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Full text of "A journal, containing an accurate and interesting account of the hardships, sufferings, battles, defeat and captivity of those heroic Kentucky volunteers and regulars, commanded by General Winchester, in the years 1812-13. Also, two narratives, by men that were wounded in the battles on the River Raisin and taken captive by the Indians"

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Sin ^[ccurate anti Entrrcsting Slccoimt , 







In the Years 18I-J-13. 


By Men that were "Wounded in the Battles on the River 
Raisin, and taken Captive by the Indians. 


—■«»«©*•«<• — 





The Author of this Journal wrote it for his own satis- 
faction. When he returned home he was induced to 
show it to a number of his acquaintances for their infor- 
mation. Several on whose judgment he could rely, re- 
quested him to publish it to the world. He begs leave 
simply to remark that he was an eye and ear-witness to 
many things he has narrated. He has represented things 
as he understood and remembered them. Other facts he 
obtained from testimony in which he could fully confide. 
It is worthy of remark, that witnesses of probity in giving 
their testimony in courts, respecting the same things, 
often differ from one another as to many circumstances, 
owing to their different capacities, positions, and the like. 
It may be expected, therefore, that some who were in the 
army, may not exactly agree with the author in all things 
stated in this Journal. Let that be as it may, he is con- 
scious that he sought the most correct information, and 
that he endeavoured to communicate it in a plain, perspi- 
cuous style. If he has made any important mistakes, 
should those interested convince him of them, in a friend- 
ly way, he will use the best means in his power to cor- 
rect them. 

As to the Narratives subjoined to this Journal, they are 
short, and he thinks interesting. He is acquainted with 
Mr. Davenport, and believes him to be a man of veracity. 
He had no acquaintance with Mr. Mallary before he ap- 
plied to him for his narrative. His acquaintances will 
best know what credit ought to be given to him. 

The gentlemen who gave the Narratives, it is obvious, 
are the only persons responsiblr. for the truth of them. 

The whole is, with diffidence, submitted to the candour 
of a generous public, by 


The Autlior and Editor. 

Digitized by tine Internet Arcliive 

in 2010 witli funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 


<SfC. <^c. 

For a few years past, differences existed be- 
tween the United States of America and the 
Kingdom of Great Britain. Every possible 
means had been used on the part of the execu- 
tive and legislative departments of the general 
government of the United Slates, to adjust 
those differences upon honourable and equita- 
ble terms. But Great Biitain treated every 
reasonable proposition with haughtiness and 
contempt, and still persisted in violating the 
just rights of the Americans, by committing 
depredations on the high seas, and by impress- 
ing the citizens of the United Slates into the 
service of his Majesty, and employing the sa- 
vages to murder the defenceless inhabitants of 
the frontiers. The United States having long 
borne these outrages with great patience, at 
length wearied with insults, resorted to the 
last, and most painful alternative, of declaring 
war, (which was done on the 18th of June, 
1812,) and the government having called for 
volunteers, more than the quota of this state 
rallied round their country's standard, ready 
to assist in a vigorous prosecuiion of the war, 
in order to hasten a speedy and honourable 

A 2 


General Hull, having been appointed by tne 
general government to take possession of part 
of Upper Canada, his forces, amounting to 
about 3,000, not being considered sufficient to 
execute that design, three regiments of volun- 
teer infantry, and one regiment of United States 
infantry, amounting in all to about 2,300, were 
called and destined to his assistance. 

Agreeably to a general order, the following 
regiments rendezvoused at Georgetown, Au- 
gust 15th, 1812, to wit: 

The first regiment was commanded by Colo- 
nel John M. Scott, the fifth regiment was com- 
manded by Colonel William Lewis, the first 
rifle regiment by Colonel John Allen, the 17th 
United States regiment by Colonel Samuel 
Wells; the whole under the command of briga- 
dier general Payne, 

16th. The troops paraded early in the morn- 
ing, and were received by Governor Scott. 
We paraded again at 10 o'clock, and marched 
to a convenient place, in close order, where 
the Rev. Mr. Blythe preached a short sermon, 
and the honourable Henry Clay delivered an 
appropriate discourse. 

17th. The troops were inspected by Major 

18th. We drew two months' pay in advance. 
There being a general complaint amongst the 
volunteers respecting sixteen dollars, which 
were expected to be drawn in lieu of clothing, 
Major Graves paraded his battalion, and gave 
them their choice to go on without the sixteen 
dollars, or return home. Six chose to return; 


these, to fix an odlUm upon them, were drum- 
med out of camp and through town. 

19th. We commenced our march in high 
spirits, to join General Hull at Detroit, or in 
Canada. Each regiment, for convenience and 
speed, marched separately to Newport. We 
arrived at Newport the 24th; it is 80 miles 
from Georgetown. It rained most of the time, 
which made it disagreeable travelling send en- 
camping. These hardships tended a little to 
quench the excessive patriotic flame that had 
blazed so conspicuously at the different mus- 
ters and barbecues. 

Here we received information of General 
Hull's having surrendered Detroit and Michi- 
gan territory to General Brock, on the 15th of 
this inst., while in possession of the necessary 
means to have held that post against the forces 
of Upper Canada.* This we could not believe 

* To prove that this surrender was not in consequence 
of the want of ammunition and provisions, it is sufficient 
to state upon tiie authority of official information, that 
there were thirty-three pieces of cannon, twenty-five of 
which were brass and eight iron, which were well man- 
ned, and supplied with ammunition. 

For the muskets, seventy-five thousand cartridges were 
made up, besides twenty-four rounds in the cartouch box 
of each man. 

In the magazine were sixty barrels of powder, and one 
hundred and fifty tons of lead. 

In the contractor's store, were at least twenty-five 
days provision; and in the adjacent country, considerable 
supplies could have been had, besides three hundred head 
of cattle, under an escort commanded by Captain Brush, 
at the river Raisin. 



until confirmed by hand-billis and jjood autho- 
rity; when thus confirmed, it appeared to make 
serious impressions on the minds of officers 
and privates. Those high expectations ot" par- 
ticipating with General Hull in the laurels to 
be acquired by the conquest of Maiden and 
Upper Canada, were entirely abandoned. 

We drew our arms and accoutrements, and 
crossed the Ohio on the 27th. Our destiny 
was thought to be Fort Wayne. 

The following general order will show some 
of the evolutions which were performed by this 
army while on its march. 

" Head- Quarters, Cincinnati, August 28, 1812. 

" The troops will commence their march in 
the direction to Dayton, by Lebanon, at an 
early hour to-morrow morning. The generale 
will be beat instead of the reveille; the tents 
will then be struck, the baggagp loaded, and 
the line of march taken up as soon as possible. 

"The commandants of the several corps will 
immediately commence drilling their men to 
the performance of the evolutions contem- 
plated by the commander-in-chief, for the or- 
der of march and battle. The principal fea- 
ture in all these evolutions, is that of a batta- 
lion changing its direction by swinging on its 
centre. This, however, is not to be done by 
wheeling, which by a large body in the woods, 
is impracticable. It is to be formed thus; — 
the battalion being on its march in a single 
rank, and its centre being ascertained, the front 
division comes to the right about, excepting 


the man in the rear of that division, who steps 
two paces to the right, at the same time the 
front man of the second division, takes a posi- 
tion about four feet to the left of the man in 
the rear of the front division, and dresses with 
him in a line at right angles to the line of 
march. These two men acting as marks or 
guides for the formation of the new alignment, 
at the word — Form the new alignment, March! 
the men of the front division file round their 
guide, and form in succession on his right. At 
the same time the men of the rear division file 
up in succession to the left of the guide, and 
dress in a line with him, and the guide of the 
front division. This mancEuvre may be per- 
formed by any number of men, by company and 
platoon, as well as battalion. 

" Wm. H. Harrison, 

"Major General Commanding." 

31st. General Harrison overtook the army 
between Lebanon and Dayton. He was re- 
ceived joyfully by all the troops as commander- 
in-chief, with three cheers. 

Sept. 1st. The army arrived at Dayton, fifty 
miles from Cincinnati, and was saluted by the 
firing of cannon. One of the men who were 
firing the cannon, got one of his hands shot off, 
and the other badly woundec^. We arrived at 
Piqua, Sept. 3d, thirty miles from Dayton, on 
the Big Miami. 

4th. Received information of the critical si- 
tuation of Fort Wayne. Col. Allen's* regi- 

• Colonel Allen stopped at St. Mary's, for the remain- 
ing part of the army. 


ment, and two companies from Col. Lewis's, 
drew twenty-four rounds of ammunition, and 
started with all possible speed to the relief of 
that fort. 

5th. General Harrison having paraded the 
remaining part of the army in a circle, in close 
order, delivered a speech to them, stating that 
he had just received intelligence from Fort 
Wayne, — that it was in great danger of being 
taken by the Indians and British: he said that 
we were under the necessity of making a forced 
march to their relief. He read some of the 
articles of war, and stated the absolute neces- 
sity of such regulations and restrictions in an 
army, and if there v/ere any who could not 
feel willing to submit to those articles and go 
on with him, they might then return home. 
One man belonging to Col. Scott's regiment, 
made a choice of returning home, rather than 
submit to those terms. Some of his acquaint- 
ances got a permit to escort him part of the 
way home. Two of them got him upon a rail 
and carried him to the river; a crowd followed 
after; they ducked him several times in the 
water, and washed away all his patriotism. 

6th. We marched at 12 o'clock — we left all 
our sick and part of our clothing and baggage 
at Piqua, in order to make as much speed as 
possible. On the morning of the 8th, three 
miles from St. Mary's, one of Captain M'Gow- 
en's company was accidentally shot through 
the body by one of the sentinels; the surgeon 
thought it mortal.* We marched four miles 

* He died in a few days. 


and encamped near the river St. Mary's, one 
mile from the fort. General Harrison called 
the army together and stated, through emer- 
gency, we must be on half rations of flour for a 
few days, but should draw a ration and a half 
of beef, as he wished to go as light and as 
quick as possible. He said " any who do not 
feel willing to go on these terms, may remain 
at the fort, and have plenty." I know of none 
that stayed. St. Mary's block-house is thirty 
miles from Piqua, on the river St. Mary's. 

9th. We marched through some first rate 
woodland, and through a large prairie of the 
best quality. It is badly watered; the water 
in the wagon-ruts was the only drink we could 
get to cool our scorching thirst, and but very 
little of that. We encamped near the river St. 
Mary's, eighteen miles from the fort. At 1 1 
o'clock and at 3, we were alarmed by the sen- 
tinels firing several guns: we formed in order 
of battle, and stood so fifteen minutes. 

The following extract of a general order, is 
designed to show the order of battle for night 
and day attack. 

" Head- Quarters, Second Crossing of St. Mary's, 
" September 10th, 1812. 

" The signal for a general charge, will be 
beating the long-roll. Officers and men will 
be upon their arms and in their clothes. 

" Two or more guns firing in succession will 
constitute an alarm, at which the whole army 
will parade in the order of encampment, (that 
is, in a hollow square,) unless otherwise di- 
rected. When a sentinel discharges his gun 

12 Winchester's CAMPAIGN. 

in the night, the officer of the guard to whom 
he belongs will immediately ascertain the 
cause; and should he have sufficient reason to 
believe, on an examination, that an enemy is 
near, he will cause two guns to be fired in 
quick succession. Should the firing of a sen- 
tinel appear to have proceeded from a cause 
not sufficient to give an alarm, the officer of 
the guard will immediately call out, "a// is 
well," which will be repeated through the army. 
The same thing will take place upon an acci- 
dental fire made in the day. 

" The order of battle for rear attack will be so 
far attended with regard to the rear line: the 
rear battalions of Col. Lewis's regiment and 
Col. Allen's only, are to turn upon their centre, 
while the heads of the front battalions are to 
close up the front lines, then facing from the 
centre, march out until they respectively gain 
the flanks of the front line. Should the attack 
be in front, the senior officer nearest the flank 
battalion will judge of the propriety of bring- 
ing up that battalion to form on the flank of 
the front line. The second battalion of Col. 
Lewis's and Col. Allen's regiments, will in all 
cases close up as the leading battalions shall 
advance, and make room for them. Capt. 
Garrard's troop, forming the rear guard, will 
also close up and act as circumstances may 

" William H. Harrison, 

" Maj. Gen. Commanding." 

10th. The order of march for the infantry 
was as follows: the first and fifth regiments 

Winchester's campaign. 13 

formed one line in single file on the left, two 
hundred yards from the road, the 17th United 
States and the rifle regiments on the right, in 
the same manner. The baggage in the road. 
The order of march for the horse troops — 
One of Col. Adams's battalions of Ohio vo- 
lunteers, was placed at the distance of half a 
mile in front of the columns of infantry, and 
marched in columns of companies in files, and 
in such open order as to cover the whole front 
of the army. The other battalion of Ohio vo- 
lunteers formed the right flank guard of the 
army, at the distance of three hundi'cd yards 
from the column of infantry, and parallel to it. 
The Kentucky mounted riflemen on the left, 
the same distance from the left column of in- 
fantry for the left flank guard; Capt. Garrard's 
troop formed the rear guard. We marched 
twelve miles. 

11th. The spies wounded an Indian and got 
his gun and blanket, our day's march was eleven 
miles; we stopped earlier than usual in order 
to make breastworks, and because it was a 
convenient place for wateV. We fortified this 
place very strongly with timber. At I 1 o'clock, 
the camp was alarmed by the firing of many 
guns by the sentinels. The whole army was 
formed in quick time, the horse troops being 
in the centre ready to assist any line or to obey 
any order which might be given. One half of 
the men were dismissed and retired to their 
tents for one hour, then they relieved the first 
half. At 3 o'clock another alarm took place 
from the sentinels, a general parade was again 



made. We sloocl in order of battle for some 
time. The watch-word was ^^Jight on," after 
which this place was called " fort fight on." 

12th. We continued our march towards 
Fort Wayne, with as much caution as the na- 
ture of our hurrying would adinit; we ex- 
pected to meet witli the enemy before we 
reached the fort. In a certain well known 
swamp through which we had to pass, we 
thought probal)ly the enemy would harbour. 
We passed the swamp unmolested for a mile, 
we were then alarmed. The rear battalions 
formed in order of battle, hut saw no enemy to 
fight; we immediately resumed our march. 
This alarm and the one the night preceding, 
seemed to shake the boasted valour of some of 
our bravest heroes. 

This day's march was twenty miles to Fort 
Wayne, through a great deal of first rate land, 
rich, level, and well timbered, but badly watered 
near the road; we suffered extremely for water 
these three days. Our arrival at this fort 
gave great joy to the inhabitants, who were 
one company of regular troops, and a few fa- 
milies. The Indians had closely invested the 
fort for several days, and burned the United 
States' factory, and all the other valuable houses 
which were not inside of the stockading. 
Three of our men who were caught out of the 
fort, were killed by the Indians. The Indians 
encamped about the fort two weeks before 
they made the attack on it, and were admitted 
in by Capt. Ray, the commanding officer of the 
garrison, who would have surrendered to the 

Winchester's CAMPAIGN. 15 

savages, had it not been for his lieutenant, who 
defended the fort with great bravery. Three 
Indians were killed, and a few wounded. Capt. 
Ray was arrested, and would have been broken 
had he not resigned. The fort was well pro- 
vided for a siege, having in it one hundred men, 
plenty of provisions, ammunition, four small 
pieces of cannon, and a good well of water. 

Fort Wayne is one of the most elegant: situa- 
tions I ever saw, and must be an important 
place to the United States. Three weeks ago 
the neighbourhood around the fort would have 
exhibited a pleasing prospect to those who 
had seen nothing for several days but a dreary 
wilderness of one hundred miles. A number 
of well cultivated farms, with neat houses, in 
view of the fort, would have excited emotions 
of pleasure. I suppose there were four hun- 
dred acres of land in cultivation. All the 
houses were reduced to ashes, together with a 
large quantity of small grain and hay, by the 
savages: they were principally Pottowatomies. 
They also destroyed all the stock of every kind 
about these farms, which was very considera- 
ble. Fort Wayne is situated on the south side 
of the river Maumee, opposite the junction of 
the river St. Mary's and St. Joseph, which are 
considerable navigable streams, in lat. 41° 40'; 
N. long. 1 1° 5', west from the meridian of 

We were alarmed bv the report of some 
guns which were fired by the sentinels; we 
formed in order of battle for half an hour, dur- 
ing which time it rained very hard, and ren- 

16 Winchester's campaign. 

dered many of our guns unfit to do execution, 
except the bayonets. The alarm must have 
proceeded from the timidity of the sentinels. 

I4th. The whole force was divided and 
placed under the command of Gen. Payne and 
Col. Wells. Gen. Payne's command was com- 
posed of Col. Lewis's regiment, Col. Allen's, 
and Captain Garrard's iroop. Col. Wells's 
command was composed of Col. Scott's regi- 
ment, the regulars, and the mounted riflemen. 
Gen. Payne was instructed to destroy the 
Miami towns at the forks of the Wabash. 
Col. Wells was directed against the Poltowa- 
tomies' village at Elkheart. Gen. Harrison 
thought proper to go with Gen. Payne; so we 
proceeded on to the waters of the Wabash: 
five miles from Fort Wayne we encamped. 
Next morning we came to an Indian hut and a 
small corn-field, two miles from our encamp- 
ment; here all the wagons and baggage were 
left, and Capt. Langhorne's company as a 
guard; from this place we maiched twenty- 
three miles to an Indian town at the forks of 
the Wabash — we found the town evacuated — 
we pulled down some of their houses, and built 
up fires and encamped. We had plenty of 
roasting ears of the best kind. It is a small 
kind of corn, shallow grain, and very suitable 
for roasting ears, which answered us a very 
good purpose, as we had only a little provision 
with us. 

16th. We marched through their towns, four 
in number, in the bounds of three or four miles, 
iu which there were fresh signs of Indians. 


We cut up tiieir corn and jnil it in piles, sixty 
or eighty acres, so tliat it might rot. A va- 
riety of beans were found growing with their 
corn; potatoes, pumpkins, water-melons, and 
cucumbers, were also cultivated by them. 
Their houses were all burnt by the orders of 
Gen. Hai-rison. Some of them were built of 
bark, and some of logs. The tomb of a chief 
was discovered;, it was built on the ground 
with timber and clay, so that no rain or air 
could enter; the chief W;\s laid on his blanket, 
his head towards sunrise, his rifle by his side, 
his tin pan on his breast, wdth a spoon in it. 
He was ornamented in their style, with ear- 
rings, brooches. Sec. This is one of the most 
beautiful places in the western country; the 
land is level, well timbered, well watered, and 
the soil equal to any part of Kentucky. Near 
the town, where the timber has been cut, it is 
covered with an elegant coat of blue grass. 

17th. We got back to the baggage, and 
found all was well. Capt. Langhorne had for- 
tified against the enemy with rails, so that he 
would have been able to have held his place 
against a considerable force. We took some 
refi-eshments and pursued our journey, and en- 
camped near our former encampment. 

18th. We arrived at Fort Wayne, and met 
with a reinforcement of five hundred mounted 
riflemen and cavalry, from Kentucky. A man 
was accidentally shot through the head by one 
of the mounted riflemen. — Colonel Wells's di- 
vision returned this evening from their route, 
which was fifty miles from Fort Wayne, on the 
B 2 


waters of St. Joseph's river, very much fatigued. 
They found nothing but deserted houses and 
corn to destroy, which was about the same 
amount as was found at the Wabash. Capt. 
Morris's 1st sergeant, (David Irwin,) died on 
the road. One of the light-horsemen wound- 
ed a man as he was feeding his horse, believ- 
ing him to be an Indian. 

19th. We encamped in the forks of the river 
half a mile from the fort. Gen. Harrison not 
being legally autiiorized by the general govern- 
ment, as commander of this army, tiie com- 
mand, of course, devolved on Winchester. 
This resignation of Gen. Harrison's was done 
with much reluctance, as he had placed great 
confidence in the Kentuckians, and found he 
was their choice, in preference to Gen. Win- 
chester. The conduct of Gen. Harrison at 
Tippecanoe, and his familiarity with the troops 
while on their march to this place, had gained 
to him a peculiar attachment. Gen. Winches- 
ter being a stranger, and having the appear- 
ance of a supercilious officei-, he was generally 
disliked. His assuming the command almost 
occasioned a mutiny in campj this was pre- 
vented by the solicitation of some of the officers 
to go on. 

20th. The Kentucky mounted riflemen start- 
ed to St. Mary's under the command of Gen, 
Harrison, in order to pursue the Indians in 
some other quarter; their number was about 
fifteen hundred. 

21st. We received marching orders to march 
to-morrow morning at 7 o'clock. 


The following general order, will show Gen. 
Winchester's order of inarch. 

" General Orders.— Fort Wayne, Sept.22d, J812. 

"The army vvill march in the following order, 
to wii: the guard in front in three lines, two 
deep in the road, and in Indian file on the 
flanks, at the distance of fii'ty to one hundred 
yards from the centre line, when not prevented 
by obstructions. 

" A fatigue party, to consist of one captain, 
one ensign, two sergeants, two corporals, and 
fifty privates, will follow the front guard for 
the purpose of opening the road. The re- 
mainder of the infantry to march on the flanks 
in the following order: Col. Wells's and Al- 
len's regiments on the right, and Scott's and 
Lewis's on the left. 

" The general and brigade baggage, commis- 
saries' and quartermasters' stores immediately 
in the rear of the fatigue party. The cavalry 
in the following order: Capt. Garrard and 
twenty of his men to precede the guard in 
front, and equally divide at the head of each 
line. A lieutenant and eighteen men in rear 
of the whole army and baggage. The balance 
of the cavalry equally divided on the flanks of 
the flank lines. 

" The regimental baggage wagons fall in ac- 
cording to the rank of the commanding officers 
of the respective regiments. The officers com- 
manding corps, previous to their marching, 
will cause the arms and ammunition to be 
carefully examined, and will see that they are 


in good order. They will also be particularly 
carel'ul that the men do not waste their car- 
tridges. No muskets are to be carried in the 
wagons. One half of the fatigue party are to 
work at the same time; the other half are to 
carry the arms and accoutrements while on 
fatigue. The wagonmaster will attend to the 
loading of the wagons, and see that the differ- 
ent articles are put in, in good order, and that 
each wagon and team cairy a reasonable load. 
The hour of niarch is deferred until 9 o'clock, 
instead of 7. The officer of the day is charged 
with the execution of these orders. 

"The line of battle shall be formed agreeably 
to Gen. Harrison's order on his late march to 
Fort Wayne. 

"James Winciiester. 

" Brigadier General." 

26lh. Two white men, and Capt. John, (an 
Indian who was with us,) lost their horses. 
They continued about the camping ground in 
search of them; they saw two or three Indians 
exploring our encampment. They took this 
method, no doubt, to calculate our number. 
The spies returned to camp this evening, who 
had discovered many Indian signs in front. 
Five of the spies who had yesterday started 
with the view to go to Fort Defiance, were 
found on the road shot, scalped, and tomahawk- 
ed by the Indians or British. 

27th. The spies and Capt. Garrard's troop, 
started this morning to bury the dead. They 
were attacked by a party of Indians who were 
watching the dead. One of the spies got shot 


in the ancle by an Indian. They fired on the 
Indians, and with the assistance of Capt. Gar- 
rard, they made them run, but not without the 
loss of some of their savage blood. It was 
supposed some of them were badly wounded. 

Capts. Hickman and Ruddell returned, who 
had started this morning to reconnoitre Fort 
Defiance. They reported, that they saw many 
fresh signs of Indians. As they returned to 
camp they spied an encampment of Indiansj 
the Indians were talking and laughing merrily. 
A detachment was sent after dark in order to 
surprise them. Ruddell, their pilot, got lost 
before he got far, so that they could not exe- 
cute their design. 

28th. The army was alarmed about a mile 
from camp; we quickly paraded in order of 
battle, and were anxious to meet the enemy. 
The alarm proceeded from the spies, who fired 
at some Indians in front. The spies returned 
to camp this evening; they saw where a large 
number of Indians and British had encamped 
the night before. 

29lh. We continued on the same encamp- 
ment, five miles from Defiance, and forty-five 
from Fort Wayne. The spies and horse troop 
Avere sent out in order to make discoveries. A 
party took the back track; they saw where the 
enemy had wheeled to the right about, and re- 
treated; and fortunately for them they did so. 
Our industry in fortifying the camp with 
breastworks, and the caution and vigilance 
with which it was guarded, would have render- 
ed us able to have maintained our ground 


against a superior force. Wagon tracks were 
plainly to be seen — it was thought they were 
going to Fort Wayne with cannon, to take that 

30lh. We marched within one mile of Fort 
Defiance, and searched for a suitable place to 
encamp on; after every examination it was 
thought best to continue here, as it was a con- 
venient place for timber. We pitched our 
tents and built very strong breastworks round 
the camp, which we had done for five or six 
nights past; we also slept with our guns in our 
arms, and paraded an hour before day, and 
stood under arms till nearly sunrise. From 
Fort Wayne to Defiance, we travelled on the 
north-west side of the Maumee river. The 
country is extremely level and well timbered, 
but badly watered. 

Oct. 1st. Col. Lewis, with a detachment of 
three hundred and eighty men, started early 
this morning to pursue the Indians and Bri- 
tish: they crossed the Auglaze river, and pro- 
ceeded down the Maumee seven or eight miles, 
but could see nothing more than the appear- 
ance of the enemy retreating. 

2d. Gen. Harrison arrived here with about 
one hundred mounted troops, and two days' ra- 
tions ol Hour. We have been without bread 
four days. We were informed Gen. Har- 
rison was appointed commander-in-chief of the 
North-Western Army; this was pleasing news 
to the ti-oops, as he was their choice in pre- 
ference to any other. 

"^d. The troops that were with Gen. Harri- 

Winchester's campaign. 23 

son, consisting of mounted riflemen and cavalry, 
three regiments, came to camp this morning 
from St. Mary's, which is 63 miles from Defi- 
ance. They came with speed, to assist the 
troops commanded by Gen. Winchester. Gen. 
Harrison had received information that all the 
British and Indian forces of Upper Canada 
were on theii" way to meet Gen. Winchester at 

4th. There has been great murmuring in 
camp, on account of the scarcity of provisions, 
which threatened a dissolution of this army. 
Gen. Harrison having paraded the army, ad- 
dressed them and said, there were twenty-five 
thousand rations provided for this army at St. 
Mary's; this should be conveyed here as soon 
as possible, part of which would be here to- 
day; he stated the consequences of such muti- 
nous complaints, and if this army would dis 
perse, where could he get men who would 
stand? He said every exertion for the supply 
of this army with provisions and clothing,, 
should be used. He informed us there would 
be a number of troops from Pennsylvania and 
Virginia to join us, amounting in all to ten 

5th. A fatigue party of two hundred and 
forty men were employed to rebuild Fort De- 
fiance. There were a few men on the other 
side of the river opposite to the fort. They 
discovered a party of Indians, twenty or thirty 
in number; they took them to be those friendly 
Indians who were with us; being not on their 
guard, they got close to them. Four or five o£ 


the Indians fired at the same time; they killed 
and scalped one of the men, and made their 
escape. The murder was committed not more 
than three hurwlred yards from the encamp- 
ment of the mounted riflemen and cavalry, 
with Gen. Tupper at the head of them. Those 
murderers were pursued immediately by two 
hundred horsemen; they pursued them in 
scattered order. A small party overtook them 
five or six miles from camp, and finding the 
enemy's force superior, they had to retreat. 

7th. The principal part of the clothing which 
was left at Piqua, came to camp; it has been 
greatly needed. A majority of the mounted 
men who were ordered to the rapids, and drew 
ten days' provisions for that expedition, refused 
to march under Gen. Tupper; of course the con- 
templated expedition failed, and they returned 
home, as their thirty days were nearly expired 

9th. A few days ago, Frederick Jacoby, be- 
longing to the 17th regiment of United States 
infantry, was tried by a court-martial for sleep- 
ing on his post, — he was condemned to be shot. 
The troops paraded and formed in a hollow 
square in close order, where the Rev. Mr. Shan- 
non delivered a short discourse on the occasion. 
The square was then displayed, so that the 
army might witness the awful example of ex- 
ecution. The criminal was marched from the 
provost guard with solemn music, under a 
guard of a subaltern, sergeant, corporal and 
twenty privates, to the place of execution; there 
he was blindfolded; the guard stood a few steps 
from him waiting the hour of execution! Thi? 

Winchester's campaign. 25 

was a solemn scenej a profound silence was 
kept by all the troops. But fortunately for the 
criminal, a reprieve arrived for him, just before 
the time of execution! The general judged 
him not a man of a sound mind. 

The spies reported they had killed an Indian, 
but could not get his scalp on account of other 
Indians; they stated there must be a large body 
of Indians near, by their trails. 

10th. In consequence of the above report of 
the spies. Colonel Wells started with five hun- 
dred men in pursuit of the Indians, he pursued 
their trails twelve or thirteen miles, but could 
not see an Indian. 

11 ih. The general ordered we should move 
and encamp near where the fort was buildingj 
this was, however, prevented by the inclemency 
of the weather; it rained and the wind blew all 
day, which made our situation very unpleasant. 
A man died in camp last night; he was buried 
with the honours of war; he was escorted to the 
grave in solemn order, and after a short dis- 
course by the Rev. Mr. Mitchell, six men fired 
three rounds over the grave: — this was the first 
scene of the kind witnessed in our camp. 

14th. We moved to the fort, and received a 
supply of provisions (salt, flour, and whiskey). 
We had been without salt ever since the 7th, 
and without flour two days. 

16th. A detachment of one hundred men, 
was sent this morning, six miles below the 
fort, to a suitable place of timber, to build 

iSth. (Sunday.) The troops marched to the 

26 Winchester's campaign. 

centre, agreeably to a general order, to hear 
the Rev. Mr. Shannon preach a sermon suited 
to the times. While he was zealously engaged, 
there were six or seven guns fired down the 
river in quick succession; this alarmed the 
whole congregation — every one flew to his 
arms, and left the speaker alone. The alarm 
originated from a perogue party, who had just 
arrived with a perogue, for a supply of pro- 

19th. The fort was finished, and christened, 
"/or/ IVinchester." It is composed of four 
block-houses, a hospital and store-house, and 
picketed between each block-house, containing 
about a quarter of an acre. 

20th. The general issued an order for the 
troops to be assembled every morning at 9 
o'clock, at such places near the encampment, 
as the commanding ofBcers might deem con- 
venient, and cause the rolls to be called, and 
mark all delinquents; and there, until twelve 
o'clock, practise the manual exercise, and ma- 
noeuvre according to Snath's insiruciions for 

27th. In consequence of Gen. ^Vinchester'9 
receiving information, he issued an oider re- 
specting clothing, which will show a flattering 
prospectof being supplied — an extract of which 
is as follows: — 

^^ General Orders. — Fort Winchester, 
''October 21th, 1812. 

" With great pleasure, the general announces 
to the army, the prospect of an early supply of 
winter clothing; amongst which are the fol- 

Winchester's campaign. 27 

lowing articles exported from Philadelphia, on 
the 9th of Septemljer -last, viz. 10,000 pairs of 
shoes, 5,000 blankets, 5,000 round jackets, 5,000 
pairs of pantaloons, woollen cloth, to be made 
and forwarded to the westward immediately; 
besides the winter clothing for Colonel Wells's 
regiment, some days before; 1000 watch-coats, 
ordered from Philadelphia, the 7th of October, 
1812. September 24th, 5000 blankets, and 
1000 yards of flannel. 25th, 10,000 pairs of 
shoes. 29th, 10,000 pairs of woollen hose, 
10,000 do. socks. 

" Yet a few days, and the general consoles 
himself with the idea of seeing those whom he 
has the honour to command, clad in warm 
woollen, capable of resisting the northern blasts 
of Canada. 

" J. WiNCHESTEH, Brigadier- General, 

"Commanding Left Wing, K. W. Army." 
29th. A fatigue party, consisting of three 
captains, three subalteins, three sergeants, 
three corporals, and one hundred and fifty pri- 
vates, was detached this morning, superintend- 
ed by Gen. Payne, to clear the way on the op- 
posite side of the river, so as to make the view 
more extensive from the fort. The spies caught 
a prisoner, fifteen or twenty miles below this 
place; he said, he was just from Detroit. He 
was suspected as a spy, but he denied it; he 
said he deserted from the British, who had 
had him in confinement some time, in conse- 
quence (jf his not taking the oaih to be true 
to them. 

Fort Winchester is situated near the point 

28 Winchester's campaign. 

between the Maumee and Auglaze rivers, and 
is a handsome place; it is predicted by some, 
to become in a few years, a populous city. 
The greater part of the land in the adjacent 
country is rich, and when improved, will be 
equal, if not superior, to any in the western 
country. The Auglaze river empties into 
Great Miami, which runs a north course to 
Fort Winchester, and is navigable a considera- 
ble distance. 

November 2d. We moved across the river 
Maumee, opposite the point. It is a high 
piece of ground, and very level, but in some 
degree, wet and marshy; — this movement was 
in order to get convenient to fire-wood. 

3d. This late place of encampment, is found 
not to answer a good purpose; therefore the 
general thought it expedient to move from 
this, to a piece of ground one-half mile lower 
down the river. As there were only a few 
wagons, one regiment moved at a time — from 
12 o'clock, till after sunset, before the last ar- 
rived, at the place of destination. This last 
place appears to be very marshy, hut not so 
much so as the former. It is very difficult to 
get a good place for an encampment, at this 
time, as we have had several rainy days. 

4th. The troops have been engaged in forti- 
fying this late place of encampment, with 
breastworks; so that we may be prepared for 
our enemies, should they think proper to pay 
us a visit. The weather is very rainy, which 
makes our situation extremely unpleasant, 
though not more so, than we could expect 


from the climate and season. Four of this 
army have gone to the silent tomb to-day, 
never moie to visit their friends in Kentucky. 
The fever is very prevalent in camp. Nearly 
every day there is one or more buried. 

7th. We received information from Ken- 
tucky by passengers, of a quantity of clothing 
coming out for the volunteers. By every ac- 
count from that quarter, the roads me almost 
impassable. Major Gai'rard, and six of the 
spies, started to th^e Rapids this morning. 
This river abounds greatly with fish; large 
quantities have been caught with traps, and 
also with hooks and lines. 

9th. Major Garrard, and those men with 
him, returned from the Rapids. They made 
discoveries of a large quantity of corn, and 
some hogs, and cattle, and a few Indians, 

10th. The army moved six miles down the 
river, in order to be better accommodated with 
suitable ground for camping, and to build 
more perogues. This encampment is the dry- 
est we have been at for some time; the land 
and timber are not inferior to any. I trust 
this country was designed for a more noble 
purpose, than to be a harbour for those rapa- 
cious savages, whose manners and deportment 
are not more elevated than the ravenous beasts 
of the forest. I view the time not far distant, 
when this country will be interspersed with 
elegant farms and flourishing towns, and be 
inhabited by a fiee and independent people, 
under an auspicious lepublic. 

15th. A detachment of six captains, six su- 
c 2 

30 Winchester's campaign. 

balterns, six sergeanta, six corporals, and three 
hundred and eighty-six privates, started with 
six days' provision, this morning, at reveille 
beating, to the Rapids, under the command of 
Col. Lewis. 

1 7th. Col. Lewis, with his detachment, re- 
turned about twelve o'clock, after a laborious 
march of sixty miles. About eighteen miles 
below this place, he was overtaken by an ex- 
press from Gen. Winchester, who had received 
intelligence of Gen. Tupper, with five hundred 
men, being at the Rapids, who had discovered 
a body of Indians, six or seven hundred in 
number, drinking and dancing. Gen. Tupper, 
thinking this a good opportunity to attack 
them, attempted to cross the river, two miles 
above; he, and two hundred of his men, effect- 
ed this, through great difficulty, in wading 
across; some fell in the water, and lost their 
guns, which discouraged the rest, so that Gen. 
Tupper could not execute his design. This 
intelligence animated the troops commanded 
by Col. Lewis, so that they wanted to continue 
on that night, without stopping, and attack 
the enemy before day. Col. Lewis thought 
proper to halt, and send an express to Gen. 
Tupper, for both parties to meet at Roche de 
Baut,* six miles above the Indian encamp- 
ment, and unite their forces, and surprise the 

The express returned at three oclock in 
the morning, and reported, he had been at 

* Pronounced Rushdeboo. 

Winchester's campaign. 31 

■Gen. Tupper's encampment; at the entrance 
of which, he saw a man, dead, scalped and 
stripped. He concluded Gen. Tupper was 
defeated. This news changed the course of 
Col. Lewis, not knowing their force. The 
general has thouglit proper to have this place 
strongly fortified with breastworks, four and 
a-half feet high. 

18th. One of the sentinels of the bullock 
guard, discharged the contents of his gun at 
an Indian, as he thought, a few miles below 
camp, where the bullocks were grazing; the 
guard deserted the bullocks, and retreated to 
camp. A party was immediately sent in pur- 
suit of the Indians, and behold! they found 
Michael Paul, cutting a bee-tree. 

20th. Ruddell returned, who was sent on the 
17th to reconnoitre the Rapids and Tupper's 
encampment. He discovered a large body of 
Indians at the Rapids. He was through Tup- 
per's encampment, where it was supposed he 
was defeated. He saw the man that was 
scalped and stripped, and he thought Tupper 
had retreated, instead of being defeated. 

22d. Smith and his party of spies had a lit- 
tle skirmish near Wolftown. Early in the 
morning they were eating their breakfasts, one 
of them started to get a drink of water, he had 
only got a few steps when an Indian fired and 
wounded him, but not mortally. After snap- 
ping twice, he fired and wounded an Indian. 
Several guns were fired by the Indians after- 
wards, but no injury was sustained. In return- 
ing to camp the wounded man was sent on 


some distance before, while part of them re- 
mained in the rear as a guard. 

Capt. Logan, Capt. John, and another Indian, 
started to the Rapids with the determination 
to establish their characters (for tliey were 
suspected by some to be traitors). Between 
this and the Rapids, as they were rising a bank, 
they met seven Indians and a British officer, 
who took them prisoners, but let them carry 
their own guns. After taking them some con- 
siderable distance, they were determined to li- 
berate themselves or fall a sacrifice. They 
succeeded in killing at tlie same time, the Bri- 
tish officer* and two of the Indians; they stated 
Logan killed the second, but he got badly 
wounded through the body; one of the other 
Indians that were with him got wounded, but 
not mortally. The two wounded got on two 
horses that belonged to the dead and rode to 
camp, leaving Capt. John to take the scalps. 

23d. Capt. John came in camj) this morning 
with a scalp, he said it was the scalp of a Pot- 
towatamie chief (VVynemack); he broke his 
knife in scalping him, which pjrevented him 
from scalping the others. 

24th. Logan died, and was much lamented 
by the men generally, believing him to be true 
to the United States, and a brave soldier. 

December 1st. The troops are engaged in 
building huts, which are far preferable to tents. 

2d. The general has issued an order for the 

* We learned since, the British officer was Col. Elliott'* 
son, and was probably a Captain. 


camp to be picketted, which is three quarters 
of a mile round. It is on the north side of the 
river, and is composed of three lines. Col. 
Wells's regiment on the right, Col. Scott's, 
Lewis's, and part of Allen's, in front, the re- 
maining part of Allen's on the left, the river in 
the rear. The pickets were nearly completed 
in one day, two feet in the ground, and eight 
feet above. 

lOih. The general has given orders to the 
commanding officers of regiments to cause 
each of their companies to be provided with a 
good perogue sufficient to carry its own bag- 
gage, and cause all those who are without 
shoes, to make themselves moccasins out of 
green hides. 

There are many who have not shoes and 
clothes sufficient to keep thom from freezing, 
should we move from here while they are 
in this condition. The clothes that the gene- 
ral flattered us with the expectation, and the 
clothes subscribed by the Kentuckians, being 
not yet received, except a small part of the 

13th. Smith and his party returned from the 
Rapids, who started two days ago in a canoe. 
They did not go far before they left the canoe 
on account of the icr, and travelled by land. 
Some of them were dangerously frost-bitten. 

14th. An express arrived in camp, certifying 
that the boats which started from St. Mary's 
on the 4th, laden with flour ai;d clothing, were 
frozen up in St. Mary's river, and the escort 
was building a house to store the loading in. 


15th. Capt. Hickman started this morning 
10 forward flour and clothing immediately on 

16th. We have drawn no flour since the 
10th, in consequence of which there was a let- 
ter handed to the general last night, secretly, 
which slated that the volunteers in two days, 
except flour came hefore that time, would start 
and go to it; caui ihey would carry their camp 
equipage to the fori, if ihe general required it. 
This nev.-s was soon circulated through camp. 
The officers used every argument to suppress 
llie appearance of a mutiny. A coii;-t-martial 
was held at Capt. Williams's marquee to try 
John Hoggard, a pi-ivaie in Capt. Price's com- 
pany, for some misdemeanour: he was con- 
demned to be drummed out of camp. Coi. 
Lewis paraded his regiment and had him es- 
corted with ihe fife and di-um from one end of 
his line to the other. So he was legally dis- 
charged from the army. The most common 
punishment in camp for criminals, is that of 
riding the wooden horse, or being put under 
guard on half rationa. All the beef and pork 
was issued to the troops this evening; our de- 
pendence for the next ration, is on a drove of 
hogs, that has been expected several days!! 

17th. Three hundred head of hogs arrived 
to our relief. 

20th. The weather is excessively cold; the 
ice has stopped the navigation of the river, so 
that the plan of going lo the Rapids, by water, 
is entirely frustiated. We had prepared about 
sixty perogues for the voyage; which will be 
left here for our successors. 


winchestkr's campaign. 35 

21st. The genei-al has ordered the com- 
mandants of regiments to cause each company 
to be provided with a sufficient number of 
sleds, to convey their bagg-age to the Rapids. 
It is said these sleds are to be pulled by the 
men, as we have not a horse iu camp, able to 
pull an empty sled. 

22d. A little flour came to camp once more: 
quarter-rations of that article were issued, 
which was welcomed by rejoicing tiiroughout 

24th. Captain Hickman returned with joyful 
news — that we should in a short time be sup- 
plied with flour. The deficiency of this arti- 
cle had produced serious consequences in the 
army. We have here been exposed to num- 
berless difficulties, as well as deprived of the 
common necessaries of life. And what made 
these things operate more severely was, ail 
hopes of obtaining any conquest was entirely 
abandoned. Obstacles had emerged in the 
path to victory, which must have appeared in- 
surmountable to every person endowed with 
common sense. The distance to Canada — the 
unpreparedness of the army — the scarcity of 
provisions, and the badness of the weather, 
show that Maiden cannot be taken in the re- 
maining part of our time. And would it not 
have been better, if this army had been dis- 
banded? Our sufferings at this place have 
been greater, than if we had been in a severe 
battle. More than one hundred lives have 
been lost, owing to our bad accommodations! 
The sufferings of about three hundred sick, at 


a time, who are exposed to the cold ground, 
and deprived of every nourishment, are suffi- 
cient proofs of our wretched condition! The 
camp has become a loathsome place. The 
hope of being one day relieved from these un- 
necessary suflerings, affords some relief. We 
received, this evening, a supply of flour, and 
have been delivered from a state of starvation. 
It being Christmas-eve, just after dark, a num- 
ber of p:uns were fired in quick succession; 
the whole arm.y was ordered to parade, in 
order of battle. Strict orders were given to 
suppress the firing. About an hour before 
day, the firing commenced again; the army 
was again paraded, and strict orders given — 
threatening to punish the offenders. 

27th. Part of the clothing arrived from Ken- 

29th. We are now about commencing one 
of the most serious marches ever performed 
by the Americans. Destitute, in a measure, 
of clothes, shoes, and provisions^the most es- 
sential articles necessary for the existence and 
preservation of the human species, in this 
world, and more particularly in this cold cli- 
mate. Three sleds are prepared for each com- 
pany, each to be pulled l)y a pack-horse, which 
has been without food for two weeks, except 
brush, and will not be better fed while in our 
service. Pi-obably the most of these horses 
never had harness on; but the presumption is, 
they will be too tame. We have prepared 
harness out of green hides. 

30th. After nearly three months' prepara- 

Winchester's campaign. 37 

tion for this expedition, we commenced our 
march in great splendour. Our elegant equip- 
ag'e cast a brilliant lustre on the surrounding 
objects as it passed! Our clothes and blankets 
looked as if they had never been acquainted 
with water, but intimately with dirt, smoke 
and soot; in fact, we have become acquainted 
with one much despised in Kentucky, under 
whose government we are obliged to live, whose 
name is '•'■ Poverty ." We niaixhed six miles 
and encamped near Col. Wells's regiment, 
which marched yesterday. The sick were left 
at No. Third, with a company from each regi- 
ment as a guard. 

January 10th. We arrived at Hull's road at 
the Rapids, fifty miles from Fort Defiance, and 
er.camped on a very high and suitable piece of 
ground. The second day after we left No. 
Third, the snow melted and the ground thaw- 
ed, which operated much against our march. 
We marched two miles, which tried the 
strength and activity of our noble steeds. The 
general, who remained behind at No. Third, 
more properly styled '''•Fort Starvation" think- 
ing probably to take the advantage of the 
weather, (this moderate thaw had opened the 
river in a ripple opposite to No. Third,) had 
several perogues loaded with his baggage, 
and manned immediately. After travelling 
three or four hundred yards, they found that 
they were blockaded with ice; they landed and 
guarded the plunder, until arrangements could 
be made for its transportation by land. The 
weather took a change the second of .January. 


It commenced snowing, and continued two days 
and nights; after it ceased, it was from twenty 
to twenty-four inches deep. During this time 
we remained stationary. On the third the 
army resumed its march, wading through a 
deep snow. We had to stop early in the after- 
noon to prepare our encampment; to rake the 
snow away, make fires, and pitch our tents, 
was no trifling task; and after this we had to 
get bark or bushes to lie on; the linn, in this 
case, was of great service to us. Many of the 
horses gave out, and sleds broke down; conse- 
quently, the plunder had to be pulled or carried 
by the men. I have seen six Kentuckians sub- 
stituted instead of a horse, pulling their plun- 
der, drudging along through the snow, and 
keeping pace with the foremost. In marching 
to this place we came through some good land, 
particularly the river bottoms, which are very 
rich. Wolftown, which is about half way be- 
tween Fort Defiance and the Rapids, is a hand- 
some situation. This has formerly been an 
Indian tov/n. We reached Roche De Baut 
the 9th, four miles above Hull's road, a place 
where some French had formerly lived. Early 
next morning, (as cold a morning as the Ken- 
tuckians ever experienced,) a detached party 
of six hundred and seventy-six men, marched 
in front of the baggage, and went on four miles 
below the foot of the Rapids, in order to exa- 
mine, if it were true, as said by some passengers 
Irom the right wing of the army, that there 
were six hundred Indians encamped and pick- 
etted in, six miles below the Rapids. The de- 


tachment marched witliin two milesof the place, 
and sent spies, but they discovered no signs of 
Indians. The party rennained all night and 
partook of an elegant supper of parched corn, 
and returned to camp in the morning. 

1 Ith. Some fresh signs of Indians were seen 
near this encampment, a detachment of twenty- 
four men was sent immediately, under the 
command of Capt. Williams. They had not 
got far before they discovered the Indians; the 
firing commenced on both sides nearly at the 
same time. The Indians stood but a little 
time before they ran, but not until they lost 
some of their savage blood. Capt. Williams 
pursued them some miles, but could not over- 
take them. By the signs of blood, some of 
them must have been badly wounded. They 
left behind them two of their horses, a brass 
kettle, and some other plunder. One of Capt. 
Williams's men received a wound in the arm, 
and another got shot through his hat. Capt. 
Edmiston, who was one of the party, got his 
gun shot through the breech. 

lolh. Two Frenchmen came in camp last 
night from the river Raisin, who received in- 
formation of the army being here by those 
Indians that Capt. Williams pursued, who got 
there the night after the skirmish, and stopped 
only a few minutes, and then went on to Mai- 
den. Those Frenchmen solicited protection 
and assistance, stating the abuse they had re- 
ceived from the Indians, and the danger they 
were in of losing their lives and property. 

25th. Arrived in camp this morning, cloth- 


ing from Kentucky. The ladies who sent this 
clothing, deserve the highest encomiums. If 
it had nut been for their unexampled exertions, 
we must have suffered beyond conception. 

May they long live under the auspicious 
protection of a free govei-nment, and may kind 
heaven reward their unparalleled benevolence! 
Another Frenchman came to camp, confirming 
what was stated by the others. We now began 
to reci-uit after our laborious march, and after 
being deprived of a sufficiency of provisions. 
Although we have been without flour ever 
since we came here, yet we have been better 
supplied with provisions than we have been 
since we embarked in the service. We have 
here in possession many large fields of corn, 
probably three hundred acres. We have erect- 
ed a great many pounding machines, to pre- 
pare it for our use. This place has a solemn 
appearance. The inhabitants have fled, and 
the Indians or British have burned their houses, 
leaving some of the chimneys standing. By 
every appearance, this has been a respectable 
settlement. Four miles below our encamp- 
ment, are the remains of the old British gar- 

17th. A Frenchman came yesterday from 
the river Raisin; he said two companies of 
British had just arrived from Canada, and the 
Indians were collecting, and intended to burn 
Frenchtown in a few days. By the repeated 
solicitations of the French, and being counselled 
by some of the field officers, the general has 
been induced to order out a detachment of five 

Winchester's CAMPAIGN. 41 

hundred and seventy men, destined to the river 
Raisinj it was said, contrary to the instruc- 
tions of Gen. Harrison. The detachment 
started* early with three days' provisions, and 
proceeded on twenty miles near to Presqu' 
Isle, a French village on the south side of the 
Maumee river. The sight of this village filled 
each heart with emotions of cheerfulness and 
joyi for we had been nearly five months in the 
wilderness, exposed to every inconvenience, 
and excluded from every thing that had the ap- 
pearance of a civilized country. When the in- 
habitants of the village discovered us, they met 
us with a white flag, and expressed particular 
friendship for us. They informed us the Bri- 
tish and Indians had left Frenchtown a few 
days ago, and had gone to Brownstown. About 
three hours after dark, a reinforcement of one 
hundred and ten men overtook us, commanded 
by Col. Allen. Some time in the latter part of 
the night, an express came from the river 
Raisin, informing Col. Lewis there were four 
hundred Indians and two companies of British 
there, and that Col. Elliott was to start the next 
morning from Maiden, with a reinforcement. 
18th. We started early, in order to get there 
before Col. Elliott. After travelling fifteen 
miles, mostly on the ice, we received informa- 
tion of the enemy being there, waiting for us. 
We were then within three miles of French- 
town. We proceeded on with no other view 

* The French, who were looking at us when we start- 
ed, were hearth to say, we were not men •nough. 
D 2 


than to conquer or die. When we advanced in 
sight of the town and were about a quarter of 
a mile from it, the British saluted us by the 
firing of a piece of cannon. They fired it three 
times, but no injury was sustained. During 
this time we formed the line of battle, and rais- 
ing a shout* advanced on them briskly; they 
soon commenced the firing of their small arms, 
but this did not deter us from a charge; we 
advanced close and let loose on them; they 
gave way and we soon had possession of the 
village, without the loss of a man! Three 
were slightly wounded. Twelve of their war- 
riors were slain and scalped, and one prisoner 
taken before they got to the woods. In re- 
treating they kept up some firing. We pur- 
sued them half a mile to the woods, which 
were very brushy and suited to their mode of 
fighting. As we advanced they were fixing 
themselves behind logs, trees. Sec, to the best 
advantage; our troops rushed on them reso- 
lutely and gave them Indian play, took the ad- 
vantage of trees. Sec. and kept them retreating 
a mile and a half in the woods; during this 

* A Frenchman who lived in this village, said, when 
the word came the Americans were in sight, there was an 
old Indian smoking at his fireside ; the Indian exclaimed, 
" Ho 'de Mcricans covie, I suppose Ohio men come, we 
give them another chase;'' (alluding to the time they 
chased General Tupper from the Rapids.) He walked 
to the door smoking, apparently very unconcerned, and 
looked at us till we formed the line of battle, and rushed 
on them with a mighty shout ! he then called out, " Ken- 
tuck, by God!" and picked up his gun and ran to the 
woods like a wild beast. 


time a heavy fire was kept up on both sides. 
At length, after a battle of three hours and five 
minutes, we were obliged to stop the pursuit 
on account of the approach of night, and retire 
to the village. We collected our wounded and 
carried them to the village, leaving our dead 
on the ground. In this action the Kentuckians 
displayed great bravery, after being much fa- 
tigued with marching on the ice. Cowardice 
was entirely discountenanced. Each was anx- 
ious to excel his fellow soldiers in avenging his 
injured country; those only fell in the rear who 
were most fatigued. Our loss in this action 
was eleven killed and fifty wounded.* Al- 
though the enemy had the advantage of the 
village in the first attack, and of the woods in 
the second, their loss, by the best information, 
far exceeded ours. A Frenchman stated they 
had fifty-four killed and a hundred and forty 
wounded; part of whom were carried to his 
house, on Sand creek, a few miles from the 
village. An express and the Indian prisoner, 
were sent immediately to the Rapids. Some 
dispute arose between the Indians and some of 
the French, on Sand creek; the Indians killed 
an old man and his wife; in consecjuence of 
this the French were enraged, and resolved to 
get revenge. They applied to us for assist- 
ance, but it was thought improper to leave the 
village, though some of them had assisted us, 
and fought in the front of the battle. 

* It would have been belter for us if we had been con- 
tented with the possession of the village, withcJut pursuing 
them to the woods. 

44 Winchester's campaign. 

19th. A party was sent out to the battle 
ground to bring in the dead, which were found 
scalped and stripped, except one. In going 
over the battle ground great signs were seen, 
(by the blood, and where they had been drag- 
ged through the snow) of a considerable loss 
on the part of the enemy. Two of the wound- 
ed died. The British left a considerable quan- 
tity of provisions, and some store goods, which 
answered us a valuable purpose. The wound- 
ed could have been as well accommodated here 
with every necessary, as in any part of Ken- 
tucky. Apples, cider, sugar, butter, and whis- 
key, appeared to be plenty. The river Raisin 
runs an east course through a level country, in- 
terspersed with well improved farms, and is 
seventy or eighty yards wide; the banks are 
low. Frenchtown is situated on the north side 
of this river, not more than three miles from 
the place it empties into Lake Erie. There is 
a row of dwelling houses, about twenty in 
number, principally frame, near the bank, sur- 
rounded with a fence made in the form of 
picketting, with split timber, from four to five 
feet high. This was not designed as a fortifi- 
cation, but to secure their yards and gardens. 

21st. A reinforcement of two hundred and 
thirty men arrived in the afternoon; also Gen. 
Winchester, Col. Wells, Major M'Clanahan, 
Capt. Hart, surgeons Irvin and Montgomery, 
and some other gentlemen, who came to eat 
apples and drink cider, having been deprived 
of every kind of spirits nearly two months. 
The officers having viewed and laid off a piece 


of ground for a camp and breastworks, resolved 
that it was too late to remove and erect fortifi- 
cations that evening. Further, as they resolved 
to remove early next day, it was not thought 
worth while, though materials were at hand, 
to fortify the right wing, which therefore en- 
camped in the open field,* and Col. Wells, their 
commander, set out for the Rapids late in the 
evening. A Frenchman arrived here late in 
the evening from Maiden, and stated that a 
large number of Indians and British were 
coming on the ice with artillery to attack usj 
he judged their number to be three thousand^ 
this was not believed by some of our leading 
men, who were regaling themselves with 
whiskey and loaf sugar; but the generality of 
the troops put great confidence in the French- 
man's report, and expected some fatal disaster 
to befall us; principally because Gen. Winches- 
ter had taken up his head-quarters nearly half 
a mile from any part of the encampment, and 
because the right wing was exposed. Ensign 
Harrow, who was sent with a party of men 
some time after night, by the orders of Col. 
Lewis, to bring in all the men, either officers 
or privates, that he might find out of their 
quarters; after finding some and giving them 
their orders, he went to a brick house about a 
mile up the river, and entered a room; finding 
it not occupied, he immediately went above 
stairs, and saw two men whom he took to be 

* This want of precaution, was a gieat cause of our 
mournful defeat! 

46 Winchester's campaign. 

British officers, talking with the landlord,* the 
landlord asked him to walk down into a stove 
room, and handing his bottle, asked him to 
drink, and informed him " there was no danger, 
for the British had not a force sufficient to 
whip us." So Harrow returned about 1 o'clock, 
and reported to Col. Lewis what he had seen. 
Col. Lewis treated the report with coolness, 
thinking the persons seen were only some gen- 
tlemen from town. Just at day-break the re- 
veille began to beat as usual; this gave joy to 
the troops who had passed the night under the 
apprehensions of being attacked before day. 
The reveille had not been beating more than 
two minutes, before the sentinels fired three 
guns in quick succession. This alarmed our 
troops, who quickly formed, and were ready 
for the enemy before they were near enough to 
do execution. The British immediately dis- 
charged their artillery loaded with balls, bombs, 
and grape-shot, which did little injury.. They 
then attempted to make a charge on those in 
the pickets, but were repulsed with great loss. 
Those on the right being less secure for the 
want of fortification, were overpowered by a 
superior force, and were ordered to retreat to 
a more advantageous piece of ground. They 
got in disorder, and could not be formed.* 
The Indians pursued them from all quarters, 

* When the right wing began to retreat, it is said or- 
ders were given by some of the officers to the men in the 
eastern end of the picketting, to march out to their as- 
sistance. Captain Prioe, and a number of men sallied 
out. Captain Price was killed, and most of the men. 

Winchester's campaign. 47 

and surrounded, killed, and took the most of 
them. The enemy again charged on the left 
with redoubled vigour, but were again forced 
to retire. Our men lay close behind the pick- 
etting, through which they had port holes, and 
every one having a rest, took sight, that his 
ammunition might not be spent in vain. x-Vfter 
a long and bloody contest, the enemy finding 
they could not either by stratagem or force 
drive us from our fortification, retired to the 
woods, leaving their dead on the ground, (ex- 
cept a party that kept two pieces of cannon in 
play on our right.) A sleigh was seen three 
or four hundred yards from our lines going to- 
wards the right, supposed to be laden with am- 
munition to supply the cannon; four or five 
men rose up and fired at once, and killed the 
man and wounded the horse. Some Indians 
who were hid behind houses, continued to an- 
noy us with scattering balls. At this time 
bread from the commissary's house was handed 
round among our troops, who sat composedly 
eating and watching the enemy at the same 
time. Being thus refreshed, we discovered a 
white flag advancing towards us; it was gene- 
rally supposed to be for a cessation of arms, 
that our enemies might carry ofF their dead, 
which were numerous, although they had been 
bearing away both dead and wounded during 
the action. But how were we surprised and 
mortified, when we heard that Gen. Winches- 
ter, with Col. Lewis, had been taken prisoners 
by the Indians in attempting to rally the right 
wing, and that Gen. Winchester had surreri- 

48 Winchester's campaign. 

dered us prisoners of war to Col. Proctor! 
Major Madison, then the highest in command, 
did not agree to this until Col. Proctor had 
promised,* that the prisoners should be pro- 
tected from the Indians, the wounded taken 
care of, the dead collected and buried, and pri- 
vate property respected. It was then, with ex- 
treme reluctance, our troops accepted this pro- 
position. There was scarcely a person that 
could refrain from shedding tears! some plead 
with the officers not to surrender, saying they 
would rather die on the field! We had only 
five killed, and twenty-five or thirty wounded, 
inside of the pickets. The British asked, when 
they came in, what we had done with our dead, 
as they saw but few on the ground. A barn 
being set on fire to drive the Indians from be- 

* Col. Proctor had informed Gen. Winchester he would 
afford him an opportunity of surrendering his troops, and 
if not accepted he would let loose the Indians on us, who 
would burn the town, and he would not be accountable 
for their conduct. Gen. Winchester not knowing how 
we had resisted their efforts, thought probably it would 
be the case. 

But why did not Col. Proctor make this proposition be- 
fore he had exerted all his skill in trying to burn the town, 
and to set the Indians on us.' Proctor knew very well 
he had dono all that was in his power with the force he 
had then, and he was then less able to rout us from the 
town, than he was at first. 

The British informed us afterwards, that Col. Proctor 
had ordered a general retreat to Maiden, and that they 
had spiked four pieces of their cannon! but he thought he 
would demand a surrender, according to custom. 

Our officers, knowing that we had but little ammuni- 
tion, and the troops being still exposed to the fire of the 
cannon, thought proper to surrender. 

Winchester's campaign. 49 

hind it, they concluded, that to conceal our 
dead, we had thrown them into these flames. 

One of the houses thai the wounded were in, 
was much shattered by the cannon balls, though 
only a few struck as low as a man's head. The 
bombs flew over. Some bursted fifty feet above 
the ice, some fell on the ice, and some over the 
river. Notwithstanding all their exertions, 
their six cannon, (which w-ere all said to be 
six -pounders,) did but little damage. 

In this battle, officers and privates exhibited 
the utmost firmness and bravery. Whilst the 
iiien were at their posts firing on the enemy, 
the officers were passing along the lines sup- 
plying them with cartridges. Major Graves, 
in passing round the line, was wounded in the 
knee. He sat down in a tent, bound up his 
wound, and cried, " Boys I am wounded, never 


The British collected their troops, and 
marched in front of the village. We marched 
out and grounded our arms, in heat and bitter- 
ness of spirit. The British and Indians took 
possession of them. But all the swords, dirks, 
tomahawks, and knives, were given up, with 
promise that they should be restored again. 
[This promise was broken.] 

All the prisoners, except those that were 
badly wounded. Dr. Todd, Dr. Bowers, and a 
few attendants, were marched towards Maiden. 
The British said, as they hud a great many of 
their wounded to take to Maiden that evening, 
it would be out of their power to take ours be- 
fore morning, but they would leave a sullicient 



guard so that they should not be interrupted 
by the Indians. — [You will presently bee with 
wliat ag.q;ravating circumstances the breach of 
this promise was attended.] 

Bi'other Allen Darnall having been badly 
wounded in the right shoulder on the 18th, 
and I being appointed to attend on the wound- 
ed, I continued with them. 

Before the British and prisoners marched, 
the Indians ransacked the cam]), and got all 
the plunder that was remaining — namely, tents, 
kettles, buckets, pans, 8cc.; then coming amongst 
the wounded, greatly insulted them, and took 
some of their plunder; after they went out I 
bolted the door; they came again and broke it 
open with their tomahawks. I immediately 
applied to a British officer, and told him the 
Indians were interrupting the wounded; he 
turned round, and called to another officer to 
send the guard. The Indians at that time had 
plundered the commissary's house (which was 
near the house in which the wounded were) of 
every thing they wanted, and piled rails against 
it and set them on fire: I with the assistance of 
two British officers put it out. One of the 
British officers (Maj. Rundels) inquired where 
the ammunition was; I told him, if there was 
any, it was above stairs. We went up, but 
could find none. — Theie was a large quantity 
of wheat on the loft; he said it was a pity it 
was there, for the Indians would burn the 
house. I apprehended by that, the town was 
to be burned, and began to lament our wretch- 
ed condition. — -After we went down stairs, Run- 


dels asked me how many we had killed and 
wounded on the 18th; I told him, but he very 
haughtily disputed it: I had the return in my 
pocket, he read it, but made no reply. 

Those that remained of us being hungry, I 
applied to one of the British in the evening for 
some flour, as there were a good many barrels 
in the commissary's house, which I considered 
to belong to them; he told me to take as much 
as I wanted. I asked him if there was a guard 
left; he said there was no necessity for any, for 
the Indians were going to their camp, and 
there were interpreters left, who would walk 
from house to house, and see that we should 
not be interrupted. He kept walking about 
and looking towards the road. — He told me I 
had better keep in the house, for the Indians 
would as soon shoot me as not, although he 
had just told me we should not be interrupted! 
I suspected he was looking for Gen. Harrison. 
Oh! if we had seen Gen. Harrison coming 
with his troops, the wounded would have leap- 
ed for joy! but I did not expect him. 

As they did not leave the promised guard, I 
lost all confidence in them, and expected we 
would be all massacred before morning. I 
being the only person in this house not wound- 
ed, with the assistance of some of the wounded, 
I prepared something for about thirty to eat. — 
The Indians kept searching about town till 
after dark. One came in the house who could 
talk English, and said he commanded a com- 
pany after the retreating party, and that most 


of that party were slain. He said, the men 
ij^ave up their guns, plead for quarters, and of- 
fered them money if they would not kill them; 
but his boys, as he called them, would toma- 
hawk them without distinction. He said the 
plan that was fixed on by the Indians and Bri- 
tish, before the battle commenced, was, that 
the British were to attack in front, to induce 
us to charge on them — 500 Indians were placed 
on the right hand, and 500 on the left, to flank 
round and take possession of the town; but he 
said we were too cunning for them; we would 
not move out of the pickets. 

We passed this night under the most serious 
apprehensions of being massacred by the toma- 
hawk, or consumed in the flames: — 1 frequently 
went out during the night to see if the house 
was set on fire. At length the long wished for 
morn arrived, and filled each heart with a 
cheerful hope of being delivered from the 
cruelty of those merciless savages. — We were 
making every preparation to be ready for the 
promised sleighs. But, alas I instead of the 
sleighs, about an hour by sun, a great number 
of savages, painted with various colours, came 
yelling in the most hideous manner! These 
blood-thirsty, terrific savages, (sent here by 
their more cruel and perfidious allies, the Bri- 
tish,) rushed into the houses where the des- 
ponding wounded lay, and insolently stripped 
them of their blankets, and all their best 
clothes, and ordered them out of the houses! 
— I ran out of the house to inform the inter- 


preters* what the Indians were doing; at the 
door, an Indian took my hai and put it on his 
own head; I then discovered the Indians had 
been at the other house first, and had used the 
wounded in like manner. As I turned to go 
bade into the house, an Indian taking hold of 
me, made signs for me to stand by the corner 
of the house. I made signs to him I ^^'anted to 
go in and get my hat; for I desired to see what 
they had done with the wounded. The Indians 
sent in a boy who brought out a hat and threw 
it down to me, and I could not get in the house. 
Three Indians came up to me and pulled oft' 
my coat. My feeble powers cannot describe 
the dismal scenes here exhibited. I saw my 
fellow soldiers naked and wounded, crawling 
out of the houses lo avoid being consumed in 
tha flames. Some that had not been able to 
turn themselves on their beds for four days, 
through fear of being burned to death, arose 
and walked out and about through the yard. 
Some cried for help, but there was none to 
help them. "Ah!" exclaimed numbers, in the 
anguish of their spirit, " what shall we do?" 
A number, unable to get out, miserably perish- 
ed in the unrelenting flames of the houses, 
kindled by the more unrelenting savages. 
Now the scenes of cruelty and murder we had 
been anticipating with dread, during last night, 
fully commenced. The savages rushed on the 

* I was since informed that Col. Elliott instructed the 
interpreters to leave the wounded, after dark, to the 
mercy of the savages. They all went oft' except one 

E 2 


wounded, and, in their barbarous manner, shot 
and tomahawked, and scalped them; and cru- 
elly mangled their naked bodies while they lay 
agonizing and weltering in their blood. A 
number were taken towards Maiden, but being 
unable to march with speed, were inhumanly 
massacred. The road was, for miles, strewed 
with the mangled bodies, and all of them were 
left like those slain in battle, on the 22d, for 
birds and beasts to tear in pieces and devour. 
The Indians plundered the town of every thing 
valuable, and set the best houses on fire. The 
Indian, who claimed me, gave me a coat, and 
when he had got as much plunder as he could 
carry, he ordered me, by signs, to march, 
which I did, with extreme reluctance, in com- 
pany with three of the wounded and six or se- 
ven Indians. In travelling about a quarter of 
a mile, two of the wounded lagged behind 
about twenty yards. The Indians, turning 
round, shot one and scalped him. They shot 
at the other and missed him; he, running up 
to them, begged that they would not shoot 
him. He said he would keep up, and give 
them money. But these murderers were not 
moved with his doleful cries. They shot him 
down; and rushing on him in a crowd, scalped 
him. In like manner, my brother Allen pe- 
rished. He marched with difficulty after the 
wounded, about two or three hundred yards, 
and was there barbarously murdered. My feel- 
ings at the sight and recollection of these in- 
human butcheries cannot be described. In 
addition to these deep sorrows for the mourn- 


ful fate of my compunions, and the cruel death 
of a dear brother, I expected every moment, 
for a considerable time, that the same kind of 
cruelty and death would be my portion. The 
Indians that guarded me and one of the wound- 
ed, obierving our consternation, one that could 
talk English, said " we will not shoot you." 
This a little revived our liopes, that were al- 
most gone;* and he, having cut a piece, hide 
and all, of a dead cow, started. It is their 
common practice to kill a cow or hog and 
take a piece, and leave the rest. In travelling 
two miles, we came to a house where there 
were two British officers; the Indian made a 
halt, and I asked one of the officers what the 
Indian v/as going to do with me; he said he 
was going to take me to Amherstburgh (or 
Maiden.) I judged these villains had instruct- 
ed the Indians to do vrhat they had done. A 
few miles further, we came to the Indian en- 
campment, where there were a great many hal- 

* Upon taking a view of these scenes of wo, who can 
avoid some such exclamation as the followinir? Why has 
the all-seeing, beneficent Ruler of the universe deliver- 
ed so many of our choice officers and brave soldiers into 
the hands of our enemies, to be slain in battle; and to lie 
unburied, to be dragged away in the galling chains of 
captivity, and to be put to torturing deaths by monsters' 
of cruelty ? Not, I presume, because of infidelity and 
injustice towards our enemies; but owing to our ingra- 
titude towards the God of armies"; and to our want of 
confidence in Jehovah — our pride, our too great confi- 
dence in our own wisdom, valour and strength; our un- 
belief — and a catalogue of vices too tedious to enume- 
rate. Aggravated national crimes have involved us in 
heavy and complicated judgments! 


looing and yelling in a hideous manner, I 
thought this my place of destiny. The Indian 
took off my pack, broiled a piece of meat and 
gave me parlj this I ate merely in obedience 
to him. Then we started and arrived at Am- 
herstburgh, eighteen miles from French- 
town. The other pi-isoners had just arrived. 
The British were firing their salute. The In- 
dian took me into a house not far from the 
fort; it was probably their council house; it 
would have held 500. It was inhabited by a 
large number of squaws, children, and dogs. 
They welcomed me by giving me some bread, 
meat and homony to eat. After this an Indian 
asked ine if I had a scjuaw; I told him not; he 
immediately turned round and talked to the 
squaws in Indian, wliile I sat in a pensive mood 
observing their motions. I discovered the 
squaws were pleased by their tittering and 
grinning; one, I obseiwed, had a great desire to 
express hei- joy by showing her teeth; but the 
length of lime she had lived in this world, had 
put it out of her power. I suspected from their 
manoeuvres I would have to undergo a disa- 
greeable adoption, (as other prisoners had 
done,) — and what was a task, still more un- 
pleasant, to be united in the conjugal band, to 
one of these swarthy, disgustful animals. The 
Indian asked me a few questions — where we 
had come from — how far it was — when we 
started, — and if there were any more coming. 
In reply to these questions, I gave him but 
little satisfaction. After this they spread blan- 
kets down, and made signs for me to go to 


bed; I did, and soon fell asleep, as I was much 
fatigued and had not slept much for four nights 
past. Early next morning, the Indian collect- 
ed his family and all his property, and started: 
I knew not where he was going; he gave me 
a knapsack and gun to carry. Now I despair- 
ed of getting with the other prisoners, unless 
I could desert from the Indians! I expected I 
would be taken to an Indian town, there to un- 
dergo a disagreeable adoption, or to be burned 
to death with fire-brands. As he took me near 
Fort Maiden, I took as good a view of it as I 
could while I passed it. It stands about thirty 
yards from the river bank. I judged it to be 
seventy or eighty yards square; the wall ap- 
peared to be built of timber and clay. The 
side, from the river, was not walled, but had 
double pickets, and entrenched round, about 
four feet deep; and in the entrenchment was 
the second row of pickets. As we went on 
through the edge of town, (Amherstburgh,) I 
asked an Englishman where the other prison- 
ers were.'' He said they were in town, in a 
wood-yard; the Indian hurried me along and 
would not let me talk to the Englishman. The 
Indian had a little horse, packed with his 
plunder, which I resolved to take, if possible, 
and ride into town that night. 

He took me to his place of residence, about 
three miles from Maiden. I was anxious for 
the approach of night, so that I might make 
my escape. While I was consoling with the 
anticipation of seeing my fellow sufferers at 
Maiden, night made its approach. Some time 


after dark, the Indian spread blankets down, 
and made signs for me to lie down; and put 
my coat, shoes and socks und'vir his own head. 
I wanted him to leave my socks on, for my feet 
would get cold: he made signs to warm them 
by the fire. Thus I was sadly disappointed. 

Next day he examined all his plunder. He 
had a very good suit of clothes, besides seve- 
ral other coats, socks, shoes. Sec; among these 
were Wesley's Sermons and a great many 
papers, which he gave me to read. I found 
several old letters, but nothing of value. He 
discovered I wanted to shave, and got his ra- 
zor, shaving box, and a piece of glass, and 
made signs for me to shave. After this, I lay 
down on some blankets and fell asleep. He 
came and awoke me, and gave me a twist of 
tobacco, which I received as a token of friend- 
ship. In a short time after he started to Mai- 
den, and made signs for me to stay there till 
he would come back. He returned in the even- 
ing, with a blanket, tied full of loaves of bread, 
just out of the oven, besides some meat. The 
Indians always gave me a plenty to eat; and 
served me before any of the family, with more 
politeness than I expected to find amongst 
them. He had drawn some money. I asked 
him to let me look at it. I found it to be 
pieces of cards with the number of livres 
written on them. 

The third night at length arrived; and he 
made my bed as usual; and took my coat and 
shoes, but accidentally loft my socks on. I lay 
down with the determination to leave him be- 


fore moining. I slept very well a while. 
When I awoke, the house was dark; I thought 
this as good an opportunity of deserting as I 
could get, l)iit with considerable timidity I 
made the attempt. I crawled to tiie door very 
easily, and raised the blanket that hung up at 
the door; just as I was goiiig out lie coughed, 
and I stopped until I thought he was asleep, 
and then started, without shoes or coat, to 
Amherstburgh. When I got there, I examined 
several yards and cardens to see if there was 
any fii'e. After going through many streets, I 
turned my course towards the river, and acci- 
dentally came to the house where the prisoners 
were. The sentinel, who was standing at the 
door, let me in without much ceremony. Pro- 
vidence smiled on this attempt to extricate 
myself from the Indians. Thus through mercy 
I escaped from the savages, and was delivered 
from the doleful apprehensions of being sacri- 
ficed in some barbarous and cruel manner, to 
gratify their blood-thirsty souls, I got in be- 
tween two of my comrades who were lying 
next to the door. My leet were almost frozen 
before morning. 

During my captivity with the Indians, the 
other prisoners were treated very inhumanly. 
The first night they were put in a wood-yard| 
the rain commenced early in the night and put 
out all their fires; in this manner they passed 
a tedious night, wet and benumbed with cold. 
From this place they were taken to a cold 
warehouse, still deprived of fire, with their 
clothes and blankets frozen, and nothing to eat 


but a little bread. In this wretched condition 
they continued two days and three nights! 

26th. The Indians came early in the morn- 
ing- to search for me, but they were not admit- 
ted into the house. The guard said it would 
be well for me to keep as much concealed as 
possible, for if the Indian I had left could get 
me he would kill me. He came to the door 
and made motions, to show how he would scalp 
me. I disguised myself by changing my 
clothes and tying up my head, so that he did 
not know me. 

The pjisoners being destined to Fort George, 
were divided in two divisions, the first to keep 
a day's march before the second, in order, pro- 
bably, to be better supplied with provisions on 
the way. 

I being attached to the first division, the In- 
dians examined the lines very closely for me, 
but not possessing discernment sufficient to 
know me, I fortunately escaped. 

j>lalden, or Amherstburgh, is situated on the 
east side of Detroit river, near its junction 
with Lake Erie, and contains about one hun- 
dred houses, mostly frame; in lat. 42° 22', N. 
long. 8° 3' W. from Philadelphia. 

We set out from this town and marched 
seventeen miles to Sandwich, a small town on 
the east side of Detroit river, and one mile be- 
low Detroit; it contains pei'haps about three 
hundred inhal:)iiants. Vv'e were divided in 
small companies, and put into different houses, 
where we had the happiness once more to see 


27th. We drew a ration of bread and fresh 
beef, but no salt, and had no way of cooking 
the beef. We commenced our march at 1 
o'clock, and marched ten miles (part of the 
way on Lake St. Clair). In the evening we 
were conducted to cold barns, and there shut 
up till morning, deprived of fire. 

28th. We recommenced our march early, as 
cold a morning as ever I experienced, and con- 
tinued twenty-four miles on Lake St. Clair. 
At night we were conducted to a cold barn on 
the beach: we lay without fire, except a few 
who could not get in, who had the happiness 
of encamping in the woods. 

29th. We again resumed our march, and 
continued on the lake fifteen miles to the mouth 
of La Tranche river (called by some the river 
Thames). During this time, we had to run to 
keep ourselves from freezing. We continued 
up the river five miles, and stopped while the 
guard went into warm and to get their dinner. 
Having drawn no provisions since we left Sand- 
wich, some of the prisoners were driven to the 
necessity of picking up frozen potatoes and 
apple peelings that had been thrown out in the 
yard. One of the prisoners being unable to 
keep pace with the rest, was left on the lake, 
but was accidentally overtaken by a sleigh and 
brought on. After being in a stove-room 
some time, he was led out to march, trembling 
with cold. One of the guard observed, "he 
was a man of no spirit to freeze such a day as 
this." So barbarous were their dispositions 
and treatment; that I concluded we should die 


62 Winchester's campaign. 

of cold and hunger. We marched ten miles 
further to Captain Dolson's, where we were 
conducted into a large still-house. A number 
lodged below among the still-tubs, by the fire; 
the rest on the loft, where they were annoyed 
with the smoke. Some time in the night, lliey 
brought us a little bread and meat. 

30th. We drew two days' provisions, and 
cooked it. 

31st. It snowed all day; notwithstanding, we 
marched twenty-four miles, and were shut up 
in a barn wet and cold. Going to a barn to 
lodge so cold an evening, was like approaching 
a formidable enemy, for we expected to perish 
with cold in the dreary dwelling. Many got 
their feet frostbitten. We tried in vain to keep 
our shoes from freezing, by putting them under 
our heads. 

Feb. Isl. We continued our march twenty- 
two miles in a thinly settled country, and pass- 
ed through the Moravian nation of Indians. 
In the evening we encamped in the woods. 

2d. We marched twenty-two miles, suflering 
greatly both with hunger and cold. In the 
evening we arrived at Delaware township, a 
small settlement on the river La Tranche. 
We were divided into small companies, and 
were permitted to lodge in houses by fires. 

3d. We had been two days without provi- 
sions. Here we drew rations for three days; 
Capt. Dolson left us to-day. The prisoners 
must forever detest his baseness and cruelty. 
We resumed our march in the evening and con- 
tinued five miles, notwithstanding the snow was 


two feet deep, and it was then snowing. We 
were better treated by our new guard. 

4th. We marched twenty-six miles to the 
head waters of the river Thames, to Oxford 
township, a settlement of ten or twelve miles in 

5th. We marched two miles, and were de- 
tained for a supply of provisions.* After be- 
ing supplied, we continued our march in the 
evening three miles further, and where we 
lodged, were treated very civilly by the in- 

6th. After marching twenty-four miles, prin- 

* Here we met a number of the 4lst regiment of Bri- 
tish regulars, just from Fort George, going to Maiden, 
to supply the places of those who were killed on the 22d 
of January, at Frenchtown. They appeared to be very 
sociable, generally of the Irish descent. One of their of- 
ficers said, " in a few weeks, they would drive Gen. Har- 
rison and all his army along there." " Yes," replied 
James Allen, t (who was one of my messmates,) " before 
that time your Irish hides will be riddled, so that they 
would not hold hickory nuts." 

Another of that party said, " what nonsensical things 
those leather stocks were which we wore, with the sign 
of the eagle pecking out the eyes of the lion." Said Al- 
len, " this is only the shadow, the substance will soon 

t This Allen, is the same who fought the duel with 
Fuller, near Fort Massac, who was supposed to be a Bri- 
tish spy, before the commencement of the war. Fuller, 
after iiaving been twice knocked down by Allen's balls, 
was found to have a Dutch blanket folded, and a quire of 
paper over his cowardly breast, as a shield. Allen was 
not injured. 

64 Winchester's campaign. 

cipally through a wilderness, we arrived at 
Burford township.* 

* Six of us, who formed a mess, stopped at a Major 
Boon's, and asked him " if we might slay all night," he 
said we could. His father, who lived with him, let us 
know he had been a Tory Major in the American revolu- 
tion. He said "he had lived in the Jerseys, and had one 
of Lord Howe's commissions in the house then, and was 
a half-pay officer." He said " the Americans would have 
no possible chance to take Canada, for the British, next 
spring, would bring seventy thousand Indians from, the 
north-west, and as many negroes from St. Domingo, be- 
sides three hundred thousand Turks! !" Said James Al- 
len, " I suppose you will set dogs on us next!" The old 
fellow said, "it was very evident the Lord was on their 
side!" — then said Allen, "if the Lord has joined with the 
British, savages, and negroes, to massacre his own peo- 
ple, it is surprising ! But I rather think it is only your 
Canadian Lord that acts in this manner." The old fel- 
low then ordered him out of the house. He told him, 
"he was very well suited in a room, and would, stay till 
morning." They still continued arguing. The old fel- 
low said "we had no business on their soil;" (alluding to 
Frenchtown,) Allen told him "we were on our own 
soil ;" — he said " it was a lie, for Michigan Territory was 
given up to them by General Hull." Said Allen, " Hull 

was such a fellow as the d 1 ; who offered Christ all 

the kingdoms of the world, if he would fall down and 
worship him ; when, poor old sneaking whelp, he did not 
own a foot on earth." Said Boon, "you had better staid 
away, for all you have done ; the Major who commanded 
the Indians on the 18th, was here a few ni*ghts ago, and 
said there was not one killed, and but three wounded." 
Said Allen, " I would not believe my father if he were to 
tell me so, for I saw a number that was killed and scalped, 
and lay on tlie snow for days; and if there were but three 
wounded, there must have been an abundance of blood in 
them, to have stained the snow for miles square." Said 
he, " did you scalp them.' you are bloody dogs." "Yes," 
said Allen, "you might say so, if we had hired the sa- 

Winchester's campaign. 65 

7lh. In mat'ching thirty miles to a little vil- 
lage near the head of Lake Ontario, we passed 

vages to kill your women and children, and massacre and 
burn your wounded, when we had promised to take care 
of thetii." He said, "the British had never hired the In- 
dians to kill women and children; they were too humane 
a people to do so." "Yes," said Allen, " they showed 
humanity in the time of the American revolution, when 
they paid the Indians for infants' scalps that were taken 
out of their mothers' wombs; — they call themselves 
Christians — and when the Indians sent home to them 
scalps, from the unborn infant to the grey hairs, in bales, 
like goods, they had days of feasting, rejoicing, and 
thanksgiving to the Lord, for the victory they had gained 

— the d i would be ashamed to acknowledge sucli a 

people as any part of his offspring." The old fellow 
again ordered him out of the house; but Allen told him 
"he would go in the morning." Allen said "we had 
more friends in Canada than they had." " Yes," said he, 
"there are men mean enough to join against their own 
country." Allen replied, " none but a mean low-lived 
wretch would fight against his own country." The old 
fellow took the hint, as he had been a Tory, and got in a 
violent passion. He asked Allen "if he was not a Con- 
gressman .'"' Allen said " No." " Are you an Assembly 
man.-"' "No." "Are you a Yankee lawyer ?" "No." 
" Well, you are a Yankee liar then." Allen said, " if we 
were of an age, and on an equal footing, you would not 
give me the lie so often.'" The old fellow told Allen " he 
must be an antediluvian, for he appeared to know all 
things that had passed, and all the crimes that England 
evQj- committed seemed to be fresh on his mind, he sup- 
posed he was one of the greatest enemies the British 
had." Allen said "he had done his best; and if he was 
exchanged he would shoot at them as long as he could 
crook his finger to draw the trigger." A young woman 
who was in the house, said " we were only coming to 
drive them off of their lands." Allen said " we were only 
coming to set them free, so that those lands might be 
their own, and not King George's." She said, "the 
F 2 


through the Mohawk nation of Indians, on 
Grand river, who are much whiter than any 
Me have seen; their mode of dress is not dif- 
ferent from other Indian nations, and they have 
the same savage appearance. We were in- 
formed that there are six nations on this river, 
who hold a large body of the best land. 

8th. We drew our rations, and proceeded on 
sixteen miles. In going down towards Lake 
Ontario, we descended a precipice upwards of 
two hundred feet, into a level country; this 
precipice extends across Niagara river, and oc- 
casions those remarkable falls. 

9th. We marched eighteen miles through a 
well settled country. 

10th. We marched sixteen miles to Newark, 
lately called Niagara West. It contains about 
five hundred inhabitants. Many of the build- 
ings are handsome, composed of brick and 
stone. It has several churches, an academy, 
six taverns, and about twenty stores. It is si- 
tuated on the west side of Niagara river, in 
lat. 43° 15' N.; long. 4° west. Fort George 
stands at the upper end of the town. 

We continued here no longer than was ne- 
cessary to make arrangements to cross the 
river. A British officer took dovi'n our names, 
and the regiment and company we belonged 

Americans that wero killed at Queenstown, had deeds in 
their pockets for all their best plantations." Said Allen, 
"I must believe it because you say so, but if I had seen 
it myself I would not." 

I'he old fellow's passion subsided, and Allen and he 
were friendly. 


to, and said " we must not take up aims 
ag-ainst Great Bi-itain and her allies, until le- 
i^ally exchang-ed." Thus we were parolled. 
They hoisted a Hag and took us across Niag-ara 
river,* which is about one-quarter of a mile 
wide, to Fort Niagara, which is situated at tiie 
junction of Niagara river and Lake Ontario, 
in New York state. It is strongly fortified, 
and well supplied with artillery. 


From Maiden to Sandwich, and a consider- 
able distance up St. Clair, resembles a level 
plain thickly interspersed with farms and 
houses; many places look like little villages. 
The houses are princi])ally frame, and have 
an ancient appearance. Besides being well 

* The second division, who had been used far better 
than the first, arrived the day following, and were parolled 
in like manner, amounting in all to five hundred and 

Particular inquiries were made respecting tiio British 
loss in the battle of the 22d, while passing through Ca- 
nada. Tlie loyalists stated their loss to be ver}' trif^uig ; 
some would say fifteen killed, and others twenty-five. 
But different persons, in whom we had reason to place 
confidence, staled their loss to be very consideraMc — 
about six hundred killed and wounded, and amontrst ttiese 
Col. St. George. This account will not be considered 
exaggerated, when reflecting on the len<rth of time liiey 
were exposed to a deliberate and well directed fire from 
our troops — the niunber thnt was seen lying on the ground 
after they retreated — and tiio number ol' sleighs loaded 
with their bloody iruns. 

68 Winchester's campaign. 

suppVied with g;rain from their farms, they re- 
ceive considerable benefit from their orchards. 
The river La Tranche is a considerable na- 
\igable stream, and runs a westerly course into 
Lake St. Clair; the land near it is rich and fer- 
tile; the timber is oak, ash, hickory, walnut, 
sugar-tree, Sec. It is thickly settled as far as 
Moraviantown; but from the river on the north 
side, is an extensive wilderness of poor swampy 
land. From Moraviantown to Grand river, is 
a wilderness of poor piney land, except Dela- 
ware, Oxford, and Burford townships, which 
are tolerable settlements. From Grand river 
to Fort George, is a rich, well settled country, 
particularly along Lake Ontario. The inha- 
bitants are composed of English, French, 
Dutch, and a great many emigrants from the 
United States. The whole has been estimated 
at eighty thousand; besides these, there are 
unknown numbers of Indians. The Canadians 
are generally a well looking people, remarkably 
fair, but not well informed. They do not set a 
great value on education, and it is not encou- 
raged by the government. Although their 
laws appear to be moderate, yet neither the 
freedom of speech nor the freedom of the press 
is encouraged. The officers are haughty and 
tyrannical in the execution of their orders. I 
learned that a majority* of the inhabitants 

* An inhabitant near the head of Lake Ontario heard 
of the prisoners, and went to see them. He began to talk 
to one, judging him to be an American officer, and telling 
him he had more friends in Canada than the British had, 
and if he wanted money, or any assistance, he should be 


were in favour of ihe United Slates govern- 
ment, and many had concealed themselves to 
avoid taking u]) arras. 

The British forces consist of regulars, flank- 
ers, militia, Negroes^ and Ijidians. Agreeably 
to an act of their assembly in 1812, their flank- 
ers are riflemen, volunteered or drafted for the 
term of six months, and longer if not then re- 
lieved. The militia cannot be called into ser- 
vice for more than twenty days, unless their 
country is invt.ded. I heard of two companies 
of Negroes, runaways from Kentucky, and other 
states, who are commandetJ by white men. A 
great many of the Indians are stationed near 
i\\z lines, who can be called to arms at a mi- 
nute's warning. The taking an oath, which is 
called the oath o{ adjuration, is a true specimen 
of the ignorance and baseness of the Canadians. 
They have to swear the Queen is a virtuous 
and honest woman. No doubt but whoever 
takes this oath is guilty of perjury! 

11th. After regaling ourselves on the plenty 
of food and drink afforded us in the land of 
liberty, we set our faces homewards. One 
mile from Niagara Fort, we came to Salt bat- 
tery; it was composed of barrels of salt and 
dirt. From this they could play upon Fort 
George. We proceeded up the river eight 
miles to Lewistown, which is on the east bank 
of Niagara river, opposite Queenstown, and 

accommodated. The poor fellow soon found liis mistake, 
that he was talking to a British officer, just from Fort 

70 Winchester's campaign. 

contains only a few houses; eight miles fur- 
ther we came to Grand Niai^ara, a small vil- 
lage on the east bank of Niagara river just 
above the falls, and nearly opposite Chippeway. 
Above the falls, in the middle of the river, is 
an island about three hundred yards long, the 
lower end of which is just at the perpendicu- 
lar edge of the fall. On both sides of this 
island, all the waters of the rivers and lakes to 
the north-west, fall down a precipice of one 
hundred and thiity-seven feet perpendicular, 
and fall near as much more in a rapid of nine 
miles below. Before the water comes to the 
fall, as it passes the island, it seems in swift- 
ness to outfly an arrow. 

12th. We arrived at Black Rock, nineteen 
miles above the falls. Here is a considerable 
village, a navy yard, and three batteries well 
furnished with cannon. It took its name from 
its rocky situation. From this we continued 
on two miles and a half to BuflFalo, the capital 
of Buffalo county. New York state. It is situ- 
ated at the foot of Lake Erie, opposite to Fort 

We continued at Buffalo one day, on account 
of the badness of the weather, and then conti- 
nued our march thirty-two miles on the lake, 
and then marched through a well settled coun- 
try to Erie, the county town of Erie county, in 
Pennsylvania. It is ninety miles from Buffalo, 
and is situated on the south-east shore of Lake 
Erie. We proceeded on by the wayof Waterford 
and Meadville, one hundred and twenty miles, 

Winchester's campaign. 71 

to Pittsburgh, and from Pittsburgh to Ken- 
tucky, by water. 

Language fails to express the emotions I felt 
on arriving safely at home to enjoy the caresses 
and society of dear friends, after having en- 
dured so much fatigue, and having been so 
often exposed to imminent danger; and having 
so frequently expected death, attended with all 
the horrors of Indian cruelty. 



Dai in;:; the hutile on the '22d January, 181S, 
at Fienchtou'n, on the river Raisin, between the 
combined forces of British, Canadians, and In- 
dians, and the American forces, I received a 
wound from a piece of planlc, whicli had been 
split off by a cannon bail. It struck me on the 
sidi.', and unfortunately broke three of my ribs. 
The battle having terminated in favour of the 
combined forces, and I not being able to travel 
with those American prisoners who were to 
march immediately for Maiden, I remained on 
the ground until the next morning, with the 
rest of my wounded countrymen, who had re- 
ceived a solemn promise from the British com- 
mander, thai they should be taken to Maiden 
in sleighs. 

This sacred promise was not regarded! It 
was sacrificed on the altar of savage barbarity! 
to the god of murder and cruelty! Instead of 
sleighs, Indians were sent prepared to murder 
these unfortunate victims! who, after they had 
executed in part their purpose on the ground 
where we lay, ordered several other prisoners 
and myself, to march for Maiden. We had 

mallary's narrative. 73 

not proceeded far before they tomahawked four 
of this number, amongst whom was Captain 
Hart, of Lexington. He had hired an Indian 
to take him to Maiden. I saw part of this hire 
paid to the Indian. 

After having taken him some distance, ano- 
ther Indian demanded him, saying that he was 
his prisoner^ the hireling would not give him 
up; the claimant, finding that he could not get 
him alive, shot him in the left side with a pis- 
tol. Capt. Hart still remained on his horse; 
the claimant then ran up, struck him with a 
tomahawk, pulled him off his horse, scalped 
him, and left him lying there. 

We proceeded on until we came within three 
miles of Brownstown, where we encamped for 
the night. The next day we proceeded on to 
their encampment, seven or eight miles from 
Detroit, on the river Rouge, which appeared to 
be head-quarters. They were furnished at this 
place with bark wigwams; here was a large 
number of squaws and children, I suppose two 

They here stripped off my clothes, and dress- 
ed me after the Indian manner. They shaved 
off my hair, except a small quantity on the top 
of my head, which they left for the purpose of 
rendering the task of scalping more easy. 
They bored my ears, which they supplied plen- 
tifully with ear-rings, frequently by hanging 
one in another, like the links of a chain. They 
wanted to bore my nose, but I objected, and 
they did not insist. They frcc^uently painted 


my face one-half black and the other red, and 
frequently with red and black streaks. 

Shortly after our arrival at these encamp- 
ments, I was adopted into a Pottowatomie fa- 
mily that had lost a son in the b,atlle at the 
river Raisin. 

I was presented to this family by an Indian 
whose name was Ke-wi-ex-Mm. He introduced 
me to my father and mother, brothers and sis- 
ters, and ins-tructcd me to call them by these 
respective appellations. My father's name was 
Asa Chipsaw, after whom they called me; they 
asked me if I had a squaw; I answered in the 
negative, at which they appeared well pleased, 
and brought me a squaw, urging me to marry 
her. I refused, and told them when I got well 
I would accede to the proposal; this they took 
as a great offence. After having made them- 
selves acquainted with the situation of my 
wound, they made a tea of sassafras and cherry 
tree barks, which was the only drink I was 
permitted to take for fifteen days. 

They frequently took me to Detroit, for the 
purpose of helping them to pack provisions 
from thence to their encampment. But they 
would not suffer me to talk to the inhabitants 
of that place. Fifteen loaves of bread, weigh- 
ing three pounds each, ten pounds of pork or 
beef, and a peck of corn, was what they drew 
for six days. This would not last more than 
half that time; the remaining part they lived 
upon fragments of dog or horse meat. They 
appeared indifferent whether they had killed 
the animal that day themselves, or whether it 

mallary's nahkativk. 75 

had died by some accidentiil cause seven or 
eight days prior to their eating- it. 

They appointed me cook. 1 then had to un- 
dergo much fatigue in getting wood, &c., for 
they lent no assistance. Their customary way 
of cooking is to boil the meat and make soup, 
which they immediately devour without salt. 

They have drunken frolics, whenever they 
can get any kind of spirits to drink. When 
these frolics took place the squaws hid me, 
to prevent them from murdering me. Once I 
was hid in some brush and deprived of food for 
four days, during which time there was a con- 
tinual uproar in the camp, as though they had 
been killing each other. 

The squaws, who frequently visited me, and 
to whom I as often applied for something to 
eat, informed me that there could be nothing 
had until the men got sober, who would then 
either kill provisions, or draw from Detroit. 
On the fourth day, when I had given up to 
perish, they brought me a piece of a dog cook- 
ed without salt, and although you may feel 
squeamish when I mention it, yet it was to me 
the sweetest morsel tliat I ever recollect to 
have eaten. 

During my stav with them I sav/ them take 
a number of scalps to Maiden, for which they 
said they leceived from four to six dollars 
each, either in whiskey or store goods. They 
said they got thirty-seven scalps at the battle 
of the 18th, and upwards of four hundred at 
that of the 22d January. I replied, that there 
were only teti scalped on the 18th. They said 

76 mallary's narrative. 

" Yankee d d lie;" and they further stated, 

that they had only two killed on the 18th. I 

replied, Indian d d lie, for I saw myself 

twelve dead on the field. I asked them how 
many British and Indians were at the river 
Raisin, on the 22d January; they replied, that 
there Avere two thousand five hundred Indians, 
and one thousand British. 

They would frequently make motions imi- 
tating the Americans when they were scalping 
I hem, by turning, twisting, mourning, &c.; this 
was done to aggravate me. 

They once gave me a jug of whiskey, re- 
questing me to drink. I drank what satisfied 
me, and offered them the jug again — they in- 
sisted on me to drink more; I put the jug to 
my head, but did not drink; they discovered 
the cheat, and cried out " Yankee no good 

man, d d lie;" they then made me drink 

until they could hear it gurgle in my throat. 

About three weeks before the battle at the 
Rapids, the squaws and boys were employed 
in dressing deer skins, which were to equip the 
warriors for their march thither. During this 
time, the warriors were collecting and dancing 
the war dance. They informed me that they 
were going to Quo-by-ghaw, which I learned 
from the French, was the Rapids. I further 
learned that the British had promised them 
the possession of Fort Meigs, as well as the 
disposal of Gen. Harrison. They then calcu- 
lated on Fort Meigs as their chief place of de- 
posit, from which they could make incuisions 
into the state of Ohio, kill a vast number of the 


inhal)itanls, and satisfy themselves with plun- 
der. They calculated on having- a three days' 
IVolick in the burning of Gen. Harrison. 

Two weeks before their march for Fort 
Meigs, Tecumseh was with them. He was 
busily employed rallying those who were indif- 
ferent about going to the battle, and encourag- 
ing those who had volunteered; amongst other 
persuasive arguments to volunteer, he made 
use of these, viz. that Fort Meigs was badly 
constructed and illy defended; asserting that 
Ihey could take it without the loss of a man. 
But, if this could not be effected, he would 
then lead them on to Fort Wayne, which would 
certainly fall an easy piey to them. He then 
left them, and went to the Wabash to bring 
his warriors, who were stationed at that place. 

Previous to the march of the Indians, they 
took bark of swamp willow and tobacco, mixed 
them together, and pulverized them. They 
then formed a circle round a fire which had 
been prepared for that purpose, and one rose 
and delivered a speech, I understood, relative 
to the war. At the conclusion of the speech 
they passed this powder around the circle, each 
individual taking a pinch as it passed; each 
then snuffed a part of his portion, and threw 
the remaining part in the fire. Afier this had 
been performed with the greatest solemnity, 
one took the snuff which yet remained in the 
vessel, and threw it in the fire. They then 
took up their packs, raised the scalp lialloo, 
waved their tomahawks over their heads, and 
marched for battle. 

G 2 


There were three ihousand who drew four 
days' radons at Detroit. When they left us, 
they told us to be good boys and stay there till 
Ihey came back, and they would bring some 
more Yankees, who should cook, and do all 
the hard work, and we might go with them 

They left us in care of the squaws and a few 
old men. 

We had no other way by which to get freed 
from this unpleasant situation, but by deserting 
themj for they had been offered one hundred 
dollars each, for four of us, by the citizens of 
Detroit, but refused it. These four were Major 
Graves, Samuel Ganoe, John Davenport, and 

Thinking this as favourable an opportunity 
as we could get, I requested Samuel Ganoe to 
set off with me; he readily consented, and we 
set off just at dark, and ran to Detroit, which 
was eight miles, and got to the house of Mr. 
H., who concealed us in his cellar. He had a 
hole dug in the bottom of his cellar six or 
eight feet deep, for the purpose of keeping po- 
tatoes; in this we were put, and he laid planks 
over it, and lhrev>' dirt on the planks, which 
caused it to bear so nice a semblance to the 
other part of the cellar, that the Indians could 
not distinguish it from the common bottom. 
This dismal dungeon was our abode for half a 
day, during which time the Indians came and 
searched carefully for us, but in vain. After 
they were gone, Mr. H. asked a British officer 
if he would take the care of us. He replied in 

mallary's narrative. 79 

the affirmative, and then sent us immediately 
to the fort at Detroit, where we were kept two 
days, the Indians still searching for us. On 
the second night about midnight, we were sent 
to Sandwich, and kept there two days with but 
little to eat, and then sent to Maiden. We 
found the force at Maiden to consist of sixty 
Canadian French, besides eighty who had re- 
ceived wounds at the river Raisin, and who 
would no doubt remain invalids for life. We 
also found stationed at Maiden, James Girty, 
who, I was informed, was brother to the infa- 
mous Simon Girty; his business was to re- 
ceive scalps from the Indiansj his pay for this 
service was three dollars per week. I saw here 
about half a bushel of scalps in a kettle! the 
number I cannot guess at. 

After every exertion to take Fort Meigs had 
failed, the British returned to Maiden, cursing 
Harrison for a rabbit, which they swore had 
burrowed, and which they could not take in 
that situation. 

From Maiden, we were taken across to Cleve- 
land, on the 16th day of May, 1813. 

The following prisoners were with the In- 
dians, at the time I was a prisoner, viz. Major 
Graves, Jarret Dougherty, Thomas Jones, Jo- 
seph Foddre, and John Fightmaster^ the latter 
of whom had deserted from us, was brought 
back, and made to ride the wooden-horse. He 
then deserted to the Indians, swearing — he had 
rather stay with them, than ride Winchester's 
English mare again. 

I heard of three other prisoners, but do not 

80 mallary's narrative. 

remember their names; two di' whom were 
about twenty miles from Detroit, and the other 
near Maiden. 

From Cleveland, nothing worth relating oc- 
curred, until I arrived at home, in Bourbon 
county, Kentucky; where I found my friends 
all in good health, my father excepted, who 
had gone to face the same enemy from whom 
I had just made my escape. 




During the battle which was fought on the 
18th of January, IS 13, between the American 
forces, under the command of Colonel Lewis, 
and the combined British and Indians, I re- 
ceived a wound in my right leg, by a ball 
which fractured the bone, but did not entirely 
break it. After the battle was over, I, with 
many others who were also wounded, was car- 
ried off the field and put in a house, where we 
remained until after the battle of the 22d, when 
we were surrendered prisoners of war to the 
British. I remained here during the night of 
the 22d, v. ith the expectation of being carried 
to Maiden the next dayj but in this I was dis- 
appointed. On the morning of the 23d, I wit- 
nessed the most horrid scenes of cruelty ima- 
ginable^ for the British, instead of sending 
sleighs, as was most solemnly promised, to 
convey the wounded prisoners to Maiden, sent 
the Indians; who, after selecting a few from 
amongst the wounded, tomahawked and scalp- 
ed the rest, in the most savage and cruel man- 
ner that malice could invent, or devils incar- 

G 4 


nale execute; and set fire to the houses in 
which they had been, and burned them to 
ashes! — Then instead of going to Maiden, they 
took me to Brownstown, where I had nothing 
to eat except a little paiched corn. While I 
was at Brownstown, an Indian asked me whe- 
ther I had a squaw, to which I answered in the 
negative. He then replied, " Tf^e make an In- 
dian of you, and by'n by you have a squaw, by'n 
by you have a gun and horse, and go a hunting." 
The next day we proceeded on our march until 
we came near the river Rouge, where the In- 
dians procured some provisions, consisting of 
fresh meat, but no salt. From here we set off 
again, and travelled slowly, (I rather think to 
favour the wounded) until we arrived at their 
encampment, three or four miles from Detroit, 
at which place there were a number of squaws 
and children, who had taken up winter quar- 

As soon as we had arrived at this place, I 
was presented to an old squaw whom the In- 
dians instructed me to call by the appellation 
of mother. This old witch, as I took her to 
be, had lost two sons at the river Raisin; I had 
therefore to supply the place of one of them, 
and thus had to become the adopted son of the 
most hideous of all animals that ever roamed 
over the forests of North America. After this, 
they dressed my wound for the first time, which 
now appeared to be getting well fast. In the 
next place they trimmed my hair off, except a 
small quantity on the top of my head, and 
painted me: then adorned me with ear-rings, 


bracelets, &c., and put a band of silver round 
my head. By this time I began to look very 
stylish, or rather made as uncouth and gro- 
tesque a figure as any of my copper-coloured 

While we remained at this place, Mr. Ga- 
briel Godfrey, a citizen of Detroit, offered the 
Indians glOO for my ransom, which they re- 
fused. I nov/ began to conclude that there 
were no other means of extricating myself 
from bondage, unless it were by flight, and 
therefore determined to embrace the first op- 
portunity that presented. In a few days after, 
the Indians presented a squaw to me, who ap- 
peared to have little more of humanity than the 
form, but equally as detestable as my mother^ 
although she was younger. This ugly looking 
creature the Indians told me I should marry! 
I confess I never was so shocked at the 
thoughts of matrimony in my life! I told 
them ^^no good squaw." They then brought 
several more of those unhuraan looking crea- 
tures, whom I understood were also candidates 
for conjugal felicity. I told them "6j/'n by I 
have a squaw." This appeared to satisfy them 
at the present timej in this manner I frequent- 
ly had to put them off. 

They frequently solicited me to wear a 
breech-clout, which I always refused. One 
time my mother discovered me mending my 
pantaloons; thinking this a good opportunity 
to get me to wear one, she immediately brought 
one, which I took hold of, and said "no good," 
then threw it down and stamped it; at the sight 


of this she was very much enraged, and scold- 
ed desperatel)^ to herself in her own Indian dia- 
lect. I have often wondered since, that they 
did not kill me for disobeying their orders, for 
I was extremely obstinate, and scarcely ever 
complied with their injunctions. 

Notwithstanding my disobedience, the In- 
dians treated me as well as was in their power, 
especially my mother, who was very kind to 
me. Some considerable time I had to eat my 
victuals without salt — I knew they had none, 
yet I would always ask for some. My old mo- 
ther after some time procured some for me> 
which she kept hid to prevent the others from 
making use of it, and never failed to give me a 
small portion when I was eating. 

Intoxication is practised by the squaws as 
well as the men. They frequently have drunk- 
en frolics, at which times it is dangerous for 
prisoners to be amongst them. During these 
frantic revels, the prisoners are kept hid by the 
squaws, (a part of whom keep sober) to keep 
them from being murdered. One night after 
the rest had gone to bed, my mother, who had 
staid out later than usual, came in, sat down, 
and began to sing; she did not appear to be in 
her senses. I soon discovered that this old 
priestess of Bacchus had got very drunk. In 
this mood she seized hold of the fire, and threw 
it on those who were sleeping round the fire, 
which soon caused them to rise ; she then 
jumped into the fire, and danced until she had 
burned the soles of her moccasins off. 

They continued here about a month, and 

Davenport's narrative. 85 

then recioved about eight miles, on the river 
Rouge, in order to prepare for making sugar. 
While we were employed at this business, a 
Frenchman persuaded me to marry a squaw, 
if they insisted, for I would then be treated 
with more respect, and consequently would 
have greater liberties. After mature conside- 
ration, I thought probably this would be the 
best plan I could adopt, in order to make my 
escape, and therefore resolved to marry the 
next one that was presented to me. It was not 
long before they brought me a squaw, (the 
most decent looking one I had seen) whom I 
i-esolved to marry without hesitation. I how- 
ever, when just on the po^nt of forming a con- 
nubial alliance with her, was prevented by aii 
Indian, who claimed her as his squaw. 

Several weeks before the battle of Fort 
Meigs, the Indians began to collect, and dance 
the war dance. 

Just before the Indians marched, they ])re- 
pared a number of hoops, both ends of which 
they stuck in the ground, and spread their 
blankets over them. In this place they put 
hot stones, threw water on them, and then 
went in themselves, and remained until they 
were wet with sweat. This I conjectured was 
done in the way of devotion, or in imploring 
the assistance of the Great Spirit, in their in- 
tended expedition. 

When the Indians marched, I was commit- 
ted to the care of the squaws, and a few old in- 
valids. Thinking this the most favourable op- 
portunity 1 could get, I was determined to put 


my plan in execution. At night I lay down, 
■svilh the intention of starting when the moon 
arose, but overslept my time, and did pot awake 
till daylight. 1 arose and started, notwith- 
standing I was apprehensive of being disco- 
vered, and ran directly to Detroit, a distance 
of about nine miles, probably in as short a time 
as any Indian in the nation could have per- 
formed the same journey. 

As soon as I had arrived at Detroit, I went 
to Mr. T. S.'s, who had persuaded me to run 
away, and he and his friends would conceal 
me, v.'hich they did accordingly. It was but a 
short time before a Frenchman, of the name of 
Shover, and some squaws, came in search of 
me, but could not find me. 

From here I was sent to Sandwich, and con- 
cealed there two days, and suffered extremely 
for provisions. From Sandwich, I was sent to 
Maiden, where I found six of my fellow prison- 
ers, who, together with myself, were kept under 
close confinement in the fort for three weeks. 
While we remained here, we frequently heard 
from the Rapids, but the news was always fa- 
vourable on the British side. One morning an 
old man, who looked as if he had just emerged 
from the lower regions, came into the fort, and 
exclaimed, " good news, gentlemen ! good news ! 
—We have killed fifteen hundred yankees, and 
have taken Harrison, and all the rest that were 
at the fort, prisoners!!" I was informed after- 
wards, that this old man was the notorious Si- 
mon Girty, so much renowned for cruelty and 

Davenport's narrative. 87 

slaughter, and who has delighted in the shrieks 
of dying women and expiring infants. 

From the most correct information I could 
obtain, their forces at the siege of Fort Meigs, 
consisting of British regulars, Canadian mi- 
litia, and Indians, amounted to 5000 ! 

From Maiden I was taken across to Cleve- 
land, and from there I pursued my journey 
towards the delightful regions of Kentucky, 
where I arrived in Montgomery county, in 
June, 1813. 


On the 22d of January, 1813. 

On Raisin darkness reign'd around, 
And silent was the tented ground, 
Where weary soldiers slept profound, 

Far in the wint'ry wilderness. 
No danger did the sentry fear. 
No wakeful watch at midnight drear; 
But ah ! the foe approaches near. 

Through forests frowning awfully. 
And ere the sun had risen bright, 
Fast flashing 'mid the stormy fight, 
The thund ring cannon's livid light 

Glar'd on the eye most frightfully. 
Then deadly flew the balls of lead ! 
Then many of the foemen bled, 
And thrice their banded legion fled. 

Before Kentucky's bravery. 

And long our heroes' swords prevail: 
But hist ! that deep and doleful wail: 
Ah! freedom's sons begin to fail, 

Oppress'd by numbers battleing. 
Rise! rise I ye volunteers, arise ! 
Behold! ynur right hand column flies! 
And hark! yon shout which rends the skies! 

Where Indians yell tumultuously. 

Rush o'er the bloody field of fame, 
Drive back the savage whence he came ! 
For glory 'waits the victor's name, 
Returning home exultingly. 

Tis done. The dreadful fight is o'er ; 
Thick clouds of smoke are seen no more : 
The snowy plain i.s red with gore, 

Where fell the friends of liberty. 



ii>iif-- V