Consul-General 
of Japan for a supply of eggs. 

In January, 1880, a communication was received by Govern- 
ment from Her Majesty's Consul-General at Yeddo, in Japan, 
that it was too late in the season to forward any eggs then as 
they had almost all been exported, but that a supply would be 
sent in the next season. 

In December, 1880, the first supply was received by Govern- 
ment from Yeddo, and at once handed to Father Palla, who 
distributed a few cards to some friends who had previously 
begun the cultivation of the mulberry plant in anticipation of 
the arrival of the eggs. 

The eggs, which are as small as grains of mustard, as 
laid by the insect on white cards, (each 14 by 9 inches long,) 
cover the whole card, so that there are thousands of eggs on 
each card. The one I now exhibit has been practically 
hatched and bears the empty shells as well as those which 
have not hatched as yet. The cards have certain Japanese 
impressions on them to prove that they are genuine Japanese 
silk-worm eggs. 

There were several cards, each being covered with tissue 
paper, and then wrapped in thick covers of China and brown 
paper. There was also a little box with 100 divisions, num- 
bered ; in each division there were six cocoons. The numbers 
on the divisions corresponded with the numbers on the cards, 
and the quality of the cocoons and silk, which each card was 
capable of producing, could be ascertained by reference to these 

The eggs which were received in December began to hatch 
in a few days after they were exposed to the air in a ventilated 
room. It required a magnifying glass to enable one to see the 
minute caterpillars or larvae which were hatched, and these 

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142 J0T3BNAL B. A. S. CBTLON. [Vol. VIL, Pt. IL 

had to be carefully removed and kept in little paper boxes 
containing tender mulberry leaves. They began to grow 
rapidly and increase in size, as can be judged from the 
specimens now exhibited, containing caterpillars of different 
stages of growth.* 

Indian Speoibs 

Described by Captain Thomas Hutton, f.g.s., o.m.z.s., 
Corresponding Member of the Agri-Horticultural Society of 
India, t 

Wild species of India differ widely in form, habits, food, and 
silk from the Bombyces proper ; they are all wild and indi- 
genous to India and widely diffused wherever there are hills. 
The type of this group is the well-known Tusaar or Tusseh 
moth {AntheviBa papAia) which is found along the coast line 
from Bombay through Pondicherry and eastward to Bengal, 
and thence through Oachar, Assam, Darjiling, and even to the 

When left to nature, in a wild state, they are annual or 
single-brooded; but when domegticated, two to five broods a year 
may be obtained. 

In the wholQ family of the Lepidoptera there is no insect so 
variable in the imago state in point of coburing as the Tussar 
species, so that a novice would scarcely believe the varieties to 
be of one species. 

The Actios selene, others of that genus, and the Antheraaj 
have a strong, sharp-pointed, horny spine at the shoulder of the 
wing, which is alternately brought into play in making a cross- 
cut, or in separating the threads without cutting, until the 

* The card and other specimens exhibited at the Meeting can be seen 
at the De Sojza Museum, Ceylon Medical College, Colombo. 

t From the Journal of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of 
India Vol. I. Part 4 ; New Series. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 24.— 1881.] SERICULTURE IN CEYLON* 143 

moth makes its exit from the cocoon* In Actiaa the cocoons 
are not so full of silk as those of Antheresea, but it is 
" strong, tenacious, elastic, and brilliant." 

One species of wHd silk-worm found in the N, W. Himalayas 
has been named after the writer alluded to, Bombyx Huttoni. 
It will not submit to domestication. . 

The other species are Anthercea assama, found in Assam ; 
Anthercea Royleij found in Mussoree and Simla feeding on the 
oak; and Bornbyx Mari a Pat Porloo, found in Bengal. 

Of the Eria^ Erie, Arrea or Arindee group Phalcea Cynthia^ 
found in Bengal, feeds on the castor oil plant instead of on the 
mulberry and yields a coarser silk. 

Another of the Eria group is the Attacus atlas. • It thrives 
well when found and taken from the jungle, but the moths could 
not be induced to breed. The Attacus cyntkia is the same as 
the Attactts canningi, and is abnndant in Mussorie and Cachar. 

The above are also described as belonging to the genus 
^^Saturnia^^ — Saturnia atlaSy^ the giant atlas moth' whose wings 
measure 7 or 8 inches across ; Saturnia cercropia and Satur^ 
nia luna have their wings produced into a tail ; Saturnia 
Cynthia is the arindi silk-worm of India. Lattreille states 
that these are the wild species of silk worm of China. Satur- 
nia promethea is a North American species. It forms it 
cocoon within the leaf of a sassafras tree, having previously 
fastened the stalk of the leaf to the stem by a strong 
silken web, whereby it is prevented from falling with the 
other leaves. 

Wild silk-worms feed upon different trees, such as the 
jujube, Ficus religiosa or Peepul tree, the castor oil plant, 
the almond, some of the laurel tribe, and others. {Boyle's 
Productive Resources of India.) 

As Mr. Geddes of Moratuwa had a supply of silk- 
worm eggs from Father Palla I wrote to him for such in- 
formation as he could give me. The following is his reply, 

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144 JOURNAL R. A. S. OBYLON. [Vol. Vll., Pt. IL 

which will be found full of interesting information on this 

subject : — 

Parate, Moratuwa, 
September 29th, 1881, 

Dear Sir, — With reference to your request for specimens of the 
Mylitta silk moth, I regret that I have no moths at present, but only 
some larvae of Mylitta and Atlas, which I am rearing for Mr. Alfred 
Wailly, of London. There must be specimens at the Museum. 

There seem to be several varieties of the Mylitta. According to 
Major Coussmaker, the Himalayan variety is univoltine (single- 
brooded) and the larvae casts the skin five times, and attains a length 
of seven inches when full grown. There are smaller varieties in 
other parts of India, and in the kind found here the larvae moults 
four times and is about five inches long. In India the Mylitta feeds 
on the Terminalea tomentosa, Zizypus jujuha, Lagerstrcema indica^ 
Ficus benjamina, Carissa, Guidia, and other trees, I do not know 
if any of these grow here. In this country the Mylitta is to be 
found on the kaju, kahata, milila, veralu, and some other trees; and 
the Ceylonese variety of the insect is polyvoltine, producing four or 
five generations in a year. Sir Emerson Tennent says, in his Natural 
History, that the Mylitta feeds on the leaves of the castor oil tree, 
but he has confounded it with the Attacus ricini or Arinda silk 
worm, which is quite a different species and does not, so far as I 
know, exist in Ceylon. 

The word tussur — variously written ** tasar," " tusseh," " tussah," 
and several other ways — is derived from tussurie, Hindustdni for a 
shuttle.* In England they call all sorts of wild silk- worms by the 
general name of **tussurs," but the name properly belongs to the 
species known scientifically — or rather empirically, for such names 
have been multiplied until they have become worse than useless — by 
the various names of Saturnia paphia, Antheroea paphia, Anthercea 
Mylitta and Attacus Mylitta. 

The Mylitta silk-worm cannot be fed on plucked leaves like the 
mulberry And castor oil species, but must be kept either on growing 

* S. fi)»d [iasaral, «* shuttle.** 

Digitized by VjDOQ IC 

No. 24,~1881.] SBRIOULTURB m CBTLON. 145 

tbo leaves fresh. It has not hitherto been cultiyated except hj 
entomologists, all the tussur silk being made from wild cocoons 
gathered in the jungles. I have tried keeping the laryas on exposed 
trees, but it did not answer, as they were all destroyed by birds, red 
ants, or lizards. Major Coussmaker keeps them on bushes covered 
with bamboo cages, and that plan might answer here ; but I believe it 
would be too expensive a way of obtaining cocoons in sufficient quan- 
tity for manufacturing purposes. I keep mine on cut branches, and I 
have an arrangement by which they are transferred from exhausted 
branches to fresh ones with very little trouble. But this plan requires 
a plant that, after being cut and put in water, will not wiiher before 
the silk-worms have time to consume the leaves ; and I have not yet 
found any plant that is perfectly satisfactory in that respect for feed- 
ing the Mylitta, though, in the case of the Atlas, the Milnea Boxbur- 
ghiana answers perfectly. For the Mylitta I have used kahafa, 
verafu, and kaju, and I am now using katakalu (Sinhalese for a 
common weed of which I do not know the botanical name). This 
plant seems to answer better than any I have tried before, but I have 
had very little experience of it yet. For keeping the branches for the 
silk-worms I have long tin cylinders placed horizontally and filled 
with water, and along the upper side of the cylinder there is a bar 
of wood pierced with holes for inserting the branches ; but the plan 
is not easy to describe, though very simple when seen. 

The culture of the tussur silkworm is only an experiment yet, and 
except as a matter of scientific investigation, it would be premature 
to give it any encouragement. Though a silk-worm be polyphagous 
in a state of nature, yet it does not follow that it has no proper food 
plant, and the proper food plant of the tussur — if it has one — is not 
yet known. Then there is no general market for tussur silk, because 
it is not a recognized commercial product as real silk is. Tussur 
silk may in future to a considerable extent supersede cotton, and it 
may also be largely used in combination with cotton and woollen yam 
for improving fabrics both in appearance and durability, but it never 
can be a substitute for true sUk. Those who are now giving attention 
to the artificial propagation of the tussur silk-worm may confer a 
service on future commerce and manufacturing industry, but they 

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cannot expect to obtain from their experiments any pecuniary bene* 
fit for themselyes. In the meantime the thing to be ascertained is 
the proper food plant of the tassur, for, as I said before, a silkworm's 
being polyphagous does not prove that it has not a proper tree on 
which it is more at home than any other. The Arinda silk- worm is 
poljphagous in a wild state, and yet it has for its proper food plant 
the castor oil tree. The Atlas is also more polyphagons than the 
tussur, and yet I know of no tree except the Milnea Roxhurghiana on 
which it can be artificially reared for more than one generation ; and 
while more than a hundred cocoons of the Atlas will be found on a 
single tree of this species, not more than two or three can be found 
on any other. I think the proper tree of the tussur must be an 
Indian species not indigenous to this country, because there does not 
seem to be any tree here on which the cocoons are to be found in 
such numbers as to be worth collecting for manu&cturing purposes, 
as is done in India. 

In the meantime the only silk industry likely to be commercially 
successful is the cultiyation of the mulberry. Many persons when 
they first give their attention to silk production think that wild 
silk-worms must be more profitable than the mulberry species, but 
they always become converts to the mulberry in the end. 

Yours truly, 
Alex, T. Geddxs* 

P.S. — The eggs of the tussur moth hatch in 8 days here. In a 
temperature of 70° to 75° Fah. they hatch in about fifteen, but they 
lose their vitality and become putrid if the hatching be delayed for 
more than twenty days. The breed can therefore be transported 
long distances only in the pupa state. I omitted to mention that the 
caterpillar, like that of the Atlas, has the habit of devouring its own 
east off skin. 

I enclose a specimen of tassur silk and one of mulberry silk. The * 
mulberry silk is the one tied with red thread.* 

* TbeM can be seeo at the '' Pe Soysa Mweum,** Colombo. 

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No. 24.-^1881.] nupuajsm omskh. 147 

By S. Jatatilaka^ Mudaliy&r. 

(Read October dth^ 1881.) 

Omens enter largely into the every-day life of the native of 
Ceylon. They exercise considerable influence in almost every 
remarkable occarrenoe or incident in his life— the birth of a child, 
the marriage of a son or daughter, the undertaking of a journey 
or speculation^ an illness or death in the family, and last but 
not least, the result of his favourite pastime, a lawsuit. 

One of the peculiar characteristics in Ceylon of faith in omens 
is that this feeling, or fear, or belief— by whatever name it may 
be called — is shared alike by all classes of natives. 

Omens are of two kinds, lucky and unlucky. If one about to 
start on a journey, or undertake a particular work, meets with 
an omen, described as a bad one, he postpones the journey and 
gives up the work for a while, and in many instances he aban- 
dons both altogether ; and when compelled by necessity to do 
the one or the other, he does it with the foregone conclusion of 
a failure. 

Instances are known of medical men, summoned to attend on 
persons dangerously ill, whom, perhaps, timely aid might have 
saved, returning home and refusing to see the patient, or pre- 
scribe for him, as being perfectly useless and unavailing, because 
just after starting they had met with a bad omen. 

The following verse from an Eln poetical work called Selali- 
hini SandSsayaj [wi^goB-^ oocrc^caoo] written by §ri Hfihula 
Totagamuv^, the great poet who flourished about the year 

* First published in abridged form in the " Oeylon Diocesan Gazette/* 
March 1st, 1S79.— Jfoii. Sec. 

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148 JOURNAL B. A. 8. CBTLON. [Vol. II., JPaRT II. 

1410, A,D«, enumerates some of the good omens which it 
is lucky to meet with before commencing a journey or under- 
taking; — 

esc S€ ^^^^^ e^dmoi c3c?ge»«03qc)i & 

6)(3 gS) <f3®^ 0odi)GD odiffiSfix)^::^^ Q 

Literally translated it runs thus : — 

Observe the following omens, and if met with they are far better' 
than even consulting a good planet: — 

1 A soft and balmy breeze, 

2 A pitcher filled with water, 

3 Peacocks, or sweet mangoes, 

4 Full-blown white flowers, 

5 A sweet-spoken woman, 

6 A gold vessel, 

7 Waving white chdmara, 

8 White umbrellas, 

9 Elephants inflamed with ichor.f 

The following Sanskrit stanza, from a miscellaneous work on 
morals Pratya-sldkaya [9t$)]6Gd9(Ed@:f^G0] also enumerates 
good omens: — 

CDoGDd^dg S«SXS)o QDQO®d €)a»QSo, g3<^^^q)GibOo &)e)d'ee)3 

e^<3ds3 10§ ebt'Cft q)4JSS)o goocSfi) c)c)«}o, e)ocs>(3® 9«oQ2«))^03® 

t See Macready'fl translation. (Colombo, 1865), Stanza XV., p. viii. 
<^Look at thine outset for auspicious signs 

E*en better than the n^kata^ white fans 

Waving, umbrellas white, King elephants. 

White flowers in fullest bloom, and sweet-voiced maids. 

Gold pictures, gentle breezes perfumed ; 

Overflowing cars, peacocks, and mango firoits.**— 'iSTim. Sic. 

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No. 24.— 1881.] SI^HALBSS OHBNS. 149 

It is lueky for a man or a woman on starting on a journey to meet 
the following objects, viz,:— 

1 Virgins, 

2 A milch cow, 

3 A tom-tom, 

4 A conch shell, 

5 Curdled milk, 

6 Fruit, 

7 Flowers, 

8 A flame of fire, 

9 A person after his ablutions, 

10 Horses, 

11 Elephants, 

12 Bullocks, 

13 A pitcher filled with water, 

14 Flags, 

15 SSsat placed on elevated 


16 Two strings of fresh fish, 

17 White boiled rice, 

18 Cow ghee, 

19 A harlot, 

20 Fresh meat, 

21 Sweet words. 

The foUomng Sanskrit stanzas are found in a similar work, 
and describe certain good and bad omens in connection with 
reptiles, birds, and beasts: — 

J£, on starting on a journey, a house lizard should cry on your left, 
or if a bird, a reptile, jackals, crows, or pigeons cross from the left 
to the right, it is unlucky ; if from the right to the left, it is lucky. 

®i3XSi e^e^sni^ttQQatsio «Qdc5)i)<3g6)o, g.2sx3)@v2S)Gdo£) ^ooff)® 

It is unlucky to meet with the following objects, viz,:— 

1 One besmeared with clay or oil, 

2 A cobra, 

3 One with dishevelled hair, 

4 Naked persons, 

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150 JOURNAL B. A* S. OBYLON. [Vol. II., PaHU U. 

5 The aged, 

6 Noseless and blind persons^ 

7 People with clotted hair, 

8 People covered with mud, 

9 A gossip, or one given to nonsensical talk^ 

10 Emptj pitchers, 

11 Dried wood ( faggots ), 

12 Noisy and quarrelsome people, 

13 Bed flowers, 

14 Bed garments. 

Amongst the Sinhalese or Malabars, any person sneezing sud- 
denly before commencing any work, taking any food or drink, 
or starting on a journey, allows a short interval to elapse 
before he begins his undertaking. But according to the follow- 
ing stanzas, extracted from a Medical Miscellany, it appears 
that in every case a sneeze from every person cannot be con-^ 
sidered as prognosticating an omen of ill : — 

Sag) d«}e9 ^9(33^3® 

i)S)(3o ffi)S>£Oo o@)@x58 
Observe the sneezing of a healthy person. The sneezing of deli- 
cate or lean persons and that of cattle forebodes death. Begard not the 
sneezing of the aged, snflerers from disease of the nose, and children. 

3®k® ^«®tGKi <jp(SK3ot) ©afidgs 
fi03®B3 3^36^3 GtSv^tdduftse) 003^S 

^)<St&^^ C30«O3 c)3cgdC) &®% 
0ioi9®3st> QdGiQoes^ »dcd34da C^oos 

Sneezing from the 
East forebodes want of success; 
South-east, death; 
South, destruction or ruin; 
South-west, calamities; 

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Ko. 24,-1881.] SIl^HALESS OMXKS. 151 

Weit, profit; 

North-west, success in whatever one is about to undertake; 

North, victory; 

North-east, profit. 

The following formula is not unfrequently used in ascertain- 
ing the indications of the cry of a lizard, or of the result of a 
journey or other undertaking. This performance is invariably 
accomplished by the aid of a second person, the operator. 

The operator arranges on the floor, in any order he chooses, 
eight pebbles, without letting the enquirer know which pebble 
he put down flrst. The operator then calls upon the enquirer to 
hold or touch any pebble he selects, and commences to recite a. 
portion of the following stanza, from a discourse of Buddha 
called AshtaUka Dharmmaya^ [qps0^eJffi)c)S®oo], word by 
word, till he comes to the pebble held or touched by the enquirer, 
and the result is then ascertained and communicated : — 

Cse^QO) fC^GiQoa fcoeitt^ Goocold ^«^ ottoCM^ ^cDod gfiscDo 


Profit, — Loss: 

Misery or poverty, ^^ Prosperity or happiness : 

Disgrace, — - Praise or encomium : 

Health, — Scmtow. 

The cry of the house lizard, or the cawing of a crow close to 
a person or a dwelling, is regarded as ominous of either good 
or evil, and deductions from such occurrences are detailed 
in two little works (lately corrected and published by one 
Hisvell6 Pandit) used as handbooks of reference by Nekettds^ 
or astrologers, called Suhunu-sastraya [Q^S^^^oo] fttid 
KaputU'sdstraya [WgQcaataejoo] — the "Science of Lizards" 
and the " Science of Crows." Much reliance and faith are placed 
in these omens, and this feeling is in many instances shared by 
the more intelligent and educated natives. 

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The age of the above works, unfortunately, cannot be ascer- 
tained. I give below extracts with literal translation which I 
trust will be as amusing as they are interesting :— 


«3i(5K5)<^ ^d ^® dad £S)d3S)2st 2Sqo8 

^ 6 «) « ® ®(5<pc^«3c3asf ^co8 

e) QO S) ^ ® cS<3 Qnco2st @«)^ ^ScoS 

C^^ ^® «3g03Qooo«rf ©2)8 iSoaa 

^ S ^ ^ ® «3x6v»«sf d^S £Sco8 

£) 00 S) eo^G02st d^g cSeusoj^ «o®6)6^S ti^ooQ 

9C0343 c^QOGO^sf @^ ddssdaS)^:^ @kOO(f ^So&S 

(S^ @v8a.i43^ ^i@^a} d^ ^008 

6)effcoicS<5 G6«c^ ^6\cs«sf d^ zSad 

e)G6S) es^Qo^sf d^ zSgoS 

9C03CO @«Md QSCSOlf 6«)43 <SGOa 

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No. 24. — 1881.] si]grHALESK omens. 163 

e)ooS) cog c^QOGOo} 2Sco3 

^S-eo caes:f6vcD:fc3a«st e^esyi S)iM«ttf «6co8 

€)coS) dd £S)d}S2st 2S«a 

C-sgd ®<545so oncotrf 0©-cfi ^cftS 

q2$>^ Qocsioai ^@K»2sf diC3 ^SgoS 

©00® O4?32?ScDca«st«Sc03 d<9 . «S«8 

(•agd «)® -»c®»©'5st eScoS 

9CM40 ®d4S3o «o««rf *S«^ 

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154 JOUBNAL B. ▲. a. OBTLON. [Vol. VIL, Pt 11. 

On Svmday the lizard appears of a gold^i hue. If the Ibard cry 
this day firom the — 

£ast» it forebodes State news or some intelligence connected 

with high authorities; 
South-east, disagreeable news; 
South, pleasant news; 
South-west, intelligence of death; 

West, the return in a week of those that haTQ.^ne on a journey ; 
K<^b-west, an alann from fire; 
North, the obtaining of a wi^B; 
North-east, sorrow or sickuess. 

On Monday the lizard is of the Boyal caste, and will be found 
looking towards the South. If a lizard cry this day from the — 

East, it forebodes the arrival of a good relative; 

South-east, sickness; 

South, death; 

South-west, the advent of a rekitive; 

West, alarm from fire; 

North-west, the meeting with a woman if one go in search of one; 

North, the arrival of a friend; 

North-east, profit, or State news« 

On TWtfc^ay.— This day the lizard is of the Vell&la caste, and will be 
found looking towards the North. If the lizard cry this day from 

East, it forebodes the loss of riches; 

South-east, the arrival of a relative ; 

South, sickness; 

South-west, obtaining riches; 

West, the arrival of one who is good; 

North-west, the arrival of a female; 

North, State news, and intelligence of ui absent brother; 

N^rth-east, an alarm from robbers. 

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No. 24.— -1881.J SIiptALSSB OlOENB. 156 

Wednesday, — This day the lizard is of a reddish hue. If it crj thii 
day firom the— 

East, it forebodes pleasant intelligence ; 

South-east^ very joyous intelligence within a week; 

South, sickness; 

South-west, a quarrel; 

West, a seyere ailment within a week; 

North-west, obtaining a wife; 

North, profit oAain ; 

North-east, sickness, or intelligence of death. 

Thursday. — This day the lizard is of a reddish-grey colour. If it cry 
this day from the — 

East, it forebodes death; 
South-east, a present of food; 
South, State news; 

South-west, something to gladden, or rain; 
West, the arrival of a friend; 
North-west, State news; 
North, loss of riches; 

North-east, an alarm from legal procedure, or intelligence of 

Friday. — This day the lizard is of a dark bluish colour. If it cry 
this day from the— 

East, it forebodes an occurrence to give pleasure, or a present of 

some food of two colours; 
South-east, advantage; 
South, something gladdening; . 
South-west, news from a distance; 
West, praise; 

North-west, an arrival with an intimation of death; 
North, mortal fear; 
North-east, an arrival with an intimation of death. 

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166 JOUBNAL B. A. S. OEYLON. [Vol, VII., Pt. II. 

Saturday.— This day the lizard is of a greenish hue. If it cry this 
day from the — 
East, it forebodes the arrival of a relative; 
South-east, something cheerftd; 
South, arrival of a good person; 
South-west, news from a distance; 
West, the return within a week of those who have gone; 
North-west, an arrival bringing a message; 
North, a quarrel; ^ 

North-east, mortal fear. 

As it is difficult to ascertain the actual direction from which 
the cry of a lizard proceeds, and in mfany instances impossible, 
the Nivittds or soothsayers adopt the following short method 
to find the good or evil consequences of the cry of a lizard 
or a woodpecker, or the cawing of a crow close to a dwelling: — 

t>8SS 0g ®S<5i Q^SSi^^ <p^^ @t© ©GO 

^et^^ «3^3 esfioe^^ ^^dS e) go 

o®teo ^ eoi o Q9S)e^3 eooo oi)^ «) go 

t^Q^ ^ ^6^ @t3«)G0 6^S)9<5z @t^09@k© «) 00 


As soon as you hear the cawing of a crow, or the cry of a lizard, or 
that of a woodpecker (near your habitation), measure yoiu* shadow in 
the sun and ascertain the actual number of paces. To this add 13 and 
divide by 7. The result must show either gain or profit, sorrow or 
misery, joy or happiness, food, friends, and lastly, an intelligence of 
a death. If the remainder be 1 , it indicates the obtaining of something 
of a whitish colour, or sweet in flavour ; if 2, it is bad; if 3, something 
to gladden; if 4, a quarrel; if 5, happiness and gain ; if 6, the mean 
between good and bad 5 if no remainders, death. 

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No. 24.— 1881.] si]grHALBSB omens. 157 

Besides the deductions of omens from reptiles, &c., already 
described, the falling or dropping, from a height, of a lizard, a 
cobra, a hikanald^ a blood-sucker or a chameleon, or a rat, on 
the body of any person is thus described:— 

og §«3 £)i9«3. a®QDO ©<5-^8 2Sc8 «) 

-8S8 §«5 03© <50 ^id oo-cS -sSg ®03d 4S6 


If on Sunday, it is a prognostication of victorious results in his 
projects and intentions ; 

If on Monday, Wednesday, Thursday, or Saturday, it is fatal to 
him ; 

If on Tuesday, it is fatal to his wife ; 

If on a Friday, it prognosticates his being obliged to quit his 
native country. 

® ® 29 tzG^^ e)ig0>«53-o:f ^^ ^ss^^ ®^ a 

dL ^9 oo«) Gi6^ ^«5 Ci®*®S ®^<^ ® * 

€3 ^9 @)®S)d 29go eoflD ®t^)0v»e3 ^ssd @ieo3 eo 

Should these animals fall on the right hand side of any person he 
will gain or inherit riches which will last as long as he lives: if on 
the left hand side, it forebodes inexpressibly great evil. 

The cry of the lizard, woodpecker, and the cawing of a crow 
is only ominous when one starts from home on a journey, pro- 
jects a work, or is about to express an opinion, or when about 
to ask for something, or give an order — in fact when about to do 
or think of anything of utility. 

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158 JOURNAL B. A. 8. OBTLON. [VoL VIL, Pt. IL 


€)ooS) ^co3 e»«^ 63 gE)0 Od® ^ 

«)«Q«rag«t®8-esf «38®>»8 ®«3a8 g 03 

Should a crow caw opposite to you in the morning^ it forebodes 
great sorrow and sickness, death or trouble : if in the noon, profit, 
gain, and pleasure : if in the evening^ gain, and arrival of friends and 

Should it caw in the morning looking towards the sun, great iorrows^ 
sickness, troubles ami death, await you: if in the noon, it forebodes 
the arrival of a friend : if in the evening y obtaining something pro- 

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No. 24. — 1881.] SIl^HALESfi OMENS. 159 

Should a crow caw (near your dwelling) perched on the uppermost 
branches of a tree, you will see and converse with a great personage, 
obtain a present of food, witness the arrival of friends, or experience 
destruction, sorrow or death; if from the east^ rain or wind : if from 
the west, the meeting of a particular friend. 

If it caw from the north-west, or north-east, looking towards the 
sun, and perched on a dead tree or a tree without branches, it fore- 
bodes the obtaining of meat just killed, or food of whitish colour, and 
the arrival of a friend within three days. 

Should a crow caw from the south- east, perched on the withered 
stump of a tree looking towards one's face whilst taking meals, it 
fbrebodes death, sickness, a sudden journey, or certain death to his 
wife within three months.* 

To proceed — 


Should a crow drop its dung on the head of a person it is a sign 
of great happiness and comfort ere long: if on the small of the back, 
or on either, of the shoulders, the sign of great happiness and comfort 
likewise: but if on either of the knees, or on the instep, it is a prog- 
nostication of the speedy approach of his death* 

The sudden entrance to any dwelling of certain beasts, birds/ 
and reptiles likewise is considered as a sign of evil, shown 
from the following stanza, which I quote from a work called 
GolaHpata Namadiya [©QD3Q@C3e3> «®^ca] 

* So Sidrophel to Hudibras : — 

" Is it not om'nons in all countries, 
When crows and rayenft croak upon trees."— ^cw. See* 

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160 JOURNAL B. A. S. CEYLON. [Vol. VI1«, Pt, 11. 

Toucans; Owl; Jackals; Cobras^ Swallow; Indian cuckoo; 
Crows ; Outcasts. The entrance of any of these into any 
human dwelling forebodes its ruin. 

Th^ howling of dogs, jackals, the hooting of an owl from 
the roof of a house, and the screech of the Ulama or devil-bird 
near a dwelling-house are considered omens of sickness, sorrow, 
calamity, or death. 

If a dog happen by some means to climb on to the roof of a 
house, it is considered as the harbinger of much evil, sorrow, 
and even death to the family ; and the inmates of such houses 
invariably abandon them at once to avert the evil consequences. 

I have known two instances in which very fine houses, built 
in the Kandyan style — one belonging to a very intelligent and 
well-informed Rat6mahatmay&, the other to a Basn&yaka- 
Nilam6, the latter living within six miles of Kurun6gala— were 
abandoned and eventually allowed to fall into ruins in conse- 
quence of a dog having been discovered on the roof. 

As one is about to start on a journey or commence any under- 
taking, a dog flapping its ears is also proverbially known as 
bminous of bad luck. 

It is said that a dog belonging to a member of the house- 
hold of the last Kandyan King, located near the store rooms 
of the Daladd Mdligdwa, on one occasion got into the Pattirip- 
puroa (the octagon), and that the Royal astrologers regarded 
this as an evil omen that would bring ruin upon His Majesty 
and his possessions ere long. Strange as the coincidence may 
be, before the expiration of three months the King, hearing of 

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No. 24« — 1881.] SI]^HALESE OMEMS. 161 

the approach to Kandy of the British troops, had to abandon 
his throne and kingdom and betake himself to the jungles, 
where he was captured with his wives, and subsequently tran- 

This belief in omens being identified with domestic life and 
shared aUke by the high and low, is deeply rooted in the native 
mind^and although the benefits of education and civilization 
are (aided by the strenuous efforts of the Missionaries) enlight- 
ening the masses, it will be long before these superstitions cease 
to exercise powerful influence over the every-day life of the 

^ *' They are very superstitious in making observations of any little 
accidents as Omens portending good to them or eviL Sneezing they 
reckon to import evil. So that if any chance to sneeze when he is going 
about his business, he will stop, accounting he shall have ill success if he 
proceeds. And none may sneeze, cough, nor spit in the King*s presence, 
either because of the ill-boding of those actions, or the rudeness of them, 
or botL There is a little creature much like a lizard which they look 
upon altogether as a prophet, whatsoever work or business they are going 
about; if he cries, they will cease for a space, reckoning that he tells them 
there is a bad planet rules at that instant. They take great 4iotice in a 
morning at their first going out, who first appears in their sight : and if 
they see a white man, or a big-bellied woman, they hold it fortunate: and to 
see any decrepit or deformed people as unfortunate." (Knox," An Historical 
Relation of Ceylon, &c. ," p. 64, London, 1681. See, too, Selkirk's "Recol- 
lections of Ceylon," pp. 402-3, 1844, and Archssological Notes (Folk-lore^ 
omens, ffcj by M. J. Walhouse in Ind. Ant., Vol, V., p. 21, 1876.)i— 
Hon. Sec. 

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The price of tbe Journals of tbe Koyal Asiatic H^^r^fr' '(t 
Brauch) is, iu Ceylon — to Mrrnlxis. Rs. 1 eafli • f#, jv,.,,,^f,. 
Es, 2 each. 

ff ournals are obtainable from : — 

(1) The Honorary Secretary, R.A.S. (C.B.), Colo!» 

(2) Messrs, Triibner & Co., 57 & o9, Ludgate ITi 11. ] 

->: .' ' _ 

*^^* Communications intended for publicaliou in the #Toiirnall 
be forwarded to the Secretary at least a fortnight bef<> 
of the General Meeting at which they are to be subttiitti 









No. 25. 






THE "times of CEYLON '' PRESS. 



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V>^^^-lcx '^ 

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Nirvdna. — By Professor M. M. Kunt6 163 

Two Sinhalese Inscriptions.— By B. Gunas^kara, Esq., 

Government Translator ... ... — ... 181 

Folk-lore in Ceylon.— By W. Gunatilaka, Esq 208 

Buddha's Sermon on Omens. — By Louis De Zoysa, Esq., 

Maha-Mudaliyar 21(i 

Notes on the Microscopical Characteristics of Feathers, 
and their present analogy with a probable abori- 
ginal form. — By F. Lewis, Esq,, 222 

Sinhalese Folk-lore stories. — By W. Knight James, Esq. 225 

Ruins at Veheragala. — By P. A. Templer, Esq., c. c. s. 232 
The connection of the Sinhalese with the Modern Aryan 

Vernaculars of India. — By W. P. Ranasij^tha, Esq. 234 

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N 1 11 V A N A . 

By Prof. M. M. Kunte. 

21ie sources of information.— A position statecL — Summary 
of the differences between the Buddhists and the Vddists. — The 
platforms of the polities of exclusion and absorption or the V4dic 
and the Buddhistic polities, — The cardinal principle of Y6ga and 
the cardinal doctrine of Gautama Buddha, — The Naimisyaka 
forest atid its ascetics, — The Jainas or conservative rationalists, — 
The philosophical plexus, — The radical rationalists or Buddhists, 
— The Buddhistic method, — Its results, — The determining causes 
of the Buddhistic stand-point stated, — The ground-basis of Bud' 
dhism or Ariya Sachcha\and tJie Indian system of Y6go, — Bud*' 
dhistic attitude towards tlie V^dic, Viddntic and Jaina system8,--r 
Updi-sesa-Nibbdna, — Anupddi-sesa-Nibbdna, — Perfect Nirvdna 
stated, — Conclusion, 

I. The sources of information cannot be too carefully 
and critically investigated, sifted, analyzed, and tabulated. The 
feeling of Nirvdna is hinted at in the Upanishad literature.*- 
It is frequently mentioned in the Brdhmanic Purdnas.f In the 

* See for instance the Upanishad (Mupdaka III. 2, 6.) where the com- 
mentator explains Nirvana. 

t See the Bhigavat Puxiva, Vishnu Purina. 

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164 JOURNAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Ft. III. 

Tantra literature it occurs as a concrete fossilised ceremony* 
In the Bhagavat Gitd, the scriptures of all the sects of the 
Hindus, Nirvdna is the predominant aspirationf ; it is cherished 
by the present generation of the pious Hindus ; it is a prominent 
idea in their sacred music.J 

There are two schools of Jainas — the Digambara and Sve- 
tambara ; both propound a view of Nirvana. The ground-basis 
of their theology and metaphysics is the same as that of the 
Buddhists.§ But they do not carry their doctrines to all 
their consequences. Rationalistic in their feeling and aspiration, 
they are to a certain extent conservative in their practices and 
customs. Their literature || is extensive, intricate, and varied — 
a literature which throws a great deal of light upon the subject 
of Nirvdna. 

Nirvana is a central doctrine of Buddhistic theology 
and metaphysics. The Buddhistic literature of Nepala, the 
Tibetan Buddhistic literature, the Burmah Buddhistic litera- 
ture, the Chinese Buddhistic literature, the Ceylon Buddhistic 
literature — all these have been opened up to scholars by 
Brian Hodgson, by Cosmo Koros, by Bigandet, by Beal and by 

Indian Buddhism, though extinct as a living system, is 
still important on account of the writings of the different 
A^'chdryas of the different schools. The dicta uttered by the 
Yogd-chdryas, the Sontrantikas the Vaibhdsikas, and the 

* In the Agni Purdna this ceremony isidescribed because it is an attempt 
at an Encyclopaedia of the Brdhmanic science, history and philosophy. 

t See (V. 25. and VI. 15.) of the Bhdgavat Gitd. 

J See an Abhanga of Tukdram : — Nirvai?ich4 eka P4i?duranga. See 
the Prabodha Chandrodaya which describes the doings of Chatainya of 

§ The Jainas recognize karma or eternal activity as the Bauddhas do. 
They discard the notion of god and sacrifice as the Bauddhas do. They believe 
in the eternity of religious truth which they state is revealed from time to 
time as the Bauddhas do. They uphold the doctrine of metemsyphosis as the 
Bauddhas do. Both maintain pain to be positive. 

II There arc large Jaina libraiies in Ahmadabdd, and in some towns of 
t^e Kamatic. 

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No. 25—1882.] NiBvA^TA. 165 

Mddhyamikas are found scattered in the polemical literature of 
the Brdhmanas, such as the writings of Knmdrila Bhatta.* 

Though the researches of eminent scholars have accom- 
plished much in elucidating the subject of Buddhistic Nirvdna, 
yet the water sheds of Brahmanic, Jaina, and Buddhistic literature 
are not reached and investigated. What is known is, however, 
sufficient to. show the series of transformations the doctrine of 
Nirvana has passed through between 1,000 B. C. (the t{me of 
the Upanishad literature), and 1,200 A. D. (the time of 
Brahmanic and Jaina revival.) 

II. A position stated. — A doctrine like that of Ninana, 
accepted and acted upon by the masses of people in different 
countries of the world, is not a mere accident ; it is a growth 
determined by the environment of those who maintain the 
doctrine — an environment involving historical conditions and 
circumstances, and originating in a many-sided revolution. 
Buddhism is a popular revolt against the exclusive Aryan 
conquerors. It is a rebellion of the proleteriat against the upper 
classes. It is the polity of absorption determined to upset the 
polity of exclusion. It is the masses (Sa^gha) in opposition 
to the upper classes (Udgha). It is a socialistic movement 
against the hereditary aristocracy of ancient India and its 
prior rights. The sequel will elucidate and support this view of 

III. Summary/ of the differences betioeen the Buddhists and 
Vedists. — There were conservative and liberal AVyasf ; the 
former attempted to exclude half-castes from their schools : the 
latter encouraged them to learn and gave them instruction.^ 
The Sa^gha or a class — consisting of the A^ryanized non-A'ryas, 
half-castes and degenerated A^ryas — was distinguished from the 
higher classes or genuine A'ryas §. The leaders of the Sa^ha 
gradually grew in intelligence and pressed forward, claiming 

* See MAdhava S^yana's Sarva Darsana Sapgraha, which offers a 
summary of their doctrines. 

t The Pilrva Mimansd (VI. 1, 26, 27.) 
I Chhdndogya Upanishad (IV. 4, 1.) 
§ P6nini's Siitras (III. 3, 86.) 

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166 JOUBNAL R. A. s. (cetlon), [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

admission into the A'ryan polity. Tlje Nishads* declared that 
they could perform sacrifices as the A'ryas did. Sacrifice was 
the soul of all A^ryan thought, feeling and activity ; and none 
bujtthe genuine Aryas could perform it.f The learned A^'ryas 
either favoured or opposed the Nishads ; there were thus philo* 
Nishads and anti-Nishads. The conservative A ryas restricted 
or sought to restrict the rights of women, t declaring that they 
could not possess property of their own, that they could not 
learn in schools, that they could not live independently of the 
joint-family. The A ryan laws bore hard on the non- A'ryas,and on 
the half-castes § ; even a distinctive costume was prescribed. || 
Impressed with the conviction that the A ryan gods were 
powerful and prompt in granting prayers, and that A^ryan 
institutions conferred superiority and contributed to comforts of 
this life, the Saigigha naturally desired to adopt the forms and 
modes of A^ ryan worship, to live as the A rj^as lived, and to enjoy 
themselves as the A' ryas did. 1[ They were systematically 
suppressed; and the Sapgha was agitated. Vexed and alienated 
by the superciliousness of Brahmana priests, the Kshatriyas 
dissented, and condemned the Vddic polity of exclusion.** 
Some of the Vaisyas necessarily sympathised with the Kshatriya The Sa^gha persisted in asserting their rights, 
but failed in securing them. The conflict between the genuine 
A'ryas and the Sa^gha terminated in a revolution. Buddhism 

* The Piirva MimA^i& (YI. 1, 51.) and the Kdliya Shronta Siitra 
(I. 1, 12.) 

t The Taittirlya Brdhma^a (I. 2, 1, 26.) 

X The Pilrva MiminsA (VI. 1, 6 and 8.) 

§ The Upakri^ta and the Rathakira. 

II The costumes of the Brdhmanas and Kshatriyas are definitely des- 
cribed. They could not assume this. 

% See the Prasiddhi-i^^i or the ceremony of an A'' ryan girl being out: 
" ladra grants us wealth and breaks the spells of Dasius " is the burden of 
V6dic hymns. 

** The lives of such Kshatriyas as Janaka. The internecine war between 
the Brdhma^is and the Kshatriyas. 

tt ^^3 Jainas in India %re xnoetly Yai^yas. 

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No. 25—1882.] nibvAjsta. 167 

IV. The platforms of the polities of exclusion and absorp^ 
tion or the Vddic and Buddhistic polities, — The doctrine of 
worldliness was systematized. It was distinctly stated that the 
duties of man — or rather A'^ryan man — were to live in happiness 
here and hereafter ; * but perfect liberty to do as one pleased 
was not sanctioned. The V^da was recognised as a codef of 
ethical, social, and political conduct — the eternal V^das.J 
Truthfulness as among the A'ryas themselves was recognized 
as a binding and paramount duty.§ Worldly happiness was 
identified with heaven ; and worldly happiness in its variety 
(iould be secured, they believed, by performing duly their 
sacrifices in conformity with the Veda.|| Gods like Indra or 
Mitra favoured their exclusive privileges, and it was a special 
privilege of the A^ryas to lord it over the whole world and 
specially over the non-A'ryas.1[ The reformers made a new 
departure : they condemned worldliness, and opposed to it 
spirituality: ** they condemned exclusion and opposed to it 
universal benevolence: they condemned sacrifice and its arro- 
gant superiority and opposed to it spiritual contrition of the 
heart : they condemned caste and opposed to it universal 
brotherhood : the schools were opened to all who sought 
instruction. A distinction was made between individuality, 
local in its grasp and earthly in its aspirations, and universality, 
disclosing transcending views, and inspiring by its deep spiritual- 
ity. This is the first view of Nirvana — a condition of positive 
spiritual bliss as distinguished from worldly happiness or 
temporal power or secular privileges. The Vedic sacrifice 
pre-supposed worldly prosperity and encouraged secularity.ft 
The V^dic A rya sought happiness by acting on external nature 
and his surroundings. The reformer or the A'rya of the 

* The Piirva Mimd^sd (VI. 1, 1, 3.) 

t 7^.(1.1,2.) 

X Id. See the discussion in (I.) 

§ This is inculcated or was interpreted from Tai. S. (II.. B. 5, 6.) 

II The Piirva Mlmd^sd system. 

^ See the Aitareya Bi-dhma^ (IV. 3. and VII. 29.) 

** The Upanishads teem with utterances in support of these statements. 

tt The Piirva Mlmdpsa (VI. 1, 10.) 


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168 JOUBNAL E. A. s. (oeylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

TJpanishads sought spiritual bliss by controlling his passions, 
and checking his aspirations.* The one felt that bliss, repose, 
or tranquility was out in the objects he sought — it was objective : 
the A^charya of the. Upanishad period felt that tranquility was 
in himself — it was subjective. The first is systematized in the 
Piirva Mimdysd philosophy : the last in the Yoga doctrine. 

V. The cardinal principle of Ydga and the cardinal doctrine 
of Gautama Buddha. — " Oh ! man, control thyself" was the 
principle which Buddha emphatically propounded and incul- 
cated on his followers, t The Yoga starts and ends with this 
same statement, t Nibbuti is thus opposed to Pabatti : 
attachment to life and its pleasures was opposed to asceticism. 
This is the first view of Nirvdna — the view of moderate reform- 
ing A'^charyas who, still revering the V^dic polity, aspired 
beyond it. Their utterances seek to reconcile sacrifices with 
spirituality, exclusion with absorption. Influenced by the 
narrowminded, but glorious, past, they rose superior to them- 
selves, and, ascetically disposed and spiritually moved, looked 
into a future of universal benevolence. § 

VI. The Naimisy a forest and its ascetics, — Either prevented 
from living in towns or determined to enjoy his ecstatic trance 
in the solitude of the wilds, the Kshatriya philosopher or the 
Sudra, fired with spiritual aspirations, retired into the Naimisya 
forest, and passed ' his life there, meditating on the essence of 
all he saw in external nature or of all he felt within himself. 
He characterized this conduct as Departure or Pravrajya. He 
earnestly sought the noumenon which underlies and constitutes 
all phenomena or tatva. Various were the conjectures of 
such philosophers and ascetics. Some fixed upon air || as 

* The Brihat Ara^yaka Upanishad. 

f I Compare Vifiiianassa Nirodhena etth' etam uparajjhadi — ^a dic- 
tum of Buddha Gautama and Yogastu Chitta-Vritti-Nirodhah — ^the Y6ga 
Siitra (I. 2.) 

§ This is the spirit of the Upanishad literature. The distinction between 
Pari and Apard Vidyd deserves attention (Mupd. I. I. 5.) Se3 again the 
Mundaka Upanishad (1 2. 2.) 

II Saravarga Vidya Chhdndogya Upanishad (IV. 3, 1.) 

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No. 25—1882.] NIRVANA. 169 

the essence of all existence : others resolved matter and 
mind into light. Some analyzed life, its conditions and 
circumstances into a spirit in which they lived and moved : 
others referred their life and its phenomena to spiritual or 
meditational warmth. Whatever any of these thinkers fixed 
upon as the ultimate analytical unit or essence, they all 
agreed in condemning the Vedic polity which sanctioned 
animal sacrifices, and inculcated that worldliness itself was the 
last goal of all human aspirations. Ahipsa (recognition of all 
animal life being sacred) was the cardinal point of their belief ; 
but they did not in a wholesale manner condemn the past. The 
V^dic polity with its devotion to caste, to sacrifice, and to the 
prior rights which they secured was adjudged to be inferior to 
the new philosophy,* the result of the new departure taken by 
these reforms. If sacrifice deserved attention and recognition, 
it deserved attention, because it led to contemplation of the 
essence of all intellectual, moral and physical phenomena.f A 
systematic attempt was made to interpret anew the utterances of 
the Rishis known as Mantra, and many Mantras were spiritualized 
away : worldliness was interpreted into spirituality. Women 
were freely taught : Gargi and Maitreyi discoursed on meta- 
physical subjects with their distinguished husband Yajnaiialkya. 
Young men of doubtful birth were initiated into the mysteries of 
the new philosophy. Thus the land-marks of the Vedic polity 
were washed off. Aspiration after a new philosophy, earnest 
spirituality, a spirit of adjustment, new interpretation, a liberality 
of spirit with which caste and all prior rights were incompatible, 
distinguished these reformers. Nirvana at this time signified 
identity and absorption into the unlocalized, universal, subtle 
essence which pervades all phenomena. A teacher points this 
out to a pupil : — " That thou art, Somija J, that spirit which 
moves the air, from whose fear the sun regularly shinesj and to 
which death itself is obedient ."§ Attached to the V^dic polity, 

* Distinction between Pard and Apard Vidyd (MuncJ. 1, 1, 5.) 
t A'dhi Daivam &c. See ChMndogya (IV. 3, 2.) 
X Tattvamasi. See id. (VI. 8. 7.) 

§ Bhi§o-deteti Siiryah * * Mrityus Dhavati Panchjamah. See the Brah- 
ma Vid4 Upanishad (VIII.) 

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170 jouENAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. 111. 

and venerating it, these reformers did not violently denounce it. 
A modesty* which earnest enquiry generates, and a love of 
truthf which results from spiritual emancipation, characterized 
the period. The Brahmavadins or V<5dic teachers often explained 
a four-fold salvation, — (i) dwelling in the same place with a god 
like Indra, — (ii) dwelling near him, — (iii) obtaining his dignity 
and form, — (iv) identity with him. J The last was only materially 
understood by the V^dic teachers. These reformers or ascetics 
gave a spiritual interpretation to it and insisted upon final 
absorption into the spiritual essence as emancipation or salvation. 
This is the back-ground of Buddhistic Nirvana. 

VII. Tlie Jainas or conservative rationalists, — The Jainas 
divided into two classes — the Sv^tambara and the Digambara, or 
those wearing white clothes and those who go about naked — ^are to 
be found in all parts of India. There are about 2,000 of them 
in the city of Ahmadabad alone in Gujarat. In this place 
I cannot discuss the chronology of the Jaina movement, and state 
the grounds of my belief that the Jainas preceded the Buddhists. 
The position of the Upanishad reformer was formulated and 
pressed on the attention of the V^dic A^ryas. The conservative 
sacrificing A'ryas attempted coercion. Anathemas were pro- 
nounced : prayers, offered. The reformers, aspiring after deep 
spirituality and communion with the all-pervading spirit, 
were stigmatized as lethargic and their doctrine was declared 
to be "the path of inactivity." The sacrificing A'rya publicly 
prayed : — "Oh! let mylethargyjOi" rather my tendency to (moral) 
sleep, depart to the natives of Vidhea or to contemplative 
inactive men.§ In the Mahabharata the condition of society 
is feelingly depicted. Bhishma despondingly observes : — "None 
knows what the truth is. To advance their own interests, 
selfish men preach to the people what they please." || The 
Vaisyas, little accustomed to think for themselves and disposed 

* See the story of Nachiketas. See Katha Valli Upanishad. 

-j- Satyam Vak^i J^hilah. See ChhAndogya Upacishad (IV. 4.) 

I (i). Salokatd (ii). Samipati (iii). Sanipati (iv). S^yujya. 
§ See the Agny^dhdna Pray6ga. 

II See the 94nti Farva-^the story of a vulture and a jackal. 

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No. 25—1882.] NiRviisTA. 171 

to respect both the Brahmana and the Kshatriya, were puzzled by 
their controversies, and could not understand the conflicting 
statements made by the orthodox A^rya, or by the secularist* 
or by the Upanishod reformer. They, therefore, fell victims to 
scepticism. Their leaders stigmatized their views and stated 
their grounds. The logic of scepticism t was thus developed 
and it would be elucidated by a contrast between the views of 
the Upanishad reformer and those of the Jaina. The one merely 
adjusted the importance of a sacrifice and connived at the 
slaughter of animals : the other was fired by enthusiasm of life — 
he strongly condenned the slaughter of any animal for any 
purpose. To the one Vedic lore, though a dispensation old 
and inferior, yet was important as the means of his superior 
wisdom : the other discarded all notion of revelation. The one 
believed that an abstract essence — a generality, was real, eternal, 
and could be cognized : the other declared that a generality was 
only a kind of knowledge, and its notion was derived from the 
knowledge of particular facts. The one aspired after absorption 
into the eternal, all-pervading essence : the other aspired after 
maintaining liis individuality | through eternity. The one 
believed that all phenomena are only transient and are ultimately 
to be resolved into Brahma : the other believed that they are 
real and eternally abide. The one thought that the universe is 
either created by or emanated from the Supreme Person : the 
other discarded all notion of a personal creator. The one was 
definite in his statements and had resort to the utterances of the 
Rishis and attempted to interpret them anew to support his views: 
the other more or less hesitated, but declared that virtue eter- 
nally abideth, and that it is revealable by eminent teachers. 

* Loukayatika or Chdrvaka as popularly known. 

t This is called Syad vdda. It states: — Perhaps a thing is — perhaps it is 
not. Perhaps in sequence of time it is and it is not. Perhaps at once it is 
and it is not, — this cannot be stated. Perhaps it is and cannot be stated — 
perhaps it is not, and cannot be stated. Perhaps in sequence of time it is, and 
it is not, and cannot be at once stated. 

I This view that every individual object has a spirit is met with in the 
Zendavesta in its chapter on Farohars. 

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172 JOURNAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

Equally repelled by the Ve die polity, the reformer and the Jaina 
rose superior to mere materialism of the Brahmavadins, and 
8yjnpatliised with higher spiritual aspirations and virtue as 
distinguished from mere ritualism. Philosophically sceptic the 
Jaina was practically conservative ; rationalistic in his method 
and aspirations, he adhered to his caste and believed in the 
philosophy of metempsychosis which the Vedic thinkers had 
developed. The reformer and the Jaina condemned this life as 
a perpetual source of pain and misery and aspired after emanci- 
pation or Nivritti, consisting in the eternal enjoyment of positive 
happiness and in escaping the transmigration of soul from life 
to life — the inevitable consequence of all activity. 

VIII. The philosophical plexus, — The activity of the Jainas 
paved the w^ay of the radical rationalists or Buddhists. The 
ground-basis of the doctrine of emancipation as propounded by 
the Upanishad reformer or Vedantist, by the Jaina or the 
conservative rationalist, and by the Buddhist or radical rational- 
ist is the same, because the same cause Originated these move- 
ments — the opposition to the conquering supercilious V^dic 
AVyas, their sacrificial exclusiveness, their prior rights, and 
their all-engrossing worldliness, and materialism. The Vedantist, 
the Jaina and the Buddhist are all world-wxary, and seek the 
cessation of all activity, and its fruit — the transmigration of 
soul. Activity or Karma is a potent cause. It is eternal : it is 
accumulated : it adheres to the human spirit : . it produces all 
phenomena : it abides in the peri-spirit or the semi-material 
body which it gathers about itself. It is either increased or 
decreased in one life. As soon as the body decays, and is 
destroyed it leaves it and takes another body. This activity or 
Karma is a subtle entity. It is the cause of all human suflFering : 
so long as a particle of this activity remains, there will be to 
that extent human misery. Separation from it is salvation. 
Thus human activity, human misery, inseparable from it, and its 
consequence — metempsychosis, explain all phenomena of human 
life and of its environment. The practice of virtue, the power 
of contemplation to nullify the habit of belief in material and 
corporeal existence, and self-abnegation — these are the remedies 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 25—1882.] nirvXna. 173 

for escaping from the trammels of all activity. Thus the Yoga 
philosophy is developed — the philosophy of contemplation or 
Dhyana. I cannot explain in this place its different stages, the 
progress made from one stage to another, the amount of self- 
abnegation and power over the self secured, and the knowledge 
or the intellectual light it generates. The material body is 
gradually left behind, and the Y6g{ lives a spirit above all 
worldliness, above the power of the flesh, free from all power of 
activity, working miracles and enjoying spiritual beatitude. 
Activity or rather a tendency to it is the disturbing cause — 
Up^hi. Until a Y6g{ is completely emancipated, he is in 
danger of getting into its meshes. Annihilation of all Upadlii 
is complete emancipation. Upon this ground-basis, all Vcnhint- 
ism, Jainaism, or Buddhism are built. But the Vcdantist seeks 
emancipation from all activity, and practises contemplation and 
self-abnegation, that the spirit encased in a material body and 
su})ject to the power of activity may re-unite with itself in its 
universality, and being once more unlocalized and universalized, 
enjoy perfect happiness. The Jaina seeks the emancipation of 
his individual spirit by the same means and for the same purpose ; 
but he believes that the human spirit maintains its individuality 
and enjoys happiness for eternity. Tlie Buddhist believes in the 
power of activity, dreads metempsychosis, practises contempla- 
tion and self-abnegation and aspires after emancipation, and yet 
differs from both the Vedantist and Jaina materially. His notion 
of Nirvana will be elucidated by that of the Vedantist or 

IX. The radical rationalid or Buddhist, — The Buddhist 
differed both from the Vedantist and Jaina, and made a new 
departure. The Vedantist developed into an isoteric school 
and moved forward on the lines of the Vedic polity, aspiring 
after being absorbed into a noumenal essence. The Jaina 
believed in the individuality of the spirit, and had recourse to 
acts of charity and faith — a situation into which his logic of 
scepticism landed him. The Buddhist succeeded in oro-anizinc^ 

TT« • • o r> 

a national movement. His activity accomplii^hed a moral-force 
revolution which subverted the Vedic polity itself. 

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174 JOUBNAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pi III. 

X. The Buddhistic method. — The V^dic A'chdryas like 
A' svaldyana, Pdnini and others, had developed and stated the 
definition method. Jaimini and Patanjali had developed 
exegetical logic, stated and applied it. The Jaina had scepti- 
cally argued. The definition-method, the exegetical logic and 
the logic of scepticism paved the way of analytic logic which 
the Buddhist preferred. He was, therefore, called the analytic 
reasoner.* A persistent attempt at analysing, classifying, and 
defining knowledge was made. 

XI. Its result, — ^The Buddhist perceived that the human 
will was the ultimate analytic unit beyond which he could not 
proceed. The will was the noumenon from which all he said, 
thought, and felt was developed. This was the (,'hitta manas, 
or Chetas.t The disparity of human destiny and conditions of 
human life were explained by the action of accumulated activity 
or Karma. His realistic analytical reasoning recognized the 
ideality of knowledge as determined by realistic activity. This 
will, modified and acted on by Karma or activity or merit, was 
the basis of which all else was a phase — a quality. But the 
will X acted on by activity invariably resulted in pain real and 
cognizable as such. Activity called into existence the will, and 
modified it. Its modifications are manifold, varied and subtle. 
The forms of human life and of phenomenal existence were 
considered to be so many pliasos of the human will acted on by 
activity and were not real. Emancipation from misery, the 
inseparable result of all activity acting on and modifying the 
will by externalizing it, was the summum bonum. The Bud- 
dhist discarded the reality and individuality of the human will 
and of the external noumonal essence. 

* Vibhajya Vddi. 

I The o[)ening lines of Dliammapada, when interpretctl from this stand- 
point, arc adequately and coa^istcntly adjusted. "Manopubbangama Dharamd" 
is a phrase which is not adequately comprehended by those who have attempted 
to explain it, )>ccause theyha^e not carefully examined the antecedents of 

% The Abhidhamma — the metaphwysical portion of the Tipitaka recog- 
nizes and states Chitta, Chcitasika, Pa'ipa, and Nibbdna. 

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No. 25—1882.] nirtAna, 175 

XII. The dete>*mimng causes ; the Buddhistic stand-point 
stated, — The Vedantist aspired after the eternal lioiimenal 
essence, and submitted to the V^dic polity with its caste, and 
prior rights, though he sought to interpret the V(5dic code as 
liberally * as he could. The Jaina recognised the reality and 
individuality of thft human spirit, the basis of his logic of 
scepticism. His inactivity and his conservatism, the Buddhist 
necessarily out grew. Absorbed in profound thought, impelled 
by introspection, he feelingly believed, and assiduously taught. 
His view of the human will and of phenomenal existence was 
thoroughly analytic and the stand-points of the Veddntist and 
Jaina determined his \'iew. The gross feeling or Kdma was 
distinct from form, and form w^as distinct from the ideal exis- 
tence of form but not free from action or Kriya. Beyond this 
was the life of contemplation, of introspection, of deep absorp- 
tion, of all freedom from externalization gross or subtle. This 
is the Kamavachara, the Riipavachara, Ariipavachara, and 
Lokuttara, forms of life. In the last there is no action what- 
ever, no Kriya chittani, but the Vipaka chittani are playful, 
the Chitta or the will as acted on by itself, t To sum up, all 
gross and pure action and bustle % in the Kamavachara life ; 
pure for mal action, but no bustle in the Rupdvachara life, — 
abstract ideal action in the Ariipavachara life ; but peace and 
inaction are the exclusive privileges of Lokuttara life. 

XIII. The ground basis of Buddhism or the xV riya-sach" 
chas, and the Indian system of Y6<ja, — (1) Dulvkha sachcham, or 
suffering in its variety ; (2) Samu'laya sachcham, or all life as 
a development of different analytic conditions ; (3) Dukkha 
nirodha, or suppression of all thought and feeling of suffering ; 
and (4) final emancipation. § Utthana (Vyutthdna) or Pavatti 
(Pravritti) or gross life of mere externalization is common to 

* See the Story of Jib61a in the Chhdndogya Upanishad, 4. 

t See the 1st Parichheda of the Ahhidhamm^ttha Sangaha. 

X The term UtthAnam (Vyutthdnam in Sanskj-it) characteristically 
expressed this. Y6ga was the latter term. Pavatti (Pravyittti in Sanskrit) is 
another term. 

§ See the 9th Parichheda of the AbhidhammAttlia Sa^jgaha. 

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176 JOTONAL B. A. s. (oetlon). [Vol VIL, Pt, III. 

both Buddhism and Y6ga. Both recognize that snfifering 
(Kldsha) is the inevitable destiny of humanity, a destiny 
intensified by the elaborate system of metemsychosis, both state 
that the Chitta or the heart, the intellect and will — combined and 
forming one unit — ^is constantly acted on and modified by activity, 
and a tendency to extemalization, and this is the cause of all 
suffering. Both proclaim aloud that the suppression of this 
tendency is the means of happiness.* The means of accom- 
plishing this suppression are identical in both, intense contem- 
plation t which ends in producing a vision or higher knowledge. J 
The great point of difference is, the human will is the last unit 
recognized by the Buddhist, and beyond it he does not go. His 
notion of the human will corresponds to that of Yoga; but Yoga 
sees behind the human will a spirit which is essentially identical 
with the all pervading spirit, but which is enthralled and encased 
in the human body. This is the V^dantist view. The Jaina 
rejected it and declared the independent individuality of the 
human spirit, ever independent and ever existing by itself. The 
Buddhist rejected both as noncognizable by his intense and 
profound introspection. He knew he saw (Riipa) ; he knew 
he perceived (V^dana) ; he knew he reflected (Safina) ; he 
knew his mind was acted on by itself, and its activities, and 
that which its merits and demerits attached to it (Sankhdra) ; 
he knew he rose superior to all this, and absorbed in con- 
templation, realised a tranquility and a profoundity of feeling 
(Vinnana). Beyond this, § in the realm of infinity of know- 
ledge or intellection^ he lives, preparing for entering the stream 
of the great paths. When in this condition, he is above all 

* Notice and compare the following — Yogachitta Vyitti Niradhah — the 
second Si\tra of the Yoga Philosophy, (explained in my *' Studies in Indian 
Philosophy,") and the utterance of Buddha Gotama, " etassa nirodhana idha' 
etam nimjjhati.*' 

f Samddlii or Jhdna. The Buddhist has elaborated this by his analytic 
reasoning. The Y6ga simply states it. 

\ Compare Samapatti in both, and the Nana Dassana SdmanHa phala, 
Vipassand Dibbachakkhu of the Buddhist with Ritambhara Prajfid of the Y6gi. 

§ A'kdsanafichdyatana; Vinfidnaflchdyatana ; A'kinchanfidyatana ; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 25—1882.] nirvAna. 177 

form: he is conversant with nothing but abstract knowledge ; 
his will is, however, affected and works. * His five-fold 
combination falls to pieces and ceases to exist when he enters 
the four paths. His intense contemplation and introspection 
failed him when he attempted to soar higher than this. Nor 
did he see the necessity of going beyond this. The tendency 
to externalization inseparable from the will so liable to be 
affected by external and internal influences, being destroyed, 
that on which Kamma can act, is destroyed. If nothing beyond 
the Chitta or the human will or heart in its five Skandhas 
existed or could be realised, then nothing in the form of nou- 
menal essence would be thought of. The Buddhist began with 
introspection and ended with it. 

XIV. Buddhistic attitude towards tlie VSdic, VSddntist, and 
Jaina systems. — He hates the V^dic polity, its pantheon, its 
heirarchy, its exclusiveness, and its prior rights. To him the 
V^dantist goes only half the way, and the Jaina is wrong, and 
is not able to contemplate and introspect. The V^dic polity 
recognizes the independent eternal individuality of the human 
spirit. It is the basis of the Piirva Mimansa philosophy. 
Ondulomi had stated it long before Jaimini. The Jaina follows 
the V^dic polity in this, but the Buddhist rejects it as likely to 
land him in all the absurdities of ritualism and caste as he con- 
ceives it. The V^dantist recognised eternal noumenal essence 
consisting in eternal existence joined to intelligence and happi- 
ness, t When introspection unlocalized and universalized 
his inner self or the Chitta, he found himself plunged in a 
nothingness immeasurably expanding on all sides, transcending 
all thought, and growing into an infinitude of space and eternity. 

XV. Upddisesa Nibhdna, — The peri-spirit comes into ex- 
istence, energises and externalises so long as a tendency to 
Karma exists. The tendency is annihilated when all desire is 
vanquished, when a Buddhist has risen superior to the flesh. 

* Mark the VipAkachitta and KriyAchitta as explained in the Abhi- 

t Sachchiddnanda. This is the watch- word of all schools of Vedantists: 
it is based on utterances in the Upanishads. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

178 JOURNAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. 111. 

When in this condition a Buddhist is Jivan Mukta, one who 
is emancipated while living, he is Bhavit A'tman, one who is 
unlocalized and universalised. He has yet, however, to live for 
some time and his accumulated activity is to be consumed by 
dint of mere living. When the accumulated activity is thus 
exhausted, he is completely emancipated when he dies, i.e., when 
his peri-spirit (the Panchaskandhas) fall to pieces, and when it 
can no longer act. The first condition is characterised as 
Upadis^sa Nibbdnam. A Buddhist is an Arhat. He is in the 
fourth Rath. He is a perfect Yogi. He can perform miracles. 
He lives in a condition of beatitude. He lives on the earth 
merely to live out his last portion of earthly existence. The 
last condition — ^the condition of an Arhat after his death is 
characterised as Anupadis^sa Nibbanam. The Yoga system of 
Indian philosophy throws a flood of light on this view of 
Nibbana. A perfect Yogi ecstatically declares he has only to 
pass a few days of his last earthly existence in sportiveness. 
" Emancipation is my wedded spouse." * 

XVI. Anupddisesa Nibhdna. — Perfect Nibbana is charac- 
terised in the following way by the Buddhists : — '' A condition 
(Padam) permanent (Achchutam), infinite (Achchautam), uncon- 
ditioned (Asankhatam), highest (Anuttaram) — Nibbanam this 
say the great sages (Mahesayo) who are delivered from all 
desire (Vanamukta)." t I attach some importance to the term 
Viharati % " lives in sportiveness" used in the Malianibbana 
Sutta. " Again a Yogi free from desire, from the sight of 
existence, sees the Sankhara as nihil ; (sees) the Skandhayata- 
nani, and Dhatavat as nihil (both) spiritually and materially ; 
sees (all) realities distinctly as infinite (Analaya) and known by 
the properties of ether (A^kasa) and of the law of Buddha 
(Dharma)." § ^^Emancipation is the result of the extinction of 
all desire, the consequence of thought and feeling." || I have 

* See the Abhangas of TukArama. 

f See the 6th Parichheda of the Abhidhammdttha Sapgaha. 
J See page 30 of Childer's edition. 
§ See the Lalita Vistdm Chap. XIII. 

II This statement is made by Madhav SAyana, a scholiast and an author- 
ity in Indian Philosophy. See his Sarva Dar^ana Sa^igraha — Bauddha Dar§ana. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 26—1882.] NiBvA^A. 17fl 

thus brought together the views of Indian and Ceylonese Bud* 
dhists, and attempted to throw a side-light upon it from Sanskrit 

XVII. Perfect Nirvana stated, — It is a negation of all 
that man, thinks, feels, and wills. So far it is nihilism. It is a 
negation of all suffering which results from thought, feeling and 
volition. So far it is nihilism. But suffering according to a 
Buddhist, a Jaina, or a V^dantist is a positive entity. Happi- 
ness he does not recognize as positive. Suffering (Dukkha) is 
positive and results from localized existence. Both localized 
existence and suffering are destroyed together. When this is 
accomplished, unlocalized universalization is emancipation, co- 
extensive with happiness itself. Suffering is the inevitable 
result of all localization : happiness — of all universalization. 
Hence Nirvana is both negative and positive. It is not nihilism. 
Nirvana is beyond all localization. This is what all the Bud- 
dhists state. Reasoning on the basis of introspection alone, and 
observing the facts as they develope in the inner man, they 
stated that there are different degrees of localization. Infinity 
itself, as conceived by man, is localized. Eternity as conceived 
by man is localized. Hence persistent efforts were made by 
Buddhists so to soar in contemplation as to rise higher than all 
conception itself, as to leave behind all thought, feeling, and 
volition. In the Kamavachara all is gross, material, involved 
in a multiplicity of all that is ^' frail and feverish ;" above it is 
the Riipavachara, the region of Gods and Divinities. Form is 
localized, and what is grosser and more material than form is 
dropped. Beyond the Riipavachara is the Ariipavachara in 
which form itself is dropped, ?.^., left behind. Infinity, eternity, 
is contemplated. But being the subject of contemplation, it is 
localized. In the four paths all this is left behind, and all 
tendency to localization is checked, i.e,^ destroyed. Existence — 
substance — that which is the nameless, the formless, the 
eternal, the infinite, the permament, the unconditioned has a 
tendency to be localized. This tendency to be localized is what 
is called activity or Karma. It is vStrengthened as it is indulged. 
The tendency localizes the uniyersal and Panehnskandhas result. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

180 JOUBNAL B. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

Then there is immediately thought, feeling and volition which 
are inseparable from suffering. Buddhism does not attempt to 
state the properties or attributes of the unlocalized — ^the eternal 
— ^because no matter how carefully a statement is made, the fact 
of statement will localize it. It is, therefore, beyond all state- 
ment. It is enough to say — it is Nirvana. 

XVIII. Conclusion, — Buddhism is an interesting study, 
scientifically, philosophically, religiously, socially, and politically. 
Scienti/icallt/, because science seeks the unification of force and 
the elements which embody all force ; philosophically/, because 
Buddhism discovers to what the psychological method of 
introspection leads ; religiously, because when there are so many 
Buddhists in the world, not believing in a personal God and 
not yearning to worship Him the fact of religious instincts 
of man calls for re-examination and re-statement ; socially j 
because it ignores all ritualism, ceremonies, and social life in its 
amplitude and minutude, in its materialism and its subtility of 
love, and ambition ; and politically,^ because the convent of the 
Buddhists subverted the V^dic polity of caste, sacrifice and 
prior rights, and justified the aspirations of a proleteriat and 
placed them on a legitimate basis for the first time id the 
history of man. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO Sinhalese insckiptionj?. 1^1 

By B. Gunas6kara. 

No. 1. 
At the Ruwanw^li Da' gab a. 

The translator has not had an opportunity of seeing this 
Inscription. The translation is made from a photograph* taken 
by Capt. Hogg, R.E., for the Ceylon Government. 

With regard to the language it may \>e remarked that, with 
a few exceptions, it differs little from the modern, but the 
change is greater in the letters themselves. The translator 
would propose some new readings of the text ^nd correct a few 
orthographical errors, noticing words which are rare, or nearly 
obsolete, in modern Sinhalese. 

The Queen LilAvati referred to in the Inscription, was the 
wife of Kirti Nissaigka of the Kali^ga dynasty. According to the 
MahAwa^sa, she ascended the throne in the year 1753 of the 
Buddhist era, which corresponds with 1210 A. D., and reigned 
six years. She patronised Buddhism and caused two Vihdra to 
be built, one at ParnasAlaka, the site of the La6kdtilaka Vihdra, 
and the other at Weligama. 


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C3345 d qi^ caJSa e §Sg86\^ | rf csSSsi dbdcgwo^/doQeri 

Sd»d®32^§ «)©ad©k03«5i 6SS^f3® Sdc03«3S^QS53G^(2) 

* No. lt)4. Pavement slab, 14-0 x 87, in front of S. Altar of the Ruwan- 
w^li Ddgaba. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

182 etoURNAL R. A. S. (CBYLON). [Vol. VII. , Pt. III. 

<9N«a6cri I coSo^Qdoo^^ G^coari diSi)®zggQ3@2riS s9®i 
@^ (5c^<^©^ ^§§ 6N«oecsJ I (5d«5dlQs3Sa2ri ^adso 

Q I d> ©6Nv5a© cocri 85)(9®i^QiS ^32^o©ag q?Sco^ qpQQcxj 
cDd(ges^£ |®^cs3gari (9^cs^(9^(g3d®8(f)(53 qp<q83 ®2r6)sa^3 

gQO2^§C<9NG0 2riS®^©^3»39i 03®5J<9^<55 | ©i(?)SdC3OT335)3 

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(3^2s3 03c:>^53o2^6cs e)»3 <9^©Sc30G^^ri Scs®^ 25)ad®ei 
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(^25^3622? 2»2i)3ari«) 255(9 ©^®<3^QD 25)© | §23© qfOT© C5)(^ 

^^SS^3 <^^6(§QS)3 c^(f®gS2ri£<5 Q5>^^38^^(5^csc5 
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^8?e)di^ ©g^eri ocss^eri a«te)(A | es5©5j«^ cS^Scd^ 

d^ ®cs2^3SQ©2J©5SD •• ^© (P)ga3^<9^G0^ri diS^rica | cpQ 
235dS3 di©^®ig ®a6\3§®i ^C3e)a55 y qac33 Q^sssSza 

CDZD© Qgg Qdb6N2S53© | ^03dD®CdQ3@5J&eri ^®QD36NaaSrf 
e)QD5J©^C&©^ 253£di OQS)^ric3«i)32S33 Qdb Cp^g 6N5SD36ci | Qdb 
253dS3 CStriGN(S5GN^{9 ©^^dSdi^(3QD^ri6^C^ g6)32S:6\«5539i 

©d2f)i©^®cs5<55iQS)3 6§ I die(g§ ?ni ei2$^3^i6^« fioog 
6Ng»co2ri© 6^(9Noeri6M^S3 6^® adbqpiQ ®qd3c5«c303©q » 

®3©«5 1 a®e §^c^^s^«5>©g 


Abhayasalam^wanKalyanawati suwamlnwahanseta^ dewanu 

Esala pura ekoloswak .. da •• yd ^ nakatin Siri Sanga B6 Purakkra- 

ma Bahu^ | ehakkrawarti suwaminwanse^ etuluwiirajadaruwang^ 

bhandara paripalanayakota ratnatrayehi adhikapprasada '^ eti 

g C3^^^ado^ A9^@®S) i @CD3ddsS3d3(3N3 j^oQotQ. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO sij^halesk insckiptions. 183 

sardhd ® Buddhi gune | n samawit ^ rijapprasdda ® rdsin ^ wirdja- 
manawii Bhandarapote Piriwatublm WijaydnAwan h& mekug^ 
amadu ^^ Sume | dhddevin ha mekung6 b^n Laykfc Adhikdra 
Kotadanawn ^^ Dewalndwan ^* hd ten ^^ denalada Agamadhara 
noek ^^ I paydita ^* warayangen Ruwanmeli ^^ suwAmlnta ^^ Du- 
tugemunu rajjuruwan ddiwii noek | rajadaruwanvisinkaranalada 
piija wisesha asA prasAda parawasawe anun hi asddharana ^^ 
pii I jawiseshayak kalamenaweyi ndnawidhawii atadds atasiya asii- 
wakpamanawastrayen wise | shawii ka^chukayakbahd chiidamani 
chaitya pratibimbayak se wiseshakote saraha pasyalake | ^' 
mand salin solosmati (?) '^ U andawd gandha pushpa sugandha 
dlpayen wichitrakote *^ pAn^ ge | te (?) dhaja patdkd kadali torand- 
din withi sarahd aneka warggaye kana deyin hd kshirapdydsa ) yen 
hd mahoghayak se palamuwana maluwehi nirantarayen satiyak 
piija kote kapuru deddsak | kalandin ^^ pdta tun pana ^^ piyawa 
saw^ ^ riyan^ riyan^ kabalwale kapuru pSn puda^* e | g6 etuluwii 
noek .. s *^ pradipa piijd da karawd noek karmm&nta kala mehe 
kala I wunta atata gal ebii mundu hd ran pili hd un ambuwantada 
handana pili di unu ^'^ satutu karawd | wiharakshdw^ *^ siti 
liyannawun samadaruwan^^ wan^iakuwarun Bamunan pasakun ^ 
sittaru | natannan glkiyannan bera gasannan sakun durayan 
papchayan ^^ padeniye ^' pan^ ^ nahana ^ ga | nun ^* da mdle 
belli mangul mi^diyan^^ mdldkdran osandwatuwantana..nta (?) 
prasddayenraninsa | tutu karawd Ruwanmeli ^^maluwedi me Thii- 
pawaysaasa dharmmakathikayanta sudusu piijd kota | Thiipdrama^ 
swdmintat sri mahd bodhinwahansetat kapuru pahan patdkd 
piijd ddiwii noek | piijd karawd sat genehi terawarunwahanse 
pradhdnakote wasn^tat ^^ mahadan hd siwu | ru pili di n^ non^ 
ne siyalu pretayanta *^ pin pet *^ dewd me pdjd esii mahd 
janaydta da tamdta ^ da | bahula priti upadawd kala pd ^ 


Bhanddrapote Piriwatubim Wijaydndwan, who carefiiUy 
guarded the treasures of the Imperial Lord Siri Sanga B6 
Purakkrama Bdhu and other princes — who was highly pleased 
with the three gems — ^was endowed With faith and a clear 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

184 JOURNAL R. A. s. (ceylon), [Vol. VII.j Pt. III. 

intellect, and was illumined with the rays of royal favour — 
(tlm personage) together with his mother Sum^dh&d^yi and 
his nephew who held the offices of Adikarama of Lafika and 
Principal of the Kotadanaw temple, having learned from many 
pandits who were conversant with Buddhist literature and had 
offices conferred on them, what kind of offerings had been 
made to the venerable Ruwanmeli {Dagabd) by Dutugemunu 
and many other princes, were transported with joy, and having 
resolved to make a grand offering superior to the offerings of 
others, encased (fA^ ddgabd) beautifully with about 8,880 cloths of 
various sorts : highly decorated it so as to look like the reflected 
image of a crown-jewel monument : caused mortar (prepared) 
from five yalas of good rice to be applied thereto : made it lovely 
with odoriferous flowers, scents, and lamps : adorned the streets 

with , flags, banners, plantain-trees, triumphal arches, &c. : 

made on the first terrace offerings of various eatables and lumps 
of milk-rice constantly (pom^ing in) like a great flood during 
a week : honored it by lighting with 2,000 kalandas of camphor 
many thousands of lamps, inclusive of festoons of lamps and 
lamps of earthen vessels placed at intervals of one cubit on the 
third floral attar in the lower part of the dagaba : made 
presents of rings for the fingers set with stones, and of golden 
apparel for the different kinds of workmen and labourers : gave 
garments to their wives and rejoiced their hearts : and pleased 
with (gifts of) gold the writers, the overseers, the appraisers of 
property, Brahmins, cooks, painters, dancers, singers, tom-tom 
beaters, conch-blowers, players on the five kinds of musical 
instruments, ? persons who applied combs and unguents 
to the cavities (in the dagaba), the female servants with 
auspicious marks on them who took care of the terrace, 

florists, perfumers, Moreover having heard the Thupawapsa 

(the history of the ddgabas) while yet on the terrace of the 
Euwanmeli Dagaba, they made suitable offerings to the clever 
preachers .of Dharma, and honored the Thiiparama and the 
illustrious and venerable Bo tree with many lamps lit with 
camphor, flags, &c. To the residents of the seven monastic 
establishments, amongst whom the priests were the foremost, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO Sinhalese inscriptions. 185 

they gave much alms, and cloths for making yellow robes, 
(and) imparted the merit (thus acquired) to their kinsmen, 
strangers, and all the diflferent kinds of Pr^tas, experiencing 
great joy themselves, while they caused the same to the mass of 
the people who heard of these offerings which were made under 
the asterism Visa on the 11th day of the bright half of Esala 
in the second year of Her Majesty Abhayasalam^wan Kalyana- 

completed by his brother Sedetissa. It i ^ now known by the name of 
Rankot (* gold-pinnacled ') Dagaba. 

17. Read sn-dminta for sun-dmlnfa. 

18. Anun ltd asddhdrana, — lit : 'not common with others,' 'unlike others,' i. e,, 

'surpassing others.' 

19. Ydla = 1,280 kuruni ; 1 kuruniya being equal to 4 ncli. 

20. Reading sclesmeti for solosmatt, where scles may be derived from the 

Pali sUeso 'union,' and.w«// (modern Wff/) from mattilid 'clay,' hence 
'adhesive clay.' 

21. The ? sound in h>u is now replaced by «. 

22. Kalanila =00 grains (Apothecaries' weight.) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

X86 JOUBNAL B. A. s. (oetlon). [Vol. VII., Pt. 111. 

23. Reading tunwana for tunpana, 

24. The Si^;Jialese paraphrase of the Attanagaluwa^^ h&s piyawasdwa for the 

Till puppddhdna which means * a flower-receptacle ' or ' floral seat.* 

25. Literally : * offerings of lamps of camphor in earthenware.* 

26. Reading dahas, ^thousands* for .... s. 

27. Read nn for unu, 

28. Read wihdrarakshdwd for wihdralishdfvi. 

29. Samadaruwan ^ sdmidaruwan, *lord8,* *master8,' or ^overseers.' 

30. Pasakun — *cooks' as being derived from pdchaTta *one who cooks' (P. and S.) 

31. This is doubtful. 

32. Pflwf ewiye,— the cavities between the circular rings of a dAgaba 

33. Pan6 ^ modem pond * combs' : perhaps a kind of brush is meant here. 

34. NaTuina — (from the PAli nalidtiam') means that which is applied, while 

bathing, to clean the person = the modem ndnu * unguents.' 
36. Qanun = modem gdnarcun ' those who smear.' 

36. Mangul mi^4^yan^ — this might also be rendered * female servants employed 

on festive occasions.' 

37. RutvanmfU — ^from Ratnamdli^ another form of RuwanfVfli. 

38. Thupdrama — the most ancient ddgaba, built by D^wAnanpiyatissa. 

39. Wamitat — an archaism for wasTtd^vunpat. 

40. PrStayanfa — * departed spirits doomed to suffer extreme misery.' 

41. Pet — from the Pdli patti 'acquisition,' 'communication to others of the 

merit one has acquired,' when it is more commonly written pa ttiddna^ 
42f. Read tamania for tamata. 
43. Reading pujdtvayi for jju 

No. 2. 
Inscription at Pepilita^na, 

The copy of the Inscription from which the following 
translation has been made, is a transcript of another copy in the 
possession of L. De Soyza Mahu Mudaliyar, who courteously 
lent it to the translator. It is to be regretted that the Maha 
Mudaliyar's health prevents him from completing the translation 
which he undertook some years back. 

With a view to test the accuracy of the copy, the translator 
visited the* temple-premises at Pepiliyana, but, to his great 
disappointment, he found th^ stone in detached fragments built 
up into a wall, and the fragments themselves so much defaced 
that they could not be utilized for testing the style or spelling 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO Sinhalese ikscbiptions. 187 

of the transcript. The translator has, therefore, taken the 
liherty to note and italicise what he considers clerical errors and 
place the proposed readings at the bottom of each page. He 
will feel thankful to any persons who may favor him with their 
remarks on the doubtful words of the text which he has noted, 
or suggest any better readings than those proposed by him.* 


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#(3o2353§0^8e3<i)^®e^©^db <:idb8QS>36Ndo^J^®o 

csQgcsQsa^ c ®8»3dcodc5<35§ d cS2$^34^co^C3a)92S5o. 

a^3«db35 ^ ®QK)3d)dbSdodcg£3oCS(9\5)aS (§Odo^®a3©0:93 

2Se8ca©3@2ri Si»2ri©\^S/e€?2ric33gda^®x§^§2i^ gd oa 
G^QodSgadco©^^ S(5gSd6Ncoc9g®^(3 g 930330,^28 ®a®^ 
©SoGNoft^ A Soe53»cS5(9^co^fiS^®kQdc3Q5)®9^8©(ai©ia 

* Mr. L. De Soysa read a Paper on the P^pijiydna inscription before the 
Society some years ago, but it was not printed in the Journal at the time, 
and is now lost. The following extract from the Paper appeared in the 
Ceylon Times of June 11th, 1873 :— 

" This inscription, is to be found on a rock on the site of an ancient Bud- 
dhist Temple near K6tt^, where from A. D. 1410 to A* D. 1542 Si:j^alese 
Kings held Court. 

" No part of the ancient buildings of the Temple now remain, having been, 
it is said, levelled to the ground, by the Portuguese who destroyed this and 
other buildings in and near Kott^. 

" My copy of the inscription was taken from one in the possession of a 
Buddhist Priest who now occupies the modem Pansala built on the supposed 
Bite of the ancient Temple, and I was informed by him that Jiis teacher's 
teacher obtained it some 70 or 80 years ago, from a transcript preserved in the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

188 JOUBNAL R. A. s. (cbylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

^(^©^ooeg 2SJc)Sci(3G^® ®^©S sJadQQ<!; eDCsesf i5^$^@co<:J©(9^233^ 
6)c33^§^©^ oi6gc£a©^«cS m goraod 6^3D^sdgdii)^(^Q0 n 

^ood)®6e.od)®3<?sig23»:)G^253o9 cog^ o oig ©5D3dco©dc»53 
SS)Q^2oQ€6i?845c3 8g<9Nco3J (9^®s)ax8(§cS32^Qs>3 ®^®cSa^ 

®i§®3e2D3 (fi^Q §g^8S6NCC2ri 8g(9^CSS36^©(^6^e;53 (^S 

6N®©a^Sd83 S^C3z(3^ qpi^dg®i^QD3od(9^3:3g:5JS)<5 

855)3^^@^@S53 6^®®<0®^q?ie5(9eri^(3®®S(?)(5^ri<9^C^3SQ55^ 
®aJ6N2032rfS^G^<52ri ®Srf 6^^3^(9^2S5(^®^c52^3®0^ri C03(ei?559o 
(^3 6\®(fi a«f;©dQ2)Q^3 ®QiG^2D3^SjS)^(9^«!J^ GNSJgSeSgrf 

Sd®^e)S 6N<;o33(e)8sfQS)3 6^GD3S^oc36^e^c^§2^^s?QS53 qfdsjs^ 
<^35)^ 6^a^(^(3^3Sg53 g03(92»Soqs>3 (9^®(Saq<^^®3acs^3 8 

Archives of the late King of Kandy. There can be no question however, as to 
its genuineness. I have compared it with such parts of the stone as still 
remain, and hare found that it exactly corresponds with the stone. The style 
and matter too of the inscription furnish indisputable evidence of it genuine- 
ness and authenticity, 

" The inscription records the erection and endowment of a Buddhist Temple 
in memory of his deceased mother Sun^tra Mah4 D4vi, by King §rl Pardkrama VI., who reigned at K6tt6 (according to Tumour) from A. D. 1410 to 
1462. It also contains a variety of provisions for the due maintenance of the 
temple : for the expenditure of its income : and regulations for the observance 
of the clerical and lay members of the establishment, 

" The style of the inscription is similar to that of other writings of the 14th 
or I5th centuries ; and Mr. Alwis has published in his Introduction to the Sidat 
Sangardf the introductory paragraph of the inscription as a specimen of the 
prose of that age. The construction of the sentences, however, is very peculiar. 
The whole of the inscription, which is a very long one, is conglomerated, as it 
were, into one sentence by means of conjunctive particles and participles, hav- 
ing apparently only one finite verb expressed. The words in general are those 
in modem use, with a very few exceptions which I have noticed in the notes. 

C3®9© P Q« 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO siyHALBSE insobiptions. 189 

05)3 S?gdi©^©3 ^2dC3|(38S3^aC5>3 0i@GD© ^^CS^SQ^^ 233' 

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@Q556^^© 8Se)2Sj6^^5qfd03 <g)§S(3^d<505^(9^2)oaSQD^ri6^d®^cs5 

"The date assigned to the King's accession is state! to have taken 
place in the year of Buddha 1958 (A. D. 1416), whereas Tumour in his 
adjustment of Si^alese Chronology, computed from native records, has fixed 
the date at 1953 (A. D. 1410) five years earlier. The authority of the stone 
however, cannot be disputed, and it is in a remarkable manner confii-med 
by the well known contemporary poem Kdv^yasekhara, the author of which 
was the most learned monk of the age, and, accoi-ding to tradition, the King's 
adopted son. 

'• The regulations enacted for the management of the Temple establishment 
and for the distribution of its income are also very curious, and throw con- 
siderable light on the manners, customs, and social condition of the Island at 
the period in question. It shows that the form of Sinhalese lettere now in use 
have not undergone any material change, during, at least, the last five or six 
hundred years, with the exception of a few. 

*• It is believed by many that the worship of Hindii Gods, and the practice 
of Hindii rites and ceremonies, were introduced into Ceylon by the last 
Malabar King who obtained the throne of Kandy, ^fter the extinction of the 
Sirihalese Royal Family about the year A. D. 1739 ; but it would appear from 
the inscription that the innovation is of much earlier date. The King it 
is well-known was an eminent patron of Buddhism, having built four D^vdlas 
in connection with the Vihdr6." — Hon, See, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

|90 JOUBNAL B. A. s. (obylok). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO SIljrHALESE INSCRIPTIONS, 191 

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Digitized by VjOOQIC 

192 JOURNAL B. A. s. (cetlon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

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Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO SIiyHALBSE INSCBIPTIONS. 193 

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Digitized by VjOOQIC 

194 JOURNAL R. A. s. (oeylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. Ill- 


Sri lia^jkddldpatil;! Parakramabhujas siiryyanvayalaykriti 
E/yyfechehambhawato vachassrunuta me bhumiswara bhawinafe 
Dharmmoyay sadrisaji samasta jagatay satyay bhavadbhib sada 
SauraisAyo^ saumayi jata harshakripayap^nyan^ tatha bhujyatdj 

Sri Laykadhipatib Parakramabhujo raja viharottamay 
S^Yfaprasavdkhya^ makdrayaj[;a^adi * yantranaya tasyadhuna 

Sri Buddha varshayen ek dahas nava siya ata panas 
avnruddak pirunu sanda siri Laka raja pemini Mahasammata 
paramparanuyata snryjawansdbhijdta ^ maha rajadhirdja Sri 
Saygha Bodhi Sri Pardkrama Bahu Chakrawartti Swaminra7^an- 
sh^ta ^ ekiinsdlis wanu medindina purapasaloswaka Jayawarddha- 
napurapravarayehi sumangala^ prasadabhimukhachitra mandapon 
yehi^ siyhdsanayehi siri nives saha otunu siw seta^ baranin 
sedi rajayuvaraja ematigana piriwara devendralilawen wedahinda 
hema tenhi ^^ kalamana Y^X^yuldata ^^ vyavastha vadarana tena 
swargasthawii mawubisawun wahansMta pin pinisa abhinava 
wihdrayak karawanalesata ranivdsala kariyehi niyuhta ^^ Sikurd 
mudalpotunta wadala mehewarin paswisidahasak dana wiyadam 
kota Pdnabunubada P epiliydnehi'^^ prakdra gopura pratimd 
graha^^ mandapa bodhi chaitya sapghawdsa dewalasataraya 
pnstakdlaya pushpdrama phalardmddin yuktakota samurddha ^^ 
karawii wihdraya chirasthdyiwa warddhanat(;awa ^^ pinisa pidiiyen 
mema Pepiliydna hd mehi banda Medimdla ha amutuwa Dim- 
bulpitiyen pidiiyen w^llen nda deniyen dasdmunak Kalutota 
badden Araggoda wila Lz mehi bada walpita watupelat etuluvni 
ten hd Pas yodun bada kudd WeKgama hd mema gamata etulat 
tulageyi (?) Rangoda hd Matgonbadden madin Kehel s^nd^wen 
yklaka wapa hd mehi bada walpita hd Matgon badden Bobuwala 
•wilin mul bijuwata deydlak ha godin pasalosamunak hd Alut- 
kiiruwa bada Bollatdwilin y&laka wapa hd mehi bada goda hi 

1 rakshyo, 2 pn^yan, 3 praswikhya, 4 jagati, 5 wa^^dbhijdta, 6 vahanadta, 
Tsuma^gala, 8 map4apayelii, 9 s^^, 10 t^nhi, 11 yuttata, 12 niyukta, 13 P^piji- 
j&nehi, 14 grilia, 15 samriddha, 16 wana. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO si^thalese inscriptions. 195 

Sinerata bada Giridora ha Beligal nuwara bada Mangedara ha 
Doles dahas rata bada Meda godin Medalane godin pasamunak hi 
kumburu bijuwata sataramunak ha Rayigam nuwara banda le (?) 
W^ragal lena wihdrayata pidii Labugama ha Saltotin gewat ekak 
ha kumburu bijuwata tun pelak wapa hd Weligam dasagawwa 
bada Kana^kaye wih&,rayata pidii Ittawala Pabatalawala Dim 
liyadda Tembilihira etuluwA kumburu bijuwata pasamunak ha 
Epamula owita ekamunu pelak ha UwalugodaNatugoda Udigoda 
Wellalane walpita etuluwA tena ha Beligal nuwara bada Bulat- 
gam selesmen Pittagama ha pariwara janayangen desiyapanasak 
ha sarak deyalak ha etire ^^ dekak hti lunu paru ekak ha noyek 
vihara garubhanda etuluwii siyalla Buddhayatta Dharmayatta 
Sa^ghikawa pawatina paridden salaswa palamuwen mahabiso 
saminge sri ndmayen Sun^tra Maha Devi pirivena as wa me wihd- 
rayata ndyakawa p^mini Galaturumula Medhankara Maha Tera- 
saminwahans^g^ sishya niarayen mukta Mangala skminta Sunetra 
Maha Devi piriwantera aswa idiriye dawasa mobawahans^ge 
guru«t5ya ^^ paramparayen asana piriwana ten kiya sasanaya 
warddhana kirimata yogya tenakata piriwena pawatna niydyen ^' 
sanituhankota meki labhayen satarapat ganna neliyen bodhiyata 
ha Natha Maitri detenata dawas ekakata ekin eka dewalayakata 
mulutenata pesi sal pasalosak malu ran tun massak pol tunak 
sakuru mulu ekak lunu -^ neli mukkalak Mim ^^ duru kasa etulu- 
wii deyata masu ekak pan telata polpasak suwanda mal dahasak 
bulat wisisayak puwak pasalosak ha mas ekakata miris nelij^^ak 
dekak duntel neli dekak piribada saiidun palan -^ atak suwanda 
dumata agil palam tunak gugul palam tunak etuluwii deyaha 
awurudu piijawata kekulu pesi ek siya panasak pol siyayak pan 
piijawata pol ddsak ha biso samin swargasthawu wesangapura 
wiseniya patan pura pasaloswaka dakwa karana wis^sa piija- 
wata k(^kulu pesi tun siyayak pol desiyayak pan piijawata pol 
dedasak ha tripitakayen masakata grantha ekdds sat siyayak 
liyana nam ekakata dawas ekakata sal tunak m4u ran demassak 
pol dekak bulat dasayak puwak pasak mas ekakata lunu dasayak 
miris ekak liinu duru kasa ddiyata panam ekak awurudu ekakata 
piliyata ^^ panam siyayak ha piruwan saminta dawas ekakata 

17 §tni, 18 fishya, 19 niyiyeo, 2Q lu^iu, 21 liinu, 22 palam, 23 pijiyata. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

196 JOURNAL 11. A. y. (CEYLON). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

waijiiata pesi sal pasak gemhi^^ wedahiii3ina nam pasakata 
namakata satara begin pesi J^al icisisayak ^^ malu ran atak pel 
iiawayak kasapen satak sakuru tunmulu beyak pan telata i>oI 
sayak ha piriwenata dawas ekakata bulat tisak puvvak pasalosak 
widanetenata bulat pasalosak piiwak sattik sesu tenata bulat 
satalis atak ])U\vak wisisatiirak ha mas ekakata Imiu panasak 
miris sayak liinu duru kasadiyata panam nawayak dun telata 
hii istelata wisi deneli manawak ha awrudu ekakata pirivvenafai 
sivvru dekakata panam siyaya watina pilirii dekak andanayata 
piswissak watina TMlirii ekak satak watma dankada ekak dasaya 
watma wa)ta ^^ banuma dekak perahankada e ata})irikara ekak 
magul piritehi ek wisi putuwen ekak udu wiyan enda etirili tira 
jawanikd -^ lidiya ha sesu tenata siwrii dasaya ta tisa tisa watina 
pilirii dasayak ha gilantenata ayasa mHhmclena ^^ tek gilau 
*})asaya etuluwii wiyadama aduwak nokofci pawatinuwa haweda 
un tenin dewawaddla -^ Panabunu banda Nikapaya ^^ gama 
larivena watana sapasaddnayata ^^ pawatinuwa ha wihara 
santiika noyek gamwalin widhanayata pasamunak ha itiri j)asa- 
yen satara digin wedi maha sa\ighaya wahanshegen namakata 
sal satarak malu ran ekak pol ekak sakuru be ekak kasa])en 
ekak lunu miris kasa aba duntel pantel etuluwu deya bulat 
dasayak j)uwak pasak ha tera namakata .^lil pasak malu ran tunak 
])ol satarak sakuru mulak lunu ekak kasapen dekak lunu miris 
Itinu kasa aba duntel istel etuluwu deya ha bulat tisak puwak 
pasalc^ak pantelata tel mende ^'^ ekak ha tun da setiij)ena lesata 
kalal pedum etirili pen walan etuluwu dan weta no pirihela tun 
nuisin masa wiharayata pemini maha sanghaya wahansheta tun 
d.iwasidv dan denu wat gilan tenata jnliwelin ^^ gilan pasaya 
l)awatwa yanawita e e digin Wattala Kelaniya ^* Aturugiriya 
Widagama Kalutota meki wihvirawala eralawalanuwat pilhna- 
gv\va dagej) samin sayghawasa etuluwu wiharayehi kalamand ^* 
meheyatat mehi bada wihvirawala meheyatat e e idhdrawala- 
yehi ^ eti watin denuwat kiya erawiya noheki anisanuik 
})eminiwita wnharayen di gelawenuwat wihara pilibanda gam 

24 prcnehi, 25 wissak, 26 wana, 27 jawauika, 28 sanhiimcna, 29 dcwawadala, 
30 Nikapaya, 31 siwupa»atlai«»yata, 32 menda, 33 piliwelin, 34 Kelaniya, 
35 kajainaiia, 30 wihai*awala or wiharawalhi. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO siisthalese ixscnirTiox?. 197 

kuinbiiru minisa sata ganibhanda nowikiinuwat ^^ kisi konekun 
wisiii no ganiiwat wiharaye parhvara janavangen pirhveiiata 
ahhiyukta nam satarak saladaru (?) nam pasak dan pisana nam 
tunak etnlnwuwan niti mehe karanuwat sessawumit genehi 
wasana tenata atpamehekirini d[/antiiga ^^ tenata kalamana upas- 
thana wihara karnmianta adivu siyalla mehi ben3ikarana wenat 
selesvvimut piriwenehi niyogawu niyawafa ndgiiluwa pawatinn- 
wat pitakatraya tarka wytikaranadiya danna kenekun peminiwita 
wetup tabiidi uganuwat parajikawan ten mehi nowasaniiwat 
sesu sikshd ^^ pada wyatikramaya kalatenak Budun wadd/a 
winmja ^ karmayakota wasanuwat mehi wasana ten siitrabhi- 
(Iharma winaya tarka wyakaranadiyohi satatayen abhiyoga- 
karanuwat wihara karmmakaradinta taram wetup diwel dena 
pawatwanuwat nirantarayen sak sinnam adiwu papchadhuraya 
ha kuda sesat pata akasa wiyan prdnapa ^^ payi setta etiduwii 
deya pawatwanuwat mehi etuluwu ten wedi tenin tamahata 
wetena pasaya men tesu tiinuruwan puda wetup wihdra 
tutrnppddayen ^^ no kota pawatwanuwat rajasammata paridden 
liya tubii me silalekhanaya wii niyawata me wiharaya pawatina 
tokkal ubhaya wasaye maha sanghaya wahanse wisinut raja 
yuwaraja mahaamdptyddin ^^ wisinut aduwak nokota pawatwa 
delo no waradawa swargapawarga sampattiyata peminena 
paridden situwa yaha]>ati. 

Susaliswanu unduwaj) masa pura wiseniya lat rividina 
seliyadarayaruu i%\\ wadala mehewarin maha biso saminta pin 
pinisa Kalubowila Wattala Mahara Madampe Dedigomuwa 
Navayodana Denawaka Aramana sala [)ih*mageya mandapaya 
legumgeya me adiwii wihara karmmanta samriddha karawa Kehel- 
patdolawelin kumburu bijuwata pasalosamunak ha mema ten 
gewatuha Kasawelin amutuwa asweddii Totakumbura da Miris- 
galakunda walpita Kendagamnwa ha Magamin Ela])adakumbura' 
bijuwata demunak ha Deltota kumbura etiiluwu menia gam- 
walata etulatwii walwil ha genu ^^ pirinii wissak ha garubhanda 
Moratota pattiya ha sahita tunu ruwan santixkakota Pepiliyane 
Sunetra Maha Idi^xi pinwarin^^ tera samin daksldnodaka'^^ kota 

37 no wikunaniiwat. 38 dsrantuka, 39 sikshd. 40 wiiiaya, 41 pranawa, 
42 tatrotpadayoTi, 43 nuiharnatyadin, 44_trt^(in. 4.") piriwan, 46 dakshi^mlaka, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

198 JOUBNAL R. A. s, (cbtlon). [Vol. VIL, Pt. III. 

salaswd dunhayi e wii paridden mi wihdrayata ndyakawii samat 
ten wisinut mema kramayen chirdtkdlayak pawatnd lesa salaswa 
tiinuruwan udesd denalada jathoktapy'dkdra ^^ siyallata matu 
kisi yam kenekungen awulak uSdharanayak kiyannak ho pari 
wdrajanayata rdja niyogayakin tevayaka salaswannak ho kala 
kenek etnam sapjiva kdlasiitrddiwii ata maha narakaya etuluwa 
ek siya satisak narakayehi weii apama^awii duk windfmata 
peminenndhu nam wet pitrighdtddiwii panchdnantariya karmma- 
yata hdtmTuwiihu nam weti. 

Swadattdg paradattd^i wd y^ haranti wasunHhard^i 
Shashthiwarsha sahasrdni ^^ wishtaydt ^^ jdyate krimi}) 

Tina^ wd yadi wd katthap pupphay wd yadi wd phalap 
Yo hare Bu33habhogassa mahd peto bhawissati 

Sri LarikddhipatiJ) Pardkramabhujas siiryydnwaydla^Jkritir 
Ydcheha^bhawatowachassrnnnta me bhiimfsward bhdwinah 
Dharmoyap sadrisalj samasta jagatdg satyan bhavadbhih sadd 
Rakshyo saumayi jdta harshakripayd punyan tathd bhujyatd^ 

Yanddin swakiyawii drddhandwen waddranalada awanata 

Ekaiwa bhagini loko sarw^shdmapi bhAbhujdn 
Na bhogyd nakaragrdhyd ddnoddttd wasiindhard 

Kiyanalada purwokta wachanaya da andgatayehi pemini 
rdja maha amatyadin wisin hema welehima sihikota me kiyana 
punyakriyawa tama tamd siya atin kalakmen sama sitin pin 
anumodanwa wiharaw^dsinta aniyam waratira *® ddiwii an kisi 
tevayak no salaswanaseda kawarataram kenekun wiharawdsin 
no wikiinanaseda raja djnd miilikawa balaya lawd me siyalu 
kattalayama akhandawa pawatind niydyen utsaha etiwa. 

Ddna pdlanayormadhye dandt sreyonupdlanan 
Ddndt swargamawdprloti liilanidachchutan " padaii 

47 prakara. 4S sahasriini, 49 wishtliuya?, 50 waritira, 51 achyuta^. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No* 25 — 1882.] TWO susthalbse inscriptions. 199 

Kiyanalada heyin ebanau niwan suwa kemati satpurushayd 
wisin inekiyana wihara war33hana kirimehi sabhilasa etiwa ema 
kusaldnubhawayen Maitri sarwajna rajottamayjlnanwahanse 
deka bana asd kelawara Budu Pase Budu inaha rahatun wahanse 
wisin pasakkalawii sdntawii ajarawii kshemawii amrata ^^ maha 
nirwdna ^^ piira prdptiyata utsdha katayutu. 


I, Pardkrama Bdhn, Supreme Lord of the illustrious Latikd, 
the ornament of the solar race, make a request to you, princes 
who will hereafter come (to the throne of Laiikd) ; hear ye 
my words. This religious act is certainly one in which the 
inhabitants of all the worlds are equally concerned. ^ It is to be 
maintained by you at all times with feelings of joy and kindness 
towards me. ^ So, let (the fruit of )^ my religious act be enjoyed 
(by you). With a vie^ to the maintenance of that magnificent 
Vihdra bearing the name of his mother,^ which he caused to be 
built in the world, King Pardkrama Bdhu, Supreme Lord of 
the illustrious Lankd, now grants to the priesthood good 
villages of rarious kinds, together with their inhabitants, 
gardens, tanks and other receptacles of water, and proclaims 
the (following) edict, (inscribed) on a rock, in order to its con- 
tinuance for a long time. 

On the 15th day of the bright half of the month Medindina 
(March-April) in the 39th year of (the reign of) the supreme 
monarch and universal Lord Sri Sangha Bodhi Sri Pardkrama 
Bdhu, born of the solar race, (and) lineally descended from Mahd 
Sammata, and who attained to the sovereignty of the illustrious 
Larika in the 1958th year of the illustrious Buddhist era, (the 
said monarch) being arrayed in his 64 ornaments, inclusive of 
the crown, the abode of Sri (the goddess of prosperity), seated 
himself in the manner of the god-king, surrounded by I ings, 
sub-king?, and a retinue of ministers, on the throne (erected) 
in the beautiful hall opposite the Sumangala palace in the 
eminent city of Jayawarddhana, and, whilst giving orders relative 

p3 amfita. 53 pirwdna, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

200 JOITRKAL B. A. S. (CETLON). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

to the administration of the affairs in every part (of his kingdom), 
offered (the following lands)with a view to the long existence 
and benefit of the temple which Sikura Mudalpotu, employed 
in the royal service, had built, in pursuance of the (royal) 
order directing him to build a new temple wdth a view to 
procure merit for the royal mother who had gone to heaven, 
(builtj at an expense of 25,000 coins, at Pepiliyana in the 
district of Panabunu (Panadur^), and had furnished with 
ramparts, towers, image-houses, halls, Bo trees, sacred monu- 
ments, monasteries, four temples dedicated to gods, a library, 
flower-gardens, orchards, &c. 

This Pepiliyana, and Medimala (Nedimdla ?) which adjoins 
it, and, in addition (thereto), ten amunas from the low ground 
on the upper side of the dam in Dimbulpitiya (Divulpitiya) ; 
Araggodawnla and the adjoining places inclusive of the jungle, 
meadows, gardens and huts in the district of Kalutara ; Kuda 

Weligama and its Rangoda in Pasyodun Korale ; one 

yala ^ of sowing extent from the field Kehelsendwa with its 
appurtenances in Maggona District ; two yalas of sowing extent 
from Bobuwalawila and fifteen amunas of sowing extent of high 
land in Maggona District ; one yala of sowing extent from 
Bollataw ila and the adjoining high land in Alutkiiruwa ; Giridora 
in Sine Rata (Siyane Korale) ; Mangedara in Beligal Nuwara 
(Koral^) ; five amunas of high ground from Medagoda and 
Medalengoda, and four amunas of sow^ing extent from fields in 
Dolosdahasrata ^ ; Labugama w^hich had l>een dedicated to 
Veragallena Vihara •• in the District of Rayigani Nuwaia ; one 
house and one garden with three pelas of sowing extent from 
fields in Saltota ; five amunas of sowing extent from fields besides 
Ittawala, Pabatalawala, Damliyedda, and Tembilihira which had 
been dedicated to Kananke Vihara in the District of Weligama 
of ten gaws in extent ; one amuna and one pela of the owita in 
E[)amula as also Uwalugoda, Natugoda, Udigoda, Wellalana 
with their jungles and meadow grounds ; Pittagama, in the* 
Bulatgama Division of Beligal Nuwara ; 250 attendants, two 
yalas ^ of oxen, two elephants (?,) one pada boat of salt, and various 
utensils necessary for a Vihara — all these (the king) dedicated 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO susthalesb inscriptions. 201 

to be the property of Buddha, Dharmma, and the Priesthood, and 
(then), in the first place, he called the Vihara " Sunetra Maha 
Devi Pirivena" after the illustrious name of the great Queen ; 
gave the name of " Sunetri Maha Devi Piriven Tera" to the 
Priest Mapgala who had completed his course of study under 
the great priest Galaturumula Medhankara who was the high 
priest of this Vihara ; and directed that a priest in pupillary 
succession from him (Mangala), who is qualified to promote the 
cause of the (Buddhist) religion by answering questions and 
reciting bana, be appointed to reside in the Vihdra. 

The produce of the above-mentioned lands is to be appro- 
priated as follows :— For the Bodhi, Natha Maitri '^ (Dcwale) 
and each of the (other) Dewalas, each day, fifteen nelis ^ of four 
patas^ each of cleaned rice for the sake of food, curry worth three 
massas of gold,^^ three cocoanuts, one packet of jaggery^, three- 
quarters of a neli of salt ; one massa w orth of onions, cumin seed, 
and turmeric ; five cocoanuts for lamp-oil ; one thousand sweet- 
smelling flowers ; twenty-six betel leaves ; fifteen arecanuts ; one 
or two nelis of chillies for one month, two nelis of butter, eight 
pa lams ^^ of sandal for ointment ; three palams of agallochum, 
three palams of sandal, and three palams of bdelliinn for 
incense ; for the annual offering, one hundred and fifty nelis 
of rice husked without boiling and cleaned, and a hundred 
cocoanuts ; for the offering of lamp-light, a thousand cocoanuts ; 
for the special offering made from the 5th day of the bright 
half of Wesak (May-June) on which Her Majesty the Queen 
went to heaven to the 15th of the bright half, three hundred 
nelis of rice husl<ed without boiling and cleaned, and two hundred 
cocoanuts ; for the, offering of lamp-light, two thousand cocoa- 
nuts ; to one priest who writes one thousand seven hundred 
granthas ^- of the Tripitaka in one month, three nelis of rice, two 
gold massas' worth of curry, two cocoanuts, ten betel leaves, 
five arecanuts for each day ; ten (nelis) of salt, one of chilly, one 
fanam worth of onions, cumin seed, turmeric, &c., for one 
month ; one hundred fanams for clothing for one year ; to the 
Principal of the Vihare, five nelis of cleaned rice for his daily 
meals ; to five resident priests of the establishment, twenty-six (?) 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

202 JOURNAL B. A. «. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

nelis of cleaned rice at the rate of four for each of them, curry worth 
eight gold (massas), nine cocoanuts, seven young cocoanuts, 
three and half packets of jaggery ; for lamp-oil, six cocoanuts ; 
for the daily use of the Vihara, thirty betel leaves, fitteen areca- 
nuts ; to the Vidane, fifteen betel leaves and seven arecanuts ; 
to the rest^ forty-eight betel leaves, twenty-four arecanuts, and 
for one month fifty (nelis) of salt, six chillies, nine fanams worth 
of onions, cumin seed, turmeric, &c. ; for butter and ointment 
for the head, twenty-two and half nelis ; for the annual use of 
the Vihara, two cloths worth a himdred fanams for two yellow 
robes ; one cloth for an under garment worth twenty-five 
fanams ; one alms (covering) cloth worth seven (fanams) ; two 
pieces of cloth for sore-bandages worth ten ; eight ^^ priestly 
requisites, (such as) the water strainer, &c. ; one (set of) 
twenty-one chairs used in reciting the MagulPirita ;^^ canopies, 
bed-sheets, curtains, screens, &c. ; for the rest of the priests, 
ten pieces of cloth, valued at thirty (fanams ?) each, for ten 
robes. Moreover, the royal pleasure is that, in the case of sick 
priests, until their recovery from sickness, the expenses for 
sick diet, &c., should be borne without diminution ; that the 
village of Nikapaya in the District of Panabunu granted from 
the place (throne) on which (the king) was seated, should be 
(appropriated) for the supply of the four ^^ priestly requisites 
with a view to the maintenance of the Vihara ; that five amunas 
be allowed to the (Vidane) manager from the several villages 
belonging to the Vihara ; that frojn the remaining income, to 
each of the priests coming from the four quarters, four nelis of 
rice, curry worth one gold (massa), one cocoanut, half a packet 
of jaggery, one young cocoanut, salt, chillies, turmeric, mustard, 
butter, lamp oil, &c., ten betel leaves, five arecanuts (shall be 
given) ; and to one elderly priest, five (nelis) rice, curry worth 
three gold massas, four cocoanuts, one packet of jaggery, one 
(neli) of salt, two young cocoanuts, chillies, onions, turmeric, 
mustard, butter, and oil for the head ; thirty betel leaves, fifteen 
arecanuts, one cup of oil for lamps, mats, sheets, water-pots, Ac, 
sufficient to accommodate him for three days (should be given) ; 
that alms be given for three days regularly to the priests \vrho 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO Sinhalese inscriptions. 203 

come to the Vihare every three months ; that, after having 
supplied medicines, &c., to the sick priests in due order, they be 
escorted, when they go back, to the Viharas in the different 
quarters, such as, Wattala, Kelaniya, Aturugiriya, Viddgama, 
and Kalutota ; that, for (the performance of) the work in this 
Vihara consisting of its image-house, the dagaba, and the 
residence of the priests, and of the work in the Vihdras attached 
to this Vihara, the expenses should be defrayed from the income 
of the respective Viharas ; that, in case of any unavoidable 
emergency, deliverance be effected by giving from (the income 
of) the Vihara ; that the villages, fields, people, beasts or com- 
mon property belonging to the temples be not sold ; that they 
be not purchased by any one ; that the attendants of the Vihara, 
including the four servants of the Vihara, five messengers ? and 
three persons to cook food and that other attendants should 
constantly perform service, in conformity with the rules of the 
Vihara, strictly attend to all servile work due to the priests of 
the establishment ; to the hospitable treatment of priests who 
are guests (at the Vihara), and to all work of the Vihara to- 
gether with other business usually assigned to them ; that when 
any one versed in the Three Pitakas, in Logic, Grammar, &c., 
come (to this Vihara), the priests should give him maintenance 
and learn from him ; that those who have been guilty of the 
Pardjika offences should not remain here ; that those who have 
transgressed the other precepts should reside here (after having 
expiated their crimes) by observing the rules of discipline pres- 
cribed by Buddha ; that the priests who reside here should 
constantly study the Sutra, Abhidharma, Vinaya, Logic, 
Grammar, &c. ; that the workmen, &c., of the Vihdra, should be 
duly provided with means of subsistence ; that the five-fold 
service of the conchs, clarions. &c., and such articles as umbrellas, 
white parasols, silk canopies, small drums, ^^ head dresses, ^^ 
jackets, &c., should be constantly used ; that the other expenses 
and offerings to the three gems should be kept up (as) regularly (?) 
as the necessaries allowed for priests who reside here and for 
priests who come here. It will be well if^ in conformity with 
this Rock-Inscription caused to be inscribed by royal command, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

204 JOURNAL R. A. «. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

the two classes of Priests, Kings, Sub-kings, Prime Ministers, 
&c., take care to maintain this Vihara perfectly and to attain 
the bliss of heaven and Nirwana, ^^ not having failed (to act 
properly as regards) both worlds. 

On Sunday the 5th day of the bright half of the month 
Unduwap (November-December), in the 44th year (of his 
reign, the abovenamed King Sri Parakrama Bahu) with a view 
to procure merit for the great Queen, gave orders to Seliya- 
darayarun and caused to be completed the work of the image 
houses, halls, cells, &c., in the Vihdras of Kalubovila, Wattala, 
Mahara, Madampe, Dedigomuwa, Navayodana, Denawaka and 
Aramanasala, and granted (the following lands, &c.,) to the 
venerable priest Sun6tra Mahad^vi Pir^wantera cf Pepiliyana 
pouring out the water of donation ^^ and dedicating them to the 
Three Gems, to wit : — 

Fifteen amunas of paddy sowing extent from Kehelpat- 
dolavela, and houses and gardens thereabout ; Totakumbura 
recently asweddumised in Kasawela ; Mirisgala Kanda with the 
jungle and open ground thereon ; Kendangomuwa ; Elabada- 
kumbura of two amunas paddy sowing extent and Deltota 
kumbura (both) in Magama ; tracts of forest and low lands 
contained in these villages, twenty males and females ; Moratota 
and Pattiya for the purpose of supplying furniture for the 
Vihara. The learned and high priests of this Vihara should 
cause this to continue for a long time by acting exactly in the 
manner above described. 

If any one should hereafter disturb, encroach upon, or 
complain of any one of the abovementioned things given for 
the benefit of the Three Gems, or if any one should impose 
a new task by royal conunand, he will be born in hundred 
and thirty-six hells including eight principal hells, such as, 
Sapjiva, Kalasiitra, &c., and suffer indescribable misery and be 
liable to the punishment assigned to such as have been guilty 
of the Panchanantariya crimes, such as parricide, &c. If any 
persons take back land given by himself or by another, or 
appropriate the produce thereof, he will be born a worm in 
forces (and continue in that state) for a period 60,000 years. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No/ 25 — 1882.] TWO susthaltsse inscriptions. 205 

If any one takes away grass, or wood, or flower, or fruit which 
belongs to Buddha, he will become a great Preta.^^ 

May future kings, great ministers, &c., constantly bear in 
mind the humble request : — 

" I, Parakrama Bahu, Supreme Lord of the illustrious 
Lanka, the ornament of the solar race, make a request to you, 
princes, who will hereafter come (to the throne of Lanka) ; 
hear ye my words. This religious act is certainly one in which 
the inhabitants of all the worlds are equally concerned. It is to 
be maintained by you at all times with feelings of joy and 
kindness towards me. So, let (the fruit of) my religious act be 
enjoyed (by you.)" 

And the old saying : — 

" Land (become) sacred ^* by donation is the only sister of 
all the princes in the world ; it is not to be possessed nor ought 
any tax be imposed ^^ on it." 

May they constantly think on the above cited words, and, 
with an even mind, realize ^^ the merit which accrues from this 
religious act as if it was done by themselves. Let no unusual 
services, (such as, payment of) taxes or tribute -^ be imposed on 
the residents of the Vihara. Let no residents of the Vihara be 
sold away by persons of any rank. Let all these orders be 
strictly carried out with energy under the royal patronage. 

" As between a gift and protection, protection is superior 
to a gift ; by means of a gift one attaiiTS heaven ; by means of 
protection one attains the imperishable state.''^*^ 

A good man, therefore, who desires to enjoy such happi- 
ness of Nirvana, should take a deep interest in the maintenance 
of the abovementioned Vihara and endeavour, by the efficacy 
of the same meritorious act, to see the Supreme, Omniscient 
Maitri Buddha, to hear his sermons, and, at last, to enter 
the city of the great Nirvana which is tranquil, undecaying, 
undying, safe and immortal which was attained by the (Supreme) 
Uuddhas, inferior Buddhas, and the great Rahats. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

206 JOUBNAL R. A. s. (oetlon). [Vol. VII., Pt, III. 


1. The religious act referred to, is the building of the VihAra and endowing 
it with a view to its maintenance. This act is said to be aadrifah 
*' common to all," i.e., an act in which all are interested. 
2 Literally : " with joy and kindness produced towards me." 

SunStrd. The last two lines of the sUka p. 194 (omitted by an oversight) 
are inserted here : — 

Sadgrdmdn vividhdn praddya sajandndrdma 'cdpydfraydn 
Sa^ghddhinatayd chi/rdya tanute sthdtu^ fildtdsaTiaff 

4. One ydla is 1280 kurunis = 32 amunas. 

5. Dolosdahasra^a is Kandaba^a Pattu, W^Uabada Pattu and the Ta^galla 

District of GiruwA Pattu. 

6. One ydla of oxen is 20 head. 

7. NdtJui Maitri is the God Ndtha who is to become Maitrl Buddha. 

8. One Ti^liya is equal to l-32nd of a bushel. 

9. One pata is Jth of a n^liya. 

10. One massa of gold is equal to about 32-lOOth of » rupee. 

1 1. One palama is Jth of a pound in weight. 

12. One grantha is a stanza of the Anushthup metre consisting of 32 syllables. 

13. The eight priestly requisites are the water-strainer, the alms-bowl, the 

three robes, the girdle, a razor, and a needle. 

14. Magnlpirita, a protectionary formula recited on festive occasions. 

15. The four priestly requisites are clothing, food, bedding and medicines. 

16. The word in the original is atpdmehe'kirimay which literally means * doing 

service with hands and feet.' 

17. Pdrdjikd is a term applied to the most heinous offences committed by a 

Buddhist priest, of which there are four, viz., sexual intercourse, |heft, 
taking away life, and pretending to be an Arhat or possess super- 
natural powers. 

18. The original reads prdnapa which I think is a mistake of the copyist 

for pranaca which means * a small tabor' or ' drum.' 

19. The word payi which is generally applied to a ' purse' is here rendered 

iftpayi * head-dress ' as the context seems to require it. 

20. This might also be rendered * the bliss of release in heaven.' 

21. The word dahah inodalta cdmpoimded of daVahind. 'gift ': and vdalta. 'water,' 

is a term applied to the ratilication of a gift bv pouring water on the 
right hand of the donee. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] TWO Sinhalese inscriptions. 207 

22. Panchdnantariya, a term applied by the Buddhists to five deadly sins 

which are visited with immediate retribution, viz., matricide, parricide, 
the murder of an Arhat, the shedding of Buddha*s blood, and schism 
in religion. 

23. PrStUf a hobgoblin, a disembodied spirit subject to suflEering. 

24. The original is uddttd which means * great* or ^iUustrious,' *dear,*or 

* beloved.'— Wilson, 

25. The word karagrdhyd which is here rendered ' tax be imposed ' admits of 

being rendered * is not to be married or taken with the hand.* 

26. AnumMantca is literally to be pleased with, but generally used in the 

sense of taking pleasure in or a part of the merit acquired by another. 

27. Reading 'varikara or varitira for varatara, Vari being Tamil for * tax,' 

and kara Sanskfit or tira Tamil, for * duty,' * tribute* or 'impost.' 

28. Aceyutan padan, a state from which there is no fall — one of the terms 

for Nirwdna. 

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208 JOUBNAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 


By W. Gunatilaka, Esq. 

(Read, September 14th, 1882. 

Very great interest and importance attach to the folk-lore 
of any nation, as is evidenced by the labors bestowed on the sub- 
ject by eminent writers, and the manner in which those labors 
have been appreciated. The tales of a people once collected and 
recorded afford material alike for the ethnologist, the philologist 
and the historian to build upon, and enable them to arrive at 
truths previously unknown, and to throw fresh light upon theo- 
ries which are but partially established. It is not the amuse- 
ment which the tales and stories afford that makes them valuable 
but it is the great truths which they point to in the field of 
literature and science that commend them to our notice and 
study. Readers who wish to have some idea of the importance 
of folk-lore to ethnology and its cognate sciences, will find the 
subject fully treated in the " Chips from a German workshop" 
of Max Miiller, and in the introduction to the " Popular Tales 
from the Norse" of Mr. Dasent. 

While different writers have labored in the work of collect- 
ing tales in other countries, while each successive number of 
the " Indian Antiquary" presents to us the folk-lore of the 
Panjab and other parts of India, it is a matter both of regret 
and surprise that no writer in Ceylon has, so far as I am aware, 
yet begun to work in a systematic manner in collecting the 
folk-lore of this Island. 

* I was requested by the Honorary Secretary of this Society, about a 
month ago, to prepare a Paper to be read at this Meeting, and he suggested the 
Folklore of Ceylon as a subject that would be of interest. Although the time 
at my disposal was insufficient either to collect materials, or, when collected, to 
digest thera, I readily accepted the undertaking, convinced that any short- 
comings on my part would be excused in view of the shortness of the time 
given me aud the difficulty of the subject to be dealt with. 

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No. 25 — 1882.] FOLK-LOBE IN CEYLON. 209 

Mr. Steele the author of a metrical translation of the Kusa 
Jdtaka has, — no doubt with the view of attracting the attention 
of literary men to this interesting subject, — given a few Si:^- 
halese stories as an appendix to his work, and has concluded 
them with the following appropriate observations : — 

" Old-world household stories are very plentiful in Ceylon. 
The foregoing may be of interest as shewing how rich a field, 
one little harvested yet, lies open to the gleaner. When it is ' 
remembered that, besides the aboriginal wild race, the Veddas, 
the Island is the home of Sirihalese, an A'ryan race from the 
upper valley of the Ganges, of Tamils, of Moors, the descend- 
ants of the ancient Arab navigators, who, as Sinbad avouches, 
voyaged often to Serendib, of Malays, not to mention Parsis, 
Chinese, Kaffirs from Eastern Africa, Maldivians, Bengalis and 
many others, — ^men of widely diverse descent and creeds, the 
abundance of, so to speak, un wrought folk-lore will be readily 

^^ It is the writer's hope, should the present venture meet 
with favor and acceptance, to offer a large and more varied 
selection to the reader hereafter." 

The hope here entertained has not, I think, been realized, 
nor has the subject been taken up by any other writer that I am 
aware of. 

A complete collection of the tales and stories existing in 
Ceylon, — and I think they exist as abundantly here as in any 
other country in the world, — can only be the work of time. It 
is therefore desirable that, rather than wait to make such a col- 
lection, writers who may wish to labor in this field of literary 
investigation should publish what stories they may collect in the 
columns of this Society's Journal as the only literary periodical 
in the Island. 

The present Paper is merely a beginning in this direction, 
and it is to be hoped that other writers who are more able than 
myself to undertake the task, and have more leisure at their 
disposal than I can command, will from time to time contribute 
their collections to this Journal, and thus supply a store of ma- 
tcrial* for future scientific and linguistic investigations. 

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210 JOURNAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VIL, Pt. III. 

In the work of collection it is necessary that a great deal of 
care and discrimination should be exercised, for what is really- 
wanted and what can lead us to real truths are the genuine 
stories of the Sinhalese — those which are quite free from foreign 
influences and have existed among the people from time imme- 
morial. These can only be gathered from the inhabitants of 
villages and of the remoter parts of the Island into which western 
civilization has not yet penetrated. In. the principal towns 
and suburbs there are now current among the Sinhalese several 
stories taken from English books and other sources, and hence 
too much care and caution cannot be exercised in deciding 
whether a story is really free from such influences or not. 

In this paper I am able to give only one Sinhalese story 
out of the collection I have made. Its aim is to shew the cun- 
ning and avarice of women and the fertility of their resource 
when tricks have to be resorted to for the accomplishment of an 
object, the averting of a calamity or the getting out of a 

In order to understand the story it is necessary that the 
reader should know what is meant by the expressions " to take 
m7" and " to give siV^ Sil is a religious observance. " To 
take siZ" is to vow or to promise and solemnly undertake to 
foll!)w strictly the precepts of Buddha, not to kill, not to steal, 
not to drink &c. One desirous of taking sil attends the Pansala 
and after bowing down in reverence to the priest recites 
" the three saranas^ as follows, the devotee repeating them after 

him : 

Buddhan saranan ffochchhdmi, 
Dhamman saranan gachchhdmi, 
Sanghan saranan gachchdhmi. 

This is done three times after which the commands or precepts 
are recited by the priest and repeated by the devotee. In this 
ceremony the priest is said " to give sir and the devotee " to 
take or receive «i7." 

I must also premise before beginning the story that when a 
priest is invited by a layman to his house for the purpose of 
performing a religious ceremony or of partaking of meals usually 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] FOLK-LOKE IN CEYLON. 211 

called dan or ddna^ " a gift or any thing given," it is not 
permitted to the priest to decline the invitation, except under 
unavoidable circumstances such as sickness or a prior engage- 

The story then runs thus. 

Once on a time there was a simple and dull-witted man 
who had a cunning and artful wife. The woman was, however, 
much devoted to religion, and was a regular attendant on p6ya 
days at the Vihara and Pansala in order to worship Buddha and 
to receive siL The man, who had previously paid no attention 
to religion, was one day seized all of a sudden with a desire to 
follow the example of his wife, and calling her immediately to 
his side said, " I wish to take sil : tell me how I should set 
about it." 

The wife delighted to see her husband form so good a reso- 
lution said, "Get up very early in the morning, go to the 
Pansala with a pingo of boiled rice and curries, offer them to the 
priest, and repeat the words which he will pronounce." 

The earnestness with which the man formed his resolution 
and his anxiety to act on it were so great that sleep fled from 
his eyes, and he impatiently watched for the dawn to hasten' to 
the priest's residence. Long before the break of day he set out 
for the Pansala which lay about a mile from his house. On ar- 
riving there he found the door closed, but he knocked with such 
violence as to rouse the priest who was fast asleep in an inner 

" I wonder" said the priest to himself " who this can be 
that disturbs my repose at this ungodly hour." So saying he 
rose and began to rub his eyes. The knocks on the door con- 
tinued with redoubled vigour. The priest then jumped out of 
bed, and approaching the door with some degree of anxiety 
said ''Kavudar, "Who's there ?" 

The man, following literally the instructions of his wife as 
to repetition, replied " Kavuda ?" 

The priest could not understand how any one could be in 
the mood for fun at such a time or place, and drawing still nearer 
the door said, " Mokadaf\ " What's the matter ?" 

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212 JOUBNAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VIL, Pt. III. 

" Mokada V\ repeated the man. 

The priest was bewildered. He could not for the life of 
him tmderstand the meaning of so strange a proceeding, and be 
called out in a loud and stern tone, " Allayiya'% " Lay hold (of 

" Allapiya!^ was as quickly echoed forth. 

The priest then went into one of the rooms to wake up his 
servant,^nd in the meantime the simpleton, hearing nothing more, 
concluded that the ceremony was over and returned home, leav- 
ing the pingo at the door. The priest and his servant opened 
the door to see what it all meant, and right glad were they to 
find the pingo, but they could see no one. 

On reaching home the man called his wife to his side and 
said, " I have received sil : I feel such a change : I am determin- 
ed to be more assiduous than you have been in the observance 
and practice of the rite." The man then went to work in the 
field, returned home in the evening, and took his dinner, but wa« 
scarce in bed before he repeated " Kavuda ? Mokada ? Allan 

" What's the sense of these words ?", enquired the wife in 

" I am reciting what the priest taught me when he gave me 
fit/," said the man. 

^' I wonder if you're right in your head !", said the wife. 

" Nay," said he, " in right good earnest I tell you, I repeat 
what the priest taught me. I am practising fiiZ." 

" Don't talk to me," retorted the woman. " If you're not 
mad abeady, you're very near it I" 

The man, however, paid no attention to his wife's words 
believing her to be in jest, but kept repeating the words all night 
long at frequent intervals, to the serious disturbance of his wife's 
rest and that of the other inmates of the house. This went 
on for several nights, and nothing that the wife could think of 
had the effect of convincing the man of his mistake. 

About this time three thieves broke into the King's Trea- 
sury at night, and stole from it a part of his treasure, consisting 
of gold, silver, precious stones, pearls and jewels of great value. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 25 — 1882.] FOLK-LOBB IN OBTLON. 218 

Carrying off their booty they came to the pilikanna [back part] 
of the man's house, and, as it was a safe and convenient spot for 
the division of their spoil, they began to divide it. They had 
hardly commenced their task when they were startled by the 
words " Kavuda ? Mohada ? Alhpiya " in a loud voice from 
within the house. 

" We are undone,'' said one of the thieves : " Discovered 
most certainly," said another : " Hush I hush I", said the third, 
" the words may have been addressed to somebody else." 

So they made up their minds to go on with the division, 
but had scarcely recommenced before the same words " Kavuda ? 
Mohada ? Allapiya " fell on their ears. Then they forthwith 
took to their heels leaving the booty behind. 

The man hearing all the clatter outside, went to the jpz'Zi- 
Icanna with a light, and saw to his amazement the three heaps of 
treasure. He immediately awoke his wife and took her to the 
spot. Her eyes beamed as she beheld the unexpected wealth. 
Husband and wife together conveyed the heaps into the house, 
and all was secure in trunks before the day dawned. 

" Now," said the man, " was it not my observance of sil 
that brought us this luck ?" 

" Yes," said the wife, " I am glad you have been so earn- 
est in its practice." 

The man's thoughts were now directed to the consideration, 
as to how best he might shew his gratitude to the priest who 
had given him sil. 

" It is our duty," said he to his wife, " to make a gift of one- 
third of the wealth to the priest who gave me ally and who has 
thus been the means of our acquiring this unlocked for fortune. 
Prepare breakfast for him, therefore, to-morrow morning, 
and I will invite him to partake of it, and to receive the offering 
of a third of the treasure." 

*• Nay, nay," said the woman, "that will never do. What 
the priest taught you was not *i7." 

" Nonsense," said her husband, " hold your tongue and 
attend to what I say. I must shew my gratitude to the priest ; 
I must give him a third of the wealth." 

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214 JOUBKAL R. A. s. (oeylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

" Well, if you must — you must" said the woman. 

Words and tears were of no avail. The man was firm as a 
rock, and his wife gave up all hopes of dissuading him from 
his purpose. 

Next morning she prepared meals for the priest. The man 
called at the Pansala and said to the priest : " My lord, you 
were kind enough to give me sil some time ago, and I have been 
a constant and diligent observer of the rite ever since. The 
result is that I have been blessed with very valuable treasure, 
quite sufficient to keep me and mine comfortable for many 
generations to come. Condescend therefore to repair to my 
humble abode, partake of the meal I have prepared for you, and 
receive one-third of the fortune I have come by, as a token of 
my gratitude." 

"I never saw you before," said the priest, "nor do I re- 
member having ever given you st7." 

" Then it must be some other priest in this Pansala," said the 
man ; " it matters little which, only come and receive the gift. 

■Jhe man led the way and the priest and his servant 
followed, not, however, without some suspicion and fear. When 
they had come within sight of the house the man saw his wife 
standing in the compound. 

" Come on leisurely," said the man to the priest, " while I 
run a-head to see that everything is ready for your reception." 
So saying the man ran up to his wife and whispered in her ear, 
" Has our neighbour brought the curds we ordered last evening?'' 

"Not yet." 

" I will go and fetch it then," said he ; " in the meantime 
give the priest a seat and attend to him till I return." 

Now when the priest saw the man whispering in the 
woman's ear, his suspicions of some foul play, which had already 
been roused, were almost confirmed. 

So when he got to the house he said to the woman, "Pray 
what did your husband whisper in your ear ?" 

" Bad luck to you !", said the woman, " my husband is 
gone to IHch a rice pounder to make an end of you !" 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 25—1882.] FOLK-LOBE IN CEYLON. 215 

When the priest heard this he ran as fast he could and the 
servtot after him. 

They had not run far before the man returned with the 

" Why are they running away ?" said he. 

" That's more than I can say," answered his wife; ^*but 
the priest told me to ask you to follow him with a rice- 

The man hastened into the kitchen, took up a rice-pounder, 
and away he went at full speed. 

" Stop a bit I stop a bit I your Reverence," he bellowed. 

But the priest, seeing the man actually following with a 
rice-pounder, redoubled his steps and was soon out of sight, and 
the man could not find him though he searched every nook 
and corner of the Pansala. 

So the man returned home and never more thought of 
oflFering the wealth to the priest, and right glad was the woman 
to find that her plan had succeeded so well. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

?16 JOUBNAL R. A. s. (oeylon). [Vol. VII., Pi III. 


By Louis De Zoysa, MahI MudaliyAr. 

{Read^ September 14th, 1882.) 

That the Founder of Buddhism has repudiated caste and 
superstition both in theory and practice, is well known. A 
high authority* has characterized Buddha as " the great oppo- 
nent of Hindi caste and superstition." But in countries like 
Oeylon, in which Hinddism had prevailed before the introduction 
of Buddhism, caste and superstition still exist though in a 
modified form ; and writers whose information is derived from 
secondary sources are apt to forget the real teachings of Buddha 
on these subjects. A notable instance of this I may mention 
here. A recent writer,t ^* On the Religions of India" has, 
according to a review of his work in the Atheiioeum, attributed 
the introduction of caste into Ceylon to the influence of Bud- 
dhism I 

I hope to lay before the Society from time to time, trans- 
lations of extracts from Buddhist writings bearing on these two 
subjects. In the present note I shall confine my remarks to the 
subject of " superstition," reserving those on " caste" for a fu- 
ture occasion. 

A fair idea of Buddha's views on superstition may be 
formed on reference to two papers published in this Society's 
Journal. I allude to the able translation of ^^ Brahmajdla Suttan^^X 
by the late Revd. D. J. Gogerly, in which various superstitions 
are enumerated and condemned as " unworthy and animal 
sciences," and to my own translation of two Jatakas, {Nak- 
kliatta and Ndmasiddhi ),§ one of which exposes the folly of 

* The late learned Dr. Mill, Principal of Bishop's College, Calcutta, 

t Mr. A. Barth. (Tnibner's Oriental Series.) 

X C A. S. Journal 1846 (Reprint, 1861) pp. 17—62. 

§ C. A. S. Journal 1880, Part II, pp. 29—33. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] Buddha's sehmon on omens. 217 

believing in astrology, and the other of the practice of confer- 
ring on individuals what ar^ supposed t6 be lucky or auspicious 

My special object however in the present note is to bring 
to light the true object of Mangalan Suttan, one of the most 
remarkable discourses of Buddha against " superstition," which 
is found in two of the canonical Scriptures of Buddhism, namely 
in the SuttaNipdta and KhuddakaPdtha sections of the Khuddaka 
Pdtha of the Sutta Pitaka. 

There are three English translations extant of this discourse — 
one by the late Rev. D. J. Gogerly, in the Ceylon Friend for 
June 1839, another by the late Professor R. C. Childers 
in his translation of the 'Khuddaka Patha, and a third in 
the late Sir M. Coomara Swamy's translation of Sutta Nipata ; 
but by an unhappy renderino- of one expression by the 
learned translators, the true object of the discourse, namely, 
that of exposing the folly of helieving in omens^ has been com- 
pletely kept out of view, and the discourse is simply regarded as 
a series of excellent moral maxims. Mr. Gogerly rendered the 
words " efcni mangalan uttaman,^^ " these are chief excellen- 
cies" : Mr. Childers, " this is tlie greatest blessing" : this is also 
the rendering adopted by Sir M. Coomara Swamy. 

When Mr. Childers' able and lucid translation of Khud- 
daka Pdtha appeared in 1874, I ventured to address a letter to 
that gentleman referring him to the Atthakathd or Commen- 
tary on the discourse, which explains its origin and objects, and 
submitting to him whether the words *' etari mangalan uttaman,^^ 
which he has rendered " this is the greatest blessing," 
should not be more correctly rendered " this is the best omen," 
or "these are the best omens." In replv he ap[)roved of mv 
proposed rendering, but unfortunately having mislaid his letter, 
I am deprived of the gratification of producing it, but it will 
be seen that my late lamented friend has made the following 
note in the Addenda to his Pali Dictionary Vol. II. P. 617 s. v. 
"' mangalo^^ ^mangalan ^^ means also * an omen.' I learn from , 
Louis de Soysa that 'etaii mangalan vttaman should be rendered 
' this is the best omen.' " 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

218 JOURNAL R. A. S. (cEYLON). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

The reasons which have induced me thus to render the words 
" etan mangalan uitaman^^ will be seen from the following 
condensed translation of the introduction of this discourse in the 

" What is the origin of mangalan suttan ? It was the 
practice for people in Jambudipa to assemble at the gates of 
cities, in meeting houses and other places, and to hear the recital 
of various stories such as those of Sita, Bharata, &c. The people 
discussed various subjects at these meetings. Each discussion 
some time lasted for four months. On one occasion, the subject 
of discussion happened to be that of mangalan (happy or auspi- 
cious things i. e. good omens). What is a dittha mangalan 
(a good omen of sight) ? What is a suta mangalan (a 
good omen of smell or taste or touch) ? Do you know what a 
mangalan is ?, said some of the audience present). One of 
them, a believer in omens of sight {dittha mangaliko), said, ' I 
know what a mangalan is. For example, a man rising up early 
in the morning sees a speaking bird,* tender fruits of the bilva 
tree (^gle marmelos), a pregnant woman, a child, an orna^ 
mented brimming jar, a fresh cyprinus fish, a thorough bred 
horse, or the likeness of one, a bull, a cow, a tawny coloured 
cow, or any other object of an auspicious nature, — it is a 
mangalan,^ Some of the audience accepted his theory, but those 
who did not entered into a dispute with him. 

' "A believer in omens of hearing (suta mangaliko) remarked 
that the eye sees what is pure and what is impure, what is 
good and what is bad, what is pleasant and what is unpleasant. 
If what is seen by the eye be a mangalan (good omen), then 
every object of sight must be one. What is seen therefore is 
not a mangalan : that which is deemed a true mangalan 
is that of hearing. If a man rising up early in the morning 
hears a sound such as Mt has prospered,' ' it is prospering,' ' it is 
full,' 4tis fresh,' *it is delightful,' * prosperity,' 'increase of pros- 
perity' ' the lunar constellation,' ^to-day is auspicious,' ^ a lucky 
moment,' a * lucky day,' or any other pleasant sound deemed 
auspicious, this is said to be a mangalan. 

J * Such as a parrot, mina, &c. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 9i — 1882.] BUDDHA'S sbumon on ombkb. 219 

" Whereupon a believer in omens of smell, taste and touch, 
(muta mangaliko) addressed the meeting saying : — * A man 
hears what is good and what is bad, what is pleasant and what is 
unpleasant ; if what is heard by the ear be a mangalariy (good 
omen) then everything heard must be a good omen also. 
I say therefore that suta mangalai} is not a true maf}gch 
lai}y and that the true marfgalan is what is called muta mangalan. 
For example, if a man rising up early in the morning smells 
the fragrance of the lotus and other sweet smelling flowers, 
uses fresh dentrifice, touches the earth, or ripe com, or 
fresh cow-dimg, or a turtle, or a heap of sesamum seed, or 
flowers, or fruits, daubs (the floor) with fresh earth, puts on 
a new cloth, wears a new turban, or smells any other sweet 
smells, tastes or touches an object deemed auspicious — ^it is a 

"Thus men all over Jambudipa formed themselves into 
groups, and began to discuss what the real mai}galdni are. 
From men, their guardian deities, from them, their friends the 
terrestrial deities, from them, their friends the celestial deities, from 
them, their friends the deities of the Chdtummahdrdjika heavens, 
and from them, all the deities as far as Akanittha, the highest of 
the heavens, took up the subject of maifgalaifj and forming 
themselves into groups, began to discuss what mar^galdni are. 
Thus the discussion lasted for twelve years amongst men and gods, 
(except among the disciples of Buddha) throughout the ten 
thousand worlds of the universe, but they were unable to solve 
the problem. At last the gods of the Tdvatiilsa heavens ap- 
proached Sakko, and begged of him to declare what the maj- 
galdni are. The King of the gods enquired of them where 
the Supreme Buddha was then residing. Being told that he 
was then residing at Jetavana Monastery in the city of SAvatthi, 
he directed one of the gods to repair to him, and beg him to 
declare what mangaldni are, and the god did so," 

The sequel is told in the Suttap itself, and now I have the 
pleasure to reproduce Mr. Childer's masterly version of Mangala 
SuttaTi, only substituting the expression Hhis is the best omen/ for 
' this is the greatest blessing.' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

no JOUBNAL ». A. 8. (obtlok). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

" Thus I have heard. On a certain day dwelt Buddha at 
§rdvasti, at the Jetavana Monastery, in the garden of Andtha- 
pindaka. And when the night was far advanced a certain 
radiant celestial being, illuminating the whole of J^tavana, 
approached the blessed one, and saluted him and stood aside. 
And standing aside addressed him with this verse : — 

*Many gods and men, yearning after good, have held divers 
things to be blessings (ffood omens) ; say thou, what is the 
greatest blessing (the best omen or the best omens) ? 

Buddha : — ^ To serve wise men and not serve fools, to give 
honour to whom honour is due, this is the greatest blessing (this 
is the best omen or these are the best omens). 

^ To dwell in a pleasant land, to have done good deeds in a 
former existence, to have a soul filled with right desires, this is 
the greatest blessing (this is the best omen or these are the best 

^ Much knowledge and much science, the discipline of a well 
trained mind, and a word well spoken, this is the greatest 
blessing (this is the best omen or these are the best omens), 

^ To succour father and mother, to cherish wife and child, to 
follow a peaceful calling, this is the greatest blessing (this is the 
best omen or these are the best omens). 

' To give alms, to live religiously, to give help to relatives, to 
do blameless deeds, this is the greatest blessing (this is the best 
omen or these are tlie best omens). 

' To cease and abstain from sin, to eschew strong drink, to 
be diligent in good deeds, this is the greatest blessing (this is 
the best omen or these are the best omens). 

' Reverence and lowliness, contentment and gratitude, to 
receive religious teaching at due seasons, this is the greatest 
blessing (this is the best omen or these are the best omens). 

* To be long-suffering and meek, to associate with the priests 
of Buddha, to hold religious discourse at due seasons, this is. the 
greatest blessing {this is the best omen or these are the best omens.) 

' Temperance and chastity, discernment of the four great 
truths, the prospect of Nirvana, this is the greatest blessing 
{this is the best omen or these are the best omens). 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No 25—1882.] BUDDHA*H sermon on omens. 221 

^The soul of one unshaken by the changes of this life, a 
soul inaccessible to sorrow, passionless, secure, this is the great- 
est blessing (this is the best omen or these are the best omens), 

' They that do these things are invincible on every side, on 
every side they walk in safety, yea, theirs is the greatest bless- 
ing, (theirs are the best omens).'' " 

It may be remarked, how could such distinguished 
scholars as Gogerly and Childers have committed such a mistake 
as the one referred to ? The matter is easily explained. They 
have evidently translated the word mangalan in its ordinary 
sense,* without referring to the commentary which explains 
the special sense in which the word is used in this discourse. 
This is not to be wondered at, seeing that even some of the 
learned Buddhist Priests of the present day commit the same 
mistake and interpret the discourse simply as a series of moral 
maxims. Strangely enough, this discourse is used by Buddhists 
even for purposes of superstition, such as, exorcism, etc. It is 
so used by the Kandyan Buddhists according to Mr. C. J. R. 
LeMesurier, c.c.s., who, by the way, calls it " the Sutra of 
Festivals" which might lead one to suppose that it has some 
connection with the various Kandyan Hindd Festivals, which 
he describes in his account of " The Principal Religious Cere- 
monies observed by the Kandyans of Ceylon."t 

It is only when this discourse is viewed by the light thrown 
on it by the commentary, that it appears in its true character, 
as one of the most powerful exposures of Hindii superstition on 

* Ma^galo (adj.) * Auspicious,' 'lucky, "joyous,' 'festive,' 'belonging to state 
occasions,' Ab. 88. Mai^gala^, 'rejoicing,' 'festival,' 'festivity,' 'holiday,' 'festive 
ceremony' (Dh. 247) 'blessing,' 'boon' (Kh. 5). — Childer's Pdli Dictionary, 
VoL I., p. 237. 

Jfa^galya, Ma^galyah^ Ma^galyd^ Mai^galya^. 'Auspicious,' 'propitious,' 
'conferring happiness,' 'prosperity,' 'beautiful,' 'pleasing,' 'agreeable,' 'pure,' 
'pious.' — Wilson's Sanskrit Dictionary, Second Edition, p. 631. 

t C. A. S, Journal, Vol. VII., Pt, I., No. 23, 1881, p. 39. 

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222 JOUBNAL E. A, s. (cbylon). [Vol VIL, Pt. III. 


By P. Lewis, Esq. 

(Read, November 2nd, 1882.) 

No naturalist, or more ]probably, no ornithologist has ever 
looked upon a feather without admiring its beautiful structure, 
and admirable adaptation of ends to means. Here will be found 
a maximum of strength in a minimum of weight ; adapted 
alike, as an organ of flight, or as a means of warmth to the 
creature that supports this exquisite structure. Colored in 
some instances only as a means of attraction, or, in others, as 
one of protection, and yet withal, light as proverbially, ^as a 

In variety of external form, we have many, even in Ceylon 
birds, though of course, if the examples of variation of pattern, 
from all parts of the world were tabulated, a long and interest- 
ing list could be made, were such necessary. My object in the 
present Paper is of a further character, and one which requires 
a deeper investigation than that of a mer-e comparison of 
external shapes and forms. 

A feather may not inaptly be likened to a cocoanut leaf or 
branch, as it is sometimes called. There is the shaft or quill, 
and from it diverge other shafts which form the webs. If a breast 
feather be pulled from some well-known bird, say a Wood- 
pecker, we observe in the lower, or basal region, that the quill 
supports a shaft, or, as I shall call it, a weh-shaft Fig, 1 (hb) ; which, 
in turn, towards the lower half of the feather bears a fine thread 
like process, say one-tenth of an inch long, which I shall call the 
sub-web-shaft Fig. 1 (ecc). In the upper or exposed part of 
the feather, this sub-weh-shaft is absent, leaving the conclusion 
that these fine filaments are for the purpose of warmth — ^a con- 

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c^nd/ (cc .0) ik& sixi )n/ei sTta^Mi/^ 

JO cus -to sfiyCAVclje/irly tfieportvoris uv Qtjje^ijcorv. 

^itf teb^cxjpic/ order 


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■ we. 




il y 


UTHOGRAflHfO AT THf S. 6- m C C, C O L « M rt O 

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No. 25—1882.] NOTBS on fbathbbs. 

elusion by no means unreasonable, as otherwise they are useless, 
and further a single glance would show that this portion of the 
-feather is closer, and hence warmer, than if these mh^weh^shafts 
were absent. Supposing a web shaft is removed from the same 
feather — ^Woodpecker's — and placed under a microscope of some 
power, the sub^web-shafts exhibit a series of joint-like markings 
of a more or less modified character. See Figs. 2,3,4,5,& 6. 

This modification is of very considerable interest, as the 
conclusion that I have arrived at, after carefully examining a 
large series of Ceylon birds, is, that they are modifications of 
an aboriginal form, which I have ventured to illustrate. 

I have drawn my conclusions from the fact, that at remote 
periods of time, it is but reasonable to conclude, that birds 
required a closer plumage than at present, in order to endure 
a colder temperature than now upon the earth, and to bring 
about that end a further addition to the sub-web^shaft would 
render most material assistance. I am confirmed in this view 
by the fact that some of our high flying eagles, such as Spizaetus^ 
possess a spine upon the svih-web-shaft, that can be considered 
as a modified filamentous process, just as the svb-web^shaft is 

The conclusion then to be drawn is that those represent- 
ing the series Fig. 2, are of a much older formation than the 
series Fig. 4 through process of modification, through disuse. In 
like manner the forms up to Fig. 6 can be traced up to what was 
probably the aboriginal form, Fig. 7. I am inclined to believe 
that any of the forms may be traced through variation and 
modification to the form Fig. 7, which through long ages of 
disuse forms the present modified structure. If then, this view be 
correct — and I am unable to see cause for any serious objection 
to it — ^the course of modification may be traced as represented 
in Fig. 8, from the aboriginal form to the present, as shewed 
by the dark lines, and the dotted lines, which bear a strong com- 
parison with Fig. 7, or with Fig. 6, which last is an existing 

I consider that by this peculiarity of structure we shall be 
able to trace the relative ages of existing forms of birds, which 

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224 JOURNAL R. A. s. (cbylon). [Vol VII., Pt. Ill, 

in itself may be considered as a means of classification, if such 
there be. Unfortunately, I have not had the good fortune to 
be able to examine the plumage of birds from other countries, 
more especially those from the colder climates of the extreme 
north which would give evidence either in support, or to the 
contrary of my theory. For the present, I venture the subject 
more as a question, than as an established fact, though the 
evidence from local examples tends greatly to prove the force of 
my theory. 

Climatic effects may probably bear with more or less weight 
upon the point, but I find the conclusion is still irresistible that 
each existing form can be traced to a higher, which we may call 
the aboriginal parent, and its necessity is just the same, in a 
larger measure, as that which supplies the present sub-web-shaft. 
Where warmth is unnecessary, then suh-weh-shafta do not 
exist, as for instance in the tail feathers, or feathers beyond the 
body, and by analog}', where greater warmth is required, then 
the additional process would exist, which through non-necessity 
is now reduced to a simple, or at most a spinous joint. 

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Jo. 25 — 1883.] BIl^HALESE rOLK-LOM ST09I1B. 225 


By W. Knight James, F.R.G.S., F.R. Hist., S. 

(Ready November 2nd, 1882.) 

The Sinhalese are essentially a social people. Some of the 
most important traits of their character are, deep attachment to 
friends, filial obedience, and love of their homes and villages. 
There are a few greater hardships which a Si^Jialese can be 
called upon to undergo than separation from the home and 
friends of his childhood, and there are few dearer reminiscences 
to him, wherever he may be in after life, than those which 
recall the early days spent in his native village. Home stories 
and sayings exercise no little influence on him, and at any rate 
in the leisure portion of the life of the villager oral stories take 
an important place, whether they be the Jataka stories of the 
various births of Buddha, 

" The preternatural tale, 
" Romance of giants, chronicle of fiends," 

or the more modest stories that relate the doings of the people. 
In the Sinhalese home it is true that the " fireside" with which 
we connect the story-telling of harsher climes is absent, but it 
finds its representative in the little verandah or in the roadside, 
and often when the family have retired to rest for the night in 
the single room and verandah which generally form the " house" 
of the Sinhalese cultivator, one member, frequently the grand- 
father relates stories to the others until he finds that the " dull 
god" has drawn away his audience. In the night as two or 
three villagers sit guarding the ripening grain of their paddy 
fields from the inroads of elephant, buffalo or boar, stories serve 
to wile away what would be otherwise a weary vigil, and on 
numerous other common-place occasions story-telling plays an 
important part. Some of these stories throw considerable light 

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226 JOUBNAL B. A. S. (OBTLON.) [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

on the modes of thought, manners, and customs of the people, 
and also may perhaps be of some value in comparative folk- 
lore, I therefore give translations of a few of these village stories. 

I. — The Trial at AviohAra-pura.* 

In the neighbourhood of Badulla there is among the 
Sinhalese a saying, when justice appears to have miscarried : 

^' Avickdror-purd naduwa wdgeyi^^ — "Like the trial at 

The story on which the saying is founded is without doubt 
of considerable age and contains rich satire : — 

One night some thieves broke into the house of a rich man 
and carried away all his valuables. The man complained to the 
Justice of the Peace, who had the robbers captured, and when 
brought before him enquired of them whether they had anything 
to say in their defence. "Sir," said they, "we are not to blame in 
this matter : the robbery was entirely due to the mason who built 
the house; for the walls were so badly made, and gave way so easily, 
that we were quite unable to resist the temptation of breaking in." 
Orders were then given to bring the mason to the Court-house. 
On his arrival he was informed of the charge brought against 
him. " Ah," said he, "the fatdt is not mine, butthat of my cooly, 
who made mortar badly." "When the cooly was brought he laid 
the blame on the potter whom he said had sold him a cracked 
chatty, in which he could not carry sufficient water to mix the 
mortar properly. Then the potter was brought before the judge, 
and he explained that the blame should not be laid upon him, 
but upon a very pretty woman who in a beautiful dress was 
passing his house at the time he was making the chatty, and had so 
riveted his attention that he forgot all about the work. When 
the woman appeared, she protested that the fault was not hers, for 
she would not have been in that neighbourhood at all had the 
goldsmith sent home her earrings at the proper time ; the 
charge she urged should properly be brought against him. 

* -4, ^without' ; vichdra, 'enquiry* ; purUf 'city.* 

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No. 25 — 1882.] SIXHALESE folk-lore 8T0BIES. 227 

The goldsmith was brought and as he was unable to offer any 
reasonable excuse, he was condemned to be hanged. Those in 
the Court however begged the Judge to spare the goldsmith's 
life ; "for," said they, " he is very sick and ill-favoured and would 
not make at all a pretty spectacle"; "but," said the judge, "some- 
body must be hanged." Then they drew the attention of the 
Court to the fact that there was a fat Moorman in a shop 
opposite who was a much fitter subject for an execution, and 
asked that he might be hanged in the goldsmith's stead. The 
learned Judge, considering that this arrangement would be very 
satisfactory, gave judgment accordingly. 

II. — The Goldsmith who cheated his Mothek. 

Of all workmen the SinJialese regard the native goldsmith 
with the greatest suspicion. This is due no doubt to the fact that, 
whenever opportunity occurs, he appropriates a portion of the 
precious metal entrusted to him, often substituting for it that of 
a baser kind. There are many sayings in the language to the 
pffect that 'whoever else is to be trusted, a goldsmith is not' ; and 
there is a popular belief that 'a goldsmith would cheat his own 
mother', in illustration of which the following story is told : — 

A certain woman possessed a large piece of gold made up 
in the form of a frog,* which had been a heir-loom in her 
family for many years. She, though wishing to keep the 
metal, was anxious to have it made up in the form of ornaments, 
which she could wear and display before her friends. She was 
afraid to take it to a goldsmith, for she knew that they all had 
the reputation of being rogues, and that she would most likely 
be cheated. It, therefore, occurred to her that the safest way 
would be to have her son apprenticed to the trade : this she 
accordingly did. When he had learned it suflSciently well, 
she took the golden frog to him and requested him to make it 
into the ornaments she required. The cunning fellow first 
obtained a live frog and placed it among the ashes of his fire- 
place, and then, whilst his mother stood by, took the golden 

* S, Gema^iyd, 

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228 JOURNAL R. A. S. (CEYLON.) [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

one, put it among the ashes also, and commenced to blow the 
fire to melt it down. The live-frog feeling uncomfortable in 
the heat immediately jumped out and hopped away. " See, dear 
mother", said he, " your frog is gone. How can you expect 
me to make ornaments from a living thing ?" " Oh, my dear 
son", said the mother, " what is worse than bad fortune ? My 
lump of gold has turned into a lump of flesh." 

III. — A Story of Two Rogues. 

There are several stories which relate to the sharp-wittedness 
of people from different villages, towns, or districts, and which, 
seem to imply much the same as is expressed in our English 
proverb " set a thief to catch a thief." The following is well- 
known, and, although the story varies somewhat in different 
localities, is in substance the same. The names given to the 
two rogues vary with the place where it is told, but they are, as 
far as I have heard, always the names of different villages, or 
districts, with the aflfix yd or wd thus Gampolayd and iJayi- 
gamaydy *a Gampola man' and 'Rayigama man' ; Migamtiwd and 
Mdtarayd, ^a Negombo man' and 'M^tara man' : — 

Two men who lived in different districts, and who depended 
principally on their wits for a livelihood, started off one day 
about the same time each to pay a visit to the other. On their 
way they met, and agreed to go together in search of adventure. 
As they went on they heard the sound of weeping at a certain 
house and, finding the friends of a dead man mourning for 
him, they went and joined in the lamentations. When the 
question of the division of the deceased's property arose, 
they put in their claim. " Who are you ?", the people asked, 
" and what right have you to any of the property ?" " Was 
not this our own poor old grandfather whom we have not 
seen for these many years ?", said the men weeping. The 
friends at the house were so affected by the grief of the 
strangers, that they agreed to go that evening to the grave of 
the dead man, and see if he would express any wish in the 
matter. One of the rogues slipped out unobserved and laid 
himself beside the grave. " Is it your will that these two 

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No. 25 — 1882.] siisrHALESB folk-lore stories. 229 

strange persons should have any share in your property ?", asked 
one. " You are all my children : divide it amongst you fairly", 
came in sepulchral tones from the grave. Having received a 
box containing some valuable articles, they started off, and after 
journeying for some time lay down to rest near the sea-shore, 
placing the box between them. One, finding the other asleep 
shortly afterwards, took the box, and, going into the sea as high 
as the armpits, buried it in tlie sand ; then going back again to 
his place fell asleep. Soon afterwards the second man awoke, 
and, finding his neighbour asleep and the box gone, guessed 
what had been done with it. He therefore commenced to lick 
along the whole length of his body, and, finding the taste of salt 
did not go above his armpits, knew the depth where it was 
buried. Having discovered the box, he carried it away, and hid 
himself in one of a number of ricks of straw that were standing 
a short distance off. On the other man awakening, he knew 
that his friend had discovered the treasure and made off with it, 
but, as had not had time to escape far, he thought that he was 
most likely hiding in one of the heaps of straw hard by. 
Tying a sokada (wooden bullock bell) round his neck he went 
,on his hands and knees knocking his head against each of the 
ricks. The man who was hiding hearing the noise and thinking 
it was a buffalo, shouted out " Jali ! jah ! Icotiyd kd*r and so 
was discovered. After this, it is said, they divided the spoil 


Among the folk stories of the Sinhalese there are a large 
number which relate to simpletons, — a class of stories which we 
find in most countries. The following bears some resemblance 
to the story of the Wise Men of Gotham, who, seeing the reflec- 
tion of the full moon in the river Trent as they passed over, 
and thinking it to be a cheese lying at the bottom, lowered one 
of their number with a rope to reach it. 

One day a man in Tumpane (a district renowned for its 
foolish people)" wanted some honey for his daughter who was 

* An imprecation, lit, '• May a tiger eat you !" 

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230 JOURNAL E. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

very sick : so he got his friends to assist him, and they started 
oflF to the forest in order to find a bees' nest. As they were 
passing by a deep pond, they beheld the reflection of one which 
was suspended on an overhanging tree. Having tried vainly 
to grasp the nest in the water, they thought that it must be 
deeper down than they supposed, and one of their number 
was, therefore, sent in. Believing, as he was unable to touch 
it, that he could not get down far enough, they tied a large stone 
round his neck. The other fools stood by the whole day waiting 
for the man to come up with the honey. 

V. — How A TuMPANli Man cured his Mother. 

Once upon a time a half-witted villager bought a bullock 
to use in his hackery, and, as he took it away, the dealer (a philo- 
sopher in his way) repeated to him this proverb : 

'^Harak diya'-iadu wdg^^'^ lit. " cattle are like watery things," 
(that is, iliey are perishable, and consequently require a great 
deal of care and attention). The man, however, took the saying 
literally, and, noticing water coming from the bullock as it went 
along, thought that it had already commenced to dissolve. He 
was now very anxious to dispose of his bullock before the 
process went farther, and a man happening to be passing with 
a ketta (bill-hook) in his hand, the owner of the bullock asked 
*what the keita would do': " fell jungle", said the man. It was 
then agreed that an exchange should be made of the bullock 
for the ketta. The half-witted fellow took the axe, and going to 
some jungle land which belonged to him, placed it upon a stone 
and went away. Some time afterwards he returned to see how 
much jungle it had felled, but was surprised to find that it had 
not cut even a single tree. When he picked it up he found the 
iron was quite warm, and concluded that it had not been able to 
work that day as it was suffering from fever. He, therefore, 
went to the doctor, who, knowing how foolish the man was, 
appeased him by telling him to bury it in a cool spot until the 
morning and he would then find the fever gone. The man did 
as he was told, and found his ketta quite cool. Next day, how- 
ever* hi'^ mother hod a severe attack of fever, and, remembering 

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No. 25 — 1882.] SINHALESE folk-lore stories. 231 

the medicine that had cured his ketta^ he took the poor old 
woman to the same spot, and making a bigger hole carefully 
covered her up. 

VI. — Hunting a Palm-Cat. 

A. long time ago there lived in Tumpane a newly married 
couple. One evening as the wife was commencing to prepare 
her husband's dinner she heard the cry of a halaveddd 
(palm-cat) in a tree near the house, and, thinking if she 
could manage to catch it she might surprise her husband with 
a good meat curry, went out with the dog, sajnng " usi^ 
nsi/^ (urging on the dog). The dog ran to the foot of the 
tree barking and placed his forefeet on the trunk. She, thinking 
that he was trying to climb it, began to make him a valalla (a 
ring put round the ankles when climbing a tree). Just at that 
time the husband returned, and seeing what she was doing chid 
her for her foolishness, saying that ^he would shew her the way 
to get the dog up the tree.' Procuring a long stake he sharpen- 
ed one end of it and sticking it into the dog hoisted him up to 
where the palm-cat was. The poor animal in agony whined 
h^l hi! "Say not 'bi ! hS ! (I cannot, I cannot)' " said the man 
"but lay hold of the palm-cat I" 

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232 . JOUBNAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. Ill, 


The ruins in question are known as '^ Veheragala!^ and 
are situated about two miles South of the 10th mile-post on the 
Anuradhapura road. 

They consist for the most part ,of groups of stone pillars 
more or less roughly squared, and are probably the remains of 
palaces and Vihdrds, The jungle is, however, so thick, and the 
ruins are so overgrown, that it is diflficult to conjecture, from 
their formation, to what period they belong. 

The only really interesting ruin which has so far been dis- 
covered, is that of an oval building, found upon a rocky mound, 
and the base of which is constructed of huge slabs of stone, 
(the shape of which is very peculiar) laid upon oblong blocks. 
They are cut into segments of a circle, each segment being 
8 ft. to 12 ft. by 7 ft. x 7 in. or 8 in. thick. These slabs are 
also concave on the upper side and convex on the lower, but 
whether this was intentional, or the result of being wedged out 
of laminated rock — with which the neighbourhood abounds, — is 
not apparent. Another curious feature of the building is, that 
the oblong blocks upon which these slabs are laid, (and which 
seem to have formed the foundations) built upon the solid rock 
were morticed together, the sockets and notches being very 
distinct. The building faces North, on which side there is a 
flight of stone steps leading to the entrance, and its dimensions 
are, from North to South 56 feet, and from East to West 78 feet. 

If this structure was intended for a Tope or Dagaba — which, 
considering that it was not circular, is, I think, unlikely — it was 
never completed, and appears to have been temporarily used for 
some other purpose ; for at the South end there are five spur 
stones, arranged in a curve, and upon which pillars must have 

* Extract from letter dated September 25th, 1882, from P. A. Templer, 
Esq., C.C.S., Assistant Government Agent, Puttajamj to the GoTernment Agent, 
North- Western Prorince, — Hoju Seci 

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are s 






8 ft. 



of la 

not : 









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•i (. 

I I 

I ^ 



f U'Jfi 




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No. 25 — 1882.] RUINS at veheragala. 233 

rested. As there are no remains of these pillars to be seen they 
were probably made of wood ; and the debris of earth, bricks 
and tiles, which fill up the space inside the stone work, shows 
that a building of not very permanent character did exist at 

On the slab rock near the flight of steps is an inscription, 
much of which was buried in earth. It is of the roughest kind 
and very difl&cult to copy in consequence. I have, however, had 
a copy made of it by Mr. F. Navaratna which I annex. The 
characters are not Dewanagari, though some of them bear 
some resemblance thereto. 

I annex tracing of a ground plan, sketched by Mr. C. T. D. 
Vigors, C.C.S., which gives the exact dimensions of the slabs 
forming the ring, and a very good idea of the elevation on the 
east side. A sketch is also annexed which I made from the top 
of a rock overlooking the building on the west side. This shows 
the peculiar shape of the slabs and the notches and sockets in 
the foundation blocks.* 

* The ground plan and inscription are here reproduced.— ^(W. 8eo, 

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234 JOURNAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 


MODERN Aryan vernaculars of india. 

By W. p. Ranasi^ha, Esq. 

Is Si:ghalese to be placed under the Turanian family of 
languages with Tamil, Telugu, &c., or under the Indo-Germanic 
family, along with Hindi, Bengali, Panjabi, Sindhi, Marathi, 
Gujarathi, Nepali, Oriya, Assamese, and Kdshmirl ? 

The Turanian family of languages has not got beyond the 
collocational or syntactical and agglutinated stages, whilst 
the Sinhalese has not only reached the inflectional stage, like 
Sanskrit, Greek and Latin, but has also advanced to the ana- 
lytical, like the English, French, &c. : examples are 235(5&, 
karay% "he does" ; c^&jT/ayi, "he goes" ; (s^^S, dei/i, ''he gives," &c. 
Here we find the stems 2S5d, kara, CO, ya, and <9^^, de, which are 
derived from the Sanskrit roots 2S3a, kri, cOJ, ya, and c,, da, with 
an inflection S, i/L This S, yi, is again divisible into two parts 
c3, y, and <§, i. The c5, y, is merely an augment adopted for the 
purpose of avoiding the hiatus which would otherwise occur if 
after the stem the ^, i, were pronounced alone. The <§, i, here 
is the remnant of ^, ^t, in the Sanskrit verbs zs^i^d^^, karoti, 
"he does" ; tod^, bharati, "he bears," &c. Mr. Beames points out 
that €iy tiy is equal to the English « in "he bear«, &c." In Greek 
^epeij he says, we have t equal to the English pronoun "he." In 
hsitmfert the i is loSt and t alone remains. In Gothic baireth we 
have th ; here too the i is lost. In English "beareth" the i is lost, 
and the th alone remains. The English th and the Sinhalese i 
are parts of the same termination ^, ti. This th in English, 
he points out, is still further modified in the modern language into 
8 as in "bear*," "fear«," &c. So the English s and the Sinhalese 
^, i, in the third person singular number present tense of the 
indicative mood, can be traced to the Aryan "59, ti, — ^the English 
taking the first part of the termination and further modifying 

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No. 25 — 1882.] siijHAi^BSE and Aryan vernaculars. 235 

it into s, the Sinhalese rejecting the first part, and taking the 
vowel alone, and inserting a go, y, to avoid the hiatus. 

The cxJ, y, in zadS, karayij &e., is an augment and not a 
substitute for ^, t. We have in 6^^35(9^^, kerd^ GmsJ, 3^e,and ©^^ , (/ 1, 
other forms of the above verbs, meaning ^^he does," "he goes*' 
and "he gives." Here we find the <§», i, without the CO, y. By 
the rule of smidhi ddigecornuvri, the vowel (g, i, following th^ 
<f , a, in Z5)6, kara, ?55(5 + qp + ^, yfear+ a +t, becomes tb, 6, that 
is to say, both the qp, a, and <g, i, are lost, and 6, ^, is substi- 
tuted in their place ; hence the word zs:)G^6^ kare, and by the 
force of the vowel 6, e, in C^^, rd, the word becomes GN8S5(§^i?, 
kerd, "he does" ; similarly c3+^+©, y+a+i, becomes 6^ci,y,e, 
"he goes" ; and <^+qp+<i>, <?+a+i, becomes G^^, c?^, "he gives." 

Now, although we never write zsid^,Jc(irm, oo^, ^ai, and 
deiy but 2»dS, Ararayi, caS, yai, and G^i^S, d^yi^ yet they are 
pronounced ®c5l), karai, co?), yai, and 6^<;9, dei, as if they 
had been written so. This also is proof that the d, 3/, is merely 
an augment. 

In the book language we have the following terminations : — 

Present. Future 

1 . »d®, karami, " I do." aSidtsio^^, karannemi, ** I will ^- " 

2. «i»«idcS, kerehi,*'Yo}xdo,*' aD<5«f®«cS, karannehi,'' You mil do/" 
8. •»9t<^, ker^, <»He does. " Oid&S&fsS, karanne, « He will do." 


1 . es^&iS^'. haUmi, " I did." 

2. <Me^(Q, Aelehi, •* You did,- 

3. e^(S^;t^li, ' "l&edid." 

But in the spoken language these perhaps were found to 
be a great encumberance, ahd a form 2S3d^©3, karaawd,hBS 
come to be used in th^a present and future tenses without any 
distinction as to number or person : and it is now necessary to 
say ®2) «S)d^83, mama karanawd, "I do ;" Q-t gad^Qa, 
fi karanawd, "he does ;" ®®^G^^Q «S5d4*oe)3, mama heta karcb- 
nawdy " I will do to-morrow." Sometimes «S5d)S, kardvi, and 
tft^-itf ©0 ^1^, karaV'awd ft^ are used. The past tepee in tb« 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

186 JOXTBNAL K. A. S, (cBTLON). [Vol. VII., Pt. IH. 

colloqnkl is fSi^^ katd. Thia too having no inflections to shew 
the number or person, the pronoons have to be prefixed : — 8® 
»jgp, wwrmtt kald, "I did'* ; <f 8 aO©9, api kaldy "we did" ; 
(5*1 zsi^y 'd kaldy "he did," &c. We have here both the inflec- 
tional and analytical stages. Thus by classification Sinhalese 
must be grouped under the Indo-Gtermanic family. "But," it 
i» said " classification is not in itself sufficient for purposes of 
analysis** Let ub therefore, look for other peculiarities. In 
the Turanian group, it is said that nouns are not distinct from 
verbs. In SiijJialese they are : «d, karaj 09, ya, ^^, de, 89, 
Hfiy &c.,-**are alwi^s verbs and never nouns ; nor could a noun 
W inverted into a verb except by the addition of a verb, as 
CdtOlft^®, pelakaramiy ^1 grow" ; ^cft^QS, diyctceyiy " it be- 
tomes liquid" ; ^<tt»tf ®, dit/akarami, "I liquify.'* 

Another characteristic of the Aryan language, says Mr. 
Beames, is "that the noun possesses three numbers, singulaif, 
dual ai^ pliiral ; and numerous cases each distinguished by a 
peculiar and inseparable termination." 

We haA-e in Si^jhalese only the singular and the plural 
numbers, the dual is lost, as ii^ English. The case endings are 
inseparable, that is to say, if separated from the stem, as Q, ta, 
id 3iS>, maiay ^^ me," they h^m no meaning in themselves, and 
*h«re the 9, ia^ when separated has no meaning in itself. 

We have the following terminations in nouns : — 






Norn, ifi. 




Ate. ^, 




Att. fi (M<lf), 


<5«». <«•«»> 

«» (vUin) 

■ 4>», 

Jka. *pQ, 




' AM. ^Mpttf, 




6en, 9»«)at, 





the, f. •« 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] suyHALESB AND Aryan vernaculars. 


©1^ gittij " Woman." 









O, ta 
e^^, gen 

OKsf, ge 

^«fc), <ffS$0, unfaj anta 


^ e 



\ c©»«f, uni \ 










same as stem. 





©gs:f, valin 




©qO, valata 



©Q^, valin 





©(5, raZfl 




i)(3<0, rfl^ant 

The verb has three forms for the three persons and no 
forms for the three genders. Thus : — (yi ©^c3, li j/4, "he goes" 
C^X 6^ci, ^ yS, " she goes"; ^iQ (9^c3, newa y4y " the ship goes." 
" In the Aryan languages the personal terminations of the 
verb are abraded pronouns, or rather pronominal types." So 
are they in Sinhalese. 

In Prslkrit the terminations are : — 
Present Tense. 


®, mi as acc3®, hasami^ ** I smiie '* 
Q, si as eo«Q, hasasi, ** You smile'* 
^, I as eD«<5, hasaiy " He smiles " 
®®3, g 7uo^ inUy as floeog, kasirnoy hasimu, "We smile" 
CD, Aa, as ©eoSD, Aa«a^, " Ye smile" 
<f cs:f^9, f/;i/i, as ©esfTf/iS, hamnt'i, " They smile" 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

238 JOUBNAL B. A. 8. (CEYLON.) [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

The terminations of the futnre tense are the same, with 
^caes, i88a, prefixed to them, 

" Another striking characteristic of this family," says Mr. 
Beames, "is its power of expressing complicated ideas or strings 
of ideas by compounds. Several words are joined together, 
and the case and tense-endings are added to the last word only, 
the first member of the compound being either a preposition or 
a noun, or even a verb. This power is not possessed by other 
families" This power the Sinhalese language possesses in a 
preeminent degree, S)S) tQ6 ^G^6J zy)®^2^, Bamha mranaro 
namaditj given in the Sidat Sangard is a familiar example. 

I have here attempted to shew that most of the charac- 
teristics of the Aryan languages do also apply to the modern 

The following languages, as was said before, belong to the 
Indie class of the Indo-Germanic family, Hindi, BengdU, 
Panjdbl, Sindhi, Marathi, Gujarathi, Oriya, and Kashmiri. 
Following Mr. Beames' excellent work on the Philology of 
these languages I shall endeavour to shew the connection of 
Sinhalese with this family. 

The numerals, says Mr. Beames, are those parts of speech 
which retain their forms with the greatest tenacity, and offer 
the most obvious similarities. Let us compare the Sinhalese 
with the Indian vernacular numerals. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 









































K navati 
100. ^ata 























' dfi 
i nabbai 



S tuna or 








\ ekolosa 

\ teles 
\ (era 






i visi 








^ mtara 
( hatara 

^ Hava 
i namu 




S dasatatara 
i dahahatara 

C pahalos 
i pafaloe 









a 811 


Digitized by 

G oogle 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

No. 25 — 1882.] siisrHALBSB and Abyan vehnaoulabs. 241 

It will be perceived at a glance that the Siphalese has 
followed the Prdkrit very closely with the exception of the 
changes peculiar to the language. 

In the Mdldivian language the numerals are almost the 
same as in the Sinhalese. The difference, as far as I am aware, 
is that the progression in that language is by duodecimals instead 
of decimals. They are eken, de^}, tinen, hataren, paTien, hayet^y 
haten, aren, nuven, dihei}, ekolaJten, dolahen. Here they stop and 
for thirteen they have dolos eken, which means "twelve + one." 
This is continued up to "twenty-three" which is doles ekolos^ 
and twenty-four is passihi i now passihi is evidently the same as 
the Sinhalese cc5S8, paswisi, which means "twenty-five." They 
proceed on with passihi eken, passihi d^n^ &c., and their " thirty- 
six" is tindoios, (i, e,, three twelves.) Their "forty-eight" is 
panasy which is the Sinhalese for "fifty;" their "sixty" ispasdolos, 
(i, e>, five twelves); " eighty-four" is hayidohs, (i. e,, seven 
twelves ; " ninety six" is hiya, which is the same as the Sin- 
halese fioS, siya, "hundred." The real "hundred," however, 
they call sata, which is the Pali form of the Sanskrit (Sas:>, sata, 
from which the Sinhalese Scxs, siya, is derived through the 
Prakrit saya, as we have seen.* 

In the Dravidian group the Telugu and the Tamil, I 
believe, stand foremost. The numerals in these two languages 


Telugu. Tamil. 

... onru, 

... ... &ru» 



... ... pattu^ 




* Note. — '* M^ldive Numerals"— J^on. Sec. 



























Digitized by VjOOQIC 


jomoTAi R. A. 8. (eartoN). [Vol. VII., Pt. IH. 

Telu|fu.—f con<c?.; 

TAmiL— fconftf.; 














— •.• 



nUru .., 

^ l^xi 


*Lf«. x^ xl.^ o. 

These, it is obvious, have no relationship to the Sinhalese 

Following the Prdkrit the modern Aryan vernaculars of 
India have avoided the "nexus" or the combination of two or 
more consonants without an intervening vowel, which is seen in 
the Sinhalese too. 

The Prdkrit €>, ch, is changed in Sinhalese mostly to C9, $, 
and sometunes to TO, t, and also to <;, d. 

The corruption has gone so far as to change the C9, «, to 
OS); A, and sometimes the h is dropped. 

From the Sanskyit cacoa), sat/yd, " bed," Prdkyit G^ttCJcft 

sig^dy we get Sinhalese ^x^, enda. By reducing the », s, into 
OS), hy ' and dropping it altogether, the C^, jjd, is reduced 
to ^, da, and to compensate for the loss of the conjunct con- 
sonant, the vowel Cfi, e, is substituted. This is more apparent 

when we compare the Sinhalese (fi^, enda, with the old Hindi 
saji/d — ^the modem Hindi, PanjAbi, and Sindhi being spj. 

In Prdkrit, which, as Professor Max MiiUer says, is the 
basis of all the Aryan vernaculars of India, consonants are 
dropped in the middle of. words ; as visai for vinsati, twenty. In 
Si^alese the hiatus is always avoided by the coalition of the 
letters or by the insertion of the semivowels CD, ya, or ©, va, 
and sometimes 6, ra ; dW2$D, ratana, "cubit," Sinhalese SoD^, 
riyana ; 235dc3^, kathayati, "he says," Sinhalese tSooS, Myayu 
We could never have such a combination of letters as the Prdkrit 
janavady for the Sanskrit c52^0^, janapada, ''community:" the 
Sinhalese word is ^5^©S, danawa. 

These are the main features of the language. Now com- 
pare the Siighalese names for the members of the body w4th 
those of the Aryan vernaculars of India* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

No. 25 — 1882.] SINHALESE AND Ibyan vebnaculahs. 248 

Skr. Z5s^, karna, **ear" ; Pr. Jcanno, Pili zs^mifiy Aa^na, 
Hindi kd^ia, PanjAbl kanna, Gujardthi, Mardthi, BengAU and 
Oriya, kdna^ Sindhi kanu, Si^alese es?<€^, kana. 

Skr. ^2J»>, danta, "tooth" ; Pdli 4^^^5B^> ^«^^ 5 H. da^ta; 
so in the rest, except P. danta, S. dai}du ; Si^jJialese ^OT, data, 

Skr. ZS)6 kara, "hand" ; Pdli id. ; Sind. kant ; H. and 
the rest kara ; old Siphalese «53d, kara. 

Skr. tSosSo yiA«?a, "tongue" ; IL.jibha ; P. G. M. id.; S. 
^tiAa ; Siphalese §S, diva. 

Sk^r. ©3©, bdhu, "arm" ; Pdli id. ; H. bdnha ; P. S. id. ; 
G. tanAi ; M. id. ; B. and 0. bdha ; old Sicihalese 6)9, &a, and 

Skr. ^i bhrti, "eyebrow" ; Pali tD§, bhamu ; H. JAawn ; 
P. bhaunha ; S. bhirun ; 0. JAwrti ; G. bkavun ; M. hahi^vai 
and bho^vai ; Si^u 84®, 5ema. 

Skr. €)^, cflarmma, "skin" ; Pdli €)^ chamma; H. chdma, 
eharma ; so in all ; Sip. €3®, aama, and thence QS>®, Aama. 

Skr. 6>eSJ(B, A^«a, *^hair" ; Pdli Q\t3se^ kesa ; M. ksBdhi ; 
Sip. 6^2S5c3, A^«, and (5n2», A^. 

Ski-. <:j3^, dddUy '*beard" ; H. darM ; Sip. $@, df/i. 

Skr. cpafl, oA^Ai, "eye" ; Pdli ^SS, occAi ; H* d*Aa, in 
poetry arMhi ; P. akhha ; G. dJ^ ; S. aMi ; Sip. ^i^) fB ; old 
Sip. qfcs*^ ah 

Skp dot^o, jai}gMf "leg"; Pdli cJo^o, jaifgha^^ H. jd^ha 5 

G. M. id^ 'P.joj^gha ; &.ja^aha j old Sip. ^«P, daw^ ; modem 
Sip. <5^2Sfi) i(;^a« 

Skr. QDc2>, g(irbbay "womb" ; Pdli ®Sqd, j^aJJAa ; H. gara- 
hM ; P. id., and gabbha ; M. G. gibha \ S. ^ro&Aw, and 
garahhu ; Sip. QS^Sl, jrfio. 

Skr. a>d», Aa«<a, "hand" ; Pr. hattha ; M. Ad^i ; B. 0. %d.\ 
Sip. (|^S3, afa. 

The following rules may be deduced from the above and 
other peculiarities of the language. 

1. That pure Siphalese retains all the Sanskrit vowels 
except ce«o, ri, QSi^y Iri, ®\<&, ai, ©•», au : p becomes either Cf, a, 
ti h Of C' '^9 or fSj m'l sometimes <Ay ^'u; as totia^ "grass/' for 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

244 JOURNAL B. A. s. (cbylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

trina, (g)g, idu, ^^straight," for C3«igJ, riju, ^«5, utu, "season," 
for »"»«J) ritu. C^S, rusiy for «•»©, rishi, 

2. e^6, ai, becomes 6, e, as ©\QD(3, A^Za, "mount," for 
<3^6^ca(?, mila. 

3. ®«», aw, becomes ®, o, as 6^£0ag<^, sonduru, for 6NC3«Ka^ 
caft, saundaryyay " comely." 

4. A long vowel is generally shortened as 62sJ, ek, "one," 
for 6«S), ^ ; 6^e^aC5^(g^e5, sofo^, "sixteen," for sddasa ; ®(2D, 
mo^a, ''road" for ®3(S, marga ; <g§?^, m^rw, ''lord" for ^QsS)d, 

5. The dental sibilent C3, s, represents the palatal and the 
lingual ; as ©fi, visi, "twenty," for SocsaeS, vinsati ; C3i©, ^f^a, 
" sixty," for ®^, shashti ; C3, so, "six" for (g^, sAosA. 

6. Aspirated consonants are reduced to their unaspirated 
sounds, sometimes with QD, A, to compensate for the loss of the 
aspirate ; as ©®, bima, "land," for ^®, bMmi ; 8§, vidi^ 
"manner," for 88, mdhi ; ^Q^i?^, dehena, "religious medita- 
tion," for 6)380 20, dhydna. 

7. ®, cAa, is changed either to C3, ^a, or ^, rfa, sometimes 
to e!>, ^a ; as C&S5<5, satara, "four" for ©e^S", cAofwr ; oci, j>a«, 

"five" for C3©,jpa^c/ia;6>QD3gdt,5'odwrw, "an object of sense", for 
e^©o€>d, gdchara ; ^grf, ft^ws, "fourteen," for ©^^;ft, cAo- 
turddasa. The change of ©, cAa, to C3, 5a, is not peculiar to the 
Sinhalese alone : it is a feature of the Bengdli and Mar&tht too« 
Mr. Beames says, " In Eastern Bengal, where the pronuncia- 
tion reaches the utmost limits of corruption, cAAa is regularly- 
sounded as «, and in that dialect of Bengal spoken in Assam, 
not only has the 5 soimd driven out the cAAa but also has in 
many cases still further pa«sed into A.'^ So it is in Sinhalese ; 

es^, sanda^ "moon," from Sanskrit ©>2g, chandra^ is reduced to 
tSi^,hcmda\ O©, paflcha, "five" is oes, paaa^ and reduced 
further into OOO, j?aAa ; ^C3, dasa^ "ten" becomes ^QO, dahct. 
This QD Aa is sometimes still further reduced in Sinhalese, 
by dropping it altogether and retaining only its inherent 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


vowel, e. g,j Sanskrit, <5aj3a), sayyd^ " bed" ; Prakrit, sejja ; 
Sinhalese, qf t^ enda^ the firit form of which seems to have been 

CSjCJ, senda, then es5x^, henda, and now ^x^, fnc?a. 

8. d,ja, is often changed to ^, tfa ; as Q^^ laja, "parched 
grain," Si^jJialese, QC^, lada ; d^Q^jdluy ^^net," Sinhalese, <J(3, 

9. The Sanskrit conjunct consonant cq, ^??a, is changed in 
Pali to /«35, Tla, which is changed in Siijhalese to 5f), n ; as ce^ c^, 
gfidna "wisdom," Pali, /tt^^, ^Tana, Siijhalese, ^"^i 5^, nma, 9*^? 
pragfidy *'wisdom," Pali, o >jc^, pafifid, Sinhalese, Oi^, j?tfna, 

10. d), d, and i, r, ar'^ changed to @, /, in Prakrit ; and 
Sinhalese adopts it, e.g., 6^X3(9^(5 ci, solos, '^sixteen," for 6^:s3e)s5a, 
shodasa; (^^^(9^^ed, teles, "thirteen," for (5^^;5ea, ^^a^a ; (fO) 
G^QOcd, atalos, " eighteen," for ^.^3 (ic3, a// Aara«a. Sinhalese 
also changes 0, .^ into (g, /, as ij;i>tS3255, karhafalca, Sinhalese, 
2»8?d, kakulu, "crab.' 

11. Prdkrit (in which is included Pali) always reduces 
conjunct consonants of different classes to one class : this is 
done by eliding one and doubling the other ; £)€), dharma 
"scriptures," is written Q£^, dhamma; Cf(£3Q, . aswa^ "horse' 
is written qfcaco, assa ; f)^, mudga, "kidney beans," is ^^n5> 
mugga; g^-a, punga, "merit," is punna, in Prdkrit, and 9^5^, 
pufina in Pdli ; >2)'a3£S25, matsya, "fish," is written 2)0^, machchha 
The Sinhalese still further reduces these to single consonants by 
eliding one of them ; as ^®, dam, or <5QSD®, daham, "scriptures 

(pci, asj "horse;" §<2g, mungu, "kidney beans;" Q^^jpin, "merits" 
®^, masu, "fish." 

12. In Prdkrit, consonants are elided in the middle or end 
of words, and sometimes in the beginning also ; but in Sinhalese 
the hiatus thus occurring is avoided either by the coalition of the 
vowel or by the insertion of semi-vowels : thus, (5^©^^ 
©\(3J2S523, traildkga, " the three worlds," is in Prakrit 
teloa, but in Siijhalese we find ^(9^(30 S, tilova. Here we have 
the semi -vowel ©, v, inserted between the vowels o and a. For 
the Sanskrit nabhastala, "sky," we find in Prakrit nahaala, where 
both the b and the nexus st are lost. The Sinhalese avoids the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

246 JOUBNAL K. A. 8. (ciyloit). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

aspirate eliding the first letter of the conjunct consonant, 
and we get ^S)^©, nvbcUala. Prd£rit, naa^ '* nine," 
Sinhalese, ^Q nava ; Prdkrit , visai, "twenty," Sinhalese, SQ, 

13. The Sinhalese sound cpx? f> comes into play when a 
long Cf), a, or ,^ ^, is shortened, or a nexus preceded by (f, a, is 
elided, e. ff., ^©ai), dshddfia, ^*name of a month (June and 
July)," qfiC3(g, fsafa ; ^S&zS)0, makshikd, *^fly/' ®ifi, wm; 
QSjtacS^, Aas^m, "elephant," qpz^, ff ; c^sS, sJiashti, " sixty" 
05^1©, Ac^a. It is also a substitute for 6, ^, as velli, "creeper" 
Sinhalese ^i ^, vd. Though in Bengdli and other vernaculars 
of India there is no letter corresponding to the Siphafese <fi, «, 
yet Mr. Beames says: — "In some instances in Bengali the vowel 
c^, e, has a short harsh sound, like that of English a in hat. 
Thus^A, ^*one," sounds t/ak or ach^^ This is just what the Sinha- 
lese Cfi, f, is : the vowel changes entirely depend upon the 
preceding or succeeding vowels of a word. 

The following examples will shew that a large number of 
words with slight modifications, is common to all. I work on 
the materials supplied by Beames. 

Skr.* karkataka " crab ;" Pali, kakkata ; S. kdnkido ; H. 
kekara ; Sig. kakulu, " sea crab." 

Skr. karkatika ; " cucumber ;" Pa. kakkiri ; S. kakidl ; 
H. kakadl ; 0., B. kakudl ; Si^. kekiri. 

Skr. karbura, " variegated ;" S. kubiro ; S. kabairA, kilba- 
ra ; Sip. kabara. 

Skr. kshana ; " moment ;" S. khina ; H. khana, khana, 
chhana ; Sip. kena, sena. Here kena comes by the elision of the 
lingual sh, and sena by eliding the k and dentalizifig the 
lingual sh. x 

Skr. kshamd, " pardon ;" S. khimd ; H. chhamd, khiitid ; 
P. chhima ; Sip. kamd, sama. 

Skr. vanka, " crooked ;" S. vingu ; H. banka, bdnkd : 
Sip. vak. 

« S. stands for Sindhf ; B. Bengdli ; H. Hindi ; O. Oriya ; P. I^an- 
jdbi ; M. Mshardthi ; G. Gajurdthi ; Si^. Sinhalese ; Pr. Prdkrit ; T^&. 
Pdli ; Skr. Sanskrit. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Skr. pushkara, " tank ;" Pa, pokkharani ; B. pukhura ; H. 
pokkara ; Siri. pokuna, pokuru. 

Skr. vatsa, "calf;" Pa. vaccha ; B. bachura ; 0. bachhuri ; 
H. bachharu, bachhada ; Si^. vassa, adjectively, vahu. 

Skr, vangana, '^ brinjal ;" Pa. vatiiigana ; B. baguna ; H. 
baigana ; Sin. van, as in vaDibatu, which latter word is from 
bhauta, solenum melongena, 

Skr. udumbara, " fig tree ;" B. dunrnra ; Si^. dibul. 

Skr. mushala, " pestle ;" B. mushula ; Siy. mohola, mola. 

Skr. aushadha, " medicine ;" B. ashud ; Si^. osu, 

Skr. a\iguli, " finger ;" H. ungaK; P. unguli ; Sip. engiii. 

Skr. chakshu, " eye ;" B. choukha ; choha ; Siri. (old) sak- 

Skr. bindu, " drop ;" H. biinda, bunda ; M., P.', G. id. ; S- 
bmido, biinda ; Sin. bindu. 

Skr. ikshu, "sugarcane ;" Pa. ikka, uchchhu ; Pr. uchchhu, 
H. lik ;' Sin. uk, (old) ik, 

Skr. sayyd, " bed," Pr. sejjd ; H. sej ; P. S. id. ; G., M. 
sej ; 0., H. sajya ; Siiji. enda. 

Skr. valli, "creeper ;"' Pr. velli ; H. bel, beli ; P., S., G., 0. 
beli ; Sip, vel. 

Skr. badhira, "deaf;" P., H. bahira ; G. behero ; Sip. 
bihira, bira. 

Skr. samaya, " time ;" H. same ; Sip. same, hama, ama. 

Skr. kadali, "plantain ;" H., P. kela ; M., G., k^l ; Sin. 
kehel, kesel. 

Skr. vidyut, "lightning, ; H. bijali ;" B., M., G., P., 
O. bijuli ; Sin, viduli, vidili. 

Skr. bdluka, " sand ;" 0. bdli ; S. vdrl ; B. baU ; M., P.; 
IS., H. balu ; Sin. veli. 

Skr. paniya, "water ;" Pr. pdniap ; H., B., M., G., P., 0., 
S. pan! ; Sip. pen. 

Skr. alika, "false ;" Pr. aliap ; H. allka; Sip. ali, as in ali- 
boru, literally " a false lie." 

Skr. kachchapa, *' tortoise ;" H., P, kchhua ; S. kaehhup ; 
B. kdchhima; Sip. (old) kesup, (modern) kesbe. 

Skr. kuddala, " hoe ;" S. kodari ; G. kodaro ; B. kodala ; 
O. koda ; Sip. udalu. Here the k is dropped altogether. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

248 JOURNAL R. A. s, (cbylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

Skr. prishta, "back ;" H., B. pftha; 0. pithi ; P. pittha; G. 
pitha ; Si^. pita. 

Skr. mritti, " earth ;*' M. miti ; B„ G., 0. mdtf ; H. 
mitti, matti, mati ; Sin. meti. 

Skr. pitri, " father ;*' Pr. pia ; P. piii ; S. piu ; Sin. piya. 

Skr. matri, "mother ;" Pr, maa ; P. maii ; S. mau ; Si\|i. 

Skr. bhrdtri, " brother ;" Pr. bhad ; P. bhaA ; S, bhdu, 
Sip. (old) b^. 

Skr. mrita, " dead ;" Pr. mado, mao, muo ; H. mud ; P. 
mnid ; S. mu6 ; G. muvup ; M. mele ; 0. maid ; Sip. mala. 

Skr. bhakta, " dovotedness ;" H., and the rest, bhagata ; 
Sip. beti. 

Skr. rakta, " red ;" Pr. ratta ; H., and the rest, ragata, 
rakata ; Sin, rat, ratu, reti. 

Skr. dharma, "religion ;" H., and the rest, dharama ; Sip. 
dam, daham, daruma. 

Skr, stri, " woman ;" S. tiriyd ; P. tirayd ; 0. tiri, vulgo 
tila ; Sip. (old) itu, itiri, vulgo, istiri. 

Skr. eranda, " castor-oil plant ;" H. rendi ; Sip. endarn, 

Skr. nidra, "sleep ;" H. ninda ; M. nlda, nija ; P. ninda; 
S, ninda ; Sip. ninda. 

Skr. chaya, " shadow;" Pr. chad ; H., P. id,,chi; S. chap- 
va, chap; Sip. (old) soya, (modern) he, as in hemalaya, "shadow 
of one's self ;" sevana, hevana, " shadow." 

Skr. sphatika, " chrystal;" H. phitakari ; M. phataki ; S. 
phitaki ; 0., P:, G., B. phatakari ; Sip. palipgu. 

Skr. swapanap, " sleeping ;" Pr. sivinno, sivino ; Pd. su- 
pino," dreaming ;" H. sona ; P. soand; S. sumhanu; G. suvap; 
B. soite ; 0. soibd ; Sip. hina, " dream." 

It is obvious that the Siphalese comes from the Prdkrit 
sivino, by the elision of the semi-vowel v. The coalision of the 
two similar vowels would make it, sina : s as has been already 
remarked changes into A, and we get hind. 

Skr. Pd. vaj)anap, " sowing ;" H. bond ; B. bAana ; 0. 
boibd ; Sip. vapura. 

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No. 25 — 1882.] snj-flALESE and Aryan vernaculars. 249 

Skr. sapatha, " oath," " curse ;" Pr. savaho ; H. soyha ; 
P. sohiip ; S. suyhuDi ; Sip. hava, — the anga or stem in havarn 
now obsolete. 

Skr. kaparda, " cowrie ;' H. kandi ; M., G., P., S., 0. 
kavadi ; Sip. kavadi. 

Skr. tapa, " heat ;" H., and the rest, tava, tdu ; Siy. 
tava, the stem in the verb tavam. 

Skr, narikela, " cocoamit ;" Fr. nari elo ; H. ndriyala ; M. 
parala ; P. narchi, naleru ; S. narele ; G. nairu ; Sip. (old) 

Skr. nagara, *' city :" Pr. naari, nayari ; H. naira ; G. 
nayari ; Sip. nuvara. 

Skr. sug^ndhr, -fragn.nt ;" Pr. suapdha ; H., P. saundhd ; 
Sip. suvanda. 

Skr. siich', " needle ;" Pr., H., P. sii* ; S., M., G. soya ; 
0., B. soca ; Sip. idi. Here the S ch has changed into ^ cZ, and 
by the influence of the vowel <^ i, ("^ w, has changed into ^ i, 
and £S s, has become Qo A, and dropped. See Beames Vol. 1, 
§ 34. 

Skr. rajd, "king ;" Pr. rad ; H. rau; in the rest, rao ; 
Sip. rada, raja 

Skr khddanap, " eating ;" Pr. khdanam ; H. khana ; P. 
kdhna; S. khdinu; M. khdnep; G. khavup; 0. khdiba; B. khdite; 
Sip. kana. 

Skr. pipdsa "thirsty ;" H., and the rest, piydsd; Sip. (old) 
pavas, (modern) pipdsa, vulgo tibaha. Here is an instance of p 
changing to t : the only other instance I have noticed is where 
pippali, " long pepper," becomes ti{>pli ; but the Siphalese word 
tippli comes from the Tamil, as most of the names of medicinal 
drugs coming from the southern coast of India. The old 
Siphalese word found in books is vagapul. 

Skr. prapana, " getting ;" H. pdud, pdund ; P. pdund ; S. 
pdinu ; G. panavup ; M. pdvanep ; B. pdite ; (). pdibd ; 
Sip. pamuna ; " arriving." Here the p has as usual changed 
into V, and thence to m, as in nava, " nine ; Sip. nama." 

Skr. kapota ; H. kapot ; Sip. kobeyiyd ; " wild dove." 

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250 JOUtoAL R. A. s. (ceylon). [Vol. VII., Pt. III. 

Skr. kumbhakara, " potter ;" H. kumhdr; Sin. kubal. 

Skr. sAkara, '^ pig ;" H. sAar ; Sip. (old) hiira, (modern) 
lird. . ' 

Skr. karpdsa, " cotton ;" S. kapdha, kapaha ; P. kapih ; 0. 
kapa ; Siy. kapu 

Skr. mnkha, ^^face ;" Pr., H. mupha ; P. muhup, munhu ; 
S. mn:|jhu9 S151. muva, miina. 

Skr. sithila, " loose ;" Pr. sidhilo ; H,, M., G., dhila ; 
P. dhilld ; S. dhiro ; B., 0., dhild ; Sip. ihil, lihil, lila. 

These may be extended to any length. 

It was my intention to add to this a few remarks on the 
pronouns, the ease endings, verbs and their terminations and the 
particles which are called the " sinews and ligaments" of lan- 
guage, but this paper has extended to a greater length than was 
originally intended, and I reserve my remarks on them for 
another paper. 

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No. 25 — 1882.] siijHALESE AND Aryan vernaculars. 251 


Mdldive NmneraU, 

" The inconvenient duodecimal mode of numeration was for- 
merly exclusively used bj the Maldivians — the numerals from 
1 to 12 being almost identical with the Sinhalese ; but, though 
still in vogue here and there, it is gradually dying out, and rarely 
employed in business calculations. Beyond 10 a modified form 
of the Hinddstani decimal numeration is that in common use. 
Some confusion, however, arises from the co-existence of the 
two systems ; thus, /ana^ or fansds may bo either 48 or 50 ; hii/a 
or satdka, 96 or 100." ("The Maldive Islands," Sessional 
Papers, Ceylon, 1881, p. 121.) 

Mr. Albert Gray in giving the Maldive numerals recorded 
by Pyrard with their Sinhalese equivalents, adds . in a foot 
note : — " After this number Pyrard has the following : — ' Note 
that they have the numbers up to twelve (as we have the m 
up to ten) : then they go on by twelves, and their hundred 
is 96, or eight times 12.' It will be seen by the numbers 
which follow that those only which are correct according to 
Sinhalese enumeration are compounds of dolos, viz., tin dolos, 
passedolos, and addolos. They are simply, ' three dozea', 'five 
dozen,' and ' seven dozen.' On the other hand, those which 
are not compounds of dolos are altered values of the ordinary 
Sinhalese decimal numbers. Yet it is strange that Pyrard could 
make mistakes with numbers so low as ' twenty-four' and ' forty- 
height' which by analogy ought to be dedolos and hdradolos 

It seems that the Maldivians coxmt much by dozens ; indeed, 
Christopher (Trans. Bom, Geog. Soc. 1836-8, p, 69) says. 

* Mr. Ranasigha's paragraph (p. 241) on Mdldive numerals justifies 
this note. — B. Hon. Sec, 

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252 JOURNAL R. A. S. (CBYLON.) [Vol. VII., Pt. HI- 

* they reckon by twelves, as we do by tens ;' but they have not 
^ abandoned altogether the decimal system. If, however, passee 
and panas really stand for ' twenty-four' and ^ forty-eight,' it 
will be interesting to know the Maldive for ^ twenty' and 
' fifty.' " (Journ. R, A. S., Vol. viii. n. s. 1878, pp. 193-4.) 

Mr. Ranisipha has rightly shown, from a comparison with 
the Siigihalese, the true meaning and value of the forms, fassehi, 
fanas, and hi^a ; but it is diflScult to account for the anomaly of 
their employment in a duo-decimal system, otherwise than as 
relics of an original decimal numeration, which, from unknown 
causes, was temporarily abandoned, only to reassert itself, though 
under a different garb more closely resembling other Aryan 
vernaculars than Sinhalese. 

The following table of Maldive numerals exhibits both 
systems : — 

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No. 25 — 1882.] siijrflALESEi aitd artan vernaculabs. 253 




Decimal. f 












. fahe* 

. id. 




































vkd- 1 


hd- 1 


i6- ■ yvu 



S:iU- 1 



fjiDsa- J 





hatd- ) . 











• 34 


A.1 ^^ 












arbu- J 









ba- ^ 


sdura- )-y^lis 


fansa- | 


sa- J 




f Transcribed from a list given in a MAldive fartib, or commentary 
on the kuran. — B. Hon. Sec. 

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' fanas 










ekd- T 









>- vanna 









arhu- ^ 
















y &c. 













ekdh ittiri 









1^ &c., 









■ ek-4bi 


ba- T 


• t^- 



saura- J-ydhi ^ 




fansa- | 



8a- J 








^ &c., 








sau.ay.j- .^^. 
fansaya- ' 












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1881-82. . 







THE "times of CEYLON " PRESS. 


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No. 28. 

Hindii Astronomy, as compared with the European 

Science. — By S. Mervin, Esq., 1 

Sculptures at Horana. — By J. G. Smither, Esq., f.r.i.b.a. 2 
Gold in Ceylon, — By A. C. Dixon, Esq., B. Sc. (Honor.) 

London ... ... ... ... ... ... 12 

Specimens of Sinhalese Proverbs. — By Louis De 

ZoYSA, Esq., Maha-Mudaliyar 15 

Ceylon Bee-culture. — By S. Jaya.tilaka, Esq., 

Mudaliyar ... ... ... ... ... ... 27 

A short account of the principal Religious Ceremonies 

observed by the Kandyans of Ceylon. — By C. J. 

R. Le Mesurier, Esq., c.c.s 32 

Valentyn's Account of Adam's Peak. — By A. Spence 

Moss, Esq., p.w.d. 49 

No, 24. 


The Ancient Emporium of Kalah, &c., with notes on 
Fa-Hian's account of Ceylon. — By Hugh 
Nevill, Esq., c.c.s. 57 

The Sinhalese observance of the Kaldwa. — By Louis 

Nell, Esq., 85 

Note on the origin of the Veddds, with specimens of 
their Songs and Charms. — By L. De Zoysa, Esq., 
Mahd-Mudaliyar 93 

A HAmyam image. — By Louis Nell, Esq., 116 

Note on the Mira Kantiri Festival of the Muham- 

madans.— By A. T. Shams-ud din ... ... 125 

Sericulture in Ceylon. — By J. L. Vanderstraaten, 

Esq., m.d,, 137 

Sinhalese Omens. — By S. Jayatilaka, Esq., Muda- 
liyar ... ... ... ... .i. ... 147 

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No. 25. 

Nirwana. — By Professor M. M. Kunt6 163 

Two Sinhalese Inscriptions.— By B. Gunasekara, Esq., 

Government Translator ... ... ... ... 181 

Folk-lore in Ceylon.— By W. Gunatilaka, Esq., ... 208 
Buddhas Sermon on Omens. — By Louis De Zoysa, Esq., 

Maha-Mudaliydr 21H 

Notes on the Microscopical Characteristics of Feathers, 
and (heir present analogy with a probable abori- 
ginal form. — By F. Lewis, Esq., 'lit 

Sinhalese Folk-lore Stories.— By W. Knight 

James, Esq., ... 225 

Ruins at Veheragala — By P. A. Templbr, Esq., c.c.s. 282 
The connection of the Sinhalese with the Modern 
Aryan Vernaculars of India. — By W. P. Rana- 
si^HA, Esq., 284 

Extra No. 
Ibn Batiita in the Maldives and Ceylon (Translated 
from the French of M. M. Defr^mery and San- 
guinetti).— By Albert Gray, Esq.,, m.r.a.s. ... 1— (lO 

Proceedings, 1881 ... ... ... ... ... i 

Do. 1882 ... ... ... ... .. Ixi 

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Committee Meeting, 
February 2, 1881. 

Present : 
The Hon. Colonel A. B. Fyers, R.E., President, in the Chair. 

Revd. E. F. Miller, m.a,, 

J. G. Smith er, Ksq., 

J.L. Vanderstraaten, Esq, m.d.> 

J. Capper, Esq., 
W. Ferguson, Ksq., 
H. J. Mae Vicar, Esq., 

H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Hon. Secretary. 
1. — Read and confirmed Minutes of last Meeting, 
2. — The Hon. Secretary stated, that on assuming duties he found that 
the " Proceedings" of the Society had not been published (with the 
exception of the President's Address for 1879, printed in the Journal 
for 1880, Part L) since 1873-4. He proposed to issue shortly in 
pamphlet form the ** Proceedings^ 1875 to 1880."* An effort would 
be made in future to publish the Society's " Proceedings'* regularly 
at the close of each year, — Approved, 

3. — With reference to the long delay in the issue of a new 
Catalogue of the C. A. S. Library, the Hon. Secretary laid before the 
Meeting a rough manuscript Catalogue, on which the Librarian of 
the Museum had been long engaged, and expressed his opinion that, if 
printed in its present form, it would be unsuited to fulfil the purpose 
of sure and ready reference. Under the circumstances it was hoped 
that additional delay for the preparation of a satisfactory Catalogue 
would be held justifiable. Ihe Hon. Secretary consented to devote 
such attention to this work, as leisure might allow him. 

4. — The Meeting was informed that the stock of several back Num- 
bers of the Society's Journal had become exhausted — not a single 
copy remaining even in the C. A. S. Library, — viz., 1848-9 $ 
1849-50 ; 1853 (1 pt.) ; 1856 8 (2 pts.) ; 1858-9 ; 1860-1 ; 1870-1. 
The Honorary Secretary had addressed Government (January 13th), 
with a view to obtaining permission for the said Journals to be 
reprinted at the Government Press, from copies kindly placed at his 
service by D. Ferguson, Esq., and the boon had been readily granted 
(January 20th). 

5. — Li order to put an end to the present confusion arising from the 
irregular numbering and paging of past Journals, it was suggested 

* Issued in March, 1881. 

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by the Hon, Secretary that the Committee should once for all sanction 
an authoritative numbering and division of the series. 

Approved^ and the matter left entirely in the hands of the Hon. 
Secretary. * 

6. — The Hon. Secretary stated that on going over the Books, &c , 
belonging to the Library, he discovered that a large proportion 
required immediate binding or rebinding » and moved for a special vote 
under this head. 

The Committee sanctioned an expenditure of Rs. 200, to be devoted 
to this object. 

7. — It was notified by tJie Hon. Secretary that, in accordance with 
Resolution 2, passed at the Committee Meeting held July 16th, 1880, 
the Sub-Oommittee had met, and selected new 3ooks for the Library 
to the value of £5(>; and that the order had been sent to Messrs. 
Trubner & Co. 

8,— A General Meeting was decided to be held in April, prior to 
Col. Fyers' departure to England. 

It was announced that several Members had promised Papers. 

General Meeting. 
April 7, 1881. 

Present : 
The Hon. Colonel Fy^rs, r.e., President, in the Chair, 

E. F. Perera, Esq., 
Hon. P. Rfima-NAtban, 
W. P. Ranasi^ha, Esq., 
J. G. Smither, Esq., 
H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Hon. 

1. — The Minutes of the last Meeting (Annual) were read and 

G. Wall, Esq., Vice-Presd. 
J. Capper, Esq., 
W, Ferguson, Esq., 
S. Green, Esq., 
A. Murray, Esq., Honorary 

2. — The following new Members were then duly elected : — 

G. A. Bauragartner, Esq., cc.s. 
C. Bruce, Esq., 
S. M. Burrows, Esq , c.c.s. 
P. Dias Baijdaranayaka, 
W. H. G. Duncan, Esq., 
C. P. Hall, Hsq.. 

A. Jayawardana, Mudaliy&r, 

J. D. Mason, Esq., cos. 

L. O. Pyemont-Pyemont, Esq., 

c c.s. 
J. G. Wardrop, Esq., 
H. White, Esq., e.e.8. 
W. T. Wragg, Esq., c.c,3. 

* Journal since consecutively numbered, divided into Volumes, and 
'Summary" issued hy Honorary Secretary. 

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PROCBtolNGS, 1881. V 

The following gentlemeiti were re-admitted as Members :— 

J. Loos, Esq., M.D., H. Nevill, Esq., c.c.s., and G, E. Worthing* 
ton, Esq., c.c.s. 

3. — The Hon. Secretary announced that the new Books for the 
C. A. S. Library, ordered in February from Messrs. Trubrier & Co., 
were on their way out. He also laid on the table a list of Books, &c., 
presented to, or purchased by, the Society since the Annual Meeting 
in December, 1880, 

4. — The following Papers were then read : — 

i. — Hindu Astronomy us compared with the European science ^ 
by S. Mervin, Esq. 

ii, — Some sculptured ruins at Horai^a^^y J. G. Smither, Esq. 

iii. — Gold in Ceylon: a sketchy by A. C. Dixon, Esq. 

iv, — Specimens of Sinhalese proverbs, byL. De Zoyza, Mah4- 

V. — Ceylon Bee culture, by S. Jatatilaka, Mudaliydr. 

In the absence of the authors Papers iii. and v. were read by the 
Hon. Secretary, and Paper iv. by W. P. Raijasiijha, Ksq. 

Mr. G. Wall initiated a very interesting critical discussion regard- 
ing the asserted discovery of the laws of gravitation before Sir Isaac 
Newton's time. 

^.^ 5. — The Hon. the Chairman proposed a vote of thanks to the gen- 
tlemen who had sent in Papers. — Carried nem. con. 

6. — The President (Hon. Colonel A. B. Fyers, re)., announced his 
contemplated immediate departure for Kngland, adding that during 
his absence, George Wall, Esq., Vice-President, would assume the 

7. — The Hon. the Chairman proposed that the following gentlemen 
be invited to become Honorary Members : — 

(a) L. De Soyza, Mahd-Mudaliydr. 

{b) M. M. Kiint^. 

Seconded by George Wall, Esq., and unanimously carried. 

8, — A vote of thanks to the Chairman, proposed by G. Wall, Esq., 
and seconded by J. G. Smither, Esq., concluded the Meeting. 

Copies of the *' Summary of C, A. S Journals, 1845-1880," 
-just compiled by the Hon. Secretary, (Vide Resolution 5, Com- 
mittee Meeting, February 2nd, 1881), were distributed among 

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Additions to Library. 

Balagrahasdntija (Siybalese) — From Author, 

Classified Index to the Sanscrit MSB. in the Palace at Tanjur 

Part 3rd. 
D&sayura, Ocean of Verbal roots, The, 1880. (Sinhalese), — From 


Dipawapsa, The — Presented by Ceylon Government. 

Drama of Princess Rolina, 1879, (Sinhalese), ^ 
Ganitasdstraya, Arithmetic (Sinhalese). ^ From Authors. 

Hindu Chronology and Antediluvian History. J 

Journal of the R.A.S. of Bengal, Vol. XLIX, Part I, T 

No. IV., 1880. 
Do. do. do. Part IL 

No. ni.,*1880. 
Do. do. do. Part 11. 

No. IV., 1880. 

Lepldoptera of Ceylon, (Moore) Parts I. and IL, 1881. — Presented 
by Ceylon Government. 

Malwarapatalaya and Bdlagrahasdntiya (Sinhalese). — From Author. 

Niti Nighanduva, (English and Sinhalese). — Presented by Ceylon 

Notes upon a Denarius of Augustus Caesar. — Presented. 

Our Colony. — From Author. 

Proceedings of the R. A. S. Bengal, July, 1880. 
Do. do. August, 1880. 

Do. do. November, 1880. _^ 

Do, do. January, 1881. )^ft5^ 

Report on the Amardvati Tope, &c„ Excavations on 

its site in 1877. \ Presented. 

Sanscrit Manuscripts of the Mahd-Rdja of Bikaner. 

From R. A, 

Transactions of the R. A. S, Japan, Vol. 8» Part III., 1880. ) - o 
Do. do. Vol. 8, Part IV., 1880. > | ^ 

Do. do. Vol. 9, P,art I„ 1880. ' &s 

Vinayapitakam, Vols. I, II. — Presented by Ceylon Government 

We were enabled to report but briefly the meeting of the Ceylon Branch 
of the Royal Asiatic Society held at the Museum yesterday. It was a p'ity 
that more Members were not present, as the Papers read were interesting. 
Those Fapers were, however, too numerous to allow of free discussion upon 

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PROCEEDINGS, 1881. vii 

The first Paper read was by Mr. S. Mervin, a Jaffna Tamil, upon 
'* Hindu Astronomy as compared with the European science." The 
reader spent some time in apologising for his lack of eloquence and 
learning, and then read extracts from his Paper. The study of Astrology, 
he said, was cultivated by the immediate descendants of Adam ; 
Josephus informed us that the sons of Seth were engaged in studying 
Astronomy. From the Egyptians the science passed to the Greeks. 
It seemed to have gone from Chaldea to India and China 2,000 years 
B.C. The records of the efforts of the early Indian Astronomers were, 
however, wrapt in obscurity. At first the Hiudds thought the earth 
was roimd, and that the eclipses of the moon were caused by the earth's 
shadow. Some, however, maintained that the earth, though round, was 
at rest in the centre. A few believed that the earth was flat. Mr. Mervin 
then referred to the principles put forward by Ptolemy, and proceeded to 
show that Hindu astronomy was very different from its mythology. After 
a short dip into Hindu mythology he turned more directly to the real 
subject of the paper. Many doctrines of Hindii astronomy, he said corres- 
ponded with European science. The laws of gravitation were known to 
the Hindds long before Sir Isaac Newton's time. The Hindus believed 
ages ^o that the atmosphere extended 60 miles from the earth, and be 
reminded them that European science had decided that the atmosphere 
cotdd not extend more than 50 or 60 miles. He quoted from several old 
Tamil works to show that a great many years ago the Hindds held very 
similar opinions as to the planets as those held by the Europeans of to-day. 

Mr. George Wall, (after one or two Members had expressed their interest 
in the Paper read) said he presumed that no one would imagine that any 
facts stated touching the alleged discovery of the laws of gravitation before 
Sir Isaac Newton's time were true. That the movements of the planets 
were well known was of course admitted, as they were mentioned in the 
old astronomical books and in the Scriptures. Facts of observation' were 
very different from those laws which govern the movements of planets. 
He concluded that Mr. Mervin did not profess to state that the laws of 
gravitation were really known bv the ancient Hindds. If such an allegation 
were made for a moment, the tact that the Hindus thought that the sun 
revolved round the earth would explode the idea. That one fact was suffi- 
cient to show that the laws of gravitation were not in the slightest degree 
understood in olden times by the Hindds. He was quite a ware that the 
ancients had a pretty accurate knowledge of the movements of the-planets, 
but they did not know the causes. About the time of the transit of Venus 
a very learned gentleman in Colombo said to him that he could not under- 
stand why the Government were taking so many observations and spending 
so much money and trouble in doing so, seeing that they knew exactly 
when the transit would take place. When the speaker told this gentleman 
that they did not yet know what distance Venus and the sun were from 
the earth, which it was very important to ascertain, he was quite astonished. 
They could easily tell the exact time shown by the town clock in the 
tower, but they could not so easily tell the exact diameter (»f the face. 
They know the exact movements and causes of the eclip«es, but the laws 
of gravitation were a profound secret till the days of Sir Isaac Newton. 

Mr. Smith er then read his Paper upon " Some ruins at Horazta," 

Mr. H. C. P. Bell (Hon Sec) read Mr. A. C. Dixon's Paper on ** Gold 
in Ceylon," 

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A few " Sit^halese proverbs,** from a large number of specimens by L. De 
Zoyza, MaM-Mudaliy&r, were read by Mr. Ronasigha, in the absetice of 
the Mah4-Mudaliylir. 

Samuel Jayatilaka Mudaliy fir's Paper on " Bee Culture in Ceylon** was 
read by the Hon. Secretary. 

The Hon. the Chairman proposed a vote of thanks to those gentlemen 
who had written or read Papers. He said that they had had such a number 
of Papers that it had been ahnost impossible to pause and discuss the merits 
of any of them. He quite concurred with the remarks of Mr. Wall as to 
the knowledge of the Hindus as to gravitation. Upon such a point they 
might have had a free discussion bad there been time. 

Mr. Wall remarked that he wa-^ not quite clear whether Mr, Mervin 
wished to imply that the Hindus really understood the laws of gravitHtion. 
He proceeded (to Mr. Mervin) : **Do we understand that your belief is 
that the laws of gravitation, as propounded and explained by N ewton, 
were understood by the ancient Hindis ?" 

Mr. Mervin : " As in other cases the principle was understood by the 
Hindus, but not as improved and made perfect since in the form of a system. 
The principle was understood." 

The Hon. P. Rfima-N&than : *' The idea is that the Hindus should be 
credited with having conceived the first ideas of the laws of gravitation." 

Mr, Wall : " But none of the extracts he has read bear him out : rather 
the opposite. The figures as to the dimensions of the earth and the times of 
the eclipses were ascertained by observation without any knowledge of the 
laws of gravitation whatever. The fact that a year consists of .^65 days 
and so many hours could be ascertained without any knowledge of the laws 
of astronomy. No doubt astronomical observations were carried to a veiy 
high degree of perfection and for a very great period of time, but there has 
not been anything said to show that the laws or principles of gravitation 
were ever propounded before Sir Isaac Newton discovered them.- People 
may find out by observation that a clock goes, and also find out what the 
movements indicate, but that does not prove what works the inside of it." 

Mr. Mervin, to illustrate his meaning, remarked that algebra was in 
existence among the Hindus ages since, but not in such perfection as among 
Europeans of the present day. And so attraction or gravitation was known 
to the Hindds. He did not say the laws of gravitation were known to 

Mr Wall : " But it is the law which is everything in this case." 

Mr. Mervin : " It says in one of the passages I read that * the earth is 
standing by its own inherent foice.' What is meant by ' inherent force ?' " 

Mr. Wall : ** The idea of gravitation first of all is shown with bodies 
having no motion. They must derive their motion from something . The 
first step towards gravitation is that bodies do not move at all unless they 
are moved by something. The facts were known, but your facts were 
obtained by observation, while Sir Isaac Newton's theory was laid down, 
whereby those facts could be confirmed and understood. Sir Isaac laid 
aside for 20 years his idea of the laws of gravitation because they did not 
agree with observation. No one had the slightest conception of the theory 
till Sir Isaac found it out. Then the whole thing became clear. The facta 

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l^ROCEBDINGS, 1881. iX 

of observation were constantly coming into contact with the theory. The 
laws of gravitation required that certain motions should take place by a 
certain planet while the facts of observation were utterly opposed to it. 
It was afterwards discovered that there was another planet existing beyond 
the one expected to change, and upon which it acted. Thus the further 
planet was discovered. The law of gravitation was one theory, simply 
enounced ; not a gradually worked out fact like geometry, about which 
there is no principle. The law of gravitation as discovered by Newton has 
never been altered. When, apparently, facts were opposed to it, as in the 
case of the new planet, further observations by the aid of the most com- 
plete instruments have shown that the laws of gravitation were perfectly 
correct, the apparently contradictory fact^ being explained after observa- 
tion. No ancient Hindu, as far as at present known, ever had the slightest 
inkling of knowledge of those laws. None of their facts required a 
knowledge of those laws." 

The subject then dropped.* 

The Hon. the Chairman said that was the last Meeting at which he would 
be present for some time, as he was about to leave for England. It was 
very gratifying to be able to leave the Society in such a flourishing state. 

* Mr. Mervm subsequently published the following letter in the columns 
of the Observer : — 

Dear Sir, — A portion of the Essay on Hindu Astronomy read by me 
at the Asiatic Society Meeting of the 7th instant, runs — " The laws of gravi- 
tation were known to the Hindds long before Sir Isaac Newton was bom.** 
The Hindd Astronomer Bdskara-&s&riyar was born in the year 1114, A.D., 
and composed the treatise called "Siddh6nta Siromani" in 1150. In the 
6th verse of the 3rd chapter of that book, the author says : — ** The property 
of attraction is inherenf in the earth. By this property, the earth attracts 
any unsupported heavy thing towards it. The thing appears to be falling, 
but it is m a state of being drawn to the earth,** Ac. 

Sir Isaac N^ewton was born in the year 1642, A. D., and made the dis- 
covery of the laws of gravitation in 1703. 

Does not the above quoted verse elicit that attraction of gravitation (if 
not the laws thereof) was known to Bdskara-Ssdriyir 492 years before 
Newton was bom ? Why should any one hesitate to acknowledge this? 
I do not say that the laws of gravitation in their entirety were known to the 
Hindus. If one believes that the above verse was written by B&skara- 
&8&riy4r, could he doubt that the piinciples of attraction were known to 

Should it be said that Baskara-ds4riyar knew this merely from his obser- 
vation, and not scientifically, the Hindus would say that even so much was 
not known to the western nations before Sir Isaac Ne^ton*s time ; for Sir 
Isaac deduced the attraction from his observation of the fall of an apple. 
Is it not clear that no European that lived before him did ever observe the 
fall of an apple, and therefrom deduce the earth's attractive power ? Most 
sciences and arts are discovered by observation. Man derives his know- 
ledge from observation, conversation, reading and meditation ; observation 
being the first medium. It is therefore no wonder that Bdskara-6s6Tiy4r 

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During his absence, Mr. Wall, the Vice-President, would assume the Chair, 
and he was sure Mr. Wall would take an interest in everything affecting 
the Society, and contribute by his well stored mind to its benefit. 
He th inked the Members for tte confidence shown in him by his being 
elected upon so many occasions as President, and assured them that 
he should always have the welfare of the Society at heart. At home he 
hoped to be <^f any use possible. He should try to get such Books, Ac , as 
the Hon. Secretary mijrht wish to obtain. He desired before leaving to 
recomniend one very old Member who had held various offices in the Society 
the Mah4-Mud41iydr, Louis De Zoyza, for nomination as an Honorary 
Member, coupling with his name that of Professor M. Kiint6, who had 
lectured to them, sent Papers, and promised to send more. 

Mr. G. Wall seconded, althoujjh, as he remarked, the proposal did not 
need a seconder, coming from the Chair. He wished at the same time to 
, propose a vote of thanks to the Society's " restorer," Col. Fyers, as the 
Colonel had certainly fulfilled that part. The Society was in a dormant 
state till Col. Fyers took that lively interest in it which had revived it to 
its present position. He (Mr. Wall) had been a witness of the Sociely's 
career, and was only sorry that he had done so little for it. 

Mr. Smither endorsed the remarks made by Mr. Wall as to the Presi- 

The Hon. President replied, ascribing the praise to the Honorary 
Secretary, who had written to many people as to Papers, and by his 
endeavours had resuscitated the Society. 

The Meeting was then adjoui*ned till some convenient day soon, when 
Papers will be read.— [See Ceylon Observer, 6th April, 1881. J 

got, at least, a faint knowledge uf attraction of gravitation from his obser- 
vation, liut that is no reason why it should be asserted that he did not 
know the thing. 

It may be argued that the Hindds maintain, as Ptolemy did, that the sun 
goes round the earth, and that this is inconsistent with the laws of irravita- 
tion. It IS therefore that I say that the Hindus did not know all the laws 
of gravitation in .their entirety. 

As it appears that the Europeans here did not all this time know the 
teachings of " Siddhdnta Sirdma^i," it is quite right for them to say that the 
laws of gravitation, or gravitation itself, was not known to the Hindus 
before bir Isaac Newton's time. 

I would now amend the wording of my Essay thus :— " The laws of 
gravitation were known'' Ac, should be ** Attraction of gravitation was 
known, &c. 

S. Mervin. 
Colombo, 13th April, 1881. 

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PROCEEDINGS . — 1 88 1 . xi 

General Meeting. 
May 7, 1881. 

Present ; 

The Hon. W. H. Ravenscroft, Acting Colonial Secretary, 
(in the Chair), 

J. Capper, Esq. 

J. B. Cull, Esq. 

A. C. Laurie, Esq. 

J. Loos, Esq., M.D. 

A. Murray, Esq., Hon. Treasr. 

S. Elijapaksa, Mudaliy&r. 

W. P, Eanasi^ha, Esq. 

J. G. Smither, Esq. 

J. L. Yanderstraaten, Esq., m.d. 

G. Wall, Esq., Vice-Presdt. 

H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Honorary Secretary. 

1. — The Minutes of the previous Meeting were read and confirmed, 

2. — The following gentlemen were elected Members of the 
Society : — 

The Hon. R. Cayley, Chief Justice (Proposed by the Hon. W. 
H. Ravenscroft, c.c.s.. Seconded by A. Murray, Esq.), W. £• 
Davidson, Esq., c.c.s., H. W. Green, Esq., c.cs., P. H. Price, Esq., 
C.C.S., G. S« Saxton, Esq., c.c.s. 

The following were re-admitted as Members : — 

W. J. S. Boake, Esq., c.c.s., L. Nell, Esq., and W. E, T. Sharpe, 
Esq., CCS. 

The Hon. Secretary announced that His Excellency the Lieut.- 
Governor (the Hon. J. Douglas, c.m.g.) had consented to join the 
Society as its Vice-Patron. 

3.— The Honorary Secretary laid on the table a list of Books pre- 
sented to and purchased for the Society's Library since the last 
Meeting (April 7th). 

i:- 4. — The Honorary Secretary then read the following Papers :— 


(i.) ^^ A Short Account of the principal Religious Ceremonies 

t: observed by the Kandyans of Ceylon^'^ by C. J. R. Le Mesu- 

1^ RiER, Esq., c.c.s. 

(ii.) '* Valentyn^s Account of AdanCs Peak, by A. Spencb 
Moss, Esq. 

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(iii.) A Letter from J. G. Smither, Esq., combating Mr, S. 
Mervin*8 statement of the length of the Ydjana (Paper on 
*' Hindu Astronomy '^ )^ 

* The Hon. Sec, Royal Asiatic Society, C. B. 

Dear Sir, — In the interesting Paper on Hindi! Astronomy read at the 
General Meeting on Thursday, Mr. Mervin informed us that a ** ydjana" 
is considered equal to five English miles. 

Referring to the glossary given in Tumour^s translation of the Mahd- 
waQso (page 80), I find the following definition of the term which I 
transcribe verbatim :— 

" Ydjnnah^passim : a measure of distance equal to four ** gdvmtan,^* and 
each gdwutaUy called gow in Singhalese, is equal to four hcstakmas^ and an 
hcetakma is considered equal to one English mile, which would make a 
ydfanan to be 16 miles." 

This I have endeavoured to make more clear by the following table, which 
1 have prepared from the above : — 

English Miles. H^j|:kmas. Gaws. Y6jana. 

I » 1 

4 » 4 =1 

16 »= 16 » 4 :=. 1 

As the discrepancy between the two statements is so striking, I have 
thought it desirable to invite attention to it, and as Mr. Mervin tells us 
that he has adopted the *' y6jan4" as a standard measure for his calculations, 
I venture to suggest that he be requested to favour us at our next Meeting 
with precise inK)rmation on this important point. 

I am, Dear Sir, Yours faithfully, . 

J. G, Smithes. 
Colombo, 9th April, 1881. 

The Hon. Sec, Royal Asiatic Society, C. B. 

Dear Sir, — With reference to Mr. J. G. Smither's letter to you, dated 
the 9th April, 1881, and forwarded to me on the 20th ultimo, in which it is 
stated, that according to the definition given in " Mahdwagso," one ydjana 
is equal to 16 English miles, instead of 6 miles as stated by me, I would 
in the first place quote the passage in my Essay referring to my estimate 
in English miles or a ydjana :— 

" I must say that the measurement of one ydjana is not exactly settled. 
According to a table given in this chapter (44th chap. Andakosam of Skan- 
dapur&na) it is equal to 32,000 yards ; according to some other authorities 
it is equal to 1 6,000 yards ; and according to others, to 8,000 yards. A 
Chinese monk named * Hieoun-Thsang,* who visited India in the middle of 
the 7th century, states that in India, according to ancient tradition, a 
yojana equaled 40 li (a It is about 550 yards). According to the customary 
use of the Indian Kingdoms it is 30 li. But the ydjana mentioned in the 
Sacred Books contains only ^6 /t ; which smallest ydjana is equal to 5 
English miles.** 

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PROCEEDINGS.— 1881. xHi 

4.— Votes of thanks to the writers of the above Papers (proposed 
by the Chairman), and to the Chairman (proposed by G. Wall, Esq., 
Vice-President, seconded by J. G, Smither, Esq.), unanimously 
^ carried, concluded the Meeting. 

^. It is a matter of no infrequent occtirrence that a term of distance, 

weight, or measurement, is variously estimated at different places; for 
instance : — 

^^ One English foot is somewhat smaller than a Dutch foot. 

e One English pound (weight) is less than a Dutch pound. 

One dollar (money) is considered by the TamiJis to be £0 16 

- By the Americans ... ... ... 4 2 

^ Onemarakal (com measure) is considered: 

By the people of Southern India to contain ... 4 quarts. 
A By the people of the Wanni in Ceylon ... 10 do. 

By people in Batticaloa District ... ... 8 do. 

One Edtham or Gawatham (distance) is estimated : 

By the Indian Tamils to be ... ... 10 miles. 

By*the Sinhalese of Ceylon ... ... 4 do. 

Before the introduction of the Imperial Measure, great uncertainty 

existed with regard to weights and measures used in Great Britain ; for 

s it appears from the Preamble of the Act of 1824 that different weights 

^ and measures, some larger and some less, were in use in various places. 

^ Nor were the weights and measures in France, before the RevolutioD, free 

from confusion. 

.^ Just in the same manner, one ** y6jana" is estimated : 

By the Indian Historians to be about ... 18 miles. 

By the ancient Indian Government about ... 9| do. 

By the writers of Indian Sacred Books or Shdstram ... 5 do. 

By the Sinhalese of Ceylon (see Mah&wayso) ... 16 do. 

It will be seen from the foregoing quotation that I myself have stated in 
', the Essay, that the measurement of a ^*y6j ana" t> not exactly settled, but 

, that it is mentioned in the Sacred Books or Sh&s trams as equal to 5 English 

^ miles. 

Further, "ydjana" being a term used by the Indians in their sciences, 
tbeir estimates should be adopted in preference to that of other nations. 


I. — Winslow's Tamil and English Dictionary, which is acknowledged to 
to be the best of the Hnd : — 

*' QujT^^stsr (yochanai). A measure of distance reckoned foom 4 to 10 
jPtrLfiisB>a (n^iikai), usually about 13 miles. Wilson, about 9 miles. In 
Astronomy, the 5,059th part of a great circle, or on the equator about 4^ 
geographical miles (or nearly 5 English miles.)" 



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Additions to Library, 

Antardwara^a (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1875. 

Architecture, History of, 1873-5, 4 Vols., by J. FerguBon, d.c.l.^ 

F.R.S., M.B.A.S. 

II. — ^Webster's English Dictionary : — 

" Yojan eSanscrit Ydjaod). A measure of distance, varying from 4 to 
10 miles, but usually about 6 (East Indies.) '* 

III. — Chinese monk's report, as above shown, 6 miles. 
IV. — Mr. D. L. Carroll (Visuvafidtapillai) one of the graduates of the 
Batticotta Seminary, and the best Astronomer among the Tamils of Jaffna, 
commenced to write Notes and a Conmientary on Hiudd Astronomy, but 
unfortunately died before completing his work* The following table of 
distances is given by him :— 

24 A^kulams (nearly an inch) make 1 Cubit. 

4 Cubits „ 1 Dhanu. 

2 Dhanus „ 1 Dandam. 

500 Dandams „ 1 Kuppidu. 

4 Kdppidus „ I Y6jan4. 

Mr. Carroll's Notes say that an a^kulam is equal to 5-6th of an inch. 
According to this table a yojana is equal to 384,000 a^kulams, or 320,000 
inches. An English mile being 1,760 yards, or 63,360 inches. 

320 000 
qJqqq = 5-Otf English miles, a ydjana. 

V. — The distances in ydjanas as given in ancient works on Science, such 
as << Sdriyasiddhdntam," in regard to the diameter of the Earth, to the 
diameter of the Moon's disc, to the atmosphere surrounding the Earth, &c., 
being multiplied by 5, nearly correspond with the distances in miles as 
given in the JQuropean works on Astronomy. This fact is an indirect proof 
that a ydjana as used in Hindi! sciences is apparently 5 English miles. 

I think that the above authorities support my statement, that a ydjana 
(as used in Hindu Astronomy) is approximately 6 English miles, and that the 
term is used in different places as expressing longer or shorter distances. 

I beg to remain, Dear Sir, 
Yours faithfully, 

Jaffna, 2nd December, 1881. S. Mebvin. 

The Hon. Sec, Royal Asiatic Society, C. B. 

Deab Sib, — I return Mr, Mervin's letter of the 2nd instant, which you 
have been so good as to forward for my perusal with yours of yesterday. 

Mr. Mervin, in replying to mj communication of the 9th of April last, 
has furnished much valuable information on the subject of the ** ydjana^** 
The several lengths given in his letter are however so widely different one 
from another (varying as they do from 18 miles to 5 miles) that it seems 
more than ever necessary to accept with due caution astronomical calcula- 
tions based on such an uncertain measure of length as the " ydjana" 

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PROCEEDINGS. — 1881. ' XV 

Aryan Village, The, in In^a and Ceylon, by Sir J. B. Phear, 1880. 

Atita Wakya Dipaniya (Sinhalese Proverbs), by A. M. S^n&nfiyaka. 
'^From Author. 


appears to be. Even the authorities quoted by Mr. Mervin in support of 
"^ his statement do not quite agree on the subject. 

Owing to the great length of Mr. Mervin's essay, the reading of it at 
,\^ the Meeting had to be considerably abridged. Amongst the passages lefb 

- ' uuread was that to HT'hich he refers in his letter, and his sjAtement that a 

*'y6jana" is equal to 5 English miles was made verbally in reply to a 

question asked by one of the Members present. 
'St' Mr. Mervin will understand that my sole object in drawing attention to 

\U this matter was to elicit information on a doubtful point, and certainly the 

r*j best thanks of the Society are due to that gentleman for taking so much 

^% pains to supply it. 

I am. Dear Sir, Yours faithfully, 

Colombo, 18th December, 1881, J. G. Smithes. 

^ From the following additional authorities it would appear, on the whole, 

j^ safer to put the ydjana at from 7 to S miles, 

i " Bopp Q Nalus,* p. 218) says it is equal to 8 English miles 

J, j By following Fa Hian's route between places of which the identity is 

beyond question, as between Muttra and Canouje, and betweenTatua and 

^ Benares, we find the y6jan in his time to be as nearly as possible 7 English 

miles ; and this agrees much better with what we nnd the yojan to be, if 

we resolve it into its component parts : — 

8 barley corns =s 1 finger [angula]. 
f>t 24 fingers «= 1 dund. 

1,000 dund = 1 krosa. 

4 krosa = 1 y<5jan. 

This makes the y6jan equal to 6 miles, 106 yards, and 2 feet" — (jPrincep's 

!^ Indim Antiquities^ Vol ii., p. 130). 

^ I " The ydjana, according" to Mogall^na*s scale (Abhiddnappadipikd), would 

jr- ? be equal to between 1 2 and 12 J miles, and this is the length given by Childers, 

^ {Pali Diet,)] but I think it is certain that no such scale as Mogalldna 

gives was ever practically used in Ceylon, The finger joint (angula)^ span 

*^' (vidatthi), and cubit (ratana) may have been used for short lengths ; the 

usabha for longer ones ; the gdvuta and ydjana for paths or to^ts ; but I 

doubt whether any attempt was made in practice to bring these different 

measures into one scheme." — {Rhys Davids, in Numismata Orientalia, 

p. 15, 1877.) 

^•^. Mr, Rhys Davids then proceeds to give a tabulated statement of 30 

•^ passages on the length of the ydjana, disclosing an average of about eight 

^. miles to the ydjana, and sums up ; — " We have no data as yet for deter- 

J^^ mining the sense in which the word ydjana is used in the Three Pi^akas ; 

^^ in the 5th century Pili Literature it means between 7 and 8 miles" (p. 17). 

^^■^f See too Alwis' ^ Attanagaluvai^Ha,^ p,p,7,%, «* Great misapprehension 

*'l y. prevails as to the precise measure of a ydjana^ which, I believe, could not 

^*;^ have been more than 7 or 8 English miles,'* — H. C. P. B., Hon, Sec^ 

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Budugai^a Tarangam&laja (Sighalese), 1878. 

Buddha, aud his Doctrine, by O. Kistaer. — Presented. 

Catalogue, Descriptive, of Sanskrit, P4li, and Sinhalese Literarj 
Works of Ceylon, by James D'Alwis, 

Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the North- ' 
Westeni Provinces, Allahabad, 1880. 

Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in Oude, 
Allahabad, 1880. 

Catalogue of newly-discovered Sanskrit Manu- 
scripts in the Lahore Division. 

Catalogue (general) of the Library of the Bombay 
Branch of the B. A. 8. Bombay, 1863. 

Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the Lahore 

Ceylon Sketches, by Baron Eugene de Ransonnet, Vienna. 1867. 

Chulla Setti J&takaya (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1871. 

Classical Dictionary of India, and Supplement, by John Garrett, 
Madras, 1871 and 1873. 

Comparative Grammar of the Modem A'ryan Languages of Lidia 
3 Vols, by John Beames, 1872-79. 

Correspondence on Moplah Outrages in Malabar, 1 849-53. J Presented 
Do, do. 1853-59. J 

Dahamgetam&l&wa (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1880. 

Daivajfiopad^saya (P&li). 

Dasaratha J&taka, by V. Fausboll. 

Ddth&vansa, by M. Coomara Swamy, London, 1874. 

Dfnamutumdlaya (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1878, 

Dewidat Eath&wa (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1879. 

Dharmapala S§hella (Sighalese), Colombo, 1870. 

Five J&takas (P&li), by V. Fausboll, 1872. 

Folk Songs (The), of Southern India, by C. E. Glover, 1872. 

Gajabd Kath&wa (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1877. 

Girid^wi Eath&wa (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1879. 

Grammatography, by F. Ballhorn, 1861. 

Grammaire Pdlie, by J. Minayef, 1874. 

Grantha Saraya, or Classical Reader (Sighal^se), 

Gujar&thi Alphabet and Vocabulary. 

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PROCEEDINGS. — 1 88 1 . Xvii 

Guttila Eavjaya (Sinhalese). 

History of Sind, A.D., 710^1590.— Presented. 

History of Patm&wati (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1880. 

History of Selestina (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1875, 

History of India, Vol. 4, Parts 1 & 2, by T. Wheeler, 1880. 

Do. Vol. 8, by Sir H. M. Elliott, k.cb., London, 1877. 

India in Greece, by E. Pococke, London, 1852. 
Indian Antiquary, Vols. 1 — 4. 
Indragnmlava, (Sinhalese). 

Introduction ^ THistoiredu Buddhisme Indien, by E. Bumouf, 1876. 
Island Life, by A. Wallace. 
Jdtaka, 2 Vols. (Pali), by V. FausboU. 
Jatakaratnaya (Sighalese). 

Kacciyana et la Literature Grammaticale du Pdli, by M. E. Senart. 
Kalagedim&laya (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1878. 
Kdpirikath&wa Sighalese, 1880. 
K&yyas6khara (Sinhalese), 1872. 
KoYul Saka (Sinhalese). 
Kumbi Kathdwa (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1874, 
Kusa J&takaya (Siphalese), 1876. 
Labdhiwisddhanaya (Si^alese). 

Laghu Kaumudi (The), Part 11. Sanskrit Grammar with an English 
version. — Presented. 

Le Lotus de La Bonne Loi, Paris, 1852. 
Life of the Prophet Jonas (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1879. 
Loves of Camaralzaman and Badoura (Sinhalese), 1876. 
Magamanajdtakaya (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1879. 
Mah&kannajdtakaya (Sinhalese), Colombo^ 1877. 
Mahaparinibbdnasutta, by Professor R. C. Childers, London, 1878. 
Mahdsammata (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1878. 
Makh&d^wajdtakaya (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1877. 
M&rga Sankhydwa (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1873. 
Memoir on the Sawunt Waree State, Bombay, 1855. — Presented^ 
Miscellaneous Information connected with the Satara Territory, 
Bombay, 1^5*1 .-—Presented. 

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Muhurtachint&mani (Sinhalese). 

Muwaj&takaja (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1871. 

Non-Christian System, 5 vols. — Buddfiism, Hinduism, Confucianism 
and Taouism, Islam, and The Coran. 

Old Almanacs between 1705 and 1744, pamphlet. 

On Sandhi in Pali, by R. C. Childers, 1879. 

Oriental Series, 21 Vols, (Triibner's). 

Palad&waliya (Sinhalese). 

Pdli Grammar (2 parts), by F. Mason. 

Papers relating to the Aboriginal Tribes of the Central Provinces, 
by R. Temple, c.s.i,, 1866. — Presented. 

Parawisand^saya (Sinhalese). 

Patimokkha, The (P&li), by J. F. Dickson, 1875. 

P^piliniwan J&takaya ( Sighalese)^ Colombo, 1867. 

Perakumbasirita (Sinhalese). 

Piyayururatnamdlaya (Si^alese), Colombo, 1879. 

Polynesian Race (The), 2 Vols., by A. Fornander. 

Ranahansamalaya, P&rumalaya, and Pedurum&laya ( Si^lialese), 
Colombo, 1880. 

Ratiratn&lank&raya (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1873. 

Report on the Shivaroy Hills, Madras, 1862, — Presented. 

Report on the Treatment of Leprosy in the Madras Presidency 
Madras, Ibl 6.-- Presented. 

^abdarthaprakdsaya (Sinhalese), 1873. 

Saddantah411a (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1880. 

Samahans6kam&laya (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1878. 

Sawsaddam Wddaya (Sinhalese), 1873. 

Sela Lihini Sand^faya (Sinhalese). 

Sinna Muttu Kathdwa (Sinhalese), 1872. 

South Indian Palaeography, by A. C. Bumell. 

Sulab&wati Kathdwa (Sinhalese), 1877. 

Swapnamdlaya (Si^alese), Colombo, 1878. 

Tarangam&laya (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1877. 

Ten Jdtakas (Pali), by V. FausboU.* 

♦ Bound in 1 vol. with Five J^takas. 

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PROCEEDINGS. — 1 88 1 . xix 

Three Thousand Bengdli Proverbs, by J. Long, 1872, 
Translation Exercises, English-Urdu and Urdu-English, Part II., 
Calcutta, 1875. — Presented. 

Viy6garatnamdlaya (Sinhalese). 

Voyages and Travels, by Lord Valentia, 3 Vols., London, 1809. 
Welsh's Military Reminiscences, 2, Vols., London, 1830. 
Widura Jdtakaya (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1880. 
Wirahas6kamdlaya (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1870. 

It will be remembered that at the last Meetios of the Society time would 
not allow of the reading of several of the Papers which had been forwarded to 
the Hon. Secretary, and it was decided to hold a special Meeting to hear these 
Papers read. This Meeting was held at the Colombo Museum this afternoon. 

The Books lately received from Messrs Triibner & Co., were on view in 
the room. 

The first Paper was one written by Mr. C. J. R. Le Mesurier, c.c.s,, of 
Kandy, and read by the Hon. Secretary. 

The Hon. Secretary then read a letter from Mr. J. G. Smither, criticising 
Mr. S. Mervin*8 calculation of the ydjana in his Paper on Hindu Astro- 
nomy ; after which he read Mr. A. 8pence Moss's Paper on " Valentyn's 
account of Adam's Peak." Jn the introductory letter to the Paper Mr. 
Moss wrote : — 

"With regard lothe caves said to exist on Adam's Peak, I saw during 
my ascent in February last, some cave-like sheltering places, under huge 
masses of rock, which have been, and are, used by pilgrims to pass the 
night under, to cook under in wet weather, &c., but all traces of rock-hewn 
figures, or built up facade, have disappeared. 

<^ I have waded through a good deal of Valent3m ; he seems to have 
believed ahnost anything he was told, and to have confined himself to very 
superficial observation.' 

After some interesting notices of, and extracts from, Valentjm's writings, 
Mr. Moss remarks : — 

** It would be extremely interesting to know whether these caves really 
exist either on Adam's reak itself or in some of the hills of the Peak 
range. Perhaps, if some of the gentlemen connected with the Revenue 
Service, of whom several are Members of this Society, were to enquire 
from priests and headmen, some tradition would be discovered which would 
lead to their identification. The author has been informed by the old priest 
of Aluwih&r^, that there are rock-cut shrines at the base or half-way up 
Adam's Peak, that the approaches are now overgrown with jungle, and 
that no one dare make the ascent : that they lie on the west side. Possi- 
bly the priest has framed his answer in accordance with what he saw was 
the anxiously-expected answer, regardless of strict truth." 

Votes of thanks to the writers of Papers, and to the Chairman, concluded 
the Meeting. It is probable that another Meeting will be held in a month. 
—[See Ceylon Observer May, 7.] 

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Committee Meeting. 
June 14, 1881. 

Present : 
J. G. Smither, Esq., in the Chair. 
Bev. E. F, Miller, m. a. | W. Ferguson, Esq. 

H. C. P. Bell, Esq,, Honorary Secretary. 

1, — Confirmed Minutes of last Meeting. 

2. — The Honorary Secretary announced that there was a consider- 
able balance to the credit of the Society — about £140, he believed, 
on the assurance of the Honorary Treasurer — and suggested that a 
Sub-Committee be formed to select additional new Works for the 
C. A. S. Library. 

The following gentlemen were — subject to their consent — to be 
asked to act on a Book Committee :— 

C. Bruce, Esq,, o.m.g., W. Ferguson, Esq., Rev. E. F. Miller, m.a., 
J. G. Smither, Esq., and the Honorary {Secretary. — Carried. 

3.— Decided to invite C. Bruce, Esq., c.m.g., and J. 6. Ward- 
rop, Esq., to serve on the Committee of the Society, in place of 
J, B. Cull, Esq., and H. J. Mac vicar, Esq,, who have left the Island. 

4. — The Honorary Secretary announced that Papers had been 
circulated among the Reading Committee, and that at a Meeting it 
had been decided : — 

(a) That Messrs. Kiint^and Nevill be asked to favour the Society 
with resumes of their Papers to be read at a General Meeting, on 
the understanding that the Papers will be published in the C. A. S. 
Journal in extenso, 

(b) That Mr. L. Nell's Paper on ** The Sinhalese Kaldwa'' be 
read at the next General Meeting. 

5. — The Honorary Secretary announced that His Excellency the 
Lieutenant-Governor had consented to preside at the next General 
Meeting, any day between the 28 th instant and the 10th July. 
Decided to call a General Meeting for July 6th at 3*30 p. m. 

6. — The Honorary Secretary stated that a new Number of the 
Journal (Vol. V1I„ pt. ii., No. 23, 1881), was in the Press and would 
shortly be issued. He farther stated that he had been unable at 
present to carry out the wishes of the Committee for a new Catalogue, 
owing to some misunderstanding on the part of the Museum 
Librarian regarding the MS. Catalogue^ which he trusted would 
soon be set right. 

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PROCEEDINGS. — 1 881 . Xxi 

General Meeting. 
July 6, 1881. 

Present : 

His Excellency the Lieut. -Governor, Hon. J. Douglas, c.m.g., 
Vice-Patron, in the Chair. 

C, Bruce, Esq., c.m.g. 
S. M. Burrows, Esq. 
C. Dickman, Esq. 
A. C. Dixon, Esq. 
W. Ferguson, Esq. 
W. P. Ranasi^lia, Esq. 

Hon. W, H, Ravenscroft, 
J. G. Smither, Esq., 
J. L. Vanderstraaten, m.d. 
G. Wall, Esq., Vice-President, 
L, de Zojsa, Mahd-Mudaliydr. 
H. C. P. Bell, Esq,, Hon. Sec. 

1. — Read and confirmed Minutes of last Meeting (May 7th). 

2.— The following gentlemen were elected new Memhers of the 
Society : — 
Major A. Ewiog, J, G. Dean, Esq., and J. P. Lewis, Esq., c.c.s, 

L. F. Lee, Esq., c.c.s., was re-admitted a Member. 

3, — The Hon. Secretary laid on the table a list of purchases for, 
and presentations to, the Society's Library smce last Meeting. 

4.— Papers read by the Hon. Secretary ; — 

i. — On the Sinhalese Kaldway* by L. Nell, Esq. 

* Extract from Letter to the Hon, Secretary hy Dand&is Db Silva 
GuiSTABATHA, Mudaliydr. 

** Mr. Nell has embodied in bis Paper all that is known, or said, about 
the subject among the natives. The popular idea which they have of 
katdtoa (fi5(33©) is the principle of life perpetuall;^ traversing the body 
in the manner described, and having some mysterious connection with 
the Moon. It is something like the Sun which, without being stationary 
at any particular point, diffuses light and heat throughout the surrounding 
universe. Though every part of the animal body is endued with life, 
yet the centre, or nucleus, of that life is located at some point or 
other in the body, not stationary but in ceaseless motion ; and that is 
kaldwa. It is hard to say what is the difference between Amrita-kaldwa 
and Visa-kaldwu except in the simple meanings of the two words. I 
am, however, inclined to think that there are two principles acting 
together but in opposite directions, the one controlling the other, in 
the manner in which the Life principle acts; Amrita-kaldwa tending to 
invigorate and renew the system, while Visa-kaldwa tends to keep in 
check the too accelerated action of the system due to the immediate 
presence of the former. Any injury to the body must be felt more 
painfully, and when the pain is excessive must cause death, when the 
part so injured or affected is endued with greater sensibility. Wherever 
the life-principle resides, there the sensibility must be the greatest. Hence 
it is, I think, that people are cautioned against hurting that point in the 
body where the kaldwa is found on any particular day.** 

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ii. — A Huniyam Image^ by L. Nell, Esq. 

iii. — Note on the Origin of the Vfddd, by L. de Zoysa, Maha- 

A short conversation initiated by His Excellency followed the 
reading of each Paper. 

With regard to the Vedd6 (V^dd^), De Zoysa, Mahd-Mudaliyar, 
promised to submit to the Society, at an early date, as complete a 
Vocabulary of their language as he had been able to procure, though 
much of the same ground had been probably covered by Messrs. 
Bailey and Hartshorne* 

6. — A. vote of thanks to His Excellency for presiding, proposed 
by George Wall, Esq., seconded by J. G. Smither, Esq., closed the 

From B, A. S. North 
China, and Bengal. 

Additions to Library. 

All about Gold, Gems, and Pearls, in Ceylon, Colombo, 1881. 

Catalogue of Sanskrit MSS., Calcutta, 1880. — Presented. 

Cinchona Cultivation into India, Introduction of, by C. Thankbar, 

Journal of the North China Branch of' 
the R. A. S. 

Do. do. 

Do. do. 

Do. R. A. S. of Bengal 1881. 

Do. do. 

Lepidoptera of Ceylon (The), Parts 1 and 2, — Presented hy Ceylon 

Malaya}am and English Dictionary (A), by Rev. H Gundert, d.h. 

Phrase Book of Colloquial Sinhalese, Colombo, 1877. 

Proceedingsjf the B. A. S. of Bengal | ^^^ ^ g ^^^^^j 

Report on Sanskrit, MSS. — Presented, 

Sanskrit S§bda Mdlawa. — Presented. 

Selections from the Records of the Government of India. — Presented. 

Sighalese Lesson Book on Ollendorff's System, by Rev. C. Carler. 

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PROCEEDINGS. — 1881 . xxiii 

Committee Meeting. 
September 12, 1881. 

Present : 

J. G» Smither, Esq., in the Chair. 

W. Ferguson, Esq. I J, L. Vanderstraaten. m.d. 

J. G. Wardrop, Esq. | H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Hon. Sec. 

1, — Confirmed Minutes of previous Meeting. 

2. — The Honorary Secretary announced that the following Paper 
had been sent in : — 

On the * Mira Kanduri ' Festival of the Muhammadans in 
Ceylon, by A, T. Shams-ui>-di'n ; 

and that Dr. Vanderstraaten promised a Paper on '* Sericulture 
in Ceylon,^^ 

Decided to call a General Meeting at an early date, and to invite 
His Excellency to preside. 

3. — The Honorary Secretary read a letter from G. Wall, Esq., 
Vice-President, announcing his immediate departure from the Island. 
The Secretary pointed out that the Society would thus be left without 
its President (Col. A. B. Fyers, e.e.) or either of its Vice-Presidents, 
(W, R. Kynsey, Esq., p.c.m.o., and G. Wall, Esq.) 

Proposed by J. G. Smither, Esq., seconded by J. 6. Wardrop, Esq., 
that the Hon. W. H. Ravenscroft, and C. Bruce, Esq , c.m.g., be 
invited to become additional Vice-Presidents of the Society, — Car^ 
ried unanimously, 

4. — The Honorary Secretary stated that a new Catalogue was in 
the Press, but that some time must elapse before it could be issued, 
owing to the little leisure he was able to devote to the revision of 

5. — The Honorary Secretary suggested that the Society might 
from the commencement of next year ( 1 882) issue — say twice a year, 
a Supplement to its Journal, consisting of extracts from Works now 
scarce, or out of print, {e. g.y Ceylon Almanacs, 1833-35 ; Colombo 
Journal, 1882-3) relating to Ceylon. 

Decided to obtain from the local presses estimates of the cost per 
page of printing such a Supplement — the question to stand over 

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General Meeting. 
October 6, 1881. 

Present : 
The Hon. W. H. Ravenscroft, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

A. C. Dixon, Esq. 
Major A. Ewing. 
A. M. Ferguson, Esq., Jr. 
W. Ferguson, Esq. 

W. K. James, Esq. 
J. Loos, Esq., M.D. 
J. G, Smither, Esq. 
J. L. Vanderstraaten, Esq., m.d. 

H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Honorary Secretary. 

G, C. Hill, Esq., and Dr. J. Stevenson were introduced as Visitors. 

1. — Bead and confirmed Minutes of last Meeting. 

2. — The following gentlemen were elected Members of the 
Society :— 

G. D. L. Browne, Esq., O.c.s., J. Carbery, Esq., m.b.c.m., G. C 
Hill, Esq., J. P. Morgan, Esq., m.r.c.s., m.b.c.m., J, D. Plaxton, Ksq., 
M.R,c.s., L.S.A., W. G. Rockwood, Esq., m.d., H. VanCuylenberg, Esq. 

3.— The Honorary Secretary laid on the table a list of Books 
presented to, and purchased for, the Society's Library since last 

4. — The following Papers were read : — 

i. — A Synopsis of a Paper on Sericulture in Ceylon^ by 
J. L. Vanderstraaten, Esq., m.d. 
The process of rearing Silkworms was illustrated in detail. 

Mr. James then addressed the Meeting at some length, recounting 
his efforts (hitherto abortive) to introduce the Bomhyx^ commonly 
found in the Cinnamon Gardens round Colombo, to the notice of 
silk- weavers in Europe, and exhibited some of the cocoons of this 
species of moth. Some general conversation on the subject followed. 

ii. — In the absence of the authors the Honorary Secretary read 
extracts from :— 

(a.) — A Paper ** On the * Mirakanduri' Festival of the Muham- 
madans as observed in Colombo^^ by A. T. Shams-ud-di'n. 

(^.)— From Mudaliyar S. Jayatillaka's Paper " On Si?}halese 

5. — A vote of thanks to the Chairman closed the Proceedings. 

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After the Minutes of the last Meeting had been read and con6rmed 
Dr. J. L. Vanderstraaten was called upon to read his Paper on "Seri- 
culture in Ceylon/' The leafned Doctor said that he would not read his 
Paper in toto^ but would just refer to the way in which the cultivation of 
silk had been introduced luto Ceylon, and describe the specimens of eggs, 
worms, moths, &c., which he had brought with him. He informed the 
Meeting that in the time of the Portuguese and Dutch there had been a 
garden of mulberries and buildings for the rearing of silkworms on the 
bunk of the Kelani, called Orta Seda, which is the Portuguese for ' silk 
garden,' but when the British took possession they found the industry 
abandoned. His " Excellency the Governor, Sir J ames Longden, has 
introduced eggs from Japan, and it is hoped the culture will prove success- 
ful and remunerative. Father Palla, of the Roman Catholic Mission, now 
at Galle, who has the good of the people much at heart, is devoting much 
time and care to the pursuit, and has succeeded so well that he hopes 
Ceylon will in time rival Japan in the export of eggs to England. It seems 
that in Japan the moths are made to lay their eggs (which they do most 
systematically) on sheets of card-board, stamped with the Japanese mark : 
the moths resulting from one card are expected to fill 100 more cards with 
eggs;— or, in other words, one card, weighing 1 oz. and costing Rs. 10, 
yields Rs. 1 ,000 worth of eggs. K mulberries are plentiful two such sup- 
plies can be obtained in a year. Father Palla expects to obtain like results 
or even better, for he has succceeded, he believed, in rearing two batches in 
the year against the single crop of Japan. The eggs received by him 
from Japan began to hatch soon after their arrival in December ; they 
formed cocoons in a month, and the moths which came out of these cocoons 
laid eggs on a card (which was exhibited). These eggs are now hatching, 
and the larvse, cocoons, moths, &c., shown at the Meeting were from these 

Mr. James said that at the request of several of his correspondents he 
had repeatedly endeavoured to introduce the cinnamon-garden Bomhyx 
into Europe, but from various causes his efforts hitherto had not met with 
success. The moths in some instances had all come out during transit, 
some with only one wing, some with none at all, and all " shouting for elbow 
room." Then the Post Office refused to take live stock, as it introduced 
vermin to the destruction of letters. He had always sent chrysalides, as 
he had been specially requested not to send eggs : he did not know why. 
He had asked Mr. De Soyza to get his cinnamon -peelers to collect the 
eaterpillars, promising so much a caterpillar, but the latter said they could not 
(? would not) find any. He himself had once found 150 all together, not on 
the cinnamon, but on a large tree whose name he did not know : that was 
the biggest haul he had ever made. He might say that this insect was 
already acclimatized to England, for it fed freely on the leaves of apple, 
pear, and other English fruit trees. The difficulty was to get the moths 
or eggs safely transmitted. 

.After Dr. Vanderstraaten had answered the many various questions put 
to him, and Mr. W. Ferguson had stated that the mulberry grew freely 
enough in Ceylon, 

Mr. Bell (Hon. .Sec.) read extracts from a Paper " On the Muhammadan 
Festival * Mira Kanduri,^ '* by A. T. Shams -ud -din.. The most interesting 
part was a reference to the manner in which the Mdldivians were converted 

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to Islto. Mr. Bell referred to the description of the conversion given by 
the Arab traveller Ibn Hatdta, and stated that he had just come across a 
Tamil book c(mtaining another account of *the miracles performed at the 
time, which smacked of the Arabian Nights. This he had translated and 
would, with the permission of the Meeting, read. It was jnst the tale of 
the fisherman, the brass bottle, and the " Ifrit," over again, only in 
this instance the bottle containing the imprisoned Jinn is dropped into the 
sea off Point-de-Galle. 

Mr. Bell next read extracts from S. Jayatilaka Mudaliy4r's Paper * On 
Sinhalese Omens." ^j general consent those connected with crows, 
lizards, and dogs were selected, and the varitnis omens created great amuse- 
ment. A dog getting on to the roof of a house was given as the worst of 
omens, many new houses having been abandoned and allowed to go to ruin 
from this cause. 

The election of several new Members (including four Doctors) shows 
that the Society is rapidly gaining new life and vigour. 

Mr. W. Ferguson added to the interest of the Meeting by exhibiting a 
true chameleon which he had captured in the Cinnamon Gardens, and 
which he believed to be an escape, as none had ever been found in this 
part of Ceylon before. [See Ceylon Observer, October 7.] 

Additions to Library. 

Beitrage Zur Pali-Grammatik von Ernst. W. A. Kuho, Berlin, 1 875. 

Bibliotheca Orientalis, or a List of Books, Papers, Serials and Essays, 
5 Vols, 

Boletim da Sociedade De Geographia De Lisboa, 2nd series. Nos, 3 
and 4. Lisboa, 1881 « 

Bombay, Journals of the R. A. S., Vols. 1., III.,"| 

IV. (No 14, Jan. 1851), V. (Nos. 18, | ^^^ » J c 
19, 1853-4) VL, VIL, VIII. (No. 24, ^> o^^f^ ^ ^^ ^• 
1865-6), IX. (Nos. 25, 26, -1867-9), I ^^^^^V' 
X.— XIV. (1871-80.) J 

Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in the North- Western Provinces, 
Part VI., Allahabad, V^^\.— Presented. 

Catalogue of Sanskrit Manuscripts in Oude for 1880, prepared by 
Pandit DeviPrasfida, Allahabad, 1881. — Presented* 

Census Panegyric (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1881,— l^row Author, 

Ceylon Friend (The), Vols. I.— XL, 1870 to 1881. (New Edition.) 

De Mohammede Batuta Arabe Tingitano, by Kosegarten, 1818, 

Dhammapada, The, (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1879. 

Eastern Monachism, by R. Spence Hardy. Edinburgh, 1860. 

Eastern Proverbs and Emblems, by Rev. J. Long, London, 1881. 

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PROCEEDINGS. — 1881. xxvii 

Flora of British India, by J. R. Hooker, c.B., Vols. I. and II.| 
s. London, 1875. 

Greek and Latin Etymology, by J. Peile, London, 1875. 

(1 Hindu Philosophy, by John Davies, London, 1881. 

^ History of Ceylon, by William Knighton, London, 1845. 


Historical Relation of the Island of Ceylon in the £ast Indies, by 

V Robert Knox, 1681.* 

^ Indian Poetry, by E. Arnold, London, 1881. 

V International Numismata Orientalia, VoU I., London, 1878. 

Journal of the A. S. of Bengal, 1881. — From A. S. Bengal. 

Journal of the Straits Branch of the R. A. S., Nos. 2 to 7. — From 
- A. S. Straits. 

Journal of the North China Branch of the R, A. S. old series. Vol. L, 
"^ part iii., December 1859; Vol. 2, part i., September 1860; new 

''. series. Vols. L— XIV., 1864 to 1879,— From A. S. North 


Journal of the R. A. S., Great Britain and Ireland, old series. Vols. 
VL, XI., part i., XIL, XHI. 

Manual of Buddhism, by R. Spence Hardy, Edinburgh, 1880 (2nd 

^ . : Milindaprasnaya (Sinhalese). 

New Testament (Si^alese), Colombo, 1878. 
,^ Pielaf 8 Thesaurus Zeylanicus, 1678. 

Prinsep's Indian Antiquities, edited by Thomas, 2 Vols. 

Proceedings of the A. S. Bengal, Nos. 5, 6 and 7, May, June, and July, 
1881.— i^row A. S. Bengal. 

Report on Tours in the Gangetic Provinces in" 
^ 1875-76, and 1877-78, Vol. XL, Calcutta, 

^f Report of Tours in Bundelkhand and Malwa in 
1874-75, and 1876-77, by Major-General 
A. Cunningham, C.8.I., c.i.B., Vol. X., ), Presented 
Calcutta, 1880. 
Review of the Forest Administration of the Govern 
^^- ment of India, 1879-80, Simla, 1881. 

e<^^ Sacred Books of the East, Vols. IX., and X. Edited 
IV by P. Max Miiller, Oxford, 1881. 

Sdmuddrikdratnaya (Sinhalese), Colombo, 1878. 1 From Smithsonian 
Smithsonian Report, 1879. j Institute. 




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Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Yols.l 

XXI., XXIL, Washington. I From Smithsonian 

Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, Vol. j Institute. 

XXIII., Washington, 1881. J 

Tropical Agriculturist (The), 6 Nos. — i,e^ June> July, August, 
September/and October, Colombo, 1881. 

Vinajapitakam, Vol. III. — Presented by. Ceylon Government. 

Vocabulary of the English and Malay Languages, by F. A. Swetten- 
ham, Vol. I., Singapore, 1881. 

Voyages d'Ibn Batoutah, 4 Vols, and Index, Paris, 1879. 

Voyage to the Spice Islands and New Guinea, by M. P. Sennerat, 

Voyage aux Indes Orientales, 1782. 

Annual Mebting. 
December 16, 1881. 

His Excellency Sir J. B. Longden K.c.M.a., in the Chair. 

T. Berwick, Esq. 
W. J. S. Boake, Esq, 
C. Bruce, Esq., c.M.a., Vice- 
J. F. Churchill, Esq., 
J. D. M. Coghill, Esq., m.d. 
A. C. Dixon, Esq. 
Major A« Ewing. 
W. Ferguson, Esq. 
W. K. James, Esq. 

A. Jayawardhana, Mudaliy&r. 
L. F. Lee, Esq. 
F. C. Loos, Esq. 
J. Loos, Esq., M.D. 
E. F. Perera, Esq. 
Hon. P. Eama-Nathan. 
W. P. Ranasi^ha, Esq. 
Hon. W. H. Ravenscroft, Vice- 
E. Robinson, Esq. 

H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Honorary Secretary. 
Adrian Hope, Esq., p.s., was introduced to the Meeting, 

1.— The Minutes of the last Meeting (October 6th, 1881) were 
read and confirmed. 

2. — Mr. C. Bruce, o.m.g., proposed, and Mr. W. Ferguson seconded, 
the election of the following candidates as new Members : — 

Hon. J. Stoddart, and Messrs. C. E, Dunlop, c.c.s., L. J. E. 
G. Tate, o.c.8., and Adrian Hope. 

No objection being taken to the proposed candidates, they were 
declared duly elected Members of the Society. 

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PB0CBEDING8.— 1881 . XXix 

3. — The Honorary Secretary laid on the table the books presented 
tO| and purchased by, the Society since the last General Meeting. 

' 4. — The Meeting proceeded to consider the amendments in the 

Rules, approved by the Committee : — 

(a) In Rule 3 ; after clause (b) to add the following : — " Per- 
i* sons desirous of rejoining the Society may be re-admitted 

Members without entrance fee^ subject to the discretion 
i of the Managing Committee." — Agreed to. 

■^ {h) In Rule 4 ; to substitute for the words '' all appointed from 

time to time by open vote at some General Meeting/' 
the words " all appointed by open vote at the Annual 
Meeting.'' — Agreed to, 

* . (c) It was proposed to follow up the previous amendment by 

the following clause : — ** By departure from the Island 
any Office-bearer shall be held to have vacated his office.'* 

This provoked considerable discussion. 

The Hon. P. R&ma-Nathdn suggested that, in place of the above 
clause, the Rule with reference to the Legislative and Municipal 
Councils should be adopted ; viz., if any officer absents himself from 
the Colony, and continues to be absent for three months, he shall, ipso 
factoy vacate his office. 

Mr. Berwick thought it would be rather hard that any officer^ T^ho 
^ should absent himself for three months, say by taking a holiday trip 

li'»^ — for instance to the >iilgherries — should thereby vacate his office. 

It seemed to him that the proposed rule would work very prejudi- 
cially to the interests of the Society. Ultimately the following 
amendment, proposed by Mr. Berwick and seconded by Mr. L. F« 
Lee, was adopted :— 

" In the event of any Office-bearer leaving the Colojr^ for three 
(3) months, it shall be competent for the Committee to fill up the 
office at the next General Meeting." 

{d) To substitute in Rule 7, for the words *' in the first week of 
November," the words " in December." — Agreed to, 

(e) Subject to the consent of Museum Committee, to adopt the 
Rules for the C. A. S. Library, drawn up by the Honorary 
Secretary, in place of the Resolutions of the ^Museum 
Committee at present appended to the Rules of the 

'*^^ This, after considerable discussion, was withdrawn in favour of 

* ' ^ the following amendment : — 

>»" **That the Committee of the C. A. S. in conjunction with the 

Museum Committee, do consider the new Rules for the C. A. S. 


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Library drawn up by the Honorary Secretary, with a view to their 

5, — Mr. J. F. Churchill proposed and Dr. Loos seconded, that the 
following Office-bearers, nominated by the Committee, be elected for 
the ensuing year : — 

President. — C Bruce, Esq., c.m.g. 

Vice-Presidents, — The Hon. R, Cayley, Chief Justice, and the 
Hon. W. H. Ravenscroft, cc.s. 

Hon. Treasurer, — J. G. Wardrop, Esq. 

Bon. Secretary. — H. C. P. Bell, Esq., c.C.s. 

Committee. — Messrs. T. Berwick, J. Capper. A, 0. Dixon, Major 
A, Ewing, W. Ferguson, L.F. Lee, Rev. E. F. Miller, A.Murray, 
Hon. P. Rama-Nathan, J. 6. Smither, and J. L. Yanderstraaten, m.d. 
*— Carried, 

The Secretary then read the 

Annual Report. 

** Your Committee wish to revive the salutary practice, which has 
been in abeyance for a decade, of submitting to the Society annually 
a brief Report, giving a resumi of the year's work, and intended to 
supplement the usual Address of the President. 

" As in 1871, when the last Report was issued, so now your Com- 
mittee is able to congratulate the Society on ^ the new era which has 
dawned upon it." It is highly satisfactory to believe that the efforts 
made to resuscitate the ** dry bones*' from the apparently hopeless 
sleep of at least ^\q years (1874-1879) have met with success, and 
that the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society is once more in 
a fair way to re-assume the creditable position it formerly held among 
earned sistej* Societies. 

** That a Society of this nature should have to pass through vicissi- 
tudes of fortune, is but to be expected, and the life history of the 
Ceylon Asiatic Society, as our past records disclose, has been marked 
by such alternations. The causes are easily traceable : — frequent 
changes of ^ecreta^ies — departure from Colombo, or the Island, of 
Members able and willing to help forward the Society's interests— 
the irregular issue of Journals — and, perhaps above all, the long inter- 
vals which have been allowed to lapse between Meetings. It is, 
therefore, the more encouraging to note that Phoenix-like, the Society 
has ever risen from its ashes and developed renewed vigour for 
another lease of life. 

** Members. — The Society has received during the year an accession 
to its numbers of 30 ordinary Members, of whom nine have rejoined. 
Two Members have left Ceylon and relinquished their connection 

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PROCEEDINGS.— 1 88 1 . XXxi 

with the Society. In May the Lieutenant- Governor, the Hon. J. 
Douglas^ C.M.G.5 consented to join the Society and become its Vice- 
Patron, There are now on the list 1 1 Life Members, 4 Honorary 
Members, and 94 ordinary Members, or 109 in all. 1 hese figures 
cannot but be satisfactory as showing that the Society is steadily 
regaining the attention of intelligent members of the community 
interested in the objects which it sets before it. Cordial relations 
have been re-established with many corresponding Societies, and the 
awakening once more to active life of the Ceylon Asiatic Society is 
welcomed on all sides. 

^* Meetings, — During the year four General Meetings have been 
held, your Committee has met four times, and the Book and Reading 
Committee as occasion required. 

" Papers, — There has been no lack of Papers sent in to the Hon. 

^ Secretary, and it is believed that these will not suffer by comparison 

with those of past years generally. The coming year promises to 

witness the publication of further valuable and interesting Papers of 

' equal, if not higher merit. 

** Journals, — ^Inthe 10 years between 1871 and 1880 inclusive, the 
^-^ Society issued only seven Numbers of its Journal (1870-71, 1871-72 

'^ with Proceedings, 1873 pt. i., 1874 pt. i., 1879, 1880, 2 pts.), and, in 

^ separate pamphlet form, Proceedings 1870-71 and 1873-74. 

^ At the outset of the present year matters stood as follow : — 

(a) Proceedings of the Society had not been published for five 

(b) Journals had been issued so irregularly that not only had 
many fallen out of print, but the Library of the Society 
itself was without a single copy of several Numbers, nor 
was it known how many Journals had been published 
since the institution of the Society. 

** Steps were at once taken by your Committee to remedy these defects. 
Government liberally acceded to a request for permission to have the 
back Numbers of the Society's Journals, the stock of which had 
become exhausted, reprinted at the Government Press, and a private 
member (Mr. D.W. Ferguson) generously lent his copies — the only 
complete set available — for the purpose. The Numbers out of print 
^5 are, 1848-49, 1849-50, 1853 No. 1, 1856-58 2 pts., 1858-59,1860-61. 
^^ 1870-71. Pressure of other business prevented the work of reprint- 

^;v iiig progressing as fast as had been anticipated, and it is a question 
^'^ whether it may not be desirable to entrust a portion of the Journals 
^' to be reprinted to some local press. The Journal for 1853, No. 1^ 
(now classed as No. 6, 1853) is, however, on the eve of completion, 
i^ and another Number is well advanced, 


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** To put an end to the confiision as to past Journals, your Committee 
desired the Honorary Secretary to draw up an authoritative division 
into Volumes, numbering them consecutively. A " Summary of the 
Ceylon Asiatic Society's Journals, 1845-1880," giving the headings 
of the several Papers, was accordingly issued, by which the 22 Num-^ 
bers were divided into six Volumes. It is hoped this summary of 
contents may l>e of use (provisionally at least), and your Committee 
is glad to announce that a Member of the Society (Major A. Ewing) 
has consented to undertake the preparation of an Index to Volumes 
I to VI. 

"The * Summary' was preceded by ^Proceedings, 1875-80,' and 
has been followed by Journal, Vol. VII., pt. i., No. 23, 1881. A new 
Number is in the Press. 

** Library, — At the commencement of the year it was» brought to 
the notice of the Committee that the state of the Books, &c., in the 
Society's Library was such as to call for immediate action. It was 
found that from neglect, and carelessness, not only had a large propor- 
tion of the Books, &c., remained unbound for many years, or been 
bound up irregularly, but very many had become so dilapidated as 
to necessitate their being rebound without delay, and that there 
were large gaps in series of the Transactions of various Societies, 
and in other Periodicals, one or two volumes missing from many 
sets — besides several valuable works, which it is well known 
were formerly in the Library and have unaccountably disappeared. 
Efforts have been made during the year to fill these gaps, as far as 
possible, and, thanks to the generosity of other Societies, back Num- 
bers of their Transactions have been received to fill the places of those 
missing. Of course the Society has been put to considerable expense 
by having to repurchase important works, which it once possessed, at 
an enhanced price. Thus, to give but one instance — in 1867, Prin- 
cep's invaluable ** History of Indian Antiquities," edited by Thomas, 
was purchased for £1 5«. It disappeared, and the Society had this 
year to replace it at a cost of £8 8«. I 

'* Some excuse for this discreditable state of things may be found in 
the fact of the necessary confusion occurring at the time of the trans- 
fer to the Museum building, to the want of a paid Librarian, and the 
absence of a Catalogue of the Library. The last Catalogue (on the 
alphabetical system) was issued in 1870, and has long been out of 
print. After the transfer of the books to the Museum the Library 
became virtually useless to all except a few readers, whose time 
fortunately allowed them to attend the Museum. By Eesolutions 
of the Museum Committee, the rule by which the books could not be 
taken out of the Museum was relaxed as regards the Society's 
Library. The want of a new Catalogue was, however, keenly felt, 
and your Committee learns with satisfaction that one is now in the 

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PROCEEDINGS.— 1 88 1 . XXXiu 

Press, and will be put into the hands of Members as soon as the 
Honorary Secretary can single-handed revise the proofs. 

^ At their last Meeting, the Committee resolved to ask Government 
to allow the present Attendant at the Museum to be employed as paid 
Librarian of the Society upon an increase to his salary of £6 a year 
payable by the Society. This boon Government has granted. New 
JKules for the Library (adopted almost verbcUim from those of the 
E. A. S. Bengal, June, 1878) have been submitted to the Museum 
Committee, and it is expected will obtain their sanction. 

^' Regarding additions to the Library made during the year, the 
•^ Committee need do no more than refer to the lists which follow the 

■ ' Proceedings of each General Meeting in proof of the substantial 

gain thus acquired by the Society. Many valuable presentations 
n have been made, and a sum of over £100 spent on the purchase of 

^. works. The improvement in the appearance of the Books on the 

^ 1 shelves will be apparent, and that the sum expended on book-binding 

.«; has been properly employed. Some 200 Volumes in all have been 

^/ bound, or rebound, during the year. With the new Catalogue and 

.^ explicit Rules in the hands of Members, the Library cannot fail to 

^^ be more generally used than has been the case hitherto. 

, N " Money, — The Balance sheet of the year's expenditure is appended. 
::• As was to be expected, the disbursements have been exceptionally 
i-j heavy, but the Society's annual revenue, coupled with the large 
\p amount to its credit at the close of last year, has enabled the Com- 
mit mittee to spend freely wherever the interests of the Society seemed 
i5 to require. In spite of all there is remaining a balance to the credit 
^i of the Society of Rs. 614'89, 

td^ "The Committee cannot close their report without a special expres- 

>:^ sion of their regret that Mr. A. Murray finds that his other duties 

y- will not allow him to continue as Honorary Treasurer. When Mr. 

:y' Murray first assumed duties in 1877, the Society was in a state of 

^/ chaos, and it is greatly due to his energy and zeal that a collapse 
was then prevented. The subscriptions had not been called in for 

'^i some years, and the accounts of the Society were apparently in hope- 

;^: less confusion. Mr. Murray grappled with the difficulty so effectually 

^i» as to be able to continue to show a clean balance-sheet yearly." 

'<: ^ C. Bruce Esq., c.m.g., moved, and the Honorary Secretary second - 

i^' ed, the adoption of the Report.— Cam>cf nem. com. 

v-^^ Major Ewing then moved, and W. Ferguson, Esq., seconded, a 

*^ cordial vote of thanks to the retiring Honorary Treasurer, Mr. 

B^ Murray. — Carried unanimously * 

^' ^ C. Bruce, Esq., cm.g., having returned thanks for the honor done 

' ' t him, in electing him President of this Society for the ensuing year, 

^" proceeded to read his Address : — 

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Presidbnt's Address. 

The Hules of our Society set forth that its design is to institute 
and promote enquiries into the History, Religion, Literature, Arts and 
Social Condition of the present and former inhabitants of the Island, 
with its Greology and Mineralogy, its Climate and Meteorology, its 
Botany and Zoology. It will be convenient for me to adhere to this 
order in a brief survey of the work accomplished, or undertaken, during 
the year, either by Members of our Society or by others interested in 
our design. 


Since our last Meeting, Dr. £. MtLUer's Archaeological labours 
in Ceylon have come to an end. Translations of eleven ancient 
inscriptions from the Anurfidhapura and Hambantota districts, now 
in the Museum, have recently been published as a Sessional Paper, 
and the Society now looks forward with interest to his final Report 
on the collective results of the archseological work done by Dr. 
Goldschmidt and himself. When Dr. M tiller left the colony, three 
months' leave was given to him for the preparation of this Report, 
which we may therefore shortly expect. 

Oriental scholars interested in Ceylon will regret to hear that 
Mah6-Mudaliyar de Zoysa's translation of the Mah&wa^so has been 
for some time delayed by his failing health and loss of sight, and is 
now temporarily suspended, in order that he may complete the Cata- 
logue of Sanskrit MSS. in the Temple Libraries, on which he has 
been long engaged. In the course of his official visits to the Temple 
Libraries, the Mah&-Mudaliy&r has had many opportunities of collect- 
ing information about the V^ddds, and the results of these incid^atal 
studies he is now preparing to contribute to our Journal. Om the 
question of the origin of the Y^ddfts, he has called attention to an 
important passage in the Mahftwa^so, the meaning of which he 
believes to be misinterpreted in Tumour's translation. The Mah&- 
wapso narrates the adventures and marriage of Vijayo — who in B. C. 
543 landed near the mouth of the Mi-oya, on the site of the present 
Putta}am, and founded the historical dynasty of Ceylon — ^with an 
aboriginal princess named Kuv^ni, by whom he had a son named 
Jivahatto and a daughter named Disdla, Kuv6ni and her children, 
having been banished by Vijayo on his determining to marry a 
daughter of the South Indian King Paijidavo of Madura, tookreftige 
in &e country near the Samantakdfa mountain (Adam's Peak) 
where Jivahatto married his sister and had a numerous family, of 
whom, if the interpretation given to the passage by the Mahd- 
Mudaliydr is correct, the Vfdd&s are the descendants. In the course 
of his official duties, the Mah&-Mudaliy&r has ascertained the 
existence of a tradition, apparently independent of the Mah&- 
wapso, that the Vfdd&s were originally settled in the Sahara- 

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gamuwa district. To his note contributed to our Journal on 
Siis subject he has added a few specimens of Yedda songs and 
cbarniSy and he has nearly ready for publication a Vocabulary of the 
Y^dd4 language. It is desirable that the primitive ekments of the 
language of this singular people should be established without delay. 
It is stated that they now communicate more freely with their neigh- 
bours, and, if this is the case, their original vocabulary is likely soon 
to be much disguised by the introduction of foreign words and forms. 
Another member of our Society, Mr. C. J. R, Le Mesurier, c.c.s., has 
also been collecting notes on the subject of the Veddds, which h^ 
hopes to complete during a projected shooting- excursion in the Vfdd& 

Two Vedda skulls were sent last year to Professor Virchow, of 
Berlin, to be examined by that eminent anthropologist. They have 
^: recently been returned to the Museum, but we have not yet ascer- 
** tained the results of Professor Virchow's examination.* Before 
^' making his report, he has asked for further information as to the 
T number of V§dd4s still in existence, as to their colour, the shape of 
-' their features, and their size compared with Tamils and Sinhalese. 
He has also asked for a series of photographs illustrative of good 
^ types of the race. A few photographs have already been taken, and 
i^ copies of them are in the Museum. 

^^ Mr. H. Nevill, c.c.s., has contributed to our Journal an erudite essay 

*■ in identification of Kalah, the emporium in Ceylon, where the products 

^l of Eastern Asia were gathered for the markets of the West. Sir 

-;' Emerson Tennent believed that the ancient centre of the kingdom of 

''" Kalah was the modem port of Galle, but Mr. Nevill has endeavoured 

-'^ to show that the emporium of Taprobane or Serendib, from B.C. 500 

■) until a comparatively recent time, was not Galle, but the coast from 

^' Mannar to the D§duru-oya. He believes that the emporium was not 

-^ limited to one spot, but consisted of a cluster of- petty ports, while 

^, the site of Tammanna Nuwara was the capital of the ruler who 

'' governed under the Sultans of Zabedj. The identification of a com- 

r mercial centre naturally suggests an enquiry into the circumstances 

f^ and nationality of the people by whom it was maintained, and has 

* led Mr. Nevill to an extensive study of the legendary and historical 

> narratives connected with the early colonization of the Island. The 

^ results of these studies have brought him to the conclusion that the 

:^ term Nagas signifies historically an aboriginal tribe of snake-wor- 

?» shippers whose descendants form, with an infusion of A'ryan blood, the 

:>' bulk of our Sinhalese population, while the term Yakkhos signifies 

1^ historically the ancestors of the Tamils of the Jafiha Wanni, the 

"^ Eastern Province, and the Puttalam district, who held the emporium 

^ * Professor Virchow's essay, Ueher die Weddas von Ceylon und ihre 

:^ JBeziehungen zu den Nachbarstdmmen has since been received. 

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of trade as a colony of the empire of Zabedj, in opposition to the 
Nagas, who held the rest of the Island. Mr. Nevill is now engaged 
on some essajs on the religions and races of Southern India, which 
he hopes to put in circulation among literary Societies early next year. 

Mr. Albert Gray has offered us, as a contribution to our know- 
ledge of a later period of Ceylon history, a translation from the 
French of Defr^mery and Sanguinetti of so much of the Travels of 
Ibn BatTita (about A. D. 1344) as relates to Ceylon and the Mildive 
Islands. This we propose to publish in the first Number of our 
Journal for 1882, and in order to render it more valuable by the 
accurate identification of the places mentioned in the text we are 
sending proof-sheets of the Ceylon portion to Members of the Society, 
and others from whom we hope to receive assistance, with a request 
that their suggestions and views may be communicated to us. 

Mr. Donald Ferguson is preparing for our Society a translation of 
an Essay, " Origem do Reino dos Leoes e do Nome de Ceylao," by 
J. de Vasconcellos Abreu. 

Our excellent Secretary is collecting information, letters, &c., 
touching the English and French captives in Kandy in the 17 th 

Before passing to another branch of the investigations of the 
Society, I would invite attention to the materials for historical 
research contained in the Government Record Office. Col. Fyers 
pointed out last year that the Dutch Records must contain valuable 
information, bearing on the past history and administration not only 
of this Island but also of the various settlements and marts mostly 
established by the Dutch. It is worth the consideration of the Com- 
mittee whether some portion of our funds might be annually devoted 
to the preparation of a summary of the Colonial Office Records as 
suggested by Col. Fyers. There is the more reason to think seriously 
of this proposal, as before long many of the older Dutch Records are 
likely to succumb to age, climate, or insects. 


The Asiatic and Oriental Societies of Europe and their branches in 
the East are not in the accepted sense of the term ^Religious 
Societies," but a very large share of their enterprise has always 
been devoted to the investigation of the religion of the East In 
these investigations Christian Missionaries have taken an impor- 
tant part, and the earlier Journals of our Society owe much of their 
value to the contributions of the Rev. D. J, Gogerly, the Rev. Spence 
Hardy, and others. In the new revival of our Society we shall be 
glad to receive the assistance of their successors and disciples. In 
estimating the extent and depth of Mission work in the East, even 
those who are least iacliiied to look with partiality on Missioa 

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J PROCEEDINGS. — 1 881 . XXXVil 

agencies must in candour admit that, while the Missionaries of various 
* denominations are labouring to translate the Christian scriptures into 

all the languages of the world, in order to bring the doctrines of the 
'* Christian faith within the comprehension of peoples of every tongue» 

^ ' they avail themselves also of the linguistic abilities thus acquired in 

doing for the adherents of other religious systems what they have 
-.: been slow to do for themselves. By means* of translating, and still 

:-; more by critical editions of the original text of the ancient Books 

-Ji which claim to be the inspired repositories of their several creeds, 
:■' Christian scholars have now made it possible for the adherents of the 

h: four chief antagonistic systems prevalent in the world — Christianity, 

■rj Brdhmanism, Buddhism, and Isldm — to study each other's dogmas ; 
vj and indeed their own, in the books held sacred by each {^Modern 

"i! India, Monier William, p. 204.) 

:.^ In view of the enthusiastic interest with which Buddhistic studies 

^ have lately been prosecuted in Europe, I may be allowed to draw 

r; attention to two valuable repositories of Buddhist works, not widely 

known in Ceylon, and probably unknown altogether to European 

scbolars. I refer to the Vidy6daya College Library, and the Library 

■'[ of the priest Subhuti Terunn&nse at Waskaduwa. The former 

"* ' Library was founded by the high priest Sumangala, Principal of the 

College, and opened abouf two years ago. It contains Pali, Sanskrit 

■t and English works. The Pali works are all in manuscript, and 

ri- consist of the three Pitakas and grammatical writings. They are all 

J: arranged and classified. Most of the Sanskrit works are in print. 

^:'* The Sinhalese works include both MSS. and printed books. The 

i; English books are confined chiefiy to works on Buddhism and the 

^:' History of India. The Library is intended for public use without 

;■; payment of any subscription. At present it is almost exclusively 

1% used by the students of the College. As a large collection is expected 

3> shortly to be added to the Library, it would be of advantage that the 

if. preparation of a catalogue should be commenced without delay. The 

l^;. Waskaduwa Library is the property of Subhiiti Terunndnse. It 

contains a large collection of Buddhist doctrinal works in the P&li 

language in Burmese characters, together with a good selection of 

Sanskrit and Sinhalese works. I may here add that the learned 

^ master of this Library has prepared a revised edition of the Pdli dic- 

^. tionary — Abhidhdnappadipikd — which is now being printed at the 

^t cost of Government. He has been good enough to send me a 

^ Catalogue of the works in his Library, which will be of service for 

the P41i Text Society, which has been started on the model of the 

Early English Text Society in order to render accessible to students 

^ i the hitherto unedited stores of early Buddhist Literature. The pros- 

,.> pectus of the Society was published in the first part of our Journal 

!^ for the present year, and a further statement of the position and 

^ intention of the Society will be appended to our next issue. 


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Blr. Donald Ferguson has in hand for onr Society the text and a 
translation of ** Jinacarita^" a life of Buddha in P41i verse. 

A private Society of Buddhists has lately published, at the Satthd- 
loka Press in Colombo, the *' Sdsanava^sa Dipo : a History of the 
Buddhist Church in P&li verse, compiled from Buddhist scriptures, 
commentaries and histories, by A'chdriya Yimalasdra Thera, of the 
Ambagahapitiya Vih&r^.*' The author and publishers of this work 
state that, having published it *' with the view of promoting the 
interests of religion," they "have decided not to sell it, but to present 
free copies to those whom they may consider deserving." I have no 
doubt that they will consent to supply copies to learned Societies and 
scholars interested in the subject with which it deals. 

The Society will learn with pleasure that Professor M. M. Kiinte, 
who in the year 1879 gave us an interesting lecture in this room on 
the Yedic and Buddhistic politics, as the two influences which formed 
the present Brahmanic policy of India, has forwarded to us a Paper 
on Nirvdna, in its connection with the social and religious develop- 
ments traced in his lecture. Professor Kiinte's paper will be printed 
in our Journal next year, and I will not now anticipate its publication. 

A short account of the principal religious ceremonies observed by 
the Kandyans, by Mr. C. J. E. Le Mesuri^r, was read at our May 
meeting. In addition to public ceremonies and processional festivals, 
it gives an interesting account of ceremonies connected with private 
life and personal religion, including Pirit^ a ceremony to ward off 
evil, performed on the occasion of some epidemic or a serious illness, 
which is very minutely described ; Godana Mangalyaya ceremony, 
performed for the very aged or those who are about to die ; Mataha 
Dana, the ceremony of conferring merit on the dead ; and Awa 
Mangalyaya, the ceremony in which offerings are made by the 
friends of a deceased person to the priests " in order that they may 
obtain merit in the name of the deceased." 

We are printing a short paper by Mr, A. T. Shams-ud-din on the 
Mira Kanduri festival of the Mubammadans, annually held at the 
Marad&na mosque in honor of Mira Saibu — a patron saint of 
Musulm&n ship captains and sailors. Mr. H. C. P. Bell has given 
a particular interest to thid contribution by a note on the legend 
which attributes to the miraculous intervention of this saint in the 
Maldives, by destroying a Jinn, to which the sacrifice of a girl had 
to be annually made, the conversion of the Maldive people to Isl&m. 

At the International Congress of Orientalists, held in Berlin in 
September last. Professor Monier Williams read a paper on the place 
which the Big-veda occupies in the Sandyhd, or daily morning and 
evening prayers, of the Uind6s. I allude to this subject here, because 
it would be interesting for European scholars to know how fsn the 
Rig-veda, which serves as a bond of religious communion between 

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PROCEEDINGS. — 1 881 . XXxix 

millions of Indo-A'ryans spread over the vast area of India, distinct 
from each other in separate caste and communities, and owning 
subjection to divers laws and customs, forms a constituent part of the 
religious ceremonial of Ceylon Hindus. In the hope that the enquiry 
may engage the attention of Members or others interested in the design 
of our Society, I subjoin an abstract of Prof. William's paper : — 

** The Hindu worshipper, before offering his first morning prayer, 
is required to bring body and mind into a proper condition of purity 
and attention. He must bathe, apply ashes to his limbs and fore- 
head, bind up his hair, sip pure water thrice from some sacred stream, 
inhale pure air into his lungs and retain it for some time in his chest 
by suppressing his breatl^. These preliminary acts must be com- 
pleted before the sun rises. Then, turning towards the eastern sky, 
he utters his first morning prayer in Sanskrit —the celebrated Gayatiri 
prayer from Rig-veda iii., 62, 10 — which like the Lord's Prayer 
among Christians, and like the Fdtihah or first chapter of the Kuran 
among M uhammadans, must always among Hindus take precedence 
of all other forms of supplication. It may be thus translated : — 
* Let me meditate on the excellent glory of the divine vivifying sun. 
May he enlighten my understanding.' The worshipper next performs 
a kind of self-baptism by pouring water over his own head, at the same 
time reciting the hymn Rig-veda x., 9 : — * O, waters, give fine health ; 
bestow upon me vigour and strength,' etc. After that comes the 
repetition of the Agha-marshanaor * guilt- extinguishing' hymn (Rig- 
veda, X., } 90), supposed to have an all-powerful effect in removing 
sin and containing a summary of the course of creation : — * From 
glowing heat sprang all existing things ; yea, all the order of this 
universe, etc' The worshipper then renders homage to the rising 
sun by throwing water towards that luminary three times, each time 
repeating the Gayatiri prayer (Rig-veda, iii., 62, 10 : as before), 
after which he repeats a prayer to the eternal mother Aditi, from 
Rig-veda, v., 69, 3 : — * I invoke the divine Aditi at early dawn,' etc, 
I'he worshipper now sits down on the ground, repeating at the same 
time a prayer to the Earth : — ' Goddess, support me, purify my seat 
on the bare ground.' This is followed by some remarkable gesticu- 
lations. To a spectator it appears as if the worshipper were crossing 
himself, but he is really touching various parts of his own body — 
such as eyes, ears, and breast and head — with his fingers, as an act 
of homage to those organs, supposed to be animated by the Divine 
presence. After this the sacred Gayatiri prayer ought to be again 
repeated, and this time muttered 108 times by help of a rosary of 
108 beads. " 

" The worshipper now rises, and, standing erect with his face 
towards the sun, recites wliat is called the Mitra hymn to the sun 
(from Rig-veda, iii., 59) : — *• Mitra calls men to activity, sustains the 
earth and sky, and beholds all creatures with unwinking eye,' etc. 

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This 18 followed by a prayer to the Dawn goddesses (from Rig-veda, 
iv. 51, 11,: — * Hail, brilliant Dawn: Daughters of Heaven,' etc. 
The service closes with adoration of the ten quarters of the sky and 
a recitation of the family pedigree. In the mid-day service, other 
hymns of the "Rig-veda are substituted, such as i., 35, 2 ; iv., 40, 5, 
and that called Saura-suk a (Rig-veda, i., 50,') In the evening ser- 
vice the prayers to the sun on standing erect is Rig-veda, i., 25. 
All three services conclude with the following prayer : — * May the 
one supreme Lord of the Universe be pleased with this my devotion.' " 

In connection with this subject, I must mention that the great 
Petersburg Lexicon of Bohtlingk and Roth, the existence of which 
gives by itself a new character to all investigations of the Sanskrit 
language, and pre-eminently to the study of the Vedic texts, has 
recently been added to the Museum Library. 

Inseparable from the subject of popular religion is the subject of 
popular superstition, which has formed the topic of three papers read 
during the year. Mr. Louis Nell, at one of our meetings, exhibited 
a Huniyam charm, of which a photograph will be published in our 
Journal. These Huniyam charms represent a Sinhalese custom in 
accordance with the widely-extended superstitious device of inflict- 
ing disease or disaster on a person's enemies through the potency of 
a rude eidolo7i or representation of the intended victim. Mr. Nell's 
note in explanation of this charm derives particular interest from 
the statement of his belief, founded on long residence among the 
native Sinhalese, and careful observation of their superstitious prac- 
tices and expressions of superstitious ideas, that Buddhism, up to the 
time of a quite recent reform movement, has not existed at aU as a 
religion among the lower castes of the Sinhalese people, whose 
priests have been the Vakadurds or Kattddiyds, belonging to the 
tom-tom-beater and oliya castes ; and Kapurdllas and Pattinis^ 
belonging to all castes. The following passage in Mr. Nell's note 
seems to me to suggest considerations of general importance for a 
right apprehension of the real extent and influence of Buddhism, and 
of quite paramount importance as an element in determining the 
direction of mission enterprise : — 

" The tom-tom beaters, the toddy-drawers, and the jaggery-makers 
have only lately attempted to build Buddhist temples of their own. 
The Amarapura sect of Buddhists is a modern importation to satisfy 
the social ambition of the Mahabaddd people, candidates of whose 
community for priestly ordination would have been refused by the 
previously existing Siamese sect. The latter, though heterodox in 
this exclusiveness, had confined the rite of ordination to pupils drawn 
from the Goiyagama caste. The liberal and orthodox principle of 
the Amarapura sect extended in time from the Mahabaddi and 
Kardwi to the lower castes, and, as an instance, the jaggery people 

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PROCEEDINGS. — 1 88 1 . xli 

(Hakuru) near Galle have built a temple, and their priests in yellow 
robes and with begging bowls in their hands are now seen obtaining 
the food of mendicants from the hands of their own friends. The 
profound meditative air of the young mendicants and the evident 
pride with which their friends give alms and honor the new priest- 
hood are very striking. This is quite a reform, and Buddhism, 
perhaps, for the first time is subverting what other missions have 
not hitherto observed as a likely field of conversion." 

Mr. Nell has also favored us with a paper on the Sinhalese obser- 
vance of the Kaldwa, which he interprets to be **a moving principle 
and local predisposition following a course in the human body in 
relation to the course of the moon in her increase and decrease." The 
fact that Kaldwa tables are published by the Lakrivikirana Press 
and in native vernacular almanacs indicates a belief of wide-spread 
recognition, but Mah^-iMudaliyar De Zoysa found the explanations 
of two of the best Vedardlas inconsistent and contradictory. I sup- 
pose that Kaldwa may be interpreted generally as the influence of 
the phases of the moon on the organization or temperament of the 
human body. 

An elaborate paper on ** Omens" by Mudaliyar S. Jayatilaka of 
Kurun^gala wasread before the Society in October, showing how large 
an influence they exercise on the daily concerns of Sinhalese life. 
The omens derived from the appearance and cry of lizards in parti- 
cular are dealt with in an exhaustive manner, account being taken 
of their position relative to the person interested^ with reference to 
every day in the week. 

Mahd-Mudaliydr De Zoysa is preparing for publication a translation 
of a sermon of Buddha on Omens. 

This is really a subject of practical importance. It has been 
asserted that the impossibility of understanding the motives of the 
people in India is partly due to the control exercised over them by 
superstitious influences* The remark, perhaps, applies with equal 
truth to the people of Ceylon. 


In the domain of Literature I desire, in the first place, to invite 
attention to the labours of Mr. William Gunatilaka who has 
been engaged for some time on three important works ; the Bdldva* 
bodhana of Kasyapa ; a new edition of Pdnin€s Grammar ; and a 
MS. of the Meghaduta of Kdlidasa. The Bdldvabodhana is a 
reproduction of the grammar of Chandra by a Buddhist priest named 
Xdsyapa who lived in Ceylon about seven centuries ago. Incidental 
allusions to Chandra show him to have been the founder of one of 
the principal schools of Sanskrit grammarians, but his grammar has 
been supposed hitherto to exist only in a Thibetan version. It was 

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based on the model and intended as an improvement on Pinini's 
Atktddhydyi, from which it appears to differ by the artificial memoria 
teckniciiy which constitutes the language of Sanskrit grammarians, 
being in certain instances even more ingeniously and comprehensiyely 
constructed than the sutras of F&nini. Provision is thus made for 
grammatical combinations which it taxed the utmost subtlety of 
Panini's commentators to include in the interpretation of his suiras. 
The MS. of the Bal&vabodhana,* first discovered by Mr. Gunatilaka, 
belongs to the Lank4tilaka Vihar6 near Kandy. Two copies have 
since been found, one belonging to the Suduhumpola Vihar^, and the 
other to the Oriental Library of the Vidy6daya College, already 
alluded to. These copies are all in Sinhalese characters, but Mr. Guna- 
tilaka has transcribe the whole work in Devanagari character, and 
the text collected from the three copies, together with a short preface 
and explanatory notes is now only withheld from the press by the 
heavy expenditure involved in its issue. Mr, Gui^atilaka is no doubt 
justified in his opinion that the publication of this work would be of 
great service to Oriental schools in throwing new light upon questions 
relative to the historical connection of the different systems of 
Sanskrit Grammar and upon other problems now engaging attention. 

The same difficulty interferes with the publication of a work, under- 
taken by Mr. Gunatilaka, of at least equal importance — an edition of 
Panini which will enable students acquainted with the language of 
Sanskrit general literature to study Panini's sutras without the aid 
of a teacher. The text, translation, and notes will not be separately 
printed, but the translation of each sutra will be given immediately 
under its Devanagari text, and the notes immediately under the 
translation in smaller type. Vdrttikds, ParibhdshdSy Ishtis and 
Kdrikas, whenever they occur wUl be quoted, translated, and ex- 
plained. Alphabetical lists of the sutras and gar^as will be apf^nded, 
as well as an alphabetical glossary of terms with reference to the 
sutras in which they occur. The work may fairly be called ex- 
haustive, for the specimen which Mr. Guniatilaka has been good 
enough to send me in MS. indicates that hardly any question can 
suggest itself to the student of Pauini in his necessarily laborious 
study which has not been anticipated and answered. In the ex- 
planation of each word, every step taken is supported by authority, 
in the same manner as a problem or theorem of Euclid, Mr. 
Gunatilaka's present intention is to issue as a specimen a part of the 
work consisting of two printed octavo sheets, and to circulate it 
among Oriental scholars in the hope that a sufficient number of 

* A detailed account of the work, which is stated to bear the same 
relation, as regards matter and arrangement, to Chandra*8 Grammar as the 
Laghukaumndi does to that of Panini, was published in the Academy of 
January 24th and 3l8t, IdSO. 

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PR0CKBDING8. — 188h xliii. 

subscriber's may be found to justify the publication. I trust that 
our Society may be able to assist Mr. Gu^atilaka, both directly and 
indirectly, in bringing to issue both of these learned and laborious 
works, and with this view I propose to bring the subject before the 

The importance of these works and the labour they have involved 
have induced Mr. Gunatilaka to entrust to another hand the pre- 
paration of a new edition of the Meghaduta of Kalidasa from a MS. 
discovered by him in the Kandy Oriental Library. The text of the 
poem in this MS., written in Sinhalese characlers, appears to differ 
little from the Devanagari versions published by Gildemeister and 
others, but the MS. derives its value from a short appropriate 
introduction, a literal and correct Sinhalese translation, and ex- 
planatory notes in Sinhalese. In connection with what I have 
already said, it is especially interesting to note that the Sinhalese 
commentator in this version refers to ChandFa in the same way a» 
the conmientary of Mallin&tha supports his views by reference to 
Panini. The date of this MS,, corresponding to the year 1717 of 
the Christian era, shows that Sanskrit was studied in Ceylon in the 
classical period of Sinhalese literature equally with Pali and EJu^ 
It will be published, with the assistance of Mr. Gui^atilaka, by Mr. 
Panabokka, late President of Dumbara Gansabh&wa. 

I understand that Pandit Gui^as6kara is engaged upon a Sinhalese 
translation of Meghaduta from another version. 

A Member of our Society, Mr. W. P. Ra^asiyha, is preparing a 
Paper on the Sinhalese language, which we hope to include in an 
early Number of our JournaL 

Perhaps the greatest literary need felt in Ceylon is the want of a 
good Sinhalese and English Dictionary, a want of which I am very 
often reminded in my official capacity. A mixed Committee of 
Englishmen and Sighalese, to prepare a dictionary on the basis of 
Clough's work, seems to be the agency most likely to lead to good 

I must include under the general head of literature a paper on 
Hindu astronomy published in our journal by Mr. S. Mervin, a 
Tamil gentleman of Jaffna. The writer justly points out that 
Hind6 astronomy is a very different thing from Hindd mythology, 
though many Europeans seem to think that the mythology and the 
astronomy of the Hindus are identical. This confusion undoubtedly 
pervades a .brilliant passage in Lord Macaulay's writings, often 
quoted to throw ridicule on the scientific pretensions of the ancient 
Eastern world. The recent studies of scientific scholars have, 
however, conclusively shown that India early possessed many 
astronomical facts, many observations of astronomical phenomena, 
and many rules and methods of astronomical calculation. It ib^ of 

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interest to our Society that bative students should recognize that the 
fantastic legends of Hindd mythology belong to the domain of 
poetical imagination^ and look for the science of astronomy in Surya 
Siddhdnta and treatises similar^ which remain as the relics of a 
system of astronomical science carried to a degree of perfection that 
excites the admiration of modern scientific students. 

Alluding to the subject of astronomy,.! must here record the 
generous offer made by Mr. E. Heelis to the Society of a 4 -inch 
aperture astronomical telescope, on condition of an observatory being 
built for it adjoining the Museum. We were unfortunately obliged 
to decline this offer from inability to comply with the very reasonable 
condition attached to it. 


I have very few words to say on this occasion on the subject of Art. 
Mr. Smither read a paper at our April meeting on some sculptures 
which he had examined on a visit to florana. His suggestion that 
these sculptures should be brought to Colombo so as to be saved 
from further deterioration and depredations has been carried out, and 
they were deposited in the Museum a few days ago. 

Social Condition of the People. 
The official position which I occupy leads me naturally to assign 
the place of first importance under this head to the subject of Fublie 
Instruction, but for the same reason I may be allowed to content 
myself to-day with a reference to my Administration Report, in 
which I endeavour to give full and explicit information on all the 
work of my Department. It is however appropriate to this occasion 
that I should notice with pleasure the assistance I have received 
from several learned Buddhist priests, both in co-operation^ ith the 
principal design of the Department and also in the preparation of 
books for the native youths of the Colony. 

Appropriate to the subject of school work is the subject of Games. 
Mr. Le Mesurier is preparing a Paper on * The Games of the Kandyans* 
which will no doubt be an interesting supplement to Mr. Leopold 
Ludovici*s contribution to our Journal for the year 1 873, * On the 
Sports and Games of the Sinhalese.' If the child is father of the man, 
it is good for those whose business it is to understand the ways of 
the men to learn the pursuits of the children, and, as a relaxation 
from the graver labours of our Society. I do not think that the 
papers of our Journal offer any contribution so full of genial 
instruction as Mr. Ludovici's article. 

Mr. H. C. P. Bell, o.c.s., has a Paper ready on ' Sinhalese Cere- 
monies connected with P&di Cultivation in the Low-country, with 
specimens of songs sung during operations.' A short Paper on tlM 

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PROCEEDINGS. — 1881. xIt 

same subject, but limited to a Kandjan (K^alla) district, by Mr. R« 
W. levers, c cs., was published in our Jourmkl for 1880. 

The Proverbs of a people reveal many secrets of their social con- 
dition, domestic life, and private morality, and have always therefore 
been found an attractive study. Maha-Mudaliy4r De Zoysa has 
published in our Journal another contribution to our knowledge of 
Sii}hale$e Proverbs^ and I have also to notice the publication of two 
other collections^— the AtUa Vdkya Dipaniya, by A. Mendis S^n4- 
ndyaka, and the P*ithya Vdkya or Ntti'Sdstra^ published by A. D. 
A. Wijajasi^ha. The aphorisms in the last-mentioned collection 
are skilfully arranged under separate heads, so as to supply in about 
250 short lines a code of public and private morality. 

Geology and Mineralogy. 

Mr. A. C, Dixon, who is the most active member of our Society in 
the department of Geology and Mineralogy, has continued his visits 
to different districts for the study of their geological formations. 
The recent activity of gold-mioing operations in Southern India 
naturally drew attention to the known existence of gold in several 
parts of this Island, and Mr. Dixon read a short Paper on the subject 
at our April meeting. He has since '* prospected'* several districts, 
and has been good enough to furuish me with a summary of his 
researches. A small nugget taken near fVakwella (Galle) and 
weighing over 6 grains was tested and found to be genuine alluvial 
gold, which had been rolled some distance and deposited by an old 
stream. Careful search at the place revealed no traces of gold. In 
the Sabaragamuwa district Mr. Dixon visited Rakw&na, North and 
Central Kukulu-k6ral6, and Kolonn&-k6ral£. In this district there 
are several valuable deposits of gems still un worked, but no evidence 
of goIdl|i¥as found. In the stream which flows past the Assistant 
Grovernment Agent's bungalow at Ratnapura, further evidence has 
been found of the existence of gold in considerable quantities. Mr. 
Dixon has, however, not yet been able to explore this stream. At 
our Meeting in April Mr. Dixon alluded to his first visit to Banboda, 
and exhibited a specimen of gold from the district. On a subsequent 
visit several well-defined reefs were found, samples of which were 
sent to London and assayed, yielding 15 grs. to the ton. In Doles- 
bdge two or three good reefs were found, but the yield here was only 
4 grs, to the ton, though one sample of surf ace quartz from the same reef 
gave 1 4 grains. In the lower end of Maskeliya valley (" Theberton") 
two good reefs were found. From these gold has been obtained, but 
not in paying quantities as yet, though the prospect of this district as 
regards paying gold is considered good. From Rangalla surface 
quaitz has been tested with a yield of 1 dwt. I J gr. per ton. From 
Hewdheta quartz has been examined yielding 10 grains to the ton. 
Traces of alluvial gold and platinum were found in the Deduru-oya. 

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Mr. Dixon has found the reported Mahara gold to be pt/ritet. 
Specimens from a quartz reef in Kandanuwara contained 3 per cent, 
of copper and the element telurium, which is always found in company 
with gold. 

Climate and Meteorology^, 

The long connection of Colonel Fyers, r.b., with our Society, of 
which he has been for many years President, has borne lasting fruit 
in the establishment of the meteorological observations which may 
now be considered, I suppose, as a permanent part of the work of his 
Department. Systematic observations have been carried under Col. 
Fyers' direction at the principal stations of the Island since 1870. 
A daily weather report is now published in the Post Office Bulletin, 
and four morning observations at Colombo, Galle, Trincomalee^ 
Batticaloa, and Jaffiia are telegraphed daily to Calcutta for the storm 
sigual service. Copies of the monthly return of daily observations 
and annual reports, as well as diagrams giviug the mean monthly 
rainfall for the number of years in which observations have been 
taken, are sent to London, Paris, Brussels, New York, Canada, 
Calcutta, Batavia, and Algiers, and are noticed in the Administration 
Report of the Meteorological Department of the Grovernment of 
India for 1879-80, as follows (p. 37) :— 

* The Island of Ceylon in which a system of meteorological obser- 
vations has been carried on for some years under the direction of 
Col. Fyers, r.e., communicates a monthly abstract of observations 
from which a selection is made for the tabular abstract given in the 
annual report, and I have lately included an abstract of the rainfall 
registers communicated to us from Singapore. Thus the extreme 
geographical range of the region for which meteorological data are 
collected for discussion during the past years comprises 53 degrees 
of longitude and 33 degrees of latitude,' 

The period over which systematic observations extend has been as 
yet too short for reliable deductions to be made from the statistics 

Mr. J. Stoddart is at present investigating the subject of the very 
partial ranges of the rainfall in Ceylon, the prevalence of high winds 
over partial areas, and the influence of the monsoon-gales in the Bay 
of Bengal, and storms on the Bombay coast and on the coast of 
Ceylon In conjunction with Captain Donnan, Master Attendant, 
he is also taking observations to show the direction, force and altitude 
of the waves in the Colombo harbour, when the wind is in the North 
and North-East. 


The paramount influence of agriculture on the prosperity of this 
louy has, to a great extent, removed the department of Botany 

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PKOCEEDINGS. — 1881. xlvH 

from the concerns of this Society to more open and more accessible 
channels of communication and discussion. The year has been 
especially marked by the publication of The Tropical AgricuU 
turisU a monthly periodical established by the Editors of the 
Ceylon Observer^ constituting in the strictest sense of the word a 
repertory frepertorium ubi omnia repiriri possint) of information 
on all subjects connected with Tropical Botany and Agriculture. 
To its pages, to the Report of the Director of the Botanical Gardens, 
and the Reports of Mr. Marshall Ward on Leaf Disease, all who 
are interested in this subject will naturally refer for the operations 
of the year. In connection with the Melbourne Exhibition, Mr. 
William Ferguson was good enough to furnish, at my request, a set 
of Notes descriptive of 96 specimens of Gay Ion timber sent to the 
Exhibition. I have sent several copies of these Notes to the Govern- 
ment Agents and their Assistants, and to other persons to whom I 
believe them likely to prove useful. I will only add that an elemen- 
tary Manual of Botany in Sinhalese has been prepared, and will 
shortly be published by the Department of Public Instruction. It 
will, I hope, be the means of carrying profitable instruction and 
amusement into many humble homes. 


The first two parts of the beautiful engravings of Ceylon Lepidoptera, 
with descriptive letterpress, now being published by Government, 
were received about the middle of the year, and the remaining 
portion of the work is expected very shortly, 

A Paper by Mud ally ar Samuel Jayatilaka on the Honey Bees of 
Ceylon and the native method of Bee Culture was read at our April 
Meeting. This Paper derived unexpected interest from the visit of 
Mr. Frank Benton, an American Bee amateur, who had the intention 
of writmg a Paper for our Society on the subject of our bees, but 
was prevented by a severe attack of malarial fever caught whilst bee 
hunting in the jungles of the Kurun^gala District Mr, Jayatilaka 
has stated that he got more practical information about bees from 
Mr. Benton in a week than he had from all other sources in many 
years. Mr. Benton learned in Java that wax is imported into 
Netherlands India, chiefly from Holland, to the annual value of two 
millions of rupees. The wax is chiefly used in dyeing the sarongs 
and other cloths of the people. Mr. Benton's visit to Ceylon can 
hardly fail to be productive of useful results, as the Cyprian bees 
introduced by him are doing well with Mr. W. H. Wright and Mudd- 
liydr Jayatilaka, who thinks that they are more industrious and faster 
workers and more tractable than our common Ceylon bees. It is 
stated that Ceylon bees do not seem to approach vanilla flowers when 
in bloom, whereas the Cyprians are found continually among them, 
and it is hoped that they may turn out good fertilizers, and thus save 

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much of the labour now involved in the process of artificial fertiliza- 
tion. There seems to be no reason why bee culture in Ceylon should 
not become an industry of considerable importance. 

Dr. Vanderstraaten read at our October Meeting a synopsis of a 
Paper which he has prepared on * Sericulture,' illustrating in detail the 
process of raising silkworms. As this Paper has not yet been for* 
warded to our Secretary 4br publication, I am unable to refer to it 
The subject is one of undoubted interest, and I may mention that the 
Bev. Father Palla is endeavouring at Mount Calvary, Galle, to 
introduce the rearing of silkworms as an industry well adapted to 
the habits and inclinations of ihe people of Ceylon. 

Mr, BelVs Report on the Mdldives. 

A considerable part of Col. Fyers' Address last year was devoted to 
information derived from our Secretary, Mr. H. C. P. Bell, with refer- 
ence to his recent visit to the Maldive Islands. Mr, Bell's Report, as 
the result of this visit, is now being printed as a Sessional Paper by 
desire of the Secretary of State. I have had the advantage of seeing 
the proof sheets as printed, and it was my intention to give a sum- 
mary of the information they contain, as the Papers of our Society 
may probably come before a circle of readers whom Sessional Papers 
are not at all likely to reach. For this reason, I regret that the Report 
has been published as a Sessional Paper and not by our Society, to 
whose Journal a contribution so comprehensive and complete would 
have been an acceptable addition. As a Sessional Paper, however, 
it will no doubt hold a distinct place of its own, and Mr. Bell will 
perhaps make, or allow others to make, an epitome of its principal 
results for the benefit of our Journal I feel that it is impossible to 
do justice to a labour of such value at the close of a narrative of the 
Society's work, present and prospective — imperfect, I well know, but 
likely, I fear, to be thought already prolix. 

On the conclusion of the Address, 

The Hon. W. H. Raven scroft proposed a vote of thanks to the 
President for his most able Address, to which he was sure they had 
all listened with very great pleasure, Mr. W Ferguson seconded. 

His Excellency the Governor felt sure that the Members round the 
table had all listened with very great pleasure to that Address. — 
Motion agreed to nem. con. 

7. — A vote of thanks to the Governor for presiding brought the 
Meeting to a close. 

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PROCEEDINGS. — 1881. xlix 

Additions to Library. 

Bibliotheca Indica : A Collection of Oriental Works published by the 
B. A. 8. of Bengal, New Series, Nos. 461 and 462, Calcutta, 
IbSl.^ Presented. 

Boletin da Sociedade De Geographia De Lisboa, 2nd Series, No. 6, 
Lisboa, 1881. — Presented. 

£8sai Sur Le Pali, Paris, 1826. 

Indian Antiquary, Vol. 10, i.e, January to November, 1881. — /Ve- 

Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 
May, ISSl.--- Presented. 

Journal of theB. A. S. of Bengal, Vol. L., Part 1 (Nos. 3 and 4, 
1881) and Part 2 (No. 3, IHS l).'-Presented. 

Journal of the North China Branch of the R. A. S., 1880, New Series, 
No. XV. — Presented^ 

Madras Journal of Literature and Science (The), for the years 1878, 
1879, and 1880, edited by G. Oppert, 1879-Sl.— /Ve*en/tfrf. 

Maleisch Nederduitsch Woordenboek, 1863. — Presented by D. fV. 

Memoires sur Les Contrees Occidental es, par Hiouen-Thsang, trans- 
lated by M. Stanislas Julien« Tome i, ii, Paris. 

Notulen Van De AJgemeene en Buturs, Vergaderin- " 
gen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van 
Kunsten en Wetenschappen 
Deel zviii., 1880, No. i. Batavia. 

>- Presented. 


do. „ „ 




do. „ „ 




do. „ „ 




xix,, 1881 „ 




do. „ „ 




of the R. A. 

S. I 


No. 8, August, 1881.— 

£eport of a Visit to the Torrent Regions of the Hautes and BasFes 
Alpes, and also to Mount Faron Toulon, by £. MacA. Moir, 
Calcutta, \H%\.^ Presented. 

Suggestions regarding the Management of the leased Forests of 
Busahir in the Suttey Valley of the Punjab, by D, Brandis, 
F.B.S., C.I.B., Simla, 1881. — Presented. 

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Transactions of the R. A. S. of Japan, from 30th Octo- 1 
her, 1872, to 9th October, 1873, Yokohama, 

1874. I 

Do. do. Vol, VIL, F&Tt i., Feb., \Sl9.y Presented. 

Do. do. „ VIIL, „ iv., Dec, 1880. 

Do. do. „ IX., „ i„ Feb., 1881. 

Do. do. „ IX., „ ii., Aug., 18»1.J 

Tropical Agriculturist (The), Colombo, December, 1881. 

Tjdschrift Voor Indische Taal, Land, En Volken-I 
kunde, Deel xxvi., Aflevering 2, 1880. [ 

Do. do. do. 3, 1880. [ ^ ^ , 

Do. do. do. 4;i«80. yPresented. 

Do. do. do. 6 & 6, 1880. } 

Do. xxvii., do. 1, 1881. J 

Vocabulary of the English and Malay Languages, by F. A. Swetten* 
ham. Vol. 2. 

Verhandelingen van bet Bataviaasch Genootschappen van Kunsten 
en Wetenschappen, Deel xli., 2e btuk, Batavia, 1880. — 

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0> »o Oi -^ •o 55 ^Cit^^ 

O O 









= 2.2 








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35 OB O r* '^ 
O S S * 08 



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Hi* Excelleacj Sir Jas, R, Longdbn, k.c.m.g., Governor, 

Hon. J. Douglas, c.m.g. 

C. Bruce, Esq.^ o,m.q. 

Hon. R. Catlbt, c.j, | Hon, W. H. Ravenscroft, c.c.s. 

Honorary Treasurer. 
J. Gr. Wardrop, Esq. 

Honorary Secretary. 
H, C. P. Bell, Esq., c.c.s. 


T. Berwick, Esq. 

J. Capper, Esq. 

A. C. Dixon, Esq., f.cs. 

Major A. Lwimg. 

W. Ferguson, Esq., p.l.s, 

L. F. Lee, Esq., ccs. 

A. Murray, Esq. 

Rey« E, F. MiIiLBR, ila. 

J. G. Smither, Esq. f.r.i.b.a. 

Hon. P. RAma-NAthan, j.p« 

J. L. Yanderstraatbn, Esq., 


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The Asiatic Society of Ceylon was instituted 7th February, 1845 ; 
and by the unanimous vote of a Special General Meeting of 
the Royal Asiatic Society, held on the 7th February, 1846, 
it was declared a Branch of that Society, under the designation 
of ** The Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society." 



1. The design of the Society is to institute and promote 
inquiries into the History, Religions^ Languages, Literature, Arts, 
and Social Condition of the present and former inhabitants of this 
Island, with its Geology and Mineralogy, its climate and Meteorology, 
its Botany and Zoology. 


2. The Society shall consist of Resident or Ordinary^ Hono- 
rary^ and Corresponding Members ; all elected by ballot at a 
General Meeting of the Society^ 

(a) Members residing in Ceylon are considered Resident 

(b) Persons who contribute to the objects of the Society in 
an eminent and distinguished manner are, on the recom- 
mendation of the Committee, eligible as Honorary 

(c) All Military Medical Officers in Ceylon are Honorary 
Members of the Society. 

{d) Persons residing at a distance from Colombo may, upon 
special groundsj and on the recommendation of the Com- 
mittee, be elected Corresponding Members. 

JEntrance Fee and Subscriptions. 

3. Every Ordinary Member of the Society snail pay, on 
admission, an entrance fee of Rs. 5 25, and an annual subscription of 
Rs. 10*50, Annual subscriptions shall be considered due on the 
1st of January of each year. Members who fail to pay their sub- 
scriptions by the end of the year (provided they have been called for) 
shall be considered, ipso factOy to have relinquished their connection 

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with the Society. Members who have been absent from Ceylon 
have the privilege of rejoining the Society within twelve months of 
their return to the Island, on payment of the subscription for the 
current year. 

(a) The privilege of Life Membership may be ensured by the 
payment of its. 105, with entrance fee on admission to the 
Society ; Rs. 84, after two years ; and Bs. 73*50, after four 
or more years' subscriptions. 

(6) Honorary and Corresponding Members shall not be 
subject to any entrance fee or subscription, and are to be 
admitted to the Meetings of the Society and to the privilege 
of its Library, but are* not competent to vote at Meetings, 
to be elected to any of its offices, or take any part in its 
private business. 

(c) Persons desirous of rejoining the Society may be re-admit- 
ted Members without entrance fee, subject to the discretion 
of the Managing Committee* 


i. The Office-bearers of the Society shall be, a President, two 
Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, and a Secretary, all appointed by open 
vote at the Annual Meeting of the Society ; and their functions shall 
be as follows : — 

(a) The President, or in his absence one of the Vice-Presi- 
dents, shall take the Chair at all Meetings of the Society 
and of the Committee, maintain order, collect the votes, and 
cause the laws of the Society to be observed and enforced. 

{h) The Treasurer shall receive, collect, and pay out all moneys 
on behalf of the Society, keep an account thereof including 
the vouchers, and submit a statement of the pecuniary 
affi^irs of the Society to the Annual Meeting, and at all 
other times as may be required. 

(c) The Secretary shall arrange, give notice of, and attend, all 
Meetings of the Society and of the Committee, and record 
their proceedings. He shall also edit the Journal, and 
exercise a general superintendence under the authority of 

In the event of any Office-bearer leaving the Colony for three (3) 
months, shall be competent for the Committee to fill up the offiqe 
at the next General Meeting. 

5. The affairs of the Society shall be managed by a Committee 
of nine (9) Members (with power to add to their number) in addition 

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to Office-bearers, and elected in like manner : but subject always to 
the Rules and Regulations passed at General Meetings. Three (3) to 
form a quorum. 

Mode of Admission. 
6. Members desirous of proposing candidates for admission 
to the Society shall give notice to the Secretary, in writing, at 
least a fortnight before the assembly of any Geueral Meeting. 
Admission to Membership of the Society shall be by ballot at any 
General Meeting. No candidate to be considered as elected, unless 
he has 'in his favour two-thirds of the votes taken. 


7i An Annual Meeting of the Society shall be held in Decem- 
ber, and General Meetings at such other times as may be determined 
by the Committee ; due notice of the Meetings, and of any intended 
motions which do not come through the Committee, and the nomina- 
tion of new Members, being always first given by the Secretary. 

8. The course of business at General Meetings shall be as 
follows : — 

(a) The Minutes of the last Meeting shall be read by the 
Secretary, and signed by the Chairman. 

(h) Candidates for Membership shall then be proposed, balloted 
for, admitted or otherwise. 

(e) Reports of Committees shall be read, and communications 
made of all articles received, and donations to the Society. 

{d) Any specific business submitted by the Committee, or 
appointed for consideration, shall be proceeded with. 

(e) Papers and Communications for the Society shall then be 

9. Every Member of the Society has the privilege of intro- 
ducing, either personaUy or by card, one or two visitors to the General 

10. Special Committees may be formed for the prosecution of 
any specific object or matter of research. .These must be named 
at a General Meeting, and will act as much as possible in co-opera- 
tion with the Secretary of the Society, who will be a constituent 
member of all such Committees, 

Papers and Communications. 

11. All Papers and Communications shall be forwarded to the 
Secretary at least a week before the assembling of the General 
Meeting at which they are intended to be read. Such Papers shall 
be read by the Author, or the Secretary, or by some Member of the 

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12. All Papers and other CommunicatioDs to the Society read 
or submitted at any Greneral Meeting shall be open to free discussion ; 
and such Papers and discussions may be printed in the Transactions 
of the Society, if approved by the Committee. 

13. The writer of any Paper which is published in the So- 
ciety's Journal shall be entitled to receive twenty-five (25) printed 
copies of his haper. 


14. One copy of each Journal shall be sent by the Secretary 
to every Member who has paid his subscription for the current year, 
and to every Honorary Member ; and dvery such Member may pro- 
cure a second copy, on application to the Secretary. Members 
requiring more than two (2) copies of the Journal can be supplied 
with them at half the price charged the public. 

Suspension and Alteration of Rules. 

15. It shall be competent for any General Meeting to suspend 
any of the above Rules. 

16. No alteration of Rules shall be made except at the Annual 
Meeting, and unless carried by a majority of not less than two-thirds 
of the Members present ; due notice of any proposed alteration having 
been given in writing to the Secretary at least a fortnight before the 


1. The Library is open on week days (except Fridays) from 
7 A.M. to 6 P.M., and on Sundays from 3 p.m. to 6 p.m. 

2. The Librarian shall keep a Register of Books belonging to 
the Library, showing their title, name of author, date of receipt^ 
whence obtained^ edition, number of volumes, number of plates, 
place and date of publication. 

3. All Books, Paimphlets, and Periodicals* received for the 
Library shall, immediately on receipt, be entered in the Library Re- 
gister, and stamped with the Library stamp. The Librarian shall see 
that each Plate and Map in books received for the Library is care- 
frdly stamped on the reverse side with the Library stamp. New 
books received shall be stamped on the cover with the words ^ Royal 
Asiatic Society, Ceylon Branch." 

4. A book shall be kept in which shall be entered the title of 
very work lent out, the number of plates, if any, it contains at the 
tme of its being lent, the name of the Al ember borrowing the same, 

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and the date on which it is lent. A Member applying in person for 
a work shall sign a receipt for the book and plates it may contain at 
the time of borrowing. A Member not applying in person shall send 
a written request for the books he requires, and this request shall be 
filed in the Library as a voucher, the Librarian duly noting on it the 
books actually lent out. The Librarian shall send with each packet 
of books a form of receipt, to be signed and returned to the borrower. 
Should any Member prefer to keep a private register of books bor- 
rowed from the Library, it shall be the duty of the Librarian to enter 
in such register the names of all books issued, and to initial receipt 
when returned. 

5. On return of any books to the Library, the Librarian after 
satisfying himself that the book is in the same condition as it was 
when lent out, shall insert opposite to the entry, in the loan register, 
the date on which the book has been returned, and return to the bor- 
rower the receipt or other voucher given by him, duly cancelled. 
And if on the return of any book the Librarian shall perceive that it 
has sustained any damage, since it was taken from the Library, he 
shall make a note of the particulars and report the same to the 
Honcurary Secretary. 

6. No Member shall remove any book, pamphlet, periodical, 
or any othw article the property of the Society, from the Library 
without giving the Librarian a receipt for the same. 

7. No Book, Pamphlet, Journal, or Periodical, &c., shall be lent 
out before the expiration of one week aft^ its receipt in the Library. 

8. Periodicals and unbound Journals in numbers shall be 
returned after the expiration of one week. 

9. Works of reference and certain fare and valuable books, Ac, 
must not be taken out of the Library without specitd permission of 
the Committee. 

10. Non-resident Members are entitled to take out Books, 
Plates, &C., from the Library on making special application to the 
Honorary Secretary, and signing an obligation to defray the expenses 
of carriage, and to make compensation for any book, plate, manuscript 
&c., which may be lost or damaged. 

11. No Member shall be permitted to have more than three 
sets* of books from the Library in his possession at any one time 
without the special permission of ihe Honorary Secretary. 

12. Except with the special simction of the Committee, resi- 
dent Members shall not be permitted to keep books, &c., borrowed 
from the Library for more than fourteen days, and non-resident 
Members for more than one month. 

* H.B.— Each Volume of the Transactions of any learned Society or 
similar publication shall be counted as one work. 

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13. All books, except in the case stated below, shall be 
returned to the Library before the 1st January in each year. Early 
in December, the Librarian, having previously ascertained that the 
books are actually absent from the Library, shall forward to all Mem- 
bers who have books belonging to the Society in their possession, a 
letter requesting that such books be returned before the end of the 
month. Non-resident Members who, on the 1st January, have had 
books, &c., for less than one month may send a detailed list of such 
books instead of returning them. 

14. The Librarian shall report to the Honorary Secretary, for 
the information of the Committee each year in January, the names 
of all books not returned, and of the Members by whom they were 

15. If application be made to the Librarian for a book already 
taken out from the Library, he shall issue a notice to the borrower, 
requiring him to return it free of expense, within one week from the 
receipt of such notice if a resident Member, and within one month if 
a non-resident Member. 

16. If any book borrowed from the Library be lost, damaged, 
defaced by writing or otherwise, the borrower shall be held responsi- 
ble for such loss or damage ; and if the book belong to a set, he shall 
be liable to make good the set to the satisfaction of the Committee, 
or pay its value. 

17. No books, &c.| shall be issued from the Library to any 
Member while he retains any property of the Society in contraven- 
tion of the above rules. 

18. A book shall be kept in the Library in which Members 
may write the names of any books, &c., they may recommend to be 
purchased for the Library. 

19. No person who is not a Member of the Society shall be 
permitted to take away any book from the Library without special 
authority from the Committee, or to have access to the Library with- 
out permission of a Meml^ of tke Committee. 

20. In no case shall any Member be aUowed to take out of 
Ceylon any book, manuscript, pamphlet, periodical, &c., belonging to 
the Society, 

21. The Librarian shall be held personally responsible for the 
safety of the books, &c., belonging to the Society's Library under his 
charge, and that these rules are properly carried out, as far as lies in 
his power. 

22. The Committee may at any time call in all books, &c., 
and may cease to issue them for such periods as the interests of the 
Society may require. 

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{Corrected up to December Zlst, 1881.) 

Life Members. 

Davids, T. W. Rhys. 
Dawson, B. 
Ferguson, A. M. 
Fergason, A. M., Jr. 
Ferguson, D. W. 
Ferguson, J. 

Grant, J. N. 
Gunn, J. 
Nicholson, Rev. 
Rains, S. W. 
Slorach, J. 

Honorary Members. 

Holdsworth, E. 

Kunt£, M. M. 

De Zoysa, L., Mah& Mudaliy&r. 

Military MedicaJ Officers in Ceylon. 

Ordinary Members, 

Andree, J. R. 

Ameil, J. A. 

Bailey, J. B. A., cc.s. 

Baumgartner, G. A., cc.s. 

Bell, H. C. P., CCS. 

Berwick, T. 

Boake, W. J. S., l.r.c s., ccs. 

Britton, E. C. 

Browne, G. D. L., ccs. 

Bruce, C., cm.g. 

Burrows, S. M., ccs. 

Capper, J. 

Carbery, J , m.b., cm. 

Cayley, Hon. R., m.a. 

Churchill, J. P., m.i.cb. 

Coghill, J. D. M., M.D. 

Coom&ra Sw&my, P. 

Crawford, M. S., ccs. 

Cull, J. B., B.A. 

Daendliker, P. 

Davidson, W. E,, c c s. 

Dean, J. G. 

Dias, W. A., M.D , St. Andrew's, 

M.R.cs.,.L.s.A.. England^ 
Dias, P., Maha Mudaliydr 
Dickman, C, ccs. 
Dixon, A. C, B. Sc, p.cs. 
Douglas, Hon. J., CM.o. 
Duncan, W. H, G. 
Ewing, A., Major 
Ferguson, W., p.l.s. 
Fernando, Rev. C. J. B., o.s.b, 
Fyers, Hon. Col. A. B., r.b. 
Green, H. W., cc.s. 
Green, S. 
Grenier, S., j.p. 
Grinlinton, J. J., ce., f.r.g.s. 
Hall. C. P. 
Heelis, E. 
HiU, G. C, b.a. 

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Hope, Adrian, 
levers, R. W., m.a., c.cs. 
James, W. K., f.r.g.s.,f.r. hist. s. 
JayatiJaka, S., Mudaliydr 
Jayawardhana, A,, Mudftliy&r 
Kynsey, W. R , m.k.qo.p.i., l.r. 


Lawrie, A. C. 

Lee, L. F., c.o.s. 

Leeehman, G, B. 

Le Mesurier, C. J. R., c.c.s. 

Lewis, J. P., M.A., c.c.s. 

Loos, F. C. 

Loos, J., M.D., St. Andrew* s, 

M.R.C.P., L.RC.S., EdinhurghM 
Mac Vicar, H. J. 
Mason, J. D , c.c.s. 
Miller, E. F., Rev. m.a. 
Morgan, tT. F., m.r.c.s., Englandy 

M.B., CM , Aberdeen. 

Moss, A. S , A.M.I C.B., F.M>S. 

Murray, A., C.E., a.m.i.c.b. 

Nell, L. 

Nevill, H., c.c.s. 

Perera, E. F. 

Perera, J. M. 

Plaxton, J. W., M.R.C.8., L.S.A, 

Price, F. H., C.c.s. 

Pyemont-PyopiQnt, L. O,, c.c.s. 
Rfijapaksa, S. D'A. W., j.p., 

R&ma-Nathan, Hon. P., j.p. 
Kanasiijha, W. P. 
Ravenscroft, Hon. W. H., c c.s. 
Robinson, E. 

Rock wood, W. G., m.d., Madras. 
Sajarajasinham, N. 
Saunders, Hon. F. R,, c.c.s. 
Saxton, G. S., c.c.s. 
Sharpe, W. E. T., c.cs. 
Skeen, W. L. H. 
Smither, J. G., f.r.i.b.a. 
Soysa, C. H. De, j.p. 
Stoddart, Hon. J. 
Tate, L J. E. G., c.c s. 
Thomas, A. H. 
Trimen, H., m.b., f.l.s. 
Yanderstraaten, J. L., m.d., 

M.R C.P., St. Andrew's; L 8.A., 

London; L.R.C.8 , Edinburgh. 
Van Dort, W. G., m.d., cm. ^ 

Wardrop, J. G. 
White, H., c.cs. 
Worthington, G. E., c.c.s. 
Wragg, W. T., B.A., cc.8. 

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ROYAL asia;^ society. 







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Committee MsETiNa. 
January 25, 1882. 

Present : 
C. Bruce, Esq., C.M.G., President, in the Chain 
T. Berwick, Esq. J, L. Vanderstraaten, Esq., mj). 

W. Ferguson, Eisq. J. G, Wardrop, EJsq. Hon. 

J. 6. Smither, Esq. Treasurer, 

H* C. P. Bell, Esq., Hon. Secretary, 

1,— Read and confirmed Minutes of last Meeting. 

2« — The Hon« Secretary stated that the Government Printer 
found himself unable to undertake the reprinting of further Joomals 
owing to pressure of work. He therefore suggested that arrangements 
be ma^e with the " Ceylon Times** Press to reprint the Journals 
Nos. 9-12 (Vol. IIL), 1856-1861. No. 6 (Vol. IL, Part II.), 1853, 
would^ hd bppod^be completed shosUy, and Nos. 4 and 5 (VoL IL> 
Pa^t 10^.1848-^0 aa>opportunity ofSwi^dLv^Appromed. 

3. — The Hon. Secretary suggested that a General Meeting be 
caUed a^ranveftriy/date^y -at which ha would be prepaned to read :--^ 

(a) Extracts from Mr. A. Gray*s Isffmslation oflbn Bat6ta*ii 

Travels relating to the M&ldives and Ceylon (French 
edition, Paris, 1879). 

(b) '' Customs and Ceremonies connected with P&di Cultivatipn.** 

Z)e£;iAc2 to ccmvene a General Meeting for the 15tli proximo* 

4;— -At the sufi^^ion of the Chairman, ^cuie^ to sanction as 
gran* « of < Bsi 100 tc> W. GuijLatikka, Esq., of Kandy, towards the 
expense' of prindsg a new edition^ of Pfiijini's Sul^aSi 

Gbhbbal Mssoniio. 
February 15, 1882. 

C. Bruce, Esq., O.M.G., President, in the Chair. 

T. Bierwick, Esq» 
J: Capper, B6q. 
Major A. Ewing, 
W. Ferguson, E$q. 
G. C. Hill, Esq. 
W. K. James, Esq, 

Rev. E. P. Miller, li.A. 
E. F. Perera, Esq. 
Hon. P. B&ma-N6than. 
J. G. Wardrop, Esq., H6iu 

H. C. P. Bell, Esq.,H6n. Secy, 

li<««J!iiiBatesvof )the la6t*Meeling (Amuud) were read and conflemed^ 

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2.— -The foilowing gentlemen were duly balloted for and elected 
Members : — 

The Bight Bev. B. Copleston^ d.d.^ Lord Bishop of Colombo. 
W. Blau-, Esq. I P. Freiidenberg, Esq. 

P. W. Conollj, Esq., c.cs. | W. G. Haines, Esq., O.C.S. 

3. — A list of Books added to the Society's Library since the Annaal 
Meeting was laid on the table. 

4. — Bead the following Papers : — 

i. — An Abstract by the Chairman of Professor Virchow's Mono- 
graph on the Veddas of Ceylon. {Ueber die Weddas von 
Ceylon und ihre Beziehungen zu den Nachharsldmmen,) 

ii. — An Abstract by the Chairman of Professor M. Eiint4's Paf)er 
on "Nirvdna," written for the Society's Journal. 

iii. — Extracts from Mr. Albert Gray's translation of the M&ldive 
portion of Ibn Batuta's Travels ( Voyages cP Ihn BatotUah^ 
Tome IV., pp. 110-185), by the Honorary Secretary. 

iv. — "Customs and Ceremonies connected with P&di Cultiva- 
tion," by H. C. p. Bell, Honorary Secretary. 

5. — Upon the proposition of the President, it was unanimously 
carried tiiat Mr. Albert Gray be invited to become an Honorary 
Member of the Society. 

6. — Proceedings closed with votes of thanks to the Secretary for 
his Paper, and to the Chairman. 

Thb President read an abstract of a Monograph by Professor 
Virchow on " The V^dd&s of Ceylon," based on an examination of 23 
reputed V^da skulls. He believes they are a people of unmixed 
blood, whilst the Sinhalese are decidedly a mixed race. This opinion, 
however, is not supported by the researches of Mah& Mudaliy&r 
De Soysa, who believes them to be the descendants of a son and 
daughter of Vijayd by a Yakkbd princess. 

After some general conversation on the subject^ it was decided to 
get the Professor's valuable pamphlet translated into English at 
home for the benefit of Oriental scholars unacquainted with German. 

The Chairman followed this up by an abstract of a Paper on 
*' Nirwdna." by Professor Kunt6, which will be printed in the Journal 
of the year in extenso. 

The Honorary Secretary, Mr, H. C. P. Bell, read extracts from 
Mr. A. Gray's translation of a portion of Ibn Batata's Travels re- 
lating to the Maldives (French edition of M. M. Defr^mery and 
Sanguinetti), the quaint descriptions in which agreed in the main 
with the Secretary's observations when at those Islands. 

Mr. Bell then read an interesting Paper on ** Customs and Ceremo- 
nies connected with P&di Cultivation." The Paper entered into details 
showing that at every step taken in tiie cultivation of their p&di 

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fields^ the villagers sought the advice and aid of soothsayers in order 
to secure a lucky day for their proceedings. This is done before the 
cultivator attempts to commence ploughing or treading up the ground. 
The same is observed in regard to the construction of dams ; and 
before any attempt at sowing seed can be made, ceremonies are gone 
through in conformity with ancient customs as prescribed by the sooth- 

Mr. Bell gave some specimens of the songs sung by the village 
<^tivators whilst bailing the water out of the fields, as well as during 
reaping, together with a few strange kern, or charms^ used to keep off 
flies, &c,, from the ripe ears. 

The after-proceedings of levelling the ground, and preparing it for 
the reception of seed, were all minutely described, showing as much 
attention to ceremonial as at any other stage of affairs. 

If the crop promises to be a very good one, a ceremony is performed 
with a view of securing protection from the evil eye and evil mouth. 
In the centre of the field small stands are made, decorated with flowers 
and young cocoanut leaves. Here at night the Kattddiyd^ dressed 
up fantastically, dances a sort of devil dance in the centre of the 
platform, lights being kept burning at the comers until morning. 

There are also certain observances at the time of threshing the 
com. Before the sheaves can be removed from the stacks, where 
they were placed from the field, five or seven mats are spread on the 
ground and three circles and two straight lines (with four of their 
agricultural implements) are drawn with ashes : in the centre are 
placed sea-shells, a little cow-dung with a little silver, copper, brass, 
iron, and ashes. This being done, some one believed to be lucky 
places a sheaf of com on his head, walks up to the spot, and bows to 
the four corners ; other men then bring in the ear, and spread it on 
the mats, and bullocks are brought in to begin the work. 

The removal of the threshed com is also a matter of ceremony. 
When all the grain is free from straw, the chief villager goes to the 
centre of the p^di, whilst the others heap it up around him as high 
as his knees. When this is done the heap is covered with mats, and 
the man in the centre, after certain forms, jumps down backwards. 
Then other observances follow prescribed by long custom. 

All the padi is then removed home. Before any of it is taken for 
use one or two handfuls are again separated. This, with some other 
padi, is pounded by the women at night, and part of it is boiled, and 
cakes made with the rest. Before they begin this, the women bathe 
and put on clean clothes, and it is neciessary that none of it should 
be tasted during the preparation. The neighbours are invited in the 
moming to enjoy this J)eviydnne ddnayuy and the Kapurdla, lay 
priest of the Devdla^ is called in. All the people assembled sit down 
on mats spread on the compound, and the rice and vegetable curries, 
cakes and plantains, being served them on plantain leaves, the 
Kapurdla sings certain songs to bring prosperity on the cultivator. 
Meanwhile a table is prepared inside the house with everything 
cooked for the occasion. When the songs are over, he tastes every- 
thing, and sprinkles water on the people and their rice, which is the 

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signal for them to commeBoe eatiiig.— (C^/on Observer, Bebsnxy 
16th, 1882.) 

Thjb infonnation contained in Mr. Bell's very interesting p^per, 

' read to the Asiatic Society, on ceremonies amongst the Sinhalese in 
connection with p&di cultivation, conveys s, lesson which should be 
well considered in reference to agricultural improvements amongst 
people who have been stigmatised as indolent and apathetic in the 

We shall not be wrong if we say that the Si^^hakse people are loUy 

^fis much imbued with feelings of superstition as any other race, not- 
withstanding that Buddhism is in its very nature^)i^8ed to aiQrthii|g 

.i^OToaohing superstitious practices. 

J?erhaps in no other occupation are superstitious obs^rvimoes so 
frequently and so thoroughly observed as in agriculture. Thi&may 

X be owing to frequent unfavourable seasons and failure «f crops, ^mkich 
have led native cultivators to trust so much to charms and obeiv- 
vances in the hope of warding off further disaster. From the eiffliest 

xommeneement of the cultivator's toils, the preparation of the ground 
to the garnering of the com, the soothsayer is consulted, imd his 
instructions devoutly followed by the ignorant villages. A lueky 
day must be sought for turning the £rst sod of the saturated ground, 
and for sprinkling the first sowing of the season. In tiiehope^f 
warding off pests and insects from the .growing cornfield, rules have 
to be observed, and ceremonies perfcnmed ; and: the same with-every 
operation connected with harvesting. 

But Mr. Bell is: careful to tell us that these <shildish observaAces 
jire fast dying out amongst all but the most ignorant. He says 
most of these absurd and superstitious customs and usages, though 
still observed by some old cultivators, are little regarded by^ th^ 
juniors, and are but slowly but surely dying out. These men -sue 
unable to account for the performance of these ceremonies, said he 
adds that the majority of cultivators attribute the faUure of etisfps 
in their viHages during the past few years to the non^observanoe-wad 
{gradual decline of faith in tJiese ceremonies. 

If, as believed by Mr. Bell, these absurd practices are fast 4yiiig 
out, there may be some prospect of inducing cultivators to turn their 
attention to improved modes of agriculture, and so in time bettering 
their condition. It is within the memory of living men that in many 
I parts of the United Eangdom superstitions as absurd as any fdesmbed 
in this paper prevailed amongst the rural population, e^peoiMy in. 
remote districts, and we know that it is only within the last twenty 
years that any real, progress has been made in English agriculture, 
Scotland, to its credit, having set the example. We are there^Dve 
surely justified in hoping that as superstition dies out in this country, 
improvements in agriculture may take their place. — {Gejt^n TimeSy 
17th February, 1882. '* Superstition or Progress*^) 

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Additions to lUbmry. 

4^oiiltare, Depftrtnent of, Report, 1878 and 1879. 2 Vols., Waeh- 

ington, 1880. 
Arclinr^ogkal Sunr^y of India : Tonrs in the Central Dool and 

Gorakbpnr in 1874-75 and 1875-76, by Maj<M'-G^neral A. 

Cunningham, c s.i., C.I.B., Vol. XII., Calcutta, 1879. 
ArohaeN^Ogioal Survey of Western India : Kepoft ^f the first season's 

operations in the Belg&m land Kaladgi Districts, 1874, by 

^mes Burgess, m.BwA^s., f.b.o*s., London, 1875. 
ArchsBological Survey of India: Report on the Antiquities of El^thi&- 

w^ and Kaohh, 1874*5, lyy. Jamea Burgess, 1£M.a.8,, F.B.ia.s., 

London, 1876. 
Amkeoloigieal Survey of India, VoL IQ. : Report on the Antiquities 

in the Bidar and Aurangabad Districts, 1875*76, by James 

Burgess, MJtiA.8., f^&o.s., Lcmdon, ' 1878. 
Bibliotheca Indica, No. 469, Calcutta, 1818. 
Buddhist Caves at Jnnnar, Memorandum on the, by J. Bni^gess, 

F.R.6.S., M.B.A.8., &c., Bombay, 1874. 
Cfylon Gaeetteer, hy S. Casi Oietty, Ceylon, 1834. 
Coins of the Jews (Numismata Orientalia;, by F.W. Madden, m.r.a.8., 

London, 1881. 
Common Prayer (Telugu), Bellary, 1888. 
Grammar «f the Arabic LanguagOrby £. H. Palmer, k.a., London, 

• 1874. 
Grammar of the three priocipal Oriental Languages, Hindoostani, 

Persian and Arabic, by William Price, London, 1823. 
Grammar of the Hindiist&nf Tongue, by D, Forbes, Londen, 1844, 
Grammar of the Malay&liuL Language, by Rev. Joseph Peet, Gotta- 

yam, 1841. 
Grammar of the Persian Language, by D. Forbes, ir.A., London, 

Grammar of the Telugu Language, by Madda}! Lakshmi Narasayya, 

Madras, 1870. 
Head dresses exhibited on Ancient Coins, by H. Phillips, Jnr,, Phi- 
ladelphia, 18«1. 
Indian'Antlquary, Vols. 4to 9, 1875-80, Vol. X., December, 1881, 

Vol. XL^ January and February, 1882. 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. 50, Part 2, No. 4, 

1881,- Calcutta, 1881. 
tJonmal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britatin and'Ireland, 

Vol. XIV., Part I., old series. 
Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, V61s. 1, 3, 4, 5 "and 6, 

London 1831—6. 
"^ala Sankalita, by Lieut.-Colonel J. Warren, Madras, 1825. 
E^ykaandorakada Ginna (Sinhalese), 1882, Colombo. 
Manual of Hindu Pantheism, by Major G. A. Jaoob,London, 1881. 
Mastery Series (Hebrew), by T. Prendergast, London, 1879. 
N&mamai& (P&li Grammar), by Subhuti Terunn^nse, Ceylon, 1876. 
Old Time Supesrstitions^ by H. Philips. 

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Oriental Historical Manuscripts, Vol. I., by W. Taylor, Madras, 

P&li Text of Kachchayano's Grammar, with English Annotations, by 

F. Mason, D.D., New York, 1870. 
Phoenician Inscriptions, Part I., by D. J. Heath, London, 1873. 
Practical Grammar of the Sanskrit Language, by T. Benfey, London, 

Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 

Parts L to III., Philadelphia, 1880. 
Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, Bengal, No, IX., Nov. 1881, Cal- 
cutta^ 1881. 
Quatrains of Omar Khayyam, (Triibner's Oriental Series), by E, H. 

Whinfield, M.A., London, 1882. 
Religions of India, (Triibner's Oriental Series), by A. Barth, London, 

Sigiri, the Lion Rock, Ceylon (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain 

and Ireland), by T. W. Rhys Davids, London, 1874. 
Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vol. IX., Part III., 

Yokohama, 1881. 
Travels in Ceylon and Continental India, by Dr. W. Hofimeister, 

Edinburgh, 1848. 
Tropical Agriculturist, Vol. L, Nos. 8 and 9, January and February, 

1882. Colombo, 1882. 
Voyage to the East Indies, by J. P. Stavorinus, 3 Volumes. 
Wesleyan Mission to Ceylon and India, by W, M. Haward, London, 


Committee Meeting. 
September 4, 1882. 

Present : 
C. Bruce, Esq., c.M.a., President, in the Chair. 
J. Capper, Esq: I W. Ferguson, Esq. 

A. C. Dixon, Esq. \ Hon. P. Rdma-Ndthan. 

H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Hon. Secretary. 

1.— Confirmed Minutes of Meeting of January 25th. 

2; — The Hon. Secretary stated that for want of suitable Papers it 
had been considered undesirable to convene a General Meeting since 
February, but that the following Papers were now available :— 

i. — ^^ Buddha's Sermon on Omens,'* by L. De Zotsa, Mah& 

ii. — ^^Descriptive List of ornaments worn by the Moorish Women 
in Cet/lon,'* by A. T. Shams-ud-dIn ; 

and that the following had been promised : — 

iii. — ** Folk Lore in Ceylon y' by W. Guj^atilaka. 

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PBOOEBDINGS.— 1 882. Ixix 

iv.— " On the Geological section laid bare at the sinking of the 
new Kelatii bridge y^ by A. C. Dixon. 

Decided to call a General Meeting for the Hth instant. 

3.— The Hon. Secretary stated that Journal Vol. VII,, Pt II., 
No. 24, 1881, which the Government Printing Office had been unable 
to issue earlier owing to continuous heavy pressure of work, would, 
he hoped, be ready for distribution very shortly, and that as the 
Government Printer had finally declared his inability to issue the 
Society's Transactions punctually, he (Hon, Secretary) had entrusted 
the Journal for the current year to the " Times of Ceylon" Press. 

4.— The Hon. Secretary announced that the new CUatalogue would 
also be out by the end of the month, and laid on the table copy of 
Part I., pp. 1—52. 

5. '—Submitted application from Mr. A. Haly, the Director of the 
Museum, to have his essay "On the Construction of Zoological 
Tables" published by the Society. Deferred. 

General Meeting. 
September 14, 1882. 

Present : 
The Hon, J. Douglas, C.M.G., Vice-Patron, in the Chair. 

C. Bruce, Esq., c.m.g* 

A. Bailey, Esq. 

J. Capper, Esq, 

J. Carbery, Esq., m.b.c.m. 

J. G. Dean, Esq., Hon.Tr. 

A. M.Ferguson, Esq., c.M.a. 

H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Hon. Secretary. 
1.— Read and confirmed Minutes of last General Meeting 
2. — The following Members were elected : — 

A. M. Ferguson, Esq., Jun. 
W. Ferguson, Esq., f.l.s. 
Hon. P. Rdma-Ndthan. 
W. P. Ranasi^ha, Esq. 
W. G. Rockwood, Esq., m.d. 
H. VanCuylenburg, Esq. 

Rev. C. Boyd, m.a. 
C. Edmonds, Esq., c.O.S. 
E. Elliot, Esq., c.cs. 
G. M. Fowler, Esq., c.c.s. 
E. R. Gunaratna, Atapattu 

F. Lewis, Esq. 

T. H. Lloyd, Esq. 

H. L. Moysey, Esq., cc.s. 

Rev. H. Newton, m.a. 

John Perera, Mudaliy^. 

J. H. De Saram, Esq., o.c.s. 

H. Wace, Esq., c.c.s. 

The Hon. J. F. Dickson, m.a., c.c.s., and W. Gunatilaka, Esq., 
were re-admitted members. 

3. — The Hon. Secretary laid on the table a list of books received 
since last meeting. 

(i.) The Hon. Secretary read a Paper, entitled *^ Buddha* s Sermon 
on OmenSf* by L, De Zoysa, Mah& Mudaliy&r. ^ 

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A short diseussion followed, in^ the cooFse of "whieh Mr. Bniee 
remarked that it appeared to him the best renderings to bring out 
the exaet meaning of the words '' etan timi^gala^ uitamaij^^ wonld 
be ^' these are the best things to bring luck ;" that this seemed to 
luBi to have a Tery appropriate meaning, more appropriate than th<e 
word "omen." 

lift reply to a remark from the Chairman, Mr. Bruce said thiat* 
undoubtedly the general meaning given to the words by the Mahfi 
Mudaliy&r was right, but perhaps not sufficiently comprehensive. 

At this stage of the proceedings the Lieutenant-»Govemor left, and ' 
Mr. Bruce took the Chair. 

(ii.) The Hon. Secretary read a Paper on ^^Folh Lore in Cepldn!* 
W. Qunatilaka, Esq. 

5.^The Meeting concluded with the usual vote of thankis to the 

A Paper, " Bvddka^s Sermon on Omens^^ by L. De Zoysa, Mahii 
Mudaliy&r, was first read. It was in reality, an essay in disproof of 
the theory that Buddha's teaching inculcated caste and supersti- 
tion; and quotations were^ given in^ support of this from the 
Buddhist Scriptures. Mr. De Zoysawas careful to emphasize the 
declaration with which his paper Gomn£Bnced, to the effect that the 
founder of Buddhism repudiated caste^ and superstition bo^ in 
theory and practice ; at the same time he admitted that in a country 
like (j6ylon in whichr Hinduism had prev^il^d before the introduc- 
tion of Buddhism, caste and superstition still exist, although in a 
modified form. 

At the conclusion of ihe Paper (which was somewhut technical in 
its contents), Mr. Bruce alluded to ihie particular words quoted by 
the aul^or as being Sanskrit. He had been in correspondence .with 
Mr. De Zoysa, but had not as yet had the reply he had hoped for. 
The word on which so much stress was laid appeared to. signify 
anything done to procure or invoke a blessing or success ; it wajsi 
even applicable to a portion of the marriage ceremony. 

The reading of 3ifir* Gunntrlaka's paper on " Folk' Lore in^ G^i&n** 
was then proceeded with, and was listened to with the interest 
the subject chimed. The author alluded to this fiiold of <re6eM*ch 
as one almost entirely neglected, but whieh offered^Uhe greatiest 
inducements for enquiry and research. A complete ccHleetion 
would ' of course be a work of time, but this work would be 
materially aided if Members who came' across any stories illustra- 
tive of the subject would publish them from tivie to time ^in the 
Society's Journal. His own contribution in the present instance 
was but the commencement of a work in which he trusted others 
wocdd joim Ho reminded his readers that Mi*. Stede, in his 
translation of the Kusa J&taka, had given as an i4>pendfz a ftfw- 
Siyhalese^ stcries to v^ch he added some reraacks. on the largo 
collection of household; sti^ies. thftt. mi^ be mader in.Gfl^'iiB... 

Digitized by 



PRocnDiNG8.--1882, Ixxi 

The author of the Paper related one story only, bat it was of aoffi- 
cient interest to render his Paper attractiye, and will no doubt be 
read by very many with great enjoyment. It was a story told in 
illustration of the strong powers held oyer a woman by avarice and 
cunning, and relates to the native custom of what is known amongst 
them as '^ giving and taking sil " at the hands of the Buddhist 

Mr. Edma-N&than believed that many of the household tales 
current in Ceylon partook freely of TamiJ characteristics ; indeed, 
he remembered a story similar to that just read to them^ in which 
all the characters were Hindis. 

Mr, James mentioned as a fact, that Sinhalese versions of many 
of the Western fairytales and legends were being printed at one or 
two native presses, and he believed there was a very active demand 
for all such works, as well as for purely Sinhalese stories.— -( Times 
^f Ceylon, September 15th, 1882.) 

Additions to Libngy. 

Ans^ug nach dem Adamspik auf Ceylon, by Franenfeld, Wien, 1859. 
Arabian Poetry for English Readers, by W. A, Clouston, Glasgow, 

Archaeological Notes on Ancient Scolpturings on rocks in Kumaon, 

India, by J. £L Bivett Garnac, b.o.s., Calcutta^ 1879. 
Buddha and early Buddhism, by A. Lillie, Londcm, 1881. 
Buddha and Jaina Religions, Historical Researches on the origin and 

principles of the, Bombay, 1847. 
Buddhist Catechism, by H. S. Olcott, Colombo^ 1881. 
Bibliotheca Indica, No. 6 1 ...Calcutta, 1 853. 









































• •• 



134, 36, 37, 38 

• .. 




• •• 



157, 60, 61 

■ .« 



166, 171, 180 




193, 185 




44, 202 




203, 6, 7, 8 








95, 215, 18, 19, 101 








142, 54, 221 

• •• 







209, 24, 25, 26 




227, 28, 37, 40, 42 

• •• 



228, 29, 30, 45, 57, 62 




Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Bibliotheca Indies, No. 208, 231, 32, 67, 69, 73, 74, 

78, 81, 83, 84, 90 ...Calcutta, 1873. 

Do. „ 233, 295, 96, 97, 98, 304, 8, 

9 ... do. 1874. 

Do. „ 310, 11, 15, 19, 20, 26, & 27 ... do. 1875. 

Do. „ 234, 35, 36, 33 1, 32, 33, 341, 

44,52,53,54 ... do. 1876. 

Do. „ 238, 39, 40, 860, 62, 63, 67, 

81,86,88 ... do. 1877. 

Do. „ 391, 96, 97j 400, 401, 3, 6, 

7, 8, 410, 11, 12 ... do. 1878. 

Do. Index to Vol. I. ... do. „ 

Do. Nos. 241, 358, 59, 417, 18, 419, 

31,32 ... do. 1879. 

Do. „ 242, 392, 93, 484, B5, 36, 

437, 38, 39, 42, 44, 45, 
447,49,450 ... do. 1880. 

Do. „ 243, 394, 95, 452, 54, 55, 

463, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 
69,470,71 ... do. 1881. 

Do. „ 244,45,472,73,74,75,76, 

477,78,79,80,81,82 ... do. 1882. 

Catalogue of Works on Natural History, Physics, &c., by Bernard 

Quaritch, London, 1881. 
Ceilon Beis naar het Land der Bayaderen, 3 Vols., by L. JacoUiot, 

Haarlem, 1876-7. 
Chronological Tables for Southern India, from the 6th Century A.D., 

by B. Sewell, c.s., Madras, 1881. 

D'Heidelberghse Catechismus Nederduytsen Cingalees. 

Dialogues in Canarese, with an English translation by B. G. Hodson, 

Bangalore, 1865. 
Dictionary, Canarese and English, by Bev. Beeve, Bangalore, 1858. 

Eeene Overland reis uit Indie naar Nederland in 1674^75. 

Faith of Islam, by Bev. E. Sell, London, 1880. 

Forest Administration in the North- Western Provinces and Oudh, 
by D. Brandis, f.b.s., g.i.e., Calcutta, 1882. 

Grammar of the Bengalee Language, by W. Carey, d.d., 1818. 

Do. Chinese Colloquial Language, by J. Edkins, B.A., 

Shanghai, 1857. 

Grammar of the Goojratee Language, by D. Forbes, Bombay, 1829. 

Het Heylige Evangelium Ouzes Heeren en Zaligmakers Jesu Christ!, 
Colombo, 1741. 

Indian Timber, Manual of, by Gamble, Calcutta, 1881. 

Institutes of Hindu Law, by G. C. Haughton, ji.A., f.b.s., &c., Lon- 
don, 1825, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

MOCBKDiNGS,— 1882. Ixxiii 

Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 
Aug, and Nov., 1881, Vol. 11, Nos. 1 and 2, London, 1881. 
Do. February, 1882, Vol. 11, No. 3. London, 1882. 

Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Extra Number to Part 1 for 
1880, Calcutta, 1880. 

Do. do. do. Vol.49, 

Part 1, Calcutta, 1880. 
Journal Asiatique, Septieme S^rie, Tome 8, Nos. 2 and 4, Paris, 1876. 




1 to3 








1 to 3 




1 to3 




1 to2 




1 to3 




1 to3 




1 to3 








1 to 3 




1 & 2 


, 1877. 





















Journal of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 

VoL 16, Part L, Shanghai, 1882. 
Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 8, 

Singapore, 1882, 

Kavikanta Bhdsaya (Sinhalese). 

Kort Begryp Der Christeljke Religie, Colombo, 1754. 

Lepidoptera of Ceylon, Part 3, (2 copies) by F. Moore, f.z.s., 
London, 1881. 

Do. „ 4 ( do. ) . do* 

Lapidarium Zeylanicum, by L. Ludovici, Colombo, 1877. 

Mastery Series (Spanish), by T. Prendergast, London, 1882. 

Milindapafiho, by V. Trenckner, London, 1880. 

Military Expedition to Candy in the year 1840, by Major Johnston, 

Dublio, 1854. 
Mind of Mencius, by Faber (Triibner*s Oriental Series),London, 1882. 
Miscellaneous Translations from Oriental Languages, Vols. 1 and 2, 

London, 1831-34. 

Naauwkeurige Beschryvinge van Malabar en Choromandel, by D. 
P. B^daeus, Amsterdam, 1672. 

Notulen van de Algemeene en Bestuurs-vergaderingen van Het 
Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, 
Deel 19, 1881, Nos. 2 to 4, Batavia, 1881-82. 

Oriental Biographical Dictionary, by T. W. Beale, Calcutta, 1881. 

Pdtimokkha, translated by J. F. Dickson, M.A., London, 1875. 
Phrase Book or Idiomatical Exercises in English and Canarese, 

Bangalore, 1857. 
Pilgrimage to El-Medinah and Meccah, hj "Ei. F, Burton, 3 Vols. 

London, 1855-56. 

_ Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Pre-histoiic Remains in Centtti India, by J. H. Bivett Camae, b.cs.^ 
Calcutta, 1879. 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. 10, December, 
1881. Calcutta, 1881. 

Do. do. Nos. 1 & 2, January and Feb- 

ruary, 1882. Calcutta, 1882. 

Reise nacb Ceylon, by Wolf, Berlin, 1782. 

Report of the Council of the Nortii-China Branch of Royal Asiatie 

Society for 1881. 
Report of the Third International G^graphical Congress, by Kreit- 

ner, Venice, 1881. 
Rough Notes on the Snake Symbol in India, by J. H. Riyett Camac, 

B.C.S., Calcutta, 1879. 
Sanskrit Manual, Part 1, by Prof. Monier Williams, London, 1862, 
Scenery and Reminiscences of Ceylon, by J. Deschamps, London, 

Singaleesch Gebeede Boek, Colombo, 17^7. 
Do, Belydenis Boek, do. 1738. 

Tamil Proverbs with English Translation, by Rev. Perciyal, Madras, 

The Thousand and One Nights, 3 Vols., by K W. Lane, London^ 

Thesaurus Zeylanicus, by Burmanni, Amsterdam, 1737. 
Tsuni, 1 1 Goam, The Supreme Being of the Khoi-Khoi, by T. Hahn, 

(Triibner's Oriental Series), London, 1881. 

V^handelingen van het Bataviaasch Oenootschap, Deel 41 and 41^* 

Batavia, 1881. 
Vinayapitakam, translated by Dr. Oldenberg, London, 1882. 

Warn&wali or Sinhalese First Book, by Earnn&ratna, Colombo, 188?. 

Yusuf and Zulaikha, by R. T. H. Griffith, (Trubner's Oriental 
Series), London, 1882. 

General Meeting. 
November 2nd, 1882. 

Present : 

P. Preiidenberg, Esq., in the Chair. 

W. E. James, Esq. | W. P. Ra^asi^ha, Esq, 

H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Hon. Secretary. 

J. M. P. Peries, Mudaliy&r, was introduced. 

1.— The Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

PROOEBDINGS. — 1 882. b^X7 

2.-^The following gentl^nen were duly elected Members :— * 

Hon. A. Alwis. 
A. Clarky Esq. 
J. Grrenier, Esq. 

N. P. K4sipil}ai, Esq. 
E. T. Noyes, Esq., o.c.s. 
J. De Senaviratna, Esq. 

J. M. P. Pieries, Mudalij&r, was re-admitted a Member. 
3. — List of works received for the Library since last Meeting wag 
laid on the table. 
4.— The Hon. Secretary read :^- 

{a) Letter, forwarded by Grovemqient, from the Assistant 
Government Agent, Putta}am, on. some ruins at Vehera- 
gala (near lOih mile-post, Anurddhapura road), recently 
discovered. A ground plan and sketch of the site accom- 
panied the Report. 

(&) Letter from L. De Zoysa, Mah&-Mudaliy&r, in. defence 
of his rendering of the word Mdmini by " O great man!*' 
in his note on the Veddds (C. A. S. Journal, Vol. YIL, 
PartIL, 1881, No. 24, p. 99.)* 

(c) "Notes on the Microscopical characteristics of Feathers,'* 
by F. Lewis, Esq. 

Mr. James then read portions of his Paper on ^ Sinhalese Folk- 

5. — ^A vote of thanks to the Chairman brought the Meeting to a 

* With reference to the Honorary Secretary's footnote On my rendering 
of the words Sh®^ (mdmin%\ * O great man/ to the effect that Bailey trans- 
lates * my gem,* I feel bound to state the reasons which led me to render 
the words as I have done. I recollect the late Mr. Bailey consulting me 
on the meaning of the words in question, and my telling him that i was 
unable to offer a satisfactory explanation. It will also be seen on refer- 
ence to my translation of one of these sonss published in the Ceylon 
Observer of 16th October, 1875, that I left these words untranslated, as 
I was not in a position then to offer a satisfactory translation. I have stated 
in my note that ** when at Badulla, in 1879, a low-country Sinhalese man 

fave me much information regarding the Vfddd.'* (Journal, Vol. VII., 
*t. II., p. 97). On enquiry of this man, he at oncer and without any hesi- 
tation explained that the word mdmini means 'great man* from md,* great* 
and mini, * man.* Mini in the V^dd dialect is the word used for man. It 
is evidently derived from the Sanskrit word ®-g (manu) * progenitor of 
mankind,* and ^iQd(manua?ia) 'man.* Hence the bi^halese ®i3&)3 {minihd) 
®«3e3» (minisd) and the Mildivian mihun (Sinhalese, ®tdg^ ? miniaun), 
I may add that in vernacular Sinhalese the word ®^ {mini) is used both 
as an adjective and a noun— ^.^., ®^<|^ic) {mini ^ta) means 'human bone,* 
®^e)(3 {fffini wala) a 'human grave,' ®^«)d'^e)9 {mini maranavod) is 'to 
kill men,* ®^qo {miniyd) a ' dead human body,* and it is also used for ' % 
faneral.* I think the words miffht also be translated * my (our) man*! but 
I have thought the rendering I have adopted more appropriate as it tallies 
with the well-known worship of the ancestors by the V^dd, who regard the 
«pirits of their dead as both men and god$, 

Kosgoda, 27th September, 1882. L. Db Zotza. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


The Hon. Secretary read a letter forwarded to the Society by the 
Colonial Secretary from the ABsietant Goyernment Agent (P. A. 
Tempier, Esq.) at Puttalam, on some ruins at a place called Vehera- 
galay situated about tW9 miles south of the 10th mile-post on the 
Anurddhapura road. 

These ruins consist for the most part of groups of stone pillars 
more or less roughly squared. The neighbourhood is so much over- 
grown with jungle that it is difficult fully to make out their formation, 
or to conjecture to what period they belong. The oval-shaped 
building was found on a rocky mound. Its base is constructed of 
slabs of rock laid upon oblong blocks. The building faces norths on 
which side there is a flight of stone steps, and its dimensions are 56 feet 
from N.S., and 78 feet from E. to W. 

The letter was accompanied by a sketch of the building, and a 
ground plan, as well as a copy of an inscription found on a slab near 
the flight of steps. 

Mr. lempler thinks the building could not be intended for a Tope 
or Ddgaba, owing to its oval shape ; at any rate, in that case it can 
never have been completed. 

A discussion on the letter followed, in which it was' agreed that it 
would be advisable to have the jungle in the neighbourhood cleared 
and experimental excavations made. It was also agreed to ask the 
opinion of Mr. Smither on the subject, and if necessary to refer the 
inscription to Dr. Miiller^the late Government Archseologist. 

The Honorary Secretary read a letter from Mahd Mudaliydr 
De Zoysa, in defence of his rendering of the word Mdmini by * O great 
man!' in his Paper on the Veddds, published in the last Journal of 
the Society, as opposed to the late Mr. J. Bailey^s translation * my 

A discussion ensued, and the consensus of opinion of those 
present seemed to be in favour of Mr. Bailey's translation. 

The Honorary Secretary then read Mr. F. Lewis's Paper, " Notes 
on the Microscopical characteristics of Feathers.^* It was pointed out 
that there is scope for more research in regard to the form and shape of 
feathers. A breast feather pulled from a well-known bird will show 
that in the basal region the quill supports a shaft, which in turn, 
towards the lower half of the feather, bears a fine thread-like process, 
say, one-tenth of an inch long, which Mr. Lewis calls the " sub-web 
ghaft.'' In the upper part of the feather this sub-web shaft is absent. 
Supposing a web-shaft is removed from the same feather and placed 
under a miscroscope of some power, the sub-web shaft will exhibit a 
series of point-like markings of a more or less modified character. 

The conclusion the author has arrived at, after examining a large 
series of Ceylon birds, is that they are modifications of an aboriginal 
form, his conclusion being derived from the fact that in remote 
periods of time, it is but fair to suppose, birds required a closer 
plumage than at present, in order to endure a colder temperature, and 
,to bring about that end a further addition to the sub-web ghaft 
would render most material assistance. By this peculiarity of struct 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

1>R00BEDINGS. — 1882i. * . Ixxvii 

ture, the writer believes we shall be able totrace the relative ages of 
existing forms of birds. 

Mr. Lewis's Paper was illustrated by some neat sketches of 
feathers. < 

In the ensuing discussion the Chairman remarked that the modi- 
fication of feathers on the di£ferent parts of the body of a bird was 
exactly what would be expected looking at the adaptation of means 
in all nature. Mr. Bell regretted that at present there were no other 
ornithologists in Ceylon who might have given their opinion on the 
subject ; he had referred the matter to Mr. Staniforth Green, but 
unfortunately the subject was not in that gentleman's range of 
study. Mr. W. K. James pointed out that the subject of feathers had 
already received attention at the hands of some British ornithologists, 
but that probably Mr. Lewis had had no opportunity of seeing any 
articles on the subject. It was also to be regretted that he had been 
unable to examine specimens of feathers of birds from higher lati- 
tudes, which would furnish, no doubt, additional evidence for or against 
his theory; but apart from the theory, the actual observations made 
by Mr. Lewis would be no doubt of considerable value. The existing 
forms of feathers were no doubt modifications of an ideal type feather, 
and could be accounted for by Darwin's theory of natural selection. 
Mr. Freiidenberg said he would be glad to send the Paper to the 
Berlin Academy for an opinion as to the signification of Mr, Lewis's 
experiments. This was unanimously agreed to. 

As Mr. W. P. Banasi^ha's Paper on " The connection of Sii^halese 
with the Modem A'ryan Vernaculars of India^^ was of a character 
which made it difficult to be read at the meeting, the President of 
the Society (C. Bruce, Esq., cm.q,,) had kindly prepared the follow- 
ing summary : — " In this Paper Mr. Ranasi^ha discusses the question 
whether the Sinhalese language is to be assigned to the Turanian 
or to the A'ryan or Lido-Germanic family. The evidence adduced to 
show that it must be assigned to the latter is drawn from the inflec- 
tional and analytical structure of the words ; from the distinction 
between nouns and verbs ; from the terminational indications of 
number and case in nouns ; and formation of personal terminations 
in verbs by abraded pronouns or pronominal types. From a compari- 
son of the numerals as a part of language, which retains its forms with 
the greatest tenacity, it is that the Siijjhalese has followed, with the 
remarkable fidelity, the Prdkrit language or dialect, which Professor 
Max Miiller takes to be the basis of all A'ryan vernaculars of India. 
Consistently with the modifications found in the structure of Prdkrit 
forms, the Sinhalese language avoids the combination of two or more 
consonants without an intervening vowel ; drops consonants in the 
middle of words, and avoids hiatus either by coalition of words or the 
insertion of semi- vowels. These evidences are followed by a com- 
parison of the Sinhalese names for the members of the body with 
those of the A'ryan vernaculars of India. Mr. Ranasi^a then formu- 
lates certain laws, 13 in number, which he finds controlling the 
modifications of Sanskrit and Prdkrit forms by vowel and consonant 
changes in Sinhalese, The Paper closes with a long list of words, in 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ixxyiii botal astatic sooiktt (obtlon bbanoh). 

which, Bubjeot to stich modifications^ are P&li, Pr&krit> Sanskrit and 
several of the modem A'rjan yernaculars of India." 

Mr. Rai^asipha's Paper was looked upon as of the highest interest 
and value, and it is to be hoped that the Societ j will have still more 
results of his scholarship. 

The Paper on ** Sinhalese Folh-lore,*' by Mr. W. K. James, con- 
tains some interesting details regarding the social character and 
habits of the people of this countrj. There is amongst the Sinhalese 
a strong attachment to home and friends, and there are reminiscences 
dear to him which recall the days of his childhood. It is natural, 
therefore, that home stories exercise influence on him, and that these 
are stored up in his memory. In the night, as two or three villagers 
sit guarding their ripening p&di, it is the recital of these stories 
which wile away the long hours of watching. Some of the stories 
related are not very complimentary to the intelligence of the Sinha- 
lese villager, but nevertheless the folk-lore whidi has been handed 
down from generation to generation illustrates the ways and the 
words of much of the rural population, and in this sense they are Ml 
of interest,— ( Times of Ceylon, November 4th^ 1882.) 

Additions to Library. 

Accessions to Indian Museum, Appendix A., 1881. 

Archaeological Survey of India, Vols. 13 and 14, by MaJOT-Gkneral 

A. Cunningham, Calcutta, 1882. 
Bibliotheca Indica, new series, Nos. 477, 81, Calcutta, 1882. 
Catalogue of Mammalia. 
Forest Administration in the several Provinces under the Govam* 

ment of India, for 1880-81, Simla, 1882. 

Geology of Wisconsin, Vol, 3, 1873-79, (with Atlas), 1880. 

History of the Egyptian Bel igion, London, 1882. 

History of Hyder Shah alias Hyder Ali Khan Bahadur, or New 

Memoirs concerning the East Indies, with Historical Notes, 

by M. M. D. L. T., 1848. 

Indian Museum Bepprt, Calcutta, 1881. 

International Numismata Orientalia, Vol. 3, Part I., L(mdon, 1882. 

Journal Asiatique, Septime Serie, Tome 10, No. 3, October, Novem- 
ber and December, 1877, Paris. 
. Journal Asiatique, Septime S^ie, Tome 19, No. 3, April, May and 
June, 1882, Pmis, 1882. 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol, 51, Part I., 
No. 2, 1882, Calcutta, 1882. 

Le Bouddha et sa JEleligion, Paris, 1862, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Notulen van de Algemeene en Bestuurs en Vergaderingen yan het 

Bataviaarch Genootschap van kunsten, &c., Deel 20, No. 1, 

P&li Manuscript written on Papjms, preserved in the Library of the 

American Monastery^ St. Lazarus, hj J« F. Dickson, ii.A«9 

Venice, 1880. 
Proceedings, Ko\ al Asiatic Society of Bengal, Nes. 3, 4, 5 and 6 for 

March, April, May and June, 1882, Calcutta, 18b2« 
Pali Literature, by R, Morris, m.a., ll.d., 1881. 

Rechercfaes sur la Geographie Ancienne de Ceylon, by E. Bnmonf, 

Beis door het Eiland Ceilon, by Haafner, Amsterdam, 1810. 

Sacred Books of the East, Vols. 8, 12, 13, and 16, by Prof. Max 

MuUer, Oxford, l8bl-82. 
Siyhalese Works ;^ 

^sop's Fables, ••• Colombo, 1882, 

Antara Warana, 


Bambaydgaya alias Waisyatuyaya, 

Barasakavya , 


Buddhism in Thibet, 

ChittraDga Comedy, 

Dinatara Comedy, by Silra, 

Dunuwila Hatane, 

History of Kiog Atula. 

History of Princess Rolina and 
Prince Hersor, 

Janadharma Vikdsaniya, 

Jayama^galya Gdthd, 

Kavacha 8angrahaya, 

Kaliyga B6dhi Jatakaya, 



Makhad^wa Jatakaya, 

Minichora Jatakaya, 

M<5da Male, 

Nawau dmd- waliya, 

>iimi Jdtakaya, 

Ova Situmina,- 

Patiwratd Wadaya, 

Panadure Wddaya, 

Pirit Pota, 

Publications of Mirip^nne Priest, 



8idatsangar& Liyana Sanne^ 

Si wraluha^nay a , 

Salamb4w<iti Comedy, 











99 ' 




















































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Bi^leise Works — eonid. .*— 

Telp&tra Jatakajft, 


Wessantara Comedj^ 


Weda Hatane, 

Wessantara J&takajA^ 

Wiydga Mdlaja, 

Warnarltiya, with Sinhalese Grammar » 

WadurusaDgarawa alias WasurisaDgrahajay , 

Wandapawkatawa and Darunelawilla, 

Tannartha Dipani^ 

Yamakapr&ti hdriya and Saddharma Sa^grahaja^ Colombo, 
Smithsonian Report, 1880. 
Sounds and their Relations, by Bell, London, 1882. 

Tabel van Oud-en Nieuw ludische Alphabatten, hj K. Holle, 1882, 
Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, Vol. 10, Part 1., Yoko- 
hama, 1882. 
Tropical Agriculturist, Vol. 1, No. 31, Colombo, 1882. 
Do. Vol. 2 , Nos . 1 — 3 „ 1 882. 

Verhandlungen des Vereins fiir Meturwitsenschaffllishe Unterhfd- 
tung zu Hamburg, 1877, Hamburg, 1879. 

Colombo, 1881. 















^yat *> 






December 15, 1882. 

Present : 
W. Fergusoh, Esq* | J. Capper, Esq. 

H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Hon, Secretary. 

1.— Minutes of last meeting read and confirmed. 

2, — Decided to convene the Annual Meeting on the fi2nd instant 
for the reception of Committee's Annual Report and election of Office 
Bearers for the ensuing year. 

3.— Read letter from O. Bruce, Esq., C.M.G., resigning the 
Presidentship of the Society on his departure for Mauritius. 

Resolved, — That the Hon. Secretary be directed to send a suitable 
reply, expressing the Committee's great regret at losing Mr. Bruce 
from the Society and their deep acknowledgment of his serrices as 

Further Resohed.'^Th&t the letter of resignaticm be r«ad at the 
Annual Meeting* 

4. — Discussi^ Certain proposed alterations to the rules of the 
Society and decided oa amendments to be ittbmitted to Annual 
Meeting for sanetion^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

VBOcnDQ)iiffM.^*»1882. Ixxxi 

5. — Proceeded to nominate Office Bearers for 1883. Deeidkd to 
invite the Hon. W. H. BaTenscroft to accept the Preeidentshipy and 
G. Wall, Esq,, r.o.s., and the Hon. J. F. Dickson^ m jl., c.o.s., to 
become Vice-Presidents. 


W. Ferguson, Esq., f.l*s. 

P. Freiidenberg, Esq. 

Rev. E. F. Millar, m,a. 

J. L« Yanderstraaten^ Esq., ifJ>. 

T. Berwick, Esq. 
W. Blair, Esq. 
J. Capper, Esq. 
J. B. Cull, Esq. 
Major A. Ewing. 

Hon* Treasurer, J. G. Dean, Esq. 

JSTcm, Secretary, H. C. P. Bell, Esq. 

6« — The Hon. Secretary stated that the following Papers had been 
sent in, and would be circulated ^mong the Beading Committee in 
due course f^ 

i.— " CeyUm Gypnet^ by J. P. Lewis, Esq., c.cs. 
ii. — ^^ Notes on Sir^halese Inscriptions,^* by Dr. E. Miiller. 
iii.-^'' Omit/ioiogical Notes from the Bogawantaldwa District,* 
by F. Lewis, Esq. 
^lY^'^*^ Buddhist Meetinffs,*' hj the Hon, J. F. Dickson, u»k., 


Anxual Mebtin«. 
December 22, 1882. 

Present : 
The Hon. W. H. Ravenscroft, Vice-President, in the Chair, 

T. H. Lloyd, Esq. 

J. M, Peries, Mudaliy&r 
. J. H. de Saram. Esq. 
G. WaU, Esq., Vice-Presldeat, 

W. Blair, Esq. 
J. Capper, Esq. 
W, Ferguson, Esq. 
P. Frefidenberg, Esq. 
W. K. James, Esq. 

H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Honorary Secretary* 

l.-^Read and confirmed Minutes of General Meeting held on No- 
vember 2nd. 

2.— The Secretary drew attention to the rules of the Society. He 
said some suggestions for the amendment of the rules bad been 
received, but he thought it would be better to let the matter lie over 
till the next annual General Meetiug. There were two rules in 
particular which seemed to require revision. The first related to the 
Committee. The Committee, as at present constituted, consisted of 
nine members. The suggestion was to alter the wording of the rule 
so as to make it read *^ not less than nine members." The second 
rule was with reference to the Papers read be£»re the Society. The 

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existing rule is that Papers should be sent in to the Secretary ^' at least 
a week before the meeting at which they are to be read is held.'' It 
had been found that a week was not sufficient to allow of the Papers 
being circulated among the members of the Reading Committee and 
properly digested by them. It was therefore proposed to go back to 
the former rule and alter " week" to *' fortnight," or, better still, 
^^ three weeks." He had compared the existing rules with those in 
force twenty years ago, and he found they were substantially the 
same. A complete revision seemed desirable. 

Mr. Wall suggested that, if any particular rules were found to 
be inconvenient, they might be properly amended at once, leaving a 
general revision of the rules for the next Annual Meeting. 

Some discussion ensued on the two rules, and it was eventually 
decided to leave the rules as regards the Committee intact, but to 
alter the rules as regards the time by which Papers should be sent in 
to the Secretary to *' a fortnight." 

3. — The Secretary read the following letter from Mr. Bruce^ 
conveying his resignation as President of the Society :-^ 

Colombo, 13th December. 

Dear Sir, — I am very sorry that my departure from Cejlon has been 
hurried by my having to catch the next Mauritius steamer from Aden, that 
I have had no opportunity of taking formal leave of the Asiatic Society, 
My appointment as Colonial Secretary of Mauritius makes it necessary for 
me to resign the office of President of the Society. In doinjr so, I desire 
to express to the Society my sense of the great distinction they conferred 
upon me by electin<r me to the post. I shall always retain a very grateful 
sense of the good-will the Society has shown me and an agreeable recol- 
lection of our work together. • * I trust that the Society will 
long continue to flourish, and that every year will find in the pages of the 
Transactions and Journals contributions of a value equal to the last few 
years. With many friendly recollections and all good-wishes, 

Believe me, &c., 

H. 0. P. Bell, Esq., Hon. Sec. Chas. Bbucb. 

The Secretary said that it was.his duty to announce that the only 
remaining Vice-President, Hon. W. H. Ravenscroft, had consented 
to accept the office of President, and he felt sUre Mr. Ravenscroft'a 
election would be unanimously approved. 

Mr. J. H. De Saram proposed and Mr. T. H. Lloyd seconded 
that the following gentlemen be elected Office Bearers for the ensuing 
year :— 

[His Excellency the Governor is the Patron, and the Hon, J. 
Douglas, O.M.G., Vice- Patron.'] 

President, — Hon. W. H. Ravenscroft. 

Vice-Presidents. — Hon. J. F. Dickson, i£.A., cc.s., and Geo. Wall, 
Esq., F.C.S, 

Treasurer, — J. G, Dean, Esq. 

Secretary.^H. 0, P. Bell, Esq., cc.s. 

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PROOKEDiNas,— 1882. Ixxxiii 

The following gentlemen were invited to join the Committee : — 
T. Berwick, Esq.; W. Blair, Esq.; J. Capper, Esq.; J. B. Cull, Esq., 
M.A.; Major Ewing ; W. Ferguson, Esq., p.l.s.; P. Freiidenberg, Esq.; 
Rev. E. F. Miller, m a.; and J. L. Vanderstraaten, Esq., m.d. . 

The motion was carried nem. con. 

Hon. W. H. Ravenscroft rose and thanked the members for 
electing him President. He said : "Gentlemen, — In accepting the 
honor, which I have much pleasure in doing now, of President of the 
Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, I feel that it is but 
right and fitting that I should do so with very great diffidence. I 
feel that there are many others that are far more able to fill the 
position, which is one of no small responsibility, and which requires 
an amount of special knowledge that is possessed by many other 
members of the Society in a far greater degree than myself. I trust, 
however, with the assistance of our able and energetic Secretary, who 
is thoroughly conversant with the matters and subjects which come 
within the scope of this most valuable Association, that the records 
of the coming year will show that much good and useful work has 
been done, and that at its close we may all feel we have gained much 
valuable knowledge. In conclusion, I would advert to the great loss 
we have sustained in the departure of our late President, Mr. Bruce, 
who was possessed to a remarkable degree of the talents and special 
knowledge required to further the interests of the Royal Asiatic 
Society. While deploring our loss, I am sure you will all join me in 
cordially congratulating Mr. Bruce upon the well-merited advance- 
ment (hear, hear) he has received, and the sincere hope that further 
promotion will be his lot ere long." (Applause.) 

A cordial vote of thanks to Mr. Bruce for his services as President 
was carried with acclamation. 

5. — The Secretary laid on the table the usual financial statement 
prepared by the Honorary Treasurer, showing a balance to the good 
of Rs. 141-08. 

6.— The Secretary then read the Annual Report of the Committee 
on the past year, as follows : — 


"The Society has reason to be satisfied with the work of the past 
year. The signs of returning life put forth in 1881 have continued 
to develope since, and afford ground for the belief that the Society 
has once more passed out of a critical stage, and is in a fair way to 
regain its former vigour. It is additionally encouraging to feel 
assured by the friendly congratulations of kindred bodies in other 
parts of the world that the well-being of the Ceylon Branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society is a matter of cordial interest far outside this 

** Your Central Committee has endeavoured, as far as practicable 
in Colombo, to further the Society's interests, but would take this 
opportunity of inviting the more active co-operation of members in 
general, and particularly of out-station members. There is need for 
this appeal. An institution of this nature must rely for support 

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ahnoBt entirely on itself and cannot look for permanent success un- 
less individual members will bear a share in the work as a whole. 
That the necessity for this inter-dependence between the trunk — so to 
speak — and its limbs is not sufficiently recognized, the Committee 
have to notice with regret Non-resident members — and a largo 
proportion come under this category — ^have, speaking generally, better 
means of prosecuting the literary and scientific studies within the 
Society's scope. The field of research is for them necessarily wider 
and more varied. Detailed accounts of outlying districts-— of the 
pursuits, peculiar superstitions, and folklore of the natives, which 
would rightly find no place in condensed official Administration 
Reports — should furnish material for a series of Papers eminently 
suitable for our Journal. What in unpretentious fashion a Lewis 
could perform for Safiragam * or a Brodie for Ohilawf might well 
be followed by many an outstation Government officer, or private 
estate owner, desirous of throwing all possible light on the condition 
of the people themselves and the commercial prospects of particular 

** Many branches of inquiry naturally suggest themselves. Such 
are specified in the preamble to our Rules and Regulations. Thus the 
able investigations of Drs. Goldschmidt and Miiller in recent years 
have given prominence to the subject of archaeology. 1 his is one of 
the principal objects contemplated by the Society, and well worthy the 
assiduous study of its members. Further inquiries conducted syste- 
matically sure likely to yield discoveries of no less moment, A recent 
report by Mr. P. A. Templer, c.c.s., received through Government, 
on the hitherto unknown ruins at Yeheragala, between Putta}am and 
Anurddhapura, is a case in point. 

" Members, — During the year, 22 new members were elected, and 8 
gentlemen, formerly members, re-admitted to the Society. By death 
or other causes, we have lost 7 members. There are at present 10 
life-members (among whom the Lord Bishop of Colombo has recently 
been enrolled), four honorary members, and 1 1 1 ordinary menabers, 
or a total numerical strength of 125, as compared with 109 in 1881, 
and 72 in 1880. This steady increase is another proof that the 
Society is growing in favour. 

*^ Meetings. — ^Three general meetings have been held ; the first in 
February and one each in September and November. As pointed out 
in the last year's Report, much of the success of such a Society as this 
depends upon frequent and regular meetings, and the Committee re* 
gret that an interval of seven months should have elapsed between die 
first and second meeting. This was partly due to the great difficulty 
of convening meetings in Colombo during the hot season, and partly, 
it must be confessed, to the apathy of the memb^s themselves in not 
keeping the Hon. Secretary supplied with a sufficiency of Papers. 

** Papers. ^Thia apathy has, however, been condoned duriug the 
last few months. In response to a special call by the Honorary 

* C. A, S. Joum., 1S40. f C. A. B. Joum., IBSB. 


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PE00ABDIK6S.— 1 882. ItXXV 

Secretary, federal Papers of considerable interest were sent in and 
read at the meetings of September and November. Others sineo 
received will shortly be circulated among the Reading Committee in 
anticipation of a meeting early next year, whilst more have been 
definitely promised. The following Papers were read at general 
meetings during the year :— * 

1, — Abstract of Professor Virchow's Monograph on the Veddds 

of Ceylon. Uber die PTeddas von Ceilon und ihre Bnziehun' 

gen zu den Nachbarst'dmmen^ by the President, C. Bruce, 

Esq., c.M.o. 

2. — Abstract of a paper on '* Nirwdna," by Professor M. Kiint^, 

also by the President. 
3. — Extracts from Mr. Albert Gray's translation from the French 
of the Mdldive portion of Ibn Batata's Travels {^Voyages 
dHhn Batoutdh, Tome, 4e 1 10—185, Paris, 1879.) 
4. — ** Ceremonies and Customs connected with Padi Cultiva- 
tion," by H. C. P. Bell, Esq., Honorary Secretary. 
5. — ** Buddha's Sermon on Omens," by L. de Zoyza, Mahd 

6.—** Folk-lore in Ceylon,** by Mr. W. Gunatilaka. 
?• — ** Notes on the Microscopical Characteristics of Feathers," by 

P. Lewis. 
8. — Abstract of Mr. W. P. Ranasi^ha's Paper on *' Sinhalese as 
compared with the modern A'ryan Vernaculars of India," by 
the President. 
9.—** Siyhalese Folklore," by W. K. James. 

"All these Papers will appear in the Journal for the yean 

"The outlook for 1883 is no less satisfactory. Mr. Ranasi^ha has 
promised to follow up his valuable contribution to Siyhalese philo- 
logy by a further Paper on the same subject. 

•* Dr. E. Miiller has sent out for the Society "Notes on Sinhalese 
Inscriptions " in continuation of those published by the late Dr. 
Goldschmidt and himself in our Journals of 1879 and 1880 (Nos. 20 
and 21.) 

Louis De Zoysa, Mahd Mudaliy&r, has in hand a short Paper enun- 
ciating Buddha's view of caste. 

** Mr. F. Lewis is turning his ornithological studies to some purpose 
and has favoured the Committee with some " Ornithological Notes 
from the Bogawantaldwa district." There is perhaps too prevalent 
an opinion that Captain Legge has quite exhausted the subject of 
Ceylon Birds, and it is to be hoped that the example set by Mr, Lewis 
will bring out similar workers in other districts. 

" Mr. J. P. Lewis, c.c.s., has prepared an account of the little 
known " Ceylon Gypsies"— a class to which the snake charmers 
and jugglers who haunt the precints of our hotels would seem to 

•*The Hon. J. F. Dickson, m.a., c.c.s., has promised a Paper on 
*' Buddhist Meetings." Mr. A. C. Dixon has one nearly ready on 
*' The Geological lection of the new E^lai^i Bridge," which is likely 

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to bear curiously on the legendary history of Lai^ka. In addition to 
these, some of the Papers alluded to in the President's address last 
year will probably see the light in the course of 1883. 

^^ Pjihlications. — The Society's Transactions have not appeared as 
regularly as could be wished. This is attributable to the pressure of 
•work in the Government Printing Office, and has been unavoidable. 
The Committee has therefore reluctantly decided to face the cost of 
printing at other presses, and has entrusted the Journal for 1882 to the 
" Times of CeylonV Press. The Government Printing Office was, 
however, able to turn out, in its usual excellent style, the " Proceed- 
ings, 1881," and "Journal No. 24, 1881, Pt. 11. ", besides a reprint 
of 'Journal Vol. VI., No. 1, 1853" (now classed as Vol. II., No. 6), 
and may possibly be able to help us from time to time. 

'^Upon the recommendation of the President, a special grant of 
Bs. 100 was made to Mr. W. Gu^atilaka, of Kandy, towards his new 
edition of Panini's Sutras. A portion of the work ( Vol. I., pp. 1 — 49), 
printed in Bombay, has been issued in connection with the last num- 
ber of the Society's Journals 

" With the object of rendering the translation of Ibn Batuta's Tra- 
vels — offered to the Society by Mr. Albert Gray in 1881 — more 
valuable by the accurate identification of places, proof sheets of the 
Ceylon portion printed side by side with l5r. Lee's version were dis- 
tributed among members and others whose assistance were courted. 
Some excellent suggestions have been received, and these, with Mr. 
Gray's own notes and others which the Hon. Secretary (Mr. H. C. P. 
Bell, C.C.8.,) will be in a position to supply for the section relating 
to the Maldives, will ensure an interesting and important addition 
to our knowledge of the history of Ceylon and its dependency. 

" Library, — By presentations and purchase the library has gained 
a considerable accession of books and pamphlets. A catalogue on 
the alphabetic system has at length been compiled — thanks in great 
measure to the generous aid of one of our members, Mr. W. E. 
Davidson, cc.s. The want had begun to be seriously felt owing to the 
very considerable additions with which the library had been en- 
riched since the issue of the last catalogue in 1870. This had long 
been out of print. *' By the removal to the Museum building in 1876 
of the books belonging to the Society" — we quote from the preface— 
*' the majority of members was virtually debarred from the use of 
the library. This ban was but partially removed by subsequent 
resolutions of the Museum Committee. Its former privileges have 
liow, however, been restored to the Society generally, whilst outsta- 
tion members have the further boon secured to them of being enabled, 
under the new library rules, to take out books, &c." This will tend 
to minimize the disadvantage under which they labour of rarely being 
able to attend the Society's meetings, and be a fairer compensation 
than the receipt of the Transactions alone for their subscriptions. 

** Money. — The Hon. Treasurer's statement of the year's accounts 
laid on the table shows a balance of Rs. 141*08. This is likely to be 
augmented before the close of the year by the recovery of subscriptions 
and entrance fees outstanding to the amount of Rs. 233. A large 

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proportion of the funds, Rs. 607*54 , has again been devoted to 
the purchase and binding of books for the library. The new cata- 
logue cost Rs, 260*50 — an exceptional charge which must be incurred 
periodically. Under special payments appear a grant to Mr. W. 
Gunatilaka of Rs. 100 towards his edition of Pdnini, and Rs. 59*08, 
five years' subscription to the P&li Text Society lately started in 
England. Against the balancoi however, the prospective cost of the 
year's Journal must be set. 

^^ Presidents Address. — The hurried departure of Mr. Bruce for his 
new sphere of work in Mauritius precluded the possibility of the 
usual address by the President at the annual meeting. The exhaus- 
tive address with which Mr. Bruce opened his tenure of the Presi- 
dent's office last December gave earnest of a like interesting close to 
our Proceedings this year, and had circumstances allowed of Mr. 
Brace's remaining a few weeks longer in Ceylon this anticipation 
would no doubt have been fulfilled. The letter of resignation whidi 
has been read was not needed to prove the sincere active interest 
Mr. Bruce ever continued to take in the Society. In recording its 
keen sense of the hearty and substantial aid rendered by Mr. Bruce, 
and its deep regret at losing him from fhe Society, your Committee 
is confident that it expresses the genuine feeling of the Society." 

Mr. Capper proposed, and Mr. Wall seconded, that the Report be 
adopted.— Carried, 

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•-HIOC^ OP 00100304 

I0t«00«i-H<^ <0 OD G^ ««• 
•-H <0 ^ C4 ^ 





















lis a 




I "SI 
S a. 

bo 9 ^ 'C " 

PhP-i 00 02 03 



eo 00 

00 CO 

Tt< o 

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(Corrected up to December BUt, 1882.) 

Life Mbmbebs. 

Copleston, Eeginald, The Eight 
Reverend d.d., Lord Bishop of 

Davids, T. W, Rhys. 

Dawson, R. 

Ferguson, A. M., CM.a* 

Ferguson, A. M., Jr. 
Ferguson, D, W. 
Ferguson, J. 
Grant, J. N. 
Gunn, J. 
I^icholson, Rev. J. 

HoNOBABT Members. 

Gray, A. 
Holdsworth, E. 
Eiint^, M. M. 

De Zoysa, L., Mah& Mudaliy&r. 
Military Medical Officers in 



I<«R*G«9., C*C«9. 

. L., C.O.S. 
i.) C.O.S. 

Alwis, Hon. A. L 

Arneil, J. A. 

Bailey, J. B. A., c.c.8. 

Baumgartner, G. A., c.C.s. 

BeU, H. C. P., CCS. 

Berwick, T. 

Blair, W. 

Boake, W. J. I 

Boyd, Rev, C. 

Browne, G. D, 

Burrows, S. M. 

Capper, J, 

Carbery, J., m.b., CM. 

Churchill, J. F., M.I.CS. 

Clarke, A. 

Coghill, J. D. M., M.D. 

Conolly, P. W., ccs. 

Coomdra Swdmy, P. 

Crawford, M. S., CO. 8. 

Cull, J. B., M.A. 

Daendliker, P. 

Davidson, W. E., ccs. 

Dean, J. G. 

Dias, C. P., Mahd Mudaliydr. 

Dias, W.A., M.D., St. Andrevfs^ 

M.B.C.S., L.S.A., England. 
Dickman^ C.^ ccs. 


Dickson, Hon. J. F., m.a., ccsi. 

Dixon, A, C, b. s.c, p.cs. 

Douglas, Hon. J., cm.g. 

Duncan, W. H. G., f.r.g.s. 

Dunlop, C. E., ccs. 

Edmonds, C, ccs. 

Elliott, E., ccs. 

Ewing, A., Major. 

Ferguson, W., p.l.s. 

Fernando, Rev. C. J. B., O.S.B. 

Fowler, G. M., ccs. 

Freudenberg, P. 

Fyers, Hon. Col. A. B., r.e. 

Green, H.W., ccs. 

Green, S. 

Grenier, J. 

Grenier, S., j.p. 

Grinlinton, J. J. CE.^ F.R.CS. 

Gunatilaka, W, 

Gunaratna, E. R., Atapattu 

Haines, W. G., ccs. 
Hill, G. C, B.A. 
Hope, Adrian, 
levers, R. W., m.a., ccs. 
James, W.K., f.r.g.s.,f.r.hist.s. 
Jayatilaka, S.^ Mudaliy&r 

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Javawardima, A., Mudaliy&r 

Kasipillai, N. P. 

Ejiisey) W. B^ M.K.Q.C.PJ., l.b. 


Lawrie^ A. C. 

Lee, L. F.^ c.cs. 

Le Mesurier^ C. J. B.^ acs. 

Lewis, F. 

Lewis, J. P., M.A.y C.C.8. 

Lloyd, T. H. 

Loos, F. C. 

Loos, J., M.D., Si. Andrew\ 

M.R.C.P., L.B.C.S., Edinburgh. 
Mason^ J. D., c.c.s. 
Miller, Rev. E. F., m.a. 
Morgan, J. F., M.R.C.S., Eng* 

land, H.B., CM., Aberdeen. 

Moss, A. S., A.MJ.C.E., F.M.S. 

Moysey, H. L., cc.s, 
Nell, L. 

Nevill, A., C.C.8. 
Newton, Be v. H,, M.A. 
Noyes, E. T., o.c.s, 
Perera, E. F. 
Perera, J., Mudaliy&r 
Perera, J. M. 

Pieris, J. M, P., Mudaliyfir 
Plaxton, J. W., M.B.C.S.^ L.S.A. 
Price, F. H., cc.s. 
Pyemont-Pyemont, L. O., 

R^aksa, S. D'A. W^ j.p., 

B&ma-N&than, Hon. P., j.p. 
Ba^asifliha, W. P. 
Bavenscroft,Hon. W. H., c.cs. 
Bobioson, E. 

Bockwood, W. 6., M.D., Jfaifro^. 
Sajarajasinham, N. 
Saram, J. H. De, c.cs. 
Saunders, Hon. F. B., ccs. 
Sazton, G. S., C.cs. 
Seneviratna, J. De 
Sharpe, W. E. T., c.cs. 
Skeen, W. L. H. 
Soysa, C. H. De, j.p. 
Stoddart, H. J. 
Tate, L. J. E. G., ccs. 
Thomas, A. H. 
Trimen, H., m.b., f.l.s. 
Van Cuylenberg, H. 
Yanderstraaten, J. L. m.d., 

^»B.c.p., St. Andrew's; l.s.a., 

London; L.B.C.S., Edinburgh. 
VanDort, W. G., m.d., cm., 

Wace, H., ccs. 

Wall, G, F.B.A.S., P.L.S. 

Wardrop, J. G. 
White, H., ccs. 
Worthington, G. E., c.cs. 
Wragg, W. T., b.a, ccs. 

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The Asiatic Society of Ceylon was instituted 7tb February, 1845, 
and by the unanimous vote of a Special General Meeting of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, held on the 7th February, 1846, it was 
declared a branch of that Society, under the designation of 
" The Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.*' 



1 . The design of the Society is to institute and promote inquiries 
into the History, Religions, Languages, Literature, Arts, and Social 
Condition of the present and former inhabitants of this Island, with 
its Geology and Mineralogy, its Climate and Meteorology, its Botany 
and Zoology. 


2. The Society shall consist of Resident or Ordinary, Hono- 
rary, and Corresponding members ; all elected by ballot at a General 
Meeting of the Society, 

(a) Members residing in Ceylon are considered Resident. 

(5) Persons who contribute to the objects of the Society in an 
^ eminent and distinguished manner are, on the recommen- 

dation of the Committee, eligible as Honorary members. 

(c) All Military Medical Officers in Ceylon are Honorary 
members of the Society. 

(rf) Persons residing at a distance from Colombo may, upon 
special grounds, and on the recommendation of the Com- 
mittee, be elected Corresponding members. 

Entrance Fee and Subscriptions. 

3. Every Ordinary member of the Society shall pay, on ad- 
mission, an entrance fee of Rs. 6*25, and an annual subscription of 
Rs. 10' oO. Annual subscriptions shall be considered due on the 1st 
of January of each year. Members who fail to pay their subscriptions 
by the end of the year (provided they have been called for) shall be 
considered, ipso factor to have relinquished their connection with the 
Society. Member^ who have been absent from Ceylon have the 
privilege of rejoining the Society within twelve months of their return 
to the Island, on payment of the subscription for the current year. 

(a) The privilege of Life membership may be ensured by the 
payment of: — (i) Rs, 105, with entrance fee on admission 
to the Society!; (ii) Rs. 84, after two years' subscription ; 
(iii) Rs. 73*50, after/our or more years' subscription. 

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(b) Honorary and Corresponding members shall not 'be subject 
to any entrance fee or subscription, and are to be admitted 
to the meetings of the Society and to the privilege of its 
library, but are not competent to vote at meetings, to be 
elected to any of its offices^ or take any part in its private 

(c) Persons desirous of rejoining the Society may be re-admit- 

ted members without entrance fee^ subject to the discretion 
of the Managing Committee. 


4. The office-bearers of the Society shall be, a President, two 
Vice-presidents, a Treasurer, aad a Secretary, all appointed by open 
vote at the Annual Meeting of the Society ; and their functions shall 
be as follows: — 

(a) The President, or in his absence one of the Vice-Presidents, 
fihall take the Chair at all Meetings of the Society and of 
the Committee, maintain order, collect the votes, and cause 
the laws of the Society to be observed and enforced. 

(b) The Treasurer shall receive, collect, and pay out all moneys 

on behalf of the Society, keep an account thereof, including 
the vouchers, and submit a statement of the pecuniary 
affairs of the Society to the Annual Meeting and at all 
otha: times as may be required. 

(c) The Secretary shall arrange,, give notice of, and attend all 

meetings of the Society and of the Committee, and record 

their proceedings. He shall also edit the Journal, and 

exercise a geperal superintendence under the authority of 

the Committee. • 

In the event of any office-bearer leaving the Colony for three (3) 

months, it shall be competent for the Committee to fill up the office 

at the next General Meeting. 


5. The affairs of the Society shall be managed by a Committee 
of nine members (with power to add to their number) in addition 
to office-bearers, and elected in like manner ; but subject always to 
the rules and regulations passed at General Meetings. Three to 
form a quorum. 

Mode of Admission. 

6. Members desirous of proposing candidates for admission to 
the Society shall give notice to the Secretary, in writing, at least a 
fortnight before the assembly of any General Meeting. Admission 
to membership of the Society shall be by ballot at any General 
Meeting. No candidate to be considered as elected unless he has 
two-thirds of the votes taken in his favour. 


7. An Annual Meeting of the Society shall be held in Decem- 
ber, and General Meetings at such other times as maybe determined 

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by the Committee ; due notice of the meetings, of any intended 
motions which do not come through the Committee, add the nomina- 
tion of new members, being always first given by the Secretary. 

8. The course of business at General Meetings shall be as 
follows ;— 

(a) The Minutes of the last meeting shall be read by the 

Secretary, and signed by the Chairman. 

(b) Candidates for membership shall then be proposed, ballotted 

for, admitted or otherwise. 

(c) Reports of Committees shall be read, and communications 

made of all articles received, and donations to the Society. 

(d) Any specific business submitted by the Committee, or 

appointed for consideration, shall be proceeded with. 

(e) Papers and communications for the Society shall then be 


9. Every member of the Society has the privilege of intro- 
ducing, either personally or by card, one or two visitors to the General 

10. Special Committees may be formed for the prosecution of 
any specific object or matter of research. These must be named at 
a General Meeting, and will act as much as possible in co-operation 
with the Secre^ry of the Society, who will be a constituent member 
of all such Committees. • 

Papers and Communications, 

1 1. All Papers and communications shall be forwarded to the 
Secretary at least a fortnight before the assembling of the General 
Meeting at which they are intended to be read. Such Papers shall 
be read by the author, or the Secretary, or by some member of the 

12. All Papers and other communications to the Society read 
or submitted at any General Meeting shall be open to free discussion; 
and such Papers and discussions may be printed in the Transactions 
of the Society, if approved by the Committee. 

13. The writer of any Paper which is published in the Society's 
Journal shall be entitled to receive twenty ^five printed copies of his 


14. One copy of each Journal shall be sent by the Secretary to 
every member who has paid his subscription for the current year, and 
to every honorary member ; and every such member may procure a 
second copy on application to the Secretary. Members requiring 
more than two copies of the Journal can be supplied with them at 
half the price charged the public. 

Suspension and Alteration of Rules ^ 

15. It shall be competent for any General Meeting to suspend 
any of the above rules. 

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16. No alteration of rules shall be made except at tbe Annual 
Heetiug, and unless carried by a majoritj^of not less than two-thirds 
of the members present ; due notice of any proposed alteration haying 
been given in writing to the Secretary at least a fortnight before the 


1. The library is open on week days (except Fridays) from 
7 A.M. to 6 P.M., and on Sundays from 8 p.m. to 6 p.m. 

2. The Librarian shall keep a register of books belonging to 
the library, showing their title, name of author, date of receipt, 
whence obtained, edition, number of volumes, number of plates, place 
and date of publication. 

3. All books, pamphlets and periodicals received for the 
library shall, immediately on receipt, be entered in the library re- 
gister, and stamped with the library stamp. The Librarian shall 
see that each plate and map in books received for the library is care- 
fully stamped- on the reverse side with the library stamp. New 
books received shall be stamped on the cover with the words ^* Royal 
Asiatic Society, Ceylon Branch." 

4. A book shall be kept in which shall be entered the title of 
every work lent out, the number of plates (if any) it contains at the 
time of its being lent, the name of the ir;ember borrowing the same, 
and the date on which it is lent. A member applying in person for 
a work shall sign a receipt for the book and plates it may contain at 
the time of borrowing. .A member not applying in person shall send 
a written request for the books he requires, and this request shall be 
filed in the library as a voucher, the Librarian duly noting on it the 
books actually lent out. The Librarian shall send with each packet 
of books a form of receipt, to be signed and returned to the borrower. 
Should any member prefer to keep a private register of books bor- 
rowed from the library, it shall be the duty of the Librarian to enter 
in such register the names of all books issued, and to initial receipt 
when returned. 

5. On return of any books to the library, the Librarian, after 
satisfying himself that the book is in the same condition as it was 
when lent out, shall insert opposite to the entry, in the loan register, 
the date on which the book has been returned, and return to the bor- 
rower the receipt or other voucher given by him duly cancelled. 
And if on the return of any book the Librarian shall perceive that it 
has sustained any damage, since it was taken from the library, he 
shall make a note of the particulars and report the same to the 
Honorary Secretary. 

6. IJo member shall remove any book, pamphlet, periodical, 
or any other article the property of the Society from tiie library 
without giving the Librarian a receipt for the same. 

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7* No book, pamphlet, joarnal, or periodical^ &c., shall be lent 
out before the expiration of one week after its receipt in the library. 

8. Periodicalfi and unbound Journals in numbers shall be 
returned after the expiration of one week. 

9. Works of reference and certain rare and valuable books, &c., 
must not be taken out of the library without special permission of 
the Committee. 

10. Non-resident members nxfi entitled to take out books, 
plates, &c., from the library on making special application to the 
Honorary Secretary, and signing an obligation to defray the expenses 
of carriage, and to make compensation for any book, plate, manuscript, 
&c., which may be lost or damaged. 

11. No member shall be permitted to have more than three 
sets* of books from the library in his possession at any one time 
without the special permission of the Honorary Secretary. 

12. Except with the special sanction of the Committee, resi- 
dent members shall not be permitted to keep books, &c., borrowed 
from the library for more than ^urteen days, and non-resident ' 
members for more than one month. 

13. All books, except in the case stated below, shall be 
returned to the library before the 1st January in each year. Early 
in December the Librarian, having previously ascertained that the 
books are actually absent from the library, shall forward to all mem- 
bers who have books belonging to the Society in their possession a 
letter requesting that such books be returned before the end of the 
month. Non-resident members who on the ist January have had 
books, &c., for less than one month may send a detailed list of such 
books instead of returning them. 

14. The Librarian shall report to the Honorary Secretary, for 
the information of the Committee, each year in January, the names 
of all books not returned, and of the members by whom they were 

15. If application be made to the Librarian for a book already 
taken out from the library, he shall issue a notice to the borrower, 
requiriDg him to return it free of expense, within one week from the 
receipt of such notice if a resident member, and within one month if 
a non-resident member. 

16. If any book borrowed from the library be lost, damaged, 
defaced by writing or otherwise, the borrower shall be held responsi- 
ble for such loss or damage; and if the book belong to a set, he shall 
be liable to make good the set to the satisfaction of the Committee, 
or pay its value. 

17. No books, &c., shall be issued from the library to any 
member while he retains any property of the Society in contraven- 
tion of the above rules. 

* Each yoluine of the Transactiona of any learned Society or similar 
pubHcation shall be counted as one work. 

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" The design ot the Sooiefy is to iiutitnto and promote enqniriee into &e 

History, BeUgion, Literatore, Arts, and Social Condition of the 

present and former Inhabitants of the Island, with its 

Geology, Mineralogy, its Climate and Meteorology, 

its Botany and Zoology. " 



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/ <• 

^(H^(m£1^ c-^^j-f-t^. 




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Italics in the text denote the spelling of the French editors : 
tn parentheses5 their supplementary explanations. Words and 
paragraphs within brackets are additions by the translator; as 
also all foot-notes, except those followed by the initial " jB," for 
the insertion of which the Honorary Secretary is responsible. 

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Page 2, 8 lines from bottom, for * Burekhart' read * Borokliardt.' 

7, note t delete * valu,^ 

10, „ t for' Ha4egirV read 'ffadSgin: 

n 99 X f^ * Icayiai^ read * hcupiage,^ 

12j „ t f^ ^fattaru^ read * fatiarv,^ 

16, „ * far 'Yvmp' read 'Yumf: 

» » »> for 'ToSbrff read 'Tabriz.^ 

19, ,, J far ' MafaV read ' Mdfai: 

99 »» » for ' Madhv' read ' Mahdv,l 

^, » f^ ^ AtkaUmdjeV read ' Atkalenc^ek,^ 

,f „ * for * DixUwar' read * iXw^ioer.' ' 

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[ Translated from the French of M. M. Defrimery and 

Sanguinettiy by Albert Gray, M.R.A.S., late of the 

Ceylon Civil Service, '\ 


The wonderful travels of Ibn Batuta are a record alike 
of the commercial activity of the Arabs, and of the far-reaching 
power of the Bagdad caUphate, whose influence long survived 
its overthrow. From the swift rise of the Muhammadan power 
in the seventh century down to the arrival of Vasco di Gama at 
Calicut in 1498, the trade of Europe with the East was in the 
hands of the Arabs. The carrying to Europe was done by their 
ships, but in the Indian seas a vast coast trade was developed 
by all the nations of the Indian sea-bord — Persians, the races 
of India, Ceylon, the Eastern Islands and China. After the 
rounding of the Cape followed in succession the restrictive 
monopo&es of the Portuguese, Dutch, and English, and the 
Eastern nations have never regained the great and free inter- 
national commerce of the Arab days. 

From the story of Ibn Batdta, one comes to understand 
how it was possible for a native of Tangiers in the fourteenth 
century to travel, with but little difficulty, for twenty-four years 
over every country between Morocco and China. The Muham- 
madan faith had been spread over a great part of India, and had 
established a footing in China: Arab merchants were every- 
where : and ships were never long in demand for voyages from 
any one port to any other. 

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Ibn Batata was bom at Tangiers in 1304^ and died at Fez 
1377-8. The following summary of his travels of twenty-four 
years (1325 to 1349) is eiven by Dr. Birdwood of the. India 
Office. From Tangiers he travelled across Africa to . Alex- 
andria^ and in Palestme^ Syria^ and Arabia : down the east coast 
of Africa to Qui]on : across the Indian Ocean to Muscat^ Ormuz, 
Eish^ Bahrein and El Catif : through Central Arabia to Mecca 
and Jeddah: and s^aiu in Egypt and Asia Minor^ and across the 
Black Sea to Caira or Theodosia, and by Azov or Tana * on 
past the hills of the Russians' to Bolgar on the Volga — ^but 
not daring to penetrate further northwards into Hhe land of 
Darkness. Betuming south to Haj-Tarkhan (Astrakhan) he 
proceeded in the suite of the wife of the Khan of Kipchah, the 
daughter of the Greek Emperor Andronicus^ westward to Soldaia 
and Constantiniah (Constantinople)^ whence returning to Bolgar 
he travelled on eastward to Bokhara, and through Khorassan to 
Cabul, Multan, and Delhi where he remained eight years (1334- 
42). Being sent on an embassy to China he embarked at Kin- 
baiat (Cambay), and after many adventures at Calicut (where he 
was honorably received by the * Samari' or Zamorin) and Huna- 
war (Onore), and in the M^dive Islands (beginning of 1343 — 
August, 1344) and Ceylon and Bengal, he at last took his pas- 
sage toward China in a junk bound for Java, as he calls it, but 
in fact Sumatra. Returning from China, he sailed direct from 
the coast of Malabar to Muscat and Ormuz : and travelling by 
Shiraz, Bagdad, Jerusalem, Damascus and for the fourth time to 
Mecca, Egypt, Tunis, at last reached Fez again, after an absence 
of half his Itfe-time. Subsequently he spent six years in Spain and 
Central Africa, where he was the guest of the brother of a country- 
man of his own from Centra, whose guest he had been in China. 
" What an enormous distance lay between these two !" he exclaims. 

The first detailed account of his book was published in Europe 
only in 1808. Moura in 1845 commenced a translation in Portu- 
guese of a copy obtained at Fez at the end of last century. The 
abridgment translated by Lee was brought from the east by Bijrck- 
hart. It was not till the French conquest of Algeria that the 
best and completest texts were obtained. Five are in the Im- 
perial Library at Paris, only two of which are perfect. From 
these M. M. Deir^mery and Sanguinetti made their translation 
for the Society Asiatique : and it is from their version that the 
present account of the Maldives and Ceylon visit has been extract- 
ed. His description of the Maldives is the most interesting and 
complete in existence, excepting only that of Pyrard de Laval. 

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I RESOLVED to go toUkeDhfbat AlmahaHthe Mdldivet) of which 
I had heard much. Tai days after we had embarked at Calicut 
we arrived at the DMbat Almahcd islands. Dhtbat is pronounced 
as the feminine of Dhtb (Arabic for ^wolf^ : it is really cm. aUer- 
ation of the Sanskrit douipa^ " island'^). These islands are among 
the wonders of the world : they number about 2,000.f A hundred 
or less of these islands lie tc^ether in a circle in the form of a ring : 
the group has an entrance as to a harbour^ and slups get through 
by that alone. When a ship arrives near one of these islands 
it must of necessity have a pilot from among its natives, so that 
it may reach the other islands under his guidance. They are so 
close to each other that the tops of the palms which grow on one 
seem to belong to its neighbour.^ If the vessel misses its way 
it cannot reach the islands, and is driven by the wind to Mcihojt 
(coast of Coromandel) or towards Ceylon. 

♦ Voyages d'lhn Batoutah, par C. Defr^mery et Le Dr. B. R. Sanguinettif 
Tome IV., 110—185, 191-2, 205-6, 207-10. Paris, 1879. 

t See Ghray, J. R. A. S., 1878, Vol. X. N. s., pp. 196-7, notes 2, 3 ; and 
" The M&ldive Islands" (Ceylon Sessional Papers, 1881), pp. 3, 4, 5, Notes (1) 

t So too more recent travellers : — " The Malabares say that heretofore they 
were joynM to the Continent, and' were separated by the sea, which in some 
places hath left snch narrow divisions that an active man might leap from one 
side to the other*' (Mcmdelso's Travels into the Indies^ 1639. Lib. II. 116. London, 
1662). " But that which makes them so numerous is the multitude of canals that 
divide them ; which are so narrow that the sprit-sails of the ships strike the 
leaves of the trees which are planted on both sides. And in some places a 
nimble man may leap into an island from the top of a bough that grows in 
another." — (CoUecHon of Voyages €f the Dutch East-India Ompamyf p. 131, 
London, 1703)— J?. 

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All the inhabitants of these islands are Musalmfins, piou9 
and honest people. They are divided into regions or zones^ each 
of which is ruled by a governor called Cordouiy. Among these 
zones the following are distinguished: (1) the zone of Pdli- 
pour ; (2) CannalotU; (3) Mahal, the province after which all the 
islands are called, and at which tiieir sovereigns reside ; (4) Teld- 
dib; (5) Cardidou; (6) Teim ; (7) Teledommety ; (S) Heledommity, 
the name differing from the preceding only by having its 
first letter an A: (9) Bireidou ; (10) Candacal ; {n)Molofk;Xl2) 
Souweid. The last is the ttiost distant of all.* All the Mdl- 
dive islands are destitute of grain, except that in the province 

* Hie French editors identify these names with thcNse given by Pyrard aa 
follows:— "Pa/j^wr—<Padypolo*:Jfa^a^-*Mal6*: Oirol^foii— <Oaridou*: TiU- 
dommity — < Tilla \o\x matis' : Hiledommity — * Milla done madoue' : Bir€idoii 
— * Poulisdous' : Mohuc — * Molucque' ^ Souiwetd — * Souadou.' The Ccmnaloua 
of Ibn Batiita, they add, is perhaps the ^ CoUomadous* of Pyrard| or, as 
Horsburgh writes it, * Colomandous. 

["The majority of the above *are easily recognisable,' but five (viz., 
Cannalou8y TSlddib, Teim, HilidomtrUty, and Candacal) present more diffi- 
culty, — some, indeed, being shaped, more Arahico^ out of all but unsatisfactory 
conjectural recognition. 

" As regards Hblidom'mety, the French translators would appear to be at 
fault. It may perhaps with more reason be taken as equivalent to Hela- 
4u(m)'maH (S. hslaj * white,' or even selay == Jav. sela, * rock' -L d^a, * island'-j> 
matu-pifay < above') passing by contraction into Had-dummoH. Ai4u may 
similarly be a contracted form of ffelordu or ffuh-dii — ^the name of one of the 
islands in that Atol. 

'^ If it be open to question the orthography of the MS. and, supposing an 
error of the copyist, read Nilddib for TildM — t and n are not unlike in 
Arabic — it can be at once fitted to i^^^otM^Ui^Atol. Even accepting the received 
form as correct, the identification may possibly be not considered too far- 
fetched. Of. Tojaree =r ? Nauadri ; Accanee a,nd Kaluftee islands' (Lakkadive 
group) = Aucuttay Kalpeni. Adm. Chart. (Col. Yule in Indian Antiquary, 

Vol. III., pp. 212-4 on " Names in the TohfaUal Mc^dhidin,") 

" To attempt to twist the rest into probable coincidence with the modern 
names of the remaining Atols seems hopeless. But the identification of Cbrof- 
doH with Caridou (Kaharidu) — if accepted — suggests a likely clue to their 
origin. Admitting that this island— now-a-days of comparative insignificancy 

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of Souwetd there is a cereal like the anly (a kind of millet) which 
is brought thence to MahaL* The food of the natives consists of 
a fish like the lyroun, which they call koulb almds. Its flesh is 
red : it has no grease, but its smell resembles that of mutton. 
When caught at the fishing, each fish is cut up into four pieces, 
and then slightly cooked : it is then placed in baskets of coco 
leaves and suspended in smoke. It is eaten when perfectly dry. 
From this country it is exported to India, China and Yaman. 
It is called koulb almdsif (cobolly masse, i,e., " black JisK^ accord-- 
ing to Pyrard, Part l,p. 210, 214.) 

— was of sufficient importance in the I4th century to be classed as a * province', 
it is not improbable that other islands would have been taken as representative 
of whole groups or Atols. 

" Til&dih^ if not Nilandu, might then be To(/<fuy on the analogy of Had- 
dummati from HiUdommity : CannaloiU — Kinalos^ ^ Kenoorus/ Admiralty 
Chart, (M&losmadulu Atol) : Candacal — Kedikolu, * Eaindecolu,' Admiralty 
Chart, (Miladummadulu Atol. CatmaloHs and Teim should lie North of M416. 
Ibn Batiita, crossing from the Malabar coast, landed first at the former, ^ an 
island fair to behold, where there are many mosques,* and touched later at 
Teim * after four days' cruise' when bound for Mahal (M^6)." — (TheMdldive 
lalandsj p. 18, Note (1), Ceylon Sessional Papers, 1881.) 

Colonel Yule and Mr. Gray identify Teim with Utimu (Admiralty Chart, 
Oteeim) near north end of Tiladummati Atol. " Cannaloua, Ckmdecal and 
Otimo appear in the oldest European maps" — B,"] 

* Either the line grain known to the Sinhalese as (i.) tana hdl (SetaHa 
ItaUca\ M. v/rd (Pyrard, oura)^ or (ii.) m^niri (Panicvm miliaceum), M. kudi- 
hai — ^both of which are found on the Southern Atols. Some nacheri or ku/rak^ 
lean {Oynosurua corocanus), M. bimbi (Pyrard, bimby)^ is grown on the Northern 
Atols— B. 

f Koulb ahnds : — Pyrard has cobolly masse (Pyrard, third edition, 1619, 
p. 210), and combolly masse (p. 214), and says the words mean " black fish." 
See also Pridham < Ceylon', p. 605. The Sinhalese call it vmbalaTeatjla. [See 
<*Note on Fish-curing at the Maldives" (Ind. Ant, July, 1882, Vol. XI., 
pp. 196-8): — "The real *M£ldive fish' (M. kafubili masy vulgarly kpmboli mas\ 
S. umbala ka4a) of the Ceylon and Indian markets are chiefly bomio (S. balayd) 
—Scomber Pelamis, L«w»." KaluUlusskaluj * black' : bill (S. bakydj) * bonitc' 

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6 journal r. a. s. cbyrx)n. [extra no, 

The Trees of the MAldives. 

Most of the trees on these islands are coconuts : they fur- 
nish the food of the inhabitants along with the fish, of which 
mention has been made. The nature of the coconut is marvel- 
lous. One of these palms produces each year twelve crops, one 
a month. Some are small, others large : many are dry [yellow], 
the rest are green and remain always so. From the fruit is 
obtained milk, oil, and honey, as we have said in the first part 
of this book. With the honey is made pastry, which they eat 
with the dried coconut. All the food made from the coconut, 
and the fish eaten at the same time effect an exixaordinary and 
unequalled vigor in manhood. ♦ * * ♦ 

Among the remarkable trees of these islands are the tchou-* 
motln {Eugenia Jambu) the lemon, the lime and the colocasia. 
From the root of the last named, the natives prepare a flour with 
which they make a kind of vermicelli, and' this they cook in coco 
milk ; it is one of the most agreeable dishes in the world. I had 
a great taste for it and ate it often. * 

Op the Inhabitants op these Islands and some op 
THEIR Customs : Description op their Dwellings. 

The inhabitants of the Mdldive islands are honest and pioua 
people, sincere in good faith and of a strong will : they eat only 
what is lawful, and their prayers are granted. When one of 
them meets another, he says "Grod is my lord : Muhammad is 
my prophet : I am a poor ignorant being." In body they are 
weak and have no aptitude for combat or for war, and their arms 

• "The island [M&16] produces a bulb in shape and appearance 

much resembling an ordinary potatoe, but having a pungent flavor. This 
the natives grate down, and steep in water for some time to deprive it of 
the unpleasant taste, and dry it afterwards, when it looks very much like 
flour, and is very palatable" (Christopher and Young in Trans. Bombay, (Geo- 
graphical Society, 1836-38, p. 80). Without doubt the yam called by Mildivi- 
ans hiUala (Pyrard, itelpoulj " an edible root which grows in abundance, round 
and large as the two fists") and probably identical with the hifitaUt (Dioscwea 
c^opositifolia) of the Sinhalese — B, 

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are prayers* One day in this country, I ordered the right hand of a 
robber to be cut off ; upon which many of the natives in the hall 
of audience fainted away. The Indian pirates do not attack 
them^ and cause them no alarm^ for they have found that whoever 
takes anything of theirs is struck with a stidden calamity. When a 
hostile fleet comes to their shores^ they seize what strangers they 
find, but do no harm to the jiatives. If an idolater appropriates 
anything, if it be but a lime, the chief of the idolaters punishes 
him and beats him severely, so much does he fear the results of 
such an action. Were it otherwise, certainly these people would 
be a most contemptible foe in the eyes of their enemies, because 
of the weakness of their bodies. In each of their islands there 
are fine mosques, and most of their buildings are of wood. 

The islanders are good people : they abstain from what is 
foul, and most of them bathe twice a day, and properly too, on 
account of the extreme heat of the climate and the abundance 
of perspiration. They use a large quantity of scented oils, such 
as sandal-wood oil, &c., and they anoint themselves with musk 
from Makdachaou* It is one of their customs, when they have 
said the morning prayer, for every woman to go to meet her 
husband or son with the collyrium box, rose-water and musk oil. 
He smears his eye-lashes with collyrium, and rubs himself with 
rose-water and musk oil, and so polishes the skin and removes 
from his face all trace of fatigue. 

The clothing of these people consists of cloths. They wrap 
one round their loins in place of drawers, while on their backs 
they wear the stuffs called alouilydn f which resemble the ihr&m 

* Makdachaou : — ? Madagascar. [Rather Magadoxo on the Zanzib&r coast, 
which Ibn Batuta had visited (Tome II., 181.) ** After leaving Zaila we sailed 
on the sea for fifteen days, and arrived at Makdachaou an extremely large 
town."-4See Yule's Marco Polo. Vol. II., p. 347— J5.] 

t Alomlyan — ouUySn (p. 120) :— A probable corruption of M. filiya^ 
(cf : S. mlu, pili^ * clothes*) the term for the hamhaya (8) or waist cloth worn by 
M&ldivian women commonly and by soldiers on special occasions. The Mil- 
dive equivalent for the ihrdm is known as digu libds — B, 

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(clothes worn hy the Musalmdns during the pilgrimage). Some 
wear the turban, others supply its place with a little kerchief. 
When any one meets the Kddhi or the preacher, he takes his gar- 
ment off his shoulders, and uncovers his back, and so accompanies 
the functionary till he arrfves at his place of abode. Another of their 
customs is this — ^when one of them marries, and goes to the house 
of his wife, she spreads cotton cloths from the house door to that 
of the (nuptial) chamber : on these cloths she places handfuls of 
cowries on the right and left of the path he has to follow, while 
she herself stands awaiting him at the door of the apartment. Ou 
his arrival she throws over his feet a cloth which his attendants 
take up. If it is the wife* who goes to the husband's house, that 
house is hung with cloths, and cowries are placed thereon : and the 
woman on her arrival throws the cloth over his feet. And this is 
also the custom of the islanders when they salute the sovereign, 
they must without fail be provided with a piece of cloth to cast 
down at the moment, as we shall hereafter describe. 

Their buildings are of woodf and they take care to raise the 
floor of their houses some height above the ground, by way of 
precaution agaiiist damp, for the soil of their islands is damp. 
This is the method they adopt : they cut the stones, each of 
which is of two or three cubits long, and place them in piles 
then they lay across these beams of the coco-tree, and afterwards 
raise the walls with boards. In this work they show marvellous 
skill. In the vestibule of the house they construct an apart- 
ment which they call mdleniyX and there the master of the house 

* It appears from this passage that the two kinds of Sinhalese marriage, 
hina and digay were in vogue at the Maldives. [Both forms are said to be recog- 
nised still — B, 

t Even at the present day there is but one stone or brick built private 
house at M41e (Sultan's Island)— B. 

J Mdlem, "A partition near the middle divides the house into two 
rooms, one of which is private, and the other open to all visitors." (Trans. Bom- 
bay Geographical Society, 1836-8, p. 69.) The public room is called beru-gS and 
the private or women's apartment eteri-ge^ or in the Southern Atols mdval-ge — J5. 

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sits with his friends. This room has two doors, one opening on 
the vestibule by which strangers are introduced, the other on ihe 
side of the house by which the owner enters. Near the room 
in question is a jar full of water [? and] a bowl called ouilendj* 
made of the coconut shell. It has a handle of [only] twocubits, 
wherewith to draw the water from the wells, by reason of their 
little depth. 

All the inhabitants of the M&ldives, be they nobles or the 
common folk, keep their feet bare. The streets are swept and 
well kept : ihey are shaded by trees, and the passenger walks as 
it were in an orchard. Albeit every person who enters a house 
is obliged to wash his feet with water from the jar placed near 
the malem, and rub them with a coarse fabric of Itflf (stipules 
which envelope the base of the stalks of the date-palm leaves) 
placed there : after which he enters the house. Every person 
entering a mosque does the same. It is a custom of the natives 
when a vessel arrives for the canddir (in the singular cundurah^ % 
Le,y the little boats to go out to meet it, manned by the people 
of the island and bearing some betel and caranbah § that is to say^ 
green coconuts. Each presents some of these to whom he will 
of those on board the ship, and then becomes his host carrying 
to his own house the goods belonging to him, as if he were one 
of his near relations. Any one of the new-comers who wishes to 
marry, is at liberty to do so. When the time comes for hia 
departure, he repudiates his wife, for the people of the M&ldives 
do not leave their country. As for a man who does not marry, 

* OuSlencff : — These cocoanut bowls with long handles (M. ddni, but of : S. 
valanda *' chatty" ) are regularly used by the Islanders for drawing water 
The ordinary cocoanut ladle or spoon they call uduli, — B. 

t L»y.— Pars.— J5. 

J Canddir^ ctmdurah : — ^The old Portuguese historians speak of M&ldive 
<< gtmdras/^ and the term is still commonly applied in Ceylon to these Islandersy 
(e. g., S. Gundara-Itmayd) and their boats (M. d6nij o^i). — See too C. A. S* Jour. 
No. 24, p. 136,1881.-5. 

§ Caranbah ; = S. kwrumba [M. kuruia^-S^} 


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10 JOURKAti E. A. S CEYliON. [EXTRA ^a 

the woman of the house in which he is lodged prepares his food, 
serves it, and supplies him with provisions for his journey when 
he goes. In return she is contented to receive from him a very 
small present. The revenue of the treasury, which is called 
bender *(<:ustom''hou$e) consists in the right of buying a certain 
portion of all cargo on beard ship, at a fixed price, whether the 
commodity be worth just that or more : this is called the bender 
law. The bender has in «ach island a house (^ wood called 
Hdjens&r where the governor, the cordouiry, (above it is written 
cordofiiy)t collects all such goods : he sells (x barters them. 
The natives buy with chickens any pottery mhick may be 
ibrought : a pot fetches five or six chickens. 

Ships export from the islands the fish of which I have 
spoken, coccmuts, fabrics, the ouliy&n and turbans : these last 
are of cotton. They export also vessels of copper, which are 
very common there, cowries^ and kanbar^, such is the name of the 

'^ Bender: — See Pyrard, p. 231, "bandery'^i cf. Sin. ha^hdra. The 
system of raising revenue here described was still in force in Pyrard*s day 
(Pyrard, chap. xvH.), and seems to be identical in principle with the * culture 
system,' employed by the Dutch in Java, where it is supposed to have been 
invented by one of ^e Dutch governors subsequent Co the English occupation. 
[Each Atol has its own storehouse ( vdru-gi ) into which Uie revenues of the 
Saltan are received, and whence they are transferred from time to time to the 
Treasury (bo4u ba^^ri-ge, cf : S. bM^^gdrika) at MfiJe. — -ff.] 

f CordmUry^ cordoHiy : — " The Atol-wari [ Atolu-veri or Vdru-veri ; PjTard 

* varuery' ] is a governor or chief of a division of islands called an Atol It 

Is his duty to collect the revenue of the Atol, and to transmit it to the Hin- 

deggeree [JJo^griri] The Rarhu-wari [^Rarhu-vert] or headman of an island, 

stands in the same relation to the Atol-wari, as the latter does to the Hindeg- 
geree, in respect to the revenue.'* (Trans, Bombay Geo, 5ioc., 1836-8, p. 72). — B. 

% Chvoriea : — * Ibri Batiita calls them wada' [Ar.], and tiie Two Muhamma- 
dans of the 9th century kaptqje: Pyrard, 6o% or bollis: Christopher [correctly] 
toll, cf : S. bella. 

§ Kanbar ;— Ar. Pyrard has cairo (= T. kayiru. Gray.) The proper 
M&ldive term rdnu = S. rSna, It is hard to believe tiiat " vessels of copper" 
ever formed one of the genuine exports from the M&ldives. A few old copper 
pots are occasionally, sent over to Ceylon for repaiv. — B, 

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fibre which envelopes the coconut. The natives make it undergo 
a preparation in pits dug near the shore : then they beat it with 
picks, after which the women work it into rope. They make of 
it cord for joining the boards ^ their ships, and such cordage in 
exported to China, India and Yemen. Kanbar rope is worth 
more than hemp. With this cord the (hoards of) ships are joined 
in India and Yem^i, for the Indian sea is full of rocks, and 
if a ship joined with iron bolts strikes a rock, it is broken up x 
but when it is fastened with this cord it has elasticity, and does 
n€^ break. 

The money <^the islanders c(Misist of cowries. This is the 
name of a creature (a mollusc), collected in the sea and placed 
in pits dug- out on the beacR. Its flesh decays and there remains 
only the white shell.. A hundred" oT these shells is called syah, 
and 700, fdl; 12fjOOa are cafled cott&^ and 100,000 bostoil. Bar- 
gains are struck Arough the medium of these cowries^ at the 
rate of four bostoil to* a dm&r of gold. Often they are of less 
value, such as twelve iostoi to a din&r.* The islanders sell them 
to the people of Bengal for rice, for they too use them for money. 
They are sold in the same way ta the people of Yemen, wha 
use them for ballast in their ships in place of sand. These 
cowries serve also as a medium of exchange with the negroes ia 
their native country. I have seen them sold, at Mdly and at 
Djoudjou, at the rate of 1,160 to a dinar of gold.t 

The Women of the MIldives. 

The women q£ these islands do not cover the head : the 
sovereign herself does not so. They comb their hair and tie it 

♦ Sydh = Sin. siya. Ibn Batiita says bostou == 1 dinAr of gold [= about 
10 shillings, Lane], and Pyrard says 12,000 = 1 larin = 8 sols, [Cowries are 
Bsually sold in the Islands by the hiya=^ 100, the /a/^-»800 to 1,000, and 
the koffe =■ 12,000 (bdra-fa.) A Jeoff^ is not now worth more than Rs. 1 at 
M&16.— 5.] 

f Mdly ; DjorU^ou : — ^Two places in the Soudan, afterwards visited by th© 

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up on one side [of the head.] Most of them wear only a cloth, 
covering them from the navel to the ground : the rest of the 
body remains uncovered. In this costume they promenade the 
baz&rs and elsewhere. While I was invested with the dignity 
of Kdzi in these islands, I made efforts to put an end to this 
custom, and to compel the women to clothe themselves : but I 
could not succeed. No woman was admitted to my presence in 
the trial of a case, unless she had her whole body covered : but, 
saving that, I had no power over the usage.* Some women wear, 
besides the cloth, chemises with short and full sleeves. I had 
8ome young female slaves whose dress was the same as that of the 
women of Delhi. They covered the head: but that disfigured 
rather than embellished their appearance, as they were notused toit. 
The ornaments of the Maldive women consist of bracelets : 
each has a certain number on both arms, indeed, so that the 
whole of the arm from the wrist to the elbow is covered. These 
trinkets are of silver : only the wives of the Sultan and his 
nearest relatives wear bracelets of gold. The Maldive women 
have also khalkhal (anklets) called by them haily and collars of 
gold round the neck, called b^sdered,^ One of their curious cus- 
toms is to engage themselves as house servants, in consideration 
of a fixed sum, which does not exceed five pieces of gold. Their 
board is at the expense of those who hire them. They do not 
regard this as a disgrace, and most of the daughters of the 
inhabitants do it. You will find in the house of a rich man ten 
or twenty of them. The cost of all dishes broken by one of 
these maids is charged against her. When she wishes to go 
from one house to another, the masters of the latter give her the 
amount of her debt, this she remits to the people of the house she is 

♦ Pyrard, 3rd ed., pp. 82, 124, says that all women in his time carefully 
kept the breasts covered. [A more modem innovation is the adoption by the 
women on most Atols of a head kerchief.—^.] 

t (i) Khalkhal, Ar. (ii) bdtl, of: M. fa <leg,' fiyavafu *foot,' takaMi 
'anklef ; (ill) besdered = M. fattaru ' necklace\ — B.} 

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leaving, and her new masters become her creditors.* The principal 
occupation of these hired women is to rope the kanbar (vide supra.) 
It is easy to get married in these islands, owing to the 
smallness of the dowry, as well as by reascn of the agreeable 
society of the women. Most of the men say nothing about ah 
nuptial gift, contentmg themselves with declaring their pro- 
fession of the Musalmdn faith, and a nuptial gift in conformity 
to the law is given. When ships arrive, those on board take 
wives, and repudiate them on their departure : it is a tin^ of 
temporary marriage. The Maldive women never leave their 
country. I have never seen in the world women whose society 
is more agreeable. Among the islanders, the wife entrusts to no 
one the care of her husband's service : she it is who brings him 
his food, takes away when he has eaten, washes his hands, pre- 
sents the water for his ablutions, and covers his feet when he 
wills to go asleep. It is one of their customs that the wife never 
eats with her husband, and that he does not know what his wife 
eats. I married in that country many wives : some ate with me 
at my request : others did not, and I could not succeed in seeing 
them take their food, and no ruse to get a sight was of any avail* 

The stoby op the motive for the conversion op the 
Inhabitants op these Islands to IslAm : Descrip- 
tion OP THE Evil Spirits who wrought harm 

to them EVERY MONTH. 

Trustworthy men among the inhabitants, such as the 

* Regarding these servants Q/L, femusSri), who are still employed^ Mr. Gray 
(J. R. A. S., Vol X., N.8., p. 204) has the following note: — " PemousserS [Pyrard, 
p. 226] * bondsmen on loan/ debtors who have to serve their creditor till they 
pay. They are generally well treated and fed ; if not they are entitled to their 
freedom. * Many a poor man voluntarily enters the service of some great lord 
as a pemomaerS to gain his protection and favour.* Christopher says that the 
men of Mal4 having to pay no taxes are very lazy and * become dependents of 
any of the chiefs, most of whom retain as many followers as they may be able 
to support, a large retinue being a sign of rank and power.' Compare with this 
custom the growth of the feudal system in the West."-— jB. 

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14 JOURKAE.. R. A, S. CEYLON; [bXTEA N(>2_ 

juris-consult Iqa Alyamany^ tfia juris-consult and schoolmasteir 
^Aly^ the Kdzi ^Abd Allah, anet others,.related to me that the popu- 
lation of the islands used to be idolaters, and that there appeared! 
to them every month an evil spirit from among the Jinn, who? 
^ame from the direetion of the sea. Ke resembled a ship full oT 
lamps. The custom of the natives, as soon as they perceived^ 
him, was to take a young virgin,, ta adorn her, and conduct 
her to a boudkhdnah,^ t. «,, an idol temple,, which was built on. 
the sea shore and had a window by which she was seen. They 
left her there during the night and returned in the morning t 
then they found the young girl dishonored and dead. They 
failed not every month to draw lots, and he upon whom the 
lot fell gave up his daughter. At length arrived among them 
a MagfirabinJ called AbotClbereeaty the Berber,^ who knew by 
heart the glorious Kur&n. He was lodged in the house of 
an old woman of the island Makah One day he visited his 
hostess and found that she had assembled her relatives, and 
that the women were weeping as if they were at a funeral. 
He questioned them upon the subject of their affliction, but 
they could not make him understand the cause. An inter-* 
preter ccmiing im informed him that the lot had fallen upon 
the old woman and that she had one only daughter, who had to 
be slain by the evil Jinni. AbouUbirecdt said to the woman i 

* Iqa Alyamany >—i, e., ? Isd FalUyd Maniku, The Falliyd Maniku is 
the Sultan's Secretary and Keeper of the Privy Seal. — B. 

fBotJidkhdnah : — It is very probable that this was a Buddhist temple. Chris- 
topher gives ftw^M as the modem MMdivefor " image" (J. BA.S., Vol. VI., o.s., 
p. 57). Bitt the word hodd seems to have been a general term for an image with 
the Arab Oriental travellers, and may only indicate that the Buddhist parts o£ 
India were the first visited by the Arabs. — Joum, As, 1845, p. 167. Ibn Batuta 
elsewhere says that the Jama Masjid of Delhi was built upon the 
sight of a former Bovdkhdnah he does not therefore mean to imply that the 
word was M&ldive. [ For some remarks on " Buddhism at the Maldives" see 
Ceylon Sess. Pap., 1881, *The Mildive Islands.'— J5.] 

% Maghreb : — The name given by the Arabs to the Moorish principalities of 
North-west Africa, nearly corresponding with what we now call Morocco. 

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^' I will go to night in thy daughter's stead." At that time, he 
was entirely beardless. He was conducted the night following 
to the idol temple after he had done his ablutions. There he 
set 'himself to recite tlie Kuran, then by the window he per- 
M^eived the demon, and continued his recitation. As soon as 
i;he Jinm came within liearing of the Kurdn, he plunged into 
^he sea ; and when the dawn was come, the Maghrabin was still 
^occupied in reciting the Kur&n. The old woman,* her relatives 
vand ^ people of '^e island came to take away the girl, accord- 
ing to tlieir xmstom, and to bum the corpse. They found the 
i^trang^ a^citing the £ur&n, and conducted him to their King, 
"hj name {JKen<yArdzahy* whom they informed of this adventure. 
The King was astonished: the Maghrabin proposed to him to em- 
brace Isl&m, and inspired him witk a desire for it. Then said 
'Chenow&zah to him : — " Bemain with us till next month, and if 
you do agsdn as you have just done and escape the evil Jinni, 
I will be converted." The stranger remained with the idolaters 
and God disposed the heart of the King to receive the true 
faith. He became Musalm£n before the end of the month, 
as well as his wives, children and court. At the beginning 
of the following month the Maghrabin was conducted to the 
idol-temple ; but the demon came not^ and the Berber recited the 
Kur&n till the morning, when the Sultan and his subjects arrived 
and found him so employed. Then they broke the idols, and 
razed the temple to the ground. The people of the island em- 
braced Isldm, and sent messengers to the other islands, whose in- 
habitants were also converted. The Maghrabin remained among 
them, and enjoyed their high esteem. The. natives made pro- 
fession of his doctrine, which was that of the Imdn Mdlic. Even 
at present they respect the Maghrabins for his sake. He built a 
mosque, which is known by his name. I have also read the fol- 
lowing inscription graven in wood on the enclosed pulpit of the 

♦ Ch^ourazah .*— Cf . S. Senarat * King (Chief Commander) of the army* 
and Smmratm * the gem4ike Qeneral.'-»i?. 

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grand mosque : ** Sultan Ahmed ChenoHrdzah has received the true 
faith at the hands of Abou' Iberecdt the Btrber, the Maghrabin.^^ 
This Sultan assigned a third of the taxes of the islands as 
ahns to travelling foreigners in recognition of his reception of 
Isldm through their agency. This share of the taxes still bears 
a name which recalls this event. 

Owing to the demon in question many of the M&ldive islands 
were depopulated before their conversion to Isl&m. When I 
reached the country I was not aware of this matter. One night, 
when I was at one of my occupations, I heard of a sudden people 
crying with loud voice the formulae, "There is no God but God" 
and " God is very great." I saw children carrying Kurans on their 
heads, and women rapping the insides of basins and vessels of 
copper. I was astonished at their conduct and said " What is 
happening" ? and they replied " Do you not see the sea" ? Upon 
which I looked and saw a kind of lai^e ship, seemingly full of 
lamps and chafing-dishes. They said to me " that is the demon; 
he is wont to show himself once a month: but when once we have 
done as you have seen, he turns back and does us no harm. * 

Op the Queen op these Islands. 
One of the marvels of the M&ldives is that they have for 
their Sovereign a woman, by name Khadtdjah, daughter of the 
Sultan Dfeldl eddin Wmary son of the Sultan Saldh eddtn 
Sdlih Albendjdly. The kingdom had at one time been pos- 
sessed by her grandfather, then by her father, and when the 
latter died, her brother, Chihdb eddtn^ became King. He was a 
minor, and the Yizier^Abd Allah, son of Mohammed Alhadhramy 

* Vestiges of this romantic legend of their conversion to Muhammadanism 
live in the traditions of the Islanders to this day. But with more probability, 
they assign to a Shaikh Tusup Shams-ud-din of Tcbbrij the honour, which Ibn 
Battita not unnaturally would claim for a Maghrabin, and the votaries of 
Hazrat Mir& Sfihib for the N&gur saint (C.A. S. Joum., No. 24, pp. 126-36 1881). 
Their first royal convert to Isl6m the M41divians commonly know as 
** Darumavanta (=S. Dharmmavantaj i. e., *the Just') SasgefdmJ'^ Tho 
mosque he built still stands, and coAtinues to bear his name.— £> 

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espoused his motHer and' assumed autEority oyer him. He is the 
same personage who married the Sultana Khadtdjak after the 
death of her first husband^ the Wzier Djimdl eddtn, as we shall 
describe hereafter. When Chihdb eddih attained full age he 
ousted his step-father ^Abd Allah and banished him to the islands 
of Souweid. He was then left in sole possessions and chose as 
Tizier one of his freedmenby name'lAiy CaZaAy,* whom he de- 
posed at the end of three jears an<£ banished to Souweid. It is 
related of the Sultan GhihSb eddin* OiMt he consorted nightly 
with the wives of the public officers and. with courtezans* On 
that account he was deposed and deported to the province o£He^ 
Udouteny (above spelt H^l^dommety ) : afterwards some one was 
sent and put him to deaths 

There then remained of the royal family only the sisters of 
the deceased, Kadtdjah who was the eldest. Miry am and Fathimah^ 
The natives raised Kadidjah to the throne, who was married 
to their preacher Djem6l eddin. The latter became Vizier and 
master of the situationf and promoted his son Mohammed to 
the office of Preacher in his own stead: but orders were prcaaaul* 
gated only in the name of Khadtdjah, These are laraced on palm 
leaves by means of an iron [style] bent down resemWing a knife. 
They vmte on paper only the Kur&is and scientific treatises. The 
Preacher makes mention of the Sultana on Fridays and on other 
days [of public prayer] ; and here are the terms used, " O God, suc- 
cour Thy servant, whom Thou hast in Thy wisdom preferred before 
other mortals, and whom Thou hast made the instrument of Thy 
mercy towards all Musalmdns, namely, the Sultana Khadtdjah 
daughter of Sultan Djeldl eddin, son of Sultan Saldh eddin.^^ 

When a stranger comes among these people and repairs to 
the hall of audience^ which is called dar^X custom requires that he 

♦ 'Aly Calahy :^i.e,, 'AUKalige. The title Kalige-fdnu or EMge/dnu 

(Pyrard, Oallogue) accrues by purchase, not by birth. — B. 

•f Maxtre de VautoriU: — ^Major A. Ewing suggests *^ head of affairs" (Aj, 
*ralbd' *al ellamar). — B. 

X Ddr :^Ai\ * house.'— A 

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should take with him two cloths. He makes obeisance before the 
Sultana and throws down one of these cloths. Then he salutes heF 
Vizier, who is also her husband, Djfmdl eddtn^ and throws down 
the other. The army of this Queen consists of about a thousand 
men of foreign birth; some of the soldiers are natives. They come 
every day to the hall ci audience to salute her and then go home. 
Their pay is in rice, supplied to them at the bender (v. «., p. 10) 
every month. When the month is ended, they present themselves 
at the audience hall, and, saluting the Vizier, say, ^^ Convey our 
respects {to the Queen) and inform her that we have come to re- 
quest our pay." Thereupon the necessary orders are given in 
their favour. The K&zi and ministers, who have with the people 
the title of Viziers, also present themselves every day at the 
audience hall. They make a salutation, and go away after the 
eunuchs have transmitted their respects to the Queen. 

Op the Ministers and their conduct op Government. 
The people of the Mdldives call the Grand Vizier, the Sultana'is 
Lieutenant, Calaky^ ; and the Kdzi Fandayark&lou, f All judg- 
ments are in the jurisdiction of the K&zi: he is more highly 
esteemed by the people than all other men, and his orders are 
executed as well as those of the Sultan and even better. He sits upon 
a carpet in the audience hall: he possesses three islands t> whose 
revenue he places to his private account, after an ancient custom 

* Calahy .•— ? Pers. Pyrard has Quilague ** regent elect for the kingdom 
to act in absence of the Sultan" (Gray). [The title Kilage-fdnu is not restricted 
to one grandee in the realm. At least three living MMdivian nobles have a 
right to the designation. — B,"] 

f Fa/ndayarkdlou ;— i. e. Fa^iydru Kaldge-fdm (Pyrard, Pandiare; Chris, 
Fandiarhee) the Chief Priest or K&zi. Cf : T. Pdndiya,^B, 

% Corresponding with rmdagam lands in Ceylon, the tenure of which is 
thus explained in Sir J. D'Oyley's M.S. " Constitution of the Kandyan Kingdom," 
a copy of which is in my possession : — * Nwdagama. — ^A village which, for the 
time being, is the entire property of the grantee, or temporary chief ; definitely 
panted by the king with sgnnas^ it becomes paravenyy &c.,' p. 144. A * gallai' 
gama' in the lower part of the Four K^ral^s, Three K6rale8; and in parts of 
gabaragamuwa is a similar tenure. 

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established by the Sultan Ahmed ClUnaiirAzah. The Preacher is 
cnWeAJIendidJeTy*: the Chief (rf the Treasury, Fdmelddtyptiie Re- 
ceiver General of Reyenue> Mdfdcalo&i: the Minister of Police, 
Fitndyec^^ and die admiral, MdnAyec^, All these have the title of 
Vizier. There is no prison in these islands: criminals are shut up 
in wooden houses built to contain the merchants' goods. Each 
otie is placed in a wooden cell, as we have (m Morocco) for the 
Chi'istian prisoners^ 

Of my arrival at thesb Islands and of the 


When I came to this country I landed at CannaloHs H, an is- 
land fair to behold, where there are many mosques. I was lodged 

* Hendidjery : — ^i, e., Hadigiri, also known as Bo4v, Bo46ri, in whom are 
tsombined now-a-days the offices of Chief of the Treasury and Receiver-General 
of Revenue. Pyrard writes Endequery, " a lord privy councillor, always in 
attendance upon the King"; Chris. Hindegeree * Treasurer' (Gray), Of: the 
Bhdif4dgdriko amachcho (Tumour's Mahiva^so, p» 231, 3) of the old Sinhalese 
court— JB. 

t FomeWdry ;— i. e., FdmiudM (Kilage-fdnu). Pyrard calls one of the 
great lords Pcanmedery eahgue^ and Christopher says the 4th Vizier was 
styled Famederi, but had no distinct duties assigned him. Of : S. jMimohf de(a 
and Mah&va^so, p. 69, amachcTui pdmukha.'^B, 

X Md/dcalou .— i. e., Mafat (Kaldge-fdm). According to Pyrard the 
Manpas (a probable misprint for Maupaa) was << chancellor, keeper of the 
king's privy seal" (Gray). Chris, calls this officer Mqfae, 6th Vizier. Cf : 8. 
Mahd and j>a(i in 8en&patij chamiipati (Mafihv. pa89ifn).^'B. 

§ Fitndyec; Mdndyec : — ^These titles have not survived. Cf : S. Mdhd^ 
ndydka. Pyrard styles the '* First Lord of the Admiralty and President of 
Board of Trade" (Gray) VeUmnca [VeUM], and Chris. WihM Shadander, 3rd 
Vizier. Ibn Battit& makes no mention of the Dorhim^nd and Hakwrd (Chris. 
Dwimind : Hahura) Ist and 2nd Viziers; Pyrard, DorimenaZj Torimesnas, " com- 
mander in chief of the army" ; Acouraz), For particulars regarding the present 
government officers at M41^, see Ceylon Sess. Papers, 1881, " The M&ldivo 
Islands."— B. 

II CannahuB I'^Aa Ibn Bat&ta here mentions an island of the sama name 
above given to one of the " zones" or atolls, the French editors are likely in 
error in identifying it with CoUomandu atoll, there being no island in that 

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20 JOURNAL n. A. S. CEYI^dN. [eXTRI Nd. 

at the house of one of the most pious inhabitants. The lawyei^ 
^Aly gave me a feast. He was a distinguished person and had 
sons addicted to study. I saw there a man named Mohammed 
a native of Zhafdr Alhomoudhy who Entertained me and said to 
me, **If you set foot on the island oi Mahal, the Vizier will forcibly 
detain you, for the people have no Kim.^ It was then my 
intention to get away from that country to Ma'bar {Cotomandet 
coast) y to Serendib {Gej/lon), to Bengal, and then to China. I had 
then arrived at the M&ldives in a ship whose captain was ^Omar 
Alhinaouryy who was one of the vurtuous pilgrims. When we 
had come mto harbour at CannaloAsy he remained there ten days^ 
then he hked a little barque to take him thence to Mahal, bear* 
ing a present for the Queen and her Consort. I wished to go with 
him, but he said, *^ The barque is not big enough for you and your 
companions^ if you like to set out without them, it is your affair.'* 
I decliiied tiiis proposal, and ' Omar took his departure. But the 
wind Was contrary {literally Splayed with him^) and at the end of 
four days he came back to us, not without having experienced 
trouble. He made his excuses to me, and implored me to go with 
him, my companions and all. We set sail in the morning and 
towards midday disembarked on an island: leaving that, we passed 
the night at another. After a four days cruise, we arrived at the 
province of Tetm,tixe governor of which was one Hildl. He wel- 
comed me, and gave me a feast: and afterwards came to visit me 
accompanied by four men, two of whom had on their shoulders a 
rod* from which were suspended four chickens. The other two had 
a similar rod to which were attached about ten coconuts. I was 

atoll of the name Cannalofbs or one resembling it. It is unlikely too that Ibn 
Battlta coming from the north made hid landing at a point so far south as 
Oollomandu. The termination < lonef^ moreover or ' lu' seems in the modern 
names of the islands to be quite distinct from ^du,^ [V'S., p. 5, for identification 
of this island with Kmc^oa in M&losma^ulu Atol. M. {(>««" ? the bats fMpou 
ttw of the Ohagos group : M. (ici = S. dAva * islet' — B,} 

♦ M. dcu/imdru^ihe hatUya of the Sinhalese— A 

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'surprised that they thought so highly of tifese common objects: 
%ut was informed that they do this as a token of consideration and 

After leaving these people we landed on the sixth day at the 
island of Othmdn, a distinguished man and one of the best one 
•could meet. He xeceived us witii honour and entertained us. On 
ilie eighth day we put into an Mand belonging to a Vizier named 
Telemdy. 0n the tenth5 we at length reached the island of Mahal, 
"where the Sultana and her Consort ^eside^ and cast anchor in the 
harbour. It is a custom of the country that no one may disembark 
without the permission of the inhabitants.f This was accorded to 
^s : and I then desired to betake myself to some mosque, but 
«the slaves on the beach prevented me, saying, "It is necessary 
-that you should first visit the Vizier." I had requested the captain 
when he should be questioned about me to say, ** I know nothing 
•of him"; for fear lest they should detain me, being unaware that 
some ill-advised babbler had written to them an account of me, 
rftnd that I had been Edzi at Delhi. On our arrival at the audi* 
^nce hall, we took our seats on benches at the thu*d entrance door. 
The K&zi ^Iga Alyamany came up and welcomed me, while 
I saluted the Vizier. The ship captain Ibmhtm {above he 
4s called 'Omar) brought ten pieces of worked stuflb, made a 
salute before the Queen, and threw down one of them: then he bent 
the knee in honor of the Vizier and threw down another, and so on 
to the last. He was questioned about me, and replied, " I know 
nothing of him." 

We were then presented with betel and rose-water which is 
A mark of honor with them. The Vizier gave us lodging in a 
house and sent us a repast consisting of a large bowl full of rice 
and surrounded with plates of salted meats dried in the sun, 
chickens, melted butter and fish. On the morrow I set out with 
the captain and the K&zf, ^Iga Alyamany to visit a hermitage 

^ * The Sinhalese perrnnka^a or pingo of presents of sweetmeats, provisionSi 
bruits, &o. 

t Enforced to this daj^-A 

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situated at the extremity of the island and founded by the vittir- 
•ous Shaikh Nedjib.* We returned at mght, and on the followmg 
morning the Vizier sent me some raiment, and a repast comprising 
rice, melted btittel:, salt, stm-dried meat, coconuts, and honey ex- 
tracted from the same fruit, called by Ae natives AorWny,t signi- 
fying *sugar-water.' They birought me also 100,000 cowries for 
my expenses. Afteir ten days there nrrived a ship from Ceylon, 
baying on boaid some Persian and Arab fakirs who knew me and 
told the servants of the Vizier all about me. This enhanced the 
pleasure giv«i by my coming. H'e sent for me at the commence- 
ment of Bamaz&n. I found the Chiefs and Viziers already assem- 
bled : food was served at the tables, each of which accommodated 
«. certain munber of guests. The Grand Vizier made me sit by 
his side, in company of the Kdzi 'i^, the F^melddry Vizier or 
Chief of the Treasury, and tiie Vizier ' Omar^ the Dehfirdyt i. «., 
Oeneral of the army. The dinner of these islanders consists of 
rice, chickens, melted butter, fish, salt, sun^-driedmeat, and cooked 
bananas. After eating, they drink the coco honey mingled with 
aromatics, which facilitates digestion. 

On the 9th of Ramaz&n, the son^^inJaw of the Vizier died. 
His wife, the daughter of that minister, had already been married 
to the Sultan Ohihdb eddtn: but neither of her husbands had 
cohabited with her on account of her youth. Her father, the 
* This old shrine (Nqjihu vfMHlu)^ it is said, may still be seen at M&16. — B, 
t Korbanf^' — Probably ought to be ' hdhorhcmif equivalent to the Sinhalese 
hahwrUf * jaggery' : 2>fw», * honey,* the former word appearing as acowrou for * coco- 
honey' in the vocabulary of Pyrard. 

I DiTierd .'-^i. Pyrard, Darade Tacaurou "count or duke," and Chris. 
Daharaj 6th Vizier. " As each incumbent of the first five Vizierships died no 
successor appears to have been appointed, and the titles thus gradually became 
extinct That of the 6th Vizier alone survives in the person of the son of the 

former Ddhard The Ddhatrii (Tdkwru-f&m) has no specific department of 

public business to supervise. But for a certain voice in military and municipal 
afiEairs his office would be a titular sinecure." {The Mdldive lakmdSf Ceylon 
ISess. Pap. 1881). Cf : the Siyhalese Dovdrika (Ma^v. p. 117, ll),^but also the 
Fenian Daroogha.-^B. 

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Vizier, took her back home, and gave me her house, which was^ 
one of the most charming. I asked permission to entertain the 
fakirs returning from yisitmg the Foot of Adam, in the island 
o£ Ceylon {see below). This he granted, and sent me five sheep, 
a rare animal with the islanders, having to be brought from^ 
Ma'bar (Coromandel Coast) from Malabar and from Makdachaou^ 
The Vizier sent me also rice, chickens,, melted butter and spices. 
I had all these carried to the bouse of the Vizier Souletmdn, the* 
Mdndyee {Admiral), who took the greatest eare in having them 
cooked, augmented them in quantity, and sent me carpets aiid 
copper vessels. We broke the fast according to custom, in the 
palace of the Sultana, with the Grand Vizier, and I requested 
him to permit some of the other Viziers to assist at my dinner* 
He said ** I wiH come myself too.'* I thanked him and returned 
home: but he had already arrived with the Viziers and grandees 
of the State. He seated himself in a raised pavilion of wood* 
All who came, whether Chiefs or Viziers, saluted the Grand Vizier, 
and threw down a piece of unworked stuff, in such numbers that 
the total reached to a hundred or thereabouts, aH of which the 
fakirs appropriated. Dinner was then served and eaten : then 
the readers of the Kurdn gave a reading with their fine voices, 
after which were singing and dancing. I had a fire prepared, 
and the fakirs then entered and trampled it under foot ; some of 
them even ate the live embers^ as one would devour sweetmeats^ 
imtil the flame was extinguished. 

The Stoby of some op the Vizier's bene* 
pactions to mb. 

When the night was ended, the Vizier went home and I ac- 
companied him. We passed a garden belonging to the Treasury^ 
and the Vizier said to me, ^^ This garden is for you: I will have a 
house built upon ^it to serve for your residence." I praised his 
kind action, and made vows in his favour. Next day he sent me 
a young female slave, and his messenger said, *^ The Vizier bids 
me say, if this girl pleases you, she is yours ; otherwise he will 

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i4i jouRNATi Br. A. gf^ OETEOir. [bxtsa m^t. 

send' a Mahrattift slave." I likeitfie young Mahratta girls, so I' 
replied."! desire- only the Mahratta," The minister had one 
brought to me, by^ name GuUstdi^ which signifies "the flower of 
the garden." (or more exactly ^ the parterre of flowers*). She 
knew the Persian tongue, and pleased, me highly. The Mdldive- 
inhabitants hare a language which I did not understand. 

The next day, liie Vizier sent me a young female slave ^ 
from Coromandel by name Anbery {^ambergris colour). On the^ 
following evening he came to my house with some of his servants,,, 
and entered' attended by two little [boy] slaves. I saluted him,, 
and he asked me how I did. I made vows for his welfare and? 
thanked Mm* One of the slaves put before him a lokchah 
{hokchak)^* that is, a kind of napkin, from which he &ew some- 
silk stu£& and a box containing pearls and. trinkets. The Vizier 
made me a present c^ them, adding,. " If I had sent these with, the 
young slave, she would have said^This is my property :.I Iwought 
it from the house of my master.' Kow that the things belong to^ 
you,^ make her a present of them." I addressed prayers to God 
for the minister, and rendered to him expressions of my gratitude^^ 
(rf which he was worthy. 

Op the Vizier's change op disposition towards me p 

OP the project which I PORMED TO DEPART ; AND 

The Vizier Souletmdn, the M&ndyec, had proposed to me to 
espouse his daughter. I sent to ask the permission of the Vizier 
DJemdl eddin to ccmclude the marriage. My messenger returned 
saying, ** It does not please him ; he wishes you to marry his 
daughter when the legal term o£ her widowhood shall have ex- 
pired" I refused to consent to this union, fearing the sinister 
fortune attached to the daughter of the Vizier, since two husbands 
had already died without having consummated the marriage. 
In the midst of all this a fever seized me, and I was very ill^ 

* Lohchah or hokchah : — If the latter be the correct reading ■= ? burugd 
the cloth worn over the face at times by M41diye ladies,— -J9. 

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Every person who goes to that island must inevitably catch the 
fever.* I made a strong resolve to get out of the country : I 
sold a portion of my trinkets for cowries^ and chartered a ship to 
take me to Bengal. When I went to take my leave of the 
Vizier, the Kdzi coming out met me, and addressed me in these 
terms, " The Vizier," said he, "bids me tell you this *If you wish 
to go away, give us back what we have given you and then go.' " I 
replied, "With a part of my trinkets I have bought cowries ; do 
with them what you will.'^ In a little while the Kfizi returned 
to me and said, " The Vizier says * We have given you gold, not 
cowries,' " I replied, " Very well: I will sell them and will pay you 
gold." Accordingly I sent to request the merchants to buy the 
shells from me. But the Vizier gave them orders not to deal with 
me ; for his design, in so conducting himself, was to prevent me 
going away from him. 

Then he deputed one of his intimates, who had this conver- 
sation with me, " The Vizier bids me request you to remain with 
us and you shall have everything you desire." So I said to 
myself, " I am under their authority: if I do not stay with a good 
grace, I shall have to stay by constraint : a voluntary sojourn 
is preferable to that." I therefore made reply to the envoy, " Very 
well: I shall remain with him." The messenger retiumed to his 
masteiv who was delighted with my reply, and sent for me. When 
I entered his presence, he got up and embraced me, saying, "We 
wish you to remain with us, and you wish to go !" I made my 
excuses, which were accepted, and said, " If you wish me to stay, 
I will impose upon you certain conditions." The Vizier replied, 
*' We accept them : please to name them." I answered, " I am 
unable to walk on foot." For it is a custom of the country that 
♦ " On la connoist par toute V Inde sous le nom de fi^vre dee Maldives, 
lis rappellent Mali ona ^hun or huma}, C*eflt de cette maladie que la 
pluspart de mee compagnons estoient morts, comme tous estrangers ne manquent 
pas d'en estre bientost atteints," (Pyrard, p. 95 ; again p. 201). The Indian 
Navy Surveyors (1834-6) suffered much from this pest of the group.—B. 


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no one rides on horseback, except the Vizier. So it was that 

when I had a horse* given to me and was mounted, the croy^A of 

men, as well as children, began to follow me with astonishment, 

whereof I complained to the Vizier. Accordingly a donkarah was 

beaten, and it was proclaimed among the people that no one should 

follow me. The donkorah is a kind of copper basin, which is 

struck with an iron rod [or hammer], and gives a noise heard afar.f 

After it is struck, the crier cries in public whatever he required. 

The Vizier said to me, ** If you wish to ride in a palaquin, 

well and good : otherwise we have a stallion and a mare : choose 

which of these animals you prefer." I chose the mare which was 

brought to me at once. At the same time some garments were 

brought to me. I said to the Vizier, " What shall I do with the 

cowries which I have bought?" He replied, ** Send one of your 

companions to sell them for you in Bengal." '* I will do so," 

said I, " on condition that you send some one to help him in the 

affair." *' I will," he replied. So I despatched my comrade Abou 

Mohammed^ son oiFerhdUy in whose company they sent one called 

the pilgrim ^Aly. But it happened that a storm arose: the crew 

jettisoned the whole cargo, including even Ihe mast, the water, and 

all the other provisicms for the voyage. They remained for sixteen 

days without sail, rudder, &c. ; and after the endurance of hunger, 

thirst, and toil, they arrived at the island of Ceylon. In a year*s 

time my comrade Abou Mohammed came back to me. He had 

visited the Foot (of Adam) and he afterwards saw it again with me. 

Account of the Festival in which I took pajit 
WITH THE Islanders. 

The month of Bamaz&n ended, the Vizier sent me some 

[proper] raiment, and we made our way to the place consecrated 

* In November, 1879, there were but two horses in the Islands, the property 
of the Sultan at M416, " wretched wry-legged weeds, not fit to ride,^' and kept 
merely for show. — B, 

f Donkorah : — Ibn Batuta's ignorance of the Mlildive language may pos- 
sibly have led him to confuse dummdrhi, the term for the ' flagiolet|' with hol% 
* gong/ The iron striker is called da4^<^^*'^B, 

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for prayer. The path which the minister had to traverse, be- 
tween his residence and the place of prajer, had been decorated: 
stnffi had been spread, and there had been placed to right and 
left heaps (literally cotta's, v, *., /?. 11) of cowries. All the Emirs 
and grandees who had honses on the road had planted near them 
little coco-trees, arecas, and bananas. Ropes were hung from 
one tree to the next, and green nuts were suspended from the 
ropes. The master of the house remained near the gate, and 
when the Vizier passed, he threw hefote his feet a piece of silk 
or cotton. The slaves oi the mmister apprc^riated these, as well 
as the cowries placed by the way. The Vizier advanced on foot, 
covered with an ample robe of goat's hair of Egyptian manufac- 
ture, and with a large turban. As a scarf he wore a kerchief of 
silk ; four umbrellas shaded his head, and sandals covered his feet. 
All his attendants without exception had their feet baria. 
Trumpets, clarions, and drums* preceded him: the soldiers march- 
ed before and behind him, all shouting the cry ^ God is very 
great P until they were arrived at the place of prayer. 

Prayer ended, the son of the Vizier preached: then was 
brought a litter which the Vizier mounted. The Emirs and the 
other grandees again saluted him, casting down pieces of stu& 
according to custom. Before this time the Grand Vizier used not 
to ride in a litter, for the Kings alone did so. The bearers then 
lifted it ; I mounted my horse, and we entered the palace* The 
minister seated himself at a raised dais, having near him the 
Viziers and the Emirs. The slaves remained standing, bearing 
shields, swords, and staves.f Food was then served, and after- 
wards arecanuts and betel, after which was brought a little dish 
containing sandal mokassiry.X As soon as one party of the guests 

* M. tdlafili; dummdrhi; heru,^^B. 

f M a44^ma; katfi ; dcufu — B, 

X MohoBBiry ; = ? M. kasturi * mtuk. * — B. 

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had eaten, they rubbed themselves with sandal. That day I saw 
upon one of their dishes a fish of the species of sardines, salted 
and raw, which had been sent as a present from Caoulem. This 
fish is very abundant on the Malabar Coast. The Vizier took a 
sardine, and began to eat it, at the same time saying to me, ^^ Eat 
some of that ; it is not found in our country." I answered, " How 
can I eat it ? It is not cooked." ** It is cooked," said he. But I 
replied, " I know this fish well, for it abounds in my native land." 


On the 10th day of Shawwdl I agreed with the Vizier 
Souleimdn i^andyec, or Admiral, that I should espouse his daughter, 
and I sent to request the Vizier Djemdl eddin that the betrothal 
should take place in his presence at the palace. He agreed and 
sent betel, according to custom, and sandal. The people were 
present for the ceremony. The Vizier Souleimdn delayed his 
coming. He was sent for : and yet he came not. He was sent 
for a second time, and he excused himself on account of the ill- 
ness of his daughter: but the Grand Vizier said to me in private, 
^' His daughter refuses to marry ; and she is mistress of her own 
actions. But see ! the people are assembled : would you like to 
espouse the step-mother of the Sultana, the widow of her father?" 
(The Grand Vizier's son was then married to this woman's 
daughter). I replied "Yes, by all means." He then convoked 
the K&zi and the notaries. The profession of the Musalm&n 
faith was then recited, and the Vizier paid the dowry. After 
some days my wife was brought to me. She was one of the best 
women who ever lived. Such was her good manners, that when 
I became her husband, she anointed me with scented oils and per- 
fumed my clothes ; during this operation she laughed and allowed 
nothing disagreeable to be seen. 

When I had married this lady, the Vizier constrained me 
to accept the functions of the Kazi. The cause of my uomina- 

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tion was that I had reproached the Kdzi for taking the tenth 
part of inheritances, when he made partition among the heirs. I 
said to him, "You ought to have only a fee, which you should 
agree for with the heirs." This judge did nothing rightly. 
After I was invested with the dignity of Kazi, I used all my 
efforts to have the precepts of the law observed. Disputes are 
not settled in that country as in ours. The first bad custom 
which I reformed concerned the sojourn of divorced women at 
the houses of those who had repudiated them ; for these women 
did not cease to remain at the houses of their former husbands, 
until they got married to others. I prevented this being done 
under any pretext. About five and twenty men were brought to 
me who had conducted themselves in this sort. I had them 
beaten with whips,* and had them marched through the baz&rs. 
As for the women, I compelled them to leave the homes of these 
men. Next I exerted myself to get prayers celebrated : I order- 
ed some men to run down the streets and bazdrs immediately 
after the Friday's prayers. If any were discovered, who had not 
prayed, I had him beaten and marched through the town. I com- 
pelled the Imams and Mouezzins in possession of fixed appoint- 
ments to apply themselves assiduously in their duties. I^ wrote 
in the same sense to (the mcyistrates of ) eM the other islands. 
Lastly I essayed to make the women dress themselves, but in 
this I did not succeed. 

Of the aebival of the Vizier ^Abd Allah, son of 

Mohammed Alhadhramt whom Sultan Chihab 

eddin had banished to souweidj account 

of what passed between us. 

I had espoused the step-daughter of this personage, and I 

loved this wife very dearly. When the Grand Vizier recalled 

him to the Island of Mahal, t sent him presents, went to, meet 

* M. durrd. Pyrard has gleau " leathern thongs used for corporal punish- 
ment."— B. 

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him, and accompanied him to the palace. He saluted the Grand 
Vizier, who lodged him in a magnificent hoase, and there I often 
visited him. It happened, when I passed the month of Bamazdn 
in prayer, that all the inhabitants visited me, except ^Abd-Allak. 
The Vizier Djemdl eddtn himself came to see me, and ^Abd- Allah 
with him, but only bearing him company. Enmity arose be* 
tween us. Afterwards when I came out of my retreat, the 
maternal uncles of my wife, the step-daughter of ^Abd- Allah 
made a complaint to me. They were the sons of the Vizier 
Djemdl eddtn Assindjary. Their father had appointed the Vizier 
^Abd'Allah to be their guardian, and their property was still in 
his hands, although they had by the law emerged from wardship. 
They demanded his appearance in Court. It was my custom 
when I summoned one of the contending parties to send him a 
slip of paper, either with or without writing. On delivery aS 
that the party repaired to the Court ; if he did not, I punished 
him. In this way I sent a slip to ^Abd^Allah^ This procedure 
raised his choler, and on account thereof he conceived a hatred 
for me. He concealed his enmity and sent some one to plead for 
him. Some unseemly language was reported to me as having 
been used by him. 

The islanders, both gentle and simple, were accustomed ta 
salute the Vizier ^Abd^Allah in the same way as the Vizier 
Djemdl eddtn. Their salutation consists in touching the ground 
with the forefinger, Ihen kissing it, and placing it on the head, 
I issued orders to the public mer, and he proclaimed in the 
Queen's palace in the presence of witnesses, that whoever should 
render homage to ^Abd-Allah in like manner as to the Grand 
Vizier should incur severe chastisement. Abd I exacted from 
him a promise that he would not allow men to do so. His 
enmity against me was now increased. Meantime I married an- 
other wife, daughter of a highly esteemed Vizier, verbose grand- 
father was the Sultan Ddovd, the grand-son of the Sultan 

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Ahmed ChSnoHrdzah.* Then I married one who had been 
married to the Saltan Chihdb eddtn, and I had three houses built 
in the garden wlTich the Vizier gave to me. My fourth wife, 
the step-daughter of ^Abd^Allahj lived at her own house. She 
was the one of all my wives whom I cherished the most. Thus 
allied by marriage to the persons named, the Vizier and the 
people of Ae island feared me much, by reason of their own 
weakness. False reports were spread between me and the Grand 
Vizier, in great part by the care of the Vizier ^Abd-Allah^ so 
that our estrangement became final. 

Of my dbpabttjbe from these people, and of 
the motive thebeof. 

It happened that one day the wife of a slave of the late 
Sultan Djeldi eddin made a complaint of him to the Vizier, to 
the effect that he had a liaison with one of the Sultan's con- 
cubines. The Vizier sent witnesses, who entered the girl's house 
and found the slave asleep with her upon the same carpet. Both 
were taken into custody. In the morning, on being informed of 
this, I went to the audience hall and took my seat in my cus- 
tomary place. I made no reference to the afiair. A courtier 
then approached me and said, " The Vizier requests to know if 
you have any business with him." I replied, "No." The 
design of the minister was that I should speak of the affitir of 
the concubine and the slave; for it was my invariable rule to de- 
cide every case which he put before me. But as I was showing 
him my dissatisfaction and dislike, I omitted to do so then. I 
went straightway to my own house and took my seat where I 
delivered my judgments. Soon after came a Vizier, Bajing on 
behalf of the Grand Vizier, '* Yesterday, so and so occurred in 

* This relationBhip fixes approximately the date of ChSncHrdMah dnd of 
the Mohammedan conversion, whidii may have been as early as 1200 A. D.^ 
but — albwing for early marriages — ^perhaps more probably about 1220, or 
1230 A.D.--See Pi^>w on l^e Maldives, J. B. A. S.; Vol. X.; N., s., 1878., p. 177. 

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the matter of the concubine and slave : judge both of them con- 
formably with the law.'' I replied, '* It is a cause in which it is 
not fitting to deliver judgment save at the Sultan's palace." 
I then returned thither ; the people assembled, and the concubine 
and the slave were summoned. I ordered that both should be 
beaten for their liaison ; and adjudged that the woman should be 
set at liberty and the slave kept in prison : after which I returned 

The Vizier sent several of his principal attendants to speak 
to me about setting the slave at liberty. I said to them, ^^ Inter- 
cession is made with me in favor of a negro slave, who has 
violated the respect which he owed to his master ; while but 
yesterday, you have deposed the Sultan Chihdb eddin and slain 
him, because he went into the house of one of his slaves." 
Thereupon I ordered the prisoner to be beaten with bambu 
switches, which produced more effect than the whip. I had 
him marched through the whole island, with a rope round his 
neck. The messengers of the Vizier went and informed him of 
what passed. He discovered great agitation and was inflamed 
with anger. He assembled the other Viziers, the chiefs of the 
army, and sent for me. I obeyed the summons. It was my custom 
to pay him homage by bending the knee. This time I did not 
do so, only saying " Peace be with you 1" * Then I said to those 
present, *^ Be ye witnesses that I resign my functions as K&zi, 
because I am rendered powerless to exercise them." The Vizier 
having then bespoke me, I went up and took a seat in front of 
him, and then I answered him in terms yet more severe. After 
this rencontre, the Mouezzin made the call to prayer at sun-down, 
and the Grand Vizier entered his house, saying, " It is pretended 
that I am a sovereign ; but see I I have sent for this man in 
order to vent my wrath upon him, and he dares to be angry with 
me." I was only respected by these islanders for the sake of 
the Sultan of India, for they knew the position I occupied under 

♦ Salaam alMCont-^Ax. 

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him. Although they are fac removed from him^ they fear him^ 
much in their heiaata. 

When the Grand Vizier had' returned to his house^ he sent 
the deposed K&zi,. an eloquent speaker^ who addressed me as 
£d11ows: — "Our master requires to know why you have violated, 
in the presence of witnesses, the respect which is due to him, 
and why you have not rendered, him homage ?" I replied, " I 
saluted him only when my heart was satisfied with him; but now 
that dissatisfaction has supervened, I have renounced the usage. 
The salutation of Miisalm&ns consists only of the word assildm, 
(Peace be with yout) and that 1 have pronounced." The Vizier 
sent this person a second time, and he liiensaid^ "You have no 
other aim hut that of leaving us; pay the dowries of your wives,, 
and what you owe to the men, and go when you will." At this 
speech I bowed and went to my house and paid such debts as I 
had contracted. Up to this time the Vizier had given me carpets 
and a suite of furniture, consistihg of copper vessels, and other 
tilings. He used to grant me everything I asked ; he loved me 
and treated me with consideration r but his disposition changed and. 
he became inspired with fear of me. 

When he heard that I had paid my debts and that I was 
mtending to depart, he repented of what he had said, and put 
off granting me permission to go« I adjured him by the strongest 
oaths that I was under necessity to resume my voyage. I re- 
moved my belongings toa mosque upon the beach, and repudiated 
one of my wives. Another was with Child, to her I gave a term 
of nine months, within which. 1 might return, or in default thereof 
she was ta be mistress of her own actions. I took with me that 
one of my wives who had been married to the Sultan Chihdb 
eddin in order to restore her to her father who dwelt in 
the island of Molouc, and my first wife, whose daughter was 
half-sister to the Sultana. I agreed with the Vizier ^Omar 
JDeherd ( or General of the army^ v. s, p. 22) and the Vizier 


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Sagan^ the Admiral, that I shoulS go to the country of McHhar* 
(ClwowanrftfZ^, the king of which was my brother-in-law, and that 
I should return with troops, to the end that the islands might be 
reduced under his authority, and that I should then exercise the 
power in his name. I chose to serve as signals between us, 
white flags to be hoisted on board the vessels. As soon as 
they should see these, they were to rise in rebellion cm shore. I 
never had any such idea, up to the day when I showed my dis- 
pleasure. The Vizier was afraid of me and said to the people,, 
*^ This man is determined to get the Vi^ierate, me living or dead.'* 
He niade many enquiries about me, and added, " I have heard 
that the King of India has sent him money, to use in raising 
trouble against me^" He dreaded my departure lest I should 
return from the Coromandel Coast with troops. He bade me re- 
main until he should get a ship ready for me : but I refused. 

The half-sister of the Queen complained to her of the 
departure of her mother with me. The Queen wished to prevent 
her, but did not succeed. When she saw her resdlved to go, she 
said to her, " All the trinkets you possess were provided 
with money from the custom-house. If you have witnesses 
to swear that Djeldl eddtn gave them to you, good and well ; 
otherwise restore them." These trinkets were of considerable 
value ; nevertheless my wife gave them up to these people. 
The Viziers and Chiefs came to me while I was at the mosque^ 
and prayed me to return. I replied to them, " Had I not sworn, 
assuredly I would return." They said, " Go then to some other 
island, so that your oath be kept, and then return." "Very 
well,'' said I, to satisfy them. When the day of my departure 

* The name McHhar ( * passage' or * ferry') was given to tlie Coromandel 
coast by the Arabs during the 13th and 14th centuries. Col. Yule suggests . 
that it referred to the communication with Ceylon, or, as is more probable, to 
its being at that age the coast most frequented by travellers from Arabia and 
the Grulf (Marco Polo II., p. 268). The tract of coast called Ma' bar extended 
from Cape Comorin to Nellore. 

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Was come, I went to bid adieu to the Vizier. He embraced me 
and wept in such wise that his tears fell upon my feet* He 
passed the following night watching in the island, for fear lest 
my connections by marriage and my comrades should rise in 
rebellion against him* 

At length I got away and arrived at the island of the 
Vizier 'Aly. Mj wife was in great distress, and wished to rec- 
tum. I repudiated her and left her there, and wrote this news to 
the Vizier, for she Was the mother of his son's wife. I repu*- 
diated also the wife to whom I had fixed the term (for my return) 
&nd sent for a slave girl I was fond of. Meanwhile we sailed 
through the midst of the islands, from one group to another. 

Of Women who have only on;b Breast. 

in one of the islands I saw a woman who had only one breast* 
She was mother of two daughters, of whom one resembled her 
exactly, and the other had two breasts, only that one was large 
and full of milk, the other small and contained none. I was 
astonished at the conformation of these women. 

We arrived in course at another of these islands which was 
small, and had a solitary house, occupied by a weaver,* a married 
man and father of a family. He possessed small coco trees, and 
a little barque,t which served him for fishing and visiting the 
other islands when he wished : on his islet were also small 
bananas trees. We saw there none of the birds of the continent, 
except two crows, which flew in front of us on our arrival and 
circled round our ship. I truly envied the lot of this man, and 
made a vow that if his island should belong to me, I would retire 
to it until the inevitable term should arrive for me. 

* Mats, and some cloths, are woven in Huvadu(Suv4diva) Atol ; the former 
on the islands Gaddu^ Havara Tinaduj and Gemam-furhL—B, 

f M» mas 0^1, — -&. 

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S6 JOURl^AL R. A. s. cEirLo:5r. '[^TTRAiro. 

I next arrived at the island of Molo^* where I ftmnd ttre 
ship belonging to the captain Ibrdkim in which I had resolved 
to sail to the Coromandel Coast. That person came to visit n>e 
alcmg with his companions, and they entertained me at a fine 
feast. The Vizier had written in my favor an order requiring 
them to give me at this island 120 bostou { v.i,pAl) o{ cowries, 
^0 goblets of athotidnf or coco-honey, and to add to that every 
day a certain -^uaritity ef betel, fureoanuts, and fish. I remained 
5at M4M0&C 70 days, and married two wives there. Molouc is 
oiie of the fairest islands to see, being verdant and fertile* 
Among other marvellous things to be seen there, I remarked that 
a branch cut off one of the trees there, and planted in the ground 
or on a wall, will cover itself with leaves and become itself a 
tree. I observed also tliat the pomegranate tree there ceases 
not to bear fruit t^e whole year round. The inhabitants of this 
island were afraid that the captain IbrdHm was going to harry 
them at bis departure. They therefore wanted to seize the arms 
which his ship contained, and to keep them until the day of his 
departure. A dispute arose ob this subject, aod we returned to 
Mahaty but did not disembark. I wrote to the Vizier informing 
him of what had taken place. He sent a written (Hrder to the 
effect that there was no ground for seizing the arms of the crew. 
We then returned to Molo'Ac, and left it again m the middle of 
the mcMath of Rabi the second of the year 745 {26th August A. D. 
1344). In the month of Shabia of the same year {December^ 
1344), died the Vizier D^dl eddin. The SultMia was with 
child by him and was delivered rfter his death. The Vizier 
'Abd'Allah took her>o wife. 

♦ ifofouc :—Moltik, the chief island of Moluk Atol, is in lat. 2* 57' N. Th# 
Admiralt)^ Chaai says that it possesses good water. [More probably Fua 
Mulahu Island, which lies detached a little S. E. of the centre of the Equatorial 
Channel (lat. 0® 17, S.) between Huvadn and A4# Atols. Ibn Batiita had 
already **8ailed through the midst of the islands, from one group to another.'*— :B.] 

% Athouan:-- Ahove at p. 22 coco-honey is called few&^y. In Moura's 
edition of Ibn Batiita (Lisbon, 1865), the word appears as alatuan. 

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5*882.] Ito BATim m I'HB MALDIVES AJlt) ClSYLOl^. B7 

As for us, we sailed on, though without aft e^pferienced pilot. 
The distance which separates the M&Idiyes from the Coromandel 
*Coast is three days' sail. We were for nine days under sail, and on 
the 9th we went on shore at the island of Ceylon. We perceived 
the mountain oiSer&ndib raised in the air like a column of smoke. 
When we came near the islsuid, the mariners «aid, ** This port is 
»not in the<^ountry of a Sultan «i whose dominions the merchants 
'Can go in all safety ; it is in the country of the Sultan Airy 
*Chacarouaty* who is one of the unjust and perverse. He has ships 
engaged in jriracy on the high seas." Wherefore we feared to 
-land at his port, but, the wind rising, we were in danger of being 
swamped, and I said to the Captain, ** Put me ashore and I will 
get for you a safe-conduct from this Sultan." He did as I re- 
"quested, Mid put 4ne out on the beach. The idolaters advanced 
to meet us and said, •* Who are you?'* I apprized them that I 
was the brother-in-law and friend of the Sultan of Coromandel, 
that I ^as on my way to pay him a visit, and that what was on 
board the ship was destined for a present to that prince. The 
natiYes went to their Sovereign and conununicated to him my 
^ly. He sent for* me, and I presented myself before him at 
the town of BatihMah (I\McAam)^ which was his capital. It is 

* Airy Hhacarouaty: — ^This seems to be the (?) P6i(i4iyan prince, " Aareya 
Caiakkra Warti," mentioned in Pridham (Ceylon, Vol I.,p. 78), who, after 1371 
A.D., conquered the nortiiern half of the Island, and took King Wikrama captive, 
but was deleaited by the Adigar Alakeswara, and possibly the same Malabar 
Prince captured and put to death by Prince '* Sapoomal Cumara/' — See Upham's 
B&jawali, p.264, 26^ [A oorrei^ndent writes : — <* The name identifies no indi- 
TiduaL All the Kings of JafiEna seem to have been called Ariya or Ariyan— cm 
old title in India. See the Khandagiri rock inscription, and one of those over 
the Manikpura cave at Udayagiri (Cunningham's Corpus Insc. Indie, Vol. I. ) 
Ji^fna at this period (A.D. 1344) was, if the Vaipaca Mdlai can be trusted, 
Mulder the rule <^ Kunavirasinka Ariyan.^' — B,"] 

f BattMlah .*^Thi8 town has been identified with Puttajam by Lea, 
Tennent, the French Editor, and Col. Tule, successively ; but, it seems to me^ 
i^ithottt fiofficient authority. Th« ^ «f BtUtiidkih is against it^ so tw the want 

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^ ^OURKAL R. A. S. tJEYLOK. [fiXTtlA NO 

^ heal little place, surrounded by a wall and bastions of wood. 
All the neighbouring shore was <5overed with trunks of cinnamon 
trees, totn ^p by the torrents. This wood was collected on the 
t)eaoh» and formed as it were hillocks. The inhabitants of Coro- 
mandel -and of Malabar take it away without payment^ save only 
that in return for this favor they make a present to the Sult-an of 

t)f torroborative evidence of tiie eJtistence of Puttalam as 6l toWn of any import- 
ftnce at this period, and the want of any river in its neighbourhood answering 
to the " torrents" spoken of by the traveller. This Jast point, and the doubt- 
ful existence of cinnamon so far north as Puttalam, are the only difficulties 
raised by Tennent (Vol. I., p. 580). The site of Aatthdlah has to be found with a 
lull considera;tion oi the cinnamon question, and, of the site of Minor Mendety^ 
the town at which Ibn Batuta: first halts on his journey towards tiie Peak. 
With his usual laborious care Tennent (Vol. I.,p. 596) has examined all the early 
«iiithorities known to him, and t^oncludes that the text here gives the first 
mention of cinnamon as a product of Ceylon^ Col. Yule^ however (Marco 
Polo, Vol. II., p. 255), points out that two previous notices of it exist, one in 
Kazwini (cvrca A.D. 1275), the other in a letter from John of Montecorvino 
(Ethe'8 Kasfunnij 229 ; Gathay, 213.) 

' The account given by our traveller shews that it Was not as yet cultivated, 
and perhaps that the " trunks" seen by him were not those of the valuable variety 
of later days, but of the common indigenous cctssia. I am not aware whether the 
cultivation, or growth, of cinnamon positively ceases at Ghilaw, as seems to 
be the common opinion: but, even if this be true of the Ceylon cinnamon of 
commerce, it may not be bo of the indigenous plant, and the area of production 
may be more limited now than in the 4th century. Ribeyto (Lee's edn., p. 16), 
says " there is a forest of it 12 leagues in extent between Chilaw and the pagoda 
of Tenevary," without saying that Chilaw is the northern limit: the French trans- 
lator (at p. 11) in his note, remarks ^ that it is only found between GrudumaU 
and Teneoare,^ Now the promontory of Kutiraimalai is a considerable 
distance north of Puttalam: and I have little doubt that the French translator 
had good authority for the assertion. The remaining difficulty, that of the 
" torrents,** inclines me to believe that the site of BaMhdlah was probably 
further north, near the mouth of the Kald-oya, where the free access to the 
sea by the passage between Kalpitiya and Kdratlvu would seem to designate a 
more suitable situation for a Prince, whose strength lay in ships. 

It now remains to fix Menar Mendely^ which has been identified by pre-» 
ceding commentators, and not uxuLfttur(tlly| igrith the Mmnm Mvmdal of 

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stuffi and such things. Between Coromandel and the island of 
Ceylon there is a distance of a day and a night. There is also 
found in this island plenty of brazil-wood,* as well as Indian 
aloes, called alcalakhy {perhaps from the Greek ay6XK9Kov^ ), but 
which does not resemble the kamdry or the kdkouly.X We 
shall speak of them hereafter. 

Of the Sultan of Ceylok. 
He is called Airy Chacarouaty, and he is a powerful King^ 
upon the sea. I saw in one day> while I was on the Coromandel 

Arrowsmith's map, adopted by Tennent. This place is represented as upon the 
Calpentyn [Kalpitiya] peninsular, due west of Puttalam,and I could never account 
for the traveller taking it on his route to the Peak. I am now informed that no such 
place exists. There is, however, on the present road, about half way between 
Puttalam and Ohilaw, a village called Muntal or Mtmdal, four miles north of the 
Battul-oya, which seems to me to suit the description of the traveller in every 
way. Minar Mendely was the frontier town of the Batthdldh Prince, a& 
Bender Sildottdt (Chilaw) must (from the term B&nder) have been to the 
Sinhalese King of the South: and the low jungles of the neighbourhood have 
always been a favourite haunt of wild buffaloes. By the Census of 1871, 1 find 
Mundal and T&^divila together had a population of 128, and Paniya Muntal, 
a neighbouring village, of 80. In conclusion, 1 have to state that the correspon- 
dent who has indicated the places on the Peak route, is of opinion that 
BattMlah is Jaffna and MSndr Mendely, Mannftr. I have been unable, after 
due consideration, to adopt his views, nor could* I state them here at sufficient 
length. I trust, however, that if he has no objection he will formulate them in 
a separate paper for the use of the Society. 

* Braeil-tpood: — i.e., " sapan." " * They have brazil-wood, much the best 
in the world.' Kazwini names it, and Ribeyro (Lee's edn., p. 16) does the like." 
—Yule, Marco Polo, Vol. II., pp. 254, 256. 

t Alcalakhy : — ^Mr. L. Nell considers the surmise of the French editors 
correct " Ibn Batuta evidently uses the Greek term agallokon corresponding^ 
to the Latin Excaecaria agallocha. The Socotrine variety of aloes is the 
usual medicinal species. Two indigenous species are known in India, the 
Aloe Indica and ^e Aloe Utoralis. One of these grows freely in Puttalam, 
and is known by the Tamil name, tahkalV — B. 

% Kamdry; kdhouly, — Dr. S. Lee (Travels of Ibn Batuta, p. 184) identifies the 
latter of these plants on the authority of Ibn Husain^s Medical Dictionary. — B* 

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40 JOUIWAL R Aw B. CBYIiOW. [eXTRAt lfO»- 

Coast^ a hundred of his ships^ both small and' great, which had! 
just tmved. There were in the port eight ships belonging to> 
the Sultan of the country and destined* to make the voyage to* 
Yemen. The sovereign gave orders to make preparations, and5 
assembled people to guacd his- vessels. When the Sinhalese 
despaired c^ &i£ng an opportunity of seizing -them, they said;. 
** We have only come to protect the vessels belonging to us,, 
which also must go* to Yemen..'' 

When I entered the presenca of the idolater Sultan, he rose,: 
and made me sit by his si<£B, and spoke to me with* the greatest 
good-wilL **Let your eomrades," said he,. **^landin all safety,^ 
and be my guests until they leave; There is an alliance between 
me and the Sultan of Coromandel. " Then, he gave ordess; to* 
have me lodged, and I remained with him for three days^, 5ia 
great consideration, whick increased every day. He understood 
the Persian tongue,, and muich did he relisk aB. I toldi him: o£' 
foreign Kings and countries. I entered his presence one day 
when he had by him a quantity of pearls,, which, had^ been.i 
brought from the fishery in his dominions^ The servants of' 
the prince were sorting the precious from those which w^re- not 
so. He said to me, ^^Have you seen the pearl fishery in. the^ 
countries whence you have come?'* *'Yes," I answered; **I 
have seen it in the island of Keis, and in that of Keeh,. 
which belong to Ibn Assaoudmilt/.'*^ " I have heard of them," 
replied he ; and then took up some pearls and added, ** Are 
there at that island any pearls equal to these?" I said, '^ I have 
seen none so good." My answer pleased him, and he said; " They 
are y6urs : do not blush," added he, ^' and ask of me anything 
you desire." I replied, ^* I have no other desire, smce I have 
arrived in tibis island, but to visit the illustrious Foot of Adam." 
The people o£ the country call the first man b&bd (father) and 
Eve, mdmd (mother). " That is easy enough," answered he, " We 
shall send some one to conduct you." " That is what I wish," 

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said I, and then added, ** The vessel in which I have come will 
go in safety to Ma! bar and on my return, you will send me in 
your ships.' " By all means'' said he. 

When I reported this to the Captain of the ship, he said, " I 
will not go till you have returned, even though I should have to 
wait a year for you." I made known this answer to the Sultan, 
and he said, " The Captain shall be my guest until your return." 
He gave nie a palanquin, which his slaves bore upon their backs, 
and sent with me four of those djoguis who are accustomed to 
undertake the pilgrimage annually to the Foot; he added to the 
party three Brahmins, ten others of his friends, and fifteen men 
to carry the provisions. As for water, it is found in abundance 
on the route. 

On the day of our departure, we encamped near a river, 
which we crossed in a ferry-boat formed of bamboos. Thence we 
took our way to Mendr Mendelyy a fine town, situated at the ex- 
tremity of the Sultan's territory, the people of which treated us 
to an excellent repast. This consisted of young buffajoes, taken 
in chase in the neighbouring forest and brought in alive, rice, 
melted butter, fish, chickens and milk. We did not see in this 
town a single Musalman, except a native of ElLorassan, who 
had remained on account of sickness, and who now accompanied 
us. We left for Bender Seldomt* a little town, and after quitting 
it we traversed some rough country, much of it under water. 
There were numbers of elephants there, which do no manner of 
harm to pilgrims, nor to strangers, and that is by the holy influence 
of Shaikh Abou ^Abd Allah, son of Khaflf, the first who opened 
this way to visiting the Foot. Up to that time the infidels 
prevented the Musalmdns from accomplishing the pilgrimage^ 

* Bender Seldoudtj i.e., Chilaw. — ^The fact that it was called Bendery implies, I 
think, that it contained a custom-house or store-house (F. «. p. 10), and was a 
frontier town of the King who ruled south of " Aareya Chakrawarti." This is 
confirmed by the description of Memr Mend^ly as the frontier town of " Aareja 

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42 ;rotmKA'L b. a. «. cisrwis. [extra no. 

harried them^ and would not eat or deal with them^ But when 
the adventure, which we have recounted in the first part of these 
YojtLgesC Tome II ,pp. 80, 81) had happened to the Shaikh Ahm 
^Abd Allah, that is to say, ^e murder of all his companions by 
the elephants, his own preservation, and the manner in which the 
elephant carried him on its hack, from that time on the idolaters 
have respected the Musalm&ns, have pearmitted them to enter 
their houses and to eat with them.* They also place confidence 
ixi them, as regards their women ^nd children. Sven to this 
<day ^ey venerate in the highest degree the above-named Shaikh, 
and call tim Hhe Great Shaikh.' 

Meaawhile we reached the town of C^nacdr,^ the residence 

* *< In tHis «t4tei&eint Iba Batata is fully \orcnQ out by Robert .Knox, who 
says, speaking of the charity ol the Sinhalese, in his Chapter * contieming 
their religious doctrines, opinions, and practices,' Part iii., Ch. 5, * Nor are 
they charitable only to the poor of their own nation ; but, as I said, to others 
and particularly to the Moorish beggars, who are Mahometans by religion ; 
these have a temple in Kandy. A certain formofr King gave this temple this 
privil^&^that every freeholder should contribute a ponnam (fanam, 1^.) to it ; 
and these Moors go to every house in the land to receive it [except in 
Polo^b&g^]; and, if the house be shut, they have power to break it open, and 
take of goods to the value of it. They come very confidently when they beg, 
and say they come to fulfil the peoples' charity ; and the people do liberally re- 
lieve them for charity *8 sake These Moors pilgrims have many pieces of 

land given to them by well disposed persons, out of charity, where they build 
bouses and live ; and this land becomes theirs from generation to generation for 
^ver.'" (Skeen, Adam's Peak, p. 285.)— B. 

f CovuKar — Dr. Lee identifies this place with Gampola, and he is followed 
by Pridham and Tennent According to Tumour's Epitome, Gampola did not 
become the capital till after 1347, while Ibn Batiita is writing of the end of 
1344. The Sinhalese monarchy was then in a very troublous condition, and 
it is difficult to decide upon the locality of Conacar. — [Skeen (Adam's Peak^ 
p. 286) hesitates between Gampola and Batnapura, the place where gems are 
chiefly found,] Col. Yule (Cathay, p. 423, Note) suggests that it was Kumn^gala. 

[Mr. L. Nell writes : — " Sir Emerson Tennent did not hesitate to identify 
this Sovereign with Bhuwan^ka B&hu IV., whose capital was Gaygasripura, the 
modern Gampola. This identification was based on the Chronological Table of 

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of the principal Sovereign ortbe Island. It is built in a gully, be- 
tween two mountains, near* a? great vale, called * the vale of 
precious stcmes,'^ because gems ave* found in it. Outside this 
town is seen the Mosque of the- Shaikh ^Othmdn of Shirdz, 
sumamed Chdoueh (the usher). The King and inhabitants of the 
place visit him^ and treat him witLhigh consideration. He used 

TuraoiH' ; \mt tfiere ane two grounds to doubt this identification. In the first 
plaee Tumour admitted an anachronism about A.D. 1347, the date assumed for 
the accession of Bhuwaneka B&ha IV, because the terms of three reigns 
immediately preceding this {Sovereign are liot given. Secondly, the capital of 
Kmdr or Kondria described as situate in a valley between two hills in a * vale 
(or according to Lee * bey^ in which gem& were found. The term Conac&r^ 
sounds like an Arab attempt to reproduce the name Kurun^gala. Ibn Batiita 
wrote in A.D. 1^44 ; according to Turnour, Gampola did not become the capital, 
till after A.D. 1347. We are thus thrown back to a period before the accession 
of Bhuvan^ka B4hu IV. There is an old native route between Puttalam and 
Kurun^gala. The route from Puttalam to Gampola direct has not been 
known." The correspondent already quoted notes: — "In tracing the traveller 
beyond Chilaw reference \& necessary to Ceylon history. Incomparably the 
best authority for this period is the Nikdya Sangraha^ which was composed about 
13% A.D. (Tumour states 1357 A.D., but that is manifestly wrong, as the 
authos describes all the Kings up to Bhuvanaika B4hu V., who came to the 
throne 1914 A.B., showing Tumour's date to be wrong by 7 years) : the 
corresponding portion of the Mahdwanso was written in 1758 A.D., and is 
not of anything like the same authority. 

" The King of Si^^alesc Ceylon in 1344 A.D; was Bhuvanaika B&hu IV. 
He ascended the throne 1342 A.D., and did not move the seat of Government 
to Gampola from Kurun^gala until 1346 A.D. Consequently Condcar must be 
(as indeed one would expect from the sound) Ibn Batiita's way of rendering 
Kunm^gala. It lie& ^ between two mountains,' the Handrukkanda range and 
the Yakdessa range." — B,'] 

* ^* The valley of the Mah4-oya which is within 10 miles of Kurun^gala. 
The word ^Mcmikam' used by the traveller (Lee's version) occurs in two villages 
in this valley M^ik-divela and Mfnik-ka4cnvara. The valley was celebrated 
for precious stones (see Ka^aim pota), and the latter was a place of some 
notoriety in the 16th century, and figures in Tennent's Portuguese map as 
Mcmicdvare : it ia near Polgahawela."— ^. 

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to serve as a guide for those who go to see the Foot. When he 
had his hand and foot cut off, his sons and slaves became guides 
in his stead. The cause of his being so mutilated was that he 
killed a cow. Now the law of the Hindiis ordains that one who 
has killed a cow should be massacred in like wise, or enclosed in 
its skin and burnt. The Shaikh ^Othmdn being respected by 
those people, they contented themselves with cutting off his hand 
and foot, and granted to him, as a present, the dues levied at a 
certain market. 

Of the Sultan of Conacar^ 
He is called by the name ConAr^* and possesses the white 
elephant. I have never seen in the world another white elephant^ 
The King rides him on solemn occasions, and attaches to the 
forehead of this a,nimal large jewels. It happened to this 
Monarch that the nobles of his empire rebelled against .him, 
blinded him, and made his son King. As for him, he still lives 
in this town, deprived of his sight. 

* Condr — ^According to Tumour's list of Si^jhalese monarchs, the King at 
this time, 1344-45, would be Wijaya B4hu the Vth. Col. Yule (Cathay, p. 423 
Note) thinks Condr or Kundrh the Sanskrit Kunwar, * prince.' 

["Col. Yule's guess" adds Mr. Nell "at the name of the Sovereign 
* Condr^^ as identical with * Kunwar,^ the Sanskrit for * Prince', comes near 
what I conceive to be the fact. It will be seen that the Arab traveller describe® 
a Mahommedan Mosque, outside the town of this Prince. Now, a Mahommedan 
Prince, Vasihimi Kumdrayd^ did reign with great popularity in Kurun^gala, 
His romantic story is a local tradition in that town. He is said to have been 
treacherously murdered by the Buddhist priests of a temple on Etdgala. They 
invited him to be present at a religious ceremony and suddenly pushed him 
over the precipice [Pridham, Vol. II., p. 649]. Offerings are made upon a mound 
on the road to the M^ligSwa, which probably marks the spot where the Prince 
was interred, or the Shaikh referred to hereafter. No native will venture to pass 
the spot after dark without company, for the spirit of Gala-Ban^dra^ on horse- 
back, is supposed to ride about the neighbourhood. The Court is said to have been 
immediately removed to Dambadeniya after this assassination, on the ground 
that the sanctity of the city had been polluted by a Mahommedan usuipen 

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1882.] ibn batuta in the maldives: and ceylobf. 45 

Op the precious Stones. 
The admirable gems called albahramehi (rubies or carbuncles) 
are only found at this town. Some of them are found in the vale 
and these are the roost precious in the eyes of the natives V 
others are extracted from the earth. Gems are met with in all 
localities in the island of Ceylon. In this country the whole of 
the soil is private property. An individual btrys a portion of it, 
and digs to find gems. He comes across stones 'white- 
branched : in the interior of Ifeese stones the gem is hidden. 
The owner sends it to the lapidaries, who scrape it until it is 
separated from the stones which conceal it. There are the red 
( rubies ), the yellow ( topazes ), and the blue ( sapphires ) which 
they call ne'ilem (nilem).* It is a rule of the natives that precious 
stones whose value amounts to 100 faname are reserved for the 
Sultan, who gives their price and takes them for himself. As 
for those of an inferior price, they remain the property of the 
finders.f One hundred fanams are equivalent to six pieces ol 

It is probable that the' priest, who compiled the history referred to by Turnour, 
has purposely omitted the name of this Kumdrayd, thus causing the 
anachronism noticed- by Tumour. ^Cdsie Chetty conjectures that this Prince 
was the son of Wijaya Bdhu V. by his Moorish Queen Vasthimi 
and this is quite consistent with the above theory. It is also stated by Ibn 
Batiita that the King and inhabitants of Conacdr used to visit the Mahommedan 
Shaikh ^Othmdn of Shiraz at his Mosque, and to treat him with great 
respect. It is significant that the Prince of Conacdr is not mentioned in the 
French translation as * an infidel King', as Iba Batuta seems to be careful to 
do in all instances of those who were not his co-religionist. The French trans- 
lation also describes this King as deposed by his subjects and deprived of his 
sight, whilst his son was placed on the throne. This son may have been 
Vasthimi Kumdrayd. The silence of the Sinhalese historians has, however 
left all this in doubt.*'— 5.] 

* Neilem = S. nila. 

t Barbosa on the other hand says that all the Ceylon gemming is done by 
the agents of the King, and on his behalf. The stones are brought to him, and 
his lapidaries select the best, and sell the rest to the merchants (Stanley's 

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4^ JK)VE^xh B; A. a. cbylon. [extra- to*^ 

All the women in tW island^ of Ceylon possess necklaces or 
precious stones of divers colors : they wear them also at their 
handstand feet, ia. the form of bracelets and khalkhcUs (anklets )i 
The concubines of the Sultan make » netwoi'k. of gems andi wear 
it on tkeir I^ads. I have seen on the foreheadv of the white 
elephant seven of these precious st(mes,,eackof whichiwas larger 
than a hen>'s egg« I likewise saw in< pofisession< of Airy 
Chacarouaty a ruby dish, as large as the palm of the hand,, 
containing oil of al4>es. I expressed my astonishment at this 
dish, but the Sultan said, " We have objects of the same material, 
larger than th»t."*^ 

We left Conacdvy and halted at a eavr ealledby the name of 
Oitha Mahmoud Allowry. This perscm was one of the best o€ 
men ; he had excavated this cave in the mountain side, near a 
little vale. Quitting this place,.we encaiK^ednear the vale called^ 
Khcbour bouznek {^monkey vale^). Bbttznvh (Persian/ bodzineh)) 
designates the same as aihoroud (piwral of alkird^ ^ monkey^) m 

Of tke Monkeys. 

These animals are very numerous in the mountains: they^ 
are of a black colour, and hare long tails. Those (^the male sex^ 
have beards like men. The Shaikh ^Olhmdny his son an<S other 
persons, have related to me that the monkeys have a Chief whom 
they obey like a Sovereign. He binds round his head a wreath 
of the leaves of trees, and supports himself with a sta£ Four 

Barbosa, Hakt. Soc, p. 169.) Ludovico di Varthema (A.l>. 1505) says :— " And 
when a merchant wishes to find these jewels, be is obliged first to speak to the 
King, and to purchase a braza oi the said land in every direction (which brassa is 
called a molan [? amu^amjy and to purchase it for five ducats. And then when 
he digs the said land, a man always remains there on the part of the King, and 
if any jewel be found there which exceeds ten carats, the King claims it for 
himself and leaves all the rest free." — Badger's Varthema, Hakt. Soc., p. 190* 
* See further, as to the wonderful gems of that period, Marco Polo, Bk. 
III., Ch. xiv., and Col. Yule's note thereto. 

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^wionkeys, bearing staves, march oa his right and left, and, when 
^he chief 48 seated, they stand behind him. His wife and little 
ones come ani sit before him ^very day. The other monkeys 
-come and squat at some di^ance from him? then one of %he four 
above-mentioned gi^ves them the word and they withdraw ; after 
^hichy <6ach brings a bMiana, «r a lim^ or some such fruit. The 
King of the monkeys, his little ones, aAid the four chief monkeys 
then eat. A certain djogui related to me that he had seen these 
four monkeys before their Chief, occupied in beating another 
monkey with a stick, after which they plucked his bah*.* 

Trustworthy persons have reported to me that when one of 
these monkeys has got possession of a young girl, she is unable 
to escape his lust. An ii^abitant of the island of Ceylon has 
told me that lie had a monkey, and when one of his daughters 
-entered the house, the animal followed her. She cried him off, 
l)ut he did lier violence. ^* We ran to her aid," continued the 
speaker, " and seeing the monkey embracing her, we killed him." 
Then we took our departure for * the vale of bamboo8,'t where 
Abou ^AbdAttahy son of Khuftf, found two rubies, which he 

* " This is evideiitly a ^confused account of the Vf dd&s and their customs. 
Ibn Batiita was now in their country, Sabaragamuwaj through which he was 
journeying, being, as its name imports, 'the V^d4 village.' " (Skeen, foe. dU 
i>. 289). See C.A. S. Joum., Vol. VII., Pt. II., No. 24, 1881, p. 107.— A 

f ^T«ffi8ing through the forest, and cresting several hills that rose each higher 
than the one behind we carae to Ali-h&ntenne, [Ali-hen-t^na] a tract of dense 
'Canes or halali^ crossed in idl directions by numerous elephant tracks. This was 
evidently one of the favourite feeding grounds of that monarch of the f orest, 
^as the name it bore plainly enough indicated. Beyond this is an extensive' 
marsh, thickly covered with large reeds, — * the estuary of reeds' of Ibn Battita, 
{Lee's version] — a swampy district, not at all pleasant to pass at any season, 
wet or dry, owing to the swarms of leeches that infest it: and further on is 

Batapola On the right of the path, in the upward ascent, is one of the caves 

which Ibn Batuta refers to in his narrative. It is formed by a straight fissure, 
in shape like an immense inverted V, running longitudinally through a huge 
boulder 40 feet in length, from 12 to 15 feet in height, and proportionally broad." 
(Skeen, he, cit.j p. 146),-^-B, 

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presented to the Sultan of the Island, as we have related in the 
first part of these Voyages ( Tome IL^p, 81): then we marched to 
the place called ' the house of the old woman,'* which is at the 
extreme limit of the inhabited region. We left that for the cave 
of Bdbd Thihivy who was a good man ; and then for that of 
Sebin. This Sebtc was one of the idolater Sovereigns, and has 
retired to this spot to occupy himself with the practices of devo- 

Of the Flying Leech. 

At this place we saw the flying leech, by the natives called 
zoloil,. It lives upon trees and herbs in the neighbourhood of 

water, and when a man approaches, it pounces upon him. 

Whatever be the part of the body upon which the leech falls, it 

draws therefrom much blood. The natives take care to have 

ready in that case a lime, the juice of which they express over 

* "A steep and rough .ascent, for a considerable distance from Batapola, 
— ^midway in which a stone tumulus has. been erected on the spot where the 
remains of an old priest were burned — brings the pilgrim to PaMbaddala, * the 
house of the old woman,* according to Ibn Batuta, and * the farthest inhahited 
part of the island of Ceylon' [Lee's version], that is, when he travelled 
through it, about five hundred and thirty years ago. ♦ » * * 

" The following legend is connected with the place, and accounts for its 
name : — Long, long ag0| a very poor woman was desirous of performing the 
pilgrimage to the Sri-p^da, but, owing to her extreme poverty, could take 
nothing with her except some common jungle leaves, which in times of distress 
the natives occasionally resort to for food ; these she boiled, and rolled up in a 
plaintain leaf ; and having arrived thus far, when about to partake of her food, 
she found the boiled leaves had been miraculously turned into rice. Thence- 
forward it was called Pald-bat-doluj * the place [rill] of rice and vegetables,' a 
name which it has ever since retained." (Skeen, loc,, cit p. 147, 154-5.) — B. 

f "An ascent of some fifty feet brings the pilgrim to the crest of the 
ridge of which the Bharmma-rija-gala forms a part. On the other side there is 
a rapid descent of some hundred and twenty feet, to the Ga^gula-h^na-ella, mid- 
way to which is the Telihilena, a rocky cave, where tradition says an ancient 
King ( ? King Sibak), who had forsaken his throne for an ascetic life, took up 
bis abode." (Skeen, loc. citj pp. 176-7.)—^. 

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the worm, and this detaches it from the body: they scrape the 
place with a wooden knife made for the purpose. It is said 
that a certain pilgrim was passing this neighbourhood, and that 
the leeches fastened upon him. He remained impassive, and did 
not squeeze lime-juice upon them: and so all his blood was 
sucked and he died.* The name of this man was Bdbd Khoilzi/, 
and there is there a cave which b^ars his name. From this place 
we took our way to * the seven caves,' then to * the hill of Iskandar' 
^Aiexander). There is there a grotto called of Jlisfahdny, a 
spruig:of water, and an uninhabited mansion, beneath which is the 
tay called ' the place of bathing of the contemplative.' At the 
same place is seen, ^the orange cave' and ^ the cave of the Sultan.' 
Near the latter is the gateway (derw&zeh in Persian, b&b in 
Aralfiej of the mountaih.f 

* Dr. Lee haathis note : — " Knox describes these leeches as being rather 
tronblesome than. dangerous. His words are : — 'There is a sort of leaches of 
the nature of ours, onely differing in colour and bigness ; for they are of a dark 
reddish colour like the skin of bacon, and as big as a goose-quill ; in length 
some two or three inches^ At first, when they are young, they are no bigger 
than a horse-hair, so that they can scarce be seen. In dry weather none of 
them appear, but immediately upon the fall of rains, the grass and woods are 

full of them. These leaches seize upon the legs of travellers Some, therefore, 

will tie a piece of lemon and salt in a rag, and fasten it unto a stick, and ever 
and anon strike it upon their legs to make the leaches drop off: others will scrape 
them off with a reed, cut flat and sharp in thefashionofa knife,' dc, — Ceylon, p. 25. 
See also the addition by Philalethes, p. 264." IZoloii —PS. kdd^lla, — B.^ 

f " We had observed the preceding day, that from some place below the 
station [Hframitip4na] on the side on which we entered it, coming from 
Palibaddala, the pilgrims brought up their supplies of water ; and on return- 
ing from the Peak, in going down towards the Slta-ga^gula, we saw a descent 
to our left, which mistaking for the proper path, one of us went partially 
down before he discovered his error. About fifty or sixty feet below, he saw 
a clearing in a small dell, in the centre of which was a square kind of tank ; 
and this dell he determined to examine on the occasion of his third visit. The 
result of the examination was, that he identified the station Heramitip4na, and 
this place, as that described by Ibn Batdta, as ' the ridge of Alexander, in which 


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50 journal b. a. s. ceylon. [extra kor 

Of the Mountain of Sebendib (Adam's Peak). 

It is one of the highest mountains in the world : we saw it 
from the open sea, when we were distant from it upwards of nine 
days' march. While we were making the ascent, we saw the 
clouds above us, hiding from view the lower parts of it. There 
are upon this mountain many trees of kinds which do not cast 
their leaves, flowers of divers colors, and a red rose as large as 
the palm of the hand.* It is alleged that on this rose is an in- 
scription in which one may read the name of God Most High 
and that of his Prophet.f On the mountain are two paths lead- 
ing to the Foot of Adam. The one is known by the name of 

is a cave and a well of water,' at the entrance to the mountain Serendib. 
The old Moor's account is somewhat confused, his notes or recollections not 
always carrying his facts exactly in their d;ie order ; but half way down the 
descent, on the left hand, is a well, excavated in the rock, in which we found 
about five feet of water, and which swarmed with tadpoles. Possibly Ibn Batuta 
found it in the same condition, for he speaks of the well, at the entrance, full 
of fish, of which * no one takes any.' At the bottom of the dell is a cleared 
space ; in the centre of this is a square tank or well, the sides of which are 
formed of blocks of stone, six or eight feet long. Beyond this, almost facing 
the descent, some twenty feet up the opposite mountain's side, is a cave. To 
this my companion and I forced our way through the jungle, and came to the 
conclusion that this was the cave of Khi'zr, where, Ibn Batuta says, * the pilgrims 
leave their provisions, and whatever else they have, and then ascend about two 
miles to the top of the mountain, to the place of (Adam's) foot.' In the pre- 
ceding sentence he says, * Near this (cave) and on each side of the path, is a 
cistern cut in the rock.' Now, no other place that we saw, or heard of — and 
we were particularly minute in our inquiries — answers to such a description. 
There are the two wells, and the cave ; and the distance to the foot-print is 
also pretty fairly estimated." (Skeen, loc, cit.y pp. 226-7.) — B, 

* " Gigantic rhododendrons overhang the wall on the eastern side of the 
Peak. Their bending trunks seem, to the Buddhist mind, to bow to the foot- 
print ; and to offer, in homage and adoration, their wealth of crowning crimson 
flowers to the pedal impress of the founder of their faith," (Skeen, loc. eit., 
p. 200.).^^. 

f The pious Musalra&ns in this age of faith found their creed proclaimed 
by nature itself not only on the flowers of the rhododendron, but on the leaves 

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*the Fathers path' and the other by that of * the Mother's path. 
By these terms are Adam and Eve designated. The Mother's 
route is an easy one, and by it the pilgrims return; but any one 
who took it for the ascent would be regarded as not having done 
the pilgrimage. The Father's path is rough and diflScult of 
ascent. At the foot of the mountain, at the place of the gate- 
way, is a grotto also bearing the name of Iskandar, and a spring 
of water. 

of the fig-tree. Before he went to the Maldives, Ibn Batiita was at Deh Fattan 
(? Devipatam), a town on the Malabar Coast, where he records the existence of 
an extraordinary tree near the mosque. " I saw that the mosque was situated, 
near a verdant and beautiful tree ; whose leaves resembled those of the fig, 
except that they were glossy. It was surrounded by a wall and had near it a 
niche or oratory, where I made a prayer of two genuflexions. The name of this 
tree with the natives of the country was derakht (dirakht) accJiehddah * the 
tree of the testimony.' I was informed at this place that every year, on the 
arrival of autumn, there fell from this tree a solitary leaf, whose colour passed 
first to yellow and then to red. On this leaf were written, with the pen of the 
Divine power, the words following ^ There is no God but God, and Mohammed 
is the apostle of God.* The juris -consult ffotigain and many other trustworthy 
men told me that they had seen this leaf, and had read the inscription upon it. 
Eougain added that, when the time arrived for it to fall, trusted men from 
among the Musalm4ns and the idolaters sat down under the tree. When the 
leaf fell the Musalm&ns took one half of it, while the other w«is deposited in 
the treasury of the idolater Sultan. The inhabitants preserve it for the pur- 
pose of curing the sick. This tree caused the conversion of the grandfather of 
Coueil [the Sultan at the time of his visit] to the faith, and he it was who 
built the mosque and the tank [from its description similar to the Sinhalese 
pokwna]. This prince could read the Arabic characters : and when he 
deciphered the inscription and understood what it contained, he embraced the 
true faith and professed it entirely. His story is preserved in tradition among 
the Hindus. The juris-consult Hougaxn told me that one of the children of this 
King returned to idolatry after the death of his father, governed with injustice, 
and ordered the tree to be torn up from the roots. The order was executed, 
and no vestige of the tree was left. Nevertheless it 'began to shoot again, 
and became as fair a tree as it had been before. As for the idolater, he came 
to die full soon thereafter." (Tome IV., pp. 85-87.) I havequoted this passage 

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The people of old have cut in the rock steps of a kind^ by 
help of which you ascend; fixed into them are iron stanchions^ to 
which are suspended chains, so that one making the ascent can 
hold on to them.* These chains are ten in number, thus : — ^two at 
the foot of the mountain [Peak] at the place of the gate-way; 
seveu in contiguity after the two first; and the tenth, that is 'the 
chain ofthe profession of faith(/5/am),' so named because a person 
who has reached it and looks back .at the foot of the mountain 
mUl he seized with haUucinations, and, for fear of falling, he will 
^recite tthe words '^I bear witness that there is no God but God, 
^uA&atMuhammadishis prophet." When youhave passed this 
<2hain,yyou will find a path badly kept. From^the tenth chain to 
''the cave <£ KhiiShr^^ as seven milecu This cave k situate at an 
open place, »nd it has near it a spring <)f water fuH *of fish, and 
this also bears «the name of Khidhr. No one may catch these 
fish. Near the cave are two basins cut in the rock, one on each 

at length as an illustratipn of the habit of missionary religions to annex and 
adapt the shrines and idols of local worship. The fig-tree in question was, I 
have little doubt, a bd tree, snrronnded by a wall and altars like the Mahd 
VihdrS at Anur&dhapnra. It is likely to have been credited with healing 
powers, and so to have preserved its influence in the locality from the decay of 
Buddhism in Malabar, through the centuries of Br&hmanish reaction, until at 
length the followers of the Prophet contrived by means of the fancied inscrip- 
tion to control the superstitious faith of its devotees. The similar attempt of 
the Muhammadans to annex the l^ri-pida of Samanala, by claiming it as the 
foot-print of Adam, has done nothing towards the conversion of the Sinhalese. 
The Hindus claim it as that of Siva or Vishnu, according to their sect. 
(Skeen's Adam's Peak, p. 27.) 

* These chains are spoken of by Marco Polo in the previous century. 
" Furthermore you must know that on this Island of Seilan there is an exceed- 
ing high mountain ; it rises right up so steep and precipitous that no one could 
ascend it, were it not that they have taken and fixed to it several great massive 
iron chains, so disposed that by help of these men are able to mount to th^ 
top."— Yule, Marco Polo, Vol. IL, p. 266, 

t See, as to the identity of this saint or proj^et, Dr. Lee's note, and Sell, 
* Faith of Isl4m,' p. 260.— B. 

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side at the path. In the grotto of Khidhr the pilgrims leave 
their bel<Ni^uig8; thence they mount two miles further to the 
'8uounit» where is the Foot. 

Description op the Foot. 
The impression of the noble Foot, that of our father Adam, 
18 observed in a black and loftj rock, in an open space. The 
Foot is sunk in the stone, in such wise that its site is quite de- 
pressed; its length is eleven spans.* The inhabitants of China 
came here formerly; they have cut out of the stone the mark 
of the great toe, and of that next to it, and have deposited this 
fragment in a temple of the town of ZeUoun ( Tseu-thoung) 
whither men repair from the most distant provinces.t In the rock 
whereon is the print of the foot, are cut nine holes, in which the 
vlolater pDgrims place gold, precious stones and pearls. You 
iay seethe fakirs, arrived from 'the grotto oi Khidhr^ seeking to 
get ahead of one another, and so to «^ what may be in these 
holes. In our case we found there onxy some little stones, and a 

* Dr. MarshaU, who in 1819 ascended the Peak with Mr. S. Sawers, says 
the foot is 5 ft. 6 in. in length. Tennent says it is '^ about 5 feet long, and of 
proportionate breadth" (Vol. II. p. 140), Knox (p. 3) says "about two feet 
long,*' but he never saw it Ribeyro, Liv. i., G. xxiii., says, " two palms long and 
eight inches broad." See further Yule's Marco Polo, Vol. II., p. 261. Lieut, 
malcolm, the first Englishman who made the ascent, (1815), says the impression 
18 in kabook or ironstone. [ " The heel is much higher than the toes, and the 
artificiality of the whole is palpable. A thick raised edging of cement marks 
the rude outline of a foot 6 ft. 7 in. long, and 2 ft. 7 in. broad at the point 
where the heel begins to curve. The interstices between the toes are also formed 
of cement, and the whole of the markings of the foot every now and again need 
repair. The inner portion of the heel and instep are the only parts that are 
clearly natural [gneiss] rock, (Skeen, he, city p. 203.)— JB.] 

j- Marco Polo says that an embassy was sent by the great Khan in 1284 
while he himself was in China, to obtain relics of our father Adam. They 
obtained a couple of teeth, some hair, and a dish of prophyry used by our first 
parent He does not mention that they brought a piece of the rock froxtf thp 
foot-print,— Yule's Marco Polo, Vol. II., p. 259. 

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hi ' ^OVTC^Xh n. X. «. CEYLON. fsXTKA NO. 

little gold wliich we gave to our guide. It is customary for 
pilgrims to pass three days in *the xjave of Khidhr,^ and during 
this time to visit the Foot morning and evening ^ and so did we. 
When the three days had elapsed, we returned by way of 
the Mother « path, and encamped hard by the grotto of Chetm, 
who is the same as Cheith ( Seth) son of Adam. We halted in 
succession near 'the bay of fish,' the straggling villages of 
Corniiolah, JO^eber-rdoudn, DUdtneoueh and Atkalendjeh.* It was 
in the last named place that the Shaikh Abou ^Abd Allah, son of 
JTi^afi/ passed the winter. All these villages and stations are on 
the mountain. Near the base, f>n the same path, is the dJkrakht 
(dirakht) rewdn *the walking tree,' a tree of great age, not one 
of whose leaves falls. It is called by the name of mdchtah 
(walking) because a person looking at it from above the moun- 
tain considers it fixed a long distance ofl*, and near the foot of 
the hill; while one who regards it from beneath, believes it to be 
in quite the opposite direction. I have seen at this place a band 

* [The correspondent before quoted writes : — " I fear the route taken by 
the traveller after leaving Kurtln^gala must always be a matter of conjecture. 
I have given it some attention and I think it most probable that he went from 
Kurun^gala towards the mountains and ascended Adam's Peak from the 
pilgrim's path in Maskeliya. My reasons are— 

(i.) The extreme limit of the inhabited region was evidently a long way 
from the Peak — ^this would be true on the Maskeliya side, but not true in the 
low country, as there were villages comparatively near the Peak. 

(ii.) From the traveller's description he evidently went into the mountains 
soon after leaving Kurun^gala. 

(iii.) The names of places described are found on this route, and on no 

(iv.) The traveller describes two routes as practicable. The * father's 
path' as rough and difficult, the * mother's path' as easy and the way of return. 
He went by the former, which is evidently the way through the hills and the 
forest of Maskeliya. 

The most convenient pass from Eurun^gala to the mountains runs past 
Girih&gama, and there is a cave in the mountain side near a little vale 
(exactly as described) which still retains the name Galagedara Q cave abode*). 

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of djoguisy who did not leave the foot of the hill, waiting for the 
fall of the leaves of this tree. It is planted in a place where 
there is no possibilitj of getting at it. The idolaters retail some 
fictions concerning it; among them, this — whoever eats of its 
leaves recovers his youth, even should he be an old man. But 
that is false. 

Under this mountain is a great vale where precious stones 
are found. Its waters appears to the eye extremely blue. From 
this we marched for two days as far as the town of Dinhoery a 
large one, built near the sea. and inhabited by merchants.* In a 
vast temple is seen an idol bearing the same name as the town. 
In this temple are upwards of a thousand Brdhmins and djoguisy 

* Monkey vale'' I cannot identify; there m a place in Doloebl^^ called 
WimdwU'TMtna Q monkey measure*). 

* The vale of bamboos (or reeds)' I should guess to be Rambukpifiya in 
Upper Bulatgama ; it is of some antiquity and importance, and lies right on the 
road to Adam*s Peak. 

The spot where *Abu Abd -Allah foubd his two rubies is probably even yet 
to be identified by the name M^k-hamhanto(a (' the gem ford of the foreign 
trader') on the pilgrim's route. *The house of the old woman' {A 'chchugedara ?) 
has probably not survived till our time. The rest of the route lay through *the 
wilderness of the Peak/ containing no inhabitants but hermits. The Royal 
hermit called Sebik I should guess to be * Raja Savlu (or Sakra) Vije Bahu,' 
afterwards father of the Sri-Par6krama B4hu VI. (Valentyn, p. 71, and KAvya- 
s^kara, 89.) Of the straggling villages mentioned as halting places on the 
journey to Dondra, Cormolah is probably Gilimal^ ; Dildinioueb may be either 
Dinawaka or a Deldeniya; and Atkalandjeh is certainly the Atakalan K6rale, 
the last district * on the mountain' (i.e., Kanda-uda or in the Uda-rata). 

" The pass would probably be that traversed on the Toad from Ddpan4 to 
U'rulokka, which is the beginning of *the great vale [leading to M4tara] where 
precious stones are found. Its waters . appear to the eye extremely blue' — of 
course the reference is to the Nihoald-gaQga (* blue-cloud-river') — and precious 
stones are still found there in some quantity (Cf . Pybus' Journey to Kandy, 
p. 22). Dinewer is of course D6wi-nuwara, and Kdly, Galle." — ^.] 

* Din^MJor;— Dondra, This magnificent shrine of Vishnu was pillaged 
and destroyed by the Portuguese under Thom^ de Souza d' Arronches in 1587. 
(De Couto, Dec. x., C xv.)— Tennent * Ceylon,' Vol. II., p. 113-4. 

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and about five hundred women^ bom of idolater fathers^ who sing 
and dance every night before the statue. The town and its re* 
Tenues are the private property of the idol; all who live in the 
temple and those who visit it are supported, therefrom. The- 
statu« ii of gold and of the size of a man. In place of eyes, it 
haft two large rubies, and I was told that they shone by night, 
like two lampsv 

We took oar departure for the^ ixmif of -KS/y,* asmallone^, 
six parasangs from Dinewer; A Musalii^ there, called the Ship- 
Captain Ibr^im, entertained us at }m bouse. We then took the- 
route for the town q£ CaUnton ( Colombo )rOVL% of the larg^^st andc 
most beautiful in the island oT Sirendib, There dwells- the^ 
Vizier, prince of the sea, Djdlesty,^ who* has there aboult 500^ 
Abyssinians. Three days after leaving Calenbou^ we amved at 
Batthdlahj of which mention is madie above. We visited the 
Sultan of whom I have spoken.. I found the Captain Ibrahim 
awaiting me, and we left for the ccmntry of MeHbar. 

[Ibn Battita and his friends met with tempestuous weather^ 
and were wrecked on the Coast of Coromandel, probably near 
the mouth of the Patar. H^e and his party, consisting of two 
concubines, some companions and slaves, were ccmducted to 
Arcot, and thence two days journey to the Sultan, who was 
engaged in an expedition against the infidels. This was the Sultan 

* JTei/y :— Galle. Six parasangs will be a little over SOiniles. The exact 
distance is 31-38 miles-. 

f JOjjdlesty .-—This appears to be the same Prince described by the traveller 
John de Marignolli who was driven upon the coast of Ceylon on the 3rd May 
(probably) 1350. He landed at Perivilis (? Barberyn) " over against Paradise. 
Here a certain tyrant, by name Ooya Joan, a eunuch, had the mastery in 
opposition to the lawful king. He was an accursed Saracen, who, by means of 
his great treasures, had gained possession of the greater part of the kingdonu" 
This person " in the politest manner" robbed him of the valuable gifts he wj^r 
carrying home to the Pope, and detained him four months. — Yule*B ' Cathay,* 
p. 367. 

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i«52f.] test OtOTTl I^ THlfMlLm^S^ ASH OEYLOir. 6T 

Ghiy&th eddhii whose wife was asistef of a woman Ibn^ B'attita 
tad married at DeM : he is therefore above called his brother- 
in-law. Ibn' BattJfta was hospitably enteirtainedv and he thus 
eontinires: — •] 

I had an interview with l&e Sultan lanS, proposed the sub^ 
ject of the M&ldives^^ and the sending of a» armj to the Mands^^ 
He formed a resolve tO' accomplish this object^ and appointed the* 
ships for the purpose. He arranged a present for the Queen of 
Maldives^ robes of honor^ and gifts for the Emirs aind Viziers. 
He entrusted to me the care of securing a marriage for him with 
the sister of the Queen ^ and lastly^ he ordered three ships to be 
loaded with ahns for the poor of the islands^^and said to me^ ^'' You 
will get back in five days." The Admhral Khodjah Serlec said to 
him^ ** It will not be possible to go to the Maldives until three 
months from this moment." The Sultan went on to address me^ 
*^ Since that is SO5 come to Fattan, so that we may finish this ex- 
pedition and return to our capital at Moutrah (Mctdura): you will 
set out from there." I then remained with himy and as we 
waited I sent for my concubines and my comrades* 

[^Ghiydth eddin won a great victory over the infidels and 
returned with Ibn Batata to Fattan (? D^vipataon) a large sea- 
port town, and thence to Madura. At Fattan the Sultan told 
the Admiral to cease preparing the vessels for the M&ldive 
expedition. He was then suffering from an illness^ and shortly 
afterward died at a place near Madura. He left no son^ and 
his nephew^ Ndssir eddin, whom Ibn Bat6ta had known as a 
domestic servant at Delhi^ was accepted by the army^ and reigned 
in his stead:—] 

He l^Ndssir eddin] ordered that I should be provided with 
all the ships which his tmcle had assigned to take me to the 
Maldives. But I was attacked with fever> which is mortal at 
this place. I imagined that I was about to die. Ood inspired 
me to have recourse to the tamarind, which is very abundant in 
that country : I took about a pound and put it in water. I then 


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drank the beverage, and that relieved me in three days, and God 
healed me. I took a disgust for the town of Moutrah, and re- 
quested t^e Sultan's permission to take a voyage. He said, 
" Whete would you go? There remains only a month ere yotf 
start for the Maldives. Remain here a«id we shall give you all 
the equipment ordered by the master of the world (the deceased 
Stdtany^ I declined, and he tirrote an order in my favor to 
Fattariy thftt I should be allowed to depaal; in any vessel I 
would. I returned to that towti> and there found eight vessels 
setting sail for Yemen, and in one of them I embarked. 

[Ibn Battita left this ship at Caoulem {Quilon) on the 
Malabar Coast, and there remained for three months. He then 
embarked in another, which was attacked by the pirates near 
Hinaour {Honored and the traveller lost all his property, includ-^ 
ing the pearls and precious stones presented to him by the 
Ceylon King, and all his clothes :— ] 

1 returned to Calicut and entered one of tho Mosques. A 
lawyer sent me a suit of clothes; the K&zi, a turban; and a 
merchant, another coat. I was here informed of the marriage of 
the Vizier ^Ahd Allah with the Queen Khadidjahy after the death 
of the Vizier Djemdl eddtriy and I heard that my wife, whom I had 
left enceinte, was delivered of a male child. It came into my 
lieart to go back to the Maldives, but X feared the enmity which 
€xisted between me and the Vizier A^bd Allah. In consequence, 
I opened the Kurdn, and these words" appeared before me, ** The 
angels shall descend unto them, and shall say, ^ Fear not, neither 
be ye grieved.' " (Kurdn, Sur. xii., 30.) I implored the bene- 
diction of God, took my departure, and arrived in ten days at the 
M^dives, imd landed at the island of Cannalo&s. The Governor 
of this island, ^Abd ai ^Aztz Almakdachdout/, welcomed me with 
respect, entertained me, and got a barque ready. I arrived in 
due course at Hololy* an island to which the Queen and her sisters 

* Eohly i^Probaly 0/wreB island in North M&le Atol.'— -B. 

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l^esort for their diversion and for bathing. The natives term 
these amusements tetdjer* and they then have games on board 
^he vessels. The Vizier and chiefs send offerings to the Queen 
of such things as are found in the island. I met there the 
Queen's sister, wife of th^ preacher Mohammed, son of Dj^dl 
■^ddin^ and his mother, who had been my wife. The preacher 
visited me, and he was served with food. 

Meanwhile some of the inhabitants went across to the Vizier 
^Abd Allah and announced my arrival. He put some questions 
about me and the persons who had come with me, aJid was in- 
formed that I had come to take my son, who was now about two 
years old. The mother presented herself before the Vizier to 
complain of me, but he told her, ** I will not prevent him taking 
away his son." He pressed me to go to the island (Mahal), and 
lodged me in a house built opposite the tower of his Palace, in order 
that he might be aware of my estate. He sent me a complete 
suit of clothes, betel, and rose-water, according to custom. 
I took to him two pieces of silk to throw down at the moment 
of saluting him. These were received from me, with the inti- 
mation that the Vizier would not come out to receive me that day. 
My son was brought to me, and it seemed to me that a sojourn 
among the islanders was what was best for him. I, therefore, 
sent him back, and remained five days in the island. I thought 
it best to hasten my departure, and asked the usual permission. 
The Vizier sent for me and I repaired to his presence. They 
brought to me the two pieces of stuff they had previously taken 
from me, and I cast them before the Vizier and saluted him in 
the customary way. He made me sit by his side and questioned 
me of my condition. I ate in his company and washed my hands 
in the same basin with him, which thing he does with no one. 
Then betel was brought and I came away. The Vizier sent me 

* Tetdjer /-^Cf . M. kuli-jahan ' sports.'—^. 

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cloths and bostoH* of cowries, and conducted himself toward 
me in the most perfect way. I took my departure and after a^ 
Toyage of forty-three days we arrived at Bengal. 

[The son of Ibn Battita here spoken of was probably bora 
before the close of 1344. The traveller therefore took his final 
departure from the Maldives about the close of the year 1346. J 

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