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B'l^ i 




,,i.'V„ ■ I 




CT:Nrci Nisj" A_Ti 


! M MTiML ilSIill 


C. F. LOW, J. F. JUDGE, 


VOL. V -1882. 



t. 7 i>~^' 


Agaricus crocophyllus. 199 

fabaceus -200 

lachnophyllus 197 

leaianus. 198 

mucidolens 1S9 

ochropurpureus 197 

polyehrous 198 

American palaeozoic bryozoa, by E. 0. 

Ulrich 121, 232 

Agelacrinidae , 221 

Agelacrinoidea _ 221 

Amplexopora cingulata 254 

Anomalocrinus ■ 38 

Arthroclema spiniforme. 161 

Arthronema 160 

curtum 161 

Arthropora. 167 

Berenicea primitiva 157 

vesiculosa. 158 

Berkeley, M. J. Descriptions of new 
species of fungi collected in the 

vicinity of Cincinnati.. 197 

Bolles, David- — Obituary notice of 4 

Bourgueticrinus alabamensis . 118 

Brief mention of some of the men who 

aided in developing the science 

of geology in America, but who 

are known no longer except by 

their works, by S. A. Miller, 101 

Caleeocrinus radiculus 120 

Callopora elegantula . • 250 

subplana 253 

Calymene callicephala . • ■ ■■ 117 

Cancellaria livingstonensis 86 

Chambers, V. T., on the antennse and 

trophi of Lepidopterous Larva?. 5 
Chickering. Prof. J. B —Obituary notice 2 
Colcoptera of the vicinity of Cincinnati, 

by Charles Dury 218 

Cristellaria rotulata 119 

Cronartium aselepiadeum _ ;... 214 

Cyatbocrinus crawfordsvillensis 79 

Cycli.cystoididte .223 

Cycloncina cincinnatense 230 

Cyclora pulcella 231 

Cystodicty a 152 

ocellata 170 

Dwdalea ambigua 209 

pallidofulva 209 

sepium 209 

Darwin. Charles Robert, notice of, by 

Joseph F. James 71 

DeLoriol, P., description of a new spe- 
cies of Bourguetierinus 118 
Description of two new genera, and eight 
new species of fossils from the 
Uudson River Group, with re- 
marks upon others, byS. A. Mil- 
ler 34 


Description often new species of fossils, 

byS A.Miller 79 

Description of three new species and re- 
marks upon others, by S. A. Mil- 
ler 116 

Description of a new species of Bour- 
guetierinus by P. DeLoriol.. 118 

Description of two new species of crin- 
oids from the shales of the Niag- 
ara Group, at Lockport, X. Y., 
by E. N. S. Ringueberg 119 

Descriptions of two new species of crin- 

oids, by E. 0. Ulrich • 175 

Descriptions of new species of fungi, col- 
lected in the vicinity of Cincin- 
nati, by Thomas G. Lea, and de- 
scribed by Rev. M. J. Berkeley . 197 

Description of three new orders and four 
new families in the class Eehino- 
dermata, and eight new species 
from the Silurian and Devonian 
formations, by S. A. Miller .... 221 

Dicranopora 1'56 

lata 166 

trentonensis 167 

Didymium regulosum 212 

Diplotrypa milleri 245 

Directions for collecting and preparing 
land and fresh water shells, by A. 
(i. Wctberby 44 

Dury, Charles, (oleopteraof the vicinity 

of Cincinnati 218 

Dystactospongia 42 

insolens 43 

Endoceras bristolense 85 

egani 84 

ina'quabile 86 

Eridopora 137 

maerostoma 137 

punctifera ; ■; ^'^'^ 

Eucalyptocrinus proboscidalis 224 

rotundus ■*<2 

turbinatus ^2 

FenestcUa o.\fordensis 159 

Glyptocrinus miamiensis 34 



Graptodictya . 

Heterocrinus whanus. . . 

pentagon us 
Ileteropora attenuata.. 

consimtlis _ . 
llolocystites jolietensis 


obliqua • . 

llowc, A. J. The nervous system 178 



. 210 

Kvilniiin ilifrnictum 

llMl..-lliforino ^|!j| 

'"...'".'...'.'.'.'. 211 

LiMiziti'S crutaeffi • • ■ 


Lielicnocrinuiilea. ■•• 
Liflienoci-inus allinis. 

James. J"Sf|>li V- N'otice of Charles 

Roljert Darwin.. '^ 

Langaon. F. W. Zoolosrical misccUan^y ^^ 

1 (-1 TlioiiVa-^ (I. DeHcriptions of new 
vpirics of fmik'i eolleclcd in the 

vicinity of Cincinnati IJj 

Leioflenia iM 

Lentinus caespitosus. ^^ 

suleatus- nVjt 

'.'. 221 
.. 221 
.. 229 

tabcrculatus ■• - ■ • 229 

LTrioerinus .-culptus ■;••' 'oil 

Maerospoiium kinguedinis • ■ ^|* 

piinetiforme ^vv fia 

Macrostylocrinus fusibrachiatus 119 

Marasmius davaeformis 201 

pyrrhocephalus. Cne 

Miller S. A. Notice of a work by Prot. 
' Nicholson on the genus Monti- 

culipora ^"^ 

Description of two new genera 
and eight new species of fossils 
from the Hudson River Group, 
with remarks upon others . ■ • ^1 
Notice of the work of Frot. J. i>. 
Whitney on the climatic changes , 

of later geological times . •- „ ^ I 
Description of ten new species ot 




Orthis Scovillei 40 

Orthonotella \\l 

faheri jg 

Pachydictya }^f 

robusta '/^ 

Panus angustatus f:/;^ 

dealbatus ^i 

Patellaria carpinea •'1^ 

Pattersonia •• ^ 

difficilis « 

Paxillus flavidus ^"v 

Brief mention of some of the men 
who aided in developing the 
science of geology in America, 
but who are known no longer, 
except by their works ... 101 
Description of three new species 
and remarks upon others . . lio 
Description of three new orders 
and four new families in the class 
Echinodermata. and eight new 
species from the hilunan and 
Devonian formations ■'.-l 

Mitoclema M 

cinctosa • .■■ ^^5 

MontieuUpora consimihs ^|^ 

Isevis $* 

mammulata. ^** 

parasitica ... |^» 

wetherbyi ^'jj 

Monotrypella ."Bciualis ^' 

subquadrata f:^ 

Murehisonia worthenana, ■■■^^ 

Mus^ev. Dr. Wm. H. Obituary notice of 99 

MyeloilactylidaJ ^^ 

Mvelodactyloidea. ^ ■ . •..• • -- ^^ 
Notice of a work by Prof. Nicholson, on 
the genus Monticulipora, by ». 
A Miller ■^ 

Notice of'the work of Prof.. J. D. Whit- 
ney, on the climatic changes ot 
later Geological times, by fc. A. 

Miller 'I 

Obituary— Prof. J. Ti- Chickenng j 

David Bolles * 

Dr. Wm. H. Mussey 99 

Oidium simile - ,. »t -j 

On the antenniTi and trophi of Lepidop- 

terousLarvic, by V. T.Chambers 5 



Peronopora uniformis 244 

Ph;enopora multipora JiJ 

Phyllodictya l^* 

frondosa j'* 

Phyllopora variolata IW 

Folyporus eonglobatus ^'i 

dryophilus ^^ 

endocrocinus ^ 

galactinus 206 

hypocoecinus ... ^ 

moUiusculus ^ 

niger • ^0" 

rhipidium 204 

Poteriocrinus davisanus ^ 

nettelrothanus ^ 

Prasopora nodosa 24o 

Proceedings of the Society 1, 63, 97. 195 

Protaster miamiensis 11^ 

Psilopezia nummularia ^1? 

Ptilodictya briareus l»a 

maculata j"^ 

ramosa --•,•: . „ ■.■• ^" 

Kemarks upon a species of Cristellaria. 

by C Schlumberger 119 

Rhinidictya j2p; 

nicholsoni •- .■•• ■ i'" 

Ringueberg. E. N- S. Description of 
two new species of crinoids from 
the shales of the Niagara Group, 
atLockport, N. Y 119 

Saecocrinus pyriformis °J- 

Seenellopora l?^ 

Schlumberger. C Remarks upon a 

species of Cristellaria 11» 

Seplonema spilomeum -l'> 

Sphaeria argy rostigma 217 

leaiana 51° 

maydis ^i' 

rhizogena . ^j" 

rhodomphala gl^ 

Sphseronema oxysporum ^1| 

Sporidesmium concinnum ^ig 

Stictopora basalis. loa 

Stictoperella j^^ 

interstincta lo^ 

Stomatopora proutana -59 

Stromatocerium richmondense *i 

Subulites gracilis llo 

Tieniaster elegans *i 

Thelephora albomarginata -i- 

cutieularis .' i ^ f-a 

The nervous system, by A. J . Howe . . iis 

Trametes lactea ''"° 

Ulrich, E. 0., American palaeozoic bryo- 

zoa ¥^' ^^ 

Descriptions of two new species 

of crinoids . ,, V- ' 

Wetherby.-'V. G., Directions for collecting 
and preparing land and fresh 

water shells - • ■ "^ 

Zoological miscellany, 51, 89, 185 


I soil! i Wmi HIM, 

VOL. V. 


No. 1. 


Tuesday Evening, January 3, 1882. 
President Dr. R. M. Byrnes in the chair. Present, 25 members. 
_ Peter G. Thompson was elected a member. 

Dr. Warder read a paper on the Virginia creeper. Prof. Harper 
recommended cold water as an antidote for the poison of Rhus toxico- 

Donations were announced as follows: 

From Department of Interior, 2 vols, and 1 pamphlet ; from Smithsonian Institution, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas.; from Henry DeSaussure, a memoir on Hymcnoptcra ; from 
J. P. Lathrop, a collection of fossils; from .loseph F. James, 21 birds' eggs, and 22 

Tuesday Evening, February 7, 1882. 

President Dr. R. M. Bj-rnes in the chair, and IG members present. 

Mr. Hubbell Fisher was appointed to confer with the Smithsonian 
Institution in re^^ard to zoological specimens. 

A. E. Heighway, Jr., was appointed to confer with Mr. -Toliii Robin- 
son in regard to zoological specimens. 

Dr. Langdon exhibited two parasites of tlie family Ixodida, whieli 
were presented to the Society by Dr. Alex. M. Johnston. 

Tiie following donations were announced: 

From C. L. Metz and F. W. Langdon, thirty-six specimens patiiologioal human 
bones, from the Madisonville cemetery; from II. N. Powers, one i)amphlet ; from 
Prof. Otis T. Mason, three pampiilets on anthroi»ology ; from Peabody Museum, one 

2 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

I.amphlct on pahuolithic implcnients ; from Signal Service Bureiui, Weather Review 
for November, 1881 ; from the Smitlisonian Institution, proceedings of the United 
.States National Museum for December, 1881 ; from R. Buchanan, Jr.. proceeding.s of 
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, eighteenth meeting ; from 
George Din)mock, one pamphlet on diptera; from Dr. J. King, seed of japonica ; 
from G. M. Austin, insects, seeds and fossils; from J. H. and B. M. Seaman, three . 
specimens of wood; from Gov. D. IT. Jerome, of Lansing, Mich., Vol. IV. Miciiigan 
Geology; from the Department of Agriculture, report for 1880; from W. M. IJnney, 
tour ])amphlets on Kentucky Geology ; from A. E. Heighway, Jr., three specimens 
ni Si'jillitrin. 

Tuesday Evening, 3farch 7, 1882. 

President Dr. R, M. Byrnes in the chair, and 20 members present. 

Col. J. W, Abert read an interesting paper on the Cephalopoda, il- 
lustrated Avith colored drawings and black-board sketches. 

Joseph A. Williams, J. H. Seaman and B. M. Seaman were elected 

On motion of J. W. Shorten, a committee of five was appointed 
to take steps toward securing for the Societ}^ a commodious fire-proof 
building. The Committee consists of J. W. Shorten, Len. A. Harris, 
Julius Dexter, A. J. Howe, and G. W. Harper. 

The following donations were announced: 

Mr. E. Gest, cabinet of fossils and minerals; G. W. Harper, five fossils; Chas. G. 
Boerner. collection of fossils; G. W. Hornsher, nine fossils ; R. Buchanan, portfolio of 
Alpine plants; Jacob Bauer, the lower jaw of a boar; W. H. Bean, .slab of Zygospiru 
niodesta ; Miss Carrie Kemper, a specimen of Unio lens ; and some books from the 
Smithsonian Institution, Public Library, etc. 

Report of Committee in memoiy of Prof. J. B. Chickering: 
Our Society has been adding, latel}'-, quite rapidl}^ to its death roll. 
Prof. J. B. Chickering, who was for many 3'ears a member, is no more. 
He was a man identified «vith all good works — those which tend to the 
eleva'.ion and culture of the people. In all the relations of life he was 
exemplary: as a husband and father he was faithful and provident — as 
an educator he was enthusiastic and successful — he was an enterprising 
citizen — a consistent Christian. The events of his life were kindly 
furnished to the Committee by Prof. W. H. Venable, his friend and 
associate teacher, which are embodied in this report. 

Josiah B. Chickering was born August 10, 1827, at New Ipswich, 
New Hampshire, and died in Cincinnati, 1881, aged fift3'-four years. 
He was a direct descendant from Deacon Nathaniel Chickering, who 
was born at Dedham in 1677. J. B. Chickering's grandfather served 
in the Revolutionary war, and his father. Captain Abner Chickering, 
was an oflftcer in the army during the war of 1812-15. Abner was the 

Proceedings of the Society. 8 

onh- brothel- of Jonas Chlckering, celebrated for his skill and enter- 
prise in the manufacture and improvement of piano-fortes. 

Mr. Chickering's mother was of French ancestry'; her maiden 
name was Boutelle. To her were born four children— three sons and 
one daughter — all yet living, except the subject of this writing. 

' J. B. Chickering spent the first j'eare of his life on a New England 
farm, where he was trained to habits of hardihood, frugality and in- 
dustry. When but eight 3'ears of age he lost his father. Then fell 
upon the boy the hard necessity of self-support, and the filial dut}' of 
relieving his widow mother. We suspect he had but few holidays. 
Take eight from fifty-four and it leaves forty-six. So many years did 
J. B. Chickering toil in this " working-day world." 

The farm was Mr. Chickering's primary school, and from it he learned 
much that was practical and that gave practical direction to his after 
work. When he reached the age of sixteen he resolved, with his 
mother's consent, to go forth from the home of his boyhood and try his 
fortunes alone in the struggling world. The cash capital with which 
this confident Yankee lad began life was forty-two cents. 

The winter of 1843 found young Chickering an eager pupil in the 
Appleton Institute, a good classical and scientific academy, in his 
native township. Not having money to pay for his tuition, he gave 
honest work for useful education. Part of the time he rang the 
academy boll, and ma}^ we not believe that a task so regular helped to 
fix upon him the habits of punctuality and regularity which became 
the very wings of his success in later years. He could never tolerate 
tardiness or neglect of set duties. 

For about six years Chickering attended school at intervals, work- 
ing, we are told, and can easily believe, on an average eighteen 
hours a da}'. He graduated at the head of his classes. The continu- 
ity of his stud}' was broken by the necessity of earning money, to which 
end he found employment in the winters of 184G, '47, '48, '49, in teaching 
district schools. He was licensed in November, 1846, and again in 
November, 1847, "to teach the scholars in District No. 2," in the town 
of Leouminster. In 1849 the School Committee of Gardner Ibund 
hira "qualified to teach the South East School." While teaching at 
Gardner he was in his twenty third year. Afterward ho was oUiployed 
for a time in Rev. David Perry's family school for boys, near Boston. 

Mr. Chickering pursued his studies after graduating at Appleton 
Institute, but he never completed that rather indefinite intellectual 
labor called taking a college course. The title of A. M. was bestowed 

4 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

on liiiii several years ago as an honorable recognition of his actual 
Kcrviees an an educator. In the autumn of 1852 Mr. Chickering came to 
(vincinnati as private tutor in the family of Miles Greenwood. At the end 
of eighteen months he opened a private school in Avondalc, where he con- 
tinued until 18r)5, in which year he started his academy in Cincinnati, 
On the Ifith of July, 1857, he married Miss Sarah M. Brown, of 
Harvard, Mass. This marriage was blessed with five children, one 
daughter and four sons. 

There has passed away from us a man whose life struggle and suc- 
cess is worthy of the highest commendation. He is but another ex- 
ample of what ''pluck" and not "luck" is capable of accomplishing 
in this land of ours. As our late lamented President remarked,''! 
never meet an ambitious, poor bo}'^ without a feeling of profound rever- 
ence, for I wonder what possibilities may be buttoned up under that 
ragged coat." The Committee, on behalf of the Society, tenders its 
deepest sympathy with the family of the deceased, and suggests that a 
copy of the Journal, containing this memorial, be forwarded to them. 

Geo. W. Harper, -\ 

J. W, Hall, Jr., >■ Committee. 

John Mickleborodgh. ) 

Report in memory of David Bolles: 

David Bolles was born in 1799, in Union, Tolland count}^ Conn. 
He removed to Litchfield, in his native State, in 1817, and in 1832 came 
to Cincinnati, where he resided until his decease. His long residence 
and prominent business habits secured for him an extensive and favor- 
able acquaintance in the city and surrounding couutrj'. He engaged 
in cutting and ornamental work in marble and granite, where he dis- 
played artistic taste and accurate and faithful execution. He was one 
of the officers of the "Western Academy of Natural Sciences, and when 
its effects were turned over to this Society he became a life member, 
and took a deep interest in our welfare during the remainder of his 
life. He made a collection of fossils and other specimens of natural 
histor}', much of which he was compelled to dispose of to satisfy press- 
ing necessities, during a long-continued affliction that pressed upon 
him toward the close of his life. He was an honest and kind man, 
who sought comfort in the observation and stud}^ of nature's laws, 
and will ever be remembered for his good qualities by all who knew him. 

R. B. Moore, 

U. P. James, \ Committee. 
O. D. Norton, 

On the Antennai and Trophi of Lepidopterous Larvce. 



B}' V. T. Chambers. 

The tropin of insects in their adult or imago state have been much 
considered in the classification of the class ever since Fabricius con- 
structed what is known as the cibarian s^'stem. But so far as I have 
been able to learn, very little attention has been given to those of the 
larvae. The general form of the body of the larva, the number and 
position of the legs and prolegs, and similar facts of superficial struc- 
ture, have received due attention, but, owing, perhaps, to their minute 
size, and the supposed difficult}- of the examination, the mouth parts 
have not received much attention. 

It is not my purpose to propose a system of classification, but tlie 
facts and conclusions stated in this paper are the results of observa- 
tions upon the mouth parts of hundreds of species of Heterocera 
[Macro and Micro) and of a few Rhopalocera, and are offered as sugges- 
tions to S3-stematists of the Lepidoptera, and may aid somewhat in their 
classification, especially in that of the Tineina. These do not consti- 
tute a famil}^ in the sense that the Noctuidce, Geometridoi, etc., are 
families. The Tineina is a large group of many families, some of 
which seem to me to be as far removed from each other in a natural 
system as they are from an}' of. the Macro-heterocera. The old divi- 
sion b}' Stephens of the group into Teneidai and Ilyponomeutidos was 
a thoroughly vicious and artificial one, and I believe is not now adopted 
by those who are familiar with the group. It would be, perhaps, even 
more unnatural to put them all in a single group of Tineidce. Mr. Stain- 
ton's system, in which the name Teneidai is retained for the restricted 
famil}- containing Tinea, and its allies, is the best classification of the 
group with which lam acquainted. Of course it is not perfect, and it 
is with a view to suggesting some amendments to it — not of substitu- 
ting another for it — that I offer the suggestions contained herein.* 

A surprising uniformity of structure obtains among the trophi of 
Lepidopterous larvai. To what causes this is due I shall not now 
inquire. It can not be to the influence of external conditions acting 
upon the growth or development of larvtvi, else the most various condi- 

* I h;ivo sometimes boon askoJ why I use the name Tineina instoail ot'TlnciJn. I trust the 
above remarks aflord ii sutrieient answer. Besides "Tineina" is the term adopted by the 
Editors of "The Natural History of the Tineina,'' the standard work upon this croup. 

(I Cincinnati Society of Natural Hintory. 

lions sue capfU)le of producing identical structures, and sometimes the 
Hunui conditions are capable of producing the most varied structures. 
Thus, as an example of llie first case, I need only allude to the fact that 
there is so little difference between the antenna? and mouth parts of 
the larviB of some of the highest groups feeding externally on vegeta- 
tion, and otliers feeding in leaves on the soft parenchyma, or boring in 
hard woody tissue, or in woolen goods, etc. Of the second case (the 
same conditions with diverse structures), take a larva of Lithoculletis, 
feeding in an oak leaf, and of a T/scheria. feeding in the-same leaf, as 
not infrequently occurs. The burrows or mines may resemble so much 
that only an expert would observe the difference: both species feed 
only in leaves of the same species of plant, or in those of closely re- 
lated species of the same genus; the entire larval and pu[)al life of each 
is spent in its mine or burrow; and all of this has been equally true of 
their ancestors for untold ages; yet how diverse are some of their struc- 
tures: witness fig. 19, the maxilla of the Tische7-ia, totaWy unlike any 
other known maxilla of a lepidopterous larva, and much like the same 
organ in some Coleoptera — compare this I say with fig, 20, the same 
oi'gan in the Lithocolletis larva, and differing only in the minutest de- 
tails from that of a carpet-eating Tinea, fig. 25, ov Platysamia cecropia, 
fig. 26. Such instances might be multiplied indefinitely^ not only as to 
the maxilla?, but as to all the trophi, and more especially as to the larval 
antennte, as to which there is still more uniformity than is found in 
the trophi. The figures (plates 1, 2 and 3) are selected from a great 
many dissections so as to show the greatest amount of diversit}'^ that I 
have found in these organs, in the whole order; and j^et, with the excep- 
tion of half a dozen genera, what uniformity of form and structure is 
found, and how very little that form and structure seems to depend on 
the external conditions of existence of the larva. Perhaps the great- 
est differences are to be found, as might be expected, in the mandibles; 
and 3et even here compare figs. 33 and 34 (mandibles of the Lithocol- 
letis and Tischeria feeding in the soft parenchyma of the same leaf) 
with fig. 35 (mandible of Prodoxus feeding in the hard wood of Yucca 
stems). Indeed, the mandible of Lithocolletis seems in proportion to 
the size of the larva as powerful an instrument as that of Pier is 
(fig. 45) or Tinea (fig. 39), and is more formidably armed with teeth 
than that of an Arctia (fig. 42). The mandible of Lithocolletis is 
l)etter comparable with that of Thiridopteryx (fig. 41), while that of 
Bedellia sommUentella (fig. 40) is armed with a double row of teeth 
placed obliquely to each other, arid is one of the most formidable man- 

On the Antennce and Trophi of Lepidopterous Larvjx. 7 

dibles that I have met with among Lepidoptera, and all of this arma- 
ture is for the sake of chewing the soft parenchyma of the leaves of the 
morning glory; while Solenohia feeding on tough dry lichens has the 
mandibles (not figured) veiy similar to those of Laverna (fig, 38), of 
which various species, with really identical trophi, feed in leaves, in 
flowers, or on the pith of stems. But all this is by the way and foreign 
to my present purpose. I have referred above to the uniformity which 
prevails in these structures in all grades of Lepidopterous larvae. One 
rule, however, seems constant, namely, that precisel}' those structures 
which are most imperfect in the larvae are most highly developed in the 
imago. Thus in the imago the labrum, mandibles and labium are 
obsolete or rudimentary; and these are precisely the organs which 
attain the greatest development in the larvae ; whilst the maxillae and 
maxillary and labial palpi receive their greatest development in the 
imago, and the least in the larvae, and in some of the lower forms are 
at first entirely wanting. In the imago one or both pairs of palpi, and 
the maxillae, vary in the degree of development from an almost rudi- 
mentary condition to one in which sometimes one, sometimes 
another, and frequently all of them are of large size, and diverse forms 
. and clothing; whilst in the larvae there is no such variety; but with 
the exception of the maxillae in the genera Cemiostoma and Tischeria^ 
a wonderful sameness of form is preserved throughout the order (see 
fiofs. 14 and 20-26). So with the antennae, which are essentiallv the 
same in all Lepidopterous larvae, as I think will be made evident 
further on. 

Elsewhere* I have given an account of the changes which take place 
in the trophi of certain Tineid larvae, but a brief recapitulation of the 
leading facts seems necessary here. They are as follows: In the gen- 
era, Phyllocnistis, Llthocolletis, Leucanthiza^ Coriscinm, GracilJaria, 
and Ornix, the larvae leave the egg with the trophi imperfect; the max- 
illae, maxillary palpi, labial palpi, and spinneret, are entirely absent, 
unless in Ornix and Gracillaria the maxilliB may be said to be present 
in a very rudimentary condition. Mr. Dimmock ( Psyche, loc. cit.) thinks 
that in Gracillaria syrinyella the raaxilliu are represented by two 
bristles or setae on each side of the labium at its base, whicli are repre- 
sented in Ornix by what I have called {Inc. cit.) the lattoral tines (see 
fig. 17). I have seen these bristles in other species of Gracillaria^ 
though I have not had an opportunity of e\;nnining them in G. ayrin- 

<=Amorican Entomologist, new soriea V. 1, p. 255; Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist, v 2, p. 71 
Psycho,, pp. si, i;!7 anil 227. Sco also a paper l)y Mr. Dhnmock, in Psycho, v. 3. p. iW. 

8 Cinciiivati Society of Natural History. 

(iclla. It is quite i)robable that Mr. Dimmock is right in regarding 
tliem as rudimentary maxillae and their palpi; but if this is so, still 
in the other genera above named no trace of their organs has been dis- 
covered, unless a minute bulb, 1 2000th of an inch long on tlie neck of 
the labium in some only of the lower or flat larvae of Lithocolletis 
represents it. But Mr, Dimmock was influenced somewhat by the fact 
that in Oracillaria there are two bi'istles on each side representing the 
two lobes of the maxillse. In the species of Lithocolletis ]wst referred 
to, there is only a single little bulb, no bristle, while in Ornix, as 
sliown in the figure, there are three, which perhaps may indicate that 
instead of maxillae these processes ma}^ be the result of a division of 
thelabrum like that which is found in Tischeria, Antisj)ila., Aspidisca, 
and Nepticula, as shown in figs. 38-76. I incline, however, to the belief 
that IMr. Dimmock is right in considering them to be the degraded re- 
mains of the maxillae. 

HoweA'er this may be, at the first or some subsequent moult, the 
larvae exchange this rudimentary, or as I have elsewhere called it, 
•'first" form of trophi, for the "second" or ordinary form in which all of 
the organs are present. This change takes place at different moults in 
different genera, or even in different species of the same genus. Thus 
in Gracillaria, Coriscium and Ornix it takes place at the first moult; 
in those species of Lithocolletis, in which the form of the larvae is cyl- 
indrical (cylindrical group), ittakes place at the third moult; in lAtho- 
colletis ornatella, and in the flat group of Lithocolletis, and in the 
genus Leucanthiza, at the fifth moult, and in the genus Phyllocnistis 
at the moult (4 ?), at which it passes into the last larval stage. As 
above stated, in this second or ordinary form, all of the organs of the 
mouth are present, but in the flat Lithocolletis larvae, and in Phylloc- 
nistis, some of them are in a very rudimentar}' or degraded state. In 
Phyllocnistis this is the case with all of the organs except the spinneret; 
indeed, I have not been able to detect the mandibles in Phyllocnistis 
in its last larval stage. Fig. 1 represents the antennae of Phyllocnistis 
in the " first form," and fig. 2 in the second; fig. 56 the labrum in the 
first form, fig. 57 in the second; and the labial palpi and maxillae which 
are absent in the first form are, in the second, rudimentary, as also 
are the antenna?. Fig. 31 represents the mandible of Coriscium in the 
first form, and that of Phyllocnistis in that form is almost identical: 
figs. 3 and 4 represent the antennae of a Lithocolletis of the flat 
group, in the first and second forms respectively'; figs. 5 and 6 
those of a Lithocolletis of the cylindrical group; figs. 29 and 30 are 

On the Antennoi and Trophi of Lepidopterous Larvce. 9 

the mandibles of Lithocolletis of the flat group, in the first and second 
forms ; figs. 32 and 33 those of the cylindrical group of the same genus. 
When reference is made herein to the "first form," and the "second' 
or "ordinary form," it is to forms like these. In all of the pupse of spe- 
cies which leave the egg with larvae of the first form, the anal hooklets 
by which the pupa is anchored in its cocoon are lateral instead of ter- 
minal; that is, they are placed on the sides of the anal segment instead 
of at its apex. These pupae also have the head beaked in front, and 
numerous serrations on each side of the beak in some genera. But 
this armature of the head is not peculiar to species which are 
known to leave the egg with the first form of trophi. Since Pronvha^ 
Prodoxus, the pupae of the clearwings, and some other pupse, also have 
the head beaked, and Bedellia somnutentella has the beak of a remark- 
able size, and it certainly never has trophi of the first form. Prof- 
Comstock, in his valuable Report as Entomologist of the Agricultural 
Department, has many interesting observations on larvae and pupae 
of Lithocolletis, and seems to consider this armature of the head and 
anal segment as especiallj^ adapted to the uses of the insect in making 
its exit from the mine, and certainly it does answer a very useful pur. 
pose in that way; but whether it has been especially developed for 
that purpose by the conditions of existence, or in au}' other wa}', will 
at least admit of doubt. The pupae of Lithocolletis ornatella, and 
Leucanthiza amphicarpecefoliella, and nearly all species of Gracillaria, 
Ornix and Coriscium leave their mines before pupating, and pupate in 
little cocoons, and need these anal and cephalic structures no more than 
any other insect which pupates in a cocoon. Bedellia somnutentella does 
not even leave anything that may be called a coccoon, but pupates simply 
suspended in a silken web (recalling somewhat to mind the pupiB of 
Lyonetia). Promiba yuccasella pupates underground: yet all of these 
have the capital beak, and the Gracillaria have also the lateral arma- 
ture of the anal segment, and no good reason is seen why these genera 
should possess these structures an}- more than the thousands of other 
pupae which inhabit cocoons, and are destitute of such armature. On 
the other hand, the pupae of various species of Zoyerxa, Tischeri(i,a.x\d 
countless others which live in mines or in stems, or like Cemiostoma 
or Nepticula, simpl}' in cocoons, have the heads round and blunt, with- 
out beak or serrations, and the anal armature at the apex of the abdo- 
men, as is usual in moths and butterflies, and structures like those of 
Lithocolletis, Gracillaria, etc., would certainly be as useful to Laverna 
gleditschiceella in piercing the tough hard cuticle of a gleditischia tiiorn 

10 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

ji.s tliey would to Ji Lithocollclis in escaping from its mine tliroiigli the 
delicate cuticle of a leaf, or to liedellia which does not have to escape 
from anything except its pupa skin. In fact, while some pupa?, as, 
e. «/., that of Prodo.cHs, have the armature of the head, but not 
the lateral armature of the anal segment, and yet are not known 
to have trophi of the first form at any time, yet tiie fact that 
these structures of the pupa are better developed in those genera 
which retain for the longest time the trophi of the first form, suggests 
that there may be some connection or correllation of growth between 
the two kinds of structure. That the course of evolution is influenced 
by variations which have taken place in earlier stages, is stated by Mr. 
Darwin in the "Origin of Species," chap. 5: "The whole organization 
is so tied together during its growth and development, that when 
slight variations in an}^ one part occur, and are accumulated through 
natural selection, other parts become modified. This is a very impor- 
tant subject most imperfectly understood. The most obvious case is 
that modifications accumulated solely for the good of the young or 
larvae will it may safely be concluded afiect the structure of the adult." 
But, however, if at all, the first form of trophi is related to the partic- 
ular structures of the pupa which I have mentioned, there can be no 
doubt that the genera above named have the first form of trophi in the 
earlier stages of their existence, and afterward change it for the sec- 
ond or ordinar}' form, without anj' change whatever in their external 
surroundings, and it is difficult to see how the change can have been 
produced by the effect of any external influence such as some natur- 
alists of the mechanical school suppose to be sufficient to account for 
the initiation of the variations which have resulted in the present 
condition of the organic world. Man}' of these larvse (as all Lithocol- 
letis larvie of the cylindrical group, and some species of Qracillaria and 
Ornix) pass the last four stages of their larval existence and the pupa 
stale under precisely the same conditions which characterized the pre- 
vious stages — living in the same mine, eating the same food, subject to 
precisely the same influences, and the onl}- change is in the way in 
which they bite the food; a consequence, not a cause of the changed 
structure. It is one of the numerous cases of structure in advance of 
function. Others, as Lithocolletis ornatella.^ Leucanthiza amphicarpece- 
foliella^ cease to feed after the change in the form of the trophi, and 
pass the remaining two stages of their larval existence still in the mine 
without eating, although their trophi are more perfect and better 
developed than they were in their feeding stages; others again, as most 

On the Antennce and Trophi of Lepidopteroiis LarvcB. 11 

GracillarlcB and Ornix leave the mine and continue to feed external- 
1}'; others, as Lithocelletis of the flat group of larvse pass the remain- 
ing two stages of larval life and the pupa state in the mine, with the 
labrum and mandibles more degraded, but the other organs more per- 
fect, but they do not eat. While Phyllocnistis passes its remaining 
stage in the mine without eating, and with all of its trophi except the 
spinneret atrophied. Can all this be the result of the influence of 
external condition ? 

I pass now to a consideration of the separate organs. The Anten- 
na consist always in Lepidopterous larvse of a short basal joint, a 
longer C3'lindrical one which ends in various minute processes and 
hairs, one, or sometimes in large larvae two, of which (hairs) are greatl}' 
elongated, and are no doubt tactile organs (see figs. 6-12). The 
number of the terminal processes appears to be normally five, though 
sometimes I have not been able to detect so many. The only differ- 
ences that I have been able to detect in these organs is in the number 
or size of their terminal processes, and in the relative size of the joints. 
I find nothing in the antennae of the larvae that can be of an}' practical 
value in classification, and the uniformity of their structure contrast 
strongly- with the varietv presented b}' the same organs in the imago. 
In the " first form " the antennae differ from those of the second, as do 
the trophi (compare figs. 1, 3 and 5 with the others), and are much de- 

In the Labial palpi there is scarcely any difference throughout the 
order. They always consist of an elongate basal joint, with a small 
hair at its apex b\' the side of the minute second joint which ends in a 
longer hair (fig. 14). 

The Labium is large in the "first form" (figs. 16 and 17). In the 
ordinary form, that which Burmeister calls the shield of the spinneret, 
seems to me to be the true labium, whilst the labium of Burmeister is 
rather the mentum, and that which Burmeister calls the spinneret is 
only a part of that organ, and may be called its sheath or case. The 
true spinneret, which is a mere prolongation of the united silk glands, 
is sometimes seen protruding be3'ond the lip of this sheath, fig. 15, "a" 
spinneret; "6" sheath, which is supported on three arched chitinous 
rods; "c" labium proper, or sheath of Burmeister. This organ (the 
labium proper) is a simple membrane, elongated and i)ointed in most 
of the heterocera, but sometimes shorter, and blunt, or rounded, or 
emarglnate, on its anterior margin, and at its base clasping the sheath 
and spinneret. The mentum contains a complicated series of mus- 

12 Cincinnati Society of Natiwdl Uistorij. 

clos, wIiK^li exLond or withdraw tlie s|)iiincr('t and sheath, and give 
I hem motion In various directions, and vviien the organ is not in use it 
is redexed beneath the head carrying witii it tiie labium and its palpi, 
and the spinneret and sheath. I have been influenced to take this 
view of tiie parts by tiie position of the labial palpi at tiie apex of the 
inentum on eacli side of the base of the labium. 

In one of the papers before refered to, I have stated that the spin- 
neret is absent in the '' first form," 'and in another that it is present in 
a rudimentar}^ and functionless condition. The contradiction is only 
apparent, and which statement is literall}' true depends on what we con- 
sider the spinneret. The external organ (fig. 15) is totally wanting, 
l)ut there is a median wrinkle in the labium, which, with sufficient am- 
plification, presents the appearance shown in fig. 16, and is the func 
tionless representative of the rudimentary spinneret. 

Passing now to the MAxiLLiE, we find but little more diversit}- than 
in the preceding organs, with the exception of the raaxilUe of the 
genera Cemiostoma and Tischeria, to which I shall return again. Figs. 
20-26 show the general structure, and have been selected from a multi- 
tude of dissections to show the extent of the diversity which is found 
in the structure of this organ. The maxillae consist of three joints, 
the basal and second of which are each armed with a single bristle, 
always arising at the same point. The third joint is tipped with from 
three to five minute processes; the outer lobe or palpus arises from the 
top of the second joint, beside the third one. Itconsists of two joints, 
the terminal one being tipped with minute hairs and processes, varying 
in number from four to seven, and sometimes difl'ering in shape. 
Like the antennre these organs (except in the genera Cemiostoma and 
Tischeria) afford nothing of practical value in classification, though 
there is some diversity in the number and size of the terminal hairs 
and processes, and in the relative sizes of the joints. 

The Mandibles have already been considered; they differ in the 
number of the teeth, and in hardness, and considerably in shape, not- 
withstanding which I find nothing of classsificatory value. They work 
by a ball and socket joint, and ha\e two bristles arising on their upper 
margin near the base, and which are never wanting in the second form 
though never present in the first form of trophi. 

The Labrum is the organ in which we find the greatest diversit}' 
(figs. 56-66). There is considerable diversity of /orm, but I have found 
it of subordinate value only for classification. In the "first form" of trophi 
it is always ciliated on the inferior surface, and armed with teeth or 

Oil the Antennan and Trophi of Lepidopterous Larvae. 13 

around its anterior margin. In the ordinary form it is always, except 
in the genera Tlscheria, Antispila, Aspidisca and JSfepticula, more or 
less deeply cleft in the center, dividing it into two lobes, but the size of 
this notch varies in closely related species of the same genus; thus, 
e. g., in fig. 58 the labrum of Gracillaria eupatoriella^ it is small, 
while in other species of the genus the labrum is scarcely distinguishable 
from that of some species of Lithocolletis (fig. 33). Reaumur long 
ago alluded to the office of this cleft in the econom^^ of larvae which 
feed upon the edges of leaves. The edge passes into the cleft aad 
back between the fore feet, the head being moved forward and back- 
ward along it; and Prof P. Martin Duncan, in his interesting and 
valuable work upon the Transformation of Insects, and other writers 
seem to consider it a special adaptation of structure to function. But 
what shall we then say to its presence, equally as w^ell developed in pro- 
portion to the size of the larvse, in many of the little leaf mining species 
[Litho collet is, of the cylindrical and ornatella groups, Gracillaria, 
etc. (figs. 33 and 59), which never see the edge of a leaf unless it be 
from the inside of it? In the " ordinary form," the labrum is 
less ciliated on its lower surface than it is in the first form, but 
it is alwa3^s armed on that surface with three teeth, though they are 
sometimes difficult to detect in some of the more degraded forms 
of the Tineina. It is always armed on its upper surface with certain 
bristles, and the number of these seem to give us some assistance in 
classifying the species. In Phyllocnistis the trophi of the ordinary 
form are greatly atrophied, and I have been able to detect but two mi- 
nute hairs on the labrum. But in all of the other genera and species 
having the first form of trophi in their earlier stages, the labrum of 
the ordinary form has ten bristles, and so has that of Mr. Riley's genus 
Prodoxus. Whether this indicates any relationship between Prodox- 
us and the genera having trophi of the first form, remains to be 
determined when we know the larvic of Prodoxus in its first stage. 
This larva is certainly a very singular one in many respects, and the 
pupa is armed with tlie cephalic tooth as in those species, as is also 
that of Pro7iuha, though both have the anal booklets terminal and not lat- 
eral. Mr. Riley thinks that these two genera must have been derived from 
a common ancestor, basing his opinion, however, on the fact that both 
feed on Yucca (in very difierent ways, however), and on the resem- 
blances of the moths, which, however, are only in ornamentation and 
size, while the differences in habits of the larvie, anil in the structure 
of the larvaj, pupye and imago are very great, and show that if the}' arc 

14 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

(leseended from such common ancestor it must liavo boon a very remote 
one. Pronuba has the labrum armed with twelve spines, and tliey are 
small, whilst the ten of Prodoxus are the largest that I have found 
among Leprdoptera. It is curious that the Prodoxus larva, pent up 
in its little narrow gallery in the hard wood of the Tucca, should have 
its labrum thus armed, since the spines are evidently in its way, and are 
nearl}' always found broken. It will not surprise me if the Prodoxus 
larvii? shall prove to have trophi of the first form in its first stage 
since the labrum has onl}' ten spines. 

Gracillaria, Ornix, Coriscium, LithocoUetis, Leucanthiza, and 
Phyllocnistis are the onl}^ genera that as yet are known to have tro- 
])hi of the first form in their young stages, and ten spines upon the 
labrum in the ordinary form. But there are other genera, the mouth 
parts of which have not been examined in their younger stages, but 
which, from their resemblance to the foregoing genera in their later 
larval stages, «,nd as pupae and imago, no doubt belong to the same 
group. Thus 3Iarmara snlictella has probably been observed hy no one 
but Dr. Clemens, ^et his account of it leaves no doubt that it is closely 
allied to LithocoUetis ornatella, and Leucanthiza amphicarpeoefoiieUa. 
Mr. Stainton places the genera Lyonetia, Opostec/a, Phyllocnistis, Ce- 
miostoma and Bucculatrix in his iavaWy Lyonetidce. Of these we have 
already considered Phyllocnistis and Opostega, and my genus Acan- 
thocnemis, as are evidently so nearl}' allied to it in the imago that it is 
probable they are at least equally so in the larval state, though the lar- 
vae are not at present.known. The presence of eye-caps in the imago, 
and of a tuft on the vertex, circumstances considered of some import- 
ance apparently b}^ Mr. Stainton, do not appear to me to have much 
A'alue in classification ; even to the presence or absence of both pairs of 
palpi, too much importance has I think been generally attached. Thus in 
both Opostega and Phyllocnistis the maxillaiy palpi are obsolete, and 
the labial palpi are larger in the latter than in the former; their close 
connection I think is evident at a glance. Opostega has the head 
roughened, and Phyllocnistis has it smooth; while Acanthocnemis has 
the maxillary palpi well developed; 3 et I do not think that any one who 
inspects it can doubt its near relation to Phyllocnistis. I have not ex- 
amined the larval trophi of Lyonetia, but from the characters of the lar- 
vae, pupae and imago I think it is closel}' i-elated to Gracillaria, and will 
be found to have trophi of the first form in the first larval stage, and ten 
spines on the labrum in the later stages. Cemiostoma I have already men- 

On the Antennoi and Trophi of Lepidopterous Larvcu. 15 

tioned, and shall refer to again. It does not belong to this group- 
Of Bucculatrix the larvae of only two species are known in this country, 
and I have not examined the trophi of either of them. The pupa re- 
sembles closely that of a Lithocolletis of the cylindrical group, and 
the imago also seems to me to be allied to that genus. The arma- 
ture of the head and anal segment in the pupae is identical with that 
of Lithocolletis. Mr. Stainton says {Ins. Brit.., v. 3, p. 290): "At a 
certain age the larvae quits the mine, and on the underside of the leaf 
spins a delicate, whitish web or cocoon, within which the larvae remains 
motionless, and in a horse-shoe shape, for a considerable time; it then 
emerges from this coccoon totally different in appearance to what it was 
as a leaf-miner, and proceeds to eat the epidermis of the leaf which it 
formerly mined." All of this would suggest forcibly that at this moult 
in its cocoon it had exchanged the trophi of the first form for those 
of the ordinary form. But this can not be, for the reason that a larva 
having the first form of trophi can neither spin, nor crawl, when it is 
out of its mine, because of the rudimentary condition of its spin- 
neret and feet at that time. If, therefore, the larvae of Buccalatrix 
ever has trophi of the first form, as I believe it will be found to 
have in its first stage, it must shed them at its first moult before it 
leaves the mine, and the moult in its cocoon must be its second or some 
later moult. Its larval history will be interesting to trace, and it will 
probably be found that in its early stages it is like that of Gracillaria 
stigmatella, and many other Gracillaria which have the first form of 
trophi in their first stage only, and pass both the first and second 
stages in the mine. Bucculatrix (imago) has no palpi. Both of my 
American genera, Eurynome and Phyllonome, are evidently closely 
allied to 5«cci</«;:r«,<;, especially the latter, which resembles Buccula- 
trix even in the ornamentation, and maj' almost be called a Bucculatrix, 
plus both pairs of the palpi. Eurynome also has the palpi, and this I 
think is another instance showing how closely related species may 
diflTer in respect to the development of these organs. These are the 
only Amei'ican genera that I place in this larval group, though doubt- 
less other exotic genera are known which propez'ly belong here. 

The next larval group is characterized by never at any stage having 
the first form of trophi, and it includes all other iNIacro and Micro 
Lepidoptera than those above mentioned, and some Tineid genera, yet 
to be discussed, and it may be divided into three such groups, accord- 
ing to the armature of the labrum. .The first of these subgroups has 
the labrum armed with twelve spines, and includes all Macro ami 

I () Cincinnati Society of Xatural History. 

Micro Hoterocera, except tliose al)ove plaecfl in tlie Tirst group, and 
the few small Tineina yet to be discussed further on, viz., C'emiostoma, 
Tischeria, Anfi.ipila, Aspiclisca and Nepticula ; and we must also ex- 
clude from it the large silkworms, and among the 'Tineina, Plutella 
cruclferariim. All the other Heterocera, the larval trophi of which I 
have examined. comj>rising species of all of the families to be found in 
this region, and of a host of genera, whatever ma}' be their other 
dilTerenees as to the form of tlie labrum, and size of the median notch, 
or in any other respect, agree in having the labrum armed with twelve 
spines, even when this forms almost the only bond of union between 
them, vide figs. 60, 61 and 62. The next subgroup comprises, among 
the Heterocera, Plutella cruciferarum (fig. 63) alone, which has the 
twelve spines as in the last group, and in addition two very large spines 
rising from the base of the labrum ; and, strange to say, we do not meet 
with this peculiarity again until we reach the Rliopalocera, where the 
skippers have the labrum of a very different form from Plutella, it is 
true, but armed just as in Plutella (fig, 64, JEudamus tityrus). My 
examinations of the larval trophi of Bhopalocera have been confined to 
the skippers and Papalionidce. These latter (fig. 65) have the labrum 
armed like Plutella and Eudamus, except that the two large spines are 
placed much further forward than in those genera. P. cruciferarum is 
an interesting species as to its classification. The characters of the 
imago seem to me to locate it, as Mr. Stainton has done, immediately 
above the Gelechidm ; yet here we find the structure of the labrum of 
the larva separating it from all other Heterocera (except the silkworms, 
of which see post), and allying it to the butterflies and large Attacidoi. 
The mandibles of the larva, too (fig. 44), are of somewhat unusual form, 
sloping greatl}^ at the upper basal angle, with two spines placed ver}^ 
near the base (the figure 44 does not adequately represent the slope of 
this part of the organ). The labrum is not onl^^ more strongly armed 
than in other Heterocera, but has the teeth very large, and the an- 
terior angles much produced, and the terminal processes of the 
maxillae are of an unusual form (fig. 27).* 

*Its cocoon of open net-work is also remarkable and different from all other cocoons 
that I have seen, though ChauViodus charophylcllus, and, perhaps, a few other European 
species, are said to make such. Mr. Bates ("Naturalist on the Amazons," p. -113) de- 
scribes and figures an open net-work cocoon, which, however, is suspended by a thread, 
and which he attributes to a Thicid ; and Mr- Howard, while acting as assistant to Prof. 
Comstock, in the Agricultural Department at Washington, showed me similar cocoons, and 
a moth bred from them, which I recognized as the same insect that I had before received 
from Texas, but which I think is hardly referable to the Tineina- It is a sordid, sooty 
brown or blackish moth, with an expanse of wings of near an inch, and I think Mr. 
Howard informed me that the larva came from Florida. 

On the Antennm ajidTrojJhi of Lepidopterous Larvce. 17 

The Attacidce (fig. 66, labrum of Platysamia cecropia) have the 
spines on the larval labrum, as in Eudamus and Papilio, except that 
the two large ones are reduced to the ordinary size, and in addition 
there is another spine arising near to the center of each lobe, making the 
number of spines sixteen in this subgroup. The spines in the four 
groups number respectively 10, 12, 14 and 16. And another group 
[Antispila., etc.) has them obsolete and indefinite. 

That these groups exist is a fact easily demonstrated. What the 
value of the character on which they are founded is, if it has an}-, must 
be determined by future observations. Of course I am not proposing 
to classify the Lepidoptera on the basis of an}' single character or set 
of organs; for this purpose each species must be considered in its 
entirety, so to speak. I simply offer the facts and the groups as I 
have found them, to be considered inter alia hy systematists. 

There 3'et remain the Tineid genera above alluded to, viz: Cemios- 
toma, Tischeria, Antispila, Aspidisca and Nepticula^ which will not 
fit into any of the above groups, but seem to form a separate group. 
The larva of Cemiostoma is, both by its labrum and maxillae, sepa- 
rated from all other Lepidoptera (figs. 67 and 18). The labrum is 
densely ciliated on the inferior surface — a character which it has in 
common with all of the lower Tineina, and which, perhaps, simply in- 
dicates degradation. I have not been able to detect the presence of 
any trace of the teeth, and the spines are reduced to two minute hairs. 
But it is the maxillae which are most characteristic here; the outer 
lobe or palpus is reduced to a mere rudiment, although still two 
jointed; the third joint of the inner lobe is nearly as large as either of 
the other two, and has an oblique row of minute processes on its side, 
and it is crowned with a dense tuft of long cilia. To appreciate the differ- 
ences between it and the usual forms, compare fig. 18 with figs. 20-'28. 

The genus Tischeria is placed by Mr. Stainton among the Elachis- 
tadoe. Dr. Clemens thought its true location was with LithocoUetis. 
But the larviie of LithocoUetis have in their early stages trophi of the 
first form, which Tischeria never has, and they have onl}- fourteen legs 
while Tischeria has sixteen; and there are other differences sufficient 
to separate Tischeria from the Lithocolleliihv; wiiile its larval tropin. 
I think, separate it also from the Elachistada\ The labrum (figs. 75 and 
76), instead of having the median notcli trilobed, has the teeth 
very large, and although it has, I think, ten or twelve spines, the 
number is difficult to determine, because they are very minute, and 
differ scarcely', if at all, from the cilia. But tlio niaxilliv :ire still more 

18 Cincinnati Society of Natural Jliafory. 

singular ( (ig. 1!)), iiiid roscjinble tliose oC some Coleoptora nioie tluin 
tliose of any other Lepiclopteia; tlie aiticiilations are almost 
ol)litoiat(:(l; the outer lol)e is re'luced almost to a rudiment; tiie term- 
inal Joint of tiie inner lobe is enlarged, almost globular ; only two of its 
terminal processes are present, and it is densely clothed with long 
hairs (compare (Ig. 19 with figs. 20-28). The maxilhe separate it 
from all other Lepidoptera, while the labrum separates it from all of 
these above discussed, and seems to unite it with Jiedellia. Antis- 
pila, Aspidisca and Nepticula. 

Bedellia (fig. 68, labrum of larva) is placed by Mr. Stainton in 
Eluchistadoi. The larval labrum is not distinctly trilobcd, but the 
notch is widened into a distinct space, which gives the appearance of 
trilobation. It has ten spines on its upper surface (as in Lithocol- 
letis, etc.), but has ten others around its anterior margin. 

Nepticula (figs. 69 and 71) has the notch still more widened, and 
the trilobation distinct; the teeth are indistinct; I detect no spines, 
except the ten spines or teeth around the margin. On the whole, in spite 
of differences, it seems to be about equally related to Bedellia and 
Tischeria (it is proper to say, however, that iniV. pteliceella ihe labrum 
(fig. 72) differs from that of all of the other Nepticnla larvae that I 
have examined. Mr. Stainton places Nepticula and Trifurcula 
(which I have included in Nepticula) in his family Nepticuladm. The 
maxillae do not differ in any important respect from those figured at 
ligs, 20-26. The larval labrum, while appearing to be between that 
of Bedellia and Tischeria, as above stated, seems to be about equally' 
related to that of Antispila (figs. 70 and 73), or Aspidisca (fig. 74), in 
which, although the notch is present, the tendency to trilobation is 
also distinct; the number of the spines, which are obsolete, varies from 
four in Aspidisca (fig. 74), and in N. ptelia^ella (fig. 72), to eight in 
Antispila cornifoiliella (fig. 70), or onl}' two in A. ampelopsiella (fig. 
73). Antispila has floated around among the Tinemrt as if playing 
" puss wants a corner." It found a corner for a time among 
Elachistadce, from which Mr. Stainton removes it, and places it in 
Glypipteryijidm. Aspidisca must go with it, and both seem to me to 
be related b}^ the larval tropin to Nepticula and to Bedellia, and, so 
far as the labrum is concerned, to Tischeria, which, however, is sepa- 
rated widely enough from them by the maxillae. I have not seen the larva 
of Elachista. Indeed, the larva of only one of our American species is 
known at all, and that I think onl}- to Dr. Clemens. But the imago 
grades through some of our genera of small moths [Elachista 

On the AntenncB and Trophi of Lepidopterous Larvce. 19 

concolorella, EriijJiia concolorella, and other species, Laverna 
(Perimede erransella, Laverna gleditschiceella, etc.) into the true 
Laverna, so that the close family connection of Elachista with 
Laverna can hardly be questioned. But by its larval trophi, Laverna 
is much nearer to Gelechia than it is to Bedellia or Tischeria, which 
Mr. Stainton places in Elachistadas. From the abundance of species 
and individuals of Elachista in Europe, that genus is probably the 
most characteristic of the family to which it belongs, and properly 
give to it the family name. In this country, however, it would, I 
think, more properly be called the Lavernadce. 

Whatever value, if any, attaches to these differences in larval trophi, 
it is at least curious that of the multitude of larvse examined all should 
fall so readily into one or other of these groups. These differences, at 
least those as to the number of spines on the labrura, do not indicate 
families, such as Papilonidoi, Tineidoi, etc., but larger groups. On 
any theory of the descent of the Lepidoptera from a common ancestral 
form, and if the larvoe represent a period of development of the 
order earlier than the pupa and imago, then we must have in their trophi 
a nearer approach to that of the original form, and the great uniformity 
which now prevails among the larviB, as to their trophi, indicates how 
little variation has taken place in these organs in the long lapse of 
ages since Lepidoptera first made their appearance on the earth. 
What, too. are we to think of the " first ^form" of trophi, destitute, as 
it is, of spinneret, palpi and maxillae? \ Does it represent an earlier 
form of trophi than the ordinary form i*i the liistor^' of tlie order, or 
is it a degraded form? To my mind it is a degraded form — degraded 
from such trophi as it has after the first form is thrown off, and the 
labrum is armed with ten spines. Then looking to Cemiostoma, 
Tischeria, Antispila, etc., which never have the "first form," how are we 
to account for the curious modification of the maxillae in the first two, 
and of the labrum in all of this group? Arc tliey.too, degradations; or do 
the}^ represent an earlier condition of the "ordinary form?" 

The Lepidoptera have by some been supposed to have a genetic con- 
nection with the Phryganiida'. I have observed the trophi of but few 
ot the larvae of the latter, but have not found anything in them to in- 
dicate awy close connection with Lepidoptera. Indeed, the larval 
trophi of the Lepidoptera seem to have as close a resemblance to 
those of some Coleoptera as to those of any other order, though suffi- 
ciently distinct from them, even without taking into consideration the 

20 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

In conclusion, if it be suggested that it is the habit of burrowing in 
leaves'that has produced such modifications as those shown in the 
" first form," what, I will ask, has produced such different modi- 
lications in the leaf-miuing Ce«iios<oma, Tischeria, Nepticula, Antis- 
pila, etc.? and why has the same habit produced no modification what- 
ever in the leaf-mining Gelechidoi, Coleophora, Laverna, etc.? for there 
are multitudes of leaf-mining larvsie of these and other genera which 
show no modification of the trophi whatever. To me it seems rather 
that a Guiding Intelligence shapes their (anal and cephalic) ends! 


Fig. 1. Antenna of Phyllocnislis vitifoliella, Cham., 1st form. 

2. " " " " 2d form. 

3. " Lithocolletis hamadri/adella, Clam., Ijit (orm. 

4. " " " " 2d form. 

5. " " robiniella, Clem., 1st form. 

6. " " " " 2d form. 

7. " " ornatella, Cham., and Leucanthiza amphicarpecej'oli- 

ella, Clem., 2d form. 

8. " Ornix inusitatiimella, Cham., 1st form. 

9. " " 2d form. 

10. " Gelechia cercerisella, Cham., and other Heterocera. 

11. " Dryopteris and other Seterocera. 

12. " Platysainia cecropia. 

13. " Sesia, Laverna, Pieris. 

14. Labial Palpus of Lepidopterous Larvae. 

15. Labium and Spinneret (ordinary form). 

16. " of Lithocolletis hamadryaclella, 1st fornj. 

17. " " Ornix, 1st form. 

18. Maxilla of Cemiostoma. 

19. '•■ Tischeria. 

20. " Lithocolletis hamadryadella, ordinary form, it is absent in the 

first form. 

21. " Lithocolletis ornatella. 

22. " Leucanthiza amphicarpeosfoliella. 

23. " Gracillaria eupatoriella. 

24. " Antispila. 

25. " Tinea. 

26. " Platysamia cecropia. 

27. " Plutella cruciferarum (terminal joint). 

28. " Eudamus tityrus (terminal joint). 

29. Mandible of Lithocolletis hamadryadella, 1st form. 

30. " " " 2d form. 

31. " Coriscium and Phyllocnislis, 1st form. 

32. '' Lithocolletis (cylindrical), Ornix, and Gracillaria, 1st form. 

33. " " " " '• 2d form. 

On the Antenma and Trophi of Lepidopterous Larcce. 21 

Fig. 34. Mandible of Tischeria and Nej)ticul<i. 

,'55. " Prodoxus. 

;57. " Gelechia. 

38. " Larerna. 

39. " Tinea. 

40. " Bedelliu. 

41. " Theridopteryx. 

42. " Arctia. 

43. " Eiichietes. 

44. " Plutdla. 

45. " Pier is. 

46. " Dry opt er is. 
41. " Papi/io. 

48. " Eiulryns. 

49. " Unknown Larva found on Oak. 
' 50. " Eudamus. 

51. " Notodonta. ' 

52. Lnbruni of LithocoUetis, robiniweUa, 1st form. 
.53. " " " 2d form. 

54. " •' fjuttifiniteUa, 1st form. 

55. " " •' 2d form. 

56. " Phyllocnistis vitifoliel/a, 1st form. 

57. " " " 2d form. 

58. ^ " GraciUaria eupatoricUa, 2d form. 

59. '' Prodoxus. 
(iO. '■ Pronuba. 

61. " Coleophora. 

62. " Semi. 

63. " Plidella. 

64. " Eudamus. 

65. " Papilio. 

66. " Platysamia. 

67. " Cemiostoma. 

68. " Bedellia. 

69. " Nepliculu saginella. 

70. " Antispila cornifoliella. 

71. " Nepticula (from hickory leaf). 

72. " " pteliceeUa. 

73. " Antispilu ampelopsiaella . 

74. " Aspidisca sjylendorifcrelln. 
75 " Tischeria nialifolieUa. 

76. " " (from oak leaf). 





/'//i i I // / / "^ 


.^^St. , 58 


On the Gemis Ifonticulipova. 25 


By S. A. 31iLLER, Esq. 

In 1874, the writer said, that " after the most careful examination 
of hundreds of specimens, polished and unpolished, fractured and 
weather-worn, under the most favorable circumstances, the fact that no 
coral possessing the generic characters of Chetetes was ever found within 
the Cincinnati Group, seems too clearly established to leave a remnant of 
doubt upon the subject." That in Chetetes "it is a generic characteristic 
that the walls of the tubes are inseparabl}'^ connected together, owing 
to the fissiparous method of reproduction, while the walls of the 
corals from this locality readih' separate."* 

Prof. Nicholson found it impossible to separate Monticulipora 
from Chetetes,\ and consequently referred our corals to the latter 
genus. This view he continued to entertain until a comparatively 
recent date, when he changed his mind, and referred them to the 
former genus, though it can not be said that very much new light had 
been thrown upon the subject since the work of Edwards & Hainie, 
published nearl}' twenty years ago. The late work by Prof. Nicholson, 
"On the Structure and Affinities of the Genns Monticulipora, and its 
subgienera," is almost entirely devoted to the corals of this locality-, and 
hence contains a revision of the work done in the " Ohio Palaeon- 
tology'," which is worth}' of an extended notice. 

He has subdivided the genus Monticulipora into five subgenera, 
viz. : Heterotrypa, Diplotrypa, Monotrypa, Frasopora, and Perono- 
pora. The characters are founded upon microscopic observations, and 
their value, therefore, is, not evident to an ordinary observer. I will 
not undertake to sa}' that this subdivision is wholly without any foun- 
dation, but that it is not without serious objections will bo apparent 
in the following review of the work, in contrast with his earlier deter- 

Monticulipora mammulata is left whore D'Orbigny placed it in 
1850, except that he refers it to the subgenus Hetcrotrypn. A form 
which has been usually referred to this species, but more densely tuber 

* Cin. Quar. Jour. Sci., vol. i., p. 368 
f Ohio Pal., vol. ii., p. 188. 

'^C* ('tncinnati Society of Natural History. 

ciliated, is called Monticulipora (Perenopoi'a) mofesla, and another 
allied form is called Monticulipora ( Heterotrypa) dawsoni. 

Ilis (Jhetetes gracilis is now Monticulipora [Heterotrypa) yracilis; 
Chetetes nodulosus, Monticulipora {^Heterotrypa) nodulosa ; Chetetes 
jamesi, 3fonticulipora [Heterotrypa) jamesi, and a closely allied form 
is Monticidipora [Heterotrypa) implicata. 

The form which he referred to, Chetetes dalei, in the Ohio Survey, 
and which is so well known here as Monticulipora dalei of Edwards 
and Haime, he now refers to Monticulipora ramosa, D'Orbigny. 1850, 
and hence the rugose form of the same species is called M. ramosa, 
var. riigosa. I have never s'^,en the work of D'Orbigny, but I can not 
help expressing ray surprise at this identification, at so late a day, 
though it is probably correct. 

The form which he described as Chetetes approximatus., in the Ohio 
Survc}', he now says is a synonj^m for Monticulipora. dalei of Edwards 
and Haime, but he regards it as merely a variety of M. ramosa. He has 
certainly been very much misinformed about this species, for he says 
that it occurs associated in the same beds, at Cincinnati, with J/. 
ramosa and M. ramosa, var. rugosa, and possesses onh' a slight ex- 
ternal difference, with a complete agreement in internal structure, both 
tangential and longitudinal sections, showing features preciseh' similar 
to those exhibited by corresponding sections of typical examples of 
3f. ramosa. 

In 1875, the writer said, " Chetetes approximatus of Nicholson, 
which should be written Monticulipora approximata, is never, so far as 
m^' observation has extended, covered with elongated tubercles, as in the 
rugose variet}' of the dalei. Moreover, the approximata is found abund- 
ant in the rocks from 300 to 350 feet above low water mark, where it 
is very rare to see a piece of the dalei, while the latter abounds in the 
rocks from 350 to 400 feet above low water mark, where the former is 
comparatively quite as rare as the latter is in the rocks first mentioned.'"* 
The difference in the range of the two species is, however, greater than I 
then stated. 

The M. approximata [M. dalei) may bo found in great abundance be- 
low the Eden Park reservoir, and about midway of the side hill below 
the Park, at an elevation of from 200 to 300 feet above low water mark. 
Clusters may be collected nearly a foot in diameter, and eight inches in 
height. Specimens too large to go in a peck measure are not uncommon, 
and yet, throughout this entire range, I have never collected a specimen 

* Cin. Quar. Jour. Sci-, vol. ii., p. 354. 

On the Genus 3IontiGuUpora. 27 

of what I have heretofore called M. dalei, and which is now referred to 
31. ramosa. The latter species abounds on the tops of the hills at 
Mount Auburn and Corry ville, and other places in the city, at an eleva- 
tion of 350 to 425 feet, where the former is never found. It may be 
that, between these two ranges, the two species will be found in the 
same strata, but, at present, I do not recall to mind any instance of 
finding the two species associated on the same slab. There are no two 
species in the genus that seem to be more easily- distinguished than 
these. Th.Q approximata [dalei novf) is found in clusters as large or 
larger than the dalei [ramosa now), but the branches are much smaller, 
bifurcate at different angles, the monticules are not half as large, nor 
half as numerous, nor are the interstitial tubuli half so abundant. And 
if it be true that microscopic sections show no distinguishing differ- 
ences, we may hesitate before accepting species founded alone upon 
tangential and longitudinal sections, and with still stronger reason 
doubt the validit}^ of subgenera established in this manner. 

Chetetes pulchellus of the Ohio Palteontolog}', he now describes as a 
new species under the name of Jfo?i^icwZzpora [Heterotrypa) andrewsi. 
No one in this countr}' had ever thought of referring this form to the 
Monticulipora pulchella of Edvvards and Haime until Prof. Nicholson 
had so described it in the Ohio Pal aeon tolog3^ And, in 1875, immedi- 
atel}"^ after his identification was in print, I said, " I do not think that 
pulchella is found here at all. Edwards and Haime had before them 
many corals from this locality, and as the coral now referred by Prof. 
Nicholson to their species is the most abundant coral in our rocks, it 
would seem highly probable that they were iu possession of it, when 
they wrote their work on the British corals, in which they frequently 
referred to localities in America, yet when making the %^e,c\e^ pulchella, 
the only locality mentioned was England. They described pulchella 
as follows: 'Corallum ramose; its branches often somewhat com- 
pressed, and from two to four lines in diameter. Tubercles, broad, not 
very prominent, and somewhat stellated. Calices rather regularl3' 
hexagonal, and very unequal in size ; those that occupy the center of 
the tubercles about one fiftii of a line in diameter, anil at least twice 
as large as those placed in the intervals between the groups thus 
formed.' Our species is usuall}' much larger than this one, and it is 
very rare to find the branches compressed ; the prominences or 
tubercles are not stellated; the calices are not regularly hexagonal, 
though as they are crowded together some of them may be hexagonal, 
while others are pentagonal or heptagonal or approaching a circle, there 

28 Cincinnati Society of Natural IliHtory. 

bciiii;- no rc^uliiiily in tluiir lorin, ;ui(l no iinitoiinity in tluiii- size. In 
sput-inicu.'s l'oui« lin(!S in diunieter, the caliccs, that occup}' the center of 
the tubercles, are from l-dtii to l-8th of a line in diameter; the distance 
from the center of one tubercle to the center of the next, is about one 
line, and the average number of calices, in that distance, is about 
twelve. Moreover, Edwards and Haime distinguished pulchella from 
Jletcheri, by the more acute angle of bifurcation of the branches in the 
former than in the latter, while no such distinguishing character 
could be applied to our species, as it bifurcates at all angles. Thus it 
seems, that our species differs, more or less, in every character from 
those ascribed to pulchella by its authors. For these reasons I do not 
think that pulchella exists in the Cincinnati Group, and it is quite 
evident that the corals referred to this species by Prof. Nicholson, are 
the same that were described by Goldfuss in 1826, under the specific 
name fibrosa. If the corals referred to do not belong to the genus 
Stowpora, the name, should be written 31 onticuUpor a fibrosa instead 
of Chetetes pulchellus and Chetetes attritus, and MonticuUpora sub- 
pulchella instead of Chetetes subpulchellus.''* 

In my catalogue of American PaliBOzoic Fossils, p. 48, published in 
1877, I said that I thought pulchella is not found in this country, and 
printed it in the condemned list in italic letters. 

These remarks would 1 e incomplete if I did not add that not only 
did I never adopt Prof. Nicholson's iden'ification of pulchella, but 
that I know of no American palaeontologist who did, and that all the 
credit of the mistaken identification and persistence in it belongs to 
Prof. Nicholson himself. 

The application of these statements will be apparent from the follow- 
ing quotation from liis description of the same form under the new 
name of MonticuUpora (Heterotrypa) andrewsi, wherein he makes 
the observation, that it is the species "which has generally been 
recognized by American palaeontologists as identical with the J/. 
pulchella, Edwards and Kaime, of the Wenlock Limestone of Britain. 
So far, in fact, as its external characters are concerned, it is very like 
M. pulchella.^ resembling it especially in the existence of clusters of 
thin-walled polygonal corallites, interpersed at short intervals among 
similarly shaped but slightly smaller tubes. In the absence, therefore, 
of any accurate microscopic knowledge of the internal structure of the 
two forms, it was almost inevitable that they should have been grouped 

•• Cin. Quar. Jour. Sci., vol- ii., p. 353. 

Oil the Genus Monticulipora. 29 

together, though their minute characters, as will appear hereafter, are 
very difFerent." 

For one, who rarely gives credit to American authors for labor per- 
formed in this department of science, to charge them with his own 
mistakes may be regarded as a little cool. 

Chetetes Jietcheri of the Ohio Paloeontology, is now called Monticu- 
lipora [Heterotrypa) ulrichi. As in the last case of erroneous identifi- 
cation. Prof. Nicholson was the first to call this form the Jietcheri of 
Edwards and Haime, and I am unable to find any warrant for his ob- 
servation in the new definition, in these words. " In common with 
various American observers, I have formerh^ identified the present form 
with the M. fletcheri, Edwards and Haime, of the Weulock Limestone 
of Britain. I am, however, now satisfied that the examples from the 
Cincinnati Group certainly can not be properly thus identified with our 
present knowledge." 

Chetetes subpulchellus is now Monticulipora [Heterotrypa) subpul- 
chella, and is said to be rare, at Cincinnati, After the publication of 
the Ohio Palaeontology, I identified, with the description and figures 
of this species, a common form occurring at an elevation of about 150 
feet above low water mark, but with the new definition and limitation 
the form intended is not so- evident. 

When the dalei, ramosa, mammulata, and nodalosa are associated, 
under the same generic name, with the jamesi and gracilis, the re- 
maining polyp corals, in the Hudson River Group, may as well be 
dumped into the same genus, without attempting a subdivision. 

Chetetes petropolitanus is now abandoned as an American species, 
and the Russian form of Pander is called Monticidipora {Diplotrypa) 
petropolitana. And it is needless to say, that the singular paragraph, 
which concludes the remarks on this species, in the OhioPalteontolog}', 
is also abandoned, viz: " I am disposed to think that Lichenalia con- 
centrica, Mall, has been founded upon the einthccaoi C. petropolita7ins, 
which is often of sufficient tenuity to allow the bases of corallites to^be 
seen through it." 

In 1874, I stated that the '•' Chetetes petropolitanus, found in the 
Lower Silurian rocks of Russia, in which Lonsdale discovered the di- 
visional laminjB of one tube developed within the area of one which pre- 
existed, does not exist in this locality."* And in 1877, in the 
Catalogue of the American Palaeozoic Fossils, I condemned theapplica- 

* Cin. Quar. Jour. Sci., vol. i., p. 368. 

;}0 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

lion of tlie iiaine to Ainoricui forms by placing it in itiilics, and said 
tiiat " it is not evident that this species is found in America." 

MoaticuUpora caly cuius is recognized as a species, and plnccd in 
his subgenus Diplotrypa. 

Monticulipora irrcyularis is placed in his subgenus Monotrypa. 

His Chetetes sigillarioides is classed as a s3'nonym for Monticulipora 

His Chetetes riiovibicus is abandoned as a synonym for Monticu- 
lipora qnadrata. This I did in my Catalogue of Paheozoic Fossils, see 
p. 48. 

Monticulipora clavicoidea is recognized as a species, and referred 
to his subgenus Monotrypa. The same disposition is made of Monti- 
culipora calceola. 

A form closely related to Monticulipora lycoperdon is described as 
Monticulipora petasiformis, and referred to the subgenus Monotrypa. 

Chetetes discoideus is now called Monticulipora (Monotrypa) dis- 

Chetetes clathratulus is abandoned as a synonym for Monticulipora 
pavonia of D'0rbign3\ He says, " This beautiful form presents a con- 
siderable superficial resemblance to Ptilodictya, and has been referred 
to this genus. It wants, however, the definitely circumscribed and 
peculiarl}^ marked lateral margins of the fronds of this polyzoan type, 
and what is more important, it is without the peculiarly striated central 
lamina of the Ptilodictyas. It is true that the bases of the corallites in 
M. pavonia, D'Orb,, are so united with one another as to give rise to 
an irregular calcareous membrane, which separates the two halves of 
the corallum; but none of the specimens that I have seen exhibit anj- 
tendency to split along the line of this membrane, nor can the coral- 
lites be forcibly removed from one side of it, exposing the median 
lamina as a definite structure. In both these respects the Ptilodictyoe 
would show quite different phenomena." 

In 1860, Dr. Prout* founded the genus Gyclopora for certain Bryozoa, 
and described the species under consideration as Cylopora jamesi, as 

'' Polyzoum, a fragment showing mostly the sole, with chalices super- 
posed upon both faces on certain parts of the specimen; sole formed of 
more or less concentric ridges, bent or erratic at times, crossed b\' 
delicate striiE, or lines, the intervals between which appear like long, 

' Trans. St. Louis Acad. Sci., p. 571. 

On the Genus Monticulipora. 31 

septate, parallel flattened tubes, the apparent sept?e marking the origin 
of the chalices; intersections of the ridges and striae mostly at right 
angles; chalices, or net-work of chalicular apertures, almost regularl_y 
quadrangular, somewhat more delicate and condensed where worn than 
the preceding species, from which it is furthermore distinguished by 
r\'thmical swellings upon the surface, or light tuberculations, upon 
which the chalices are larger and more irregular in form; number of 
chalices in a space of two lines square, about one hundred. It must 
have belonged to a specimen from at least four to six inches in length 
and width, as the concentric ridges upon it are so gently curved as to 
show a great relative distance from the center." 

It is plain, from this description, that Dr. Prout had a specimen 
that was split, showing the membrane that separates the two halves of the 
corallura, and notwithstanding Prof. Nicholson has never seen anj- such, 
it is a fact that split specimens, showing the concentrically wrinkled cal- 
careous membrane upon either half, are not rare, but, on the contrary, 
more frequentl}'^ occur than split specimens of any other bryozoan found 
in the Hudson River Group. In 1877, in the Catalogue of American 
Palseozoic Fossils, I followed Dr. Prout in referring this species to the 
Brj^ozoa, under the name of Cycloj^ora jamesL I have no doubt that it is 
a bryozoan, and, unless the genus Cyclopora shall be subdivided, and 
another species taken as the type, it will remain in that genus. As 
pavonia has priority as a specific name, it should be called Cyclopora 
pavonia, unless it is made to appear that D'Orbigu}^ described another 
form. I have never seen either D'Orbigny's work, or the Pol. Foss. des 
Terr Pal., of Edwards and Haime, and hence accept the name pa- 
vonia on the authority of others. I was not aware, however, that any 
one had classed the form with the Ptilodictya until I learned it from 
the book under review. The observations upon this species by Prof. 
Nicholson strongly reminds one of the story of the man wlio did not 
believe that water could be frozen into ice, because he had never seen it 
done, and it may be laid down as a general rule, that where an author ig- 
nores the writings and observations of others, and depends upon lim- 
ited information and experience from which to draw generalizations, 
we may expect some mistakes; and if he describes new species of 
fossils, the flood of synonyms will be limited only by his moans of 

Chetetes hriarens is now Monticulipora (Monotrypa) briarea. 
Chetetes corticans i^ abandoned as a synonym for Monticulipora 
ticbercitlata, which he refers to his subgenus Monotrypa, though 

.'>2 Cincinnati Sociciy of Natural History. 

without :uiy reason, while lie admits tlie possibility of its being a 
bryozoan. Chetetes newberryi is now 3fonticulipora (Prasopora) 
newberri/i. MonticHlipora sehvyni, var. hospitalis, is a new encrusting 
variety. Chetetes frondosiis is now Monticulipora ( Peronopora) 
frondosa. Chetetes ortoni is Monticulipora {Peronopora) ortoni- 
And Jfniifinilipora cinriimiifrnsis is referred to his subgenus Perono- 

Tlie medley of forms under the subgenus Monotriipa is quite as ob- 
jectionable as those arranged under the head of Heterofrypa., beside 
including true Bryozoa with true Polypi, if these classes are found in 
the Hudson River Group. 

He })roposes that Monticulipora lycoperdon shall be dropped alto- 
gether, and that no attempt shall be made to revive it, but that a new 
name, which he proposes, shall be adopted in its stead. The reasons 
which he gives for so doing are not laid down in the laws of nomen- 
clature, nor do they address themselves to the mind of an ordinary 
palaeontologist. He seems to be quite innocent of the literature upon 
the 'subject, but familiar with some of the mistakes that others have 
made in identifying other forms with it. His philosophy, applied to 
other species, would suppress Monticulipora petropoUtana in Russia, 
because he had made a mistake in referring an American form to it; it 
would suppress Monticulipora pulchella, in the Wenlock of England, 
because he had identified Monticulipora fibrosa, o^ America, with it; 
and so on, indefinitely, specific names would be suppressed on account 
of the subsequent blunders of others. 

The specific name, lycoperdon, is attributed by American palae- 
ontologists to Say, though he did not describe the species. He 
was an eminent naturalist, and seems to have called it Favosites lyco- 
2}erdo7i, by which name it became generally known from its puff-ball 
shape. In 1842, Prof Emmons figured it under the name o^ Favosites 
lycopodites, as characteristic of the Trenton Group, of New York.* He 
said that he had not discovered it as high as the Utica Slate, and if any 
fossils are characteristic of the Trenton limestone, this is certainly 
one (p. 400). In the same year. Prof. Vanuxem figured and described 
it as characteristic of the Trenton Group, of New York.f He said, in 
referring to the illustration: "The Puff-ball favosite (Favosites 
lycopodites), from its resemblance to that common fungus, is also 
highh' characteristic (of the Trenton limestone), and is in great num- 

'■■' Rep. of the Surrey of the Second Geological District, of New York, p. 389. 
t Rep. of the Survey of the Third Geo. Dist. N. T., p. 46. 

On the Genus 31onticulipora. 33 

bers; but it is found also in the lower part of the Utica Slate, where it 
ends. It is one mass of small, angular cells, arranged side by side. 
It is equally abundant at Frankfort. Kentucky, where it received the 
name of Trianisites cliffordi?'' Since that time it has been figured 
again and again in State surveys and geological publications, and 
as repeatedly mentioned and described as a characteristic form of 
the Trenton Group. In 1847, Prof. Hall figured it with transverse 
and magnified views, and called the branching corals from the Trenton 
Group Chetetes lycoperdon^ var. ramosus. This variety, ramosus, he 
found in the Hudson River Group, but he says {Halts PaZ.,vol. i, p. 276) : 
•'This coral acquires its full development in the shaly part of the Ti-enton 
limestone, rarely appearing in hemispheric forms in the succeeding 
shales. In the more calcareous part of the Hudson River Group it occurs 
in ramose forms, similar to those already described, and assumes some 
other features in its mode of growth not observed in the limestone." 
So far as the literature of the subject goes, and my own acquaintance 
extends, there is no American palseontologist, and has been none since 
1842, but who is or was familiar with the true type lycoperdon as it 
characterizes the Trenton Group. Some haA'e supposed that branch- 
ing corals might be mere varieties of this species, and that therefore 
the forms from the Hudson River Group might be classed with it, and 
others have from time to time distinguished and characterized species 
among the branching forms, but no one seems to have been ignorant 
of the true type of lycoperdon. It has never been a doubtful form. 
Indeed, there is no American coral where less doubt surrounds the 
true type of the species. Neither Emmons nor Vanuxem claimed the 
specific name of lycopodites, which is a barbarism, and, b}' the rules of 
nomenclature, any one is permitted to spell the name correctly, as 
Say evidently did, in the first instance, and it makes no diff"ereuce as 
to the validity of the name, lycoperdon, whether it is followed b^' Say, 
au Hall did, in 1847, or by Emmons or Vanuxem, who illustrated and 
defined it in 1842. It will, no doubt, be used as the specific name of 
the puff-ball species b}' all educated paleontologists, as long as the 
binomial method of nomenclature shall continue to prevail. 

Notwithstanding these criticisms, which I have thought are properly 
demanded, the b.iok contains an amount of information that render* 
it, on the whole, of some value to science. 

;{4 Civcinnatl Society of Natural llistorn. 

desceh'tion of two new genera and eight 
new spectes of fosstls from the hudson 
river group, wttti remarks upon others. 

By 8. A. Miller. 
Glyptocrinus miamiensis, n. sp. 

Plate I., fig. 1, side view, natural size. 

This species is established, like many others have been, on a single 
specinion ; but, in this case, we have a remarkably fine head, with arms 
and pinnules preserved, and 2 4-lOths inches of the column attached. 

Body, proportionally, long and very gentl}^ expanding, so that its 
diameter at the free arms is only about two thirds of its length; obcon- 
oidal, with interradial and intersecondary radial spaces depressed, so 
as to five it subangular outlines corresponding with the radial series. 
Surface smooth or slightly granular, but devoid of all sculptured, 
angular and radiated ornamentation. 

Basals. — Basals well developed, forming the lower part of the calyx, 
with high projecting angles between the under sloping sides of the 
first primary radials. 

First radials. — First radials large, about as high as wide, hexagonal 
and having long, under sloping sides resting upon the basals, shorter 
sides in contact with each other and the interradials, and a truncated 
upper side. The central part of the surface of the upper half rapidly 
swells, or is contracted into a round ridge, which, in its extension 
upward, gives a subpentagonal outline to the body. 

Second radials. — Second radials a little smaller than the first, about 
as high as wide, and heptagonal, as three interradials abut upon one 
side of each, and two on the other. The ridge that commences below 
becomes semi-C3'lindrical in its extension upward across this plate, and 
gives to this part a decided pentagonal outline. 

Third radials. — Third radials, about the size of the second, nearly 
as high as wide, and heptagonal, as two interradials abut upon them 
upon either side. The secondary" radials rest upon the upper, slightly 
sloping sides. The bifurcation of the ascending radial ridge takes 
place on the upper third of the plate. 

Secondary radials. — In one of the series in our specimen (that 
upon the right) there is no further division of the ra,dialsor arm plates 
Six or more plates seem to enter into and torm part of the calyx in 

Description of Two New Genera and Eight New Species. 35 

each series before the two arms become free. The first one has a 
length equal to that of the third primary radial, but the succeeding 
plates are shorter, without an}' determined contraction in width, and 
graduate up to the cuneiform plates that form the free arms. Were 
the other radial series like this one, wo would have a species with onl}' 
ten arms, but such is not the case. In the other series, in our speci- 
men (that upon the left) tliere are three secondary radials, each of 
which has a length about equal to the third primary radials. Upon 
the upper sloping sides of the third secondar}'' radials arise tertiar}' 
radials, the first of which has a length nearly equal to that of a second- 
ary radial. The succeeding plates are shorter and seem to graduate 
into the cuneiform plates of the free arms at about the sixth plate. 
Here ai'e four arms to this radial series or twice as many as there are 
in the first described series. We are not prepared to call this anomal- 
ous arrangement abnormal, for the specimen is well developed, and the 
arms well preserved and the species quite distinct in other respects 
from any hitherto described. 

Interradial and intersecondary radial areas. — These areas are de- 
pressed. The first plate rests between the upper sloping sides of the 
first primary radials, this is followed by a range of two plates, and 
these again by a range of two, and these by a third series before pass- 
ing the top of the thii-d primary radials. Above this, plates continue 
to fill the narrow interradial space to the top of the cah'x, but neither 
their number nor arrangement has been accurately ascertained. The 
first plate in the intersecondary area rests between the first secondary 
radials, this is followed by a single plate between the second secondurv 
radials, and above this the plates have not been determined. 

Arms and Pinnuloi. — The number of arms is not known, because 
we can not say that if two series have six arms, five will have fifteen. 
Where only two series are known, as in this case, and one has two 
arms, iind the other four, it is evident that the species has more than 
ten arms, and less than twenty. From the appearance of the parts ex- 
posed, on the right of the series first above described, I infer that there 
are four arras in the adjoining series ; and from the parts exposed on 
the left of the last described series, we have here the azygous area. 
If this supposition is correct, then we have four arms in the right an- 
terior series, two in the right posterior series, and four in the posterior 
series. The free arras rise vertically. The}' are long and slender, round 
on the outer side, and are composed of numerous cuneiforra plates, 
the length of four or raore of which is only equal to the diameter of 

:5fj (Jinciitnali Society of Naluval Illslory. 

the .•inii, iiud (!:icli of which supports at its larj^iT end a piiiiiiilf. 'i'lie 
piiimilus aio loiii; ami very slender, and composed of h)ng jointed 

(Joluinn. — The column is round, and composed of alternately thicker 
and thinner plates. These project beyond tiie parts uf contact, the 
thicker i)lates project beyond the thinner ones, us is usual in other 
species of this genus. As we recede from the head the larger plates 
are more distant from each other and project less. Tiie column en- 
larges a little as it approaches the head. The column, in our speci- 
men, is half embedded in rock, and we have no fragments for examin- 
ation, hence other peculiarities and distinguishing characters must 
await some future definition. 

The specimen described is from the magnificent collection of I. H. 
Harris, Esq., of Waynesville, Ohio, and is from the upper part of the 
Hudson River Group, at that localit}'. 

Remarks. — Messrs. Wachsmuth and Springer seem to have been 
practically unacquainted with this genus, as their diagnosis requires 
that the surface of the plates should be '• ornamented with radiating 
strise in form of elevated ridges which divide into numeious triangular 
impressed areiE;" that the basals should " scarce!}^ extend to the sides 
of the body;" that the second radials should be "hexagonal;" that the 
third radials should be " pentagonal," and as to the succeeding plates 
the diagnosis would include those of almost any other genus in the 
family; and having ''arms twenty." The above described species 
would not be included in their diagnosis, and yet I have not the least 
doubt that it is a true GlyjttoGrinus; it may be that the}' would refer 
it to Beteocrinus, or propose for it a subgeneric name, — neither course, 
do I think, would be warranted, with our present knowledge of the 
structure ot crinoids; and this possible reference ma}- justify a few re- 
marks upon Billings' genus. 

The genus Reteocrinus was described by Billings, as consisting of a 
reticulated skeleton, composed of rudimentary plates, each consisting 
of a central nucleus, from which radiate from three to five stout pro- 
cesses. Of such plates there are five in the basal series, five in the 
sub-radial, and five in the radial series. On the az3'gous side the sub- 
radial has five processes; the others have four each. The type species, 
i?, stellar is., is well illustrated (plate IX., figs. 4 and 4a, Can. Org. 
Rem. Decade IV.), showing these characters. The azygoussubradial 
has five processes, three above and two below. The first primary radial 
in the right anterior ray has three processes, the upper one of which 

Description of Two Neic Genera and Eight New Species. 37 

supports an arm, while the two lower rest, oae of them on one of the 
upper processes of the azygous subradial, and the other upon a process 
of the right anterior subradial, and it is probable that the other raj/s 
are constructed and situated in nearly the same manner. The right 
arm divides above the fourth plate. The number of primary radials in 
the other at ms was not certainly ascertained. The spaces between 
the arms is occupied by numerous small stellate plates. 

Prof. Billings was an accurate observer, reliable in his statements, 
and has not been excelled in his knowledge of the structure of 
Silurian crinoids b\' any American palaeontologist. The characters 
that he observed in the genus Reteocrinus can not be set aside as er- 
roneous, until some one, from an examination of specimens of R. stel- 
laris, shall have pointed out mistakes, and even then, if the genus 
stands, R. stellaris will be the type. 

Up to this time, no crinoid possessing the characters ascribed to 
this genus has been found in the Hudson River Group of this locality'. 
The well-developed basals, large subradials and peculiar azygous sub- 
radial, with its elevated ridges extending to the primary radials on 
either side, and the bifurcation on the fourth primary radial, are im- 
portant parts of the structure, beside, it is distinguished for its 
reticulated appearance, owing to the large connecting ridges, extend- 
ing from the basals to the subradials, and from the latter to the pri- 
mary and secondary series, and the depressed interradial spaces occu- 
pied by small stellate plates. 

Messrs. Wachsmuth and Springer have disposed of the genus Reteo- 
crinus^ of Billings, by saying that it "was described from imperfect ma- 
terial, and altogether misunderstood by its founder," and then proceed- 
ing to make Qlyptocrinus onealli the type of the genus Reteocrinus. 
This is too open a violation of the rules of nomenclature to receive 
much consideration, beside their separation of the species under this 
genus, and that of Glyptocrinus, shows, to one familiar with the struc- 
ture, such a cross- mixture of characters as to indicate a want of 
general acquaintance with the genera and species. 

Glyptockinus sculptus, u. sp. 

Plate I, fig, 2, natural size. 

Body somewhat urn-shaped, nearly as wide as- high, sides rouudcil 
below, forming an angular, cup-shaped base. Interradial and inter- 
secondary radial areas flattened and slightly' depressed below the 
radial ridges, giving it a marked angular outline. 

:{S Cincinnati Society of Nafurdl Historij. 

IJasiil plates more fully developed tluiu tliey are in G. dccadactylns. 
'I'lie two ridges extending below, from the center of the first nidials, 
:ind iinitiiii:- with tlu; riilges on the surface ot the basals, rapidly ex- 
pand, as they do in G. atirjularis. The first, second, and third radi- 
als arc much like the same plates in G. rfecacZac^i/ZM«, except the radial 
ridge is smaller, and the plates are wider in proportion to their length. 

Tiiere are three secondary radials iu each series, which are a little 
smaller than the primar}' radials. The upper sloping sides of the 
third secondary radials support six or eight brachial plates before the 
:irms become free. The free arms are directly continued from the 
brachial plates without another bifurcation. There are twenty long, 
round arms, composed of cuneiform plates, and having long, slender 
])innules. The column is round, and composed of alternately thicker 
and thinner plates. The surface of the plates is deeply sculptured. 
The number of plates in the interradial areas has not been deter- 

This species is founded upon two specimens from the collection of 
I. H. Harris, Esq., of Waynesville, Ohio. The}' were found in the 
upper part of the Hudson River Group, in that vicinit}'. 


Plate I., figs. 3 and ?>a, roots and lower part of the columns; fig. 3/;. part of a column longi- 
tudinally divided into fifteen parts; 3c, part of a column longitudinally divided into twenty 
parts; fig. 3rf, interior view of part of a column; fig. 3e, transverse section, showing the 
size of the central opening. 

The column of this genus was almost, or quite, unknown to Prof. 
Meek, and as Wachsmuth and Springer, in their Revision of the Paloeo- 
o'inoidce, p. 73, have copied onl}' what Prof. Meek said, in Ohio Pal., 
vol. i., p. 18, where he was evidently describing the base and lower part 
of the column of a Heterocrinus, as I pointed out in the Quarterly 
Journal of Science eight j'ears ago, instead of the Anomalocrinus, I 
have deemed it important to illustrate and describe some of the parts 
of the column and its roots. If these parts are of special morpho- 
logical importance, as they seem to be, because constituting so much the 
larger part of the crinoid, and possessing such complicated and vari- 
able structure, then the family affinities of this genus may not be 
correctl}' ascertained. Instead of having a flat base as in Hetero- 
crinus, it possessed roots that enabled it to cling to several stems of 
a branching coral. The roots are not numerous, as in Eucalyptocri- 
iius, but still there are several springing from each base, that has fallen 
under my observation. It seems to have grown in clusters, with 

Description of Two New Genera and Eight Neio ISpecies. 39 

bases and roots interlocking and.attaching to supports, in such man- 
ner, as to indicate that it was, at all periods of life, a statiouary 

Immediatel}^ above the roots, the column is round and smooth, next 
we observe that it is longitudinallj' divided into five parts, and then 
longitudinally fifteen partite, with a large, rayed, pentagonal, central 
opening. The truncated ends of the rays each abut upon one of the 
longitudinal parts, and two of the longitudinal parts fill each of the in- 
terspaces. At another part of the column it is composed of twent^^ 
longitudinal rows of plates, three of which occur between the ends of 
the ra^^s and one at each of the ends. Each longitudinal part or row of 
plates consists of an alternate arrangement of three, four, or five thin 
plates, followed by a thick projecting plate. This st^-ucture forms a tuber- 
culated column, the tubercles being arranged in longitudinal and 
transverse order. Near the head the tubercles are less conspicuous 
than below. 

The interior of the column may be described as follows : The spaces 
between the I'ays of the opening consists, in each instance, of a smooth 
angular projection or ridge composed of numerous plates, while the 
intervening spaces or the rows of plates that abut upon the ends of the 
rays of the opening are not smooth, but consist of alternatel}' pro- 
jecting pieces which make each space as rough as the exterior. 

The column is the largest known from the Hudson River Group, and 
much the most complicated in its organization. The specimens il- 
lustrated are from my own collection, and I found them near the 
top of the hills within the city limits. 

Stomatopora proutana, u. sp. 

Plate I., fig. 4, slightly enlarged; 4a, magnified view; ih, magnified many diameters. These 
Tiews are only approximately correct. 

Pol3^zoary creeping, adhering its whole length to other objects, and 
branching at irregular distances. Each branch arises as a delicate 
line in front of and below the preceding swollen cell, and where two 
branches arise from below the same swollen cell, their angle of bi- 
furcation varies from 10 to 90 degrees. The branches enlarge very 
little, if any, for the distance of about half a line, when each gradually 
expands into a subpyriform termination, containing a single cell mouth. 
The distance between the subpyriform expansions varies from three to 
six times the length of each, and the greatest diameter of the expan- 
sion is onl}- about twice as great as the diameter of the branch below. 

4() Cincinnati Society of NuLnrdl Hislorij. 

Tlio ("((ll inoutlis are eloiigatc-oval, and placed on the upper face of the 
eell or sui)py»"irortn expansion. 

In our speeiniens, the l)ranclie.s Crecpiently cross each other and give 
tlie w liole the appearance of forming distant and irregular reticulating 
meshes, l)ut no case of anastomosing branches lias been observed, hence 
no network is in fact formed. 

The species is distinguished b}' the long delicate branches, slightly 
expanding cells, and method of bifurcation. In some instances two or 
three colls follow each other without a division, and in no instance 
have I observed more than two branches arising from the same cell. 

The specific name is in honor of Dr. H. A. Prout, who did so much 
to make known the Bryozoa from the palaeozoic rocks. The specimen 
illustrated is from my own collection, and was found adhering to the 
base of A nomalocrinns incurvus. 

Orthis scovillei, n. sp. 

Plate l.fig. •"), dorsal view of a specimen, natural size; fig. '>o. dorsal view of a smaller 
specimen; fig. S/*, interior of the dorsal valve: fig. 5c.. interior of a ventral valve. 

Shell sub-circular in outline, somewhat wider than long, cardinal 
margin shorter than the breadth of the valves, and rounding at the 
extremities into the lateral margins. 

Dorsal valve moderately convex, sinus not defined, beak low, area 
narrow, surface ornamented with very coarse radiating" strips, which 
become bifid near the margin, but do not increase by intercalation. 
About thirt3' two cover the dorsal valve. Interior showing the radiating 
stride toward the margin: scars of the adductor" muscles situated on 
each side of a strong mesial ridge, which is higher between the poste- 
rior than the anterior pair, the former are roughh' striated, and extend 
back as far as the points of the brachial processes ; a well-defined, 
transverse ridge separates the anterior from the posterior pair; sockets 
deep; brachial processes strong, and directed laterally forward. 

Ventral valve nearly flat, beak low, area a little wider than that of 
the other valve, and tapering toward the extremities; surface marked 
by very strong radiating striie. Interior showing the hinge teeth well 
developed, prominent, sharp, and transversely trigonal; from the lower 
and interior sides of these teeth ridges extend forward and curve to- 
gether, so as to form an elevated margin, to a large and deep oval 
cavity, extending nearl3^ to the middle of the shell, for the reception of 
the muscular attachments; a mesial furrow divides this cavitj' into 
two equal parts, and makes a notch in the rim at the middle of the front. 

Description of Two New Genera and Eight New Species. 41 

This is a very distinct, well-marked species, readily distinguished 
from all others by the coarseness of the radiating striae, and their 
manner of division near the margin. 

The specimens were collected by Dr. S. S. Scoville, in whose honor 
I have proposed the specific name, in the upper part of the Hudson 
River Group, near Lebanon, in Warren county, Ohio. 


Plate I., fig. 6, natural size, with ends of rays doubled under the specimen; fig. 6a, en- 
larged view of the same specimen, approximately correct; fig. 66, end of ray, natural size: 
fig. 6c, enlarged view of same. 

This species is founded upon more than thirty specimens occurring 
on a single slab, but showing only the ventral side, with the exception 
of the ends of some of the rays. 

The body is deepl}' stellate, and the rays long, slender and flexible, 
and margined on either side with a row of spines. 

From the length of some of the rays, a complete specimen, properly 
spread, would probably have a diameter of an inch and a quarter, or 
more. The raj^s taper to a sharp point, are rounded on the dorsal 
side, and margined on the ventral side by a row of spines, one spine 
arising from each plate. Only two rows of plates seem to form the 
dorsal side of a ra}'. The ventral side of each ray is marked bj- a 
furrow in the middle, separating two series of plates or ossicles. These 
plates are a little longer in the direction of the ra}' than wide, and 
alternately break joints at the middle, where they are slightl}- con- 

This is a delicate species readily distinguished from those hitherto 
described. It is the first species, in this genus, that has been found in 
the Hudson River Group of this countr}', and the specimen is remark- 
able for the number of individuals that are clustered together on a 
small slab. 

The specimen is from the collection of I. H. Harris, Esq., of Wa^'ues- 
ville, and was found in the upper part of the Hudson River Group in 
that vicinity. 


Plate II., fig. 1, piece of a slab, polished and containing specimens, natural size; fig. In, 
central part of a specimen showing the ends of the vertical tubes, masfiiifii'd more than 100 
diameters; fig. M>. view of concentric laniiniV! and longitudinal structure of tuljcs, magnified 
more than 100 diameters. 

This is a small, globular or spheroidal sponge, consisting of numer- 
ous, irregularly concentric, more or less wrinkled, calcareous lamina^ 

42 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

separiited hy iutci'larniiiar spaces, filled with uiiniite vertical tubes. It 
is destitute of the larger orifices and canals that usually occur in 
Stromatopora, and I have been unable to ascertain that the concentric 
laniiuix; are perforated by canals; they are apparently more dense than 
the intervening spaces, but it is not supposed that they constituted a 
barrier to the circulation. The sponge appears to consist of minute 
tubes radiating from a central point, in all directions; these are cut 
short by a laminar covering, wliich forms a basis for the n.inute radi- 
ating tubes to spread in all directions, from its outer surface, until they 
are likewise arrested by another covering, which, in turn, forms the 
basis for radiating tubes, and so on to the 10th or 15th covering. 
These coverings appear in cut and weathered specimens as irregularly 
concentric laminoe. In magnified sections it shows an apparent vesic- 
ular structure, but no spicules have been determined. I have referred 
the species to Stromatocerium because it agrees with that genus in its 
o-eneral texture, and seems to be destitute of the larger canals and su- 
perficial openings that characterize the genus Stroma topora. 

It occurs in great abundance, in some of the rock}-- strata, in the 
upper part of the Hudson River Group, at Richmond, Ind. Dr. John 
T. Plummer, in a communication to the American Journal of Science, 
man)'- years ago, called the specimens " pisolitic balls embedded in the 
solid rock." He said, these pisolitic strata vary from two to ten feet 
in depth, and are frequentl}'^ found blended with the marlite. How- 
ever, I did not find them in such massive strata, but there are some 
lavers of rock about three or four inches in thickness, largely made up 
of specimens of this little sponge, that may be found on the high 
ground immediately above the i-aiiroad bridge, in the northern part of 
the city. It is found at other places, in that locality, and may be re- 
garded as a common species. 

Dystactospokgia, n. gen. 

[Ety.— Dystaktos, hard to arrange; Spongia, a sponge.] 

This is a massive, more or less regularly hemispherical, fixed, calcare- 
ous sponge. It possessed a strong frame work that radiated from 
one or more points of attachment, and bifurcated without an}^ deter- 
minable order so as to constitute a great part of the body of the 
sponge. The entire mass is vesicular, the frame work being more 
dense than the intervening spaces. Spiculse not ascertained. 

Descriiotion of Tioo New Genera and Eight Kew Species. 43 
Dtstactospongia" insolens, n. sp. 

Plate II., flg. 2, viewof the;lower side of a specimen, showing different points of attach- 
ment, natural size; fig. 2a, the appearanceof a prepared slide for the microscope, magnified 
about three diameters ; fig. 26, approximate appearance when magnified 100 diameters. 

Sponge, large, irregular, somewhat hemispherical, and varying from 
two to four or five inches in diameter. The architectural frame work 
radiates from several different points of attachment, and divides and 
subdivides without order, and constitutes more than two thirds of the 
entire mass. As -seen under the higher powers of a microscope, the 
structure is vesicular throughout, and full of amoeba like outlines wbich 
ma}' possibly represent spicules. The appearance to the unaided eye 
is that of a massive coral, having the texture destroyed by mineraliza- 
tion, a thin section, however, even without the assistance of a lens, 
shows that it is not a coral, and the spongoid character is more and 
more revealed under the increasing power of a microscope. Under a 
power of 800 diameters, the vesicles are observed to contain numerous 
subcircular, subelliptical, and amaiba-like bodies, with irregular out- 
lines, but I am not able to say that they are spicuke, or fragments of 
such forms, though it is probable that closer studj' and examination 
will determine their character. 

This species was first collected by Wm J. Patterson, Esq., in the 
stone quarries, in the Hudson River Group, at Cincinnati. He collected 
numerous specimens, some of which he presented to the author, and 
others he preserved for his own collection. 

Pattersonia, n. gen. 
A solid, amorphous, calcareous sponge, uniform in structure, 
vesicular, and destitute of larger canals and openings. Spicules (?) 
The generic name is in honor of Wm. J. Patterson, of Cincinnati, an 
energetic and discriminating collector, who first discovered the fossil, 
and subsequently prepared specimens for microscopic examination. 

Patteusonia difficilis, n. sp. 

Plate II., lig. 3, a large specimen appearing as a cluster, natural size ; lig. 3(7, view 
maguilled about 100 diameters. 

Whether the original form of this sponge was globular or not, we are 
unable to determine, but as we find it now, it consists of a flattened, 
irregular mass, often appearing as a cluster, but no two specimens 
having the same form. It is vesicular in structure, and under a 
magnifying power of 800 diameters, bodies are observed somewhat re- 
sembling acicular crystals in the \)\a.\\t Fuchsia, and also a ['cw scatter 

44 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

iiig Huboircultu- or sulxjUiptical Conns with irre<?uljir outlines, which I 
have been unable to class as spiciihc. 

It occurs in the Hudson River (iroup, at Cincinnati. Thin, shape- 
less specimens belonging to this genus are not uncommon, but whether 
they belong to this species is yet to be ascertained. 



A long experience in the collection and preparation of shells for the 
cabinet, and the evident want of information on this subject, most im- 
portant to the student of conchology, as shown by the imperfect and 
dirty specimens quite usually sent out, are sufficient reasons why I 
write this article. It may be doubted whether there is really such a 
thing as a "rare' species. The fable continually disappears in refer- 
ence to forms once so considered. Hence diligence and good judgment 
will usually enable a persevering collector to obtain a reasonable num- 
ber of examples of any olject to be fonnd in his region, belonging to 
recent fauna and flora. The following rules of action are essential: 

1. Never rest satisfied until you have found the best examples of a 
species which your time and opportunities will allow. 

2. Never collect imperfect or immature specimens, unless they ex- 
hibit some character making such a step desirable. 

3. Having found the station which produces the finest specimens. 
study it carefully, that you may the more easily recognize such sur- 
roundings again. 

4. If specimens are abundant, collect plenty, and the work on that 
species will be done at once, save as you meet with desirable varieties. 

5. Remember that if your specimens are good and clean, it will al- 
ways give you an advantage in exchanges as soon as correspondents 
begin to recognize this fact. Never pick up a poor specimen with the 
remark, " this will do for exchange," if good ones can possibly be had. 


The only apparatus needed in the field is the following: 
One or two small bottles, 1 oz. and 2 oz., half filled with a mixture, 
two thirds best alcohol and one third water, and well corked. If these 

Land and Fresh Water Shells. 45 

bottles are flattened-oval, they may be carried in waistcoat pockets 
sewed on the outside, and will alwaj'sbe convenient of access. 

A pair of dissecting forceps, of the medium size. These will be 
found useful iu picking up loose small shells, in taking them from 
crevices in bark, old logs, etc. The point of a penknife answers equally 
well if skillfully handled. This is a "knack" to be acquired by practice. 

Two or three flattish boxes, of different sizes, that will readily slip 
into and out of the coat pockets. 

A rake, made as follows: have a " head" made of good oak or hick- 
ory, about nine inches long, and one inch by one and one half inch. 
In the center make an oval hole for the handle, one inch long and one 
half inch or more wide in the center. Put two blunt teeth, each two 
and a half inches long, exclusive of the part in the head, on each side 
of the handle, so spacing the holes bored to receive them as to make 
the spaces between the teeth equal. Make the teeth of the toughest 
seasoned hickory. Make, of the same material, a smooth and straight 
handle, twenty inches long, with one end exactly fitted to the hole in 
the head. This end should project through the head at least three 
fourths of an inch. It should be bound by a narrow ferule, so set into 
the wood as to permit the handle to slip into the head readily. A hole 
for a small steel spring key should be made between the ferule and the 
rake head, and so close to each that the key, when in place, shall rest 
against the ferule on one side, and the rake head on the other. The 
oval part of the handle fitting the hole in the rake head, should 
have a shoulder, so that the inside of the rake-head will rest 
against this, and the outside against the key. When not in 
use the rake can be taken apart by withdrawing the key, and the 
whole implement can be carried in the coat pockets. This in- 
strument is indispensable. With it hillsides may be rapidly raked 
over, or any other grounds inhabited by land shells, and, if the hands 
are covered with buckskin gloves, briar patches, and other forbidden 
localities may be explored, and they are often very productive. As 
much surface can be worked over, with this implement, in half an hour, 
with perfect comfort and cleanliness, and without injury to the hands, 
as in half a day using the fingers onlj', and regions can be examined 
that it would be impossible to explore without it. 

A small tool, made like a hatcliet, with a narrow blade at one end, 
and somewhat hooked and pointed at the other, after the fashion of a 
geologist's pick, is ver}' convenient for picking and hacking in pieces 
old logs, cutting away brush, pulling over stones, etc. 

46 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

No other tools aro nccossarv or even desirable, so far as my ex- 
perience goes. 

Reing i)rovirlefl witli these implements, you liave only to sally forth, 
and with perseverance you will succeed in fmding whatever a given 
locality is likely to produce, if attention is given to the following sug- 
gestions : 

1. North hillsides are more apt to be productive than southern, unless 
the latter are specially shaded and moist. 

2. Loamy hillsides and ravines will usually be more productive than 
dry and rocky ridges. 

3. Many species inhabit regions of rank undergrowth and high weeds 
along the borders of streams, just above high water level, 

4. Man}' minute species live in moss, under bark or in its crevices, 
under stones, etc., and so-called " rare" species are often so because 
their anomalous station has been the cause of their escaping notice. 

5. Search, carefully, with persevering labor, every new station, and 
make such notes as vvill be of future assistance, if it is found to be pro- 

6. Many of our snails are burrowing species. These can only be 
collected abundantly and satisfactorily during the breeding season, in 
earlj' spring. This is the case with many of the larger species. 

Having found the specimens, transfer all the smaller ones to the 
alcohol. Shells of Stenotrema can be cleaned by removing the animal, 
but these, and all shells below them in size, except the Succineas, I 
should drop into the alcohol. The larger species maj^ be dropped, 
promiscuously, into the collecting boxes mentioned above. When a 
sufficient number of specimens has been secured, they must be cleaned, 
and prepared for the cabinet. The following tools are necessary or 
desirable : 

A few hooks of annealed wire, of different sizes and lengths. Take 
any piece of such wire, put a short, pine handle, of suitable size, on 
one end, and file the other to a somewhat slender point. These are 
used for drawing the snails out of thfe shells. They will hold better 
if you bend the point into a small hook. Two or three brushes of 
different sizes. I have a small thumb-brush, and two or three soft 
tooth-brushes of different sizes. 

A test tube, five or six inches long, and half an inch in diameter, 
and a pint of perfectl}^ clean, fine sand. This can always be had by 
washing and sifting au}- sand. 

A syringe, 1 find a rubber one, one inch diameter in the barrel, and 
six inches long, with small nozzle aperture, to be the best. 

Land and Fresh Water Shells. 47 

A small strainer, such as is used for tea or coffee, and a shallow pan. 
say two inches deep, and six inches in diameter. 

Let us begin with the larger snails, and wash ever}' one clean. Have 
your pan of hot water on the stove, and your clean shells and imple- 
ments all handy on a low table near by. Pat two or three, or half a 
dozen if j'ou are tolerably sure of success, into j'our strainer, to which 
a wooden handle has been fixed. Set it with the shells into the hot 
water, and allow it to remain for a ruinute or less. Lift it out, and 
taking one of the specimens in j'our left hand, between the thumb and 
fore fingers, hook one of your wire implements into the animal, making 
a gentle effort to withdraw it. If it comes out readil}', draw out the 
others, and throw them into a dish of clean, tepid water. If the animal 
can not be withdrawn readily, scald them again for a short time. The}" 
will usually come out readilj^ enough, but certain species can not be 
withdrawn at all if scalded too much. These are matters of experi- 
ence, and will be learned by perseverance. Shells that you can not 
at first succeed with, on account of irregularities in the aperture, 
small size, etc., will all be mastered after a while. Having withdrawn 
the animals, wash the shells again thoroughly on the outside, 
and syringe them out thoroughly' inside, shake out the water, and la\' 
them on a newspaper to dry, mouth downward. 

The specimens thus prepared will be perfect, clean, and a delight 
either for study or exchange. The small shells remain to be looked 
after. If they are clean, leave them in the alcohol for a day or ttvo, 
then take them out, dry and assort them, and put them in their proper 
receptacles. But Pupas, Vertit/os, and the small Helices are generally 
dirty. They may be perfectly cleaned in the following simple manner. 

Put all you have of one species into the test-tube. Put in "with them 
a small quantity of the clean sand, say one-fourth or one-fifth what 
the tube will contain. Fill it with water, and shake very genth'. 
As the sand removes the dirt, turn out the dirty water and 
fill with clean. In a few moments judicious care will clean such 
shells perfectly, and not damage them in the least. When clean, 
turn water, sand and all into a. saucer, put in a little more water, 
shake all gently, and the sand will go to the bottom while the 
little concentric wavelets will gather all the shells into a small 
space in the center, whence they may be removed with a spoon or 
any convenient instrument. Turn off the water, dry your sand, and 
put it away for future use. JSfever use any acids or oils about /and 
shells^ unless the tiniest amount of the latter on the too often eroded 

48 Cincinnati Society of Natural Jlistory. 

apices of hiiiTowing species. Rememl)er tliis ctuition, and always act 
upon it. K;ieli species, when cleaned and thorouglil}' dried should be 
a(!ciii'ately lal)elcd with name, author, locality, and date of capture if 
the locality is one seldom visited. The little boxes or tubes containing 
the smaller species should be kept in a larger box, the PM;fK/.? together, 
Vertinos together, etc. This will reduce the labor of selecting ex- 
changes more than one half. 


The following implements are needed: Brushes, as before, but one 
or two larger and stiffer ones for the Unionidoe. 

A scoop made of wire gauze, fine enough to hold the smallest 
shells, with a socket for the handle. This scoop should be hemi- 
spherical, eight inches in diameter, -with^the rim made of good, tough 
hoop-iron, to which the socket is attached. 

The handle may be used for a walking stick, and the scoop can be 
carried in your basket. Both socket and handle must have a hole 
for the spring-.key. A quart or two of saturate solution of oxalic 
acid. A-small quantitj'- of nitric acid. A boUle of boiled linseed oil. 
Bottles' of alcohol, diluted somewhat, saj^ one-fourth water. A few tin 
boxes of various sizes. These are all the necessary tools, according to 
my experience. 

Having reached your localit3% your best method of procedure will 
depend upon what you are looking for. If the bottom is muddy, or 
sandy, au'l you are seeking for SpTKBrium, Pisi'dium, the Amnicolidce, 
etc., usually found in such stations, put yoYxx handle into the scoop, 
slip the spring key into its place, and scoop up mud, sand, and shells 
b}^ a dragging motion along the surface. When the scoop is suffi- 
ciently filled, shake it in the water, washing out the mud and finer 
sand. Pick out the sticks and leaves, and continue this operation 
until your shells are easil}^ removed. Put the little univalves into al- 
cohol. The smaller Pisidiams and Sphcvriums may also go there. 
The larger Sphceriums may be treated as hereafter described. 

By this means, if 3'ou do not hesitate to wade in the mud once in-a- 
while, you can ver}^ rapidly collect all that you will need of such 
species from a given locality. The same implement can be used for 
skimming Flanorbis, Physa and Limnoia from the surface, or for collect- 
ing them from the bottom, when crawling there. These shells should be 
taken home in the tin boxes. If vou are collecting in Southern 

Land and Fresh Water Shells. 49 

streams, where th6 various genera of the StrepomatidcB abound, no 
plan is so expeditious as a judicious use of the scoop. In some cases 
hand-picking must be resorted to, as these creatures live on the under 
side of stones, in rock crevices, and among the gravel and pebbles at 
the bottom of streams, where they can not otherwise be reached. 

Gather these all into alcohol. It is not necessary to extract the 
animals, and if they are taken out, dried and cleaned, as I shall here 
describe, the}'- will be in prime condition. If to the alcohol a quan- 
tity of arsenic is added, the larva? of Dermestes and Anthrenus will 
not afterward infest them. In hunting for fresh-water univalves 
every kind of station should be explored. In mountain reo-ions 
springs, creeks, rivulets, small ponds and larger streams wall all have 
their characteristic genera, species and varieties, and all need to be 
thoroughly worked up. 

For the Unionidce no place is equal to wading into the water, and 
taking out the specimens alive from their normal stations. Species 
inhabit all kinds of bottom, pebbly, sandy, muddy and gravelly. I 
have even found species to prefer narrow crevices in the rocky bottom 
of streams, as the U. punctatm, in Cumberland river, and U. fascin- 
anes, in Powell river. The collector who is unwilling, through fear of 
snakes, rheumatism, or colds, to don an old suit and " wade in," or to 
strip and dive if necessary, will do well to quit talking about collecting 
Unionidoi. In many cases they will be found packed so closelj' in 
rocky or gravelly bottoms, as to enable one to soon take out bushels 
of them. I have s.o found them in the Ohio, Clinch, Holstou, and 

In such cases a potato-hook, or some implement of the kind, gentle- 
crowded in among them, Avill rake out a half-dozen at a pull. The 
flowing water ^^ill wash away the mud, and you can select such as 3'ou 
need. These should be carried out on to the river bank, and cleaned 
before going home; but if this is not practicable, the operation ma}' 
be deferred until afterward. As in the case of the land shells, wash 
them clean, and then drop them into a kettle or pan of boiling water. 
When the shells gape, and the muscles are loosened, scrape out the 
soft parts, thoroughly wash out the inside of the shell, and again rinse off 
the outside. Let the shell dry until all mosture is dried off the outside, 
and then wrap them close in an old newspaper. Smaller ones may 
sometimes be nested in tlie larger ones, on long journeys, where space 
is desirable and must be economized. But I never do so if I can avoid 
t. It frequently occurs that the shells of Unionidce, Strepomatida:, and 

50 Cincinnati Society of Natural II is tor ij. 

Limnoiida- arc stained with feri-iigiDous and other matters that no 
amount of washing will remove. If such shells are immersed for a few 
moments in the oxalic acid solution, these stains will readil}' wash ofl', 
and a judicious use of the acid does not harm the shell in the least. 
If it is desirable to remove these stains from Unionidce, I should drop 
them into the acid immediately after washing, and before scalding out 
the animal, the presence of which prevents the acid from coming in 
contact with the nacre of the shell, which it will slightly dim if the 
shells remain in it for too great a length of time. It is often the case 
among the southern shells that these stains have so obscured the real 
characteristic markings of the shells as co have made it one of the 
chief causes of so much synonoray. If dead shells must be taken, or 
musk-rat shell heaps explored, which is sometimes the case, a judi- 
cious use of the acetic acid will remove stains, and in many cases 
fairly well restore the original appearance of the nacre. 

The black and dirty univalves which we generally receive in ex- 
change, and the dirty Unionida', ma}' be perfectly cleaned by judicious 
use of these acids. But while the}' are to the careful student collector 
an inestimable boon, a careless or injudicious use of them will ruin 
ever}' shell so treated. I consider a dirty shell as useless and worthless 
for cabinet purposes. I have many such, and am obliged to receive 
them or none, and while shells so received may often be cleaned so as 
to be made presentable, the proper time to do it is when the shells are 

I have to add, that where the Strepomatidce are collected in alcohol 
or any preservative solution in quantity, they may be subjected to the 
cleaning process whenever opportunity offers. It will generall}'^ only 
be necessary to immerse those having the worst stains in the acid for 
a few moments, and then wash and rinse them thoroughly. Many 
Uniones and univalves are much improved, and given the appearance 
they have when in the water, or when wet, by rubbing them with a 
clean sponge, on which are a tew dro|)S of boiled linseed oil. '• Wooll}^ " 
shells, or those with a soft epidermis, ma}' be excluded from this list. 

Many of the TJnionidd; also have a very highly polished epidermis, 
and when clean look as well dry as wet. The use of the oil is a great im- 
provement to some species, and it preserves all fresh water shells; but 
as before stated, it must be kept off of land species. Physa, Limncea^ 
and Planorbis must be scalded, and the animals removed with the land 
shell hooks, and they should afterward be treated in the same way. If 
stained, treat them with the oxalic acid, using it judiciously, and you 

Zoological Miscellany. 51 

can clean the worst of them perfectly. Amnicola, Bythinella, Oillia, 
Somatogyrus, etc., small univalves, almost universally stained, should 
be put into the test-tube with the sand, and a small amount of the oxalic 
acid solution, and shaken as before described for the small land shells. 
They can thus be rendered perfectly clean, all stains will be removed, 
and, instead of having your collection of these shells as much dirt as 
shell, unless, as I have known to be the case, j'ou wash them one b}- 
one, j'ou will have a clean and beautiful series, that it will be a de- 
light to study. I should not undertake to remove the animals from 
such small shells, as if collected in the alcohol, as before described, 
the animals will be much shrunken, and, when dried, will not dis- 
figure the shell particularly. 

Pisidium and all the smaller Sphcerium are often stained, and 
should be put into the test-tube and treated in precisely the same wa}". 
The larger species may be scalded, and the animal removed as 
above described for the Uniones. 

In conclusion, I wish to impress upon all collectors the advantage 
of having good, clean, perfect specimens of whatever objects of natural 
history they undertake to study. If the characters are obscured by 
dirt, or obliterated by decay and erosion, 3'ou have no right to com- 
plain if those of better tastes in these matters, and of more industrj', 
reject, as worthless, these evidences of your want either of one or both 
of these requisites; but if you faithfully follow the suggestions here 
made, there will be no complaint that you lack either. 

zooLOGJCAL miscella:n^y.* 

In our last issue we announced the establishment of a new depart- 
ment of the Journal, under the above title, with a view to furnishing 
a place of permanent record for the original observations of Ohio Val- 
ley Zoologists. 

We again invite attention to the fact that these pages are open to 
contributions in an}^ and all branches of Zoolog}', and trust that our 
working naturalists will avail themselves of the opportunity thus 
offered for an interchange of views and personal experiences, which 
will tend toward the advancement of Zoological science. 

We print in this issue an interesting account of a raid by an army 
of red ants on a colony of the black species, observed by Mr. C. G. 

* Edited by Dr. F. W. Lanodon. 


Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

Siewors, the well known entomologist. We shall hope for frequent 
contributions from his pen. Mr. Charles Dury furnishes some valu- 
able notes on local Coleoptera; and the article on far western birds, by 
Colonel J. W. Abort, the original discoverer of Abert's Finch (Pipilo 
AUKUTi, Bd.), will be found to possess features of especial interest to 


Lynx rdfds, Rafinesquc. — American Wild Cat. — One of these 
animals was shot by INIr. David Williams, while hunting about three 
miles back of Hanging Rock, Lawrence county, Ohio, during the mouth 
of Januar}', 1882. It was closely pursued by hounds. When about 
thirty- five 3'ards distant, he fired twice with a double-barreled shot 
gun containing No. 2 shot. The animal was so disabled that it was 
soon overtaken b}^ the hounds, which were completely out-generaled 
by the wounded stranger, until Mr. Williams arrived upon the scene. 

It measures twent^^-nine inches from nose to end of tail ; tail very 
short. Teeth are all perfect. No signs of previous injuries. This is 
perhaps the third one killed in this county during the last ten 3'ear8. 

It was sent to Prof. Dury, of Cincinnati, for preparation, and is now 
to be seen mounted in the window of A. Winter's drug store, Ironton, 
Ohio. — B. M. RiCKETTs, M.D., Ironton, Ohio. 

Arvicola riparius, Ord. — Meadow Mouse. — Measurements of four 
specimens taken at Brookville, Indiana, in January, 1878: 



Nose to 
root of tail. 

Length of 
tail verte- 

Length of 
.tail to end 
of hairs 

Fore foot. 

Hind foot. 

January 14, 1878. 
.January, 1878. 
.January, 1878. 
January 22, 1878. 


3 1-16 

3 3-16 

4 6-16 

4 r-16 

1 1-10 
1 1-10 
1 1-2 
1 5-16 

1 3-16 
1 1-2 
1 3-4 
1 9-16 






* Contained four embryos. 

— E. R. Quick, Brookville, Indiana. 


DiCHROMATiSM IN THE .ScREECH OwL — (Scops Asio, Bp.) — The ques- 
tion of the relative froqueuc}' of the two phases of plumage in this and 
other dichromic species, being one of considerable interest to ornitho- 

Zoological Iliscellany. 


legists, the following table has been compiled with a view to attracting 
the attention of our local collectors to the matter, and of eliciting from 
them further facts and statistics bearing on the subject. 

Table showing coloration of fifty-six specimens Scops asio, from 
Ohio and adjacent portions of Kentucky and Indiana. 










' 1 " 



Eamilton County, Ohio. 

(( 1 ( (C 
(C (( (( 

(( (.1 (< 

Various Ohio localities. 
Celina, Ohio. 

Latonia Springs, Kentucky. 
Darke County, Ohio. 
Brookville, Indiana. 

J. W. Shorten. 

W. H. Fisher. 

George Keek. 

F. W. Langdon. 

C. Dury. 

C. Dury. 

C. Dury. 

J. W. Shorten. 

E. R. Quick. 

Brookville Soc. Nat. His. 

J. Rheme. 



According to Mr. Ridgwa}^* the proportion of erythemic specimens 
bears a decided relation to the humidity of the atmosphere, Red 
Screech Owls preponderating in the Mississippi Valley, while east of 
the Alleghenies the gray phase is the rule. In support of this opinion 
he asserts that in the Wabash Valley fully 95 per cent, of the Screech 
Owls are red. As will be seen by the foregoing table there is a decided 
reduction of this percentage of red owls in this vicinity, which fact 
so far as it goes, tends to corroborate Mr. Ridgway's opinion as to the 
influence of humidity. — (Ed.) 

Albinisji — BuTEO BOREALis, Vieillot. — Red-tailed Buzzard. — This 
beautiful specimen was taken near Wilmington, Clinton count}-, O., Nov- 
15, 1881, and was sent to me alive. The entire plumage is white as 
snow, and absolutely immaculate; the irides, dark brown ; the sex, male; 
and the specimen evidently a mature bird. It has been a conspicuous 
object in the above neighborhood for more than a year, and managed 
to elude every eff"ort for its capture until the time above mentioned, 
when it was taken with the aid of a steel-trap. The specimen is now 
undergoing the process of preservation, and will soon grace the orni- 
thological cabinet of one of our prominent educational institutions.! — 
John W. Shorten, Cincinnati, O. 

* Proe. U. S. National Museum, 1S78. 

t This specimen is now in the collection of the Cuvior Club. 

.'i 1 Cincinnati Society of Natural Ilistonj. 

I liavo soiiK^ iiitcM'osLiiii^ visitors to 1113- school -looiii wiiidftvvs at times 
Atone vvimlovv, wliieli is a favorite plaee witii tlif cliiidicri for cracking 
nuts, the following species are often seen: 

SiTTA CAuoLiNENSis, Gmelin. — Whitehellied Nuthatch. 

LoiTioniANKS 15IC0L0H, lip. — Tufted TitinouHe. 

Ckntuhus carolinus, Up. — llcd-belUed Woodpecker. 

Piccs PUBESCENS, Linn. — Dotony Woodpecker. 

And on one occasion — 

I'kius Villosus, L. — Hairy Woodpecker — Which is somewiiat sur 
l)rising, as he is the shyest Woodpecker we have. 

On one occasion a smart specimen of the Tufted Titmouse was seen 
hanging head downward from a crossbar of the window-sash with half 
a walnut in his bill. Such acrobatic exhibitions are not uncommon at 
1113^ windows." I have this to say, to the credit of our boys, that at this 
school I have 3'et to see the first stone thrown at a bird. — E. R. QuiCKr 
School District No. 12, Brookville, Indiana. 

The winter of 1880-81 will long be a memorable one in this section, 
both for its severit3^ and its length; and the following list of birds 
observed during that season by Mr. E. R. Quick, is therefore of 
exceptional interest. In the words of the author, " It proves that 
migration is not governed so much b3'^ severity of the weather as b3' 
presence (or absence) of the food of maa3' species, and disproves the 
general supposition that in severe winters there is a paucit3' of birds," 

"The notes were all taken within a few miles of Brookville, Indiana. 

"The time comprised in the term winter is from the 15th of Dec. 
1880, until the 5th of Februar3', 1881, when the Robins and Black- 
birds began to return." 

The nomenclature has been revised to correspond with Mr. Ridg- 
way's National Museum list of 1881. — (Ed.) 

Winter Birds of 1880 and 1881 on the Whitewater.* 

SiALiA siALis, Haldeman. — Bluebird. — Common all winter. 

Regulds satrapa, Lichtenstein. — Golden -crowned Kinglet. — Noticed 
at intervals throughout the winter. 

LopHOPHANES BicoLOR. — Bouaparte. — Tufted Titmou.'^e. — Common. 
Frequenting the door yard for crumbs and nuts placed out for this and 
other species. 

* Read before the Brookville Society of Natural History, March, 1881. 

Zoological Jliscellcmy. 55 

Parus carolinensis, Aud. — Tom-tit; Carolina Chickadee. — Yqv\ 
common, constantly associated with the last. 

Certhia FAMiLiARis RUFA, Ridgwaj.— 5roi^w Creeper. — More 
common than usual. 

Thryothords ludovicianus, Bp. — Carolina Wren. — Common. A 
pair which seemed to winter in a wood house, were several times noticed 
eating some lard which was in an open vessel in the building. 

Lanius borealis, Vieill. — Butcher Bird; Great Northern Shrike. 
— One specimen. 

Ampelis cedrorum, Baird. — Cedar Bird. — Small flocks noticed dur- 
ing the colder weather. 

Chrysomitris pinus, Bp. — Pine Linnet. — One identified January 29. 

Pyrgita domestica, Cuvier. — European House Sparrow. — Small 
flocks feeding where stock had been fed; also seen eating sunflower seed 
which had been placed out for better birds. 

Spizella MONTANA, Ridgway. — Tree Sparroio. — Common. 

JuNCo HYEMALis, Sclatcr. — Black Snowbird. — Common. 

Melospiza fasciata, Scott. — Song Sparrow. — Common. 

Cardinalis viRGiNiANUS, Bp. — Rcdbird. — More common than usual. 

CoRVDS FRUGivoRUS, Bartram. — Common Crow. — Contrary to what I 
have usuall}^ noticed during severe winters, the Crows have been pres- 
ent during all the colder part of the winter. 

Cy'ANOcitta cristata, Strickl. — Blue Jay. 

Eremophila alpestris, Boie. — Shore Lark. — Yqx'y common, fre" 
quenting stock feeding ground. 

Ceryle alcyon, Boie. — Kingfisher. — Very rare during the coldest 

Picus viLLosus, Linn. — Hairy Woodpecker. — This and the three 
following, common. 

Picus pdbescens, Linn. — Downy Woodpecker. 

Sphyrapicus varius, Baird. — Yellow hell led Woodpecker. 

Centdrus carolinus, Bp. — Eed-hellied Woodpecker. 

Colaptes auratus, Sw. — Yellow Hammer; Flicker. — Very rare- 
Only one seen in December and January. 

Scops asio. — Screech Owl. — Very common. Of four specimons taken 
only one in the red plumage. 

Bubo virginianus, Bp. — Great Horned Ow?.— Common. 

TiNNUNCULUs sparverius, ViciUot. — Sparrow Hawk. — Several 
noticed about January 1st. 

Pandion iiALiAETus CAROLINENSIS, Ridg. — .iniericfoi Fish Ifairk : 
Osprey. — Seen several times during the winter. 

r)0 Clnclniidti SocAety of Natural History. 

CiKfjus iiin.sD.NK I >>, Vieillot. — Jfarah Hawk. — Identified once in 

AcciriTKR i'"uscus, Bp. — Sharp-shinned Hawk. — Seen several times 
during December. 

AcciPiTER cooPKRi, Bp. — Cooper's Hawk. — Common throughout tlie 

'? AsTUR ATRiCAi'iLLUS, Bp. — Goshawk. — A single large Hawk, 
which I can ascribe to no other species, was several times noted. 

BuTEO LiNEATUS, Jard. — Red- shouldered Hawk. — Very rare. One 

Bdteo borealis, Vieillot. — lied- tailed Hawk. — Common. 

Aquila ciirysaetds canadensis, Ridgwa}'. — Golden Eagle. — One 
often seen until January 29, when it was killed by Wm. Greg. It had 
been feeding on the putrid carcass of a hog, and when taken contained 
a qu.antity of the flesh. Another was seen on Feb. 3d, when the writer 
drove within thirty or forty yards of it which did not frighten it from 
its perch. 

Haliaetus leucocephalus, Savig. — Bald JEagle. — Present through" 
out the winter. 

Catiiartes aura, lUig. — Turkey Buzzard. — After an absence of 
about thirty days, several of these birds returned during a few warm 
days near the 20th of December. 

Zenadura carolinensis, Bp. — Turtle Dove.— Common all winter. 

Bonasa umbellus, Stephens. — Buffed Grouse; Pheasant. — Several 
specimens taken during December. 

Orttx yirginiana, Bp. — American Quail. — Has never been common 
since the winter of 1878-9. Comparatively rare this winter. 

Merqus merganser americands, Ridgwa}'. — American Sheldrake. — 
Common all winter, feeding in the deepest parts of the river, wherever 
there is current enough to keep the ice from forming. The presence of 
this species and the Fish-hawk and Bald Eagle is ascribed to the fact 
that the deep swift portions of the Whitewater never freeze entirely 
over, always leaving good fishing for these species, 

Larus argentatds smithsonianus, Coues. — American Herring Gull. 
— But one seen. That taken b^^ the writer, January 20th.— Edgar R. 
Quick, Brookville, Franklin countj^ Indiana. 

Miiius POLYGLOTTUS, Boic. — Mockiug Bird. — Mr. C. W. Beckham, of 
Bavdstown, Nelson Co., Kentucky (about 100 miles southwest of Cin- 
cinnati), whites that he took a specimen of the Mocking Bird at that 
place, about January 25, 1882.— (Ed.) 

Zoological Miscellany. 57 

Aluco flammeus americanus, Ridgwa}'. — Barn Owl. — A flue speci- 
men taken at Hartwell, Hamilton Co., O. (about 10 miles from Cincin- 
nati), by G. V. Stevenson, Esq., March 3, 1882, This is, I believe, 
the first Barn Owl recorded from this immediate vicinit}'. — John W. 
Shorten, Cincinnati, O. 

I herewith furnish some memoranda in regard to the various kinds 
of birds which I took note of, in a march across the prairies from Ft; 
Leavenworth, Mo., to Santa Fe, New Mexico, and back again via 
Santa Fe trail, in the years 1846 and 1847. 

Along Santa Fe Road, through Stale of Kansas. 

Bubo vikginianus, Bp. — Great Horned Owl.— June 29, 1846. 
Ceryle alcyox, Bole. — Kingfisher. — June 29, 1846. 
CoNURUS CAROLiNENsis, Kuhl. — Carolina Parakeet. — June 29, 1846. 
ZENiEDURA CAROLINENSIS, Bp. — Turtle Dove.— June 29, 1846. 
CoLAPTES AURATUS, Sw. — Flicker. — June 29, 1846. 
SiALiA siALis, Haldeman. — Bluebird. — June 29, 1846. 
PiPiLO ERYTHROPHTHALMus, Vieill .— Towhce Buntiug. — June 29, 184(1. 
CoRVus FRUGivORUS, Bartr. — Common Crow. — June 29, 1846. 
MoLOTHRUS ATER, Gray. — Cowbird. — June 29, 1846. 
Galeoscoptes CAROLINENSIS, Cab. — Catbird. — June 29, 1846. 
Charadrius dominicus, Mull. — American Golden Plover.— July 1, 1846. 
Elanoidis forficatus, Ridg. — Swallow-tailed Hawk.— July 2, 1846. 
Meleagris gallopavo AMERICANA, Coues. — Wild Turkey.— July 2, 1846. 
Numenius longrostris, Wils.— Long-billed Curlew. — July 2, 1846. 
Nettion CAROLINENSIS, Bd.— Green- wiuged Teal. — July 2, 1816. 
Tyrannus CAROLINENSIS, Tennu. — Kingbird.— July 4, 1846. 
Harporhynchus rufus, Cab. — Brown Thrush. — July 4, 1846. 
Ortyx virginiana, Bp.— Quail. — July 4, 1846. 
CupiDONiA cupiDO.Bd.— Prairie Chicken. — July 4, 1846. 
OxYEcnus vociFERUs, Rclch. — Killdeer Plover. — July 4, 1846. 
Taciiycineta 15ICOLOR. — White bellied Swallow. — July 4, 1846. 
Cyanocitta CRIST ATA, Strickl. — Blue Jay.— July 10, 1846. 
Ceryle alcyon, Boie.— Belted King-ttsher.— July 10, 1846. 

Colorado, along Arkansas Jiiver to BenVs Fort. 

Xantiiocei'iialus icterocephalus, Bd. — Yellow-headed Blackbird. — 

July 13, 1846. 
Icterus galbula, Coues.— Baliin)ore Oriole.— July 13, 1846. 
ScoLECOPUAGus FEKRiKiiNEus, Sw. — Rusty Blaokbifd.- July 13, 1846. 
Grus AMERICANA, Temm.— Whoopiug Crane. — July 14, 1846. 
Eremopiiila alpestris, Boie.— Shore Lark.— July 16, 1846. 
Recurvirostra amehicana, Gm. — American Avocet.— Jidy 18,1846. 

'08 Cincinnati Societij of Natural History. 

PouzA.NA CAitoLiNA, Bil. — Soia Rail. — Jul}' 21, 1810. 

Mklankkpiw krythkocepjialus, Sw.— Red-headed Woodpecker. — Jul}' 

21, 184G. 
CiioHDKiLEs POPETUE, Bd. — Night Hawk.— July 21, 184G. 
BuTKO HOKEALis, Viell].— Red-tulled Hawk. — July 21, 184(5. 
OxYECHUS vociFKRUs, Relch. — KlUdeer Plover.— August 2G, 1846. 
Zenjedura CAROLINEN8IS, Bp. — Turtle Dove. — August 20, 1840. 

BenVs Fort, Colorado. 

Eremophila ALPE8TRIS, Boie. — Shore Lark. — September 12, 1846. 
Stukxella neolecta. And. — Western Meadow Lark. — September 12, 

CoLAPTEs AURATUS iMEXiCANUS, Ridg. — Red-shafted Flicker. — September 

12, 1846. 
Xanthocepiialus iCTEROCEPiiALUs, Bd. — Ycllow-headed Blackbird. — 

September 14, 1846. 
Meleagris gallopavo AMERICANA, Coues. — Wild Turkey. — September 

14, 1846. 

Spanish Peaks, Colorado. 

MoLOTHRUs ATER, Gray. — Cowbird.— September 15, 1846. 

SiALiA siALis, Hald. — Bluebird. — September 15, 1846. 

Merula migratoria, Sw, and Rich. — Robin. — September 15, 1846. 

New Mexico. 

Cathartes aura, Illig. — Turkey Buzzard. — September 20, 1846. 
CORVUS corax carnivorus, Ridg. — American Raven. — September 20, 

Sturnella keglecta, Aud. — Western Meadow Lark. — September 20, 

Fulica AMERICANA, Gmel.—Coot.— September 23, 1846. 

Santa Fe, Neio dlexico. 

Cyanocitta stelleri. Cab.— Stellar's Jay. — September 26, 1846. 
Grus canadensis, Temm.— Sand-hill Crane.— October 9, 1846. 

Along Bio Grande del Norte, from Santa Fe to Vol Verde, New 


Merula migratoria, Sw. and Reich.— Robin. — October 9, 1846. 
Chen hyperboreus, Boie. — Snow Goose. — October 31, 1846. 
Anas boscas, Linn. — Mallard Duck. — November 6, 1846. 
Grus canadensis, Temm. — Sand-hill Crane. — November 6, 1846. 
Olor americanus, Bp.— Whistling Swan.— November 0, 1840. 

Zoological Miscellany. 59 

From Val Verde, New Mexico, north to Benfs Fort, Colorado. 

Callipela squamata, Gray. — Scaled Quail. — November 10, 1846. 
Stomachs full of grass seed and green hemiptera. 

SiTTA CAROLiNENSis, Gmcl. — White- bellied Nuthatch.— Xovember 11^ 

Olor americanus, Bp. — Whistling Swan. — Xovember 14, 1846. 

Lakius borealis, Vieill. — Great Northern Shrike, Butcher Bird. — No- 
vember 14, 1846. 

CoLYMBus TORQUATUS, Brunn. — Loon. — November 14, 1846. 

LoPHODYTES cucuLLATUS, Rcich. — Hoodcd Merganser. — November 14, 

TiNNUNCULUs sPARVERius, Vieill. — Sparrow Hawk. — November 14, 1846. 

Meleagris gallopavo AMERICANA, Coucs. — Wild Turkey. — December 
5, 1846. 

SiALiA ARCTiCA, Sw. — Rocky Mountain Blue Bird. — December 5, 1846. 
Stomach full of mistletoe berries. 

CoLAPTEs AURATus MExiCAXus, Ridg. — Red-sliaftcd Flicker.- -Decem- 
ber 7, 1846. Stomachs filled with ants. 

Callipepla squamata. Gray. — Scaled Quail. — December 7, 1846. 

CoRVuscoRAX GARNI voRUs,Ridg. — American Ravcn. — December 20,1846. 

Pica rustica hudsonica, Bd. — Black-billed Magpie. -December 20, 1846. 

Plectrophanes nivalis, Meyer. — Snow Bunting. — December 20, 1846. 
Colorado — East along Arkansas River. 

Geococcyx californianus, Bd. — Road-runner. — January 10, 1846. 

Haliaetus leucocephalus, Savigny. — White-headed Eagle. — Arkansas 
River, January 24. 

CoNURCS CAROLINENSIS, Kuhl. — Carolina Parakeet. — I met flocks of 
Parakeets at Council Grove, Kansas, on the 24th of February, 
1847, and again on the 1st of March, 1847. That month there was 
much snow on the ground, and the Kansas river was blocked with 

Eremophila alpestris, Boie.— Shorelark. — On the 6th of Jan., 1847, I 
found very large flocks of " Sky-larks" in the Rocky Mountains. 
The birds were so numerous that 1 killed 25 at a single discharge of 
my fowling-piece. Great numbers of half starved ravens were 
flying around, and they pounced upon the crippled "skylarks" 
with all the predacious voracity of hawks, and would fight 
furiously with each other for possession of the crippled birds.. 

Pica rustica hudsonica, Baird. — Black-billed Magpie. — Magpies were 
quite numerous along the road through Nebraska and Colorado, 
feeding on the dead animals which the army had left scattered 
along the route. 

-James W. Abert, Colonel U. S. A., Newport, Ky., March, 1882. 

(!0 Cincinnati Society of Naturnf History. 


IIai'Loiuonotus ghdnnieus, Ruf. — Sheepshead ; Orunting Perch. — 
I have noticed two specimen of the Grunting Perch, a species before 
unknown here, taken in the Whitewater in tlje summer of 1881. They 
bit freely and persistently on a liook baited witii a small minnow under 
a float. — E. R. Quick, Brookville, Franklin county, Indiana. 


ilYMKNOPTKRA. — A Sluvc Foruy. 

FoKMiOA RUBER and Formica niger. — Driving some pigs out of 
a corn patch one day at a run, I was startled by what appeared to 
be a long red snake, so much so that I sprans: over it, and after 
disposing of the marauders, returned to see what this thing might 
be. It proved to be an army of red ants returning from the plunder of 
a black ant settlement. It was then about one hundred yards long, 
marching well closed up, three or four abreast, and about half an inch 
wide in column. About every tenth ant carried a black ball in its 
mandibles, which proved to be an ant. On touching Ruber the burden 
was dropped, which then scurried to one side and hid. They were 
carried into an ant hill behind my barn, and made to dig underground, 
but not allowed to come out, their captors carrying out large quantities 
of clay pellets. 

These forays are made in the fall, when the .young brood is nearly 
full grown. The Nigers fight bravely for their 3'oung, but are over- 
powered by numbers. The young onl}^ are taken, as the weight and 
resistance of the old ones makes them undesirable. 

I met a similar army in a wood, when a bo3% but it was much longer, 
and had just struggled up a hill, and many were dead when dropped. 
Excavations have resulted in some curious discoveries. On reaching 
the queen's chamber, she was found surrounded by a ho(\y guard, who 
refused to budge, and she and they were removed to a glass case, when 
her guard at once surrounded her. Food was put in one corner, but it 
remained untouched a whole daj-, though the guard was very uneasy, 
vibrating their antennae violently, but always facing the queen. As they 
refused to feed, starvation was imminent. A few black ants from the 
hill were now introduced, who, taking in the situation at once, rushed 
to the food, and after feeding the queen, also fed the guard. 

Here we have an insect, without speech, communicating the dis- 
covery of a black settlement,* the rallying of a host, the regular march 

* They wait till fall. 

Zoological Miscellany. 61 

in line, crossing, in my case, a small run on a board, fighting a battle, 
making numerous prisoners, carrying them away in triumph, and 
setting them to work in mines which they never again are able to 
leave. And all this planning cai*ried on in a brain that would not fill 
an empty pinhead. Do our boasted generals do more ? — C G. Sieavers, 
Newport, Kentucky. 


Omophron ROBUS.TDM, Hom. — The locality for this species (on 
Mill creek, near the C, H. & D. R. R. bridge), seems to be com- 
pletely obliterated, the high water washing away the sandy banks 
completely. The geographical distribution of the species is very re- 
markable. It was described by Dr. Horn (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. III., 
1874), from a single specimen taken by Mr. Schwarz on Lake Superior. 
It remained unique until Mr. H. B. Wilson and myself found it in com- 
pany with Omophron tessellatum and O. americanum., at the above 
mentioned locality. 'Ky pouring water on the banks, the Omophron, 
thinking the creek was swelling, came up out of the sand in which th.Qy 
were concealed, and ran up for higher ground. On vay first viyit to 
this locality, I secured 147 0. robustum, from which I have supplied 
nearly every collection in the U. S., and several in Europe. 

Megalodacue ulkei, Crotch. — This pretty little Erotylid was de- 
scribed by Mr. Crotch from a single specimen in Mr. Ulke's great col- 
lection—its locality was Kentucky. While hunting insects in some 
heavy woods on the reservoir road back of Newport, I took from a single 
beech log about 200 of this species, then unknown to me. They were 
feeding on a brown fungus (Polyporus) which was growing thickly 
over the log. Since then hundreds have been taken from this woods, 
and though we have hunted the other favorable localities for miles 
around, not a single specimen has been observed out of it; it seems to 
be confined to this woods. 

Eudesma undulata, Mels. — Melsheimer's type has been for years the 
sole representative of this species, and is in Dr. LeConte's collection in 
Philadelphia — its locality was " Penn." Mr. C. G. Siewers re-discovered 
the species (one specimen) under the bark of a sycamore tree, July 
1879. In August, 1880, while hunting in the crevices of a decaying 
buckeye log for minute insects, I took several more of this A'ery rare 

Dryobius sexpasciatus, Say. — This beautiful longicorn was more 
abundant last July than I have ever before observed it. By nailing slabs 

62 C incinnal i Society of Ndinrnl. II Islorii. 

of bark loosely loch.-iid Irues, the insects go iiiidcr to sccneto themselves; 
by lifting the bark many were taken. Specimens were also taken in the 
act of eating their way out of dead beech. 

Cltlanthus albofasciatus, Lap. — This species was taken by hold- 
ing an inverted umbrella under dead wild grape vines and beating 

Lacconotus punctatus, LeC. — Mr. Siewers took a single specimen of 
this extremly rare 3fyGteria near Newport, Ky., June, 1880. 

Rymbus minor, Cr. — Since Ji. ullcel was taken, a more careful search 
in the same locality produced this smaller species. Like B. ulkei, it 
was found on partly decayed logs of beech. 

LiODES blanchardi, Horn. — In company with L. discolor, near New- 
port, I took this species. The type was from Lowell, Mass. — Charles 
DuRY, Avondale, Hamilton count}', Ohio. 

Macrosila cingulata, Fabr. — A fine and very perfect specimen of 
this handsome Moth was caught in September, 1881, in the conserva- 
tory of the Cincinnati Floral Company, this city, and is now in m}' 
collection. This species differs from M. quinque maculata. Haw., 
principally in the coloration of the hind wings and abdominal spots, 
which are in cingulata of a beautiful and brilliant pink. I am not 
aware that the species has been recorded heretofore as occuring in this 
locality. — John W. Shorten, Cincinnati, O. 


icmi icim i MiiiL eisioM. 

VOL. V. 


No. 2. 


Tuesday Evening, A^jril 4, 1882. 

Dr. R. M. Byrnes, President, in the chair. Present, 40 members. 

Dr. A. E. Jones, Charles Rule, Thos. H. Orr, and Miss Sarah C. 
Stubbs were elected members. 

The following officers of the Society were elected for the ensuing 
year: Piesident, Dr. R. M. Byrnes; First Vice-President, Dr. J. H. 
Hunt; Second Vice-President, Dr. F. W. Langdon; Secretary, D. L. 
James; Treasurer, S. E. Wright; Librarian, S. A. Miller. Members at 
large to the Executive Board : G. W. Harper, C. F. Low, L. S. Cotton, 
J. Mickleborough; Trustee for two years, Julius Dexter; Curators — 
Mineralogy, J. W. Hall, Jr.; PaltMontology, J. Mickleborough; Con- 
chology, E. M. Cooper; Entomology, J. H. Hunt; Botany, Dr. 0. D. 
Norton; Ornithology, J. W. Shorten; Ichthyology, Dr. D. S. Young; 
Archaeology, Dr. H. H. Hill; Comparative Anatomy, Dr. A. J. Howe; 
Herpetology, A. E. Heighway, Jr. 

Donations were announced as follows: Colonel J. W. Abert, mineral 
specimens; Chas. F. Low, 700 specimens of insects, in twenty boxes; 
John Schimmel, five minerrals; P. T. Abert, Washington, D. C, lot of 
Indian antiquities from Virginia; Dr. Walter A. Dun, bones from 
Madisonville cemetery; E. M. Cooper, one volume; A. H. Bugher. 
specimen of snake in alcohol; W. J. Patterson, two fossils; C. D. Wal- 
cott, New York, two painplilety ; Department of Interior, throe volumes; 
Smithsonian Institution, four pamphlets; Department of Agriculture. 

04 Cincinnati Society of Natural Ilistorij. 

Wasliington, twenly-nvc species pine cones and seeds; O. M. Me^ ucUe, 
Bioolvville, Ind., fort}' sections of native wood ; S. C. F'erguson, a 
Belosloma (jrandis ; a large lot of relics and Ijones from the Madison- 
ville cemetery were also received as the society's share of tlie objects 
excavated there during the preceding month. 

The custodian, Jo?*. F. James, made a report siiowing the additions 
to the museum durinu the year. In the department of palaeontology 
there were added — 

By donation, 400 species, ;'),000 specimens; by exchange, 37 species, 
65si)ecimens; by purchase, 77 species, 102 specimens; total, 514 species, 
3,257 specimens. 

In the department of mineralogy, Mr. J. W. Hall, Jr., the curator, 
had done a great deal of work, and under his direction the collection 
had assumed good shape. The additions during the year had been 
almost entirely from Mr. Crauch and Mr. Gest, these numbering about 
a thousand specimens. Beside these donations there had been re- 
ceived from various sources 150 specimens. 

In the botanical department, the entire collection had been gone 
over, the duplicates picked out, and the herbarium specimens labeled 
and arranged according to the natural orders. The additions during 
the 3'ear had been as follows: 

Herbarium specimens — By donation, 157 species, 190 specimens; 
bv exchange, 50 species, 70 specimens. Seeds, pine cones, etc. — B}' 
donation, 75 species, 150 specimens. Sections of wood — B3' donation. 
40 species, 47 specimens. Total, 322 species, 467 specimens. 

In ichthyolog}^ the curator, Dr. D. S. "Young, had arranged the 
species in glass bottles, labeled and catalogued them. 

The curator of herpetology commenced the arrangement of tlie 
collection in his charge, but the work was stopped for want of the 
necessary alcohol. The additions had been as follows : 

B}' donation, 8 species, 9 specimens. 

The ornithological department had been increased as follows: 

By dcmation (mounted specimens), 1 species, 2 specimens; by 
donation (skins), 6 species, 7 specimens; by purchase (mounted), 49 
species, 50 specimens; total, 56 species, 59 specimens. 

The collection of birds' eggs and nests had been arranged, labeled 
and catalogued, and the additions had been as follows: 

By donation (eggs), 71 species, 175 specimens; bv purchase (eggs), 
42 species, 326 specimens; hy donation (nests), 2 species, 2 specimens ; 
total, 115 species, 503 specimens. 

Proceedings of the Society. 65 

To the mammals had been added as follows: 

By donation, 2 species, 2 specimens. 

In entomology the collection had been examined, and partly 
arranged in boxes. These are pasted up, and seem to be free from 
pests. The additions had been as follows: 

By donation, 325 species, 1,000 specimens. 

In the conchological department the additions had been as follows: 

By donation, 185 species, 800 specimens; 1)3- exchange, 189 species, 
346 specimens; total, 374 species, 1146 specimens. 

For the purposes of comparative anatomj^ the additions had been as 
follows : 

By donation, 3 specimens; by purchase, 8 specimens. 

In archaeology a large amount of material had been received from 
the Madisonville ancient cemetery, which is packed away, waiting for 
time and case room to display' it. Beside this, 36 specimens of 
diseased bones from the same localit}', and about 75 miscellaneous 
articles from -various localities had been donated, and 36 plaster casts of 
crania added by purchase. Taking all the departments together, there 
had been added to the collection about 7,000 specimens, many of them 
of course duplicates. 

A register of visitors to the rooms had been kept during the, year, 
and though many had come and gone without registering, the record 
showed 980 visitors. 

The value of the collection as an educational factor had been shown 
in the use made of it b}^ the teachers of the kindergarten school, as 
well as by the teachers and pupils of the various high schools of this 
city and Covington. 

The valuable addition of a microscope had been made to the collec- 
tion for the use of the members of the society. 

Dr. J-. A. Warder furnished the following list of plants in bloom in 
the open air, April 4, 1882.* 

* The plants followed hy the letter J in r.arcn thesis, thus (J), were added )>y Davis 
L James. Fifty-one species were observed in hlooni on April 9th, all growing within a 
very limited loeality. The frosts of the nights of April lOth and 11th were severe, the ther- 
mometer registering 2S in exposed situations. This cheeked the growth of vegetation, and 
destroyed the bloom of many hardy shrubs, beside doing an incalculable amount of injury 
to the fruit crop . 


Cincinnati Society of Natural Jlistoy'ij. 

Native Plants — 62 Species. 

Anemone aoutilol);i, LavVson (Ile- 
patica acutiloba, DC.) 

Thalictruni anemonoides, Michx. 
Rue anemone. 

Ranunculus abortivus, L. Small 
flowered Crowfoot. 

R. repens, L. Creeping Crowfoot, 

Isopyrum biternatuni, Torr & Gray. 
Often mistaken for T. anemon- 
oides, but easily distinguished 
by its fibrous roots and several 
seeded follicles. (J.) 

Caltlia palustris, L. Marsh Mari- 
gold. (J.) 

Delphinium tricorne, Michx. Lark- 

Jeffersonia diphylla, Pers. Twin- 

Stylophorum diphyllum, Nutt. Ce- 
landine Poppy. 

Sanguinaria canadensis, L. Blood- 

Diclytra (Dicentra) canadensis, DC. 
cucullaria, DC. Dutchman's 

Corydalis flavula, Raf. 

Dentaria laciniata, Muhl. Cut- 
leaved Toothwort. 

Cardamine rhomboidea, DC. Spring 

Arabis Ijevigata, DC. (J.) 

Draba verna, L. Whitlow Grass. 

Brassica alba. White Mustard. 

Capsella bursa-pastoris, Manich. 
Shepherd's Purse. 

Viola cucullata, Ait. Common Blue 

V. striata. Ait. White Violet. 

V. canadensis, L. Canada Violet. 

V. pubescens,Ait. Yellow Violet. (J.) 

V. tri- color, var. arvensis, Gray. 

Stellaria media. Smith. Common 

S. pubera, Michx. Great Chickweed. 

Claytonia virginica, L. Spring 

Acer saccharinum, Wang. Sugar or 
Black Maple. 

A. dasycarpum, Ehrh. White or 
Silver Maple. 

A. rubrum. Red Maple. 

Negundo aceroides, Moench. Box- 

Cercis canadensis, L. Red bud. 

Crat.'cgus cordata, Ait. Washing- 
ton Thorn. 

Saxifraga virginiensis, Michx. 

Chierophyllum procurabens, Crantz. 

Erigenia bulbosa, Nutt. Harbinger- 
of-spring, almost gone out of 

Senecio aureus, L. Golden Ragwort. 

Taraxacum dens-leonis, Desf. Dan- 

Collinsia verna, Xutt. Blue-eyed 
Mary, Innocence. 

Veronica peregrina, L. Purslane 

Nepeta Glechoma, Benth. Ground 

Lamium amplexicaule, L. Dead 

Lithosperraum arvense, L. Corn 

Mertensia virginica, DC. Virginian 
Cowslip or Lungwort. 

Phacelia purshii, Buckley. Miami 
Mist. This jjlant has been known 
to blossom during the entire 
winter. Dr. Warder gathered 
specimens in Jan. 18S0. (J.) 

Polemonium reptans, Tourn. Ja- 
cob's Ladder, Greek Valerian. 

Phlox divaricata, L. Common 

Lindera benzoin, Thunberg. Spice 

Ulmus fulva, Michx. Slippery or 
Red Elm. In fruit. 

U.americana,L. White Elm. In fruit. 

Celtis occidentalis, L. Hackberry. 

Populus alba, L. Passed out — White 

P. grandidentata, Michx. 

P. angulata, Ait. Catkins fallen. 

Symplocarpus fcetidus, Salisb. 
Skunk Cabbage, fading. 

Trillium sessile, L. 

Erythronium americanum. Smith. 
Yellow Adder's Tongue. 

E. albidum, Nutt. White Dog's 
Tooth Violet. The common name 
misleading — Adder's Tongue 
much better. (J.) 

Luzula campestris, DC. Wood Rusk. 

Poa annua, L. 

Cystopteris fragilis, Bernh. Fronds 
expanding. (J.) 

Proceedings of the Society. 


Cultivated Plants. 

Calyeanthus floridus, L. 

Akebia quinata. 

Dicentra spectablis. 

Viola adorata, L. 

Berberis aquifollum. 

Pruaus americana. Marsh. 

P. raaritima. 

P. chicasa. 

P. spinosa. 

P. armeniaca. 

Amygdalus persica, Mar. 20. 

Spirea prunifolia. 

S. thunbergii. 

•Fragaria vesca. 

Amelanchier canadensis. 

A. var. botr5'apiuin. 

A. var. alnifolia. 

Pyrus mains. 

P. cominnnis. 

Cydonia japonica. 

Exocharda graudifolia. 

Rhodotj^pns kerriana. 

Lonicera tartarica. 

L. odorata. 

Halesia tetraptera. 

Vinca minor. 

Cercis japonica. 

Forsythia viridissima. 

Syringa vulgaris. Blue and White 

Betula alba. 
Tsuga canadensis. 
Larix europtea. 
Juniperus Virginian a. 
J. communis. 
Thuja occidentalis. 
Biotia elegantissima. 
Chgetocyperus obtusa. 
Narcissus paeudo-narcissus. 
N. poeticus. 
N. jonquilla. 

Gaianthus nivalis. Passing out. 
Iris pumila. 
Tulipa. Varieties. 
Scilla siberica. 
Hyacinthus. Varieties passing out. 

Tdesday Evening, Maij 2, 1882. 

Dr. R. M. Byrnes, President, in the chair. Present, 30 members. 

General F. D'Utassy and John M. Nickles were elected members. 

A microscopical soiree was announced for "Wednesday evening, 
May 10. 

The following donations were announced: From Otis T. Mason, five 
pamphlets ; from Smithsonian Institution, five pamphlets ; from Signal 
Service Bureau, Monthl}' "Weather Review ; from Department of the 
Interior, Bulletin of Entomological Commission ; from H. S. Bosworth, 
specimens of Leptogorgia stenobranchis, Coquina, Serpula and shells 
from Florida ; from F. A. Sampson, Sedalia, Mo., ten species of shells 
and fossils ; from James N. Davison, two insects ; from Colonel J. W- 
Abert, twelve specimens ores ; from M, Parr, Omaha, Neb., seventeen 
specimens minerals and fossils; from F. L. Eaton, one insect; from H. S. 
Clark, one Helianthus annuus (sunflower) ; from Dr. J. H. Hunt, fifty 
microscopical slides of diatoms, etc.; from Dr. Robert Fletcher, 
Washington, D. C, one pamphlet; from Mrs. John Chapman, per Judge 
Force, a large collection of minerals, shells, fossils, wood specimens' 
whale's teeth, etc. ; from Dr. O. D. Norton, skull of badger. 

Mr. John W. Shorten read the following paper : 

I desire to call attention to a few facts concerning the relation of our 
rapacious birds to agriculture. 

(•8 C'incuirinti Society of Natural History. 

Tlic pi'cvailing- popular belief regard ing llie food of hawks and owls 
is, that they subsist chieHy on insectivorous, song and game birds, and 
on barn-yard fowl, and therefore should l)e considered and treated as 
pests. On this hypothesis our county commissioners are acting, and 
advertise to piiy a^?er cajnta for hawks' scalps. 

Investigation into the hal)its of the birds of pre^- will not justify 
this extreme measure; on the contrary it will show conclusively, I 
think, that instead of being detrimental to agricultural pursuits, they 
are positively beneficial, both to the farmer and to those interested in 
the preservation of game and song birds. And ray object in bringing 
this matter before 3'ou is to show, from the evidence of those who have 
made the habits of birds a life study, that even the despised hawks 
have their duties to perform in the order of nature, and that in the 
main their destructive propensities are in the interests of the farmer. 

rermit me to quote from vol. ix., page 47, " Pacific Survey," speaking 
of the family Strigidcv, the owls, this recognized authority states: "The 
larger species subsist on small quadrupeds and birds, but much the 
majority almost exclusively prey on insects." 

Dr. Coues, in his "Birds of the Northwest," page 365, in speaking of 
one of the larger species of hawks, says : "They pick up their pre}^ 
as they pass by, dipping obliquely, and it requires no great agilit3' to 
elude their clutch. Most small birds evade capture, so that the hawks 
chiefly confine themselves to less active quarr3^" 

Again, from the same author, page 366 : '' In the stomachs of those 
examined I found the remains of burrowing pouched rats, the western 
wood-mouse, kangaroo mice, and some arvicolai, and would remark 
in passing, how often small mammals, reptiles, and insects, Avhich 
might long remain undetected owing to their rarity or insignificance, 
are found in the stomachs of rapacious birds." 

I might mention here that our onh' record of the Carolina-rice field 
mouse in Ohio, rested for several j^ears on a portion of a specimen 
found in the stomach of a red-tailed hawk taken in this vicinity. 
Skulls and teeth of this interesting mammal have since, however, been 
found amongst the ashes in the Madisonville cemeterj'. 

In speaking of the habits of the beautiful and well known sparrow- 
hawk, Dr. Coues says: " Subsisting on small insectivorous birds, it is 
true, but also destroying countless field mice and noxious insects, he 
is to be held a benefactor to the agriculturist." 

Again, the same author describing the habits of Swainson's buzzard, 
or hawk, says : "I scarcely think they are smart enough to catch 

Proceedings of the Society. 69 

bii-'.ls very often. I saw one make the attempt on a lark bunting; the 
hawk poised in the air at a height of about twenty yards for fully a 
minute, fell heavily, with an awkward thrust of the talons, and 
missed. Those I shot after midsummer all had their craws stuflfed 
with grasshoppers." 

Audubon says of the American barn owl : " After long observa- 
tion, I am satisfied that our bird feeds entirely on the smaller species 
of quadrupeds, for I have never found any portions of birds about 
their nests, not even the remains of a single feather in the pellets 
which they regurgitate, and which arealwa3's formed of the bones and 
hair of quadrupeds." 

In "Land Birds and Game Birds of New England," Minot sa^^s: The 
food of the well known great horned owls consists of " rabbits, 
squirrels, skunks, partridges, poultry and the like;" and of the 
Cooper's hawk, commonly known as chicken hawk, tliC}^ feed on 
" rabbits, squirrels, water fowl, and other birds, but not often on the 
smaller kinds, as I have seen those near them, or about their nests, 
disregarded." The same author, page 364, describing the habits of 
our abundant red-shouldered hawk, saj^s: "they do not often catch 
our so called partridges, owing to the latter's rapid flight, and rather 
persistent occupation of the woods, and it is not uncommon to find 
these game birds in groves where the hen hawks have their nests." 

Dr. A. J. Howe, of this city, informs me " that he found in the stomach 
of a bald eagle the remains of several Norway rats;" think of it, the 
proud emblem of our countr}- dining on the common house rat. 

I have received the following letters on this subject from Prof. Spen- 
cer F. Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C, and 
from Dr. Elliott Coues, the well-known ornithologist. The world-wide 
reputation of these gentlemen as authorit}'' on zoological questions 
will certainly demand, for their opinions, ^-our greatest consideration. 

Washington, April 10, 1882. 

Dear Sir: — The destruction of hawks will save an occasional 
fowl, but will cause a great increase in the abundance of field-mice, 
rabbits, squirrels, snakes, frogs, etc., upon which tlie hawks feed. 

It has now been conclusive!}' shown, 1 think, tliat hawks perform an 
important function in maintaining in good condition tlie stock of game- 
])irds, by capturing the weak and sickl3% and thus preventing repro- 
duction from unhealthy parents. One ot the most plausible lipyo- 
theses, explanatory of the occasional outbreaks of disease among tiic 
grouse of Scotland, has been the extermination of these correctives, 
the disease being most virulent where the gamekeepers were most 

70 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

active in destroying what tbey considered vermin. It is my firm con- 
viction that in the average of well-settled countries, the liawks and 
owls are a benefit, rather tiian the reverse, to the community in general, 
and to the farmer in particular. 

Yours respectfully', 

Spencer F. Baikd. 

Washington, D. C, April IS, 1882. 

Dear Sir: — In reply to your questions of the 8th inst., I beg to 
say that I do not consider rapacious birds as pests, in the main, or in 
particular; and that I do not think that laws enacted for their exter- 
mination would be founded upon an intelligent knowledge of their 
habits. They have their duties, as well as their rights, in the order of 
nature, interference with which can never be right nor wise. 

Vei'}' truly yours, 

Elliott Coues. 

It should be noted in conclusion, that the destruction, or keeping in 
check the smaller mnmmals, such as mice, rats, ground squirrels, 
weasels, etc., directly favors the protection and increase of all the 
ground-building birds. 

Tuesday, June 6, 1882. 

Dr. R. M. Byrnes, President, in the chair. Present, 20 members. 

Mr. Davis L. James read a paper on " Palms and their representa- 
tives in the United States." 

A. P. Morgan was elected a regular member. 

Dr. F. W. Langdou proposed an amendment to the constitution of 
the societ}^, by which any resident member for ten 3'ears, not in arrears 
for dues, may become a life-member b^' payment of twent}' -five dollars, 
and any member not in arrears for twenty years may become a life- 
member without further payment. Also an amendment to the b3'-laws 
proposing a change in the name of curator of archjfiolog}^ to that of 

Donations were announced as follows: from Smithsonian Institution, 
one volume and eight pamphlets ; from Isaac Hart, tooth of fossil 
horse; from Miss Louisa Johnson, through Dr. W. H. Mussey, section 
of basalt from Giant's Causeway; from Bureau of Ethnology, one 
volume; from Signal Service Bureau, one pamphlet; from Jos. F. 
James, two species of acorns; from R. E. C. Stearns, four pamphlets; 
from S. T. Carley, six species shells and fossils; from J. Robinson, Jr., 
one specimen Boa Constrictor; from Chief of Engineers, Washington, 
one volume oq Geology; from J. Prell, a moth; from Jacob Hofl!"ner, 
through A, E, Heighway, M. D., a fossil shark's tooth; from ?>irs. 
Stanley, one rock specimen; from Dr. L. B. Welch, a green snake; 
from Dr. O. D. Norton, twelve specimens dried plants; from Dr. C. U. 
Aydelott, one specimen quartz. 

Charles Robert Darwin. 71 

By Joseph F. James. 
There has passed away, withiu the last few weeks, one of the most emi- 
nent, and one of the greatest men which our century has so far produced. 
A man who is perhaps better known, at least hy name, than any other. 
A man whose influence in science and upon scientific thought has 
been most profound. And a man who should be admired as a teacher, 
an experimenter, and an investigator. We as cultivators and students 
in the wide domain of Natural History, should lay a tribute of respect 
upon the grave, and honor the name of Charles Robert Darwin. 

He was born at Shrewsbury, England, on February 12, 1809, and was, 
therefore, at the time of his death, in his 74th year, having exceeded by 
a little the three score years and ten alloted to the life of man. He 
was the worthy grandson of the justly celebrated Erasmus Darwin, 
in whose writings, the "Botanic Garden" and "Zoonoraia," were 
shadowed forth the theories which the eminent and talented descend- 
ant was destined to bring so prominently before the eyes of the scien- 
tific world. 

Mr. Darwin began his investigations into natural science at an early 
age, and after completing his college course at Cambridge, volunteered 
his services as naturalist to H. M. Ship " Beagle," then about to sail 
on a voyage round the world. This was in 1831, and it was while 
upon this voyage that Mr. Darwin made observations which brought 
him prominently before the notice of the world. His observations 
upon the " Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs, ' was the first of 
a long series of works of permanent value. In this book he first pro- 
pounded the theory that the Coral islands of the South seas were the 
result of the subsidence of the land, thus enabling the zoophytes to 
build up the reefs, as the land sank, to the surface of the water, and 
forming those beautiful "atolls," or coral-encircled lakes, which are 
one of the beauties of the Pacific ocean. His observations upon 
general natural history were embodied in that most charming of all 
works of travel, "A Naturalist's Voyage Round the World." This 
book has been read and enjoyed by thousands who know but little of 
his other writings, and is certainly one of the most fascinating narra- 
tives, and at the same time one of the most instructive ones which 
has ever been written. Its immense popularity has been shown by the 

* Read May 2d, 1882. 

72 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

many editions it iia.s gone tiirougli, and l)y its having V)een adopted as 
a book for children, by putting the narrative into simple language. 

In 1840 was published his "Geological Observations upon South 
America/' a volume of 208 pages, which was one of the results of his 
voyage in the Beagle. His monograph of the sessile and pedunculate 
Cirripedia, with figures of all the species, was published in two parts 
in 1851 and 1854, and is replete with interesting and valuable notes 
upon their life history. Another monograph, on the Fossil Lepadidae 
of Great Britain, was published by the Palaeontological Society of Eng- 
land in 1851, and these works show Mr, Darwin to have been as great 
an authority in special branches as he has since been recognized to be 
in the wide field of Biology. 

It was while upon his voyage round the world, that Mr. Darwin first 
had suggested to him the ideas afterward embodied in his " Origin of 
Species," and from the time of his return from his first and only long 
Journey, in 1830, until his death, he was engaged in work which tended 
to confirm and establish his first ideas. It was the reading of the cele- 
brated treatise of Malthus on "The Principles of Population," which 
originally directed his ideas toward the matter of the "Struggle for 
Existence," which forms so prominent a part of his great theory. 
When the "Vestiges of Creation' first appeared, in 1844, an epoch be- 
gan which will be long remembered in the history of science. Although 
about 1830 the great Cuvier had ridiculed and vanquished his oppo- 
nent Geoffroy St. Hiliare, before the Paris Academy of Sciences, the 
theories of Lamarck and of St. Uiliare had their influence upon think- 
ing men. Though many of the ideas were crude and improbable, they 
contained germs of truths which were afterward fully elaborated. 

For twentj^ years previous to the publication of Mr. Darwin's "Origin 
of Species," the work b}^ which he is most widel}' known, he was en- 
gaged in collecting facts and making observations into the natural 
history of the animal kingdom. His friends, Sir Charles L3'ell, and 
Sir Joseph Hooker, names which will descend to posterity with no 
small amount of fame attached to them, were cognizant of his labors in 
this field, and repeatedly urged him to make an abstract of his ob- 
servations for the benefit of science. This he had as often refused to 
do, not being satisfied with the materials at his command. But in 
1858, Mr. Alfred Wallace, then traveling in the Malaj" archipelago, 
sent home an article " On the Tendency of Varieties to depart indefin- 
itely from the Original Tj^pe," with the request that if thought worthy 
it be read, before the Linnean Society. Then Mr. Darwin was induced 

Charles Robert Darwin. 73 

to prepare a short paper giving a digest of his views on the subject. 
Both of these papers were read at a meeting of the Linnean Society', 
and appear in a volume of the Transactions. They created no stir ex- 
cept among scientists, for people at large did not know of their full 
significance. This paper was the prelude to the publication of the 
" Origin of Species,'' the first edition of which is dated Nov. 24, 1859. 

It was a fire-brand thrown into a mass of inflammable material. It 
ran through an edition of thousands in a few months. A second (in 
March, 1860) and a third appeared, and the world was taken by storm 
Advocates and opponents appeared on all sides. Invectives and praises 
were showered upon the author from all quarters. Nearly the entire 
body of the clergy rose against him, and from pulpit and sanctum, at 
home and abroad, he was ridiculed and abused. But his advocates 
took up the gauntlet, and the battle has raged ever since. One of his 
earliest and most ardent admirers was Prof. Huxle}', who joined issue 
with the detractors, and threw his weight into the scale of Darwin. In 
a review of the book, Prof. Huxle}', after referring to the hostility' 
always shown b}' the clerg}^ to every advance made in science, said: 
"Extinguished theologians lie about the cradle of every science, like 
strangled snakes beside that of Hercules ; and histor}' records that 
whenever science and orthodoxy have been fairl}^ opposed, the latter 
has been forced to retire from the lists, bleeding and crushed if not 
annihilated, scotched if not slain." And the result has been the same 
in this conflict as in all the others ; and now, when the theory of Mr- 
Darwin has been all but proved, many of those who were originally its 
opponents have become its staunch advocates. 

It is needless to go into an account of the theory of the " Origin of 
Species." It is \Tell enough known to science, ihough, perhaps, im- 
perfectly so to its opponents generallj'. There can be but little doubt 
but that the publication of this book marks an epoch in the histor}' of 
the human intellect. It came at a time when the world was ripe for 
it, and when the slightest impetus drove it onward and upward with a 
force which is gathering strength day by da}'. Now, but twenty-three 
3'ears after the first public announcement of the theory, it receives the 
avowed sanction of nearly every scientific man in the world, and of 
thousands who know of science but by hcarsa}'. It has been translated 
into the French, German, Dutch, Italian, Russian and Japanese lan- 
guages. It is a triumph which has been achieved b}' no other book which 
has appeared in this century. It has effected such a change in 
thought, it has given such an impetus to scientific investigation, that 

74 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

its effects must he felt for all time to come. Its influence in directing 
researcli towurd the natural sciences, and its effect ujjon tiie whole 
vvoi'kl has been sucii, that when tlie descendants of this generation, as 
the poetical Tyndall puts it, "shall have melted into the infinite azure 
of the past," the decade in which Charles Darwin's " Origin of Species" 
appeared, will form as bright an epoch in natural science as the age of 
Shakespeare in Dramatic Literature, as the discovery of America in 
History', or the advent of Christ in theology. And though the subject 
of this notice has received most of the honor gained by the publication 
of the theory, his co-discoverer and worker, Mr. Wallace, is entitled to 
a full share of the honor. With a generosity unhappily seldom known 
in science, he urged Mr. Darwin to bring the theory before the public 
in a worthy manner, while he himself stood in the background. 

The " Origin of Species" was the first of a long series of books and 
papers upon matters intimately connected with the theories of natural 
selection and the struggle for existence. In 1862 appeared a volume 
'•On the Various Contrivances by which British and Fore gnOrchids 
are fertilized by Insects, and on the good effects of Intercrossing" — a 
second edition, with many additions, being issued in 1877. This is a 
book full of interesting facts, told in a fascinating manner, and show- 
ing the benefits derived from occasional crossing. It is but one in- 
stance of the wonderful power of Mr. Darwin in observing, recording 
and commenting upon things which to other eyes would be unseen or 
inexplicable. In the hands of Mr. Darwin order is brought out of 
chaos, and what would under other circumstances l)e a mere jumble, is 
through the medium of his pen a work of lasting value. 

He contributed various articles relating to the fertilization of plants, 
and the forms of flowers to different periodicals, but especially to the 
Transactions of the Linaean Society. These were afterwards re- 
published with much additional matter in separate volumes. But in 
1868 appeared the " Variation ot Animals and Plants under Domesti- 
cation,'' two volumes of over 800 pages, which contain innumerable 
facts, and the details of many experiments. A glance at the table of 
contents of these volumes gives a slight idea of the amount of labor 
necessarj' to prepare the work. Over one hundred pages are devoted 
to pigeons alone, and such marvelous changes are noted in the plum- 
age, and in the structure of all parts of the skeleton, that the reader 
is astonished when told that all the 150 breeds of our domestic pigeons 
are descended from a single species, and is nearly ready to believe 
from facts there given, in the theory of the origin of one species from 

Charles Robert Darwin. 75 

This book was followed by another in 1871, in two volumes, on the 
" Descent of Man." Though Mr. Darwin, in his " Origin of Species." 
drew no direct conclusions as to the relation in which man stood to 
the rest of the animal kingdom, still the relationship was implied and 
well known. But now he applied the facts he had collected in rela- 
tion to animals to the human race, and the ''Descent of Man" was 
the result. He brought forward in the second part, the subject of 
Sexual Selection, a matter which had not until then been treated in 
any way completely. Another uproar was created by this book, for 
while many naturalists were willing to. allow the descent of animals 
with modifications, they stopped at man, and contended that his origin 
was on a higher plane. 

Then followed in 1872, as a sequel to this book, one on the "Ex- 
pression of the Emotions in Man and Animals." Mr. Darwin had 
found that in order to satisfy himself and the public in regard to the 
close relationship of man and the higher classes of animals, that he must 
study the expression of the emotions, and in this volume he gives the 
facts he collected. He was indefatigable in his work. He studied in 
infants, in- the insane, in paintings and sculptures, and in animals, the 
expressions and actions when under the influence of various feelings 
and passions. Further, in order to find whether the same gestures and 
expressions prevailed among savage races as were to be seen in 
civilized man, he had printed a set of sixteen or more questions which 
were sent for answers to various parts of the world. From all these 
sources Mr. Darwin gathered his information, and incorporated it in a 
work which takes as high a rank as the celebrated treatise of Sir 
Charles Bell on "Expression," for the contradiction of which it was, 
in fact, intended. 

His next work vvas on " Insectivorous Plants," a volume of 450 
pages, filled with details of experiments on various species of Drosera, 
on Dionsea, and other plants. This book is a marvelous production, 
not only because of the nature of the facts given, but from the methods 
bj' which they were ascertained, and it stands as a lasting monument 
to the patience of the man. As an example of the delicacy of the 
investigation, and of the accuracy of his methods, it is stated that a 
particle of cotton thread only -yiw^ of an inch in length, and weighing 
T8TTT of a grain, was experimented with ; and that the absorption of a 
particle of carbonate of ammonia weighing only y^^jVoiy ^^ '^ grain 
caused the tentacles of a leaf of Drosera to become inflected. Think 
of the patience of a man who could measure and weigh and experiment 

76 CincinnatA Sncief.y of Natural History. 

with particles of matter so minute. An'l still it is only a sample of 
the pains taking ([ualities of Mr. Darwin, and an example of his 
accuracy in research. 

This book was followed at close intervals by six others, all on 
Botany, and treating of "Climbing Plants" (1875); " The Effects of 
Cross and Self Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom" (1876); "The 
Different F'orms of Flowers on Plants of the same Species" (1877); A 
second edition of the "Fertilization of Orchids" (J 877); ''The Power 
of Movement in Plants" (1880); and lastly, during the past winter, by 
one on "The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of 
Worms." All of these are full of new and interesting facts, and of 
new experiments, bringing to light things before unthought of, and 
creating in the minds of readers a thirst for more, and a desire to 
study and see for themselves the matters there treated. 

In summing up an estimate of Mr. Darwin's work in science, we are 
profoundly impressed with his versatility. He was a geologist, as his 
"Observations on South America Geology," and upon "Volcanoes," 
will testify. He was a palaeontologist. He was a biologist without a 
peer. His works upon the Cirripedia, and on Coral Islands, show a 
profound knowledge and wonderful observing power. His volumes on 
Botany, on Orchids, on Insectivorous Plants, Various forms of Flowers, 
Variation of Animals and Plants, show him to have been an observer 
of nature, and an experimenter without a rival. One who with an eye 
for everything, found nothing too insignificant to notice; and one who 
saw the meaning of matters which to another were meaningless. He 
was patient in his observations, never giving prominence to anj'thing 
but what was worth3^ He never allowed his judgment to be warped. 
He was fearless in stating facts, no matter what might be the conclu- 
sions drawn from them, honest in acknowledging his errors, and 
courteous in noticing the remarks of others. And as Prof. Gray says: 
" Mr. Darwin's evident delight at discovering that some one else has 
'said his good things before him,' or has been on the verge of uttering 
them, seemingly equals that of making the discovery himself. It re- 
minds one of Goethe's insisting that his views in Morphology must 
have been held before him, and must be somewhere on record, so 
obviously just and natural did they appear to him."* His "Origin of 
Species," putting aside all theoretical deductions, is a perfect encyclo- 
paedia of facts; it is a condensed manual of observations made during 

* Nature X., p. 80, June i, ISri. 

Charles Robert Darwin. 77 

twenty years of study and investigation. It is a book to be I'ead and 
re-read, and in which something new will be found at each perusal. 
His " Descent of Man," taken in connection with his " Expression of the 
Emotions," proves beyond a doubt, that between the bodilj' featui'es 
and mental powers of animals and man, there exists onl}^ a difference 
of degree. 

Mr. Darwin never was a man of robust health, and many of his re- 
corded observations ware made while confined to the house. Fortu- 
nately he leaves behind him sons, who have already done much toward 
the increase of human knowledge, and upon whom it is hoped, but can 
hardly be expected, the mantle of the father has fallen. Taking Mr. 
Darwin's work as a whole, it constitutes a contribution to science, and 
a monument to himself, which will be a lasting one. And even if the 
Darwinian theories of natural selection, and the struggle for existence 
should fall to the ground, his work will be remembered. It will make 
him live in the memory of mankind as long as science holds a place 
upon earth. Charles Robert Darwin is dead, but his spirit, and the life 
which he has infused in the whole scientific and material world survives 
him, and will continue to animate students for all time to come. 




By S. A. Miller. 

The second part of the very excellent work by Prof. J. D. Whitney- 
on climatic changes, has appeared in the memoirs of the museum of 
comparative zoology, at Harvard College. It is no doubt the best con- 
sidered work that has been published in America upon this subject, 
and withal is very readable. In view of the statements so repeatedly- 
made at the late Forestry Convention held in our city, that the 
destruction of forests produces important changes in the climate, a 
dessication of the earth, and the ruin of the people, it will not be un- 
interesting to some of our readers to know that this whole subject has 
been treated by an eminent scientist, who has shown that the cutting 
away of the forests has no such effect, that man has not been able to 
effect a noticeable change in the climate of any region, and that the 

78 Cinchnuili Society of Natural History. 

human race is in no way responsible for the changes which have 
brought ruin upon some countries that were once prosperous and in a 
comparatively higli state of cultivation. 

He says, that an excellent opportunity has been offered, in New 
England, for throtving light on the question whether disforesting a 
country does really change the character of its climate, or materially 
diminish its rain-fall. There is no doubt that New England was, not 
long since, a country well covered with a forest growth. That it was 
such when its settlement by the whites began, 250 years ago, is a 
generally admitted fact. The aboriginal inhabitants had not in any 
perceptible degree taken from it, during their occupancy', its character 
as a great forest! Take the States of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, and the Southern half of Vermont and New Hampshire, 
where as respects the abundance of timber, the territory has been re- 
duced from the highest to the lowest condition since the settlement of 
the couutr}' by the whites ; and mainly within the last fifty years. 
Here is where the observations upon rain-fall have been taken more 
fully and for a longer period than elsewhere upon the continent, and if 
disforesting a countrj^ is followed by a decrease of the precipitation, in 
the region cleared of its trees, we ought to find some evidence of the 
fact in the case of Southern New England. The statistics, however, 
do not, in the least, indicate any diminution of the rain-fail, but on 
the contrary, an increase of rain, on the average, since 1835, is dis- 
tinctly indicated, for the Atlantic sea-board, from Maine to Virginia, 
including a considerable part of New York where extensive clearings 
have been made in the last fifty j'ears. 

All about the Bay of San Francisco the removal of the timber has 
gone on, within the past few years, with the greatest rapidity, but there 
is no statistical proof that the rain-fall in that region has been 
diminished since the occupation of it by an English-speaking people. 
Under no circumstances does our country, in any part of its vast area, 
furnish any support to the theory that removing the forests brings 
about any change in the climate or tendency to barrenness and desola- 

The earliest travelers described the prairies of the great west just as 
we see them now. Geologists tell us they have existed for thousands 
of j'ears, but no one has heard any complaint about the want of the 
precipitation of rain in the State of Illinois, which is almost wholly' a 
prairie country, nor that less rain falls in the prairie regions of Minne- 
sota than on the timber lands of Wisconsin. 

Description of Ten Nexo Species of Fossils. 79 

It would be difficult for auy one to assign a single reason wlij^ clear- 
ing away a forest would interfere with the precipitation of rain, and 
we are not aware tliat any one has undertaken the task, and it is as 
well probablj' to ascertain the fact before hunting up the theory. The 
Mississippi valley is supplied with rain from the Gulf of Mexico, and 
if forests controlled the precipitation, then we would expect to see the 
clouds wrecked in crossing Arkansas and Tennessee, and light smooth 
sailing over Illinois with rarely or never a shower. But as the forests 
have nothing to do with the quantity of rain fall, and there is no fall- 
ing off in the precipitation in the eastern or central part of the conti- 
nent, we need not liorrow trouble for this locality. 

In the Cordilleras where lakes have been drained and important 
orographic changes have taken place in the later Tertiary period, 
coming down to a very recent date, we find abundant evidence of a change 
in the climate, and just such a change as geological causes are ex- 
pected to produce. But it would require too extended an article to 
fully review our author upon this region, and the interested reader is 
therefore referred to the book itself. The changes of climate that have 
taken place in Europe and Asia during and preceding the historical 
period, are dwelt upon at great length, and shown to be the result of 
causes over which man has had no control. When great lakes are 
dried up, or drained or diminished in area, there is less surface for 
evaporation, and consequently less rain falls in the vicinity; the eleva- 
tion of a mountain range may change the course of the winds so as to 
materially interfere with the precipitation of rain over a great extent of 
country, and this seems to have occurred in South America; and other 
geological and cosmical changes may materially interfere with the 
climate of a country; but it is not within the power of man to effect 
the temperature a fraction of a degree, or the annual rain-fall a fraction 
of an inch, by cutting down or planting trees. 

By S. A. Miller, Esq. 

Plate III., fig. 1, natural size. 

Calyx cup-shaped, about as wide as high, plates slightly convex, 
and sutures well defined. 

80 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

Basal plates of moderate size, and regularly pentagonal. Siibradials 
a little more than twice the size of the basals, and those on the pos- 
terior side hexagonal. First radials about the size of the subradials. 
pentagonal, prominent, and arcuate on the upper face for the reception 
of the succeeding plates of the free arms. The free arms bifurcate on 
the third plate from the first radial, and again on the third or fourth 
succeeding plate, and again at about the same distance, above this, 
more plates intervene between the bifurcations, but the divisions con- 
tinue until, as shown in our specimen, there are three hundred and 
twenty arms. The arms are long, round, slender, and diminish only 
slightly in size following each division. The ventral sac or proboscis is 
YGYy long, extending quite to the extremity of the arms, and composed 
of hexagonal plates pierced b}' numerous fissures in the sutures. 

This is a ver}' beautiful species from the Keokuk Group, at Craw- 
fordsville, Indiana, and belongs to the magnificent collection of I. H. 
Harris, Esq., of Waynesville, Ohio. 


Plate III , figs. 2, and 2'r, natural size, both .specimens are injured in the interradial 
areas, but the plates of the radial series are not correctly represented in either figure. 

Calj'x small, height and width subequal, with interradial areas de- 
pressed, so as to give it strong, angular outlines corresponding with the 
radial series. Surface finely sculptured. 

Basals small, but projecting up between the under sloping sides of 
the first primary radials. The first radials are the larger plates of the 
body, hexagonal, and about as long as w'ide. The strong radial ridge 
in its extension below, divides at the centre of this plate. The second 
radials are much smaller than the first, about as high as wide, and 
hexagonal or heptagonal. The third radials are about the same size 
as the second. 

The secondary radials arise upon the upper slopina: sides of the 
latter, and become free arms at the third plate without another bi- 

Arms only ten, and after they become free, at the third plate above 
the first radial series, consist of strong cuneiform plates, each of which 
bears a coarse pinnule. They are long, and with their coarse and 
numerous pinnules form a large, brush}' head, with a small cal^'x. 

The column is round, of medium size, and composed near the head of 
alternately thicker and thinner plates. 

This species is distinguished by the depressed interradial areas by 

Description of Ten New Species of Fossils. 81 

the long- strong arms and coarse pinnules, and more especially, from 
all others heretofore described, by the fact that it has only ten arms. 
It is a true QlyptocrHnus^, however, and as four specimens have been 
collected, we can safely conclude, from all the appearances, that they 
are mature, and that the species never possessed more then ten arms. 

It was collected by Wm. J. Patterson Esq., in rocks of the age of the 
Utica Slate, in the banks of the Ohio river, opposite to the cit}' of 

Saccocrinus pyrifgrmis, n. sp. 

Plate III., fig. 3. side view of a slightly compressed specimen, but showing the vault too 
much elevated ; fig. 3(x, summii view. 

Body usually rather large, sometimes having a length of 2:| inches, 
and a breadth, at the summit, of i^ inches. It graduall}^ expands from 
a subacute base to the arms, vault very moderately convex. 

Basal plates wider than high, liexagonal, and about half the size of 
the first primary radials. 

Primary radials. — Three of the first radials rest upon the wider 
sides of the basals, and two in the angles formed at the junction of 
the basals. Three are hexagonal, and two heptagonal. Height and 
width subequal. Second radials smaller than the first, hexagonal, and 
a little higher than wide. Third radials smaller than tlie second, and 
very regularly heptagoual. 

Secondary radials. — The first secondary radials are heptagonal, and 
from half to two thirds as large as the third primary radials. The 
second secondary radials are heptagonal, and smaller than the first. 

Tertiary radials or brachial series. — There are three tertiary radials 
or brachial plates in each series. 

Interradials. — The first regular interradials are hexagonal, a little 
smaller than the first radials, and about as high as wide. These are 
succeeded by five pairs or ten plates before reaching the interbrachial 
spaces, and these are followed by three pairs of small plates in the 
interbrachial spaces before reaching the top of the vault. There are 
five intersecondary radials, succeeded by interbrachials. Vault 
moderately convex, with a convex ridge extending from the central 
part over the azygous side. Arms twenty. 

Remarks. — This species is distinguislied from S. urniformis with 
which it seems to be most nearly related, b}' the more gradual ex- 
pansion of the body from tlie base upward, and more regularity in the 
size of the plates, b}'^ the absence of a third plate intervening between 

82 Cincinnati Society of Xntuvdl Hiatorij. 

the pairs in the inteiriuliul .s|Kices, at tlic lieight of the lirst secondary 
radials, In- having a few more plates In the inteibrachial spaces, by 
the less convexity of its vault, and by the flutj,ene(l instead of concave 
depressions between the amliuiacral ridges. 

Collected by W. C. Egan, in the Niagara Groui), at (Jhicago, III. 


Plate III., fig. 4, the interbrachial-s are not contracted toward the top as shown in 
the figure ; fig- 4«, maybe erased, a.s it teaches nothing ; fig. 46, is a small specimen, but the 
vault is made to appear too high. 

Body round or globular, calyx very shalloM', saucer-shaped, height of 
the cast of the dome a little more than the depth of the calyx, and the 
height of the two ratlier more than the length of the canal leading 
from tho dome to the top of the interbrachials. 

First radials wider than long, and larger than the succeeding ones. 
Second radials, quadrangular, wider than long. Third radials, wider 
than long, lower lateral and upper sides very short. 

Large interradial, ten sided, and a little longer than wide, the others 
small and narrow. 

Canal leading from the dome to the top of the interbrachials rather 
large, but not extending beyond the interbrachials. 

Collected b}' W. C. Egan Esq., in the Ni.agara limestone, at Chicago, 

Remarks. — This species is distinguished by the almost perfectly- 
globular form of the body including the brachials and interbrachials, 
by the short saucer-shaped calyx, and comparatively large canal 
leading to the top of the interbrachials. 


Plate III., fig. 5, for the purpose of showing the form and height of the east of the vault; 
fig. Sa, is very imperfectly drawn, and makes the calyx appear too high, and does not show 
the constriction, the plates indicated on 5a, if drawn upon fig. 5, would give a more correct 
idea of the species. 

Body rather large, the base distinctly pentagonal, the angles being 
at the junction of the plates. Calyx very rapidly expanding, though 
obscurelv constricted in the middle part. Width at the arm bases 
nearl}'^ twice as great as the height of the cup. Cast of the dome 
rather low, so that the entire height of the cast from the base to the 
top of the vault is less than the diameter at the arm bases. 

The first radial plates are hexagonal, wider than long, and in the 
cast, show the pentagonal outline and prolongation at the sutures be- 
low the point of junction with the column. It is more marked in this 

Description of Ten New Species of Fossils. 83 

particular than E. tiiherculatas. The second radials are quadrangular, 
ver}' little wider than high, aud about two thirds as large as the first 
radials. The third radials are hexagonal, sides ver}'^ unequal, the two 
upper sloping sides and the base being the longer, and the other three 
the siiorter ones. The first secondary radials are very large, and rest 
upon steep sloping sides of the third radials, which gives breadth to 
this part of the body. The second secondary radials, and the inter- 
secondarv radials, are wider in proportion to their length than is usual 
with the plates in this genus. The iuterradial is a large, ten-sided 
plate, a little longer than wide, that supports upon its two upper sides 
a pair of interradials, which support the interbrachials. 

This species is readily distinguished from E. ccelatus, by the angular 
extension of the plates below the point of attachment with the column, 
and from all other, described species by its general form. 

It was collected by W. C. Egan, of Chicago, Illinois, in the Niagara 
Group, at Bridgeport, within the coi'porate limits of the cit}'. 

Lykiocrinds sculptilis, n. sp. 

Plate III., fig. 6, basal view, not indicating all the plates ; fig. 6a, lateral view from the 
azygous side : fig. 6i, summit view, but not showing half the plates that are on the specimen . 
All from the same specimen. 

Calyx, below the arms, saucer shaped, vault depressed between the 
arm bases, possessed of very ylight convexity, except as to a swelling 
upon the az3^gous side that terminates in a sub-central proboscis. The 
plates are convex, those below the arm bases are sculptured, and the 
sutures are well defined. 

Basals. — There are five small basal plates situated within the small 
columnar cavity, and covered by tlie column. These are beautifullv 
shown by the specimen, but are not-indicated in the figure, 

Suhradials. — There are five heptagonal- subradials. These are the 
larger platesof the body, with the exception of the first interradials, 
and being longer than wide, they form a star-shaped outline, with 
truncated rays. The two shorter sides abut upon the basals, and the 
two longer sides support the radial series. 

Primary radials. — There are three primary radials in each series. 
The first is pentagonal, wider than long, a little smaller than the sub- 
radials, rests between the sloping sides of the latter, and has the 
longer side uppermost. The second is hexagonal, wider than long, 
and wider than the first radial; the lateral sides are the shorter, and 
the upper and lower sides the longer. The tiiird radial is pentagonal, 

84 Cinc/inndU. Sociefij of Ndlnral History. 

much the siiKilk'i- of tht; tliree, and suppuiU upon the upper sloping 
sides a pair of secondary radials. 

The secondary radials are small, and support the arm-plates, which 
are not preserved in our specimen, 

Interradials. — Regular interradials, three, Tlie first is heptagonal, 
about the siz:e of the basals, and wider than long. It supports the 
other two, which are much smaller, and are followed by two inter- 
brachials that connect with the plates that cover the vault. The first 
azj'gous interradial is a large octagonal plate. It is succeeded b}- 
three interradials, instead of by two, as in the other interradial areas. 
These are followed by polygonal plates of unequal size, that are con- 
tinued to the proboscis. 

The vault is covered by numerous polygonal convex plates of un- 
equal size. The arms are arranged in five pairs, each pair being much 
closer together than they are in the other species of this genus. The 
column is unknown. 

In Lyriocrinus melissa [Bhodocrinus melissa), from Waldron, In- 
diana, the third radial is hexagonal, being truncate at the top, and 
supports an intersecondary plate, which is not the case in this species. 

This species I received from Tennessee, labeled from the Niagara 
Group, though it ma^- possibly be from the Lower Heklerberg. It is 
such a marked species, that it will be readily distinguished without 
the special locality from whence it came, 

Endoceras egant, n. sp, 

Plate IV., fig. 1, ventral view of the siphuncle and the interior tube a short distance be- 
low its apex, where it nearly fills the cavity of the siphuncle; the dotted line shows the 
swelling of the siphuncle at the commencement of the internal tube; fig. Irt shows the point 
of the internal tube and its rapid wedge-shaped expansion; fig. 16 is the other part of the 
same specimen, as the two pieces are broken, and shows the swelling of the siphuncle within 
the chamber at the place where the internal tube arises. 

This species is founded upon the siphuncle and the internal tube, 
the external appearance of the outer shell being unknown. The si- 
phuncle is long and very slightly tapering. The marks of the septa 
are distant, and cross the siphuncle diagonall}', inclining toward the 
apex on the ventral side, at an angle of from 20 to 30 degrees. The 
diameter of the siphuncle, at the place at which the internal tube 
arises, is a little less than an inch, and the septa are distant nearly 
one half an inch. 

The internal tube arises near the ventral side, and. rapidly enlarges 
into a half wedge-shape, or a tube convex on one side and flattened on 

Description of Ten New Species of Fossils. 8u 

the other. The convex side of the tube hugs, closel\', the interior ot 
the ventral side of the siphuncle, and, as it enlarges, the flattened side 
approaches the dorsal side of the siphuncle until it well nigh fills the 
internal area, as shown by the figures. It arises between the lines 
that mark the septa, and, at this point, there is a slight expansion of 
the siphuncle, marked by a convex swelling extending quite around 
the siphuncle, but greatest upon the ventral side. 

It was collected by W. C. Egan, Esq., of Chicago, Illinois, in whose 
honor I have proposed the specific name, in rocks of the age of the 
Hudson Kiver Group, at Bristol, in that State. 

BemarTcs. — The internal tubes of the Endoceras, as known to Prof. 
Hall, at the time he founded the genus, were conical, and it seems, from 
the " Observations on the purposes of the embryonic sheaths of Endo- 
ceras, and their bearing on the origin of the siphon in the Orthocerata''' 
by R. P. Whitfield (Bull. No. 1, Am. INlus. Nat. Hist., 1881), that only 
conical sheaths or tubes have, heretofore, been described in America. 
In this species, it might be described as somewhat half conical, or 
more nearly half wedge shaped. In the two specimens illustrated, the 
siphuncles are crystalline, and the internal tubes are perfectly smooth 
and without any indications of attachment to the surrounding siphun- 
cle. If, therefore, the internal tube was constructed for the purpose 
of the protection of the animal, after the apex of the shell had been 
injured or worn away, we have a secondary tube constructed in a 
wholly different form from the primar^^ one; but, as it soon expands so 
as to nearly fill the original siphuncle, the appearance, on the whole, 
gives countenance to this view of its purpose, as advanced, by Prof. 
Whitfield, in the paper above alluded to, if we except, possibly, the ex- 
pansion of the siphuncle at the point of the commencement of the tube. 

Endoceras bristolense, n. sp. 

Plate IV., fig. 2, showing the rapid expansion of the internal tube of the siphuncle; fig. 
2<( shows the marks of the septa on the siphuncle before the commencement of the internal 

This species is founded upon the siphuncle and the internal tube, 
the external appearance of the outer shell being unknown. The si- 
phuncle is rather rapidly tapering, at least, much more so than it is 
in E. egani. The marks of the septa are moderately close together, 
and cross the siphuncle diagonall}', inclining toward the apex on the 
ventral side, at an angle of about 40 degrees. The diameter of the 
siphuncle, at the place at which the internal tube arises is about an 
inch, and the septa are distant about 22 lOOths of an inch. 

86 Cincinnati Soclefy of Nalural JI Istory. 

The internal Inbe arises centrally or siibcentrally, and very raj)i(lly 
expands in a conical shape, until it fills, or nearly tills, the interior 
space of the siphuncle. The specimens examined are crystalline, and 
the internal tubes are perfectly smooth, without any indications of at- 
tachment to the surrounding siphuncle, in the upper part; but from 
the rapid expansion, and the nearness to the shell of the siphuncle, at 
the points observed, we rtxixy fairly infer that it unites with the si- 
phuncle, at no great anterior distance, thus forming a protection to 
the animal from injuries to the apex of the shell, or cutting off its 
means of attachment or its habitation from the older part of the shell, 
when it was no longer nesded or desired. 

It was collected by W. C. Egan, Esq., in rocks of the age of the 
Hudson River Group, at Bristol, Illinois. 

'Endoceras in^quabile, n. sp. 

Plate IV., fig. 3 and 3a, natural size. 

This species is founded upon the siphuncle, all other parts being 
unknown. The siphuncle is straight upon one side. It commences 
at a point and somewhat rapidly swells upon one side for the distance 
of about an inch, .ind then slowly contracts itself upon that side until 
it forms a true C3'lindei', forward of which, as far as our specimen is 
preserved, which is more than an inch, there is neither expansion nor 
contraction. The marks of the septa, upon the cj'lindrical part, are 
distant about half the diameter of the siphuncle, cross it diagonally, 
and inclining forward, upon the straight side, at an angle of about 30 
degrees. If we judge by the inclination of the septa, in comparison 
with other species, the straight side will be the dorsal, and the dis- 
tended side, the ventral. Having three specimens of this peculiar si- 
phuncle, 1 have no doubt that it is a normal form and represents a 
particular species, though it would have been more gratifying, if the 
specimens had shown other characters in addition to those defined. 

It was collected by W. C. Egan, of Chicago, in locks of the age of 
the Hudson River Group, at Bristol, Illinois. These three species of 
Endoceras present characters so distinct from an^^ known to the au- 
thor, from rocks of the same age in this vicinitj', that they have been 
to him of special interest. 


I aperture view ; 4a, dorsal view, both very poor 
as to be of some service in identification. 

Shell obliquely subovate, spire depressed, and rising but little above 

Plate IV, fig. 4, an aperture view ; 4a, dorsal view, both very poorly executed, but bear 
r such resemblance as to be of some service in identification. 

Description of Ten JS'eio Species of Fossils. 87 

the body volution ; volutions three, very rapidly increasing iu size, the 
last one forming nine tenths of the entire bulk of the shell. Suture 
deep. Shell very thick and deeply cancellated. About twelve coarse 
revolving lines commence at the aperture, but not more than three 
reach the second volution, and I am inclined to think that only two 
are prolonged so far as that. These are crossed by strong oblique fur- 
rows that give the surface a deeply-pitted or cancellated appearance. 
The aperture is somewhat half-elliptical, or forming rather more than 
half an ellipse. (Fig. 4a shows the aperture much too circular, it is 
not as wide above, and is more pfolouged beL>w than is shown by the 
illustration). It is full two thirds of the length of the shell. The 
shell is not perfect at the base, and is destroyed at several other places 
on the specimen, but enough is preserved to show its general char- 

I collected this species in rocks of the age of the Ripley Group, 
near Livingston, Alabama. 

Last season I had occasion to visit the towns of Macon and Meri- 
dian, Mississippi, and Livingston, Alabama. By the railroad, Macon 
is situated about 60 miles north, and Livingston about 40 miles north- 
east of Meridian. I traveled in a buggy south from Macon about 12 
miles, and northeast from Livingston to the Black Warrior, which is 
about the same distance. In addition to this, I ascended to the top of 
the bills at Meridian, and had a general view of the surrounding coun- 
try, beside the observations I was enabled to make along the lines of 
railroad travel. I am thus particular iu mentioning the opportunities 
for observation, because I saw no evidence throughout the whole region 
mentioned, of the northern drift. The contour of the country and the 
character of the strata evidence the local wear and tear of the seasons 
since the elevation of the land, without the aid of any foreign eroding 
force. It is, therefore, as I am very fully convinced, a driftless area. 

The fossils collected in the various exposures, from Macon south for 
a distance of fifteen miles, and from the Black Warrior to Livingston, 
Alabama, were mixed together, but the formations exposed are the 
same on the two lines of travel. The rotten limestone is exposed at 
Macon, and on the Black Warrior, while the Riplej' Group caps the 
highest part of tlie hills farther south, from either place. Tlie two 
groups shade into each other, and during the limited time of m}' ob- 
servations, I did not discover the line of separation; indeed, I was not 
expecting to see any exposures of the Ripley Group, and it was not 
until I examined the fossils, at home, that it occurred to me that the 

88 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

santly limestone, ou the lidges crossed, beloug to this age. The fol- 
lowing list of fossils, which I collected, indicates the presence of rocks 
lower than the Ripley Group, as well as of that age; but under the 
circumstances, it being probable that this is the first published list 
trom these localities, I prefer not to attempt to separate them: 

Baculites asper, B. labyrinlhicus, B. ovatiis, Nautilus perlatus, 
Heteroceras conradi, Exogyra costata, E. interrupta, Ostrea con/ra- 
gosa, O. congesta, O. denticuUfera, 0. littlei, 0. mesenterica, 0. panda, 
0. j)eculiaris, 0. plumosa, 0. jyusiUn, Placunanornia sa/fordi, Panopaa 
tuomeyi, Idonearca vulgaris, Cardium alabamense, C. hemicyclicum, 
Trigonia thoracica, Oryphma mutabilis, G. vomer, fnoceramus 
barabini, Axinwa hamula, Anornia argentaria, A. tellinoides, Plagi- 
arca carolinensis, Cuculloia ungula, Legumen ellipticus, Veniella 
conradi, V. trapezoidea, Leiopistha protexta, Clavagella armata, 
Plicatula urticosa, Turritella fastigata, T. vertebroides, Chemnitzia 
meekana, Qyrodes alveatus, O. petrosus, Scalaria sillimani, Voluta 
spillmani, V. subjugosa, V. tuomeyana, Bostellites nasutus, Leioder- 
ma canalis, Pyropsis richardsoni, Angaria lapidosa, Anchura 
arenarum, Badiolites lamellosus, Spatangus parastatus, Serpula bar- 
bata, Hamulus 'onyx, Stomatopora regularis, Dentalina pulcher, Can- 
cellaria livingstonensis, here described as a new species, and a few 
microscopic forms, and the fragment of a crinoid. 

Archaeological researches in the Madison ville Pre-historic Cemetery 
are still being prosecuted by this Society, iu connection with the 
Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Professor Maxime Kovalevsk3% of the Universitj^ of "Moscow, was in 
the city for a few da^ys in the latter part of June. The professor is 
investigating the subject of American Ethnolog}', and devoted con- 
siderable time to the Anthropological Department of the Society's 
Museum, manifesting especial interest in the large series of objects 
from the Madisonville Ancient Cemetery. 

The Societ}' has recently added to its attractions, b}' purchase, a 
microscope, of first-class working model, and a cabinet in which is 
arranged a beautiful series of coral sections, representing this vicinity ; 
fossil diatoms from every known localitj', and a good series of histo- 
logical slides. 

Attention is called to the fact that the instrument is intended for 
the use of members of the Society. 

Zoological Miscellany . 89 



Words fail to express the sensations experienced hy a northern nat- 
uralist, on entering- for the first time, the Sugar District of Louisiana. 
While the monotonous landscape of this section, with its never-varying 
fringe of moss-hung C3'press limiting the view in all directions, is but 
slightly attractive from an artistic standpoint, to the naturalist even 
the very monotony is unique in character ; while he can not fail to be 
impressed b}^ the peculiarities of climate, the sub tropical character of 
the fauna and flora, and the evidences existing on every side of that 
long continued conflict between land and water, to which is due such 
vast accessions to our southern border in ages past; a conflict still 
waging as persistently and silentl}^ as ever, and gradually converting 
the Mexican Gulf into an inland sea. 

Strolling quietly along on a clear April morning, through the highly 
cultivated grounds of a sugar plantation in the Parish of West Baton 
Rouge, our ears are saluted by the full, clear notes of the Cardinal 
Grosbeak, whose brilliant plumage glows like a live coal in the dark 
recesses of a hedge of Cherokee Rose ; from the top of a tall weed sway- 
ing in the breeze, the rainbow- hued Nonpariel Finch sings a pleasing 
ditt^^ to his plainly-colored mate in the brier-patch below ; whilst the 
many-tongued Mocker pours out his matchless wealth of song from the 
topmost bough of a China berr^- tree. 

A startled Crow peers up at us over the edge of a neighboring ditch 
bank, where he is seeking the crayfish which form a considerable 
portion of his diet in this region, and uttering harsh protests against 
our intrusion at his breakfast table, betakes himself to more distant 
poaching grounds. 

High overhead a pair of Red-tailed Hawks are passing in inter- 
locking circles, making the ambient air resound with piercing screams; 
while afar off" in the azure distance a circling band of Turkey Vultures 
and Carrion Crows mark the course of that artery of a continent — the 

These are only a few of the sights and sounds which divert our atteu- 

••' Edited by Dr. F. W. Langdon 
Coinmunic'iitions intended for this department should bo addressed to the Editor Con- 
tributors will please write legibly, and on one side only of the paper, leaving an inch of 
margin on the left. 

90 f'incuinati Socieh/ of Ndtjirdl II istorii. 

tion :is wf [ci^.-, iliroiigh a mile or two of newly plowed eanefield, toward 
the dark wiill of verdure which marks the outline of the adjoining 
"swamp," as the woodland, dry or wet, is here called, for it is all wet 
at some season of the year. 

Leaving the border of the plantation, our course lies along the Inanks 
of a small bayou, or creok, as we would call it in Ohio; the appear- 
ance of a ripple on its surface apprizes us of the presence of a Mink, . 
cleaving the inky waters like an arrow, — a flash, a report, and the smoke 
rolls up from the water disclosing the struggling form of another 
candidate for scientific immortality. Passing onward through scatter- 
ing thorny locusts, sycamores and sweet gums, with an abundant 
undergrowth of blackberry vines, our eyes are delighted with the sight 
of a pair of beautiful Swallow-tailed Kites, floating over the tree tops 
or skirting the edge of the woodland in graceful, undulating curves, 
as they pursue their insect prey; a startled hare, bouncing from her 
covert, disappears within the friendly labyrinth of briers. A few steps 
farther and we reach the moist black soil and deep shades of the 
swamp proper, where the umbrageous evergreen oaks and stately 
sweet gums, heavily festooned with Spanish moss, vie with each 
other in shutting out the light of day. Immense gnarled vines 
struggle upw^ard through the gloom like giant serpents enfolding the 
monarchs of the forest in their embrace: on every side a maze of lesser 
climbers creep, stretch and hang from tree to tree; the fan-like palmetto 
spreads its serrate leaves to catch the faintest zephyrs that reach these 
sylvan depths ; while high above all the towering cypress lifts its 
moss-crowned head, with arms outstretched as if to guard the pre- 
cincts below from desecration. A solitary sunbeam, piercing an open- 
ing in the canopy of foliage, stretches through the sombre depths like 
a golden shaft, and tipping the palmetto spines with yellow light, is 
shattered into a thousand splinters on the surface of the i)ool below. 

A Blacksnake, snugly ensconced in a mass of tangled vines, eyes us 
lazily as he basks in its welcome rays; scurrying Lizards of varied 
hues seek a place of safety from whence to view our movements; and 
an Opossum, with half a dozen young clinging to tail and back, looks 
up in surprise for an instant before seeking the friendly shelter of a 
convenient hollow log. 

In a neighboring thicket, the unique notes of the White-eyed Vireo, 
and the metallic lisp of the Blue Yellow-backed Warbler are heard, 
while the varied song of the Mocking Bird reaches our ears from the 
now distant border of the plantation. From a thickety knoll a Chuck- 

Zoological Miscellany, 91 

wills-widow flickers noiselessly into view for an instant, giving us a 
long-wished for opportunity for a hast}' shot at the place in the dense 
foliage, where it disappeared. 

Securing our bird, we turn our course toward an open glade, whence 
the tapping of the shy Pileated Woodpecker on some blasted trunk, 
greets our ears ; a pair of Wood Ducks are disporting themselves in 
the pool below; a Snow}' Egret poises gracefull}' in bold relief against 
its inky surface, while the rattling note of the Kingfisher ou an over- 
hanging limb, announces our intrusion. The Alligators have not yet 
awakened from their winter's sleep, and even at the most favorable 
times are not nearl}- so common as us unsophisticated Northerners are 
apt to think them. 

The hour of noon arrives: the palmettos quiver in the embrace of 
the last dying zephyr; all forest sounds are hushed, save the monoton- 
ous hum of m^^riad insects: and, after due attention to the material 
wants of the inner man, we take our siesta on the prostrate trunk of a 
patriarchal cypress. 

Rested and refreshed, we shape our course to reach the edge of a 
clearing, where our wishful gaze is rewarded b}' the sight of an ap- 
proaching floc'k of Little Blue Herons, They number among their 
ranks a goodly number of the white (generally considered immature), 
birds, and after circling about for a few moments, set their wings and 
glide downward into the center of an overflowed meadow, far out of 
gunshot from the nearest cover, where, with craning necks and stately, 
measured steps, they proceed to regale themselves to satiet}- on the 
ever-abundant Crayfish. 

This last-mentioned animal is an exceedingi}' important element of 
the fauna, as well from an economic as from a zoologic standpoint; for 
not onl}' does it form a staple article on the bill of fare of many birds 
and mammals, but at the tables of the native population supplies the 
place occupied b}' the Shrimp in many seaboard districts; and the 
writer can testify, trom .ibundant personal experience, to its gustative 
attractions. It is a very common sight to sec half a dozen or more 
Creole women and children grouped along a ditch-bank in the warm 
afternoon sun, catching the Craylish for their evening meal. Their 
tackle is exceedingly simple, consisting merely of a stick three or four 
feet long and a line of equal length, to which is attached a "chunk'" 
of bacon; Avith this primitive apparatus you may take a peck or more 
of Crayfish in a few hours. As the cit\^ of Paris consumes annuall\-* 
five or six millions of Crayfish, at a cost of about eighty thousand 

92 Cincinnal.i Society of Ntifmuil Uistonj. 

dollars,* it is not surprising that the natives of this section, who are 
mostly of French descent, should appreciate their dietetic importance. 

Again, the innumerable burrows of these crustaceans, honeycomb- 
ing the soil everywhere, and all leading toward the nearest ditch or 
bayou, greatly facilitate the rapid carrying away of the surface drain- 
age — an exceedingly important matter in this almost perfectly level 
country. On the whole, therefore, their extermination would doubtless 
prove a serious loss, even though they do sometimes occasion trouble 
b^' perforating the levees. 

Turning our attention to the swamp again, our reflections on Cray- 
fish and Correlation are brougl\t to a sudden termination by the ap- 
pearance, through an opening in the foliage, of a Great Blue Heron, 
winging his way heavily toward a blasted Cypress top, whence, after 
glancing warily about, he sets his broad pinions, and with dangling 
legs sails languidly down to the margin of the bayou below. 

So the time passes, almost like a dream, until at last the thicltening 
gloom and hootings of numerous Barred Owls admonish us of the ap- 
proaching sunset. The swallows are skimming homeward o'er the 
newly plowed ground; the frogs begin their evening pipe along the 
bayous, while from his resting place in some hollow trunk the Red 
Bat flickers forth and with vacillating flight marks out his zig-zag 
course against the sk}'. 

We look in vain for our accustomed Northern twilight — the crimson 
sun drops behind the Cypress wall that borders the horizon, and night 
reigns supreme. — (Ed.) 


SciUROPTERUS VOLUCELLA, GocffVoy. — Commou Flying Squirrel. 

Felis domesticus, L. — Common House Cat. 

Coming home one Saturday evening, after a week's absence in town, 
I found the juveniles of the family in great tribulation. They had 
planted a jjea patch by the side of the wood on some idle ground, and 
the paths were all littered with pea shells. I went up next morning 
with dog and gun, but saw nothing. Dog did not seem to know the 
scent. Sent for the cat. She scented the shells and trotted home. 
Looked bad for the peas; next Saturday evening came home; all was 
lovely; peas safe: tails of three flying squirrels were produced — found 

*Vid,: Huxley, "The Crayfish," p. 10. 

Zoological Miscellany. 93 

ou sweeping under the bureau. Though owning the wood for twenty 
years, had never seen one in it. They are easil}^ taken when their nest 
is known, as they sleep all day ond are abroad only at night, unless 
disturbed. The cat was all that saved the crop. — C. G. Siewers, New- 
port, Ky. 

Blakina brevicauda, Baird. — (See Ornithology — Biiteo borealis, 
p. 95). 


Spring arrivals at Bardstown, K}'. — Almost . all of our common 
migrants are considerabl}' ahead of time this spring. I have noted 
the following early arrivals: 

Harporhynchus rufus (Linn.), Cabanis. — Broion Thrasher. — March 

Polioptila c^rulea (Linn.), Scl. — Blue-gray Onatcatcher. — March 

SiURUS MOTociLLA (VieiU.), Coues. — Large-hilled Water Thrush. — 
March 30th. 

Mniotilta vakia (Linn.), Vieillot. — Black and White Creeper. — 
April 1st. 

Dendrceca DOMINICA ALBiLORA, Baird. — White-browed Yellow -throat- 
ed Warbler. — April 3d. 

Dendrceca blackburni^ (Gm.), Baird. — Blackburnian Warbler. — 
April 3d. 

Helminthophila pinus (Linn.), Ridgway. — Blue-winged Yellow 
Warbler.— K\n-\\ 10th. 

Parola AMERICANA (Linn.), Bp. — Blue Yellow-backed Warbler. — 
April 10th. 

Dendrceca c^rulea (Wilson), Bd. — Cerulean Warbler. — April 10th. 

Dendrceca virens (Gm.), Baird. — Black-throated Green Warbler. — 
April 10th. 

Vireosylvia olivacea (Linn.), Bp. — Red eyed Vireo. — April 10th. 

Lanivireo solitarids (Vieill.), Bd. — Blue-headed Vireo. — April 10th. 

All of these birds are horn two to three weeks in advance of their 
usual time of appearance here. — C. W. Beckham, Ba^dstown, Nelson 
county, Ky.,* April 30th, 1882. 

Brookville (Indiana) Notes. 
Thryomanes BEWICK! (Aud.) Baird. — Bewick's Wren. — Early in 
March, 1882, twoor three Bewick's Wrens were noted. About the 15th 

* About ItX) iiiile.< southwest ol'CinoinniUi.— (Ed.) 

94 CincAnnati isocietij oj Nahirnl Hislijrii. 

oftlic same month, I discoveiecl in the hollow ol' u log of uii old builrling, 
:i nest of the same species, which from some cause was abandoned 
when completed. On April 25th, being told of another Wren's nest, 
about forty rods distant from the first, I found it in a hollow fence rail, 
and on rapping the rail a few times, I was mncii pleased to see a 
Bewick's Wren come out and alight a few feet from me. Supposing 
incubation was far advanced, I did not disturb the nest or eggs. 

Helminthgtherus VERMivonus, Salv. & Godra. — Worm.eating War- 
bler. — While squirrel hunting, five miles south of Hrookvillc, 3'csterday, 
I found the nest of the Worm-eating Warbler [Ilehiiiathotherus ver- 
mivorus). It was situated on a densely-wooded hillside, on the almost 
perpendicular bank of a gully, and was overhung by the base of a 
small shrub. It was composed of dried leaves, and lined with fine 
shreds of bark of the grapevine. When driven from the nest, the bird 
refused to leave the vicinity, but with distended tail and fluttering 
wings, moved round me at a distance of a few feet, until I called a 
companion, ou whose appearance she flew awa}-. The nest contained 
two addled eggs and one half-fledged young. The eggs are about the 
size of those of the Summer Yellow bird (D. (estiva), with diameter 
proportionately greater. They are pure white, dotted everywhere with 
light reddish brown, most thickly at the larger end. On my first 
acquaintance with this species, it was supposed to be rare, but on be- 
coming familiar with its habits and note (which exactl_y resembles that 
of the Chipping Sparrow), I find it to be quite common ; indeed, I 
think that among our woodland species it will rank next in number to 
the Oven Bird (S. auriccqnllas). which is one of the most common, 

CnoNDESTES GRAMmCA (Say), Bp. — Lark Finch. — On April 18th, I 
saw a flock of this species, eight in number, keeping close together on 
the ground. I flushed them several times, and they always took wing 
and alighted again in a compact flock. 

Sphyrapicus varius (L.),Baird. — Telloio -bellied Woodpecker. — This 
species was very common from the beginning of March until April 
15th. Three or lour seen everyday. None seen after the middle of 

Bubo virginianus (Gm.),Bp. — Great Horned Owl. — On April 16th, 
I visited a nest of this species, situated in the hollow of a large white 
oak, about thirty feet from the ground; it contained two young, in the 
downy stage of plumage, one much larger than the other. I kept them 
several days, and they were good Owls when they were not hungrj^ 
Pandion haliaetcs carolinensis, (Gm.) Ridgway. — Fish Hawk, 

Zoological 3Iiscellany. 95 

American Osprey. — Common spring and fall migrant. Invariably 
present for several weeks in the spring, when I have known it to re- 
main as late as the middle of Ma}'. 

EcTOPisTES MiGRATORiA (Linn.), Swainson. — Wild Pigeon. — I have 
seen the female sitting on the nest within two miles of Brookville, Ind. 

Meleagris gallopavo AMERICANA (Bartr.) Coues. — Wild Turkey. — 
Specimen taken in Franklin County, Indiana, in December, 1878. — 
E. R. Quick, Brookville, Franklin county, Indiana. 

Herodias alba egretta (Gm.), Eidgwa}'. — American Egret. — I 
have to report the capture, at Ma3'sville, Ky., April 22, 1882, of a female 
example of the Great White Egret, in full breeding plumage. The 
specimen is handsomely decorated with the elegant plumes for which 
the genus is noted. I do not know of an}^ previously recorded instance 
of the occurrence of the species, in this vicinity, in spring plumage. — 
John W. Shorten, Cincinnati, Ohio, May 13, 1882.* 

Spiza AMERICANA (Gm.)Bonap. — Black-throated Bunting. — An ano- 
malous specimen of this species taken at Madi&onville, July 4, 1877, 
presents the following peculiarities of plumage : the black, shield like 
•patch characteristic of the jugulum of the male bird, is tolerably well 
defined in a bright yellow ground ; while the sides are streaked like 
those of the normal female. On dissection, the specimen proved to be 
an adult female. — (Ed.) 

BuTEo BOREALis (Gm.) VieiUot. — Red-tailed Hawk. — The stomach 
of a specimen taken at Valle}' Junction, Ohio, -March 2-1, 1877, con- 
tained three Garter-snakes [Enta'nia sirtalis), one nearly whole, and 
about eighteen inches long, the other two smaller and partially 
digested ; also the head and fore-legs of a Mole Shi-ew (Blarina 
hrevicauda). — J. W. Shorten, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

CupiDONiA cupiDO (Linn.) Baird. — Prairie Hen. — Two adult speci- 
mens of this species were kept in confinement by the writer from 
January to June, 1875. T\\Qy seemed to bear their captivity well, but 
lost little or none of their native wildness, and the only evidence 
n.anifested of an inclination to breed was the loud cooing of the male 
heard during the montli of May, which sounded very much like the 
liigldy-exaggerated voice of a Turtle Dove. The male finally injured 
himself fatally by flying against the roof of the apartment in which 
thcj' were confined. — (Eu.) 

Rallus elegans, Audul)()n. — Oreat Bed-breasted Bail. — A specimen 
taken at Madison ville, April 30th, 1876, had sticking in its asophagus 
a large water beetle {Hydrophilus triangularis), the sharp spine on 

'■ This specimen is now in the Museum of this Society. 

96 Cincinnati Society of Nolural History. 

the ventral surface of the beetle having penetrated the wall of the 
viscus. — (Ed.) 


Bothnia sirtalis (L. j, B. <fe G. — CoiiDnon Garter S/ifike.—(Si'(i 
Ornithology. Buteo borealis, p. 95). 

DiEMYCTYLDS viuiDESCENS, Raf. — Spotted Triton ; Newt.— Early in 
INIareh, I found this species in ponds, and with it were man}' young 
batrachians with external branchiae. As the}' increased in size, the 
branchiffi diminished. On the first of Ma}' they were almost as lai'ge 
as the adult, and had developed white spots corresponding to the 
Vermillion spots in the adult; the external branchiae having almost 
disappeared. The species seems to be very common. 

Spelerpes longicaudds (Green), Baird. — Cave Salamander. — Two 
specimens of this Salamander were taken in a "spring house" near 
Brookville, and brought to me. They both escaped from a bottle in 
which I thought to keep them over night. — E. R. Qoick, Brookville, 
Franklin County, Ind., May J 1th, .882. 



On looking back over last season, the finds of entomologists in this 
section seem to have been rather meagre. In Lepidoptera little was 
done except in Catocala by sugaring. Some good Coleoptera were 
taken. In SiLPHiD.a;, Necrophiliis suhterraneus., Dahl., after three sea- 
sons' hopeless search, turned up again last fall. Mr. Charles Dury 
had taken three and I one, there being at the time but one known 
specimen, credited to Pennsylvania. Last fall Mr. Dury found another, 
and I, by replacing fungus, took three. On a trip out the Louisville 
Short Line to Bank Lick Station, some good captures were made, 
among the rest that handsomest of Elaters, Lymonius aurifer. In 
Tenebrionid^, Strongylium crenatum, very rare and new; also, in 
Lagriid^, a fine bronze variety of Arthromacra oenea, not known to 
Dr. Le Conte. This season is very late like the last, but it is now 
high time to begin beating bush and limb. — C. G. Siewers, Newpoi't, 
Ky., June 8th, 1882. 

Hydrophilus triangularis. Say. — (See Ornithology — RaUus ele- 
gans, p. 95. 


■iiii im i mm hismi, 


VOL. V. 

No. S. 


Wednesday Evening, July 5, 18S2. 

Dr. F. W. Langdon, Vice-President, in tlie cliair. Present, 13 

Dr. Robt. Suttler, Dr. S. C. Ay res, Dr. G. M. Allen, J. B. Patterson, 
and Patterson A. Reece, were elected members. 

Section 6, of Article II., of the Bj'-laws of the Societ}', was amended 
by striking out the word '' Archaeology," and inserting in its stead 
" Anthropolog3^" 

The amendment to the constitution proposed at tlie June meeting, 
was passed by the necessary vote, and laid over to the August lueeting 
for final action. 

Dr. O. D. Norton read a paper on the Yellowstone country of 

Donations Avere announced as follows: • 

Smithsonian Institution, ten pamphlets ; O. N. Collett, two pamph- 
lets; B. W. Chidlaw, \'.w\xoi Leucania unipunctata ; J. & S. Boswortli, 
fruit of the Mangrove aud Agave of Florida; Signal Service Bureau, 
Weather Review; State Mineralogist of California, six pamphlets; 
Ralph Colvin, four bottles of insects in alcohol ; Dr. L. B. Welch, a 
Night Heron, mounted by J. W. Shorten ; Otis Mason, three pampldets ; 
W. H. Stanage, skin of Night Heron; W. F. Fiedeldey, seven slugs 
(Limax maximics); Chas. Dury, 26 beetles ; Miss Stickney, five shells ; 
A. E. Heighway, Jr., dusky bat, mounted by Chas. Dury ; and from 

98 Cincinnati SocAety of N'rtfuraf JI is fori/. 

Dr. A. E. Heigliway and A. E. Ileighway, Ji-., a lot of lignite and 
fossil leaves from Montana. 

Tuesday Evening, August 1, 1882. 

Dr. R. M. Byrnes, President, in the chair. Present, 40 members. 

Dr. F. W. Laugdon and Dr. J. H. Hunt exhibited specimens of 
Bacillus tuberculosis of Koch. There were three microscopes on the 
table. The specimens were from one ten-thousandth to one twenty- 
thousandth of an inch in diameter. 

Article three of the Constitution was linally amended so as to add 
to it the following: " An\^ resident member who shall not have been 
in arrears for dues for a period of ten consecutive years, may become 
a life member upon the payment of twenty-five dollars. Any resident 
member who shall not have been in arrears for a period of twenty 
consecutive years, shall become a life member without further payment. 

The President announced the death of Dr. W. H. Mussey, an ex- 
president of the society, and on motion of R. B. Moore, a committee 
was appointed to draft suitable resolutions expressing the appreciation 
of the deceased by the members, viz : R. B. Moore, Dr. A. E. Heigh- 
way. Dr. J. H. Hunt, Dr. O. D. Norton and Dr. F. W. Langdon. 

Donations were announced as follows: 

From Smithsonian Institution, nine pamphlets; Signal Service 
Bureau, one pamphlet; Ed. M. Cooper, two volumes Ohio Survey; 
from Stephen and Walter Coles, fossils; E. L. Sherwood, two fossils; 
Alin Ross, a Cyrtoceras; from Dr. J. H. Hunt, a microscopic slide; 
from Truxton Swift, two bird skins; from Dr. F. W. Langdon, an 
insect; from Col. Crar^-, of Texas, two specimens of Indian pottery, 
from that State; and from L. S. Cotton, a specimen of coral. 

Tuesday Evening, September 5, 1882. 

Dr. R. M. Byrnes, President, in the chair. Present, twenty-five 
members and a number of visitors. 

Davis L. James exhibited specimens of JSTelumbium speciosum, the 
sacred lily of the ancient Egyptians. He referred to the history of 
the lotus, and to the various species of the order to which it belongs, 
the Nymphaceoi. The order is quite a large one, and is distributed 
over the world. The lotus is a native of Asia and Australia, and 
though not now found in Egypt, there is no doubt that at one time it 
was abundant in the Nile. Many representations of it are given oa 
the Egyptian monuments. It was considered by them to be a sacred 

Proceedings of the Society. 99 

flower, as was the case with the Hiudoos, who said that Brahma floated 
on the surface of the water, buo3'ed up b\^ a lotus leaf, and there 
created the flower. Since then it has been symbolized as the type of 
the creation. He showed the strength and elasticity of the spiral 
ducts in the interior of the petiole of the leaf, drawing them out 
twelve or eighteen inches. The cells in the interior of the petiole 
are very large and covered on the inside with curious stellate hairs. 
The large cells contain air sufficient to buoy up the peltate leaf. The 
blossoms were very large, and of a deep rose color, while the leaves 
were circular and of a deep velvety green. 

Dr. A. J. Howe spoke upon some anatomical points of the brain, 
showing its development from the lowest to the highest forms, and 
gave some remarkable illustrations of recover}' or partial recovery 
from injuries to this vital organ. 

The Committee on the memory of Dr. W. H. Mussej^ reported as 
follows : 

William Hebberden Musse}'^ was born at Hanover, N. H., September 
30, 1818, and died in this city, August 1, 1882, after a long and 
honorable career of personal and professional usefulness. He was one 
.of the earliest and most liberal friends of this Societ}', of which he 
became a member at its organization, January 19, 1870. He mani- 
fested a special interest in the cultivation of the natural sciences, and 
supplemented his works and good will b}' the donation of an extensive 
and valuable collection in Comparative Osteolog}^ to the Societj^'s 
museum, which was, to use his own words, " To be increased by future 
donations and called the Mussey Collection of Comparative Anatomy, 
in honor of the donor's illustrious father." Often a worker in the 
Society himself, and at one time its President, he lost no opportunity 
of furthering its interests and usefulness; his frank and zealous habits, 
his upright walk and conversation, candor and thoroughness, gave him 
at once a commanding position as colleague in the upbuilding of any 
good work. 

In scientific research, he was broad, liberal and comprehensive; a 
diligent worker and a faithful friend, with sympathies always for the 
right aud for progress. As an evidence of his energy and promptness, 
as well as regard for the welfare of this Society, the following may be 

In a conversation relating to the interests of the Society', deep re- 
gret had been expressed at tlie loss to our city of the great collection 
of fossil mammalian remains from Big Bone Springs, Kentucky, 

loo Cinciiinali Society of Ndturdl IliHtory. 

formerly exliil)ilc(l ;it tlie Cincinnati Western Museum, an<l afterward 
sent to Europe. Dr. iMussey replied, " Tiiis Society must and will have 
a suitable representation of those remarkable remains, if we have to 
take steam macliiner}- and dredge the whole morass." He also sug- 
gested at the same time another locality to which these animals proba- 
bly' resorted, perished and became entombed. 

Of his professional career it is almost su[)erfluous to speak here. 
Occupying as he did a high position in the medical profession, both as 
a teacher and practitioner, his work needs no further comment. In 
addition to the chair of Surgery in the Miami Medical College, which 
he occupied at the time of his decease, he was also Surgeon to the 
Cincinnati Hospital, member of the School Board, and of the Board of 
Members of the Cincinnati Public Library. He also occupied im- 
portant and responsible positions, as Militar}' Surgeon during the late 
war, and was one of the first organizers of the Cincinnati Sanitarj' 

Ph3'sician, patriot and philanthropist, reaper and gleaner in the 
domain of scientific research, he was at the same time an earnest 
Christian, and most trul}', it lua}' be said of him, " a great man is 
gone" — " the world is better for his having lived." With profound- 
regrets for his decease, respect to his memor}^ and sympathj- for his 
famil}^ in its bereavement, we hope and trust that the mantle of a 
worth}' father may again fall upon a worthy son. 

E. B. Moore, 

A. E. Heighwat, INI.D., 
J. H. Hunt, M.D., 
O. D. Norton, M.D., 

F. W. Langdon, M.D. 

A. P. Morgan exhibited some oil paintings of Fungi made by Mrs. 

Donations were announced as follows : Smithsonian Institute, eleven 
pamphlets and a volume on Ethnolog\'; Joseph F. James, two barn 
swallow-nests and some botanical specimens; I. W. Spurlock, herba- 
rium specimens of plants; Mechanics' Institute, a pamphlet; D. L. 
James, pods and seeds of the trumpet vine; H. S. Clark, humming 
bird's nest; Signal Service Bureau, a pamphlet, and Dr. F. W. Lang- 
don, microscopic slide of Bacillus tuberculosis. 

Men who Aided in Developing the Science of Geology. 101 





By S. A. Miller. 

I am conscious of the incompleteness of this biographical list of 
names, but, in addition to accidental omissions, there are serious ob- 
stacles in the way of making it complete, without extraordinary in- 
vestigation, as some of the geologists have not received obituary no- 
tices in the scientific journals, and not>being members of scientific soci- 
ties they have passed away from their field of labor without proper pub- 
lic notice. It is but just that their names should be commemorated, and 
this article, even in its incompleteness, will no doubt possess some 
value for reference, and as a basis for a more thorough biograph}'. 

Thomas Jefferson vvas born in Albemarle county, Virginia, April 
2d, 1743, and died on the 4th day of July, 1826, in the 84th year of 
his age. He was the author of the Declaration of Independence, 
President of the United States, and eminent as a statesman and author. 
His geological work consists principally in an essaj^ on the fossil bones 
of the Mastodon and Megalon3'x, published in 1818, in the Transac- 
tions of the American Philosophical Society. 

Mr. Thomas Say died on the 10th day of October, 1834, in the 47th 
year of liis age, at New Harmon}^ Indiana. He was born in Phila- 
delphia, where he lived until 1825. He then changed his residence to 
New Harmony. He described more than 1,500 species of insects, a 
great many land and fresh water shells, and thus, probably, did more 
than any other individual bad done to make known the Zoology of the 
United States. His contributions to geolog}' were not numerous. He 
will be remembered as one who enlarged the boundaries of science, 
and reflected honor upon his country', and the age in which he lived. 

Stephen Van Rensselaer, of New York, died on the 2tith day of 
January-, 1839, in his 75tli year. Tie laid no claim to being a geologist 
himself, but evinced the highest opinion of tlie value of the science 
by establishing schools where it miglit be taught, and frequently be- 
stowing bounties upon those in its pursuit. He maintained Prof. 
Eaton engaged in geological studies, for many years, and paid the 
expenses of several publications, and the preparation of many plates. 

102 Cincinnati Society of Kalnrul U lalonj. 

His name is to be eommeinoriitod as a munificent and untiring patron 
of tlie science, wlio projected plans for investigation, and brought the 
discoveries when made before the put)lic. He, therefore, not only 
stimulated its cultivation, but furnished material aid, and performed 
an essential part in the labor of discovery and advancement. 

Mr. Wm. Maclure died at San Angel, in Mexico, on the 23d day of 
March, 1840, in the 77th year of his age. He was born at Ayr, in 
Scotland, in 1763, and for a time was engaged in commercial enter- 
prises in London, where he made a fortune. He crossed the ocean 
several times, and finally concluding to make America his future home, 
he proposed to make a geological survey of the United States, and 
as early as 1809 produced his observations on the Geology of the 
United States, explanatory of a geological map which was the first 
thing of the kind done in America. In 1817, a corrected edition was 
issued. He wrote a number of geological papers for the American 
Journal of Science and Arts, and also for other journals. He was 
elected President of the Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, 
on the 30th day of December, 1817, and was annually re-elected up to 
the time of his death, thus filling the position for more than twenty- 
two years. He contributed to that Academy a large librar3^ a large 
collection of specimens of Natural History, and many thousand 
dollars. He contributed toward the establishment of museums in 
nearly every State of the Union, one of which was in our city, and 
did more to create an interest in geological matters and diflTuse a 
knowledge of the subject than any other man of his daj'. 

CoNSTANTiNE S. Kafinesqde-Schmaltz, a Sicilian b}' birth, came to 
America in 1802, and remained for three j'ears. He returned again 
in 1815, and remained until his death, in September, 1840. His 
favorite pursuit was botany, though nothing in natural history escaped 
his observation that came within his reach. He was remarkably' 
gifted, indefatigable in his labors, eccentric, and in literature a 
prodigy. His geological work, however, did not extend beyond the 
brief definition of a few species. 

Jacob Green was born at Philadelphia, Jul}^ 26, 1799, and died 
there February 1, 1841. He was a chemist and an author. He wrote 
a Monograph of the Trilobites of North America, in 1832, and after- 
ward contributed upon the same subject to the Transactions of the 
Geological Society of Pennsjdvania, Journal of the Acad am}' of Natural 
Sciences of Phila., and to the American Journal of Science and Arts- 

Men who Aided in Developing the Science of Geology. 103 

Amos Eaton died on the lOLli day of May, 1842, in the 66th year of 
his age. He made a geological survey of the country adjacent to the 
Great Western canal, from 1820 to 1824, under the patronage of Van 
Rensselaer. His index to the Northern States was published in 1818, 
and the 2d edition in 1820. When the Rensselaer school was 
established he was appointed a professor, and remained there during 
the remainder of his life. 

Jean N. Nicollet was born July 24, 1786, and died on the 11th day 
of September, 1843, at Washington, D. C. He had been in this 
country about ten 3'ears, a large part of which tinae was devoted to a 
geographical, topographical, astronomical and geological survey of 
the Territories west of the Mississippi. He prepared a geological map 
of the Western Territories, which was exhibited to the Association 
of American geologists and naturalists for the j^ear 1843 ; but we know 
little of his geological work, save from the proceedings of the Associa- 
tion, where he frequentl}^ spoke in off-hand debate, and from the valu- 
able collection of fossils whi?h he secured, part of which were described 
by Dr. S. G. Morton. 

Richard Harlan was born at Philadelphia, September 19, 1796, and 
died at New Orleans, in October, 1843. He was a physician b}' pro- 
fession, and a prominent naturalist. His book on the Fauna Ameri- 
cana is the leading work of his life, relating to palffiontological 

Adolphe Theophile Brongniart was born in Paris, in 1770. He 
was a botanist of great learning, and described numerous plants from 
the Coal Measures of America, in his Histoire des Vegetaux Fossiles 
—published from 1828 to 1838. 

Douglass Houghton was born September 21, 1809, and on the night 
of October 13, 1845, perished in a storm that capsized a small boat 
in which he had embarked to go from Keweenaw Point to Eagle river, 
on Lake Superior. He was an active and energetic geologist, and at 
the time of his death was State Geologist of Michigan, and also 
engaged in surveying the public lands of that State. 

On the 25th day of January, 1848, Lardner Vanuxem died, at his 
farm, near Bristol, Pennsylvania. His father was a Philadelphia 
merchant, and gave his son the advantage of three years in Paris, at 
the school of Mines, where he became the associate of Bronffniart and 
other distinuuished scientific men. After his return liomo he wsa 

101 Cincinnati Society of Ndtnrnl Ilistory. 

engat?ed in the College at Columbia, South Carolina, as Prof, of 
Cheinistiy. In 182G he went to the eit\' of Mexico and took charge for 
a time of a gold mine in that vicinitv. He returned and purchased a 
farm at Uristol, Penn., where he married and remained until the time 
of his death. He was distinguished for his work on the Geological 
Survey of the State of New York. 

George August Golfuss was born at liaireiilh, in 17S2, and died in 
1848. He published several American fossils in his Petrefacta Ger- 
man ice. 

Julius T. Ducatel was born at Baltimore, June 0, 170G,.and died 
April 23, 1849, at the age of nearly fifty-three years. He was Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry and Geology in the Universitj'^ of Maryland for 
several years, and also filled the chair of Chemistr}-, Mineralogy and 
Geology in St. John's College, Annapolis. In 1832 he was appointed, 
with J. H. Alexander, to make a new map of the State of Maryland, 
which appeared in 1834, with a report on^a projected geological and 
topographical survej' of the State. He was then appointed to make a 
geological survey, which position he held until 1841. His geological 
work consists of seven annual reports upon that State — from 1834 to 

Gerard Troost was born at Bois le Due, Holland, March 15, 1776 
and died on the 14th da^^ of August, 1850, at Nashville, Tennessee. 
He was professor in the University of Nashville for twent^'-two years, 
and State Geologist of Tennessee for nearly twenty years. He wrote 
nine reports. The first two were not published; the other seven ware 
published from 1835 to 1848. 

Samuel George Morton was born at Philadelphia on the 26th day of 
Januarv, 1799, and died on the 15th day of 'Slay, 1851, in his fifty third 
year. He became a member of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, in 1820, and was President of the same at the time of 
his decease. His principal contribution to Geology and Palaeontolog}' 
was his "Sj'uopsis of the Organic Remains of the Cretaceous Group 
of the United States.'' His work entitled "Crania Americana," pub- 
lished in 1839, and his "Crania Egyptiaca,'' published in 1845, placed 
him in the highest rank as an ethnologist. He was distinguished also 
as a medical author, while he labored industriouslj^ in the practice of 

James E. DeKay died at his residence on Long Island, on the 21st 

Men who Aided in Developing the Science of Geology. 105 

day of November, 1851, at the age of fift3''-nine. He contributed to 
Geology and Palaeontology, but is best Icnown for liis work upon 
the Zoology of New York. 

Dr. Daniel Drake died at his residence, in Cincinnati, on the 7th 
day of November, 1852, at the age of sixty-seven years. He was best 
known as a medical author and successful practitioner of medicine. 
He was the first writer who called attention to the drift scattered over 
the Southern part of Ohio, and especially in the vicinit}^ of Cincin- 

Charles B. Adams was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts, January 
11, 1814, and died at St. Thomas, in the West Indies, on the 18th day 
January, 185.3. He was a professor in Amherst College in 1836; in 
1837 he was at Marion College, Missouri ; and in 1838 at Middle- 
burg College, Vermont. He was State Geologist of Vermont from 
1845 to 1848, and made four annual reports. In 1852, in connection 
with Professor Alonzo Gray, he published a school book under the 
name "Elements of Geology." He was an original investigator in 
zoology and geograph}^ and a special student of the mollusca. His 
"Contributions to Conchologv" and "Catalogue of Shells collected at 
Panama, with notes on their sjmonom}', station and geographical dis- 
tribution," are his best scientific publications. 

John C. Warren was born August 1, 1778, and died May 4, 1856. 
In 1806 he was appointed Adjunct Professor of Anatomj'- and Surgery 
at Harvard College, and in 1815 he was made Hersey Professor of 
Anatomy and Surgery, from which position he retired in 1847. Afier 
his retirement he prepared and published his celebrated work on the 
"Mastodon giganteus." 

James G. Pekcival was born in Berlin, near Hartford, Connecticut, 
September 15, 1795, and died at Hazel Green, Wisconsin, on the 2d of 
May, 1836. He was eminent as a poet and a scholar. In 1835, he was ap- 
pointed, in conjunction with Prof C. U. Shepard, to make a surve}' of 
the geology and mineralogy of the State of Connecticut, A report of 
495 pages octavo was issued from New Haven in 1842, accoinpanio;l 
by a geological map. In 1854 he was appointed State Geologist of 
Wisconsin, and issued liis first annual report in Januar}', 1855. He 
died before completing tiie 2d annual report. 

Zadoc Thompson was born at Bridgewater, Vermont, May 23, 1796. 
and died on the 19th day of Januarv, 1856, at Burlington, in the same 

10<5 CincinnaLi Society of Natural History. 

State. He was the aiitlior of an elementary work on tlic geoloji;y and 
geographj^ of Vermont, and assistant under Prof. Charles B. Adams, 
State Geologist. At the time of his death he was Professor of Natural 
History in the University of Vermont, and had recently been ai)pointed 
and entered upon the duties of State naturalist, which included a geo- 
logical survey of the State. 

John Locke died at Cincinnati, on the 10th day of Jul}', 185G, at 
the age of 65. He had long been distinguished ff>r his zeal and suc- 
cessful labors in many departments of science. He was an assistant 
on the geological survey of Ohio in 1838, and afterward explored the 
great northwest. His reports are characterized throughout hy original 
investigation, sound learning and good judgment. 

"William C. Redfield was born at Middletown, Connecticut, on 
the 26th of March, 1789, and died in New York, February 12, 1857. 
He was distinguished as a meteorologist and naval engineer. His 
geological publications consisted of a Notice of Fossil Fishes in Virginia 
in 1838; Short notices of American Fossil Fishes in 1841; Notice of 
newly . discovered Fish-beds and a Fossil Foot-mark in the Red Sand- 
stone formation of New Jersey, 1843; On some Fossil remains from 
Broome county, N. Y., 1849; On the Post-Permian date of the Red 
Sandstone Rocks of New Jersey and the Connecticut Valley, as shown 
by their Fossil Remains, 1851; On the Fossil Rain-marks found in the 
Red Sandstone Rocks of New Jersey and the Connecticut Valley, and 
their authentic character, 1851; and on the relations of the Fossil 
Fishes of the Sandstone of Connecticut and other Atlantic States to the 
Liassic and Oolitic periods, 1856. 

Jacob W. Bailey was born April 29, 1811, and died Feb. 26, 1857. 
He was distinguished as a chemist, mineralogist and botanist, but is 
best known to the world for his microscopic researches. For more than 
twenty years he was engaged in investigating and publishing dis- 
coveries in microscopy. With the exception of what Ehrenberg did, 
microscopic geology in this country seems almost alone indebted to 
him for its advancement up to the time of his death, 

Michael Tdomey was born in the city of Cork, of Irish parents, Sep- 
tember, 29, 1805, and died at Tuscaloosa, Alabama, on the 20th day of 
March, 1857. In 1844 he was placed in charge of the Geological Survey 
of South Carolina, and four years afterward published his final report in 
a large quarto volume. Subsequently he was appointed Professor of 
Geology and Natural History in the University of Alabama, at 

Men ivho Aided in Developing the Science of Geology. 107 

Tuscaloosa, and placed in charge of a geological survey' of that State. 
He died before his second biennial report had been published. He 
was also associated with Prof. F. S. Holmes in the preparation and 
publication of a splendid work, describing and illustrating the Pliocene 
Fossils of South Carolina, but died just before the work was com- 

James Deane, of Greenfield, Massachusetts, died on the 9th day of 
June, 1858, at the age of 56. His contributions to geology consist of 
papers on the Footprints in the Sandstone Rocks of the Connecticut 

Parker Cleveland was born in Essex, Massachusetts, January 15, 
1780, and died at Brunswick, Maine, on the 16th day of October, 1858. 
He was for many j-ears a Professor at Bowdoin College, and distin- 
guished as a mineralogist. He published a book on mineralogy in 
1816, to which was annexed a sketch of geology. 

William W. Mather was born in Middlesex co., Conn., May 24, 1804, 
and died at Columbus, Ohio, February 27, 1859. He was for six years 
an instructor in the U. S. Military Academj', where he graduated in 
mineralog3% geology and chemistry. In 1836 he resigned his commis- 
sion in the army and accepted the position of Assistant Geologist on 
the Geological Survey of New York, which position he held until 1843. 
He was State Geologist of Ohio from 1837 to 1840. He also made a 
Report on the Geology of Kentucky. 

David Dale Owen was born June 24, 1807, at Braxfield House, 
Lanarkshire, Scotland, and died at New Harmony, Indiana, November 
13, 1860, in his 54th year. He came to the United States in 1829, and 
shortly after returned to Europe, but in 1833 returned to the 
United States, and in 1835 received his Medical diploma from the 
Ohio Medical College in Cincinnati. In 1837 he made a geological 
reconnoissance of Indiana, and from that time to his death was 
actively engaged in making geological surveys for the general 
government, and for the States of Indiana, Kentucky and Arkansas, 
His works are voluminous, and characterized by original research and 
no ordinaiy amount of learning and judgment. 

S. A. Casseday was born in Louisville, K3'., and died at tlie s;niie 
place, in September, 1860. He is remembered for his valuable pub- 
lications upon the Crinoidea. 

John Evans was born Februar}- 14, 1812, at Portsmouth, Massa- 

108 Cincinnati Society of Natural Ilistory. 

cliusetts, find died at Washington city, an tlio lOlIi day of May, ISfil. 
He was an assistant upon Owen's Geological Survey of Wisconsin, 
Iowa, and Minnesota. He was the first scientific explorer who visit(;d the 
Mauvaises Terres of Nebraska, and collected fossils frf)m that cemetery 
of extinct animals. The collections were described by Dr. Leidy in 
his work on the Extinct Fossil Fauna of Nebraska. In 1850 he was 
appointed U. S. Geologist for Oregon, a position which he filled for 
five years. 

IIiRAM A. Pkout died at St. Louis, on the 2Ist day of April, 1862. 
He was one of the founders of the St. Louis Academy' of Sciences, and 
though a ph3'siciau by profession, took a deep interest in Natural 
History, and described a great many fossils. His geological work 
will be found in the Transactions of that Academy. 

Samuel P. Hildreth was born in Methuen, Essex county, Massa- 
chusetts, September 30, 1783, and died at Marietta, Ohio, July 24, 
1863,. in his 80th year. He is best known, probably, for his me- 
teorological observations; but his "Observations on the Bituminous 
Coal Deposits of the Valley of Ohio, and the accompanying strata," in 
1836, very justly gave him the reputation of a geologist. He was 
afterward an assistant on the Geological Survey of Ohio. 

Ebenezer Emmons Avas born in Middlefield, Mass., jMa}' 16, 1799, 
and died at Brunswick, North Carolina, October 1st, 1863. He 
graduated at Williams College in 1818, and received the degree of 
M.D. from the Berkshire Medical school in 1830. He was appointed 
one of the Geologists of New York, and made the survey of the 2d 
district, the geology of which was unknown before the publication 
of his report, in 1842. His report on Agriculture, which contains 
his "Taconic System," was published in 1846. He published a work 
under the name of American Geology in 1856. He was appointed 
State Geologist of North Carolina, and made a Report on the Midland 
counties in 1856, and a general report in 1860, and was engaged in 
the survey of that State when the war broke out -and forced its dis- 

Francis Alger was born in Bridgewater. Massachusetts, March 8^ 
1807, and died at Washington, November 27, 1863. He was a miner- 
alogist of more than ordinary ability. His geological explorations 
were usually only incidental to his favorite pursuit. The greater part 
of his work was published by the Boston Society of Natural History'. 

Men who Aided in Developing the Science of Geology. 109 

Benjamin Silliman was born in North Stratford, Connecticut, August 
8, 1779, and died in New Haven, November 24, 1864, at the age of 85 
3-ears. He established the American Journal of Science and Arts, and 
maintained it daring his life. His work on geology and kindred 
sciences will be found in that journal. 

Abraham Gesner was born at Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, in 1797, and 
died at Halifax, April 29, 1864. He was a ph^^sician, chemist and 
author of several works on the Geology of Nova Scotia and New 

Edward Hitchcock was born at Deerfield, Massachusetts, Ma^^ 24, 
1793. and died at Amherst, February 27, 1864, His life was devoted 
to educational matters, and especially to the science of geolog3^ His 
first geological paper, entitled " Remarks on the Geolog}^ and Miner- 
alogy of a section of Massachusetts on Connecticut River," appeared 
in the first volume of the American Journal of Science and Arts, and 
was dated at Deerfield, October, 1817 ; and his last article, entitled, 
"New Facts and Conclusions respecting the Fossil Foot-marks of the 
Connecticut Valley," was published in the eighty-seventh volume of 
the same journal, in July, 1863. It was at his suggestion that the 
State of Massachusetts added a geological surveyor to the corps charged 
with the preparation of a trigonometrical survey' of the State in 1830. 
He was State geologist of that State for many years, and his reports 
are both voluminous and valuable. His reports on the Geology of 
Vermont contain a large part of what we know of the geology of that 
State. But the great work of his life was the stud^'^ and determina- 
tion of the "Fossil Foot-marks of the Connecticut Vallej^ or tlie Ich- 
nology of New England.'' 

John L. Riddell was born in Leyden, Massachusetts, February' 20, 
1807, and died in New Orleans, October 7, 1865. His writings relate, 
chiefly, to chemistry, botany and medicine, though he was active in 
procuring the first geological survey of Ohio, and wrote a preliminar}- 

Henry Daravin Rogers was born in Philadelphia, in 1809, and died 
at Glasgow, in Scotland, on the 29th day of Ma}', 1S66. He was State 
geologist of New Jersey in 1835, and in 1836 became State geologist 
of Pennsylvania. The survey of the latter State was prosecuted for 
six years, and then suspended for want of the necessar}- appropria- 
tions b}' the Legislature. The work was, however, taken up again in 
1851, and the final reports were published in 1858. This was the great 

110 Cincinvnti Sncietij of Nahir<d Ilislarii. 

work of his life, and, with the excejjlion f)f his unfortunate nomen- 
clature of the strata, ranks with the labors of the best geologists of 
the time. He became Regius Professor of Geolog}' and Natural His- 
tory in the University of Glasgow, in 1857. which position he held until 
his death. He was the first American who ever filled a scientific chair 
in a European University. His contributions to science were numer- 
ous in the American and European scientific journals and periodicals, 
but especially in the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, of which 
he was for some years one of the editors. 

Robert W. Gibbes was born in Charleston, South Carolina, July 8, 
1809, and died in September, 1866. He was the author of a Mono- 
graph on the Fossil Squalidae of the United States, a Memoir on the 
Fossil Genus Basilosaurus, another on Mosaeaiirus and tjie three allied 
new genera, Holocodus, Conosaurus and Amphorosteus, and other 
scientific papers, as well as important papers on medical subjects, and 
a Documentai'y History of the American Revolution. 

George W. Featherstonhaugh died at Havre, on the 28th da}- of 
September, 1866, in his eightieth year. His work was of little value. 

John R. Cotting was born in AcTion, Massachusetts, in 1784, and 
died at Milledgeville, Georgia, on the 18th day of October, 1867. He 
was for two years State Geologist of Georgia. 

Caleb Atwater was born at North Adams, Massachusetts, Decem- 
ber 25, 1778, and died at Circleville, Ohio, March 13, 1867. He was 
an attorney at law by profession, but wrote a number of articles upon 
geological subjects, which appeared in the American Journal of Science 
and Arts. » . , 

B. F. Shumard was born at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, November 24th, 
1820, and died at St. Louis, on the I4th day of April, 1869. He was 
an assistant geologist in the U. S. Government Surve}^ of Iowa, Wis- 
consin and Minnesota, from 1846 to 1850. In 1847, in connection with 
Dr. Yandell, he published Contributions to the Geology of Kentucky. 
He was an assistant, and prepared a palreontological report of the 
geological survej^ of Oregon, in 1851. He prepared the palseontological 
part of Marcy's Red River Exploration, and the Geological Survey' of 
Missouri. He was appointed State geologist of Texas in 1858, and 
made a geological reconnoissance of that State. His contributions to 
the Transactions of the Academy of Science, of St. Louis, gave to that 
journal a European as well as an American reputation. He was 

Men who Aided in Developing the Science of Geology. Ill 

amoug the foremost of the origiual discoverers of his day in geological 
and palffiontological matters. 

Edward Hartley was born in 1847, and died in Pictou, Nova Scotia. 
November 10, 1870, at the age of 23 _years. He was appointed an 
assistant geologist upon the Geological Survey of Canada, in July, 
186S, and mining engineer. in 1869, His principal work was done in 
connection with a survey of the Pictou Coal basin. 

Sidney S, Lyon was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, Aug. 4, 1808, and died 
at Louisville, Kentucky, on the 24t,h day of June, 1872. He was at one 
time surveyor of the public lands of Texas, and afterward assistant 
geologist on Owen's Geological Survex' of Kentucky, where he dis- 
tinguished himself as a palaeontologist. He subsequently became 
eminent as an authority in the order Crinoidea. His papers appeared 
in the American Journal of Science and Arts, in the Proceedings and 
Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, and in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences. 

John B. Perry died on the 3d day of October, 1872, in his 47th 
3'ear. He was a Professor at Harvard College, and wrote several 
valuable essays upon the Taconic Rocks in Northern Vermont. 

John W. Foster was born at Petersham, Massachusetts, March 4th. 
1815, and died at Chicago, Illinois, on the 29th of June, 1873. In 
1850 and J 851 he surveyed the Copper Lands of Lake Superior Land 
District, in connection with Prof, J. D. Whitne\'. The two reports 
and the atlas made his name familiar to all geologists. He was the 
author of several ethnological papers. His last work, entitled " Pre- 
Historic Races of the United States of America," appeared at about 
the time of his death. 

Louis John Rudolph Agassiz was born May 28, 1807, at Mottier, 
near Lake Neufchatel, Switzerland, and died December 14, 1873, iu 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. His works upon Natural History are 
voluminous, and some of them are devoted to matters relating to 
American Geology, and especially to vertebrate remains and surface 

William Logan was born in Montreal, April 23, 1798, and died at 
Castle Malgwyn, Llechyrd, South Wales, June 22, 1875. He was at 
the head of the Geological Survey of Canada, from 1842 to 1870. His 
labors contributed vastly to our knowledge of Canadian geology. He 
was careful in his investigations, and rarely theorized beyond the 

111! Cincinnati Socitbj of Xularal llislorn. 

ascoi'tiiincd facts. No man ranked lii<flier as a stratii^raphical geolo- 
gist (luring his time. Tiio Wallaston Palladium Medal of the 
Geological Society of London, was awarded him in 1856, and he was 
knighted by Queen Victoria the same year. He was the (Irst to find 
that the Laurentian Rocks were capable of arrangement into a series 
beneath the Ifuioiiian. 

Increase A. Lapham was born iNIarch 7, 1811, and died Sept. 14, 1875, 
at Milwaukee, Wis. His "Antiquities of Wisconsin" was published in the 
Smithsonian Contributions in 1855. He was known as a meteorologist 
and archaeologist, and at one time was State geologist of Wisconsin. 

Charles Lyell was born in Forfarshire, Scotland, November 14, 
1797, and died at his residence on Harley street, London, February 22, 
1875. He was educated as a lawyer, but soon turned his attention to 
the stud}' of geology. He came to America in 1841, and remained a 
year. After his return to England he published his "Travels in North 
America." He came to America again in 1845, and after his return to 
England published his "Second Visit to the United States." He also 
wrote numerous papers on American Geology, which appeared in the 
Proceedings, Transactions and Journal of the Geological Society of 

Archibald R. Marvine was born at Auburn, New York, September 
26, 1848, and died at Washington, March 2, 1876. He was an assist- 
ant in 1871 on the Wheeler Expedition; in 1872 he was an assistant 
to Pumpelly, in an examination of the Keweenaw copper region,' for 
the State of Michigan; and in 1873 became an assistant in the Geolo- 
gical SuvA-ey of the Territories under Dr. Hayden, His geological 
work will be found in the State and Government publications, 

Augustus Wing, of Rochester, Vermont, died in Whiting, Vt., on the 
19th of January, 1876, at the age of sixty-seven years. He studied 
the crystalline limestone, quartzite and slates of the central part of 
that State, and his discoveries in relation thereto will be found in the 
American Journal of Science and Arts. 

Elkanah Billings was born near Ottawa. Canada, Ma}^ 5, 1820, and 
died June 14, 1876. He commenced the study of law in 1839, and 
followed the pursuit of a barrister until about 1836, when he was ap- 
pointed Palaeontologist to the Geological Surve}' of Canada. For sev- 
eral years, however, his time had been in large part devoted to the 
study and collection of fossil organic remains, and he had published 

Men who Aided in Developing the Science of Geology. 113 

several important papers. From 1S56 to the time of his death, no 
man did more to make us acquainted with the geology and palaeontol- 
ogy of the palgeozoic rocks of America than did Mr. Billings. His 
writings are clear, his descriptions are accurate, and his publications 

Fielding Bradford Meek was born at Madison, Indiana, December 
10, 1817, and died at Washington, D. C, December 21, 1876. He was 
an assistant on the Geological Survey of Missouri, and on the Survey 
of Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota, from 1848 to 1852. He was the 
author of a Memoir on the Cretaceous Fossils of Nebraska, in con- 
junction with Prof. Hall, in 1856. He did excellent palaeontological 
<vork on the Geological Survey of Illinois, and also on the Surveys 
of California and Ohio, but his greatest work seems to have been 
in connection with Ha3'den's Surveys of the Western Territories. His 
"Palaeontology of the Upper Missouri," appeared in 1865; "Report on 
the Palaeontology of Eastern Nebraska," in 1872; and the most im- 
portant work of his life, "Report on the Invertebrate Cretaceous and 
Tertiary Fossils of the Upper Missouri Country," constituting Vol. 
ix. of the United States Geological Survey of the Territories, ap- 
peared in 1876, only a short time before his death. 

Timothy A.Conrad was born in August, 1803, and died at Trenton, 
New Jerse}', on the 9th of August, 1877. He commenced publishing 
essay's on Marine Conchology and Tertiary Fossils as early as 1831, 
which were continued without intermission to the time of his death. 
He had charge of the palaeontological department of the Geological 
Survey of New York, from 1838 to 1841. He described the fossils col- 
lected by several government exploring expeditions, and also for several 
State geological surveys. His writings are exceedingl}^ voluminous, 
and are distributed through a great many books. The greater part of 
them, however, seem to be in the Proceedings and Journals of the 
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. He described invertebrate 
fossils from all the formations, from the Silurian to the most recent, 
and an immense number of recent shells. . 

Sanborn Tenney was born in 1827, and died July 11, 1877, at Buchan- 
an, Mich., while on his road from Williams College to the Rocky moun- 
tains, on an exploring expedition. He is best known for his text- 
books on Geology and Zoology. 

Moses Strong was born June 17, 1846, and was accidentally 

114 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

drowned in Flambwiu river, Wisconsin, on the 18tli day of August. 
1877. He had been an assistant on the Geological Survey of that 
State for about four years, 

Stephen Reed died on the 12th day of July, 1877. at Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts, at the age of seventy six years. He investigated the 
drift of Western New England, and is known for his early account of 
the drifted bowlders across the central part of Berkshire. 

William M. Gabb was born in Philadelphia, on the 20th day of Jan- 
uary, 1839, and died at the same place, on the 30th day of May, 1878. 
In 1862 he was appointed as a palaeontologist to the Geological Sur 
vey of California, where he described and illustrated sixt}- plates of 
Cretaceous and Tertiary fossils. He contributed largely in the Trans 
actions of the American Philosophical Society, and in the Proceedings 
of the Academy of Sciences, of Philadelphia. He was a man of great 
energy, with a clear mind, and habits of careful investigation. 

Charles Fredric Hartt was born at Fredericton, New Brunswick, 
August 23, 1840, and died at Rio Janeiro, March 18, 1878. His first 
geological work was done in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and yet 
it was so well done that the eminent authbr of the Acadian Geology 
seems to have adopted it without hesitation. He was appointed one 
of the geologists of the Thayer Expedition to Brazil in 1865, and 
returned in 18fi6. In 1867 he went again to Brazil, to return in 1868. 
In 1868 he was appointed Professor of Natural Historv in Vassar Col- 
lege. In 1870 he published a work on the Geology and Phj'sical 
Geography of Brazil, and the same year returned to that countr}'. In 
1876 he was made Chief of the Geological Commission of the Empire of 
Brazil, which position he held at the time of his death. 

Frank Howe Bradley was born at New Haven, Connecticut, Sep- 
tember 20, 1838, and was accidentally killed from the falling of a bank 
in a gold mine near Nacoochee, Georgia, on the 27th of March, 1879. 
In 1867 he was an assistant on the Geological Survej^ of Illinois, and 
in 1869 on that of Indiana. In 1872 he was an assistant on the Geo- 
logical Survey of the Territories, under Dr. F. V. Haj'den. From 1869 
to 1875 he was Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the Universit}' 
of Tennessee. He was the author of several papers upon geological 
subjects, and described a few species of fossils. 

Benjamin F. Mudge was born August 11, 1817, and died Nov. 21, 
1879. He resided at Manhattan, Kansas, and did much to make 
known the geology of that State. 

Men. toho Aided i)i Develojnng the Science of Geology. 115 

E. B. Andrews died at his liome in Lancaster, Ohio, on the 21st dav 
of August, 1880, in his sixtieth year. He was engaged for many 
years in the study of the Coal Measures of Ohio, Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania, and was an assistant Geologist oh the Ohio Survey, where 
the result of his study may be found. The Reports for 1869 and 1870^ 
and the final volumes of the Survey, present the greater part of his 
work. He described a few fossil plants, but seems not to have per- 
formed any other palaeontological labor. He contributed to the Amer- 
ican Journal of Science and Arts, and to other scientific journals, and 
shortly before his death became the author of a school text-book on 

Charlks T. Jackson was born June 21, 1805, and died August 29, 
1880. He was State geologist of Maine, -and made three annual re- 
ports from 1837 to 1839, and a report on the Geology of the Public 
Lands of Maine and Massachusetts in 1838. Later, he did much for 
the elucidation of the geology of the; New England States, and was 
distinguished as an eminent mineralogist. 

In addition, I may mention from among the Europeans, John J. 
BiGSBY, wjio wrote upon the geology and palaeontology of the Lake 
Huron region as early as 1823, and published several other papei'S 
before the appearance of his Thesaurus Siluricus, in 1868, and The- 
saurus Devonico-Carboniferus in 1878. C. A. Lesueur described three 
species of Devonian Corals from America in 1820. Edouard Poulle- 
TiER DE Vebneuil attempted to parallelize the palaeozoic rocks ot 
Europe and America in 1846, and described two species of fossils. 
Alcide D'Orbigny described a few American fossils, from 1850 to 
1852, in his Prodrome de Paleontologie StratigraphiqueUniverselle des 
Animeux Mollasques et Rayonnes. H. G. Bronn described some 
American fossils in 1835, in Letliaea Geognostica, oder Abbildung und 
Beschreibung der fiir die Gebirgsformationen bezeichnendsten Ver- 
steinerungen. Edward Forbes described a few fossils in 1855 in the 
Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, which wore collected in 
the Cretaceous rocks of New Jersey-. William Loxsdale, in 1845, 
described in the sam<^ journal some Cretaceous and Tertiary fossils 
from America. Hardouin Michelin described a few American corals 
in his Iconographie Zoophytologique, published in 1840-47. Charles 
Stokes described a few fossil Cephalopods from tlie pahvozoic rocks of 
Canada in the Proceedings and Transactions of the Geological Society 
of London, in 1838-40. Christian Gottfrikd Ehrenberg was born at 
Delizsch, in Prussian Saxony, in 1795. He wrote his great work on 
Mikrogeologie in 1854-56, and described many infusoria and micro- 
scropic organisms from the Cretaceous and Tertiary strata of North 

116 Cincinnati Society of Natd.nd lliatortj. 


By S. a. Millkr, P^sq. ^ 

Sdbulites gracilis, n. sp. 

Plate v., Fig. 5, natural size. 

Shell slender, elongate, fusiform, terebrlform, and consisting of nine 
or ten A'olutious. The bod}^ volution forms more tlian one third the 
length of the shell. The aperture is narrow, elongate and terminal 
below. Suture well marked on the cast. Surface of the shell un- 

This species is distinguished from others by its slender form and 
numerous whorls, and from S. terehriformis, in rocks of the same age, 
by the additional fact that it has a much shorter proportional body 
whorl. The species is founded upon two specimens, one of which 
shows the lower whorls, and the other the upper whorls of the cast. 

Formation and locality: In the magnesian limestones of the 
Niagara Group, at Chicago, Illinois. Collected by W. C Egan. 


Plate v., fig. 6, natural size ; fig. 6a, oral pieces magnified eight diameters ; 66, portion 
of an arm magnified three diameters. 

This species is large, with a proportionally small disk. A specimen 
having a disk four tenths of an inch in diameter, has rays an inch in 
length. Five specimens have been examined, all showing the ventral 
side. The dorsal side is unknown. Only that part of the disk be- 
tween the rays is visible in an}' of the specimens, and the plates are 
so anchjdosed together that no special definition of them can be given. 
The rays are long and coarser and stronger than usual in this genus, 
though they were quite as pliable and flexuous when living as others. 
Two series of subquadrangular plates, or ambulacral ossicle, alter- 
nating with each other, constitute the bottom of each ambulacral fur- 
row; these are bordered by spinous adambulacral plates, which ter- 
minate at the angles of the mouth in only five oral plates. 

This description does not conform exactly with some of the defini- 
tions of the genus Protaster, but, nevertheless, I am inclined to refer 
the species, without much hesitation, to this genus. 

Formation and locality: From the upper part of the Hudson River 
Group, near Waynesville, Ohio, and belonging to the magnificent col- 
lection of I. H. Harris, Esq., of that place. 

Description of Three Xev: Species. 117 

Orthonotella, n. gen. 

[Ety. — Orthos, straight; luttos, back; eUu^, diminutive.] 

Shell minute, thin, elongate, lunra or less elliptical, ven' inequivalve 
and inequilateral ; hinge line straight behind the beaks ; ligament ex- 
ternal. T^pe, Orthonotella faberi. It is difficult to determine from 
the exterior of a single specimen the family affinity of this genus. 
The absence of a wing, and the straight hinge line back of the beaks, 
would not allow it to fall within the Pterinidoe, while the gi-eat ine- 
qualit\- of the valves and minute size, evident!}' preclude it from the 
Orthonotidoi and Mytilida;. 

Orthoxotella faberi, n. sp. 

Plate v., fig. 7, left valve magnifiediS.'diametcrs : fig. 7a, hinge line magnified 8 diam- 
eters ; fig. 76, natural size of the shell. 

Shell very small, thin, broadly elongate-elliptical in outline, two and 
a half times as long as wide;, cardinal and basal lines for a short dis- 
tance posterior to the beak, straight and parallel. Left valve slightly 
convex toward the posterior end, but more veutricose in the anterior 
part and on the umbonal region ; beak rather large, obtuse and quite 
terminal. * Surface marked by fine concentric lines. Right valve flat 
in the posterior half and lower part, hut having a slightly convex um- 
bonal elevation at the anterior end, terminating in an obtuse beak 
somewhat smaller than that on the left valve. Surface apparenth' 
smooth. Interior unknown. 

Collected by C. L. Faber, Esq., in the Hudson River Group, at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, at an elevation of about three hundred and fifty feet 
above low water mark, in the Ohio River. 

Lyriocrinus sculptus, S. a. Miller. 
By mistake this species was erroneously printed Lyriocrinus sculp- 
tilis, in the July number of this Journal, page 83, and also opposite 
plate 3. The error was discovered in time to correct it in the author's 
edition. As sculptilis was a preoccupied specific name, Lyriocrinus 
sculptus must be used. 

Caltmene callicepuai.a. Green. 

Plate v., fig. 8, showing a spiral appendage beneath the fixed cheeks of the cephalic 


This specimen is from the upper part of the Hudson River Group, 
near Waynesville, Ohio, and belongs to the collection of I. H, Harris. 
The fixed cheeks upon each side have been worn away, showing a test 
below furrowed in the manner of a spiral appendage, as shown in the 
figure. It is figured for the purpose of calling attention to it, that 
it may be better understood. 

118 Cincinnati Societi/ of Ndturnl lllsiorij. 


By P. DeLoriol, of Switzerland.* 

Plato v., fig. 1, inapnified 5 diameters ; la & l/<, magnified 6 diameters ; \c, natural .«ize. 

This species is as yet known only by the basal cone which supports 
the cal3'x, and which is composed of several enlarging segments of the 
column surmounted by the basal plates. The height of the inverted 
cone is 5 mm.; the diameter of the basal plate is 3| mm.; and that of 
the inferior segment of the column is 3 ram. in its major axis. Its 
form is faintly swollen in the middle; the surface is smooth. The 
sutures are very indistinct, and it is a difficult matter to determine 
what was the height of the basal plate. The superior face of the cone 
carries five slender, and comparative!}' elevated radiating ridges, 
which bound five deep depressions in which the basal pieces of the 
calyx were lodged ; in the center an enlargement of the central canal 
constitutes the bottom of the calyx cavity. The articular face of the 
lower joint of the column forming the inferior end of the cone, is 
elliptical, but the length of its major axis does not, however, much 
exceed that of its minor axis. It is slight!}' concave, and encircled by 
a feeble rim along the circumference line; the transverse articular ridge 
process is reduced to two elongated tubercles, which proceed from the 
marginal rim. Central canal comparatively large. 

Relations and Differences. — Although this species is still very 
imperfectly known, one can affirm that it is certainly distinct from 
the B our gueticr inns eUvpficus, Miller, by the much less swollen form 
of the basal cone, which is but slightly convex in outline; and by the 
facts, that the lower segment of the cone is already elliptical, and 
already possesses the rudiments of a transverse articular ridge. 
Furthermore, the radiating carinse are very much more salient, and 
consequently the depressions which they separate, very much deeper. 
Finally, by its central canal being relatively much larger. 

Locality: Livingston, Alabama, Ripley Group, of the Cretaceous 
or at the top of the Rotten Limestone. 

Collected by S. A. Miller. 

* The description is translated from the French MS. of the author, which may account 
for any imperfections found in it.— [Ed.] 

Description of Two New Species of Crinoicls. 119 

By C. ScHLUMBERGER, of Pavis, France.* 
Cristellaria rotulata. (?) 

Plate v., figs. 2 and 2a, magnified 17 diameters. 

(Cristellaria rotulata, ? D'Orbigiiy,.l839. Forammiferes de la 
Craie; Mem. Sac. Geol. de France, 1st ser., vol. iv„ p. 26, pi. 2; figs. 15-18). 

Shell discoidal, symmetrical, with the spire composed of very closely 
arranged cells. The sutures are fully indicated by faint undulations, 
which permit the recognition of about twelve cells in the outer whorl. 
The central portion of the shell is raised, and in young examples the 
outer margin is marked by a narrow keel. The star- shaped opening 
at the extremity of the last cell is sometimes situated upon the keel 

These characters ally the Alabama species to the Cristellaria rotu- 
lata, from the white chalk, without, however, there being a complete 

The four examples collected belong to one species, notwithstanding 
some differences in the keel and the prolongation of the last cell. In 
^he most perfect example (figured) the star-shaped opening is on the 
keel, where as in the others, which are a little younger, the last cell is 
somewhat prominent. The same differences are found in analogous 
Cristellaria'. from the Oxfordien and the Oolite. These specimens 
taking into account the variations which may be shown in the species, 
are too few in number to permit a satisfactory specific determination, 
especially as they do not furnish any special ornament more or less 
certain. It would then be premature in the absence of more speci- 
mens to establish a new species. 

Locality : near Livingston, Alabama, from the Ripley Group or 
upper part of the Rotten Limestone. 

Collected by S. A. Miller. 





Macrostylocrinus fusibrachiatus, n. sp. 

Plato v., fig. 4, natural size. 

Body medium, five eighths inch high; bowl-shaped; resting below on 

•'•' ALSO translated from the French MS. of the author.— Eu. 

120 Cincinnati, Society of Ndtuvdl H istorij. 

a slightly projecting rim; interradial areas depressed, transverse 
section sub-pentagonal; surface covered with small, semi-regularly 
arranged granules. Column stout, ornamented with projecting nodose 
rims. Arms very large, robust, fusiform, over two inches long, and 
having on either side compressed tentacula;. 

Plates : Jiasal of moderate Iieight, broad at the top, and having a 
projecting rim at the base, composed of large, closely arranged nodes. 
First radials large, hexagonal; four sides are of equal length, while the 
two outer upper margins that support the lower interradial plates, are 
short. Second radials quadrilateral, twice as broad as high, central 
portion of the upper side curved upward; between the lateral sides 
are interposed the lower interradials. Third radials semi-crescent 
shaped, very wide and narrow, with a central elevated angle. Brach- 
ials ten, one being placed on each of the opposite upper slopes of the 
third radials, and meeting at the upper angle, the latter ends rest 
against the second interradials. First interradials five, long hexag- 
onal, they are placed between the second radials, with the two lower 
sides resting ou the adjoining first radials; and their upper sides par- 
tiallj- support the lateral sides of the third radials. Second interra- 
dials ten, two being placed above each first interradial, and in one* 
interradial space two more can be seen superimposed upon these. 
Column composed of thin joints, with central nodose elevations; basal 
portion of the arms cylindrical, composed of wedge-shaped plates, that 
are irregularly placed upon each other, each plate extending but half 
way through the arm, at about three sixteenths inch above the base 
a regular double series of alternating joints, that meet in the center 
of the arm, commence, and are continued as far as known; these joints 
have the outer margins rounded, and the margins of juncture beveled 
to a right angle; on the inner side of the arm the joints are curved 
away from each other, thus producing a shapel}^ defined groove; the 
inner angle of each joint bears a laterall3' compressed tentaculum, of 
which only one long joint can be observed. 

Calceocrinds radicclus, n. sp. 

Plate v., figs. 3 and Sa. 

Body compressed, cylindrical; arms three, one dorsal and two lat- 
eral; dorsal arms rounded above; lateral arms cylindrical, bifurcated; 
basal plate narrow, triangular; lateral angles sharp; column inserted 
in the interior angle, where there is a circular depression with strongly 
projecting margins, forming a socket to receiye the rounded end of the 
column. Dorsal plate linear, wedge-shaped ; dorso-lateral plates pen 

Bemarks upon a Species of Cristellaria. 


tagonal, with the lower margin strongly curved to receive the broadl}' 
rounded lateral ends of the crescent-shaped ventral plate; upper dor- 
sal plate triangular; crescent-shaped ventral plate broad, with round- 
ing ends; dorsal, dorso-lateral and upper dorsal, and the crescent 
ventral plates are anchylosed together; basal plate free; lateral 
brachial plate narrow. The dorsal arm is broad at the base, and 
contracts rapidly for three joints, after which it tapers gradually, 
throwing out two lateral branches from the sixth joint, and upon the 
fourth joint from this are two more. Base of lateral arms formed of 
three plates, the first of which is triangular, upon the two outer faces 
of which there rest two plates; meeting in the center from each of 
thi^-se there proceeds an arm; these arms are again branched upon the 
upper side, apparently at every third joint. In the specimen from 
which this description is taken, the upper arm can^ be traced ten 
joints; upper branch of the lateral arms ten, and lower twelve joints. 
The column was unfortunately lost, but its matrix shows it to have 
been small, C3'lindrical and smooth. Lower part of the shale. 

By E. O. Ulrich. 

The researches of D3'^bowski and Liudstrom, and especially those of 
Nicholson, ampl}' demonstrate the fact that ChoBtetes is eminently dis- 
tinct from the MonticuUporidcB, and anything I might sa}^ upon that 
subject would simply be a reiteration of what those excellent observers 
have alread}' shown. The question of the systematic position of the 
3{onticuUporidcu, however, is not so firmh' settled, and it is to 
show, I hope, more clearly than it has been done heretofore, that this 
family trul_y belongs to the Br3'ozoa, that the following remarks are 
placed before my fellow laborers in this very difficult group of fossils, 
I do not claim to know the reasons for, nor the uses of man}' of the 
characters belonging to the Monticulipovidce, and ni}' lino of argu- 
ment is, I may say almost entirely, a comparative one, inasmucli as I 
only attempt to show that the same features, more or less modilied, 
are present in a great number of undoubted Bryozoa belonging to the 
sub-order Cyclostomata. 

Before proceeding with the subject it is necessary to explain the 

122 Cincivvafi Soriefy of Nalurdl Jllxtorfi. 

torms iisefl to (1(!si<,M).'il(! tlio vjuious parts of those liriiozotr. Tho term 
;iO^/r/»??j is used to designate tlie ontiro colony {Polyzoarlarn, CJiRme- 
cinm, etc.) The Icnn frond, I have sometimes used in an equivalent 
sense, in desei'ibing species n^ Pfilodictya, Feiiestella, etc. In speak- 
ing of the external chai'acters the true cells are called simply cells ; in 
describing the internal characters, of the tubular forms, the same are 
termed tubes. Interstitial cells and interstitial tubes are used in the 
same way to distinguish the more irregular, and usually smaller pores 
situated between and often completely surrounding the true cells. In- 
terstitial pits, I have called the shallow interstitial cells found in some 
of the Ptilodictyonidce, These are well developed in StictoporeUa, 
nov. gen. The axial tube is the central cavity in such forms as are 
afterwards described under Cceloclema. The tube is lined with an 
epitheca (Axenrohr, Dybow.) The spiniform tubli are equivalent to 
the "spiniform corallites"' of Nicholson, and the " Wandrohrchen" of 
Dybowski. Connecting foramina is a term applied to the minute 
pores in the walls of the tubes, by means of which contiguous cells are 
connected. These are found in numerous Bryozoa, and probably ex- 
isted in man}' of the Ptilodictyonidce, and at least some of the 3fonti- 
culiporidce. The straight plates (tabulae) crossing the tubes are called 
diaphragms. The convex plates which line one side of the tubes as in 
Monticulipora, or both sides, as in Prasopora, I have termed cystoid 

In Fistulipora, Crepipora (nov. gen.), and other genera, are found 
small spots (" maculae") produced by an aggregation of the interstitial 
cells. They are usuall}^ depressed below the general surface. The 
" monticules" are usually constituted, b}'^ groups of larger-sized cells 
than the average, which are elevated above the general surface. 


1. Form of the Zoarium. — In the mode of growth of the zoarium, 
and the form ultimateh* assumed b}- the colon}-, we find great varia- 
tions. B}- this is not meant that individual species are specially 
variable in shape, for nearly all exhibit a tolerabl}' constant form 
when adult, and sometimes even all the forms placed in a genus may 
adhere more or less strictly to some particular method of growth. 

The zoarium of the Monticuliporidce and Fistuliporida\ usually 
exhibits one or other of the following conditions : 

1. The simply massive zoarium, of which Monotrypa undulnta 
Nicholson, is a good example. 

American Palanozoic Bryozoa. 123 

2. The discoid zoarium, the upper or convex surface of which is 
occupied b}^ the cell apertures, while the lower surface is covered with 
a striated and wrinkled epitheca. Good examples of this form are 
found in Diplotrypa i:>etropolitana. Pander, Monotrypa petasiformis^ 
Nicholson, Prasopora selwyni, Nicholson, and Amplexopora discoidea, 

3. The dendroid or ramose zoarium, in which the entire free surface 
is covered by the cell-apertures. This type may be variously modified, 
by the flattening- of the branches, etc. Of species possessing a ramose 
zoarium ma^' be mentioned, Callopora elegantula. Hall, C ramosa. 
D'Orb., Batostomella gracilis, James, B. tumida, Phillips, Monotry- 
pella quadrata, Rominger, and Batostoma implicata, Ulrich. 

4. TlxQ Jrondescent zoarium, which consists of a widely expanded, 
and compressed frond, in which the tubes are vertical in the median or 
axial portion of the expansion, and diverge outwards to open on both 
surfaces as grovvth proceeds. This type of growth is represented by 
Heterotrypa frondosa, D'Orbign}^ (not Nicholson), Trematopora 
dawsoni, Nicholson. 

4. The laminar or double leaved zoarium, in which the tubes 
diverge from a central plane, marked by a thin, but double, calcareous 
lamina or epitheca. Species possessing this type of growth are well 
represented b}^ Peronopora decipiens, Rominger. FistiiUpora Jla- 
belluyn, Rominger, and Didymopora appressa, Ulrich. 

6. The encrusting zoarium, which is parasitically attached b}- tJie 
whole of the under surface to foreign bodies. The tubes are short. 
Of these ma}' be mentioned, Kebulipora papillata, McCoy, and all the 
species o^ Spa tioj^ora aiu\ Atactopora, Ulrich. 

7. Another type of growth is formed by Monotrypa P calceola, Miller 
and D3-er, M. ? clavacoidea, James, and M. ? concava, Ulrich. lu 
these the zoarium is free, and the tubes arise more or less abruptly 
from a horn-shaped (M. ? calceola), an elongated conical (J/. ? 
clavacoidea), or simply concave cavit}', which is lined with a thin and 
finel}' striated epithecal membrane. 

II. Surface characters. — There are only two superficial features 
which I propose to mention under this head, and these are the " monti 
cules," and the " macukxj." The first of these are circumscribed areas 
on tlie surface of the zoarium, which are more or less elevated above 
the general level, so as to constitute a more or loss regularly dis- 
tributed sei'ies of conical, rounded, or elongated onuncncos. Some- 
times the monticults are occupied I)v cells differing in no si)ecial feat- 

124 Cincinnati Society of JVatin-al History. 

lire from those occupying the intervening spaces (e. ^., in Prasopora J 
cincinnatiensis, James, and Spatiopora montifera, Uh'ich). In such 
species as Monticulipora mammulnta, D'Orb, {M. molesta, Nich.j the 
size of the cells occupying the monticules is about etpial to that of the 
avei'age cells, but their walls are somewhat thicke;;. while again in 
other cases (e. g., Monofrypella pulchella, p]. and H., Monotrypa undu- 
lata. Nich., and Discotrypa elegans, Ulrich), the cells which form the 
monticules are conspicuously larger than the average. The "maculae'' 
are stellate or irregular spaces constituted b}^ aggregations of inter- 
stitial cells, which take the place of*' monticules." They may be level 
with the general surface, or slightly depressed below it (as for example 
in Amplexopora variabilis, Ulrich, Ileterotrypa subpulchella, Nich., 
and a great number of the species of the Fistuliporidce); or they may 
be considerably elevated above the general level, as in Atactopora mac- 
nlota, Ulrich. 

III. Structure of the Walls of the Tubes. — Of much greater con- 
sequence, from a zoological point of view, than the mere outward form 
of the zoarium, is the minute structure of the walls of the tubes. This 
subject has been exhaustively treated by Nicholson in his " Palgeozoic 
Corals — Monticulipora." and with the exception of a few remarks on 
the connecting foramina, I can add nothing that he has not already 
pointed out. Besides, in this writing it is not necessary that I do more 
than simply mention the principal features of structure. 

(a.) Each tube of the JMonticuliporidce and Fistuliporidce, whatever 
its form may be, always possesses a perfectly independent and complete 
wall. In such species as M. pulchella, E. and H., and M. petasiformis., 
Nich., this independence of the wall of each individual tube is clearly pre- 
served throughout the entire growth of the zoarium. In other cases, of 
which Diplotrypa petropolitana. Pander, Monotrypa undulata, Nich., 
and 31. briareus, Nich., are examples, this character is not so appar^ 
ent. That the walls are, however, really double, is proved beyond a 
doubt b}' the fact that in fractures of the zoarium the tubes alwaj-s 
separate cleanly one from another, each carrying with it its own com- 
plete wall. 

(&.) Connecting Foramina. — Up to the present time I have seen 
but a single specimen of an undoubted Monticuliporoid species, which 
showed in an unmistakable manner that adjacent tubes were brought 
into connection by minute foramina. The sections showing this char- 
acter were taken from a good example of J/, obliqua, n. sp. The fora- 
mina are developed onl}- in the "mature" or cortical region, and the 

American Palceozoic Brijozoa. 125 

walls of tlie tubes in the " immature" or axial region are certainly en- 
tire and without perforations of any kind. The " connecting foramina" 
are preserved in only a portion of the specimen alluded to, for in sec- 
tions taken from other portions of the same specimen, they are either 
vei'y obscurely preserved, or no traces of them whatever can be detected. 
From the fact that so man}^ species, more or less nearlj- allied to 31. 
obliqua, have been most carefuU}' examined, and no traces of connect- 
ing foramina found, their discovery in a single example of J/, obliqua 
must be looked upon in the light of a fortunate accident. Wh}- they 
have not been detected in many other species of the M onticuliporidce, 
I can not certainly decide, but I will suggest that the foramina were 
in use, or I should rather say open, only in the outermost region of the 
zoarium, i. e., between the last diaphragm and the cell-aperture. As 
growth proceeded, and a new layer of cells was developed, the walls of 
the preceding layer of cells were thickened by laj^ers of sclerenchj'ma, 
which of course closed the minute connecting foramina. The foramina 
would consequently be shown only in sections of such specimens, or 
portions of same, in which the secondary layers of sclerenchyma were 
of a lighter or darker color than that of the layers forming the original 
boundar}' of the cell. 

(c. ) Immature or Axial., and Mature or Cortical Portions of the 
Tubes. — In all cases, whatever may bo the structure of the walls of the 
tubes in their final and most developed condition, they commence 
with thin and apparently indivisible walls. This I have called the 
" immature" portion of the tubes, and in the ramose and frondescent 
forms, occupies the axial and deeper regions of the zoarium, and 
almost invariably terminates at, or very near, the point at which the 
tubes bend more or less abruptly outwards in their course to the sur- 
face. In the " immature" region of the zoarium, the diaphragms are 
often entirely wanting, and always more remote than in the " mature" 
or cortical region. Cystoid diaphragms and spiniform tubuli are 
never developed in this region, nor are the true interstitial tubes, all 
three of these structures first making their appearance in the cortical, 
or what I would call the "mature" region. The perii)hcral portion 
of the zoarium, in the great majority of the forms under consideration, 
differs more or less conspicuously from the "immature" or axial 
region just described. The tubes bend outwards, the walls become 
more or less extensively thickened, and if at all present, the cystoid 
diaphragms, the interstitial tubes, the spiniform tubuli, and the con- 
necting foramina, are developed ; besides, the diaphragms become more 

] 26 Cincinnati Social ij of Naljiral IliHtory. 

numerous, and in some forrn.s at least, appear to he of a dilfLMenl 
nature from those crossing the tubes in tlie " immature" region. Take 
I'or instance any species of C'allopora, sucii as C. ehganlula, Hall, or 
C. ramosa, D'Orb. [Monticulipora rnmosa., D'Orb. ) At tiie ends of 
the branches where the "immature" portion of the tul)es is exposed, 
the cells are always found to be open, while over the sides of the 
branch the cell-mouths are commonly closed by opercula, with a 
central opening. In tangential and longitudinal sections, the tubes in 
the "mature" region of the branch sometimes show a diaphragm 
which is in all respects identical with the opercnda closing the cell-aper- 
tures at the surface of the zoarium, excepting that the central opening 
has been filled with a secondary deposit of either a lighter or darker 
colored sclerenchyma than the surrounding matter. It is due to the 
last fact that we are enabled to know that these diaphragms have ever 
been perforated, and I believe that we may now safely assert, that the 
diaphragms of the "mature" portion of the tubes (in at least the 
species of Callopora and Stenopora), formed successively the opercula 
of the preceding layer of cells. In Dekayia, at the final period of 
growth of the outer layer of cells, a thin pellicle is drawn over the 
orifices of the cells, which becomes the floor to the next succeeding 
la^^er, and eventually a diaphragm in the tubes thus formed by the su- 
perposition of numerous la3'ers of cells. The thickening of the walls of 
the tubes is one of the most conspicuous features of the '"mature" 
region. It is accomplished either by an addition of concentric 
laminae, as for example in the group of species typified by 31. pulchella. 
E, and H. [Monotrypella, nov. gen.); or by a succession of obliquely 
arranged and overlapping laminae. In the latter cases the addition of 
this calcareous matter may take place regularly and coutinuousl}', as 
in Batostomella gracilis., James, B. tumida, Phil., Ampiexopora 
ci^igulata, Ulrich, and many others, or periodically, as in IStenopora, 
Lonsdale. The "mature" and "immature" regions are quite as easily 
distinguished in the laminar, discoidal, and incrusting zoarium, as in 
the frondescent and ramose forms. It is, however, not alwa3's so eas3' 
to detect the two zones in the massive species, since in some of them 
the walls of the tubes remain thin throughout their length, the 
diaphragms are remote, and neither interstitial tubes, nor spiniform 
tubuli are developed. Of such forms Monotrypa ^indulata, Nich., is 
a good example, and I confess it is no easy matter to point out the two 
zones in a species of that nature. However, there are other massive 
species of the same genus, wherein it is not so difficult, and Monotrypa 

American Paloeozoic Bryozoa. Ill 

Jiliasa, D'Orb., is one of these. I have specimens of this species in 
which no less than twent}^ successive "immature" and "mature" 
zones ma}' be counted. The " immature" zones are marked by very 
thin tube-walls, and remote diaphragms, i. e., from one to two tube- 
diameters apart; while in the "mature" zones the walls are slightly 
thickened, and the diaphragms crowded. 

IV. Interstitial Cells and Tubes. — Though these are present in 
greater or less number, in the most of the MonticuUporidoe, they are 
never so numerous as in the FistuliporidoB. In the Monticuliporidce 
the interstitial tubes always have distinct walls, and more numerous 
diaphragms than the true tubes. The diaphragms too are always 
complete, and approximately straight. In the Fistuliporidoe the inter- 
stitial cells are not produced into tubes as in the Monticuliporidoi, 
and the cells of each of the various interstitial cell-layers are quite in- 
dependent of those of the preceding laver, inasmuch as they are not 
placed directly over each other, but indiscriminatelj' fill the spaces inter- 
vening between the true cells ; this produces a characteristic feature of 
the Fistuliporidos, i.e.., the vesicular interstitial tissue, which is always 
a conspicuous feature in a longitudinal section. I am not certain that 
the minute tubes forming the "maculae" of some species, as for in- 
stance, Aiacto2)ora maculata, Ulrich, are reallj' of the same nature as 
the usual interstitial tubes. They are, however, identical in structure 
with the tubuli forming the " maculae" of some of the CeramoporidcB 
{e.g., the species of Crepipora, Ulrich). 

V. Spiniform Tubuli — A majority of the species of the Monticulip- 
orid(By and some of the Fistuliporidoe, present, when well preserved, a 
greater or less number of blunt, spine-like structures, which are placed 
at the angles of junction of the cells, or on the line separating adjoin 
ing cells ; or, as is not infrequently^ the case, the}' are included within 
the substance of the walls of the cells. From what is now known of 
these structures, there seems to be little room to doubt, that in almost 
all cases, they were primarily hoUow, though it is very rare that an 
aperture may be detected at the summits of these spines. This fact 
may be easily accounted for by the excessive minuteness uf these 
apertures, and the readiness with which they would be obscured by 
the infiltration of calcite. From sections we learn that tiie " spiniform 
tubuli" extend into the substance of the zoarium to a depth equal to 
that of the interstitial tubes, and " matura" portion of the zoarium. 
They usuall}' exhibit in their centers either a dark or clear circular 
spot, which is surrounded by a concentrically laminated sclerenchyma. 

128 Cincinnati Society of Natural Ilistory. 

The question, wliat is the true purpose of tiicse remarkable structures, 
is indeed a most dilficult one. Tliat they should, in all cases, be 
mOrelj' ai)i)endages to the zoarium, and not possess some really imjwrt- 
ant relation to the other parts of the zoarium, is scarcely probable; 
and I can hardl}' doubt that their purpose was, if not identical with, 
at least similar to, that of tiie small sockets which serve as a founda- 
tion for the vibracula of many of the recent Bryozoa. This suggestion 
is meant to apply only to the large and comparatively remote " spini- 
form tubuli" of Dekayia, E. and H., Heterotrypa, Nich., and a few 
others. I doubt considerabl}' whether these are of the same nature as 
the smaller and much more numerous ones, characterizing the genera 
Stenopora, Lonsd., Batostomella, Ulrich, Amplexopora^ Ulrich, Atac- 
topora, Ulrich, and Rhombopora, Meek. A different and quite plaus- 
ible explanation, I believe, can be given for the latter. We find, 
namely, among the Cheilostomata, many forms having a row of short 
and stout, chitonous or calcareous bristles, placed upon the walls of the 
cell-apertures, which after the death of the zooid fall ofl, leaving 
minute pits in the summits of small blunt spines. That in the Monti- 
culiporidoe these hollow spines are drawn out into tubuli, I believe, is 
due simply to the fact that as growth proceeded, each successive layer 
of cells (i.e., each portion of the tubes between succeeding diaphragms), 
was placed in all respects directly over the preceding la^'er, and in con- 
sequence the growth of the " spiniforra tubuli," was carried on simul- 
taneously with the formation of the walls of the new la^^er of cells. 

YI. Wall-Inflections . — True '" septa" do not occur in any species of 
the 3Ionticvliporidai, nor Fistuliporidas; nor even anything of the nature 
uf the " spiniform septa" of the Favositidte. I believe that I can 
safely assert, that in the forms under consideration, where septate or 
irregularly indented cells are present, with the exception of Didymo- 
pora, i\\Qy are always due to the development of " spiniform tubuli" in 
the spaces between the angles of the tubes. The floriforra cell is most 
distinct in Amplexopora sepitosa, Ulrich, and in the species oi Atacto- 
pora, in which forms, on cursory inspection, the inflections might be 
regarded as of the nature of septa. In other species, notabl}' Batos- 
toma implicata, Ulrich, these inflections are not nearh' so abrupt, 
but the cell walls are simply bent inward, in two, three, or four 
places, according to the number of "spiniform tubuli" having an 
effect upon the contour of the cells. In Didymopora, a new gtnus 
of the Fistuliporidai, we find either two inflections as in Batos- 
toma, or two thin and converging lamellre, which are placed on one side 

American Palmozoic Bryuzoa. 129 

of a line running through the center of the tube, so as to partially di- 
vide the tube into two unequal portions. These are not due to the de- 
velopment of '' spiuiforoi tubuli," as in the preceding instances, but I 
regard them as the remnants of the peculiar projecting lip with which 
the cells in this genus are provided. The feature constitutes a most 
interesting link between the Cerainoporldm and Fistuliporidce, since it 
also characterizes the new genus Crepipora, of that family. Hall, in 
his description of the type species of Callopora (C. elegantula) states 
that the cells are sometimes provided with radiating septa. For this 
misapprehension he is not seriousl}' to blame, since without a careful 
examination of the species, b}' modern methods, any one might make 
a similar mistake. Perfect specimens of C. elegcDitula, and othei- 
species of the genus, such as C. ramosa, D'Orb., and C. andrewsi,Wich.., 
otten have the cell-apertures closed by opercula with a central perfor- 
ation, from which a number of delicate ridges radiate to the margin of 
the calices, thus imparting to the cell the appearanee of being really 

VII. Epithecal structures. — The only remaining point of general 
structure which deserves a few words of notice, concerns the develop- 
ment of an epithecal membrane, which, as a rule, is more stronglv 
marked in those types which possess a discoidal zoarium ; and in these 
the concave or flat under surface is covered by a concentrically 
wrinkled, thicker or thinner membrane. This epithecal membrane is 
not unfrequently marked also by fine radiating strife, which indicate 
the bases of the cell-tubes; in other cases (e. g., Frasopora bellula. 
n. sp.), it is provided with numerous short spinelets. This epitheca 
has no connection with the opercular structures, often closing the 
mouths of the cells, as Nicholson seems to think (" Palaeozoic Corals, — 
Monticulipora," p. 54); nor do I believe that the opercula and epitheca 
of the Monticuliporoids can be compared to the cortical membrane of 
certain species of Favosites (e. g., F. turbmata, Billings, F. clausa 
and F. tuberosa, Rominger). The membrane of these species of 
Favosites covers the base and sides of the corallum, so as to leave the 
corallites of only the upper end open, and it does not seem to indicate 
anything else, than that the portion of the corallum so covered is 
dead. On the other hand the epitheca of the Monticuliporidce and 
Fistuliporidoi, forms a sole or base to the tubes of the zoarium, and is 
equivalent to the "lame germinale" (D'Orbigny), of so many Bryozoa. 
and it is really developed in advance of the cells which are to rest upon 
it. That this is true may be seen more or less readily in all perfectly 

130 Cincinnati, Society of Natural History. 

preserved specimens of inciiisl/uig- species; these i)rf'3(MiL a narrow strip 
of mennljniiie Ix-yond the range of the cells. ''I'liis strip is especially 
well marked in Peliyopora, Ulrich. There is therefore this primary 
difference between the epithecal membrane of the Monticuliporoids, 
and that of the species of Favosites mentioned; that while iii the 
former it is developed in advance of the marginal cells, in the latter it 
is formed after the death of the corallites which it covers. Save under 
the expanded base for attachment, no epitheca is developed in the 
frondescent and ramose species; but in the laminar or double-leaved 
and incrusting types, it is always present. In the double-leaved 
species (e. ^., Peronopora decipiens, Rominger), the tubes of each 
leaf rest upon its own separate epitheca, which is thin, and somewhat 
wrinkled, as is shown in specimens split between the two epithecal 
membranes. In the thoroughly incrusting t3'pes the epitheca is 
excessively thin, while in such partialh' attached species as Prasopora 
cincinnatiensis., James, it is thick and strongly wrinkled. 

In the following section of my article 1 must frequently refer to the 
type of the genns 31 onticulipora, and as some diflFerence of opinion 
exists in the determination of the species really entitled to that claim, 
I have thonght it advisable to briofl}^ point out ray reasons for con- 
sidering Dr. Nicholson's identification of the t3'pe species as errone- 
ous; and I will endeavor to show that the identification of 3f. mam- 
niulata, D'Orb., must not, in the meanwhile, " remain a matter of indi- 
vidual preference or individual opinion." 

The first species given under D'Orbignj^'s description of his genus 
M onticulipora, is his 31. mammulata, from the Lower Silurian of Ohio. 
This species, must, therefore, be accepted as the type of the genus. 
Nicholson, in his various publications on the genus, has identified a 
common species from Cincinnati with the 31. mammidata of D'Orb. 
The form he has so identified, I believe, is the M. frondosa, of the 
same author. The specimen mentioned by Nicholson in his " Genus 
Mouticulipora," near the bottom of page 107, I see little difficulty in 
recognizing as an example of the common large variet}^ of -Jf. fiUasa, 
described by D'Orbigny at the same time with the two preceding spe- 
cies. Nicholson, on page 108 of the work cited, proceeds to give his 
reasons for his selections of the t3'pe of the genus, but subsequently^ 
he freely admits that his selection was an entirely arbitrary one. He 
remarks: "The diflBculties which environ this question arise from 
the fact that there are at least three, possibly four, distinct structural 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 131 

types of Monticulipora which occur in the Cincinnati Group of Ohio, 
all of which are more or less identical in external characters, and 
one of which might, therefore, be supposed to be the genuine J/, mam- 
miilata, of D'Orbigny, and of iNIilne-Edwards and Haime. These three 
or four types are the following : 

"(a). The form which I have here described as M. mammulata, which 
grows in thin undulated fronds, and has its surface covered with mop- 
ticules, which are sometimes low and rounded, sometimes conical, some- 
times elongated." 

"(6). The form which I have spoken of above as probably a variet}- 
of the preceding, which it resembles generally in its microscopical 
characters, except that it has a much smaller number of interstitial 
corallites. In its mode of growth it is massive, and its monticules are 
pronounced and conical or elongated." 

(M. Jilasa, D'Orb. I would suggest that Dr. Nicholson again 
examine this form, when I think he will find that the interstitial cells 
are not only much less numerous, but that, iu realit}^, true interstitial 
tubes are entirely wanting), 

"(c). The form which I shall describe subsequently, under the name 
of M. molesta, and which reliable investigators regard as the true M. 
mammulata. This form is most commonly frondescent, and has the 
form of a thin undulated lamina, but it is occasionalh' massive; its 
surface is covered with well marked conical monticules, which are 
sometimes elongated, and its microscopical structure is entirely dif- 
ferent to that of the two preceding types," 

"(fZ). A form which has a frondescent corallum, and a surface cov- 
ered with prominent elongated monticules, but which has an entirely 
peculiar microscopic structure, unlike that of any of the forms previ- 
ously mentioned. This will be subsequently described under the name 
of 31. dawsoni^ Nich." 

Of these four species, D'Orbign}', without any doubt, had three be- 
fore him when he described the genus, i. e. t3'pes a, h and c. M. daw- 
soni, Nicholson (type d), should fall from this list of possible type 
species, for it is a rare species, and does not appear to occur at Cin- 
cinnati, and, consequcnth', the probabilities are strong that the species 
was not in the possession of D'Orbign}-. Nicholson goes on to state: 
"As before remarked, an}' one of the above, so far as its external 
features go, might very well stand for M. mammulata, D'Orb, ; and in 
attempting to decide to which of these this title really belongs, wo do 
not get much help from the descriptions given either by D'Orbign}-, or 

132 Cincinnati Society of Natural Hinfonj. 

by Milne-Edwaids and Ilainio, as was to be expected, in view of the 
fact that these descriptions relate solely to superficial characters. 
D'Orbigny's original description oi M. mamrnulnta ( I'aleont., 
p. 25, 1850), is simply: •■ Espece en lame, dont les mouticulos sont 
allonges.' Tills, clearly, might apply to any of the forms I have 
enumerated (except b), since all are frondescent, and all have the 
monticules sometimes or always elongated and compressed. The 
description given b}' Milne-Edwards and Haime is much fuller than 
the above, and is accompanied by figures (Pol. Foss, des Terr. Pal., p. 
267, PI. xix., fig. I, 1851). It is as follows: 

"Polj'pier de forn^e tres-variable, diversement gibbeuse et lobee, eu 
general eu frondes larges. epaisses de 6 millimetres environ ; mamelons 
bien prouonces, sauvent un peu allonges, distant d'une fois ou deux 
leur largeur. Calices polygonaux, peu in6gaux, larges d'uu cinquieme 
de millimetre, a peine distincts sur le sommet des mamelous." 

" The above-quoted diagnosis would quite well apply to an}' one of 
the four similar-looking forms I have previously enumerated. The 
figure of the species given by Milne Edwards and Haime represents a 
lobate sub-massive specimen, and is perhaps more like the form which 
I have above designated by the letter h than it is like an}' of the others. 
It seems tolerably evident, however, that without a microscopical ex- 
amination of the actual specimens described b}^ Milne Edwards and 
Haime, it must remain an impossibility to determine accurately which of 
the above types formed the basis for their description." If it is difficult 
(I do not think it is impossible) to determine exactly what type formed 
the basis of their identification of 3f. mammulata, it is certainly much 
easier to recognize the form which they considered to be D'Orbigny's 
31 . frondosn. The figure given by INIilne-Edwards and Haime of the 
latter species represents an unequivocal specimen of the t\'pe a (the 
form Nicholson identifies with M. mammulata, D'Orb.) Those learned 
authors were most certainly not in doubt as to which form should bear 
the name of 31. mammulata, or 3f.frondosa, since upon the same plate 
the}' give excellent figures of each, and describe them as distinct. 
Their figure of 31. mammulata represents a common enough form about 
Cincinnati, and I have in my collection specimens that are as nearly 
fac-similes of the specimen figured by them, as it is possible to be, for 
individual examples of a species which is so variable in its growth 
(from massive and lobate to distinctly frondescent); while their de- 
scription of the species applies in all respects, which is more than can 
be said for any of the other forms in dispute. The species agreeing so 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 133 

ueavh' both with the figures and descriptioQ of M. mammulata, given 
by Milne-Edwards and Haime, is the type c, which Nicholson has 
named J/, molesta. The figure given by the same authors of M. 
frondosa (pi. xix., fig. 5), represents such a characteristic specimen of 
a common variety of Nicholson's M. mammulata, that I am rather 
surprised to find that he does not recognize it, but considers that his 
specimens of a species described by Rominger, under the name of 
Chcetetes decipiens, " present such a close resemblance to the figure of 
M. frondosa, D'Orb., given by Edwards and Haime, that he (I) can 
hardly believe that they are not in reality identical." In opposition to 
this belief, which I must regard as a sincere one, I can only urge that 
I did not allow myself to become fully convinced of the validity of the 
ground I have taken, without corroborative evidence. This I obtained 
b}' showing Edwards and Haime's figure of M. frondosa, to a number 
of Cincinnati collectors and students in this branch of palaeontology. 
Without a single exception all, almost immediately, recognized that 
the figure represented an example of an abundant variety' of Nicholson's 
M. mammulata. There i* one feature represented by the figure in 
question, that I will venture to say, Dr. Nicholson has never seen on 
an}^ specimen of the form he has identified with 3f. frondosa^ D'Orb. 
(Ohoitetes decipiens, Rom.), and that is the suhcylindrical character 
of the lower right hand portion of the frond represented by their fig. 5, 
pi. xix. In his remarks upon M. frondosa and decipiens, Nicholson, on 
page 223 of his "Palaeozoic Corals," makes the following remark, and 
misquotation: "The only point worth}^ of notice in this connection is 
that Rominger himself recognizes (Pro. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., 1866, 
p. 116), the similarity of his M. decipiens to M. frondosa, D'Orb., and 
merely sa^-s that it is ' more delicate in all respects,' and that its inter- 
tubular tissue is less developed.'' To distinguish his Vhoetetes 
decipiens [M. decipiens) h'om M. frondosa, Rominger sa^'s: "This 
species has likewise much similarity with Ch. frondosus, but it is 
more delicate in all respects, and in Ch. frondosus the intertubular 
tissue is considerably less developed, its tubules being usuall}- in im- 
mediate contiguity." However vague the above diflferentiation may 
be considered, it is nevertheless certain that by Ch. frondosus, 
Rominger, meant the J/, mammulata of Nicholson (not D'Orbigny ). 
Furthermore, we find that Milne- Edwards and Haime's description of 
Ch. frondosus, D'Orb., applies in all respects to Nicholson's M. mammu- 
lata, and not to M. decipiens, Rominger [M. frondosa, Nich.); nnd 
although Nicholson states that he is not acquainted with any 

134 Cincinnnl.i Society of Natural History. 

iVondescent species iu vvliich the clUreience in size between the largest 
and smallest cells is at all comparable with the dirterence stated to 
exist by Edwards and Haiim', 1 can assure him that, though rare, 
specimens do occur in which very nearly tliose extremes of size do 
exist. Lastly, it is almost certain that Edwards and Haime actually 
had D'Orbigny's specimens before them, since, at the close of the 
description, they accredit the specimens to the collections of D'Or- 
bigny and D'Verncuil. 

More might be said upon this rather uni)leasant subject, but it is 
scarcely necessary, and I have little doubt that, alter a re-examination, 
Dr. Nicholson will agree with me in considering his identification of 
M. mammulata and M.frondosa as incorrect. In the course of this 
memoir I frequently have occasion to criticise the views of Dr. Nich- 
olson, as expressed by him in his "Genus Monticulipora." This work 
shows extraordinary industry and observation, and I consider it en- 
titled to the first rank in this branch of palaeontological literature. 
While I intend to do every justice to Dr. Nicholson and the great 
advance in our knowledge of this most diflicult group of organisms 
efiected b}' his work, I am sorry to find it impossible to accept the 
greater part of his general conclusions. 

Affinities and Zoological Position of the Monticdliporid^ and 


As reo-ards the zoological affinities of the Monticuliporidm and Fis- 
tuliporidce, some tendency has been developed on the part of palteon- 
tolooists to remove them from the Gcelenterata. and to place them 
amono- the Cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Little direct evidence in favor 
of this step has been brought forward. Eominger (Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phil. 1866), boldly asserts that their affinities are with the Bry- 
ozoa, though it must be confessed the arguments employed by him 
are entirely insufficient to demonstrate the assertion. In 1873 Lind- 
strom published (Ann. Nat. Hist, Ser. 4, Vol. xviii., p. 5, et seq.) his 
theorv of the development of the MonticuUporce. Nicholson (''Genus 
Monticulipora"), after quoting at length Liudstrom's views of the 
development, proceeds to criticise them, and argues with much effect 
that thev are untenable. In his discussion of the subject {loc. cit. p. 60), 
he says: "The colonies of Ceramopora are usually (always ?) Jixed, 
being attached parasitically by a portion of the whole of the lower 
surface to some foreign body; whereas the corallum in the discoid 
species of Monticulipora, supposed to be developed out of the 

American PalcBOZoic Bryozoa. 135 

former, is unusually and normally free; but it is very difficult to 
explain this fact, if there be any developmental relationship between 
the two. Thirdly, as regards matters of actual observation, I have 
never been able to detect anything of the nature of a ^'^Gerampora 
stage" in young Montimdiporce. This is a point which is most easily 
observed in young examples of the discoidal species of 3£onticulipora, 
such as M. petropoUtana and the various forms allied to this ; and I 
can only say that the most minute examples of these forms which have 
come under my notice, differ in no respect whatever, that I can detect, 
except size, as regards their external and internal characters, from 
full}' grown specimens. Fourthly, if it were the case that discoidal 
species of 3Ionticulipora, such as M. pi&tropoUtana, Pand., grew out 
of the thin parasitic crusts to which Hall applied the name of Ceram- 
opora, we ought to be able to detect the primitive " Ceramoporoid" 
portion of the colon}' at the base of thin vertical sections of colonies 
of the former. I have, however, examined a large number of such 
sections, and I have been unable to detect any difference in the 
structure of the lowest portion of the tubes, resting directly upon the 
basal epitheca, as compared with that of the full grown portion of the 
corallites. Dr. Lindstrom states that the basal surface of a Monticu- 
lipora, when its epitheca is very thin, "clearly shows that it is a 
Ceramopora,'''' but I am unable to concur in this statement. If the 
specimen be undoubtedl}' one of 3IontiGuUpora, then I have never 
seen anything in its epithecal surface which could be compared with the 
structure of Ceramopora.'''' My own views upon the subject are, 
probably, in some points, intermediate between those of the authors 
quoted. I agree with Dr. Nicholson in rejecting the theor}' that 
Monticulipora was developed from a Ceramopora ; but I believe him 
to be in error when he makes the statement that there is no difference 
between the lowest portion of the tubes, as compared with that portion 
some distance above the epitheca. In the massive, incrusting and 
double-leaved species of Monticulipora, that portion of the tubes 
resting directly upon the basal membrane, is prostrate, remaining so a 
short time, when they bend abruptly upward, attaining an erect posi- 
tion and the characters of a fully developed tube. This character 
gives to specimens with a thin epitheca a peculiar appearance, which 
is especially well shown in tlie incrusting species. At Cincinnati, col- 
lectors frequently obtain specimens which had grown upon the inside 
of the body chamber of some cephalopod or bivalve shell. The shells 
of those moll isks having been destroyed during the process of fossil- 

130 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

izatioh, tlie basal jncinbraiio of tlio iiicnistinfi^ ))iVozf>an is brought to 
view, and sometiiiios l)eaiitifiilly picsorved. Wlien moisture is applied 
to these specimens the tubes show throiiirh the epiiheeal membrane as 
small oblong- patches, l're(inently with a leiigtli (!qnaling five or six 
times the breadth or true diameter of the tuljcs. Alihough tiie basal 
membrane of certain species of Cernmopora present a very similai- 
appearance, it does not follow that the one is developed out of the 
other. It might as well be urged that species of Ptilodictya, in their 
primitive stages, were Ceramojiorce, since we find on an examination 
of the median membrane, or germinal plate, that an essentially iden- 
tical structure is present. The incrusting and double-leaved species 
of the Monticvh'poridw, species of Cernmopora, Licheiwpora, Beren- 
icea, Crescis, and other genera of the Bryozoa, show at the margin of 
the colony an extension of the germinal plate (epitheca), which is 
always occupied b}' the young and undeveloped cellules. That this 
character, upon which Dr. Lindstrom based his assertion, that 3fonti- 
culipora is developed from Ceramopora, is of much importance in the 
consideration of the zoological position of the Jfonticuliporido', can 
not be doubted. So far as the writer is aware, no analagous feature is 
present in any of the undoubted Ccelenterata: and as it is invariably 
present in so man}' indubitable genera of the Bryozoa, we must regard 
the character as furnishing one of the strongest arguments in favor of 
uniting the 31 onticuliporidce. with, the Bryozoa. The typical species 
of Ceramopora (e. g. C. imhricata, Hall, etc.), are quite distinct from 
all of the MonticidiporidcB, but through C. ofuoensis, Nicholson, and 
C. wMtei, James, and the species of Grepipora, Ulrich, the limits of 
the famil}' Ceramoporidce are laid quite close to those of certain genera 
of the Monticuliporidoe. In Ceramopora whitei, James, the cells, are 
tubular, and occasionally a few diaphragms are present; the cell aper- 
tures are very little oblique, and, in consequence, the characteristic 
feature of the famil}^ (the overhanging lip), is but slightly developed. 
On the whole, the species affords a zoarium not veiy unlike that of 
species of Spatiopora [S. crustulata, James, and S. lineata, Ulrich). 
In the Crepiporce the cell-apertures are direct, and the lip is scarcely 
developed at all; diaphragms are present, as well as spiniform tubuli; 
very distinct "maculae" are also developed, which, in all respects, are 
like those of Atactopora maculata, Ulrich, and with the exception of 
one generic character (i. e. the two converging lamellas, which are 
situated one on each side of one of the angles of a tube), the species 
of Crepipora possess zoaria which would pass very well for those of 

American Palaeozoic Bryozoa. 137 

Moaticuliporoids. On the other hand, the generic character excepted, 
points to a relationship with the Fistuliporidoe, since in Didymopora, 
a proposed genus of that family, precisely the same feature is present. 
This relationship is further assured by some Upper Silurian species of 
Cceloclema, Ulrich, which approximate quite closely to some of the 
hollow- branched species o^ Fistulipora; and I have several undescribed 
species from the Sub-carboniferous strata of Kentucky, which fully 
establish the relationship. That others ma}' be able to recognize 
these forms, I will here briefly describe two of them. They possess 
certain characters which our present knowledge of such types justifies 
me in considering of generic importance; and as I am very much in 
doubt whether the}'^ are more properh' arranged with the Ceramopor- 
idoe or the Fistuliporidm, the propriety of proposing a new genus for 
their reception becomes eminent. Following is a brief description of 
the characters of the genus proposed. 

Eridopora, nov, gen. 

Zoariura thin, incrusting. Cell-mouths sub-triangular or ovate, and 
more or less oblique, with the margin strongl}^ elevated on one side, or 
the "lip" may extend unequall}^ all around the aperture, it being 
alwaj's more prominent on one side than on the other. Cell orifices sur- 
rounded by from one to three series of smaller, angular interstitial 
cells, which, when the zoarium is well preserved, are covered hy an 
interstitial membrane. Longitudinal sections show that the inter- 
stitial cells do not form tubes, but, instead, the intertubular spaces 
are occupied by vesicular tissue. 

Type, Eridopora macrostoma, n. sp. 

As may be gathered from the above description, the genus is exactly 
intermediate between Ceramoporella, Ulrich, and Fistulipora, ^IcCoy. 
Externally' its species resemble the former, while their external char- 
acters simulate very closely those of certain species of the latter genus. 

Eridopora macrostoma, n. sp. (Plate VI., figs. 2, 2a.) 

Zoariura incrusting, forming thin expansions over foreign bodies. 
Cells oblique, large, about six in the space of .1 inch, with triangular 
orifices and prominent lip. The single ov double series of small 
interstitial cells arc readily observed only in worn specimens, the large 
cells in a perfectly preserved example appearing contiguous. Scat- 
tered over the surface, at somewhat irregular intervals, are groups of 

]38 Cincinnati Societi) of Natural History. 

cells, which are made conspicuous by the fact that they are slightly 
larger than the average, and are separated by more numerous inter- 
stitial cells. In tangential sections the tubes are sub-triangular or 
oval, and surrounded by usually two rows of very irregular interstitial 
cells. In vertical sections the interstitial spaces are occupied b}' a 
vesicular tissue. 

Formation and locality: In tlic shaly limestones of the Kaskaskia 
Group, near Point Burnside, on the line of the Cincinnati Southern 
Railroad. At this locality the slabs of limestone are, to a great ex- 
tent, made up of the remains of Br3'ozoa. 

Eridopora pdnctifera, n. sp. (Plate VI, fig. 3). 

Externally this species differs conspicuously from the preceding, in 
having smaller, sub-circular and less oblique cells, comparatively 
wider interstitial spaces, and more pronounced " lip," which com- 
pletely surrounds the cell-aperture, but is always more prominent on 
one side than on the other. Besides, small but distinct "maculae" are 
developed at intervals of about .2 inch. About eight cells occupy the 
space of .1 inch. The cells over a portion of the surface of a specimen 
of this species, have their mouths closed by opercula with a central 
perforation. In tangential sections the tubes are usually sub ovate 
and surrounded b}^ two or three rows of very irregularl}- shaped 
interstitial cells, which also var}^ very much in size. Many of the true 
tubes present two longitudinal lamellae, or spines, which project into 
the tube cavity, and are placed on opposite sides of the tube. Longi- 
tudinal sections demonstrate that the interstitial spaces are occupied 
by a close network of vesicular tissue. The tubes are nearly at right 
angles to the surface, and occasionally are crossed by a delicate dia- 

Formation and locality. Same as the preceding. 

All unbiassed students of this difficult class of fossils must, after a 
careful examination into the facts I have here laid before them, come to 
the conclusion that an intimate relationship exists between the Ceramo- 
poridce and the Fistuliporidoi, which, as I believe I have shown, admits 
of being readil}' demonstrated. 

Spatiopora crustulata, James, and S. Hneata, Ulrich, in their ob- 
long cell- apertures, exceedingly thin and parasiticall}- attached zoaria, 
are not unlike the typical species of Palceschara, Hall. The only 
diffei'cnces of any importance between such species of Sjiatiopo-a and 
Palceschara are that (1), a few large spiniform tubuli are developed in 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. ISi) 

the former, and none, so far as I have been able to determine, in the 
latter; and (2), the thickness of the cell-walls is more variable in 
those species of Spatiopora than in Palceschara. In the second 
feature, Spatiopora probabh' resembles more nearl}' such species 
of Ceramopora^ as C. whitei, James. On the other hand, Palceschara 
strongly resembles certain species of Memhranipora^ and I am inclined 
to regard the genus as a member of the Ilemhraniporidoi. Through 
the channel thus indicated (if the step between the species of Spatio- 
pora and Paloischara be not considered too great), a relationship is 
established between tiie Cheilostomatous Bryozoa and the MonticuU- 
poridoi. Myriozoum, Donatio a genus of the Cheilostoma, like some 
of the CeramoporidoR and FistuliporidcB, has the interstitial cells 
closed by a calcareous membrane, and has the true tubes provided 
with two lamellae, which are placed near together, and remind one 
stronglj' of Crepipora and Didymopora, Ulrich. 

Stellipora, Hall, and the nearly allied form tor which Dana proposed 
the name Constellaria, show many points of resemblance to several 
genera of the Cyclostomata; and, in fact, Jules Haime, in his Mono- 
graph of the Jurassic Bryozoa, regarded such undoubted Bryozoans as 
the species collected together by D'Orbigny, under the name of Eadi- 
pora, to be congeneric with species of Constellaria, and he conse- 
quently placed Badipora as a synonym under Dana's genus. Though 
I am not prepared to follow that autliority in his disposition of Badi- 
pora, I admit that the resemblance between the Silurian and Mesozoic 
forms is very strongly marked. I can scarcel}^ believe that any one 
will question the relationship between StelUpora (and Constellaria) 
on the one side to the Monticuliporidai, and on the other to the FistU' 
liporidce; and also that the genus has certain characters which sepa- 
rate it from all other genera of those families. The most important 
of these characters is found in the arrangement of the cells. In the 
center of the "maculae" is a depressed space from which proceed in 
all directions a greater or less number of slender rays. Botli the rays 
and the central space are occupied solely by interstitial cells. Between 
the rays the surface is raised, and each of the elevated rays is occupied 
l)y the apertures of eight or more true cells. Lichenopora, Buskia, 
and Badipora, have similar stellate protuberances, and with the 
exception that in those genera diaphragms are only sparingly ilevel- 
opcd, I can find no characters of more than generic value to separate 
them fiom StelUpora. 
' The family Stictoporida', through several of its members, approx 

140 Cinchinnti Society of Nalural Jli-story. 

iniates closely to botli the FisluUporidie and MonticaliporidcB. In 
Stictopora, Stictoporella and species of Fachydiclya^ thezoarium has 
a definite form, the lateral growth of tlie fronrls beinij limited by the 
thickening at the edges of the median epithecal laminge. and tiie 
formation of anon-poriferous margin. In llie first genus the cells are 
of one kind only; in the second, beside the true cells, interstitial pits 
are developed; and in the thiid, a greater or less number of interstitial 
tubes are present, which at maturity are covered by an interstitial 
membrane. In Phyllodicfya the differentiation is carried still further, 
and we have a flal)ellate or irregular zoarium. with the cell-structure 
like that of Pachydictya, excei'ting that in the perfect state the 
margin of the cell-apertures is prominent on one side so as to form a 
small "lip." Diaphragms aie developed in both kinds of tubes in 
Pachydictya and Phyllodictya, and occasionally small spiniform 
tubuli are present. The zoarium now before us has, beside, a small 
number of spiniform tubuli, two sets of tubes, both of which are 
provided with diaphragms, with those in the interstitial tubes more 
numerous than those which cross the true tubes. The tubular struc- 
ture is, therefore, like that of many Monticuliporoids; and the closing 
of the interstitial cells b}- a thick membrane, points to a decided 
affinit.y with the Fis tulip or id or. And this relationship is nearly 
assured by the remarkable genus Cystodictya, in which not only an 
interstitial membrane is developed, but the interstitial space, as is 
shown by vertical sections, is occupied by a vesicular tissue precisely 
like that of the Fistuliporidoi. A similar interstitial membrane is 
developed in Ceramoporella, Ulrich, and many of the Mesozoic C3'- 
clostomatous Bryozoa. The structui'e of the cell-tubes of such species 
of Ptilodycta, as P. pavonia, D'Orb., P. falciformis, Nich., P. (He- 
terodictya) gigantea, Nich., and P. maculata, Ulrich, is not irrecon- 
cilably different from that of the Mono fry pellw; and distinct "monti- 
cules" are present in P. x>'^vonia and P. maculata, while " maculse'' 
are characteristic of Phyllodictya, Pachydictya and species of Phcen- 

Despite the arguments used by Dr. Nicholson ("Gen. Monticulipora-" 
p. 73, et seq.) to demonstrate his view of the relations between Heter- 
opora and the Monticuliporidoe, I shall attempt to show that there 
does exist decided and true affinity between the Heteroporce and 
certain genera of the 3Ionticuliporidce. The species of Batostomella, 
Ulrich, ranging in time from the Trenton Group to the Carboniferous, 
are the first which will be specially considered in this question. 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 141 

The genus includes the following described species: Chcetetes granu- 
liferus, Ulrich (Trenton); C. gracilis, James (Cin. gr.), Trematopora 
an/2r(///"er, Whitfield (; and Jf. (Calamopora) ticmida,'Phi\\ips, 
and var. miliaria, Nicholson (Carboniferous). Besides these I have 
one species from the Cincinnati Group, and two from the Sub-carbon- 
iferous strata of Kentucky, which are as yet undescribed. In. B. gra- 
cilis, James, and B. tumida, Phill,, we have a slender ramose zoarium^ 
the surface of which is without " monticules," and, with the exception 
of a few irregular "maculae," is covered uniformlj' by the calices of the 
true cells, and a variable number of interstitial cells. In well-pre- 
served specimens the cell-walls are usually studded b}' a large number 
of small spines or granules. In longitudinal sections the walls of the 
tubes ai'e very thin in their "immature' portion, and remarkably thick- 
ened in the cortical or "mature"' region of the branch. In neither 
species are the diaphragms numerous. In tangential sections of both 
species, the tube orifices are surrounded by a laminated ring, and the 
intervening spaces are occupied by a few similarly constructed inter- 
stitial tubes, and more or less numerous spiniform tubuli. 

Gallopora pxmctata, Hall, a Sub-carboniferous form, has characters 
that are very distinct from C. elegantula, Hall, the type of the genus 
Callopora, and I here propose the generic name Leioclema for the 

The genus m.ay be briefly characterized as follows: 

Leioclema, nov. gen. 

Zoarium ramose, branches slender, smooth, and sometimes hollow. 
Cell apertures small, rounded, and with two or three series of subaiigu- 
lar interstitial cells surrounding them. Longitudinal sections show 
the tubes in the axial portion of the branch to be thin-walled, and 
crossed by remote diaphragms. In the peripheral region the inter- 
stitial tubes and spiniform tubuli are developed in great numbers. 
The walls of all the tubes are much thickened, and the diaphragms in 
the interstitial tubes are straight and remote, while in the true tubes 
they appear to be wanting. In tangential sections the visceral cavity 
of the proper zooecia is often indented by the encroachment of the rather 
large spiniform tubuli, of which there are, in the type species, from 
four to seven around the orifice of each tube. The interstitial 
tubes are small, and of irregular shape ; two or three rows occup}' each 
intertubular space. 

Type, Callopora punctata, 7 Hall. (PI. VI., figs. 1, \a.) 

142 Cincinnati Society of Xatural IltHtory. 

In (Jallopora, Hull, Ihe iiilcrstilial tubus urc not so uuineious, and 
spiniforra tubuli arc wanting. In FistuUpora, McCoy, the intertubu- 
lar spaces are occupied by a vesicular tissue, ami the interstitial cells 
do not lorm tubes. Besides, spiniform tubuli appear to be entirely ab- 
sent. From Balostomella, Ulrich, Leioclema is distinguished b^' the 
much greater number of interstitial tubes in the latter. 

The only other Monticuliporoid deserving mention in this connection, 
is the one described by the author under the name of Cailopora 
oincinnatiensis (Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. i., p. Oil) This 
species is not a Cailopora^ nor do I know of any described genus to 
which it may be properly referred. It appears to be related to certain 
Upper Silurian and Devonian species, and until these have been fully 
examined I prefer to leave the species as first described, with the 
exception of adding an interrogation point to the generic name. In 
Cailopora ( ?) cincinnatiensis, we have an irregularly ramose z^arium. 
The true cells are nearly circular, and surrounded by a single row of 
angular and rather large interstitial calls. In a tangential section we 
find that the two sets of tubes are more or less rounded, and not dis- 
tinguishable from each other except by their size, their walls are moder- 
ateljj- thick, and composed of concentrically arranged laminre with no 
distinct line of demarcation between them, the spaces intervening 
between the walls of both sets of tubes being filled by structureless 
sclerenchyma. A few spiniform tubuli may also be detected in sections 
of this kind. Longitudinal sections show that the tubes in the axial 
portion of the branches are thin-walled, and crossed by remote 
diaphragms. In the peripheral region, the walls, as usual, become 
thickened ; the diaphagms in the true tubes are often entirely absent 
in this region, and when present the}' are from one to two tube-diame- 
ters apart. In the interstitial tubes the diaphragms are about one and 
a half times an interstitial tube-diameter distant from each other. 

In Heteropora neozelunica^ Busk, we have a frequently branching 
zoarium, the branches smooth and with a diameter varying from .1 inch 
to .2 inch. In the axial region the tubes are thin-walled, and crossed 
by a few diaphragms. In the cortical ("mature") region the walls 
of the tubes are much thickened, and are here pierced by numerous 
connecting foramina. In a tangential section we find that the two sets 
of tubes are rounded and not distinguishable from each other except 
by their size; their walls are thick, and composed of laminje arranged 
concentrically around the cavitv, with no distinct line of demarcation 

American PaJceozoic Bryozoa. 14.3 

between them, the intervening spaces being filled by structureless 
sclerfcuchyma. Besides the connecting foramina, which are well 
shown in a section of this kind. Dr. Nicholson has described "numer- 
ous delicate radiating spines, which spring from the wall and are 
directed inwards for a longer or shorter distance, usually falling short 
of the center." 

In Heteropora conifera, Lamx., we have in the main the same in- 
ternal characters as above ascribed to H. neozelanica, with this 
difference, that in tangential sections, the spaces on the walls of the 
tubes between the connecting foramina, are concentrically laminated, 
and inclose a dark spot (or sometimes a light one), thus giving the 
same appearance as is presented in species with numerous spiniform 
tubuli. I have not been able to detect any traces of radiating "• spines." 

In Heteropora pustulosa^ Michelin, according to Jules Haime's 
figures (3£em. de la Soc. Geol. de France, 2d ser., vol. v., pi. xi.), the 
surface is covered with " monticules," and diaphragms are developed 
in considerable numbers in the cortical portion of the zoarium. 

I have also examined three species of Heteropora, and one of 
Zonopora, D'Orb., from the Cretaceous of Arkansas. One of the 
species of Heteropora is very similar to H. conifera, Lamx. Another 
is a small slender species reminding one in its external appearance 
ver^' strongl}' of Batostomella gracilis, James. The third is still more 
slender. Zonopora, so far as I have been able to ascertain, differs 
from Heteropora, only in having the interstitial cells aggregated into 
groups, which may be drawn out laterally to such an extent that the}'' 
completel}' encircle the branch. The species from Arkansas is nearl}^ 
allied to Zonopora variabilis, D'Orb., from the Cretaceous of France. 
The second species above mentioned, I will provisionally call Hetero- 
pora consimiUs, n. sp., and it ma}^ be characterized as follows: 

Heteropora consimilis, n. sp. (Plate VI., fig. 11.) 

Zoarium growing in frequently bifurcating, rarely anastomosing, 
small ramulets, with a diameter of about .1 inch. Branches expanded 
at the base, and attaciied to some foreign substance. Surface smooth. 
Cells, small', frequently contiguous. Cell-mouths, circular, about yt^ 
inch in diameter, usually with thickened margins. Intertubular spaces 
of variable width, occupied b}' irregular cells, the diameter of which is 
always less than that of tlie true zooecia. Interstitial cells never 
developed in greater number than would constitute a single series 
around tiie true tubes; the number of the latter in the space of .1 inch, 

144 Cincinimti Society of Natural Ifiatorif. 

varies from eight to twelve, according as there is a greater or less 
development of the interstitial cells. Longitudinal and tangential 
sections give the usual characters of Ileteropora, excepting that no 
traces of connecting foramina, nor of "radiating spines," can lie de- 
tected in my specimens. Dia[)hragms are usually wanting; occasion- 
ally a few very delicate ones may be detected in the peripheral region. 

Formation and locality: Cretaceous strata (prol)ably of the Nioi)rara 
Group). Pulaski county, Arkansas. 

The third species of the Arkansas Ileteroporos, I will also here pro- 
visionally characterize under the name of 

Heteropora attenuata, n. sp. (Plate VI., fig. 12.) 

Externally- the zoarium differs from that of H. consimilis, in being 
more slender, the branches having a diameter of onl}' about .05 inch. 
The proper zooecia have their margins somewhat raised, and are some- 
times arranged in transverse or oblique series. The- interstitial cells 
are small, and usually a single transverse series is developed be- 
tween the transverse rows of the true cells ; or sometimes a few of 
the true cells may be surrounded by a single series of interstitial cells. 
Longitudinal sections show that the tubes in the axial or " immature" 
region are of one kind only, and that they are thin- walled, and without 
diaphragms. In the " mature" or cortical region the walls of the tubes 
l)ecome thickened, and the interstitial tubes are developed. Between 
the upper wall of each true cell-tube, and the lower wall of the inter- 
stitial tube, may he detected, almost invariably, a lighter-colored streak, 
indicating the presence of a " spiniform tube,'' between the upper side 
of the cell-aperture, and the interstitial cells. Not having been suc- 
cessful in making a good tangential section of this small form, I am 
unable to sa}^ positiveh'^ whether or not spiniform tubuli are developed 
in other positions, but for reasons I am inclined to believe they are. 

Formation and locality : Same as the preceding. 

Having now briefly considered the principal structural characters of 
several species of Heteropora, we will summarize the points of differ- 
ence and resemblance between the Heteroporoe on the one side, and 
Batostomella, Leioclema, and Callopora (?) cincinnatiensis, and other 
members of the MonticuUporidoi on the other. 

(1.) Aside from the general form of the zoarium, which is of little 
importance in a question of this kind, we find on comparison that in 
Heteropora and the ramose t3'pes of the Monticuliporidce, the zoarium 
is composed of slender fasciculate tubes, which are nearl}- vertical in 

American Palaeozoic Bryozoa. 145 

the axial region of the branches, and then curve outward more or less 
abruptly to reach the surface. In both, therefore, there are established 
two distinct regions, an axial {" immature"), and a peripheral (" ma- 
ture") region. In both, these two regions are very diflerent in their 
internal structure, the tubes in the axial region of their course being 
thin-walled and polygonal, while in the peripheral region their walls 
are thickened, and the}' often become rounded in form. In both, more- 
over, the interstitial tubes that may be present, are developed in the 
peripheral region only, and they do not extend into the axial region 
at all. 

(2), As regards the dimorphism of the zoarium of such types of the 
MonticuUporidce as Batostomella, Leioclema and Gallopora {?) cin- 
cinnatiensis, we find that they consist of two distinct sets of tubes, 
which differ from each other (1), more or less in size; (2), in one set 
having more numerous diaphragms than the other; and (3), in their 
time of development, the smaller or interstitial tubes being developed 
only in the peripheral region. A fourth distinction is presented in Leio- 
clema; the cavities of the true tubes in that genus being surrounded 
b}' a series of spiniform tubuli. In Heteropora the zoarium similarh' 
consists of a series of large tubes surrounded by smaller interstitial 
tubes, and with the exception of one feature, the same dilferences 
between the two sets of tubes are noted. The characters excepted, is 
that in Heteropora, so far as I have been able to determine from 
actual examination, diaphragms are usually absent in the peripheral 
region, and consequently in the interstitial tubes they are entirely' 
wanting. That this difference should be considered of importance in 
the determination of the real question at issue {i. e., the zoological 
position of the M onticuliporidoi and allied tj'pes), I can not admit, 
since transverse partitions occur in organisms of such exceedingly 
diverse affinities, that we can not attach much value to the fact that 
they appear to be absent in a portion of the zoarium of Heteropora. 
Besides, I believe that diaphragms were developed even in the peripheral 
region of the tubes of that genus, and I attribute their absence to the 
supposition that the opercular plates which closed the cell-apertures 
and which subsequently formed the base of a new layer of cells, were 
of such a nature that they were incapable of preservation during 
fossilization. This supposition is made a prol)ability b}' the fact that 
in the recent species, //. neozelanicn, Busk, the cell-mouths are closed 
by a thin chitinous covering, which in the fossil state would scarcely 
have been preserved. 

14G Cincinnati Society of Natural JI istory. 

(3). As regards the structure of the wall, we know of at leant oue 
species of Monticvlipora, the M. {Treniatopora) obliqiia, n. sp., in 
which the walls of the tubes, in the peripheral portion of their course, 
are pierced l-y connecting foramina. On the other hand, there are a 
number of species of ITeteropora in wliich no traces of these foramina 
have yet been clearly proved to exist. In all other respects the minute 
structure of the walls appears to be the same in both. 

(4). Nothing of the nature of radiating "septa" are known to exist 
in any ^lontieuliporuid species. In Heteropora neozelanica. Busk, 
Dr. Nicholson has shown that the tubes in the peripheral part of their 
course are intersected by numerous delicate spinules, which are 
arranged in a radiating manner, and extend sometimes nearly to the 
center of the tube-cavity. He says of this feature: "These spinules 
in form and arrangement precisely resemble the "septal spines" of 
many species of Favosites; but admitting the Polyzoan affinities of 
Heteropora, it is obvious that they can not be compared homologically 
with the septa of any Coelenterate." So far as my observations have 
extended, I have never seen any species of Favosites in which the 
"septal spines" were nearly so slender as the spinules figured by Dr. 
Nicholson in the tubes of H. neozelanica. As a solution of these 
remarkable structures, I would suggest that they may have originally 
constituted calcareous ribs in diaphragms that otherwise were con- 
structed of a material which during maceration was destroyed. 

(5.) " Spiniform tubuW are developed in a majority of the Monticu- 
liporidoi, and the appearance presented by similar structures in 
tangential sections of Heteropora conifera, is precisely like that seen 
in a like section of Leioclema punctatum. These structures are also 
present in Heteropora attenuata. 

(6.) Lastly, we will weigh the points of resemblance and difference. 
On the one hand we have a strong external resemblance, a general 
similarity in the construction of the zoarium, and an agreement in the 
facts, that in both — (1) the colony is composed of two sets of tubes; 
(2) both have their tubes crossed by diaphragms; (3) in such types 
of the Monticuliporida, as Leioclema pun eta fAim, and CaUopora {?) 
cincinnatiensis, the interstitial tubes are in no other way structurally 
different from the proper zooecia, than in being crossed by more 
numerous diaphragms. Again, while no traces of connecting foramina 
have yot been detected in several species of Heteropora, such foramina 
are now known to exist in at least oue undoubted Monticuliporoid 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 147 

On the other hand, to set against the very important points of re- 
semblance above noted, we have — (I) to chronicle the discover}^ of 
delicate radiating spines in Heteropora neozelanica, which character is 
not developed in the M onticuliporidce; nor have I been able to detect 
such structures in the five species of Heteropora examined by me. 
(2.) The connecting foramina are more generally developed, or at 
least more readilj' recognized, in the Heteroporoe. than in the Jf onticu- 
liporidce. As before remarked, I do not attach any weight to the fact 
that in H. neozelanica, radiating spines intersect the tube cavity, 
since if it were a character of real importance, such as the " septa" of 
the Coelenterata, it would be developed in all the species, which our 
present knowledge of these forms justifies us in saj'ing, is not the case. 
A somewhat analogous instance is met with in Ptilodictya macttlata, 
Ulrich, in which the tubes usually are di5tinctl3\ as we may loosel}' 
term it, septate. Still there is no reason to doubt that the species is 
intermediate between P. falciformis, Nicholson, and P. p)<^vonia 
D'Orbigny. In these that condition is onl}' rarely met with, and then 
it is not nearly so distinct as in P. maculata. On the whole, it is not 
necessary to discuss the subject any further, since the points of 
difference are so much outweighed b}- the points of resemblance, that 
they can not possibly be considered of greater value than would con- 
stitute a family distinction. Besides, we must bear in mind that I 
have not attempted to demonstrate a generic identit3% but only to 
establish the relationship which I am convinced exists between the 
Ilonticuliporidce. and Heteropora. 

Comparisons affecting the zoological position of the Monticuliporida 
and allied types might be carried on almost indefinitely, and the vari- 
ous genera and families which I have, to a greater or less extent, re-, 
viewed in the preceding pages, are so inextricably interwoven, that by 
separating them a positive injury is done to natural classification; and 
in fact it would be preferrable to remove the whole assemblage from 
the Bryozoa. But as this step would be as iuadmissable as the first, 
the onl}^ course left open for systematists is to leave them where thej- 
really belong, with the Bryozoa. However, after extended studv of 
these forms, it bec-onies evident that tliey differ widel}' from the typical 
Cyclostomata (e. g. Diastoporidce, Idmoneida', and Tubuliporida'), and 
just as widely from nearl}' all of the Cheilostomata. On the whole I 
have come to the conclusion that there are good reasons for the estab- 
lishment of a fifth sub-order of theGvMNoL.KJiATA, whicli would include 
the original Bryozoa, from which later types of the sub-orders Cyclos 


Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

lomata and Cheilostomata, were probably developed. Aceordiugly, in 
my scheme of classificalion I propose the new sub order Trepostomata^ 
It is at present impossible to determine with any degree of certainty 
the exact limits of the sub-order prop )sed, but they may be indicated, 
as it is partially done in the following tabulated list of Bryozoa, pos- 
sessing one or more of the important characters of the Monticuliporidce 
and Fistutiporida;. 

Of the various characters ot the M onticuliporidcR and Fistulipori- 
dce, we find — 

(7). Interstitial mcinbrane — 

In Ceramoporella, Ulrich. 

Eridopora, Uh'ich. 

Pachydictya, Ulrich. 

Phyllodictya, Ulrich. 

Oystodictya, Ulrich. 

Heteropora, Blainville. 

Defrancia, Bronn. 

Claviclausa, D'Orb. 

GlmmmuUelea, D'Orb. 

Nearly all the forms placed by D'Or- 
bigny under his family Claiisidw. 

Myriozoum, Donati. 

( 1 ). A zoarium composed of tubular cells : 
In the majority of the Cydostomata, and 
some of the Cheilostomata. 

(2). Zoarium divided into " immature" 
and "mature" regions: In the Cerio- 
poridcE, Busk, Ptilodictyonidw, Zittel, 
and Stictoporidce, Ulrich. 

(3). A germinal or epithecal plate ("lame 
germinale," D'Orb.): In a large num- 
ber of the Cydostomata. 

(4). Diaphragms — 

In several genera of the Ceramoporidcc, 
Ulrich; and Ptilodiclyonidos, Zittel; 
and in many of the Cerioporidw, 
(5). Vesicular interstitial tissue — 

In Cystodidya, Ulrich (of the Sticto- 
poridce); and Eridopera, Ulrich, (? a 
genus of the Ceramoporida). 
(tj). Interstitial cells — 

In Ptilodictya, Lonsdale (several spe- 

Pachydictya, Ulrich. 

Phyllodictya, Ulrich. 

Stictoporella, Ulrich (pits). 

Graptopora, Ulrich (pits). 

Ceramopora. Hall. 

Ceramoporella, Ulrich. 

CheiloporeUa, Ulrich. 

Crepipora, Ulrich. 

And in the forms arranged by D'Orbi- 
gny, under his family names — 





Also, among the Cheilostomata, in the 
family 31yriozoumid(e, D'Orb. 

(8). Spiniform tubuli — 
Rhinidictya, Ulrich. 
Crepipora, Ulrich. 
Hhombopora, Meek. 
Bythopora, Miller and Dyer. 
Species of Heteropora, Blv. 
Small hollow spinelets, supposed to be 
analagous to the spiniform tubuli, 
are developed in — 
And other genera. 

(9). Wall inflections and " radiating 
spines" — 
Wall inflections in the Moiiticidipori- 
d<e are generally (? always) due to the 
encroachment of the spiniform tu- 
buli upon the tube cavity. How- 
ever, in such species of Ptilodictya, 
as P. maculata, Ulrich, in which no 
spiniform tubuli are developed, sim- 
ilar and very distinct inflections are 
present. The same may be said of 
certain species of Neuropora. " Ra- 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 


diating spines" have been observed 
in species of Discoporella and Heter- 
(10). Two teeth or lamellae, iirojecting 
from one side of the tube-walls into 
the zocecial cavity — 

In Crepipora, Ulrich. 

Discoporella, Gray. 

Mynozoum, Donati. 
(11). Opercular plates covering the tube- 
orifices, as in Callopora, Hall — 

In Cystodictya, Ulrich. 

Eridopora, Ulrich. 

C lausimidtelea, D'Orb, 

Melicerilites, Roem. 

Nodelea, D'Orb. 

Myriozoum, Donati. 
(12). Connecting foramina — 

In many of both the Cheilostomata and 
Cyclostomata. (This character has 

been proved to exist in only two gen- 
era of the Monticuliporidce, i. e., Ste- 
nopora, Lonsdale, and Monticulipora, 
(13). Monticules and maculae — 

These are developed in a great many 
types now placed with the Cyclosto- 
mata. As examples of monticulifer 
ous genera may be mentioned — 

Nodicava, D'Orb. 

Nodicrescis, D'Orb. 

Heteropora pustulosa, Michelin. 

PtUodictya, Lonsd. (several species). 

Examples of genera with " maculae," 
are — 

Ditaxia, Hag'w. , 

Zonopora, D'Orb. 

Radiopora, D'Orb. 

Phcenopora, Hall. 

Pachydictya, Ulrich. 

Crepipora, Ulrich. 


Order Gymnol^mata, Allm. 

Sub-order Cyclostomata, Busk. 

Family Tubuliporidoe^ Busk. 

Stomatopora, Bronn. — Zoarium adnate, with the cells in a single 
branching series. Cell-mouths elevated, sometimes tubular, and 
situated near the end of the cells. Trenton to recent. 

Proboscina, Audouin. — Like the preceding, but with the cells in two 
or more series. Cincinnati* to recent. 

Berenicea, Lamx. — Zoarium much like that of the foregoing, but 
forms rounded or irregular patches. Cincinnati, Mesozoic and recent. 

Ropalonaria, Ulrich, — Cells slender fusiform, in a single amastomos- 
ing series. Cell-mouths situated near the middle of the cells. Cin- 

* By the term "Cincinnati proup," I mean the strata included between the lowest 
exposed in the bed of the Ohio river near Cincinnati, and the overlying Upper Silurian 
strata. They are in all probability equivalent to the Utica Slate, and Hudson River group? 
of New York. 

150 Cincinnali Society of Natural Ilislory. 

Family Theonoidoe, Busk. 

Scenellopora, Ulrich. — Zoarium broad, obconical, with the cell 
apertures occupying the summits of ridges which radiate from the 
sub-solid and depressed center of the flattened upper surface. Trenton. 

Family EntalophoridcB, Reuss, 

Mitoclema, Ulrich. (compare Spiropora, Blv. ) — Zoarium ramose, 
slender. Cell mouths more or less prominent, and arranged in trans- 
verse series around the branches, or irregularly- spiral. Trenton. 

Familj' FenestellidcB, King. 

Fenestella, Lonsdale. — Zoarium flabellate or infundibuliform. Cells 
only on one side of the branches, in two rows, one on eacli side of a 
median ridge. Dissepiments without cells. Cincinnati group to Car- 

Polypora, McCo}'. — Zoarium like that o^ Fenestella, from which it 
differs in wanting a median ridge, and in having from three to five 
rows of cells. Upper Silurian to Permian. 

Septopora, Prout. — Like Fenestella, but the dissepiments carry 
cells. Subcarboniferous. 

Fenestralia, Prout. — Like Fenestella, from which it differs in having 
two rows of cells on each side of the median ridge. Sub-carboniferous. 

Phyllopora, King. — Zoarium, infundibuliform, composed of anasto- 
mosing branches; meshes rounded; branches with two or more rows of 
cells on one side, finely striated on the other. Trenton to Devonian. 

Archimedis, Lesueur. — Zoarium consisting of a spirally turned 
solid axis, from which, at regular intervals, numerous infundibuliform 
expansions are thrown out. These expansions have an upward direc- 
tion, and when separated from the axis, the}' are indistinguishable 
from those of Fenestella. Sub-carboniferous. 

Lyropora, Hall. — Zoarium consisting of two strong diverging prongs, 
between which is spread a reticulated expansion, the branches of 
which carrj' from three to five rows of cells. Dissepiments strong, 
without cells. Fenestrules, small, ovate. Subcarboniferous. 

Carinopora, Nicholson, Cryptopora, Nich., Ptilopora, McCoj*. — 
Not examined. 

Family Acanthocladid(B, Zittel. 

Penniretepora, D"Orb. (Glanconome, Lousd.) — Zoarium very 
slender; branches, few, springing from the main stem at almost a right 
angle. Celluliferous face of both main stem and branches, carrying 

American PaloiozoiG Bryozoa. 151 

two alternating longitudinal series of cell apertures. Non-poriferous 
side longitudinally striate. Sub-carboniferous and Carboniferous. 

Family Arthronemidcn^ Ulrich. 

Zoarium dendroid, composed of numerous small, sub-cylindrical seg- 
ments, carrying cells on one or both sides. 

Arthronema, Ulich. — Segments small, slender, poriferous on one side 
onl}- ; opposite side longitudinally striate. Cells in two to four rows. 
Trenton and Cincinnati. 

Arthroclema, Billings. — Segments cylindrical, with cell apertures on 
all sides. Trenton, 

Sub-order Trepostomata, Ulrich. 
This sub order is proposed for the reception of the majority of the 
■Palaeozoic, and many of the more recent Bryozoa. The principal dis- 
tinguishing features of the suborder ai-e — (1) that the zoarium is com- 
posed of slender fasciculate tubes, which do not (as is the case in the 
Cyclostomata) gradually' enlarge as they approach the surface, but re- 
main throughout nearly of the same diameter; and (2), that at a cer- 
tain point in the course of the tubes to the surface, they bend outward 
more or less abruptly, and change in character. Besides the following- 
Palaeozoic families, the Cerioporidce should be referred to the Trepos- 

Family Ptilodictyonidce, Zittel emend. Ulrich. 

Zoarium jointed, consisting either of a single leaf like or compressed 
ramose segment, which articulates with the expanded and attached 
base : or of numerous similar segments. The segments are composed 
of two layers of closely-arranged tubular cells, grown together back to 
back. No interstitial cells. Diaphragms are often developed. 

(The forms described by me (This Journal, vol. ii.. No. 1) under 
the name of Crater ipora, are now known to be the attached bases of the 
Ptilodictyoniddi. The forms described as C. lineata, and var. expansa, 
belong to species of Ptilodictya, The bases of Arthropora were called 
C. erectn. 

Ptilodictya^ Lonsdale. — Zoarium below, sub-solid, wedge shaped or 
pointed ; above, either an undivided leaf-like expansion, or branching 
dichotomously. Margin non-poriferous. Cell-apertures quadrate or 
hexagonal. Trenton to Lower Helderberg. 

Oraptodictya, Ulricli. — Zoarium pointed below, branching above. 
Cell-apertures circular, and separated by interstitial pits or sulci. 
Cincinnati Group. 

1G2 Cincinnati Society of Natural Ilinlory. 

Art.hropora, Ulricli. — Zoarium joiiiLed, segments short, with several 
brandies or spurs projecting from each edge. Cell apertures sub cir- 
cular, scparatcil by interstitial pits or sulci, and occasionally closed by 
an opoiculum. Lower Silurian. 

Dicranopora^ Ulrich. — Zoarium jointed; segments divided dicho- 
tomously at the upper end. Cell-aportures oblong, quadrate or ellip- 
tical, arranired between elevated longitudinal lines. Lower Silurian. 

Clathropora, Hall. — Zoarium anastomosing and forming a regular 

Famil3' Stictoporidm, Ulrich. 

Zoarium not jointed, consisting of compressed branches or leaf-like 
expansions, which are attached to foreign bodies by a continuousan d 
expanded base. Branches and expansions composed of two layers of 
cells grown together, as in the Ptilodictyonidce, by the adhering of 
their epithecal laminae. Interstitial cells, diaphragms, and opercula 
often present. Vesicular interstitial tissue occasionally developed. 

Stictopora, Hall. — Zoarium attached to foreign objects by a basal 
expansion, which is continuous with the frequently branching frond 
above. Edges of branches non-poriferous. Cell-apertures circular or 
elliptical. Silurian, Devonian. 

Stictoporella, Ulrich. — Like the preceding, but smaller, cells ellipti- 
cal, with two or more interstitial pits situated between the longer di- 
ameters of the cell-apertures. Lower Silurian. 

Bhiiiidictya, Ulrich. — Zoarium narrow, branching at long intervals 
Cells surrounded by a close series of small spiniform tubuli. Trenton 

Gystodictya^ Ulrich. — Zoarium like that of Stictopora, but with 
wider interstitial spaces. Sections show that the intertubular spaces 
are occupied by a vesicular tissue. Sub-carboniferous. 

Phcenopora, Hall. — Zoarium forming simple, palmate, or irregularly 
branching fronds, without a distinct non-poriferous edge. Cells ar- 
ranged between elevated longitudinal lines. " Maculae" often developed. 
Trenton to Niagara. 

Pachydictya, Ulrich. — Zoarium composed of large, thick, somewhat 
irregularly branching fronds. Cells' ovate, separated by angular inter- 
stitial tubes, which are closed by an interstitial membrane, and at in- 
tervals form "maculae." Diaphragms are developed in both sets of 
tubes. The median epithecal plates perforated by minute foramina, so 
as to bring the two sides of the frond into connection. Trenton to 
Lower Helderberg. 

American Palceozoic Bryuzoa. 153 

Phyllodictya, Ulrich. — Zoariiim forming simple leaf like expansions, 
sometimes partiall}^ and very irregular!}' branched. Cell-apertures 
small, oblique, with the lower margin lipped. Interstitial spaces 
minutelj' granular or punctate. Trenton. 

Family 3fordiculiporidai. Nicholson. 

Ilonticulipora, D'Orb. Zoarium submassive, incrustiug, or iiregu- 
larl}' frondescent. Surface with monticules, or smooth. Cells poly- 
gonal, apparently of one kind only. Tubes crossed by straight dia- 
phragms and at intervals cystoid diaphragms are developed. Spiniform 
tubuli more or less numerous. Trenton and Cincinnati. 

Sub-genus Trematopora^ Hall. — Ramose to sub-frondescent, with or 
without monticules. Interstitial cells few, sometimes gathered into 
groups. Tubes throughout the greater portion of their length "imma- 
ture," and provided with few or no diaphragms ; just before opening 
at the surface cj'stoid diaphragms are developed. Cincinnati and Nia- 

Peronopora, Nicholson. — In double leaves. Interstitial cells and 
spiniform tubuli more or less numerous. Tubes with numerous cystoid 
diaphragms. Interstitial tubes provided with closely arranged straight 
diaphragms. Cincinnati. 

Prasopora, Nicholson and Ethridge. — Free, or loosel}' adhering to 
foreign objects, forming hemispherical masses, or thin expansions, 
with a wrinkled epitheca covering the lower surface. Tubes cyclin- 
drical or prismatic, and having one or both sides lined with cystoid 
diapliragms. Interstitial tubes often completely isolating the proper 
zooecia, and crossed by numerous diaphragms. Spiniform tubuli 
sometimes nearh* absent, in other cases more numerous. Trenton and 

Diplotrypa, Nicholson. — Zoarium free, hemispherical. No spini- 
form tubuli. In other respects like Prasopora, excepting that the 
tubes are provided with straight diaphragms onl}-. Niagara. 

3Ionotry2]a, Nicholson. — Irregular, hemispherical, or globular 
masses. Surface smooth, or with low' monticules carrying groups of 
larger cells than the average. Tubes thin-walled, prismatic, and 
traversed by straiglit diaphragms. No interstitial cells nor spiniform 
tubuli. Trenton to Carboniferous. 

Monotrypella, Ulrich. — Ramose, smooth or tuberculated. Cells 
apparently of one kind only. Walls very thin in the axial portion oi 
the branches, but much thicker in the peripiieral region. Diaphragms 
straight. No spiniform tubuli. Trenton and Cincinnati. 

154 Cincinnati Society of Naturdl Jl istory. 

Amplexopora, Ulricli. — Raiuose, frt-c, or incriisting. Cellular 
structure as in Monolrypella, excepting that more or less numerous 
spiniform tubuli are developed, which sometimes completely encircle 
the tubes. Cincinnati to Sub-carboniferous. 

Stenopora, Lonsdale. — Zoarium ramose, or sub lobate. In the 
peripheral region the tube walls are periodically thickened. Com- 
paratively large spiniform tubuli are developed at the angles of the 
cells. Diaphragms straight, not numerous. Connecting foramina 
occasionall}' preserved. Carboniferous. 

Batostoma, Ulrich. — Irregularly ramose, with a large basal expan- 
sion, hy means of which the zoarium is attached to foreign bodies. 
Cell-apertures in the outer portion of the branches irregularly ovate 
or circular, and surrounded by a distinct ring like wall. Inter.stitial 
tubes more or less numerous, very irregular in shape and size. Spini- 
form tubuli numerous and well developed, Cincinnati. 

Batostomella, Ulrich. — Ramose, branches smooth, usually small. 
Cell apertures small. Interstitial cells and spiniform tubuli few to 
numerous. Walls of tubes in the peripheral region thick, and seem- 
ingly fused together. Trenton to Carboniferous. 

Leioclema, Ulrich. — Ramose, slender, not tuberculated. Proper 
zocBcia small, surrounded by two or three series of angular inter- 
stitial cells. Spiniform tubuli well developed; numerous, but re- 
stricted to the walls of the proper zooecia. Diaphragms stout, but 
rather remote in both sets of tubes. Carboniferous. 

Atactopora, Ulrich. — Incrusting; surface usually studded with 
" monticules ' or " maculae." Cell-apertures more or less petaloid, 
surrounded by from one to three rows of small blunt spines. Inter- 
stitial cells gathered into clusters, or scattered more equally among 
the proper cells. Tube-walls inflected by the encroachment of the 
numerous spiniform tubuli. Diaphragms occur in both kinds of tubes. 
Occasionally cystoid diaphragms are present. Trenton and Cincinnati. 

Callopora, Hall. — Ramose to sub-frondesceut, smooth or tubercu- 
lated. Cell-tubes cylindrical, their apertures often closed bv an oper- 
culum, with a very small central perforation, from which usually radi- 
ate small ridges. Interstitial cells, more or less numerous, sometimes 
completel}^ isolating the proper zooscia. Diaphragms numerous. Spin- 
iform tubuli and cystoid diaphragms wanting. Cincinnati, Niagara 
and Lower Helderberg. 

Galloporella, Ulrich. — Free and probabl}^ incrusting thin expan- 
sions. Tubes cylindrical, with thick walls, and separated by one or 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 155 

two rows of angular interstitial cells. Diaphragms numerous, straight. 
Spiniform tubuli small, not numerous. Cincinnati. 

AspidoiJora, Ulrich. — Very thin free expansions, with a concentric- 
ally and radialh- triated epitheca covering the lower side. Composed 
of (according to age) from one to many unequal convex spaces. Cells 
gradually increasing in size from the margin of each convex space to 
near the center of same. Interstitial cells numerous. Both kinds of 
tubes crossed by diaphragms. Spiniform tubuli present. Cincinnati. 

Heterotrypa, Nicholson (restricted). — Zoarium frondescent, rarely 
incrusting. Tubes prismatic. Interstitial cells developed in moderate 
numbers, sometimes collected into "maculae." Spiniform tubuli small, 
more or less numerous. No cystoid diaphragms. Cincinnati. 

Dekayia, Edwards and Haime. — Ramose, with branches cylindrical 
or compressed. Interstitial cells wanting. Spiniform tubuli few but 
ver^- large. The}^ constitute a conspicuous external feature of the 
zoarium. Cincinnati. 

Dekayella, Ulrich. — Ramose, branches often compressed. Inter- 
stitial cells more or less numerous, often aggregated into irregular 
" maculffi." Spiniform tubuli of two kinds: large ones arranged as in 
Dekayia, and a much greater number of small ones. Diaphragms in 
both sets of tubes straight. Cincinnati. 

Petigopora, Ulrich. — Small patches adhering to foreign objects, with 
a narrow non-poriferous band or germinating membrane along the 
outer margin. Interstitial cells wanting. Spiniform tubuli well de- 
veloped. Cincinnati. • 

jSTebulipora, ? McCoy. — Thin crusts, with slightly elevated monti- 
cules. Cells thin-walled, prismatic, and at intervals are groups of a 
larger size. Diaphragms straight. Interstitial cells and spiniform 
tubuli wanting. Cincinnati and Niagara. 

Discotrypa, Ulrich. — Free and very thin circular expansions. Cells 
very regular in their arrangement, with rhomboidal or hexagonal 
apertures. The summits of the low and broad monticules are occu- 
pied b}' larger cells than tlie intervening spaces. Interstitial cells and 
spiniform tubuli entii-ely absent. Cincinnati. 

Spatiopora, Ulrich. — Incrusting, and forming ver}^ thin, large ex- 
pansions, with a smooth or strongly tuberculated surface. Cells shal- 
low, with oblong and irregular apertures. Interstitial cells sparingly' 
developed. Spiniform tubuli generally of considerable size. 

Stellipora, Hall. — Zoarium incrusting. Surface studded with 
stellate "maculte;" from the depressed central portion of these railiate 

IHfi Cincinnati Society of Xatiirnl Ilistorij. 

five to twelve or more equally depressed ra3's. Between the rays the 
surface is elevated into small ridges, whicii are occupied by the aper- 
tures of proper zooocia. Depressed portions of "maculae" occupied by 
interstitial cells. True tul)es cylindrical, with tiiick walls and remote 
diaphragms. Interstitial tul)es angular with numerous diaphragms. 

Sub-genus Constellurin, Dana. — Zoarium ramose or sub-frond- 
escent; in other respects like Stellipora. 

Family FistuliporidoR, Ulrich. 

Zoarium massive, ramose or frondescent. Cell-apertures circular 
or ovate, with or without a slightly projecting lip, and separated by 
one or more sei'ies of angular interstitial cells. Tubes with straight 
diaphragms. Walls of interstitial cells not continuous, but form a 
loose vesicular tissue between the proper zooecia. 

Fistulipora, McCoy. — Zoarium massive, ramose, or forming free or 
attached expansions. When ramose the branches are large, often 
irregular, and sometimes hollow. In tangential sections the proper 
zorecia are regularly circular or elliptical. Niagara to Carboniferous. 

Didymopora^ Ulrich. — Proper zooecia with two delicate longitudinal 
lamellae springing inwardly from the walls of the tubes; or they are 
simply contracted by two inflections of the wall. In other respects 
like Fistulipora, 

Besides Fistulipora and Didymopora, and several undescribed 
genera, I believe that •Bhinopora, Hall, Lichenalia, Hall, and 
Ooscinium, Keyserling (as identified by Prout), will be found to be 
long to the Fistuhporidoe. 

Fam. C'eramoporidce, Ulrich. 

Zoarium usuall}^ incrusting, in other cases ramose, with the branches 
hollow (^■. e., provided with an "axial tube") or flabellate. Cell-aper- 
tures triangular or ovate, with a prominent and arched "lip" usually 
on one side. Interstitial cells from very few to numerous. Connect- 
ing foramina sometimes present. Diaphragms (if at all developed) 

Ceramopora, Hall. — Usually incrusting. Cells angular, with the 
"lip" strong!}^ arched, the aperture oblique, and radiating from one or 
more centers. Insterstitial cells sometimes absent; always few. Con- 
necting foramina usually present. Diaphragms occasional!}' devel- 
oped. Cincinnati to Lower Helderberg. 

Ceramoporella, Ulrich. — Incrusting; composed of. a single thin 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. l57 

layer, or numerous superimposed layers. Tubes short, with the aper- 
tures rounded, and more or less oblique. Interstitial cells numerous, 
and in the matured state covered by a thin membrane. Cincinnati. 

Cheiloporella, Ulrich. — Forming heavy crusts, or rising upward into 
flabellate fronds. Tubes long, traversed by few straight diaphragms. 
Cell-apertures ovate. Interstitial cells numerous. Cincinnati. 

Ci-epipora^ Ulrich. — Usually incrusting, sometimes irregularl}- ra- 
mose with hollow branches. Cell-apertures very little oblique, rhom- 
boidal, with a slightly projecting -'lip." Interstitial cells usually 
restricted to the "maculae," which are distributed at rather regular 
intervals over the surface. Two delicate longitudinal lamellae are 
present in each tube. Diaphragms are developed in moderate number. 

JEridopora, Ulrich. — External characters as in Ceramoporella. Long- 
itudinal sections demonstrate that the intertubular spaces are occupied 
by a well developed vesicular tissue. Sub-carboniferous. 

Sub-order Cheilostomata, Busk. 
Fam. MernbraniporidcB, Busk. 

F Paleschara, Hall. — Zoarium incrusting; tubes very short. Cell- 
apertures direct, angular, and more or less oblong. Cincinnati to 
Lower Helderberg. 

A few American Palaeozoic genera of Bryozoa have been omitted 
from the above classification, because I have not 3'et been able to give 
them the attention required for a full elucidation of their characters 
and affinities. 


Genus Bekenicea, Lamx. 
The dividing lines between the genera Berenicea, Proboscina, and 
Stomatopora, are, especially among Palaeozoic forms, not strongl}^ 
marked, since it is mainly in their mode of growth that the}' differ. 
As, however, these generic names are convenient in classif3'ing the 
numerous species placed under each by such authorities as Busk, 
Haime, and Reuss, I have thought it proper to recognize the genera in 
classifying the Lower Silurian species. 

Berenicea primitiVa, n, sp. (Plate VI., fig. 4.) 
Zoarium attached to foreign bodies, and forming small subciroular 

158 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

or irregular patches. Cells small, mostly immersed, somewhat iireguiar 
in their arrangement, with the rounded and slightly oblique apertures 
raised conspicuouslj'^ above the general surface. Cell apertures usually 
about twice their own diameter distant from each other; about eight 
occupy the space of .1 inch. 

P'ormation and locality : Rare at Cincinnati, Ohio, near the tops of 
the hills ; more abundant in the upper half of the Cincinnati Group. 

Berenicea vesiculosa, n, sp. (Plate VI., fig. 5.) 
Zoarium adnate, very delicate, growing usually upon smooth crinoid 
columns. Cells showing distinctly upon the surface as elliptical convex 
spaces, with the circular aperture situated upon the forward slope of the 
same. The cells are closely arranged in rather irregularly alternating 
series; measured along the length of the cells, about eight may be 
counted in the space of .1 inch; and across their width eleven or twelve 
occupy the same space. 

From the preceding species B. vesiculosa, is readily distinguished 
by its less immersed, and more closely arranged cells. 

Formation and locality : Rare at Cincinnati, Ohio, from low-water 
mark in the Ohio river, to 200 feet above that horizon. 

ScENELLOPOBA RADiATA, nov. gcn. et sp. (Plate VI., figs. 6, 60, and 6&.) 
Scenellopora, gen. char., ante p. 150. 

Zoarium depressed, conical in form, with the cell apertures occupy- 
ing only the base of the cone; the sides are lined with a thin and 
striated epitheca. The celluliferous surface is slightly concave, and 
in the example before me, the central portion is smooth and without 
cell-apertures. Radiating from this space to the outer margin are 
about twenty rather unequal ridges, which carry either a single or 
double row of cell-apertures; cells elliptical, oblique, about five in the 
space of .1 inch, measured along the length of the ridges. The inter- 
vening spaces like the central space appear to be solid. That is, 
however, scarcely probable, and I believe that they were occupied by 
interstitial cells, the mouths of which are closed by an interstitial 
membrane. Height of zoarium, .15 inch; diameter of celluliferous 
surface, about .4 inch. 

Scenellopora is nearly allied to some of the species of Aspendesia^ 
Lamx., and consequently must be referred to the family Theonoidce, 

Formation and locality: The specimen upon which this species 

American Palaeozoic Bryozoa. 159 

and genus is found, was collected from strata of the Trenton group, 
near Kuoxville, Tenn. 

MiTocLEMA ciNCTosA, nov, gen. et sp. (Plate VI., figs. 7, la.) 

Mitoclema, gen. char, ante p. 150. 

Zoarium ramose, branches very slender, and divided dichotomously 
at intervals, varying from less than one quarter inch to one half inch. 
Cells radiating from an imaginary central axis, with the apertural 
portion tubular and partiall}' free; cell apertures rounded, and 
arranged in transverse series around the branches; there are eight of 
these rows in the space of .3 inch ; and from twelve to fifteen cell 
apertures in each series. Diameter of branches about .035 inch. 

Mitoclema bears considerable resemblance to the Mesozoic and 
recent genera Spiropora, Lamx., and Entalophora, Lamx., and doubt- 
less belongs to the same famil}^ of Bryozoa. However, neither those 
genera nor any other genus of the Entalophoridm is known to occur in 
older strata than Jurassic. Another species of Mitoclema occurs in 
the Trenton rocks of New York, which (if I have correctly identified 
the form) was described by Hall under the name of Gorgonia ? 
perantiqua. (Pal. N. Y., vol. i, p. 76, 1847.) 

Formation and locality: This species was collected by Prof. A. G. 
Wetherby and the author, at the bottom of the gorge of the Kentuck}- 
river, near High Bridge, Ky. Trenton. 

Fenestella oxfordensis, n. sp. (Plate VI., fig. 13.) 
Zoarium broadl}', and usually incompletely funnel-shaped; branches 
slender, five or six in the space of .1 inch, regular, and somewhat rigid 
in appearance; on the non-poriferous side they are rounded, and 
apparently always smooth. Dissepiments about one half the width of 
the branches, and expanding at their junction; five or six in the space 
of .1 inch. Fenestrules elliptical to sub-quadrangular, with a width 
about equal to that of the branches, and a length from once and a half 
to twice the width. Cell-apertures in two ranges, one on each side of 
a moderately developed median ridge, generally three in the space of 
each fenestrule, circular, and distant from each other usually less than 
half their diameter. A small node appears to be developed on the 
median ridge at the point of junction of the dissepiments with the 

This species is the only undoubted one of Fenestella, known to me 
from American Lower Silurian rocks. It is related to both F. prisca, 
Lonsdale, and F. tenuis, Hall, from the Clinton group of New York. 

160 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

From the former it differs in having the cell-apertures much more 
closely arranged; from tlie latter it is dislinguishc'l by its less elongated 
fenestrules; and from both by its less robust habit of growth. 

Formation and locality : In the upper i)art of the Cincinnati group, 
at Oxford, Ohio. 

Phyllopora variolata, n. sp. (Plate VI., fig. 14.) 
Zoarium broadly funnel-shaped, or irregular in its growth, composed 
of anastomosing branches, having a width of about .015 inch. Fenes- 
trules varying from elongate elliptical to sub-circular, with a width 
sometimes more, at other times less, than that of the branches; and a 
length varying from once to three times the width. Cell-apertures 
circular, arranged either in two scries or three alternating rows; inter- 
cellular spaces thin, raised into small nodes where larger; about four- 
teen cell-apertures occupy the space of .1 inch. Branches on non- 
celluliferous side smooth. 

This genus is represented b}' two species in the Cincinnati rocks — 
the one above described, and another which I belive is the same form 
that was described by Miller and Dyer under the name of Intricaria 
clathrata (Contributions to Palaeontology. No. 2, 1878). Those authors 
however, describe their species as having but a single row of cell-aper- 
tures on che branches. If I am right in my identification, then that 
statement is incorrect, since there are usuall}^ three series of cell-open 
ings, one along the center of the branch, and another on each side. 
The cells along the sides of the branches are easily overlooked, and in 
specimens having the fenestrules even partiall}' filled with matrix they 
can not be detected, since the}* open almost directly into the fenes- 

Formation and locality: At Cincinnati, Ohio, in strata from 150 to 
825 feet above low-water mark, in the Ohio river. 

Arthronema, no v. gen. 
Zoarium ramose, composed of numerous slender segments. Seg- 
ments sub-cylindrical, slightl}' swollen at each end, and celluliferous 
on one side only; the opposite side being longitudinally furrowed and 
striated. Cell-apertures, in two to four rows, arranged between elevated 

T^^pe, Helopora tenuis, James. (Plate VI., figs. S, S«, 8i, and 8c.) 

While making some excavations in the shales of the lower part of 

the Cincinnati group, I was fortunate enough to discover this minute 

and ver\- interesting br3-ozoan in immense numbers. The shales were 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 161 

literally covered with the detached segments, and many fine specimens 
were secured, some of which preserve several hundred of the small 
segments still in connection. As is shown by these specimens, each 
segment at its upper extremity articulates almost invariably with two 
succeeding segments, so as to produce a dichotomousl}' branched 
zoarium. The segments are about two tenths of an inch in length, 
and less than one hundredth of an inch in diameter, and have, so far 
as I could determine, always three series of cell-apertures, which are 
situated in as many concave furrows. The fourth side is convex, and 
wider than any of the other three sides, and is marked b}' from six to 
eight distinct longitudinal striae. The cell-apertures, when perfect, are 
provided with a delicate and prominentl}" elevated rim; nsualh', how- 
ever, the}^ appear as so man}' rounded apertures at the bottom of the 
furrows. About nine cells occupy the space of .1 inch, and they are 
separated from each other a little more than their own diamater. 

Arthronema tenue occurs in the Upper Trenton strata, of Kentucky, 
and is a common fossil in the lower half of the Cincinnati group. 

Arthronema curtdm, n. sp. (PI. VI,, fig. 9.) 
The segments of this species differ from those of A. tenue, in being 

stronger, shorter, and more finely striated on the non-poriferous side ; 

besides the articular faces at each end are more distinctly enlarged. 

The only specimen that I have seen pi'esenting the poriferous side to 

view is considerabl}' worn, and all that I can say of the cell-apertures 

is that they appear to be arranged in four series. Length of a single 

segment, .09 inch ; diameter of same, .025 inch. 

Formation and locality : In the Cincinnati group, at an elevation of 

from 250 to 300 feet above low-water mark in the Ohio river, on the 

hills west of Covington, Ky, Rare, 

Arthroclema spiniforme, n, sp. (PI. YL, figs. 10, \0a.) 

Zoarium composed of numerous segments, which are C3diudrical. por- 
iferous on all sides, and pointed more or less obtuseh' at each eud ; 
their length varies from two to four tenths of an inch ; their diameter 
from .015 inch to .04 inch. Cell apertures oblique, arranged between 
slightl}' elevated longitudinal lines, and in transverse rows around the 
stem. On account of their obliquit}', well preserved examples have 
the lower margin of the aperture prominentl}' elevated. There are 
from eight to sixteen longitudinal series of cell-apertures around the 
segments; seven of the transverse series occup}- the space of .1 inch. 
Longitudinal sections show that the cells radiate from a central axis, 

162 Cincinnati Socieiij of Natural Histonj. 

tliat tlioir walls are thin near the axis, and become niucli thickened as 
they approacli the surface. No dia|»hragms. In transverse sections 
the cells radiate from the central axis, and appear as so man}' wedges 
arranged around a central point. 

It is possible that this species is not congeneric with the Arthronlcma 
pulchelfa, Billings, upon which the genus was founded. Hut as I have 
had no opportunity to examine specimens of that species, I have deemed 
it prudent to refer my species provisionally to Mr. Billings' genus.* 

Formation and localiby : Quite abundant in middle Trenton strata, 
at Lebanon, Tenn., where it is associated with numerous other Brj'ozoa. 


The family Ptilodictyonidoe as defined by Zittel (Handbuch der 
Palaeontologie, p. 603), comprises two distinct groups, which from the 
distinguishing character may be termed '' articulata" and "ioarticu- 
lata." Similar divisions have been made b}^ Busk in both the Cyclo- 
stomata and Cheilostomata, and it is interesting to note that such di- 
visions can also be established in the proposed sub-order Treposto- 
mata. The group "articulata" of the new sub-order contains, so far 
as known, only the famil}- Ptilodictyonidoi as restricted {ante p. ), 
and is characterized hy a jointed zoarium. This character I have con- 
sidered of sufficient importance to warrant the separation of the genera 
having an unjointed zoarium, from those in which the zoarium is di- 
vided into segments. Coasequentl}', the family Stictoporidoi has been 
established for the receptionof the genera having a continuous zoarium. 

Ptilodictya, Lonsdale. 
Heterodictya, Nicholson, Geo. Mag., vol. ii., n. s., 1875. 
Fronds simple or branched, springing from a pointed or wedge- 
shaped, sub-solid, and finely' striated base or articulating process, which 
fitted loosely in the socket of the expanded and firmly attached base. 
The free portion of the zoarium is two-edged, with the transverse sec- 
tion acutel}' elliptical, with the surface either smooth, montiferous, or 
marked by transverse ridges, and composed of two equal but distinct 
sides; each side is provided with a delicate epithecal membrane, from 
which the cells arise to open on the two opposite faces of the frond. 
Cells quadrate, rhomboidal, or hexagonal, and arranged in longitudinal 

* Since the above has been in press, I have been enabled, through the kindness of Mr. 
S. A. Miller, to examine authentic specimens of Billings' species, and I am now coavinced 
that A spinifurme, though differing in many respects from the type species, is properly 
I'eferred to Arthroclema. 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 163 

series, or in a quincuncial manner ; pseudo-septa are frequently pres- 
ent ; the walls in many species are pierced hy connecting foramina. 
True interstitial cells usually absent ; but in the nodose species the 
summits of the monticules are often occupied by smaller cells than the 
average. In the robust species the tubes are crossed b}' diaphragms 
placed upon the same level in contiguous tubes. 

Ptilodictya maculata, n. sp. (PI. VI., fig. 17, and PI. VII., figs. 4, 4a.) 
Zoarium consisting of a single, unbranched, flattened, two-edged 
frond, which is more or less curved, and gradually expands from the 
pointed articulating " head" upwards. The width of the frond above 
varies in difl^erent examples from one half an inch to one and a half 
inches. The total length may exceed five inches, while the greatest 
thickness of a robust specimen does not exceed one tenth of an inch. 
From one to two tenths of an inch above the extremity of the striated 
and more or less pointed articulating process, the zoarium suddenl}' 
expands and forms a kind of shoulder. Cells rhomboidal or hexagonal, 
with oval or circular apertures, and arranged in intersecting diagonal 
lines, the regularit}' of which is interrupted at intervals of about. 1 inch, 
by groups of cells of a larger size than the average, which occupy 
slight elevations of the surface. Between these groups about twelve 
cells occupy the space of .1 inch. Walls of cells at the surface moder- 
ately thin. Sections show that the walls are thick and perforated by 
connecting foramina; and that diaphragms are developed at corre- 
sponding levels in contiguous tubes. In tangential sections the cells 
are usuall3% irregular)}' petaloid; the pseudo-septa number in each 
tube from one to five 

The characters of this species are intermediate between those of 
P. falciformis, Nicholson, and P. pavonia, D'Orbigny. From the 
former it is distinguished by its much more robust fronds, and groups 
of larger-sized cells. From the latter it is separated by its compara- 
tively narrow fronds, which never expand so irregularly, nor nearlj' so 
much as those of P. pavonia. 

In this connection, it is proper to consider the characters of Ptilo- 
dictya pavonia, D'Orb., since Dr, Nicholson (" Monticulipora," p. 19G, 
1881), has questioned my view of the alHnities of this species. D'Or- 
bigny originally referred the species to the genus Ptilodictya, which 
course I believe to have been unquestiouabl}' correct. In his discussion 
of the subject. Dr. Nicholson says (loc. cit.): "This beautiful form 
presents a considerable superficial resemblance to Ptilodictya, and 
has been referred to this genus. It wants, however, the definitely cir- 

IT) J Cincinnati Society of Ndlural flistory. 

cumsrribod and peculi.'uly marked lateral marjfins f»r tlio fronds of 
this I'olyzoan type; and, what is more important, it \h without the 
peculiarl\' striated central lamina of the Ptilodlctyoi. It is true that 
the l)ases of the corallitcs in M. pavonia, D'Orb., are so united with 
one anotlier as to give rise to an irregular calcareous membrane, which 
separates the two halves of the corallum; but none of the specimens 
that I have seen exhibit any tendency to split along the line of this 
membrane, nor can the corallitcs be forcibly removed from one side of 
it, exposing the median lamina as a definite structure. In both these 
respects the Ptilodictyce would show quite different phenomena." The 
first character — i. e., the nonporiferous margin which Dr. Nicholson 
erroneously regards as lacking in P. pavonia — is, of course, not devel- 
oped along the growing margin of the fronds, but in all specimens 
preserving the "articulating process," the nonporiferous margin ma}' 
1)0 ti'aced along the edges of the lower portion of the frond. The non- 
poriferous margin in P. pavonia (Plate VII., fig. 3rt), is precisely like 
that of either P. falciformis or P. maculata. Judging from the 
above quotation, it would appear that Dr. Nicholson has entirely' mis- 
conceived the character of the median laminae of the P tilodicty onidoi. 
If I understand him correctly, he believes that the axis is constituted 
by a definite structure from which the two layers of cells may be 
striped. This impression is manifestly erroneous, nor do I know of a 
single double-leaved Bryozoan in which such a structure may be 
demonstrated. In Ptilodictya the facts are, simpl}', that we have two 
laj'crs of cells which are grown together back to back bj' the adhesion 
of the epithecal laminae of each la3^er. This fact may be readily 
demonstrated either in thin sections or fractures. In both tests the 
characters presented by P. pavonia, are preciseh' like those observed 
in other species of the genus. On plate VII., figs. 3 and 3a, are repre- 
sented two specimens of P. pavonia, both of which preserve a portion 
of the frond and the articulating process. The importance of the fact 
that this species possesses a jointed zoarium can not be over-estimated, 
since it completes the chain of evidence that establishes the near 
relationship of P. pavonia to some of the more t^-pical species of the 

Formation and locality' : P. maculata is not an uncommon fossil in 
strata about 300 feet above low- water mark in the Ohio river, at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, Covington, Kentucky, and other localities. 

Ptilodictya ramosa, n. sp. (Plate VII., figs. 5, 5a.) 
Zoarium ramose, branching dichotomously about three times, at in- 

American Palmozoic Bryozoa. 165 

tervals of from one fourth to one half an inch. The branches var}- in 
width in different examples, from one to two tenths of an inch. 
Distance between the first bifurcation and the pointed articulating 
process, usually less than one half inch. Transverse section of a 
branch acutely elliptical. Non-poriferous margin broad, distinctly 
striated. The cells are hexagonal, with circular or oval apertures, 
and arranged quincuncially ; those near the non-poriferous margin are 
considerably larger than those along the middle of a branch, where 
nine or ten occupy the space of .1 inch. 

I know of no species to which P. ramosa is nearly enough allied to 
necessitate a comparison. 

Formation and locality: Middle Trenton strata, at Lebanon, Tenn., 
and High Bridge, K3'. 

Ptilodictya hriarecs, n. sp. (Plate VII., figs. 6, 60 and 66.) 
Zoarium digitate, from four to six closely approximated and 
flattened stems arising almost simultaneously from the wedge-shaped, 
articulating process. As growth proceeds, these stems are dichotom- 
ously divided at a verj' small angle, but at rather iregular intervals 
(usually about one inch). The non-poriferous margin is wide and 
striated, the cells are rhomboidal or quadrate, and usual)}'' arranged 
quincuncially. Walls very thick; cell-apertures oval. About seven 
cells occupy the space of .1 inch, measured longitudinally; in the same 
space diagonally there are ten. The thickness of the branches varies 
from .05 inch to .1 inch; the width from .15 inch to .3 inch. The 
length of the complete zoarium may be three or four inches. 

Formation and locality: The remarkable specimens upon which 
this species is founded, Avere collected by Prof. James Safford, from 
middle Trenton strata at Lebanon, Tenn. 

Graptodictya, nov. gen. 

Zoarium in the general characters like that of Ptilodictya, from 
which it differs in being smaller, in having subcircular cells, which are 
surrounded by sulci, or interstitial pits. Non -poriferous margin well 
developed, striated. Articulating process slender, pointed. Frequently 
branched above. 

Type, PtilodiGtija perelegans, Ulrich. (This Journal, vol. i., p. 94, 
PI. IV., figs. 16 and 16a.) 

Since the publication of the description of Graptodictya perelegans, 
I have examined other specimens, which preserve the articulating pro- 
cess. This is sub-cylindrical and pointed at its lower extremity. 
About .3 inch above the extremity the first bifurcation takes place. 

1()G Cincinnati Societi) of Natural History. 

Graptodictya nitida, n. sp. (PI. VII., figs. 8 and 8a.) 
As will be seen by a comparison of the enlarged view of the surface 
of G. perelegans (PI. VIII., fig. 3), with that of this species, the cellular 
structure in the two forms is almost identical. O. nitidn differs from 
that species only in its mode of growtii. It is dichotomously divided 
at about .6 inch above the pointed extremity of the articular process, 
and none of the examples which I .have seen are again divided above 
the first bifurcation. Besides, its zoarium is somewhat more slender 
than that of Q. perelegans. 

Localit}^ and formation: In the Cincinnati group, five miles north- 
west of Hamilton, O., in strata equivalent to a height of 550 feet above 
low water mark in the Ohio river at Cincinnati. 

DiCRANOPORA, nov. gcn. 

Zoarium large when complete, composed of numerous small ligulate 
joints. The segments are flattened, from one fourth of an inch to one 
inch in length, with the edges sub-parallel to near the upper end where 
they suddenly diverge, and are dichotomously divided into two short 
branches, the ends of which are thickened and solid, and articulate 
with the next succeeding segments. Cell-mouths ovate to subquadrate, 
and arranged between raised longitudinal lines. Usually the cells in 
from one to three rows along the margins have an oblique direction. 
No interstitial cells. 
Type, Ptilodictya internodia, 'M.iWqv and Dyer. (PI. VII., figs. 9. 9a.) 

The specimen illustrated by Messrs. Miller and Dyer is an abnormal 
segment, being simple instead of bifurcated. That condition is fre- 
quently' found in D. internodia, but I have not yet seen an undivided 
segment of any other species. Dicranopora will include probably all 
of the ligulate species of Ptilodictya. 

Dicranopora lata, n. sp. (PL VI., figs. 16, 16a.) 
The segments of this species are about one inch in length ; their 
width at the lower or simple end is about .08 inch ; at the bifurcated 
end the width is usually about .16 inch ; the greatest thickness rarely 
reaches .03 inch. The two articulating branchlets are remarkablj' 
short, being generally only about .05 inch ; they are only indicated by 
a narrow cleft in the widest end of the segment. Cells with thick 
walls and very small oval apertures. There are about ten longitudinal 
rows of cells near the lower end, and at least twenty just below 
the bifurcation. Measured along the length of a segment eight cells 
occupy the space of .1 inch. There are two rows of obliquelj' arranged 
cell-apertures along each of the acute margins. 

American Pakeozoic Bryozoa. 167 

The wide segments, thick cell-walls, and remarkably short articu- 
lating branchlets constitute the distinguishing features of the species. 

Formation and localit}'^: From the upper part of the Cincinnati 
group, near Oxford, Butler county, Ohio. 

DiCRANOPORA TRENToNENSis, u. sp. (Plate VI., figs. 15, 15a.) 

A segment of this species gave the following measurements: from 
the point of bifurcation to the extremity of the simple end, .7 inch; 
from do. to the upper or articulating end of each of the two branches, 
.3 iijch; width of main stem, the sides or edges of which are nearlj'- 
parallel, .08 inch; width of branches, .07 inch; angle of bifurcation, 
about 80 degrees. The cells are arranged between slightly raised 
longitudinal lines; there are nine of these rows, besides one obliquely 
directed series along each edge; measured longitudinally, seven cell- 
apertures occupy the space of .1 inch. Cell-walls comparatively thin 
Non-poriferous margin distinct but narrow. 

The thin cell-walls and long branches of the segments are the dis- 
tinguishing characters. So far as the length of the two branches is 
concerned, the extremes noticed are shown in this and the precedino 

Formation and locality: From the middle Trenton strata, exposed 
at Lebanon, Tenn. 

, Arthropora, nov. gen. 

Growth ot Zoarium similar to that of Dicranopora, but not so 
regular. Each segment has several short spurs or branchlets proceed- 
ing from each edge, some of which may or may not be tipped for 
articulation with succeeding segments. The main stem however is 
always slightly thickened and solidified at each end, where it joins the 
preceding and succeeding segments. The cell-mouths are oval or 
circular, and separated by interstitial pits or sulci. Often the cells 
are closed by sculptured opercula. 

Type, Stictopora shaffen\ Meek. (Plate VII., figs. 10 and 10«.) 

Meek's description of this species is in the main correct, but he 
did not notice that the zoarium is a jointed one. I have in m^^ cabinet 
a specimen which preserves no less than forty of the segments in 
connection. Figure 10, on plate VII., represents four of the segments 
of that specimen, and gives a tolerably clear idea of tiie growth of tlie 
zoarium. Besides Arthropora shaj'eri, the Cincinnati group furnishes 
at least one, and probably two other species, having the characters 
above ascribed to the <renus. 

1G8 Cincinnati Societji of Natnral Histonj. 

Stictopoka, Hall. 

Zoariiim attached to foreign oltjects by an expanded base, ramose, 
branches compressed, and composed of two layers of cells, which open 
upon the two flattened fiices of the branches, and have their l)ases 
brought into juxtaposition by the adhesion of their epithecal laminae. 
Branches with an acutely elliptical transverse section, from less than 
.1 of an inch, to sometimes a little more than .2 of an inch in width; 
the edges are marked by a more or less distinct non-poriferous margin. 
Cell-apertures oval or circular, usually arranged between raised longi- 
tudinal lines, with the interspaces smooth, rarely finely striate. Xhin 
sections show that the tubes are of one kind only, with walls very thin 
near the median laminae, but much thickened just below the surface; 
between the rows of cells are dark lines, indicating the raised longi- 
tudinal lines observed on the surface of the branches. 

This genus has usually been considered, either as an exact synonym 
for Ptilodictya, Lonsdale, or as based upon types only sub-generically 
distinct from typical species of that genus. That I regard both these 
views as erroneous, I need scarcely say, since my opinion of the 
relations of these forms is amply shown in the foregoing scheme of 

As I have before stated. I consider the differences between Ptilo- 
dictya and Stictopora to be not only of generic importance, but of suf- 
ficient value to constitute the basis for the establishment of a separate 
and distinct family, for which 1 have proposed the name of Sticto- 

Stictopora acuta. Hall. (PI. VIII., figs. 1, la and Ih.) 
Stictopora ? acuta, Hall, 1847. Pal. N. Y., vol. i., PI. XXVI., fig. 3. 
This species is a common fossil in the upper strata of the Trenton 
group, at Burgin, Ky., on the line of the Cincinnati Southern Railroad. 
The Kentucky specimens differ fr.^m t^'pical New York examples, in 
being somewhat more robust. In all other respects they are the same. 
Hall in his original description of the species, expressed a doubt 
whether a central axis was developed. A central axis or lamina is 
pi'eseut in the same sense as it is in all double-leaved Bryozoa known 
to me. That is, the two adhering epithecal membranes constitute an 
" axis" from which the cells proceed in opposite directions. 

Stictopora gilberti. Meek. (PL VIII., figs. 2 and 2a.) 
Ptilodictya [Stictopora] gilberti. Meek, 1871 ; Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci., Phil., p. 7 ; and Pal. Ohio, vol. 1, p. 194, 1873. 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 169 

This neat species is mentioned in this connection, only because it 
shows a variation in one character from the typical species of the 
genus. Namely, the branches of this species do not retain a certain 
width throughout (as is very ueai'ly the case in the moi'e typical 
species), but vary, from below upwards, between the extremes of one 
tenth and three tenths of an inch. The rows of cells are increased by 
interpolation. In all other respects, S. gilberti has the characters of 
the genus as above specified. 

Stictopora basalis, n. sp. (PI. VIII., figs. 4 and 4a.) 
Zoarium branching at intervals of about .2 inch, and attached to 
foreign bodies below by a broad, striated, and non-poriferous basal ex- 
pansion. Branches from .08 inch to .12 inch in width ; thickness of 
same, not exceeding .03 inch. Non-poriferous margin rather wide, 
smooth. Cells small, with thick walls and elliptical apertures ; ar- 
ranged in from ten to twelve alternating longitudinal series, between 
more or less elevated lines. Measured longitudinall}^, eight cells occupy 
the space of .1 inch; transversely, there are twelve rows of cells in the 
same space. 

The small cells, and the profuse branching of the zoarium, are the 
distinguishing features of the species. ^ 

Formation and locality: Trenton group. Collected b}' Prof. J. M. 
Safford, at Shelbyville, Tenn. 

Stictoporella interstincta, nov. gen. et sp. (Plate VIII., figs. 9, 9a,) 

Stictoporella, gen. char, ante, p. 152. 

Zoarium small, branching several times at intervals of from .1 inch 
to .3 inch. Branches thin, with a width usuall}^ a little less than .1 
inch. Cells comparatively large, with elliptical apertures, and rather 
thin walls; arranged in somewhat irregular, alternating, longitudinal 
series, without an}^ raised lines between them. Measured diagonally, 
eight cells occupy the space of .1 inch; in the same space longitudin- 
ally there are six cells. Between the ends of the cell-apertures there 
are alwa3'S two, sometimes three or four, elongated interstitial pits, and 
along the edges of the branches there are from one to three obliquely 
directed series of similar pits. 

This species is closely allied to Stictoporella Jfexuosa (Ptilodictya 
Jlexuosa, James), from which it diff'ers in having wider, and oftener 
divided branches, and less regularly distributed cells. Besides the 
type species and 8. Jlexuosa, James, the genus will probably embrace 
Ptilodictya excellens, Billings, from the Anticosti group, of Canada. 

Formation and locality : At river quarries, opposite the city of 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

170 Cincinnati Society of Ndlnral HiHtori/. 

RlITNIDICTYA MCnOLSONI, nOV. fron. Ct S|). (Pl.Htc VIII., figs. 0, i\(l 

jind G/y.j 

Rhinidictya, gen. cliar. (inte, p. 152. 

Zoarium slender, branching at intorvul.s ol' IVoin one half an inch to 
one inch. Branches varying in width, in the extremes of the exam- 
ples noticed, fi-om .07 inch to .12 inch; in thickness, from .02 inch to 
.04 inch. Cells small, with oval apertures, which in 3'oung examples 
are somewhat oblique; the cell-walls, which with age become much 
thickened, carr}' a closely arranged series of small spines or granules, 
which tangential sections show are the surface extensions of small 
spiniform tubuli. The cells are regularly arranged in alternating 
longitudinal series, of which there are from ten to fourteen in the 
width of the branches ot the different specimens examined. Meas- 
ured longitudinally, seven cells occupy the space of .1 inch ; transversely, 
there are seven of the alternating longitudinal rows in .05 inch. 

Young nor worn specimens do not show the spiniform tubuli, and 
for that reason Mr. U. P. James has described a Cincinnati species of 
this genus under the two names of Ptilodictya granulosa, and P. par- 
alella. Mr. James' species is in all respects more delicate, nor does it 
appear to be so variable in its characters as the Trenton group species 
above described. 

Named in honor of Dr. H. Alleyne Nicholson, whose numerous works 
have added so much to our knowledge of the Palaeozoic Corals and 

Formation and locality: Trenton group, at High Bridge, Ky., a sta- 
tion on the Cincinnati Southern R.R. 

Cystodictya occellata, nov. gen. et sp. (Plate VIII., figs. 3, 3a). 

Cystodictya, gen. char., ante p. 152. 

Zoarium branching at intervals of from .25 inch, to .80 inch ; width 
of branches from .15 inch to .20 inch ; thickness of same about .04 
inch. Non -poriferous margin smooth, not very acute, rather narrow. 
Cell -apertures circular, occupying the summits of small papillae, fre- 
quently closed by centrall}' perforated opercula. In the central portion 
of the branches the cells are regularly arranged in longitudinal and 
intersecting diagonal series; measured longitudinally, six cells occupy 
the space of .01 inch ; in the same space diagonally there are seven. 
Along the edges of the branches there are several rows of cells, 
which are somewhat larger than those over the central portion, and 
which have a transverse arrangement; between these transverse series 
of cells the surface is depressed into distinct and wide grooves, so that 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 171 

the cell-apertures occupy the summits of small transverse ridges, nine 
of which occupy the space of .2 inch. Where a branch has a width of 
.2 inch, there are in all fourteen longitudinal rows of cells. At the 
surface no interstitial cells can be detected, the space between the 
cell-apertures being smooth. 

Longitudinal sections show that the tubes, in the axial region, are 
thin-walled, and prostrate for about one half of their entire length, 
when they bend abruptly outward and proceed directly to the surface. 
The intertubular spaces, having a width equaling twice the diameter 
of the tubes, arcoccupied on each side of the axial or epithecal mem- 
branes, to the point of outward bending of the tubes, hy vesicular 
tissue; and above that point to the surface, by dense, irregularl3' 
laminated sclerench3'ma. 

In tangential sections the transverse section of the tubes is sub- 
piriforra; this appearance is produced by two slight inflections of 
the walls of the tubes, which are placed opposite to each other, but a 
little either to the right or the left of the longitudinal diameter line, 
in such a manner that the smaller end of the piriform tube sections of 
one side of a branch, are directed toward the right, and on the other 
side, toward the left non- poriferous margin. Just below the surface 
the intertubular spaces are occupied by sclerenchyma, with numerous 
small, dark spots scattered through it, indicating a poriferous condition 
for the thick interstitial membrane. Nearer the axial laminae one or 
two series of interstitial cells surround each tube. 

Beside C. occellata, I have examined three other species that must 
be referred to this genus. Two of these are new, and the third was 
described by Meek under the name of Ptilodictya (Stictopora) car- 
honaria (Pal. Ohio, vol. ii., p. 328). Meek's species differs from the 
one above described, in having more slender branches, and only from 
seven to nine longitudinal series of cells, which are arranged simply in 
diagonally intersecting lines, without the marginal transverse grooves 
and rows of cells, which constitutes such a marked feature of C. occel- 
lata. In all of the four species the internal structure is essentially 
the same, aud the inter ai)ertural spaces are without interstitial cells. 

Formation and locality: Collected near Somerset, Kentucky, in Sub- 
carboniteroUs strata, probably of tlie Keokuk group. 

Ph^nopora (?) MULTiroRA, Hall. (Plate VIII., ligs. 7, 7a, and ~b.) 

Phoinopora midUpora, Hall, 1851, Geo. Lake Sup. Land. Dist , 
vol. ii. 

Zoarium consisting of rather large, thin, irregularly branching 

172 Cincinnati Society of Katural History. 

flabellatc or iindnl.atod expansions, \vlii(;li aro folliiliferous on two 
faces, and have no distinct non-poriferous marf^in. Surface smooth. 
Cells arranged between rather prominently elevated longitudinal strise, 
and in more or less regular transverse or diagonally intersecting series. 
Measured longitudinally nine cells occup}' the space of .1 inch; trans- 
versely from nine to twelve occup}' the same space. The cell-aper- 
tures are ovate to sub-quadrate, and the walls thick. Scattered over 
the surface at variable intervals are small, apparently solid spaces, 
which do not however interrupt the regularity of the arrangement of 
the cells. 

Vertical sections show that the cells arise rather abruptl}' from the 
axial laminse, near which their walls are \&cy thin. Soon, however, the 
walls are suddenly thickened, and appear to contain interstitial 
cells, since each wall is crossed by two or three dark lines, which ap- 
pear to be diaphragms. Between this zone and the outer surface, the 
selerenchj'ma between the walls of adjacent tubes is seemingly struc- 
tureless. In a single section of this kind the axial laminae appear to 
be perforated. No diaphragms have been observed in the tubes of the 
proper zooecia. 

In tangential sections the transverse section of the tubes may 
present four different aspects, according to the distance from the 
median laminse at which they are cut. Just above the central axis the 
cells are tbin-walled and quadrate, and arranged between straight 
longitudinal lines. The lines between the ends of the cells are always 
slightl}^ curved, and usuall}' constitute flexuous transverse lines, that 
cross the longitudinal lines at either a right angle, or somewhat 
obliquely. A little nearer to the surface the cells become elliptical and 
have thin ring-like walls; the space between the ends of the cells is 
occupied by calcite, which in the third stage (PI. VIIL, fig. 76) is 
filled by structureless sclerenchyma. In the fourth stage, representing 
a transverse section of the tubes immediately below the surface, the 
longitudinal lines are replaced by a close series of minute spiniform 
tubuli, and the appearance presented at this stage is almost identical 
with that of a like section oX Rhinidictya nicholsoni (PI. VIII., fig. 66). 

Of the three species, PhcBnopora explanata, P. constellata, and P. 
enaiformis, originally referred to Phcenopora by Hall (Pal. N. Y., vol. 
ii., 1852), the last is an undoubted species of Ptilodicty a (as restricted), 
since it po ssesses the pointed articulating process and cellular struc- 
ture of that genus. The second species I believe should also be re- 
ferred to that genus, since none of its characters, so far as I have been 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 173 

able to ascertain, are sufficiently distinct from those of typical species 
of Ptilodictya to permit a generic separation. I do not know that any 
specimens of P. constellata have been discovered which preserved the 
basal extremity: tint judging from the general characters of the zoari- 
um and its cellular structure, I am inclined to believe that the species 
possessed an articulating process or head, similar to that which char- 
acterizes Ptilodictya. The description of Phcenopora explanata im- 
mediatel}" follows that of the genus, and this species must therefore be 
regarded as the type of the genus. Through the courtesy of Prof. E.. P. 
Whitfield, of the Araer. Mus. of Nat. Hist., New York City, I was per- 
mitted to see the specimens upon which this species was founded. 
These are, however, but poorly-preserved fragments, that do not pre- 
serve the basal portion of the zoarium, and, in consequence, I am un- 
able to decide, with any degree of certainty, whether Phcenopoi^a should 
be classed with the Ptilodictyonida' or the Sticfoporidoi. My only 
reason for placing the genus with the latter family is found in the fact 
that P. (?) mMZ^/pora belongs there. That this species is congeneric 
with P. explanata \b ({rr\\hih\\, and must remain so until good speci- 
mens of the type species can be subjected to microscopical examination. 
Formation and locality: P. (?) multipora is not an uncommon fos- 
sil in the upper beds of the Trenton group, at Burgin, Ky. 

Pachydictya, robusta, nov. gen. et. sp. (PI. VIII., figs. 10, lOfr, 106, 

and 10c.) 

Pachydictya^ gen, char., ante p. 152. 

Zoarium robust, ramose, branching at intervals, varying from .3 inch 
to one inch. Branches varying in width from .2 inch, to over .5 inch, 
and in thickness from .05 inch to .15 inch. No n -poriferous margin 
usuallv well-developed, smooth. Cell-apertures comparatively large, 
oval to sub-circular, and arranged in more or less regular series; about 
six occupy the space of .1 inch. The interstitial cells usually can not 
be detected at the surface, and when most distinct they appear as onlj'^ 
shallow elongated pits occup3ang the summits of the moderately thick 
cell-walls. At irregular intervals they are gathered into unequal 
" maculae," which may be level with the general surface, or elevated 
into small monticules, and either smooth and apparently solid, or 
minutely punctate. When mature, the interstitial cells appear to have 
been covered l\v a minutely poriferous interstitial membrane. 

In longitudinal sections the tubes arise very abruptly from the me- 
dian axis, near which their walls are very thin; as they proceed toward 

174 Cincinnati Societji of Natural Hiatory. 

the surface, the walls become thickened, and separated from each 
other, the intervening space being narrow, and occupied by apparently 
structureless sclerenchyma. Tliis is the appearance when the tubes 
are cut through their centers. Wlien cut so as to pass along the side 
of the tubes, the interstitial cells are brougiit to view. These are 
crossed by nifmerous (liai)[uagnis, and remain open to near tlie surface 
when the}' are filled by the interstitial membrane. This is usually' tra- 
versed by ver\' slender, vertical dark streaks. The median lamina; are 
apparently amalgamated and poriferous, the minute foramina passing 
very obliquely through them. 

In tangential sections, near the axis (PI. VIII., fig. 106), the tubes 
arc thin walled, sub-circular or broadh' ovate, and usually in contact, 
though sometimes nearly surrounded by the interstitial tubes. Nearer 
the surface (PI. VIII., fig. 10c), the tube-walls are slightly thickened 
and ring-like, while the interstitial spaces and " niaculje" are profusely 
dotted by minute tubuli (Vspiniform tubuli). 

Of Pachydictya, beside P. robusta, I have one other large branching 
species from the Niagara group of Kentucky, and a palmate and not 
distinctly branched species from the Trenton of Tennessee and Min- 
nesota, which are, without any doubt, congeneric. All have rather 
large cells, and show more or less frequently the interstitial cells at the 
sui'face. One of the principal characters of the genus is shown in 
tangential sections. Namely, the cells are not separated into series by 
distinct longitudinal lines, but the arrangement is more like that of 
some of the Monticuliporidce [e. g. Prasopora neioberryi, Nich.) In 
all true species of Stictopora^ such lines constitute a conspicuous 
feature in tangential sections. 

Formation and locality : Collected by Prof. Satlord in the lower 
beds of the Trenton group, near Knoxville, Tenn. 

Phyllodictya frondosa, nov. gen. et sp. (Plate VIII., figs. 11, \la 

and 11&). 

Phyllodictya^ gen. char, ante^ p. 153. 

Zoarium growing from a somewhat expanded, sub solid, sometimes 
striated base, into erect, thin, simple and undulated expansions, which 
are celluliferous on both sides ; the height of the fronds is always 
less than two inches, while their thickness is never more than .08 inch, 
and often not more than .04 inch. The edges of the fronds are pro- 
vided with a distinct nou-porifeious margin. Cell apertures oblique, 
according to the age of the zoarium, from yi^ to -j-^^ of an inch in 
diameter, usually more or less regularly arranged in intersecting diag- 
onal series; in the perfect state the lower margin is prominent and 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 175 

tonus a small "lip." Cell-interspaces of variable thickness, smooth 
when worn, and minutely pitted or granular when well preserved; nine 
or ten cells occupy the space of .1 inch. At intervals of usually less 
than .2 inch are developed distinct " maculte,' which are either mi- 
nutely pitted or striated, and generall}^ even with the surface. In one 
specimen they are prominently elevated. 

In tangential sections taken just below the surface, the tubes are sub- 
circular, with a thin, but disinct ring-like wall. The interstitial spaces 
are occupied b}^ minute dots (? spin i form tubuli), and have a thick- 
ness often equaling the diameter of the tubes. 

In longitudinal sections, the tubes proceed from the median axis 
to the surface very obliquely, and in a long and gradual curve. A 
line drawn from the aperture to the point at which a tube is 
developed, forms an angle of about 35° with the central axis. 
As the tubes approach the surface, the}' are slightly contracted in 
their diameter, and the interstitial spaces expand rapidl}', until, 
near the surface, the}' have a thickness equal to the diameter of a tube; 
these spaces are occupied by nearl}^ structureless sclerenchyma, which 
(when the}' are preserved) are vertically traversed by rather indis- 
tinct dark streaks. The tubes are crossed by remote diaphragms. 

Another species of this genus occurs quite abundantly at High 
Bridge, Kentucky, where it is associated with P. frondosa, from which 
it differs mainly in external features. 

Formation and locality: In middle Trenton strata, at High Bridge, 
Kentucky, and other localities in that vicinity. 
[To BE Continued.] 


By E. O. Ulrich. 
Heterocrinus (Iockinus) cehanus, n. sp. (PI. V., figs. 9, 'da, 96.) 
Body small, obconic, pentalobate, and gradually expanding upward 
from the column. Basal pieces pentagonal, about as high as wide. In 
over twenty specimens examined, the sutures between the body plates 
can scarcely be detected. As well as could be determined, their ar- 
rangement is as follows: First radial, in all the rays excepting the 
right posterior one. .ibout as long as wide, and supporting in succes- 
sion two shorter and smaller pieces which belong to the body. In the 
right posterior ray, the first radial is wider than long, and succeeded 
by a shorter pentagonal piece, which supports upon its sujiorior sloping 
aces the next succeeding smaller radial, and the lai'ge irregularly 

170 Cincinnati Societij of Natural History. 

peuta<>oii!il .'inal plate ; succoeding the third radial is a fourth oik , 
which is about as long as wide, and is still iueluded within the body ; 
on the left side this piece articulates with the an;il plate ; above the 
body plates the rays are constricted, and in the right posterior, and 
right anterior rays, tliere are lour pieces in direct succession to the 
base of the arms, the last one being an axillary piece; in the three re 
maining rays there are five pieces to the base of the arms. 

Arms ten, rather stout, long, rounded on the dorsal side, and com- 
posed of pieces which in the largest examples studied are slightly wider 
than long, and in 3'oung specimens, a little longer than wide; the fifth* 
piece in each arm is somewhat wedge shaped and slightly larger than 
those below it, and supports on the upper lateral sloping side of its 
thicker end, a small armlet; subsequently each succeeding fourth piece 
throws off alternately' on each side of the arms, a similar armlet ; at 
the point of origin the width of the armlets is equal to about half of 
that of the arms ; they seem to extend upward as far as the arms 
themselves, and are composed of pieces that are nearly twice as long 
as wide; usually every sixth or seventh piece is axillar\', and supports 
two equal divisions of the armlet. 

The single anal plate is pentagonal, and once and a half times as 
large as the largest radial piece; it connects at the upper side with the 
ventral prolongation, which extended some distance beyond the end of 
the arms, and at intervals of about one eighth of an inch, or a little 
more, is constricted so as to give it a beaded appearance ; and is com- 
posed of numerous thin squamiform plates, that imbricate upward. 

Column of moderate size, pentagonal, and composed near the bod}- of 
alternately thicker and thinner pieces; several inches below the body 
the column becomes ronnded, and the segments nearly equal. 

Dimensions of a medium-sized specimen: Length of body, .18 inch ; 
breadth, .2 inch; length from last disk of column to base of arms, .34 
inch; length of arms, about 1.5 inches; diameter of column .1 inch. 

Named in honor of the discoverer, Mr. George Oeh, whose collection 
contains many fine specimens of Cincinnati crinoids. 

Formation and locality : On the hills back of Cincinnati, Ohio, at 
an elevation of about 325 feet above low-water mark in the Ohio river. 

Heterocrinus pentagonds, u. sp. (Plate V., figs. 10, and 10a.) 

Body small, a little longer than wide, with the breadth but slightly 
more above than below, in some specimens a little constricted above at 
tha point where the rays become free; in old examples, pentalobate, 
as seen from below, in consequence of each radial series being convex, 

American Palmozoic Bryozoa. Ill 

aucl the vertical sutures between them a little excavated. Basal 
pieces comparatively large, a little wider than high, with a general 
pentagonal outline. First radial in the central and left anterior rays, 
and the left posterior ray, convex, longer than wide, and supporting 
another shorter piece above, that tapers more or less upward; and 
upon this rest, in direct succession, three other plates, that are con- 
siderably wider than long, the third one being axillary and support- 
ing two arms. Right anterior ray with the first piece scarcely wider 
than long, and supporting in direct succession, two other slightly 
shorter pieces, the last of which tapers slightly upward, and again 
supports in succession, two still shorter pieces, and a third axillary 
piece. Right posterior ray, with the first piece slightl}- wider than 
long, while it supports above a somewhat smaller pentagonal piece, 
which in its turn again supports a smaller third radial, and on its left 
superior sloping side the first anal piece; above the third radial piece 
there are in direct succession three short pieces, and a fourth axillary 
piece, which, as in the other rays, supports two arms. 

Arms len, rather slender, of rLoderate length; above their origin on 
the last of the primary radial series, rounded, and composed of pieces 
usually a little wider than long, of which the thii'd, and subsequently 
every fourth one, gives off on alternate sides of the arm, an armlet or 
branch nearly two thirds as large as the main arm above; armlets 
composed of pieces that are as long as those of the main arm, being, 
in consequence, considerably longer than wide. 

Column proportionally large, its diameter equaling two thirds of 
that of the bod}^ at its widest point; distinctly pentagonal, with 
slightl}' prominent angles, and composed of alternating thinner and 
thicker disks; of the latter there are nine in the space of .3 inch below 
the basal plates. At a point about three inches below the body the 
column becomes rounded and the disks sub-equal. 

Length of bod}', .2 inch; breadth, about .17 inch; length from last 
disk of column to first bifurcation, about .35 inch, length of arras, as 
far as observed, .62 inch: diameter of column, .12 incli. 

This species is closely allied, in some respects, to Heterocrinus 
juvenis, Hall, from which it differs in its less slender and longer arms, 
comparatively smaller, and pentagonal instead of rounded column, and 
slightly in the plates of the bod}'. 

The three specimens examined were collected by Mr. George Oeh, 
who also discovered the preceding species. 

Formation and locality : Cincinnati grou[), at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
about 375 feet above low-water mark in the Ohio river. 

178 C'inciniKili Sociefi/ of Natural History. 

By A. J. lIowK, M. D. 
The Fly-trap of Venus and a few other plants, when gently touched, 
as by the alighting of an insect, display responsive movements as if 
to capture prey. The reflex action thus manifested does not prove 
that such energies come through the agency of a nervous system, but 
simply demonstrates that the vegetable fibre of certain plants is irri- 
table or impressible to a responsive degree. The white lily of our 
ponds displays its delicate and odorous petals at night and in cloudy 
weather; and the heliotrope, as the name implies, turns with the sun; 
but there is no neural cell or nerve tubule in these interesting flowers. 
Nerves are peculiar to animals. The stupid slug and the larval 
worm have two varieties of neurine in their composition: and these 
are displa3^ed in groups of cells (ganglia), and plexuses of threads. 
The former corresponds to the "gray'' matter of true brain, and the 
latter to the " white" or tubular neurine. The vesicles to be found in 
neural knots, nodules, ganglia or "centers," are soft, fatty and albu- 
minous, with a perceptible admixture of phosphorus. Functional 
activity is kept up in these ganglionic bodies by the presence of oxy- 
o-en, which is furnished through a circulating medium; for instance, 
the blood in elevated animal forms. Nervous energy is developed in 
gano-lia as certainly as secretions come from glands. 

A remarkable quality of neural endowment is, that the nervous sys- 
tem acts intelligently in the way of protecting the individual. The 
nervous filaments in the skin of an earth-worm warn the creature, as 
drouth approaches, to descend to planes where moisture is plentiful, 
and to return to the surface when warm rains render shallower planes 
ao-reeable. The lowly organism has no special senses, yet common 
cutaneous sensation does for all its needs. 

The spider has no brain, yet a few neural nodules and commissural 
filaments excellently serve the creature. It manifests discrimination 
in the selection of a place in which nets may be profitably spread; 
it seemingly knows where game is plentiful, and removes to better 
o-rounds when the supply is exhausted. As a strategist, the spider 
has no equal among insects. The ant and the bee exhibit great in- 
stinctive wisdom, yet they do not know enough to patiently lie in wait 
that they may suddenly pounce upon unsuspecting victims. 

Fishes and reptiles possess a low order of brains, and rather feeble 
instincts, except at certain seasons. The stickleback builds a nest 

The Nervous System. 179 

and clefeDcls it; aud the pythoness broods her eggs. Yet most reptiles 
leave their young to hatch and take care of themselves. 

Tiie encephalon of fishes and reptiles is represented by a small 
amount of cerebral neurine. Four or fiverpairs of ganglia are distinct 
in the neural chain. Olfactor}' nodules are present, yet the sense of 
smell is feeble or altogether lacking. The optic lobes are prominent; 
the cerebellum is distinctly represented, as well as the swellings of the 
medulla oblongata, but the cerebral hemispheres are insignificant in 
size. The brain of a crocodile is not as big as that of a parrot or a 
goose. The great saurian knows little except to capture and drown 


Birds have a large cerebrum as compai'ed with the weight of their 
bodies. The canary has comparativel}' more than twice as much brain 
as man. Yet the little thing is chiefly noted for song. The blue jay, 
a member of the crow famil}-, is about as wise as an}' bird that lives; 
and. like the parrot, can mimic many voices. Some birds, to call atten- 
tion from their nests, will feign lameness and inability to fly, as if 
wounded. The woodcock, having its first nest, will feign as well as a 
bird that has practised the sfcratagem a half dozen diflerent years, 
therefore the execution is purely instinctive and inherited. Several 
kinds of small birds will combine an attack upon a discovered owl. 
Each assailant feels that a common enemy is to be punished and 
driven out. And what is more, the small birds assault timidly' while 
the owl is in the dark retreat of a thicket, yet boldl}' when the night 
prowler is driven into the light of day where its sight is blinded. 

The spinal cord in vertebrates is the basis of the nervous system, 
although there is a visceral combination of nerves and ganglia which 
is highly important to the carrying on of the digestive and secretory 
functions. This splanchnic system is not wholly independent of the 
crebro-spinal combination, 3'et it is wholly beyond volition. The in- 
testines vermiculate, and the glands secrete, though the brain be 
thoroughly anaesthetized. 

The lowest vertebrate, the lancelet, or amphioxus, lias simply a 
spinal cord; no brain is developed on its cephalic extremity. The 
frog has appreciable cerebral hemispheres, yet a small amount of 
vesicular neurine in them. The}' seem to represent the beginning of 
that bulging on the anterior extiemity of the spinal cord, which is 
thrown into convolutions in the higher vertebrates. 

The ridged or convoluted state of the surface of the cerebral hemis- 
pheres is not seen in rats, squirrels, and the lower mannnalia. The 
cerebrum is composed largely of '' grey" neurine; aud its functions are 

180 Cincinnati SocAelij of Nalurdl Jl i.sfori/. 

presumed to be for tlie evolution of intelligcuce, ov for raiiyin^ uii 
mcntiil efforts. The hypotliesis has been ventured that men with deep 
sulci (cerebral furrows), and thick masses of "grey" material in tlie 
convolutions, are mentallj' the most competent. 

Gall and Spurzheim mapped the surface of the brain, and ascribed 
certain functions to ciach segment of the exterior convolutions. Un- 
der the name of phrenology these enterprising scientists engaged the 
attention of the civilized world fifty 3'ears ago; but now their alleged 
"system" has fallen into neglect and disrepute. Flourens was the 
first to successfully assail the doctrine of the phrenologists. He 
showed by experiments on tiie lower animals that the functions of the 
cerebellum had not been rightly conjectured ; that this gi-eat ganglion 
of gray and white neurine was not devoted to physical love — amative- 
ness — but to muscular co-ordination. By excising a lateral half of 
the cerebellum, the animal — pigeon or guinea-pig — could no longer 
stand upright, but in a struggle whirled around and around. The 
removal of the entire cerebellar mass leaves the sufferer to fall in a 
sprawling attitude and to continue helpless. 

Flourens called attention to the fact that oul}' about one third of the 
cerebral convolutions are presented to parts of the cranium thot can 
be manipulated; that all the double space between the hemispheres is 
covered with convolutions, as well as all that great expanse resting on 
the floor of the skull and the tentorium. He demonstrated, through 
vivisections, that certain parts of the cerebrum are "motor"' in func- 
tion, and certain other parts are " sensory," and none conformed to the 
fanciful notions of organologists. 

The symptoms observed in different parts of the bod}', after lesion 
of certain convolutions, have done much toward a rational localization 
of the differeiat regions of the cerebrum. 

The famous " crow-bar case," in which a tamping-iron was blown 
through the frontal lobes of the cerebrum, shows that the anterior con- 
volutions are neither motor nor sensory. The victim of the premature 
explosion rode home after receiving the injury, and gave an intelligible 
account of the accident. However, after recover}-, except the loss of 
sight in one e3'e, Mr. Gage was uncommonl}' irritable, and was regarded 
as of unsound mind. 

Abscess of either of the three tiers of frontal convolutions, results in 
coma, or disturbed intellect. If a part of the cerebrum, in the fissure 
of Sylvius, near the isle of Reil, be injured, the patient suffers from 
aphasia; and parts adjacent to the fissure of Rolando seem to be de- 
voted to motility of the arm, leg and corner of the mouth. A spot on 

The 3fe7'vous System. 181 

the ascending frontal convolution, a locality corresponding to the 
seventh center of Ferrier, when injured, causes twitching of the zygo- 
matic muscles on the opposite side. A point injured on the right 
ascending parietal convolution, produces twitching and paralj'sis of 
the muscles of a part of the left leg. Charcot, Hitzig and Cruveilhier 
have given testimony which substantiates the observations of Ferrier. 
Although this field of inquiry has not been cultivated but a few j^ears, 
enough has already been discovered to show that earlier views of the 
functions of the encephalon were decidedly erroneous. 

It is now generall}' believed that conscious intelligence does not 
have its seat in any particular part of the brain structure, but that it 
needs at least one half the cerebrum — a hemisphere — for an abode. It 
is known that one side of the cerebrum maj^ be atrophied or destroyed, 
and intellection will be kept up bj^ the sound half. 

By comparing the general arrangement of the convolutions in differ- 
ent animals, it is found that the brain of the cat, for instance, presents 
few sinuosities or foldings, and these run in parallel ridges, the course 
being antero-posteriorly. The brains of the fox and the wolf show a 
similar arrangement of gyri, except they are a little more flexuous. The 
brain of a sheep has more cerebral gyrations than that of the beaver, 
yet the latter animal is far more circumspect in its general habits of 
living. The sheep is proverbially aimless and stupid. The complex- 
ities in the arrangement of the brain of the dolphin equal the disposal 
of the convolutions in man, yet the former can not be esteemed as 
especially intellectual. It is certain, however, that the convolutions of 
the cerebral hemispheres of idiots are disposed in horizontal or perpen- 
dicular tiers, and are not so '"oblique" in direction, and flexuous as 
they are in the strong minded of our race. 

The development of the cerebrum backward is a notable feature of 
the human encephalon. In man the cerebellum is completelj" overshot, 
while in the higher apes the posterior lobes of the cerebrum barely 
cover the ''lesser brain." In the encephalon of the horse, the cere- 
bellum is almost uncovered ; and in felines the cerebrum, resting upon 
an osseous tentorium, does not extend as far backward as the cere- 
bellum. And, as the scale of being is followed downward, the dispro- 
portion between the "little" and the "great" brain lessens, till, at 
length, they are nearly the same size, and are arranged on about the 
same level. 

From the lowest to the highest of vertebrates there exists a serial 
gradation in the scale of intelligence. There is a vast difference be- 
tween the mental qualities of man and those of a troglodyte; and so 

182 Gincinuuli Society of Xdtnral Jlislory. 

there is between the inLelleeLiiality of ii savtige and that of a inau 
possessing brilliant talents. However, it is at once conceded tliat the 
infant chimpanzee can only be trained into a briglit ape, while tiie 
child of a Digger Indian can be educated to the average capacities ot 
mankind. In the human brain there are qualities and possibilities 
not vouchsafed to the cerebral " centers" of inferioi- animals. INIan's 
excellencies are most pronounced in his intellectual endowments. 

Naturalists have arranged animals into groups for the convenience 
arising from classification, hence we have orders, families, genera and 
species ; but from beginning to end — from the lowest to the highest — 
an unbroken kinship runs, the tendency in the ascent being to display 
varieties. The gnu, for example, combines bovine and equine features, 
yet so many characteristics of another kind of animals, that it is 
classed as an antelope. 

If the most varied peculiarities of any group of animals be sought, 
individuals will be found that closely resemble the rarer form presented 
by strange representations in allied groups. There is not a marked 
difference between the lowest eagle and the highest vulture; between 
certain varieties of hawks and owls; between some elks and some oxen ; 
between the hunting cheetah and felines on the one side, and canines 
on the other. There is not a wonderful difference between badgers 
and bears, seals and whales, some fish and some reptiles, and in a 
fossil state we find the remains of birds that had teeth, and 
many reptilian features. The cerebral hemispheres of ancient saurian 
birds were not larger than those of turtles. The babyroussa or pig- 
deer of Sumatra, has such mixed features that it is difficult to give the 
creature its proper place in any well defined order. The descent from 
the elephant to the tapir should cover an intervening species that re- 
sembles both, yet differs from either, and such does exist in a fossil 
state. The horse then comes along with its prolonged upper lip and 
oddity as to toe; and then swine with their enormous snouts and even 
toes, though a "mule-footed" pig is occasionally seen, as well as a rare 
specimen with five digits. 

If it were possible to restore transitional forms that have dropped 
out of line, there would be little difficulty in following the chain of 
ascent, link by link. 

The infinite variety in form and function to be considered while 
estimating the changes which have taken place in the history of organic 
life, must be ascribed to the progressive tendencies of neural matter. 
In a given habitat, a humble creature needs spines or scutes to protect 
itself from enemies; and the nervous system, through its influence on 

The Nervons System. 183 

circulation and secretion, brings about the needed modification. In 
another habitat, where such weapons of defense are not wanted, they 
are not developed. If an additional phalanx be serviceable in the 
digit of a loon to give expanse to an inter-digital web, the extra bone 
is forthcoming. The transformation does not occur in the growth of 
the individual, but is begun in embryonic states where tendency to 
modify is greatest. Probablj' several generations are passed in making 
an appreciable modification. The two-toed sloth did not lose three 
digits in less than a hundred generations, though a saltus or leap is 
possible at any time. It can not be rationally conjectured how many 
generations it would require to establish two large toes in the African 
ostrich. Possibly it was a lusus naturce at first, and the stronger 
state became permanent and prevailing, old forms being less desirable 
in sandy countries, at length died out. However, it is likely that the 
nerves distributed to a chick of four toes, failed gradualh' in the 
energy of two inner toes, and corresponding!}' gained in the two outer 
digits. In the hind foot of a kangaroo, the dwarfing process in inner 
toes is at present visible or appi'eciable. If kangaroos could be kept 
on the sands of Sahara for ten generations, it might be expected that 
tlie diminutive and insignificant digits on the inside of the hind feet 
would entirely disappear. It is easj^ to see that the flippers of pen- 
guins have either degenerated from wings, or have been evolved from 
fins. The modified form was inspired by function ; and the latter 
leaned towards the physical transformation which wouldbe beneficial 
to the race. 

The outer gilled axolotl or siredon of New Mexico, under some circum- 
stances becomes transformed into an inner gilled amblystoma. Plenty 
of food and increased light and heat favor the marked modification. 
Nervous energies must have much to do with the changes occurrino- in 
the larval, crysalis, and butterfl}- states of an insect. The worm has 
as many ganglia as it has pairs of legs, to sa}-^ nothing of the group 
that presides over mastication and deglutition. In tiie winged and 
mature states, the ganglia are lessened in number, and greatlv modi- 
fied in function. It is not reasonable or logical to say that neural 
ganglia either make or modify themselves, but they embrace a vital 
attribute, which under the influence of a peculiar environment, leads 
to transformation. A nerve alone can not make or unmake a digit or 
phalanx; yet a preponderating influence brought to bear upon some 
of its filaments, cells, or tubules, could secure a change. 

While nature seems to adhere to well known forms, " she'' quite 
frequently manifests a disposition to take departures. This tendency 

184 Cincinnati Society of Natural lli^loi'ij. 

to variegate lias given tlu; wotld iiideoiis, grotesque, and beautiful 
shapes and colors. 

All degrees of intelligence, through a tendency to multiply energies, 
have been evolved. The huml^e worm has little "sense;'' the bird 
has more: and man's psychic powers are marvelous. As we beiiold 
the developing of the child's brain, so we may see feeble instincts 
evolving into higher intelligencies. In the grand differentiation we 
encounter strangely specialized functions and forms; often a great 
gain in one direction being accompanied with a compensating loss- 
The ateles did not obtain a prehensile tail without losing its thumbs. 
The graceful swimmer among birds is a clumsy pedestrian. The beak 
and talons of a bird of prey would compel it to starve if no game 
were to be found. The falcon's entire organization is carnivorous in 
mould and inclination. Its stomach can not digest starchy food, if 
such were forced into its maw. A nervous system, then, must be har- 
monious in its entirety. The e3"es, teeth and claws of a cat corre- 
spond with the desires and needs of its stomach. 

In the stud^^ of lesions of the brain, disorders of the intellect, par- 
alysis, exalted sensibilities and faulty functions, the blood-vessels dis- 
tributed in certain areas of the encephalon, are to be observed and 
their integrity- considered. Embolism of the middle cerebral artery, 
which supplies a motor tract, is invariably followed by paralysis of 
muscular action in those parts of the body in nervous connection or 
S3nnpathy with the region of brain suffering through lack of blood 
supplies. Plugging (embolism) of the anterior cerebral arteries is 
attended with dementia — a circumstance confirming the prevailing 
notion that the frontal lobes are largely devoted to intellection. How- 
ever, embolism of the posterior cerebral arteries, followed by " soften- 
ing," has developed delirium, convulsions and dementia. Then, again, 
it is to be remembered that the S3^mpathies of the brain are kept in 
some degree of harmony by the common envelopes — the meninges. 
There can not be sclerosis of the temporal lobes without disturbances 
of adjacent, if not remote, areas. 

The brain has more blood sent to it than to other parts of the body, 
which indicates that cerebration is maintained through active circula- 
tion. Two sets of arteries, the vertebral and carotid, carry large 
currents inside the cranium; and in the brain there are free communi- 
cations between branches of these vessels. This ensures blood sup- 
plies to regions that might otherwise suffer through the interposition 
of a thrombus. 

Zoological Miscellany. 

ZOOLOGICAL mtscella:n^y.* 



For the convenience of naturalists who are not specialists, we present 
below, iu tabular form, a s3'uopsis of our present knowledge of the 
fauna of the vicinity of Cincinnati, revised to date, so far as practica- 

As will be readily seen by a glance at the tables here presented, 
there are whole classes of animals, both vertebrate and invertebrate, 
that have hardl}' been touched upon by our local zoologists There 
is no lack, therefore, of untrodden fields for those who desire to add to 
the existing knowledge of our local fauna, while much of the ground 
heretofore cultivated will well repay working over anew. 

As here considered, the " vicinity of Cincinnati" may be roughly 
limited to the territory comprised within a radius of twenty-five or thirty 
miles of this city, thus including the extreme southwestern corner of 
Ohio, and adjoining portions of Indiana and Kentucky. The favora- 
ble location, diversified landscape and abundant water supply of this 
region — traversed as it is b}^ the Ohio, the Great and Little Miamis, the 
Licking and Whitewater rivers — are well adapted to the production and 
maintenance of a varied and abundant flora and fauna; and there is 
probably no one locality in the Mississippi Valley that would better 
repay the researches of the practical zoologist. 

The various synoptical tables have been revised to date, so far as 
practicable, by persons familiar with the various subjects of which 
the\^ treat ; the Insecta for example, by Mr. Charles Dury ; the 
3Iollusca, by Dr. R. M. Byrnes, the Arachnida, by Mrs. Dr. Thomas 
Wood; the microscopic Articulata, Coslentei'ata and Protozoa, by Dr. 
J, H. Hunt. 

Subkingdom VERTEBRATA. 
Class Mammalia : Mammals. 







Species identifled 













Genera " 

Fumilie.s " 

Orders " 



Species of probable occur- 
rence not yet identified. 
Genera in same category. . 
Families " " 




Orders " " . . 

■•■Edited by Dr. F. AV. Langdon. 


Cincinnati Society of Natural Ilistory. 
Class AvES : Birds. 







Species identified 

Genera " 

Families *' 












Orders " 


The 264 identified species 
may afso be divided in 
accordance with their 
times of occurrence, in- 

Constant residents 









Summer residents 


Winter visitants .. ... 


Regular migrants,. 


Irregular migrants and 
casual visitants. . . . 


Known to breedt . ■ ■ • 




Inferred to breed. 



Species not yet identified, 
whose range Includes 
this locality, and whose 
occurrence, therefore, is 
probable or possible . 





Genera in above category 
Families " 
Orders '' " 

10 • 


These may be also divided 

Constant residents 







Summer residents 


Winter visitants 


Regular migrants 


Irregular migrants and 
casual visitants. 


Class Reptilia : Reptiles. 
This class awaits a local biographer. 

The following table is merely one of probabilities, compiled from the 
known range of the species as given in various standard works : 

* The two introduced species here included as forming part of our fauna are , the European 
House Sparrow and Sky Lark. The fate of the other nineteen species introduced by the 
late Acclimation Society of Cincinnati can not be ascertained at present. See this Journal, 
Vol. IV., pp. 342 and 343. 

t Amongst those known to have bred here, are seven species classed as migrants. 

t The two foreign species here included, are the European Tree Sparrow, Passer inotita?ittii, 
and the Ruff, Philoniachus pttguax. 

« Zoological Miscellany. 187 

Species of probable occuri'ence 26 

Genera " " 22 

Families " " 7 

Orders " " 3 

Class Amphibia : Amphibians. 
The Amphibians, like the Reptiles, have been sadly neglected by our 
local zoologists, no systematic work having been done here in either 
class. The following table comprises those whose known range in- 
cludes this locality : 

Species of probable occurrence 20 

Genera " " 10 

Families " " 9 

Orders " " 3 

Class Pisces : Fishes. 
It is to be regretted that no systematic work has ever been done on 
the fishes of this locality. We can give a synopsis of probabilities 

Native. Introduced. Total. 

Species of probable occuri-ence 102 2 104 

Genera " " 68 2 70 

Families " " 23 23 

Orders " " 5 5 

SubkiDgdom ARTICULATA : Articulates. 
Class Insecta : Insects. 

Order Hymenoptera : Bees, Wasps, Ants, etc. 
No work has been done locally, in this order, so far as known. 

*Order Lepidoptera: Butterflies and Moths. 

Native. Introduced. Total. 

Species iden tilled 475 3 478 

Genera " . 226 226 

Families " 13 13 

Order Diptera : Flies, Mosquitoes, etc. 
Not worked up. 

*Ordor CoLEOPTERA : Beetles. 

Native. Introduced. Total. 

Species identified 1586 1586 

Genera " 712 712 

Families •' 71 71 

* For our synopsis of the Orders Liindoptcra and Coleoptera, we are under obligations 
to Mr. Charles Uury. 


CiiioiiiiKiti Societii of Ndlnval HiHyjnj. 
OicU;i- ilEMii'TKKA : JjiujH proper. 

Not wf)rke(l up. 

Order Orthoptera : Grasshoppers, Crickets, etc. 
Not worked up. 

Order Neuroptera : Dragon-Jlies, etc. 

Not worked up. 

Class Myriapoda : Centipedes, etc. 

Species identified 
Genera " 
Families- " 
Orders " 


*Class Arachnida : Spiders, Mites, etc. 



Microscopic. Macroscopic. Macroscopic. 

Species identified 
Genera " 
Fanrdlies " 
Orders '' 










The native macroscopic species of spiders are distributed, according 
to Mrs. Dr. Wood, as follows: 

Family Araneides. 
Species. Genera. 

Dj'sdera 1 

Herpyllus 1 

Clubiona 7 

Tegenaria 3 

Agelena 2 

Tlieridion 25 

Pholcus 1 

Linyphia 1 

Tetragnatlia 2 


Epeira 30 

Tliomisus 19 

Dolmedes 4 

Lycosa 9 

Attus 31 

Phillyra 1 

Mygale 2 

Synemosyua 2 

Micrommata 1 

* We are greatly indebted to Mrs. Dr. Thomas Wood, who has kindly prepared the ac- 
companying synopsis of this class. Dr. J. H. Hunt has added the microscopic portion of 
the table. 

Zoological Jfiscellany. 189 

* Class Crustacea : Crayjish, Lobsters, Crabs, etc. 

Microscopic. Macroscopic. Total. 

Species identified . . 9 2 11 

Genera " 5 2 7 

Families " 8 1 9 

* Class Annelida : Worms. 

Microscopic. Macroscopic. Total. 

Species identified . . 11 7 IS 

Genera " .. 5 G 11 

Families " 5 4 9 

fSubkingdom MOLLUSCA : Slugs, Snails, Oysters, Cephalapods., etc. 

Class Cephalopoda: Squids, Cuttlefish, etc. 
Fossil forms only represented here. 

Class Gasteropoda: Snails, Slugs, etc. 

Native. Introduced. Total. 

Species identified 103 1 104 

Genera " 25 .. 25 

Families "6 9 .. 9 

Orders " 1 1 

Also represented by fossil forms. 

Class Lamellibranchiata : Oysters, Clams, etc. 

Native. Introd 

Species identified 93 

Genera " 3 

Families " 1 

Orders " 1 

iced. Total. 

93 , 




Also represented by fossil forms. 

Class Brachiopoda: Arm-footed Ifolhtsks. 
Marine exclusively; fossil forms ouW represented here. 

Class Tunicata: Pouch-like Mollusks. 
Exclusively marine. 

Class Polyzoa: Moss-like Mollusks. 

Fresh water forms are represented here, but not identified. Tho 
class is largely marine. 

* These classes include many microscopic forms; for the identification of those found in 
this vicinity wo are indebted to Dr. J. II. llunt. 
t For our synopsis of the Mollusca here given, we arc indebted to Dr R. M. Byrnes. 

190 Cincinnali Societij of Natural History. 

Subkingdom KCIIINODERMATA : Siar-flshes, Sea urchins, etc. 

Class HoLOTHURoiDEA : Sea-cucumbers. 

Class Echinoidea: Sea-urchins. 

Class Asteroidea: Starfishes. 

Class Crinoidea: Crinoids. 
The members of this subkingdora are exclusively marine. Fossil 
representatives of the last three classes are to be found in our rocks. 

Subkingdom Ca:LENTERATA : Corals, Jelly-fishes, etc. 

Class Ctenophora: Soft-bodied Polyps. 
Not represented. 

Class Anthozoa: Corals. 
Marine. Fossil forms only are represented here. 

Class Hydrozoa: Hydras, Jelly-fishes, etc. 


Species identified* 2 

Genera " 1 

Families " . 1 

Orders " 1 

fSubkingdom PROTOZOA: Primitive Animals. 
Class Spongida: Sponges. 


Species identified 1 

Genera " 1 

Families " 1 

Orders " : 1 

Class Infusoria : Ciliated Protozoans. 


Species identified.. 10 

Genera " 7 

Families " 8 

Class Rhizopoda : Eoot-footed Protozoans. 


Species identified 4 

Genera " 2 

Families " 3 

Order " .... 1 

*By Dr. J. H. Hunt. 

•fWe are indebted to Dr. J. H. Hunt for our synopsis of this subkingdom, the repre- 
sentatives of which are chiefly microscopic. 

Zoological Miscellany. 191 

Class Gregakinida : Gregarious Protozoans. 
The members of this class are parasitic worms, living in the alimen 
tar}^ canal of the cockroach, earthworm, etc. They have not been 
especially studied in this locality. 

Class MoNERA : Structureless Protozoans. 
Not represented here so far as known. 


Vertebrates. Inverts. Total. 

Species 497 2457 2954 

Genera 330 1017 1347 

Families 107 131 238 

Orders 31 20 51 

Mtiodioctes mitratus, And. — Hooded Warbler. — Observed June 
25, 1882, at Glendale, Ohio, in a small brush patch in open woods, and 
evidently breeding. 

Pandion haliaetus carolinensis, Ridgway. — American Osprey or 
Fishhaiok. — Observed as late as June 1, near Jones Station, Butler 
county, Ohio. 

Totanus flavipes, Vieillot. — Lesser Yellow-legs. 

Bartramia longicauda, Bp. — Bartram's Sandpii^er. 

Rhyacophilds solitarius, Cassin. — Solitary Sandpijyer. — These 
sandpipers, usually considered migrants only here, were observed b}- 
me June 29 and 30, 1882, in Butler county, Ohio. — J. B. Porter, Glen- 
dale, Hamilton county, Ohio. 

Hylotomus pileatus, Baird. — Pileated Woodpecker ; Logcock. — 
A male of this species was shot, April 23, 1882, in Brown countj^ 
Ohio, about 50 miles from Cincinnati. A pair were observed making 
a nest at the same locality. 

Querqueddla discors, Stephens. — Bluetoinged Teal. — Bred in 1881, 
at Jones Station, Ohio ; two females observed with 3*oung. Breeding 
this year (1882), at Port Union, Ohio, about a mile from Jones Station 
(Jones Station is 19 miles from Cincinnati on the C, H. & D. R. R.) 

CiiAULELASMUS STREPERUS, Gray. — Gadioall Duck. — A male of the 
Gadwall taken at ice pond, near Jones Station, Ohio, April 11, 1882. 

FuLix AFFiNis, Baird. — Little Blackhead. — A pair of this species 

IV)2 Cincinnati Sociehj of NaLural Tlislori). 

were nesting at the ice pond near Port Union, Ohio, in June. 1882. 
— Walter Douglas, Mt. Auburn, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

I find the following in my note-book, under date of October 18. 1880. 
To-da3^Isaw about twcnt3'-five swallows; three or four were Barn Swal- 
lows {H. horreorum), the remainder either Bank Swallows (C. riporia), 
or more likely the Rough-winged Swallow [S. serriijennis). 

P'all iiad fairly begun, there had been severe frost, and winter birds 
had begun to arrive. On the same da}' I had shot a pair of Mallards 
[A. boschas), and several Butter Ducks (B. albeola). — E. R. Quick, 
Brookville, Franklin county, Ind. 

MiMUS POLYGLOTTUS, Boic. — MocJciiig Bird. — A rare summer resi- 
dent. June 29, 1880, I observed two 3'oung birds scarcely able to fly, 
in my orchard; one of them I procured. This is my onl^^ record of 
their visits, though I have heard of a few other cases. 

CiSTOTHORUS STELLARis, Cabauis. — Sliort-billecl 3Iarsh Wren. — I 
have never met with it except in one locality where a small stream 
passes through an open field, forming at times a sort of bog; this is 
about three miles from here. In September, 1879, I shot three speci- 
mens, and September 22 and 23, 1881, I saw five, and procured three 
from this locality. 

Anthus ludovicianus, Licht. — Tit-lark. — Common as late as April 
21, 1882. 

SiTTA CANADENSIS, Linn. — Red-bellied Nuthatch. — I have never seen 
this bird but once, and that at quite an unusual time. The first week 
in May, 1879, they were quite common in a tract of sugar woods. 

Helminthophaga chrysoptera, 'QvCivd.— Oolden-ioinfied Warbler. — 
The first specimen from this count}- was taken Ap'il 29, 1879. A half 
dozen or more have been taken since, mostly in the spring of 1881. 
The}'^ frequent oak and and sugar tree groves, near the tops of our 
highest hills. 

Perissoglossa tigrina, Baird. — Cape May Warbler. — A rather rare 
migrant with us, frequenting the lower branches of oaks and sugar 
trees near the hill tops. I took three specimens in May, 1881. 

Dendroeca DOMINICA ALBiLORA, Ridg. — Whitc-browed, Yellow- 
throated Warbler. — A common summer resident along streams, fre- 
quenting in spring the sycamore and cottonwood groves; they breed 

Zoological Miscellany . 193 

rather commonly, and then distribute themselves over the lower lands, 
frequenting orchards in the autumn ^Drevious to their departure for the 
Soutli. They generally arrive the early part of April, and are gone by 
October 1st. 

Dendroeca pinus, Baird. — Pine Creeping Warbler. — A migrant, 
but not common. I took my first specimen in April, 1879. On April 
15 and 22, 1882, I saw large flocks, and procured several; they fre- 
quented sugar groves on the hills, and apppeared to move in flocks. 

SiURDS MOTACiLLA, Coucs. — Large-billed Water Thrush. — April 21, 
1882, I shot a female which contained eggs almost ready to be laved. 
The season was quite backward, and the only warblers which had ar- 
rived were Yellow-rumps and Black-aud white Creepers. 

Oporornis agilis, Baird. — Connecticut Warbler. — Generally a rare 
migrant. Thej' are the latest of all the warblers to arrive, and fre- 
quent localities similar to those sought hy the Maryland Yellow 
Throat. Rather common May 24 to 30, 1882. 1 killed four, and saw 
three others within this time. 

Geothlypis PHILADELPHIA, Baird. — Mourning Warbler. — One speci- 
men taken May 7, 1881. 

Myiodioctes pusillus, Bp. — Black-capped Yellow Warbler. — A 
single immature specimen in the collection of the Brookville Societv 
of Natural Histor}^ is the extent of its record in Franklin count3^ 

A. W. Butler, Brookville, Ind. 

Observed in an Office Aquarium. 
The general impression among our city microscopists has been that 
only those who may have access to the ponds and ditches of the coun- 
try can ever have the opportunity of seeing anything of "pond life." 
This is a very great mistake. An}' one who will take the trouble to fit 
up an aquarium in their home or office may be able to see during the 
year every form of pond life incident to their locality. My aquaria 
are made by taking the battery jars used in telegraph offices, filled 
with water from the hydrant, and stocked with the contents of an 
ounce vial that Prof. Stanton, of the Miami Medical Collejje, brought to 
my oflice from the pond at the cit}' work house. From this small be- 
ginning life has continued dail}' to increase, both animal and vegeta- 
ble. After about the tenth day I placed four drops of the water, by 
means of pipette, in my compressorium, and the lesult was the iden- 
tification of twenty-three species of microscopical organisms. I give 
in connection with this a list of objects itlontiiicd by me in tliis vicinity, 
whicii, however, does not include any of the veget.-ible forms, of which 
there ure as nuuiy, if not more species. 

1<M (Hnci'imaU Socieh/ oj NoUn-ol //istonj. 

Subkingdom ARTICULATA. 

Class Ahachnida. 
Diulodontus mendax, Duge's. 

Class CllDSTACEA. 

Biancbipvis stagnalis, SchiEfler. 
Bosini;uis longirostris, r.aird. 
Camptoccrcus macouns, haird. 
Cbydorus sphericus, Leach. 
Cyclops quadricornis, MuUer. 
Cypvis fusca, Miiller. 
Cypi'is vidua, MuUer. 
Daphne pulex, MuUer. 
Diaptomus castor. Westw, 

Class Annelida. 

Brachionus bakeri, Hill. 
Brachionus pala, HiH- 
Bracbionus urceolans, Hill. 
Chffitoiiotus larus, Ehr. 
Dinocbaris pocillum, Ehr. 
Hydatina senta, Ehr. 
Mouacerca ratlus, Ehr. 
Pleurotrocha gibba, Ehr. 

Kotifc- v-ga-'^^C^.^^^^^ CO^LENTEEATA. 

Class Hydrozoa. 

Hydra fusca, Linn. 
Hvdra viridis, Linn. 

Sabkingdom PROTOZOA. 

Class Spongida. 
Spongilla fluviatilis, Lam. 

Class Infusoria. 
Astasia bematodes, Ehr. 
Coccudina costata,;Duf. 
Euglena longicanda, Ehr. 
Englena viridis, Ehr. 
Kerona polyporum, MuUer. 
Monas lens, MuUer. 
Paramecinum byalmum, HUl. 
Stintor muleri, Oken. 
Trachleocerca olor, Ehr. 
Traohleocerca viridis, Ehr. 
Vorticella microstoma, Linn. 
Vorticella nebuUfera, Linn. 

Class Rhizopoda. 
1 1 T?K,. Arcolla vuluaris, Ehr. 

Z:^:^: E "; Dlm-lgia p,Ste,fon„is, Lecle,-. 

^'"'"^^ ' J. H. Hunt, M.D., Cincinnati, Ohio. 


\m II iiDiii m 



Tuesday Evening, October 3, 1882. 

Dr. R. M. Byrnes, President, in the chair. Present, 20 members. 

Prof. A. G. Wetherb}^ gave an account of the botany and geolog}^ of 
Roan Mountain, North Carolina. 

Joseph F. James read a paper upon parasitic plants. 

Dr. F. W. Langdon, previous to exhibiting specimens of the Bacil- 
lus anthracis under the microscope, made a few remarks on the Bac- 
teria in general, which, he stated, were usually classed as fungi, and 
divided by botanists into four main groups, namely: (1) Sphaero- 
bacteria or spherical bacteria {e.g. Micrococcus); (2) Micro-bacteria, 
or short rod-like bacteria {e.g. Bacterium); (3) Desmo-bacteria, or 
long rod like bacteria {e.g. Bacillus); (4) Spiro-bacteria, or spiral 
bacteria {e.g. Spirillum). He stated that, in accordance with their 
supposed role, in the production of various infective diseases and 
fermentations, they might be divided, for practical purposes, into two 
groups, namely: (1) pathogenic, or disease-producing bacteria; and 
(2) beneficial bacteria; the bacteria of fermentation and putrefiiction, 
being placed in the second group. Apropos of the benefits derived 
from the bacteria af putrefaction, he cited a well known French author 
(Magnin), who calls attention to the fact that organic matter, once 
dead, must necessarily undergo certain chemical changes before it 
can again enter into tlie stream of life; and it is the various bacterial 
organisms which are chiefly or entirely instrumental in bringing about 
these changes. Consequently, were the bacteria to all become anni- 
hilated, the surface of tlie earth would be encumbered everywhere 
with the bodies of dead animals and plants which had failed to decay; 
finally, all organic matter would be thus locked up, so to speak, and 
useless to succeeding generations; or, to use the words of tlie above 
named autlior, " it may be said tiiat it is, thanks to them (tlie bacteria), 
that the (continuation of life is possible on the surface of the globe.'' 

Microsco[)ical sections of lung tissue containing the Jiarillus 
anthracis, the "germ" of Anthrax or Splenic fever, were then exliihited 

\'.)i'< fHiiriiimiil. Society of Nat nr at History. 

to the iiKMiii)(.'is picseiit. Under a jjowor of 1000 diaiuetfis, tlie hacilli 
presented the appearance of numerous fraiL,nnents of blue thread, .-iljout 
one iourtli of an inch in leuL'th, tliiekly distributed throu^^hout the 
walls of the air cells of the lung ; tiie blue color was due to the stain- 
ing process used to make them more evident to the eye. 

Donations were announced as follows : A. G. Wetherby, 19 species 
of plants from Roan ^rountaiu,N. C, and four specimens of Ilelicodis- 
cus ; Prof. John Collett, of Indianapolis, the lltli Annual 
Report of the Geological Survey of Indiana ; J. E. liruce, two speci- 
mens o^ Belostoma yrandis ; Smithsonian Institution, several pamph- 
lets ; Signal Service Bureau, Weather Review ; U. P. James, a 
pamphlet ; Chas. S. DoUe.y, a pamphlet ; J. A. Warder, two pamphlets 
and a specimen of Orgyla leucostiyma ; John Schimmell, specimen of 
steatite ; 11. F. M3'ers, two arrow heads ; andD. L. James, the skull of 
a cow. 

Tuesday Evening, November 7, 1882. 

Dr. R. M. Byrnes, President, in the chair. Present, 20 members. 

E. M. Cooper read a paper on sponges. 

Joseph F. James read a paper on pitcher plants. 

Mr. IT. P. Ufford was elected a member of the Society. 

Donations were announced as follows: From Department of the 
Interior, one pamphlet ; Boston Zoological Society, one pamphlet; 
F. W. Putnam, one pamphlet ; Signal service Bureau. Monthly Weather 
Review ; James L. Fole}', six volumes Scottish Cryptogamic P^lora; 
Mrs. Kendrick, lot of fossils and minerals; E. F, Bliss, minerals from 
Colorado; Jacob HofTner, Agave americaua ; Irvin B. Wright, three 
volumes Ohio Geology, vol. iii.; E. M. Cooper, two sponges; S. T. 
Carley, specimen Guinea corn ; Dr. H. H. Hill, seeds and one Unio; 
E.. Schoenauer, specimen plumbago ; A. M. Robinson, coal fossil. 

Tuesday Evening, December 5, 1882. 

Dr. R. M. Byrnes, President, in the chair. Present, 15 members. 

Miss Janet Knox was elected a member of the Society', and Ormond 
Stone was elected a corresponding member. 

Jos. F. James read a paper upon archteological relics, and J. R. Skin- 
ner delivered an address upon a unit of measure found in a stone relic. 

Donations were announced as follows: From Dr. R. M. Byrnes, 
specimens of Pasceolus globosus, and apatite from Canada; O. M. 
Mejaicke, 15 specimens of wood sections, and a like number of varieties 
of acorns and nuts ; J. B. Porter, five Indian skulls and a number of 
bones ; from the Smithsonian Institution two pamphlets, and from the 
Signal Service Bureau, one ; from R. J. Fennesse}', copper ore; from 
Chas. Dury, 43 species of Coleoptera, and two fish from Cliesapeake 
Ba3'; from Dr. J. B. Welch, skin of Lewis woodpecker, from Yellow- 
stone ; from J. W. Hall, Jr., Liudley's introduction to botany; from 
Wm. A. Cook, larva? of a moth ; and from Dnvis L. James, a speci- 
men of Polyporus, and fragments of the castor oil plant. 

Descriptions of JVew Species of Fungi. 197 

By Thomas G. Lea, and Described by Rev. M. J. Berkeley. 
[Republished from "A Catalogue of the Plants of Cincinnati, by Thos. G. Lea."*] 

Agaricus (Clitoctbe) ochro-purpureus, u. sp. — On clayey soil, in 
woodlands. Cincinnati, Aug. 29, 1843; Waynesville, Aug. 31, 1844. 

Pileo subhemispherico, demnm depresso, carnoso, compacto, lento, 
pallide alutaceo, leviter purpurascenti ; cute facile secernibili ; mar- 
gine inflexo primum tomentoso; naycelio albo ; stipite pallidiore, hie 
illic purpurascente, medio tumido ; lamellis crassis, non connexis, 
purpureis, postice latioribus, decurreutibus. — Berk, in Hook. Lond. 
Joxirn. Bot., vol. iv., p. 299. 

Pileus two inches across; stem two inches and a half high, three quar- 
ters of an inch thick in the center, solid, above deflexo squamose, occa- 
sionally equal. This species resembles in most points A. tyrianthinus ; 
but the gills are thick and distinct, resembling those of A. laccatus, 
and the mycelium (at least in the dry plant) is white. The spores 
when dry, are of a palish yellow, but Mr. Lea in his notes describes 
them from the plant when gathered as white. 

Agaricus (Collybia) lachnophyllus, n. sp. — On pieces of rotten 
wood amongst dead leaves in woods, Waynesville, Sept. 5, 1844. 

Pileo carnosulo, conicohemispherico, fulvo-spadiceo, velutino; 
stipite cavo, deorsum fusco-purpureo, nitido, sursum pallido sub- 
velutino; lamellis liberis, fulvo-velutinis. 

More or less tufted. Pileus three quarters of an inch across, sub- 
carnose, conico-hemispherical, of a rich tawny brown, clothed with 
short, velvety pubescence, much wrinkled when dry. Stem two inches 
high, one line or more thick, tough, hollow, brownish-purple below, 
shaded off into white above, and clothed with scattered short pubes- 

* The "Catalogue of Phmts," collected in the vicinity of Cincinnati, Ohio, during the 
years 18154-44, by Thomas G. Lea (Cincinnati, 1849), contains a list of Funsi, with notes and 
descriptions of the new species by the eminent English mycologist. Rev. M.J. Berkeley, 
to whom Mr Lea submitted his collections. These notes and descriptions are of great 
local value, and as the pamphlet is quite inaccessible to the student, by reason of its great 
rarity, the publishing conuiiittec of the society has kindly consented to rei)roduce them. 
The bare list was reprinted in Joseph F. .Tames' Catalogue of the Flowering Plants, Ferns 
and Fungi of Cincinnati {Join-. Chi. Sac Nat. IIi'<t., No. "i, vol. 1). Students will be glad 
to know that Prof. A. 1' Morgan, lately of Dayton, but now of our city, has in hand a 
synojisis of the Hymcnomycctcs of the Miami Valley, which he hopes to have ready during 
the coming year.— [Davis Ti. .Jamks. 

198 CincAnnati Sociehj of Nntural JI Istory. 

ccnce ; downy and rather bulbous where it roots into tiie wood. Gills 
narrow, close, quite free, velvety, with tawny pubescence. An ex- 
quisite species, allied apparently' to A. lonfiipes. The gills, as in that 
species, are densely velvety. 

Agaricds cirrhatus, Fr. — On the ground near a dead stump. 
Waynesville^ Sept. 10, 1844.* 

Agaricus (Mycena) Leaianus, n. sp. — On dead trunks. Cincinnati, 
May ; Waynesville, August, 1844. 

Pileo convcxo, uinbilicato, tenui, margine striato minutissime min- 
iato-virgato, stipiteque longo, deorsum tomentoso strigosoque, aurantiis, 
viscosis; lamellis distantibus, ventricosis, postice sinuatis, adnexis, 
aurantiis, coccineo marginatis. — Berk, in Hook. Lond. Journ., v. iv., p. 

Pileus rather more than half an inch across, convex umbilicate, 
orange, clothed with a viscid cuticle, smooth, wrinkled when dry ; 
margin striate and streaked with vermilion flocci; stem two and a half 
inches high, scarce one line thick, orange, smooth and viscid above, 
with a few indistinct darker specks, below clothed with matted tawny 
down and stigose flocci, stringy, attached to dead leaves, etc., by a 
creeping, strigose orange m3'celiam. Gills distinct, broad, ventricose, 
remarkably sinuated behind, adnexed, orange, with a vermilion margin. 
— Allied to A. pelianthinus. The pileus when dr}' has somewhat the 
appearance of A. palmatus in consequence of its viscid cuticle. It 
must be highl}' beautiful when fiesh. 

Agaricus umbelliferus, L. — On pieces of sticks amongst dead 
leaves, in woods. Wa3'nesville, Sept. 3, 1844.f 

Agaricus niger, Schwein — On beech bark. Cincinnati, March 3, 
1842; Waynesville, Aug. 23, 1844.+ 

Agaricus (Flammdla) poltchrous, n. sp. — On rotten trunks of 
trees, sticks, etc. Waynesville, Sept. 3, 1844. 

Pileo piano, late umbonato, multicolori, primum purpureo, viscido, 

* The tubers, Mr. Lea observes, resemble the grains at the base of Dielytra cueuUata. 

t As the locality is curious, I subjoin Mr. Lea's notes. "Pileus brown, subhemispheri- 
cal, pruinose ; margin sulcate ; stem buff, very smooth, tapering to the base, much en- 
larged and spreading into the pileus, so as to be clavate ; gills brown, distant, broad, very 

I Very nearly allied to A. ajipUcatus. 

Descriptions of New Species oj Fungi. 199 

disco carnoso ; stipite firmo, subligneo, primum furfuraceo ; velo 
floccoso, flavo-purpureo; laraellis pallido-purpureis, demum flavo-fus- 
cis, adnatodecurrentibus. 

Pileiis two and three inches across, solitary or tufted, when 3'oung 
convex, purple, soon expanding and flat, with a broad fleshy umbo, 
very viscid, varying from light yellow to buff", with the umbo brownish 
3^ellow or purple; stem one and one and a half inches high, two lines 
thick, hard and somewhat woody, nearly equal brownish-yellow, at 
first furfuraceous ; veil fugitive, consisting ot purple and yellow flocci ; 
gills at first dirt}- white, then brownish purple, at length yellow brown, 
broad, rather distant, adnate, slightly decurrent, but easily breaking 
away from the stem. Frequentl}' eaten by large larvse, and then with 
the exception of the woody stem turning into a viscid mass. This 
beautiful species is evidently allied to A. Harmoge, but differs essen- 
tiall}' in the nature of the gills. 

Agaricds (Galera) mucidolens. Berk. — On a rotten trunk. Cincin- 
nati, April 21, 1842. 

Olidus, pileo pluteiformi, lobato, glabro, nitido, viscido, fuligineo; 
stipite fibrilloso ; lamellis liberis. — Berk, in Hook. Land. Journ., vol. 
iv., p. 301. 

Pileus two to three inches broad, of a dull smoky brown, viscid; 
stem two inches or more high, clothed with brownish fibres ; gills free; 
spores dull, ferruginous, broadly subcymbiform, with a small nucleus; 
smell like that of decayed clieese. Allied to A. reticulatvs, but diff"er- 
ing in several points, and especially in its dull ferruginous, not croceo- 
ferruginous spores. 

Agaricus (Crepidotus) crocophyllus, u. sp. — On a dead trunk. 
Waynesville, Sept. 5, 1844. 

Pileo sessili, sub-flabelliformi, ochraceo fusco, adpresse squamoso: 
lamellis aurantiis. 

Pileus scarce half an inch long, flabelliform, convex, ochraceous- 
brown, clothed with minute adpressed scales; stem none; gills rather 
broad, rounded behind, bright buff": spores subglobose, pale ochre 
yellow. I do not know any species with which to compare this. 
Agaricus croceo-lamellatus is, I believe, the same with Paxillus 
Panuoides. Tlie only resemblance, however, is in the color of the 
gills. It is perhaps most like Agaricxs mollis, but besides the color of 
the gills the spores are smaller and of a different form. It is not, I 
believe, resupinate in any stage of growth. 

200 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

AoAuicus CAMPKSTRis, Liiiu. — Ou rotten dung. (Jincinnati, April 18, 

Agaricus (Pratelli) fabaceus, n. sp. — On the ground, amongst 
dead leaves in open woods. Waynesville, Sept. 10, 1844. 

Pileo tenui, subcarnoso, urabonato, albo, demum piano ; stipite gla- 
bro, fibrilloso, basi bulbosa excepte sequali, albo; veto amplo, extus 
floccoso ; lamellis confertis, tenuissimus, liberis, brunneis. 

Pileus four to five inehes across, thin, almost submembranaceous, 
umbonate. conical when young, becoming nearlj^ plane as it expands, 
white, viscid when moist ; epidermis smooth, tough, feeling like fine 
kid leather, turning yellow when bruised ; stem three to four inches 
high, one third of an inch thick, white, smooth, with the exception of 
a few fibrilla, equal except at the base ; veil large, at first covering the 
gills and connecting the margin with the stem, white, externally 
flocose ; gills crowded, ver}^ thin, not ventricose, free, brown when 
young, then darker brown, at length almost black like the dark part of 
a bean flower. — A fine species allied to A. arvensis. When j'oung it 
has a peculiar, but not unpleasant smell. 

Paxillds porosus, n. sp. — In moist woods. Waynesville, Aug. 23, 

Pileo excentrico, carnoso, nitido ; stipite lento, sursum reticulato ; 
hymenio toto poroso, flavo. 

Pileus two to five inches broad, one quarter to three quarters of an 
inch thick, fleshy, viscid when moist, reddish-brown, rather shining; 
margin thin and even ; stem latei'al, one inch or more high, one third 
of an inch thick, tough, diffused into the pileus, reticulated above by 
the decurrent hymenium ; hymenium yellow, porous, formed by radiat- 
ing thin folds from a line to half a line distant, branching and con- 
nected by numerous irregular veins, so as to form large angular pores, 
the radiating folds being broader than those which connect them ; 
spores semi-ovate ; smell very strong and unpleasant. Nearl}^ allied 
to Paxillus i7ivolutns, but apparentl}^ distinct. The spores are of the 
same form but larger than in that species. Without examining the 
fructification it might be taken for a Boletus. 

Paxillus flavidus, u. sp. — On the ground amongst grass, in dry 
open woods. Waynesville, Sept. 20, 1844. 

'" Six days after the specimens were collected and put to dry, on opening the paper they 
had the smell, and produced the sensation on the eyes and nose, of hartshorn. This van- 
ished in a short time on exposure to air. 

Descriptions of New Species of Fungi. 201 

Pileo alutaceo-fnsco, depresso; stipite lento, flavo, squamulis glutinos- 
is aspero; lamellis parce ramosis, postice furcatis, vivide flavis. 

Pileas two to four inches across, depressed sometimes subiafundi- 
buliform, smooth to the touch like kid leather, huffish brown, or pale 
snuft color, viscid when moist: flesh rather thin, spongj; gills close, 
thin slightly branched, connected b}" veins, decurrent, forked at the 
base, bright yellow; stem one to two inches high, one third to a half 
inch thick, tough; yellow, rough with glutinous scales. Distinguished 
by its bright yellow, very decurrent gills, which are forked behind, 
but do not anastomose. 

Lactarius calceolus, u. sp. — On the ground in woods. Waynes- 
ville, Aug. 31, and Sept. 10, 1844. 

Pileo tenui, centro depresso, margine repando, alutaceo, fusco, epi- 
dermide rimosa; stipite curto; concolori; lamellis perpaucis, distanti- 
bus, venoso-connexis, decurrentibus, albis. 

Pileus three inches across, thin, arched, so as to present a half ovate 
form, brown buff, smooth, not viscid, epidermis cracked; flesh white; 
stem short, half an inch in height and thickness, brown buff^, like the 
pileus; gills white decurrent, lialf an inch broad, extremely' distant, 
not exceeding twent}-, more or less connected b3^ transverse veins or 
plates, forked near the edge, exuding a mild milk}' juice. An extremel}' 
curious species, remarkable for its few distant gills, and the contrast 
between the brown bufi" stems and white gills. The pilei in all the 
specimens found at present are laterally confluent. It can not be 
confounded with any known species. 

Marasmius ptrrhocephalus, d. sp. — On the ground in damp woods 
Waynesville, Aug. 23, 31, 1844. 

Pileo convexo, umbilicato, striato-plicato, rufo; stipite gracili, brun- 
neo, piloso, sursum pallescente; lamellis ventricosis, breviter adnatis, 
ex albo alutaceis. 

Pileus two lines across, hemispherical, umbilicate, membranaceous, 
red brown, smooth, striate; stem one and a half to two inches high, 
slender, brown, closely velvety below, generally rooting, paler above, 
more or less densely covered with short pale hairs and meal; mycelium 
arachnoid white; gills white, at length pale, tancolored, ventricose, 
shortly adnate. Allied to 31 arasmius hamatocephalus, Mont. Two 
forms occur, the one smaller and more delicate than the other. 

Marasmius clav^foumis, n. sp. — On dead sticks. Waynesville, 
May 31, 1844. 

202 Cincinnati Society of Natural Jlintory. 

I'ileo convcxo, iilbo ; stipito gracili, tleorsiim attenuato, dcpresso- 
velutino, fusco, sursum albo, furfuraceo ; lamellis carneo-albis, antice 
latis, postice longe dccurrentibus. 

Plleus two lines broad, convex, tougb, white; stem one inch high, 
attenuated below, attached by a minute bulb, brown and clothed for 
three quarters of its height with depressed velvety pubescence, in- 
crassated above where it passes into the pileus, white sj^rinkled with 
furfuraceous particles ; gills distant, broad in front, very decurrent 
behind, whitish inclining to flesh color ; interstices more or less re- 
ticulate. Allied to 3Iarasmius insititius. Remarkable for its very 
decurrent gills. 

Lentinus tigrinds, Fr. — On dry stumps. Cincinnati, Nov., 1842.* 

Lentinus c^spitoscs, n. sp. — In woods, on the ground. Waynes- 
ville, Sept. 8, 1844. 

Eximie coespitosus ; pileo piano, alutaceo, fibrillis brunneis adpress- 
is sparsis ornato, margine incurvu; stipite elongato, striato, griseo- 
albo. fibrilloso ; lamellis integris, albis, longe dccurrentibus. 

Pilei forming tufts of thirty or more individuals, one and a half to 
two inches across, plane tough, yellowish-bufl", clothed with close- 
pressed, brownish-red fibrillae ; margin incurved ; stems three inches 
high, two lines thick, flexuous, tough, striate, grajish-white, fibrillose, 
solid formed of fibres ; gills white, very decurrent and attenuated be- 
hind, quite entire. A very curious species with the habit of Agaricus 
contortvs^ Bull. It is easily distinguished from L. sitaneus and its 
allies by its entire gills. 

Lentinus sulcatus, Berk.— In the cracks of dry fence rails. Cincin- 
nati, May 28, 1842. 

Parvus; pileo primum subconico, demum hemispherico, carnosulo, 
diffracto squamoso, sericeo-virgato, rufescente, margine sulcato; sti- 
pite centrali, brevi, solido, subconcolore, furfuraceo; lamellis distanti- 
bus. latiusculis, subcrassis, postice emarginatis, pallidis. — Berk, in 
Hook. Lond. Journ.^ v. iv., p. 301. 

Pileus not three quarters of an inch broad, hemispherical or nearly 
so, at first slightly conical, of a more or less rufous tint, broken up into 
irregular scales, sericeo virgate (sometimes the scales are more or less 

* The gills have anastomosed in these specimens to such an extent as to form a solid 
wood mass. 

Descrijiiions of Keio Species of Fungi. 203 

indistinct); fleshy; margin deepl}' sulcate, with the interstices darker, 
which gives the pileus a \Qvy neat appearance; stem about three 
quarteis of an inch high, one and a half lines thick; often slightly at- 
tenuated downward, solid, of the same color as the pileus furfuraceous, 
sometimes confluent; gills distant, broad, subventricose, emarginate 
behind, very slightly annexed, pallid, rather thick, indistinct!}' toothed. 
Allied to L. sclerojous, etc. 

Panus dealbatus, n. . sp. — On a dry dead branch. Waynesville, 
Aug. 26, 1844. 

Pileo coriaceo-mulli, flabellifortni, umbrino, striato ; stipiteque 
laterali, longiusculo, comprcsso, vel canaliculato, sursum dilatato, 
strato albo, subtiliter rimoso vestitis ; lamellis decurrentibus, distinct- 
is, umbriuis. 

Pileus three quarters of an inch broad, flabelliform sometimes lobed ; 
when moist tough and pliable, umbro-brown, striate ; when dry, white 
and minutely cracked, as if whitewashed, with a dark border ; stem 
quarter of an inch or more high, dilated upwards, compressed and 
often canaliculate, perfectl}'' lateral, of the same color and texture as 
the pileus ; gills narrow, umber brown, distinct, without any veins in 
the interstices, decurrent and clothed below with a white stratum ; 
when dry, brown with a white edge. Allied to A.farinaceus, Schum,, 
but at once distinguished by its very decurrent gills. There are few 
prettier fungi than this when dry. Sometimes the stem is forked, and 
each division produces a distinct pileus. 

Panus angdstatus, n. sp. — On a dead log. Waynesville, Sept. 10, 

Parvus, tenuis ; pileo spathulato, subtiliter pubescentc, postice 
angustato, farinaceo ; strato superiore gelatiuoso ; stipite brevissimo ; 
lamellis angustis, decurrentibus. 

Pileus about one inch long, coriaceo-submembranaceous, spathellate 
or flabelliform, narr<)wed behind, white, dirty white or yellowish, most 
minutely pubescent ; upper stratum gelatinous ; stem extremel}' short, 
being in fact little more than a continuation of the pileus; gills very 
narrow, close, decurrent, white, ver}'^ minutely pubescent, yellowish 
when dr3^ Somewhat resembling Panus copulatus. Mr. Lea de- 
scribes it as tough when fresh, and it is therefore placed in the genus 

204 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

Boletus stuouilackus, Scop. — On the ground, and on rotten trunks 
of trees. Cincinnati, July, August; Waynesville, Aug. 4,1844.* 

PoLYi'ORus UADiCATus, Schwcin. — Waynesville, Sept., 1844.f 

POLYPOROS AUCULARius, Fr. — Cincinnati, May 8, 1841, April 30, May 
7, 1842.1 

PoLYPORUS coNNATUS, Schwcin. — On ground where wood had been 
burnt, amongst Ifunaria hygrometrica. Cincinnati, June 4, 1842.§ 

PoLY'PORUS Fissus, n. sp. — On a decaying stick. Waynesville, Sept. 
5, 1844. 

Pileo primum infundibuliformi, demum fisso, lobis flabelliformibus, 
tenuissimo, luteo-fusco; stipite brevi, deorsum nigro; hymenio albo ; 
poris minimis. 

Pileus one and a half to two inches across, at first infundibuliform, 
at length split once or twice behind into flabellate lobes, extremely- thin, 
quite smooth, minutelj' striate, yellow brown ; stem scarce half an inch, 
very minutely velvety, black below ; pores white, invisible to the naked 
eye, punctiform. Closelj^ allied to P. varius, but a much more delicate 
species than any of its allies. The pores are as minute as in P. xan- 
thopus, so that it was sent as a Thelephora. 

PoLYPORUS RHiPiDiUM, n. sp. — On rotten trunks, in woods. Waynes- 
ville, Aug. 21, 1844. 

Csespitosus ; pileo coriaceo, reniformi, concentrice sulcato, alutaceo- 
albo, cute in areolas furfuraceas secedente ; stipite lateral!, brevi, 
sursum dilato, pruinoso ; poris parvis, albidis, angulatis, denticulatis, 
quandoque elongatis. 

Pilei gregarious, ciBspitoso-imbricate, coriaceous, three quarters of 
as inch long and broad, deeply, coucentricall}^ sulcate, yellowish, 

* The spores in this species are subglobose or obliquely ovate, and by no means elon- 
gated as in other Boleti In the Ohio specimens I find them minutely granulato-cehinulate. 
The tubes, too, do not separate from the pileus. It will probably form, some day, the type 
of a distinct genus. 

f Specimens of this occur of various sizes, from whatSchweinitz describes, to five inches 
iicross, with the stem eight inches or more high, and an inch thick. 

X The specimens agree exactly with one from the Pyrenees, given me by Dr. Montagne. 
Fries describes the pores as entire, but this charaL-ter is probably taken from Micheli's 

§ With this is a variety of Polyi)oriis perennis, which Mr. Lea considered a form of P. 
connatus. There is, however, such an immense difiference in the pores, that I can scarcely 
credit it, though the external resemblance is very strong. 

Descriptions of New Species of Fungi. 205 

cracked into minute, furfuraceous areolae ; stem quarter of an inch high, 
lateral, dilated above, pruiuose, yellowish when dry ; pores one 
hundredth of an inch in diameter, dirty white, angular, often elongated, 
edge of dissepiments uneven and toothed. This curious species 
exactly resembles Panus stypticvs, with the exception of the hymen- 
ium. I know of no species to which it has a close affinity. 

PoLYPORUs suLPHUREUs, Fr. — Wa3'nesville.* 

PoLYPORus HY'PococciNUS, n. sp. — On rotten trunks. Waynesville, 
Sept. 7, 1844. 

Pileo subungulato, carnoso-subero'so, intus fibroso zonatoque, in- 
equabile, exalutaceo-aurantiaco, incano, subtiliter tomentoso ; poris 
parvis, longis, e pileo secernibilibus, aurautiis, intus coccineis. 

Pileus several inches across, subungulate or expanded, of a soft 
coriaceous or cork}- substance, uneven, buff and orange, becoming whit- 
ish when dry, very minutel}' tomentose ; substance pale buif (some- 
times pink when dry), consisting of fibres which radiate from the base 
and are crossed by concentric zones: hymenium bright crimson orange ; 
pores one seventieth of an inch broad, an inch long, crimson within; 
edge of dissepiments orange, slightly thickened and flexous, separable 
from the flesh, and partially from each other. This magnificent species 
approaches, in some respects, the genus Fistulina, but the pores, 
though partially separable, are those of a Polyporus. Its situation is 
amongst the Anodermei. 

PoLYPORUS MOLLiuscuLUS, u. sp. — Cincinnati. 

Imbricatus; pileis eff'uso-reflexis, sublobatis, leviter zonatis, albis 
zonis strigis mollibus sparsis ornatis ; contextu albo ; poris mediis, 

Imbricated, thin, four inches or more long, three inches broad, some- 
times perfectly resupinate, more generally with the border, broadly re- 
flected and slightly lobed, white finely silky, or nearlj' smooth, with 
zones of soft strigqe, which, in the dried plant are perfectly innate ; 
substance white, thin corky vvhen dry; pores one forty-eighth of aa 
inch broad, at first entire with thick dissepiments, at length lacerated 
and elongated, wood colored. Resembling in general appearance 
Polyporus alntaceus, as figured by Rostkovius, but much thinner. 
I can not refer it toany descril»ed species. Its i)osition is amongst the 
white Anodermei. 

* The specimens arc very thin and extremely beautiful. 

206 Cinciundti Society of JVatitrfil Ili.sfory. 

PoLvroRUS Isii>i(iri)i;s, licrk.- On a largo (lead hooch. Ciriciunuli. 
Sept. 17, 1842.* 

PoLYPORUS AnusTus, Vy. — On a mulherry stump, Cincinnati, Oct. 
14, 1841, Sept. 15, 1842. 

Were not Pol. uduslus so very variable this would doubtless be con- 
sidered a distinct species. It is of a 3'ellow brown tint, velvety, wit!) 
a few distant zones, the margin white, rigid wlien dry, substance zoned: 
the pores are while and very sliallow. It has a fetid odor when drying. 
The common form also occurs. 

PoLYPORUS NiGRO-PURPURASCENS, Schwein. — On dead trunks. Waynes- 
ville, Aug. 31, 1844. 

Pores at first salmon colored or brownish, in older specimens yellow- 
ish white. This, if my specimen from the south of Europe is properly 
named is P. dichrous. Fries. 

PoLYPORUS ENDOCROCINUS, n. sp. — On the decayed part of the trunk 
of a yellow hickory. Waynesville, Aug. 29, 1844. 

Pileo crasso, caruo^o-fibroso, setis strigoso-horrido, brunueo ; con- 
textu croceo-rhubarbarino ; stipite brevi vel obsoleto ; hymen io aureo- 
fusco ; poris mediis, laceratis ; dissepimentis tenuibus. 

Pileus thick, four to six inches across, of a fleshy fibrous con- 
sistence, absorbing much moisture, dark brown, clothed with strigose, 
flat, lacerated setse or scales ; substance of a rich safl"ron ; hymenium 
golden brown ; pores one sixtieth of an inch broad, angular, with the 
edge of the thin dissepiments torn or fringed. This species shrinks 
much in drying. It is allied to Pol. ISchxoeintzii, but is distinguished 
by its safl"rou colored substance, and its strigososquamose pileus, 
Two specimens onl}' were found. 

PoLYPORUS GALACTiNUS, n, sp. — On lottcn trunks. Wa3-nesville, 
Aug. 29, Sept. 10, 1844. 

Pileo dimidiato, carnoso, molli, imiequabili strigoso-tomentoso, 
lacteo, intus zonato, fibrose, margine tenui ; poris parvis, albis. 

Pileus two to three inches broad, one and a half inches long, 
dimidiate or uniform and elongated behind, convex, uneven, milk 
white, clothed with strigose down, of a soft fleshy substance, zoned 
within and consisting of radiating fibres; hymenium flat, or slightly 

* Berk, in Zeyher's Fungi, from Uitenhage. — Hook. Land' Journ. This species is per- 
haps too near Pol. gilvus. 

Descriptions of New Species of Fungi. 207 

concave; pores one hundredth of an inch broad, scarcely visible to the 
naked eye, but giving to the hj'menium a silky lustre, white ; dissepi- 
ments very thin, slightly uneven. Nearly allied to P. undulatus, 
Schwein., and P.symphyton, Schwein. The dried: specimens are rigid, 
and sometimes have the margin dark brown. 

PoLTPORUS DRYOPHiLUS, u. sp. — On Kvlng red oak. Waynesville, 
Sept. 5, 1844. 

Pileo crasso, rigido, ungulato, scabroso, inaequabili, incanoferrug- 
ineo-flavo ; contextu cinnamomeo; hymenio cinnamomeo-fnsco; poris 
parvis, intus rhubarbarinis. 

Pilei subimbricate, four inches broad, three inches long, ungulate, 
unequal, rough with scabrous points formed by innate pubescence of 
a ferruginous 3'ellow, but subdned by a thin white film ; substance 
fibrous, hard, cinnamon ; pores externally cinnamon brown, within 
ferruginous yellow, about one eightieth of an inch broad, angular, with 
thin dissepiments. Nearly allied to P. dryadeiis, but a smaller, more 
rigid species, with larger, differently colored pores. It has also much 
resemblance to P. gilvus. 

PoLYPORUS PUBESCENS, Fr. — On rotten trunks and dry fence rails. 
Waynesville, Aug. 26, Sept. 9, 1844.* 

PoLYPORUs coNCHiFER, Schweiu — Waynesville, Sept. 9, 1844.f 

PoLYPORUS coNGLOBATUs, u. sp. — On bccch, bursting through the 
bark. Cincinnati, July 11, 1837. On a hickory stump, June, 1844. 

Pileis suberosis, ernmpentibus, arctissime imbricatis, massam glo- 
bosam eflformantibus, arcuatis,rugosis, fusco-purpureis, margine pallide, 
postice leviter laccatis; hymenio brunneolo ; poris punctiformibus ; dis- 
sepimentis obtusissimis. — Berk, in Hook. Land. Journ., vol. iv., p. 303. 

Forming a compact, globular mass, four or five inches in diameter, 
consisting of closely pressed, curved, imbricating pilei, united at the 
base into a mottled mass, consisting of bark highly impregnated with 
mycelium, purplish brown behind, where it is laccate with a dark 
bloom, pallid in front; substance, corky, rather soft, ferruginous; hy- 
menium concave, scarcely conspicuous without dividing the pilei, 
brown; pores minute, punctiform, pale within; interstices even, obtuse. 

'•' A small variety not excecdinK an inch in breadth, and the third of an inch in length. 

t Nothing can well bo more ditlorent than the pure white, adult individuals, and the 
elegantly brown-zoned plant, looking like some states of Thclriihorn ccoliuim, before the 
pores are formed. Occasionally the whole upper surface is clothed with a cracked brown 
stratum, not disposed at all in zones. 

208 CinrJnnati Soriely of Xatural Ilistonj. 

The liehind is soinctimt'S perforated by the larva of some insect, 
which makes large channels through it. Very flagrant when fresh ; 
odor a combination of pine api)le and strawberry very perceptible, at a 
distance of twenty yards from the tree. The specimen on liickory was 
of a fine oclire red, and the liymouium pur[)lisii. Allied to Polyporus 
(jraveolens, Schwein., vvliich grows on oak. The pilei in that species 
are spathulate, the pores invisible to the naked eye, and the substan(;e 
very hard. 

PoLYPORUS NIGER, n. sp. — On rotten trunks. Cincinnati, March 14, 

Resupiuatus, crassiusculus ; pileo vix ullo ; hymenio nigro ; poris 
minimis punctiformibus, intus umbrinis ; dissepimentis tenuibus. — 
Berk, in Loncl. Journ. Botany., vol. iv., p. 104. 

Elongated, altogether resupinate, except at the very edge, where it 
is slightly raised, dark biown, and pubescent ; substance, where it is 
not quite obsolete, dark brown; hymeium black; pores very minute, 
punctiform, two lines deep; edge very minutely' tomentose with black 
down, umber within ; dissepiments thin. Nearly allied to P. tepliro- 
porus (formerly P. Surinamensis, Mont.), with which it agree in 
many respects. The hymenium, however, is jet black, instead of 
cinereous, and the inside of the tubes is umber. Like it, it is slightly 
raised at the edge, and the substance and exposed portion of the pileus 
are dark brown. The dissepiments also in Dr. Montagne's fungus are 

PoLYPORCS OBLiQuus, Fr. — Wa3'nesville, August, 1844.* 

Trametes lactea, Berk. — On dead trunks. Cincinnati. 

Pileo laterali, duro, suberoso, explanato, dealbato, glabro; contextu 
albo; stipite brevissimo disciform!; hymenio albido; poris parvis, 
subrotundis, acie obtusa. T. incana. — Berk, in Hook. Lond. Journ.., 
vol. iv., p. 305. 

Pileus eight inches broad, four and a half inches long, attached by a 
ver}' short, lateral, disciform stem, flabelliform, smooth, opaque white, 
zoneless, or with a few obscure depressions and short radiating 
grooves; substance hard, cork}-, white, one and a half inches thick, 
margin subacute; hymenium even of a ver^' pale ochre; pores small, 
one hundred and sixtieth of an inch in diameter, mostly roundish, here 

=•• On a dead limb of Ostrya Virgiuica, throwing ofl' the bark exactly as in Corticium 

Descriptions of Kew Species of Fungi. 209 

and there forming linear or curved sinuses. Sometimes the stem is 
accidentally elongated. Resembling somewhat, Dcedalea ambigua, 
and certain states of Lenzites repanda, but distinct from either. I am 
obliged to alter the name, as while mj^ paper was in the press, M. 
LeA'eille published a species under the name of Trametes incana. 

Djedalea ambigua. Berk. — On dead trunks. Cincinnati. 

Pileo suberoso, crasso, convexo, azonato, dealbato, glabro; hjmenio, 
subalutaceo; poris parvis simuosis, acie obtusa. — Berk, in Hook. Lond. 
Journ., vol. iv., p. 305. 

Pileus sessile dimidiate, six inches broad, three inches long, one and 
a half inches thick, venose, zoneless, opaque white, as if whitewashed, 
smooth, or most minutely pubescent, in the younger parts only of a 
hard corky texture; white within, margin at first very obtuse; hyme- 
nium rather concave; of a pale tan color, pores small, narrow, sinuated 
moderatel}- deep; dissepiments obtuse. 

Other specimens gathered at Waj-nesville, Aug. 8, 1844, after the 
above characters were published, approach nearer to Lenzites repanda 
and L. applanata, combining the characters of both. They are flat 
and thinner, with the pores less sinuous, and in one specimen not alto- 
gether unlike those of L. applanata. The species is, however, more 
nearly allied to L. repanda. Even in the thinnest specimens, the mar- 
gin is not acute as in that species. 

D^.DALEA DNicOLOR, Fr. — Under side of a rotten log. Waynesville, 
Aug. 28, 1844.* 

D.EDALEA PALLiDOFULVA, n. sp. — On a dead log in a log-fence. 
Cincinnati, March 19, 1842. 

Coriaceo-suberosa, pileo dimidiato, subnitido, azono, pallido; hyme- 
nio pallido-fulvo, poris angustis, parce sinuosis rectis. 

Pileus one aud a half inches long, three inches or more broad; stem 
less dimidiate, even or rather rugged, zoneless, rather shining, at first 
most minutely pubescent; substance hard, wood colored; hymeniura 
pale, tawny; pores mostly straight, one sixtieth of an inch broad. A 
very distinct species, just interinediute between Dcedalea aiu\ Lenzites. 

DiEDALEA SEPiUM, u. sp. — Ou dr}' fcucc rails. Waynesville, Sept. 
9, 1844. 

* A resupinate form, differing from the ordinary state in its iialer hymonium. 

210 Cincinnati Sociefy of NatarnL U istonj. 

rilco teiuii, roflcxo, basi cffuso, snbtilitor toinoiitoso, palliflo-lignro. 
zonis satnrationibiis; contcxtu albo; liyrneiiio poroso siiiuoHO, pallwlo. 

Pilei effused at the base, reflexed above, laterally connate, at first 
often attached b}' the vertex, or triquetrous, pale wood color, finely 
toiuontose, marked with numerous zones which aic darker; hymenium 
pallid, consisting of slightly sinuous pores, about one tliirtieth of an 
inch in diameter. Its nearest ally is apparent!}' Dcedalea zonata, 

Lenzites Crat^gi, n. sp. — On a dead branch of a Crataegus. Cin- 
cinnati, Oct. 12, 1840. 

Pileo coriaceo rigido, glabarrimo, nitido, cervino, concentrice sulcalo 
et fasciato, quandoque radiato-ruguloso; poris flcxuosis, demum 
elongatis; dissepimentis molliusculis, hie illic laraell<Teformibus. 

Pileus orbicular, one and a half inches broad, fixed b}' the vertex, 
rigid, coriaceous, quite smooth and shining, repeatedly zoned and 
sulcate; h3'menium brownish; pores one sixtieth of an inch in diame- 
ter, slightly sinuous, much elongated toward the centre; dissepiments 
thin, soft. This beautiful species has exactly the habit of Ilexa- 
gona tenuis^ but the pores are ver}- different. It was gathered at 
Isle aux Noix, Canada, by Dr. Maclagan, by whom it was sent. The 
specimen is ungul.ate, and marked with little radiating lines, which are 
wanting in Mr. Lea's plant. 

Hydndmdiffractum, n. sp. — On the ground, in dry woods. Waynes- 
ville,Aug. 26, 1844. 

Pileo carnoso-lento, crasso, glabro, alutaceo, margine incurvo; 
stipiteque obeso, concolori, diffractis; aculeis subulatis, iutegris, molli- 
bus, alutaceopallidis. 

Pileus three inches broad, convex, smooth, of a tough flesh}" sub- 
stance, at length much cracked and split; margin involute; stem one 
and a half or two inches high, three quarters of an inch or more thick, 
buff and split like the pileus; tender when fresh; spines even, subu- 
late, entire, soft, of a pale buff; smell vinous. A remarkably rigid 
species when dry; allied to H. candidum and H. repandum. 

Hydnum flabelliforme. Berk. — On a dead oak trunk. Cincinnati, 
Jan. 14, 1842. 

Imbricatum, coriaceum; pileis spathulato flabelliformibus, zouatis, 
hirsutis; hymenio ochraceo; aculeis longiusculis, acutis, carneis, siccis, 
ochraceis. — Berk, in Hook. Lond. Journ. Bot., vol. iv., p. 306, 

Pilei imbricated, laterally confluent, half an inch broad, three 

Descriptions of New Species of Fungi. 211 

quarters of an inch- long, spathulato-flabellifonn, fixed b}' a narrow 
base, which is mostly more or less distinct, coriaceous, clothed with 
white or slightly tawny short woolly hairs; hymenium, bordered; 
aculei acute, sometimes compressed above, flesh colored, ochraceous 
when dry. Allied to H. ochraceum. 

Hydnltm stratosdm, n. sp. — On a dead trunk. Cincinnati, June 1, 

Pileis resnpinatis, margine libero, demum stratosis, e processlbus 
rigidis ramosis extus stuppeis formatis; aculeis longis, rigidis, 
acuminatis, spadiceis, hie illic cinereis. — Berk, in Hook. Lond. Journ.^ 
vol. iv., p. 307. 

Pilei resupinate. with a narrow lobed border, spreading for three or 
four inches over the matrix, consisting of repeatedly branched, rigid, 
brown processes, resembling some coruicularia, which are clothed 
above with gray, or ferruginous tow-like fibres. Aculei rather long, 
rigid, sharply acuminate, brown, var3nng to cinereous, at length stra- 
tose. This is one of the most remarkable species with which I am 
acquainted. It resembles in many respects H. parasiticum, but has 
not, like that a coriaceous pilous. The whole substance, indeed, con- 
sists merely of rigid branched processes, which are partiall}- over 
above with coarse pubescence, so that the pileus might perhaps be de- 
scribed as repeatedly branched. These processes, however, are com- 
bined into a lobed stratum. I do not know an}' other species with 
which it can be compared, except, perhaps, as Dr. Montague suggests, 
his H. jiteruloides., but that he is now inclined to consider as nearly a 
state of Trametes hydroides, whereas the present is a perfect fungus. 

Hydnum Ohiense, Berk. — On the underside of a decayed log. Cin- 
cinnati, March 19, 1842. 

Rcsupinatum, membranaceum, a matrice hie illic secernibile, i)allide 
flaviun; aculeis longis, acutissimis, aquoso pallido-fuscis, subfascicu- 
hitis. — Berk, in Hook. Lond. Journ., vol. iv., p. 307. 

Spreading for several inches, entirely resupinate, membranaceous, 
partiall}' separable from the matrix: aculei somewhat fasciculate, one 
to two lines long, of a watery pale brown, very slender at the apex. 
Resembling Hydnum Fernandesium, INFont., from which it differs in 
its sliorter, less crowded aculei. The margin, too, in the Juan Fer- 
nandez species is more distinct, and the whole fungus more luxuriant. 

Thelephora cuticularis, n, sp. — In moist cavity of a dead tree, 
attached to the wood, twigs, etc. Waynesville, Aug. 23, 1844. 

212 Cincinnati Society of JVa/i/rnl History. 

Iinbricatu, coriaceo mollis, brunnco-puipuiascens; piloolis inni(iua- 
]>ilil)M.s, rugosis, depresso-seiiceis; li3Ji)oiiio siiljla;vi, pulverulento. 

Imbi-icatod; pilei three quarters of an iiicli long, laterally con- 
fluent, uneven, rugged, bi'own inclining to purple, with a pale margin, 
of a soft coriaceous consistence; surface soft clothed with matted 
down, not distinctl}'^ pubescent; zoneless; hymenium concave, nearly- 
even, not setulose; smell strong and unpleasant. One specimen, 
gathered apparently in a different locality, consists of a mass of pilei 
running one into the other witli but little distinct hymenium. Allied 
to 2\ terresfris. 

Thelephora albo MARGiNATA, Scliwcin. Mss. — On bark of dead 
buttonwood. Cincinnati, March 19, 1842. 

Latissirae confluenti-effusa, rarius breviter reflexa, umbrina, centro 
pruinosa, margine albo-tomentoso. 

At first consisting of distinct, orbicular patches, which soon be- 
come confluent; umber, velvety, but by no means bristly, clothed with 
ji white bloom, in the centre quite even, or irregularly rugose, some- 
times reflexed, in which case the pileus is brown and silky; margin 
white, tomentose, not fimbriate. This was distributed under the name 
of T. arida, but more perfect specimens show that it is a fine and ver}' 
distinct species. It is possible that T. albo-hadia may be a synonjm, 
for I do not find the name adopted above from Sir W. J. Hooker's 
Herbarium, in Schweinitz's list. 

Stereum rugosum, Fr. Epic. — On dead logs. Cincinnati, April 30, 

DiDYMiuM REGULosuM, u. sp. — On bark of honey locust. Cincinnati, 
June 27, 1842. 

Gregarium; peridio lenticulari, subtus late umbilicato, albo, rugu- 
loso; stipite tenui costato, stramineo, apice attenuato, capillitio, parco, 
albo; sporis nigris, sub lente fusco-purpureis. Columella nulla. — 
Berk, in Hook. Lond. Journ.., vol. iv., p. 308. 

A minute species, one third of a line in diameter, with the stem 
two thirds of a line high. The appearance of the surface of the 
peridium is like that of a little globule of the mother of vinegar, white 
and curdled. 

Stemonitis fusca, Roth. — On dead poplar. Cincinnati, June 23, 1840.f 

'■'■ The specimens are remarkably fine, spreading for several feet over the under side of 
dead logs. The pileus is concentrically zoned, of a rich brown, and decidedly tomentose. 
The general appearance is somewhat difiTerent from European specimens, but I do not con- 
sider it a distinct species. 

t Spores larger than in British specimens. 

Descriptions of ISfew Species of Fungi. 213 

Sph^ronema oxyspordm, n. sp. Wa_ynesville, Aug. 3, 1844. 

Peritheciis subulatis, flavis, apice uudis; sporis ellipticis, utrique 

Externally resembling Sph(Bronema subulatum, but distinguished 
b}^ its spores having an elongated filament at either extremity', and by 
the naked tip of the perithecium, which has a more compact structure. 

DiPLODiA Mour, n. sp. — On twigs of Morus multicaulis. Cincinnati, 
June 25, 1840. 

Peritheciis globosis, dispersis, siccitate collapsis; sporis obovato- 
oblongis, pallidis, simplicibus. 

Sometimes aggregate and oblong from the confluence of several in- 
dividuals; more frequently solitary; occasionally the contents of the 
spores are attracted to either end, but I do not find a septum even in 
deca3ing specimens. 

Septonema spilomeum, Berk. — On fence rails. Cincinnati, March 3, 
1842; Waynesville, Aug. 27, 1844. 

Soris parvis, punctiformibus, atro-purpureis; filis ramosis; articulis 
oblongo-ellipticis, scabriusculis, triseptatis. — Berk, in Hook. Land. 
Journ., vol iv., p. 310, tab. 12, fig. 5, 

Forming little scattered, purplish-black sori, about the size of a 
poppy seed; threads branched; articulations oblongo-elliptic, trisep- 
tate, one or more of the septa containing occasionally an oil globule; 
border of articulations pelluc'ld, rough with little scabrous prominences. 
Very distinct from the other species in its punctiform habit, and the na- 
ture of the articulations. These are not repreoented suflQciently irregu- 
lar in the figure. If is very difficult to get a clear view, as they are so 

Sporidesmium concinnum, Berk. — On a rotten trunk. Cincinnati, 
March 31, 1841. 

Sporis primum brevissme pedieellatis, oblongis, obtusis, nitidis, 
fenestratis. — Berk, in Lond. Journ. Bot., vol. iv., p. 309, tab. 12, fig. 3. 

Forming minute, jet-black, crowded sori, which are at length almost 
confluent; stroma consisting of decumbent, branched threads; spores 
at first simple, obovate, pellucid, then oblong (the peduncle being en- 
tirely obliterated), and divided by numerous transverse and vertical, 
or more rarely oblique septa. 

Puccinia aculeata, Schwein. — On the under side of the leaves of 
Podophyllum peltatum.* 

* CorJa Fasc 6, inml. cum optiiiiii icone. 

214 Clncinnaii Society of Natural II is tori/. 

UuKDO RUHiGo-VEKA, DC; — Oil r\'o. riinciniiali, May 3, 18-iO.* 

Cronartium asci.epiadkum, Kze., var. Tuesii, Berk. — Cincinnati. 

Maculis obliteratis; tubcrculis parvis sparsis; .spori.s subglobosis; 
pciidiis elongatis, incurvatis, extiis minutissime ramentaeeis. — Berk. 
in Hook. Lond. Journ., \o\. iv., p. 311. 

On Thcsium umbellatum, generally scattered, not aggregate, as in the 
original species, where they seem to be usually confined to a deter- 
minate spot. Peridia more minute; cells of the peridium longer; spores 
not so )nuch elongated. 

Macrosporium piNGUEDiNis. Berk. — On grass soiled with fat. Cin- 
cinnati, June 19, 1841. 

Latissime effusum, floccis tenuibus, erectis, simplicibus, septatis; 
sporis lanceolatis, quandoque obovato-oblongis. — Berk, in Hook. 
Lond. Journ., vol. iv., p. 309, tab. 12, fig. 2. 

Complete!}' investing the culms and leaves on which it grows. Flocci 
erect, flexuous. septate; spores brown, lanceolate, obtuse, transversely 
septate, with occasionally a vertical septum: sometimes obovate-ob- 

Macrosporium pdnctiforme. Berk. — On dead stems of Rubus occi- 
dentalis. Cincinnati, 

Soris minutis, sparsis, punctiformibus; sporis obovatis; filis sim- 
plicibus, obtusis, subflexuosis. — Berk, in Hook. Lond. Journ., vol. iv., 
p. 309, table 12, fig. 1. 

Forming minute, black, scattered dots; stroma reticulate; flocci 
erect, simple, slightly flexuous, sparingl}' septate, sometimes decum- 
bent and then proliferous; spores obovate, at first simple and pellucid, 
then furnished with one or two transverse septa, at length acquiring a 
darker tinge, and a few oblique or vertical septa. 

OiDiUM SIMILE, Berk. — On decayed wood. Cincinnati, Jan. 18, 1842. 

EflTusum, subraembranaceum, fulvum; filis ramosiusculis; articulis 
ultimis subglobosis. — Berk, in Hook. Lond. Journ., vol. iv., p. 310, 
tab. 12, fig. 4. 

Forming a deep, tawn}', pulverulent, but somewhat membranaceous 
stratum, which to the outward eye exactly resembles Oidium fulvum, 
but distinguished by its subglobose, not oblong articulations. The 
fructifjang bodies arise, either from a direct transformation of the ul- 
timate joints, or from the central constriction of the subterminal. 

* An imperfect state of Puccinia graminis. 

Descriptions of New Species of Fungi. 215 

Peziza acetabulum, L. — On the ground. Cincinnati, April 30, 1842.* 

PsiLOPEziA, nov. gen. 

Hyinenium planum, ascigerum, omnino immarginatum, strato tomen- 
toso, innatum, a&ci ampli: sporidia elliptica, binucleata. 

PsiLOPEZiA NUMMULARiA, n. sp. — On a decayed log in a wet place. 
Cincinnati, July 16, 1842. 

Orbicular, one third of an inch broad, flat, purple brown, growing on 
a white, tomentose stratum, which forms a narrow border; asci large, 
containing eight large, elliptic binucleate sporidia. The characters of 
this genus are precisely those of Pyronema, Avhich was founded on the 
old confluent state of Peziza omphalodes. It has the habit of Corti- 
cum with the hjraenium of a Peziza, from which it is distinguished 
1)3' the total absence of an}' true margin. The name of Pyronema is 
evidentl}' inapplicable to the present species. 

Patellaria CARPiNEA, Berk., Peziza carpinea, Pers. — On Horn- 
beam. Cincinnati, Oct. 31, 1839. 

This is not a good Peziza, though it certainly has asci and sporidia. 
The former are clavate, the latter subrymbiform. Ditiola, to which 
Fries is inclined to refer it has no asci. It appears to me evidently 
congeneric with P. rhaharharine, Berk. 

Sph^ria MULTIFORMIS, Fr. — Kentucky hills, four miles from the Ohio.f 

Sph^ria deusta, Hoffm. — On dead logs. Cincinnati, Apr. 21, 1842.+ 

Sph^ria (Lignosje) tinctor, Berk. — On dead buttonwood (Platanus 
occidentalis. Cincinnati, 3Iarch 14, 1842. 

Effusus, innatus, planus, sculpturam matricis e mj-celio miniatte su- 
perficie referens, intusextusque ater ; peritheciis elongatis, collo brevi, 
ostiolo inconspicuo. — Berk, in Hook. Lond. Jonrn. Bot., vol. iv., p. 311. 

Foiming a black, wideh- eff'used stratum, exhibiting all the inarkin"'s' 
of the matrix, which is tinged to the depth of a quarter of an inch, 
orange red, black both within and without; stroma hard, half a line or 
more thick; perithecia vertical, elongated, with a very short neck; os- 
tiola not visible externally even under a lens. Analogous to S. hy- 
pomilta, Mont., related to iS. stiymn. The stroma is quite distinct 
from the wood, though it exhibits on its surface all its markings. It 
has the habit of the tribe Concrescentes. 

* This species, it will be observefl, retains its early !i|>i>ejiriince in America. 

t The effused variety. 

I The young Thclc])horoiil state. 

21G Cincinnati Society oj Natural History. 

SpiIitUUA (ClKCUMSCKII'TiE) FULVO-PRUINATA, Bci'k. On (l(;:i«l PlutunilM 

occidentalis. Cincinnati, January 14, 1812. 

Pustuluta, subangulata, basi effusa, peritlicciis oblongis, collo elon- 
gate; stromate discoque ostiolis punctato fiilvis; sporidiis ellipticis, 
iiniseptatis. — Berk, in Hook. Lond. Journ.., vol. iv., p. ;{J2. 

Forming somewhat angular pustules, about a line broad, rather 
effused at the base, as seen through the thin cuticle; disc angular, 
tawn}', pulverulent, pierced by the black punctiform ostiola; stroma 
tawny like the disc; perithecia globose; asci linear; sporidia elliptic, 
uuiseptate, with a single globose nucleus in each cell. 

SPHiERiA (Circumscriptve) Leaiana, Berk. — On bark of dead Horn- 
beam. Cinctinnati, June 20, 1839. 

Innata; stromate pallido, laxo, e cortice et ligno linea circumscripto; 
peritheciis ellipticis, ostiolis subconfertis, elongatis, lincolatis, granu- 
latis, sporidiis minimis curvul is. —i?er7i;. in Hook. Lond. Journ., vol. 
iv., p. 311. 

About half a line in diameter. Perithecia not numerous, circinate, 
elliptic, seated on a pale stroma of ratlier a loose texture; ostiola form- 
ing a little tuft rather elongated, umbilicate, finely grooved, granulated; 
asci lanceolate; sporidia minute, curved like those oi S. verrucoeformis. 
Distinguished from S. carpini by its pretty, granulated ostiola; but 
above all by its minute, curved, not lanceolate sporidia. In S. dicipiens 
the sporidia are dark and elliptic with one side flattened. 

Sph^ria (Conpldentes) rhizogena, Berk. — On the roots of Gledits- 
chia triacantlios, washed bare by the Ohio freshets. Cincinnati, Dec., 

Suborbicularis, atro-fusca; stromate pallido, peritheciis globosis, 
primum cervino-pruinosis, demum supra atro-fuscis, subtus pallido- 
fuscis; papilla subtili abrupta quandoque depressa, intus pallido-fuscis. 
-^Berk. in Hook. Lond. Journ., vol. iv., p. 312. 

Patches nearly orbicular, two lines or more broad, with their surface 
rather irregular, here and there depressed; stroma pale, yellowish- 
brown; perithecia minute, dull, not shining, partially immersed, pale 
brown when shaded from the light, nearl^^ black above, at first pruinose, 
globose with a minute and sometimes depressed papilla, filled with pale 
brownish jelly; asci linear, sporidia, elliptic. Habit that of -S*. laburni. 
Its nearest all}^ appears to be S. gleditschice. S. melogramma as pub- 
lished by Mouegeot differs in its fusiform sporidia. Fries, No. 441 has 
curved sporidia. 

Descriptions of New Species of Fungi. 217 

Sph^eria (SfiRiATiE) MAYDis, 11. sp. — On dead culms of Zea Maj'S. 
Ciiicicnati, May 1, 1841. 

Masculis parvis, subellipticis, elevatis; peritheciis paucis, ostiolo, 
unico, conico; sporidiis oblongiis, curvulis, uniseptatis. 

Habit that of S. arundinacea. Spots minute, often purple-brown, 
punctiform or subeliiptic, rarely linear, containing ver}^ few perithecia, 
witb a single braad conical ostiolum; sporidia oblong, slightly curved, 
uniseptate. Very different from Sphceria Zece, Schwein., as appears from 
an authentic specimen in Sir W. J. Hooker's Herbarium. 

Sph^ria (Btssised^) rhodomphala, Berk. — On rotten wood. Cin- 
cinnati, Dec. 9, 1841. 

Peritheciis demnm confertis, minutis globosis umbilicatis, atris, 
plus minus, prsesertim circa ostiolum, obsoletum, miniato-pruinatis, 
sub lente scabriusculis subiculio fusco insidentibus. — Berk, in Hook. 
Lond. Journ., vol. iv., p. 313. 

Scattered, at length much crowded, either free or seated on a 
matted brown subiculum; perithecia globose, at first powdered with 
vermilion, which is more or less persistent in the center; ostiolum 
simple, umbilicate; asci somewhat lanceolate, pedicellate; sporidia 
lanceolate, constricted in the center with a single septum, and containing 
one or sometimes two nuclei. A pretty species, but rather diffi- 
cult to place, as the subiculum is sometimes entirely wanting, and the 
perithecia are ratlier pulverulent than villous. It has almost equal 
claims to take its place amongst Denudatce, Villosce, and Byssisedce. 

Sph^ria (Subtect^) argyrostigjia, n. sp. — On dead leaves of Yucca 
filamentosa. Cincinnati, Feb. 8, 1842. 

Epiphylhi, ethypopliylla, late dispersa; peritheciis minoribus de- 
presso-globosis, epidermis tectis astomio; maculis epidermalibus, 
punctiformibus, nigris, centi'O, candidis; sporidiis cymbiformibus, 
pallidis. Appearing like scattered Phoma, but it has distinct asci. 

Antennaria pinophila, Nees. — On sugar maple. Cincinnati, April 
30, 1842.* 


Agartcus vaginatcs, Bull. — Cincinnati. 

A distinct form, if not species, occurred in Banklick woods, Ohio, 
at the root of a beech tree, growing in a bunch, with the gills attached 
to the stem, but easily breaking away. The pilcus was viscid, brownish 
yellow; the stem also brownish and viscid, especially within. 

* I can not distinguish the specimens from Nees von Esenbeek's species. 


Cincinnati Society of JVatitral //is/nn/. 



Since the publication oftlic list nf Colcoptera {this Journal, Oct., 
1879), these additional species have been taken. This list enumerates 
167 species, the former list, 1419, — making a total of 1580, belonging 
to 712 Genera, and 71 Families. 1 am indebted to the late Mr. Chas. 
G. Sievvers, of Newport, Ky., for notes on the capture of several species 
not observed by myself. 

Cicindela punctulata, Fab. 



Clivina postioa, Lee. " 

Schizogonius ferrugineus, Putz. " 

Lebla lobuhita, Lee. " 

puinilbi, Dej. " 

Perigona nigriceps, Dej. Ky. 

Evarthrus acutus, Lee. " 
Bradycellus atrimedius, Say. Ohio. 

Chlasnius impunetifrons, Say. " 


Megasternum costatum, Lee. " 

Cercyon pubescens, Lee. '* 

Cryptopleuruin vugans, Lee. " 


NossidiuQi amerieanura, Mots. " 


Philotermes pilosus, Kraatz. " 

Bleduis analis, Lee. " 

Apolocellus sphairieollis, say. " 


Batrisus riparhis, Say. " 

globosus, Lee. " 

nigricans, Lee. " 

Decarthron abnorme, Lee. " 


Ptomapbagus pusio, Lee. " 

Catops bassilaris, Say. * " 

Catops elavleornis, Lee. " 

Liodes obsoleta, Horn. Ky. 

blancbardi, Horn. " 

basilic var. dichroa, Lee. " 

Agathidium puleliruin, Lee. " 

Sc5'^dma3nu.s motschulskii, Lee. Ohio. 

Sericoderus subtilis, Lee. " 

Saeium fasciatuni, Say. " 

Cyparinm Ibivipes, Lee. Ky. 


Lathridius lirata, Lee. Ohio. 

Cortiearia serratus, Payk. " 

pictus, Lee. " 

Alexia minor, Cr. Ky. Ohio. 

Mycetopliagn? obsoletus, Mels. Ky. 
Litargus infulatus, Lee. " 

Sphindus amerieanus, Lee. Ohio. 

Enneartbron Mellyi, Mell. " 

Atoinaria ferrnglnea, Sahib. 
Loberus impressus, Lee. 
Marginus sp. 



Coleoptera of the Vicinity of Cincinnati. 


Lathropus vernalis, Lee. 
Laemophlseus adustus, Lee. 



Penthelispa reflexa, Say. Ky. 

Pycnomerus sulcieollis, Lee. " 

Cerylon eastaneum, Say. Ohio. 


Neraophlceus pallipennis, Lee. " 

Monotoma producta, Lee. " 


Nemosoma cylindrieum, Lee. " 


Stelidota geminata, Say. " 

Cyboeephalus nigritulus. Lee. Ky. 

Exochomus marginipennis Lee. Ohio 

pihitii, Muls. " 

CEneis pusilla, Lee. " 

Seymnus punctulata, Mels. " 


Georyssus pusillus, Lee. " 


Hister harrisii, Kby. " 

Saprinus fitehii, Mars. " 

fraternus, Say. " 

Aeletes, n. sp. '* 


Canthon ehaleites, Hald. " 

Atfcnius, n. sp. Ky. 

Odontoeus liliieornls, Say. Ohio. 

Cleotiis globosus, Say. " 

Trox capillaris, Say. " 

foveieollis, Harold. " 

Hoplia debilis, Lee. Ky. 

Diehelonyclia subvittata, Lee. " 

linearis, Gyll. Ohio. 
Laehnosterna hirtioula, Knoeh. KJ^ 
Cremastochilas variolosus, Kby. O. 

canalieulatus, Kby. Ohio. 


Antbaxia quereata, Fab. Ohio. 

Chrysobothris, n. sp. Ky. 

Agrilus subcinetus, Gory. Ohio. 


Tharops ruficornis, Say. '* 

Fornax, n. sp. " 
Microrrhagus impressicollis, Bv. Ky. 

Elater socer, Lee. " 

Megapenthes limballs, Hbst. " 

Limonius auripillis, Say. " 

aurifer, Lee. " 

Athous equestris, Lee. " 

opalinus, Cand. " 
Corymbites rotundieollis, Lee. " 

Asaphes aereus, Mels. " 

indistinctus, Lee. Ohio. 


Sandalus petrophya, Knoeh. " 


Eurypogon niger, Mels. " 

Cyphon obscurus. Guar. " 

Eucinetus morio, Lee. Ky. 

Philodactyla serrieollis, Saj'^. Ohio. 


Phengodes plumosa, Oliv. " 

Eros fraternus, Rand. Ky. 

MALACHID.^. erichsonii, Lee. Ohio. 

Attains, sp. " 


Cleius quadrisignatus, Say. " 


Ernobius mollis, Linn. " 

Petalium bistriatnm, Saj'. " 

Enpactus nitidns, Lee. " 

Xyletinus fueatus, Lee. " 

C:v!noeara oeulata, Say. " 

Sinoxylon bidentatum, Horn. Ky. 

• basilare, Say. Ohio. 

Eueeratocerus hornii, Lee. " 


Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

Phyniatodes variabilis, P"'Hb. Ohio. 

varins, Fab, Ky. 

F^laphidion incertiim, Newin. " 
Obrium lubiuiii, Nevvm. " 

rubidum, Lee. " 

Neoolytus nitidus, Horn. " 

Clytantlius albofasciatus, Lap. Ohio. 
Encyclops cjeruleus, Say. " 

Monohammus titillator, Oliv. " 
Goes piilverulentus, Hald. Ky. 

Urographis triangulifer, Hald. " 
Lepterges regularis, Lee. Ohio. 

Saperda lateralis, Fab. " 

Cryptoeephahis lautus, Lee. Ky. 
Pachybraehys pubesceus, Oliv. Ohio. 
Trirhabda canadensis, Kby. " 

Alphitobins diaperinus, Pz. " 

Tharsus seditiosus, Lee. Ky. 

Paratenetus fuscus, Lee. Ohio. 

Platydema pieilabrum, Mels. Ky. 
Phylethes bifasciatus, Say. " 

Hymenorus pilosus, Mels. " 

Mycetochares binotata, Say. Ohio. 

bicolor, Coup. " 

Strongyliura erenatum, Makl. Ky. 

Xylophilus signatus, Hald. " 

Corphyra pulchra, Lee. Ohio. 

Canifa pusilla, Hald. " 

Orchesia gracilis, Mels. " 

Lacconotus punctatus, Lee. Ky. 

Mordellirttona semiusta, Lee. Ohio, 
nigricans, Mel.'^. 
millitari.s, Lee. 
aeinula, Lee. 
lepidula, Lee. 
morula, Lee. 


Xacerdes raelanura, Linn. " 


Pandeletejus hilaris, Hbst. Ohio. 


Listronotus squamiger, Say, 
Lixus Inesicollis, Lee. 
Magdalus barbita, Say. 
Anthonomus signatus. Say. 
Prionomerus calceatus. Say. 
Thysanocuemis fraxini, Lee. 

helveolus, Lee. 
Zaglyptus sulcatus, Lee. 

striatus, Lee. 
Acalles earinatus, Lee. 
Acoptus suturalis, Lee. 
Cceliodes asper, Lee. 
Centorhynchus zimmeimanni, 
Cossonus corticola. Say. 
Centrinus picumnus, Hbst. 

Dryopbthorus corticalis, Say. 

Xleborus eaelatus, Eieh. 

celsus, Eieh. 
Chramesus ieorise, Lee. 
Phloeotribus, sp. 
Scolytus quadrispinosus, Say 

ruffulosus, Ratz. 










New Orders and New Families in the Class Echinoderraata. 221 

By S. A. Miller. 

Order Agelacrinoidea, n. ord. and n. fam. 

This order is proposed to include, so far as known, only the farailj" 
AgelacrinidiB, aud each ma}', therefore, be defined as follows: 

Body thin, circular and parasitic upon other objects. The lower 
side consists of a thin, smooth, attaching membrane or plate. The 
upper side is more or less convex, aud composed of thin, squamiform 
or imbricating plates, usuall}' much smaller at the periphery than 
toward the center. Ambulacra constituting part of the convex sur- 
face furrowed on the interior, and composed of a double series of 
transverse alternating plates, sometimes having smaller, middle, in- 
tercalated ones. Two or more rows of ambulacral pores connect the 
exterior with the interior of each ambulacrum. The so-called ovarian 
or anal aperture is situated in one of the inter ambulacral areas, and is 
usually surrounded by cuneiform plates forming a depressed circular 
prominence. The genera belonging to this order and family are 
Agelacrinus, Edrioaster and Hemicystites. 

Order Lichenocrinoidea, n. ord. and n. fam. 

This division of the fossil Echinodermata, and the famih- Licheno- 
crinidse, are established upon the genus Lichenocrinus. 

The definition of the order and family will be the same, as both are 
founded on a single genus. 

The l)od3' attached during part or all of its life to foreign objects. 
It is circular, convex upon the upper side, and more or less crateri- 
form surrounding the central stalk like appendage. The lower side at 
some period of life possessed a thin attaching plate. The upper side 
is covered with numerous polj'gonal plates, without any evideuce of the 
presence of ambulacra, arms, mouth, pectinated rhombs or pores con- 
necting the exterior with the internal cavit}-. The interior of the 
visceral cavity contains numerous radiating upright lamellaj that 
support the polygonal plates of the upper side, and often leave their 
impression, like the radiations of a star, upon the object to which it 

222 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

was attached. The stalk rises from tlie central depressed area, and 
consists, at first, of interlocking plates, hut afterward, of circular 
ones, like those of a ci-inoid column, and finally tapers to a point. It 
was flexible and perforated with a longitudinal channel, though the 
perforation has not been satisfactorily ascertained, at the upper ter" 
minating point. 

Order Myelodactyloidea, n. ord. 

This division of the fossil Echinoderniata is established as follows: 
Body free, discoidal, and possessed of an internal radiating system 
of pores, which increase, b}'^ division, from the center to a tubular 
channel in the circular margin or surroundinjr coil. There are two 
families referred to this order, the AJyelodactylidse and the Cyclocys- 
toididae. In the former, the radiating and circular systems become 
complicated hy the connection, between succeeding coils and through 
the flattened connecting finger-like processes; in the latter, the arrange- 
ment is more simple, as the interior radiations connect with a single 
marginal circular sj^stem. The external form and internal structure 
are so essentiall3'' distinct from other well defined orders, that the 
technical names, used in description, have no ascertained application. 
That is, we can not intelligently apply the words calyx, ambulacra, 
arm, etc., to any part of these peculiar organisms. This order has 
been suggested with hesitation, because there still exists a possibility 
that M3'elodact3-lus belongs, in some manner, to the vault of a crinoid, 
but the author thinks there is not much probability of such connection. 

Family Myelodactylid^, n. fam. 

This familj^ is founded upon the single genus Myelodactylus, and 
defined as follows: 

Bod}' free, discoidal, and resembling a coil rolled in the same plane, 
and covered upon either side b}" finger like processes from each 
succeeding turn overlapping the next inner one. The whorls are 
composed of a series of plates, having a tubular channel within, and 
perforated and finger-like processes upon the exterior, directed toward 
the center, and flattened down upon the next inner whorl to which the\' 
are attached, and form a porous connection from the tubular channel 
of one whorl to the next inner one. The cast of the pores of the 
inner whorl resemble the radiating spokes of a wheel: they are multi- 
plied in connecting the tubular channels of each succeeding whorl, 
thus making the internal radiating system doubl}- complicated. The 

Neu) Orders and New Families in the Class Echinodermata. 223 

central aperture, if one exists, has cot been discovered, and the 
structure of the terminal end of the anomalous coil is wholl}' un- 
known. The internal radiating S3-stem of pores may be compared 
with that of the family Cyclocystoididae, and here the analog)^ in 
structure, with other families in the class Echinodermata, so far as 
known, ceases. The terminal end of the coil being unknown has ]ed to 
the suggestion of the possibilitj^ of its having been connected with the 
vault of a crinoid, but as no genus is known having any such append- 
age, and some classification seeming desirable, this family has been 

Family Cyclocystoidid^, n. frm. 

This family is founded upon the single genus Cycloc3^stoides, and 
defined as follows: 

Body free, consisting of a circular disk, and having a margin com- 
posed of a series of perforated plates. Within this marginal series the 
disk is covered with an integument of small plates, except, possibly, a 
small central aperture. The rim or marginal series contains a tubular 
channel, making the complete circle, which is connected with the in- 
terior, b}' numerous pores, that radiate from the center, and repeatedly 
bifurcate before reaching it. The inner side of the rim is grooved, 
for the reception of the internal part of the disk, and the outer side 
depressed and scarred, either by mammillary elevations or concave 
depressions, as if for the attachment of ossicular or other processes. 
The tubular channel is connected with the exterior by minute circular 
pores, which were probably analagous, in their purpose, to the calycine 
pores in the C\'stideee. 

[Plate IX., figs. 1 and la, natural size.] 

The body is rather above the medium size, and almost completel}'' 
obovate in outline. It is covered by numerous irregularly disposed 
convex plates, diflfering much in size and form, and not susceptible of 
being thrown into circular ranges, as is usual in this genus. 

The species is founded upon casts, but these preserve the form of 
the convexity of the plates, and one of them, as shown in fig. 1, pre- 
serves the cast of some of the pores with which the plates were perfor- 
ated, which draw this species in near relationship with H. pustulosas, 
described in vol. 1, p. 134, pi. 6, figs. 1 and 1«, of this Journal. Both 
species were covered with irregular, convex, pustulous, porous plates, 

224 Cincinnuli Society of Nalural llial.onj. 

and oach has a general obovate outline. This species, iiowever, is dis- 
tinguished, readily, b}^ the numerous, smaller, intercalated plates, upon 
the surface, which do not characterize //. pustulosus. 

Farther defining it, we may sa3% that it appears to have possessed a 
small column. The lower range of plates consists of eight, which are 
slightly longer than wide These are succeeded by a range of eight 
plates, which are a little larger than those in the first range, and 
each of which is longer than wide. This range is succeeded by 
a number of small intercalated plates, which, in fig. 1, indicate 
about eighteen plates in the circumference of the specimen, but one 
side of the specimen is injured, so that only one half of them can be 
distinguished, and if fig. la, as supposed, belongs to the same species, 
and shows the opposite side, then some larger plates occur, and there 
are less than eighteen thrown into an irregular range. Above this, 
large plates may be described as surrounded with smaller ones, rather 
than sa5ingthat the}'^ form ranges surrounding the body, though some 
of the larger plates rest upon each other, and form a line of plates of 
irregular size, extending from the base to the summit, but not in the 
opposite direction. 

The summit of each specimen is too much injured to allow any cer- 
tainty in the determination of the mouth and ambulacral opening, 
though the latter appears to have been quite central. 

The species is founded upon two specimens, each of which preserves 
onl}^ one side. They are from the raagnesian limestone, of the age of 
the Niagara Group, at Joliet, Illinois, and belong to the collection of 
W. C. Egan, of Chicago. Another specimen, in the same collection, in- 
dicates a distinct species, with remarkabl}^ porous plates, but the 
specimen is not in such a state of preservation as to justify giving to 
it a specific name. 

[Plate IX., fig. 2, natural size, as drawn from a plaster cast of the original.] 

The cal3'x of this species is elongated, and even when covered with 
plates is longer than wide. With the brachials and interbrachial plates 
attached, it is elongate-cylindrical, or possesses a length over two and 
a half times its diameter, and above this the species bore a huge pro- 
boscis, having a length almost equal to all the other parts of the body. 

The calyx, in the form and arrangement of the plates, is much like 
-E". egani, but is proportionally a little more elongated, and a little less 
truncated at the base. 

JSIew Orders and New Families in the Class Echinodermata. 225 

The cast of the dome, that covered the calj^x, has a height, above the 
connection between the arm furrows and the interior of the body, 
nearly equal to its diameter. The cast of the canal leading from the 
dome to the proboscis is near the size of the column, for a distance 
about equaling the diameter of the body, when it suddenly and 
rapidly expands over the top of the interbrachials, to three times its 
diameter within, or about two thirds the diameter of the cal^'x, and 
represents the base of the proboscis. The proboscis is here covered 
with large hexagonal plates, each of which is a little longer than 
wide, and which seem to form regular, continuing, upright series, 
toward the apex of the prolonged proboscis, gradually diminishing in 
size as the latter contracts. 

The length of the specimen, from the bottom of the calyx to the 
apex of the proboscis, is 4 25-100 inches; to the top of the interbrachi- 
als, 2 40-100 inches; to the top of the dome, 1 40-100 inches; and to 
the top of the cal^'x, 90-100 inch. The diameter of the cast of the 
calyx at the top is 75-100 inch; the greatest diameter through the 
interbrachials is 90-100 inch, which shows a slight expansion above 
the top of the calyx, and the diameter of the cast of the base of the 
proboscis is a full half inch. 

This remarkable specimen was found in the magnesiau limestone of 
the age of the lower part of the Niagara Group, at Pontiac, O. D. 
A. McCord, of Oxford, in Butler count}-, made several plaster casts of 
it, from one of which I have illustrated and described the species. It 
would have been a little more satisfactory to have had the original, 
but the workman who discovered it seemed to value its possession, 
and as I have had no opportunity to communicate with him, or bor- 
row it, I have ventured upon the opportunities presented for laying 
the interesting species before the public. 

[Plate IX., fig. 3, natural size.] 

Shell rather below medium size, in this genus, and vcr}^ wide, the 
apical angle being about 90 deg. It consists of six or seven whorls* 
veiy extremely and sliarply angular at the lower edge, and the last 
one, at half the distance from the angle to the columella, commences, 
with a gentle slope, to ascend to the suture, which is close up under 
the keel of the volution above. The angularity increases with each 
descending whorl from the apex, until the keel may be called a flange, 
and then an extended flange, slightl}- curving upward, whicli, on the 

226 Cincinnati Society of Natural Ilislonj. 

last whorl, extends nearl}' half the distance from tlie [;ori[jhery to the 
eoliiniella. The suture is sharp and distinct, and close up under the 
keel above. Aperture uuknown. The last volution appears t(t have 
expanded below for the aperture, but enoui^h is not preseived for defi- 

Surface oruainented by numerous distinct round striic or lines, ex- 
tending from the sutures a little obliquely backward to the peripher}' 
of the anovular keel. These striae iucx'ease in width toward the keel, 
and in two instances on our specimen there is an increase by implan- 

The peculiar keel or flange, and the surface ornamentation, will dis- 
tinguish this species from any hitherto described. 

It was collected by W. C. Egan, at Bridgeport, Chicago, in the mag- 
nesian limestone of the age of the Niagara Group, and by him pre- 
sented to the author. Instead of being a cast of the interior of a shell, 
as is usual in such limestone, it is a cast of the exterior of the shell, 
and is, therefore, remarkable and unique. The specific name is in 
honor of A. H. Wortheu, the distinguished State Geologist of Illinois. 


[Plate IX., fig. 4, natural size ; flg. 4a, enlarged view of the calyx and brachials ; fig. 4&, 
enlarged view of the azygos side of another specimen ; fig. 4c, an enlarged view of a 
fragment of an arm.] 

This species is rather below the medium size, the calyx truncated 
obconoidal, the arms strong, and the column fairly proportioned to the 
size of the body. 

Column. — The column is long, round, smooth, or with very slightly 
projecting plates, and very geutl}' expanding to unite with the calyx. 
The plates are of nearly uniform thickness, and where the column is 
weathered, the serrated union of the plates discloses the radiations 
upon their uniting faces. 

Body. — The length and breadth of the calyx are nearly- equal ; the 
plates are smooth, and the sutures moderately' distinct. The basal 
plates are pentagonal, slightly wider than high, the two upper sloping 
sides are the shorter ones, and the side articulating with the column 
has about the same length as the uniting sides between the basals. 
The subradials are about as wide as high, and quite regularly hex- 
agonal, except the two on the az3'gous side, which support the plates at 
the base of the proboscis, which are heptagonal. The first radials are 
pentagonal, three of them wider than long, and the other two about as 
long as wide. The upper or articulating surface is truncated the en- 
tire width of the plate, for the support of the brachials. 

Neio Orders and JVeiv Families in the Class Echinodermata. 227 

Brachials. — There are three brachials, or free radial plates, support- 
ing arms, in each of the five series. The first plate is longer than 
wide ; it is longer than any plate in the calyx ; it tapers very gradu- 
ally, and being round upon tlie outer face presents the appearance of 
a truncated cone. The second plate is rather wider than long, and 
tapers less, proportionally, than the first. The third plate is penta- 
gonal, I'ounded, expanded at the upper third, where its width is about 
equal to the greatest length, and supports the arms upon its upper 
sloping sides. This description will applj' to three of the series, but 
the two series upon the azygous side are a little narrower at the base 
of the first brachials, and therefore taper less in the first and second 

Arms. — There are ten arms, rather stout, and of medium leagth. 
They are composed of elongated, somewhat wedge-shaped, plates, that 
project slightly at the upper margin of the longer sides from which the 
pinnules arise, giving the arms a serrated or roughened aspect upon 
either side. The pinnules are long and strong. None of them in the 
illustrations are drawn to their fall length, and the plates are longer 
than they are indicated in fig. 4c, which was drawn rather to indicate 
a magnified piece of an arm than to show the appearance of the 

Interradials and proboscis. — There are two or three small plates 
upon the azygous side, within the calyx, which seem to belong to the 
ventral tube or proboscis, which are succeeded by small plates that 
cover the proboscis, as shown in the magnified view, fig 46, The pro- 
boscis is large, separates widel}' the two anterior arms, and gently 
curves inward between the arms and pinnules. It is shown broken off 
in fig. 4. It appears that it extended, in height, beyond the arms. 

This is a marked and beautiful species, that will not be confounded 
with any other known to the author, who collected it, in rocks of the 
age of the Upper Heldcrborg Group, at Deputy, Indiana. 

The specific name is in honor of William J. Davis, author of the 
" Fossil Corals of Kentuck}^" in the fortiicoming volume of the 
Palaeontology of that State, who has been making his home, for man^' 
years, in the special interest of palteontological science, among the 
Devonian fossils in the vicinity- in which this species was collected. 


[Plate IX., fig. 5, enlarged two diameters ; fig. ha, magnilied view of two arms as they 

appear from the fourth brachial.] 

This species is very small, column comparatively large, and arms 
remarkable for unequal bifurcations. 

228 Cincinnati SorAehj of Natural History. 

Column. — The column is round, smooth, very gently expanding to 
unite with the calyx, and seems to have tapered to a point at no great 
distance from the calyx, after throwing off numerous floating 
rootlets. This latter supposition is based upon the two facts, that thg 
column, over an inch in length, attached t.> a head, has materially 
diminislied in size, and upon the same slab, near by, thei-e occurs a 
yet smaller tapering column tlirowing off small rootlets, at inegular 
distances from each other, which are about the size of what we may 
suppose pinnules would be in a species in this genus of the size of the 
one under consideration. The length of these little rootlets is about 
one fourth of an inch, and the length of the fragnfent of the column so 
preserved is about one and a halt inches. The plates are of nearly 
uniform thickness. 

Body. — The calyx is like a smooth, reversed, truncated, slowly taper- 
ing cone, having a length more than one and a half times its greatest 
diameter. The basal plates are pentagonal, higher than wide, the two 
uniting sides being the longer, and the two upper sloping sides being 
the shorter ones. The subradials are hexagonal, longer than wide, the 
upper sloping sides being a little longer than the under ones. The 
first radials are pentagonal, longer than wide, and the upper or articu- 
lating surface is truncated the entire width for the support of the 


Brachials. — There are four brachials or free radial plates supporting 
arras in each of the five series. These are round or subcyclindrical on 
the outer face, tapering very slightly only, up to the middle of the 
fourth plate, where there is a little expansion, at the lower part of the 
sloping sides, which support the arms. The first plate is the longer 
one, but they decrease in length, very slowly, so that the fourth plate 
is full}' two thirds as long as the first one. 

Arms. — The arms are remarkable in their manner of division. Every 
third plate from the last brachial throws off an armlet or little arm, 
which occurs in every instance observed, and is shown upon three 
arms on one specimen to the sixth bifurcation. The armlets do not 
possess the character of pinnules, but in no instance do they bifur- 
cate. This character is quite well shown in the magnified view of 
part of two arms shown in fig. 5«. There are ten specimens of this 
species on a large slab, more or less perfect, and one of them 
shows part of eight arms, another part of six, and two others 
each preserve a considerable part of four, and others have some in a 
greater or less state of preservation. From an examination of these 

New Ordei's and Neiv Families in the Class Echinodermata. 229 

I would sa}- each arm possessed six or more armlets. Notwithstand- 
ing the specimens are in a good state of preservation, there is no evi- 
dence of the existence of pinnules, bej^ond a finely serrated edge, as if 
the ambulacral furrow had been protected by very short, fine cilia. 

The az^-gous side is not shown b}- any specimen, in such condition 
as to justif}' a definition, and but one specimen shows any part of the 
proboscis, and it exposes only enough to prove the existence of that 

I collected this species in rocks of the age of the Upper Helderberg 
Group, at Deput}', Indiana. 

The specific name is in honor of Henry Nettleroth, of Louisville, who 
has done so much to make known the fossils of the Devonian rocks of 
that locality, and who is the author of the "Fossil Moilusca of Ken- 
tucky," in volume 1 of the Palaeontology of that State, which is now 
in press. 


[Plate IX., flg. 6, three specimens on a shell, natural size ; fig. 6a, a magnified view of one 
of these, showing the upright lamellae in the body cavity.] 

[LiCHENoCRiNUS TDBERCULATUS, S. A. Miller, 1874, Cincinnati Quarterly 
Journal of Science, vol. 1, p. 346.] 
The specimens illustrated, I collected at an exposure of the extreme 
upper part of the Hudson River Group, about three miles south of 
Osgood, Indiana. Thej' are large, and show the interior better than 
an}'^ I have hitherto seen. The crenulations on the upright lamelljB, 
show'n in the magnified view, fig. 6«, are due, probably, to mineralization, 
and do not represent a character of the genus. The upright laraellai 
radiate from a central apex, or little sharp node, which has an ap- 
pearance something like the apex of a Crania ladia. This is placed 
immediately below the perforation of the column, and seems to set at 
rest the question as to a central opening on the under side. There in 
no such opening. The specimen which Prof. Meek examined, and 
which caused him to suggest the possibility of such an opening, 
evidently presented some defect instead of an opening. 

[Plate IX., fig. 7, natural size ; fig. Ta, magnified view.] 

This species is small, and very much resembles L. crateriformis. 
It is circular, discoid, crateriform, and composed of irregular, poly- 
gonal, slightly convex plates. These are smaller at the periplicry, and 

230 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

near the column, than on other parts of the body. Tliore i.s no alter- 
nation in the arrangement of the plates, nor any regular circular series, 
such as the larger circle of plates that covers the greatest convexity of 
L. crateriformis. It is distinguished from the latter species by this 
want of any order in the arrangement of the plates, the absence of the 
large circular series, and the slight convexity of the plates. It has a 
column which is pentagonal near the head. 

It is found in the upper part of the Hudson River Group, in Warren 
'^nd Clinton counties. The specimens illustrated were presented to the 
author b^' Dr. Dyke, of Lebanon, O., who found them in that vicinity, 
and I collected it several years ago near Clarksville, associated witli 
Qlyptocrinus oneali and Megalograptus welchi. It is found in the 
rocks a little below the range of L. tuberculatus, but considerably 
above an}' known specimens of L. crateriformis. 

Cyclonema cincinatense, n. sp. 

[Plato IX., fig. 8, natural size ; fig. Sa. natural size, showing aperture with a little of t^e 
outer lip broken away ; fig. Sb, natural size of a specimen, with much of the outer lip 
broken off; fig. 8c, magnified view of a part of the surface of the upper part of the last 

Shell rather below the medium size in this genus, and usually wider 
than high. It consists of four or five rounded volutions, which in- 
crease rather rapidl}' in size, and become more depressed upon the up- 
per side as the}' approach the last whorl, which is also flattened upon 
the lower side, from the outer lip to the columella, and forms a slight 
concavity, as it passes the straightened lip of the latter; suture usually 
well defined; aperture higher than wide, somewhat ovate in outline, and 
straightened upon the inner side; inner lip slightly thickened at the 

Surface ornamented by revolving lines or ridges, which are beauti- 
fully crenated or delicatel}' cancellated by the crossing of more numer- 
ous and finer oblique lines of more uniform size. About six or seven 
revolving ridges, or strong lines, occur on the upper and outer part of 
the last volution, those on the upper part being most distant from 
each other, and between each of which there is a single fine revolving 
line ; on the volution preceding the last, onl}'- four or five of the stronger 
revolving lines occur, with a corresponding decrease in the number of 
the finer ones; while on the first and second volutions the revolving 
lines are more uniform in size and less numerous. The revolving lines 
on the under side of the last volution become graduall}- finer toward 
the columell.a, until they correspond in size with the crossing oblique 
lines, and furnish an evenly cancellated ornamentation. 

New Orders and JSTeio Families in the Class Echinodermata. 231 

This species is distiuguished from Cyclonema varicosum by the 
form of the aperture, which is higher than wide, and longitudinally 
ovoid instead of as wide as high and transversely semioval; the colu- 
mella is not so much lengthened, and is entirely destitute of the flat- 
tening near the upper part, which is so striking a feature in the illus- 
tration of Hall's species, in the 24th Rep. N. Y. St. Mus. of Nat. Hist. 
It is, too, a much smaller species, and ornamented by more numerous 
and more uniform revolving lines. It will be readily distinguished 
from all forms figured by Prof. Meek, in the Ohio Palaeontology, vol. 1, 
pi. 13, under the name of Cyclonema bilix, b}^ the general form of the 
shell and the character of ornamentation. 

I collected numerous specimens of this species in the shales of the 
age of the Utica Slate Group, in the bank of the Ohio river, in the 1st 
ward of the city of Cincinnati, and five miles above the latter place on 
the Keutuck}' shore. Dr. R. M. Bj'rnes found it in the rocks of the 
same age opposite the 5th street ferry, and E. O. Ulrich has collected 
it in rocks of the same age at several places in the vicinit3\ Those in 
my own collection vary in width from -^^ to -^^ inch, and in height 
from -fj^ to -^-^\ inch; but the ornamentation and shape present a 
striking uniformity throughout. The specimens illustrated are from 
my own collection. I am not aware of the existence of the species 
higher than rocks of the age of the Utica Slate, 

Ctclora pulgella, n. sp. 

[Plate IX., figs. 9, 9a and %, magnified views, the natural size being shown by the line in 
the center between the three figures.] 

Shell small, rather wider than high, ^ whorls three, which increase 
rapidl}^ in size, suture well defined, aperture somewhat circular, 
umbilicus moderately large. Surface ornamented with numerous fine 
lines, extending from the suture a little obi iquel}'' backward. The cast 
of this species bears a resemblance to Cyclora minuta, from which it 
is distinguished b}^ its lai'ger size and more rapidly swelling volutions. 
The shell is distinguished by these diflerences, and also b}' the surface 

Sliell about a line in height, and about a line and a half wide. 

Tlie author collected this species in the upper part of the Hudson 
River Group, near Versailles, Indiana. 

2:52 CJincinnall Sociely of Naturol Ilislory. 


l>y E. O. Ulkicii. 

^C on tinned from }'ol. .'>, page 77-^.] 

MoNTicuLiPOKA, D'Oibigii}- (Restricted). 

MonticuUpora. D'Orbigi\y, Prodr. de Pal., vol. 1, p. %), 1850. 

External characters. — Zoarium massive, lobate, laminar, iucrustiug, 
and sometimes irregularly frondescent. Surface sometimes smooth, 
usually tuberculated. Monticules closely approximated, usually coni- 
cal, often elongated or compressed. Cells small, their diameter vary- 
ing in different species from ^V^h to y^th of an inch, poU'gonal, and 
with thin walls; generally groups of cells slightly larger than the 
average, are distributed at regular intervals among those of the ordin- 
ary size. Not infrequently a few smaller (young ?) cells occupv the 
summits of the monticules, and they may occasionally be detected 
between the cells occupying the hollow interspaces. 

Interned characters. — Tubes in the "immature" zones, with very 
thin walls, and crossed by straight or oblique diaphragms; and often 
there are large cystoid diaphragms present. In the mature zones the 
walls become very slightly thickened, and small spiniform tubuli can 
usually be detected; while numerous cystoid diaphragms are alwa3's 
developed in the greater number of the tubes, Immediatel}' above the 
point of gemmation, the young tube is crossed by numerous straight 
diaphragms, giving it the appearance of an interstitial tube. Sub- 
sequently the diaphragms become less crowded, and the 3'oung tube 
assumes the characters of an ordinary cell. The process of gemmation 
seems to have taken place more especialh' at certain levels, since 
tangential sections taken at different heights, may show in one com- 
parativeh' numerous small tubes intercalated among the ordinary cells, 
while another may show but few or none of them. 

The genus Monticidipora as above defined and restricted, includes, so 
far as I have been able to ascertain, no less than ten distinct species, 
nine of which belong to the Cincinnati Group of Ohio and Kentuck}', 
and the tenth to the Trenton Group of the latter State. Of these, 
two have been already published, the tj-pe species, 31. mammnlata, 
D'Orb., and the 3f. cincinnatiensis, James (as fig. and described by 
Nicholson), four I now publish for the first time, J/. la;vis, J/, con- 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 233 

similis, 31. parasitica, and M. wetherbyi, aud four others, which for 
the present must remain unpublished. 

Under my definition of the genus Monticulipora, on p. 153 of this 
volume, I reduced Hall's Trematopora to the rank of a subgenus. 
That reference I now wish to retract, my opinion of Trematopora 
having undergone a change, since making the discovery that I had 
committed an unfortunate error, by transposing the labels on the sec- 
tions cut from two, externally similar, though internally widely differ- 
ent species of bryozoans. About one year ago, Prof. R. P. Whitfield, 
the curator of Geology at the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, very kindly presented me with an authentic fragment of 
Trematopora tuberculosa. Hall, which, being the first species described 
under the genus, Trematopora must therefore be regarded as its t3'pe. 
Of this fragment I made three sections, a longitudinal, a transverse, 
and one tangential. At the same time I also prepared three similar 
sections from an example of the species I subsequently described under 
the name of Homotrypa obliqua, n. sp. In labeling the sections of 
these two forms, I erroneously wrote Trematoj^ora tuberculosa on the 
slides which I know contained sections cut from the fragment of H. 
obliqua. After an examjjiation, I came to the conclusion that Trema- 
topora tuberculosa could not be considered to differ generically from 
the species described further on \.n\(\.eY XAxq r\a,vii& o^ Homotrypa curvata. 
Although I now regard the latter as differing in a generic sense from 
3IontiGulipora, D'Orb. (as restrictsd by me), two months ago I was 
uncertain, and preferred to arrange Trematopora as a subgenus under 
Monticulipora, rather than either to give the name the rank of a dis- 
tinct genus, or to disca,i*d it altogether. The mistake was discovered 
after making another series of sections of the species obliqua, which 
of course were found to be identical with those at first labeled Tre- 
matopora tuberculosa. To insure certaint}', I begged Prof. James 
Hall, the accomplished palaeontologist of Albany, New York, to send 
me a fragment of his T. tuberculosa, which I might consider typical 
and authentic. He obligingly sent me two specimens, from wiiich I 
prepared a series of sections tiiat agreed in all respects witli those 
former!)' made and supposed to belong to obliqua. Having now found 
that my definition of Trematopora [ante p. 153) does not appl}^ to 
the type species of that genus, and having also come to the conclusion 
that the group of species which I had intended to arrange under that 
name, is generically differentiated from 3IonticuUpora, it becomes 
necessary to propose a new genus for their reception. I therofore beg 

234 Cincinnati Society of Natural Jliaiory. 

that the name Homotrypa (as flefined further on) l)e accepted for tlie 
group of species which my unfortunate mistake led me to believe to )>e 
congeneric with Hall's Trematopora tuberculosa. 

MoNTicuLiPORA MAMMULATA, D'Orh. (Plate X., figs. 5, 5rt.) 

Monticulipora mammulata, D'Orbigny. Prodr. de Pal<-ont., vol. 1, 
p. 25, 1850. 

Chcetetes mammulata, Edwards and Hairae. Pol. Foss. des Terr. 
Pal., p. 267, Plate XIX., fig. 1, 1851. 

Ilonficnlipora mammulata, Edwards and Haime, Brit. Foss. Cor.^ 
p. 265, 1854. 

3Ionticulipora [Pcronopora) molesta^ Nicholson. The Genus 
Monticulipora, p. 224, Plate VI., figs, 2, Id. Not Monticulipora mam- 
mulata, Nicholson. 

Zoarium occurring as irregular!}' lobate masses, often of considerable 
size, that usually' tend to throw off compressed processes, which in 
many specimens become froudescent; or, it may take the form of 
extended and undulated, often palmate, expansions, varying in thick, 
ness from 2 inch to .4 or .5 inch. Surface covered with numerous 
prominent, typically conical, often elongated monticules. The last 
feature is produced by the fusion of two or three of them. They are 
quite regularly arranged in series, in which sometimes five, usually, 
however, six, ma}' be counted in the space of .5 inch. Cells polygonal, 
thin-walled, subequal, from y^-oth to xlo^th inch in diameter,* those 
occupying the summits of the monticules, being scarcely larger than 
those in the Intervening spaces. Smaller or interstitial (?) cells may 
occasional!}' be observed, more frequently on -the monticules where 
they are wedged in between the ordinary cells. When the cell walls 
are perfectly preserved, they show the spiuiform tubuli as minute 

Longitudinal sections show conclusively that the zoarium is divided 
into successive '"immature" and "mature" zones. In the first, the 
cell- walls are very thin, and the tubes are almost invariably crossed 
only by straight or somewhat obliquely directed diaphragms, at 
distances apart of about one tube-diameter. This zone is very uarrow, 
and soon a ''mature" zone is entered when the walls are slightly 

* In all cases where the diameter of a cell is given, the measurement includes the wall. 
The dimensions given were obtained by calculating the number of cells in a given space. 
For instance, if the diameter of the cells of a species is stated to be 1-lOOth of an inch, it is 
equivalent to saying that ten cells maybe counted in the space of one tenth of an inch. 

American PaloBozoic Bryozoa. 235 

thickened, the diaphragms more crowded, and the greater number 
of the ordinary tubes have along one or both sides a series of 
cystoid diaphragms; now there is also dexeloped a limited number 
of much smaller tubes, which differ, at least near their point of 
origin, from the ordinar}' tubes in having more closely arranged 
diaphragms. In consequence, they have there the usual appearance 
of interstitial tubes. This character they may retain throughout the 
zone, but as the}' enter the next succeeding "immature" zone, their 
character has changed to that of an ordinary tube. The spiniform 
tubuli can not often be detected in a section of this kind. 

A tangential or rather transverse section ma}' present three different 
phases, according as it may pass either through the "immature'' (1st), or 
fully "'mature" (3d) stage; or (the 2d) if itcut the tubes just as they en- 
ter into the last stage. In the first, the tubes have excessively thin walls, 
are always apparently of one kind only, and thoroughly simple. In the 
second the walls are still very thin, and the appearance is like that of 
the preceding stage, excepting that we now observe quite a large num- 
ber of smaller cells, wedged in among the ordinary tubes. la the third 
stage (PI. X., fig. 5), the walls have become appreciably thickened, the 
smaller tubes, noticed in the second stage, have all, excepting a few 
among the cells occupying the monticules, changed their character, so 
that they can no longer be distinguished from the ordinary cells. This 
stage is further marked by the development of a large number of very 
small spiniform tubuli. Of the difl'erent phases above described, a 
single section may show only one, or, if large, all three. 

The normal mode of growth of M. viammulata, is unquestionably 
the same as in other massive or discoidal forms of the M onticulipor- 
idce. The frondescent examples of the species have an entirely difl'ereht 
structure from such truly frondescent forms as Ileterotrypa frondosa, 
D'Orb. ( not Nicholson), or ^o??io^r]//>a dawsoni [M.{Heterotrypa) daw- 
soni, Nicholson). In the latter, as well as in all the ramose species, 
the frond or branch is divided into an axial and a peripheral region, 
and the structure of the tubes in these two regions, as is shown on 
page 125 of this Journal, is widely different. No such difference can 
be shown to exist between the axial and peripheral portions of any 
frondescent specimen of M. mammulata. What we do find is precisely 
similar to the structure and mode of growth observed in the massive 
or lobate examples of the species, viz.: the "immature' and "mature" 
zones (respectively equivalent to the axial and peripheral regions of 
the ramose and truly frondescent forms), are reproduced at successive 

23C Cincinnati Society of Natural Jlistory. 

levels, one above the other, and it can not be said that the fron<ls are 
ever divided into dissimilar axial and peripheral regions. 

Dr. Nicholson, in his description of this species, under the name of 
Mo7iiiculipora [Peronopora) molesta (see sjn. above), fails to recog- 
nize several important characters, and besides gives an incorrect meas- 
urement, lie gives the diameter of the cells as from -^^th io-^i\x inch. 
I have not seen ^ny specimen of this species in which the ordinary 
cells had a greater diameter than yvc-th of an inch, nor do the cells in his 
tangential section, as figured bj^ him. appear to have had a greater di- 
ameter. At any rate, it is certain that the cells in that figure are not 
so large as those figured of some other species, which, according to 
the measurements given by him, ought to be smaller. He did not 
recognize the nature of the interstitial (?) tubes, but regards them 
as true interstitial tubes, and of the same nature as in Peronopora 
decijyiens, Rominger, and Heterotrypafrondosa, D'Orb. ; but as I have 
above stated, this is not their true nature. His tangential section 
cuts the tubes transversely through the 2d phase mentioned by me 
in my description of the tangential section of this species, and be- 
cause it shows a rather large number of the intercalated small tubes, I 
believe that it was prepared from one of the frondescent examples, tan- 
gential sections of which always present a greater number of the small 
tubes than do transverse sections of the massive specimens. This 
I consider due to the fact that in the frondescent forms the di- 
vergence of the tubes is much greater than in the massive examples, 
making it necessar}^ that young cells be more numerously and rapidly 
developed in the former than in the latter. 

1 would suggest and recommend that Nicholson's name molesta be 
retained as a varietal designation for the frondescent examples of this 
species, as some title, by means of which it may be distinguished from 
the massive and lobate examples, is, if not really necessar}', at least 

Formation and locality: Cincinnati Group. The massive and lobate 
variety can not be called common at any horizon or locality. The 
best localities known to me are on the hills south and west of Coving- 
ton, Ky. ; at an elevation of about 300 feet above low water mark in the 
Ohio river. The var, molesta becomes a common fossil in strata from 
75 to 100 feet higher in the series. The species appears to be confined 
to these limits. 

MoNTicuLiPORA L^vis, n. sp. (Plate X., figs. 1-lb.) 
Zoarium free, and forming small, sub-globular or irregular masses; 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 237 

or attached at the base to some foreign substance. Surface smooth, or 
faintl}' raised at intervals into low and broad monticules, which are 
occupied by groups of cells of a larger size than the average; the 
largest have a diameter of about Jjjth inch. The ordinary cells have 
a diameter varying from y^th to jxo^^ ^^ ^'^ inch, are polygonal, and 
have ver\^ thin walls. 

Longitudinal sections (Plate X., fig. 1&,) show the tubes in the 
"immature" portions of their length to have excessively thin walls, 
and to be crossed b}' straight, though usually obliquely directed 
diaphragms, placed at distances apart of one tube diameter or a little 
less; a few of the tubes in this zone have one side lined with corre- 
spondingly large cystoid diaphragms. In the "matui'e" zones, the 
tube- walls are slightly thickened, more cj'stoid diaphragms are de- 
veloped, and as well, the straight diaphragms become somewhat crowded. 
At the junction between the upper end of the "mature," with the 
lower portion of the next succeeding " immature " zone, the continuity'' 
of the cell-walls is always more or less disturbed. The j'oung tubes 
have their lower end divided transversely \>y numerous diaphragms, 
but they rapidly attain the diameter and character of the more 
fully developed tubes. 

Transverse sections (Plate X., fig. la) show that all the tubes of the 
zoarium are polygonal and thin-walled, and the walls, in the mature 
region, have a peculiar granular appearance, with light streaks apparently 
passing through the substance of the walls, as though XXxay might have 
been porous.* As is the case in all Monticuliporoid species possessing 
cystoid diaphragms, the visceral chamber of the tubes is crossed by 
a delicate lamina, which is deeply excavated on one side in a triangular 
or crescentic manner, their presence being due to the intersection of the 
C3'stoid diaphragms, that, as is shown in a longitudinal section, line 
one side of the tube. Interspersed among the tubes that have attained 
the mature size, are a small number of more or less developed young 

The form to which the attached examples present the greatest re- 
semblance, and with which it may be readil3' confounded, is the Praso- 
pora hospitalism Nicholson. The external points of difference are found 
in the slighth' larger cells, thicker cell walls, and numerous interstitial 
cells, characterizing Nicholson's species. In comparing any well i)re- 

* The same character may be observed in M. mavimiilata, and other species, and it seems 
probable that the walls of the tubes, in species of Monticidiponi, wore pierced by connecting 

238 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

served examples of tlio two species, these differences become at once 
apparent to the practised eye. 

Formation and locality: Cincinnati Group. The specimens upon 
which the species is founded were collected by the author, at Oxford, 
O., in strata equivalent to an hoiizon of 650 feet above low-watermark 
in the Ohio river, at Cincinnati, O. 

MoNTicuLiPORA coNsiMiLis, n. sp. (Plate X., fig. 2.) 

Of this species or variety I have unfortunately been able to obtain 
only a single specimen, and what is left of it after breaking it to secure 
material tor the necessary sections is very well represented bj' the fig- 
ure on Plate X. Its form was that of a small dome-shaped mass, that 
on the lower side is attached to the shell of a Strojihomena. Tlie up- 
per surface carries somewhat unequally' distributed, compressed, and 
very prominent monticules, the summits of which appear to be mostly 
occupied by the apertures of ver}^ small cells, and their slopes by cells 
slightl)^ larger than the average. The ordinary cells are polygonal, 
thin-walled, and from yy^th to y^yth of an inch in diameter. 

Transverse sections are precisely similar to those of the preceding 
species, while longitudinal sections of the two appear to differ slightly 
onl}' in one respect, viz: the diaphragms crossing the tubes of M. con- 
simtlis, are placed at slightly greater distances apart than is the case 
in an}^ of the sections of J/, teuis examined by me. Further discov- 
eries may prove it to be only a variety of that species. In its general 
outward appearance the specimen presents a remarkable resemblance 
to a species of Prasopora, collected by me in Upper Trenton strata, 
at Nashville, Tenn,, and which is further on described under the name 
of P. nodosa. 

Formation and locality: same as the preceding. 

MoNTicuLiPORA PARASITICA, n. sp. (Plate X., figs. 3, 3a.) 

Zoarium usually attached to Streptelasma (corniculum ?); the layers 
according to age, ma}' vary in thickness from excessively thin, to nearly 
.1 inch. The surface of the Streptelasma often carries a number of 
these parasitic patches, v?hich, as they increase their diameter by 
lateral development, at last join each other. The line of junction is 
always marked bj' a slightlj' elevated, calcareous ridge. Not infre- 
quently one proves the strongest, and gradually grows over the other 
colonies. Regularly arranged in decussating series, and at distances 
apart of about .1 inch, the surface presents small conical monticules, 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 239 

the summits of which usuall}' appear to be solid, as they are occupied 
by minute cells; while on their slopes they carr\^ the apertures of 
slightly larger cells than the average. The largest of these have a 
diameter of gij^th of an inch. The spaces between the monticules are 
flat, and are occupied by the polygonal, and raoderateh' thin-walled, 
ordinary cells, their diameter varying from yx^-th to y^th of an inch. 
Interstitial cells (ifthe}^ can be so called) are developed only in the 
monticules, the summits of which are usuall}'^ occupied by their 

Tangential sections (Plate X,, fig. 3a) show the tubes to be polj'- 
gonal and thin-walled. Their angles of junction are usually thickened, 
and the small space thus formed incloses, almost invariabl}^ a minute 
lucid spot. They represent in all probability very small spiniform 
tubuli. The appearance of the best section examined leaves me little 
room to doubt that the tube walls were really pierced b}^ numerous and 
excessively minute foramina. Where these are not clearl}' shown, the 
wall has a peculiar granular appearance. Within the visceral chamber 
of each of the ordinarj' cells, the intersected CTstoid diaphragms are 
shown. In a large number the cut edges of the cystoid diaphragm 
gives the appearance of a secondar}- oval cell, within the polygonal 
walls of the tubes. Between the groups of slightly larger cells, a few 
thick-walled, minute tubes (interstitial) may generally be observed. 

Longitudinal sections (Plate X., fig. 3) show that all the matured 
tubes have one or both sides lined by a series of cystoid diaphragms, 
while the space between the double series, or single series and opposite 
wall, is crossed b}^ straight diaphragms, which are placed at distances 
apart of about one third of a tube-diameter. 

I know of no associated species with which 31. parasitica might 
for a moment be confounded. It is probably more nearl3- allied to the 
M. cincinnatiensis, Nicholson, than to an}' other species described 
from the Cincinnati Group. The larger, more closely arranged, and 
much more prominent monticules of that species, constitute a point 
of difference so decided and readily apparent, that examples of the two 
species may be distinguished at a glance. 

Formation and locality: Cincinnati Group. JNot uncommon at 
Oxford, 0., and other localities, exposing strata having a height 
equivalent to an horizon of nearly 700 feet above low-water mark iu 
the Ohio river, at Cincinnati, O. 

MoNTicuLipoRA WETHEUHY1, u. sp. (Plate X., figs. 4: 46.) 
Zoarium forming a patch over foreign bodies, to which it is parasi- 

240 Cincinnati Socictij of Natural Jlislory. 

ticall}' attaclicd ; it is usually very thin ; sometimes, howevec, the 
center is elevated, so as to give the zoarium the form of a depressed 
cone. The surface is often nearly smooth, but in the more typical 
forms is raised at intervals into low and broad monticules. Cells 
polygonal, with very thin walls, the diameter of those of the ordinary 
size varying from xffd^'i ^^ nV^'^ ^^ ^^ inch. Groups of larger 
cells, having a diameter not exceeding ^^th of an inch, occupy the 
summits and slopes of the monticules, or in the smooth forms are 
scattered over the surface at intervals of .1 inch, measuring from centre 
to center. The surface extension of numerous spiuiform tubuli, situ- 
ated at the angles of the cells, may be observed in well preserved ex- 

In longitudinal sections (PI. X., fig. 46) the tubes have thin walls, 
and are crossed by straight diaphragms, at distances apart varying 
from one third to a full tube diameter. All the tubes have cystoid 
diapliragms, which, however, are only rarely arranged in series. The 
spiuiform tubuli can alwaj's be recognized in a section of this kind. 

In transverse sections (Plate X., fig. 4a) the tubes are poh'gonal, 
and have very thin walls. The spiuiform tubuli are nurq^rous and 
rather large ; they almost invariably are situated at the angles of the 

The large spiuiform tubuli, and the erratic disposition of the cystoid 
diaphragms are characters which will distinguish M. wetherbyi from all 
other species of the genus known tome. Named for my friend. Prof. 
A. G. Wetherby, whose papers have added so much to our knowledge 
of the fauna of the Trenton Group of Kentuck3^ 

Formation and locality : Trenton Group, in strata about in the 
middle of the series, at High Bridge, Ky. Collected b}^ the author. 

HoMOTRYPA, nov; gen. 

External characters. — Zoarium ramose to subfrondescent ; surface 
smooth, or with more or less prominent monticules. Cells circular, 
ovate or polygonal, with moderatel}' thin walls. At intervals there are 
groups of larger-sized shells, Avhich again sometimes inclose small 
stellate macular, consisting of much smaller, angular cells. The sur- 
face extensions of spiniform tubuli ma}'^ often be observed 'at the 
angles of the cells. 

Internal characters. — In the axial portion of the branches or fronds, 
the tubes are "immature," and may be crossed by straight diaphragms; 
usually diaphragms are entirely wanting in this region. The tube- 

American Paloeozoic Bryozoa. 241 

walls are excessively thin until they reach the peripheral regions, 
when they are much thickened, and bend outward to open at the 
surface. In the peripheral or "mature" portion of the zoarium, the 
tubes are provided with a series of c3'stoid diaphragms ; the space in- 
tervening between their flexuous inner line, and the opposite wall of a 
a tube, is crossed b}^ equally numerous straight diaphragms. The 
tube-walls are perforated by rather large connecting foramina. In the 
tuberculated species the spiuiform tubuli are numerous, but ver}' small, 
and not easily recognized, while in the smooth forms they are much 
larger, and constitute a conspicuous feature in sections. The internal 
structure of the small tubes, which form the maculae of some species, 
is not remarkably different from that of the ordinary tubes. The onl}'' 
difference that I have been able to detect is found in the fact that cys- 
toid diaphragms are but rarely developed in them. 

Type : Homotrypa curvata, n. sp. 

B}'^ comparing the above description with my erroneous definition of 
the subgenus Trematopora, on page 153, it becomes apparent that both 
were bused upon the same group pf species. As before stated, I was 
formerly in doubt whether they could be separated generically from 
Monticulipora, but now I do not hesitate to say that they are entitled 
to rank as a distinct genus. The zoaria of all the species of Monti- 
culipora are, normalh% incrustiug or massive, while in Homotrypa 
they are truly ramose or frondescent, and the difference between the 
characters of the tubes in the axial and peripheral regions of the 
zoarium, is always strongly marked and constant. As is shown In 
tangential sections, the tubes in the " mature" region of a species of 
Homotrypa, have thick walls, and the visceral cavity is more or less 
rounded, and not polj-gonal, while it can not be said of any species of 
MonticiUipora that it has thick-walled cells, or that the visceral cav- 
ities of the tubes are not polygonal. lnternall,v, Trematopora tuber- 
culosa, Hall (the type of that genus), differs from species of ^omo- 
trypa in having peculiarly inflected, thin-walled tubes, which are sur- 
rounded, and often completely isolated by smaller, angular, and cioseh'' 
tabulated interstitial tubes. Externall}^ the proper cells differ in having 
their margin raised into a thin rim, which, however, seldom extends in 
a continuous line around the cell-aperture. 

Beside the two species next described, the Cincinnati Group furnishes 
at least three other distinct forms, havinfi: the characters of this genus. 
One of these was described and figured by Nicholson, under the name of 
MonticuUpora (Heterotrypa), dawsoni (" Genus ^lonticulipora," p. 

242 Cincinnati Society of Natural Ilistorii. 

141, riate v., figs. 3:?/, 1881). His figures of that .species lail to 
represent two of the most important characters, nor are tliey mentioned 
in his description, viz: tiie connecting foramina, and cystoid dia- 
phragms. I feel confident that his sections were prepared from a 
portion of a frond not fully matured, since his figures and description 
of the internal characters of the species, apply in all respects to sec- 
tions prepared by me from examples in that condition. In a tan- 
gential section of a fully matured specimen, cutting the tubes just 
below the surface, the walls of same have a thickness about equal to 
those of//, curvata, as represented by fig. Id, Plate X., and the con- 
necting foramina (clearly shown in one of my sections), are precisely 
like those piercing the walls of the tubes in H. ohliqua (Plate X . 
fig. 66). The cystoid diaphragms are large, and developed in only a 
minority of the tubeii, and in this character //. dawsoni differs from 
all the other species of the genus. This species is further character- 
ized by its frondescent growth, and remarkably prominent and closel}' 
arranged monticules. 

HoMOTRYPA CURVATA, n. sp. (Plate X., figs. 1-ld.) 

Zoarium ramose, consisting of compressed, often greatly flattened 
branches. An average specimen has a height of over two inches, a 
width of about seven tenths of an inch, and a thickness of two tenths 
of an inch. The most conspicuous feature of the surface is found in 
the small, stellate maculae, which, under a low magnifying power, ap- 
pear to be solid, but, as is shown by a higher power, are composed of 
very shallow, and angular, small cells. These maculoe are on a level 
with the general surface, and occur at intervals of about .11 of an inch, 
measuring from center to center. The ordinary, cells are usually 
rounded, though sometimes slightly aagular, have moderatel}' thick 
walls, with a diameter varying from y^-oth to Tj^th of an inch. The 
cells immediately surrounding the stellate macular are larger, and ma^' 
attain a diameter of g^th of an inch. When the specimen examined is 
in a good state of preservation, the surface spines (spiniform tubuli) 
may be detected. The^' never constitute a conspicuous feature of the 

Tangential sections (Plate X., fig. Id) show that the tubes in the outer 
or " mature" portion of the zoarium have thickened walls, more or less 
rounded visceral cavities, and that the}' are apparently completely 
amalgamated with one another. The walls, between the narrow lucid 
ring which surrounds each of the tubes, has a peculiar granular 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 243 

structure, and is crosse:! bj' the connecting foraminii, of which my 
sections show three or four to eater each tube. The spiniform tubuli 
are numerous, of moderate size, and have the usual appearance. In 
longitudinal or vertical sections (Plate X., fig..7c) the tubes in the axial 
region have excessively thin, and slightly flexuous walls, and are 
crossed by diaphragms at distances apart of from one to two tube- 
diameters. As they bend outward into the peripheral. region, their 
walls are much thickened, the diaphragms occur at shorter intervals 
(one third to one half a tube-diameter), and correspondingly crowded 
series of cystoid diaphraams are developed in nearly all the tubes. 
Lastl}^, the spiniform tubuli may be recognized. 

In transverse sections (Plate X., fig. lb) the tubes are polygonal, the 
walls excessively thin, and the calcite filling them is divided b\' irregu- 
lar cruciform lines, that often are so distinct as to cause the observer 
some trouble to exactly determine the outlines of the tube walls. (The 
same feature occurs in many other species of the Monticuliporidce.) 

Formation and locality: Cincinnati Group. An abundant species 
on the hills surrounding the cit}' of Cincinnati, but very limited in 
range, being apparently restricted to a few feet of strata at the 300 ft. 
level. A very similar if not identical form occurs near the top of the 

HoMOTRYPA OBLiQUA, 0. sp. (Plate X., figs. 6 and 66.) 

Zoarium ramose, branches cylindrical or compressed, from two to 
four tenths of an inch in thickness. T^-picall}' the surface is covered 
b}' rather prominent and closely arranged monticules, the summits of 
which carry cells with thicker walls than the average. The monticules 
are not a constant feature in this species, examples with an almost en- 
tirely smooth surface being of frequent occurrence. The ordinary 
cells are polygonal, have rather thin walls, more or less oblique aper- 
tures, and a diameter varying from xl^j-th to yfo*'^ of ^^ inch. In the 
axial region the tubes are thin walled, pol^'gonal, subequal, without 
diaphragms, and almost vertical in direction, as they pass into the 
peripheral region, bending outward very graduallj', their walls become 
thickened, and a moderate number of both straight and cystoid dia- 
phragms are developed. The tubes appear to be of one kind only. 
Tangential sections show, often in a very distinct manner, the con- 
necting foramina, and a structure of the tube walls precisely similar 
10 that of H. curvata. The spiniform tubuli are small, and more 

244 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

or less numerous, but never conspicuous, and developed at the angles 
of junction of the cells, or in the substance of their walls. 

In its typical form this species ma^-^ be readily distinguisiied froiri 
the preceding by its tuberculated surface. The more nearly smooth 
examples can be distinguished b\^ the thicker cell walls, stellate macu- 
lae, and much more flattened branches o^ H. curvata. 

Formation and locality: Cincinnati group. Rather common near 
the tops of the hills at Cincinnati, O. 

Peronopora uniformis, n. sp. (Plate X., figs. 8, 8«. ) 

Zoarium composed of erect, flattened, smooth, and undulating ex- 
pansions, of several inches in height, varying in thickness from one to 
nearly three tenths of an inch ; composed of two layers of cells, grovv- 
ingin opposite directions from the median plate, which is double, and 
constituted by the adhesion of their epithecal laminae. The cells are 
polygonal, subequal, and thin-walled, with an average diameter of 
about -j-^th of an inch. Interstitial cells are almost entirely wanting, 
being usually restricted to small, insigniflcaut clusters, or irregularly 
scattered among the proper cells. 

In a longitudinal section (Plate X.,-.fig. 8) the tubes at first are 
thin-walled, and lie prostrate upon the flexuous median lamina; but 
the}'' soon bend outward and proceed straight to the surface, their 
walls becoming at the same time moderately thickened; a few are 
crossed throughout their length by onh^ straight diaphragms, while in 
the greater number, they are nearly wanting, and instead, a closel}'^ 
arranged series of large cystoid diaphragms lines one of the walls. 
The diaphragms in the interstitial tubes are crowded. 

In tangential sections (Plate X., fig. 8«) the tubes are polygonal, 
the walls of moderate thickness, and the interstitial tubes are almost 
entirel}^ absent, and never present in great numbers. The spiniform 
tubuli are comparatively few and small, and usually only developed at 
the angles of junction of the tubes. 

The general outward appearance of the zoarium of this species is in 
all respects like that of P. decipiens, Rominger. By the aid of q, 
magaifier, P. uniformis may be readily enough distinguished from 
that species by its thinner walls and very few interstitial tubuli. 
Peronopora compressa, Ulrich, is a small species, also with thin-walled 
cells. It differs, however, from P. uniformis^ in having numerous 
interstitial tubes, and a great number of well developed spiniform 


American Paloeozoic Bryozoa. 245 

Formation and localit}': Cincinnati Group. Rather rare near the 
tops of the hills at Cincinnati, O. 

Prasopora nodosa, n. sp. (Plate XI., figs. 1-16.) 

Zoarium forming small, irregular, or hemispheric masses, from a 
half inch to one and a half inches in diameter. The lower side is 
concave, and lined with a wrinkled epitheca, while the upper convex 
surface is covered by the cell-apertures. 

The cell-bearing surface is covered bj prominent, closely arranged, 
but usually unequal monticules; some may be small and conical, 
others compressed and large, or several may be united, so as to form 
an irregular node. The ordinary cells have sub-circular apertures, 
with thin walls, and a diameter varying from y^th to yyo^th of an 
inch (/. e. 11 or 12 may be counted in the space of .1 inch). 
The orifices of the angular interstitial cells under a low magnifj'ino" 
power are not always readily recognized at the surface. 

As regards internal structure the zoarium is made up of two kinds 
of tubes, large and small. The large tabes have perfectly distinct, 
though very thin walls, a diameter of about y^-g-th of an inch, are oval 
or subcircular in shape, and consequently in contact only at limited 
points; the interspaces between them are filled by much smaller, and 
angular interstitial tubes, which apparently are never collected into 
groups or maculae. The diaphragms of the large tubes are of two 
kinds, cystoid and straight, and so arranged that the former form a 
series of convex vesicles on one side of the visceral chamber, while the 
latter run straight from the preceding to the opposite wall, or, if the 
cj'stoid diaphragms are wanting in some parts of a tube, they pass 
directly across the tube from side to side. The diaphragms of the 
interstitial tubes are numerous and close set, and are always horizon- 
tal. A moderate number of small spiniform tubuli may be observed 
in tangential sections. 

The strongly tuberculated surface, and irregular growth of this 
species, will distinguish it from all other species of Prasopora known 
to me. 

Formation and locality: I collected this species in considerable 
numbers at Nashville, Tenn., in Saftord's " Orthis Bed," which I regard 
as being equivalent to the upper beds of the Trenton Group in Ken- 

DlPLOTRYPA MILLKRI, U. sp. (PI. XI., figS. 2-2c.) 

Zoarium discoid or hemispheric, less than an inch in diameter, the 
under surface flattened or concave, and covered by a concentrically 

246 Cincimnnfl Society of Kdlural I[ isfory. 

strifitod cpitlicca ; the upper .suiTace convex, and covered b}' the ccU- 
apertiiies. Cells of two principal kinds, large and sniall, tlie latter 
being nearly equally tlistribnted throughout the zoarium. The larger 
or proper cells have subcircular apertures, arrangeil in series from six 
to seven in the space of .1 inch. At regular intervals there are scaicely 
perceptible clusters composed of slightly larger cells. The interstitial 
cells usually occup}' only the spaces left between the points at which 
the rouaded larger ceils are in contact. 

In transverse sections (Plate XI., figs. 2rt, and 26) taken just below 
the surface, the larger cells are subcircular, and in contact at limited 
points, while each has its own complete, but very thin wall. The an- 
gular spaces left, which often are rhomboidal, but more frequently of 
an hour-glass shape, are partially occupied by the interstitial tubes, 
each of which also has its own distinct wall, and a more or less rounded 
visceral cavit3\ The small spaces now left are usually triangular, and 
filled (apparently) by a light-colored, structureless sclerenchyma. In 
sections taken at a lower level, the appearances presented are somewhat 
different. The duplex character of the walls is much obscured, if not 
obliterated, all the cells are more angular, and the interstitial cells are 
proportionally much larger, and usually hexagonal. 

Longitudinal sections (PI. XL, fig. 2c) show that the larger tubes 
are crossed by numerous horizontal, or slightly oblique diaphragms, 
about two thirds of a tube-diameter apart. The interstitial tubes are 
likewise crossed by horizontal diaphragms, which ai'e nearly twice as 
numerous as those in the larger tubes. 

The species above defined has all the essential characters of Nichol- 
son's genus Diplotrypa. It differs from the previously described 
species [D. petropolitana. Pander, sp., and Z). ^«A^Yea^;es^■, Nicholson), 
in having thicker, and more distinctl}- duplex walls, and less 
distinctly angular cells. Associated with D. milleri, is a small 
species of 3Ionotrypa, which so closely resembles it in its growth 
and general appearance, that, when the specimens are but slightly- 
worn, it is almost impossible to distinguish them without the aid of 
sections When in a good state of preservation, the thin-walled^ 
cells, and the angular cell-apertures which characterize the Monotrypa 
sp., will serve to distinguish them. 

Named in honor of Mr. S. A. Miller, whose published works have 

aided so materially to the advancement of the science of paleontology. 

According to Dybowski, Diplotrypa is a synon3-m for Dianulites, 

Eichwald. Whether this is true or not, I am unable to say. What I 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 247 

can say, however, is, that I should never have believed it without being 
able to study some better definition of Dianulites^ than the utterl3'' 
worthless one given by the author of the name. I am totally averse 
to the resurrection of old generi(5 or specific names, of which the original 
definitions are obscure, and consequently worthless, nor shall I 
recognize any such restorations. But the redefinition of such long 
current names as J/'avosites petropolitanus, Pander, 3Io7iticuUpora 
mammulata, and M.frondosa, D'Orbigny, I regard as entirely proper. 
These cases are, however, in no way parallel, since the latter is a 
benefit to the science; on the other hand, an attempt to restore an old, 
illy defined, and often quite forgotten name, does much to retard the 
progress of knovvledge, because it is always equivalent to adding a 
source of much trouble and discussion. In this class of fossils it is 
especially necessary to have the characters upon which a genus or 
species is founded, clearly defined and figured, as it is quite impossible 
to identify a species, with any degree of certainty, unless those re- 
quirements are complied with. In whatever light other paheon- 
tologists may view this subject, I for one will not recognize an}^ of the 
recent publications (preliminary publications of work done for delaj-ed 
State surveys, etc., alone excepted), in which the names proposed are 
not clearly defined, and the specific characters of the fossils figured. 

Formation and locality: Niagara Group. Rare at Osgood, Ind. 
The small species of Monotrijpa mentioned as being an associated 
fossil, is common at that locality. 

MoNOTRTPELLA iEQUALIS, nOV. gCU. ct. Sp. (Plate XI., figs. 3-3(7.) 

Gen. char, ante p. 153. 

Zoarium somewhat irregularly ramose, the branches cyclindrical or 
compressed, and form two to five tenths of an inch in diameter. Sur- 
face often, smooth, usually however exhibiting low, rounded monti- 
cules, which are occui)ied by (dusters of large cells, the diameter of 
which does not exceed j^^th of an inch. The ordinary cells are thin- 
walled and polygonal in shape, with an average diameter of about 
T^^^th of an inch. Occasionally a few cell-apertures, having a slightly 
smaller diameter than the ordinary cells, may be observed among the 
large cells occupying the monticules. The latter are arranged at 
distances apart of about .15 inch, measuring from center to center. 

In tangential sections (Plate XL, fig. 3) the tubes are regularly 
polygonal, with moderately thickened walls, and in contact with each 
other on all sides. The line of demarcation between contiuuous tubes 

248 C incinnnli Society of Natural llistorij. 

is sometimes clear and dislinct, while at other times it is scarcely 
detectable. The walls are occasionally thickened at the angles of 
junction of the tubes, giving somewhat the appearance of spiniform 
tubiili. It is quite evident though that these nodal thickenings are 
not of this nature. 

Longitudinal sections (Plate XI., fig. Wa) show that the tabulation 
of the larger tubes composing the clusters observed at the surface, is 
not different from that of the ordinary tubes, the diapliragms in all 
the tubes being straight and usuall}- horizontal, in the axial region 
either wanting or remote, and in the peripheral portion of the branch, 
closely set, and often crowded. These sections also show that true 
interstitial tubes are entirely absent. 

In transverse sections the tubes in the axial region are subequal and 
pol^'gonal, with very thin walls, while around the margin, where the 
tubes are cut longitudinall}-, the\^ have the same appearance as in the 
peripheral portion of a vertical section. 

This species is nearly allied to the European M. pulchella, E. and H., 
a Wenlock Limestone species, from which it ditters principally in hav- 
ing more numerous diaphragms, and the line of demarcation between 
adjoining tubes less strongly marked. 

The species above described I regard as the type of the genus Mono- 
trypella, proposed in my scheme of classification, on page 153. The 
genus will include, beside M. a'cjualis, and the species next described 
(M. subquadrata), 31. pulchella, E. & H. (Wenlock), Chcetetes quad- 
7'atus', 'Rom'mger (Cin. Gi'.), J/, briareus, Nicholson (Cin. Gr.), and 
Cha'tetes consimilis, Hall (Nia. Gr.) The Trenton Group of Kentucky 
furnishes one new species, while the Cincinnati Group has probably 
two more. The genus in its typical forms is probably most nearl}' al- 
lied to Ifonotrypa (as founded upon 31. undulata, Nicholson), and is 
characterized b}^ a ramose zoarium, made up of polygonal tubes, usu- 
ally of one kind only, that in the axial region are thin-walled. As they 
bend outward and approach the surface the walls are appreciably 
thickened, and the boundary line between adjoining tubes becomes 
more or less distinctl}' marked. I have studied two species which dif- 
fer from the typical forms of the genus in one character, namely, in 
possessing a limited number of smaller cells than the average, which 
appear to be of the nature of interstitial cells. The next described 
species, 31. subquadrata, is one of these. This species, in all other re- 
spects, resembles 3f. qtiadrata, so nearly that I am forced to regard 
them at least as belonging to the same genus. The other species. 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 249 

though quite distinct, is yet so near to 31. oeqnalis, that despite the in- 
terstitial tubes, I can not regard it as belonging to another genns. 

Formation and locality: Cincinnati Group. Rather rare at several 
localities about Cincinnati, O., at an elevation of 100 to 200 feet above 
low-water mark in the Ohio river, 

MONOTRYPELLA SUBQUADRATA, H. Sp. (Piatt XI,, figS, 4-46,) 

Zoarium ramose, the branches slender, cyclindrical, and from one to 
nearly two tenths of an inch in diameter. Surface smooth, without 
monticules or clusters of large cells. Cells usually quadrate or rhom- 
boidal, the apertures circular or broadly elliptical, and arranged in 
regular, more or less curved diagonal lines; at other times the arrange- 
ment is peculiarl}^ irregular. Their walls are moderatel}^ thick, and 
on an average twelve may be counted in the space of .1 inch, A few 
smaller cells (which sections show to be of the nature of interstitial 
tubey) are intercalated among the ordinary cells. 

Tangential sections (Plate XI., fig, 4a) show that the tubes have 
moderately thick walls, which preserve, more or less distinctly, the 
primitive boundary line between adjoining tubes. Small interstitial 
tubes are always shown, and although their number varies in different 
sections, they are never numerous. 

In longitudinal sections (Plate XL, fig. 46) the tubes in the axial 
region of the branch have very thin walls, and diaphragms are usually 
wanting in this region. As they approach the surface their walls are 
moderately thickened, and comparatively remote horizontal diaphragms 
are developed (from one half to two tube-diameters distant from each 
other). Occasionally the section cuts one of the interstitial tubes, in 
which the diaphragms are about nearly as numerous as in the ordinary 
tubes. The development of young tubes, by gemmation, takes place 
simultaneously in all the tubes at a point on a line crossing the branch 
at regular intervals, with a strong upward curve. Eight or nine of 
these intervals occur in the space of ,3 inch. In transverse sections 
the tubes in the central portion of the branch are thin-walled and 
strictly quadrate or rhomboidal. 

In many respects this species closely resembles 31. quadrata, Rom- 
inger, and might almost be regarded as a dwarfed variety of that 
species, were it not for the certain presence of interstitial cells 
in il/. subquadrata. Another difference is found in the size of the 
cells, Rominger's species having from seven to eight in the space of .1 
inch, while in the new species there are about twelve in the same space. 

250 Ciacinnati Society of Natural History. 

Besides, M. quadrata is a mueli more robust species with branches 
varying in diameter fiom three to six tenths of an indi. 

As before remarked, I can not at present consider the existence of 
interstitial tubes in 31, subquadratn, as of more than specific importance, 
in so far as it has reference to the separation of the species from M. 

Formation and localit}^: Cincinnati Group. I have collected this 
species at Osgood, Ind., where the strata exposed are very near the 
top of the formation, Also at Jackson, Blanchester, and Westborough, 
where the beds exposed are at least 100 feet lower than those at Osgood, 
Ind., and equivalent to a height of nearly 700 feet above low-water 
mark in the Ohio river, at Cincinnati, 0. 

Callopoka elegantdla, Hall. (Plate XL, figs. 6-66.) 

Callopora elegantula, Hall, Pal. N. Y., Vol. ii., p. 144, Plate XL., 
figs, la-ln, 1852. 

Zoarium ramose, consisting of subcylindrical branches from one to 
two tenths of an inch in diameter, that frequentl}- divide dichotomous- 
ly, and sometimes inosculate. Surface without monticules. Cells with 
rather thin walls and circular apertures, that have a diameter varjnng 
from Tj^th to g^th of an inch. Often the apertures are closed b}' 
opercula having a small central perforation, from which six or seven 
small ridges radiate to the margin, giving the false appearance of a 
septate aperture. Interstitial spaces of variable width, and occupied 
b}' small angular interstitial cells, which often conipletel}' isolate the 
proper cells. According to the width of the interstitial spaces from 
four to six of the proper cells ma}' be counted in the space of .1 inch. 

Tangential sections (Plate XL, fig. 6) show that the zoarium is 
conspicuousl}^ divided into two sets of tubes, large and small. The 
large tubes have rather thin walls, are nearly- uniform in size, and 
generally, circular in shape. The small or interstitial tubes are 
usually angular, ver}- variable in size and form, and often so numerous 
as to form a complete zone around the large tubes, which usually 
consists of one row, though sometimes an incomplete second row is de- 
veloped. At other times they occup}- onl}^ the triangular interspaces 
formed b}^ the junction of three of the large tubes. There is no 
boundary line l^etween adjoining tubes, the walls of all the tubes being 
apparentl}^ fused together. These sections show conclusively that the 
diaphragms, in at least the peripheral portion of the zoarium, represent 

Amej'ican Palaeozoic Bryozoa. 251 

opercula which have been left ])ehind in the tubes at successive stages 
of growth. 

In longitudinal sections (Plate XL, fig. 6«) the difference in structure 
between the proper and interstitial tubes is conspicuous, both sets 
being crossed by complete horizontal diaphragms, which are much 
more numerous in the small tubes than in the large ones. Just above 
the point of development, the young tube is crossed by closer set 
diaphragms than in any portion of its length after it has attained the 
mature size. This feature gives the young tubes the appearance of 
interstitial tubes, and they may reall}^ have been of that nature in their 
undeveloped stage. In the axial region the diaphragms in the tubes 
of full size are distant from each other about one tube diameter, while 
in the peripheral region they are about half that distance apart. 

Transverse sections (Plate XI., fig. 66) show that the tubes in the 
axial region may be divided into two sets, one consisting of sub- 
cylindrical tubes of nearly uniform size (the fully matured tubes), and 
the other of smaller, unequal and angular tubes (the 3'oung tubes in 
various stages of development). 

Nicholson (Pal. Tab. Cor. p. 304, 1879, and Genus Mont., p. 91, 
1881) regards Callopora, Hall, as " unquestionably congeneric" with 
Fistulipora, McCo}'. After describing and figuring (Plate XL. figs. 
6-66) the characters of C elegantida, Hall, the type of the genus 
Callopora, such an assertion scarcely merits a serious verbal refutation. 
His idea of Callopora is clearly based upon FistuUpora incrassata, 
which he originall}^ referred to the former genus. But because the 
Callopora incrassata proved on investigation to have the same general 
structure as FistuUpora minor, McCoy, it certainly does not follow 
that Callopora is a synonym for McCoj-'s older name FistuUpora. 
In both the works cited he makes the rather equivocal declaration 
that "the identity of Fistuli/Jora, McCoy, and Callopora, Hall, has 
long been more than suspected," and further adds, •■' having carefull}^ 
examined specimens of F. minor, McCov, the type of the genus 
FistuUpora, and having compared these with typical examples of 
Hall's genus Callopora, from the Silurian and Devonian rocks of 
North America, I am satisfied that the two are unquestionably con- 
generic, and that both must be united under the older name of FistuU- 
pora, McCo}'." To an inquisitive searcher after the truth, there is 
nothing satisfactory in either of the quoted statements, and so far as 
I am able to judge, nothing that he has said upon the subject, has 
any direct bearing upon the actual point at issue, *. e., the suspected 

252 Cincinnati Society of Natural IliHlory. 

identity of Callopora and Fistnlipora. At any rale it is very evident 
that lie did not pay as much attention to the type species of the for- 
mer, as he did to the type species of McCoy's sreniis. The internal 
structure of Callopora eleyantula. Hall, as I have worked it out from 
examples of the species presented to me by Prof. James Hall himself, 
shows, first, that Nicholson's Callopora incrassata is as far removed in 
its structure from the type species of Callopora, as McCoy's Fistnli- 
pora minor; and second, that a large proportion of the heterogeneous 
assemblage of forms placed by Nicholson in his division Heterofrypa, 
have precisely the same general structure as C. elegantula. ' The 
species in question are M. (H.) ramosa, D'Orb., and var. ritgosa, Ed- 
«fe H., 31. (11.) dalei, Ed. & H., 31. [If.) sigillaroidea, Nich., 3f. (II.) 
nodulosa, Nich., and 31. (II.) andreivsi, Nicholson. All these species 
have a zoarium constructed in a precisely similar manner. In all we 
have numerous interstitial tubes, which may be either rounded or sub- 
angular, and always have more closely set diaphragms than the proper 
or larger cells; the latter again in all have subcircular or ovate visceral 
cavities (in tangential sections), surrounding which is a more or less 
distinct ring of dark sclereuchyma. All the tubes, however, are firmly 
united together, and never, so far as I have been able to ascertain, 
show any distinct boundary line between them. A fourth character 
common to all, is found in the fact that the tubes in the axial region of 
the zoarium may be properly divided into two quite distinct sets of 
tubes, large and small, the latter (as is shown in transverse sections) 
being nearly' always more angular than the former. In a longitudinal 
section the tubes immediatel}^ above their origin in the axial or 
'immature" region, are crossed by more close set diaphragms than 
when they have attained their full growth. This feature gives the 
tubes, in their primitive stage, the appearance of interstitial tubes, 
though I am far from asserting that any of the tubes in the axial 
region, even in the earlier periods of their development, performed the 
unknown functions of interstitial cells. At any rate, the character 
under consideration is one of the distinctive features of Callopora, 
and may be more or less readily recognized in all the species of the 
genus known to me. Besides the five species and one variety above 
mentioned (C. ramosa, D'Orb., and var. riigosa, Ed. & H., C. dalei, 
Ed. & H., C. nodulosa, Nich., C. sigillaroidea, Nich., and C. andreiosi, 
Nich.,) the Cincinnati group furnishes at least four other species which 
have the characters of Callopora, but are as yet undescribed. Of the 
numerous species referred to the genus by Hall, I can at the present 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 253 

time onl}'^ say, that with but few exceptions their structure is quite 
different from that of the type species. The same may be said of the 
majority of the species placed by the same eminent palaeontologist 
with Treniatopora. 

Formation and locality: Niagara Group. The original locality for 
the species is Lockport, N. Y., but a short time since I collected 
several examples at Osgood, Ind. 

Callopora subplana, n. sp. (PI. XI., figs. 7-76.) 
Zoarium ramose, the branches cylindrical, from .2 inch to .5 inch in 
diameter, and divided dicthoomousl}' at intervals varying from .6 inch 
to one inch. Cells polygonal in unworn examples, subpol3-gonal or 
rounded in worn specimens. The surface exhibits clusters of from 
four to eight cells, that occasionally are slightly elevated above the 
general surface, and are conspicuousl}' larger than the ordinary cells 
which surround them. The latter var}- in diameter from ^i^th to -gVth 
of an inch [i. e. six to seven cells may be counted in the space of .1 
inch), while those composing the clusters may attain a diameter of 
J^th of an inch, though their usual diameter is onl}^ about gV^h inch. 
The interstitial cells are comparatively few, being most numerous and 
noticeable between the large cells of the clusters mentioned. Over the 
other portions of the surface they usually occur at the angles 
of junction of the oi-dinary large tubes. They are, however, always 
inconspicuous, and easil}' overlooked. 

In longitudinal sections (Plate XI., fig. 76) the tubes in the axial 
region of the zoarium, have very thin, flexuous, and often crimped 
walls. Diaphragms are usually' not developed here, excepting a few (six 
to nine) in the young tubes just above the point of their origin. These 
are placed at distances apart equaling about two of their diameters at 
the point of crossing. As the tubes bend outward to reach the surface 
their walls are thickened, the interstitial tubes make their appearance, 
and numerous diaphragms are developed ^in the large tubes, the latter 
often inosculate, while the distance between them usuall}- varies from 
one fourth to one half of the diameter of the tube crossed. The dia- 
phragms in the interstitial tubes are always complete and equally 
crowded in all. 

Tangential sections (Plate XL, fig. 7a) show that the tubes just be- 
low the surface have much thickened walls, their visceral chambers 
being rounded or oval. The walls of adjoining tubes are seemingly' 
fused together, so that tlio original boundary line can not be detected. 

254 Cincinnati Society of NdLural JI islory. 

The cavity of each tube is siirrouiKhid hy a sccondar}' th^posit of chirk, 
concentrically laminated sclerenchynia, while the original wall is repre- 
sented by apparently structureless (in this section) sclerenchyma, of 
much lighter shade. The interstitial cells are variable in size and 
shape, and comiiarativel^' much reduced in number, being, as a rule, 
less numerous than the proper tubes. 

The characters which distinguish C. snbplaiia from all other species 
of the genus known to me from tiie Cincinnati Group, are found in its 
robust growth, the large size of the cells, the conspicuous clusters, and 
the proportional paucity of the interstitial tubes. 

Formation and locality: Cincinnati Group. Not an uncommon 
fossil near the tops of the hills south and west of Covington, K3'. The 
range is limited, being apparently not more than 25 feet. Callojjora 
dalei, Ed. & H., Honotri/pa curvata, Ulrich, and Heterotrypa suh- 
pulchella, Nich., are associated species, and appear to have a nearly 
equally limited range. 

Amplexopora cingulata, n. gen. et sp. (Plate XI., figs. 5-56.) 

Generic char., ante p. 154. 

Zoarium ramose, consisting of cylindrical or subc^'lindrical branches, 
which divide dichotomously at irregular intervals, and var^' in 
diameter from three to seven tenths of an inch. The surface is per- 
fectly smooth, and destitute of monticules. When in the best state of 
preservation, the cell-apertures are subpol3'gonal, the walls are 
moderately thin, and occupied by small granules. In the usual con- 
dition the cell-apertures are rounded, the walls comparativelj' thick 
and smooth. The surface also shows groups of from seven to fifteen 
cells, of a larger size than the average, their diameter var3ang from 
JLtli to -J^th of an inch, while that of the smaller ordinary cells is al- 
most constantly- about -g^th of an inch. 

Tangential sections (PI. XI., figs. 5a and 5?>) show that the cells are 
of one kind (i.e., no interstitial tubes are present), and that, between 
the groups of larger cells, they are of a very uniform size. The original 
polygonal walls can still be readih' recognized ; but their internal 
cavities are more or less rounded b}' a secondary- deposit of dark, con- 
centrically laminated sclerench3^ma, which has a variable thickness in 
different sections. The original line of demarcation between adjoining- 
tubes is always more or less distinctly preserved, and is made espe- 
ciall3' conspicuous b3r the numerous small spiniform tubuli, which, in 
this species, are developed onl3' on the line of junction. One is situ- 
ated at each angle, and one or two more on the line between the angles. 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 255 

Longitudinal sections (PI. XI., fig. 5c) show tliat tlie tubes in tlie 
axial region have very thin walls, and are traversed b}' remote horizon- 
tal diaphragms, from two to three times the diameter of a tube dis- 
tant from each other. As the}^ approach the surface, they bend out- 
ward rather abruptly, their walls ai-e much thickened, and the dia- 
phragms become much more numerous. The tube-wall in the per- 
ipheral region is divided into four longitudinal portions, hj three 
distinct dark lines. The two inner portions represent the original 
walls of two adjoining tubes, and are composed of a fibrous structure, 
the fibres being directed obliquel}^ upward to meet along the dark 
central line. The two outer zones, which are of a darker color than 
the inner layers, represent the secondary deposits within the original 
polygonal walls of the tubes. The diaphragms in the outer portion 
of the tubes are usually nearly horizontal. All of ray sections 
however, show a few very peculiar diaphragms. In the section they 
are represented by two curved plates which spring from the opposite 
walls of a tube, nearly meeting, either in the center, or nearer one side 
of the tube-cavity, when they proceed as near!}' parallel lines down- 
ward to the next straight diaphragm. Their shape was undoubtedly 
that of a funnel, of wliich the position of the lower tubular portion, with 
regard to the expanded mouth, was somewhat erratic. 

In transverse sections the tubes in the axial region have ver^' thin 
walls, and are strictlj' poh^gonal. 

The species above described I regard as the t3'pe of the genus. Am- 
pUxopora, proposed by me in the last number of the Journal, p. 154. 
At the present time I am unable to give the exact limits of the genus, 
as I have not 3'ct fully determined where the boundary line between 
Stenopora, Lonsdale, and Amplexo}^ora, is most properlj^ drawn. If 
the periodic thickening of the tube-walls is regarded as a necessar}' 
feature of species of the former, and I believe that it should be, tlien 
the limits of the latter genus might be extended so as to include a 
number of Devonian and Lower Carboniferous species {e.g. M. monili- 
formis, and M. harrandi, both Nicholson). At any rate the Cincin- 
nati Group contains at least five other distinct species, which in their 
general characters precisely resemble A. ciriQulata. Of these but two 
have been described, one bj' the author, under the name of Atactopora 
septosa, and the other b^- Nicholson, originall}', under the name of 
Chcetetes discoideus, but latterl}- (Genus 3Ionticulipora, p. 193) he re- 
fers the species to liis section Monotri/pa, to which, however, I do not 
find it to be more than remotel^^ related. The fourth species (^1. ro- 

256 Cincinnati Society of Natural IliMory. 

husta, n. sp.) is next described, while two other ramose species, the 
jfifth and sixth, must for the time being remain unpublished. 

Formation and locality : Cincinnati Group. This species I found to 
be abundant in a single layer at McKlnney's Station, on the line of the 
Cincinnati Southern K,R., where, after crossing the Trenton exposures 
on each side of the Kentucky river, the observer again meets with the 
Cincinnati Group. Judging from the associated fossils, the strata 
exposed at McKinney's are equivalent to those near the tops of the 
hills about Cincinnati, O. This is made the more probable by the fact 
that a single fragment was discovered at Cincinnati, b}' Mr. Ernst 
Vaupcl, at an elevation of 375 feet above low-water mark in the Ohio 

As some of the genera proposed by me in my scheme of classification 
{ante p. 149, et. seq.), have not yet been fully established by a descrip- 
tion of the type species, and because my memoir is unavoidably 
divided into parts, I have thought it advisable to anticipate, in a 
measure, the parts yet to be published, by noting those species already 
described, which I propose to refer to one or the other of the genera in 
question. Besides, I wish to publish a few notes on other points 
whereon my views differ from those of Dr. Nicholson. 

Of the twelve species referred by Nicholson, to Monotrypa ('' Genus 
Monticulipora," 1881), only the four species M. undiilata, Nicholson, 
M. petasiformis, Nich., M. winteri, Nich., and 31. irregularis, Ulrich, 
can be considered as unquestionably congeneric. M. calceola, Miller 
and Dyer, and 31. clavacoidea, Nicholson, I regard as species of 
doubtful position. Of the six other species M. briarea, Nich., 3f. 
pulchella, E. and H., and 3f. quadrata, Rorainger, are congeric with 
M. cEqualis,\Jh''ni\i, the type of the new genus 3Ionotrypella ; 31. 
pavonia, D'Orb., is a Ptilodictya, 31. discoidea, Nicholson, should be 
referred to Amplexopora, and J/, tuberculata, E. and H., is one of four 
^ecies upon which the new genus Spatiopora is founded. (The other 
three species, among them the one which is selected as the actual 
type of the genus, are as yet undescribed). Choitetes suhglobosus, 
Ulrich (Cin. Gr.), and Ch. monticulatus, Hall (Lower Helderberg), 
are typical species of 3fonotrypa. 

The genus Batostoma is founded upon 31. impUcata, Nicholson.* 
The genus also includes 3£.jamesi, Nich., and 31. girvanensis, Nichol- 

* This species I named in my Cat. of the Foss. of the Cin. Gr., but did not figure or de- 
scribe it, consequently I have no right to claim the species, although Dr. Nicholson has seen 
fit to credit me with the name. 

American Pcdceozoic Bryozoa. 257 

son, the former from the Cincinnati Group, the latter from British 
Lower Silurian deposits. 

The genus Fetigopora is founded upon an, as 3^et, undescribed 
species. It, however, includes ChcBtetes petechialis, Nicholson. 

Dekayella is also founded upon a new species, but 3£. ulrichi. 
Nicholson, is a congeneric species. Several undescribed species are 
known to me. 

The type species of Biscotrypa^ is the form described b}' me in the 
second volume of this Journal, under the name of Chmtetes elegans. 

Stellipora antheloidea, Hall, is restricted to the Trenton Group of 
New York, and is not by any means the same as the Cincinnati Group 
species usually identified with it. The zoarium of the former is thin 
and incrusting, while that of the latter grows upward into branches or 
narrow fronds. As it has never received a distinct name, I here pro- 
pose that it be called Constellaria florida. It may be briefly charac- 
terized as follows : 

Constellaria Florida, n. sp. 

Zoarium ramose or subfrondescent, from one to two tenths of an 
inch in thickness, and from one to three inches in height. Surface 
with numerous areas, which topically are stellate, about .08 inch in 
diameter, and placed at intervals of about .12 inch (measuring from 
center to center) and are usually arranged in transverse rows. Each 
consists of a depressed central space, surrounded by from five to nine 
prominent and radially arranged elevated ridges. Often these areas 
coalesce and f>)rm transverse ridges, that not infrequently' are continu- 
ous around the branches. Cells of two kinds, dittering in size and 
other features. The proper zooecia are oval or circular, and on an 
average about twelve occupy the space of .1 inch. Their apertures are 
surrounded by a small but distinct rim. The central depressed areas 
of the stellate monticules are composed entirely of the interstitial cells, 
which occupy also all the interstices between the proper circu/ar cells. 

As I find myself unable to do justice to the complicated internal 
characters of the species, without the aid of figures, I beg leave to re- 
serve this portion of the descrij)tion, until, in the course of mj' memoir, 
Stellipora and Constellaria come up for consideration. For the 
identification of the species, a knowledge- of its internal structure is 
not, at the present time necessary, since C. florida is one of the most 
characteristic and common fossils of the Cincinnati Group. 

The genus Cheiloporella is founded upon Fistulipora flabellata, 
described by me in the second volume of this Journal. 

Crepipora is founded upon a new species. Chteietes venustxis, 
Ulrich, will be referred to the genus. 

[to be continued.] 

258 Ciiicinnnl.i Societn of Ndlaral History. 


Books and Famphlets received by iJonalioii and Exchaiiye din-i/i'/ 


Agriculturo, Department of. Report for 1880. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences — Memoirs. Vol. xi., part 1. 

Proceedings of. Vol. xvii., 1881-82. 

American Antiquarian. Vol. iv., Nos. 2, .3 and 4. 1882. 

American Association for the Advanaement of Science. 18th meeting. 
American Journal of Science. 1882. Jan. to Dec. inclusive. 

American Museum of Natural History. (Central Park), N. Y. Annual Kejiorts, 1- 
3-4-5-6-7-8-9 and 13. 

Bulletin, Nos. 1-2-3. 

American Naturalist. Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec, 1882. 

Augsburg — Naturhistorischen Vereins. 26th Bericht. 1881. 

Basel — Verhandlungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. Siebenter Theil, 1st 

part. 1882. 
Belgique— Societe Malacologique. Nov., Dec, 1880. June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., 

Nov., Dec, 1881. Jan., 1882. 
Bern— Mittheilungen der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. Jahre 1880. Nos. 979 to 

1003. Jahre, 1881. Nos. 1004 to 1029. 
Boston Scientific Societ)'— Science Observer. Vol. iii., No. 12. Vol. iv., Nos. 1-2. 
Boston Society of Natural History— Proceedings of. Vol. xx., Part 4. Vol. xxi.. 

Parts 1-2-3. 

Vols. X., xi. and xii. 

Boston Zoological Society — Quarterly Journal. Vol. i., Nos. 2-3. 

Bradstreet's Commercial Reports. 1881. 

Braunschweig — Jahresbericht des Vereins fur Naturwissenschaft. 1880-81. 

Bremen — Abhandlungen heransgegeben von — Naturwissen shaftlichen Vereine. Vol. 

vii., part 3. 
Bridgeport, Scientific Society — Address of President, Oct., 1881. 
Brooklyn Entomological Society — Bulletin. Vol. iv. 
Buffalo Society of Natural History— Bulletin of. Vol. iv., Nos. 2-3. 
California— Contributions to the Geology and Mineralogy of. 
California State Geological Society— Proceedings of. 
Cambridge Museum of Comparative Zoology— Bulletin of. Vol. ix., Nos. 1-2-3-4-5 

6-7-8. Vol. x.. No. 1. 
Canadian Entomologist— Dec, 1881-1882, Jan., Feb., Mar., April, May, June, July, 

Sept. and Oct. 
Cassel, Germany— Vereines fur Naturkuude. 27th Bericht. 
Christiana — Det Kongelige Norske Universitet. 

Brogger, W. C— Die Silurischen Etageu 2 und 3 im Kristianiagebeit und :\ut 


Norvegicum. Enumeratio lusectorum— Fasciculum v. 

Sars, G. O.— Carcinologiske Bidrag til Norges Fauna. 

Cincinnati Public Library — Annual Report for 1882. 

Bulletin for 1881. 

Cincinnati Universitv— Publication.s of Observatory. No. 6. 

Additions to the Library. 259 

Cincinnati Zoological Garden — 8th Annual Eeport for 1881. 

Congressional Documents — List of. 

Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences — Transactions of. Vols, i., ii., iii., iv. 

parts 1-2; v., part 'I. 
Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences— Proceedings of. Vol. iii., part 2. 
Dimmock, George — The Anatomy of the mouth parts, etc., of some Diptera. 
Dolley, Charles S. — Bacteria as Beneficial and Noxious Agents. 
Essex Institute — Bulletin of. Oct., Nov., Dec , 1881 ; Jan., Feb.. Mar., April, May, 

June, 1882. 
Fletcher, Dr. Robert — Paul Broca. 
Grissen, Germany — Oberhessichen Gesellschaft fur Natur und Heil-kunde. 20th. 

and 21st. Bericht. 
Greville, Robt. Kaye — Scottish Cryptogamic Flora. 6 vols. 
Indiana Bureau of Statistics and Geology — Annual Report for 1881, by Prof. John 

James, U. P. — Palaeontologist. No; 6. 

Catalogue of Fossils of the Cincinnati Grouj). 

.lohns Hopkins University — Studies from the Biological Labratory. Vol. ii., Nos. 
2-3. ■ ' 

Circular. Nos. 13-15-17. 

Kaiserlich — Koniglichen Geologischen Reichsanstalb, Verhandlungen. 1881, Nos. 8 

to 18; 1882, Nos. 1 to 10. 
Kaiserlich Leopol — Carolin — Deutchen Akademie der Naturforseher. 

Drude, Prof. Dr. Oscar. Die stossweisen Wachsthunisanderungen in der 

Blattentwicklung von Victoria Regia, Lindl. 

Engler, C. — Historisch kritische Studien uber das Ozon. 

Geinitz, Dr. Eugene — Das Erdbeben von Iquique. 

Knoblauch, Dr. Hermann — Ueber das Verhalten der Metalle gegen die strah 

lende Warme. 

Laugerhaus, Prof. Dr. Paul — Uebereinige Canarische Anneliden. 

Leopoldina. 16tli heft. 1880. 

Oberbeck, Prof. Dr. A. — Ueber die zeitlichen Vcranderungen des Erdmagnet 

Kellog, Dr. A. — Forest Trees of California. 
Kentucky — Geological Survey, Chemical Report of Soils, Coals, Ores, Clays, &c., of 

Ky. Part 7, and vol. v., part 13. 

Report of Geology of Morgan, Johnson, Magoffin and Floyd Counties. 

Report of Progress to Jan., 1882. 

Lea, Isaac — Synopsis of the Unionida; Phila., 1870. 

Lindley, John^Introduction to the Natural System of Botany. 

Mason, Otis T. — Anthropological Notes. Eleven Pamphlets. 

Micliiffan — Geological Survey of. Vol. iv. 

Middlesex Institute, Maiden," Mass.— Annual Report, 1881-1882. 

Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences. Vol. ii., Nos. 2-3 

Minnesota — Nintli Annual Report of the Geological and Natural Historv Survev. 

By N. H. Winchell, State Geologist, 1880. 
Missouri Historical Society — Publications of. Nos. o-l). 
Missouri — Insects of. Fiulex and Supplements to rejjorts of. 
Nederlaiidsclic — Tijdschrift der, Dierkundige Vereeniging. Leiden, l^ecl. vi., 1st 

Oliio — Geology. Vol. iii., 5 copies. 

(Jeological Survey. Vol. iv., Zoology and Botany. 

Ohio Mecliaiiics Institute — Scientific Proceedings. Vol. i., Nos. 1-2-3. 
Ostasiens — Mitllieilungen der Deutchen Gesellschaft I'ur Natiir und N'olkeiiviiiide 
Dec, 1881, Feb., Aug., 1882. 

260 Cinciiindti SocAety of Natural Ilislorii. 

Peabody — Museum, Arclr.ioloKy ami Ktliiiology. Pahtolithic Imjilements of the 

Delaware Valley. 
Philadelphia Aeademv of Natural Sciences — Proceedings of. Aug., Dec, 1881, Jan., 

to April, 1882' May to Oct., 1882. 
Philadeljjhia — Zoological Garden. Tenth Aniiiuil Reixirt of the Hoard of Directors. 

Psyche. Vol. iii., Nos. 87 to 90. 

Index to Vol. ii. 

Putnam, F. W. — Sketch of Hon. Lewis H. Morgan. 

Royal Mierocscoi)ical Society — Journal of. Dec, 1881 — Feh., Ajiril, June, Aug., 

Oct., 1882— Lond. 
Royal Phvsical Society, Edinburgh — Proceedings of. Session 1880-81. 
Royal Society, Edinburgh— Proceedings. 1880-81. 
San Franci.><co Microscopical Society — Transactions. June 13, 1881. 
Saussure, Henri de — Hymenopteres — Famille des Scolides. 
Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. 63rd Session in Brieg, 1879-80. 

64th Session at Aaron, 1880-81. 
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Shfeldt, Dr. R. W. — Contributions to the Anatomy of Birds. 
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Smithsonian Institution Publications — 

Annual Report. 1880. 

Bureau of Ethnology. 1st Annual Report. 1879-80. 

Seallslands of Alaska — Monograph of. 

United States Fish Commission— Bulletin of. Vol. i., 1881- vol. ii., Sigs. 1 

to 10. 

United States National Museum — Bulletin of. Xo. 11. 

Proceedings of. Vol. iv., 1881— vol. v., Sigs. 1 to 28. 

Stearns, Robt. E. C. Four Pamphlets. 

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Sept., Oct., Nov., 1882. 
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Track of the Norseman. 

United States Entomological Commission — Bulletin. No. 7. 
United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories — Bulletin. 

Vol. vi., No.^S. 
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A^ol. iii. 
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Utica Slate and Related Formations. 

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Worcester Society of Antiquity — Proceedings of. For 1881. 


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24th Meetings. 
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— . __^_^ ~'l*l;iU» 



Fig. 1. Glyptocrinus miamiensis, n. sp., natural size, . ... 34 

Fig. 2. Glyptocrixcs sculptus, n. sp., natural size, 37 

Figs. 3 and 3fl. Roots and lower part of the columns of Anomaloerinus, . . 38 
Zb. Part of a column logitudinally divided into fifteen parts, . . . .38 

3c. Part of a column longitudinally divided into twenty parts, ... 38 

3(i. Interior view of part of a column. 38 

3e. Transverse section of a column, showing the size of the central opening, 38 

Fig. 4. Steo.matopora peoutana, n. sp., slightly enlarged, . . . .39 

4o. Magnified view, 39 

46. View more highly magnified, 39 

Fig. 5. Orthis SCOVILLEI, n. sp., dorsal view of specimen, natural size, . 40 

5a. Dorsal view of a smaller specimen, ........ 40 

ob. Interior of the dorsal valve, 40 

5c. Interior of a ventral valve, 40 

Fig. 6. T.ENIASTER elegans, n. sp., natural size of a specimen that has the rays 

doubled under the central part 41 

Gm. Magnified view of the same specimen, approximately correct, . . 41 

&h. End of a ray, natural size, • 41 

6c. Magnified view of the same specimen, 41 



Fig. 1. Stromatocerium richmondknse, n. s})., polished slab, showing several 

specimens, natural size, 41 

la. View of a transverse section of the central part showing the ends 

of the radiating tubes, magnified about 100 diameters, .... 41 
\b. Showing a longitudinal section of the radiating tubes, and the appear- 
ance of the concentric lamina?, magnified about 100 diameters, . . 41 

Fig. 2. Dystactospongia ixsolens, n. sp., view of the lower part of a specimen 
showing the radiating frame work from different points of attachment, 

natural size, 43 

2«. View of a prepared microscopic slide, magnified three or four diameters, 43 
2b. Approximate appearance, when magnified 100 diameters, ... 43 

Fig. 3. Pattersonia difficilis, n. sp., specimen appearing as a cluster, natural 

size, 43 

3a. Showing, approximately, the appearance of the vesicular structure Avhen 

magnified about 100 diameters, .... .... 43 


^ J, ttiheiirarrml Mikt Chi Jtiti^^tiiral#bl:tTn).p,^,^^,^ 






^t^,mt^ '0'tiff 


4' -J«%-. 






1 1 











Fig. 1. CYATHOCKixrs CKAWFORDSViLLEXSis, D. sp., natural size, . 

Figs. 2 and 2a. Glyptocrixtjs patterso>-i, n. sp., natural size. — Both speci 
mens are some injured in the interradial areas, but the plates o 
the radial series are not correctly represented in either figure 
The reader must rely on the descrii^tion, .... 

Fig. 3. Saccocrinus pyriformis, n. sp. — Side view of a slightly compressed 
specimen, but the vault is too much elevated in the figure ; fig, 
3a, summit view, 

Fig. 4. EUCALYPTOCRINUS ROTTTXDUS, n. sp., natural size. — The interbrachials 
are not contracted toward the top as shown in the figure, but they 
round gracefully over to the highest part; fig. 4a maybe erased, 
as it shows nothing; fig. 46 is a small specimen, but the vault is 
made to appear too high above the top of the calyx, 

Figs. 5 and oa. EucALYPTOCRixus TtTRBiNATTJS, n. sp. — If the plates marked 
upon 5a were drawn upon fig. 5, the species would be better 
represented ; 5a is spread out so as to appear to have only three 
interradial areas, a very unnatural view from a very fine specimen. 

Fig. 6. Lyriocrinus SCULPTILIS, n. sp. — Basal view, not indicating all the 
plates ; fig. Qa, lateral view, not very good ; fig. Qb, an imperfect 
summit view, with only about half the plates indicated. The 
reader must rely on the description in this species, 





PLATE ir. 

Fig. 1. EndoCERAS EGAXI, n. sp., natural size. — The internal tube arises in 
the siphuucle at the dotted line indicating the enlargement of a 
chamber, the fracture shows where it is broken off, and from there 
to the end of the specimen it continued to enlarge ; figs, la and lb 
represent a specimen broken in two parts, and one of them turned 
over. These specimens show the pointed cuneiform character of 
the internal tube, 84 

Figs. 2rt and 2b. ENDOCERAS BRISTOLENSE, n. sp.— This species has a veiy rapid 
conical enlargement of the internal tube until it fills nearly the 
entire siphuncle, .......... 85 

Figs. 3 and 3«. Endoceras in^qtJABILE, n. sp., natural size of siphuncle, . 86 

Fig. 4. Cancellakia livingstonensis, n. sp. — View of the dorsal side that 
would be improved if drsAvn on a line parallel with the plate, or 
with 4o; fig. 4rt, an imperfect view of the aperture, ... 86 

Vol. 5 

IferelliiraHiii rt tkt %m3mM^m%0x^ 

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VOLV. Pl« 5. 

r LA T E V . 


Fig. 1. BOTJRGITETICRINUS ALABAMENSis, n. sp. — Side view of the basal cone 

magnified 5 diameters, 118 

la. Su^Jerior face of the cone magnified G diameters. 
16. Inferior end of the cone magnified 6 diameters. 
Ic. Side view natural size. 
Fig. 2. Cristellaria rotulata. ? D'Orbigny.— Side view magnified 17 diam- 
eters, llVt 

2a. Keel showing the star-shaped opening at the extremity of the cell, 
magnified 17 diameters. 
Figs. 3 and Ba. Calceocrinus radicultjs, n. sp., natural size. . . . 120 
Fig. 4. Macrostylocrinus fxtsibrachiatus, n. sp., natural size, . . . 119 

Fig. 5. SUBULITES GRACILIS, n. sp., natural size, 116 

Fig. 6. Protaster miamiensis, n. sp. — Ventral side natural size, . . . 116 
da. Oral pieces magnified 8 diameters. 
6b. Part of a ray magnified 3 diameters. 
Fig. 7. Orthonotella PABERI. n. sp. — Left valve magnified 8 diameters, . 117 
7a. Hinge view magnified 8 diameters. 

7b. Left valve natural size. ^ 

Fig. 8. Calymexe callicephala. Green. — Showing a furrowed test below 

the fixed cheeks, .......... 117 

Fig. 9. Heterocrinus (Iocrinus)ceh:anus, n. sp. — Anterior view of the body 

and a large portion of the arms ........ 175 

9o Posterior view of another specimen, showing the anal plate and ven- 
tral extension. On the upper half of this specimen the arms are 
removed, so as to show the frequently bifurcating armlets. 
Qb. A portion of one of the arms of da magnified 2 diameters. 
9c. Some of the imbricating plates of which the ventral sac is composed, 
enlarged to 2 diameters. 
Fig. 10. Heterocrinus pentagonous, n. sp.— Posterior view, showing the 

arms, body and a portion of tiie column 17ti 

10a. Anterior view of another specimen of this species. 



Fig. 1. Lkiocmcma inTNCTATA, llall's sj). ?' — Tangential section enlarged to 

34 diameters, ........... 141 

1((. An e(|ually enlargeii longitudinal seetion of the same sijecimcn. wliidi 
was identifi(!<l by Dr. llomiiit;fr with the Ccl/opora ptinctutn. Hall. 
Not having been ahle to «xan»iiiu authentic examj>les of Hall's 
species, I can not verify this identification. 

Fig. 2. Eridoi'ORA macrostoma, n. sp. — Surface of this species magnified to 

18 diameters, 137 

2(1. Liongitudinal section enlarged to 18 diameters. 
Fig. 3. Ekidotora punctifeka, n. sp.— Longitudinal section magnified 18 

diameters, 138 

Fig 4. Berknicea primitiva, n. sp. — Surface of this species magnified 18 

diameters, ............ 157 

Fig. 5. — Berenicea vesiculosa, u. sp. — Surface enlarged to 18 diameters, . 158 
Fig. 6. SCENELLOPORA RADIATA, u. sp. — Profile view of the type specimen, 

natural size, - 158 

6a. View of the celluliferous surface of same. 

Gb. A portion of the celluliferous surface magnified to 8 diameters. 
Fig. 7. MiTOCLEMA CINCTOSA, n. sp.— A fragment of this species, natural size, 159 

7«. Portion of a branch magnified to 18 diameters. 
Fig. 8. Artiironema tenue, James' sp. — Portion of a large zoarium, show- 
ing the method of growth ; natural size, 160 

8«. The celluliferous side of the upper end of a segment, enlarged to .34 

Sb. The striated side of the lower end of a segment, magnified to 34 diameters. 
8c. A transverse section of a segment, equally enlarged. 
Fig. 9. Arthronema curtum, n. sp. — The striated side of a segment, en- 
larged to 18 diameters. 101 

Fig. 10. Artiiroclema spiniporme, n. sp. — The lower end of a segment, en- 
larged 18 diameters, . 161 

10«. A transverse section of a segment, similarly enlarged. 
106. An equally enlarged longitudinal section. 
Fig. 11. Heteropora CONSIMILIS, n. sp. — Surface of this species enlarged to 

18 diameters, . 143 

Fig. 12. Heteropora attesuata, n. sp. — Longitudinal section enlarged to 

18 diameters. 144 

Fig. 13. Fenestella OXFORDENSIS, n. sp. — Two of the branches enlarged to 

18 diaineters, 159 

Fig. 14. Phyllopora VAKIOLATA, n. sp. — Portion of the celluliferous side 
enlarged to 8 diameters, showing the variable character of the 

fenestniles, 160 

Fig. .15. Dicranopora trentonensis, n. sp. — A segment of this species, nat- 
ural size,* ............ 167 

loo. Surface enlarged to 18 diameters. 
Fig. 16. Dicranopora lata, n. sp.— A segment of this species, . . . 166 
16«. The surface enlarged to 18 diameters. 

In the description of this species no mention is made of the 
interstitial furrows, shown in Fig. 16o, they being worn otf in the 
specimens then at hand. 
Fig. 17. Ptilodictya maculata, n. sp. — A longitudinal section showing the 

connecting foramina, .... - 163 

Fig. 18. Callopora (?) cincinnatiensis, Ulrich. — Surface enlarged to 34 di- 
ameters, .... - 142 

18((. Tangential section magnified 34 diameters. 


©TicS'iTimmiijrftbif 'iHn,f^ lli^lton^ 













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16, a. 








aire oDaurKcilaf the if iu,f aci^cttumi iDuvtena. 

Plate 7. 



Fig. 1. Ptilodictya pltjmaria, James. — A specimen showing the general 

characters of this species; natural size, 

la. Tangential section showing, on the right, the longitudinal, ami, on the 
left, the oblique series of cells; magnified 18 diameters. 
Fig. 2. Ptilodictya nodosa, James. — View of the type specimen of this 

species, - . . . . — 

2a.. Surface of same, enlarged 18 diameters. 
Fig. 3. Ptilodictya pavonia, D'Orb. — The basal portion of a frond of this 

species, 163 

3rt. Represents a specimen expanded rapidly from the sub-solid articu- 
lating process ; natural size. 
36. Tangential section, magnified to 18 diameters. 
3c. Longitudinal section, equally enlarged. 

Zd. Represents the non-poriferous margin, and a few adjoining cells; 
magnified to 18 diameters. 
Fig. 4. Ptilodictya maculata, n. sp. — A small example of this species, . 163 
4a. Tangential section, enlarged to 18 diameters, showing numerous 
pseudo-septa. [This is a variable cliaracter, and is more or less 
developed in nearly all species of Ptilodictya.'] 
Fig. 5. Ptilodictya kamosa, n. sp. — This figure represents a very fine speci- 
men of this species; natural size, 164 

5rt. Surface of same enlarged to 18 diameters, sliowing the cliaracters of 

the surface from the central portion of a branch to the sharp edge. 

Fig. 6. Ptilodictya briaeeus, n. sp. — The most complete specimen seen of 

this species, ........ .... 16.") 

6rt.. Surface of same enlarged to 18 diameters. 

66. Tangential section taken just above the wedge-shaped, articulating 
process ; magnified to 18 diameters. 
Fig. 7. Ptilodictya hilli, James.— A specimen showing the articulating 
process and the trahsverse ridges, which are cliaracteristic of this 

species ; natural size, 

7a. A tangential section, showing that the cells in the transverse ridges 
have thinner walls than those in tlie grooves ; enlarged to IS 
Fig. 8. Grai'TODICTYA nitida, n. sp. — A specimen of this species ; natural 

size, 16ti 

8rt. Surface of same, enlarged to 18 diameters. 
Fig. 9. DiCRANOPORA INTERNODIA, Miller and Dyer.— Represents a specimen 
of this species that j)reserves five segments in connection ; natu- 
ral size, Hit! 

9rt. The lower portion of a segment, enlarged to IS diameters. 
Fig. 10. Arthropora SHAFFeri, Meek's sp. — Portion of a more complete 
specimen, giving a tolerably good idea of the growth of the 

zoarium, Iti? 

10(6. Surface of this species enhirged to 18 diameters; many of the cells 
are closed by opercula. 



Fig. 1. Stictoi'ORA acuta, Hall.— Fragment (if the natural size, . . .168 

\a. Surface of same, enlarged to 18 diameters. 
\b. Tangential section of this species, enlarged to 18 diameters. 
Fig. 2. Stictopora CtILBERTI, Meek.— A fragment of this species, from tiie 

Falls of the Ohio; natural size, 168 

2a. Surface of same, enlarged to 18 diameters. 
Fig. 3. Cystodictya ocellata, n. sp.— Natural size, view of the type speci- 
men, 170 

3rt. Surface of same, enlarged 18 diameters; shows the transverse furrows 
and opercula. 
Fig. 4. Stictopora basalis, n. sp. — A nearly perfect example of this spe- 
cies ; natural size, 169 

4«. Surface of same, enlarged 18 diameters. 
Fig. 5. Graptodictya perelegans, Ulrich. — Surface of this species en- 
larged to 18 diameters, 16.5 

Fig. 6. Rhinidictya nicholsoni, n. sp. — This figure represents the specimen 

somewhat narrower than it really is, 170 

6a. Surface of same, enlarged to 18 diameters. 
66. Tangential section of this species, similarly enlarged. 
Fig. 7. Ph^nopora (?) multipora. Hall.— Natural size, view of a specimen, 

giving a good idea of the growth of this species, .... 171 
7ft. Surface of samj, enlarged to 18 diameters. 
76. Tangential section, similai-ly enlarged. 
Fig. S. Ph^nopora (?) FENESTELLIFORMIS, Nicholson. — A transverse section 
of this species, magnified IS diameters; shows the perforated 

median laminte, ........... 

Fig. 9. Stictoporella interstincta, n. sp. — Represents a fragment of this 

sj^ecies ; natural size, 169 

9ft. Surface of same, enlarged to 18 diameters. 
Fig. 10. Pachydictya robusta, n. sp.— Natural size, view of a rather small 

specimen of this species, ......... 173 

10ft. Surface magnified 18 diameters. 

106. Tangential section, enlarged to 18 diameters, showing the cells as 

cut near the median laminte. 
10c. Tangential section, showing the structure of the cells and interstitial 
spaces just below the surface; magnified 18 diameters. 
Fig. 11. Phyllodictya frondosa, n. SI). — A nearly perfect specimen of this 

species ; natural size, 174 

lift. Surface of a well-preserved example, enlarged to 18 diameters. 
116. Tangential section. [Other sections, prepared since the figure was 
engraved, show distinctly numerous minute dots in the interstitial 
spaces. These were not represented in the figure, because they 
were scarcely preserved in the original sections.] 


aiiCcliLTurAuU irf%^fm^:^5yteml §)Mb%% 

Plate 8 







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10 c. 10 b 





Figs. 1 and la. HOLOCYSTITES JOLIETENSIS, D. sp.. natural .size, . . 223 

Fig. 2. EUCALYPTOCEINUS PROBOSCIDALIS, n. sp., natural size. . . . 224 
Fig. 3. MUKCHISONIA WOKTHENANA, n. sp., natural .size. .... 225 

Fiir. 4. POTEKlOCRlNTJs DAViSAxrs, n. sp., natural size; 4a, enlarged 
view of the calyx and brachials ; Ab, enlarged view of the azygous 
side of another specimen; Ac. enlarged view cf a fragment of an 

arm, 22f. 

Fig. 5. POTERIOCRINUS NETTELROTHANUS, n. sp., enlarged [two diameters ; 
5a, magnified view of two arms commencing with tlie fourth 

brachial, 227 

Fig. G. LiciiEXOCKlNUS TURERCULATUS, S. A. Miller, three specimens, 
natural size; two of them showing the upright lamellte; Ga, magni 

tied view of one of these, 220 

Fig. 7. LiciiEXOCRiNTS AFFINIS, n. sp., natural size; 7a, magnified view, . 229 
Fig. S. Cyci.ONEM.v cixcinnatense, n. -s p., natural size; 8a. showing aper- 
ture with a little of the outer lip broken away; 86, showing the 
aperture with more of ihe lip broken away; 8c, part of the upper 
l)art of the surface of the last whorl magnified, .... 230 
Fig. 9. Cyclora pulcella, n. sp. The natural size is indicated l)y the line 

in the center of the space between the three magnified views, . 231 

^'0L. V 

, fflliie JjiitOTiix^lirf^efmfen i)mb!rm 





9 a. 












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VOL.V. ll^lll 



/. .) ■ - ■; 

r I 

3-. .,1 

•^ * 




Fig. 1. MONTICXTLIPORA L^VIS, n. sp. View of the under side of a free speci- 
men, natural size, ........•• 236 

la. Transverse section of same, enlarged 18 diameters. The lower portion 

cuts through one of the groups of large cells. 
\b. Longitudinal section of same, enlarged 18 diameters. 
Fig. 2. MONTICULIPORA CONSIJIILIS, n. sp. Natural size, view of the type 

specimen, 238 

Fig. 3. MONTICTTLIPORA PARASITICA, n. sp. Longitudinal section, magnified 

18 times, 238 

3a. Transverse section of same, enlarged 18 diameters. 
Fig. 4. MONTICULIPORA WETHERBYi, n sp. View of two complete colonies, 

and portions of two others, natural size, 239 

4a. Tangential section of same, enlarged 18 times. 
46. Longitudinal section of same, magnified 18 diameters. 
Fig. 5. JIIONTICULIPORA MAMMULATA, D'Orbigny. Transverse section, en- 
larged 18 diameters, 234 

5a. Longitudinal section of same, equally enlarged. 
Fig. 6. HOMOTRYPA OBLIQXIA, n. sp. Natural size, view of an example more 

strongly tuberculated than is usual, 243 

6a. Surface of same, enlarged to 18 diameters. 

65. Tangential section showing connecting foramina, small spiniform 
tubuli, and cystoid diaphragms. 
Fig. 7. HOMOTRYPA CURVATA, n. sp. Natural size, view of a typical example 

of this species, 242 

7a. Surface of same, enlarged to 18 diameters. The lower portion of the 
figure represents one of the stellate maculse. The cells along the 
upper margin are of the average size. 
7b. Eepresents the cells in the axial region of a transverse section. The 
cruciform lines which cross the calcite filling the tubes, are not 
7f. A longitudinal section of same, enlarged 18 times. 

Id. A tangential section showing spiniform tubuli, and connecting 
foramina, magnified to 18 diameters. 
Fig. 8. Peronopora ttniformis, n. sp. A vertical section showing the 
median lamina and a few cells of one of the leaves of the zoarium, 

enlarged 18 diameters, . 244 

8a. Tangential section of same, showing the angular cells, and small 
number of interstitial tubes which characterize this species. 


Fiy. 1. Prasopora nodosa, n. sp. Profile view of an example of this 

species, 245 

Iffl. Longitudinal section of same, enlarged 18 times. 

16. Transverse section of same, equally magnified. 
Fig. 2a. DiPLOTRYPA MILLERI, n. sp. Transverse section cutting the tubes 

just below the surface, magnified 18 diameters, .... 245 

2. A portion of the preceding enlarged 50 diameters, so as to show the 
distinct wall which surrounds both sets of tubes. In the plate 
this figure is erroneously marked 2c. 

26. A transverse section taken at a lower level, enlarged 18 times. 

2c. A longitudinal section, magnified 18 diameters. 
Fig. 3. MONOTRYPBLLA iEQUALis, n. sp. Tangential section of same, en- 
larged 18 diameters, 247 

3a. Longitudinal section, magnified 18 diameters. 

36. Surface of same, also enlarged 18 times. 
Fig. 4. MONOTRYPELLA SUBQTTADRATA, n. sp. The surface of a branch, 

enlarged to 18 diameters, 249 

4a. Tangential section, equally magnified, 

46. Longitudinal section, showing two of the small or interstitial tubes, 
xuaguified 18 diameters. 
Fig. 5. Amplexopora cingxjlata, n. sp. Surface enlarged 18 diameters, 
showing the spiuiform tubuli, and in the lower part a portion of 
one of the clusters of large cells, 254 

5a. Tangential section of same, equally enlarged. 

56. A portion of 5a, enlarged to 40 diameters, showing the secondary 
deposit within the tubes, and the arrangement of the spiuiform 

5c. A portion of a longitudinal section representing the tubes in the 

peripheral or "mature" region of the zoarium. This section 

shows se'^reral of the funnel-shaped diaphragms. The thinnest 

wall observed is represented at the bottom of the figure. 

Fig. 6. Callopora elegantula. Hall. Tangential section showing oper- 

cula in three of the cells, enlarged 18 diameters, .... 250 

6a. Longitudinal section of same, magnified 18 diameters. 

66. Represents, equally enlarged, the tubes in the axial region of a trans- 
verse section. 
Fig. 7. Callopora subplana, u. sp. The surface magnified 18 diameters. 

At the bottom is shown one of the large cells, .... 253 

7a. A tangential section, also enlarged 18 times. 

76. An equally enlarged longtiudinal section, showing the tubes in the 
peripheral portion of the zoarium. 

,,„„ ftl» J«WKlrf%iiH,SK.1&fenU iistom 


C^r y^ ^^^^^' /-^^ 





I if Mliil ilSIil 


L. M. HOSE A. 

VOL. VI.-1883. 





Proceedings of the Society 1, 93, 169, 213 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna, by F. W. L.angclon 5 

Bibliography of the Conchology of Ohio, by Arthur F. Gray 39 

Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, O., by A. P. Morgan. 54, 97, 173 

American Palaeozoic Bryozoa, by E. O. Ulrich 82, 148, 245 

Revision of the Genus Clematis of the U. S., by Joseph F. Jaraes 118 

List of the Birds of Bardstown, Ky., by Chas. W. Beckham 136 

Locomotory Appendages of the Trilobite, by John Miclileborough, Ph. D.. 200 

In Memoriam— C. B. Dyer 207 

In Memoriam —John A. Warder . . 211 

A Phosphorescent Fungus, by Davis L. Jaraes 212 

Lectures . . 212 

Glyptocrinu.s redefined and restricted, Gaurocrinus, Pycnocrinus and 
Compsocriiuis established, and two new species described, by 

S. A. Miller 217 

Description of Fossils from the Cincinnati Group, by U. P. James. , . . 235 
Occurrence of the Barn Owl, by Chas. Dury. . . 237 

The Giant Beaver, by F. VV. Langdon, M. D 238 

In Memoriam — V. T. Chambers, with portrait . 239 

Additions to the Library ... 27!> 


■liill ill! i MliiL Ki!. 


No. 1. 


Tuesday Evening, January 2, 1883. 

Dr. R. M. Byrnes, President, in the chair. Present, fifteen members. 

Rudolph F. Balke and Dr. N. P. Dandridge were elected members. 

Prof. A. G. Wetherby read a paper on the variations in species of 
land and fresh water shells. The paper elicited considerable discus- 
sion, in which Dr. R. M. Byrnes participated. 

Donations were announced as follows: From Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, eight pamphlets and one volume; R. W. Shufeldt, one pamphlet; 
Secretary- of State, Geological Survey of Ohio, vol. iv. ; James W. 
Tufts, Boston, Mass., through Dr. R. M. Byrnes, seventeen specimens 
of marbles; O. M, Me3Mickc, four specimens of Polvpoms nigricans, 
and specimens of acorns; Ralph Colvin, one pamphlet; the Signal 
Service Bureau, Monthly Weather Review; Dr. R. M. Byrnes, speci- 
men rock from Indiana, two specimens of fungi, specimens of Belos- 
toma grandis, three specimens lizards in alcohol; E. L. Sherwood, 
specimens of Monticulipora frondosa, and Hclicina suborbiculatn : 
Chas. M. Smith, specimens of potter^', etc., from mound in Missouri ; 
Prof. E. S.Wayne, specimen of pigm}' owl; Dr. A. J. Howe, specimen 
of short-eared owl ; Prof. A. G. Wetherby, four specimens Phxnorbis 
leutus, five specimens Unios. 

2 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

Tuesday Evening, February G, 1883. 

Dr. R. M. B3'rnes, President, in the chair. Present, ten members. 

It was announced that the Society would receive its friends on the 
evening of Februar}- 12th, from 8 to 9:30 p.m., on the sevent^'-fourtli 
anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin. 

Donations were announced as follows: From G. H. French, four 
pamphlets; Cuvier Club, fourteen species mounted birds, one speci- 
men fish; Dr. Robert Fletcher, one pamphlet on prehistoric trephining; 
Signal Service Bureau, annual report for 1880, and Weather Review; 
Ralph Colviu, four specimens manganese; Dr. J. A. Warder, five 
pamphlets; E. L, Sherwood, one specimen fossil; Joseph F, James, 
two pamphlets and one volume; Prof. H. W. Haj'nes, through Gover- 
nor Cox, one pamphlet on Discovery of Palaeolithic Implements in 
Egypt; Arthur F. Gray, twenty-nine species shells; Smithsonian In- 
stitute, volumes 22 and 23 of Contributions to Knowledge; Mr. Rom- 
baugh, one specimen banded sandstone; S. S. Scoville, M. D., t^o 
specimens Orthis scovillei; Ohio Mechanics' Institute, Proceedings, 
volume 1, No. 4. 

Tuesday Evening, 31 arch 6, 1883. 

Dr. R. M. B3^rnes, President in the chair. Present, twenty members. 

Prof. A. G. Wetherby delivered an address upon the " Relation of 
Mollusks to Their Shells." He gave an account of the anatomy of the 
common muscle or Uuio of our Western rivers. The shells of these 
mollusks grow generall}^ in the direction of the shorter dimension or 
diameter, and hence this diameter is called b}' conchologists the 
leugtli of the shell, and the longer diameter is the width. The growth 
of a shell is always from a nucleus, and this nucleus in the univalve 
shell, to which our common snails belong is a spire. In most shells 
the spire is elongated, and there is no difiiculty in determining which 
side of the shell is the upper side or spire, but in Plauorbisthe shell is 
disciform and almost flat, so that the upper side can be satisfactorily^ 
determined only by the position of the animal. Prof. Wetherby con- 
cludes that the shell in this genus is reversed, and the spire carried 
with its apex downward, an anomaly in the family of Mollusks. 

Mr. A. F. Gray was elected a member of the Society. 

Dr. R. M. Byrnes exhibited a specimen of Stellipora antheloidea, 
collected from the Utica Slate Group, within fifty feet of low water 
mark in the Ohio river opposite the foot of Fifth street. 

Proceedings of the Society. 3 

A resolution was adopted thanking Messrs. F. Speth and Fred. 
Wagner for tlieir display- of microscopes and objects at the Darwin 
reception, and Mr. Thos. Knott for a beautiful floral decoration for the 
same occasion. 

Donations were announced as follows: From Wm. N. Rice, 1 
pamphlet; Arthur F. Gra3^ 2 pamphlets; Signal Service Bureau, 
Weather Eeview for December, 1882 ; U. S. Geological Surve}^ Ter- 
tiar}^ History of the Grand Canon District, with atlas; Smithsonian 
Institution, 2 pamphlets; G. M. Austin, 6 species of fossils; Zoological 
Society, ninth annual report; Missouri Historical Society, 2 pamph- 
lets; sixteen subscribers, a set of 13 volumes of Chas. Darwin's works 
(these latter were presented to the library at the meeting held in honor 
of Darwin's birth, on Februar}' 23, postponed from Februar}' 12; Dr. H. 
H. Hill, 64 volumes Ohio Geology, etc., 40 vials insects, 20 maps, 1 
mounted specimen Great Northern Diver; Miss Janet Knox, specimen 
Melo diadem a. 

The Flood in the Ohio River. 

The rain storms in the valley of the Ohio were excessive in the 
latter part of Jauuaiy, and early part of February, and happened to 
be so distributed that the high water in the smaller streams that feed 
the lower Ohio was permitted to unite with the great volume coming- 
down from the upper Ohio. The consequence was that while the 
upper Ohio did not reach the height of the freshets of 1847 and 1832, 
the lower Ohio rose higher than ever known before, always excepting 
of course the possibilitj^ that it did not reacli the height of tlie river of 
tlie 18th of March, 1793, described by Dr. Drake in the Transactions 
of the American Philosophical Society, 2d ser., vol. 2. 

For convenience of reference we here record the height of the water 
from the 1st to the 23d day of February, 1883, at Cincinnati, accord- 
ing to the Water Works mark : 

Ft. In. 

February 1 ....28 10 

S 54 

i» ' 58 

10 59 4?i 

" 11 iit 2 o'clock A.M 69 6 

12 " 62 7J^ 

13 " 64 5>^ 

" 14 at 2 o'clock A. M 65 0}a' 

'•^ " 65. 0}i 

" 1 " ., 05 

" •' " 64 lUa 

" ... 64 11'., 

4 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

Ft. In. 

February 14, at 7 o'clock A . M M 11 

» 8 " 6* IfJJi 

« " W 10% 

10 " ft4 IIK 

11 " 65 0J4 

12 '* .65 1^ 

" 1 o'clock P. M C5 3 

'. 2 " 65 iyi 

» 3 " 65 6 

» 4 " 65 7% 

'» 5 " 65 9 

6 " 65 lOM 

« 7 " 65 wyi 

8 " 66 OVt 

<i 9 " 66 Q%, 

10 " 66 1% 

11 " 66 2»< 

" 12 midnight 66 2% 

" 15, at 1 o'clock A. M 66 3}^ 

2 " 66 3% 

« 3 " 66 3% 

" 4 (highest point) 66 4 

'< 5 " 66 4 

<' 6 " 66 Z% 

» 7 " 66 3X 

S " 66 3% 

« 9 " 66 3 

10 " 66 2% 

11 •' 66 2K 

12 " 66 \y2, 

" 1 o'clock P. M 66 1 

«' 2 " 66 0^ 

3 " -■ 65 nx 

4 " 65 11>^ 

" 8 " - , 65 8 

" 12midnight 65 8% 

16, at 2 o'clock A. M 65 m 

" 6 " 64 lb 

10 •' 64 m 

" 12 o'clock M 64 4J^ 

" 4 o'clock p.M 03 11% 

« 8 " 63 S ' 

" 12 midnight 63 3 

17, at 2 o'clock A. M : 64 dyi 

" 8 « '. 62 7 

" 12 " M 62 4 

" 4 " P.M 61 llj.^ 

»« 8 " 61 8 

12 midnight 61 4 

" IS, at 2 o'clock A. M 61 2 

" 19 " 59 7 

» 20 " 58 zy^ 

" 21 " 56 10 

•s 22 " 54 8 

•• 23at9o'clock A.M 50 

" 23 at midnight ' 47 !) 

Bibllo(jraphy of the Cincinnati Fauna. 5 


By Dr. F. W. Langdon. 

By way of supplement to our " Synopsis of the Cincinnati Fauna,' * 
given in a late number of this Journal, we append a local zoological 
bibliography, which we hope will be found of use to those interested 
in the fauna of this vicinity. It aims to include the zoological publi- 
cations relating to this vicinity, with such others as may have a more 
or less direct bearing thereon. The department of Palaeontology is 
not touched upon, excepting in the case of publications relating to 
fossil tertiary mammalia. General works aie, as a rule, mentioned by 
title only; more extended notice being given to publications of a 
strictly local nature. 

For valuable assistance in the department of Ornithology, we are 
indebted to Dr. J. M. Wheaton, of Columbus, Ohio, who lias kindly 
furnished us with advance sheets of his forthcoming " Bibliography of 
Ohio Ornithology," f which we have largely quoted, especially in the 
case of Dr. Kirtland's papers, very few of which were accessible to us. 

The ornithological portion of the present bibliography, contains all 
the titles given by Dr. Wheaton, in the above mentioned work, with 
about a dozen additional ones, some of the latter being publications 
pertaining to adjoining portions of Indiana. 

Mr. Charles Dury has contributed the portion relating to the depart- 
ment of Entomolog}' ; Mr. A. F. Gra}', that on INIollusca ; and Dr. J. 
H. Hunt, that on microscopic Articulata, Coelenterata and Protozoa. 
There never was a perfect bibliography, and it is not expected 
that the present one is an exception to the rule ; additions and correc- 
tions will be thankfull}' received. 


1778. HuTCHiNS, Thomas. Topographical description of Virginia, 
Pennsylvania and North Carolina, comprehending the rivers 
Ohio, Kanawha, Scioto, Cherokee, Wabash, Illinois, Miss- 
issippi, etc. London, 1778. 

<• This Journal, vol. v.. No. 3, Oct., 1SS2. pp. 1S5-191. 
+ In Vol* iv. Geological Survey of Ohio, 1882. 

6 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

Not seen ; this notice, from "Allen's History of the Ainericran FJison," ji. 
505, foot-note; mentions buffalo as " innutnerahle" northwestward of 
the Ohio river, from the mouth of the Kanawha, far down the Ohio. 

1788. May, Col. John. Journal and letters of, etc. <^IIist. Ac Pliilos. 
Soc. of Ohio, new series, vol. !., pp. 81-8.3. Mention of liulFalo 
on the Muskingum. 

Not seen; title quoted from " Allen's History of the American Bison," 
p. 505, foot-note. 

1808. Ashe, Thomas. Travels in America, performed in 180G, for the 
purpose of exploring the rivers Alleghen_y, ^fono^<rahela. Ohio 
and Mississipj)!, and ascertaining the produce and condition 
of tlicir Imnks and vicinit}'. B}^ Thomas Aslie, Esq. In 
three volumes, vols. i. [ii.-iii.], London. Printed for Richard 
Phillips, Bridge street, by John Abraham, Clement's lane. 

Vol. I. — Reference, p. 95, et.seq., to abundance of buffiilo at Onondago 
Lake, Pa. (attracted by Salt springs). Vol. II. — Deer near Marietta, 
Ohio, p. 23. There are various other references bearing on Ohio. 

1838. Atwater, Caleb. A history of the State of Ohio, natural and 
civil, by Caleb Atwater, A.M., member of the American 
Antiquarian Society; of the Rhode Island Historical Society; 
of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York; and of the 
American Geological Society; author of Western Antiquities; 
Tour to Prairie DuChien, etc. Second edition: Cincinnati; 
stereotyped by Glazen & Shepard. Title page not dated. 

There must be a first edition somewhere, but we have been unable to 
find it. Under head of " Wild Animals," etc., pp. 67-70, mentions bear, 
black and yellow wolf, and the panther and the black and gi"ay fox;" 
also beaver, otter, elk and bison, along with the common species. 

1838. Briggs, Jr., C. Report of (on counties of Wood, Crawford, 
Athens, Hocking and Tuscarawas.) <<^Second Annual Report 
on the Geological Survey of the State of Ohio, by W. W, 
Mather, principal geologist, and the •several assistants. 
Columbus. Samuel Medary, printer to the State, 1838, pp. 

Contains references, with weights and measurements (pp. 127-129), to 
various bones of a Mastodon found near Bucyrus in 1838. 

1838. Foster, J. W. Report of (on counties of Muskingum, Licking 
and Franklin). <CPP' ^^t- 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 7 

Contains (pp. 79-83) the original description, illustrated, of the giant 
beaver [Castoroides ohioemts), and references to other fossil mammalian re- 
mains found near Nashport, Ohio. 

1838. KiRTLAxND, J. P. Report on tlie Zoology of Ohio, by Prof. J. P. 
Kirtland, M.D. <;Secoud Annual Report on the Geological 
Survey of the State of Ohio. By W. W. Mather, principal 
geologist, and the several assistants. Columbus. Samuel 
Medary, printer to the State, 1838, pp. 157-200. 

The first systematic work on Ohio Zoology. Contains catalogues of mam. 
mals, birds, reptiles, fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks, found in Ohio ; 
enumerating, under mammals, 50 species; birds, 223 species; reptiles 
(proper) 27 species; batrachians, 21 species; fishes, 72 species; crus- 
taceans, 2 species ; mollusks, 169 species. 

Twenty-five pages following the catalogues proper, are occupied with 
notes on various species, amongst which occur numerous references to 
specimens taken in the vicinity of Cincinnati. 

The list of mammals is a nominal one of fifty species, three of which 
are synonyms ; and a fourth, the European Arvicola amphibus, is included 
either through misinformation or error in identification. Short notes on 
thirty -three species are given in an appendix, entitled " Notes and Ob- 

1846-48. Croghan, George. Journal of George Croghan. <;The 
Olden Time; a monthly publication devoted to the Preserva- 
tion of Documents and other Authentic Information in rela- 
tion to the Early Explorations, and the Settlement and Im- 
provement of the country around the head of the Ohio. Edited 
by Neville B. Craig, Esq. Two volumes, small 4to, Pitts 
burgh, 1846-1848. 

Not seen; this notice, from "Allen's History of the American Bison," 
p. 505, foot-note. Various references to buffalo in Ohio, in 1765. This 
same periodical contains numerous other references to buffalo between 
1770 and 1785. 

1848. HiLDRETH, S. P. Pioneer History: being an account of the first 
exaniihalions of Uu' Ohio Valley, and the early settlement of 
the Northwest Territory, chicHy from original manuscripts; 
containing the papers of Col. George Morgan; those of Judge 
Barker; the diaries of Joseph Buell and John Mathews; the 
records of the Ohio Company, etc., etc., etc., by S. P. Hildreth. 
Cincinnati: H. W. Derby & Co., Publishers. New York: A. 
S. Barnes & Co. 1848. 

Reference to deer (and turkeys), p 3r)8 ; to dter and Imtliilo, )». 485; 
panther (at Belpre, 1794 5), p. 497 ; wolves, beaver, p. 498. Records last 
beaver seen "on Muskingum, near Captain Devoll's mill, about the year 
1805, and was trapped by Israel Williams." 

8 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1848. Howe, Henry. Historical Collection of Ohio, cont:iining a col- 
lection of the most interesting facts, traditions, biographical 
sketches, anecdotes, etc., relating to its Geneial and Local 
History: with descriptions of its counties, principal towns 
and villages. Illustrated by 177 engravings, giving views of 
the chief towns, public buildings, relics of antiquity, historic 
localities, natural scenery, etc., by Henry Howe. Great Seal 
of the State of Ohio (1802). Cincinnati: Published for the 
author by Bradley & Anthony; price three dollars. 1848. 

Reference to bear, 47, 572; Mastodon remains, 118, 264; wolves, 47, 
243, 275, 280, 366. 

1851. Audubon, J. J., and Bachman, John. Quadrupeds of North 
America, etc., vol. ii. 
Refers to buifalo in Indiana and Kentucky, at p. 36. 

1854. Taylor, W, History of the State of Ohio, by James W. Taylor. 

First period, 1650-1787. Cincinnati: H. W. Derby k Co., 
Publishers. Sandusky: C. L. Derby & Co. 1854. 

Quotes from Drake's " Indian Captivities," in reference to deer, bear, 
and raccoons, p. 91; bears, p. 112; buffalo, p. 88, etc. 

1855. Drake, S. G. Indian Captivities, or Life m the Wigwam, being 

true narratives of Captives who have been carried away by 
the Indians from the frontier settlements of the United States, 
from the earliest period to the present time. By Samuel G. 
Drake, author of the " Book of Indians." New York and Au- 
burn : Miller, Orton & Mulligan. New York: 25 Park Row. 
Auburn: 107 Genessee St. 1855. 

Beaver and deer on Muskingum, pp. 208-210; buffalo and elk, same 
locality, pp. 188-9; buffalo, 228; bears, near Sandusky, 232. etc. 

1869. Haymond, Rufus. Mammals found at the present time in 
Franklin county, Indiana. <^First Annual Report of the 
Geological Survey of Indiana, made during the year 1869, by 
E. T. Cox, otate Geologist, assisted by Prof. Frank H. Brad- 
lev, Dr. Rufus Haymond, and Dr. G. M. Levette, Indianapo- 
lis. Alexander H. Conner, State printer, 1869, pp. 203-208. 

Classified list of thirty species. Gives Lynx rufus and Mystrix hudsonim 
as present, but rare. Remarks tbat the red fox, Vulpes fulvus, has only 
been observed in that country within ten or fifteen years. Records 1827 
as the date when Norway rat first appeared in Brookville, Ind., and states 
that the black rat {31us. rattus) was " numerous" at that time, but were 
"all gone" in a year or two — " all eaten up by this predatory stranger" 
'the Norway rat). 

Bibliography of the Ciricinnati Fauna. 9 

18<j9. Haymond, Rufus, Geology of Franklin county, Indiana. Dr. 
Rufus Haymoncl's report of a geological survey of Franklin 
count}-, Indiana, made during the summer and fall of 1869. 
<^First Annual Report of the Geological Surve}' of Indiana, 
made during the year of 1869, b}' E. T. Cox, State Geologist, 
assisted by Prof. Frank H. Bradb}-, Dr. Rufus Raymond, and 
Dr. G. M. Levette, Indianapolis. Alexander H. Collins, State 
printer, 1869. 

Mention at pp. 199-200, of parts of skeletons of three Mastodons, and a 
" tooth or two" of the Mammoth, near Brookville, Indiana. 

1874. Miller, S. A. (Editor.) Ancient Relics found in Cincinnati. 

<:^Cincinuati Quarterly Journal of Science, vol. i.. No. 10, 
October, 1874, pp. 375-377. 

Mentions " bear's tusks," " wolf's teeth," " deer's horns," etc., found by 
Dr. H. H. Hill, in excavating some aboriginal graves on hill back of 
Brighton House, Cincinnati, O. 

1875. Klippart, John H. Discovery of Dicotyles {Platygonus) com- 

pressus, LeConte. By John H. Klippart, of Columbus. Ohio. 

<;^The Cincinnati Quarterlj' Journal of Science, vol. ii., No. 

1, January, 1875. pp. 1-6. (Read before A. A. A. S., Hartford 

meeting, August, 1874.) 

Account of discovery of several skeletons of an extinct species of 
peccary, at Columbus, Ohio. 

1875. Klippart, John H. Mastodon remains in Ohio, by John H. 

Klippart. <;;The Cincinnati Quarterly Journal of Science, 
vol. ii.. No. 2, April 1875, pp. lul-155. 

Notice of finding of Mastodon bones in various parts of Ohio; of 
Castor ohioensh, near Nashport; of Dicotylcs (Platygomis) compresms {\2 
skeletons), at Columbus; of a jaw of fossil hoise, at Columbus. 

1876. Jordan, D. S. IManual of the Vertebrates of the Northern 

United States, including the district east of the Mississippi 
river, and north of North Carolina and Tennessee, exclusive 
of marine species, by David Starr Jordan, M.S., M.D., etc. 
Chicago: Jansen, McClurg & Co. 1876. 

The title sufficiently explains the scope of the book, which is one of the 
most useful works of the kind extant. Diagnoses of the various orders, 
families, genera, anc-l species in each class, are given with brief refer- 
ences to general geographical distribution. A second edition, dated ISSO, 
has appeared. 

1877. Allen. J. A. History of the Auieiican Bison [Bison omcri- 

10 Cincinnati Society of Natural Jliatory. 

canus). V>\ J. A. Allen. <^Nintli Annual Uoport of liu- 
United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the 
Territories, embracing Colorado and parts of adjacent Terri- 
tories : Beiug a Report of Progress of the Exploration, for the 
year 1875. B}' F. V. Hay den, United States Geologist. Con- 
ducted under the authority ol the Secretary of the Interior. 
Washington: Government Printing Oflice. 1877. Part iii.. 
Zoology, pp. 441-587. 

The work is substantially a republication of " The American Bisons, 
Living and Extinct," by the same author, which originally appeared in 
Vol. 1, Part ii., of the "Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Kentucky," 
etc., 1876. Also published under title of "Memoirs of the Museum of 
Comparativ Zoology," etc., Cambridge, Mass., vol. iv., 1876, etc. In 
the reprint which forms the subject of this notice, the extinct species are 
not treated, illustrations are omitted, and there are numerous minor 
modifications and additions. There are a few editorial explanatory notes 
by Dr. Elliot Cones. The limited number of copies of the original edition 
makes the one here noticed i^ractieally the only full history of the 
American buffalo accessible to the general public. References to the 
buffalo in the Ohio valley occur at pp. 458, et seq. ; in Ohio, at p. 474 
(southern shore of Lake Erie), p. 499, 505, etc. ; in Kentucky, p. 504. 

1881, Editor [F. W. Langdon]. Canis lupus, Lutra canadensis, 
Cariacus virginianus, Atalapha ciuereus, Sciurus carolinensis 
leucotis, Sciurus niger ludovicianus, Tamias striatus, Lepus 
Notes on above species in Ohio and Indiana. 

1881. Jones, Hoavard E. Arctomys raonax, Schreber. <^Journal 
Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. 337. 
Note on arboreal habits of woodchuck. 

1881. Langdon, F. W. The Mammalia of the vicinity of Cincinnati. 
A list of species, with notes. <^Journal Cin. Soc. INat. Hist., 
vol. iii., pp. 297-313. 

Three lists, lettered respectively, "A," " B," and "C." "A" is a list 
of 44 identified species; "B," a list of 10 unidentified species, whose range 
includes this locality ; " C," a list of 6 extinct species, whose fossil re- 
mains have been found in Ohio. 

1881. Quick, E. R. Hesperomys leucopus, Leconte. <^ Journal Cin. 

Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. 337. 

Albino specimen taken at Brookville, Ind. 

1882. Brayton, a. W. Report on the Mammals of Ohio. By Alem- 

bert W. Brayton, M.D, <;;Report of the Geological Survey 

Bihliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 1 1 

of Ohio. Vol. iv. Zoology and Botany. Part 1. Zoology. 
Officers of the Survey : J. S. Newberry, Chief Geologist; 
E. B. Andrews, Assistant Geologist ; Edward Ortoa, Assist- 
ant Geologist; T. G. Wormley, Chemist; F. B. Meek, Pulseou- 
tologist; J. M. Wheaton, A. W. Bray ton, R. C. Beardslee, 
D. L. Jordan, W. H. Smith, R. M. Byrnes, Special Assistants 
in Zoology and Botany.— Published by authority of the legis- 
lature of Ohio. Columbus : Nevins & Myers, State printers, 
1882. Section T. Report on the Mammalia of Ohio, by A. M. 
{sic.) Brayton, pp. 1185; Addenda, pp. lll.etseq. Duplicate 
title, "Report on the Mammals of Ohio," by A. M. {sic.) 

A good account, largely compiled, as stated in preface, from standard 
authorities on North American Mammals. The work treats of 48 species, 
and aims to include extirpated as well as existing species. The extinct 
tertiary mammals are not mentioned. The accounts of the various 
species are well prepared, and a feature of special interest is the t\\\\ 
synonomy which precedes the account of each. Spermophilus franUini is 
given at p. 118-119, on the authority of the present writer; this is an 
error which has since been corrected {vide Langdon, Mammalia of the 
Vicinity of Cincinnati, etc., this Journal, vol. iii., p. 305, foot-note). It 
is also corrected at ji. 1002 of the volume which forms the subject of this 
1882. Editor [F, W. Langdon]. A Synopsis of the Cincinnati Fauna. 
<;^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 185. 

" Class Mammalia." A table of the species, genera, families, and orders 
of mammalia, identified' in the vicinity of Cincinnati; also a table of 
" probabilities" not yet identified. 

1882. Quick, E. R. Arvicola ripaiius, Ord. <^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., vol. v., p. 52. 

Measureinents four specimens from Brookville, lad. 

1882. Quick, E. R. Mamnjals found in Franklin county [Indiana.] 
<^Atlas of Franklin county, Indiana. To which are added 
various general maps, history, statistics, illustrations, etc. 
J. H. Beers & Co., publishers, Lake Side Building, cor. Clark 
and Adams streets, Chicago, 1882. Folio (?). 

Mammals begin on page 9, and end on i)age 10. The work comprises 
civil, religious, political, military and natural history of the county. 
(Not seen; this notice from memoranda furnished by Jlr. E. R. Quick.) 

1882. RiCKETTS, B. M. Lynx rnfus, Rafinesque. <;^-louriial Cin. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 52. 

Captured near Hanging Rock, O. 

12 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1882. SiEWERS, C. G. Sciui'optorus volucolla, Geoffro}-, Felis domesti- 
ciis, L. <^Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., pp. 1)2-93. 
Depredations of former on pea-crop checked by latter. 

1882. Shorten, J. W. Blarina brevicauda, Baiid. <^Journal Cin. 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 93. 
Specimen found in stomach of Buleo borealis. 

1808-14. Wilson, A. American Ornithology; or, the Natural Histoiy 
of the Birds of the United States: Illustrated with plates en- 
graved and colored from original drawings taken from nature, 
b3' Alexander Wilson. Vol. i. [-ix.] Philadelphia: Pub- 
lished by Bradford and Inskeep. 

1825-33. Bonaparte, C. L. American Ornitholog}'; or, the Natural 
History of Birds inhabiting the United States, not given by 
Wilson, with figures drawn, engraved, and colored, from na- 
ture. By Charles Lucien Bonaparte. Vol. i. [-iv.] Phila- 
delphia: Carey, Lea <fe Care3^, Chestnut street. London : John 
Miller, 40 Pall Mall. 

1831 39. Audubon, J. J. Ornithological Biograph3', or an account of 
the habits of the Birds of the United States of America; 
accompanied by descriptions of the objects represented in 
the work entitled the Birds of America, and interspersed with 
delineatioHS of American scenery and manners. By John 
James Audubon. F. R. S. S. L. & E. Edinburgh: Adam 
Black. MDCCCXXXI-II., etc. 

This is the original edition of text to Audubon's great work, " The Birds 
of America," and contains several references to birds observed in the 
vicinity of Cincinnati, e. g.. Coturniculus liendowi (" Kentucky, opposite 
Cincinnati"), Hedymeles ludoviciamts (breeding), Comirus carolinensis, 
Catharles atratus, Ardctta exUis, et. al. There are several reprints of the 

1832-34. Ndttall, T. A Manual of the Ornithology of the United 
States and of Canada. By Thomas Nuttall, A. M., F. L. S. 
[Vol. i.] The Land Birds. Cambridge: Hilliard & Brown, 
booksellers to the University. MDCCCXXXIL [Vol. ii.] 
The Water Birds. Boston : Hilliard, Gray & Compan}-. 

1838. Atwater, Caleb. A History of the State of Ohio, natural and 

Bibhoyraphy of the Cincinnati Fauna. 13 

civil. Bn' Caleb Atwater, A. M., Member, etc., etc. First 
edition. Cincinnati, pp. 93-96. 

Mentions by common name, and sometimes very indefinitely, about 
seventy-five specie^ of birds. Notes the sandhill crane on the Scioto 
neai'ly all the year; paroquette, as quoted on page 404; closes with a 
highly laudatory and histrionic description of the brown thrush, and his 
vocal powers. — (Wheaton.) 

1838. Atwater, Caleb. History of Oliio, second edition. Cincinnati. 

Refers to raven (Corvus corax carnivorus), as a constant resident of the 
State. Sandhill crane, parakeet, and about 70 other species mentioned. 

1838. KiRTLAND, Jared P. Report of Dr. Kirtland, Second Assistant 
Geologist. <<;^First Annual Report on the Geological Siirve}'' 
of the State of Ohio. By W. W. Mather, Principal Geologist, 
and the several assistants. Columbus: Samuel Medarv, 
printer to the State. 1838, pp. 65-69. 

Presents the plan and economic importance of the Zoological Survey of 
the State. Names Meleagris gallopavo, Anas domestica, Anas canadensis, 
Anas bernida, Anas americana, Anas ohscura, Anas sponsa,, Anas discors, 
Anas crecca, Fuligula vaUisnera, Fidigula ferina, Tetroa cupido, Tetrao 
umbellus, Pcrdix virginiana. — (, Wheaton.) 

1838. Kirtland, J. P. Report on the Zoology of Ohio. By Professor 
J. P. Kirtland, M. D. <^Second Annual Report on the Geolo- 
gical Survey of the State of Ohio. By W. W. Mather, Princi- 
pal Geologist, and the several assistants. Columbus: Samuel 
Medary, printer to the State, pp. 160-6, an.d 177-187. 

The list of birds is a nominal one of 222 (223 by error in numbering) 
species, and is supplemented by notes on 124 species. This work is the 
first systematic treatise on Ohio Ornithology, and, considering the time 
and circumstances of its appearance, is remarkable for its fullness and 
comparative freedom from errors. The work contains numerous refer- 
ences to birds observed in the vicinity of Cincinnati, and our only 
authentic records of the occurrence here of the avocot, and Iludsonian 

1840-44. Audubon. J. J. Tlie Birds of America, from diauings made 
in the United States and their Territories. By John James 
Audubon. Philadelphia: J. B. Chevalier. 1840-1844, 7 vols. 

1841. Kirtland, J. P. Fragments of Natural llistcny. Bv J. P. 
Kirtland, M.D., Prof. Theo. and Prac. Phys. "Medical College 
of Ohio. " I write that whicii I have seen." LeBaum. No. 
II.. Ornithology. <^Am. Jour. Sci. and Arts, vol. xl., lS41,pp. 

14 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

Desultory notes on seventeen species, dated June 4, 1840. BomhyciUa 
garrula, Phlaropus hyperboreas, Sylvia pcnsilis, 8. rara, FrimjiUa ludoinci- 
<ina [S. trochilus), Florida cjalliwde, Trinrja ru/escens, Tringa alpina, Sylviu 
maratima, S. iclerocephala, S. caslanea, Totamus seimpalmaiiis, Idmosa fedoa, 
Nwmenius hudsonicus, Cliaradrius melodies. 

1845. Storer, D. H. [Occurrence of Frinyilla pinea [pinus~\., and 
Bomb3'cilla garrula, in Ohio, in July.] <^Proc. Bost. 8oc. 
Nat. Hist., vol. ii., 1845, p. 52. 
Statement as above in letter from Dr. J. P. Kirtland. 

1850. Kirtland, J. P. Fragments of Natural History. <;^Family 

Visitor (weekly newspaper), vol. 1, No. 1, 1850-1. 

Notes on twenty-one species, chiefly regarding their relative aljundance 
compared with former years. Washington eagle, red-tailed, red-shoul- 
dered, broad winged. Cooper's and swallow tailed hawks, gossander, 
mallard, summer duck, wild turkey, partridge, quail, pileated woodcock, 
turkey buzzard, raven, crow, crow black bird, robin, blue bird, thrush, 
cat bird. — (Wheaton.) 

1850. [Kirtland, J. P.] The Eagle. <Family Visitor, No. 2, 1850, 

p. 15. 

Golden eagle, an occasional visitor; Washington eagle, a doubtful 
species; white headed eagle, breeding in Rockport, Ohio. 

1850. [Kirtland, J. P.] The Blue Bird. <^Family Visitor, vol. i., 
No. 7, 1850, p. 55. 
A popular account. 

1850. [Kirtland, J. P.] Birds of Winter. <;^FamiU' Visitor, vol. i.. 
No. 8, 1850, p. 63. 

1850. [Kirtland, J. P.] Troupial or Cow Blackbirtl. <^Faniily 
Visitor, vol. i.. No. 9, 1850, p. 71. 

1850. J. P. K. [irtland]. Editorial Correspondence. -cC^Family 
Visitor, vol. i.. No. 10, 1850, p. 72. 
Domestication of the summer duck, and other water fowl. 

1850. [Kirtland, J. P.] Instinct. <^Family Visitor, vol. i.. No. 

15, 1850, p. 120. 

Owing to late season, redpolls and white snow birds remain until April, 
the latter in breeding jjlumage. 

1850. [Kirtland, J. P.] The Wild Pigeon. <;Family Visitor, vol. 
i., No. 17, 1850, p. 133. 
A popular account. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 15 

1850. [KiRTLAND, J! P.] Pine Linnet. <::^Family Visitor, vol. i., No. 

18, 1850, p. 140. 

Fringilla linaria, arriving July 1, and remainin g until May 30. 

1850. [KiRTLAND, J. P.] White-crowned and White-throated Finches. 
<Family Visitor, vol. i., No. 19, 1850, p. 148. 
Remaining till Jane 1. 

1850. [KiRTLAND, J. P.] Pine Finch. <;;Family Visitor, vol. i., No. 

19, 1850, p. 148. 

Still remains (.June 29) and mating. 

1850. [KiRTLAND, J. P.] White-headed Sparrow. <;;Faraily Visitor, 
vol. i.. No. 19, 1850, p. 148. 
Still remains (June 27). 

1850. [KiRTLAND, J. P.] White-headed Eagle. <^Family Visitor, 
vol. i., No. 19, 1850, p. 148. 
Nesting at Rockport, Ohio, in 1850. 

1850. [KiRTLAND, J. P.] The Glossy Ibis. <<Family Visitor, vol. i., 
No. 21, 1850, p. 161. 

Copies account in Boston Traveler (May ?) 28th, one specimen recently 
taken near Cambridge, and one at Middleboro, Mass., and one at Middle- 
town, Conn., and records two specimens of the Glossy Ibis two years pre- 
viously (1848) near Fairport, Lake county, Ohio, one captured. Also 
records taking of Wilson's phalarope and great marbled godwit by the 
same collector: — (Wheaton). 

1850. [KiRTLAND, J. p.] White-throated and White-headed Sparrow. 

<^Family Visitor, vol. i.. No. 21, 1850, p. 164. 

Remained at Sandusky until June [July] 3; pine linnet still remains 
[July 11.] 

1851. [KiRTLAND, J. P.] A Rare Bird. <;;Family Visitor, vol. i., 1851, 

, p. 412. 

Troglodytes ludovicianics taken at Rockport, Oliio, April 30, 1851. 

1852. Baird, S. F. Description of a new species of Sylvicola. Sylvi- 

cola kirtlandii. <;^Ann. Lye. N, Y., vol. v., 1852, p. 217. 

1852. KiRTLAND, J. P. Peculiarities of the Climate, Flora anil Fauna 
of the South Shore of Lake Erie, in the vicinity of Cleveland, 
Ohio; by J. P. Kirtland. <;;Ani. Jour. Sci. and Arts, 2d 
Series, vol. xiii., 1872, pp. 215-19. Reprinted in Proc. Cleve- 
land Acad. Nat. Sci., 1874, 1875. p. 171, and in Family Visitor, 

i6 Cincinnati Society of Natural JJistorij. 

Notes on tlic liooiled, Kentucky, yellovv-throatod wooil, eierulcan and 
prairie warblers, Traill's flycatcher, piping jilover, pine grosbeak, white 
owl, Bohemian wax-wint,', and pine finch. 

1852. [Read, M. C, Pxlitor.j The Cow liliickbinl. <^Family Visitor, 

vol. iii., No. 9, 1852, p. 68. 

List of 18 species foster parents of the cow blackbird ; snowbird {Junco) 
and chestnut-sided warbler, breeding in Ashtabula county, Ohio. 

1852-3. [Read, M. C] Birds of Oliio. <Family Visitor, vol. iii., 1852. 

The first systematic attempt to describe the birds of the State. Ordinal, 
family, generic, and specific descriptions, with notes on habits of about a 
dozen families are given. No choice is expressed as to specific nomen 
clature, several synonyms being sometimes given. Species, 74 — 2 syno- 
nyms — 76 — (Wheaton). 

1853. Read, M. C. Catalogue of tlie Birds of Northern Ohio. <;Proc. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. vi., 1853, pp. 395-402. 

Shortly annotated list of 146 species; land birds only. Marked "to 
be continued." No continuation found. (Not seen ; this notice is taken 
from Coues' BMiograpldcal Appendix to Birds of Colorado Valley. 

1854. ZucHOLD, — . <<^Jouraal fUr Ornithologie, vol. vi., 1854, p. 355. 

Copies Balrd's description of /SyZytcote Z;iV<tertdt. (See 1852, Baird.) 

1856. Cassin, J. Illustrations of the Birds of, etc., etc., vol. i., p. 278. 
PI. xlvii. Philadelphia, 1856. 
Sylvicola kirtlandi from the original. 

1856. Raymond, Rdfus. Birds of Southeastern Indiana. <<^Proc., 
Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., vol. viii., 1856, pp. 286-298. 

Classified list of 139 species with notes. Contains the first record of the 
occurrence of the wood ibis, Tantalum loculator, in this vicinity. 

1858. Baird, Spencer F. Birds. <^[Pacific R. R. Report.], vol. ix., 


Mentions several specimens of Ohio birds in the National Museum, 
Vireo philadelphicus, Empidonax minimus, etc. 

1859. Brewer, T. M. North American Oology. <;;Smithsonian 

Contributions, vol. xi., 1859. 
Names seven species of Raptores as Ohioan. 

1859. KiRKPATRiCK, John. Birds of Ohio. <<;Ohio Farmer (news- 
paper, Cleveland), 1859. 

A short account, chiefly a compilation of 59 species of Ohio birds. 
Four species added to fauna of State. 

Vibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 


1859. KiRKPATRiCK, JoHX. Rapacious Birds of Ohio. <;;;^01iio Agric. 

Report for 1858 [1859], pp. 34-1.383. 
Reprint of Raptores from the Birds of Ohio, Ohio Farmer (above). 

1860. KiRTLAND, J. P. An Addition to the Fauna of Ohio. <;;^Ohio 

Farmer, vol. ix., 1860, p. 91. 

Notice of occurrence of Hesperiphonavespertina, new species to State, and 
comments on rarity of various birds during the winter. 

J 860. Anon. [Kirkpatrick, John.] Kirtland's Warbler. <^Ohio 
Farmer, vol. ix., 1860, p. 179. 

Note of a specimen of Dendrosca Mrtlandi, taken by Mr. Darby, at 
Cleveland, in the spring of 1860. 

1861. Collins, W. O. Report of Senate Select Committee, upon 

Senate Bill No. 12, -'For the Protection of Birds and Game." 
<^Fifteenth Ann. Rep. Ohio State Board of Agriculture for 
1860 (1861), pp. 381-390. 

Facts in the natural history of Ohio birds, with recommendations for 
legislative action. f 

1861. Editor [S. D. Harris]. Field Notes, vol. i, 1861, p. 65. 

Note on the introduction of the English skylark, at Columbus, in 1851. 

1861. Trembly, J. B. Bird Talk. <Field Notes [Agricultural 
newspaper, Columbus, O.] Vol. i., 1861, p. 65. 
Note on Picuspileatus as observed about Toledo. 

1861. Trembly, J. B. Ornithological Inquiries. <;;Field Notes, vol. 
i., 1861, p. 129. 

Lanes occidentalis{=argentatics, immature), L. bonapartei, Sterna hirundo), 
at Toledo, in April. 
1861. Trembly, J. B. Gulls. <Field Notes, vol. i., 1861, p. ISO. 

Continued discussion of so-called L. orcidentalis, with interesting notes 
upon the breeding habits of tlie Florida gallinule, and upon Arddta crilit 
and Botaurtus leiiti<jmosiis. 

1861. Wheaton, J. M. Bird Notes. <;Field Notes, vol. i., 1861, p. 65. 

Note on distribution of pileated woodpecker, whipporwill, nightliawk 
and shore lark. 

1861. Wheaton, J. M. Rare Birds. <Fiold Notes, vol. i., 1861, p. 

Notes on the capture at Columbus, in May, of Porzana Carolina, Hallux 
virginianus, Guiraca ludoviciana, Ardrtta exilis, Gall inula galeata, and 
Chondestcs grammaca. Latter species added to fauna of State. 

18 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1861. Whkaton, J. M. Oriiilliolooical Inqiiiiios. <:;;;p"'ield Notes, 

vol. i., 1861, p. 152. 

Suggestions as to proper ideiitificatioii of L. occidentalis (above), and 
hints towards laws of migration. 

1861. Wheaton, J. M. Catalogue of the Birds of Ohio. <;Fifteentl) 
Ann. Rop. Ohio State Board ofAgric. for 1860 [1861], pp. 
359-398. Addenda, p. 480. 

285 species, with 17 "probabilities;" the rarer or more interesting species 
fully annotated. Includes p. 381, elseq., reports of legislative action for pro- 
tection of birds. Also printed separately, repaged, without the legislative 

(This notice from Coues'Bibliog. Appendix to Birds of Colorado Valley. 

1861. Wheaton, J. M. Catalogue of the Birds of Ohio. Reprinted 
from the Ohio Agricultural Report for 1860 (1 861), pp. 1-21. 

Reprint of the last, repaged, and with its addenda distributed in place; 
3 species added to list of probabilities. 

1864. Baird, S. F. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 181. 
^ Review of American Birds in the Museum of the Smith, 
sonian Institution. By S. F. Baird. Part I. North and 
Middle America. Washington. Smithsonian Institution. 
P. 23. First mention of Turdus alicice from Ohio. 

1864. Hough, F. B. House of Representatives, 36th Congress, 1st 
Session, Ex. Doc. No. 55. Results of Meteorological Obser- 
vations made under the direction of the United States Patent 
Office and Smithsonian Institution, from the year 1854-1859, 
inclusive, being a report of the Commissioners of Patents, 
, made at the first session of the Thirty-sixth Congress, Vol. 
ii., Part 1. Washington. Government Printing Office. 
1864. Observations upon Periodical Phenomena in Plants 
and Animals, from 1851 to 1859, with tables of dates of 
opening and closing of Lakes, Rivers, Harbors, etc. Ar- 
ranged by Franklin B. Hough, M. D. Dates of first appear- 
ance of Birds, pp. 183 206. 

Tables of dates of spring appearance of Turdics migratorius, Mimus 
felivox, Sialia sialis. Troglodytes aedon, Hirundo horreorum, Prague 
purpurea, DoUchonyx oryzivorus, Agelaius phosniceus, Quiscalus versi- 
color, Tyrannus intrepidus, Tyranmda fusca, Antro stomas vociferus, 
ChcEtura pelasgia, Pandion carolinus, and Bernicla canadensis, at the 
following stations : Cincinnati, Mt. Healthy, Ripley. Hockingport, 
Marietta, Hamilton, Gerraantowu, Troy, Belle Centre, Savannah, Bowling 
Green, Hiram, Edinburg, Windham, Poland, Cleveland, Rockport, Madi- 
son, Welchfield, Jefferson and Ashtabula. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 19 

1867. Brewer, T. M. Some errors regarding the habits of our Birds. 

By T. M, Brewer, M. D. <^The American Naturalist, vol. 
i., 1867, p. 113. 

Corrects error in " North Americau Oology, " respecting the breeding 
of Astur atricapUlus, in Ohio. 

1868. Garlick, T. Migrations of Birds. <^Am. Naturalist, vol. ii., 

1868, p. 492. 

Observation on an Albino robin at Cleveland. 

1868. March, F. G. Kingfisher's Nest again. <^Ara. Naturalist, 

vol. ii., 1868, p. 490. 

Description of two Ohio nests of this bird. 

1869. Haymond, Rufus. Birds of Franklin County, Indiana. <^First 

Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Indiana, made 
during the year 1869, by E. T. Cox, State Geologist, assisted 
by Prof. Frank H. Bradley, Dr. Rufus Haymond, and Dr. G, 
M. Levette, Indianapolis: Alexander H. Conner, State printer, 

1869, pp. 209-235. This is the title of the Geological volume 
when bound separately. Some copies are bound with the 
Agricultural Report for same year, and the volume entitled, 
Indiana Agricultural and Geological Reports, 1869, etc. 

List of 163 species (including Haliaetus washiiigtonU), with notes. 
Contains records of the ivory-billed woodpecker, swallow-tailed kite, Be- 
wick's wren, turnstone, Brant goose (?) greater scaup duck, and velvet duck 
(CEdeinia fussa). Also, records of the raven, parakeet and wood ibis. 
Graculm carbo is recorded probably by mistake for G. dilopluis floridantts. 

1869. Ingersoll, Ernest. Variation of BUiel)ird's Eggs. <;^Am. 
Naturalist, vol. iii., 1869, p. 391. 
Pure white eggs of bluebird, at Oberlin, Ohio. 

1872. CoPE, E. D. Zoological Sketch of Ohio. By E. Cope, A.M., 
Sec. Acad. Nat. Sci.. Phila. <;;^Nevv Typographical Atlas of 
the State of Ohio, with descriptions, Historical, Scientific, and 
Statistical, together with maps of the United States and Ter- 
ritories. By. H. F. Walling and O. W. Gray, Civil Topo- 
graphical Engineers. Publislied by Stednian. l>rown & Lvon. 
Cincinnati, 1872, 

Gives the number of Ohio birds as 263, grouped as follows : passeres, 132; 
syndactyli, 5; scansores, 12; psittaci, 1; raptores, 25; pullastra\ 2; 
gallime, 4; gralla>, 45; natatores, 37. Short notes on a few of the com 
moner species, p. 25. 

20 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1872. CouES, Elliott. Key to North Atiieiicuii Birds : conlaiiiiiig a 
concise account of every species of living and fossil bird at 
present known, from the continent north of the Mexican and 
United States iDouudary. Illustrated by 6 steel plates, and 
upwards of 250 woodcuts. B^^ Elliott Coues, Assistant Sur- 
geon, United States Arm}'. Salem : Naturalists' Agency. 
New York : Dodd and Mead. Boston : Estes and Lauriate 

Mentions several species as Ohioan, and on page 263, Tantalus locidator 
" north to Ohio." 

1872. Matnard, C. J. A Catalogue of the Birds of Coos Co., N. H.. 
and Oxford Co., Me., with annotations relative to their 
breeding habits, migrations, etc. By C. J. Maynard. With 
notes b}' William Brewster. <;^Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
vol. xiv., for Oct., 1871, pub. 1872, pp. 356 385. 
Dendrceca castanea noted as occurring in Ohio, p. 366. 

1874. Baird, Brewer and Eidgway. A History of North American 
Birds. By S. F. Baird, T. M. Brewer, and E. Eidgway. Land 
Birds Illustrated by 64 colored plates and 593 woodcuts. 
Vol. i. [— iii.] Boston: Little, Brown 'fe Co., 1874. 

Names several birds as occurring in Ohio, and vol. ii., p. 531, first au- 
thentic record of Picoides arcticus as Ohioan. 

1874. Codes,- Elliott. Department of the Interior. United States 
Geological Survey of the Territories. F. V. Hayden, U. S. 
Geologist-in-charge. Miscellaneous Publications No. 3. 
Birds of the Northwest: a Hand-book of the Ornitholog}' of the 
Eegion drained by the Missouri river and its Tributaries. 
By Elliott Coues, Captain and Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army. 
Washington: Government Printing Office. 1874. 
Mentions several sjiecies as Ohioan, with notes. 

1874. Kirtland, J. P. Peculiarities of Climate, Flora and Fauna of 
the South Shore of Lake Erie, in the vicinity of Cleveland, 
Ohio. <Proc. Cleveland Acad. Nat. Sci., 1874, pp. 200-287. 

Read 1851, and originally published, as above, in Am. Journ. Sci., v 
xiii., 1852, also in Family Visitor, 1853 (?,. 

1874. Kirtland, J. P. Mounted Birds from Northern Ohio, in the 
Academy's Museum. <:^Proc. Cleveland Acad. Nat. Sci., 
1874, pp. 200-287. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 21 

"The article includes only the ^ccipiVres and a few Incessores, hut is 
quite full, as far as it goes, with characters of the genera, and higher 
groups, and descriptions and biographies of the species. It is annotated 
by Thomas Brown, editor of the Ohio Farmer, in which the descriptions 
originally appeared, and was preiJared in 1858-9." Coues' Bibliographical 
Appendix, Birds Col. Val., 1878, pp. 705. 

" This I think is an error, probably on the part of the editors of Proc. 
Cleve. Acad. Nat. Sci. The pajjer in question is undoubtedly a reprint of 
' The Birds of Ohio, ' by John Kirkpatrick, Ohio Farmer, 1868-9-71. No 
article with the above title, or any extended ornithological paper by Dr. 
Kirtland, appeared in the Ohio Farmer, at any time. The Editor was not 
an ornithologist." Wheaton, Bibliography of Ohio Ornithology, Ohio 
Geol. Survey, vol. iv., 1882 (in press). 

1874. Kirtland, J. P. Letter from, dated 1857, mentioning various 
Indiana Birds, <^Proc. Cleveland Acad. Nat. Sci., 1874, pp. 

Not seen; quoted from Coues' '• Bibliographical Appendix" to Birds of 
Colorado Valley. 

1874. RiDGWAY, Robert. Catalogue of the Birds ascertained to occur 

in Illinois. <;^Ann. Lj'c. Nat. Hist., N.Y., vol. x., 1874, pp. 


Incidentally names a few species as Ohioan, probably on earlier Ohio au- 

1874. Tenner, Armin. [List of 20 species birds imported and set free 
at Cincinnati b}^ Acclimation Society of Cincinnati.] <^Forest 
and Stream, June 4, 1874. 

1874. Wheaton, J. M. Notes. <;Birds of the Northwest, 1874, pp. 223-4. 

Notes on Tardus swainsoni, T. alicice, Doidraca ccerulea, D. dominica, Am- 
pelis cedrorum, Vireo philadelphicu^, Collnrio ladovicianus, Melospiza mclodia, 
ChondeMcs grammaca, Chordcilcs j)opcliK, Chxctura pclasgia. 

1875. Wheaton, J. M. The Food of Birds, as related to Agriculture. 

<^Ohio Agricultural Report for 1874 (1875), pp. 561-578 (Sept. 
1875). Also reprint, repaged, but otherwise unchanged, pp. 

"Tliis is in effect a corrected and completed list of the birds of Ohio, 
briefly annotated, and with the general food regimen of each family 
given; being a well conceived essay of much practical utility." Coues' 
Bibliographical Appendix, Birds of Colorado Valley, 1878, pp. 710. 

288 species, with 6 additional varieties, given. 

1876 Henshaw, H. W. On two Enipidonaces, traillii, and acadicus. 
-<^I>ullolin of theNuttall Ornithological Club, vol. i., 1876, pp. 

Hescriptiou of nest of E, trailli, from Ohio, ;\tiil notes of l)otl\ species in 

22 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1876. JouDAN, D. S. Manual of tlu; Veilebmtes of the Northern United 

States, including the district east of the Mississii^pi river, and 
north of North Carolina and Tennessee, exclusive of marine 
species. By David Starr Jordan, Ph. D., M. D., Professor of 
Natural History in N. W. C. University, and in Indiana State 
Medical College. Chicago: Jaasen, McClurg & Co., 1870. 
Several references to Ohio. A second edition is dated 1880. 

1877. DuRY, Charles. Fecundity of the Carolina Wren [Thryothoras 

ludovicianus), <^Bulletin Nuttall Ornithological Club, vol. ii., 
1877, p. 50. 

Record of a pair of this species rearing three broods (of 5 each) in one 

1877. [Editor] [Notice of] Langdon's Catalogue of Birds of the Vicin- 
ity of Cincinnati. <^Ainerican Naturalist, vol. xi., 1877, pp.. 

1877. Langdon, F. W. A Catalogue of the Birds ot the Vicinity of 
Cincinnati [Ohio], with, notes. By Frank W. Langdon. 
Salem, Mass: The Naturalists' Agency. 1877. 8vo, pamph. 
pp. 18. 

A local list of 279 species, annotated, 236 species identified, and 43 
species (with numbers in parenthesis) included on the strength of their 
known range. The first list of the birds of this locality, and consequently 
very incomplete. 

1877. Langdon, F. W. Occurrence of tlie Black Vulture or Carrion 

Crow in Ohio. <Bull. Nutt. Oru. Club, vol. ii., 1877, p. 109. 

Capture of this species at Madisonville, Dec. 1876. 

1877. Merriam, C. H. A Review of the Birds of Connecticut, with 
Remarks on their Habits. <;;;Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. iv., July- 
Oct., 1876, pp. 1-165. Also separate, pamphlet, and bound. 
A Review of the Birds of Connecticut. By C. Hart Merriam. 
New Haven: Tuttle, Morehouse & Taylor, printers. 1877. 
Large 8vo, pp. 1-166. 

"An important article, very critical, complete and workmanlike, bring- 
ing the subject up to date. * * * I hold it for a model of this sort of 
work." — Coues. Names as Ohioan, Contojyus borealis, Harelda glacialis, and 
CEdemia americana. 

1877. Wheaton, J. M. The Ruff and the Purple Gallinule in Ohio. 
<Bul]. Nutt. Orn. Club, vol. ii., 1877, p. 50. 

First authentic record of Philomachris pugnax and Porphyrio mcniuncain 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 23 

1878. J. A. A. [llex]. [Review of] Birds of the Vicinit^^ of Cincinnati. 
<;^Bulletin Nuttall Orn. Club, vol. iii., No. 1, January, 1878, 
p. 34. 

A review of Langdon's Catalogue of 1877. 

1878. Ballou, W. H. The Natural History of the Islands of Lake 
Erie. <;Field and Forest, vol., iii., 1878, pp. 135-137. 

Thirty-eight species given by tlieir common names, 30 breeding. 

1878. CouES, Elliott. Department of the Interior. United States 
Geological Survey of the Territories. F. V. Hajalen, U. S. 
Geologist-in-charge. Miscellaneous publications. — No. 11. 
Birds of the Colorado Valley, a repository of scientific and 
popular information concerning North American Ornithology. 
B\' Elliott Coues. Part First. Passeres to Laniidae. Biblio- 
graphical appendix. Seventy illustrations. Washington: 
Government Printing Office. 1878. 

Mentions Sitta pus-ilia, Dendrosca kirtlandi, Ampelis garrulus and Laniiis 
ludovicianus as Ohoian. 

1878. Langdon, F. W. Observations on Cincinnati Birds. B}" Frank 
W. Langdon. <;^The Journal of the Cincinnati Society of 
Natural History, vol. i., pp. 110-118. 

Contains one additional species, the European Alaucla arvensis, to the 
Catalogue of 1877, by same author, and verification of the occurrence of 
several previously unidentified species, with notes. 

1878. Merkiam, C. H, Remarks on some of the Birds of Lewis 
County, Northern New York. <;;Bu11, Nutt. Orn. Club, vol. 
iii., 1878, p. 52. 

CoUurio ludovicianus var. exeubitoroides breeding in Ohio. 

1878. RiDGWAY, R. Eastward range of Chondestes grammaca. «<;Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vol. iii., 1878, p. 43. 
Notes its occurrence in Ohio in 1860 (1861). 

1878 9. Bkewstek, W. Descriptions of the First Plumage in various 
species of North Amoiican Birds. <^Bull. Nutt. Club. vol. 
iii.-iv., 1878, 1879. 

"Describes from Ohio specimens, vol. iii., p. 121, Chondestes granunica, 
first pin maye; ji. 122, Euspiza amGr'nn\ni\,firi<t pluma(ie ; p. 177, P^mpidonax 
acadieus,_^;vs/ /)/i<»/if(j7e; vol. iv., p. 41, Euspiza aniericnna, autumual plum- 
age, youuij. The same (18o0) re|)rintod and repaged, pp. 1-3P. 

24 Cincinnati Society of Natural II istory. 

1879. Brewer, T. M. The Eggs of the Redstart. <Iiull. Nutt. Orn. 
Club, vol. iv., 1879, p. 118. 
Measurement of eggs of Setophaya ruticilla from Ohio. 

1879. E. C. [ouEs]. Review of, Langdon's Revised List of Cincinnati 
Birds. <<Biill. Nutt. Ornith. Club, vol. iv., No. 2, April 
1879, pp. 112-113. 

1879. E. C. [ouEs]. [Review of part 1 of] Jones & Shulze's illustra- 
tions of the Nests and Eggs of the Birds of Ohio. <;^Bull. 
Nutt. Ornith. Club, vol. iv., No. 1, Jan. 1879, p. 52. 

1879. CouES, E. History of the Evening Grosbeak. <Bull. Nutt. 

Orn. Club, vol. iv., 1879, pp. 65-75. 

Mentions the occurrence of the Evening Grosbeak at Cleveland and 
Columbus, the latter an error, on authority of Dr. J. M. Wheaton. 

1879. DuRY, Charles, and Freeman, L. R. Observations on Birds. 
<Jour. Ciu. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. ii., 1879, pp. 100-104. 
Also separate, pamph., repaged, pp. 1-5. 

A list of 69 species, with dates of observation, with notes of peculiarities 
in nesting, etc. First authentic record of Triiiga hairdii and Sterna hirundo 
in the vicinity of Cincinnati, and first authentic record of TJiryothorus 
bcwickii in Ohio, 2 specimens, March 27, 1879. 

1879-81. Jones, G. E., and Shulze, E. J. Illustrations of the ne^ts 
and eggs of the birds of Ohio, with text. By Genevieve E. 
Jones and Eliza J. Shulze. Circleville, Ohio. 1879. Folio, in 
about 23 parts, three plates in each part, colored b}' hand; 
also issued uucolored. Text by Dr. Howard Jones. 

A magnificent work. The illustrations are simply superb, and the text 
very thorough. But a limited number of copies (40 or .50) issued. 

The untimely death (August 17, 1879) of one of its talented authors, 
Miss Jones, is to be deeply regretted as a most serious loss to ornithological 
science and art. Miss Jones' jiortion of the work has been continued by 
her mother, Mrs. Virginia E. Jones, and the work is now (1882) completed. 

1879. Langdon, F. W. Albinism in the Tufted Titmouse. <^Bull. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vol. iv., 1879, p. 116. 
Describes iiartially albino specimens of Lophoiihaues bicolor. 

1879. Langdon, F. W. The White rumped and Loggerhead Shrikes in 
Ohio. <Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vol. iv., 1879. p. 120. 

Record of capture of Collmio balovicianus, and of var. excubitovoides, 
at Madisonville, Ohio. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 25 

1879. Langdon, F, W. A Revised List of Cincinnati Birds, ^y 
Frank W. Langdon. <^Jour. Cin. Soe. Nat. Hist., vol. i., No. 
4, Jan. 1879, pp. 167-193. Also reprint, repaged, 8vo pamph , 
pp. 27. 

A Complete revision of the author's 1877 Catalogue, giving 256 identi- 
fied species and 26 probabilities. Dates and periods of occurrence for 
most species are given, 83 breeders are marked by asterisk, and peculiar 
ornithological features of the locality are referred to. 

1879. Langdon, F. W. Nesting of the Kentucky Warbler in Ohio. 
<Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vol. iv., 1879, p. 236. 

Eecord of nesting with description of nest and eggs; the second instance 
known for the State. 
1879. Marshall, D. M. The Butcher Bird. <;The Journal of 
Science (newspaper, Toledo, O.), new series, vol. ii., 1879, No. 

The northern shrike breeding near Toledo. (Error) see Wheaton's 
appendix to Bibliography of Ohio Ornithology. 

1879. PuRDiE, H. A. Another Kirtland's Warbler. <<Bull. Nutt. 
Orn. Club, vol. iv., 1879, p. 185. 

Enumerates nine examples of Dendrceca kirtlandi known, four of which 
are Ohioan. 

1879. Wheaton, J. M. Kirtland's Warbler again in Ohio. <;Buir. 
Nutt. Orn. Club, vol. iv., 1879, p. 58. 

Male and female D. kirtlandi, taken at Ilocki)ort, by William and John 
Hall, in 1878. 

1879. Wheaton, J. M. Occurrence of Birds rare to the vicinit}" of 

Columbus, Ohio. <Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, vol. iv., 1879, p. 

Loxia curvirostra (in June), Elanoides forficatus, Stvix jlammea var. amcri- 
cana, Cupidonia cvpido. 

1880. J, A. A. [llen]. [Review of] Bra-yton's Catalogue of the Birds 

of Indiana. <::^Bullctiu and Nuttall Oruith. Club, vol. v., No. 
3, July, 1881, pp. 174-175. 

1880. J. A. A. [llen]. [Review of] Langdon's Ornithological Field 
Notes. <;Bnlletin Nuttall Ornith. Club, vol. v., No. 4, Oct. 
1880, pp. 232-233. 

1880. Bratton, a. W. A catalogue of the Birds of Indiana, with 
Keys and descriptions of the groups of greatest interest to the 
horticulturist, by Alcnibert W. Brayton, B. 8., INI. D. 

26 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

<<^Transactions of the Indiana State Horticultural Society 
for 1879, pp. 87-165, 

A good list of 306 species. Mainly a compilation, as the author freely 
acknowledges, ))eing a combination of Nelson's "Birds of North-eastern 
Illinois" and Langdon's "Revised List of Cincinnati Birds"; it contains, 
however, mucli additional matter of interest, and descrij)tions of many 
species and higher groups, 

1880. Chubb, H.E. Spring Field Notes. <;;;Forest and Stream (news- 
paper), vol. xiv., No. 12, May 20, 1880, p. :}07. 

Notes on the arrival and captures, at Cleveland, from Feb. 12 to May 4, 
1880, 87 species. Among them, yellow-throated gray warbler, Florida 
gallinule, April 19; large-billed water thrush, long-}>illed curlew and 
little yellow rail, April 24 ; red-throated diver and horned grebe, April 30 ; 
Kirtland's warbler, May 4. 

1880. E. C. [odes]. [Review of Part 2 of the] Misses Jones and 
Shulze's Nests and Eggs of the Birds of Ohio. <^Bulletin of 
the Nuttall Ornith. Club, vol. v., 'No. 1, Jan. 1880, pp. 39-40. 

1880. Ingersoll, Setm. Unusual Nesting Places. <^Forest and 

Stream, vol. xiv., No. 12, April 22, 1880, p. 224. 

Robin nesting on railway bridge; chipping sparrow nesting in a hang- 
ing basket of plants. 

1880. Ingersoll, Seym. [Spring arrivals]. <^Forest and Stream, 
vol. xiv.. No. 12, April 22, 1880, p. 22. 
About twenty species noted from Feb. 10 to April 3. 
1880. Langdon, F. W. Description of a New Warbler of the Genus 
Helminthophaga, by Frank W. Langdon. -<;^Bulletin Nuttall 
Orn. Club, vol. v., No. 4. Oct. 1880, pp. 208-210, with colored 

Reprinted from Journal Cm. Soc. Hat. Hist., July, 1880, q. v. 

1880. Langdon, F. W. Description of a New Warbler of the Genus 
Helminthophaga. B3' Frank W. Langdon. <^Jour. Cin. 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iii., 1880, pp. 119, 120, with colored 
The original description of Hebnhifhojjhaga cincinnatiensis. 

1880. Langdon, F. W. Ornithological Field Notes, with five additions 
to the Cincinnati Avian Fauna. By Frank W, Langdon. 
<;Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iii., 1880, pp. 121-127. 

Adds Cistothorus stellaris, Helminthophaga celata, Melospiza Uncolni, THnga 
fuseicollis, and a new species, Hel mrnthophaga cincinnatiensis ; also notes, 
capture of two additional specimens of Kirtland's warbler near Cleve- 
land, Ohio, May 4 and 12, 1880. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 27 

1880. Langdon, F. W. Summer Birds of a Northern Ohio Marsh. 
By Frank W. Langdon. <;;jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol, 
iii., 1880, pp. 220-232. 

A list of 95 species, for the most part briefly annotated or not, of birds 
observed "on the grounds of the Wynous' Point Shooting Club, near Port 
Clinton, Ottawa county, Ohio, during the week ending July 4, 1880." 
Full notes of the nesting of Ardetta e.vilis, GalUnula galeata, Hydrochelidon 
larifonnis, Podiceps cornutus (?) and Podilymhun 2>odiceps. 

1880. RiDGWAY, Robert. Note on Helminthophaga cincinnatiensis, 

Langdon. <;Bulletin Nuttall Ornith. Club, vol. v.. No. 4, 
Oct., 1880, pp. 237-238. 

A critical note, questioning its validity as a species, and suggesting the 
possibility or probability of its being a hybrid between Hehm'nthoj^haga 
2nnus and Oporornisformosus. A further study of the specimen in ques- 
tion has caused Mr. Ridgway to modify considerably his opinion above 
cited, and he ranks it as a species in his Nomenclature of North American 
Birds, of 1881, but still suggests that it " may be" a hybrid. As Dr. Coues 
himself asked the privilege of describing it as a species, and of naming it 
after its discoverer, its validity may be considered as at least probable. 

1881. Beckham, C. W. PeuciBa aestivalis illinoisonsis, Ridgway. 

<^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol, iv., pp. 339-340. 

Capture of the species at Bardstown, Ky., about 100 miles southwest of 

1881, Brewster, William. On the Relationship of Helminthophaga 
leucobronchialis, Brewster, and Helminthophaga lawrencei, 
Herrick ; with some conjectures respecting certain other North 
American Birds. <^Bulletin Nuttall Orii. Club, vol. vi., No. 
4, Oct., 1881, pp. 218-225. 

Advances the hypothesis that the above-named species are hybrids be- 
tween H. pinus and H. chri/soptera, and sustains it by quoting in a foot- 
note to page 224, Mr. Ridgway's supposition in regard to the hybridity of 
Hclmi nthophaga cincinnatiensis. 

1881. Editor [F. W. Langdon]. Zoological Miscellany. <^Journal 
Cin. Soc, Nat. Hist., vol. iv,, pp. 336 346. 

Notes relating to local ornithology. 43 species are treated of, and 
Harekla glacialis is added to the local fauna on the authority of Miss 
Emma Goepper. Coturnicidn.i passcrinn.'<, breeding near Cincinnati; nest 
and eggs taken by Mr. Charles Dury. 

1881. Editor [F. W. Langdon]. Introduction of European Birds. 

<<;journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist,, vol. iv., pp. 342-343. 

List of 20 species European birds, introduced by Acclimation Society 
of Cincinnati, in 1872, '73, and '74, with general remarks on etlect of same 
on native birds, etc. 

28 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1881. Jones, Howard E. AIuco flamineiis ainericanus, Ridgway. 
<;^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. 340. 

Capture of a specimen near Circleville, O. 

1881. Porter, J. B. Archibuteo lagopus sancti-johannes, Ridgway. 
<;;^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. .340. 

Specimen taken at Glendale, O. 

1881. Quick, E. R. Catharista atrafca. Less. <^Journal Cin. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., vol. iv.. pp. 340-341. 

Two specimens observed near Brookville, Ind. 

1881. Quick, E, R. Chen hyperboreus, Boie. <^Journal Cin. Soc. 

Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. 341. 

Specimen taken near Brookville, Ind. 

1882. Abert, James W. [Notes on Western Birds.] <^Journal Cin. 

Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., pp. 57- 59. 

List of about 50 species observed during a march from Fort Leaven- 
worth, Mo., to Santa Fe, New Mexico, and back, in the winter of 1846-7. 
Mentions parakeet in flocks at Council Grove, Kansas, in February and 
March, 1847 ; with snow on ground, and river blocked with ice. 

1882. Beckham, C. W. Spi-ing Arrivals atBardstown, Ky. <^Journal 
Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 93. 

Notes unusually early arrival of 12 species of birds. 

1882. W. B. [rewster]. [Review of] Langdon's Zoological Miscellany, 
No. 1. <;Bulletin Nuttall Oraith. Club, vol. vii., No. 1, Jan. 
1882, pp. 50-51. 

1882. Butler, A. W. Ornithological Notes from Brookville, Ind. 
<;journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., pp. 192-193. 

Notes on 12 species of birds. Mocking bird a rare summer resident ; 
Gcethlypis Philadelphia and Dendrceca pinus taken, etc. 

1882. Butler, A. W. [The] Birds [of Franklin Co., Ind.] <<Atlas 
of Franklin Co., Ind., etc., J. H. Beers & Co., Chicago, 1882 
(for title in full see Mammalia, 1882, p. 11). 

Classified and annotated list of 224 species and varieties ; nomenclature 
brought down to date. List begins on p. 11, and ends on p. 12. Based on 
personal observations of the author, assisted by Dr. Rufus Haymond and 
Mr. E. R. Quick. (Not seen ; this notice from memoranda furnished by 
Mr. Butler.) 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 29 

1882. E. C. [ouEs]. [Review of Jones & Shulze's] Illustrations of Ohio 
Nests and Eggs. <^Bulletin Nuttall Orn. Club, vol. vii., No. 
1, Jan., 1882, pp. 45-46. 

1882. E. C. [odes]. [Review of Jones & Shulze's] Nests and Eggs of 
Ohio Birds. <<Bulletin Nuttall Orn. Club, vol. vii.. No. 2, 
April, 1882, pp. 112-113. 

1882. Davie, Oliver. Capture of the Golden Eagle (Aquila chrjsge- 
tus canadensis) near Columbus, Ohio. <:^Bulletin Nuttall 
Ornith. Club, vol. vii., No. 2, April 1882, p. 123. 
Records capture of a specimen five miles west of Columbus. 

1882. Douglass, "Walter. Hylotomus pileatus, Querquedula discors 
Chaulelasmus streperus [and] Fulix affinis. <^Journal Cin. 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., pp. 191-192. 
Local occurrences. 

1882. Editor [F. W. Langdon]. Dichromatism in the Screech Owl 

(Scops asio, Bp.) <;;Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 52. 

Table showing coloration of 56 specimens from Ohio, Indiana, and Ken- 

1882. Editor [F. W. Langdon]. Mimus polj'glottus, Boie. <<; Jour- 
nal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 56. 

Capture of a specimen about 100 miles southwest of Cincinnati, in 
January, by Mr. C. W. Beckham. 

1882. Editor [F. VV. Langdon]. Spiza americana (anomalous plum- 
age). Cupidonia cupido (in confinement). Rallus elegans 
(food of). <;^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., pp. 95-96. 

1882. Porter, J. B. M3'iodioctes mitratus, Pandion haliaetus, Te- 
tanus flavipes, Bartramia longicauda, Rhyacophilus solitarius. 
<;^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 191. 
Local notes. 

1882. Quick, E. R. Winter Birds of 1880 and 1881 on the White- 
water. <^Jonrnal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., i)p. 54-56. 

41 species mentioned ; also notes on habits of 5 additional species on 
page 54. 

1882. Quick, E. R. Brookvillc [Indiana] Notes [on Birds]. <::^Journal. 

Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., pp. 93-95. 

Records Thi-yomanes bewicki and Ildminthot/icrus vatniiorus as breeding ; 
wild turkey taken in Franklin Co., Ind., in December, 1878; notes on 
other species. 

30 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1882. Quick, E. R. Ornithological Notes from Brookvillc, Ind. 
«<^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 192. 

Late occurrence of barn and rough-winged swallows, etc. 

1882. Shorten^ J. W. Albinism [in] Buteo borealis. <^Journal Cin. 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 53. 

Specimen from Clinton county, O. 

1882. Shorten, J. W. Aluco flammeus araericanus, Riclgway. <^Jour- 
nal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 57. 
Specimen taken near Cincinnati, 1882. 

1882, Shorten, J. W. Herodias alba egretta, Ridgwa^-. <^Journal 
Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 95. 

Notes on capture of American egret, at Maj'sville, Ky., in breeding 

1882. Shorten, J. W. [Relation of Rapacious Birds to Agriculture.] 
<;Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., pp. 67-70. 

Refers to food of various species, and quotes letters on the subject from 
Prof. Baird and Dr. Coues. 

1882. Shorten, J. W. Buteo borealis, Vieillot. <^Journal Cin. Soc. 
Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 95. 

Note on its food. 

1882. Wheaton, J. M. Report on the Birds of Ohio, by J. M. Wheaton, 
M.D. <^Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Volume IV., 
Zoology and Botany. Part 1, Zoology. Officers of the Survey: 
J. S. Newberry, Chief Geologist; Edward Ortou, Assistant Geo- 
logist ; E. B. Andrews, Assistant Geologist ; T. G. Wormle}', 
Chemist ; F. B. Meek, Palaeontologist. Special Assistants in 
Zoology and Botany : J. M. Wheaton, D. S. Jordan, A. W. 
Brayton, W. H. Smith, H. C. Beardslee, R. M. Byrnes. Pub- 
lished by authority of the legislature of Ohio. Columbus: 

Nevins & Myers, State Printers, 1882. Section II. Report 

on the Birds of Ohio, J. M. Wheaton, M.D., pp. 187-628. 
(Duplicate title on p. 189 has "by" inserted before author's 

An exhaustive treatise, prefaced by dissertations on the Physical Geo- 
graphy, climate and faunal peculiarities of the State, laws of geographical 
variation, etc. The report proper embraces : (1), a treatise on birds as a 
class, with a synopsis of the various orders; (2), brief descriptions of the 

BihUography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 31 

species and higher groups ; (3), a useful synonymy of each species; (4), an 
account of the distribution, habits and general life history of each species, 
especially as regards the State of Ohio. 298 species are treated of in all, 
and in an exceedingly thorough and comprehensive manner. 

In the •• Appendix" are given [A] Check List of Ohio Birds, with dates 
of their occurrence ; [B] List of Birds observed in my (Dr. Wheaton's) 
garden; [C] Additions, additional references and corrections; [D] Bibli- 
ography of Ohio Ornithology; [E] On the Relation between Latitude and 
the Pattern of Coloration in Ohio Birds ; [F] Glossary of Technical Terms 
used in the preceding descriptions. 

Altogether, this is by far the most admirable work on the birds of any 
one State with which we are acquainted, and is all the more creditable 
to its author for being the result of " a labor of love" performed amid the 
cares and exacting demands of a busy professional life. 


1838. KiRTLAND, J. P. Report on tho Zoology of Ohio, by Prof. J. P. 
Kirtland, M.D. <^Second Annual Report on the Geological 
Survey of the State of Ohio, by W. W. Mather, etc. (see 
Mammalia, p. 7, for title in full.) 

The list of reptiles comprises 27 species, 25 of which are annotated. 

1876. Jordan, D. S. Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern 
United States (vide Mammalia, p. 9, for title in full). 

1881. Editor [F. W. Langdon]. (Cistudo clausa and Aspidonectes 

spinifer.) <;jour. Gin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. 343. 

Note on occurrence of remains of these species in a prehistoric ceme- 

1882. Smith, W. H. Report on the Reptiles and Amphibians of Ohio, 

by W. H. Smith, M.D., Ph. D. <Report of the Geological 
Survey of Ohio. Vol. IV., Zoology and Botany. Part 1, Zo- 
ology (vide p. 30, for title in full). Section iii., pp. 629-734. 
The report contains: (1), Letter of transmittal ; (2), Introduction, con- 
taining a good general account of reptiles and amphibians, their use and 
abuse, etc. ; (3), A synopsis of the higher groups; (4), Synonymy, descrip- 
tions and life histories of the various species; (5), A tabular list, embrac- 
ing 42 species and varieties of rcptilia, of which six are considered 
doubtfully Oliioian; and 25 species and varieties of amphibia, three of 
which are said to be of doubtful occurrence in the State. 

1882. Smith, W. H. Vide Reptilia supra. 

The most complete work on Ohio reptilia extant, and our herpetologists 
may well congratulate themselves and the autlior on tlie api)earance 
of so important a contribution to the iiistory of this much ne<'lected 
class of animals. 

32 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

CIL.A.SS a.m:i»hibia.. 

1838. KiRTLAND, J, p. Report on Zoology of Ohio {vide Mammalia, 
p. 7, for title in full). 
A list of 20 species, with notes on 3. 

1876. Jordan, D. S. Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern 
United States {vide Mammalia, p. 9, for title in full). 

1881. Editor [F. W. Langdon]. Rana temporaria sylvatica, Gunther 

(the Wood Frog). <^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., pp. 

Describes both sexes, and notes breeding habits. 

1882. Quick, E. R. Diemyctylus viridescens, Raf., and Spelerpes 

longicaudus, Bd. <^Jourual Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., 
p. 96. 

Occurrence at Brookville, Ind. 

1818. Rapinesqde, C. S. Discoveries in Natural Histoiy, made during 
a Journey through the Western Region of the United States, 
by Constautine Samuel Rafinesque, Esq. <^American Month!}- 
Magazine and Critical Review, Sept. 1818. 

Not seen; quoted from Jordan's Report on the Fishes of Ohio, 1882. 
Catalogue of 26 species, with 9 descriptions of Ohio river fishes. 

1818. Rafinesque, C. S. Further Discoveries in Natural History, 
made during a Journey through the Western Region of the 
United States, by Constantiue Samuel Rafinesque, Esq. 
<iOp. cit., Oct. 1818. 

Catalogue of 22 additional species, with three descriptions of Ohio river 
fishes. Not seen ; quoted from Jordan's Report on the Fishes of Ohio, 


1818. Rafinesque, C. S. Furtlier Account of Discoveries in Natural 
History in the Western States, by Constantine Samuel Rafin- 
esque, Esq. <CPP- c?'^., Nov. 1818. 

Describes three new sjjecies and genera, viz. : Pomoxis anmdaris, iVo- 
(imw flavus, Sarchirus vittatus. Not seen ; taken from Jordan's Report on 
the Fishes of Ohio, 1882. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 33 

1819. Rafinesque, C. S. Prodrome de 70 nouveaux, Genres d'Ani- 

maux decouverts dans I'interieur des Etats Unis d'Amerique 
durant I'anee 1818. <;^Journal de Physique de Chj-mie et d' 
Histoire Naturelle, Paris, June, 1819. 

17 species added to former list. Not seen ; taken from Jordan's Re- 
port, 1882. 

1820. Rafinesque, C. S. Description of the Silures or Cat-fishes of the 

River Ohio, by C. S. Rafinesque, Professor of Botan}' in the 
Transylvania University of Lexington, Kentuck}-. <^Quar- 
terl}' Journal of Science, Literature and Arts, Ro^'al Institu- 
tion, London, vol. ix., 1820. 

17 species and varieties described. Not seen ; this notice abridged from 
Jordan's Report on the Fishes of Ohio, 1882. 

1820. Rafinesque, C. S. Ichthyologia ohioensis, or Natural History 
of the Fishes inhabiting the River Ohio and its Tributary 
Streams, etc. etc. (for full title and comments see Jordan's 
Report on Fishes of Ohio, 1882). 

This is a series oi oversheets repaged and bound, the originals of 
which appeared in the " Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine," 
published at Lexington, Ky., in 1819-20. 

1838. KiRTLAND, J. P. Report on the Zoology of Ohio [vide Mamma- 
lia, p. 7, for title in full). 

List of 72 species, with notes on 51. 

1840-46. KiKTLAND, J. p. Descriptions of the Fishes of Lake Erie, the 
Ohio river and their Tributaries. <;^Boston Journal of 
Natural History, vols, iii., iv. and v., 1840-1846. 

Described 66 species, belonging to|32 genera, with figures of each species 
by the author. Not seen ; this notice from Jordan's Report on the Fishes 
of Ohio, 1882. 

1874. [Klippart, J. H. — Hdssey, John. — Sterling, E. T.] — Report of 
the Commissioners of Fisheries of the State of Ohio, for the 
year ending December, 1873. Columbus : Nevius & Myers, 
State Printers, 1874. 8vo pamph., pp. 40. 

Contains information of a practical character in regard to tishes and 
waters of the State, with suggestions, etc. Several species are illustrated 

by wood-cuts. 

34 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1876. Jordan, D. S. Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern 

United States [vide Mammalia, p. 9, for title in full). 

1877. [Fisher, J. C. — Cummings, R. — Kmppart, J. II.] — First Annual 

Report of the Ohio State Fish Commission to the Governor of 
the State of Ohio, for the years 1875 and 1876. Columbus : 
Nevins &r. Myers, State Printers, 1877. 8vo pamph., pp. 96. 
Illustrated by 21 wood-cuts on 13 plates. 

Various species of bass, perch, pike, and whitefish, described and 
figured, with remarks on their habits and availability for food, etc. There 
is also a classified list of Ohio fishes, by Prof. D. S. Jordan. The figures 
are well drawn by Miss Josephine Klippart. 

1878. [Fisher, J. C. — Klippart, J. H. — Cummings, R.] — Second Annual 

Report of the Ohio State Fish Commission to the Governor of 
the State of Ohio, for the year 1877. Columbus : Nevins & 
Myers, State Printers, 1878. 8vo pamph., p. 116. 

Ou economic ichthyology principally, with 17 species (chiefly pike, 
catfish and suckers), described and figured. The technical matter, from 
MSS. by Prof. D. S. Jordan, arranged by Mr. E. K. Copeland. Remainder 
chiefly by Mr. John H. Klippart. 

There is also (pp. ?9-64), a letter by Col. Wm. O. Collins, of Hillsboro, 
O., on the Highland county waters. 

1879. [Fisher, J. C. — Harris, L. A. — Cummings, R.] — Third Annual 

Report of the Ohio State Commission, made to the Governor 
of the State of Ohio, for the year 1878. Columbus : Nevins 
& Myers, State Printers, 1880. 8vo pamph., pp. 22. 

The principal feature is the report on artificial fish culture of the Su- 
perintendent of Hatcheries, Mr. Emery D. Potter, of Toledo, O. 

1880. [Fisher, J. C. — Cummings, R. — Harris, L. A.] — Fourth Annual 

Report of the Ohio State Fish Commission, made to the 
Governor of the State of Ohio, for the year 1879. Columbus: 
Nevins & Myers, State Printers, 1880. 8vo pamph., pp. 35. 
Essays on Pisciculture, by E. D. Potter, and the Commissioners. 

1881. Editor [F. W. Langdon]. Perca flavescens, Cuvier, Common 

Yellow Perch. <^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. 345. 

1881. [Fisher, J. C. — Cummings, R. — Harris, L. A.] — Fifth Annual 
Report of the Ohio Fish Commission, made to the Governor 
of the State of Ohio, for the year 1880. Columbus, Ohio : 
C. J. Brand & Co., State Printers, 1881. 8vo pamph., pp. 34. 

Special Report on Pisciculture, by E. D. Potter, with general remarks, 
tables of expenses, etc. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 35 

1882. [Harris, L. A.— Bond, C. W.— Post, H. C.]— Sixth Annual Re 
port of the Ohio Fish Commission, made to the Governor of 
the State of Ohio, for the year 1881. Columbus: C. J. Brand 
& Co., State Printers, 1882. 8vo pamph., pp. 19. 

Chiefly on carp culture, and reports of progress of the commission. 

1882. Jordan, D. S. Report on the Fishes of Ohio, by David S. [sic) 
Jordan, iM.D. <;^Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio, 
vol. iv,, etc., 1882 [vide p. 10, for title in full). 

Prof. Jordan's Report on the Fishes of Ohio, occupies section xv., pp. 
735-1000 of the volume, beginning with a chapter on Bibliogiaphy, from 
which we extract liberally for the present paper. Following this is a 
comparison, as regards nomenclature, of " four lists of Ohio fishes," 
namely: those of Rafinesque, 1820; Kirtland, 1840-46; and Jordan, 1879; 
the fourth being merely the names applied to the same species by Dr. 
Gunther in his Catalogue of the Fishes of the British Museum. 

This comparative table, as Prof. Jordan remarks, is " interesting as 
showing the progress of our knowledge of Ohio fishes, and the changes 
which have taken place in nomenclature. The introduction also contains 
tables: (1), Of species characteristic of the Ohio river fauna; (2), Of 
species of general distribution, occurring probably in every suitable 
stream in the State; (3), Of species taken in White river, near Indian- 
apolis, Ind. The report proper embraces full descriptions of the species 
and higher groups, with synonymy, life-histories in most cases, etc. 165 
sjjecies (in 88 genera) are treated of, and the work is undoubtedly the 
most complete exposition of Ohio Ichthyology extant. 

1882. Quick, E. R. Hapliodonotus grunuiens. Grunting Perch or 
Sheepshcad. <;;^Jourual Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 60. 

Note on its occurrence in the Whitewater. 


Note. — The following bibliography of Cincinnati Entomology has been mainly 
prepared by Mr. Charles Dury, the well-known entomologist. It aims to include all 
publications relating to the insects of tliis vicinity with the excejition of theTineina 
and other micro-lepidoptera. A bibliograjihy of the latter has been promised by 
Mr. V. T. Chambers, one of the highest authorities on the subject, but has failed to 
reach us in time for this number of the JOURNAL. We hope to be able to present it 
to our readers at an early date. 

1864. Warder, Jno. A., M.D. Thyritlopteryx ephenieriforniis, Orgyia 
leucostigma, Datana ministra, Clostera inclusa, Cantharidte 
and Lyttiv!, Clytus pictus, Tingis ciliata, Tettigania vitis. 

36 Cincinnati Society of National History. 

Gryllidae, Locustidae, Ambulatoria, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, 
Bark-lice, Peach tree ^geria. Habits of Insects, Apple tree 
Borers, Cat-worms, Classification of Insects, Pea-bugs, Leaf- 
rollers, Fall Web-worms, Saw-flies, Corn-worms, Grape infest- 
ing Caterpillars, etc. 

These papers were of a practical rather than a technically scientific 
character. They were puVjlished in the Daily Times and Farm.ei-'s Home 
for 1864, and the Report of the Ohio State Board of Agriculture for 1865. 
They were intended for horticulturists especially. 

1874. Wetherby, A. G. Method of rearing Lepidopterous Larvae. 

<;^Ciu. Quarterl}' Journal of Science, vol. i., p. 154. 

1875. Wetherby, A. G. Descriptions of Lepidopterous Larvae, with 

Remarks on their Habits and Affinities. Read before the 
Cincinnati Society of Natural History, at the regular meeting, 
Oct. 5, 1875. <^Cin. Quarterlj- Journal of Science, vol. ii., 
pp. 363-371. 

Descriptions of larvte of eight species Liniacodes, and allies. 

1876. Angus, Jas. Account of Capture of Catocala marmorata, near 

Cincinnati. <^Canadian Entomologist, vol. viii., p. 199. 

1876. DuRY, Charles. List of Catocala observed in the vicinity of 
Cincinnati, Ohio. <^Canadian Entomologist, vol. viii., p. 187. 

1876. [?] Strecker, Herman. Note on Sphinx plota. <^Lepidoptera, 

No. 13, p. 115. 

1877. DuRY, Charles. Note on Catocala marmorata and Agrippina. 

<;^Canadian Entomologist, vol. ix., p. 178. 

1877. Siewers, C. G. Notes on Larvj^ — Fondness for Water — Hints to 

Beginners. <;;]Canadian Entomologist, vol. ix., p. 127. 

One paper with three titles ; a very useful contribution to practical en- 

1878. Ddry, Charles. Catalogue of the Lepidoptera observed in the 

vicinit}^ of Cincinnati, Ohio, etc. <^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., vol. i., p. 12. 

1878. DuRY, Charles. Notes on Several Species of Coleoptera, with 
some account of Habits. <;^Canadian Entomologist, vol. x., 
p. 210. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 37 

1878. SiEWERS, C. 6. Notes on Larvae, etc. <:^CaDaclian Entomolo- 
gist, vol. X., p. 84. 

1878. SiEWERS, C. G. Wintering Vanessa anliopa. <^Canadian En- 

tomologist, vol. X., p. 115. 

1877. Grote, a. R. Description of a new Botis, allied to Flavidalis, 
hy A, R. Grote, Director of the Museum, Buffalo Societ}- 
Natural Sciences. <::^Canadian Entomologist, vol. ix., p. 10. 
DescriiDtion of Botis langdonalis, n. sp. 

1879. DuRT, Charles. On the occurrence of Omophron robustum, 

Dacne ulkei, and Coptoderaaerata, near Cincinnati. <^Bulle- 
tin Brooklyn Entomological Soc, 1879, p. 56. 

1879, Ddry, Charles. List of Coleoptera observed in the vicinitj' of 
Cincinnati, with notes. <^ Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. ii., 
p. 162. 

1879. SiEWERS, C. G. Tails of Callimorpha interrupta marginata. 
<;^Canadian Entomologist, vol. xi., p. 47. 

1879. Wilson, Harold B. On the Larvae of Cucujus clavipes. <^Bul- 
letin Brooklyn Entomological Societ}^ p. 59. 

1881. DuRY, Charles. Note on Chrysomela juncta, C. 10-lineata, and 
Caryoborus arthriticus. <^Canadian Entomologist, vol. xiii., 
p. 20. 

1881. Editor [F. W. Langdon], Callosamia promethea, Dury. 
<^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. 345. 

Note on finding cocoons in "Button Bush" and "Tulip Tree." 

1881. Editor [F. W. Langdon]. Botj^s langdonalis, Grote. <;Jourual 

Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. 345. 

Additional specimens taken by Messrs. C. F. Low and C. Dury. 

1882. Dury, Charles. Notes on Coleoptera. <;^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. 

Hist., vol. v., p. 61. 

1882. Dury, Charles. [Synopsis of the Cincinnati Insect Fauna. J 
<<[Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 187. 

1882. Dury, Charles. Coleoptera of the vicinity of Cincinnati. 
<^Journal Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 218, 

38 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1882. SiEWERS, C. G, Hymenoptera — A Slave Foray. Formica ruber 
and Formica niger. <^Jourual Gin. Soc, Nat. Hist., vol. v., 
p. 60. 

Account of a raid by an army of red ants on a colony of black ones. 

1882. SiEWEUs, G. G. Notes on Goleoptera. -^Journal Gin. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., vol. v., p. 90. 

The species given as Necrophilus subterraneus is N. petteti. Horn. [CD.] 

1882. Shorten, J. W. Note on Macrosila cingulata. <;;journal Gin. 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., p. 62. 

1882. Wood, Mrs. Dr. Thomas. [Synopsis of the Arachnida of the 
vicinity of Gincinnati.] <;;Journal Gin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 
v., p. 188. 


1838. KiRTLAND, J. P. Report on the Zoology of Ohio, by Prof. J. P. 
Kirtland, M.D. <;^Second Annual Report on the Geological 
Survey of Ohio, by W. W. Mather, etc. {vide Mammalia, p. 
7, for title In full). 

Mentions two species Astacus (Crayfish) found in Ohio. 

1874. Ghambers, V. T, On Fresh- water Entomostraca, by V. T. 
Ghambers, Esq., of Covington, Ky. <^The Cincinnati Quar- 
terly Journal of Science, vol. i., pp. 22-26. 

Remarks on recent and fossil species of this order from this vicinity. 

1881. Chambers, V. T. Two New Species of Entomostraca, by V. T. 

Ghambers. <;;^Journal Gin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., pp. 47-48. 

Description of Tachidkis (?) fonticola and Diaptomus (?) kentuckyensis, 
with two plates. 

1882. Hunt, J. H. List of Microscopic Articulata, Coelenterata and 

Protozoa, observed in an office aquarium, bj' J. H.Hunt, M.D. 
<;Journal Gin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. v., pp. 193-194. 

Nine species Crustaceans; one of Arachnids, nine of Annelids, two of 
Hydrozoa, one of Spongida, twelve of Infusoria, four of Rhizopoda. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 39 

1874. Editor [S. A, Miller]. Trichina spiralis, <^Cin. Quar. Jour. 
Sci., vol. i., pp. 160-161. 

Notice of trichinized pork, from Aurora, Ind., exhibited before the Cin- 
cinnati Society of Natural History, by Dr. Sutton. 

1882. Hunt, J. H. Vide Crustacea, supra. 

sxibkiistg^dom: m:oul.tjsca. 

Note. — The following bibliography of the Conchology of Ohio has been prepared 
expressly for this occasion by Mr. A. F. Gray, the well-known conchologist, formerly 
of Danversport, Mass., and now of this city. Its scope embraces the entire State of 
Ohio. As the conchology of this vicinity is almost inseparable (bibliographically 
at least) from that of the remainder of the State ; and as no bibliography of Ohio 
Conchology has ever been published, its extended scope will make it none the less 
useful to our local conchologists, while it will be all the more so to those of the State 
at large.— [Ed.] 


By Arthur F. Gray. 

In the following Bibliography it has been the writer's intention to 
include all papers pertaining to the Fauna of the State, in the depart- 
ment of Recent Mollusca, referring onl}^ to the more general works 
when they contain information of value to the student of the region. 
Many papers treating more or less fully upon the Lingual Dentition 
and Genitalia of the Pulmonata, by Binney and Bland, are omitted here 
as not coming within the scope of this paper, which is intended to be 
Faunal in its character. It is scarcely to be hoped, that it will be 
found to be free from errors and omissions, but that it may be found of 
use to the resident conchologists of the State in their work. It is 
brought down to date. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, December 15, 1882. 

1792-1832. Bruguiere, Lamarck, Deshayes. In the Enc3'clop('die Me- 
thodique there are three volumes of text and five of plates de- 
voted to Conchology, Histoiro, Naturelle des Vers. Tome i., 
par M. Bruguiere, Paris, 1792. Tome ii., par M. G. P. De- 
shayes, Paris, 1830. Tome iii., par M. G. P. Deshayes, Paris, 
The plates were issued 1701-1832.— A. F. G. 

40 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

181(\ Say. '•Conchology." <^American edition of Nicholson's En- 
cyclopedia of Arts and Sciences, vol. ii., first edition, Phila- 
delphia, 1816. 

A second edition was published in vol. iv., in 1818, and a third edition 
in vol. iv., 1819. These contain original descriptions of several shells 
from Ohio. The i)aper was also distributed with a distinct title page 
separately. " Descriptions of Land and Fresh-water Shells of the United 
States."— A. F. G. 

1818-22. Lamarck. Histoire Naturelle des animanx sans Vertebres, 
etc., par M. le Chevalier de Lamarck, Paris, 1818-22, vols, v., 
vi., vii. Second edition of same 1840-44. 

1818. Rafinesqde. Farther account of the DiscoA-eries in Natural 
History in the Western States: by 2. S. Rafinesque. <;^Am. 
Month. Mag. and Crit. Rev., vol. iv., p. 39. New York, 1818. 

Mlipstoma is the genus treated. — A. F. G. 

1818. Rafinesque. Discoveries in Natural History, made during a 
Journey through the "Western States, by C. S. Rafinesque. 
<^Am. Month. Mag, and Crit. Rev., vol, iii,, p. 354, New 
York, 1818, 

The genera mentioned are, Potamilus, Pleurocera and Ambloxis. — A.F.G. 

1818, Say, Description of a new genus of Fresh-water Bivalve 
Shells, by Thomas Say. <^Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol. 
i,, Dec. 1818, 

Alasmodonta marginata, described from Scioto river. — A.F.G. 

1821. Say. Descriptions of Univalve Shells, of the United States, by 
Thomas Say. <;;^Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol, ii., Jan. 1821. 

Several species described, and the genus Anculotus formed. — A.F.G. 

1820-51. Ferussac and Deshayes. Histoire Naturelle generale et 
particuliere des MoUusques Terrestres et Fluviatiles, etc., par 
D. DeFerussac et G. P. Deshayes, Paris, 1820-51. 

1820. Rafinesque. Monographic des Coquilles bivalves et fluvia- 
tiles de la riviere Ohio (contenant douze genres et soixante- 
hult especes: par M. C. Rafinesque, Prof, de bot. et d'hist. 
nat. a F Univ. Transylvane de Lexington. <^Extrait de la 
15me livraison du 5me tome des Annales G^nerales des 
Sciences Physiques, Sept., 1820, Bruxelles.) 

Bibliogrcq^hy of the Cincinnati Fauna. 41 

1820. Rapinesque. Apolosia, the Mollusca. By C. S. Rafinesque. 
<;Annals of Nature, No. 1, 1820, Philadelphia. 

Description of Limaces chiefly ; new genera enumerated are, Philomycus, 
Eumelus, and Hemiloma (a univalve land shell). — A.F.G. 

1823. Barnes. On the Genera Unio and Alasmodonta; with Intro- 
ductory Remarks b}^ D, W. Barnes. <;^Am. Jour. Sci. & 
Arts, 6. S., vol. vi., No. 1, pp. 107-127; No. 2, pp. 258-280. 
(Date of title, 182.3.) 

In this paper are given descriptions and synonymy of 28 Unios and 5 
Alasmodoutas, with copper-plate illustrations of 22 species. — A.F.G. 

1827. Green. Description of Helix Pennsylvanicus, by Jacob Green. 
<^Cont. of the Maclurian Lye. to the Arts and Sciences, 
vol, i.. No. 1, p. 8, Philadelphia, Jan., 1827. 

1827. Green. Some remarks on the Unios of the United States, with 

a description of a new species, by Jacob Green. <;^Cont. of 
the Maclurian Lye. to the Arts and Sciences, vol. i., No. 2, p. 
41, Philadelphia, July, 1827. 

This contains a description of Unio ccsojms, Green, with a colored plate; 
also remarks on specific characters, variations, erosion, habits, etc., of 
various species, with notes on synonymy. — A.F.G. 

1828. Barnes. Reclamation of Unios, by D. H. Barnes. <;;^Am, 

Jour. Sci. and Arts, O. S., vol. xiii.. No. 2, pp. 358-304, Jan. 


A criticism of Valenciennes' Uniones, in Humboldt and Bouplaud's 
Zoological Observations. — A.F.G. 

1828. Hildreth. Observations on, and descriptions of the Shells found 
in the waters of Muskingum river. Little Muskingum and 
Duck Creek, in the vicinity of Marietta, Ohio, by S. P. 
Hildreth. <;;Am. Jour. Sen. and Arts, O. S., vol. xiv., pp. 
276-291, 1828, with two plates. 

Unio Joliatiis, and U.iyhascolus are here described. — A.F.G. 

1829-31. Say. Descriptions of some New Terrestrial and Fluviatile 
Shells of North America, by Thomas Say. <;New Har- 
mony Disseminator of Useful Knowledge, July 2'), 1829, to 
Jan. 29, 1831. 

42 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1830 74. Lea. Observations on the Genus Unio, < tc, by Isaac Lea, vols, 
i-xiii., with 3 vols, of index. <:^Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. and 
Jour. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1830-1874. 

These and other papers by the same author, jmblished tlirough the 
same mediums, contaiu much valuable information upon American 
Shells. Also in Proceedings of Phila. Acad, of Nat. Sci., are to be found 
many papers bearing on Shells of Ohio, but lack of si)ace precludes iheir 
separate treatment. — A.F.G. 

1830. Menke. Synopsis Methodica Molhiscorum, etc., quae in Museo 

Menkeano adservantur; cum synonymia critica et novarum 
speciarum diagnosibus, auctore Carolo Theodoro INfenke, ]NLD. 
Pyrmonti, 1830. Edito altera. 

14 American species enumerated, 9 of which are from Ohio, all of which 
are described as new, viz. : Physa 1, Paludina, 1, and Melania, 7. — A.F.G. 

r830-(34?). Sat. American Conchology, or Descriptions of North 
American Shells. Illustrated by colored figures from original 
drawings executed from nature, by Thomas Sa3^ New Har- 
mony, Ind. 

Nos. i. to vi. were published 1830 to April 1834. No. vii. was published 
after Mr. Saj^'s death by Mr. Conrad without date. In the sixth number, 
" An attempt to exhibit a synonymy of the Western North American 
species of the genera Unio and Alasmodonta is made." — A.F.G. 

1831. Rafinesque. Continuation of a Monograph of the Bivalve Shells 

of the river Ohio, and other rivers of the Western States: 
by C. S. Rafinesque (published at Brussels, Sept. 1820). 
Containing 46 species, from No. 76 to 121. Including an 
appendix on some Bivalve Shells of the rivers of Hindostan, 
with a Supplement on the Fossil Bivalve Shells of the Wes- 
tern States, and the Tulosites a new genus of Fossils, Phila- 
delphia, Oct., 1831. 

In this paper the author makes a summary of the labors of earlier con- 
chologists who had described American shells prior to 1820, and of the 
writers who had given attention to the American shells subsequent to the 
appearance of his first paper. 

He inaugurates the following genera and subgenera: Of Ihiio — £ipio- 
blasma, Toxolasma, Bariosta, Obliquaria and Truncilla. Of Alasmodon — 
Lasmigona, AmUasmodon, Decurambis, Sidcidaria, and Pterosyna to include 
A. complmiata, Say. Of Anodonta, the subgenus Flexiplis. — A.F.G. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 43 

18;U. Rapinesque. Enumeration and account of some remarkable 
Natural Objects in tjlie Cabinet of Prof. Raflnesque, in Phila- 
delphia. Philadelphia, Nov., 1831. 

Some Ohio shells are here mentioned. — A.F.G. 

1831. Short, — Eaton. Notice of Western Botany and Coucholog}^ by 

C. W. Short, M. D., and H. H. Eaton, A. M. <Transylvania 
Jour, of Medicine, Feb., 1831. 

Full notes as to localities of each species are given, but no descriptions ; 
40 species are mentioned, chiefly Unionidct'. — A.F.G. 

1832. Anonymous. Ohio Shells: a Criticism on Notices of Western 

Botany and Conchology, by C. W. Short, M. D., and H. H. 
Eaton, A. M; and Monograph of the Bivalve Shells of the 
River Ohio, translated from the French of Prof. Raflnesque, 
by C. A. Poulson, Esq. <^Month. Am. lour. Geo. and Nat. 
Sci., vol. i., No. 8, pp. 370 377. Phila., Feb., 1832. 

1832. Investigator. Remarks on the article contained in Silliman's 
Jour, for April, 1832, entitled "Mr. Lea, on the Naiades," 
by Investigator. <;^Month. Am. Jour. Geol. and Nat. Sci., 
vol. i., No. 12, pp., 537-549. June, 1832. 

1832. PouLSON. A Monograph of the Fluviatile Bivalve Shells of the 
River Ohio, containing Twelve Genera and Sixty-eight Species. 
Translated from the French of C. S. Raflnesque, Prof. Bot. 
and Nat. Hist, in Transylvania University, by C. A. Poulson, 
Philadelphia, J. Dobson, 108 Chestnut St., 1832. 

This translation by Poulson of the French edition does not contain the 
plates, but has a colored frontispiece of Unio verrucosa, Raf. — A.F.G. 

1834. Conrad. New Fresh-water Shells of the United States, with 
colored illustrations and a Monograph of thegenus Anculotus, 
of Say, also a Synopsis of the North American Naiades, bj' T. 
A. Conrad, Member Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia. Phila- 
delphia, 1834. 

Many species are mentioned by name only, others are accompanied by 
notes on synonymy, geograpiiical distribution, etc. — A.F.G. 

1834. Kirtland. Observations on the Sexual Characters of tiio 
Animals belonging to Lamarck's Family of Naiades, bv Jared 
P. Kirtland, ]M. D. <^Am. Jour. Sci. and Arts, vol. xxvi.. 

44 Cincinnati Society of Katnrul History. 

No. 1, 0. S., pp. 117-120, w'th outline figures. (Title dated 
July, 1834.) 

Observations on Ohio species; a translation in German appeared in 
Wiegmann's Arcliiv. fur Naturgeschichte, Berlin, 1836, vol. i., p. 23G — 

18.34. Ravenal. Catalogue of Recent Shells, in Cabinet of Edmnufl 
Ravenal, M.D. Charlestown, S. C, 1834. 

Enumeration of species, with localities only. — A.F.G. 

1835-8. Conrad. Monograph of the Family Unionidse, or Naiades of 
Lamarck, of North America, by T. A. Conrad, Memb. Phila. 
Acad. Nat. Sci., Hon. Memb. Geo. Soc, Pa., Philadelphia. 

This Monograph was published in wrappers at intervals, parts i. to xi. 
inclusive, bearing dates from Dec. 1835 to Nov. 1838. Parts xii. and xiii. 
were issued without dates, and the publication then discontinued. It con- 
tains descriptions of all the species treated, with colored plates, and here 
will be found the majority of Conrad's species of this family. — A.F.G. 

1835. Ferussac. Observations, addresses en forme de lettro a MM. 

Th. Say, C. S. Rafinesque, Is. Lea, S. P. Hildreth, T. A. Con- 
rad, et C. A. Poulson, sur la synonyraie des Coquilles bivalves 
de I'Amgrique Septentrionale, et Essai d'une Table de Concord- 
ance a ce sujet, par le Baron de Ferussac. <:;;^Magasin de 
Zoologie 1835, Classe V., Nos. 59, 60, pp. l-3fi. 

Contains complete list of works, and copious notes, but no descrip- 
tions.— A.F.G. 

1836. Lea. Synopsis of the Unionidse, hy Isaac Lea, 1836, 8vo, pp. 62, 

Philadelphia. With plate of Unio spinosus, Lea. 2d edition, 
Phila., 1836 ; 3d edition, Phila., 1852; 4th edition, Phila., 1870. 

1837-41. BiNNEY. A Monograph of the Helices inhabiting the United 
States, b}^ Amos Binney, M. D. <^Boston Jour. Nat. Hist., 
vol. i., No. 4, p. 466, May, 1837; continued, vol. iii.. No. 3, 
p. 353, July, 1840; continued, vol. iii.. No. 4, p. 405, Nov., 

Species described and figured. — A.F.G. 

1837. Hildreth. Disease among Shell Fish (Naiades), by S. P. 

Hildreth. <;^Am. Jour. Sci. «k Arts, O. S., vol. xxxii.. No. 
1, p. 97. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 45 

1837. Naturalist. Miscellaneous Observations made during a tour 

in May, 1835, to the Falls of the Cuyahoga, near Lake Erie: 
extracted from the Diary of a Naturalist. <<;Am. Jour. Sci. 
(fe Arts, O. S., vol. xxxi., No. 1, Jan., 1837, being the date on 
title page. 

A few brief notes, with wood-cut of Lymncea stagnaiis, 44 species are 
named. — A.F.G. 

1838. KiRTLAND. Report on the Zoology of Ohio, by Prof. J. P. 

Kirtland, Cincinnati, Nov. 1, 1838. 

This list, which is very complete, enumerates 170 species as belonging 
to the Fauna of the State, and notes are given upon 32 species. — A.F.G. 

1838. SuLLiVANT. An Alphabetical Catalogue of Shells, Fossils, 

Minerals and Zoophytes, in the cabinet of Jos. Sullivant, 
Columbus, Ohio, 1838, 8vo, pp. 38. 

Localities are given for many of the Unionidce. — A.F.G. 

1839. Tappan. Description of some New Shells, by Benj. Tappan, 

Steubenville, Ohio. <::^Am. Jour. Sci. & Arts, O. S., vol. 
XXXV., No. 2, date of title page Jan., 1839. 

Unio Say a, Ward., Paludinaheterostropha, Kirtland, Physa Sayii, Tappan, 
are here described and figured. — A.F.G. 

1840. Anthony. Descriptions of two New Species of Anculotus, by J. 

G.Anthony. <^Boston Jour. Nat. Hist., vol. iii., pp. 394-395, 
July, 1840. 

Ancidotus carinatus and Kirtlandiantts are described from Kanawha 
Falls.— A.F.G. 

1840. Anthony and Gray. On theByssus of Unio, by J. G. Anthony, 
with Notes by J. E. Gray. <^Annals Nat. Hist., conducted 
bj' Jardine, London, vol. vi., p. 77, Sept., 1840. 

1840-(44?) Haldeman. A Monograph of the Limniades and other 
Fresh-water Univalve Shells of North America, by S. S. 
Haldeman, Philadelphia. 

This work was issued by the author at intervals. Nos. i. to vii. bear 
date from July, 1840, to Jan. 1844; No. viii. was issued without date. The 
work is on a whole a model of excellence, and the plates are executed 
with the greatest care, whicli was characteristic of all tlie work done by 
Prof. Haldeman.— A.F.G. 

46 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1840. Say. Descriptions of some new Terrestrial and Fluviatile Sliells 

of North America, 1829, 1830 and 1831, New Harmony, 
Indiana, 1840. 

Mrs. Say has here collected some of the descriptions published by her 
husband in the "Transylvania Journal of Medicine," and "The New Har- 
mony Disseminator of Useful Knowledge." — A.F.G. 

[1840.] Shaffer. A complete List of Laud and Fresh water Shells 
found in the immediate vicinity of Cincinnati, Ohio, b^^ David 
H. Shaffer. 

No date is given to the paper which was printed privately, it contains 
148 species, the synonymy of the Unionidw is given. Mr. Shaflfer writes 
that the list was published in 1840. — A.F.G. 

1841-6. Pfeiffer. Symbolae ad Historian! Heliceorum, auctore, Dr. 
Lud. Pfeiffer, Cassel, 1841-46. 

1841. Villa. Dispositio Systematica Couchyliarum Terrestriiim et 

Fluviatilum quae adservantur in coUectione fratrum Ant. et 
Jo. Bapt. Villa, etc., Mediolani, 1841. 
Synonymy of many Ohio species given. — A.F.G. 

[1843] [No date.] Anthony. List of Land and Fresh-water Shells 
found chiefly in the vicinity of Cincinnati. b\^ J. G. Anthon}'. 

Second edition published at Cincinnati, Jan. 1, 1843. The first 
edition was a list only, and embraced 173 species, the second gives 163 
species with many synonyms. — A.F.G. 

[No date.] Hildreth. Catalogue of Fresh-water Shells found near 
Marietta, Ohio. By S. P. Hildreth. 

List only : includes 1 Cyclas, 3 Alasmodontas, 4 Anodontas, and 6 

[No date.] Hubbard. Catalogue of Terrestrial and Fluviatile Shells 
of Ohio, in the collection of Eber W. Hubbard, Elyria, Ohio. 

163 species enumerated with synonymy, but no descriptions. — A.F.G. 

1843. BiNNEY. Eemarks on the Geographical Distribution of Am. 
Land Shells, by Dr. Amos Binne}'. <<;Proc. Boston Soc. 
Nat. Hist., vol. i., p. 142, Oct., 1843. 

1843. DeKay. Zoology of New York, Part v., Mollusca, by J. E. DeKay. 
4to, pp. 271, 40 plates, Alban.v, 1843. 

See lists of Extra-limital Species, which contain notes on Ohio species. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati -Fauna. 47 

1843. MussEY. [Catalogue of the] Ohio Valley Shells, by R. D. Mussey. 
<^Proc. National Institute, Washington, p. 297, 1843. 

No descriptions, typographical errors numerous. — A.F.G. 

1843-(59?). Eeeye. Conchologica Iconica, oi' Illustrations of Shells 
of Molluscous Animals, by Lovell A. Resve, London. 

Published at irregular intervals, full descriptions and colored plates 
given, 1843 (59?).— A.F.G. 

1845. Chenu. Bibliotheque Conchyliogique Premiere Serie, vol. iii., 
Paris, 1845. 

This volume contaius the writings of Say, Conrad, Ralinesque and Rack- 
ett, translated into French ; these all contain references to the Shells of 
Ohio.— A.F.G. 

1845. Wheatley. Catalogue of the Shells of the United States, with 
their localities, by Chas. M. Wheatley, New York, 1845. 

Localities only given, no descriptions. — A.F.G. 

1847-76. Pfeiffer. Monographia Heliceorum Viventium, auctore, 
Dr. Lud. PfeiflFer, Cassel. Vol. i., 1847-8; vol. ii., 1848; vol. iii., 
1853; vol. iv., 1859; vol. v., 1868; vol. vi., 1868; vol. vii., 1875; 
vol. viii., 1S76. 

This great work contains many references to the Helicidse of the United 
States, and special localities are given in many instances. — A.F.G. 

1849. Western Academy. Catalogue of the Unios, Alasmodontas and 

Anodontas of the Ohio River and its Northern Tributaries, 
adopted by the Western Acad, of Nat. Sci., of Cincinnati, 
Jan., 1849. 

Contains much information in regard to svnonymv of these groups. — 

1850. Anthony. Descriptions [ofNewMelanians], by J. G. Anthony. 

<;Proc. Boston See. Nat. Hist., vol. iii., pp. 360-363, Nov.. 

Ohio species mentioned liere, and of which descriptions are given : 
Melania inomata, tracta, hrcv^ispira, elata, napclla, cuspidata, succinulata. — 

1851-7. BiNNEY, — Gould. The Terrestrial Air-breathing INIollusks of 
the United States, and the adjacent Territories of North 
America, described and illustrated by Amos Binne^', edited 
by A. A. Gould, Boston. Vols, i., ii., 1851; vol. iii. (plates), 

48 Cincmvati Society of Natural History. 

In vol. i. will be found many general remarks upon clas.sification and 
geogra])hical distribution by the author, also on special anatomy by Dr. 
Jos. Leidy, all the species known to the date of publication are here fig- 
ured by the able Alex. Lawson, and others, and full detailed descriptions 
given by Binney or Gould. Wood-cuts illustrate the lingual dentition of 
many species. — A.F.G. 

1851. KiRTLAND. Remarks on the Sexes and Habits of some of tlie 
Acephalous Bivalve Mollusca, by J. P. Kiitland. <;^Proc. 
Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. v., pp. 85-91, Washington, D. C. 

Notes upon byesus, sexual differences and localities of many species. — 

1851. NE^yBERRY. Geographical Distribution of certain species of 

Fluviatile and Terrestrial Shells, by J. S. Newberry, M.D. 
<;^Proc. Am. Assoc, for Adv. Sci., vol. v., p. 105. 1851. 

6 Species mentioned with localities. — A.F.G. 

1852. Jay. A Catalogue of the Shells arranged according to the 

Lamarckian System, etc., contained in the Collection of John 
C. Jay, M.D. Fourth edition, with Supplement, New York, 

This work contains much upon synonymy, but no descriptions. Three 
previous editions have been issued, the 1st dated Aug. 1, 1835; 2d, 1836; 
and 3d, 1839; all published in New York. Many discrepancies opcur in 
synonymy in the earlier editions, owing to improved classification.-A.F.G. 

1852. KusTER. Die Gattung Paludina Hydrocrena und Valvata, von 
Dr. H. Kuster. [In Martini and Chemnitz ed., Nov.] 

1852. Prime. Descriptions of Cycladidse, by Temple Prime. 
<<Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, vol. vi., p. 155, March, 1852. 
C. gracilis, and C. solidula, and Pisidium obscurum, Prime, from Ohio, 
with many from other States described.— A.F.G. 

1852. Prime. Monograph of the species of Pisidium found in the 

United States of North America, with figures, by Temple 
Prime. <<Bostou Jour. Nat. Hist., vol. vi., No. 3, p. 348. 
June, 1852. 

1853. Anthony, J. G. <^Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. ii., 1853. 

Lists of Ohio Shells without descriptions. — A.F.G. 

1853. Conrad. Synopsis of the Family of Naiades of North America, 
with Notes, by T. A. Conrad, -cCi^Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. 
Sci., vol. vi., pp. 244-269, Feb.. 1853. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 49 

1853. Prime. Notes on the Species of Cyclas found in the United 

States, with descriptions and wood cuts, bj Temple Prime. 
<;Proc. Boston See. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., pp. 271-285, March, 

1854. Anthony. Descriptions of New Fluviatile Shells of the Genus 

Melania of Lamarck, from the Western States of North 
America, by J. G. Anthou}', Esq. <^ Annals N. Y. 'Lye. 
Nat. Hist., vol. vi., March and April, 1854. 

New species described from Ohio are M. ioata, aUi2)eta, tecta, neglecta, 
and cjraciUor. — A.F.G. 

1854-5, British INIuseum Catalogues of Mollusca. Catalogue ofCon- 
chifera or Bivalve Shells. Part II., Petricoladge and Corbi- 
culadae, by G. P. Deshayes, 1854. Catalogue of Pulmonata, 
or Air-breathing Mollusca. Part I., by J. E. Gra}' and L. 
Pfeiffer, 1855. 

1854. KiRTLAND. New locality of Limnjfia megasoma, Say, b}' J. P. 
Kirtland. <;^Annals of Science, etc., including Trans. 
Cleveland Acad. Nat. Sci., conducted by Hamilton A. Smith, 
A. M., Cleveland, vol. ii., No. 1, Jan., 1854. 

From Alliance, Mahoning river. — A.F.G. 

1858. BiNNEY. The Complete Writings of Thos. Saj^ on the Con- 
chology of the United States, edited by W. G. Binney, New 
York, 1858. 

This invaluable work contains a collection of all the descriptions of re- 
cent shells published by Mr. Say, either privately or in obscure publi- 
cations, now unavailable. The edition is fully illustrated with plates. — 

1858. HiGGiNS. A Catalogue of the Shell-bearing species of Mollusca 

inliabiting the vicinity of Columbus, Ohio, with some Re- 
marks thereon, by Frank Higgins, Sept., 1858. 

This list enumerates 144 species and gives localities fully. No descrip- 
tions are included. — A.F.G. 

1859. Binney. Terrestrial Air-broatliing INIollusks of the United 

States, and the Adjacent Territories of North America, by 
W. G. Binney, vol. iv. <^Boston Jour. Nat. Hist., vol. vii., 

50 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

1863-4, BiNNEY. Bibliography of Nortli American CoQchology previous 
to year 1860, prepared for Smithsonian Institution, by W. 
G. Binnc}'. Part I., American Authors, pp. G58. <;]Smith- 
sonian Misc. Collections, vol. v., Marcli, 1863. Part II., 
Foreign Authors, pp. 802. <:^Smithsonian Misc. Collections, 
vol. ix., June, 1864. 

1864. BiNNEY AND Tryon. Complete Writings of Constantino Smaltz 

Rafiuesque, on Recent and Fossil Conchology, edited by W. 
G. Binney and Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. New York, 1864, 8vo, pp. 
96, with plate. 

1865. Anthony. Descriptions of New Species of North American 

Unionidse, b^'^ J. G. Anthony. <;^Am. Jour. Conch., vol. i., 
pt. 2, pp. 155-164, April, 1865. 

Unio distans, Anthony, from Ohio, and other species described. — A.F.G. 

1865-73. Binney, Bland, Tryon and Prime. Laud and Fresh water 
Shells of North America. Part I., Pulmonata Geophila, by 
Binney and Bland, 1869. Part II., Pulmonata Limnophila. 
and Thalassophila, by W. G. Binnej', 1865. Part III., 
AmpuUaridse, Valvatidse, Viviparidse, etc., by W. G. Binney, 
1865. Part IV., Strepomatida, by Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., 1873; 
and Corbiculadse; by Temple Prime, 1865. <^Smithsonian 
Misc. Collections, 1865-73. 

1865. Tryon. Observations on the Family Strepomatidse, b}'^ Geo. 
W. Tryon, Jr. <^Am. Jour. Conch., vol. i., pt. 2, pp. 97-135, 
April, 1865. 

Classification and Geograpliical Distribution of the Family treated. — 
A. F. G. 

1865-6. Tryon. Monograph of the Family Strepomatidoe, by Geo. W. 
Tryon, Jr. <^Am. Jour. Conch., vol. i., pt. 4, pp. 299-341, 
Oct., 1865; vol. ii., pt. 1., pp. 14-52, Jan., 1866; vol. ii., pt. 2, 
pp. 115-133, April, 1866. 

1866-8. Tryon. Monograph of the Terrestrial Mollusca of the United 
States, by Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. <;^Am. Jour. Conch., vol. 
ii., pt. 3, pp. 218-277, Juh% 1866; vol. ii., pt. 4, pp. 306-327, 
Oct., 1866; vol. iii., pt. 1, pp. 34 80, April, 1867; vol. iii., pt. 2, 
pp. 155-181, Sept. 1867; vol. iii., pt. 4, pp. 298-324, April, 
1868; vol. iv., pt. 1, pp. 5-22, June, 1868. 

Bibliography of the Cincinnati Fauna. 51 

1867-8. :\roRSE. The Land Snails of New England, by E. S. Morse. 
<Am. Nat., vol. L, pp. 5-16, 95-100, 150-151, 186-188, 313 
315, 411-414, 541-547, 606-609, 666-672. 

This article contains excellent wood-cuts of all the species, many of 
which are referred to from Ohio; ageneralaccountof the habits of snails, 
and of the anatomy of Helix albolabris. Say, is given in the early portion 
. of the paper which is accompanied by a good plate. — A.F.G. 

1868-9. Lewis. Observations on Melantho, b\' James Lewis, M. D. 
<Am. Jour. Conch., vol. iv., pt. 3, pp. 133-136, Nov. 1868; 
vol. v., pt. 1, pp. 33-36, July, 1869. 
Notes upon Melantho ponderosa and obesa included. — A.F.G. 

1869-70. Morse. Our Common Fresh-water Shells, bj- Edward S. 
Morse. -c^^Am. Nat., vol. iii., pp. 530-535, Dec, 1869, and pp. 
648-651, Feb., 1870. 
Familiar account of many species with excellent wood-cuts. — A.F.G. 

1872. Byrnes. List of Land and Fresh-water Shells found in the 
Vicinity of Cincinnati ; also the Unionidie of the Ohio River 
and its Northern Tributaries within the State of Ohio, by R. 
M. Byrnes, Dec, 1872. 

Privately printed, this list embraces 200 species. — A.F.G. 

1874. Miller. Remarks on Unio Sayii, and Uuio Camptodon, before 

the Cincinnati Society of Natural History' at the Meeting in 
i\Iay, by Dr. C. A. Miller. <^Cin. Quar. Jour. Sci., vol. i., 
pp. 244-247, July, 1874. 

Unio sayii to be placed in Ohio list, and camptodon to be expunged. — 

1875. Lewis. Descriptions of New Species of American Land and 

Fresh-water Shells, b}' James Lewis, M.D. <^Proc. Phila. 
Acad. Nat. Sci., 1875, pp. 334-337. 

Melantho obesus described from Oliio Canal at Columbus. — A.F.G. 

1876. Harper and Wetherbt. Catalogue of the Land and Fresh- 

water Mollusca found in the Immediate Vicinity' of Cincinnati, 
O., by Geo. W. Harper, and A. G. Wetherby. Feb., 1876. 

This list contains 204 species. The more obvious errors in the list are 
the omission of tlic family Anculosa, and tlie inclusion of Margaritana 
covfragosa, Say, which belongs to the Fauna of Indiana. It was described 
by Say, from specimens obtained in Fox river, a tributary of tlie Wabash, 
and the quotation by Lea in his "Synopsis," "1870," of Ohio river, as the 
source of this species is without doubt erroneous. — A.F.G. 

52 Cincinnati Society of Nat^iral History. 

1876. List of the Mollusca P^xisting in tiio Neigh borhocxl of Cincinnati. 

<Publications of the O. G. B. III., Aug. 1876. 

This list, by C. R. Judge, Wm. Doherty, and two or three other high- 
school jjupils, writing under the nom. de jylunie of '*' Our Geological Boys," 
contains 211 species, some of which arc referred to as possible varieties 
of other species. ^A.F.G. 

1877. Leavis. Unionidae of Ohio and Alabama, by James Lewis, M.D. 

<;Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1877, pp. 26 36. 

A comparison of the Faunas of the two water systems, with many, criti- 
cal notes. — A F.G. 

3 878. Anonymous. Note on Hyalina milium. <;;Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., vo],i., p. 23, April, 1878. 

Occurrence in Ohio and Kentucky noted. — A.F.G. 

1878. BiNNEY. The Terrestrial Air-breathing MoUusks of the United 

States and the Adjacent Territories of North America, de- 
scribed and illustrated by W. G. Binney, vol. v. <^Bull. 
Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. iv., Cambridge, July, 1878. 
A complete manual of all the land shells. — A.F.G. 

1878. Calkins. Multiplication of Species in the Families Unionidjfi 
and Strepomatidse, b}^ W, W. Calkins. <<[Valley Naturalist 
(St. Louis), Jan., 1878. 

Notes as to the great number of specific forms in these families which 
must be stricken out, and placed in the ranks of synonyms only. — A.F.G. 

1878. Calkins. W. W. Calkins on a New Species of Succinea. 
<Valley of Naturalist (St. Louis), Nov., 1878. 

S. calumetensis described from Cook Co., Illinois, also note on S. retitsa, 
Lea.— A.F.G. 

1878. Call. Mode of Distribution of Fresh-water Mussels, bj' R. E. 
Call. <<Am. Nat., vol. xii., pp. 472-473, July, 1878. 

Unio ruhiginosiis and gibbosm, probably introduced from Westei'n 
waters to New York by the Erie Canal, also notes the occurrence of 
Unio pressus, a western species in a small lake near Herkimer, N.Y. — 

1878, Doherty. Description of Two New Gasteropods, b}- William 

Doherty. <^Quar. Jour, of Conch., vol. i.. No. 15, pp. 341-342, 

with plate. 

Soniatogyrus trothis, from Ohio river, and Ciondla [Ztia) morseana, from 
Hamilton Co., Ohio, are described. — A.F.G. 

BibUographij of the Cincinnati Fauna. 53 

1878. Judge. Description of New Species of Pupa, b}' Chus. E. Judge. 
<^Joui-. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. i:, pp. 39-40, with figure. 
April, 1878. 

Pupa Cincinnatiensis described, this paper also appeared in the Quar. 
Jour. Conch., vol. i., No. 15, May, 1878, pp. 343-344.— A.F.G. 

1880-81. Wetherby. On the Geographical Distribution of Certain 
Fresh-water Mollusks of North America, and the probable 
causes of their Variations, by A. G. Wetherby. <<^Jour. 
Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iii., pp. 317-324, Jan. -June, 1880, also 
vol. iv., pp. 156-166, July, 1881. 

Treats of the distribution of the families Strepomatidte and Unionidie. 

1881. Byrnes, R. M. Sphserium occidentale, Prime. <^Jour. Cin. 
Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. 345. 
Note of occurrence near Cincinnati. 

1881. Call. Notes on Succinea campestris, and S. aurea, by R. E. 
Call. <Am. Nat., vol. xv., pp. 391-392, May, 1881. 

Succinea aurea, an Ohio species, to be added to the species of Western 
and Central New York, here noted from Richfield Springs, N. Y. — A.F.G. 

1881. Editor [F. W. Langdon]. Vivipara contectoides. Say. 
<^Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., p. 345. 
Record of specimens "planted" near Cincinnati. 

1881. Wetherby. Some Notes on American Land Shells, No. II., by 

A. G. Wetherby. <^Jour. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iv., pp. 
323-335, Dec. 1881. 


1882. Hunt, J. H. Vide Crustacea, 1882, p. 38, ante. 

STJBK:iiVGrr>0]>i: protozoa. 

1882. Hunt, J. H. Vide Crustacea, 1882, p. 38, ante. 


1882. Hunt, J. II. Vide Crustacea, 1882, p. 38, ante. 
1882. Hunt, J. 11. Vide Crustacea, 1SS2, p. 38, ante. 

54 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 


By A, P. Morgan. 

FUNGI, Linn. 

Fungi are Thallophytes which grow upon organic substances, usu- 
ally dead or decaying animal or vegetable matter, and derive their 
nourishment from them ; they are destitute of chlorophyll, the green 
coloring matter of plants, and are therefore incapable of assimilation. 

The whole process of development of a fungus may be divided into 
two periods ; first, from the spore is produced a mycelium ; secondly, 
out of the mycelium the fructification subsequently arises. The my- 
celium consists of filaments simple or branched, and single or variously 
associated. The mycelium creeps in or upon the substratum which 
nourishes it out of which it absorbs the useful materials. The fructi- 
fication consists of simple or branched filaments, bearing the spores at 
their extremities ; these threads are either separate and free from each 
other, or they grow closely compacted together forming a hymenium. 
The hymenium is either naked and exposed, and borne upon a recep- 
tacle, or it is inclosed in a peridium or a perithecium. The spores are 
either produced naked at the extremities of the filaments or they arise 
inside their sac-like swollen terminal cells ; in the former case the 
supporting cell or filament takes the name of hasidium, in the latter it 
is called an ascus. 


A. Spores naked. 

a. Hymenium present. 
1. Hymenomycetes. — Hymenium free, mostly naked or soon exposed. 
^. Gasteromycetes. — Hymenium inclosed in a peridium, which is 
ruptured when mature. 

h. Hymenium absent. 

3. CoNioMYCETES. — Sporcs mostl}' terminal on inconspicuous threads. 

4. Hyphomycetes. — Spores on conspicuous threads. 

B. Spores contained in asci. 

5. Physomycetes. — Fertile cells seated on threads not compacted 
into a hymenium. 

6. AscoMYCETES. — Asci formed from the fertile cells of a hymenium. 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 55 

Class I. — Hymenomtcetes. 
Hymeaium free, mostly naked, or, if inclosed at first, soon exposed ; 
spores naked, mostly quaternate, on distinct spicules. — Cooke. 


.-t. Hymenium effigurate. 

1. Agaricixi. — Hymenium spread over the surface of gills or lamellre. 

2. PoLTPOREi. — Hymenium lining the interior of tubules or pores, 

3. Hydnei. — Hymenium consisting of teeth, tubercles or papillae. 

B. Hymenium Icavigate. 

4. Thelephorei. — Hymenium horizontal and inferior. 

5. Clayariei. — Hymenium investing a clavate or branched bod}'. 

6. Tremellinei. — Hymenium investing a lobed or convolute gelatin- 
ous body. 

Order I. — Agaricini. 
H3'menophore inferior, lamellose. Lamellae radiating from the 
center or from the stipe, covered on both surfaces with basidia and 
paraph^'ses ; basidia 4sporous at the apex. 


A. Fungi fleshy, putrescent. 

1. Agaricds. — Lamelipe membranaceous, soft, persistent. 

2. CoPRiNUS. — Lamellffi dissolving into a black fluid. 

3. BoLBiTius. — Lamellae becoming moist ; spores subferruginous. 

4. Cortinarics. — Veil of cobwebby threads ; lamellae pulverulent 
with subochraceous spores. 

5. Paxillus. — Lamellae easil}' separating from the hymenophore ; 
spores colored. 

6. Hygrophorus. — Lamellae somewhat waxy. 

7. Lactarius. — Lamellae with a milky juice. 

8. RussDLA. — Lamellae rigido-fragile. 

9. Cantharellus. — Lamellae with the edge obtuse. 

B. Fungi tough, persistent, subcoriaceous. 

10. IMarasmius. — Fungi marcesccnt, reviving when wet. 

IL Lentinus. — Fungi lleshy-tough ; lamelhv lacero dentate. 

12. Panus. — Fungi fleshj'-coriaceous; lamellae entire. 

13. Trogia. — Fungi tough, soft: lamelUe fold-like, the edge crisp. 

56 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

14. ScHizoPHYLLUM. — Fungi coriaceous; lamellae witli the edge split 
and revolute. 

15. Lenzites. — Fungi corky; lamellfe coriaceous. 

Genus I. — Agaricus, Linn. 

Lamellse membranaceous, soft, persistent, not tough nor deliquescent, 
easily sepai*able into two layers, the edge acute; trama subfloccose; 
universal veil never cobwebby. 

The subgenera of the genus Agaricus are arranged in five series, 
according to the color of the spores, as follows: 

1. Leucospori. — Spores white or whitish. 

2. Hyporhodii. — Spores rosy or reddish. 

3. Dermini. — Spores subferruginous, argillaceous or ochraceous. 

4. Fratelli. — Spores purplish or brown. 

5. Coprinarii. — Spores black. 


A. Stipe central and veil present. 

a. LamellcB free from the stipe. 

1. Amanita. — Universal veil discrete from the epidermis of the pileus. 

2. Lepiota. — Universal veil concrete witli the epidermis of the 

b. Lamellce attacked to the stipe. 

3. Armillaria. — Veil partial, annuliform. 

B. Stipe central, veil absent. 

c. Stipe fleshy or fibrous. 

4. Tricholoma. — Lamellge sinuate. 

5. Clitoctbe. — Lamellae decurrent. 

d. Stipe cartilaginous, lamellce not decurrent. 

6. CoLtYBiA. — Pileus convexo-plane, the margin at first involute. 

7. My'CENA. — Pileus carapanulate, the margin straight. 

e. Stipe cartilaginous, lamellce decurrent. 

8. Omphalia. — Pileus more or less umbilicate. 

C. Stipe excentric or none. 

9. Pleurotus, — Pileus irregular or sessile. 

Subgenus I. — Amanita, Fr. 
Spores white. Universal veil (the volva) at first contiguous, discrete 

The 3Iycologic Flora oj the Miami Valley, 0. 57 

from the epidermis of the pileus. Hymenophore discrete from the 
stipe. All terrestrial. 

A. Anaulus present. 

a. Volva entire, 1, 2. 

b. Volva circumscissile, 3, 4. 

c. Volva broken up, 5. 

B. Annulus absent, 6, 7. 

A. Annulus manifest, superior. 

a. Volva dehiscing at the apex; the limb free, persistent. 

1. A. c^SAREUs, Scop. — Pileus hemispheric, expanded, somewhat 
orange color ; the margin striate ; the flesh yellowish. Stipe somewhat 
ventricose, flocculose, stuffed with cottony fibres ; the volva and annu- 
lus lax. Lamellae free, luteous. 

In woods. This magnificent Agaric appears to be rare in the Miami 
Valley ; it is not in Lea's Catalogue ; I have met with it asyetonl}'- at 
the '-Pinnacles" near Dayton. My figures vary in size, with the pileus 
4-6 in. in diameter, and the stipe 5-8 in. in height. The thick volva is 
about the size of a hen's egg, and of like shape and color ; it is burst 
at the apex by the growth of the pileus and remains entire about the 
base of the stipe. The pileus is said to vary in color, being found j^ellow, 
red and copper-color. This is the most showy of Agarics and well de- 
serves the appellation "Fungorum Princeps" {Kaiserling, vulgodictus). 
It has been celebrated as an article of diet from the most ancient times? 
" Cibus Deorum," Clus. It was known to the ancient Romans under the 
name " Boletus," and is said to have had the honor, under Agrippina's 
orders, and Locusta's cookery, of poisoning the emperor Claudius ; in 
memory of which event, it is aow called Agaricus cccsareus, Caesar's 
Agaric. It is the only ancient mushroom which we at once recognize by 
the description of it. Pliny says " it originates in a volva or purse, in 
which it lies at first concealed as in an egg ; breaking thri)ugh this, it 
rises upwards on its stalk ; the color of the cap is red ; it takes a week 
to pass through the various stages of its growth and declension," 

2. A. VERNUS, Fr. — White. Pileus ovate then expanded, somewhat 
depressed, viscid; the margin orbicular, even. Stipe stuffed, then hol- 
low, equal, floccose ; the limb of the volva free and closely sheathing 
the stipe ; annulus reflexcd, tumid. Lamellre free. 

The spring Agaric is found in moist woods in spring ami early 
summer ; it is quite common. Pilous 2-'Pt in. in diameter, the stipe 4-6 

58 Cincinnati Society of Natural llislory. 

in. high. Dr. Cooke and Prof. Peck botli give this as a species, though 
Fries considers it a variety of A. phalloides. It is readil}' distin 
guished from white forms of A. var/inatus, or of A. volvatus by the pre- 
sence of the annulus. 

b. Volva definitely circumscissile, the margined base persistent, the 
upper part separating into thick warts upon the pileus. 

3. A. MusCARius, Linn. Pileus con vexo expanded; tlie margin stri- 
ate; the flesh beneath the viscid cuticle yellowish. Stipe cobwebb_y 
within, soon hollow, ovate-bulbous at the base; the volva adnate, con- 
centrically scaly-margined; the annulus superior, lax. Lamellae reach- 
ing the stipe and decurrent in striae. Spores .008 X -006 mm. 

In woods, not abundant in our region. This species does not appear 
in Lea's Catalogue, but I have met with it in all localities; it is very 
common in the Eastern States. Pileus 3-6 in. broad, stipe 4-8 in. high. 
The color of the European plant is commonl}^ orange or scarlet, but in 
this country it is usually bright yellow, sometimes var\nng to whitish. 
The lamellae are white, sometimes with a yellowish tint. It is alwaj'S 
to be distinguished by the scaly-margined bulbous base of the stipe- 
This plant, as its name indicates, is called the "FI3" Agaric," because its 
flesh has been used to poison flies, bugs, etc. la sufficient quantities, 
it is a highly narcotic violent poison, producing delirium and death. 
It is habitually used bj- some of the Tartar tribes of Eastern Asia to 
produce intoxication : a curious account of this ma}^ be found in Gold- 
smith's Letters of a " Citizen of the World," letter xxxii. This state- 
ment has recently been verified by George Kennan in a volume entitled 
" Tent-life in Siberia," page 203. 

4. A. PANTHERiNus, DC. — Pilcus convexo-expaudcd ; the margin 
striate ; the flesh beneath the viscid cuticle white. Stipe stuffed, then 
hollow, nearl}^ glabrous ; the base ochreate by the volva, the margin of 
which is entire and obtuse. Lamellie attenuate, free. Spores .0076 X 
.0048 mm. 

In pastures along the borders of woods. Pileus 4-6 in. in diameter, 
stipe 5-7 in. long. Pileus white or brownish, never 3'ellow or red, when 
dr}', soft to the touch like kid leather; the annulus is usually midwa}'^ 
of the stipe or distant from its apex, it is often found deflexed or with 
its margin turned upward; the volva invests the base of the stipe 
smoothl}^, and has a separable or free margin, which is bluntly obtuse 
or truncate. The species is reputed poisonous. 

The 3Iycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 59 

c. The whole volva friable, broken up into scales and tvarts. 

5. A. RUBESCENS, Pers. — Pileus convexo-expanded, strewn with un- 
equal mealy warts ; the flesh becoming reddish. Stipe stufl'ed, taper- 
ing upward, seal}' ; the annulus superior, entire. Lamellae attenuate, 
reaching the stipe and decurrent in stride. Spores .0076X-0058 mm. 

On hills and bluffs in woods. Pileus 3 5 in. in diameter, stipe 3-5 
in. long. The color of the pileus is dirty- reddish, pale flesh-color or 
alutaceous ; when full}' grown the margin is often striate ; it is char- 
acterized by the reddish flesh. It is distinguished from all the other 
Amanitas here enumerated by the complete absence of the volva about 
the base of the stipe. It is commonly classed among the suspicious 
fungi, though by some said to be edible. 

B. Annulus absent. 

6. A. voLVATUs, Peck. — Pileus fleshy, convex, then expanded, 
sprinkled with small floccose scales, whitish, the disk pale brown ; the 
margin striate. Stipe equal or slightly tapering upward, stuffed, 
floccose-scaly, whitish ; the volva large, firm, loose. Lamellae, close, 
free, white. Spores somewhat elliptic, .OlOX-007 mm. 

In moist woods ; quite abundant in spring and summer. Pileus 
2-4 in. broad, stipe 3-7 in. high, the volva l|-2^ in. long, and 1 in. in 
diameter. My figures are much larger than Prof. Peck's t3'pical plant. 
This is a very elegant species, well marked b}- the absence of the an- 
nulus, and the presence of a large, thick, elongated volva. I find the 
upper part of the volva sitting like a cap on the disk of the pileus, or 
hinged on one side, and resting against the stipe, sometimes it has 
fallen off on to the ground ; commonly, the volva is only burst at the 
apex, and presents a free lobed margin. A dense mealiness invests 
the pileus and stipe. The native American species have scarcelj' as 
yet been tested in reference to their qualities as food ; such experi- 
ments should be instituted with great caution. I find only the Morel 
and the Common Mushroom eaten by people in the Miami Vallev ; 
these two fungi are both delicious articles of diet. 

7. A. VAGiNATDS, BuU. — Pilcus thin, campanulate then explanate; the 
margin membranaceous, pectinate sulcate. Stipe hollow, tapering up- 
ward, fragile, floccose-scaly ; the volva sheathing, loose. Lamellte 
free, white. Spores oval, .009GX.008I mm. 

In woods, common throughout the season from spring to autumn. 
Pileus 2-3 in. in diameter, stipe 4-() in. in height, the volva llA in. louw. 

60 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

The pileus is commonly brownish or tawny, but is sometimes white, 
and sometimes quite a deep brown, especially on the disk ; the pileus 
and stipe both are usually quite smooth and glabrous. The volva is 
commonly concealed beneath the surface of the ground, and is liable 
to be overlooked. Badham says this species is edible, but it was for- 
merly classed among suspicious fungi. 

Note. — A. virosus, Fr., of Lea's Catalogue, has been omitted because 
it does not appear to have been recorded elsewhere in the Eastern U. S., 
and because I have never met with it in the Miami Valley ; it seems 
scai'cely possible that I should not have found so conspicuous a fungus. 
I have an Amanita figured, which is mouse-color, and resembles A. 
strangulatus, Fr., but the spores are curved and apiculate, and very 
different in measurement from the latter ; having had but the single 
specimen, I can not venture to characterize it. Specimens of Amanitas, 
differing from the seven here described, are earnestly desired by the 
writer. a. p. m. 

Subgenus II. — Lepiota. Fr. 

Spores white (green in No. 10). Hymenophore discrete from the 
stipe. Universal veil concrete with the epidermis of the pileus. 
Lamellae free (except in No. 21), often remote. Terrestrial. 

A. Pileus dry, scaly. 

a. Annulus movable. 

a'. Pileus brownish, 8, 9. 
b'. Pileus whitish, 10, 11. 

b. Annulus fixed. 

c'. Pileus reddish, 12-14. 
d'. Pileus blackish, 15, 16. 
e'. Pileus whitish, 17, 18. 

B. Pileus dr}^, granulose, 19-21. 

C. Pileus viscid, 22. 

A. Pileus dry, scaly, 
a. Annulus movable. 

a'. Pileus reddish brown. 

8. A. PROCERUS, Scop. — Pileus flesh}-, soft, ovate, then explanate? 
umbouate ; cuticle thick, torn into seceding scales. Stipe hollow, 
tall, bulbous, variegated, with appressed scales. Lamellae remote, 
spores .0152X-0076 mm. 

The 3£ycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, O. 61 

Along the borders of woods and in pastures. Pileus 3-5 in. broad, 
stipe 5-9 in. liigh. The pileus is tough, dry and strongly umbonate, 
the cuticle being reddish brown, and broken so that the surface re- 
sembles brown shaggy leather. The stipe is brown-seal}', with some 
times peculiar snake-like spots. 

9. A. RHAcoDES, Vitt. — Pileus flesh}^ soft, globose, then explanate 
or depressed ; the cuticle thin, reticulate, broken up into persistent 
scales. Stipe hollow, even, bulbous ; the bulb ample, at first mar- 
gined. Lamellae remote. Spores .0064X-0046 mm. 

In pastures and meadows. Pileus 3-5 in. in breadth, stipe 5-9 in. 
high, of the size of the preceding species ; it is also of the same red- 
dish-brown color. But it is not umbonate, the disk being depressed 
or somewhat umbilicate ; the flesh grows reddish after being broken 
or bruised ; the stipe is never spotted. According to "Worthington 
Smith's measurement, there is a great difference in the size of the 
spores. Prof. Peck expresses doubts as to this species being found 
in this country', but I have had specimens which I confidently referred 

b'. Pileus white or whitish. 

10. A. MORGANi, Peck. — Pileus fleshy, soft, globose, then explanate ; 
the cuticle breaking up into seceding scales. Stipe cobwebby- stufled, 
somewhat bulbous, tapering upward. Lamellae remote, at first white, 
then changing to greenish. Spores subelliptic greenish, .010-.012X 
.007-.008 mm. (See Plate XL) 

Open, dry, grassy grounds, in pastures and along the roadsides. 
Pileus white, or the cuticle alutaccous, commonly 5-9 in. in diameter, 
the stipe 6-8 in. long, though larger specimens are sometimes found- 
This is the most conspicuous Agaric in the meadows and pastures of 
the Miami Valley ; it appears to flourish from spring to autumn when- 
ever there is abundance of rain. It is readily recognized by its green 
spores, by which it is remarkably distinguished from all other Agarics. 
See ai"ticle by Prof. Chas. H. Peck, in Botanical Gazette, for March, 
1879, also note by the writer in the September number. 

11. A. MASTOiDEUS, Fr. — Pileus somewhat fleshy, soft, ovate-expand- 
ed, umbonate; the umbo prominent; cuticle thin, seceding in papillffi. 
Stipe hollow, slender, tapering equally from the bulb. Lamelhe very 
remote, pallid. 

About old stumps in open woods. Pileus l.y-2A in. across, stipe about 

62 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

3 in. high; the margin in my figure is thin and striate; the color is 
white, with a sordid or alutaceous cuticle seceding up to the conspicu- 
ous umbo. 

b. Annulus fixed. 

c'. Pileus loith reddish or reddish- broivn scales. 

12. A. ACUTESQUAMosus, Weinm. — Pileus fleshy, obtuse, at first hirto- 
floccose, then echiuate, with erect acute squarrose scales. Stipe stout, 
bulbous. Lamellae approximate, lanceolate, simple. Spores with a 
nucleus on one side, oblong .0042X-0028 mm. 

In woods in rich soil abou'^ old stumps. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, red- 
dish-brown, with darker squarrose scales; the stipe 3-4 in. high, the 
bulb sometimes with a crenate margin. Veil clinging to the margin 
of the pileus, and finall}'' forming an ample annulus. Our plant seems 
to differ from the European one, especially in the nature of the bulb. 

13. A. RUBRO-TINCTUS, Peck. — Pileus fleshy, soft, convex, then expla- 
nate; cuticle reddish, fibrose-lacerate. Stipe hollow, glabrous, some- 
what bulbous, tapering upward; annulus persistent. Lamellse free, 

Among the old leaves in rich woods. Pileus 1^-3 in. broad, stipe 3-4 
in. long. This is a very beautiful plant; the pileus is bright red, and 
the stipe white, smooth and shining, the cuticle breaks up into silky 
fibres, which commonly remain. 

14. A. AMERiCANDS, Peck. — Pileus convex, umbonate ; the margin 
obscurely striate. Stipe glabrous, gradually enlarged below into a 
long sub-ventricose bulb-like base. Lamellse free. 

On lawns and elsewhere on grassy grounds. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, 
stipe 3-4 in. high. The whole plant when handled or in drying changes 
to a dull pinkish-red color. The frail annulus is sometimes carried 
awa}' upon the margin of the pileus. 

d'. Pileus 10 ith blackish or blackish brown scales. 

15. A FUSCosQUAMEUS, Pcck. — Pileus convex, rough with erect point- 
ed blackish-brown scales. Stipe floccose, thickened at the base. 
Lamellge free, white. Spores .0076X-0036 mm. 

In rich woods among the leaves. Pileus 14^-2 in. broad, stipe 2-3 in. 
long. All parts of the plant somewhat whitish at first turn black in 

16. A. FELiNus, Pers. — Pileus fleshy, thin, the umbo and the scales 


The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 63 

blackish. Stipe hollow, fragile, rather equal, floccose-scaly; the annu- 
lus fugacious. Lamellse approximate, white. Spores .0055X-0035 mm. 
In woods. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, stipe about 2 in. long. This is a 
variety of ^. clypeolarius. Bull, according to Fries. 

e'. Pileus with whitish or alutaceous scales. 

17. A. CRiSTATUS, A. & S. — Pileus slightly fleshy, campanulate, obtuse , 
cuticle at first contiguous, then seceding in subgranulose scales. Stipe 
hollow, slender, equal, silky-fibrillose ; the annulus seceding. Lam- 
ellae free, at length remote. 

In woods among the old leaves. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, stipe 2-3 in. 
high. This plant is remarkable for its offensive odor. The pileus is 
whitish, alutaceous or yellowish, it is fragile, and often split and ir- 
regular ; the stipe is curved or crooked and floccose. 

18. A. MiAMENSis, n. sp. — White. Pileus somewhat fleshy, convex 
then explanate, even, scaly. Stipe hollow, glabrous, nearly equal; the 
annulus fragile. Lamellae approximate. Spores .006X-003 mm. (See 
Plate in.) 

In woods upon the old leaves. Pileus 1-1|^ in. in diameter, stipe 
about 2 in. long. This plant differs from A. ermineus^ Fr., in its 
habitat, and in the pileus being scal}^ and the stipe glabrous. 

B. Pileus dry, granulose. 

19. A. NAUciNus, Fr. — Whitish. Pileus fleshj', soft ; cuticle, thin, 
glabrous, crumbling into granules; the center umbonate, even. Stipe 
rather hollow, fibrillose, tapering upward from the thickened base ; 
annulus thin, seceding. LamelliB free, approximate. 

On slopes and grassy grounds. Pileus 4-5 in. broad, stipe 3-4- in. 
high, and nearly- an inch thick at the base, I have seen very few speci- 
mens of this plant, and have not had an opportunity to examine the 
spores ; they are said by Fries to be globose. A similar plant is 
culled A. naucinoides by Prof Peck ; in it the spores are subelliptic, 
and .0080X.005G mm. 

20. A. CARCHARiAS, Pcrs. — Pileus fleshy, convex, then plane, umbon- 
ate, granulose, flesh-color. Stipe stuffed, then hollow, somewhat bulbous, 
seal}', concolorous. Lamellae attached, pure white. 

In woods among the old leaves, not common. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, 
the stipe about 2 in. long. 

21. A. GRANOsus, n, sp, — Pileus fleshy, convex, umbonate, furfurace- 

64 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

ous-granulose, ochraceous; the disk rugose-plicate; the margin more 
or less undulate or irregular. Stipe somewhat bulbous, tapering up- 
ward, curved or crooked, stuffed, furfuraceous-scaly and ochraceous 
below the annulus, pallid or brownish above; the annulus reflexed, per- 
sistent. LamellEC adnate, whitish. Spores subelliptic .005x. 003 mm. 
(See Plate III.) 

Gregarious or csespitose, growing on or near rotten stumps and logs 
in woods. Pileus 2-3^ in. in diameter, stipe 2-4 in. long, \ an inch thick 
at the base. Related to A. amianthinus, Scop., but a ver3' much larger 
plant, and with a different mode of growth. 

C. Pileus with a viscid cuticle. 

22. A. OBLiTus, Peck. — Pileus fleshy, convex or expanded, somewhat 
umbonate, viscid, alutaceous or brownish. Stipe nearly equal, floccose, 
viscid; the annulus obsolete. Lamellae free, whitish or yellowish. 
Spores .004X-003 mm. 

In woods, common. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, stipe 2-3 in. long. This 
is readily recognized by its brownish, viscid pileus. 

Note — A. clypeolarids, Bull., of Lea's list, is omitted. I am disposed 
to think the A. clypeolarius of Fries' Icones has not yet been found 
in this country. The Lepiotas are very interesting plants, and I am 
aware that I have not here exhausted the list of those that grow in our 
valley ; several of those given need more study and the measurement 
of the spores. 

Subgenus III. — Armillaria, Fr. 

Spores white. Hymenophore confluent with the stipe. Veil partial 

23. A. MELLEUS, Fl. D. — Pileus fleshy, thin, explanate, scaly-pilose ; 
the margin when expanded, striate, stipe spongy-stuffed; the annulus 
floccose, spreading. Lamellse adnate, decurrent by a tooth, rather dis- 
tant, pallid, at length somewhat reddish-spotted, mealj' with the spores. 
Spores .008-.009X-005-.006 mm. 

Very abundant in autumn in woods and fields about old stumps. 

Pileus commonly 3-5 in. across, and stipe 4-6 in. high; though these 
measurements are exceeded. It occurs solitar}^ and is often densely 
csespitose. The color is reddish or yellowish, the scales sometimes be- 
coming brown; the stipe is firm, elastic and solid, more or less fibril- 
lose. This is the only Armillaria as yet detected in the Miami valley. 

The 3Iycologic Flora of the Miami Valley^ 0. 65 

Subgenus IV. — Tricholoma, Fr. 

Spores white (except in No. 27). Stipe fleshy, not corticate. Hy- 
menophore confluent with the stipe, the lamellae sinuate behind. 
All terrestrial. 

a. Pileus white or whitish, 24, 25. 

6. Pileus gray or violaceous, 26, 27. 

c. Pileus brown or blackish, 28, 29. 

a. Pileus tchite or lohitish. 

24. A. sPERMATicus, Paul. — White. Pileus somewhat fleshy, convex, 
then explanate, obtuse, repand, glabrous, viscid. Stipe stufl'ed, then 
hollow, elongated, twisted, even. Lamellae emarginate, rather distant, 
eroded. Spores .0056 mm. long. 

In woods in autumn. Pileus about 3 in. in diameter, the stipe 3-4 
in. long. The viscid pileus, shining when dry, and the twisted stipe 
often tapering at the base, distinguish the species. I find it rather 

25. A. LATERARius, Pcck. — Pileus convex or expanded, pruinose, 
whitish; the disk often tinged with red or brown ; the thin marj^in 
marked with slight, subdistant, short, radiating ridges. Stipe nearly- 
equal, solid, white. Lamellae narrow, crowded, white, prolonged in little 
decurrent lines on the stem. Spores oval, .0046 mm. long. 

Around old rotten logs in woods. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, stipe 3-4 in. 
high. The pinched up margin of the pileus is a convenient mark of 
specific distinction. 

b. Pileus gray or violaceous. 

26. A. TERREUS, Schffiff. — Pileus fleshy, thin, soft, campanulate, then 
expanded, umbonate, clothed with innate floceose or scaly down, mouse- 
color. Stipe stuffed, nearly equal, appressed-fibrillose, whitish. 
Lamellae attached, decurrent by a tooth, crenulate, white-gray. Spores 
somewhat elliptic, .0070X-00o5 mm. 

In woods, solitar3\ Pileus 2-3 in. broad, stipe about 3 in. hio^h. 
Ver}' scarce. The spores in my specimen are rather larger than in the 
British plant where the3' are given as nearly spherical and .0050 mm. 
long; yet the agreement is close otherwise. 

27. A. PERSONATUS, Fr. — Pileus compact, then soft, convexo-plane 
obtuse, regular, glabrous, moist. Stipe solid, obese, somewhat bulbous, 
villous. Lamellre rotundare-free, close, violaceous then sordid. Spores 
pale salmon color, regulai-, .006X.003 mm. 

66 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

In woods and thickets, September and October. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, 
stipe 1-3 in. long, f in. thick. The whole plant in its prime is of a violet 
or lilac hue; this changes with age to a pallid or dirty white color. The 
pileus lias an oily appearance on the surface, but is watery not viscid; 
the stipe is often very short and thick for the size of the pileus. The 
margin of the pileus is at first involute and villous-pruinose. The spores, 
although reddish, are regular in shape, and not angular as in Entoloma. 

c. Pileus brown or blackish. 

28. A. CERiNDS, Pers. — Pileus fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse or de- 
pressed, becoming glabrous. Stipe stuflfed, fibrillose-striate, glabrous at 
the base, often brown. Lamellse attached, seceding, close, yellow. 
Spores oval, .0083 X. 0055 mm. 

In open woods about logs and rotten wood. Pileus l|-2 in. broad, 
stipe about 1^ in. long. The plant I have so referred has the stipe 
brown-tomentose; in other respects it agrees quite perfectly. 

29. A. MELALEucus, Pers. — Pileus fleshy, thin, convexo-plane, some- 
what umbonate, glabrous, moist, growing pallid. Stipe stuffed, slender, 
elastic, rather glabrous, whitish with a few dark fibrils, thickened at 
the base. Lamellte eraarginate-attached, close, white. Spores unsym- 
metrical, apiculate, .006X.004 mm. 

In woods in wet weather and on grassy grounds. Pileus 1^-3 in. 
broad, the stipe 2-3 in. long. The pileus varies in color from a soot^-- 
black when fresh and wet to pule when dry; the lamellae and stipe are 

Note. — Our species of Tricholoma are remarkably few in number, 
and the individuals very scarce. Not a single species occurrs in 
Lea's Catalogue. I am disposed to think I have had specimens of A. 
schumacheri, Fr., but they are not figured, and need verification. Being 
so few in number, I have given them an artificial arrangement, in order 
simply to facilitate their determination. 

Subgenus V. — Clitocybe, Fr. 

Spores white (except in No. 31). Stipe spongy-sfcufi'ed, somewhat 
elastic, externally fibrous. Margin of the pileus involute. Lamellae 
attenuate behind, adnaLe or decurrent, never sinuate. Fungi mostly 

The Mycologic Flora oj the 3Iiami Valley, 0. 67 

A. Fungi solitary, pileus not infundibuliform. 

a. Pileus not white, 30-32. 

b. Pileus white, 33-37. 

B. Fungi csespitose, pileus more or less irregular, 38, 39. 

C. Pileus infundibuliform, 40-42. 

A. Pileus convex then plane or depressed, regular ; lamellae adnate 
or regularly adnate-decurrent. Fungi solitary. 

a. Pileus cinereotis, purplish or brown, not white. 

30. A. NEBULARis, Batsch. — Pileus fleshy, compact, convexo-explanate, 
obtuse, even, clouded with gray or dingy-brown. Stipe stufl!'ed, firm, 
fibrillose-striate. Lamellae somewhat decurrent, arcuate, close, white 
then pallid. Spores .0043 x. 0025 mm. 

In woods, not common. Pileus 3-5 in. broad, stipe 3 in. long and 
about 1 in. thick. This is a large Clitocybe, with a stout stipe and a 
thick pileus. I have not yet found it myself; it is in Lea's Catalogue 
where it is stated as growing "amongst dead leaves in a fern ravine." 

31. A. ocHRo-PURPUREus, Berk. — Pileus subhemispheric, at length 
depressed, fleshy, compact, tough, pale alutaceous, slightly changing to 
purplish; the cuticle easily separable; the mai'gin inflexed, at first 
tomentose. Stipe paler, here and there becoming purplish, tumid in the 
middle. Lamellae thick, purple, broader behind, decurrent. Spores 
white or pale yellow. 

In woodlands on clay soil. Pileus 2 in. across, stipe 2^ in. high, | 
in. thick in the middle. This is one of Mr. Lea's new species, found 
first at Cincinnati, then at Waynesville. It has also been found in New 
York by Prof. Chas. H. Peck, the State botanist. 

32. A. LACCATos, Scop. — Pilous somewhat membranaceous, convex, 
then versiforra, somewhat umbilicate, when mature, mealy or somewhat 
scaly, hj^grophanous. Stipe stuffed, equal, tough, fibrous. Lamellae 
adnate, thick, distant, brightly colored, at length white-pruinose. 

In woods. Pileus 1-2 in. across, stipe 2-5 in. long. The pileus 
is usually reddish brown or ochraceous, sometimes of a brighter color. 
The lamellae are commonly flesh-color or violaceous. 

b. The whole fungus ivhite or whitish. 

33. A. coNNExus, Peck. — Pileus thin, convex or expanded, some- 
what umbonate, minutely silk}', white, sometimes faintl\' tinged with 
blue, especially at the margin. Stipe solid, nearly equal, whitish. 
Lamellae crowded, narrow, whitish, decurrent. Spores somewhat 
ovoid, .007X.005 mm. 

68 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

In woods. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, stipe 2-3 in. long. A very pretty 
species. I find it sometimes quite bluish on the pileus; and sometimes 
the stipe rather thicker than "tapering" at the base. Tiie lamellae 
sometimes appear a little rounded behind. 

34. A. PHYLLOPHiLus, Fr. — White. Pileus fleshy, thin, rather plane, 
umbilicate, glabrous, growing pale. Stipe rather hollow, terete, then 
compressed, glabrous, white tomentose at the base. Lamellae, adnate- 
decurrent, moderately distant, white then 3'ellowish. Spores oblong- 
ovoid, .0055X.0028 mm. 

In woods among old leaves, especially of beech. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, 
stipe 2-3 in. long. It sometimes occurs large and caespitose, the pileus 
repand or even undulatelj^ lobed. 

35. A. CANDiCANS, Pers. — White. Pileus a little fleshy, convex then 
plane or depressed, even, out of a thin silky film becoming pure white, 
shining. Stipe disposed to be hollow, even, waxy, shining. Lamellae 
adnate, close, thin, finally decurrent. 

In moist places in woods among the leaves. Pileus about 1 in. 
across; stipe 1-2 in. high, incurved and villous at the base, the rest 
glabrous. The pileus usually preserves a ver}^ perfect and regular 

36. A. DEALBATDS, Sow. — White. Pileus a little flesh}', convex, then 
plane and revolute, even, glabrous, somewhat shining. Stipe stuffed, 
wholly fibrous, slender, equal, somewhat pruinose at the apex. Lamellae 
adnate, close, thin, white. 

In pastures and grassy grounds. Pileus about 1 in, across, some- 
times orbicular, sometimes very wavy; stipe about 1 in. long, often 
curved. It has a mild, mealy odor. 

37. A. TRUNCicoLA. Peck. — Pileus, thin, firm, expanded or slightl}' 
depressed, smooth, dry, white. Stipe equal, stuffed, smooth, often ex- 
centric and curved, whitish. Lamellae narrow, crowded, adnate-de- 
current. Spores oval, .0048X.0037 mm. 

In woods, growing on fallen trunks and branches, especially of Maples. 
Pileus 1-2 in. broad, stipe about 1 in. high. This species, like cyathi- 
formis^ has a rather peculiar habitat for a Clitocybe. 

B. Pileus more or less irregular; lamellce unequally decurrent. Fun- 
gi ccespitose, often connate. 

The Mycologic Flora of the" Miami Valley, 0. 69 

38. A. iLLUDENS, Schw. — Csespitose, reddish-yellow. Pileus fleshy, 
glabrous, urabouate, convex, then expanded and depressed. Stipe very 
long, firm, solid, glabrous, tapering at the base. Lamellae unequal!}' 

In woods, growing in great masses about old stumps. Pileus com- 
monly 4-6 in. broad, stipe 5-8 in. long, but these dimensions are some- 
times much exceeded. This is a very showy and magnificent plant ; 
it is a native of this country. It was first found in the woods of North 
Carolina, by Louis de Schweinitz; it occurs in New England, New 
York, Pennsylvania, and no doubt ranges westward to beyond the 
Mississippi. These great masses of bright saffron-yellow color attract 
the attention of the beholder at a great distance through the open 
woods. Passing its prime it begins to blacken. 

39. A. MONADELPHUS, n. sp. — Densely cffispitose. Pileus fleshy, con- 
vex, then depressed, at first glabrous, then scaly, honey color, varying to 
pallid-brownish or reddish. Stipe elongated, solid, crooked, twisted, 
fibrous, tapering at the base, pallid-brownish or flesh-color. Lamellae 
short, decurrent, not crowded, pallid flesh-color. Spores white, a little 
irregular .0076X.0055 mm. (See Plate IV.) 

On the ground in wet woods from spring to late autumn. Pileus 
1-3 in. in diameter, stipe 3-7 in. long. Sj^mraetrical tufts of numerous 
(20-50) individuals spring up from a common point in the ground. 
In some of the tufts the pilei are of a beautiful ' bright honey- 
yellow color, in others they are a dull yellow, dull reddish or 
even brownish. The pileus is finally more or less scaly. This species 
does not appear to be closely related to any other Clitocybe ; in color 
and general appearance it much resembles slender specimens of 
Agaricus mellois, but tliere is no ring. 

C. Pileus i nfundibulifor m ; lamellm equally decurrent. 

40. A. iNFUNDiHULiFORMis, Schffifl". — Pilcus flcshy, compact, then 
soft, at first convex, umbonate, innate silky, afterward infundibuliform, 
flaccid, expallent. Stipe spongy stuflled, soft, elastic, thickened down- 
wards. Lamellie long-decurrent, a little close, pure white. 

Among mosses and leaves in woods, common. Pileus 2-3 in. across. 
Stipe 2-3 in. high. The color of the pilous varies from pale reddish to 
alutaccous, and passing into white, but not at first white; it is some- 
times variously crisped and lobed, tlie margin involute and downy, often 
pinched up into little raised striivj. 

70 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

41. A.CYATHiFORMis, Bull. — Pllcus fleshv-membranaceous, depres-sed 
then infundibuliform, even, nearly glabrous, moist, hygrophanous, 
margin for a long time involute. Stipe stuffed, elastic, tapering upward, 
fibrlllose-reticulate. Lamellre adnate tlien decurrent, distant, joined 
behind, sordid. Spores .008-.010X.005-.007 mm. 

On the ground and on logs in woods. Pileus 1^-24 in. across, stipe 
about 2 in. long. The color is at first brownish, tlien cla3'-color or alu- 
taceous. The margin, when fully expanded, becomes striatulate. The 
stipe is colored as the pileus. 

42. A. PRUiNosDS. Lasch. — Pileus flesh^'-raembranaceous, umbilicate, 
then infundibuliform, rather even, h3'grophanous, sprinkled with a 
leaden bloom. Stipe stuffed, somewhat ascending, fibrillose, pallid. 
Lamellte adnate then decurrent, close, narrow, white, then sordid. 

On the ground and also on trunks, in woods, late in autumn. Pileus 
1-2 in. broad, stipe 1-2 in. long. The pileus is brown, growing cinere- 
ous, sometimes scaly. This is one of Mr. Lea's finds that I have not 
yet met with. 

Subgenus VI. — Collybia, Fr. 
Spores white. Pileus convexo-plane, the margin at first involute. 
Stipe hollow and cartilaginous, or medullate, with a cartilaginous bark, 
rooting. Lamellae free or attached obtusel}'. Fungi epiphytal on 
wood, leaves, etc., or rooting in the ground. 

A. Stipe glabrous. 

a. Lamellae broad, distant, 43, 44. 
6. Lamellae narrow, close, 45-48. 

B. Stipe not glabrous. 

c. Lamellae broad, distant, 49-51. 

d. Lamellae narrow, close, 52-54. 

A. Stipe glabrous. 

a. LameUce broad, distant. 

43. A. RADiCATUs. Relh. — Pileus flesh}', thin, convexo-plane, 
gibbous, rugose, glutinous. Stipe stuffed, tali, tapering upward, rigid, 
glabrous, at length sulcate. Lamellae attached, disposed to secede, 
distant, white. Spores, .017X.010 mm. 

In woods and fields about the bases of old stumps; one of the com- 
monest Agarics from early spring till late in autumn; always readily 
recognized by its long rooting stipe. Pileus usually 2-4 in. broad' 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 71 

stipe 4-8 in. liigh, though these dimensions are sometimes greatly ex- 
ceeded. The pileus varies much in color, being brownish, ochraceous, 
pallid and even whitish; it is at first slimy. The stipe is sometimes 
twisted, and in the variety' which most commonly grows with us, the 
stipe is furfuraceous with minute scurfy particles. 

44. A. PLATYPHYLLUS, Pcrs. — Pilcus fleshy- membranaceous, ex- 
planate, obtuse, moist, fibrillose-virgate. Stipe stuffed, equal, soft, 
naked, striate, pallid ; the root premorse. Lamellse truncate-attached, 
distant, very broad, white. Spores, .018X-013 mm. 

In woods, on and about rotten logs, common from spring to autumn. 
Pileus 4-7 in. across, stipe 3-5 in. high, and ^-^ in. thick. The pileus 
is watery, and varies in color from brownish and cinereous to whitish; 
it is sometimes quite wavy and irregular. The stipe is white, very 
stout and blunt at the base, with an abundant white mycelium. Ours 
may be the varietv repens figured by Fries in his " Icones Selectae;" I 
find the stipe sometimes hollow. 

h. LamellcB narrow, close. 

45. A. BUTYRACEUS, Bull. — Pileus fleshy, convexo-expanded, umbon- 
ate, even, glabrous, moist, expallent, the flesh becoming wiiite. Stipe 
somewhat stuffed, cartilaginous-corticate, conic, striate, dark reddish. 
Lamellae nearly free, close, crenulate, white. Spores .0076x-0050 mm. 

In woods, not common. Pileus 2-3 in. broad, stipe 2^-34^ in. high. 
The color of the pileus exceedingl}^ changeable, normally reddish or 
brownish, then passing through ochraceous or alutaceous to pallid or 
whitish. The stipe often twisted and downy or villous at the thick- 
ened base. Our figure and specimens agree well with the figures of the 
species in Dr. Cooke's illustrations. 

46. A. DKYOPHiLus, Bull. — Pileus somewhat flesh}', rather plane, ob- 
tuse, somewhat depressed, even, glabrous, expallent. Stipe hollow, 
glabrous, reddish or yellowish. Lamellae sinuate-attached, nearly free, 
close, narrow, white or pallid. Spores .006 mm. in length. 

Common in woods from early spring to autumn. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, 
stipe 2-3 in. high. Pileus commonly reddish-brown, sometimes paler, 
of a watery substance, and easilj'^ detached from the stipe. Stipe 
of the same color as tlie pileus, very smooth, often mycelio enlarged 
at the base. 

47. A. ESTENSis, n. sp. — Pileus a little flesliy, conic-campanulate, then 
depressed or even revolute, yellowish, with a pallid margin. Stipe 

72 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

eqiiiil, hollow, glabrous, pallid. Lanielhe narrow, crowded, nearly free, 
pallid, spores white, curved, .008 nun. long. (See Plate V.) 

Growing among the fallen leaves in the woods from spring to 
autumn. Pileus 1-2 in. across, stipe 2-3 in. high. It is closely related 
to A. dryophilus ; botji are common in Este's woods, where the observer 
will readily distinguish them apart. The yellowish color of the pileus 
is seldom uniform ; sometimes it is in streaks or patches, sometimes 
spread over the disk, leaving a pallid margin. 

48. A. coLOREUs, Peck. — Pileus convex, then explanate and umbili- 
cate, somewhat fibrillose, h3^grophanous, yellow, sometimes tinged with 
red. Stipe hollow, glabrous, yellow, with a long crooked villous root. 
Lamellffi moderately close, emarginate, yellow. Spores .0083 mm. long. 

Among decaying leaves and wood, solitary or subcsespitose. Pileus 
^-1 in. broad, stipe 1-2 in. long without the root. The plant I have 
here described comes so near Prof. Peck's plant, that I have so referred 
it, although his description does not cover some of its marks. It re- 
sembles A. cirrhatus in size and general appearance, but maintains a 
uniform pale yellow color of stipe, pileus and lamellfe. 

B. Stipe velvety, JloGcose or pruinose. 
c. Lamellce broad, distant. 

49. A. VELUTIPES, Curt. — Pileus flesh}^, thin, convexo-plane, obtuse, 
glabrous, viscid. Stipe stuffed, velvet}^ reddish-black, rooting. 
Lamellge attached, distant, yellowish. Spores .006-. 008 mm. long. 

Common on and about stumps and trunks in woods, at the foot of 
posts, along fence rows, etc.; appearing late in autumn and persisting 
throuo-h the winter, new plants appearing with a mild spell of moist 
weather, until spring. Somewhat cffispitose, commonly ascending, 
sometimes excentric. Pileus 1-3 in, broad, slimy, and of a beautiful tawny 
color; stipe 2-5 in. long incurved, of a rich tawny brown, pale above, 

50. A. STiPiTARius, Fr. — Pileus a little fleshy, convexo-plane, um- 
bilicate, velvety-scaly or brown-fibrillose. Stipe stuffed then hollow, 
tough, brown, hirsute-fibrillose. Lamellae seceding free, ventricose, 
rather distant, white. 

Upon sticks, roots of grasses, etc., gregarious. Pileus -^-^ an inch 
broad, the stipe 1-2 in. long. A very singular Agaric, with the habit 
of a Marasmius, Pileus whitish, clothed with tawny or brown hairs or 
ttbres which sometimes form scales. 

51. A. zoNATUS, Peck, — Pileus thin, fleshy, convex then expanded. 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 73 

umbilicate, hairy-toraentose, tawny with obscure darker zones. Stipe 
equal, firm, hollow, tomentose-fibrillose, browaish-tawn3\ Lamellse 
narrow, close, free, white. Spores somewhat elliptic, .005 mm. long. 

In woods on old sticks on the ground. Pileus ^-1 in. broad, stipe 
l-|-2 in. long. Under a lens the pileus is seen to be clothed with 
coarse, densely matted, prostrate tawny or brown hairs. This curious 
plant is quite common in our woods in summer. 

d. LamellcB narrow, close. 

52. A. LACHNOPHYLLus, Berk. — Pileus somewhat fleshj^ conic-hemi- 
spheric, brownish-tawn}', velvety. Stipe hollow, brown-purple, shining, 
pallid above, somewhat velvety. Lamellae free, velvet}^ with tawny 

Ou rotten pieces of wood, amongst dead leaves in woods, Waynesville. 
Somewhat cffispitose. Pileus f in. across, stipe 2 in. high. I have not 
yet seen this exquisite species of Mr. Lea's. 

53. A. HARioLORUM, DC. — Pilcus somewhat fleshy, campanulate, then 
hemispheric, plane or depressed, glabrous. Stipe hollow, tapering 
upward, reddish, wooll^'-hirsute. Lamellse nearly free, rather close, nar- 
row, white, growing pallid. 

Among leaves, gregarious or somewhat csespistose. Pileus 1^-3 in. 
broad, stipe 2-3 in. long. Pileus whitish or alutaceous. 

54. A. ciRRHATus, Schura. — Pileus somewhat fleshy, plane, finely 
silky, at length umbilicate. Stipe disposed to be hollow, flexuous, 
equal, pallid, pulverulent; the root twisted, fibrillose. Lamelloe adnate, 
close, narrow, white. 

Among leaves, rubbish, etc. Small, tough, white inclining to reddish. 
Pileus ^ an inch broad, stipe 1-2 in. long. The stipe generally has 
small yellowish tubers attached to it beneath the leaves or soil. 

Subgenus VII. — Mycena, Fr. 

Spores white. Pileus campanulate, more or less striate; the margin 
at first straight and appressed to the stipe. Stipe tubular, cartilagin- 
ous, tapering upward. Lamellre not decurrent, onl}' uncinate by a 
tooth. Fungi epiphytal or rooting. 

A. Stipe without juice. 

a. Pileus bright colored, 55, 50 

b. Pileus dull colored, 57, 58. 

74 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

B. Stipe witli a colored juice, 59, 

A. Stipe without juice. 

a. Pileus bright colored. 

55, A. LEAIANUS, Berk. — Csespitose, viscid, bright orange. Pileus 
somewhat fleshy, convex; the margin striate. Stipe mostly curved, 
strigose at the base. Lamellae distant, broad, emarginate-attached; 
the edge a darker orange or vermilion. Spores elliptic, apiculate, 
.0090X.0056 mm. 

Growing in dense tufts on logs and branches in woods; very abund- 
ant throughout the year, from spring to autumn. Pileus about 1 in. 
across, stipe 1-3 in. long. The plant is very viscid, and stains the 
fingers that handle it. The bright orange color fades out as the plant 
grows old. This very beautiful Agaric was named for Mr. Thomas G. 
Lea, who was the first person to study the Fungi of the Miami Valle}-; 
his original notice of it is dated Ma}^ 1844, It grows in New York 
and New England. 

56, A, puKus, Pers. — Strong- scented, Pileus somewhat fleshy, cam- 
panulate expanded, obtusely urabonate, glabrous, expallent; the margin 
striate. Stipe rigid, even, nearly naked, villous at the base. Lamellae 
broadly sinuate-attached, very broad, reticulate-connected, of a paler 
color than the pileus. Spores .008 mm. long. 

In woods among the leaves. With a taste and odor of radishes, Pileus 
about 1 in, broad, stipe 2-3 in, high. Ours may be the iJse<<c?o/)«r(«s of 
Cooke, but I have not seen the description, only the figure ; the rather 
narrow lamellae and longer spores seem to correspond withCooke's figure. 
The plant exhibits considerable diversity of color, being rose-colored, 
lilac, lavender, pallid, and even white. It is commonl3' solitary or gre- 
garious, scarcely caespitose, 

b. Pileus dull colored. 

57, A, GALERicuLATUs, Scop, — Pilcus somcwhat membranaceous, 
conic-campanulate then expanded, striate to the umbo, ilvy, glabrous. 
Stipe rigid, polished, even, glabrous ; the base with a fusiform root, 
Lamellge adnate, decurrent by a tooth, venose-connected, whitish 
or flesh-colored. 

Common in woods upon stumps and fallen trunks. Often densely- 
caespitose, the stipes packed together at the base and strigose. Pileus 
■^-f in, broad, the stipe of variable length. The color whitish, cinere- 
ous, tawny, or brownish. 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley^ 0. 75 

58. A. FiLOPES, Bull. — Pileiis membranaceous, obtusely, campanu- 
late, expanded, striate. Stipe filiform, flaccid, rather fragile, glabrous; 
the base hairy, rooting. Lamellae free, lanceolate, close, white. 

In woods among the fallen leaves, simple and solitary. Pileus -^-f 
in. broad, stipe nearly 2 in., besides the root. The color brownish or 
livid gray, rarely white. 

B. The plant when cut or broken exuding a colored juice. 

59. A. H^MATOPus, Pers. — Csespitose. Pileus somewhat fleshy, cam- 
panuiate, obtuse; the margin denticulate. Stipe rigid, white, pulveru- 
lent, when broken exuding a dark red juice. Lamellae adnate, whitish. 

Common in woods upon logs; recognized at once by the dark-red 
juice when broken. Pileus ^-1 in. in diameter, the stipe 2 in. or more. 
The color is commonly a dark reddish or purplish, sometimes paler. 
Our plant seems to be the same as the British plant described by B. & 
Br. in the Handbook, but neither seems to me to be the plant of 
Fries. The latter is even, the lamellae of one color, etc. Fries' figure 
shows no strige. 

Note. — The Mycenas like the Tricholomas appear to be remarkably 
scarce in the Miami Valley. Yet being mostly very small plants, it is 
quite likely several species have been overlooked. Leaianus, galericu- 
latiis and hcematopus are common enough, other species must be rare, 
and the individuals few in number. 

Subgenus VIII. — Omphalia, Fr. 

Spores white. Pileus somevvhat membranaceous, more or less um- 
bilicate. Stipe cartilaginous, usually thickened upward, and expanded 
into the pileus. LamellfB truly decurrent. 

A. Margin of the pileus at first inflexed. 

a. Lamellae narrow, close, 60-02. 
h. Lamellae broad, distant, 63-65. 

B. Margin of the pileus straight. 

c. Lamellae broad, 66, 67. 

d. Lamellae narrow, 68. 

A. Pileus dilated from the frst, the margin inflexed. 
a. Lamelke narrow, close. 

60. A, ciiRYSEUs, Peck. — Yellow. Pileus plane or somewhat de- 
pressed, umbilicate, striatulate, minutely scaly. Stipe nearly glabrous, 
stuffed or hollow, sometimes curved. Lamella2 close, rather narrow. 

76 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

In woods. Pileus ^-1 in. broad, stipe 1-H in. liigli. A beautiful 
little Omphalia, growing on leaves, I have here referred to this species. 
Some of my specimens are a little brownish on the pileus, with the 
lamellae rather pale. It may prove to be sometliiug different. 

61. A. EPiCHYSiUM, Pers. Pileus membranaceous, rather plane, 
umbilicatc; when wet, striate, cinereous-fuliginous; when dr^', pallid, 
silky or flocculose-scaly. Stipe disposed to be hollow, glabrous, 
cinereous. Lamellae briefly plano-decurrent, whitish-cinereous. 

Growing on mouldy wood. Tender, soft, water}^ Pileus \-^ in. in 
diameter, stipe an inch or more long. Sent by Mr. Meyncke, from 
Brookville, Ind. 

62. A. RDSTicus, Fr. — Pileus membranaceous, a little convex, um- 
bilicate, striate, glabrous, hygrophanous, when dry, even, a little silky. 
Stipe somewhat stufled, slender, glabrous, gray-brown. Lamellae de- 
current, thick, rather distant, gra}^; the edge arcuate. Spores some- 
what elliptic, .008 X -005 mm. 

In moist places in woods. Pileus ^-1^ in. broad, at first gray, then 
becoming whitish or brownish. The specimens agree well with Fries' 
species, except in some cases the}' are much larger. 

b. Lamellce broad, distant. 

63. A. MDRALis, Sow. — Pileus somewhat membranaceous, tough, 
convex, umbilicate then iufundibuliform, radiate-striate, glabrous, 
reddish-brown; the margin crenulate. Stipe stuffed, short, glabrous, 
concolorous. Lamellae decurrent, distant, pallid. 

In neglected spots upon the ground. Pileus ^-1 in. broad, stipe ^ an 
inch high. 

64. A. DMBELLiFERUs, Linn, — Pileus a little fleshy, convexo-plane; 
when wet, radiate-striate; when dry, even, somewhat silky. The 
margin at first inflexed, crenate. Stipe disposed to be hollow, short, 
pubescent at the base. Lamellae decurrent, ver}' distant, broadest 
behind. Spores .0030X.0025 mm. 

Upon turf or sod in swamps and pastures, also on rotten wood; 
somewhat gregarious. Pileus ^-1 in. broad, stipe ^-1 in. high. Pileus 
depressed in the center, the margin deflexed and sometimes waved, 
whitish, whitish-brown or yellow, darker whea wet; the stipe whitish 
or yellowish. 

65. A. ALBOFLAVUS, n. sp. — Pileus fleshy-ulembrauaceous, some- 
what infundibuliform, even, glabrous, the margin inflexed. Stipe 

2'he Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 11 

stuffed, stout, thickened upward, white or yellowish. Lamellge de- 
current, very distant, arcuate, rather broad, thin, white then yellowish. 
Spores nearly globose, .004 .005 mm. long. (See Plate V.) 

In woods on rotten wood in spring and summer. Pileus 1t^-3 in. 
in diameter, stipe 1-2 in. long. The pileus is whitish and changes to 
yellowish as it passes maturity. 

B. Pileus campanulate from the first, the margin straight and 
appressed to the stipe. 

c. Lamelke broad. 

66. A. CAMPANELLA, Batsch. — Pileus membranaceous, convex, um- 
bilicate, striate, hygrophanous. Stipe hollow, horn}^ clear brown; the 
base attenuate, tawny-strigose. Lamellae decurrent, arcuate, venose- 
connected, luteous. 

Upon trunks in woods; coespitose, luteous-ferruginous. Pileus :|^-1 
in. across, stipe i-2 in. long. 

67. A. FIBULA, Bull. — Pileus membranaceous, cucullate then ex- 
panded, somewhat umbilicate, striate, expallent, even when dry, weak 
orange-color. Stipe setaceous, concolorous. Lamellae long decurrent, 
distinct, whitish. Spores .003 X -002 mm. 

In moist places frequent among mosses. Pileus ^ an inch or less in 
breadth, yellow or tawny with a dusky center; lamelhie yellowish or 
whitish; stipe 1-1^ in. high, yellow or tawny with a brownish apex. 

d. Lamellce narrow. 

68. A. iNTEGRELLus, Pcrs. — White, fragile. Pileus hemispheric 
then expanded, pellucidstriate. Stipe very slender, short, pubescent 
below. Lamellffi decurrent, fold-like, distant, somewhat branched; the 
edge acute. Spores .0125 mm. long. 

Common on old rotten stumps; gregarious or coespitose. Pileus thin, 
and membranaceous ^ an inch or more broad, stipe ^-1 in. long. I 
have seen an old stump covered with them after abundant rains. 

Subgenus IX. — Pleurotus. 

Spores white. Stipe cxcentric, lateral or none. Fungi irregular, 

A. Stipe excentric. 

a. Lanielliii adnate, 69-72. 

b. Lamelhx? decurrent, 73 75. 

78 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

B. Stipe lateral, Tft. 

C. Stipe none ; pileus sessile. 

c. Pileus uniform, 77, 78. 

d. Pileus gelatinous, 79, 80. 

A. Pileus entire, the stipe excentric. 

a. Lamellce sinuate or obtusely adnate. 

69. A. DLMARius, Bull. — Pileus fleshy, compact, convexo-plane, glab- 
rous, somewhat spotted, moist. Stipe rather excentric, thickened 
downwards, somewhat tomentose. Lamellre attached, rather close, 
broad, whitish. Spores nearly globose, .005 mm. long. 

Upon trunks of trees, especially elm, frequent; in autumn. Pileus 
3-7 in. broad, or sometimes larger, whitish or pale brownish, sometimes 
marbled with livid spots; stipe ascending, 2-3 in. long, about 1 in. 
thick, solid. Solitary or csespitose. 

70. A. suBPALMATUs, Fr. — Csespitose, reddish. Pileus flesh}^ soft, 
convexo-plane, obtuse, wrinkled; the cuticle gelatinous. Stipe ex- 
centric, incurved, equal, fibrillose. Lamellae adnate, close, joined 
behind. Spores minutel}' echinulate, nearl}^ globose, .0056-. 0070 mm. 

On timber, old trunks, etc. This curious species was sent me from 
Brookville, Ind., by Mr. O. M. Meyncke; this appeal's to be the first 
locality in which it has been met with in this countr3% The specimens 
1 have seen are l|-2 in. wide, with a stipe f-1 in. long. The British 
plant measures 3-4 in. broad, with a stipe of 1-2 in. 

71. A. CRASPEDiDS, Fr. — Csespitose. Pileus fleshy, more or less ex- 
centric, crenate and lobed, even, glabrous. Stipe solid, firm, elastic, 
glabrous, pallid. Lamella adnate, close, narrow, white. Spores 
nearly globose, .0056 mm. in diameter. 

On trunks in woods. Pileus 3-5 in. broad, stipe 2-3 in. long. The 
whole plant is quite hard and tough; the pileus in m}' specimens, 
grayish or brownish, the margin much folded and lobed; the stipe 
rather thicker below. This seems to be the first record of it in North 

72. A. LiGNATiLis, Fr. — Pileus fleshy, tough, convex then plane or 
umbilicate, irregular, at first flocculose-pruinose, afterward glabrous. 
Stipe stufied then hollow, rather slender, irregular, somewhat villous. 
Lamellae adnate, close, narrow, white. Spores .003. 004 mm. long. 

The 3Iycologic Flora of the 3Iiami Valley, 0. 79 

On wood of beech and maple. Pileus 1-3 in. broad, stipe an inch or 
less in length. Commonly whitish, with a strong mealy odor. 

b. Lamelloi decurrent. 

73. A. coRTiCATDS, Fr. — Pileus compact, entire, densely villous, at 
length floccose-scaly. Stipe firm, rooting, somewhat excentric. 
fibrillose; annul us membranaceous, lacerate. Lamellae decurrent, 
rather distant, divided, white, anastomosing behind. Spores large, 
elliptic-oblong, .OllX-005 mm. 

On trunks in woods. Pileus in my specimens about 4 in. in 
diameter, the stipe 2-3 in. long. These specimans which were ver}' few 
in number, may have been the variety tephrotrichus ; the annulus was 
obsolete with the veil appendiculate around the margin of the pileus. 
The whole plant was clear white. 

74. A. sAPiDus, Kalch. — Caespitose. Pileus flesh^', somewhat ex- 
centric, deformed, glabrous; the center depressed. Stipes solid, 
arising out of a common fleshy tubercle, glabrous, white. Lamella 
decurrent, rather distant, whitish. Spores with a lilac tinge, oblong, 
or a little curved and pointed, .0083X-0037 mm. 

Very common on all sorts of fallen trunks and branches, from eai'l}' 
spring till late in autumn, and even in the mild weather of winter. 
Pileus commonly 3-6 in. in diameter, the stipe 1-2 in. long or the 
pileus nearly sessile. The plant is various in form and color, being 
commoul\' white or clouded with brown; the flesh is always white. 
Clear white paper will disclose the lilac tint of the spores. 

75. A. SAi.iGNUs, Abb. d. Schw. — Pileus fleshy, compact, spong\', 
somewhat dimidiate, horizontal, at first pulvinate, even, afterward the 
disk depressed, somewhat strigose. Stipe short, tomentose. Lamelhe 
decurrent, some of them branched, eroded, distinct at the base, nearly 
the same color as the pileus. Spores .009 X -0038 mm. 

" Upon trunks of willows late in autumn, solitary." — Fries. Pileus 
convex, 4-6 in. broad, stipe excentric or lateral, sometimes obsolete ; 
commonly fuliginous-cinereous, though sometimes ochraceous. Lea's 
Catalogue is authority for this plant. " On a prostrate buckeye, Cin- 
cinnati, December." It is strange that sapidiis, so common as it is, is 
not in Lea's Catalogue. Unless salignns shall yet be verified, we must 
conclude that Mr. Lea mistook sapidus for salignus. 

B. Pileus dejinitely lateral, not marginafe behind. 

76. A. SEROTINUS, Schrad. — Pileus fleshy, compact, viscid. Stipe ex- 

80 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

actl}- lateriil, thick, scaly witli sooty j)oiiits. Lamellae determinate, 
close, yellow or pallid. Spores oblo.ig, .005X-002 ram. 

Upon fallen trunks, common, late in autumn and in the winter. 
Pileus commonly 2-3 in. across, 3'ellowish-green or olivaceous, the cuti- 
cle at first viscid, the margin slightly involute. 

C. Pileus at fir at resupinate^ the lamellcp concurrent to an excen- 
trie point, afterward the pileus refiexed, sessile. 

c. Pileus uniform, the cuticle not gelatinous. 

11. A. piNSiTDS, Fr. — Whitish. Pileus flesh}-, soft, at first resupin- 
ate, afterward expanded, horizontal, sessile, silky-villous, undulate, 
hygrophanous. Lamellae broad, distinct. Spores of a sordid color. 

"On trunks of trees, rare." — Fries. Said to resemble A. mollis, 
Schaeff. Color of the pileus sordid when wet, pure white when dry. 

78. A. NIGER, Schw. — Black. Pileus flesh}', tough, at first resupin- 
ate, then expanded, sessile, somewhat reniform, tomentose, glabrate 
toward the margin. Lamellae thick, broad, close; the edge cinereous. 
Spores white, oblong, .007 X -004 mm. 

In woods on fallen branches. Pileus about |ths of an inch wide, and 
\ an inch long. I find a black Pleurotus which I take to be 
Schweinitz's species; I do not have his description, and therefore sub- 
mit the one given. It is a very interesting species ; it seems singular 
that the spores should be white. It is quite tough and revives well 
after being dried. 

d. Pileus with the cuticle viscid or gelatinous. 

79. A. MASTRDCATUS, Fr. — Pileus fleshy, the upper stratum gelatin- 
ous, at first resupinate, afterward expanded, sessile, lobed, scaly, 
mouse-gray. Lamellae broad, rather distant, whitish-gray. Spores 
oblong, oblique, .008X-005 mm. 

Upon fallen trunks in woods. Imbricated; pileus 1-4 in. across, 
lobed in the larger specimens, flaccid, rough, with hairs and rigid 
points intermixed; some of the hairs or points are blackish. Evidently 
rare; I have found it but once. 

80. A. ALGiDUS, Fr. — Pileus fleshy, at first resupinate, afterward 
expanded, reniform; the cuticle thin, viscid, glabrous, reddish brown. 
Lamellae rather broad, close, yellowish. 

On rotten wood. Pileus about 1 in. across, reddish umber or 
cinereous, usually caespitose and imbricated. 

The 3Iycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 81 

Note. — It is hoped the preceding pages will prove a fair introduction 
to the White-spored Agarics. This is the second effort, within the 
writer's Isnowledge, to introduce the student to a systematic knowledge 
of the Agaricini of anj^ region of the U. S., the first being Prof. Chas. 
H. Peck's Agaricini of New York State, in the Twenty-third Report of 
the State Museum of Natural Histor\\ It is not to be expected that I 
have found all the species, 3'et I have increased the list from 34 in 
Lea's Catalogue to 80. Compared with the corresponding number in 
Mr. Frost's list of the fungi about Brattleboro, Vt., a region un- 
doubtedly richer in this class of Fungi, there are in the latter 100 
species of Leucospori. We will certainl}- make some additions, and 
I hold in reserve some figures which as yet appear to me to be new 
species. That I do not make some mistakes in the determination and 
identification of species, would be to accomplish something that has 
not yet been done in this countrj'^, even with flowering plants; but the 
greater part of these plants have been seen by me before in the 
Eastern States, and furthermore, specimens or figures of many of the 
remainder have been submitted to the most competent authority in 
this country, Prof. Chas. H. Peck, the State Botanist of New York. 

These pages, and what ma}^ follow, are arranged according to the 
Hymenomycetes Europsei, of the illustrious Elias Fries, of Sweden; this 
arrangement accords also with the Handbook of British Fungi, b}' 
Dr. M. C. Cooke. It is designed to introduce the student, through the 
medium of our local flora, to a more extended knowledge of the 
Hymenomycetes of North America, b}^ means of the works above 
mentioned, which are the most accessible to students. The specific 
descriptions of Fries, which are models of perspicuity and elegance, 
are translated with great care; such variations as may appear in our 
species along with other general observations on locality' and time of 
growth, are made in appended remarks. The remaining Agarici will 
form the subject of a second paper. A. p. m. 

[to be continued.] 

82 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 


By E. 0. Ulrich. 

[^Continued from Vol. 5, p. 257.] 

Amplexopora robusta, n. sp. (PL I., figs. 1, 1«, \h.) 

Zoavium ramose, consisting of cj'linclrical, oftener of flattened 
branches, dividing dichotomously at rather frequent but irregular in- 
tervals, and usually varying in diameter from .4 inch to .7 inch. A 
very large specimen in my cabinet has a length of 4.3 inches; the cen- 
tral stem is flattened, and varies in diameter from 1.1 inches to 1.7 
inches. The bases of two branches are on one side, and three on 
the other, the mean diameter of which is about .6 inch. Monticules 
are not developed. The cells are moderately thin-walled, polygonal, 
and consist of one kind only {i.e., the interstitial cells are wanting); 
their arrangement is quite regular, and, when well preserved, show at 
their angles of junction the elevated points of the spiniform tubuli 
(PI. I., fig. 1). At intervals of about .15 inch the surface exhibits con- 
spicuous clusters of cells larger than the average, with a mean diame- 
ter of -g^^th of an inch. The smaller or ordinary cells have a diameter 
varj'ing from y^th to -^th of an inch. 

Tangential sections (PL I., fig. la) show that the cell-walls are com- 
paratively thin and polygonal, and that their cavities are only occa- 
sionally rounded hy a secondary deposit of sclerenchyma ; and further 
that the original line of separation between adjoining cells is always 
more or less distinctly marked. The spiniform tubuli do not consti- 
tute a conspicuous feature in sections of this species, and unless care- 
fully examined might be overlooked. With an occasional exception 
they always occupy the angles of junction of the cells. (Their appear- 
ance is very well represented b}^ the figure.) Lastly, in manj^ sections 
some of the cell-cavities inclose a small circular ring, that is due to 
the peculiar funnel-shaped diaphragms seen in longitudinal sections. 

In longitudinal sections (PL I., fig. 1&) the tubes in the "immature" 
region are thin-walled, and crossed by straight diaphragms from two 
to four tube-diameters apart. The nearly equal curve of the tubes, 
from the axis of the branch to the peripheral portion, constitutes a 
characteristic feature of the species. As they enter the peripheral or 
" mature" region their walls are considerablj' thickened, and the dia- 
phragms become much more numerous, being from less than one half to 

American Palceozoic Bryozoo. 83 

one tube-diameter distant from each other. The fuunel-shaped, dia- 
phragms noticed in the preceding species {A, cingulata), are much more 
numerous in this species. Not infrequenth^ two or three open into each 
other in such a manner that by the coalescence of the contracted parts of 
the superimposed funnels, a smaller irregular tube is formed within the 
proper tube-cavit}-. As is shown in fig. 16, these diaphragms in their 
normal condition are represented in the section hy two thin converging 
lines, springing from the walls of the tubes, and nearly meeting near 
the center of the tube cavits'. Frequenth-, however, one of these lines 
is missing. In this case the diaphragm extends from one wall nearl}' 
across the tube toward the opposite wall. 

Superficially, the species above described resembles the type of the 
genus, though not nearly enough to be confounded with it b}^ one ex- 
perienced in the determination of this group of fossils. The cell- 
walls are thinner, and the groups of large cells more conspicuous in 
A. robusta than in A. cingulata. Internally, the comparatively thin 
cell-walls and numerous fuunel-shaped diaphragms, and the small 
number of spiniform tubuli of A. robusta will further distinguish it 
from that species. Care must be taken in separating the species from 
Monotrypella cequalis, Ulrich, which the smaller specimens of A. ro- 
busta strongly resemble. The former, however, is restricted to the 
lower 150 feet of the strata exposed at Cincinnati, O. , while the latter 
is limited to a few feet of strata at least 225 feet liigher in the series. 

Formation and locality : Cincinnati Group. Rather rare near the 
tops of the hills about Cincinnati, O. 

Heterotrypa, Nicholson. 

Of the seventeen species placed under Heterotrypa by Nicholson 
("The Genus Monticulipora" 1881), but two are, according to my 
opinion, congeneric, viz. : the type species, H. frondosa, D'Orb. (ff. 
mammulata, Nich.), and TI. subpulchella, Nich. Of the reniainino- 
fifteen, H. andrewsi, Nich., //. nodulosa, Nich., II. sigillaroidea, Nich., 
H. ramosa, D'Orb., and //. dalei, Ed. & H., must be referred to Callo- 
pora, Hall ; H. barrandi, Nich., and //. moniliformis, Nich., to Am- 
jilexopora, Ulrich; II. datosoni, Nich., to Ilomotrypa, Ulrich ; H. gir- 
vanensis, Nich., H. implicata, Nich., and //. jamesi, Nich., to Batos- 
toma, Ulrich; //. gracilis, Nich., and 11. (lunida, Phill., to Bafostu- 
mella, Ulrich ; and H. trentonensis, Nich., to Monotrypella, Ulrich. 

The type species of Heterotrypa is a common, easily recognized, and 
well known fossil of the Cincinnati group, and its characters have 

84 Cincinnati Society of JSTatural History. 

been excellently described by Dr. Nicholson under the name of H. 
mammulata. As I have shown in the first part of my memoir, this is 
not the 3Ionticulipora mammulata, of D'Orbigny, but his M.frondosa. 
Heterotrypa snbpidchella, Nich., in its typical form, i. e., flattened 
branches, is a rather rare species at a height of from 300 to 350 feet 
above low water mark in the Ohio river, on the hills surrounding 
Cincinnati, O. This is also about the range of the typical //. 
frondosa. Associated with them is a common intermediate form 
having a frondescent zoarium like the last species, from which, on the 
other hand, it differs in having distinct "maculae," such as charac- 
terize H. suhpulchella. Furthermore, in this intermediate form, the 
interstitial cells are not approximately restricted to the '" maculae," 
as is the case in H. suhpulchella, but a greater or less number are 
distributed indiscriminately over the entire surface. The form under 
consideration clearly demonstrates the close relationship existing be- 
tween H. suhpulchella and H. frondosa, but, as a major! t}' of its 
characters also pertain to the more typical examples of the latter, it 
should be regarded as a variety of that species. The Cincinnati group 
furnishes beside the two species mentioned in the preceding sentence, 
at least four and probably five other forms that are fully as distinct 
from H. frondosa, as is H. suhpulchella. These, if I can command 
the space, I propose to describe in the next number of this publication. 
The two species next described [U. vaupeli and H. soUtaria) show 
the extremes of the genus so far as observed. The first is a most 
peculiar and beautiful species, and has more interstitial tubes than 
any other species of the genus known to me. The latter is characterized 
by the almost total absence of interstitial cells, thus making a near 
approach to Bekayia, Ed. and H. In fact I have found it an exceed- 
ingly difficult matter to draw the line between Heterotrypa and 
Bekayia. Taking the types of the two genera, the differences are of 
course strongly marked. In H. frondosa we have a more or less 
\iY02i(\\y frondescent zoarium, the interstitial cells are quite numerous, 
and the spiniform tubuli are small, and sometimes very numerous. 
In Dekayia aspera, Ed. and H. (the type of the genus), the zoarium 
is irregularly branched, the branches subc^^lindrical or flattened, 
and the interstitial cells are very few or wanting, while the spiniform 
tubuli are few, but remarkably developed. Compare, however, such a 
species as H. suhpulchella with a certain new speices of Dekayia, 
differing in much the same manner from D. asjoera, as H. suhpulchella 
does from H. frondosa, and the generic differences are not so striking. 

American Palaeozoic Bryozoa. 85 

The species of Dekayia alluded to, has flattened branches and distinct 
maculae of smaller cells, and the only well marked feature, shown in 
thin sections, wherein it differs from H. suhpulchella, is found in the 
larger size and smaller number of the spiniform tubuli. Precisely the 
same difference distinguishes II. solitaria from another undescribed 
species of Dekayia. Despite the close resemblance between several 
species of the two genera, I believe that they should be held separate 
and distinct. I have been strengthened in this belief, after a 
careful examination of all the species of the two genera known 
to me, b}' finding a character that pertains in a more or less marked 
manner to all the species of Dekayia, but which I have sought for in 
vain in species of Heterotrypa: namely in species of Dekayia, at 
certain periods in the growth of the zoarium, a thin pellicle is drawn 
over greater or smaller patches of the surface, while other portions of 
the surface have the cell-apertures open. This covering being thin 
and delicate, is of course only to be observed in well preserved 
specimens. I have no doubt that the pellicle was developed at the 
close of the existence of the zooids of each laj'er of cells, so as to form 
the floor of the succeeding laj^ers, and ultimately the diaphragms 
which cross the tubes. 

As a summary of the preceding remarks, it may not be out of place 
to subjoin a description of Heterotrypa, based upon the aggregate of 
characters shown by the different species known to mc. 

Zoarium growing from an expanded base, attached to foreign objects, 
upward into simple, often undulated or irregularly inosculated fronds, 
and occasionally- into flattened branches. Cell-apertures varying in 
shape from polygonal to circular. They are separated from each other 
by walls or interspaces, which may be comparatively thin (77. solita- 
ria), or nearly as thick as their own diameter [H. vaupeli). Intersti- 
tial cells from few to very numerous, always angular or subancular. 
Spiniform tubuli small, usually numerous (sometimes excessivelv so 
as in H. vaupeli), occasionally inflecting the walls, and giving the cell- 
apertures an irregularly petaloid appearance. Internally we find that 
the walls of the tubes are more or less thickened as thev enter the 
"mature' reji;ion, and apparently amalgamated with one another. The 
diaphragms are straight, of one kind only, more numerous in the in- 
terstitial tubes tlian in the proper zooecia, and always more crowded 
in the "mature" regions than in the "immature" or axial region. 

Heterotrypa VADPELi, n. sp. (I'l. I., figs. 2, la, and 26.) 
Zoarium ver}' irregular in its growth, forming twisted, and alwavs more 

86 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

or less iaosculated loose masses, several inclies in diameter, consisting of 
convoluted fronds, varying in thickness from .15 inch, to .3 inch. This 
irregularity of growth, which is very characteristic of the species, is 
caused by the frequent elevation of the face of a frond into a secondary 
frondescent growth, which eventually anastomoses with other similar 
divisions of the zoarium. The surface is sometimes nearl}' smooth, 
but usually is studded with small, rounded or conical monticules, the 
summits of which aresubsolid, each being occupied by a small "macula" 
of interstitial cells. The arrangement of the monticules and maculae, 
in conformity with that of the cells, is very regular. Measuring from 
center to center, seven may be counted in the space of .5 inch. The 
cell-apertures are circular, and regularly arranged in decussating 
series, which are more or less curved around the monticules. One or 
two rows of cells immediately surrounding each of the small "raacuhie," 
are conspicuously larger than the ordinary cells, their apertures having 
a diameter varying from l-150th to 1-lOOth of an inch, while the 
diameter of the cell-apertures in the interspaces is about l-200th of an 
inch. Measuring along one of the series, twelve cells may be counted 
in the length of .1 inch. On an example of this species the cell-inter- 
spaces are comparatively thick, and may show, according to the stage of 
development and state of preservation, either all, or one or two, of 
three different appearances. In the first (probabl}' due to attrition), 
the interspaces are smooth and apparentl}'^ solid. In the second, they 
carry numerous small pits, representing the orifices of the interstitial 
cells. In the third (PI. I., fig. 2), the apertures of the interstitial cells 
are obscured by an exceedingly large number of small spines or 
granules. The last phase doubtlessly represents the zoarium in its 
perfect and fully matured stage. 

Tangential sections, according to the depth at which the zoarium is 
divided, may show one or both of two distinct phases. In the first 
(the one usuall}^ obtained on account of the unusual brevity of the 
"matured" portion of the tubes) the cells have moderately thin walls, 
are subangular or nearly circular, and in contact at limited points, the 
intervening spaces being occupied by smaller and angular interstitial 
cells. The spiniform tubuli, if any at all can be detected, are small and 
inconspicuous. In the second phase, which is obtained b}' cutting the 
cells of a fully matured specimen just below the surface, the intersti- 
tial cells appear to be almost entirel}^ suppressed by the remarkably 
great development of spiniform tubuli, which are ranged in one or 
two closelv crowded series around the cell cavities. Fig. 2a, PI. I., 

American Palaeozoic Bryozoa. 87 

represents a portion of a section somewhat intermediate between the 
two phases described. 

Longitudinal sections (PI. I., fig. 26) show that the tubes in the 
axial region have very thin and somewhat flexuous walls ; that they 
approach the surface graduall.y, that the peripheral or " mature" belt 
on each side of the frond is very narrow, and, as the}'^ enter the latter 
region, that their walls are thickened. In the proper zooecial tubes the 
diaphragms are usually wanting throughout the axial region, and they 
are never numerous even in the peripheral portion of the zoariura. In 
the interstitial tubes they are numerous, and generally very thick. 

In its internal structure this species is very remarkable, and differs 
widely from -ET. /rowc?oso. One peculiarity in its structure I can as 
yet not fully understand. That the interstitial cells are actually sup- 
pressed as the zoarium becomes fully matured, I must doubt. I would 
rather believe that the spiniform tubuli, which are developed in the 
spaces that in the earlier stages of the growth of the zoarium were occu- 
pied by interstitial cells, have sprung from the surface of diaphragms 
which covered the interstitial cells. I am upheld in this belief by find- 
ing, what appears to me to be, corroborative evidence: namely, on many 
diaphragms of the interstitial tubes, I can detect one or two, rather 
faintly delineated, hollow processes, extending upward from the dia- 
phragm toward the one next succeeding. If this is not deceptive, then 
we have a curious analogy with such more recent Bryozoa as Hetero- 
pora peUiculata, Waters (a recent species), in which the orificed of the 
interstitial cells are closed b^^ a perforated pellicle. The only differ- 
ence (as regards this point) between such forms and Jff. vaupeli, being 
that in the latter the surface of the pellicle or diaphragm is elevated 
into a hollow spine, instead of being perforated b}' a simple foramen. 

Examples of^. vaupeli are readily distinguished from all the fron- 
descent Monticuliporidce described from the Cincinnati group, by their 
peculiar growth, circular cell-apertures, and regular arrangement of 
the cells and monticules. When in a good state of preservation the 
most striking characteristic is found in the granular cell interspaces. 

The name is given in honor of my esteemed friend, Mr. E. H. Van- 
pel, who is an enthusiastic student of Palreozoic fossils. He has not 
only gathered one of the best collections of the Cincinnati group 
Bryozoa, but he is also able to classify them. 

Formation and localit}': Cincinnati group. Not uncommon near 
the tops of the hills about Cincinnati, O. It is associated with, and 
apparently restricted to the same beds as Amplexopora robusta. I 

88 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

have one specimen of a nearl}' allied species or variety, which was 
collected near Waj'^nesville, O., about 250 feet higiier in the series. 

Heterotrypa solitaria, n. sp. (PI. I., figs. 3, ?>a, ?>b.) 

Zoarium consisting of thin undulated, or somewhat palmated ex- 
pansions, from one to two tenths of an inch in thickness, and one inch 
or more in height. The surface is not raised into monticules, but at 
intervals of .15 inch, one may observe, on careful examination, small 
clusters of cells which are slightly larger than the average. The cells 
are polygonal and thin- walled, and those of the ordinary size have a 
diameter of about 1-lOOth of an inch, while that of the cells in the 
clusters mentioned, varies from l-70th to l-80tli of an inch. The 
interstitial cells are almost entirely absent, and it is only rarely that 
I have been able to detect them at the surface. Occasionally the 
elevated points of small spiniform tubuli may be observed at the 
angles of the cells. 

Tangential sections (PI. I., fig. 3a) show that the cells are angular, 
and rather unequal, with modeiately thin walls. The interstitial cells 
are very few in number, being almost entirely absent in some sections. 
The figure of a tangential section referred to at the beginning of this 
paragraph represents more of these small cells than is usual. The 
spiniform tubuli are small, but quite numerous, and generally de- 
veloped only at the angles of junction of the cells. The walls of ad- 
ioining tubes appear to be amalgamated one with another, as no dis- 
tinct line of demarcation can be detected between them. 

Longitudinal sections (PI. I., fig. 36) show that the walls of the tubes 
in the axial region are very thin, and that diaphragms are not de- 
veloped in this portion of the zoarium, these structures appearing only 
near the surface, where they are about one half a tube-diameter apart. 
The curvature of the tubes from the axial into the peripheral region is 
not abrupt but gradual. In the latter portion of the zoarium the tube- 
walls are but slightly thickened, and occasionally show one of the 
spiniform tubuli. The interstitial tubes, on account of their rarity, 
are easily overlooked. Those noticed were crossed b}^ diaphragms, a 
little more crowded than in the larger tubes. 

This species might be confounded with Peronopora uniformis^ 
Ulrich, a species in which also the cell walls are thin, and the inter- 
stitial cells few in numbers. However, even without the potent aid of 
thin sections they can readily be distinguished by one character: 
namely, P. uniformis belongs to the double-leaved species, and, by 

American Palceozoic Bryozoa. 89 

examining the edge of the zoariiim, the tubes are seen to proceed at 
nearly a right angle from the distinct median laminae to each face of the 
expansion. On the other hand, H. solitaria is truly frondescent (as 
explained on page 123, vol. V., of this Journal), and there being no me- 
dian lamina in such forms, the margin of the frond is uniformly occu- 
pied by the cell-apertures. When longitudinally fractured, the tubes 
are seen to approach the surface in precisely the same manner, as they 
do in any of the ramose MonticuUporidce. The small, thin, and smooth 
frond, as well as the extreme paucity of interstitial tubes, will distin- 
guish it from the species of Heterotrypa so far described. 

Formation and localit}': Cincinnati group. Rare near the tops of 
the hills west of Covington, K3'., at a height of about 300 feet above 
low water mark in the Ohio river. 

(Dekayella obscdra, n. gen. et. sp. (PI. I., figs. 4, 4a, 46.) 

Gen. char., ante vol. V., p. 155. 

Zoarium ramose, consisting of slender ramulets, .18 to .25 of an inch 
in diameter, dividing dichotomously at intervals of .4 inch or more. 
Monticules are not developed, the surface usuall}' being smooth. 
Cells from l-120th, to 1-llOth of an inch in diameter, with moderate- 
ly thick walls, and subangular apertures. When in a good state of 
perservation, the cell-orifices over large patches of the surfiice are 
entirely covered, or only partiallj'', by a very thin pellicle or membrane. 
It is developed from the margin of the aperture inwardly, and when 
not fully completed, an irregular opening is left in the center (PI. I., 
fig. 4). The boundary lines of the cells are now thin, and project but 
little above the pellicle. Tlie interstitial cells are numerous, and vary 
much in shape and size, but are always more or less angular. At in- 
tervals of about .1 inch, they are usually aggregated into unequal 
clusters. The spiniform tubuli are of two kinds, large and small, 
the former may be observed very readily at the surface, and they 
often show the minute orifice at their summits. About five may be 
counted in the space of .1 inch. The latter are smaller and much more 
numerous, and can not be detected except on perfectly preserved ex- 
amples. They are developed in the cell-walls, and three or four 
surround each cell. 

In tangential sections (PI. I., fig. 4rt) che proper cells are subcircular, 
and have thick walls. Each cell-cavity is encircled b}' a thin band or 
ring of dark sclerenchyma, the thinner original walls having a lighter 
color. The interstitial cells are numerous, unequal and angular, those 

90 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

constituting the clusters or "maculie" being separated from each 
other by rather thin walls. The large spiniform tubuli are distinct 
enough, but the smaller ones can not always be detected. Especially 
is this the case in examples taken from a shaly matrix. In other 
specimens they are more apparent. 

Longitudinal sections (PI. I., fig. 46) show that diaphragms, with 
an occasional exception, are entirely absent in the axial region, where 
the walls of the tubes are also very thin. The tubes approach the 
surface in a gradual curve, and as they enter the peripheral regions, 
their walls are thickened, sometimes becoming slightly beaded. Very 
thin straight diaphragms are developed crossiag the tubes at distances 
apart of from one to one third tube diameter. The interstitial cells 
are divided by diaphragms, only a little more crowded than those in the 
proper zooecia. The large spiniform tubuli make their first appearance 
in the axial region, and in their course to the surf^Jce, they frequently 
cross obliquely over the tubes (see figure). The smaller ones are first 
developed in the "mature" or peripheral region, and can always be 
seen when the section passes through the face of a tube. The figure 
on Plate I. represents two tubes so divided. 

In transverse sections the tubes in the central portion of the branch 
are slightly larger than nearer the margin. The walls are excessively 
thin, and polygonal, often nearly circular. Numerous smaller and 
more angular cells (young) occupy the interspaces left between them. 
The margin of the section cuts the tubes longitudinally,' where the}' 
have the same appearance as in the peripheral regions of a vertical 

Dekayella is probably more nearly allied to Dekayia than to any 
other genus of the M onticuliporidcE . On the other hand the cell struc- 
ture slightly resembles that of Heterotrypa. From the foi-mer the new 
genus is separated by having the tube-walls in the " mature" region of 
the zoarium thicker; in having numerous interstitial tubes, and in- 
stead of one, two distinct sets of spiniform tubuli. From Heterotrypa^ 
Dekayella is distinguished by its ramose growth, and two sets of 
spiniform tubuli. The most peculiar character of the genus is found 
in the two sets of spiniform tubuli, differing from each other, both in 
the time of their development, and size. The larger set are precisely like 
those of Dekayia, and, as is likewise the case in that genus, they make 
their appearance already in the axial or "immature" region of the zo- 
arium. This fact seems to point to a considerable difl^erence in the 
functions of the two sets. The smaller spiniform tubuli are precisely 

American Paloiozoic Bryozoa. 91 

like those oi Heterotrypa, Amplexopora, and other genera of the Monti- 
cuUporidm, in which these structures exist, and in none of these do 
the}^ appear before the zoarium lias become fully matured. 

Dekayella obscura is readil}^ distinguised from all the slender ramose 
Bryozoa of the Cincinnati group, by the thin membranaceous covering 
of the cell apertures. When worn its cellular structure resembles that 
of^ Dekayella ulrichi [Heterotrypa ulrichi, Nicholson), but the larger 
size of the zoarium of that species will always serve to distinguish 

Formation and locality: Cincinnati group. Not uncommon at 
Cincinnati. 0., at an elevation of 150 feet above low water mark in the 
Ohio river. The best locality known to me is on Brown street, where 
the base of the hill has been graded for building purposes. 

Calloporella harrisi, n. gen. et. sp. (PL I., figs. 5, 5«, 56, 5c.) 

Gen. char., ante vol. V., p. 154. 

Zoarium discoidal, consisting of a concavo-convex, thin, circular ex- 
pansion, different examples varying in diameter from .3 of an inch to 
1.0 inch, and in thickness from .02 to .05 of an inch. The upper or 
convex side is smooth, and covered b\' the cell-apertures, while the 
lower concave side is lined with an epithecal membrane, which is 
marked with faint concentric wrinkles, and sometimes with obscure 
radiating striae. The height of a specimen having a diameter of .8 of 
an inch, is about .25 inch. The cell-apertures are circular, and 
arranged in regular decussating series, the continuity of which ig 
sometimes interrupted by groups of cells slightly'- larger than the 
average. These clusters occur at intervals of .15 inch, and the diameter 
of the apertures of the cells composing them, varies from l-125th to 
1-lOOth of an inch. They are further distinguished from the ordinary 
cells, the diameter of whose apertures is about l-160th of an inch, by 
being separated from one another by interstitial spaces wider than usual. 
Measuring along one of the series, eleven or twelve of the ordinary 
cells may be counted in the space of .1 inch. The interstitial spaces 
in most specimens, under an ordinary liand glass, appear to be solid. 
But when well preserved, and viewed under a higher magnifying 
power, they are seen to be occupied by a single, occasionall}' a double 
row of angular depressions, representing the apertures of the numerous 
interstitial cells. (PI. I., fig. 5.) 

In tangential or transverse sections (PI. I., fig. 5a) the proper 
zooecia are suboval or circular, and their visceral cavities are enclosed 

92 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

by a ling-like wall composed of a dark, and concentrically laminated 
sclei'enchyraa. Their walls are sometimes in contact at limited points, 
but usually they are separated from each other by one or two rows of 
angular, and very thin-walled interstitial tubes. The presence of a 
few very small spiniform tubuli constitutes an inconspicuous feature 
of these sections, 

"Vertical sections (PI. I,, fig, 56) show that the tubes immediately 
after their development, proceed upward for a short distance in an 
oblique direction, forming an angle of about 45° with the epithecal 
membrane. Soon after their walls become thickened, and their 
dii'ection is altered so that they proceed at a right angle to the upper 
surface. The larger tubes in their lower part are crossed by straight 
diaphragms, one tube-diameter or less distant from each other- 
Further up they are remote and placed on a level in nearly all the tubes' 
The interstitial tubes are developed very near the epitheca, and are 
provided with numerous straight diaphragms. 

At this time the species above described is the only one certainly 
known to belong to the genus Calloporella. There are, however, cer- 
tain Upper Silurian species, which further investigations will probably 
prove to be congeneric. The transverse section of G. harrisi, reminds 
one considerably of Fistulipora, but I know of no species of that genus 
in which the walls of the proper zooecia are so thick. The surface 
characters of the zoarium, such as the cell-apertures and walls, are 
however clearly such as characterize the Monticuliporidce, and not the 
Fistulijioridoi, the cell orifices in the latter being always surrounded 
by a more or less developed rim or lip. The affinities indicated by the 
surface characters are fully substantiated by vertical sections, which 
show that the interstitial spaces are crossed by straight and complete 
diaphragms, instead of being occupied by a vesicular structure, such 
as is characteristic of all the Fistuliporidce. 

The Cincinnati group furnishes several species having a similar 
habit of growth, but they are all limited to the lower half of the groap^ 
while C. harrisi is found onl^' in the upper part. In its internal struc- 
ture it differs widely from them all. 

Formation and locality: Cincinnati group. Rather common in the 
upper part of the group at Oxford, Blanchester, Westborough, and 
other localities in southwestern Ohio. 

[to be continued.] 




No. 2. 


Tuesday Evening, April .S, 1883. 

Dr. R. M. Byrnes, President, in the chair. Present, twenty members. 

Dr. E. T. Hurley, Leopold Burokhardt, Miss Xettie Fillmore, and Jacob 
S. Burnet, were elected regular members. 

The report of the Treasurer was received, read and referred to a com- 
mittee of audit, consisting of Prof. Geo. W. Harper, Prof. .J. \T. Hall, Jr., 
and Dr. A. E. Heigh way, Sr. 

The report showed that the funds of the society were in good condition, 
and with a cash balance in the treasury of $1,063.01. The sum received from 
membershii) dues during the year was $488.00, a larger amount than during 
any previous year in the history of the society. The number of members 
enrolled is 104, an increase of six since the last report. 

Prof. J. W. Hall, Jr., curator of Mineralogy, reported that the collection 
ofminei'als is in good order, but needs cataloguing. There ai-e about "2,000 
labeled specimens; about 200 specimens have been added during the year. 

Prof. J. Mickleborough, curator of Palaeontology, said the collection 
now catalogued reaches 1819 numbers; 100 species have been added during 
the year. He suggested that authors of new species published and figured in 
the Journal, be requested to deposit type specimens when possible. 

Mr. E. M. Cooper, curator of Conchology, reported additions to the collec- 
tion of 234 species of shells; of these, 59 were by donation, and 175 by ex- 
change. The card catalogue reaches 1643 numbers, representing 1500 
species, and probably 5000 specimens. This catalogue includes only Gas- 
teropoda, the Biv.-ilves not being as yet arranged. 

Dr. O. D. Xorton, curator of Botanj-, reported additions to the Herbarium 
of 1026 species, by purchase and exchange, almost all entirely new to the 
collection, which now numbers al)out 3,300 species Several valual)le books 
have been received, among them a set of Darwin's AVorks, and Greville's 
Scottish Cryptogamic Flora. 

94 Cincinnati Society of Natural Ilistory. 

Dr. A. J. Howe, curator of ("oinparativo Anatomy, A. K. Ileighway, Jr., 
curator of Ilerpetology, and Dr. D. S. Young, curator of Ichtliyology, also 
Bubniitted brief I'eports on the condition of the collections in their respective 

The custodian, Mr. .J. F. James, read his report for the year, as follows : 

"The reports of the condition of the collections in the various departments 
of the Museum having been prepared by the curators in charge, the custodian 
has little to report on his own account. During the year just ended he has 
been busy taking care of the collections as a whole, and putting in their places' 
as far as possible, the additions as they have been received. 

" The museum has been visited by many more strangers duri-g the past year 
than the previous one, and on the book kept to register the names of visitors 
there are about 1,205 names recorded. The schools have made good use of the 
collections also, and it is gratifying to state that the teachers of science in the 
public schools haA^e shown interest enougli in their pupils to come themselves 
with their classes and explain many things which otherwise would have been 
but little understood. This increasing use of the collections for studj- is an- 
other indication of the importance of the museum as an educational institution. 

'' The most important additions to the museum during the j'ear have been 
the purchase of the collection of Dr. F. W. Langdon, con-isting of some 1,140 
specimens in the departments of Ornithology and Mammalogy, and the pur- 
chase from Mr. C. G. Pringle of a collection of 930 species of plants, chiefly 
from the Pacific Coast of United States. A number of exchanges have been 
made, but these are referred to under the various departments. The corre- 
spondence relative to the collections of the museum and the library has been 
attended to by the custodian, and 115 letters relating to these hate been re- 
ceived and answered. 

" Some new exchanges in the library have been secui-ed during the year, and 
these are as follows : American Xnturalist; Royal Academy of Sciences, Stock- 
holm: Brooklyn Entomological Society; Edinburgh Geological Society; Lin- 
nean Society of Xew York ; Nat. Hist Society of Glasgow, Scotland ; Papilio ; 
Science Roll; and Torrey Botanical Club Bulletin. 

" On the 10th of May, 1SS2, the members of the Society gave a Microscopical 
Soiree in the building. Some 100 guests were present, and the evening was 
passed in examining objects placed under the 12 or 14 microscopes on the 
tables. The success of this, the first attempt of the kind, induced the mem- 
bers to arrange tor another reception. This was set for the 12th of February, 
but it was unavoidably postponed until the 23d of the same month. Invita- 
tions were issued, and' between 100 and 125 responded. An address upon Mr. 
Darwin's life and work was delivered b}^ Prof. A. G. Wetherby, and 14 micro- 
scopes with objects were on exhibition. These receptions have been very 
beneficial to the Society, inasmuch as they have attracted the attention of the 
citizens to our institution, and have been th'^ means of adding a number of new 
members to the roll. 

" Last October your custodian was sent to Paris, Kentucky, to investigate a 
mastodon which was reported to have been found there. The animal was 
found to be too much decayed to be preserved, but a number of fragments of 
bones were secured and have been placed in the collection. All of which is 
respectfully submitted. Jos. F. James, Custodian.'" 

The following persons were elected to serve as officers during the ensuing 
year : 

President. J. H. Hunt, M.D. ; First Vice President, Prof. J. Mickleborough: 
Second Vice-President, Prof. Geo. W. Harper: Secretary, Davis L. .Tames : 

Proceedings of the Society. 95 

Treasurer, S. E. Wright; Librarian, A. E. Heighway, Jr. ; Members at large 
of the Executive Board, J. R. Skinner. Prof. A. P. Morgan, P. M. Bvrnes, 
M.D.. Prof J. W. Hall, Jr.; Cura'ors. Mineralogy, J W. Hall. Jr.: Palaeon- 
tology, J. Mickleborough : Conchology. E. M. Cooper; Entomology, Chas. 
Dury; Botany, O. D. Norton, M.D.; ichthyology, D. S. Young. M D. ; An- 
thropolog}', L. M. Hosea: Comparative Anatomy, A. J. Howe, M.D.; Hei-- 
petoiogy. A. E. Heighway, Jr.: Ornithology. W. H. Fisher. 

A letter from Dr. L. Ci. deKoninck, of Liege, Belgium, accepting his elec- 
tion to corresponding membership was read. 

The following donations were announced as received during the month: 
From Smithsonian Institution. Proceedings U.S. National Museum, 31-32: 
from Department of Interior, three pamphlets, viz.. Higher School for Girls in 
Sweden, Maternal Schools in France, Technical Instruction in France; from 
Signal Service Bureau, Weather Eeview for January, 1S83; from John M. 
Xickles, 4th, .oth, Gth, 7th and 8th Annual Reports "of the Geological and 
Xatural History Survey of 31innesota ; from Prof. O. T. Mason, Washington, 
D.C., 3 pamphlets. Anthropological Notes for January, February, March, 
1883; from John M. Xickles, Preliminary report, Building Stones of Minne- 
sota: from Dr. D. S. Young, specimen of Shark mounted; from Dr. J. H. 
Hunt, "J specimens Poiyporous applanatus, 2 specimens Daedalea ambigua: 
from J. F. James, specimens of acorns: from C. F. Low, fragments of altar 
from mounds near Xewtown, Ohio; from Messrs. Michie, jewelers, one eight 
day clock; from Dr, O. D. Xorton, Catalogue Pacific Coast Fungi, by Hark- 
ness & Moore. 

Tuesday Evening, Ma>j 1, 1SS3. 

President Hunt in the chair. Present, twelve members. 

The following papers were read by title: ''On the Birds of Bardstown, 
Ky.," by Chas. W. Beckham; '' Synopsis of the Genus Clematis in tlie L^nited 
States," by Joseph F. James. The papers were referred to the publishing 

Prof. Wetherby made a verbal communication in regard to his new Genus 
Enoploura, which was published some time since in the Societj'"s Journal. 
He said that this genus had been severelj' criticised by Dr. Woodward, in tlie 
Geological Magazine, and that he had been refused a Iiearing by Dr. Wood- 
wai'd, who had not answered letters offering niaterial for examination. Fur- 
ther study of specimens in his (Prof. Wetherby's) collertion has confirmed 
the position taken that Eno[)loura is not a cystidean. but a crustacean, and 
that instead the genus dropping out of the lists, as had been remarked in a 
recent publication, it was, to liis mind, more firmly established. These studies 
the professor hoped to lay before the Society ere long for |)ubliL'ation. 

Mr. W. J. Martin was proposed for regular meml)er.-;hip, and Mr. Arthur 
V . Gray recommended b}' the execut ve board for correspoiuliug membership. 

Dr. Heighway, of the committee appointed to audit the treasurer's report, 
made a vi^rbal statement thai an examination of the accounts of the treas- 
urer had been made, and they had been found correct. 

The reports of tlu; treasurer, curators and custodian, read at the annual 
meeting, wee referred to the publishing committee. 

The secretary announced that a recepti(jn would be given on May 'I'M. 
the I7(5th a miversary of tiie l)irtliday of Carl von Linmeus. 

Donations were am ounced as follows: From Smithsonian Institution, 5 
signatures Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum Nos. 33, 31, 3."), 3(!, 37; 
7 signatures Bulletin V S. Fish Commi sion, \os. 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, Hi, 17: 
Classifie.-ition of Coleoptera by Le("onte and Horn; from Dr. L. B. Welch, 
Wilmington Oliio, 1 i>amphlet: Description of Prehistoric IJelics, 2 casts, 
viz., the Wilmington Tab'et, and Welch Hutterlly; from U. P. James, 
Paleontologist No. 7; from .loiui Robinson, Cincinn;iti, skeleton of Knni^/M)- 
maiu.'i Hiivoi Iti'lliOiilia-):, from Mrs. llobt. Bowler, Clifton, 1 Black Swan (('//(/"m-" 

96 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

(itrata)-^ from the Zoological Garden, Cincinnati, 1 Black Swan (skin); 1 ditto 
(mounted); 1 European Swan (Ci/tjnuis (jler)\ 1 Great Kangaioo (M/icropus 
(jiflfintnis)\ 1 All)] no Kaccooii i Procyon lotor)\ 1 Jaguar, S. Am. (FkUh onrn)-^ 
1 Chinese Silver I'lieasant (hhiplocamns nyctlieiiifrns) -^ 1 Green Monkey 
(C'crcopitheciis callitrichus)\ 1 IJhesus Monkey (Mac.actts crytlirii'iiH) \ 1 Capu- 
chin Monkey {Ct'bus capiicliiiins); from Signul Service Bureau, Washington, 
Signal Service Review, Fehruary, 1883; Jieport of Chief of Signal Service, 
1872; from Chas. Dury, 2 skins, Loxia c.vrvirontruta var. (nmrirjii,a\ from 
Boston Zoological Society, (^)uarterly Journal, A'ol. ii., Xo. 2; from Davis L, 
James, Agricultural Report for ]8(i6: from Joseph F. James, 4 spechnens 
plants: from S. T. (JnrJey, section of Sassafras wood: from Bureau of Educa- 
tion, Washington, Circular of Information No. 4, Planting Trees in School 
Grounds; from Wm. E. Lazenby, Columbus, ()., 1st Annual Report of the 
Ohio Experimental Station; from Mrs. Dr. J. A. llenshall, Cynthiana, Ky., 
a collection of Shells, Alga3, Seeds, etc., from Florida and the West Indies; 
from Dr. X. P. Dandridge, collection from the Phosphate beds of South 
Carolina, two pamphlets, 1st and 2d reports of Commissioner of Agriculture 
of South Carolina, 1880-1881 ; from Dr John A. Warder, 47 species Pine cones; 
from Dr, O. D. Xorton, Japanese rain-cloak; from Dr. A. E. Heighway^ 
6 specimens of Helix aspeia, 2 specimens of Helix vermiculata, from Italy, 
and 7 species of plants. 

lieception on the Birthday of LimuKHS, May 23, 188S. 
By the authoritj'^ of and under the direction of the Executive Board, invita- 
tions were issued on behalf of the society for a reception to be held on 
Wednesday evening. May 23d, in honor of Linnneus, who was born on this 
day. in 1707. 

About one hundred persons assembled in the meeting room, which was 
tastefully decoi-ated with ferns and flowers, kindly furnished by members of 
the society. Dr. J. H. Hunt presided, and with a few remarks introduced 
the si^eakers of the evening. 

Mr. Davis L. James read a paper embodying the chief events in the life of 
Carl von Linne. Prof. A. P. Morgan sketched his chief work in Botany, and 
Prof. J. F. James read an entertaining notice of his Zoological labors. After 
the reading of the papers, an hour was spent in examining microscopic 
preparations in the board meeting room up stairs. The reception was more 
largely attended than any gathering during the history of the Society, and 
was a decided success. 

TuESDAi" Evening, June 5, 1883. 

Eight members present, not a quorum, and no meeting was held. 

Donations were received during the month as follows: From the De- 
partment of Interior, Report of the Conmiissioner of Indian Affairs, 1882; 
from Dr. Zipperlen. Silver ore from Col., 3 specimens Obsidian, 6 specimens 
Lizards from California; from Prof. F. W. Putnam, Salem, Massachu- 
setts, Notes on Copper Implements from Mexico; Bure-iu of Education ; 
Answers to Inquiries about the U. S. Bureau of Education: from J. R. 
Skinner, Nicholson's Palaeozoic Corals ; from the U. S. Fish Commission, 7 
signatures Bulletin, Nos. 18. 19, 20, 21, 22, 23. 24: from Entomological 
Society of Ontario, Canada. Report for 1882: Smithsonian Institution, 4 
signatures. Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Nos. 38, 39, 40, 41 ; from 
Signal Service Bureau, Weather Review for March 1883 ; from Prof, Otis T. 
Mason. 8 pamphlets on Anthropology; from the Director of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey. Vols. iii. and v., Contributions to North American Ethnology; 
from C. M Ullerjr, specimen of Samia cecropia; from C. R. Mablej^ & Co., 
specimen Samia cecropia; from W. H. Knight, specimen of wood showing 
natural fracture; fi-ora J. F. James, Pumice stone from Colorado desert: from 
R. H. Stone, specimen Samia cecropia; from Canadian Bureau of Agriculture, 
through Dr. J. A. Warder, Rep. of the Fruit Growers' Association of Ontario. 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, O, 97 


B}^ A. P. Morgan. 

\^Contiiiued from p. 81.] 


A. Stipe central, lamella; free. 

10. VoLVARiA. — Veil univei'sal, discrete, membranaceous, persistent. 

11. Pluteds. — Veil none, margin of the pileus straight. 

B. Stipe central, lamellce attached, 
a. Stipe fleshy or fibrous. 

12. Entoloma. — Lamellae sinuate. 

13. Clitopilus. — Lamellae decurrent. 

h. Stipe cartilaginous. 

14. Leptonia. — Pileus conveso-plane, the margin at first inflexed. 

15. Nolanea. — Pileus campanulate, the margin straight. {No 
species yet.) 

Subgenus X. — Volvaria, Fr. 
Spores rose-color. Veil universal, free persistent, discrete from the 
epidermis of the pileus (volva). Lamellae rotundate-free, ventricose. 

81. A. BOMBTCiNus, Schaeff. — White. Pileus flesh}^ soft, campanu- 
jate then expanded, somewhat urabonate, silky-iibrillose. Stipe solid, 
tapering upward, glabrous; the volva very ample. Lamellae free, flesh- 
color. Spores regular, .007X.005 mm. 

Upon trunks of trees in woods; sometimes growing out of knot-holes 
of standing trees, or even out of the augur holes in Sugar Maple. 
Pileus 3-5 in. broad, the stipe about 3 in. long. The pileus is at first 
inclosed in the large slimy tough volva, but is soon protruded leaving 
the volva persistent at the base of the stipe; it usuall}' remains broadly 
campanulate, and is covered over with white or yellowish-white silky 
fibrils. This is one of the most showy Agarics, and is not uncommon 
in the Miami Valley. 

Subgenus XL — Pluteus, Fr. 

Spores rosy. Destitute of volva and annulus. Lamelhu rotundate 
behind, free. 

98 • Cincinnati Society of Natuml History. 

a. Pileus scaly or j^f'uinose. 

82. A. CERviNUS, Schseff. — Pileus fleshy, eampanulate, then expanded, 
even, glabrous ; the cuticle aftei'ward seceding in fibrils or scales ; the 
margin naked. Stipe solid, black-librillose. Lamelke free, white, then 
flesh-color. Spores regular, .0058X-0046 mm. 

On stumps and old logs in woods ; one of the commonest Agarics 
throughout the 3^ear from early spring till winter, Pileus commonl}- 
about 3 in. in diameter, and stipe 3 in. long, though it varies consider- 
ably in size, as well as in color, and is often found much larger than 
these dimensions. Color sooty, smoky-gray, tawny-yellow and whitjsh, 
the stipe often white, 

83. A. GRANDLARis, Peck. — Pileus convex, then expanded, somewhat 
umbonate, rugose-wrinkled, sprinkled with minute blackish granules, 
brown or brownish-yellow. Stipe solid, pallid or brown, velvety, with 
a short, close plush. Lamellae free, close, ventricose, whitish then 
flesh-color. Spores nearly globose, about .005 mm. in diameter. 

On old logs in woods, especially in damp ravines, Pileus 1^-2^ in, 
broad, stipe 2-3 in, long. This is a very pretty species, not uncommon 
in our woods. I at first took it for the large form of A. nanus, Pers., 
though I could never find a white stipe; afterward I found that Prof- 
Peck bad made a new species of it, as above. The granules form a 
sort of plush which is more dense on the disk of the pileus and on its 

h. Pileus glabrous. 

84. A. LEONiNUS, SchseflT. — Pileus somewhat membranaceous, cam- 
panulate then expanded, glabrous, naked, luteous; the margin striate. 
Stipe solid, glabrous, striate. Lamellae free, yellow fiesh-color. Spores 
regular, elliptic. 

On deca^'cd branches in woods. Pileus 1-3 in. broad, stipe 2 3 in. high. 
The pileus is tawny yellow, shaded with bright orange or purplish- 
brown ; the stipe is downy at the base, tapering upward, twisted and 
striate, 3'ellow or ochraceous shaded with orange. 

85. A. CHRYSOPH^DS, Schsefl^. — Pileus somewhat membranaceous, 
campanulate then expanded, even, naked, glabrous and virgate, 
cinnamon; the margin striate. Stipe disposed to be hollow, glabrous. 
Lamellae free, white then flesh-color. 

On trunks of beech and other wood; somewhat gregarious, Pileus 
1-3 in. across, stipe 2-4 in. long. The color of the pileus yellowish or 
ochraceous-brown; the stipe whitish, mostly twisted. 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 99 

Subgenus XII. — Entoloma. 

Spores rosy. Pileus somewhat fleshy, the margin incurved. Stipe 
fleshy or fibrous, soft. Lamellae sinuate-attached behind or seceding. 

Q. Pileus umhonate. 

86. A. CLYPEATUs, Linn. — Pileus slightly' fleshy, campanulate then 
explanate, umbonate, glabrous, lurid, hygrophanous. Stipe floccose- 
stufled, tapering upward, fibrillose, becoming pale. Lamellae rotun- 
date-attaehed, seceding, serrulate, dirt}' flesh-color. Spores irregular, 

In cultivated and waste places and in meadows. Pileus 3-5 in. 
across, stipe 3-4 in. high. 

87. A. sTRiCTioK, Peck. — Pileus thin, somewhat membranaceous, 
convex or expanded, umbonate, smooth, shining, h3'grophanous; 
striatulate, grayish-brown. Stipe straight, equal, hollow, nearl}' 
glabrous, with a dense white mycelium at the base. Lamellae rather 
broad, rounded or deeply emarginate, pale flesh-color. Spores irreg- 

Ground in groves and on their borders. Pileus 1-2 in. diameter, 
stipe 2-4 in. long. The umbo is small, but distinct, the stipe is quite 
straight, and the aspect of the whole plant is beautifully regular and 

h. Pileus not umbonate, 

88 A. RHODOPOLius, Fr. Pileus slightly flesh}', campanulate-ex- 
panded, gibbous then somewhat depressed, hygrophanous; the margin 
flexuous, at first inflexed. Stipe hollow, nearly equal, glabrous, pure 
white, pruinose above. Laniellas adnate then sinuate, white then 
ros3\ Spores very irregular, angular. 

In humid places in woods. Pileus 2-3 in. across, stipe 3-4 in. high. 
The 3'ounger pileus fibrillose, soon glabrous, when wet livid or 
brownish, the margin slightly striate, when diy tawn}' or paler anil 
and silky shiniug. 

Subgenus XIII.— Clitopilus, Fr. 

Spores rosy. Pileus witli the margin at first involute. Stipe fleshy 
or fibrous. Lamellae decurrent. 

89. A. ABORTivus, li. & C. — T'erfcct, imperfect or altogether abortive. 

Perfect form : Pileus fleshy, convex, then expanded and more or 
less irregular, gray or lilac in color. Stipe solid, nearly equal or 

100 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

somewhat deformed, concolorous. Lamellse arcuate and long-decurrent 
in some specimens, in others nearly plane and adnate-dccurrent, at 
first grayish, at length bright flesh color. Spores angular. 

The imperfect and abortive forms present all stages of imperfection 
to a complete obliteration of all semblance of stipe and pileus when the 
fungus consists of a rounded more or less lobed mass. 

In woods about old logs and stumps. Pileus 3 in. or more in breadth, 
stipe 2-3 in. long. The abortive forms sometimes cohere together in 
large masses. There is an odor of fresh meal, and a not unpleasant 

Subgenus XIV. — Leptonia, Fr. 

Spores rosy. Pileus thin, umbilicate, or with the disk darker ; the 
margin at first incurved. Stipe cartilaginous, tubular, polished, 
shining. Lamellse at first attached or adnate, but easil}^ seceding. 

90. A. ASPRELLus, Fr. — Pileus somewhat membranaceous, convex 
then explanate, sometimes glabrous, sometimes fibrillose, striate, the 
umbilicus villous and at length scaly, fuliginous, then livid gra3\ Stipe 
hollow, slender, even, glabrous. Lamellse adnate, seceding, equall}' at- 
tenuate from the stipe to the margin, whitish-gray. 

In pastures and grassy places. Pileus 1-1^ in. broad. Stipe 1-2 in. 
long. Stipe typically livid, but varies in color from brown to green and 
blue. Pileus at first dingy or mouse-color, soon plane and livid-gray. 

Note. — Our Hyporhodii have not yet been looked for with sufiicient 
care; three or four of the subgenera are 3'et wanting, which must have 
some representatives. I have had specimens of four or five other 
species, but so few in number, or so imperfect, that 1 am not 3-et able 
to assign them to any place. Agaricus sapidus.^ a common Pleurotus, 
with lilac-tinted spores, and Panus dorsalis, with red spores, are apt to 
be looked for in this series. 


A. Stipe central, fleshy or fibrous. 

a. Stipe annulate. 

16. Pholiota. — Lamellse attached to the stipe. 

b. Stipe not annulate. * 
a'. Lamellce sinnate- adnate. 

17. Inocybe. — Pileus dry, scaly, fibrillose or silky. 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 101 


18. Hebeloma. — Pileus viscid, glabrous. 

b'. LamellcB adnate or decurrent. 

19. Flammula. — Pileus with the margin at first involute. 

B. Stipe central, cartilaginous. 

c. Lamella free. 

20. Pldteolds. — Pileus with the margin at first straight and ap- 
pressed to the stipe. 

d. Lamellce attached. 

c'. Lamellce not decurrent. 

21. Naucoria. — Pileus with the margin at first inflexed. 

22. Galera. — Pileus with the margin at first straight and appressed 
to the stipe. 

d'. Lamellce decurrent, 

23. Tdbaria. — Pileus plane or depressed. 

C. Stipe eccentric or none. 

24. Crepidotus. — Pileus eccentric, lateral or resupinate. 

Subgenus XVI. — Pholiota, Fr. 
Veil partial, annulate. Lamellse attached to the stipe. 

A. Terrestrial, not caespitose, 91, 92. 

B. Lignatile, csespitose. 

a. Pileus scal^'. 

a'. Lamellne at first whitish, 93-95. 
b'. Lamellai at first ^-ellow, 96 98. 

b. Pileus glabrous, 99, 101. 
A. Terrestrial, rarely ccespitose. 

91. A. DURUs, Bolt. — Pileus rather compact, convexo plane, glabrous, 
at length rimose-areolate; the margin even. Stipe stuflTed, hard, ex- 
ternally fibrous, at the apex somewhat thickened and mealy; the an- 
nulus somewhat lacerate. Lamellae adnate, ventricose, livid then brown- 
ferruginous. Spores ochraceous-brown, almost ferruginous, .009s^.006 

In gardens, hot houses, etc. Pileus 3 in. or more broad, the stipe 
short, about half an inch thick. Pileus pale tawny, or brownish tan. 

92. A. PRECOX, Pers. — Pileus fleshy, soft, convexo- plane, becoming 
glabrous, even, pallid. Stipe modullato then hollow, cylindric, mealy- 
pubescent, afterward glabrous; the annulus white. Lamelhe rotundate- 

102 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

attaclied, eloso, white chaniring to brown. Spores brown, sometimes 
inclined to be irregular in shape, .008X.005 mm. 

Upon lawns, on grassy places along paths; sometimes \gy\ abund- 
ant after rains in spring, and the forepart of summer, Pileus l|-3 in. 
in diameter, stipe 2-4 in. high. Pileus white or pale-tawn}^ sometimes 
yellowish; stipe somewhat flexuous, equal or tapering downward, white 
or shaded with buff; the annulus often dependent in fragments from 
the edge of the pileus. 

B. Lignatile or epiphytal, generally ccespitose. 
a. Pileus scaly, not hygrophanous. 
a'. Lamell(B at first whitish. 

93. A. SQDARRosoiDEs, Pcck. — Pilcus firm, convex, viscid when 
moist, at first densely covered by erect papillose or subspinose tawny 
scales. Stipe equal, firm, stuffed, rough with thick squarrose scales, 
white above the thick fioccose annulus, pallid or tawny below. 
Lamellae close emarginate, at first whitish, then pallid or dull cinna- 
mon. Spores elliptic, ferruginous, .005X.004 mm. 

Dead trunks and old stumps of maple in woods, in autumn. 
Densely caespitose; pileus 2-4 in. broad, stipe 3-5 in. long. This 
species is closely related to A. squarrosus, with which it has no doubt 
been confused; but the latter is dry, not viscid, and is differently 
colored. I take this to be the A. squarrosus of Lea's Catalogue, 

94. A, LiMONELLUs, Pcck. — Pilcus thin, convex or expanded, some- 
what umbonate, viscid, rough with scattered erect reddish-brown scales, 
lemon-yellow. Stipe equal, solid, rough with revolute or recurved 
scales, pallid or yellowish; the annulus lacerate. Lamella narrow, 
close, rounded behind, whitish. Spores elliptic, ferruginous, .006x-005 

Prostrate trunks of beech, in woods. Caespitose; pileus 1-2 in. 
broad, stipe 2-3 in. long. This species is easily distinguished by its 
lively lemon-yellow color. The reddish-brown scales on the surface of 
the pileus finally become scattered and remote. 

95. A. ALBOCRENULATUS, Pcck. — Pilcus flcshy, firm, convex or cam- 
panulate, somewhat umbonate, viscid, rough with dark-brown or 
blackish fioccose scales, yellowish-brown. Stipe firm, nearly equal, 
stuffed or hollow, white above the evanescent annulus, scalj' and 
pallid below. Lamellae broad, rather distant, emarginate, the edge 
white crennlate, grayish, then ferruginous. Spores somewhat elliptic, 
rather acute at each end, .OllX-006 mm. 

The MycoJogic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 108 

Growing out of the base of standing maple trees. Pileus 2-3 in, 
broad, stipe 3-5 in. long. This is a veiy marked species and rather 
rare, though it is liable not to be seen b}^ reason of its habit of nest- 
ling between the roots of the maple. Under a lens the lamellae appear 
to be beaded on the edge with milk}' globules. 

h' . Lamellce at first yelloio. 

96. A. sPECTABiLis, Fr. — Pileus compact, convexo -plane, dry ; the 
cuticle torn into silky scales or fibres. Stipe solid, ventricose, some- 
what rooting, meal}' above the annulus. Lamellae' adnate-decurrent, 
close, narrow, j-ellow then ferruginous. Spores ferruginous, oblique, 
-.009 X. 006 mm. 

At the base of oak stumps. Somevvhat caespitose ; pileus 3-5 in. 
broad ; stipe 3-5 in. long, and 1 in. thick in the middle. Pileus thick, 
tawny or golden in color, then growing paler ; flesh pale yellow, with 
here and there a tinge of sulphur. A large coarse species not uncom- 
mon in autumn, which does not appear to grow eastward. 

97. A. ADiPosus, Fr. — Pileus compact, convexo-plane, obtuse, luteous, 
glutinous, squarrose with superficial, seceding, concentric, darker 
scales. Stipe stutted, somewhat bulbous, luteous and seal}- as the 
pileus. Lamellae adnate, broad, luteous then ferruginous. Spoi'es 
ferruginous, .007x-005 mm. 

At the base of trees, especially' beech. Caespitose, very large, shin- 
ing when dry, white within; the scales thick, ferruginous. Pileus 3-5 
in. broad, the stipe 3-5 in. long. This is a beautiful species growing 
in large tufts. Compared with the preceding, the pileus is very viscid, 
the stipe nearU^ equal, the flesh white within, and the lamellae broad. 
Lea's Catalogue. 

98. A. TUBERCULosus, Schseff. — Pileus, fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, 
dr3'; the cuticle broken up into innate, appressed, small scales. Stipe 
hollow, incurved, short, bulbous fibrillose; the annulus somewhat 
membranaceous, deciduous. Lamellae emarginate, bro;id, serrulate, 
yellow, somewhat cinnamon. Spores bright ferruginous, elliptic, 
!!0083X.0056 mm. 

Growing out of solid timbers, little decayed. Rather solitary; the 
pileus 2-3 in. broad; the stipe 1-2 in liigh, rather slender and some- 
what bulbous where it starts from the wood. The pileus is quite thick, 
the flesh white; the lamellae are very broad. 

h. Pileus glabrous, hygrophanous. 

99. A. MUTABiLis, Schaefl". — Pileus fleshy, convexo-explanatc, glab 

104 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

rous, expallent; the margin Ihin. Stipe stuffed then hollow, rigid, 
scaly-squarrose, ferruginous-blackish downward. Lamella; adnate- 
decurrent, clos3, rather broad, pallid then cinnamon. Spores brown- 
ferruginous, .Ollx.007 ram. 

Upon stumps and fallen trunks, rarel3' upon the ground. Caispitose; 
pileus 1^-2-^ in. in breadth, stipe 2-3 in. long, though the plant as its 
name indicates is quite variable in size and appearance. Pileus cinna- 
mon, becoming pale when dr3% commonly more or less umbonate and ir- 
regular. The stipe in my figures is rather smooth. 

100. A. MAKGiNATUS, Batsch. — Pileus a little fleshy, convexo-expand- 
ed, glabrous, moist, hygrophanous; the margin striate. Stipe hollow, 
soft, not scaly, pruinose above the fugacious annulus; the base darker, 
white velvety. Lamellae adnate, close, narrow, watery cinnamon. 

On ground and wood in a damp ravine; in spring. Pileus 1-1^ in. 
across, stipe about 2 in. long. Of a watery substance; the veil often 
curtained; the stipe somewhat fibrillose or striatulate. Color watery- 
cinnamon, changing to alutaceous or whitish. 

101. A. UNicoLOR, Fl. D. — Pileus a little fleshy, campanulate then 
convex, somewhat umbonate, glabrous, rather even, hygrophanous. 
Stipe stuffed then hollow, nearly glabrous, concolorous; the annulus 
thin, entire. Lamellae adnate-seceding, broad, somewhat triangular? 
ochraceous-cinnumon. Spores ferruginous, oblong ovoid, .0076X.0056 

On fallen trunks and branches in woods, especially along the damp 
ravines; in autumn. Caespitose or solitary; pileus about 1 in. in di- 
ameter, stipe about 1 in. long. This little plant is very abundant; it 
is well marked by its regular shape, smooth surface and persistent 
annulus. The color is a brownish, ferruginous, drying to paler or 

Subgenus XVII. — Inoctbe, Fr. 

Pileus scal}^, fibrillose or silky ; the veil universal, concrete with 
the cuticle of the pileus. Stipe fleshy fibrous, not annulate. Lamellae 
mostly sinuate. Spores more or less brown-ferruginous. 

A. Stipe colored, scaly or fibrillose. 

a. Stipe and pileus of the same color, 102, 103. 
h. Stipe paler than the pileus, 104. 

B. Stipe whitish, fibrillose. 

c. Stipe solid, bulbous, 105. 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 105 

d. Stipe equal, solid, 106, 107. 

e. Stipe equal, hollow, 108. 

C. Stipe whitish, glabrous, polished, 109. 
A. Stipe colored, scaly or fibrillose. 
a. Stipe and pileus of the same color. 

102. A. LANUGiNOSDS, Bull. — Pileus a little fleshy, hemispheric-ex- 
panded, obtuse, floccose-scaly, yquarrose with erect muricate scales. 
Stipe solid, slender, scaly-fibrillose, white-pulverulent at the apex. 
Lamellae seceding, venti'icose, denticulate, pale-argillacoous. 

Upon the earth in beech woods. Pileus about 1 in. broad, stipe 1^- 
2 in. high. Umber then yellowish, regular, scarcely odorous. Flesh 

103 A. DDLCAMARUS, A. & S. — Pilcus a little flesh}-, convexo-um- 
bonate, pilose-scaly. Stipe disposed to be hollow, curtained-fibrillose 
and scaly, mealy at the apex. Lamellae arcuate-attached, ventricose, 
pallid then olivaceous. 

In woods, gregarious. Pileus olivaceous-brown, the flesh white 
changing to 3-ellowish. I do not know this plant, and have no figure 
of it; it is given on the authoritj^ of Lea's Catalogue. 
b. Stipe paler than the pileus. 

104. A. PYRioDORODS, Pcrs. — Pileus fleshy, conic-expanded, um- 
bonate, clothed with appressecl fibrous scales. Stipe solid, firm, equal, 
curtained fibrillose, growing pale, pruinose at the apex, reddish 
within. LamelliB emargiuate, rather distant, white-sordid then some- 
what cinnamon. 

Along roads and paths in woods, early. Pileus about 2 in. across, 
the stipe 2-3 in. high. "With a pleasant odor of pears or violets. — 
Fries. " Odor penetrating, like that of rotten pears." — Berkley. 
Pileus brown then becoming ochraceous-palid; the flesh reddish. 

B. Stipe whitish, slightly tinged with the color of the pileus, 

c. Stipe solid, bulbous. 

105. A. KiMosus, Bull. Pilous fleshy, thin, canipanulate, silk}'- 
fibrous, when expanded longitudinall}- rimose. Stipe solid firm, 
nearl}' glabrous, somewhat bulbous, white-mealy at the apex. Lam- 
ellae free, somewhat ventricose, argillaceous changing to brownish. 
Spores elliptic-ovoid, .0083X.0056 mm. 

In woods and waste places. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, stipe 1A-2.V in. long, 

106 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

with an earthy odor. The bnlb somewhat top-shapecl, flattened above. 
Pileus commonly brown changing to yellowish; the flesh white. 

d. Stipe equal, solid. 

106. A. EUTHELES, B. & Br. — Pileus thin, campanulate, then expanded, 
silky-shining, somewhat scaly, cervine; the umbo fleshy, prominent. 
Stipe solid, nearly equal, fibrous, striate, pallid. Lamellae adnate, 
pallid; the edge denticulate, white. Spores brown, even, cymbiform. 
.008 mm. in length. 

On the ground in damp woods in autumn. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, stipe 
1^-2^ in. long. Odor rather disagreeable. This species differs from 
rimosus in the adnate lamellae, and in the shape of the spores. My 
figures, however, are not strongly umbonate. 

107. A. DESTRiCTUs, Fr. — Pileus fleshy, campanulate then explanate, 
umbonate, rimose, fibrillose, afterward lacerate-scaly, pallid, becoming 
reddish. Stipe solid, glabrous, fibrillose, striate, white changing to 
red. Lamellse uncinate adnate, close, whitish then graj'-cinnamou. 

Upon the earth in woods. Pileus about 1^ in. broad, stipe 2 in. 
long. Flesh white ; odor unpleasant. 

e. Stipe equal, holloio. 

108. A. ADRicoMus, Batsch. — Pileus a little fleshy, conic-campanu- 
late, fibrillose, rimose-parted, 3'ellowish; the margin striate. Stipe 
hollow, equal, undulate, fibrillose, white-pulverulent at the apex. 
Lamellae attached, ventricose, whitish-brown. 

Upon the ground in burnt places, Pileus much cracked. I have 
not seen this Agaric, and have no figure of it. Fries makes it a 
A'ariety of A. descissns. 

C. Stipe whitish, glabrous, polished. 

109. A. GEOPHYLLUs, Sow. — Pileus somewhat fleshy, conic then ex- 
panded, umbonate, even, fibrillose-silky. Stipe stuffed, equal, rather 
firm, white, white-mealy at the apex. Lamellae attached, close, white 
then sordid, at length earth-color. Spores argillaceous, somewhat 
oblique, .008 mm. long. 

On the ground in woods. Pileus 1 in. broad, white, yellowish, etc. 
Stipe 1-3 in. long. Flesh white, odor unpleasant. My specimens are 
white, but it is said to vary much in color. 

Subgenus XVIII, — Hebeloma, Fr. 
Pileus glabrous, more or less viscid; the margin at first incurved. 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 107 

Stipe fleshy-fibrous, not annulate. Lamellse sinuate-adnate. Spores 
mostly argillaceous. 

110. A. FASTiBiLis, Fr. — Pileus compact, convexo-plane, repand, ob- 
tuse, viscid, glabrous. Stipe solid, firm, somewhat bulbous, white, 
fibrose-scaly. Lamellse emarginate, rather distant, whitish then argil- 
laceous cinnamon. Spores elliptic, pointed, .010X.0076 mm. 

In level woods in summer and autumn. Pileus 1-3 in. broad, 
stipe 2-4 in. high, and of variable thickness. Gregarious or solitary. 
Pileus reddish, yellowish, alutaceous or whitish. Lamellse some- 
times exuding watery drops. Odor and taste of radish. 

111. A. iLLiciTDS, Peck. — Pileus fleshy, firm, broadly convex or 
expanded, smooth, h3'grophanous, very dark brown when moist, a 
little paler when dry. Stipe firm, equal, hollow, scabrous, distinctly 
striate at the top, paler than the pileus, with a white m^'^celium. 
Lamellse close, broad, tapering outwardly, plane or ventricose, 
rounded behind, with a very slight decurrent tooth, pale dingy-brown. 
Spores somewhat elliptic, .007X.005 mm. 

On rotten logs and sticks in woods in autumn. Pileus 1-1^ ia. 
broad, stipe 1^-2 in. high. The habitat is unusual for species of this 

Subgenus XIX. — Flammula, Fr. 

Pileus fleshy ; the margin at first involute. Stipe fleshy-fibrous. 
Lamellse decurrent or adiiate without a sinus. 

112. A. SAPINEUS, Fr. — Pileus compact, convexo-plane, very obtuse, 
finely fioccose-scaly, afterward rimose, golden-tawny. Stipe somewhat 
stufljed, deformed, thick, sulcate, rooting, yellowish. LamelliB adnate, 
broad, golden, afterward tawny-cinnamon. Spores bright ferruginous, 
elliptic, .008X-005 mm. 

Growing on wood ; " on fence rails." — Lea. Pileus 1-4 in. broad ; 
stipe commonly short, solid or hollow, often compressed, lacunose, etc. 
Flesh thick, soft, yellowish. Somewhat csespitose ; the odor strong. 
Vestiges of the veil scarcely to be perceived. 

113. A. poLYCHRous, Berk. — Pileus convex then plane, broadly um- 
bonate, of man}' colors, at first purple, viscid; the disk fleshy. Stipe 
firm, nearly equal, somewhat woody, at first furfuraceous. Lamellae 
broad, rather distant, adnate, slightly decurrent, at first dirty white, 
then brownish-purple, at length yellow-brown. 

108 Cincinnati Society q/ Natnral History. 

On rotten trunks of trees, sticks, etc. Solitar}' or ctespitose; pileus 
2-3 in. in diameter, stipe 1-1.]- in. liigh; the veil fugitive consisting of 
purple and yellow flocci. The pileus when young is purple, it then 
changes to buff or light yellow on the margin, with the umbo purple or 
brownish-yellow. This very beautiful Agaric was first found by Mr. 
Lea, and named b}^ his friend and correspondent, Rev. M. J. Berkeley, 
of England. 

Subgenus XX. — Pluteolus, Fr. 
Pileus conic or campanulate, then expanded ; the margin at first 
straight and appressed to the stipe. Stipe somewhat cartilaginous. 
Lamellae rotun date-free. 

114. A. MUCiDOLENS, Kcrk. — Scented. Pileus a little fleshy, lobed, 
glabrous, viscid, shining, sooty. Stipe fibrillose. Lamellae free. Spores 
dull-ferruginous, somewhat cymbiform. 

" On a rotten trunk. Cincinnati, April 21, 1842." — Lea. Pileus 2 3 
in. broad, of a dull smoky brown ; stipe 2 in. or more in height, 
clothed with brownish fibres. Smell like that of decayed cheese. This 
plant is one of Mr. Lea's new species. It is very interesting as being 
the onlj' representative thus far known of this subgenus in North 

Subgenus XXI. — Naucoria, Fr. 

Pileus more or less fleshy, convexo-plaue; the margin at first in- 
flexed. Stipe cartilaginous. Lamellae free or attached, but not de- 

115. A.. VERVACTi, Fr. — Pileus fleshy, convexo-plane or umbonate, 
even, glabrous, viscid, shining when dr}-. Stipe stuff"ed then hollow, 
tapering upward, glabrous, rigid, whitish. Lamellae adnate with a 
decurrent tooth, close, afterward ventricose, pallid then ferruginous- 
brown. Spores brown-ferruginous. 

In meadows, pastures, etc. Pileus luteous, obtuse; stipe short, 
about 1 in. long, rather thick, tapering sometimes upward and some- 
times downwrard. Flesh white. 

116. A. sEMioRBicuLARis, Fr. — Pileus a little fleshy, hemispheric, 
expanded, even, glabrous, somewhat viscid, at length rivulose. Stipe 
slender, tough, almost straight, pale ferruginous, shining, with a free 
tubular pith. Lamellae adnate, very broad, close, pallid then ferrugin- 
ous. Spores brown-ferruginous, elliptic, very large, .013X008 mm. 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 109 

On lawns and in pastures and grassy grounds. Pileus 1-2 in. broad, 
stipe 3-4 in. long. Color when fresh tawny-ferruginous, when dry 

Subgenus XXII. — Galera, Fr. 

Pileus more or less membranaceous, from conic or oval expanded, 
striate; the margin at first straight and appressed to the stipe. Stipe 
cartilaginous. Lamellae not decurrent. 

117 A. TENER, Schseff. — Pileus somewhat membranaceous, conic- 
campanulate, obtuse, hygrophanous. Stipe straight, fragile, somewhat 
shining, concolorous. Lamellae adnate, close, ascending, linear, cinna- 
mon. Spores somewhat ferruginous, elliptic, very large, .0137X.0076 

In grass}^ grounds, upon manure, rotten wood, etc. Pileus ^-l in, 
high and broad, stipe 3-5 in. long. Changing from a watery ferrugin- 
ous or brownish when wet to ochraceous or pallid when (\vy. 

118. A. siLiGiNEUs, Fr. — Pileus membranaceous, globose-campanu- 
late then expanded, unequal, even, not expallent. Stipe somewhat 
flexuous, equal, pallid, somewhat pruinose. Lamellae adnate, broadl}'- 
linear, rather close, ochraceous. 

Found with the preceding, commonl}' smaller. It can be separated 
from it by the stipe pallid, not straight, the base often attenuate, the 
pileus grayish, more convex, the margin often flexuous. 

Subgenus XXIII. — Tdbaria, W. Smith. 

Pileus somewhat membranaceous, often clothed with a universal 
floccose veil. Stipe cartilaginous, hollow. Lamellje more or less de- 

119. A. eurfuraceus, Pers. — Pileus a little fleshy, convex then 
plane, and at length umbilicate, hygrophanous, with a silk}' seal}' veil, 
especially around the margin. Stipe hollow, flocculose, i-igid, pallid. 
Lamellae adnate decurrent, rather distant, cinnamon. Spoi-es ferrugin- 
ous, .0056 mm. long. 

Upon the ground, pieces of wood, piles of loaves. Pileus \-\ in. 
broad, stipe 1-2 in. long. Pileus rich umber or cinnamon when moist, 
alutaceous-canescent when dry; sti|)e white-floccose at the base. 

120. A. iNQUiLiNUs, Fr. — Pileus somewhat membranaceous, convex 
then plane, glabrous, a little viscid, striate when wet, hysfrophanous. 

110 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

Stipe hollow, tough, tapering downward, dark brown, white fibrillose. 
Lamellae somewhat decurrent, rather distant, triangular, brown. 
Spores brown-ferruginous. 

In woods on rotten wood, sticks and rubbish. Gregarious, very 
small; pileus ^ an inch or less in breadth; stipe 1 in. long, scarcely a 
line in thickness. 

Subgenus XXIV. — Crepidotus, Fr. 
Pileus eccentric, lateral or resupinate. 

a. Pileus lateral. 

121. A. MOLLIS, Schaeff. — Pileus gelatinous-fleshy, soft, obovate or 
reniform, flaccid, nearly sessile, glabrous, pallid then canescent. 
Lamellae decurrent to the base, close, linear, whitish then watery 
cinnamon. Spores ferruginous, elliptic, .009X.0056 mm. 

On old stumps and rotten trunks ; common. Solitary or imbricated ; 
pileus 1-2 in. broad. Pileus, in the larger forms, undulately lobed, 
commonly sessile, but it varies, being sometimes produced behind 
into a short, strigose stipe. 

122. A. DORSAHs, Peck. — Pileus fleshy, sessile, dimidiate or some- 
what reniform, flat or a little depressed behind, with a decurved 
slightly striate margin, somewhat fibrillose-tomentose, distinctly to- 
meutose at the point of attachment, reddish-yellow. Lamellae close, 
ventricose, rounded behind, somewhat emarginate, converging to a 
whitish, villous, lateral space, pale ochraceous-browu. Spores ferrug- 
inous, globose, .006 mm. in diameter. 

On old logs in woods. Pileus 1-2 in. broad. In general appearance, 
it bears some resemblance to Panus dorsalis. 

123. A. CRocoPHYLLUs, Berk. — Pileus fleshy, convex, somewhat fla- 
belliform, sessile, appressed scaly, ochraceous-brown. Lamellae rather 
broad, rounded behind, bright bufi" or orange. Spores pale ochre- 
yellow, nearly globose. 

On old logs in woods. Pileus scarce half an inch long. This is 
one of Mr. Lea's new species. 

h. Pilevs at first resui^inate. 

124. A. VERSUTUS, Peck. — Pileus at first resupinate, then reflexed, 
sessile, thin, pure white, soft-villous, the margin incurved. Lamellae 
leather broad, somewhat distant, concurrent to an exceutric point, 

The Mycologic Flora of the 3Iiami Valley, 0. Ill 

rounded behind, pale then ferruginous. Spores ferruginous-brown, 
somewhat elliptic, .010 mm. long. 

In cavities of old stumps, on much decayed, half-buried wood, etc. 
Pileus less than 1 in. broad. 


A. Stipe annulate. 

25. PsALLioTA. — Lamellae free from the stipe. 

26. Stropharia — Lamellae adnate. 

B. Stipe not annulate. 

27. Htpholoma. — Veil woven into a web which adheres to the 
margin of the pileus. 

28. PsiLocYBE. — Veil none. 

Subgenus XXV. — Psalliota, Fr. 
Stipe annulate Lamellae free. 

a. Annulus ample, not distant. 

125. A. arvensis, Schaeff. Pileus fleshy, conic-campanulate then 
explanate, at first floccose-mealj', afterward almost glabrous, even or 
rivulose. Stipe hollow, floccose-medullate; annulus pendulous, ample, 
consisting of two layers, the outer layer radiately divided. Lamellae 
free, broader in front, reddish -white then brown. Spores elliptic, 
variable in size, averaging .010 X.006 mm. 

In meadows and grassy grounds in fields. Pileus commonly 3-5 in. 
broad, and stipe 3-4 in. long, but these dimensions are often greatly 
exceeded. This is the "Horse Mushroom" of England; it is edible, 
but is not so delicate as A. campestris. The pileus and stipe are 
white, staining yellowish when bruised. The flesh remains white or 
takes on only a yellowish tint when cut or broken. 

126. A. FABACEUS, Berk. — Pileus thin, somewhat flesh}^ conical, 
umbonate, at length plane. Stipe bulbous, rather slender, nearly 
glabrous; veil ample, externally floccose. Lamelhie close, free, broader 
behind, brown tlien nearly black. Spores brown, nucleate on one side 
small, ,0055 mm. long. 

On the ground amongst the old leaves in woods; common. Pileus 
3-4 in. across, stipe 3 4 in. high. The pileus is smooth, tough, feeling 
like fine kid leather turning yellow when bruised; the stipe is bulbous 

112 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

at the base, nearly equal above, rather slender and often gracefully- 
curving. The lamellae are at length almost black, like the dark part of 
a bean flower. This is one of the elegant new species of Lea's Catalogue. 

h. Annuhis small, remote. 

127. A. CAMPESTRis, Linn. — Pileus fleshy, convexo-plane, floccose 
silky or scaly. Stipe stuffed, even, white; the annulus in the middle, 
somewhat lacerate. Lamellse free, approximate, ventricose, somewhat 
liquescent, fleshy-brown. Spores brown, nearly elliptic, .OOSX-OOO mm. 

In rich soil of old pastures; some years abundant. Pileus commonly 
2-3 in. broad, stipe 1^-2^ in. long. This is the " Common Mushroom," 
which from the most ancient times has been highly esteemed for food; 
out of it numerous cultivated varieties have arisen. It has a faint odor 
and a pleasant taste; the flesh is firm, thick, white changing more or 
less to a reddish hue when cut or broken. It is the small, round, un- 
developed plants that are eaten. 

128. A. siLVATiCDS, Schseff. — Pileus fleshy, thin, campanulate then 
expanded, gibbous, fibrillose and scaly. Stipe hollow, equal, whitish ; 
the annulus simple, distant. Lamellae free, close, equally attenuate 
both ways, thin, dry, reddish changing to brown. Spores elliptic, 
.0064X.0043 mm. 

In woods. Pileus about 3 in. broad, stipe 3-4 in. long. The pileus 
is a great deal thinner than in the preceding species, more fragile, 
darker, it is at first covered with brown scales which at length scale 
ofl", leaving at least the disk smooth; the margin is often rimosely in 
cised. The flesh is white changing a little to reddish. 

Subgenus XXVI. — Stropharia, Fr. 
Stipe annulate. Lamellae more or less adnate. 

a. Growing on wood or on the ground. 

129. A. ^RUGiNosus, Curt. — Pileus fleshy, convexo-plane, somewhat 
umbonate, covered with a bluish-green seceding slime, expallent. 
Stipe hollow, equal, viscid, beneath the annulus scaly or fibrillose, 
tinged with blue. LamellEe adnate, soft, brown changing to purple. 
Spores elliptic, purplish .007 X- 005 mm. 

Upon the earth and upon trunks of trees in woods. Pileus 1-4 in. 
broad, stipe 2-3 in. high. Gregarious; pileus dull yellow but covered 
with a bluish gluten; above this, but not always, clothed with white 
scales; stipe with various tints of blue, green or yellow, within mottled 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 113 

with blue, the center white; annulus generally fugacious; smell dis- 

b. Growing on manure. 

130. A. STERCORARius, Fr. — Pileus a little fleshy, hemispheric then 
expanded, even, glabrous, discoid, somewhat viscid. Stipe stuflfed 
with a discrete pith, elongated, flocculose beneath the distant annulus, 
even, somewhat viscid. Lamellae adnate, broad, white then umber 
and olive-black. Spores purple-brown, elliptic, very large, .017X.013 

In woods and pastures, on manure. Pileus 1-1^ in. broad, stipe 
3-4 in. high. Pileus luteous, livid-yellowish, etc.; stipe yellowish. 
Lamellae broadest behind, truncate and somewhat decurrent. Dis- 
tinguished from A. semicjlohatus by the distinct medullary substance 
by which the stipe is stuffed, and by the pileus finally becoming ex- 

131. A. SEMiGLOBATUS, Batsch. — Pileus a little fleshy, hemispheric, 
even, yellowish, glutinous. Stipe hollow, slender, straight, glabrous, 
yellowish, glutinous ; the veil inferior, with an abrupt annular termina- 
tion. Lamellae adnate, broad, plane, clouded with black. Spores 
purple-brown, elliptic, large, .014X.009 mm. 

Common on manure or manured soil. Pileus ^-1 in. in diameter, 
stipe 2-3 in. high. The pileus is viscid when moist, shining and 
smooth when dry ; the stipe is hollow, at first very viscid, shining 
when dry, with a closel}' glued silkiness ; the annulus is more or less 
perfect and deflexed, the lamellae are very broad, mottled with the 
purple-brown spores, with at length a cinereous, sometimes a j'ellow 

Subgenus XXVII. — Htpholoma. 

Pileus more or less fleshy, the margin at first incurved; the veil 
woven into a web, which adheres to the margin of the pileus. 
Lamellae adnate or sinuate. 

A. Pileus not hygrophanous. 

a. Pileus glabrous, bright-colored, 132, 133. 
h. Pileus scaly or fibrillose, 134-136. 

B. Pileus glabrous, hygrophanous, 137, 138. 

A. Pileus not hygropltanous. 

a. Pileus glabrous^ bright-colored when dry. 

114 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

132. A. suBLATERiTius, Schseff. — Pileus fleshy, convexo plane, ob- 
tuse, discoid, dry, becoming glabrous; the flesh compact, whitish. 
Stipe stufTed, fibrillosc, tapering downward, ferruginous. Lamella 
adnate, close, white then dingy-olive. Spores elliptic, brown-purple, 
.005X.0035 mm. 

On and about old stumps; very common late in autumn and at the 
beginning of winter. Pileus 2-4 in. broad, stipe 3-5 in. long. Gre- 
garious and csespitose; pileus brick-red or tawny on the disk, paler 
toward the margin, silky when young, but becoming glabrous; taste 
bitter and nauseous. 

133. A. FASiCDLARis, Huds. — Pileus fleshy, thin, somewhat umbonate, 
glabrous. Stipe hollow, slender, fibrillose, flexuous, yellow; the flesh 
yellow. Lamellae adnate, crowded, linear, somewhat liquescent, sul- 
phur then greenish. Spores elliptic, ferruginous-purple, .006X.004 

On stumps and old logs and on the ground. Gregarious and densely 
Cifispitose; pileus about 2 in. in breadth, the stipe 2-5 in. or more in 
length. Pileus at first conic, then expanded, more or less irregular 
from the tufted mode of growth, tawny, yellow toward the margin; 
stipe long, curved and unequal, 3'ellow-greenish above; taste bitter 
and nauseous. 

6. Pileus scaly or Jibrillose, 

134. A. LACRYMABDNDUS, Fr. — Pilcus flcshy, convex, obtuse, pilose 
scaly; the scales innate and darker; the flesh whitish. Stipe hollow, 
fibrillose-scaly, whitish. Lamellse adnate, close, brown-purple. Spores 
brown-purple, oblique .0076X.0056 mm. 

Upon the ground and rotten trunks in woods. Commonly caespi- 
tose ; pileus 2-4 in. broad, stipe 2-4 in. high. Pileus at first campanu- 
late, at length expanded, pale reddish-brown, darker in the center ; 
flesh pale umber ; lamellae at first pale, then reddish-brown ; stipe 
pale, umber toward the base, whitish above, somewhat thickened below, 
rather flexuous, pale umber within ; odor disagreeable. 

135. A. PYROTRiCHUS, Holmsk. — Pileus somewhat fleshy, conic then 
hemispheric, obtuse, densely clothed with tawny fibrils, reddish- 
tawny ; the flesh and curtain tawny. Stipe hollow, fibrillose, becom- 
ing tawny. Lamellae adnate, pallid, afterward changing to brown. 

About the trunks of trees in woods ; perhaps scarce, as I have found 
it but once. Pileus 3-5 in. broad, stipe 3-4 in. long. The pileus is 
characterized by the peculiar bright tawny or flame-colored hue, with 
densely appressed or fasiculate fibrillae. When again found it needs 
to be more closely observed. 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 115 

136. A VELUTiNDS, Pers. — Pileus somewhat fleshy, campanulate, 
then expanded, at length obtusely umbonate, even, at first tomentose, 
with appressed fibrils, afterward becoming glabrous, h3'grophanous ; 
the flesh very thin, concolorous. Stipe hollow, fibrillose-silk}', sordid- 
argillaceous. Lamellae seceding, rather close, brown, black-punctate. 

In the streets of the suburbs, along the country roads, etc. Size 
various, often extremely large, very fragile. Pileus not scaly, when 
fresh lurid, partly dry, tawny, when dry rather clay-color. 

B. Pileus glabrous, hygrophanous. 

137. A. CANDOLLEANus, Fr. — Pileus somewhat fleshy, campanulate- 
convex, explanate, obtuse, glabrous, hygrophanous. Stipe hollow, 
fragile, somewhat flbrillose, white, striate at the apex. Lamellae ro- 
tundate-attached, close, violaceous then brown cinnamon. Spores 
brown, oblique, .0090X.0056 mm. 

On the ground in woods. Pileus 1^-3 in. in diameter, stipe 1^-3 in. 
high. The colors even of the lamellae seem to be exceeding]}' variable; 
the pileus is commonly cinereous or whitish, darker in the center. 

138. A. APPENDicuLATUs, Bull. — Pileus fleshy-membranaceous, 
ovate-expanded, glabrous, hygrophanous, when dry rugose and 
somewhat atomate. Stipe hollow, equal, glabrous, white, pruinate at 
the apex. Lamellae somewhat adnate, close, dry, whitish then fleshy- 
brown. Spores .005X. 004 mm. 

Upon trunks es|)ecially of beech. Densel}'^ caespitose; pileus 2-3 in. 
broad, stipe 3 in. in length. Pileus brownish then tawny or pale ochve; 
the flesh v)f the same color. 

Subgenus XXVIII. — Psilocybe. 

Pileus more or less fleshy, glabrous; the margin at first incurved; 
the veil none. Stipe somewhat cartilaginous. 

139. A. SPADICEUS, Fr. — Rigid. Pileus fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, 
even, moist, hygrophanous. Stipe hollow, tough, pallid, even at the 
apex. Lamellae rotuudate-attached, dry, close, whitish then fleshy- 
brown. Spores elliptic, purplish-brown, .0076x-0051 mm. 

In grassy grounds of door3'ards, lawns and fields, ver}- abundant 
after rains, in spring and summer. Pileus H-3 in. broad, stipe 2-3 in. 
long. Pileus even, at first glabrous, rigid, scabrous, umber brown, be- 
coming pale when dry; the flesh whitish; the margin infiexed, often 
cracked and split when dr}'. The lamellae sometimes finally cinnamon 
or umber. 

116 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 


29. Pan^olus. — Pileus a little fleshy, not striate. 

30. PsATHYRELLA. — Pilcus membranaceous, striate. 

Subgenus XXIX. — Pan^olus. 

Pileus a little fleshy, not striate, the margin exceeding the lamellae. 
Stipe polished, rather firm. Lamellae variegated. 

a. Pileus viscid, shining when dry. 

140. A. soLiDiPES, Peck. — Pileus firm, hemispheric, then somewhat 
campanulate, smooth, whitish ; the cuticle at length breaking up into 
dingy-yellowish, rather large, angular scales. Stipe firm, smooth, 
white, solid, slightly striate at the top. Lamellae broad, slightly at- 
tached, whitish, becoming black. Spores black with a bluish tint. 

In pastures on piles of dung. Pileus 2-3 in. in diameter, stipe 
5-8 in. high. A large species, remarkable for its solid stipe. The 
scales on the pileus are larger on the disk, becoming smaller toward 
the margin. The upper part of the stipe is sometimes beaded with 
drops of moisture. 

141. A. FiMiPUTRis, Bull. — Pileus somewhat membranaceous, conic- 
expanded, rather gibbous, even, viscid. Stipe slender, equal, glabrous, 
pallid, marked with an annular zone. Lamellse attached, livid-black- 
ish. Spores black, .009X.007 mm. 

In pastures on dung. Pileus 1-2 in. broad and high, stipe 3-5 in. 
long. Pileus reticulate rugulose, dai'k cinereous, livid when dr}' ; the 
annulus broken into triana'ular loops or lacinise fringing the margin ; 
stipe scaly-tomentose, pulverulent, often beaded with little drops, 
striate above, nearly white, at length reddish. 

h. Pileus dry., glabrous. 

142. A. CAMPANCLATUS, Linn. — Pileus a little flesh}', campanulate, 
dry, even, glabrous, somewhat shining. Stipe equal, straight, reddish; 
the apex striate, dark-pulverulent. Lamellae attached, ascending, 
variegated with gray and black. Spores black. 

On manured ground. Pileus f-1^ in. in diameter, f-1 in. in height ; 
stipe 3-4 in. long. Pileus from brown changing to reddish. 

143. A. FiMicoLA, Fr. — Pileus a little fleshy, campanulate-convex, 
obtuse, glabrous, opaque, marked around the margin with a narrow 
brown zone. Stipe fragile, elongated, equal, pallid, white-pruinate at 

The Mycologic Flora of the Miami Valley, 0. 117 

the apex. Lamellae adnate, broad, variegated with gray and sooty. 
Spores black. 

On dung and on manured land, in spring and summer. Pileus 1-2 
in. broad, stipe 2-4 in. long. Pileus when moist commonly sooty- 
canescent, when dry argillaceous-canescent. 

Subgenus XXX. — Psathyrella. 
Pileus membranaceous, striate, the margin not exceeding the 
lamellae. Lamellae uniformly black-sooty, not variegated. 

a. Stipe straight, glabrous. 

144. A. GRACILIS, Fr. — Pileus somewhat membranaceous, conic, 
striatulate, hygrophanous, when dry not striate. Stipe slender, 
straight, naked, pallid. Lamellae broadly adnate, rather distant, cin- 
ereous-blackish; the edge obsoletely rose-color. Spores black, elliptic, 
very large, .014x-008 mm. 

In low grounds along, fence-rows. Pileus f-1^ in. broad, stipe 3-5 
in. high. Pileus at first livid or brownish, then changing to ochra- 
ceous, alutaceous, pinkish or whitish. 

6. Stipe Jlexuous, pruinate at the apex. 

145. A. ATOMATus, Fr. — Pileus somewhat membranaceous, campanu- 
late, obtuse, striatulate, hygrophanous, when dry rugulose, entire, 
furfuraceous with shining atoms. Stipe lax, fragile, white; the apex 
white-furfuraceous. Lamellae adnate, broad, cinereous-blackish. Spores 
black, elliptic, large .011X.008 mm. 

Among chips and rotten wood in woods. Pileus ^-1 in. in diameter, 
stipe 2-3 in. long. Pileus at length piano-expanded, ochraceous in- 
clining to pale reddish, at length cream-colored or nearl3' white. Stipe 
somewhat rooting, more or less cottony at the base. 

146. A. DissEMiNATUs, Pers. — Pileus membranaceous, ovate-campanu- 
late, furfuraceous, afterward naked, sulcate-plicate, entire, changing 
color. Stipe lax, somewhat flexuous, fragile, furfuraceous then 
glabrous. Lamellae adnate, broadl}' linear, white-cinereous, then chang- 
ing to black. Spores black, elliptic, .0076X-0051 mm. 

About trunks of trees and on the ground, in woods. Gregarious and 
caespitose, sometimes in countless numbers. A very small Agaric ; 
pileus about one fourth of an inch in breadth, the stipe about 1 inch 
long. Pileus 3'ellowish or ochraceous, at length cinereous or whitish^ 
sometimes with a i)oarly tint toward the margin. 

[to be CONTINUED.] 

118 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 


By Joseph F. James. 

Custodian, Cincinnati Society of Natural History, 

[Read by title before the American Association for the advancement of Science, August, 


This Revision of the Genus Clematis, native to the United States, has 
been prepared as a contribution toward that great desideratum of all 
botanists, a Flora of the United States. 

In this monograph I have collected the descriptions of all the 
species of the United States, have given their geographical distribu- 
tion, and as full a synonomy as I have been able to get together. 
For this latter portion I am indebted to Mr. Sereno Watson's Index 
to North American Botany. For information in regard to range of 
species, I am indebted to manj^ correspondents; and for the examination 
of specimens, am under obligations to Mr. Isaac Martindale, of 
Camden; Dr. George Vasej^ of the Agricultural Department at Wash- 
ington ; Mr. Parker, of the Philadelphia Academy, and Mr. Watson, of 

The Genus Clematis, Linn., forming the tribe Clematidce. of the 
Banunculacece, contains about one hundred species. They are widely 
distributed over all the warm and temperate regions of the earth, 
but like the rest of the order, are rare or unknown in the low, hot, 
damp regions of Africa, Asia and America. The species delight most 
in dr}' elevated localities, and many of them are found in the moun- 
tains at elevations of from 6,000 to 10,000 feet above the sea. 

Clematis, Linn. 

" Involucre none, or resembling a calyx, and situated next to the 
flower. Sepals 4 (4-8), colored, in aestivation valvate, or with the 
edges bent inwards. Petals none, or shorter than the sepals. An- 
thers linear, extrorse. Achenia terminated by long (mostly plumose or 
hairy) tails. Perennial, herbaceous or somewhat shrubby plants, 
mostly sarmentose, with opposite leaves, and fibrous roots." (Torr. 
<Sc Gray, Flora N. Am., vol. i., p. 7). 

A Bevision of the Genus Clematis of the United States. 119 

Section I. — Atragene. — Some of the outer filaments passing into 
small loetals ; peduncles hearing single largeflowers, the sepals spread- 

1. C. VERTiciLLARis, DC. — Wood.y-stemmed climber, almost glab- 
rous; leaves trifoliate, with slender common and partial petioles; leaf- 
lets ovate or slightly heart-shaped, pointed, entire, or on sterile stems, 
1-3 toothed or lobed; flowers bluish purple (2' to 3' across): tails of 
the fruit plumose.* 

2. C. ALPiNA, Mill. — A trailing, woody-stemmed plant, 6' high, glab- 
rous but for a few scattered hairs; leaves biternatel}^ divided; seg- 
ments ovate or oblong, lanceolate, acuminate, frequently 3-lobed, irreg- 
ularly toothed; sepals 4, lance ovate, purplish blue.f 

Var. OcHOTENSis, Gray. — "With linear antheriferous petals.;|: This is 
the form commonly found in the Rocky mountains, and differs from 
C. alpina and C. Siberica, only in the development of the petals. 

Section II. — Clematis proper. — Petals entirely wanting. 
(1) Flowers solitary, pedunculate. 

a. — Stems erect, simple or branching. 
-t- Leaves divided. 

3. C. Baldwinii, Torr. & Gray. — Erect, 1°-H° liigh, simple or a 
little branching, slender, slightly pubescent; leaves varying from oblong 
to linear lanceolate, entire, or 3-cleft or lobed, lobes linear, often 
slightly laciniate, sometimes quite simple, 4" to 6" wide, narrowed 
at base into a short petiole; peduncle terminal, 8' to 10' long, one 
flowered; flower cylindrical-campanulate; sepals purplish externalh', 
yellowish within; tails of carpels 2' to 3' long, very plumose.§ 

4. C. DouGLASii, Hooker. — "Stem herbaceous, 1° to 2° high, simple, 
one flowered ; leaves 2-3 pinnatified (or the lower ones more simple), 
the segments linear or linear lanceolate, both stem and leaves more or 
less hairy ; flower nodding, the naked peduncle erect and elongated in 
fruit ; sepals thick, woolly at the apex, more or less spreading, deep 
brownish purple, paler externally," || 

5. C. ScoTTii, Porter. — " More or less villous, with soft-spreading 

* Gray's Manual, p 35. 

t Watson, Bot. Nov. & Utah (vol. v., King's Sur.) p. 3, and Porter & Coulter, Fl. Colo- 
rado, p. 1. 

t Watson, Ibid, p 4 

g Torrey & Gray, Fl. vol, i., p. 8. || Watson, I. c, p. 3. 

120 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

hairs ; bushy branching, from a sufFrutescent base ; branches erect, 
9'-18', not climbing ; leaves opposite, on rather long petioles, pinnate ; 
leaflets 5 pairs, ovate or lanceolate, acute or acuminate, petiolate, 
strongly veined beneath, the lower ones often 2-3 cleft ; flowers axillary 
and terminal, nodding; peduncles 3'-6'; sepals 4, ovate, with rcflexed 
summits, nearlj^ one inch long, dark or brownish purple, thickish but 
not leathery, as in C. Viorna^ more or less tomentose on the outside ; 
carpels silky pubescent, with densely plumose tails, I'-IV in length."* 

-«— <— Leaves simple or lohed. 

6. C. ocHROLEUCA, Alton (C. ovata,\ Pursh). — Stem simple, silky 
pubescent, leaves reticulately veined, ovate, sometimes 3-lobed, sub- 
sessile, upper surface glabrous when old, silky beneath ; upper leaves 
I'ather acute ; flower solitary, terminal, pedunculate, inclined, yellow- 
ish or greenish, erect in fruit ; sepals 4, silky externally ; tails of the 
carpels very plumose. J 

Vav. Fremontii, James (C. Fremontii,^ Wats.). — Stem stout and 
usually branched; leaves sessile; sepals purple; tails of carpels short, 
naked above, silk}' or hairy at base. 

Between the C. ovata, Pursh, and C. ochroleuca, Alton, I can not 
find sufficient difference to justif}'' a separation. The characters dis- 
tinguishing the two species are only the silky stem and leaves, and 
yellow flowers of ochroleuca, against the smooth stem and leaves, 
and purple flowers of ovata. But the older leaves of ochroleuca 
become glabrous, and so resemble the ovata: and as Pursh de- 
scribed his species from a dried specimen, he may well have taken 
the flower to be purple, because a difl"erence in color would not be 
noticeable in dried specimens. I have seen but a single specimen 
labelled ovata in an}'^ of the large herbaria of the East, and that at 

* Porter & Coulter, Fl. Col., p. 1. 

t G- ovata, Pursh. — "Whole plant glabrous ; stem simple, or sometimes climbing ; leaves 
broadly ovate, on very short petioles, glabrous, glaucous and reticulately veined beneath, 
the lower subcordate ; peduncle terminal, solitary, one flowered ; flower inclined, nearly 
as large as C- ochroleuca; sepals ovate, acuminate, pubescent on margin, purple; tails of car- 
pels plumose. (Torr. & Gr. Fl. vol, i., pp. 8 and 6-57.) 

X Torr. & Gr., I. c, vol, i , p. 7, and Gray's Man., p. 35. 

I G. Fremontii, Watson. — " Stem stout, erect, clustered, 6'-12' high, leafy and usually 
branched, more or less villous tomentose, especially at the nodes; leaves simple, 3-4 pairs, 
coriaceous and with the veinlets conspicuously reticulated, sparingly villous, sessile, broadly 
ovate, entire or few toothed, 2'-4' long; flowers terminal, nodding, the thick purple sepals 
an inch long, narrowly lanceolate; tomentose at the margin, recurved at the tip, the pe- 
duncles becoming erect in fruit, akenes silky 3"-4" long, the tails less than an inch long, 
naked above, silky at base." (Proc. Am. Acad. vol. x., p. 339. Quoted in Bot. Gaz., vol. 
ii., p. 12.) 

A Revision of the Genus Clematis of the United States. 121 

Philadelphia, and it is in appearance simplj" a snaall ochroleuca. Dr. 
A. Gray has examined the specimens described by Pursh in the Sher- 
ard herbarium at Oxford, England, and concludes it to be the same as 
ochroleuca* Between ochroleuca again, and the form described as 
Fremontii, the resemblances are very strong, and the differences ex- 
tremely slight. The most important difference is in the carpels. In 
the ochroleuca these have the tails long, and very plumose, while in 
the Fremontii they are short, filiform, " naked above, silky below." 
Yet in a specimen in the herbarium at Harvard, the tails are long and 
quite hairy, especially at the base. Now as the Fremontii is a very 
local species, being confined, as Mr. Lewis Watson, wh^ rediscovered 
the plant, writes me, to a space of about forty square miles, would it 
not be safe to conclude that the Fremontii, being the western analogue 
of the ochroleuca, is in reality only a peculiar variety of it, produced 
by various circumstances of climate and soil? Such, at all events, 
seems the case to me, and I have therefore called it C. ochroleuca var. 

b. — Stems climbing ; leaves pinnate. 

7. C. ViORNA, L. — Stem striate, smooth ; leaflets 3-7, ovate or 
oblong, sometimes slightly cordate, 2-3 lobed or entire, smooth, upper- 
most leaves often simple, sparingly reticulated when old; flower 
terminal, nodding, dark reddish purple; calyx ovate, and at length 
bell shaped; sepals very thick and leathery, tipped with short re- 
curved points, ovate lanceolate, one inch long; tails of the carpels 1^ 
inches long, verj' plumose, persistent. f 

Var. cocciNEA, James (Long's Expedition) (C. coccinea, Engelm.,;^ 
C. Texensis, Buckl.) — Leaflets coriaceous, obtuse, convex, entire, 
glaucous ; flower red, sepals smooth. 

Var PiTCHERi, James (C. Pitcheri,^ Torr. & Gr. ) Leaflets ovate, 

* Note in Herb, at Harvard, and in Curtis' Bot. Mag., Dec. 1881. 

t Gray's Man., p. 36, Wood CI. Bk., p. 201. 

t C. coccinea, Engelm. "Glabrous, stem very slender, climbing, branched; leaves thin, 
eoriaceous, on slender petioles, 3-') foliate; leaflets on very slender petiolulcs ; the lateral 
ones broadly ovate or ovnte-oordate, obtuse, apiculatc, convex, kIhucous beneath, entire, 
reticulately veined ; the terminal one larger and broader, entire or3-lobed ; flowers solitary, 
on very long peduncles, scarlet; perianth ovoid; sepals glabrous, tho margins silky- 
tomentose, thick, coriaceous, ovate lanceolate, erect, the apex acute and recurved ; akones 
villous, the tails clong.ated, plumose, persistent " (Curtis* Bot .Mag. Dec. 1881.) 

'i C. PitcJim', Torr. & Gr. Stem climbing; leaves pinnate; leaflets 3-i1, ovate or some- 
what cordate, acute or obtuse, entire or three lobed, sub-sessile, much reticulated, upper 
leaves often simple; flower nodding, pedunculate; calyx bell-shaped, the dull purplish 
sepals with narrow and slightly margined recurved points; tails of the carpels filiform, 
pubescent or villous (Gray's Man., p. 36, etc.) 

122 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

sub-sessile, reticulated ; sepals with narrow, slightly margined, re- 
curved points; tails of carpels either filiform and glabrous or appressed 
silky and villous; leaves very variable. 

We have in the preceding an interesting group of what have been 
considered three distinct species, all possessing points in common, and 
comparatively few points of difference. The var. coccinea, lately 
erected to a species b}'^ Dr. Engelman, though Buckley characterized 
it as long ago as 1861, under the name of C. Texensis, differs from the 
type Viorna mainly in the color of the flower and the obtuseness of the 
leaflets, points which are very seldom considered sufficient to estab- 
lish a species. Some leaflets on Viorna are obtuse and plainly reticu- 
lated, while the color of the flower is a deep reddish-purple. The var. 
Pitcheri difi'ers in the leaflets being nearly sessile, reticulated, sepals 
with slightly margined points, but principally in having the tails of 
the carpels filiform and glabrous, or silky and villous. 

Now the Viorna seems to be the dominant form. In its distribu- 
tion it overlaps the var. coccinea found in Texas, and at the northwest 
it overlaps var, Pitcheri in Illinois and Iowa. Here then we have a 
species widely spread over the country with several marked varieties, 
and we shall see that there are not sufficient characters to establish 
them as distinct species. The stems in all are alike. The leaves 
vary in the varieties in size and form, but so do they also in them- 
selves. The Pitcheri has leaves acute or obtuse, entire or lobed, ovate 
or lanceolate. The leaves of coccinea vary less, but in the species 
Viorna, they are as variable as in the varieties. The flowers in all 
are almost exactly alike, except as regards color and the presence or 
absence of pubescence. Lastly, the carpels are alike except in the 
Pitcheri, in which we find, according to Dr. Gray,* two forms, one "(leio- 
stylis) with the filiform styles completely glabrous from the first; in the 
other (lasiost3dis) they are appressed silky or villous, either only be- 
low or for their whole length." There are transitions between them, 
and the form passes into the C , filifera, Benth, of Mexico, which also 
has naked or pilose styles. Certain forms found in Texas, and re- 
ferred to as var. " folius tenuioribus etc.," of reticulata, seem to be 
the same as G. fill f era, Benth., according to specimens in the herbari- 
um at Washington. As tliis form has been referred by Gray to 
Pitcheri, it will be necessary to reduce the C . filijera to a synonym of 
C. Viorna, var. Pitcheri. 

■■> Bot. Mag., I.e., Dec. 1881. 

A Revision of the Genus Clematis of the United States. 123 

8. C. BiGELovii, Torrey. — "Low (?), herbaceous (?)," (in reality as 
seeu in later specimens climbing), smooth; leaves pinnate or bi-pinnate, 
long petioled, leaflets 7-9, half an inch to an inch in length, membran- 
aceous and inconspicuously veined, 3-lobed or parted: lobes sub-ovate, 
entire, or incised, peduncles "an inch or two in length" (sometimes 
four and five inches), one flowered, nodding; calyx sub-campanulate, 
sepals narrowly oblong, scarcely over half an inch in length, membran- 
aceous in dried state, probably a little thickened in the living plant, 
but not leathery as in C. Viorna, etc.; almost glabrous except the 
densel}' tomentose margin, not appendaged, but the obtuse tip spread- 
ing; carpels silky pubescent, becoming glabrate, with tails over an 
inch In length, densely plumose as in C. Viorna* 

9. C. RETICULATA, Walt. — Stcms climbing, leaves pinnate or ternate; 
leaflets 3-6, oblong, ovate or oval, entire, simple or lobed, obtuse or acute 
and mucronate, rigidly coriaceous, conspicuously reticulated on both 
sides, glabrous: peduncle terminal, one flowered, flower nodding, bell- 
shaped, pale purple; sepals I'-l^' long, rather coriaceous, ovate lanceo- 
late, velvety externally: tails of the carpels long and plumose.f 

10. C CRiSPA, Linn. — Stem smooth, climbing; leaves pinnate or 
ternate; leaflets 3-15, acute, thin, varying from oblong-ovate to lanceo- 
late, acuminate, obtuse or sub-cordate at base, entire or 3-5 parted; 
peduncle terminal, bearing a large, nodding, bell-shaped, bluish-purple 
flower; calyx cylindraceous below, the upper half of the sepals dilated 
and widely spreading, with broad and wav}' thin margins; tails of the 
carpels about an inch long, silky or plumose (in the form originall}' 
described with "naked" or pubescent tails). J 

Var. Walteri, Gray (C. Walteri, Pursh., C. Uneariloba, DC.) 
Leaflets linear or linear lanceolate, 3-4 pairs, the lobes scarcely 2"-3" 

11. C. LASiANTHA, Nutt. — Stcm pubesccut, or silk^ tomentose, stout, 
climbing; leaves ternate, broadly ovate, obtusely cuneiform at base; 
leaflets incisely toothed, the terminal one three lobed or trifid, I'-l^' 
long, r broad, almost villous beneath ; flowers dioecious, solitary, more 
than an inch in diameter, on rather stout 1-2 bracted peduncles 3 
inches long; sepals ciineate oblong, spreading, villous on both surfaces, 
obtuse, 6"-l0" long, akenes pubescent. || 

* Pacific R. R. Survey Report, vol. iv., p. Gl. 

t Torr. k Gr., I. c, vol. i., p 10. Wood's CI., Bk. p. 201. 

\ Torr. & Gr., vol. i,, p. 10. Gray's Man., p. 36. Wood's CI. IJk.. p. 201. 

g Gray— Curtis' Bot. Mag., Dec, 1881. 

II Torr. & Gray, vol. i., p. 9. Brow. & Watson, Bot. Col., vol. i., p. 3. 

124 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

(2.) Flowers panicled : stems climhiny. 

12. C. PADCiFLORA, Nutt. — Climbing, but inclined to gr ow erect or 
bushy, smooth or somewhat sillcy pubescent, short jointed ; leaves 
pinnate and ternate, short and fascicled; leaflets 3-5, only 3"-9" long, 
cuneate obovate to cordate, obtuse, mostly 3 toothed or lobed, petioles 
slightly pubescent; flowers axillary, solitary or few and panicled, on 
slender pedicels; sepals thin, 4" 6" long ; akenes glabrous, with slender 
plumose tails.* 

13. C. Drummondii, Torr. & Gr, — Stem slender, angular, somewhat 
hairy ; leaves pinnate, silky villous beneath, sparingly hirsute on the 
upper surface ; leaflets mostly 5, rhombic ovate, incisely 3 lobed, the 
lobes acute; panicles about as long as the leaves, trichotomously 
divided; sepals 4, white, oblong, villous externally; tails of carpels 
more than 2 inches long, densely plumose, f 

14. C. ViRGiNiANA, Linn. (C. Gatesbyana, Pursh.J) — Stem climbing 
8-15 feet high, supporting itself by the long petioles, smooth ; leaves 
ternate, with three ovate, acute leaflets, which are cut or lobed, and 
somewhat heart shaped at the base; flowers panicled, polygamo-dioeci- 
ous, with 4 white, obovate, thin, spreading sepals; carpels with long 
plumose tails.§ 

Var. BRACTEATA, DC. (C. ^oZo5ericea,Pursh.||) — Pubescent. "Leaf- 
lets ovate-lanceolate, entire,"^ 

In uniting C. holosericea and C. Gatesbyana with G. Virginiana, 
I have been influenced b}- several considerations. The first species is 
a very obscure one, described by Pursh from dried specimens in the 
herbarium of Walter, and differs from G. Virginiana, in being pubes- 
cent, and in having entire instead of serrate leaflets, two characters 
which are much too variable to establish specific rank, A specimen 

* Torr. & Gr., I. c, vol. i., p. 9, and Brew, and Wats., I. c, vol. i., p. 3. 

T Torr. and Gr., I. c, vol. i., p. 9. 

t C- Catesbyana, Vursh.— Stem climbing, minutely pubescent; leaves bi-ternate, or pin- 
nately 5-foliate; leaflets ovate, often slightly cordate, small, mostly 3-lobed, the lobes en- 
tire, acute or acuminate ; flowers mostly dioecious, in axillary divaricately forked cymes ; 
sepals linear oblong ; carpels short tailed, plumose. (Pursh, Fl. Am., vol. ii., p. 736, Torr. 
and Gr., I.e., vol. i., p. 657) . 

? Gray's Manual, p. 36. Wood's CI- Bk„ p. 201. 

II G. holosericea, Pursh.— Stem climbing, downy or silky in all its parts ; leaves ternate, 
pubescent both sides ; leaflets entire, oblong lanceolate; flowers dioecious, small, white, in 
paniculate corymbs, few-flowered; linear petals longer than the stamens; carpels long 
plumed. (Pursh, I. c. . vol. ii., p. 38*. Wood's CI. Bk., p. 201.) 

H Loudon Arbor, et Frutic, vol. i., p, 237. 

A ^Revision of the Genus Clematis of the United States. 125 

from Georgia in the Philadelphia Aca,demy Herbarium, is labeled " a 
mere pubescent variet}- of U. Virginiana,''^ a conclusion I had before 
reached. The entire leaflets have caused me to refer it to C. Virgini- 
ana, var. bracteata. 

Almost the same may be said in respect to C. Catesbyana. This is 
bettei' known, but is also doubtful. A specimen from Florida in the 
Agricultural Department Herbarium, has much the aspect of C. Vir- 
giniaiia, and others in the Herbarium of Mr. I. C. Martindale, would 
be diflScult to separate from C. Virginiana. Here again the pubes- 
cence and the entire lobes of the leaves constitute the differences be- 
tween it and the C Virginiana, two differences which should nsver 
be aloHe sufficient to characterize a distinct species. 

15. C. LiGDSTiciFOLiA, Nutt. — Climbing, somewhat pubescent ; stems 
elongated, sometimes 30 feet long ; leaves ternate or mostly five foliate; 
leaflets coriaceous, broadly ovate to lanceolate, 3-lobed or coarsel}' 
toothed, rarely entire or 3 parted, l^'-3' long; flowers white, dioecious, 
in paniculate corymbs ; sepals thin, silky, from 4"-6" long ; akenes 
pubescent, tails one to two inches long, plumose.* 

Var. BREViPoLiA, Torr. and Gr. — " With nearly smooth, broadly 
ovate, sub-cordate, three-lobed leaflets."t 

Vur. BRACTEATA, Torr. — "Leaflets 3-5, deeply cordate, incised, lobed, 
dentate, glabrous on both sides, the bracts of the flower very large, 
obovate, entire.''^; 

Var. Californica, Watson. — '"Leaves silky tomentose beneath, often 
small. "§ 

The two preceding species, C. Virginiana and C. ligusticifolia, the 
most widely distributed of the Genus in the United States, are very 
closely related to each other. The ligusticifolia of the West, is the 
representative of the Virginiana of the East, and it is doubtful if it is 
entitled to rank higher tlian a geographical variety. The diflferences 
are confined almost entirely to the pubescence on the leaves, and to 
their being 3-foliate in one, and 5-foliate in the other. These differ- 
ences, the only apparent ones, are by no means constant, for the leaves 
vary from smooth to very pubescent on both sides, and the leaflets are 
in the var. bracteata, sometimes only 3-lobed as in the Virginiana. 

"■ Watson. King's Report, vol. t., p. 3. Torr. and Gr. Fl. vol. i., p. 9. Brew, and Wats. 
Bet. Cal., vol. i., p. 3. 
t Wiitson, King's Report, vol. 5, p. 3. 
X Torrey. Bot. Wilkes' Expo., p. 211. 
^ Brew, and Watson, Bot. Cal., vol. i., p. 3. 

126 Cincinnati Society oj Natural History. 

I subjoin the description of C. Pennsylvanica, Donn., wliioh must be 
^ regarded as a synonymn of C. Virginiana, L. 

" C. Pennsylvanica, Donn. — Plant glabrous, the stem somewhat 
climbing above ; leaves ternately cut, the segments petiolate, ovate- 
oblong, acuminate, a few coarse teeth toward the apex, the base entire, 
and 3-5 nerved; peduncle axillary, frequently shorter than the petiole, 
3-flowered, 3-bracted ; flower hermaphrodite ; sepals 4, linear oblong, 
rather obtuse, velvety without. 

"I find dried branches, about a foot long, iu the herbarium of Prof, 
de la Vyne (?), long since deceased, \QYy much like plants cultivated 
in German gardens since the time of Schi-eber. Flowers (on these 
branches) in threes, lateral, not yet expanded, each flower subtended 
by a leaf like, serrulate or entire bract ; the bract of the middle flower 
often already fallen. These peduncles at the time of evolution (or 
flowering), short, afterwards perhaps elongated. Flowers small, 
whitish. Stamens in a single series, flat, brownish. Ovary terminated 
by plumose styles." (Turez. Bull. Soc. Moscow, vol. xxvii. p. 273.) 

This description is very imperfect, and not sufficient to establish or 
characterize a species. It corresponds very well to some forms of C. 
Virginianri, and to that species is here referred. No habitat is given 
for it. 

In the following table the species are arranged according to what 
seems their most natural affinities: 

Section I. — Atragene. 

1. C. verticillaris, DC. 

2. C. alpina, Mill. 

var. Ochotensis, Gra3^ 

Section II. — Clematis. 

3. C. Baldwinii, Torr. & Gray. 

4. C. Douglasii, Hooker. 

5. C. Scottii, Porter. 

6. C. ochroleuca, Alton (C. ovata, Pursh). 

var. Fremontii, James (C. Fremontii, Watson). 

7. C. Viorna, L. 

var. coccinea, James (of Long's Expedition) (C. coccinea^ 

var. Pitcheri, James (C Pitcheri, T. & G.) 

8. C. Bigelovii, Torrey. 

9. C. reticulata, Walter. 

A Revision of the Genus Clematis of the United States. 127 

10. C. crispa, Linn, 
var. Walter!, Gray. 

11. C. lasiantha, Nutt. 

12. C. pauciflora, Nutt. 

• 13. C. Drummondii, T. & Gr. 

14, C Virginiana, L. (C. Pennsylvanica, Donn., C. Catesbyana, 

var. bracteata, DC. (C. holosei^icea, Pursh.) 

15. C. ligusticifolia, Nutt. 

var. brevifolia, Torr. & Gr. 
var. bracteata, Torrey. 
var. Californica, Watson. 

Geographical Distribution. 

Taking now the species in the order in which I have placed them, 
and in what I take to be the natural relations to each other, I will give 
the geographical distribution of each.* 

No. 1. Clematis verticillaris, DC., is the most widely dispersed of 
all the species. Froii. the mountains of Carolina, on the south, It fol- 
lows the line of high land northeast, having recorded stations in Penn- 
sylvania at the foot of the Blue Ridge; at Wilmiugton, Delaware; 
along the Delaware river, at Phillipsburg, near the Water Gap, Plain- 
field, and at Preakness mountain. New Jersey; Haverstraw, North 
Salem, Pine Plains and Fishkill, New York; in Connecticut (rarel}"^); 
at Johnson, Rhode Island, and thence to Maine. From here the range 
is westward through New Hampshire and Vermont; at Montreal, 
Canada; northern and western New York, and along the Great Lakes, 
being recorded at St. Croix Lake, Wisconsin. It reaches latitude 54° 
in British America, and is found in the Rocky mountains at Fort Ellis, 
Montana; Telon mountains at 11,000 feet, and Flat Mead river in 
northern Idaho; in the Wahsatch and Uinta mountains of Utah at 
7,000 to 9,000 feet; and in northern California about Cape Meudicino. 
It is quite rare in most of the eastern stations, but becomes more com- 
mon toward the west. It is readily «oen from the list of stations how 
it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific, living in the highlands 
almost entirely, from as far south as latitude 37°, to north and west as 

* In the following account I have availed myself of some of the many local and state 
floras which have been published from time to time, and am indebted to the many corre- 
spondents in various parts of tlie country who have favored mo with lists of the species 
found in their various localities. 

128 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

far as 54°. Its distribution is regulated to a very great extent by the 
configuration of the country and by the climate. The number of sta- 
tions in northern New Jerse}^ and in the vicinity of New York, is per- 
haps to be accounted for by the presence of the glacial drift which 
covers the northern portion of New Jerse}^, and to the fact that- the 
Hudson River Valley forms a highway along which it may have emi. 
grated from the north at the time of the glacial epoch; and finding 
suitable stations in the elevated parts of the countr^^ established itself 
to a certain extent. That this maj- have been the case is further 
countenanced by the fact that it is there associated with many more 
plants of a northern habitat.* 

No. 2. Clematis alpina. Mill., the onl}' European species of C7ema</s 
found in the United States, is recorded as having been found by Parry 
In Colorado, between 39°-41° north latitude,f but no one has, I believe 
since seen it. In Europe it is widely distributed, being found under vari- 
ous forms in the mountains of Austria, Carniola, Piedmont, Dauphine, 
Hungary, Switzerland, Eastern Pyrenees, etc., at from 2,400 to 6,000 
feet elevation. J Varieties of it, differing only very slightly, are found 
in Siberia, toward the Ochotshei Sea and Kamtschatka. The variety 
Ochotensis, is the one common in the Rock}' mountains, and we can 
easil}^ imagine its extension along the highway of the mtuintain range, 
from Alaska to Colorado. The localities given are Clear Creek Canon, 
Chiami Canon, Denver, Middle Park, Gilpin county, and Gray's Peak 
in Colorado, Cottonwood Canon, in Wahsatch mountains of Utah, and 
the Teton mountains at 11,000 feet in Northern Idaho. Doubtless 
it is to be found in British America at the north, and may even extend 
up to Alaska. 

No. 3. Clematis Baldwinii, Torr. & Gr., is a very local, strictly 
southern species, having been recorded, as far as I know, from but 
three localities, all in Florida. One is at Tampa, on the west coast, 
another at Mellonville, Lake Monroe, near St. John's River, on the 
east coast, and the third at St. Augustine. It is a peculiar form, very 
distinct from any of the other species of the United States, and 
possibl}^ related to some of the .species of South America, reaching 
Florida, as many other plants have b^' way of the West India Islands. 

No. 4. (7Zemai!«5 Dow^Zasii, Hook., is a mountainous western species, 
strictly confined, as far as known, to the Rock}' mountain ranges, and 

* See Preface to Cat. of N. J. Plants, by N. L. Britton, p. 10. 
i Gray, Pro. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sei., 1863, p. 56 
X Loudon Arbor, et Frutic, vol- i., p. 247. 

A Revision of the Genus Clematis oj the United States. 129 

extending from central Colorado, at Middle Park, Clear Creek Canon 
(middle elevations), and in the Wahsatch and Uinta mountains of 
Utah, at 6,000 or 7,000 feet, to Fort Ellis, and the Yellowstone in 
Montana, at Snake River Valley. Teton mountains (11,000 feet), and 
Flat Head River Valley in Northern Idaho and Washington Territory, 
and perhaps extending along the same range of mountains, north into 
British America. 

No. 5. Clematis Scottii, Porter, is also a very local species, having 
been described from specimens collected at Soda Springs, 35 miles 
west of Canon cit}-, and in Fremont county, Colorado. It has also 
been found in a few other localities in Colorado, b}^ local collectors. 

No. 6. Clematis ochroleuca, Alton, has quite a limited and scattered 
distribution. It is found in the south in the upper districts of 
Georgia, Carolina and Tennessee, through Virginia (at Alexandria), 
and Pennsylvania to Staten Island, New York. It is also recorded in 
two isolated situations. Central Ohio, and in Arkansas. It is possible 
that the former identification is erroneous, and that the latter, given 
in Lesquereux's Catalogue of Plants of Arkansas,* is what I have 
called the variet}'^ Fremontii. This variety is one having a very local 
distribution. It was first found b}' Fremont in one of his early expe- 
ditions, and all record lost of the locality*. In late years, 1874, Mr- 
Lewis Watson discovered a locality for the form at Ellis, Kansas, and 
it has also been found in Cloud county, Kansas. Mr. Isaac Martin- 
dale has specimens collected in Missouri. These exhaust all the now 
known localities for the form. It is so closely related to the C. ochro- 
leuca, that I can see no reason for not regarding it as a variety, pro- 
duced by peculiar circumstances, of that species. The C. ochroleuca 
seems to be one of those species, which not being a dominant form, is 
dying out. It must at a former period of time have ranged over a 
more extensive region of countr}', as Lhe Viorna and Virginiana do 
now, but we can not tell the causes of its disappearance. It might, 
however, have been a dominant species previous to the glacier epoch, 
and driven from its original home by the cold, has been able to main- 
tain itself only in a few places up to the present time. 

No. 7. C. Viorna, Linn. — This species, if taken with its varieties, in 
the significance here given it, covers a large portion of our countr}'. 
The type is found only as far south as the upper districts of North 
Carolina (Statesville), Georgia and Alabama. Tlience it ranges north 

* (Icol of Arkansas, 1860, p. :M6. 

130 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

to Virginia (Little Falls, Peaks of Otter and High Island, at Washing- 
ton, D.C.) and to Pennsylvania. Thence west through Ohio (general), 
southern Indiana, Barren and Edmonson counties, Kentucky, to Daven- 
port, Iowa, and to Kansas, where it is said to be " not common."* It is 
said also to be found in Mississippi. What I have here considered 
the var. coccinea has been found only, I believe, in the vicinity of Aus- 
tin and New Braunfels, Texas. The other, var. Pitcheri, is the western 
form. The most eastern locality recorded is the Lower Wabash valley 
in Indiana, which possesses in many respects a peculiar flora, a yort of 
mingling of eastern, southern and western species. Thence it ranges 
northwest, said to be abundant at Peoria, 111., and Davenport, Iowa. 
Southward it is found between Westport, Missouri, and Cottonwood 
Creek ; on the Red River of Arkansas ; at Limestone Gap, and in the 
Wichita mountains of Indian Territory, and in the valley of the 
Limpia in northwest Texas. 

Taking now the varieties of C. Viorna, we see it has a wide distribu- 
tion. From northern Georgia and Alabama to Texas and Mexico on the 
south, to Virginia, Ohio and Iowa on the north. And throughout the 
country inclosed by these boundaries it seems to be abundant. The var. 
Pitcheri passes into G.filifera, Benth. of Mexico. 

No. 8. C Bigelovii, Torrey, is a very local species, first found in 
the Sandia Mts. in New Mexico, and since collected near Sante Fe and 
Silver City. When the country has been more fully explored it will 
perhaps be found in other localities, but probably in the same vicinity 
as those now known. 

No. 9. C. reticulata.^ Walter, is a southern species, and is recorded 
as found in the upper districts of Carolina and Georgia, lower districts 
of Alabama, at Gainesville, Florida, west to Louisiana and Texas 
(Houstonf), and in Chihuahua, Mexico. It is quite closely related to 
C. Viorna, and is possibly an offshoot from that species. 

No. 10. C. crispa, Linn. — This is a variable species, various forms 
of it having been described under different names. It is also a southern 
species, its most northern station being given as Norfolk, Virginia. 
Thence it ranges south through Carolina and Georgia to Florida 
(Quincy), and west to Alabama (coast to upper districts), Mississippi, 
Louisiana and Houston, Texas. The narrow-leaved var. Walteri,\ is 

* CaiTuth. Cat- Plants seen in Kansas, in Kan. Agr. Report, 1871. 

f Dr. Chas. Molir, MS. note. 

X Gray, Cur. Bot Mag. Dec, 1881, 

A Revision of the Genus Clematis of the United States. 131 

chiefly a Florida form, and has been described under various names, 
and onl}^ lately restored as a variety. The species is quite a peculiar 
one, and not closely related to any other species. Loudon saj^s it is 
found also in Japan,* but he has undoubtedly confounded it with some 
other species, which is, perhaps, similar. 

No. 11. C lasiantha, Nuttall, is a strictly Californian species, being 
found in the southern portion of the State, about San Diego, thence 
north in the mountain valleys to Santa Barbara and the Napa Valle}' 
and in the Sierra Nevadas to Plumas county. Nuttall says it is " allied 
to C. orientate, but very distinct."f According to Torrey,J Seeman 
refers it to C Peruviana, and if it is the same it would extend its dis- 
tribution greatly, to the southei'n hemisphere in fact, which is not the 
case with any of the other species of the genus in the United States. 

No. 12. C pauciflora, Nuttall, is also a strictly Californian species, 
the onl^f localities as far as I know being about San Diego, and in the val- 
leys of the Santa Ana mountains, not far from San Juan Capistrano, 
where I collected it myself. By some, it is considered to be a variety 
of lasiantha,^ and it seems to me to be also closely related to C. Drum- 

No. 13. C. Drummondii, Torr. & Gr., another western species, is 
found in the Pass of the Limpia, on Rio San Felipe and upper Colorado in 
Texas, at Cienega and Tucson in Arizona, probably south-east Califor- 
nia,! ^^^ ^" Senora, Mexico. In Torrey and Gray's Flora,^ this spe- 
cies is said to be nearly related to C holosericea^ and perhaps not 
specifically distinct, but it seems to-me very different. 

No. 14. C. Virginiana, Linn., is the commonest and most widel}- dis- 
tributed of the corymbous white flowered species, in that respect resem- 
bling C. Viorna. The typical form is known from the mountains of 
northern Alabama, thence north to Virginia, and the following localities 
are given for it. District of Columbia, middle and northern counties 
of New Jersey, about New York (Pine Plains, and Long Island), 
Massachusetts, Buffalo, N. Y., Canada, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, 
Michigan (Ann Arbor), Wisconsin, Iowa (Davenport), Missouri 
(Vermillion river), Nebraska (Valley of Platte), Kansas, Arkansas, 
and Raton pass mountains near Santa F'e, New Mexico, and British 
America. If, as I have proposed, C. Catesbyana be classed under the 

* Arbor, et Frutic, vol. i., p '24.'i. 

t Torr. and Gr. Flora., vol. i., p. '.I 

t Mex. Bound. Sur., vol. ii. 

§ "Seonis to be a variety ot'C la.siantha." Torrey in Mox. liound Sur.. vol. ii. 

II Hrew. and Wats., Hot. C'al., vol. i., p. 3. H p. (Mu . 

132 Cincinnati Society of Natural History. 

species, and C. holosericea, under the variety bracteata, the distribu- 
tion of the species will be extended south to Feleciana in Louisiana, 
and to South Carolina (both given for holosericea), and to Florida 
(near St, John's river on east coast) given for Catesbyana. This 
latter is also known from northern and central Alabama, and Georgia 
and South Carolina on the coast. Taking then the Viryiniana, with 
its variety bracteata, as given above, we find the species distributed 
over the country from Florida and Santa Fe on the south, to Canada, 
Wisconsin, and British America on the north, certainly a very extended 
distribution. Its nearest relative, and a ver^^ close one it is, is as 
variable and as widely distributed. But while one is principally con- 
fined to the eastern portion of the continent, the other is found in and 
to the west of the Rocky mountains. This is 

No. 15. C. ligusticifolia, Nutt. — The typical form extends from San 
Antonio, and Coppermine creek, in New Mexico, through Colorado 
(Denver, etc.), to eastern base of the Black Hills, p^ort Ellis, Madison 
Valley and Yellowstone in Montana, and Port Neuf Canon in South 
Idaho; further, it is found in Utah, Nevada, Sacramento River Valley in 
California, Klamath Valley and Pit river, Oregon, and at the Dalles of 
the Columbia. The var. brevifolia, Nutt., is found in New Mexico, 
lower canons of West Humboldt mountains, and East Humboldt range, 
Nevada, at Bingham City, Utah, Blackfoot river in North Idaho, Wash- 
ington Territory to the Saskatchawan in British America, and south to 
Lower California and Arizona. The variety bracteata, Torre}^ is very 
local, perhaps not distinct from the others. The only reference I find 
is the " Botany of the Wilkes Expedition,"* and the habitat there 
given is the Williamette river, Oregon. Variety Calif arnica, Watson, 
is found in California, from the Sacramento Valley to San Diego, and 
east to Pos6 creek and Camp Bowie in Arizona. Taking all these varieties 
of ligusticifolia, then, we find the species ranging from the Mexican 
boundary to the Saskatchawan in British America, and being confined 
to the mountains, or found only west of them. 

From the resemblance between this species and the Virginiana, we 
ma}^ be justified in considering one the representative and probably 
the descendant of the other. It is likely that the Virginiana is the 
descendant of the ligusticifolia, and that the latter has its nearest 
relatives in the highlands of India, and other parts of Asia. At all 

* This book being inaccessible to me, Mr. I. Martindale, of Camden, N. J., was kind 
enough to send me the description. 

A Revision of the Genus Clematis of the United States. 133 

ovents a form tbiiiHl in Napaul, C. grata, closely resembles Virginiana.* 
This alone shows the close relationship existing between the ttvo 
species under consideration. 

Having now given the general geographical distribution of the 
species and varieties of the Genus Clematis, let us recapitulate and 
see to what sources we can refer the species. As I have elsewhere 
shown,! we must probably look to the north for the place of origin of 
many of our species of plants, and we will find in the glacial theory 
the principal factor for their dispersion. So, too, we must look back 
into the past, to the Cretaceous, or at least the Tertiary Epoch, for the 
time when they first made their appearance. But here we can receive 
no assistance. We have no data to go by, for though the ancestors of 
some of our trees have been found there, there are no known remains 
of Clematis, or, indeed, of any of the Ranunculacese, from the formations 
of the western United States. Of some of them we may be sure. C. 
alpina, with its variety Ochotensis, has undoubtedly come from Asia 
and the north along the highway of the Rocky Mountains. Probably 
this lias also been the case with C. verticillaris, now comparative]}' 
i"are, and only found in northern stations. The C. Virginiana and C. 
Ugusticifolia, we may certaiul}' regard as the descendants of one form, 
which lived at the north ; while the former came south to the eastward, 
the latter went south on the west and there developed a little differently 
because of a difference in climate. Probable the C. grata, Wall., of 
India, and the C. vitalba, L., of Europe, are derived from the same 
stock as the Virginiana and Ugusticifolia. The C. Viorna, another 
widely dispersed species, and a marked one, has a near relative in the 
C. Japonica, Thunb., of Japan :J so that probably these two also have 
descended from a common parent formerly living at the north. Nuttall 
says his C. lasiantha is allied to C. orientale of Siberia and other parts 
of Asia. It has been refered to C. Peruviana, and Torrey considers 
C. paibciflora, which is also strictly Californian, a varietj' of lasiantha. 
Here we have six species which we seem justified in referring to an 
origin in northern North America and in Asia. Some of the other 
species, sucli as C. crispa, and Baldwinii, seem to be southern in their 
atlinities, and probtihly have their nearest relatives in the West Indies 
and South America; while C. BigeUwii, Drummondii, and Douglasii, 
seem to have their closest relatives in the south and west. 

* Loudon, Trees and Shrubs of Great Britain, p. 7. 

f Gooprraphiciil Dist. of Tndig. Plants common to Europe and the N. K., I'. S. In .fonr. 
Cin.Soc. Nat. Hist., April, 1S81. 

t Japan Exped. under Perry, vol. ii., p. 306. 


Cincinnati Society of Natm'dl Uistorii. 


alpina, Mill. 

var. Ochotensis, Gray. 

{Atragene alpina, Torr. 

(A. Ochotensis, Pall. 

Americana ( Atraqene), Sims. ) ^. .,, . T-vn 

, . >,-,, ^ ,. /'u . y = vertKiillaris, DC. 

Americana [Clematis), row. \ 

Baldwinii, Torre}^ & Gra}'. 
Bigelovii, Tori-ey. 

hraeteata^ Moencb. 
Cateshyana, Pursh. 
cocGinea, Engelm. 
Coloradoensis, Buckl. 
Columhia7ia, Torr. & Gray. 1^ 
Columbiana [Atragene),'^\xt\j. \ 

cordata, Pursh., \ 

cordifoha, Sims. \ 

cordata, Sims. 

crispa, Linn. 

var. "VYalteri, Gray. 

cylindrica, Sims. 

var. crispa, Wood. 
cylindrica, var. linear iloh a, Wfk. 

var. Walteri, Wood. 
divaiHcata, Jacq. 
Douglasii, Hook. 
Drummondii, Torr. & Gr. 
Fremontii, Watson. 
Mi f era, Benth. 
fragrans, Salisb. 
holosericea, Pursh. 
lasiantha, Nutt. 
lineariloha, DC. 
%^<s^ic?/o^^■a,Dur.&Hil.(uot Nut.)= ligusticifolia, var. 

= Virginiana, var bracteata, DC. 
= Virginiana, Linn. 
= Viorna, var. cocciuea, James. 
= Viorna, var. Pitcheri, James. 

= verticillaris, DC. 

= Virginiana, L. 

== crispa, Linu, 

'cordata, Sims. 

crisjia ( Viticella), Spach. 

crispa (Clematitis), Moench. 

cylindrica, Sims. 
<( var. crispa. Wood. 

cylindrica ( Viorna), Spach. 

divaricata, Jacq. 

Simsii, Sweet. 
^ Viorna, Audi, (not Linn.) 
( cylindrica, var. linear iloba,Woo(\. 

J var. Walteri, Wood. 

j lineariloba, DC. 
1^ Walteri, Pursh. 

^ crispa, Linn. 

= crispa, var. Walteri, Gr. 

= crispa, L. 

= Wyethii, Nutt. 

= nervata, Benth. 

=^ ochroleuca, var.Fremontii, James. 

= Viorna, var. Pitcheri, James. 

= Virginiana, L. 

= Virginiana, var. bracteata, DC. 

= crispa, var. Walteri, Gray. 


A Revision of the Genus Clematis of the United States. 135 

ligusticifolia, Nutt. 
var. bracteata, Torr. 
var.6;'ev(/oa'o,Benth.(not Nutt.)= 
var. b rev i folia, Nutt. 

var. Californica, Watson. = 

nervata, Bentb. = 

Ochotensis [ Alragene), Pall. = 

ocbroleuca, Alton, = 

var. Fremontii, James. = 

ovata, Piirsb. = 
pauciflora, Nutt. 

Pennsylva^iica, Doun. = 

Pitcheri, Torr. & Graj. = 

Plukenetii., DC. = 

Purshii, Dietr. = 
reticulata, Walter. 
Scottii, Porter. 

sericea, Micbx. = 

Simsii, Sweet. = 

Texensis, Buckl, = 

urnigera (Viorna), Spacb. = 

verticillaris, DC. = 

Viorna, Andr. (not Linn.) = 

Viorna, Linn. = 

var. coccinea, Jaines. = 

var. Pitcberi, James. = 

Virginiana, Linn. 

var. bracteato, DC. 

Walteri, Pursb. 
Wtjethii, Nutt. 

Virginiana, Hook, (in part, not 

ligusticifolia, var. Californica, 

{ligusticifolia, Dur. & Hil. 
! ' ' (not Nutt.) 

'i ligusticifolia, var. hrevifolia, 
I Bentb. (not Nutt.) 

Drummondii, Torr. & Gr. 
alpina, var. Ochotensis, Gray. 

ovata, Pursb. 

sericea, Micbx. 
Fremontii, Watson, 
ocbroleuca, Alton. 

Virginiana, L. 

Viorna, var. Pitcberi, James. 
Virginiana, Linn. 
Virginiana, Linn. 

ocbroleuca. Ait. 

crispa, Linn. 

Viorna, var. coccinea, James. 

Viorna, Linn. 

[Americana { Atragene), Sims. 

Americana [Clematis), Poir. 

Columbiana (Atragene)^ Nutt. 
[^Columbiana [Clematis), T. & G. 
crispa, Linn. 
urnigera ( Viorna), Spacb. 

{coccinea, P^ngelm. 

{Texensis, Buckl. 

Pitcheri, Torr. tfe Gray. 

Jilifera, Bentb. 
' cor data, Pursb. 

cordifolia. Moencb. 
J Catesbijana, Pursb. 
^.fragrans, Salisb. 
! Pennsylvanica, Donn. 
[ Purs hi i, Dietr. 

\bracteata, M(vncli. 

[holosericea, Pursb. 
crispa, var. Walteri, Gray. 
Douglasii, Hooker. 

136 Cincinnati Society of Natural Ilistorij. 


By Charles Wicki.ikfe Beckham. 

The (ollovving list represents, principally, the results of observations 
made by the writer during parts of five years, on the Birds of the 
vicinit\' of Bardstown, Nelson count}', Kentucky. 

Bardstown is situated in N. Lat. 37° 52'; W. Long. 85° 18', and is 
just on the western limit of the "Blue Grass Region." It is forty 
miles southeast of Louisville, and about one hund red southwest of Cin- 
cinnati. Two or three miles northeast of the town, the "Trenton"' 
limestone, the characteristic surface rock of the blue-grass countr}', dis- 
appears and is succeeded by magnesium (commonly called "cavernous") 
limestone, which, in turn, gives place several miles west of the town to 
the shaly deposits of the Devonian Age. Hence, the sylvan growth 
partakes of the peculiarities of both formations. The most character- 
istic trees are beech, red and white oak, black walnut, butternut, cedar, 
" yellow poplar" (local for Liriodendron tulipifera), sjcaraore, black 
gum, dog wood, white elm and hickory (Carya alba, tomentosa et 
glabra). The count