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r v^>v^ 



JOURNAL 



OP 



THE DISCOVERY 



OF 



THE SOURCE OF THE NH^E. 



BT 

JOHN HANNING SPEKE, 

CAPTAIN H. M. nnOIAK ARMT, 

VBEXOW AHD OOID IdDALIR OP THB BOTAL QBOSKAFmaAL SOOIRT, HOH. OOIB. MEMBn ABD 
aOLD MSDAUBT OV THB IBBICB OaOGXAPmOAL 800IKrT, RO. 



mctt IVap anH 9ottr8fts» atOi nmmetotts IlltttttitCoiis, 

CHIEFLY FROM DRAWINGS BY CAPTAIN OBANT. 



NEW YORK: 

HABPER A BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS, 

FmAHKLIH 8QUAJIB. 

18 64 






THE Ni-V,- 



r> fi 8 8 






TO 

THOSE KIND FRIENDS , 

WHO THOUGHT OF UB, AND RAISED AN EXPEDITION TO SUOOOR U8> WHEN 

WE WEBE SUPPOSED TO BE IN GBEAT DANGER IN 

THE CENTRE OP AFRICA* 

THIS WORK 
Jb (SratefttUs Debkateb. 

J. H. 8PEKE. 

JOBDAUB, Deember^ 1883. 



CONTENTS- 



CHAPTER I. 

UyVDOS TO ZANZIBAB, I859l 

The Design.— The Preparations.— Departore.— The Cape.— The Zfllfl Kafirs — 
Tnrtle-tnming. — Capture of a Slaver. — ^Arrive at Zanzibar.— Local Politics and 
News since last Visit.— Organization of the Expedition Page 31 

CHAPTER n. 

UZARAMO. 

The Natore of the Conntry.— The Order of March.— The Beginning of onr Taxa- 
tion. — Sultan Lion's Claw and Saltan Monkey's Tail.— The Kingani.— Jealousies 
and Difficulties in the Camp. — ^The Murderer of M. Maizan 48 

CHAPTER in. 

USAOABA. 

Nature of the Country. — ^Resumption of the March. — A Hunt. — ^Bombay andBaraka. 
— ^The SlaTe-hnnters. — ^The lyoiy-merchants. — Collection of Natural-history Spec- 
imens. — A frightened Village. — ^Tracking a Mule 56 

CHAPTER IV. 

UOOGO, AHD THB WILDBBNB88 OF MOnia>A MKHAU. 

The Lie of the Conntry. — ^Rhinoceros-stalking. — Scuffle of Villagers over a Carcass. 
— Chief ''Short-legs'' and his Successor. — Buffalo-shooting. — Getting Lost. — ^A 
Troublesome SuItan.^Desertions IVom the Camp.— Getting Plundered.- Wilder- 
ness March. — Diplomatic Relations with the Local Powers. — Manila Sdra's 
Story.-<:;hristmas.— The Relief from Eaz^ 78 

CHAPTER V. 

U-N-TA-Muizi. 

The Country and People of IJ-n-ya-mtl^zi.— Eiiz^, the Capital.— Old Mflsa.- The 
naked Wakidi. — ^The N'yanza, and the Question of the Riyer running in or out. 
— ^The Contest between Mohinna and " Short-legs."— Famine.— The Arabs and 
Local Wars.— The Sultana of Unyamb^wa.— Ungflrtt^ '< the Pig."— Pillage... 98 

CHAPTER VI. 

UZDrZA. 

The Politics of Uzinza.— The Wahttma.— "The Pig's'* Trick.— First Taste of Ustti 
Taxation.— Pillaged by Mfllmbi.— Pillaged by Makaka.— Pillaged by Lflmdr^i. 
—Grant stripped by M'yonga.- Stripped again by Rtlh^. —Terrors and Defec- 
tions in the Camp. — ^Driven back to Kaz^ with new Tribulations and Impedi- 
ments 187 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER Vn. 

USUI. 

Taxation recommenced.— A great Doctor.— Sliwarora Pillaging.— The Arabs.— 
Conference with an Embassador from Uganda.— Dispntes in Camp.— Bivaby of 
Bombay apd Baraka. — ^Departure from the inhospitable Districts Page 178 

CHAPTER Vin. 

KARAOUK. 

Relief from Protectors and Pillagers.— The Scenery and Geology.— Meeting with 
the friendly King RCLmanika. — His Hospitalities and Attention. — His Senrices 
to the Expedition. — Philosophical and Theological Inquiries. — The Royal Fam- 
ily of Karagd^. — ^The M-fumbiro Mountain. — ^Navigation of '*The Little Winder- 
mere." — The New-moon Lev^ — Rhinoceros and Hippopotamus Hunting. — 
Measurement of a fattened Queen. — Political Polygamy. — Christmas. — Rumors 
of Petherick*s Expedition. — ^Arrangements to meet it. — Mareh to Uganda. ... 197 

CHAPTER IX. 

HISTOSY OF THE WAHUHA. 

The Ab3ri8inians and Gallas. — ^Theory of Conquest of inferior by superior Races. — 
The WahOma and the Kingdom of Kittara. — ^Legendary History of the Kingdom 
of Uganda. — ^Its Constitution, and the Ceremonials of the Court 241 

CHAPTER X. 

KARAGUE Aia> UGANDA. 

Escape from Protectors. — Cross the KitangtHe, the first Affluent of the Nile. — ^Enter 
UddtL — Uganda. — A rich Country. — Driving away the Devil. — A Conflict in the 
Camp. — A pretending Prince. — ^Three Pages with a diplomatic Message from the 
King of Uganda. — Crime in Uganda 255 

CHAPTER XI. 

PALACE, UGANDA. 

Preparations for the Reception at the Court of Mtdsa, King of Uganda. — The Cere- 
monial.— African Diplomacy and Dignity. — ^Feats with tlie Rifle. — Cruelty, and 
Wastefulness of Life. — The Pages.- The Queen-dowager ofUganda.— Her Court 
Reception. — I negotiate for a Palace. — Conversations with the King and Queen. 
—The Qaeen*8 grand Entertainment. — Royal Dissipation 280 

CHAPTER XII. 
PALACE, UGANDA — Contimted. 
Continued diplomatic Difficulties.— Negro Chaffing. — The King in a new Costume! 
—Adjutant and Heron Shooting at Court. — My Residence changed. — Scenes at 
Court. — The Kamraviona, or Commandervn-chief.- Quarrels.-— Confidential 
Communications with the King. — Court Executions and Executioners.- Another 
Day with the Queen 310 

CHAPTER Xm. 
PALACE, UGANDA — Continued, ^ 
A Visit to a distinguished Statesman.— A Visit from the King.— Royal Sport.- The 
Queen's Present of Wives.— The Court Beauties and their Reverses.— Judicial 

i 



CONTENTS. xi 

Procednre in Uganda.-r-Baffalo-haiiting. — ^A Masical Party. — My Medical Prac- 
tioe. — ^A Royal Excursion on the N'yanza. — The Canoes of Uganda. — A Regatta. 
— ^Rifle Practice. — Domestic Difficulties. — Interference of a Magician. — The 
King's Brothers. Page 842 

CHAPTER XIV. 
PALACE, UGA2IDA — Continued. 

Reception of a yictorions Army at Court. — Royal Sport. — A Reyiew of the Troops. 
—Negotiations for the Opening of the Road along the Nile. — Grant's Return. — 
Pillagings. — Court Marriages. — The King's Brothers. — ^Divinations and Sacri- 
fices. — ^The Road granted at last. — ^The Preparations for continuing the Expedi- 
tion.~The Departure 373 

CHAPTER XV. 

MABCH DOWH THB NOBTHEBN SLOPES OF AFRICA. 

Kui. — ^Tragic Incident there. — Renewal of Troubles. — Quarrels with the Nativefl.— 
Reach the Nile. — Description of the Scene there. — Sport. — Church Estate. — As- 
cend the River to the Junction with the Lake. — Ripon Falls. — Greneral Account 
of the Source of the Nile. — Descend again to Urondogani.-^The truculent Saki- 
bobo 416 

CHAPTER XVI. 

BAHB BL ABIAD. 

First Voyage on the Nile. — ^The Starting. — ^Description of the Rirer and the Coun- 
try. — ^Meet a hostile Vessel. — A naval Engagement. — Difficulties and Dangers. — 
Judicial Procedure. — ^Messages from the King of Uganda. — His Efforts to get us 
back. — ^Desertion. — ^The Wanyoro Troops. — Kamrasi. — Elephant-stalking. — ^Dia^ 
bolical Possessions 435 

CHAPTER XVn. 

UNTORO. 

Invitation to the Palace at last. — Journey to it. — Bombay's Visit to King Kamrasi. 
—Our Reputation as Cannibals. — Reception at Court. — Acting the Physician 
again. — Royal Mendicancy 465 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
URTOBO — Continued, 
The^Ceremonies of the New Moon. — Kamrasi's Rule and Discipline. — An Embassy 
from Uganda, and its Results. — The rebellious Brothers. — An African Sorcerer 
and his Incantations. — The Kamraviona of Unyoro. — Burial Customs. — Ethio- 
pian Legends. — Complicated Diplomacy for our Detention. — ^Proposal to send 
Princes to England. — ^We get away^ 474 

CHAPTER XIX 

THE MABCH TO MADL 

Sail down the Kaftl.— The navigable Nile. — Fishing and Sporting Population. — 
The Scenery on the River. — An inhospitable Governor. — Karuma Falls. — Native 
Superstitions.— Thieveries. — Hospitable Reception at Koki by Chongi 506 



xii CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XX. 

MADI. 

Jnnction of the two Hemispheres. — ^The first Contact with Persons acqaainted with 
European Habits. — Intermptions and Plots. — ^The mysterious Mahamed. — Natire 
Revelries. — ^The Plundering and Tyranny of the Turks. — The Rascalities of the 
Ivory Trade. — Feeling for the Nile. — ^Taken to see a Mark left by a European. — 
Buffalo, Eland, and Rhinoceros Stalking.— Meet Baker. — Pethezick's Arrival at 
Gondokoro Page 521 

Conclusion 548 

Appendix 558 



\ 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAOS 

PoBZBAiT OF Captain Spbkb in Dress worn- in Africa (/Vontitpieee) 

from PhAograpk hy Southwell Brothers, 
386. PosTBAiT OF Captain Gbant in Dress worn in Africa 

Jirom Photograph by Urquhart^ Dingwall, 
34. Zulu Kafib, Delaooa Bay Grant. 

37. Banyan contjemflaxino bib Account-book LUut. Suther. 

38. Said Majid, Sultan of Zanzibab ,Jrom Photograpli by Col. Ploajfair. 

43. MzABAMO^OB Nativb of Uza&amo Grata, 

44. Wazabamo, People of Uzabaho do. 

56. MsAOABA, OB Nativb of Usaoaba do. 

61. Mkahbaku Hill, viewed fbom Zunoombbo Speke. 

65. Hill View fbom Eastebn Mbuioa do. 

70. BuGir, Calabash, OB Gouty-limbbd Tbees do. 

78. Mgo60,ob Native of Ugogo Grant. 

74. View of East Coast Range fbom Mabenoa Mkhali Spek^. 

76. OuB Cakp in Uoooo Grant. 

79. New Antelope — ^Uoooo .from Specimen, Wolff, 

83. Thbeb Buffalo-chaboes in one Day — Mounda Mkhau 

Zwecker,from Sketch by Speke. 
91. The TembbjOB Mud Village, at Jiwa la Mkoa Speke. 

97. View in Eastebn Unyanyembe do. 

98. MvAXuizijOB Native of Unyamubzi Grant. 

100. Fbont View of Musa's Tbmb^ at Kaze tio. 

101. Wanyamuezi Obnaments, etc do. 

103. Do. Implbments do. 

117. Sibboko's Slaves gabbyino Fuel and cumKo Rice 

Zwecker,Jrom Sketch by do. 

129. Unyamubzi Habvebt Grant, 

132. Ukulima's Village do. 

187. MziNZA, OB Native of Uzinza do. 

149. Gbant DaiA^ng with Ukulima do. 

154. Lumbee8I*s Residence do. 



xiv ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAQB 

169. Blacksmith's Shop Grant. 

184. Uthunqu Vallbt do. 

186. Odb Camp in thb Uthiinou Vallbt — ^Thb Wasui brinoiro Fbo- 

VISIONS POB Salb Zwecker, from Sketch by do, 

197. Ohb op thb Wahuma do, 

204. OuB Camp outsidb thb Palace, Eabagub... Ztcedcer^from Sketch by do, 

210. Musicians— Kabaoub Zwecker, from Sketch by do, 

211. YiBw op Mount Mfumbibo, and Dbainaob System of the Lunjb 

MoNTES Spehe. 

220. NzoE Antelopes — Ltttlb Windeemebb, Eabague 

Wolff, from Sketch by do. 

222. The Eino*s New-moon Letee Grant. 

227. Pbesentino mt Hunting Spoils to Rumanika 

Zwedter,Jrom Sketches by Speke j- GraxL 

247. Waganda Wab-Instruments Grant. 

256. Febrt on the Kitangule Rdter do, 

260. Babaza and Resibence op Eambasi's Uncle — ^Ngambezi do. 

269. Waganda Bbewing Pombe do. 

277. View of King Mtesa's Palace fbom mt Hut— Uganda <fo. 

280. Mganda, or Native op Uganda do, 

285. King of Uganda betibing do. 

297. Eambabi Fish Speke, 

387. A Queen dragged to Execution— Uganda Grant. 

360. View of the Murchison Cheek do, 

362. Uganda Boat Speke. 

370. Captain Gbant leaving Eabagub Grant. 

382. King of Uganda reviewing Col. Congo*s Regiment 

Zwecker,/rom Sketch by Speke. 

388. King Mtssa holding a Levee Zwecker, from Sketch by Grant. 

392. Speke intboduobs Grant to the Queen-dowager of Uganda.... do, 

400. Palace Guabdb at Dinneb— Uganda do. 

407. Waganda Officers dbinking Pombe do. 

423. Goatsuckeb (Cosmetoniis Spekii) from Specimen, Wolff. 

427. The Ripon Falls— the Nile flowing out of Victoria N'yanza Speke. 

432. N'SAMMA Antelope— Uganda Wolff, from Sketch by do. 

451. The Elephants* Chabge Zwecker, from Sketch by do. 

466. EiNG Eamrasi's Palace prom my Hut— Untoro Grant. 

482. Spekb*s Men killing a Cow, with Magician, etc., looking on 

Zwecker,Jrom Sketch by do. 
494. Eamrasi's First Lesson in the Bible do. 

499. ElMENTA THE DwABF clo. 

511. Gboup of Eidi Men on a Visit to Eing Eamrasi ! do. 

518. The Earuma Falls — Eidi ,/o. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. XV 

FAOB 

517. Gsocp OP Gahi Men .' Grant. 

523. Tusks' Wites and Childben do. 

528« Bexoyino ▲ ViLULGB — Madi do. 

529. Ttino up Iyobies fob the Mabch do. 

532. Mahajcsd*8 Fabtt on the Mabch do. 

534. The Nile and Jbl Kukd do, 

541. Mission-house, Gondokobo do. 

546. The Nile below the Junction or the Asua Riyeb ^. 

560. Speke's "Faithfuls" from Photograph by Roy er of Cairo. 

552. Women of the Expedition Jram Ph<aograph by do. 



Map of Eabtebn Equatobial Afbica (at end ofiht Volume) Speke. 

Map of the Nile fbom its Soubce, according to the ancieiit Hindfi 
Books, page 80. 



INTRODUCTION. 



In the following pages I have endeavored to describe all that 
appeared to me most important and interesting among the events 
and the scenes that came under my notice during my sojourn in 
the interior of Africa. If my account should not entirely harmo- 
nize with preconceived notions as to primitive races, I can not 
help it. I profess accurately to describe naked Africa — Africa 
in those places where it has not received the slightest impulse, 
whether for good or for evil, from European civilization. If the 
picture be a dark one, we should, when contemplating these sons 
of Noah, try and carry our mind back to that time when our poor 
elder brother Ham was. cursed by his father, and condemned to 
be the slave of both Shem and Japheth ; for as they were then, 
so they appear to be now — a strikingly existing proof of the 
Holy Scriptures. But one thing must be remembered : While 
the people of Europe and Asia were blessed by communion with 
God through the medium of His prophets, and obtained divine 
laws to regulate their ways and keep them in mind of Him who 
made them, the Africans were excluded from this dispensation, 
and consequently have no idea of an overruling Providence or a 
future state; they therefore trust to luck and to charms, and think 
only of self-preservation in this world. Whatever, then, may be 
said against them for being too avaricious or too destitute of fel- 
low-feeling, should rather reflect on ourselves, who have been so 
much better favored, yet have neglected to teach them, than on 
those who, while they are sinning, know not what they are doing. 
To say a negro is incapable of instruction is a mere absurdity, 
for those few boys who have been educated in our schools have 
proved themselves even quicker than our own at learning; while, 
among themselves, the deepness of their cunning and their power 
of repartee are quite surprising, and are especially shown in their 
proficiency for telling lies most appropriately in preference to 
truth, and with an ofif-handed manner that makes them most 
amusing. 

B 



xviii INTBODUCTION. 

With these remarks, I now give, as an appropriate introduction 
to my narrative, (1.) An account of the general geographical fea- 
tures of the countries we are about to travel in, leaving the details 
to be treated under each as we successively pass through them ; 
(2.) A general view of the atmospheric agents which wear down 
and so continually help to reduce the continent, yet at the same 
time assist to clothe it with vegetation; (3.) A general view of 
the Flora; and, lastly, that which consumes it, (4.) Its Fauna; 
ending with a few special remarks on the Wanguana, or men 
freed from slavery. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

The continent of Africa is something like a dish turned upside 
down, having a high and flat central plateau, with a higher rim 
of hills surrounding it; from below which, exterially, it suddenly 
slopes down to the flat strip of land bordering on the sea. A 
dish, however, is generally uniform in shape — Africa is not. For 
instance, we find in its centre a high group of hills surrounding 
the head of the Tanganyika Lake, composed chiefly of argilla- 
ceous sandstones, which I suppose to be the Lun» Montes of 
Ptolemy, or the Soma Giri of the ancient Hindus. Farther, in- 
stead of a rim at the northern end, the country shelves down from 
the equator to the Mediterranean Sea ; and on the general surface 
of the interior plateau there are basins full of water (lakes), from 
which, when rains overflow them, rivers are formed, that, cutting 
through the flanking rim of hills, find their way to the sea. 

ATMOSPHERIC AGENTS. 

On the east coast, near Zanzibar, we find the rains following 
the track of the sun, and lasting not more than forty days on any 
part that the sun crosses, while the winds blow from southwest 
or northeast toward the regions heated by its vertical position. 
But in the centre of the continent, within 6*^ of the equator, we 
find the rains much more lasting. For instance, at 6° south lati- 
tude, for the whole six months that the sun is in the south, rain 
continues to Mi, and I have heard that the same takes place at 
5° north ; while on the equator, or rather a trifle to northward 
of it, it rains more or less the whole year round, but most at the 
equinoxes, as shown in the table on the following page. The 
winds, though somewhat less steady, are still very determinable. 
With an easterly tending, they deflect north and south, following 



INTRODUCTION. 



XIX 



Thb NiTMBBS or Days on which Rain fell (more or less) during the March of 
the East African Expedition from Zanzibar to Gondokoro. 





Days on 




Days on 




Days on 


18ML 


which rain 


186L 


which rain 


1808. 


which rain 




fcU. 




felL 




fell 






January 


19 


January 


14 






February 


21 


February* 


12 






March 


17 


March 


21 






April 
May 


17 
8 


April 
May 


27 
26 






June 





June 


20 






July 


1 


July 


22 






August 


• 1 


August 


20 






September 


9 


September 


18 


October 


i 


October 


11 


October 


27 


NoTember 





November 


17 


November 


20 


December 


20 


December 


16 


December 


6 



* The eqoator waa croaaed on the 8tb of February, 18<I2. 

the Ban. In the dryer season they blow so cold that the sun's 
heat is not distressing ; and in consequence of this, and the aver- 
age altitude of the plateau, which is 8000 feet, the general tern* 
perature of the atmosphere is very pleasant, as I found from ex- 
perience ; for I walked every inch of the journey dressed in thick 
woolen clothes, and slept every night between blankets.* 



FLORA. 

From what has been said regarding the condition of the atmos- 
phere, it may readily be imagined that Africa, in those parts, 
after all, is not so bad as people supposed it was ; for, when so 
much moisture falls under a vertical sun, all vegetable life must 
grow up almost spontaneously. It does so on the equator in the 
most profuse manner ; but down at 5® south, where there are six 
months' drought, the case is somewhat different, and the people 
would be subject to famines if they did not take advantage of 
their rainy season to lay in suflScient stores for the fine: and here 
we touch on the misfortune of the country ; for the negro is too 
lazy to do so effectively, owing chiefly, as we shall see presently, 
to want of a strong protecting government One substantial fact 
has been established, owing to our having crossed over ten degrees 
of latitude in the centre of .the continent, or from 5° south to 5° 
north latitude, which is this : There exists a regular gradation of 
fertility, surprisingly rich on the equator, but decreasing syste- 
matioJly from it ; and the reason why this great fertile zone is 
confined to the equatorial regions is the same as that which has 

* See climate for one year borderiDg on the Victoria N'yanza, deduced from the 
obsenrations of Captain Grant by Francis Galton, F.B.S., in the Appendix. 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

• 

constituted it the great focus of water or lake supply, whence 
issue the principal rivers of Africa. On the equator lie the rain- 
bearing influences of the Mountains of the Moon. The equato- 
rial line is, in fiact, the centre of atmospheric motion.* 

FAUNA. 

In treating of this branch of natural history, we will first take 
man — ^the true curly -head, flab-nosed, pouch-mouthed negro — ^not 
the Wahuma.f They are well distributed all over these lati- 
tudes, but are not found any where in dense communities. Their 
system of government is mostly of the patriarchal character. 
Some are pastorals, but most are agriculturists ; and this differ- 
ence, I believe, originates solely from want of a stable govern- 
ment, to enable them to reap what they produce ; for where the 
negro can save his cattle, which is his wealth, by eating grain, he 
will do it In the same way, as all animals, whether wild or 
tame, require a guide to lead their flocks, so do the negroes find 
it necessary to have chiefs over their villages and little commu- 
nities, who are their referees on all domestic or political questions. 
They have both their* district and their village chiefs, but, in the 
countries we are about to travel over, no kings such as we shall 
find that the Wahiima have. The district chief is absolute, 
though guided in great measure by his " graybeards," who con- 
stantly attend his residence, and talk over their affairs of state. 
These commonly concern petty internal matters, for they are too 
selfish and too narrow-minded to care for any thing but their 
own private concerns. The graybeards circulate the orders of 
the chief among the village chiefe, who are fined when they do 
not comply with them; and hence all orders are pretty well 
obeyed. 

One thing only tends to disorganize the country, and that is 
war, caused, in the first instance, by polygamy, producing a fam- 
ily of half-brothers, who, all aspiring to succeed their father, fight 
continually with one another, and make their chief aim slaves 
and cattle ; while, in the second instance, slavery keeps them ever 
fighting and reducing their numbers. The government revenues 
are levied, on a very small scale, exclusively for the benefit of 
the chief and his graybeards. For instance, as a sort of land-tax, 
the chief has a right to drink free from the village brews of 

* Captain Grant's collection of the flora of Africa will be found in the Ai^)endjx. 
t The Wahttma are treated of in Chapter IX. 



INTRODUCmON. xxi 

pomb^ (a kind of beer made by fermentation), which are made in 
turn by all the villagers successively. In case of an elephant be- 
ing killed, he also takes a share of the meat^ and claiftis one of its 
tusks as his right ; farther, all leopard, lion, or zebra skins are his 
by right On merchandise brought into the coiintry by traders, 
he has a general right to make any exactions he thinks he has 
the power of enforcing, without any regard to justice or a regu- 
lated tariff. This right is called Hongo, in the plural Mahongo. 
Another source of revenue is in the effects of all people con- 
demned for sorcery, who are either burnt, or speared and cast into 
the jungles, and their property seized by the graybeards for their 
chief. 

As to punishments, all irreclaimable thieves or murderers are 
killed and disposed of in the same manner as these sorcerers, 
while on minor thieves a penalty equivalent to the extent of the 
depredation is levied. Elicit intercourse being treated as petty 
larceny, a value is fixed according to the value of the woman — 
for it must be .remembered all women are property. Indeed, 
marriages are considered a very profitable Speculation, the girl's 
hand being in the father's gift, who marries her to any one who 
will pay her price. This arrangement, however, is not considered 
a simple matter of buying and selling, but delights in the high- 
sounding title of " dowry." Slaves, cows, goats, fowls, brass wire, 
or beads, are the usual things given for this species of dowry. 
The marriage-knot, however, is never irretrievably tied; for if the 
wife finds a defect in her husband, she can return to her father 
by refunding the dowry ; while the husband, if he objects to his 
wife, can claim half price on sending her home again, which is 
considered fair, because as a second-hand article her future value 
would be diminished by half. By thia system, it must be ob- 
served, polygamy is a source of wealth, since a man's means are 
measured by the number of his progeny ; but it has other advant- 
ages besides the dowry, for the women work more than the men 
do, both in and out of doors ; and, in addition to the fem'ales, the 
sons work for the household until they marry, and in after life 
take care of their parents in the same way as in the first instance 
the parents took care of them. 

Twins are usually hailed with delight, because they swell the 
power of the family, though in some instances they are put to 
death. Albinos are valued, though their color is not admired. 
If death occurs in a natural manner, the body is usually either 



xrii INTRODUCTION. 

buried in the village or outside. A large portion of the negro 
races affect ntdity, despising clothing as effeminate; but these 
are chiefly i!he more boisterous, roving pastorals, who are too lazy 
either to grow cotton or strip the trees of their bai^. Their 
young women go naked ; but the mothers suspend a little tail 
both before and behind. As the hair of the negro will not grow 
long, a barber might be dispensed with, were it not that they de- 
light in odd fashions, and are therefore continually either shaving 
it off altogether, or else fashioning it after the most whimsical de- 
signs. No people in the world are so proud and headstrong as 
the negroes, whether- they be pastoral or agriculturists. With 
them, as with the rest of the world, " familiarity breeds con- 
tempt;" hospitality lives only one day; for, though proud of a 
rich or white visitor — and they implore him to stop, that they 
may keep feeding their eyes on his curiosities — ^they seldom give 
more than a cow or a goat, though professing to supply a whole 
camp with provisions. 

Taking the negroes as a whole, one does not find very marked 
or much difference in them. Each tribe has its characteristics, it 
is true. For instance, one cuts his teeth or tattoos his &ce in a 
different manner from the others ; but, by the constant intermar- 
riage with slaves, much of this effect is lost, and it is &rther lost 
sight of owing to the prevalence of migrations caused by wars 
and the division of governments. As with the tribal marks, so 
with their weapons ; those most commonly in use are the spear, 
assegai, shield, bow and arrow. It is true, some affect one, some 
the other ; but in no way do we see that the courage of tribes can 
be determined by the use of any particular weapon ; for the brav- 
est use the arrow, which is the more dreaded, while the weakest 
confine themselves to the spear. Lines of traffic are the worst 
tracks (there are no roads in the districts here referred to) for a 
traveler to go upon, not only because the hospitality of the peo- 
ple has been damped by firequent communication with travelers, 
but, by intercomse with the semi-civilized merchant, their natural 
honor and honesty are corrupted, their cupidity is increased, and 
the show of fire-arms ceases to frighten them. 

Of paramount consideration is the power held by the magician 
(MgangaV who rules the minds of the kings as did the old popes 
of Europe. They, indeed, are a curse to the traveler; for if it 
suits their inclinations to keep him out of the country, they have 
merely to prognosticate aU sorts of calamities — as droughts, iam- 



ENTBODUCnON. xxiii 

ines, or wars — in the event of his setting eyes on the soil, and the 
chie&, people, and all, would believe them ; for, as may be im- 
agined, widi men unenlightened, supernatural and imaginary pre- 
dictions work with more force than substantial reasons. Their 
implement of divination, simple as it may appear, is a cow's or 
antelope's horn (Uganga), which they stuff with magic powder, 
also (»Jled Uganga. Stuck into the ground in front of the vil- 
lage, it is supposed to have sufficient ppwer to ward off the at- 
tacks of an enemy. 

By simply holdiug it in the hand, the magician pretends he 
can discover any thing that has been stolen or lost; and instances 
have been told of its dragging four men after it with irresistible 
impetus up to a thief, when it belabored the culprit and drove 
him out of his senses. So imbued are the natives' minds with 
belief in the power of charms, that they pay the magician for 
sticks, stones, or mud, which he has doctored for them. They be- 
lieve certain flowers held in the hand will conduct them to any 
thing lost ; as also that the voice of certain wild animals, birds, 
or beasts, will insure them good luck, or warn them of danger. 
With the utmost complacency, our sable brother builds a dwarf 
hut in his fields, and places some grain on it to propitiate the evil 
spirit, and suffer him to reap the fruits of his labor, and this, too, 
they call their Uganga, or church. 

These are a few of the more innocent alternatives the poor ne- 
groes resort to in place of a " Savior." They have also many 
other and more horrible devices. For instance, in times of tribu- 
lation, the magician, if he ascertains a war is projected by inspect- 
ing the blood and bones of a fowl which he has flayed for that 
purpose, flays a young child, and, having laid it lengthwise on a 
path, directs all the warriors, on proceeding to battle, to step over 
his sacrifice and insure themselves victory. Another* of these 
extra barbarous devices takes place when a chief wishes to make 
war on his neighbor, by his calling in a magician to discover a 
propitious time for commencing. The doctor places a large 
earthen vessel, half full of water, over a fire, and over its mouth 
a grating of sticks, whereon he lays a small child and a fowl side 
by side, and covers them over with a second lalge earthen vessel, 
just like the first, only iuverted, to keep the steam in, when he 
sets fire below, cooks for a certain period of time, and then looks 
to see if his victims are still living or dead — ^when, should they be 
dead, the war must be deferred, but otherwise commenced at once. 



xxiy 



nrTRODTJCTION. 



These extremefl, however, are not often resorted to, for the na- 
tives are usuallj content with simpler means, such as flaying a 
goat, instead of a child, to be walked over ; while, to prevent any 
evil approaching their dwellings, a squashed frog, or any other 
such absurdity, when placed on the track, is considered a spe- 
dflc. 

How the negro has lived so many ages without advancing 
seems marvelous, when all the countries surrounding Africa are 
so forward in comparison ; and, judging from the progressive 
state of the world, one is led to suppose that the African must 
soon either step out from his darkness, or be superseded by a be- 
ing superior to himself. Could a government be formed for them 
like ours in India, they would be saved; but without it, I fear 
there is very little chance ; for at present the African neither can 
help himself nor will he be helped by others, because his country 
is in such a constant state of turmoil he has too much anxiety on 
hand looking out for his food to think of any thing else. As his 
fathers ever did, so does he. He works his wife, sells his chil- 
dren, enslaves all he can lay hands upon, and, unless when fight- 
ing for the property of others, contents himself with drinking, 
singing, and dancing like a baboon, to drive dull care away. A 
few only make cotton cloth, or work in wood, iron, copper, or salt; 
their rule being to do as little as possible, and to store up nothing 
beyond the necessities of the next season, lest their chiefi or 
neighbors should covet and take it from them. 

Slavery, I may add, is one great cause of laziness, for the mas- 
ters become too proud to work, lest they should be thought slaves 
themselves. In consequence of this, the women look after the 
household work, such as brewing, cooking, grinding com, making 
pottery and baskets, and taking care of the house and the children, 
besides helping the slaves while cultivating, or even tending the 
cattle sometimes. 

Now, descending to the inferior order of creation, I shall com- 
mence with the domestic animals first, to show what the traveler 
may expect to find for his usual support Cows, after leaving the 
low lands near the coast, are found to be plentiful every where, 
and to produce fhilk in small quantities, from which butter is 
made. Goats are common all over Africa; but sheep are not so 
plentiful, nor do they show such good breeding, being generally 
lanky, with long fet tails. Fowls, much like those in India, are 
ablindant every where. A few Muscovy ducks are imported, 



rNTBODUCnON. XXV 

also pigeons and cats. Dogs, like the Indian pariah, are very 
plentifal, only much smaller ; and a few donkeys are found in 
certain localities. Now, considering this goodly supply of meat, 
while all tropical plants will grow just as well in central equato- 
rial Africa as they do in India, it surprises the traveler there 
should be any &mines ; yet such is tSo often the case ; and the 
negro, with these bounties within his reach, is sometimes found 
eating dogs, cats, rats, porcupines, snakes, lizards, tortoises, locusts, 
and white ants, or is forced to seek the seeds of wild grasses, or 
to pluck wild herbs, fruits, and roots, while at the proper seasons 
they hunt the wild elephant, buffalo, giraffe, zebra, pigs, and ante- 
lopes, or, going out with their arrows, have battues against the 
Guinea-fowls and small birds. 

The frequency with which collections of villages are found all 
over the countries we are alluding to leaves but very little scope 
for the runs of wild animals, which are found only in dense 
jungles, open forests, or prairies, generally speaking, where hills 
can protect them, and near rivers whose marshes produce a thick 
growth of vegetation to conceal them from their most dreaded 
enemy — man. The prowling, restless elephant, for instance, 
though rarely seen, leaves indications of his nocturnal excursions 
in every wilderness by wantonly knocking down the forest-trees. 
The morose rhinoceros, though less numerous, are found in every 
thick jungle. So is the savage buffalo, especially delighting in 
dark places, where he can wallow in the mud and slake his thirst 
without much trouble ; and here also we find the wild pig. 

The gruff hippopotamus is as wide-spread as any," being found 
wherever there is water to float him ; while the shy giraffe and 
zebra affect all open forests and plains where the grass is iaot too 
long ; and antelopes, of great variety in species and habits, are 
found wherever man will let them alone and they can find water. 
The lion is, however, rarely heard — much more seldom seen. 
Hyenas are numerous, and thievishly inclined. Leopards, less 
common, are the terror of the villagers. Foxes are nbt numer- 
ous, but frighten the black traveler by their Ul-omened bark. 
Hares, about half the size of English ones — ^there are no rabbits 
— ^are widely spread, but not numerous; porcupines the same. 
Wild-cats, and animala of the ferret kind, destroy game. Monk- 
eys of various kinds, and squirrels, harbor in the trees, but are 
rarely seen. Tortoises and snakes, in great variety, crawl over 
the ground, mostly after the rains. Bats and lizards — there are 



xxvi INTRODUCTION. 

but few mice — ^are very abundant, and feed both in the fields and 
on the stores of the men. 

The wily ostrich, bustard, and florikan affect all open plaoeSb 
The Guinea-fowl is the most numerous of all game-birds. Par- 
tridges come next, but do not afford good sport; and quails are 
rare. Ducks and snipe appear to love Africa less than any other 
country ; and geese and storks are only found where water most 
abounds. Vultures are uncommon; hawks and crows much 
abound, as in all other countries; but little birds, of every color 
and note, are discoverable in great quantities near water and by 
the villages. Huge snails and small ones, as well as fresh-water 
shells, are very abundant, though the conchologist would find but 
little variety to repay his labors; and insects, though innumer- 
able, are best sought for afi;er the rains have set in."^ 

THE WA-N-GUANA, OR FREED MEN. 

The Wa-n-guana, as their name implies, are men freed from 
slavery ; and as it is to these singular negroes acting as hired 
servants that I have been chiefly indebted for opening this large 
section of Africa, a few general remarks on their character can 
not be out of place here. 

Of course, having been bom in Africa, and associated in child- 
hood with the untainted negroes, they retain all the superstitious 
notions of the true aborigines, though somewhat modified, and 
even corrupted, by that acquaintance with the outer world which 
sharpens their wits. 

Most of these men were doubtless caught in wars, as may be 
seen every day in Africa, made slaves of, and sold to the Arabs 
for a few yards of common cloth, brass wire, or beads. They 
would then be taken to the Zanzibar market, resold like horses 
to the highest bidder, and then kept in bondage by their new 
masters, more like children of his family than any thing else. In 
this new position they were circumcised to make Mussulmans of 
them, that their hands might be " clean" to slaughter their mas- 
ter's cattle, and extend his creed ; for the Arabs believe the day 
must come when the tenets of Mohammed will be accepted by all 
men. 

The slave in this new position finds himself much better off 
than he ever was in his life before, with this exception, that as a 

* The list of my faana collection will be found in an earlj namber of the *'Pn>- 
ceedings of the 2k>ological Society of London." 



INTRODUCTION. XXvii 

slave he feels himself much degraded in the social scale of society, 
and his family ties are all cut off from him — ^probably his rela- 
tions have all been killed in the war in which he was captured. 
Still, after the first qualms have worn off, we find him much at- 
tached to his master, who feeds him and finds him in clothes in 
return for the menial services which he performs. In a few years 
after capture, or when confidence has been gained by the attach- 
ment shown by the slave, if the master is a trader in ivory, he 
will intrust him with the charge of his stores, and send him all 
over the interior of the continent to purchase for him both slaves 
and ivory ; but should the master die, according to the Moham- 
medan creed the slaves ought to be freed. In Arabia this would 
be the case, but at Zanzibar it more generally happens that the 
slave is willed to his successor. 

The whole system of slaveholding by the Arabs in Africa, or 
rather on the coast or at Zanzibar, is exceedingly strange; for the 
slaves, both in individual physical strength and in numbers, are 
so superior to the Arab foreigners, that if they chose to rebel, 
they might send the Arabs flying out of the land. It happens, 
however, that they are spell-bound, not knowing their strength 
any more than domestic animals, and they even seem to consider 
that they would be dishonest if they ran away after being pur- 
chased, and so brought pecuniary loss on their owners. 

There are many positions into which the slave may get by the 
couise of events, and I shall give here, as a specimen, the ordinary 
case of one who has been freed by the death of his master, that 
master having been a trader in ivory and slaves in the interior. 
In such a case, the slave so freed in. all probability would com- 
mence life afresh by taking service as a porter with other mer- 
chants, and in the end would raise sufficient capital to commence 
trading himself— first in slaves, because they- are the most easily 
got, and then in ivory. All his accumulations would then go to 
the Zanzibar market, or else to slavers looking out off the coast. 
Slavery begets slavery. To catch slaves is the first thought of 
every chief in the interior; hence fights and slavery impoverish 
the land, and that is the reason both why Africa does not improve, 
and why we find men of all tribes and tongues on the coast The 
ethnologist need only go to Zanzibar to become acquainted with 
all the different tribes to the centre of the continent on that side, 
or to Congo to find the other half south of the equator there. 

Some few fi:eed slaves take service in vessels, of which they are 



xxviii INTBODUCTION. 

especially fond, but most return to Africa to trade in slaves and 
ivory. All slaves learn the coast language, called at Zanzibar 
Kisuabili; and therefore the traveler, if judicious in his selections, 
could find there interpreters to carry him throughout the eastern 
half of South Africa. To the north of the equator the system of 
language entirely changes. 

Laziness is inherent in these men, for which reason, although 
extremely powerful, they will not work unless compelled to do 
so. Having no God, in the Christian sense of the term, to fear or 
worship, they have no love for truth, honor, or honesty. Con- 
trolled by no government, nor yet by home ties, they have no 
reason to think of or look to the future. Any venture attracts 
them when hard-up for food ; and the more roving it is, the better 
they like it. The life of the sailor is most particularly .attractive 
to the freed slave ; for he thinks, in his conceit, that he is on an 
equality with all men when once on the muster-rolls, and then 
he calls all his fellow -Africans "savages." Still, the African's 
peculiarity sticks to him; he has gained no permanent good. 
The association of white men and the glitter of money merely 
dazzle him. He apes like a monkey the jolly Jack Tar, and 
spends his wages accordingly. If chance brings him back again 
to Zanzibar, he calls his old Arab master his father, and goes into 
slavery with as much zest as ever. 

I have spoken of these freed men as if they had no religion. 
This is practically true, though theoretically not so; for the 
Arabs, on circumcising them, teach them to repeat the words 
Allah and Mohammed, and perhaps a few others; but not one in 
ten knows what a soul means, nor do they expect to meet with 
either reward or punishment in the next world, though they are 
taught to regard animals as clean and unclean, and some go 
through the form of a pilgrimage to Mecca. Indeed, the whole 
of their spiritual education goes into oaths and ejaculations, Allah 
and Mohammed being as common in their mouths as damn and 
blast are with our soldiers and sailors. The long and short of 
this story is, that the freed men generally turn out a loose, roving, 
reckless set of beings, quick-witted as the Yankee, from the simple 
fact that they imagine all political matters affect them, and there- 
fore they must have a word in every debate. Nevertheless, they 
are seldom wise ; and lying being more fiimiliar to their constitu- 
tion than truth-saying, they are forever concocting dodges ¥rith 
the view, which they glory in, of successfully cheating people. 



DSfTEODUCTION. xxix 

Sometimes they will show great kindness, even bravery amouot- 
ing to heroism, and proportionate affection ; at another time, with- 
out any cause, they will desert and be treacherous to their sworn 
firiends in the most dastardly manner. Whatever the freak of 
the moment is, that they adopt in the most thoughtless manner, 
even though they may have calculated on advantages beforehand 
in the opposite direction. In fact, no one can rely upon them 
even for a moment. Dog wit, or any silly remarks, will set them 
giggling. Any toy will amuse them. Highly conceited of their 
personal appearance, they are forever cutting their hair in differ- 
ent fashions to surprise a friend ; or if a rag be thrown away, 
they will all in turn fight for it, to bind on their heads, then on 
their loins or spears, peacocking about with it before their admir- 
ing comrades. Even strange feathers or skins are treated by 
them in the same way. 

Should one happen to have any thing specially to communicate 
to his master in camp, he will enter giggling, sidle up to the pole 
of a hut, commence scratching his back with it, then stretch and 
yawn, and gradually, in bursts of loud laughter, slip down to the 
ground on his stem, when he drums with his hands on the top of 
a box until summoned to know what he has at heart, when he 
delivers himself in a peculiar manner, laughs and yawns again, 
and, saying it is time to go, walks off in the same way as he came. 
At other times, when he is called, he will come sucking away at 
the spout of a tea-pot, or scratching his naked arm-pits with a 
table-knife, or, perhaps, polishing the plates for dinner with his 
dirty loin-cloth. K sent to market to purchase a fowl, he comes 
back with a cock tied by the legs to the end of a stick, swinging 
and squalling in the most piteous manner. Then, arrived at the 
cook-shop, he throws the bird down on the ground, holds its head 
between his toes, plucks the feathers to bare its throat, and then, 
nusing a prayer, cuts its head off. 

But enough of the freed man in camp; on the march he is no 
better. K you give him a gun and some ammunition to protect 
him in case of emergencies, he will promise to save it, but forth- 
with expends it by firing it off in the air, and demands more, the 
he will fear to venture among the " savages." Suppose you give 
him a box of bottles to carry, or a desk, or any thing else that re- 
quires great care, and you caution him of its contents, the first 
thing he does is to commence swinging it round and round, or 
putting it topsy-turvy on the top of his head, wlien he will run 



XXX INTBODUCTION. 

• ^ 

off at a jog-trot, singing arid laughing in the most provoking 
manner, and thinking no more about it than if it were an old 
stone ; even if rain were falling, he would put it in the best place 
to get wet through. Economy, care, or forethought never enters 
his head ; the first thing to hand is the right thing for him ; and, 
rather than take the trouble even to look for his own rope to tie 
up his bundle, he would cut off his master's tent-ropes or steal his 
comrade's. His greatest delight is in the fair sex, and when he 
can't get them, next comes beer, song, and a dance. 

Now this is a mild specimen of the " rowdy" negro, who has 
contributed more to open Africa to enterprise and civilization 
than any one else. Possessed of a wonderful amount of loquac- 
ity, great risibility, but no stability — ^a creatut^ of impulse — a 
grown child, in short — ^at first sight it seems wonderful how he 
can be trained to work; for there is no law, no home to bind 
him: he could run away at any moment; and, presuming on this, 
he sins, expecting to be forgiven. Great forbearance, occasionally 
tinctured with a little fatherly severity, is, I believe, the best dose 
for him ; for he says to his master, in the most childish manner, 
after sinning, "You ought to forgive and to forget; for are you 
not a big man who sl^ould be above harboring spite, though for 
a moment you may be angry? Flog me if you like, but don't 
keep count against me, else I shall run away ; and what will you 
do then?" 

The language of this people is just as strange as they are them- 
selves. It is based on euphony, from which cause it is very com- 
plex, the more especially so as it requires one to be possessed of 
a negro's turn of mind to appreciate the system, and unravel the 
secret of its euphonic concord. A Ejsuahili grammar, written by 
Dr. E^rapf, will exemplify what I mean. There is one ^peculiarity, 
however, to which I would direct the attention of the reader most 
particularly, which is, that Wa prefixed to the essential word of a 
country means men or people; Jf prefixed means man or indi- 
vidual ; Z7, in the same way, means place or locality ; and Z? pre- 
fixed indicates the language. Example : Wagogo is the people 
of Gogo; Mgogo is a Gogo man ; Ugogo is the country of Gogo; 
and Kigogo the language of Gogo. 

The only direction here necessary as regards pronunciation of 
native words refers to the % which represents a sound correspond- 
ing to that of the oo in woo. 




The ConTBe of tlie 

RIT^R CA.LI 

or 

GREAT KRISHNA 

CushaDwip . without 

and ! 

Sliaiiklia Dvrip . proper i 

thorn die 

P U R A N S 

Ijy 
Lieul. Frajicis ^Vlllord . 

i 
I 



K 

'.'. ) 



X 



H ^ BT M rkjt^ ;;^^S THAN 




Equator 




\^ I* 



Soma (iiri . or 



prints m bltie 
Map nf Eii9tn-n 
tn Cap''' Spfke 



upu.,\r K ^'> of <■«-"«. -icfa 













Har'jfer A. J^ot Jilt's. NY 



1\ 



JOURNAL OF THE DISCOVERY 

GF 

THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. 



CHAPTER I. 

LONDON TO ZANZIBAR, 1859. 

The Design.— The Preparations.— Departme.— The Cape.— The Ztliti Kafirs. — 
Tartle-tnming. — ^Captnre of a Slayer. — ^Arriye at Zanzibar. — ^Local Politics and 
News since last Visit. — Organisation of the Expedition. 

My third expedition in Africa, which was avowedly for the 
purpose of establishing the truth of my assertion that the Victoria 
N'yanza, which I discovered on the 80th of July, 1858, would 
eventually prove to be the source of the Nile, may be said to 
have commenced on the 9th of May, 1859, the fifst day after my 
return to England from my second expedition, when, at the invi- 
tation of Sir B. L Murchison, I called at his house to show him 
nay map for the information of the Royal Geographical Society. 
Sir Roderick, I need only say, at once accepted my views ; and, 
knowing my ardent desire to prove to the world, by actual in- 
spection of the exit, that the Victoria N'yanza was the source of 
the Nile, seized the enlightened view that such a discovery should 
not be lost to the glory of England and the society of which he 
was president; and said to me, " Speke, we must send you there 
again." I was then officially directed, much against my own in- 
clination, to lecture at the Royal Geographical Society on the 
geography of Africa, which I had, as the sole surveyor of the 
second expedition, laid down on our maps.* A council of the 
Geographical Society was now convened to ascertain what proj- 

* Captain Bnrton, on receiving his gold medal at the hands of Sir Roderick I. 
Murchison, said, '*Ton have allnded, sir, to the snccess of the last expedition. Jus- 
tice compels me to state the circumstances under which it attained that success. To 
Captain Speke are due those geographical results to which yon have alluded in such 
flattering terms. While I undertook the history and ethnography, the languages, 
and the peculiarity of the people, to Captain Spdce fell the arduous task of delinea- 
ting an exact topography, and of laying down our position^ by astronomical ob- 



32 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. 

ects I had in view for making good my discovery by oonnect- 
ing the lake with the Nile, as also what assistance I should want 
for that purpose. 

Some thought my best plan would be to go up the Nile, which 
seemed to them the natural course to pursue, especially as the 
Nile was said, though nobody believed it, to have been navigated 
by expeditions sent out by Mehemet Ali, Viceroy of Egypt, up 
to 8° 22' north latitude. To this I objected, as so many had tried 
it and failed, from reasons which had not transpired ; and, at the 
same time, I said that if they would give me £5000 down at once, 
I would return to Zanzibar at the end of the year, march to Kaz^ 
again, and make the necessary investigations of the Victoria Lake. 
Although, in addition to the journey to the source of the river, I 
also proposed spending three years in the country, looking up 
tributaries, inspecting watersheds, navigating the lake, and mak- 
ing collections on all branches of natural history, yet £5000 was 
thought by the Geographical Society too large a sum to expect 
from the government ; so I accepted the half, saying that, what- 
ever the expedition might cost, I would make good the rest, as, 
under any circumstances, I would complete what I had begun, 
or die in the attempt. 

My motive for deferring the journey a year was the hope that 
I might, in the mean while, send on fifty men, carrying beads 
and brass wire, under charge of Arab ivory-traders, to Karagud 
and fifty men more, in the same way, to Kazd ; while I, arriving 
in the best season for traveling (May, June, or July), would be 
able to push on expeditiously to my depots so formed, and thus 
escape the great disadvantages of traveling with a large caravan 
in a country where no laws prevail to protect one against deser- 
tions and theft. Moreover, I knew that the negroes who would 
have to go with me, as long as they believed I had property in 
advance, would work up to it willingly, as they would be the 
gainers by doing so ; while, with nothing before them, they would 
be always endeavoring to thwart my advance, to save them fix)m 
a trouble which their natural laziness would prompt them to es- 
cape from. • 

This beautiful project, I am sorry to say, was doomed from the 
first ; for I did not get the £2500 grant of money or appointment 
to the command until fully nine months had elapsed, when I 

aenrations — a labor to which, at times, even the tindaanted Livingstone found him- 
self oneqaaL** 



1859-eO.] LOKDON TO ZAKZIBAB. 3S 

wrote to Colonel Bigby, our consul at Zanzibar, to send on the 
first installment of property toward the interior. 

As time then advanced, the Indian branch of the government 
very graciously gave me fifky artillery carbines, with belts and 
sword-bayonets attached, and 20,000 rounds of ball ammunition. 
They lent me as many surveying instruments as I wanted ; and, 
through Sir George Clerk, put at my disposal some rich presents, 
in gold watches, for the chief Arabs who had so generously as- 
sisted us in the last expedition. Captain Grant, hearing that I 
was bound on this journey, being an old friend and brother 
sportsman in India, asked me to take him with me, and his ap- 
pointment was settled by Colonel Sykes, then chairman of a com- 
mittee of the Eoyal Geographical Society, who said it would only 
be a " mattUr of charity" to allow me a companion. 

Much at the same time, Mr. Petherick, an ivory merchant, who 
had spent many years on the Nile, arrived in England, and gra- 
tuitously offered, as it would not interfere with his trade, to place 
boats at Gondokoro, and send a party of men up the White Eiver 
to collect ivory in the mean while, and eventually to assist me in 
coming down. ' Mr. Petherick, I may add, showed great zeal for 
geographical exploits; so, as I could not get money enough to do 
all that I wished to accomplish myself, I drew out a project for 
him to ascend the stream now known as the Usiia Biver (report- 
ed to be the larger branch of the Nile), and, if possible, ascertain 
what connection it had with my lake. This being agreed to, I 
did my best, through the medium of Earl de Grey (then Presi- 
dent of the Eoyal Geographical Society), to advance him money 
to carry out this desirable object. 

The last diflSculty I had now before me was to obtain a passage 
to Zanzibar. The Indian government had promised me a vessel 
of war to convey me from Aden to Zanzibar, provided it did not 
interfere with the public interesta This doubtful proviso in- 
duced me to apply to Captain Playfair, Assistant Political at 
Aden, to know what government vessel would be available ; and 
should there be none, to get for me a passage by some American 
trader. The China war, he assured me, had taken up all the 
government vessels, and there appeared no hope left for me that 
season, as tHe last American trader was just then leaving for 
Zanzibar. In this dilemma, it appeared that I must inevitably 
lose the traveling season, and come in for the droughts and fam- 
ines. The tide, however, turned in my favor a little; for I ob- 

C 



84 



THE 80UBCE OF THE NILE. 



[1869-eO. 



tained, b j permissioii of the Admiralty, a passage in the British 
screw steam-frigate Forte, under orders to convey Admiral Sir 
H. Keppel to his command at the Cape ; and Sir Charles Wood 
most obligingly made a request that I should be forwarded thence 
to Zanzibar in one of our slaver-hunting cruisers by the earliest 
opportunity. 

On the 27th of April, Captain Grant and I embarked on board 
the new steam-frigate Forte, commanded by Captain E. W. Tur- 
nour, at Portsmouth ; and after a long voyage, touching at Ma- 
deira and Eio de Janeiro, we arrived at the Cape of Good Hope 
on the 4th of July. Here Sir George Grey, the governor of the 
colony, who took a warm and enlightened interest in the cause 
of the expedition, invited both Grant and myself to reside at his 
house. Sir George had been an old explorer himsel#— was once 
wounded by savages in Australia, much in the same manner as I 
had been in the Somali country — and, with a spirit of sympathy, 
he called me his son, and said he hoped I would succeed. Then, 
thinking how best he could serve me, he induced the Cape Parli- 
ament to advance to the expedition a sum of £800, for the pur- 
pose of buying baggage-mules; and induced Lieut. Gen. Wynyard, 
the commander-in-chie^ to detach 10 volunteers from the Cape 
Mounted Eifle Corps to accompany me. When this addition was 
made to my force of 12 mules and 10 Hottentots, the admiral 

of the station placed the screw 
steam-corvette Brisk at my dis- 
posal, and we all sailed for Zan- 
zibar July 16th, under the com- 
mand of Capt A. F. de Horsey, 
the admiral himself accompany- 
ing us on one of his annual in- 
spections to visit the east coast 
of Africa and the Mauritius. In 
five days more we touched at 
East London, and, thence pro- 
ceeding north, made a short stay 
at Delagoa Bay, where I first be- 
came acquainted with the Ziilu 
Kafirs, a naked set of negroes, 
whose national costume princi- 
pally consists in having their 
zufi Kafir, DeiftgoABftj' ^^^ trussed Up like a hoop on 




Aug.] LONDON TO ZANZIBAR. 85 

the top of the head, and an appendage like a thimble, to which 
they attach 'ti mysterious importance. They wear additional or- 
naments, charms, etc., of birds' claws, hoofs and horns of wild an- 
imals tied on with strings, and sometimes an article like a kilt, 
made of loose strips of skin, or the entire skins of vermin strung 
dose together. These things I have merely noticed in passing, 
because I shall hereafter have occasion to allude to a migratory 
people, the Wat&ta, who, dressing much in the same manner, ex- 
tend from Lake N'yassa to Uzinza, and may originally have been 
a part of this same Kafir race, who are themselves supposed to 
have migrated from the regions at present occupied by the Gallas. 
Next day (the 28th) we went on to Europa, a small island of cor- 
alline, covered with salsolaceous shrubs, and tenanted only by 
sea-birds, owls, finches, rats, and turtlea Of the last we succeeded 
in turning three, the average weight of each being 860 lbs., and 
we took large numbers of their eggs. 

We then went to Mozambique, and visited the Portuguese gov- 
ernor, John Travers de Almeida, who showed considerable inter- 
est in the prospects of the expedition, and regretted that, as it cost 
so much money to visit the interior from that place, his officers 
were unable to go there. One experimental trip only had been 
accomplished by Mr. Scares, who was forced to pay the Makua 
chie& $120 footing to reach a small hill in view of the sea, about 
twenty-five miles off. 

Leaving Mozambique on the 9th of August, bound for Jphanna, 
we came the next day, at 11 30 A. M., in sight of a slaver, ship- 
rigged, bearing on us full sail, but so distant from us that her 
mast-tops were only just visible. As quick as ourselves, she saw 
who we were, and tried to escape by retreating. This manoeuvre 
left no doubt what she was, and the Brisk, all full of excitement, 
gave chase at full speed, and in four hours more drew abreast of 
her. A great commotion ensued on board the slaver. The sea- 
pirates threw overboard their colors, bags, and numerous boxes, 
but would not heave-to, although repeatedly challenged, until a 
gun was fired across her bows. Our boats were then lowered, 
and in a few minutes more the " prize" was taken by her crew 
being exchanged for some of our men, and we learned all about 
her from accurate reports furnished by Mr. Frere, the Cape Slave 
CJommissioner. Cleared from Havana as "the Sunny South," 
professing to be destined for Hong-Kong, she changed her name 
to the Manuela, and came slave-hunting in these regions. The 



36 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1860. 

slaver's crew consisted of a captain, doctor, and several sailors, 
mostly Spaniards. The vessel was well stored witR provisions 
and medicines, but there was scarcely enough room in her, though 
she was said to be only half freighted, for the 544 creatures they 
were transporting. The next morning, as we entered Pamoni 
Harbor by an intricate approach to the rich little island hill Jo- 
hanna, the slaver, as she followed us, stranded, and for a while 
caused considerable alarm to every body but her late captain. 
He thought his luck very bad, after escaping so often, to be taken 
thus; for his vessel's powers of sailing were so good, that, had she 
had the wind in her favor, the Brisk, even with the assistance of 
steam, could not have come up with her. On going on board her, 
I found the slaves to be mostly Wahiy ow. A few of them were 
old women, but all the rest children. They had been captured 
during wars in their own country, and sold to Arabs, who brought 
them to the coast, and kept them half starved until the slaver ar^ 
rived, when they were shipped in dhows and brought off to the 
slaver, where for nearly a week, while the bargains were in prog- 
ress, they were kept entirely without food. It was no wonder, 
then, every man of the Brisk who first looked upon them did so 
with a feeling of loathing and abhorrence of such a trade. All 
over the vessel, but more especially below, old women, stark 
naked, were dying in the most disgusting " ferret-box" atmos- 
phere, while all those who had sufficient strength were pulling 
up the hatches, and tearing at the salt fish they found below, like 
dogs in a kennel. 

On the 16th the Manuela was sent to the Mauritius, and we, 
after passing the Comoro Islands, arrived at our destination, Zan- 
zibar — called Lunguja by the aborigines, the Wakhadim, and 
Unguja by the present Wasuahili. 

On the 17th, after the anchor was cast, without a moment's de- 
lay I went off to the British Consulate to see my old friend Col- 
onel Bigby. He was delighted to see us, and, in anticipation of 
our arrival, had prepared rooms for our reception, that both Cap- 
tain Grant and myself might enjoy his hospitality until arrange- 
ments could be made for our finsJ start into the interior. The 
town, which I had left in so different a condition sixteen months 
before, was in a state of great tranquillity, brought about by the 
energy of the Bombay government on the Muscat side, and Colo- 
nel Eigby's exertions on this side, in preventing an insurrection 
Sultan Majid's brothers had created with a view of usurping his 
government 



Aug.] 



LONDON TO ZANZIBAR 



87 



The news of the place was as follows : In addition to the for- 
merly constituted consulates — English, French, and American — a 
fourth one, representing Hamburg, had been created. Dr. Eoscher, 
who during my absence had made a successful jouraey to the 
N'yiny&i N'yassa, or Star Lake, was afterward murdered by 
some natives in Uhiyow ; and Lieutenant Colonel Baron van der 
Decken, another enterprising German, was organizing an expedi- 
tion with a view to search for the relics of his countryman, and, 
if possible, complete the project poor Eoscher had commenced. 

Slavery had received a severe blow by the sharp measures 
Colonel Rigby had taken in giving tickets of emancipation to all 
those slaves whom our Indian subjects the Banyans had been se- 
cretly keeping, and by fining the masters and giving the money 
to the men to set them 
up in life. The inte- 
rior of the continent 
had been greatly dis- 
turbed, owing to con- 
stant war between the 
natives and Arab ivo- 
rymerchantB. Mguru 
Mfiipi (or Short-legs), 
the chief ofKhokoin 
XJgogo, for instance, 
had been shot, and 
Manua S^ra (the Tip- 
pler), who succeeded 
the old Sultan Fundi 
Kira, of Unyanyemb^, on his death, shortly after the late expe- 
dition left Kaz^, was out in the field fighting the Arabs. Recent 
letters firom the Arabs in the interior, however, gave hopes of 
peace being shortly restored. Finally, in compliance with my 
request — and this was the most important item of news to myself 
— Colonel Rigby had sent on, thirteen days previously, fifty-six 
loads of cloth and beads, in charge of two of Ramji's men, con- 
fflgned to Musa at Kas^. * 

To call on the sultan, of course, was our first duty. He re- 
ceived us in his usually affable manner; made many trite re- 
marks concerning our plans \ was surprised, if my only object in 
view was to see the great river running out of the lake, that I 
did not go by the more direct route across the Masai country 




Banyan oontemplating his Accoont-book. 



88 



THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. 



[1860. 




andUsoga; and then, 
finding I wished to 
see Karagii^, as well 
as to settle many oth- 
er great points of in- 
terest, he offered to 
assist me with all the 
means in his power. 

The Hottentots, the 
mules, and the bag- 
gage having been 
landed, our prepara- 
tory work began in 
earnest It consisted 
in proving the sex- 
tants ; rating the 
watches ; examining 
the compasses and 
boiling thermometers ; 
making tents and 
pack-saddles; order- 
ing supplies of beads, 
cloth, and brass wire ; 
and collecting servants and porters. 

Sheikh Said bin Salem, our late Cafila Bashi, or paravan cap- 
tain, was appointed to that post again, as he wished to prove his 
character for honor and honesty ; and it now transpired that he 
had been ordered not to go with me when I discovered the Vic- 
toria N'yanza. Bombay and his brother Mabruki were bound to 
me of old, and the first to greet me on my arrival here ; while 
my old friends the Beluchs begged me to take them again. The 
Hottentots, however, had usurped their place. I was afterward 
sorry for this, though, if I ever travel again, I shall trust to none 
but natives, as the climate of Africa is too trying to foreigners. 
Colonel Rigby, who had at heart as much as any body the suc- 
cess of the expedition, materially assisted me in accomplishing my 
object — that men accustomed to discipline and a knowledge of 
English honor and honesty should be enlisted, to give confidence 
to the rest of the men ; and he allowed me to select from his 
boat's crew any men I could find who had served in men-of-war, 
and had seen active service in India. 



Said MiOid) Saltan of Zanzibar. 



Ato.] LONDON TO ZANZIBAR. 89 

For tliis purpose, my factotum, Bombay, prevailed on Baraka, 
Fry, and Rahan — ^all of them old sailors, who, like himself, knew 
Hindustani — ^to go with me. With this nucleus to start with, I 
gave orders that they should look out for as many Wanguana 
(fireed men — i. 6., men emancipated from slavery) as they could 
enlist, to carry loads, or do any other work required of them, and 
to follow me in Afirica wherever I wished, until our arrival in 
Egypt, when I would send them back to Zanzibar. Each was to 
receive one year's pay in advance, and the remainder when their 
work was completed. 

While this enlistment was going on here, Ladha Damji, the 
customs' master, was appointed to collect a hundred pagazis 
(Wanyamn&i porters) to carry each a load of cloth, beads, or 
brass wire to Kaz6, as they do for the ivory merchants. Mean- 
while, at the invitation of the admiral, and to show him some 
sport in hippopotamus-shooting, I went with him in a dhow over 
to Kusiki, near which there is a tidal lagoon, which at high tide 
is filled with water, but at low water exposes sand islets covered 
with mangrove shrub. In these islets we sought for the animals, 
knowing they were given to lie wallowing in the mire, and we 
bagged two. On my return to Zanzibar, the Brisk sailed for the 
Mauritius, but fortune sent Grant and myself on a different cruise. 
Sultan Majid, having heard that a slaver was lying at Pangani, 
and being anxions to show his good faith with the English, 
begged me to take the command of one of his vessels of war and 
run her down. Accordingly, embarking at noon, as soon as the 
vessel could be got ready, we lay-to that night at Tombat, with a 
view of surprising the slaver next morning; but next day, on our 
arrival at Pangani, we heard that she had merely put in to pro- 
vision there three days before, and had left immediately after- 
ward. As I had come so far, I thought we might go ashore and 
look at the town, which was found greatly improved since I last 
saw it, by the addition of several coralline houses and a dock- 
yard. The natives were building a dhow with Lindi and Mada- 
gascar timber. On going ashore, I might add, we were stranded 
on the sands, and, coming off again, nearly swamped by the in- 
creasing surf on the bar of the river; but this was a trifle; all we 
thought of was to return to Zanzibar, and hurry on our prepara- 
tions there. This, however, was not so easy; the sea current was 
running north, and the wind was too light to propel our vessel 
against it; so, after trying in vain to make way in her, Grant and 



40 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1860. 

I, leaving her to follow, took to a boat, after giving the captain, 
who said we would get drowned, a letter, to say we left the vessel 
against his advice. 

We had a brave crew of young negroes to pull us; but, pull 
as they would, the current was so strong that we feared, if we 
persisted, we should be drawn into the broad Indian Ocean ; so, 
changing our line, we bore into the little coralline island Maziwa, 
where, after riding over some ugly coral surfe, we put in for the 
night. There we found, to our relief, some fishermen, who gave 
us fish for our dinner, and directions how to proceed. 

Next morning, before dfi^rlight, we trusted to the boat and our 
good luck. Aft;er passing, without landmarks to guide us, by an 
intricate channel, through foaming surfs, we arrived at Zanzibar 
in the night, and found that the vessel had got in before us. 

Colonel Bigby now gave me a most interesting paper, with a 
map attached to it, about the Nile and the Mountains of the Moon. 
It was written by Lieutenant Wilford, from the " Piirans" of the 
ancient Hindus. As it exemplifies, to a certain extent, the sup- 
position I formerly arrived at concerning the Mountains of the 
Moon being associated with the country of the Moon, I would 
fain draw the attention of the reader of my travels to the volume 
of the "Asiatic Eesearches" in which it was published.* It is 
renoiarkable that the Hindus have christened the source of the 
Nile Amara^ which is the name of a country at the northeast cor- 
ner of the Victoria N'yanza. This, I think, shows clearly that 
the ancient Hindus must have had some kind of communication 
with both the northern and southern ends of the Victoria N'yanza. 

Having gone to work again, I found that Sheikh Said had 
brought ten men, four of whom were purchased for one hundred 
dollars, which I had to pay ; Bombay, Baraka, Frij, and Rahan 
had brought twenty-six more, all freed men ; while the Sultan 
Majid, at the suggestion of Colonel Bigby, gave me thirty-four 
men more, who were all raw laborers taken from his gardens. It 
was my intention to have taken one hundred of this description 
of men throughout the whole journey ; but as so many could not 
be found in Zanzibar, I still hoped to fill up the complement in 
TJnyamu&i, the land of the Moon, from the large establishments 
of the Arab merchants residing there. The payment of these 
men's wages for the first year, as well as the terms of the agree- 
ment made with them, by the kind consent of Colonel Bigby were 

• ♦ Vol.iiiofA.D. 1801. 



SBFT.J LONDON TO ZANZIBAB. 41 

now entered in the Consular Office books as a security to both 
parties, and a precaution against disputes on the way.* Any one 
who saw the grateful avidity with which they took the money, 
and the warmth with which they pledged themselves to serve me^ 
&ithfully through all dangers and difficulties, would, had he had 
no dealings with such men before, have thought that I had a first- 
late set of followers. I lastly gave Sheikh Said a double-barreled 
rifle by Blissett^ and distributed fifty carbines among the seniors 
of the expedition, with the condition that they would forfeit them 
to others more worthy if they did not behave well, but would re- 
tain possession of them forever if they carried them through the 
journey to my satisfaction. 

On the 21st, as every thing was ready on the island, I sent 
Sheikh Said and all the men, along with the Hottentots, mules, 
and b^gage, off in dhows to Bagamoyo, on the opposite main 
land. Colonel Bigby, with Captain Grant and myself, then called 
on the sultan to bid him adieu, when he graciously offered me, as 
a guard of honor to escort me through Uzaramo, one jemadar and 
twenty-five Beliich soldiers. These I accepted, more as a govern- 
ment security in that country against the tricks of the natives than 
for any accession they made to our strength. His highness then 
placed his 22-gun corvette, *' Secundra Shah," at our disposal, and 
we went all three over to Bagamoyo, arriving on the 25th. Im- 
mediately on landing, Ladha and Sheikh Said showed us into a 
hut prepared for us, and all things looked pretty well. Ladha's 
hundred loads of beads, clotlte, and brass wire were all tied up for 
the march, and seventy -five pagazis (porters from the Moon coun- 
try) had received their hire to carry these loads to Kaz^, in the 
land of the Moon. CompetitioD, I found, had raised these men's 
wages, for I had to pay, to go even as far as Kaz6, nine and a 
quarter dollars a head I as Masudi and some other merchants were 
bound on the same line as myself, and all were equally in a hurry 
to be off, and avoid as much as possible the famine we knew we 
should have to fight through at this late season. Little troubles, 
of course, must always be expected, else these blacks would not 
be true negroes. Sheikh Said now reported it quite impossible 
to buy any thing at a moderate rate ; for, as I was a " big man," 
I ought to " pay a big price ;" and my men had all been obliged 
to fight in the bazar before they could get even tobacco at the 
same rate as other men, because they were the servants of the big 
* In Appendix A will be found a detailed list. * 



\ 



42 THE SOUBCE OF THE NH^E. [1860. 

man, who could aflford to give higher wages than any one else. 
The Hottentots, too, began to fall sick, which my Wanguana laugh- 
ingly attributed to want of grog to keep their spirits up, as these 
little creatures, the "Tots," had frequently at Zanzibar, after heavy 
potations, boasted to the more sober free men that they " were 
strong, because they could stand plenty drink." The first step 
now taken was to pitch camp under large, shady mango-trees, and 
to instruct every man in his particular duty. At the same time, 
the Wanguana, who had carbines, were obliged to be drilled in 
their use and formed into companies, with captains often, headed 
by General Baraka, who was made commander-in-chief 

On the 80th of September, as things were looking more order- 
Bagwnoyo to Ijj I scut forward half of the property, and all the 
ug6iii. jjjgjj J ^^ ^jjgjj collected, to TJg^ni, a shamba, or gar- 

den, two miles oflF; and on the 2d of October, after settling with 
Ladha for my " African money,"* as my pagazis were completed 
to a hundred and one, we wished Eigby adieu, and all assembled 
together at Ugdni, which resembles the richest parts of Bengal. 

* See Appendix B. 



Oct.] UZARAMO. 43 



CHAPTER n. 

UZABAMO. 

The Nature of the Country.— The Order of March.— "^^e Beginning of oar Taxa- 
tion. — Sultan Lion's Claw and Sultan Monkey's Tail.— The Eingani. — Jealousies 
and Difficulties in the Camp.— The Murderer of M. Maizan. 

We were now in U-z£i-Ramo, whicTi may >aeaii the country of 
Eamo, though I have never found any natives who could enlight- 
en me on the derivation of this 
obviously triple word. The ex- 
tent of the country, roughly 
speaking, stretches from the 
coast to the junction or bifurca- 
tion of the Kingani and its up- 
per branch, the Mgdta Eiver, 
westward; and fix)m 'the Kin- 
gani, north, to the Lufigi River, 
south; though in the southern 
portions several sub-tribes have 
encroached upon the lands. 
There are no hills in Uzaramo ; 
but the land in the central line, 
formed like a ridge between the 
two rivers, furrow feshion, con- 
sists of slightly elevated fiats McanZTorNatiyeofuiLuiia 

and terraces, which, in the rainy 

season, throw off their surplus waters to the north and south by 
nullahs into these rivers. The country is uniformly well covered 
with trees and large grasses, which, in the rainy season, are too 
thick, tall, and green to be pleasant; though in the dry season, 
after the grasses have been burnt, it is agreeable enough, though 
not pretty, owing to the flatness of the land. The villages are 
not large or numerous, but widely spread, consisting generally of 
conical grass huts,^ while others are gable-ended, after the coast- 
feshion — a small collection of ten or twenty comprising one vil- 
lage. Over these villages certain head men, titled Phanz^ hold 




44 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [im. 

jurisdiction, wlio take black-mail from travelers with high pre- 
sumptioil when they can. Generally speaking, they live upon 
the coast, and call themselves Diwans, headsmen, and subjects of 
the Sultan Majid ; but they no sooner hear of the march of a cara- 
van than they transpose their position, become sultans in their 
own right, and levy taxes accordingly. 

The Wazaramo are strictly agriculturists ; they have no cows, 
and but few goats. They are of low stature and thick set, and 




Wazazamo, People of UseraniOi 

their nature tends to the boisteroua Expert slave-hunters, they 
mostly clothe themselves by the sale of their victims on the coast, 
though they do business by the sale of goats and grain as well. 
Nowhere in the interior are natives so well dad as these creatures. 
In dressing up their hair, and otherwise smearing their bodies 
with ochreish clay, they are great dandies. They always keep 
their bows and arrows, which form their national arm, in excel- 
lent order, the latter well poisoned, and carried in quivers nicely 
carved. To intimidate a caravan and extort a hongo or tax, I 
have seen them drawn out in line as if prepared for battle ; but a 
few soft words were found sufficient to make them all withdraw 
and settle the matter at issue by arbitration in some appointed 
place. A few men without property can cross their lands fear- 
lessly, though a single individual with property would stand no 
chance, for they are insatiable thieves. But little is seen of these 
people on the journey, as the chiefe take their taxes by deputy, 
partly out of pride, and partly because they think they can ex- 
tort more by keeping in the mysterious distance. At the same 



Oct,2 UZASAMO. 46 

time, tbe caravan prefers camping in the jungles beyond the vil- 
lages to mingling with the inhabitants, where rows might be en- 
gendered. We sometimes noticed albinos with grajish-blue eyes 
and light straw-colored hair. Not unfrequently we would pass 
on the track-side small heaps of white ashes, with a calcined bone 
or two among them. These, we were told, were the relics of 
burnt witches. The caravan track we had now to travel on leads 
along the right bank of the Kingani vaDey, overlooking TJz^gfira, 
which, corresponding with Uzaramo, only on the other side of 
the Kingani, extends northward to the Pangani Biver, and is in- 
tersected in the centre, by the Wami River, of which more here- 
after. ' 
Starting on a march with a large mixed caravan, consisting of 
1 corporal and 9 privates, Hottentots — ^1 jemadar and 
' 25 privates, Beluchs — 1 Arab Cafila Bashi and 75 
freed slaves — ^1 kirangozi. or leader, and 100 negro porters — 12 
mules untrained, 8 donkeys, and 22 goats — one could hardly ex- 
pect to find every body in his place at the proper time for break- 
ing ground ; but, at the same time, it could hardly be expected 
that ten men, who had actually received their bounty-money, and 
had sworn fidelity, should give one the slip the very first day. 
Such, however, was the case. Ten out of the thirty-six given by 
the sultan ran away, because they feared that the white men, 
whom they believed to be cannibsJs, were only taking them into 
the interior to eat them; and one pagazi, more honest than the 
freed men, deposited his pay upon the ground, and ran away too. 
Go we must, however, for one desertion is sure to lead to more ; 
and go we did. Our procession was in this fashion : The kiran- 
gozi, with a load on his shoulder, led the way, flag in hand, fol- 
lowed by the pagazis carrying spears or bows and arrows in their 
hands, and bearing their share of the baggage in the shape either 
of bolster-shaped loads of cloth and beads covered with matting, 
each tied into the fork of a three-pronged stick, or else coils of 
brass or copper wire tied in even weights to each end of sticks 
which they laid on the shoulder ; then helter-skelter came the 
Wanguana, carrying carbines in their hands, and boxes, bundles, 
tents, cooking-pots — ^all the miscellaneous property on their heads ; 
next the Hottentots, dragging the refractory mules laden with 
ammunition-boxes, but very lightly, to save the animals for the 
future ; and, finally. Sheikh Said and the Beluch escort, while 
the goats, sick women, and stragglers brought up the rear. From 



^ 



46 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [18G0. 

first to last, some of the sick Hottentots rode the hospital donkeys, 
allowing iJie negroes to tug their animals ; for the smaUest ail- 
ment threw them broadcast on their backs. 

In a little while we cleared from the rich gardens, mango 
clumps, and cocoa-nut-trees, which characterize the fertile coast- 
line. After traversing fields of grass well clothed with green 
trees, we arrived at the little settlement of Bomani, where camp 
was formed, and every body fairly appointed to his place. The 
process of camp-forming would be thus: Sheikh Said, with Bom- 
bay under him, issues cloths to the men for rations at the rate of 
one fourth load a day (about 15 lbs.) among 165 ; the Hottentots 
cook our dinners and their own, or else lie rolling on the ground 
overcome by fatigue; ^the Beluchs are supposed to guard the 
camp, but prefer gossip and brightening their arms. Some men 
are told off to look after the mules, donkeys, and goats while out 
grazing ; the rest have to pack the kit, pitch our tents, cut boughs 
• for huts and for fencing in the camp — a thing rarely done, by-the- 
by. After cooking, when the night has set in, the everlasting 
dance begins, attended with clapping of hands and jingling smaU 
bells strapped to the legs, the whole being accompanied by a 
constant repetition of senseless words, which stand in place of the 
song to the negroes ; for song they have none, being mentally in- 
capacitated for musical composition, though as timists they are 
not to be surpassed. 

What remains to be told is the daily occupation of Captain 
Grant, myself, and our private servants. Beginning at the foot : 
Kahan, a very peppery little negro, who had served in a British 
man-of-war at the taking of Kangoon, was my valet ; and Baraka, 
who had been trained much in the same manner, but had seen 
engagements at Multan,.was Captain Grant's. They both knew 
Hindiistani ; but while Eahan's services at sea had been short, 
Baraka had served nearly all his life with Englishmen — ^was the 
smartest and most intelligent negro I ever saw — ^was invaluable 
to Colonel Rigby as a detector of slave-traders, and enjoyed his 
confidence completely; so much so, that he said, on parting with 
him, that he did not know where he should be able to find an- 
other man to fill his post These two men had now charge of our 
tents and personal kit, while Baraka was considered the general 
of the Wanguana forces, and Bahan a captain of ten. 

My first occupation was to map the country. This is don<e by 
timing the rate of march with a watch, taking compass-bearings 



Oct.] UZARAMO. 47 

along the road or on any conspicuous marks — ^as, for instance, 
hills off it — and by noting the watershed — ^in short, all topograph- 
ical objects. On arrival in camp every day came the ascertain- 
ing, by boiling a thermometer, of the altitude of the station above 
the sea-level ; of the latitude of the station by the meridian alti- 
tude of a star taken with a sextant ; and of the compass variation 
by azimuth. Occasionally there was the fixing of certain crucial 
stations, at intervals of sixty miles or so, by lunar observations, 
or distances of the moon either from the sun or from certain giv- 
en stars, for determining the longitude, by which the original- 
timed course can be drawn out with certainty on the map by pro- 
portion. Should a date be lost, you can always discover it by 
taking a lunar distance and comparing it with the Nautical Al- 
manac, by noting the time when a star passes the meridian if your 
watch is right, or by observing the phases of the moon, or her 
rising or setting, as compared with the Nautical Almanac. The 
rest of my work, besides sketching and keeping a diary, which 
was the most troublesome of all, consisted in making geological 
and zoological collections. With Captain Grant rested the botan- 
ical collections and thermometrical registers. He also boiled one 
of the thermometers, kept the rain-gauge, and undertook the pho- 
tography ; but after a time I sent the instruments back, consider- 
ing this work too severe for the climate, and he tried instead 
sketching with water-colors, the results of which form the chief 
part of the illustrations in this book. The rest of our day went 
in breakfasting after the march was over — ^a pipe, to prepare us 
for rummaging the fields and villages to discover their contents 
for scientific purposes— dinner close to sunset, and tea and pipe 
before turning in at night 
A short stage brought us to Ikambiiru, included in the district 
of Nzasa, where there is another small village pre- 
sided over by Fhanz^ Khombe la Simba, meaning 
Claw of Lion. He, immediately after our arrival, sent us a pres- 
ent of a basket of rice, value one dollar, of course expecting a re- 
turn, for absolute generosity is a thing unknown to the negro. 
Not being aware of the value of the offering, I simply requested 
the sheikh to give him four yards of American sheeting, and 
thought no more about the matter, until presently I found the 
doth returned The "sultan" could not think of receiving such 
a paltry present from me, when on the former journey he got so 
much ; if he showed this cloth at home, nobody would believe 



48 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1860. 

him, but would say he took much more and concealed it from his 
family, wishing to keep all his goods to himself. I answered that 
my footing in the country had been paid for on the last journey, 
and unless he would accept me as any other common traveler, he 
had better walk away ; but the little sheikh, a timid, though very 
gentlemanly creature, knowing the man, and dreading the conse- 
quences of too high a tone, pleaded for him, and proposed as a fit- 
ting hongo one dubiiani, one sahari, and eight yards merikani,* 
as the American sheeting is called here. This was pressed by 
the jemadar, and acceded to by myself, as the very utmost I could 
aflford. Lion's Claw, however, would not accept it ; it was too far 
below the mark of what he got last time. He therefore returned 
the cloths to the sheikh, as he could get no hearing from myself, 
and retreated in high dudgeon, threatening the caravan with a 
view of his terrible presence on the morrow. Meanwhile the lit- 
tle sheikh, who always carried a sword fully two thirds the length 
of himself, commenced casting bullets for his double-barreled rifle, 
ordered the Wanguana to load their guns, and came wheedling 
up to me for one more cloth, as it was no use hazarding the expe- 
dition's safety for four yards of cloth. This is a fair specimen of 
tax-gathering, within twelve miles of the coast, by a native who 
claims the protection of Zanzibar. We shall soon see what they 
are farther on. The result of experience is, that, ardent as the 
traveler is to see the interior of Africa, no sooner has he dealings 
with the natives than his whole thoughts tend to discovering 
some road where he won't be molested, or a short cut^ but long 
march, to get over the ground. 

Quite undisturbed, we packed ^nd marched as usual, and soon 
ToKizo wft. P*^®^ Nzasa close to the river, which is only indi- 
cated by a line of trees running through a rich allu- 
vial valley. We camped at the little settlement of Kizoto, inhos- 
pitably presided over by Phanz6 Mukia ya Nyani, or Monkey's 
Tail, who no sooner heard of our arrival than he sent a demand 
for his " rights." One dubuani was issued, with orders that no 
one need approach me again, unless he wanted to smell my pow- 
der. Two taxes in five miles was a thing unheard of; and I 
heard no more about the matter until Bombay in the evening told 
me how Sheikh Said, fearing awkward consequences, had settled 
to give two dubuani, one being taken from his own store. Lion's 
Claw also turned up again, getting his cloths of yesterday— one 

* See Appendix B. 



OoT.] UZABAMO. 49 

more being added from the sheikh's stores— and he was then ad- 
vised to go off quietly, as I was a fire-eater whom nobody dared 
approach after my orders had been issued. This was our third 
march in Uzaramo ; we had. scarcely seen a man of the country, 
and had no excessive desire to do so. 

Deflecting from the serpentine course of the Kingani a little, 
'iv>K]noA '^^ crossed a small bitter rivulet, and entered on the 
BMig»,6a. elevated cultivation of Kiranga Eanga, under Phanz^ 
Mkungu-par^, a very mild man, who, wishing to give no offense, 
begged for a trifling present He came in person, and his man- 
ner having pleased us, I gave him one sahari, four yards merikani, 
and eight yards kiniki, which pleased our friend so much that he 
begged us to consider his estate our own, even to thQ extent of ad- 
ministering his justice, should any Mzaramo be detected stealing 
from u& Our target-practice, while instructing the men, aston- 
ished him not a little, and produced an exclamation that, with so 
many guns, we need fear nothing, go where we would. From 
this place a good view is obtained of Uz^gura. Beyond the flat 
alluvial valley of the Kingani, seven to eight miles broad, the land 
rises suddenly to a table-land of no great height, on which trees 
grow in profusion. In &ct, it appeared, as far as the eye could 
reach, the very counterpart of that where we stood, with the ex- 
ception of a small hill, very distant^ called Fhongu^. 

A very welcome packet of quinine and other medicines reached 
OS here from Eigby, who, hearing our complaints that the Hotten- 
tots could only be kept alive by daily potions of brandy and qui- 
nine, feared our supplies were not enough, and sent us more. 

We could not get the sultan's men to chum with the Wanguana 
proper; they were shy, like wild animals — ^built their huts by 
themselves, and ate and talked by themselves, for they felt them- 
selves inferiors ; and I had to nominate one of their number to be 
their immediate chief, answerable for the actions of the whole. 
Being in the position of " boots" to the camp, the tending of goats 
fell to their lot. Three goats were missing this evening, which 
the goatherds could not account for, nor any of their men. Sus- 
pecting that they were hidden for a private feast, I told their 
chief to inquire ferther and report. The upshot was, that the 
man was thrashed for intermeddling, and came back only with 
his scars. This was a nice sort of insubordination, which of 
course could not be endured. The goatherd was pinioned and 
brought to trial, for the double offense of losing the goats and 

D 



50 THE 80UBCE OF THE NILE. [1860. 

rough-handling his chief. The tricking scoundrel — on quietly 
saying he could not be answerable for other men's actions if they 
stole goats, and he could not recognize a man as his chief whom 
the sheikh, merely by a whim of his own, thought proper to ap* 
point — ^was condemned to be tied up for the night, with the pros- 
pect of a flogging in the morning. Seeing his &te, the cunning 
vagabond said, " Now I do see it was by your orders the chief 
was appointed, and not by a whim of Sheikh Said's ; I will obey 
him for the future;" and these words were hardly pronounoed 
than the three missing goats rushed like magic into camp, nobody 
of course knowing where they came fix>m. 

Skirting along the margin of the rising ground oyerlookiog 
ToTh«ini>a tbe rivcr, through thick woods, cleared in places for 
^-*^^**- cultivation, we arrived at Thumba Lh^r^. The 
chief here took a hongo of three yards merikani and two yards 
kiniki without much fuss, for he had no power. The pagazis 
struck, and said they would not move from this unless I gave 
them one fundo or ten necklaces pf beads each daily, in lieu of 
rations, as they were promised by Ladha on tte coast that I 
would do so as soon as they had made four marches. This was 
an obvious invention, concocted to try my generosity ; for I had 
given the kirangozi a goat, which is customary, to '' make the 
journey prosperous" — had suspended a dollar to his neck in rec- 
ognition of his office, and given him four yards merikani, that he 
might have a grand feast with his brothers; while neither the 
sheikh, myself, nor any one else in the camp had heard of snch 
a compact. With high words the matter dropped, African fish- 
ion. 

The pa^zis would not start at the appointed time, hoping to 
T&MBhfigM, enforce their demands of last night; so we took the 
®*** lead and started, followed by the Wanguana. See- 

ing this, the pagazis cried out with one accord, " The master is 
gone, leaving the responsibOity of his property in our hands; let 
us follow, let us follow, for verily he is our father;" and all came 
hurrying after us. Here the river, again making a bend, is lost 
to sight, and we marched through large woods and cultivated 
fields to MtLhugu^ observing, as we passed along, the ochreish 
color of the earth, and numerous pits which the copal-diggers had 
made searching for their much- valued gum. A large coast-bound 
caravan, carrying ivory tusks with double-toned bells suspended 
to them, ting-tonging as they moved along, was met on the way; 



OcT.3 VZARAMO. 61 

and as some of the pagazis oomposiDg it were men wbo had for- 
merly taken me to the Victoria N'yanza, warm recognitions 
passed between us. The water found here turned our brandy 
and tea as black sa ink. The chie^ being a man of small preten- 
sions, took only one sahari and four yards merikani 

Instead of going on to the next village, we halted in this jungly 
ibMShoiiTtas pl^^^ f^' ^® ^^7} ^^ I might comply with the<de> 
^^ sire of the Boyal Geographical Society to inspect 

Milhonydra, and report if there were really any indications of a 
" raised sea-beach" there, such as their maps indicate. An in- 
spection brought me to the conclusion that no mind but one prone 
to discovering sea-beaches in the most unlikely places could have 
supposed for a moment that one existed here. The form and ap- 
pearance of the land are the same as we have seen every where 
since leaving Bomani — ^a low plateau subtended by a bank cut 
down by the Kingani Biver, and nothing more. There are no 
pebbles ; the soil is rich reddish loam, well covered with trees, 
bush, and grass, in which some pigs and antelopes are found. 
From the top of this embankment we gain the first sight of the 
East Cioast Bange, due west of us, represented by the high ele- 
phant's-back hill Mkambakii, in Usagara, which, joining Uraguru, 
stretches northward across the Pangani River to Usiimbara and 
the Eilimandjaro, and southward, with a westerly deflection, 
across the Lufiji to Southern ITyassa. What course the range 
takes beyond those two extremes the rest of the world knows as 
well as I. Another conspicuous landmark here i&Eadunda (the 
little hill), which is the southernmost point of a low chain of hills, 
also tending northward, and representing an advance-guard to 
the higher East Coast Bange in its rear. At night, as we had no 
local '^ sultans" to torment us, eight more men of Sultan Majid's 
donation ran away, and, adding injury to injury, took with them 
all our goats, fifteen in number. This was a sad loss. We could 
keep ourselves on Guinea-fowls.or green pigeons, doves, etc. ; but 
the Hottentots wanted nourishment much more than ourselves, 
and as their dinners always consisted of trhat we left, "short 
commons" was the f&te in store for them. The Wangfiana, in- 
stead of regarding these poor creatures as soldiers, treated them 
like children ; and once, as a diminutive Tot — ^the common name 
they go by — was exerting himself to lift his pack and place it on 
his mule, a fine Herculean Mguana stepped up behind, grasped 
Tot, pack and all, in his muscular arms, lifted the whole over his 



52 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1860. 

head, paraded the Tot about, struggling for release, and put him 
down amid the laughter of the camp, then saddled his mule and 
patted him on the back. 

After sending a party of Beluch to track down the deserters 
To8t«6a6n, ^^^ goats, in which they were not successful, we 
lott. passed through the village of Sag^sdm, and camped 

one mile beyond, close to the river. Phanz6 Kirongo (which 
means Mr. Pit) here paid us hid respects, with a presentation of 
rice. In return, he received four yards merikani and one dubu- 
ani, which Bombay settled, as the little sheikh, ever done by the 
sultanS) pleaded indisposition, to avoid the double fire he was al- 
ways subjected to on these occasions, by the sultans grasping on 
the one side, and my resisting on the other; for I relied on my 
strength, and thought it very inadvisable to be generous with my 
cloth to the prejudice of future travelers, by decreasing the value 
of merchandise, and increasing proportionately the expectations 
of these negro chiefe. From the top of the bank bordering on 
the valley a good view was obtainable of the Uraguru Hills, and 
the top of a very distant cone to its northward ; but I could see 
no signs of any river joining the Kingani on its left, though on 
the former expedition I heard that the Mukondokua River, which 
was met with in ITsagara, joined the Kingani close to Sag^ra, 
and actually formed its largest head branch. Neither could Mr. 
Pit inform me what became of the Mukondokua, as the Waza- 
ramo are not given to traveling. He had heard of it from the 
traders, but only knew himself of one river beside the Kingani. 
It was called Wami in Uz^gura, and mouths at Utondu6, between 
the ports of Whindi and Saadani. To try and check the deser- 
tions of Sultan Majid's men, I advised — ordering was of no use- 
that their camp should be broken up, and they should be amal- 
gamated with the Wangiiana; but it was found that the two 
would not mix. In fact, the whole native camp consisted of so 
' many clubs of two, four, six, or ten men, who originally belonged 
to one village or one master, or were united by some other family 
tie which they preferred keeping intact ; so they cooked togeth- 
er, ate together, slept together, and sometimes mutinied together. 
The amalgamation having failed, I wrote some emancipation 
tickets, called the sultan's men all up together, selected the best, 
gave them these tickets, announced that their pay and all rewards 
would be placed for the future on the same conditions as those 
of the Wanguana, and as soon as I saw any signs of improvement 



Oct.] UZABAMO. 68 

in the rest, they would all be treated in the same manner ; but, 
should thej desert, they would find my arm long enough to ar- 
rest them on the coast and put them into. prison. 

During this march we crossed three deep nullahs which drain 
ToicaMtttiitH ^b^ Uzaramo plateau, and arrived at the Makutaniro, 
^^^ or junction of this line with those of Mboamaji and 

Kondilchi, which traverse central Uzaramo, and which, on my 
former return journey, I went down. The gum-copal diggings 
here cease. The dum palm is left behind ; the large, rich green- 
leaved trees of the low plateau give place to the mimosa; and 
now, having ascended the greater decline of the Kingani Biver, 
instead of being confined by a bank, we found ourselves on flat, 
open park-land, where antelopes roam at large, bufTalo and zebra 
are sometimes met with, and Guinea-fowl are numerous. The 
water for the camp is found in the river, but supplies of grain 
come fix)m the village of Kipora farther on. 

A march through the park took us to a camp by a pond, from 
Towaamaa^ which, by crosisiug the Kingani, rice and provisions 
**^ for the men were obtained on the opposite bank. 

One can seldom afford to follow wild animals on the line of march, 
otherwise we might have bagged some antelopes to-day, which, 
scared by the interminable singing, shouting, bell-jingling, horn- 
blowing, and other such merry noises of the moving caravan, could 
be seen disappearing in the distance^ 

Leaving the park, we now entered the richest part of Uzaramo, 
Tto D^ u loio. affording crops as fine as'any part of India. Here it 
"^^ was, in the district of D^g^ la Mhora, that the first 

expedition to this country, guided by a Frenchman, M. Maizan, 
came to a fatal termination, that gentleman having been barbar- 
ously murdered by the sub-chief Hemb^. The cause of the affair 
was distinctly explained to me by Hemb^ himself, who, with his 
cousin Darunga, came to call upon me, presuming, as he was not 
maltreated by the last expedition, that the matter would now be 
forgotten. The two men were very great friends of the little 
sheikh, and as a present was expected, which I should have to 
pay, we all talked cheerfully and confidentially, bringing in the 
fate of Maizan for no other reason than to satisfy curiosity. 
Hemb^, who lives in the centre of an almost impenetrable thicket, 
confessed that he was the murderer, but said the fault did not rest 
^ with him, as he merely carried out the instructions of his father, 
Mzfing^ra, who, a diwan on the coast, sent him a letter directing 



54 ^I^HE SOUBCB OF THE NILE. [1860. 

hia actions. ThuB it is proved that the plot against Maiisan was 
oonoocted on the coast by the Arab merchants — ^most likely from 
the same motive which has induced one rival merchant to kill 
another as the best means of checking rivaliy or competition.. 
When Arabs — and they are the only class of people who would 
do such a deed — ^found a European going into the very middle 
of their secret trading-places^ where such laige profits were to be 
obtained, they would never suppose th^t the scientific Maizan 
went for any other purpose than to pry into their ivory stores, 
bring others into the field after him, and destroy their monopoly. 
The Sultan of Zanzibar, in those days, was our old ally Said Said, 
commonly called the Imam of Muscat; and our consul. Colonel 
Hamerton, had been M. Maizan's host as long as he lived upon 
the coast Both the imam and consul were desirous of seeing the 
country surveyed, and did every thing in their power to assist 
Maizan, the former even appointing the Indian Musa to conduct 
him safely as fiir as Unyamii^zi ; but their power was not found 
sufficient to damp the raging fire of jealousy in the ivory-trader's 
heart Musa commenced the journey with Maizan, and they 
traveled together a march or two, when one of Maizan's domestic 
establishment fell sick and stopped his progress. Musa. remained 
with him eight or ten days, to his own loss in trade and expense 
in keeping up a large establishment, and then they parted by mu- 
tual consent, Maizan thinking himself quite strong enough to take 
care of himself. This separation was, I believe, poor Maizan's 
death-blow. His power, on the imam's side, went with Musa's 
going, and left the Arabs free to carry out their wicked wills. 

The presents I had to give here were one sahari and eight yards 
merikani to Hemb^, and the same to Darilnga, for which they 
gave a return in grain. 

Still following close to the river — which, unfortunately, is so 
TV) Kidsnda, cushrouded with thick bush that we could seldom see 
i^"»- it — a few of the last villages in Uzaramo were passed. 

Here antelopes reappear among the tall mimosa, but we let them 
alone in prosecution of the survey, and finally encamped opposite 
the little hill of Eidiinda, which, lying on the left bank of the 
Eingani, stretches north, a. little east, into Uz^gura. The hill 
qrops out through pisolitic limestone, in which marine fossils were 
observable. It would be interesting to ascertain whether this 
lime formation extends down the east coast of Africa from the 
Somali country, where also, on my first expedition, I found marine 



Oor.] UZABAMO. 66 

shells in the limestone, especially as a vast continuous band .of 
limestone is known to extend from the Tagus, through Egypt 
and the Somali country, to the Burrampootra. To obtain food, 
it was necessary here to ferry the riyer and purchase firom the 
Wazaramo, who, fix)m fear of the passing caravans, had left their 
own bank and formed a settlement immediately under tj^is pretty 
little hill — rendered all the more epchanting to our eyes as it was 
the first we had met since leaving the sea-coast The diwan, or 
head man, was a very civil creature ; he presented us fireely with 
two. fine goats — a thing at that time we were very much in want 
of — and tookf in return, without any comments, one dubuani and 
eight yards merikani. 

The next day, as we had no farther need of our BeliLch escort, 
a halt was made to enable me to draw up a " Progress 
Beport," and pack all the specimens of natural his- 
tory collected on the way for the Boyal Geographical Society. 
Captain Grant, taking advantage of the spare time, killed for the 
larder two buck antelopes,* and the Tots brought in, in high ex- 
cited triumph, a fiimous pig. 

This march, which declines from the Kingani a little, leads 
TotbeiMte through rolling, jungly ground, full of game, to the 
^•^•^ tributary stream Mg^ta. It is fordable in the dry 
season, but has to be bridged by throwing a tree across it in the 
wet one. Rising in the Usagara Hills to the west of the hog- 
baoked Mkambakti, this branch intersects the province of Ukh&tu 
in the centre, and circles round until it unites with the Kingani 
about four miles north of the ford. Whei^d the Kingani itself 
rises I never could find out, though I have h^ard that its source 
lies in a gurgling spring on the eastern face of the Mkambaku, 
by which account the Mg^ta is made the longer branch of the two. 

* See Game List, Appendix C. 



56 



THE 80UBCE OF THE NILE. 



[IMO. 



CHAPTER m. 

USAGABA. 

Natnro of the Conntiy.— Resumpdon of the March.— A Hnnt.— Bombay andBaraka. 
—The Slave-hunters.— The Ivory-merchants.— CoUection of Natural-history Spec 
imens.— A frightened Village.— Tracking a Mule. 

Under TJ-Sagara, or, as it might be interpreted, U-sa-Gara — 
country of Qarar— is included all the country lying between the 

bifurcation of the Kingani andMg^- 
ta Rivers east, and Ugogo, the first 
country on the interior plateau west, 
a distance of a hundred milea On 
the north it is bounded by the Mu- 
kondokua, or upper course of the 
Wami River, and on the south by 
the Riiaha, or northern great branch 
of the Lufiji River. It forms a link 
of the great East Coast Range ; but, 
though it is generally comprehend- 
ed under the single name Usagara, 
many sub-tribes occupy and apply 
their own names to portions of it ; 
as, for instance, the people on whose 
ground we now stood at the foot 
of the hills are Wa-Khutu, and 
their possessions consequently are 
TJ-Khiitu, which is by far the best producing land hitherto alluded 
to since leaving the sea-coast line. Our ascent by the riVer, though 
quite imperceptible to the eye, has been 600 feet. Prom this level 
tiie range before us rises in some places to 5000 or 6000 feet, not 
as one grand mountain, but in two detached lines, lying at an 
angle of 45° from N.E. to S. W., and separated one from the other 
by elevated valleys, tables, and crab-claw spurs of hill which in- 
cline toward the flanking rivers. The whole, having been thrown 
up by volcanic action, is based on a strong foundation of granite 
and other igneous rocks, which are exposed in many places in the 




Msagin, or Nalive of Usagua. 



Oct.] USAGABA. 57 

shape of massive blocks; otherwise the hill-range is covered in 
the upper part with sandstone, and in the bottoms with alluvial 
clay. This is the superficial configuration of the land as it strikes 
the eye ; but, knowing the elevation of the interior plateau to be 
only 2500 feet above the sea immediately on the western flank 
of these hills, while the breadth of the chain is 100 miles, the 
mean slope or incline of the basal sur&ce must be on a gradual 
rise of twenty feet per mile. The hill tops and sides, where not 
cultivated, are well covered with bush and small trees, among 
which the bamboo is conspicuous ; while the bottoms, having a 
soil deeper and richer, produce fine large fig-trees of exceeding 
beauty) the huge calabash, and a variety of other trees. Here, in 
certain places where water is obtainable throughout the year, and 
wars, or slave-hunts more properly speaking, do not disturb the 
industry of the people, cultivation thrives surprisingly ; but such 
a boon is rarely granted them. It is in consequence of these con- 
stantly-recurring troubles that the majority of the Wasagara vil- 
lages are built on hill-spurs, where the people can the better resist 
attack, or, failing, disperse and hide effectually. The normal hab- 
itation is the small conical hut of grass. These compose villages, 
varying in number according to the influence of their head liien. 
There are, however, a few mud villages on the table-lands, each 
built in a large irregular square of chambers, with a hollow yard 
in the centre, known as temb^. 

As to the people of these uplands, poor, meagre-looking wretch- 
es, they contrast unfavorably with the lowlanders on both sides 
of them. Dingy in color, spiritless, shy, and timid, they invite 
attack in a country where every human being has a market value, 
and are little seen by the passing caravan. In habits they are 
semi-pastoral agriculturists, and would be useful members of so- 
detjr were they left alone to cultivate their own possessions, rich 
and beautiful by nature, but poor and desolate by force of cir- 
cumstance. Some of the men can afford a cloth, but the greater 
part wear an article which I can only describe as a grass kilt In 
one or two places throughout the passage of these hills a caravan 
may be taxed, but if so, only to a small amount; the villagers 
more frequently fly to the hill-tops as soon as the noise of the ad- 
vancing caravan is heard, and no persuasions will bring them 
down again, so much ground have they, from previous experi- 
ence, to fear treachery. It is such sad sights, and the obvious 
want of peace and prosperity, that weary the traveler, and make 



58 ^ITHE SOUBCS OF THE NILK [1800. 

him ever think of pushing on to hia journey's end from the instant 
hd enters Africa until he quits the country. 

Knowing by old experience that the beautifol green park in 
Halt, i7<A and ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ihese rivcrs abounded in game of great 
iwA. variety and in vast her^s, where no men are ever 

seen except some savage hunters sitting in the trees with poison- 
ed arrows, or watching their snares and pit&lls, I had all along 
determined on a hunt myself to feed and cheer the men, and also 
to collect some specimens for the home museums. In the first 
object we succeeded well, as ^^ the bags" we made counted two 
brindled gnii, four water-boc, one pallah-boc» and one pig— enough 
to feed abundantly the whole camp round. The feast was all the 
better relished as the men knew well that no Arab master would 
have given thera what he could sell ; for if a slave shot game, the 
animals would be the master's, to be sold bit by bit among tiie 
porters, and compensated from the proceeds of their pay. In the 
variety and number of our game we were disappointed, partly .be- 
cause so many wounded got away, and partly because we could 
not find what we knew the park to contain, in addition to what 
we killed — ^namely, elephants, rhinoceros, giraffes, bu&loes, zebra, 
and many varieties of antelopes, besides lions and hyenas. In 
fiict, " the park," as well as all the adjacent land at the foot of the 
hills, is worth thinking o^ with a view to a sporting tour as well 
as scientific investigation. 

A circumstance arose here, which, insignificant though it ap- 
peared, is worth noting, to show how careful one must be in un- 
derstanding and dealing with negro servants. Quite unaccount- 
ably to myself, the general of my Wangfiana, Baraka, after show- 
ing much discontent with his position as head of Captain Grant's 
establishment, became so insolent that it was necessary to displace 
him, and leave him nothing to do but look after the men. This 
promoted Frij, who enjoyed his rise as much as Baraka, if his pro- 
fession was to be believed, enjoyed his removal from that office. 
Though he spoke in this manner, still I knew that there was 
something rankling in his mind which depressed his spirits as 
long as he remained with us, though what it was I could not com- 
prehend, nor did I fully understand it till months aftierward. It 
was ambition, which was &st making a fiend of him ; and had I 
known it, he would, and with great advantage too, have been dis- 
missed upon the spot The facts were these : He was exceeding- 
ly clever, and he knew it. His command over men was surpris- 



Oct.] USAGABA. 59 

ing. At Zanzibar he was the consul's right-hatid man : he rank- 
ed above Bombay in the consular boat's crew, and became a ter- 
ror even to the Banyans who kept slaves. He seemed, in fact, in 
his own opinion, to have imbibed all the power of the British con- 
sul who had instructed him. Such a man was an element of dis- 
ooid in our peaceful caravan. He was far too big-minded for the 
sphere which he occupied ; and my surprise ngw is that he ever 
took service, knowing what he should, at the time of enlistment^ 
have expected, that no man would be degraded to make room for 
him. But this was evidently what he had expected, though he 
dared not say it He was jealous of Bombay, because he thought 
his position over the money department was superior to his own 
over .the men ; and he had seen Bombay, on one occasion, pay a 
tax inlTzaramo— « transaction which would give him consequence 
with the native chief& Of Sheikh Said he was equally jealous, 
for a like reason ; and >bis jealousy increased the more that I 
found it necessary to censure the timidity of this otherwise worthy 
li^e man.' Bandca thought, in his conceit, that he could have 
done all things better, and gained signal fame, had he been cre- 
ated chief. Perhaps he thought he had gained the first step to- 
ward this exalted rank, and hence his appearing very happy for 
the time. I could not see through so deep a scheme, and only 
hoped that he would shortly forget, in the changes of the march- 
ing life, those beautiful wives he had left behind him, which Bom- 
bay in his generosity tried to persuade me was the cause of his 
mental distraction. 

Our halt at the ford here was cut short by the increasing sick- 
To Kirars,iM& ^^^ ^^ ^^6 Hottentots, and the painful &ct that Cap- 
•nd «>^ tain Grant was seized with fever.* We had to change 

camp to the little village of Eariiru, where, as rice was grown — 
an article not to be procured again on this side of TJnyamu^zi — 
we stopped a day to lay in supplies of this most valuable of all 
traveling food. Here I obtained the most consistent accounts of 
the river system, which, within five days' journey, trends through 
Uz^garsL] and I concluded, from what I heard, that there is no 
doubt of the Mukondokua and Wami Bivers being one and the 
same stream. My informants were the natives of the settlement, 
and they all concurred in saying that the Kingani above the 

* It waa rach an attack as I bad on my former journey ; bat, wbile mine ceased 
to trouble me after tbe first year, bis kept recurring erery fortnight until tbe journey 
«nded. 



00 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1860. 

junction is called the Bufu, meaning the parent stream. Beyond 
it, following under the line of hills, at one days' journey distant, 
there is a smaller river called Msongd. At an equal distance be- 
yond it, another of the same size is known as Liing^reng^ri ; and 
a fourth river is the Wami, which mouths in the sea at Utondu^ 
between the ports of Whindi and Saadani. In former years, the 
ivory-merchants, ever seeking for an easy road for their trade, 
and knowing they would have no hills to climb if they could 
only gain a dear passage by this river from the interior plateau 
to the sea, made friends with the native chie& of TJz^gura, and 
succeeded in establishing it as a thoroughfare. Avarice, howev- 
er, that fatal enemy to the negro chiefe, made them overreach 
themselves by exorbitant demands of taxes. Then followed con- 
tests for the right of appropriating the taxes, and the whole end- 
ed in the closing of the road, which both parties were equally 
anxious to keep open for their mutual gain. This foolish disrup- 
tion having .at first only lasted for a while, the road was again 
opened and again closed, for the merchants wanted an easy pas> 
sage, and the native chie& desired cloths. But it was shut again ; 
and now we heard of its being for a third time opened, with what 
success the future only can determine, for experience tvill not 
teach the QCgro, who thinks only for the moment Had they 
only sense to see, and patience to wait, the whole trade of the in- 
terior would inevitably pass through their country instead of 
Uzaramo ; and instead of being poor in cloths, they would be rich 
and well dressed like their neighbors. But the curse of Noah 
sticks to these his grandchildren by Ham, and no remedy that 
has yet been found will relieve them. They require a govern- 
ment like ours in India ; and without it, the slave-trade will wipe 
them off the face of the earth. 

Now leaving the open parks of pretty acacias, we followed up 
ToDKthttmi, *b® Mgazi branch of the Mg^ta, traversed large tree- 
*^ jungles, where the tall palm is conspicuous, and drew 

up under the lumpy Mkambaku, to find a residence for the day. 
Here an Arab merchant, Khamis, bound for Zanzibar, obliged us 
by agreeing for a few dollars to convey our recent spoils in nat- 
ural history to the coast. 

My plans for the present were to reach Zungom^ro as soon as 

ToHoxJLMi possible, as a few days' halt would be required there 

to fix the longitude of the eastern flank of the East 

Coast Eange by astronomical observation; but, on ordering the 



Oct.] USAGABA. 61 

morning's march, the porters — too well fed and lazy — thought 
our marching-rate much too severe, and resolutely refused to 
move. They ought to have made ten miles a day, but preferred 
doing five. Argument was useless, and I was reluctant to apply 
the stick, as the Arabs would have done when they saw their por- 
ters trifling with their pockets. Determining, however, not to be 
frustrated in this puerile manner, I ordered the bugler to sound 
the march, and started with the mules and coast-men, trusting to 
Sheikh and Baraka to bring on the Wanyamudzi as soon as they 
could move them. The same day we crossed the Mgazi, where 
we found several Wakhutu spearing fish in the muddy hovers of 
its banks. 

We slept under a tree, and this morning found a comfortable 
^ ^ ^ residence under the eaves of a capacious hut The 

Zangomero, 23a. . ^ w ^ • • i • 

W anyamuezi porters next came in at their own time, 
and proved to us how little worth are orders in a land where ev- 
ery man, in his own opinion, is a lord, and no laws prevail. Zun- 
gom^ro, bisected by the Mg^ta, lies on flat ground, in a very pret- 
ty amphitheatre of hills, S. lat 7"* 26' 58", and E. long. 87"* 86' 




Mkjunbaku Hill, viewed firom Znngomdroi 

45". It is extremely fertile, and very populous, affording every 
thing that man can wish, even to the cocoa and papwa fruits ; but 
the slave-trade has almost depopulated it, and turned its once 
flourishing gardens into jungles. As I have already said, the 
people who possess these lands are cowardly by nature, and that 
is the reason why they are so much oppressed. The Wasuahili, 
taking advantage of their timidity, flock here in numbers to live 



62 ^l^HE SOUBCE 09 THE KILE. [1880. 

upon the fruits of their labors. The nierchants on the coast, too, 
though prohibited by their sultan from interfering with the nat- 
ural course of trade, send their hungry slaves, as touters, to entice 
all approaching caravans to trade with their particular ports, au- 
thorizing the touters to pay such premiums as may be necessary 
for the purpose. Where they came'from we could not ascertain ; 
but during our residence, a large party of the Wasiiahili marched 
past, bound for the coast, with one hundred head of cattle, fifty 
slaves in chains, and 88 many goats. Halts always end disastrous- 
ly in Africa, giving men time for mischief; and here was an ex- 
ample of it. During the target-practice, which was always insti- 
tuted on such occasions to give confidence to our men, 1iie little 
pepper-box Bahan, my head valet, challenged a comrade to a duel 
with carbines. Being stopped by those around him, he vented 
his wrath in terrible oaths, and swung about his arms, until his 
gun accidentally went off, and blew his middle finger off 

Baraka next, with a kind of natural influence of affinity when 
a TOW is commenced, made himself so offensive to Bombay as 
to send him running to me so agitated with excitement that I 
thought him drunk. He seized my hands, cried, and implored 
me to turn him off. What could this mean?- I could not di- 
vine ; neither could he explain, farther than that he had come to 
a determination that I must send either him or Baraka to the 
right-about; and his first idea was that he, and not Baraka, 
should be the victim. Baraka's jealousy about his position had 
not struck me yet I called them both together, and asked what 
quarrel they had, but could not extract the truth. Baraka pro- 
tested that he had never given, either by word or deed, the slight- 
est cause of rupture ; he only desired the prosperity of the march, 
and that peace should reign throughout tiie camp ; but Bombay 
was suspicious of him, and malignantly abused him, for what rea- 
son Baraka could not tell. When I spoke of this to Bombay, 
like a bird fascinated by the eye of a viper, he shrank before the 
slippery tongue of his opponent, and could only say, " No, Sahib 
— oh no, that is not it ; you had better turn me off, for his tongue 
is so long, and mine so short, you never will believe me." I tried 
to make them fiiends, hoping it was merely a passing ill wind 
which would soon blow over; but before long the two disputants 
were tonguing it again, and I distinctly heard Bombay ordering 
Baraka out of camp, as he could not keep from intermeddling, 
saying, which was true, he had invited him to join the expedi- 



Oct.] USAGABA. Qg 

tion, that his knowledge of Hmdtistani might be usefol to us; he 
was not wanted for any other purpose, and unless he was satisfied 
with doing that alone, we would get on mueh better without him. 
To this proyocation Baraka mildly made the retort, '' Pray don't 
put yourself in a passion ; nobody is hurting you ; it is all in 
your own heart, which is full of suspicions and jealousy without 
the slightest cause." 

This complicated matters more than ever. I knew Bombay to 
be a generous, honest man, entitled by his former services to be 
in the position he was now holding as fiindi, or supervisor in the 
camp. Baraka, who never would have joined the expedition ex- 
cepting through his invitation, was indebted to him for the rank 
he now enjoyed — ^a command over seventy men, a duty in which 
he might have distinguished himself as a mostusefid accessory 
to the camp. Again I called the two together, and begged them 
to act in harmony like brothers, noticing that liiere was no cause 
for entertaining jealousy on either side, as eveiy order rested with 
myself to reward for merit or to punish. The relative position 
in the camp was like that of the senior officers in India, Bombay 
representing the Mulki lord, or governor general, and Baraka the 
Jungi lord, or commander-in-chief. To the influence of this disr 
ting^ished comparison they both gave way, acknowledging my- 
self their judge, and both protesting that they wished to serve in 
peace and quietness for the benefit of the march. 

Zungom^ro is a terminus or junction of two roads leading to 
the interior — one, the northern, crossing over the Gbma Pass, and 
trenching *on the Mukondokua Biver, and the other crossing over 
the Mabruki Pass, and edging on the Buaha River. They both 
unite again at TJgogi, the western terminus on the present great 
UnyamtL^ line. On the former expedition I went by the north- 
ern line and returned by the southern, finding both equally easy, 
and, indeed, neither is worthy of special and permanent prefer- 
ence. In fact, every season makes a difference in the supply of 
water and provisions ; and with eveiy year, owing to incessant 
wars, or rather slave-hunts, the. habitations of the wretched in- 
habitants become constantly changed — ^generally speaking, for the 
worse. Our first and last object, therefore, as might be supposed, 
firom knowing these circumstances, was to ascertain, before mount- 
ing the hill-range, which route would afford us the best facilities 
for a speedy march now. No one, however, could or would ad- 
vise us. The whole country on ahead, especially Ugogo, was op- 



64 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1860. 

pressed by drought and famine. To avoid this latter oountrj, 
then, we selected the southern route, as by doing so it was hoped 
we might follow the course of the Buaha Biver from Maroro to 
Us^Dga and Usanga, and thence strike across to Unyanyemb^, 
sweeping clear of Ugogo. 

With this determination, after dispatching a third set of speci- 
To Einagii^, nicus, cousistiug of large game animals, birds, snakes, 
^^ insects, land and fresh-water shells, and a few rock 

specimens, of which one was fossiliferous, we turned southward, 
penetrating the forests which lie between the greater range and 
the little outlying one. At the foot of this is the Maji ya Wh€ta, 
a hot, deep-seated spring of fresh water, which bubbles up through 
many apertures in a large, dome-shaped heap of Soft lime — an ac- 
cumulation obviously thrown up by the force of the spring, as the 
rocks on either side of it are of igneous character. We arrived 
at the deserted village of Kirengii^. This was not an easy go- 
ahead march, for the halt had disaffected both men and mules. 
Three of the former bolted, leaving their loads upon the ground; 
and on the line of march, one of the mules, a full-conditioned ani- 
mal, gave up the ghost after an eighteen hours' sickness. What 
his disease was I never could ascertain ; but, as all the remaining 
animals died afterward much in the same manner, I may state for 
once and for all, that these attacks commenced with general swell- 
ing, at first on the face, then down the neck, along the belly, and 
down the legs. It proved so obstinate that fire had no effect 
upon it ; and although we cut off the tails of some to relieve them 
by bleeding, still they died. 

In former days Kirengu^ was inhabited, and we reasonably 
hoped to find some supplies for the jungly march be- 
fore us. But we had calculated without our host, for 
the slave-hunters had driven every vestige of humanity away ; 
and now, as we were delayed by our three loads behind, there 
was nothing left but to send back and purchase more grain. 
Such was one of the many days frittered away in do-nothingness. 

This day, all together again, we rose the first spurs of the well- 
^ wooded TJsagara Hills, among which the familiar 
bamboo was plentiful, and at night we bivouacked 
in the jungle. 

Bising betimes in the morning, and starting with a good will, 
To E. Mbfiigft, ^G ^^on reached the first settlements of Mbiiiga, from 
"^ which could be seen a curious blue mountain, stand- 



Oct.] 



USAGARA. 



66 



ing up like a giant overlooking all the rest of the hills. The 
scenery here formed 'a strong and very pleasing contrast to any 
we had seen since leaving the coast Emigrant Waziraha, who 
had been driven from their homes across the Kingani River by the 




HUl View from 



MbOiga. 



slave-hunters, had taken possession of the place, and disposed their 
little conical-hut villages on the heights of the hill-spurs in such 
a picturesque manner that one could not help hoping they would 
here at least be allowed to rest in peace and quietness. The val- 
leys, watered by little brooks, are far richer, and even prettier, 
than the high lands above, being lined with fine trees and ever- 
green shrubs; while the general state of prosperity was such that 
the people could afford, even at this late season of the year, to 
turn their com into malt to brew beer for sale ; and goats and 
fowls were plentiful in the market. 

Passing by the old village of Mbiiiga, which I occupied on my 
To w.MMg», former expedition, we entered some huts on the west- 
'^ em flank of the Mbiiiga district; and here, finding a 

coast-man, a great friend of the little sheikh's, willing to take back 
to Zanzibar any thing we might give him, a halt was made, and 
I drew up my reports. I then consigned to his charge three of 
Ae most sickly of the Hottentots in a deplorable condition — one 
of the mules, that they might ride by turns — and all the speci- 
mens that had been collected. With regret I also sent back the 

E 



66 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [18d0. 

camera, because I saw, had I allowed my companion to keep 
working it, the heat he was subjected to in the little tent while 
preparing and fixing his plates would very soon have killed hina. 
The number of Guinea-fowl seen here was most surprising. 
A little lighter and much more comfortable for the good rid- 
dance of those grumbling " Tots," we worked up to 
and soon breasted the stiff ascent of the Mabriiki 
Pass, which we surmounted without much difficulty. This con- 
cluded the first range of these Usagara Hills ; and once over, we 
dropped down to the elevated valley of Maketa, where we hdted 
two days to shoot. As a traveling Arab informed me that the 
whole of the Maroro district had been laid waste by the maraud- 
ing Wah^h^, I changed our plans again, and directed our atten- 
tion to a middle and entirely new line, which in the end would 
lead us to Ugogi. The first and only giraffe killed upon the 
journey was here shot by Grant, with a little 40-gauge Lancaster 
rifle, at 200 yards' distance. Some smaller animals were killed ; 
but I wasted all my time in fruitlessly stalking some wounded 
striped eland — magnificent animals, as large as Delhi oxen — and 
some other animals, of which I wounded three, about the size of 
hartebeest, and Qiuch their shape, only cream-colored, with a con- 
spicuous black spot in the* centre of each flank. The eland may 
probably be the animal first mentioned by Livingstone, but the 
other animal is not known. 
Though reluctant to leave a place where such rare animals 
were to be found, the fear of remaining longer on the 
road induced us to leave Kikobogo, afd at a good 
stride we crossed the flat valley of Makata, and ascended the high- 
er lands beyond, where we no sooner arrived than we met the 
last down trader from IJnyamii^zi, well known to all my men as 
the great Mamba or Crocodile. Mamba, dressed in a dirty Arab 
gown, with coronet of lion's nails decorating a threadbare cutch 
cap, greeted us with all the dignity of a savage potentate surround- 
ed by his staff of half-naked officials. As usual, he had been the 
last to leave the Unyamii&i, and so purchased all his stock of 
ivory at a cheap rate, there being no competitors left to raise the 
value of that commodity; but his journey had been a very try- 
ing one. With a party, at his own estimate, of two thousand 
souls — we did not aee any thing like that number — ^he had come 
from Ugogo to this, by his own confession, living on the products 
of the jungle, and by boiling down the skin aprons of his porters 



Nov.] USAGARA. 67 

occasionaUy for a soup. Famines were raging throughout the 
land, and the Arabs preceding him had so harried the country 
that every village was deserted. On hearing our intention to 
march upon the direct line, he &ankly said he thought we should 
never get through, for my men could not travel as his had done, 
and therefore he advised our deflecting northward from New 
Mbiimi to join the track leading from Bumuma to TJgogi. This 
was a sad disappointment; but, rather than risk a failure, I re- 
solved to follow his advice. 
After reaching the elevated ground, we marched over rolling 

tops, covered with small trees and a rich variety of 
sTyombo, 6th prctty bulbs, and reached the habitations of Muhanda, 

where we no sooner appeared than the poor villagers, 
accustomed only to rough handling, immediately dispersed in the 
jungles. By dint of persuasion, however, we induced them to 
sell us provisions, though at a monstrous rate, such as no mer- 
chant could have afforded ; and having spent the night quietly, 
we proceeded on to the upper courses of the M'yombo Eiver, 
which trends its way northward to the Miikondokua Biver. The 
scenery was most interesting, with every variety of hill, roll, pla- 
teau, and ravine, wild and prettily wooded ; but we saw nothing 
of the people. Like frightened rats, as soon as they caught the 
sound of our advancing march, they buried themselves in the jun- 
gles, carrying off their grain with them. Foraging parties, of ne- 
cessity, were sent out as soon as the camp was pitched, with cloth 
for purchased, and strict orders not to use force ; the upshot of 
which was, that my people got nothing but a few arrows fired at 
them by the lurking villagers, and I was abused for my squeam- 
ishnesB. Moreover, the villagers, emboldened by my lenity, 
vauntingly declared they would attack the camp by night, as they 
could only recognize in us such men as plunder their houses and 
steal their children. This caused a certain amount of alarm 
among my men, which induced them to run up a stiff bush fence 
round the camp, and kept them talking all night. 

This morning we marched on as usual, with one of the Hotten- 
To New MWnri, ^ts lashcd ou a doukcy ; for the wretched creature, 
**• after lying in the sun asleep, became so sickly that he 

could not move or do any thing for himself, and nobody else 
would do any thing for him. The march was a long one, but un- 
der ordinary circumstances would have been very interesting, for 
we passed an immense lagoon, where hippopotami were snorting 



68 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1860. 

as if they invited an attack. In the larger tree-junglea the traces 
of elephants, buffidoes, rhinoceros, and antelopes were very nu- 
merous ; while a rich variety of small birds, as often happened, 
made me wish I had come on a shooting rather than on a long ex- 
ploring expedition. Toward sunset we arrived at New Mbumi, 
a very pretty and fertile place, lying at the foot of a cluster of 
steep hills, and pitched camp for three days to lay in supplies for 
ten, as this was reported to be the only place where we could buy 
com until we reached Ugogo, a span of 140 miles. Mr. Mbiimi, 
the chief of the place, a very aflfable negro, at once took us by. the 
hand, and said he would do any thing we desired, for he had oft- 
en been to Zanzibar. He knew that the English were the ruling 
power in that land, and that they were opposed to slavery, the 
terrible effects of which had led to his abandoning Old Mbumi, 
on the banks of the Miikondokua River, and residing here. 

The sick Hottentot died here, B,iid we buried him with Chris- 
H«it,»tft,iofA, ^^^ honors. As his comrades said, he died because 
and nth. ^Q -j^^ determined to die — ^an instance of that obsti- 

nate fatalism in their mulish temperament which no kind words 
or threats can cure. This terrible catastrophe made me wish to 
send all the remaining Hottentots back to Zanzibar; but, as they 
all preferred serving with me to returning to duty at the Cape, I 
selected two of the most sickly, put them under Tahib, one of 
Rigby's old servants, and told him to remain with them at Mbiimi 
until such time as he might find some party proceeding to the 
coast ; and, in the mean while, for board and lodgings I gave 
Mbumi beads and cloth. The prices of provision here being a 
good specimen of what one has to pay at this season of the year, 
I give a short list of them : sixteen rations corn, two yards cloth ; 
three fowls, two yards cloth ; one goat^ twenty yards cloth ; one 
cow, forty yards cloth — the cloth being common American sheet- 
ing. Before we left Mbiimi, a party of forty men and women of 
the Waquiva tribe, pressed by famine, were driven there to pur- 
chase food. The same tribe had, however, killed many of Mbii- 
mi's subjects not long since, and therefore, in African revenge, 
the chief seized them all, saying he would send them off for sale 
to the Zanzibar market unless they could give a legitimate reason 
for the cruelty they had committed. These Waquiva, I was given 
to understand, occupied the steep hills surrounding this place. 
They were a squalid-looking set, like the generality of the inhab- 
itants of this mountainous region. 



Nov.] U8A6ARA. 69 

This march led us oyer a high hill to the Mdunhwi Biver, an- 
ToMdBnhwi, other tributary to the Mukondokiia. It is all clad in 
^^'^ the upper regions with the slender pole-trees which 

characterize these hills, intermingled with bamboo ; but the bot- 
toms are characterized by a fine growth of fig-trees of great vari- 
ety, along with high grasses ; while near the villages were found 
good gardens of plantains, and numerous Palmyra-trees. The 
rainy season being not far off, the villagers were busy in burning 
rubble and breaking their ground. Within their reach every 
where is the sarsaparilla vine, but growing as a weed, for they 
know nothing of its valua 

Eising up from the deep valley of Mdunhwi, we had to cross 
another high ridge before descending to the also deep 
valley of Chongu^, as picturesque a country as the 
middle heights of the Himalayas, dotted on the ridges and spur- 
slopes by numerous small conical-hut villages, but all so poor that 
we could not, had we wanted it, have purchased provisions for a 
day's consumption. 

Leaving this valley, we rose to the table of Manyovi, overhung 
To ManyongA, ^^^ much higher hills, looking, according to the ac- 
^^^ counts of our Hottentots, as they eyed the fine herds 

of cattle grazing on the slopes, so like the range in Kafraria, that 
they formed their expectations accordingly, and appeared, for the 
first time since leaving the coast, happy at the prospect before 
them, little dreaming that such rich plaqes were seldom to be met 
with. The Wanyamu&i porters even thought they had found a 
paradise, and forthwith threw down their loads as the villagers 
came to offer them grain for sale ; so that, had I not had the 
Wangiiana a little under control, we should not have completed 
our distance that day, and so reached Manyong^, which reminded 
me, by its ugliness, of the sterile Somali land. 

Proceeding through the semi-desert rolling table-land — ^in one 
ToBfimifina, place occupicd by men who build their villages in 
^*^ large open squares of flat-topped mud huts, which, 

when I have occasion to refer to them in future, I shall call by 
their native name tembe — ^we could see on the right hand the 
massive mountains overhanging the Mukondokiia Biver, to the 
finont the western chain of these hills, and to the left the high 
crab-claw shaped ridge, which, extending from the western chain, 
circles round conspicuously above the swelling knolls which lie 
between the two main rocky ridges. Contorted green thorn-trees, 



70 



THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. 



[1860. 



" elephant-foot" stumps, and aloes, seem to thrive best here, by 
their very nature indicating what the country is, a poor ston^ 




To Camp, IQth, 



Bugn, Calabash, or Gouty-limbed Trees. 

land. Our camp was pitched by the River Rumiima, where, shel- 
tered from the winds and enriched by alluvial soil, there ought 
to have been no scarcity ; but still the villagers had nothing to 
sell. 
On we went again to Marenga Mkhali, the " Salt Water," to 
breakfast, and camped in the crooked green thorns 
by night, carrying water on for our supper. This 
kind of traveling — forced marches — hard as it may appear, was 
what we liked best, for we felt that we were shortening the jour- 
ney, and in doing so, shortening the risks of failure by disease, 
by war, by famine, and by mutiny. We had here no grasping 
chiefs to detain us for presents, nor had our men time to become 
irritable and truculent, concoct devices for stopping the way, or 
fight among themselves. 

On again, and at last we arrived at the foot of the western chain, 
but not all together. Some porters, overcome by 
heat and thirst, lay scattered along the road, while 
the corporal of the Hottentots allowed his mule to stray from him, 
never dreaming the animal would travel fer from his comrades, 



To loengd, nth. 



Nov.] USAGABA, . 71 

and, in following after him, was led such a long way into the bush 
that mj men became alarmed for his safety, knowing as they did 
that the "savages" were oat living like monkeys on the calabash 
fruit) and looking out for any windfalls, such as stragglers worth 
plundering, that might come in their way. At first the Wangii- 
ana attempted to track down the corporal ; but, finding he would 
not answer their repeated shots, and fearful for their own safety, 
they came into camp and reported the case. Losing no time, I 
ordered twenty men, armed with carbines, to carry water for the 
distressed porters, and bring the corporal back as soon as possible. 
They all marched off, as they always do on such exploits, in high 
good-humor with themselves for the valor which they intended to 
show ; and in the evening came in, firing their guns in the most 
reckless manner, beaming with delight, for they had the corporal 
in tow, two men and two women captives, and a spear as a trophy. 
Then in high impatience, all in a breath, they began a recital of 
the great day's work. The corporal had followed on the spoor 
of the mule, occasionally finding some of his things that had been 
torn j&om the beast's back by the thorns, and, picking up these 
one by one, had become so burdened with the weight of them 
that he could follow no farther. In this fix the twenty men came 
up with him, but not until they had had a scrimmage with the 
" savages," had secured four, and taken the spear which had been 
thrown at them. Of the mule's position no one could give an 
opinion, save that they imagined, in consequence of the thickness 
of the bush, he would soon become irretrievably entangled in the 
thicket, where the savages would find him, and bring him in as a 
ransom for the prisoners. 

What with the diminution of our supplies, the famished state 
of the country, and the. difficulties which frowned 
upon us in advance, together with unwillingness to 
give up so good a mule, with all its gear and ammunition, I must 
say I felt doubtful as to what had better be done, until the corpo- 
ral, who felt confident he would find the beast, begged so hard 
that I sent hini in command of another expedition of sixteen 
men, ordering him to take one of the prisoners with him to pro- 
claim to his brethren that we would give up the rest if they re- 
turned us the mule. The corporal then led off his band to the 
spot where he last saw traces of the animal, and tracked on till 
sundown; while Grant and myself went out pot -hunting, and 
brought home a bag consisting of one striped eland, one saltiana 



72 , THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [ISflO. 

antelope, four Guinea-fowl, four ringdoves, and one partridge — ^a 
welcome supply, considering we were quite out of flesh. 
Next day, as there were no signs of the trackers, I went again 
to the place of the elands, wounded a fine male, but 
gave up the chase, as I heard the unmistakable gun- 
firing return of the party, and straightway proceeded to camp. 
Sure enough, there they were; they had tracked the animal back 
to Marenga Mkhali, through jungle — ^for he had not taken to the 
footpath. Then, finding he had gone on, they returned quite tired 
and famished. To make the most of a bad job, I now sent Grant 
on to the Rob^o (or windy) Pass, on the top of the western 
chain, with the mules and heavy baggage, and directions to pro- 
ceed thence across the brow of the hill the following morning, 
while I remained behind with the tired men, promising to join 
him by breakfest-time. I next released the prisoners, much to 
their disgust, for they had not known such good feeding before, 
and dreaded being turned adrift again in the jungles to live on 
calabash seeds ; and then, after shooting six Guinea-fbwl, turned 
in for the night. 
Betimes in the morning we were off, mounting the Robflio, a 
good stiff ascent, covered with trees and large blocks 
of granite, excepting only where cleared for villages; 
and on we went rapidly, until at noon the advance party was 
reached, located in a village overlooking the great interior pla- 
teau — a picture, as it were, of the common type of African 
scenery. Here, taking a hasty meal, we resumed the march all 
together, descended the great western chain, and, as night set in, 
camped in a ravine at the foot of it, not far from the great junc- 
tion-station Ugogi, where terminate the hills of Usagara. 



Not.] 



UGOGO. 



73 



CHAPTEE IV. 

UGOGO, AND THE WILDERNESS OP MGUNDA MKHALI, 

The Lie of the Countiy.— Rhinoceros-stalking.— Scuffle of Villagers over a Carcass. 
—Chief *♦ Short-legs" and bis Saccessor.— Buffalo-shooting.— Getting Lost.- A 
Troublesome Sultan.— Desertions from the Camp.— Getting Plundered.— Wilder- 
ness March.— Diplomatic Relations with the Local Powers. — Manila Sara's 
Story.— Christmas.-The Relief from Kaz^. 

This day's work led ns from the hilly Usagara range into the 

TV) Camp in the iiiore levcl lands of the interior. Making a double 

BaMh,2ut&m. march of it, we first stopped to breakfast at the quiet 

little settlement of Ineng^, where 

cattle were abundant, but grain 

80 scarce that the villagers were 

living on calabash seeds. Pro- 
ceeding thence across fields 

delightfully checkered with 

fine calabash and fig trees, we 

marched, carrying water through 

thorny jungles, until dark, when 

we bivouacked for the night, 

only to rest and push on again 

next morning, arriving at Ma- 

renga Mkhali (the saline water) 

to breakfast. Here a good view 

of the Usagara Hills is obtained. 

Carrying water with us, we next 

marched half way to the first 

settlement of Ugogo, and bivou- 
acked again, to eat the last of our store of Mbiimi grain. 
At length the greater famine lands had been spanned; but we 
were not in lands of plenty, for the Wagogo we 
found, like their neighbors Wasagara, eating the seed 

of the calabash, to save their small stores of grain. 
The East Coast Bange having been passed, no more hills had 
to be crossed, for the land we next entered on is a 
plateau of rolling ground, sloping southward to the 




HgogOi or Natire of Ugogo. 



To E. Ugogo, 
SSd. 



Salt, M<A and 



74 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1860. 

Euaha Eiver, which forms a great drain running fix)ni west to 
east, carrying oflf all the rain-waters that fall in its neighborhood 
through the East Coast Range to the sea. To the northward can 




View of East (Joaet Bange from Blarenga MkhalL 

be seen some low hills which are occupied by Wahumba, a sub- 
tribe of the warlike Masai ; and on the west is the large forest- 
wilderness of Mgunda Mkhali. Ugogo, lying under the lee side 
of the Usagara Hills, is comparatively sterile. Small outcrops of 
granite here and there poke through the surface, which, like the 
rest of the rolling land, being covered with bush, principally aca- 
cias, have a pleasing appearance after the rains have set in, but 
are too brown and desert-looking during the rest of the year. 
Large prairies of grass also are exposed in many places, and the 
villagers have laid much ground bare for agricultural purposes. 

Altogether, Ugogo has a very wild aspect, well in keeping with 
the natives who occupy it, who, more like the Wazaramo than 
the Wasagara, carry arms, intended for use rather than show. 
The men, indeed, are never seen without their usual arms — ^the 
spear, the shield, and the assegai. They live in flat-topped, square, 
temb^ villages, wherever springs of water are found, keep cattle 
in plenty, and farm enough generally to supply not only their 
own wants, but those of the thousands who annually pass in cara- 
vans. They are extremely fond of ornaments, the most common 
of which is an ugly tube of the gourd thrust through the lower 
lobe of the ear. Their color is a soft ruddy brown, with a slight 
infusion of black, not unlike that of a rich plum. Impulsive by 
nature, and exceedingly avaricious, they pester travelers beyond 
all conception by thronging the road, jeering, quizzing, and point- 



Kov.] UGOGO. 75 

ing at them ; and in camp, by intrusively forcing their way into 
the midst of the kit, and even into the stranger's tent. Caravans, 
in consequence, never enter their villages, but camp outside, gen- 
erally under the big " gouty-limbed" trees, encircling their entire 
camp sometimes with a xing-fenoe of thorns to prevent any sud- 
den attack. 

To resume the thread of the journey : we found, on arrival in 
Ugogo, very little more food than in Usagara, for the Wagogo 
were mixing their small stores of grain with the monkey-bread 
seeds of the gouty-limbed tree. Water was so scarce in the wells 
at this season that we had to buy it at the normal price of coun- 
try beer ; and, as may be imagined where such distress in food 
was existing, cows, goats, sheep, and fowls were also selling at 
high rates. 

Our mules here gave us the slip again, and walked all the way 
back to Marenga Mkhali, where they were found and brought 
back by some Wagogo, who took four yards of merikani in ad- 
vance, with a promise of four more on return, for the job, their 
chief being security for their fidelity. This business detained us 
two days, during which time I shot a new variety of florikan, pe- 
culiar in having a light blue band stretching firom the nose over 
the eye to the occiput. Each day, while we resided here, cries 
were raised by the villagers that the Wahiimba were coming, and 
then all the cattle out in the plains, both far and near, were driven 
into the village for protection. 

At last, on the 26th, as the mules were brought in, I paid a 
Tbcampta hougo or tax of four barsati and four yards of chintz 
*"^*^ to the chief, and departed, but not until one of my 
porters, a Mh^^, obtained a fat dog for his dinner; he had set 
his heart on it, and would not move until he had killed it, and 
tied it on to his load for the evening's repast. Passing through 
the next villages — a collection called Kif iikilro — we. had to pay 
another small tax of two barsati and four yards of chintz to the 
chief. There we breakfasted, and pushed on, carrying water to 
a bivouac in the jungles, as the £miine precluded our taking the 
march more easily. 

Pushing on again, we cleared out of the woods, and arrived at 
TbRKMyeny^ ^^6 castem bordcr of the largest clearance of TJgogo, 
^^ Kanyeny^. Here we were forced to halt a day, as 

the mules were done up, and eight of the Wanyamii&i porters 
absconded, carrying with them the best part of their loads. There 



76 THE SOURCE OP THE NILE. [I860. 

was also another inducement for stopping here ; for, after stack- 
ing the loads, as we usually did on arriving in camp, against a 
large gouty-limbed tree, a hungry Mgogo, on eying our guns, of- 
fered his services to show us some bicomis rhinoceros, which, he 
said, paid nightly visits to certain bitter pools that lay in the nul- 
lah bottoms not far oflF. This exciting intelligence made me in- 
quire if it was not possible to find them at once ; but, being as- 



Onr Camp in Ugogo. 

sured that they lived very &r off, and that the best chance was 
the night, I gave way, and settled on starting at ten, to arrive at 
the ground before the full moon should rise. 

I set forth with the guide and two of the sheikh's boys, each 
carrying a single rifle, and ensconced myself in the nullah, to hide 
until our expected visitors should arrive, and there remained until 
midnight. When the hitherto noisy villagers turned into bed, 
the silvery moon shed her light on the desolate scene, and the 
Mgogo guide, taking fright, bolted. He had not, however, gone 
long, when, looming above us, coming over the horizon line, was 
the very animal we wanted. 

In a fidgety manner, the beast then descended, as if he expect- 
ed some danger in store — and he was not wrong ; for, attaching a 
bit of white paper to the fly -sight of my Blissett, I approached 
him, crawling under cover of the banks until within eighty yards 
of him, when, finding that the moon shone full on his flank, I 
raised myself upright and planted a bullet behind his left shoul- 
der. Thus died my first rhinoceros. 

To make the most of the night, as I wanted meat for my men 



Not.] UGOGO. 77 

to cook, as well as a stock to carry with them, or barter with the 
villagers for grain, I now retired to my old position, and waited 
again. 

After two hours had elapsed, two more rhinoceros approached 
me in the same stealthy, fidgety way as the first one. They came 
even closer than the first, but, the moon having pUssed beyond 
their meridian, I could not obtain so clear a mark. Still they 
were big marks, and I determined on doing my best before they 
had time to wind us ; so, stepping out, with the sheikh's boys be- 
hind me carrying the second rifie to meet all emergencies,! plant- 
ed a ball in the larger one, and brought him round with a roar 
and whooh-whooh, exactly to the best position I could wish for 
receiving a second shot ; but, alas I on turning sharply round for 
the spare rifle, I had the mortification to see that both the black 
boys had made off, and were scrambling like monkeys up a tree. 
At the same time, the rhinoceros, fortunately for me, on second 
consideration turned to the right-about, and s&uffled away, leav- 
ing, as is usually the case when conical bullets are used, no traces 
of blood. 

Thus ended the night's work. We now went home by dawn 
to apprise all the porters that we had flesh in store for them, when 
the two boys who had so shamelessly deserted me, instead of hid- 
ing their heads, described all the night's scenes with such capital 
mimiciy as set the whole camp in a roar. We had all now to 
hurry back to the carcass before the Wagogo could find it ; but, 
though this precaution was quickly taken, still, before the tough 
skin of the beast could be cut through, the Wagogo began assem- 
bling like vultures, and fighting with my men. A more savage, 
filthy, disgusting, but, at the same time, grotesque scene than that 
which followed can not be conceived. All fell to work, armed 
with swords, spears, knives, and hatchets, cutfing and slashing, 
thumping and bawling, fighting and tearing, tumbling and wrest- 
ling up to their knees in filth and blood in the middle of the car- 
cass. When a tempting morsel fell to the possession of any one, 
a stronger neighbor would seize and bear off the prize in triumph. 
All right was now a matter of pure might, and lucky it was that 
it did not end in a fight between our men and the villagers. These 
might be afterward seen, one by one, covered with blood, scamper- 
ing home each with his spoil — a piece of tripe, or liver, or lights, 
or whatever else it might have been his fortune to get off with. 

We were still in great want of men ; but, rather than stop a 



78 THE SOUBCB OP THE NILE. [i860. 

To Magomba'8 ^aj, as all dclajs only lead to more difficulties, I 
Fiftiaoe, 2»tA. pushed on to Magomba's palace with the assistance 
of some Wagogo carrying our baggage, each taking one cloth as 
his hire. The <Jhief wazir at once came out to meet me on the 
way, and in an apparently affable manner, as an old friend, beg- 
ged that I would live in the palace — ^a bait which I did not take, 
as I knew my friend by experience a little too well. He then, in 
the politest possible manner, told me that a great dearth of food 
was oppressing the land — so much so, that pretty cloths only 
would purchase grain. I now wished to settle my hongo, but the 
great chief could not hear of such indecent haste. 

The next day, too, the chief was too drunk to listen to any one, 
Hait,3o«k,i«f, aiid I n^^st hsLve patience. I took out this time in 
"^^ ' the jungles very profitably, killing a fine .buck and 
doe antelope, of a species unknown. These animals are much 
about the same size and shape as the common Indian, antelope, 
and, like them, roam about in large herds. The only marked dif- 
ference between the two is in the shape of their horns, as may be 
seen by the opposite engraving ; and in their color, in which, in 
both sexes, the Ugogo antelopes resemble the picticandata gazelle 
of Tibet, except that the former have dark markings on the fece. 

At last, after thousands of difficulties much like those I encoun- 
To Camp !n tcrcd iu Uzaramo, the honga was settled by a pay- 
Biiah,8d ment of one kisutu, one dubuani, four yards bend^ra, 

four yards kiniki, and three yards merikani. The wazir then 
thought he would do some business on his own account, and ciom- 
menced work by presenting me with a pot of ghee and flour, say- 
ing at the same time " empty words did not show true love," and 
hoping that I would prove mine by making some slight return. 
To get rid of the animal, I gave him the full value of his present 
in cloth, which he no sooner pocketed than he had the audacity 
to accuse Grant of sacrilege for having shot a lizard on a holy 
stone, and demanded four cloths to pay atonement for this offense 
against the " Church." As yet, he said, the chief was not aware 
of the damage done, and it was well he was not; for he would 
himself, if I only paid him the four cloths, settle matters quietly, 
otherwise there would be no knowing what demands might be 
made on my cloth. It was necessary to get up hot temper, else 
there was no knowing how far he would go ; so I returned him 
his presents, and told the sheikh, instead of giving four, to fling 
six cloths in his fiwse, and tell him that the holy-stone story was 



Due.] 



UGOGO. 



79 




Hew Antelope, Ugoga 



merely a humbug, and I would take care no more white men ever 
came to see him again. 

Some Wanyamu^zi porters, who had been left sick here by for- 
mer caravans, now wished to take service with me as far as Kslz4 ; 
bat the Wagogo, hearing of their desire, frightened them off it. 
A report also at this time was brought to us that a caravan had 
just arrived at our last ground, having come up from Whindi 
direct by- the line of the Wami Eiver, in its upper course called 
Mukondokiia, without crossing a single hill all the way ; I there- 
fore sent three men to see if they had any porters to spare, as it 
was said they had ; but the three men, although they left their 
bows and arrows behind, never came back. 
' Another mule died to-day. This was perplexing indeed, but 
to stop longer was useless; so we pushed forward as best we 
could to a pond at the western end of the district, where we found 
a party of Makua sportsmen who had just killed an elephant 



80 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1860. 

They had lived in Ugogo one year and a half, and had killed in 
all seventeen elephants, half the tusks of which, as well as some 
portion of the flesh, they gave to Magomba for the privilege of re- 
siding there. There were many antelopes there, some of which 
both Grant and I shot for the good of the pot, and he also killed 
a crocfuta hyena. From the pond we went on to the middle of a 
large jungle, and bivouacked for the night in a shower of rain, 
the second of the season. 

During a fierce down-pour of rain, the porters all quivering and 

quaking with cold, we at length emerged from the 

jungle, and entered the prettiest spot in Ugogo— the 

populous district of Usekh^ — where little hills and huge columns 

of granite crop out. Here we halted. 

Next day came the hongo business, which was settled by pay- 
ing one dubuani, one kitambi, one msiitu, four yards 
merikani, and two yards kiniki ; but, while we were 
doing ik, eight porters ran away, and four fresh ones were engaged 
(Wanyamiiezi) who had run away from Kanyenyd 

With one more march from this we reached the last district in 
„ ^ ^ ^ Ugogo, Khoko. Here the whole of the inhabitants 
turned out to oppose us, imagining we had come 
there to revenge the Arab Mohinna, because the Wagogo attack- 
ed him a year ago, plundered his camp, and drove him back to 
Kaz^, for having shot their old chief " Short-legs." They, how- 
ever, no sooner found out who we were than they allowed us to 
pass on and encamp in the outskirts of the Mgiinda Mkhali wil- 
derness. To this position in the bush I strongly objected, on the 
plea that guns could be best used against arrows in the open ; but 
none would go out in the field, maintaining that the Wagogo 
would fear to attack us so far from their villages as we now were, 
lest we might cut them off in their retreat. 

Hon Hon was now chief in" Short-legs's stead, and affected to 
be much pleased that we were English, and not Arabs. He told 
us we mighty he thought, be able to recruit all the men that we 
were in want of, as many Wanyamudzi who had been left there 
sick wished to go to their homes ; and I would only, in addition 
to their wages, have to pay their " hotel bills" to the Wagogo. 
This, of course, I was ready to do, though I knew the Wanya- 
mu&i had paid for themselves, as is usual, by their work in the 
fields of their hosts. Still, as I should be depriving these of 
hands, I could scarcely expect to get off for less than the value of 



Dwj.] UGOGO. 81 

a slave for each, and told Sheikh Said to look out for some men 
at once, while at the same time he laid in provisions of grain to 
last OS eight days in the wilderness, and settle the hongo. 

For this triple business I allowed three days, during which 
^^ time, always eager to shoot something, either for sci- 

ence or the pot, I killed a bicomis rhinoceros, at a 
distance of five paces only, with my small 40-gauge Lancaster, as 
the beast stood quietly feeding in the bush ; and I also shot a 
bitch fox of the genus Otocyon Zakmdi^ whose ill-omened cry oft- 
en alarms the natives by forewarning them of danger. This was 
rather tame sport; but next day I had better fun. 

Starting in the early morning, accompanied by two of Sheikh 
g^ Said's boys, Suliman and Paraj, each carrying a rifle, 

while I carried a shot-gun, we followed a footpath to 
the westward in the wilderness of Mgiinda Mkhali. There, after 
walking a ehort while in the bush, as I heard the grunt of a buf- 
falo close on my left, I took "Blissett" in hand, and walked to 
where I soon espied a large herd quietly feeding. They were 
quite unconscious of my approach, so I took a shot at a cow, and 
wounded her; then, after reloading, put a ball in a bull, and stag- 
gered him also. This caused great confusion among them ; but, 
as none of the animals knew where the shots came from, they 
simply shifted about in a fidgety manner, allowing me to kill the 
first cow, and even fire a fourth shot, which sickened the great 
bull, and induced him to walk off, leaving the herd to their fate, 
who, considerably puzzled, began moving off also. 

I now called up the boys, and determined on following the 
herd down before either skinning the dead cow or following the 
bull, who I knew could not go far. Their footprints being well 
defined in the moist sandy soil, we soon found the herd again ; 
J[)ut, as they now knew they were pursued, they kept moving on 
in short runs at a time, when, occasionally gaining glimpses of 
their large dark bodies as they forced through the bush, I repeated 
my shots and struck a good number, some more and some less 
severely. This was very provoking ; for all of them, being stem 
shots, were not likely to kill, and the jungle was so thick I could 
not get a front view of them. Presently, however, one with her 
hind leg broken pulled up on a white-ant hill, and, tossing her 
horns, came down with a charge the instant I showed myself 
close to her. One crack of the rifle rolled her over, and gave me 
free scope to improve the bag, which was very soon done ; for on 

F 



82 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [I860. 

following the spoors, the traces of blood led us up to another one 
as lame as the last He then got a second bullet in the flank, 
and, after hobbling a little, evaded our sight and threw himself 
into a bush, where we no sooner arrived than he plunged head- 
long at us from his ambush, just, and only just, giving me time 
to present my small 40-gauge Lancaster. 

It was a most ridiculous scene. Suliman by my side, with the 
instinct of a monkey, made a violent spring and swung himself 
by a bough immediately over the beast, while Faraj bolted away 
and lefl; me single-gunned to polish him off. There was only one 
course to pursue, for in one instant more he would have been into 
me ; so, quick as thought, I fired the gun, and, as luck would 
have it, my bullet, afler passing through the edge of one of his 
horns, stuck in the spine of his neck, and rolled him over at my 
feet as dead as a rabbit Now, having cut the beast's throat to 
make him ^' hilal," according to Mussulman usage, and thinking 
we had done enough if I could only return to the first wounded 
bull and settle him too, we commenced retracing oufr steps, and 
by accident came on Grant He was passing by from another 
quarter, and became amused by the glowing description of my 
boys, who never omitted to narrate their own cowardice as an 
excellent tale. He begged us to go on in our course, while he 
would go back and send us some porters to carry home the game. 

Now, tracking back again to the first point of attack, we fol* 
lowed the blood of the first bull, till at length I found him stand- 
ing like a stuck pig in some bushes, looking as if he would like 
to be put out of his miseries. Taking compassion, I leveled my 
Blissett ; but, as bad luck would have it, a bough intercepted the 
flight of the bullet, and it went " pinging" into the air, while the 
big bull went off at a gallop. To follow on was no difficulty, 
the spoor was so good ; and in ten minutes more, as I opened on 
a small clearance, Blissett in hand, the great beast, from the thicket 
on the opposite side, charged down like a mad bull, full of feroc- 
ity — as ugly an antagonist as ever I saw, for the front of his head 
was all shielded with horn. A small mound fortunately stood 
between us, and as he rounded it, I jumped to one side and let 
fly at his flank, but without the effect of stopping him ; for, as 
quick as thought, the huge monster was at my feet, battling with 
the impalpable smoke of my gun, which fortunately hung so thick 
on the ground at the height of his head that he could not see me, 
though I was so close that I might, had I been possessed of a 






BUrPALO OUABOE8 IN ONE DAT. MoCmDA IUUIALL 



r V .;...« 






L- . *-0 



Dw3.] ITGOGO. 85 

hatchet, have chopped off his head. This was a predicament 
which looked very ugly, for my boys had both bolted, taking with 
them my guns ; but suddenly the beast, evidently regarding the 
amoke as a phantom which could not be mastered, turned round 
in a bustle, to my intense relief, and galloped off at full speed, as 
if scared by some terrible apparition. 

Oh what would I not then have given for a gun, the chance 
was such a good one I Still, angry though I was, I could not 
help laughing as the dastardly boys came into the clearance full 
of their mimicry, and joked over the scene they had witnessed in 
security, while my lijfe was in jeopardy because they were too 
fiightened to give me my gun. But now came the worst part of 
the day ; for, though rain was fiJling, I had not the heart to re- 
linquish my game. Tracking on through the bush, I thought 
every minute I should come up with the brute ; but his wounds 
ceased to bleed, and in the confusion of the numerous tracks which 
scored all the forest we lost our own. 

Much disappointed at this, I now proposed to make for the 
track we came by in the morning, and follow it down into camp ; 
but this luxury was not destined to be our lot that night, for the 
rain had obliterated all our footprints of the morning, and we 
passed the track, mistaking it for the run of wild beasts. It struck 
me we had done so ; but, say what I would, the boys thought 
they knew better; and the consequence was, that, after wander- 
ing for hours no one knew where — ^for there was no sun to guide 
us — I pulled up, and swore I would wait for the stars, else it 
might be our fate to be lost in the wilderness, which I did not 
•much relish. We were all at this time " hungry as hunters," and 
beginning to feel very miserable from being wet through. What 
little ammunition I had left I fired off as signals, or made tinder 
of to get up a fire, but the wood would not bum. In this hapless 
condition the black boys began murmuring, wishing to go on, 
pretending, though both held opposite views, that each knew the 
way, for they thought nothing could be worse than their present 
state of discomfort. 

Night with its gloom was then drawing on, heightened by 
thunder and lightning, which set in all around us. At times we 
thought we heard musketry in camp, knowing that Grant would 
be sure to fire signals for us ; and doubtless we did so, but its 
sound and the thunder so much resembled one another that we 
distrusted our ears. At any rate, the boys mistook the west for 



86 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [i860. 

the east ; and as I thought they had done so, I stood firm to one 
spot, and finally lay down with them to sleep upon the cold wet 
ground, where we slept pretty well, being only disturbed occa- 
sionally by some animals sniffing at our feet A^ the clouds 
broke toward morning, my obstinate boys still swore that west 
was east, and would hardly follow me when tracking down Venus; 
next up rose the moon, and then followed the sun, when, as good 
luck would have it, we struck on the track, and walked straight 
into camp. 

Here every one was in a great state of excitement: Grant had 
been making the men fire volleys. The little sheikh 
was warmly congratulatory as he spoke of the num- 
bers who had strayed away and had been lost in that wilderness; 
while Bombay admitted he thought we should turn up again if I 
did not listen to the advice of the boys, which was his only fear. 
Nothing as yet, I now found, had been done to further our march. 
The hongo, the sheikh said, had to precede every thing; yet that 
had not been settled, because the chief deferred it the day of our 
arrival, on the plea that it was the anniversary of Short-legs's 
death ; and he also said that till then all the Wagogo had been in 
mourning by ceasing to wear all their brass bracelets and other 
ornaments, and they now wished to solemnize the occasion by 
feasting and renewing their finery. This being granted, the next 
day another pretext for delay was found by the Wahumba hav- 
ing made a raid on their cattle, which necessitated the chief and 
all his men turning out to drive them away ; and to-day nothing 
could be attended to, as a party of fugitive Wanyamii&i had ar- 
rived and put them all in a fright. These Wanyamii&i, it then • 
transpired, were soldiers of Manua S^ra, " the Tippler," who was 
at war with the Arabs. He had been defeated at Ngurii, a dis- 
trict in Unyamudzi, by the Arabs, and had sent these men to cut 
off the caravan route, as the best way of retaliation that lay in his 
power. 

At last, the tax having been settled by the payment of one 
chiiiBe ground, dubuaui, two barsati, one sahari, six yards merikani, 
^^^ and three yards kiniki (not, however, until I had our 

tents struck, and threatened to march away if the chief would not 
take it), I proposed going on with the journey, for our provisions 
were stored. But when the loads were being lifted, I found ten 
more men were missing; and as nothing now could be done but 
throw ten loads away, which seemed too great a sacrifice to be 



Deo.] UGOGO. 87 

made in a hurry, I Bimply changed ground to show we were 
ready to march, and sent my men about, either to try to induce 
the fugitive Wanyamu^zi to take service with me, or else to buy 
donkeys, as the chief said he had some to sell. 

We had already been here too long. A report was now spread 
„ . « X tt^at a lion had killed one of the chief's cows; and 

HAlt| 112a. 

the Wagogo, suspecting that our being here was the 
cause of this ill luck, threatened to attack us. This no sooner 
got noised over the camp than all my Wanyamuezi porters, who 
had friends in Ugogo, left to live with them, and would not come 
back again even when the "storm had blown over," because they 
did not like the incessant rains that half deluged the camp. The 
chief, too, said he would not sell us his donkeys, lest we should 
give them back to Mohinna, from whom they were taken during 
his fight here. Intrigues of all sorts I could see were brewing, 
possibly at the instigation of the fugitive Wanyamudzi, who sus- 
pected we were bound to side with the Arabs — possibly from 
some other cause, I could not tell what ; so, to clear out of this 
pandemonium as soon as possible, I issued cloths to buy double 
rations, intending to cross the wilderness by successive relays in 
double the ordinary number of days. I determined at the same 
time to send forward two freed men to Kaz6 to ask Musa and 
the Arabs to send me out some' provisions and men to meet us 
halfway. 

Matters grew worse and worse. The sultan, now finding me 
unable to move, sent a message to say if I would not 

*• give him some better cloths to make his hongo more 

respectable, he would attack my camp; and advised all the Wan- 
yamia^zi who regarded their lives not to go near me if I resisted. 
This was by no means pleasant; for the porters showed their un- 
easiness by extracting their own cloths from my bundles, under 
the pretext that they wished to make some purchases of their 
own. I ought, perhaps, to have stopped this ; but I thought the 
best plan was to show total indifference; so, at the same time that 
they were allowed to take their cloths, I refused to comply with 
the chief's request, and begged them to have no fear as long as 
they saw I could hold my own ground with my guns. 

The Wanyamii&i, however, were panic-stricken, and half of 
them bolted, with the kirangozi at their head, carrying off all the 
double-ration cloths as well as their own. At this time, the sul- 
tan, having changed tactics, as he saw us all ready to stand on 



38 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILR [ISda 

the defensive, sent back his hongo ; but, instead of using threats, 
said he would oblige us with donkeys or any thing else if we 
would only give him a few more pretty cloths. With this cring- 
ing, perfidious appeal I refused to comply, until the sheikh, still 
more cringing, implored me to give way, else not a single man 
would remain with me. I then told him to settle with the chief 
himself, and give me the account, which amounted to three bar- 
sati, two sabari, and three yards merikani; but the donkeys were 
never alluded to. 
With half my men gone, I still ordered the march, though 
strons^ly opposed to the advice of one of old Mamba's 

To Camp, IStA. ^ , * * , , . , 

. . men, who was then passing by on his way to the 

coast, in command of his master's rear detachment He thought 
it impossible for us to pull through the wilderness, with its jungle 
grasses and roots, depending for food only on Grant's gun and 
my own ; still we made half way to the Mdaburu nullah, taking 
some of Mamba's out to camp with us, as he promised to take 
letters and specimens down to the coast for us, provided I paid 
him some cloths as ready money down, and promised some more 
to be paid at Zanzibar. These letters eventually reached home, 
but not the specimens. 
The rains were so heavy that the whole country was now 
flooded, but we pushed on to the nullah by relays, 
and pitched on its left bank. In the confusion of 
the march, however, we lost many more porters, who at the same 
time relieved us of their loads, by slipping off stealthily into the 
bush. 

The fifteenth was a forced halt, as the stream was so deep and 
« .. - ^ so violent we could not cross it. To make the best 

Halt fl^re dajB. « , . 

of this very unfortunate interruption, I now sent oh 
two men to Kaz^, with letters to Musa and Sheikh Snay, both 
old friends on the former expedition, begging them to ^send me 
sixty men, eaCh carrying thirty rations of grain, and some country 
tobacco. The tobacco was to gratify my men, who said of all 
things they most wanted to cheer them was something to smoke. 
At the same time I sent back some other men to Khoko, with 
cloth to buy grain for present consumption, as some of my por- 
ters were already reduced to living on wild herbs and white anta 
I then set all the remaining men, under the directions of Bombay 
and Baraka, to fell a tall tree with hatchets, on the banks of the 
nullah, with a view to bridging it; but the tree dropped to the 



0IO.J UGIJNDA MKHATJ, 39 

wrong side, and thwarted the plan. The rain ceased on the 17th, 
just as we put the rain-gauge out, which was at once interpreted 
to be our Uganga, or religious charm, and therefore the cause of 
its ceasing. It was the first fine day for a fortnight, so we were 
only too glad to put all our things out to dry, and rejoiced to 
think of the stream's subsiding. My men who went back to 
Xhoko for grain having returned with next to nothing — ^though, 
of course, they had spent all the cloths — I sent back another 
batch with pretty cloths, as it was confidently stated that grain 
was so scarce there, nothing but the best fabrics would buy it 
This also proved a dead failure ; but, although animals were very 
scarce, Grant relieved our anxiety by shooting a zebra and an 
antelope. ^ 

After five halts we forded the stream, middle deep, and pushed 
Eight sneoeaBiTB forward again, doing short stages of four or five miles 
wfidenMBBB. ^ a day, in the greatest possible confusion ; for, while 
Grant and I were compelled to go out shooting all day for the 
pot, the sheikh and Bombay went on with the first half of the 
property, and then, keeping guard over it, sent the men back 
again to Baraka, who kept rear-guard, to have the rest brought 
on. Order there was none ; the men hated this " double work ;" 
all the Wanyamii&i but three deserted, with the connivance of 
the coas^men, carrying off their loads with them, under a mutual 
understanding, as I found out afterward, that the coast-men were 
to go shares in the plunder as soon as we reached Unyamu^zi. 
The next great obstacle in this tug-and-puU wilderness-march 
presented itself on the 24th, when, after the first half of the prop- 
erty had crossed the Mabungiiru nullah, it rose in flood and cut 
off the rear half. It soon,, however, subsided; and the next day 
we reached "the Springs," where we killed a pig and two rhinoc- 
eros. Not content, however, with this fare — ^notwithstanding the 
whole camp had been living liberally on zebra's and antelope's 
flesh every day previously — some of my coast-men bolted on to 
the little settlement of Jiwa 1^ Mkoa, contrary to orders, to pur- 
chase some grain, and in doing so increased our transport diffi- 
CQltie& 

Pulling on in the same way again — when not actually engaged 
in shooting, scolding and storming at the men, to keep them up 
to the mark, and prevent them fix)m shirking their work, which 
they were forever trying to dp — ^we arrived on the 28th at the 
" Boss," a huge granite block, from the top of which the green 



90 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

foliage of the forest-trees looked like an interminable cloud, soft 
and waving, fit for fairies to dwell upon. Here the patience of 
my men fairly gave way, for the village of Jiwa la Mkoa was only 
one long march distance from us, and they, in consecjuence, smelt 
food on in advance much sweeter than the wild game and wild 
grasses they had been living on ; and many more of them could 
not resist deserting us, though they might, had we all pulled to- 
gether, have gone more comfortably in, as soon as the rear prop- 
erty arrived next day with Baraka. 

AH the men who deserted on the 25th, save Johur and Miit- 
wana, now came into camp, and told us they had 
heard from travelers that those men who had been 
sent on for relie& to Kaz6 were bringing us a large detachment 
of slaves to help us on. My men had brought no food either for 
us or their friends, as the cloths they took with them, " which were 
their own," were scarcely sufficient to purchase a meal — ^famines 
being as bad where they had been' as in Ugogo. To try and get 
all the men together again, I now sent off a party loaded with 
cloths to see what they could get for us ; but they returned on 
the 30th grinning and joking, with nothing but a small fragment 
of goat-flesh, telling lies by the dozens. Johur then came into 
camp, unconscious that Baraka by my orders had, during his ab- 
sence, been inspecting his kit, where he found concealed seventy- 
three yards of cloth, which could only have been my property, as 
Johur had brought no akaba or reserve fund from the coast 

The theft having been proved to the satisfaction of every one, 
I ordered Baraka to strip him of every thing and give him three 
dozen lashes ; but after twenty -one had been given, the rest were 
remitted on his promising to turn queen's evidence, when it tran- 
spired that Mutwana had done as much as himself. Johur, it 
turned out, was a murderer, having obtained his freedom by kill- 
ing his master. He was otherwise a notoriously bad character ; 
so, wishing to make an example, as I knew all my men were rob- 
bing me daily, though I could notfdetect them, I had him turned 
out of camp. Baraka was a splendid detective, and could do 
every thing well when he wished it, so I sent him off now with 
* cloths to see what he could do at Jiwa la Mkoa, and next day 
he returned triumphantly driving in cows and goats. Three 
Wanyamiifei, also, who heard we were given to shooting wild 
animals continually, came with him to offer their services as por- 
ters. 



Jah.] 



MGUNDA MKHALI. 



91 



As nearly all the men had now returned, Grant and I spent 
TojiwaUMko*, New Year's Day with the first detachment at Jiwa la 
^ Mkoa, or Round Rock — a single temb^ village occu- 

pied by a few Wakimbu settlers, who, by their presence and do- 
mestic habits, made us feel as though we were well out of the 
wood. So indeed we found it ; for, although this wilderness was 
formerly an entire forest of trees and wild animals, numerous Wa- 
kimbu, who fonnerly occupied the banks of the Ruaha to the 




The TemlxS, or Mad Village, at J^wa la Mkoa. 

southward, had been driven to migrate here, wherever they could 
find springs of water, by the boisterous naked pastorals the Wa- 
rori. 

At night three slaves belonging to Sheikh Salem bin Saif stole 
into our camp, and said they had been sent by their master to 
seek for porters at Kaze, as all the Wanyamu^zi porters of four 
large caravans had deserted In Ugogo, and they could not move. 
I was rather pleased by this news, and thought it served the mer- 
chants right, knowing, as I well did, that the Wanyamii^zi, being 
naturally honest, had they not been defrauded by foreigners on 
the down march to the coast, would have been honest still. Some 
provisions were now obtained by sending men out to distant vil- 
lages ; but we still supplied the camp with our guns, killing rhi- 
noceros, wild boar, antelope, and zebras. The last of our prop- 
erty did not come up till the 5th, when another thief, being caught, 
got fifty lashes, under the superintendence of Baraka, to show 
that punishment was only inflicted to prevent farther crime. 

The next day my men came from Kaz^ with letters from Sheikh 



92 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [I86I. 

Snay and Musa. They had been detained there some 
days after arrival, as those merchants' slaves had gone 
to Utambara to settle some quarrel there ; but as soon as they re- 
turned, Miisa ordered them to go and assist us, giving them beads 
to find rations for themselves on the way, as the whole country 
about Kaz^ had been half starved by funines, though he did send 
a little rice and tobacco for me. The whole party left Kaz6 to- 
gether ; but on arrival at Tiira the slaves ^aid they had not enough 
beads and would return for some more, when they would follow 
my men. This bit of news was the worst that could have be- 
fallen us ; my men were broken-hearted enough before, and this 
drove the last spark of spirit out of them. To make the best of 
a bad job, I now sent Bombay with two other men off to Miisa to 
see what he could do, and ordered my other men to hire Wakimbu 
from village to village. On the 7th, a nervous excitement was 
produced in the camp by some of my men running in and calling 
all to arm, as the fugitive chief Manua S^ra was coming, with 
thirty armed followers carrying muskets. Such was the case ; 
and by the time my men were all under arms, with their sword- 
bayonets fixed, drawn up by my tent, the veritable " Tippler'' 
arrived ; but^ not liking the look of such a formidable array as 
my men presented, he passed on a short way, and then sent back 
a deputation to make known his desire of calling on me, which 
was no sooner complied with than he came in person, attended by 
a body-guard. On my requesting him to draw near and sit, his 
wooden stool was placed for him. He began the conversation by 
telling me he had heard of my distress from want of porters, and 
then offered to assist me with some, provided I would take him 
to Kaz^, and mediate between him and the Arabs ; for, through 
their unjustifiable interference in His government affairs a war 
had ensued, which terminated with the Arabs driving him from 
his possessions a vagabond. Manila S^ra, I must say, was as fine 
a young man as ever I looked upon. He was very handsome, 
and looked, as I now saw him, the very picture of a captain of the 
banditti of the romances. I begged him to tell me his tale, and, 
in compliance, he gave me the following narrative : 

" Shortly after you left Kaz^ for England, my old father, the 
• late chief Fiindi Kira, died, and by his desire I btecame lawful 
chief; for, though the son of a slave girl, and not of Fiindi Kira's 
wife, such is the law of inheritance — a constitutional policy estab- 
lished to prevent any chance of intrigues between the sons bom 



jAir.] MGUNDA MKHATJ. 98 

in legitimate wedlock. Well, after assuming the title of chief, I 
gave presents of ivory to all the Arabs with a liberal hand, but 
most so to Musa, which caused great jealousy among the other 
merchants. Then, after this, I established a property tax on all 
merchandise that entered my country. Fundi Eara had never 
done so, but I did not think that any reason why I should not, 
especially as the Arabs were the only people who lived in my 
country exempt from taxation. This measure, however, exas- 
perated the Arabs, and induced them to send me hostile messages, 
to the eflfect that, if I ever meddled with them, they would de- 
throne me, and place Mkisiwa, another illegitimate son, on the 
throne in my stead. This," Manua S^ra continued, " I could not 
stand ; the merchants were living on sufferance only in my coun- 
try. I told them so, and defied them to interfere with my orders, 
for I was not a ' woman,' to be treated with contempt ; and this 
got up a quarrel. Mkisiwa, seizing at the opportunity of the 
prize held out to him by the Arabs to his supporters, then com- 
menced a system of bribery. Words led to blows ; we had a 
long and tough fight ; I killed many of their number, and they 
killed mine. Eventually they drove me from my palace, and 
placed Mkisiwa there as chief in my stead. My faithful follow- 
ers, however, never deserted me ; so I went to Bubiiga, and put 
up with old Maula there. The Arabs followed — drove- me to 
Ngurfi, and tried to kill Maiila for having fostered me. He, how- 
erer, escaped them ; but they destroyed his country, and then fol- 
lowed me down to Nguru. There we fought for many months, 
until aU provisions were exhausted, when I defied them to catch 
me, and forced my way through their ranks. It is needless to 
say I have been a wanderer since ; and though I wish to make 
friends, they will not allow it, but do all they can to hunt me to 
death. Now, as you were a friend of my father, I do hope you 
will patch up this war for me, which you must think is unjust." 

I told Manila S^ra I felt very much for him, and I would do 
my best if he would follow me to Kaz^ ; but I knew that nothing 
could ever be done unless he returned to the free-trade principles 
of his father. He then said he had never taken a single tax from 
the Arabs, and would gladly relinquish his intention to do so. 
The whole affair was commenced in too great a hurry ; but, what- 
ever happened, he would gladly forgive all if I would use my in- 
fluence to reinstate him, for by no other means could he ever get 
his crown back again. I then assured him that I would do what 



94 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

I could to restore the ruined trade of his country, oliserving that, 
as all the ivory that went out of his country came to ours, and all 
imports were productions of our country also, this war injured us 
03 well as -himself Manila S^ra seemed highly delighted, and 
said he had a little business to transact in Ugogo at present, but 
he would overtake me in a few day^. He then sent me one of 
my runaway porters, whom he had caught in the woods making 
off with a load of my beads. We then separated ; and Baraka, 
by my orders, gave the thief fifty lashes for his double offense of 
theft and desertion. 
On the 9th, having bought two donkeys and engaged several 
men, we left Jiwa la Mkoa with half our traps, and 
uikiw*. ' marched to Gara&wi, where, to my surprise, there 

ToZimbo,lltt. ' \ ^ , J. -I 

Halt, ia<A and wcrc as many as twenty tembes — ^a recently-formed 
settlement of Wakimbii. Here we halted a day for 
the rear convoy, and then went on again by detachments to Zim- 
bo, where, to our intense delight, Bombay returned to us on the 
13th, triumphantly firing guns, with seventy slaves accompanying 
him, and with letters from Snay and Musa, in which they said 
they hoped, if I met with Manila S^ra, that I would either put a 
bullet through his head, or else bring him in a prisoner, that they 
might do for him, for the scoundrel had destroyed all their trade 
by cutting off caravans. Their fights with him commenced by 
his levying taxes in opposition to their treaties with his father, 
Filndi Kira, and then preventing his subjects selling them graia. 
Once more the whole caravan moved on ; but as I had to pay 
To Mgongo ^^^ of ^^^ seventy slaves sixteen yards of cloth, by 
Thembo34«A. order of their masters, in the simple matter of ex- 
penditure it would have been better had I thrown ten loads away 
at Ugogo, where my difficulties first commenced. On arrival at 
Mgongo Thembo — the Elephant's Back — called so in conse- 
quence of a large granitic rock, which resembles the back of that 
animal, protruding through the ground — we found a clearance in 
the forest, of two miles in extent, under cultivation. Here the 
first man to meet me was the fugitive chief of Rilbilga, Maula. 
This poor old man — one of the honestest chiefe in the country — 
had been to the former expedition a host and good friend. He 
now gave me a cow as a present, and said he would give me ten 
more if I would assist him in making friends with the Arabs, who 
had driven him out of his country, and had destroyed all his be- 
longings, even putting a slave to reign in his stead, though he 



Jan.] MGUNDA MKTTALTi, 95 

had committed no &alt or intentional injury toward them. It 
was true Manila Sera, their enemy, had taken refuge in his palace, 
but that was not his ^fault ; for, anticipating the difficulties that 
would arise, he did his best to keep Manua S^ra out of it; but 
Manila S^ra, being too strong for him, forced his way in. I need 
not say I tried to console this unfortunate victim of circumstances 
as best I could, inviting him to go with me to Elaz^, and promis- 
ing to protect him with my life if he feared the Arabs ; but the 
old man, being too feeble to travel himself, said he would send his 
son with me. 
Next day we pushed on a double marcb through the forest, and 

- ^ « . reached a nullah. As it crosses the track in a south- 
To campiiiMJk. 

emly direction, this might either be the head of the 

Kiilulii mongo or river, which, passing through the district of 
Kiw^l^ drains westward into the Malagarazi Eiver, and thence 
into the Tanganyika, or else the most westerly tributary to the 
Kuaha River, draining eastward into the sea. The plateau, how- 
ever, is apparently so fiat here, that nothing but a minute survey, 
or rather foU owing the water-course, could determine the matter. 
_ ^ .. . Then emerging from the wilderness, we came into 

To E. TSn« 16tA. *^ " 

the open cultivated district of Tura, or " put down" 
—called so by the natives because it was, only a few years ago, 
the first cleared space in the wilderness, and served as a good halt- 
ing-station, after the normal ten days' march in the jungles, where 
we had now been struggling more than a month. 

The whole place, once so fertile, was now almost depopulated 
and in a sad state of ruin, showing plainly the savage ravages of 
war; for the Arabs and their slaves, when they take the field, 
think more of plunder and slavery than the object they started 
on, each man of the force looking out for himself. The incen- 
tives, too, are so great — a young woman might be caught (the 
greatest treasure on earth), or a boy or a girl, a sow or a goat — 
all of them fortunes, of themselves too irresistible to be overlook- 
ed when the future is doubtful. Here Sheikh Said broke down 
in health of a complaint which he formerly had suflfered from, 
and from which I at once saw he would never recover sufficient- 
ly well to be ever effective again. It was a sad misfortune, as the 
men had great confidence in him, being the representative of their 
Zanzibar government ; still it could not be helped ; for, as a sick 
man is, after all, the greatest possible impediment to a march, it 
was better to be rid of him than have the trouble of dragging 



96 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

him; so I made up my mind, as soon as we reached Kaz^, I would 
drop him there with the Arabs. He cotild not be 
moved on the 16th, so I marched across the plain and 
pat up in some villages on its western side. While waiting for 
the sheikh's arrival, some villagers at night stole several loads of 
beads, and ran off with them ; but my men, finding the theft out 
in time, hunted them down, and recovered all but one load ; for 
the thieves had thrown their loads down as soon as they found 
they were hotly pursued. 
Early this morning I called all the head men of the village to- 
gether, and demanded the beads to be restored to me ; 
for, as I was living with them, they were responsible, 
according to the laws of the country. They acknowledged the 
truth and force of my demand, and said they would each give me 
a cow as an earnest, until their chief, who was absent, arrived. 
This, of course, was objected to, as the chief, in his absence, must 
have deputed some one to govern for him, and I expected him to 
settle at once, that I might proceed with the march. Then select- 
ing five of my head men to conduct the case, with five of their 
elders, it was considered my losses were equivalent to thirty head 
of cattle. As I remitted tibe penalty to fifteen head, these were 
made over to me, and we went on with the march, all feeling de- 
lighted with the issue but the Hottentots, who, not liking the loss 
of the second fifteen cows, said that in Kafirland, where the laws 
of the country are the 6ame as here, the whole would have been 
taken, and, as it was, they thought I was depriving them of their 
rights, to beef 

By a double march, the sheikh riding in a hammock slung on 
^ ^ .n..^ ^ pol^j ^6 iiow made Kual^, or "Partridge" nullah, 

To Gamp, 19^ , . , . , , , , ° , , . 

ToRMMgis which, crossmg the road to the northward, drains 
these lands to the Malagarazi Eiver, and thence into 
the Tanganyika Lake. Thence, having spent the night in the 
jungle, we next morning pushed into the cultivated district of 
Riibuga, and put up in some half-deserted temb&, where the rav- 
ages of war were even more disgusting to witness than at Tura. 
The chief, as I have said, was a slave, placed there by the Arabs 
on the condition that he would allow all traders and travelers to 
help themselves without payment as long as they chose to reside 
there. In consequence of this wicked arrangement, I found it 
impossible to keep my men firom picking and stealing. They 
looked upon plunder as their fortune and right, and my interfe- 
rence as unjustifiable^ 



JlH.] 



M6UNDA MEHALI. 



97 



ToW. Bfibttga, 

ToKigfi^aSiL 
To £. Unran- 



By making another morning and evening march, we then 
reached the western extremity of this cultivated 
opening, where, after sleeping the night, we threaded 
through another forest to the little clearance of Kigu^, 
and in one more march through forest arrived in the 
large and fertile district of Unyanyemb^, the centre of U-n-ya- 
mu&i — ^the Land of the Moon — within five miles of Kaz^, which 
is the name of a well in the village of Tabora, now constituted 
the great central slave and ivory merchants' d^pot My losses 
up to this date (28d)' were as follows : one Hottentot dead and 
five returned ; one freeman sent back with the Hottentots, and 
one flogged and turned oflf ; twenty-five of Sultan Majid's garden- 
ers deserted ; ninety-eight of the original Wanyamii&i porters 
deserted ; twelve mules and three donkeys dead. Besides which, 
more than half of my property had been stolen ; while the trav- 
eUng expenses had been unprecedented, in consequence of the 
severity of thefiimine throughout the whole length of the march. 




View in Eaitem Unyanyembd. 

G 



98 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 



CHAPTEE V. 

U-N-YA-MttfiZI. 

The Conntiy and People of U-n-ja-mti^zi. — Eaz^ the Capital. — Old Mttea. — The 
naked Wakidi. — ^The N*yanza, and the Question of the Riyer running in or out. 
— The Contest between Mohinna and '* Short-legs." — ^Famine. — ^The Arabs and 
Local Wars.^The Soltana of Unyambdwa.— Ungamd *' the Fig. ''—Pillage. 

U-N-YA-M^fizi — Country of the Moon — must have been one of 
the largest kingdoms of AJfrica. It is little inferior in size to En- 
gland, and of much the same shape, though now, instead of being 
united, it is cut up into petty states. In its northern extremities 
it is known by the appellation U-sukuma — country north ; and 




MyamfiM or Nafcive of Unyamiit^ 

in the southern, U-takama — country south. There are no histor- 
ical traditions known to the people ; neither was any thing ever 
written concerning their country, as far as we know, until the 
Hindus, who traded with the east coast of Africa^ opened com- 
mercial dealings with its people in slaves and ivory, possibly some 
time prior to the birth of our Savior, when, associated witi their 
name. Men of the Moon, sprang into existence the Mountains of 
the Moon. These Men of the Moon are hereditarily the greatest 



Jas.] UlIYAMUEZL 99 

tradeis in Afiica, and are the only people who, for love of barter 
and change, will leave their own country as porters and go to the 
coast, and they do so with as much zest as our country-folk go to 
a £Etir. As jGeut back as we can trace they have done this, and they 
still do it as heretofore. The whole of their country ranges from 
3000 to 4000 feet above the 8ea-leyel--ia high plateau, studded 
with little outcropping hills of granite, between which, in the val* 
leys, there are numerous fertilizing springs of fresh water, and 
rich iron ore is found in sandstone. Generally industrious — much 
more so than most other negroes — they cultivate extensively, 
make cloths of cotton in their own looms, smelt iron and work it 
up very expertly, build ternb^ to live in over a large portion of 
their country, but otherwise live in grass huts, and keep flocks 
and herds of considerable extent 

The Wanyamu&i, however, are not a very well-fiivored peo- 
ple in physical appearance, and are much darker than either the 
Wazaramo oi^ the Wagogo, though many of their men are hand* 
some and their women pretty ; neither are they well dressed or 
well armed, being wanting in pluck and gallantry. Their wom- 
en, generally, are better dressed than the men. Cloths fastened 
round under the arms are their national costume, along with a 
necklace of beads, large brass or copper wire armlets, and a pro- 
fusion of thin circles, called sambo, made of the giraffe's tail-hairs 
bound round by the thinnest iron or copper wire ; while the men 
at home wear loin-cloths, but in the field, or while traveling, sim- 
ply hang a goatskin over their shoulders, exposing at least three 
fourths of their body in a rather indecorous mauQer. In all other 
respects they ornament themselves like the women, only, instead 
of a long coil of wire wound up the arm, they content themselves 
with having massive rings of copper or brass on the wrist; and 
they carry for arms a spear and bow and arrows. All extract 
more or less their lower incisors, and cut a A between their two 
upper incisors. The whole tribe are desperate smokers, and grea^ 
ly given to drink. 

On the 24th, we all, as many as were left of us, marched into 

ToEBMS^uth. *® merchante' d^pSt, S. lat. 6"" 0' 52", and E. long. 

88° V 84'',* escorted by Musa, who advanced to meet 

* It may be as well to remark here, that the fignres, both in latitude and longi- 
tude, representing the position of Kbz4, computed by Mr. Dnnkin, accord with what 
appeared in *' Blackwood's Magadne," compoted by myself and in the R. Q. & 
Joumal Map, compnted by Ci^ttain George. 

B G i) 8 H 



100 



THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. 



[1861. 



US, and guided us into his temb^, where he begged we would re- 
side with him until we could find men to carry our property on 
to Karagii^. He added that he would accompany us; for he 
was on the point of going there when my first installment of prop- 
erty arrived, but deferred his intention out of respect to myself 
He had been detained at Kaz^ ever since I last left it in conse- 
quence of the Arabs having provoked a war with Manua S^ra, 
to which he was adverse. For a long time also he had been a 
chained prisoner; as the Arabs, jealous of the favor Manua S^ra 
had shown to him in preference to themselves, basely accused 
him of supplying Manua S^ra with gunpowder, and bound him 
hand and foot " like a slave." It was (lelightful to see old Miisa's 
face again, and the supremely hospitable, kind, and courteous "man- 
ner in which he looked after us, constantly bringing in all kind 
of small delicacies, and seeing that nothing was wanting to make 
us happy. All the property I had sent on in advance he had 
stored away ; or rather, I should say, as much as had reached him, 
for the road expenses had eaten a great hole in it 




Front View of Hfiaa't Tembu at Kuik 



Once settled down into position. Sheikh Snay and the whole 
conclave of Arab merchants came to call on me. They said they 
had an army of four hundred slaves armed with muskets ready 
to take the field at once to hunt down Manua S^ra, who was cut- 

This applies also to the position of Ujiji ; at any rate, the practical differences are 
80 trifling that it would require a microscope to detect them on the map. 




WAQAXDA WAB DCBIKUMXIITB. 

1. Warrior. 4. Men*i wreaths. 0. Klngf s amulet of IS, IS, 14 Channg. 

2. Irofry omaniMits for 6. Head omaments. beads. 10. Spears. 

Ie0k 0. Shield and spears. 10. Neckl/uses. 16 4nklet of serpent sUn 

9l Kia^s lei; omameDts. 7, & Necklaces. IL Woman's dirk. and bdt of wood. 






'i : - . ^ 



1 ■.-. 



Jah.] untamuezi. 105 

ting their caravan road to pieces, and had just seized, by their 
ktest reports, a whole convoy of their ammunition. I begged 
them strongly to listen to reason, and accept my advice as an old 
soldier, not to carry on their guenilla warfare in such a headlong 
hurry, else they would be led a dance by Manua S^ra, as we had 
been by Tantia Topee in India. I advised them to allow me to 
mediate between them, after telling them what a favorable inter- 
view I had had with Manua S^ra and Maula, whose son was at 
that moment concealed in Musa's temb^. My advice, however, 
was not wanted. Snay knew better than any one how to deal 
with savages, and determined on setting out as soon as his army 
had " eaten their beef-feast of war." 

On my questioning him about the Nile, Snay still thought the 
N'yanza was the source of the Jub Eiver,* as he did in our former 
journey, but gave way when I told him that vessels frequented 
the Nile, as this also coincided with his knowledge of navigators 
in vessels appearing on some waters to the northward of Unyoro. 
In a great hurry he then bade me good-by ; when, as he thought 
it would be final, I gave him, in consideration for his former good 
services to the last expedition, one of the gold watches given me 
by the Indian government I saw him no more, though he and 
all the other Arabs sent me presents of cows, goats, and rice, with 
a notice that they should have gone on their war-path before, 
only, hearing of my arrival, out of due respect to my greatness, 
they waited to welcome me in. Further, after doing for Manila 
S^ra, they were determined to go on to Ugogo to assist Salem bin 
Saif and the other merchants on, during which, at the same time, 
they would fight all the Wagogo who persisted in taking taxes 
and in harassing their caravans. At the advice of Musa, I seat 
Mania's son off at night to tell the old chief how sorry I was to 
find the Arabs so hot-headed I could not even effect an arrange- 
ment with them. It was a great pity ; for Manua S^ra was so 
much liked by the Wanyamu^zi, they would, had they been able, 
have done any thing to restore him. 

Next day tiie non-belligerent Arabs left in charge of the sta- 

^^ ^ ^ tion, headed by my old friends Abdulla and Mohin- 

na, came to pay their respects again, recognizing in 

me, as they said, a '^ personification of their sultan," and therefore 

considering what they were doing only due to my rank. They 

* The Jub is the largest rirer known to the Zanzibar Arabs. It debonches on the 
east coast north of Zanzibar, close nnder the equator. 



106 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861 

regretted with myself that Snay was so hot-headed; for they 
theiDselves thought a treaty of peace would have been the best 
thing for them, for they were more than half ruined already, and 
saw no hope for the future. Then, turning to geography, I told 
AbduUa c^l I had written and lectured in England concerning 
his stories about navigators on the N'yanza, which I explained 
must be the Nile, and wished to know if I should alter it in any 
way ; but he said, " Do not ; you may depend it will all turn out 
right ;" to which Miisa added, all the people in the north told him 
that when the N'yanza rose, the stream rushed with such violence 
it tore up islands and floated them away. 

I was puzzled at this announcement, not then knowing that both 
the lake and the Nile, as well as all ponds, were called N'yanza ; 
but we shall see afterward that he was right ; and it was in con- 
sequence of this confusion in the treatment of distinctly different 
geographical featui^ under one common name by these people 
that in my former journey I could not determine where the lake 
ended and the Nile began. Abdulla again — ^he had done so on 
the former journey — spoke to me of a wonderful mountain to the 
northward of KaraguJ, so high and steep no one could ascend 
it. It was, he said, seldom visible, being up in the clouds, where 
white matter, snow or hail, often fell. Miisa said this hill was in 
Ruanda, a much larger country than Urundi ; and farther, both 
men said, as they had said before, that the lands of Usoga and 
TInyoro were islands, being surrounded by water; and a salt 
lake, which was called N'yanza, though not the great Victoria 
N'yanza, lay on the other side of Unyoro, from which direction 
Bumanika, king of Karague, sometimes got beads forwarded to 
him by Kamrasi, king of Unyoro, of a diflferent sort from any 
brought from Zanzibar. Moreover, these beads were said to have 
been plundered from white men by the Wakidi — ^a stark-naked 
people who live up in trees — have small stools fixed on behind, 
always ready for sitting — wear their hair hanging down as &r as 
the rump, ail covered with cowrie-shells — suspend beads from 
wire attached to their ears and their loWer lip&— and wear strong 
iron collars and bracelets. 

This people, I was told, are so fierce in war that no other tribe 
can stand against them, though they only fight with short spears. 
When this discourse was ended, ever perplexed about the Tan- 
ganyika being a still lake, I inquired of Mohinna and other old 
friends what they thought about the Mariingu Biver: did it run 



JiH.] UNTAMUEZL 107 

into or out of the lake ? and they all still adhered to its running 
into the lake ; which, after all, in my mind, is the most condusive 
argument that it does run out of the lake, making it one of a 
chain of lakes leading to the N'yassa, and through it by the Zam- 
b^ into the sea; for all the Arabs on the former journey said 
the Busizi Biver ran out of the Tanganyika, as also the Kitanguld 
ran out of the N'yanza, and the Nile ran into it, even thougb 
Snay said he thought the Jub Biver drained the N'yanza. All 
these statements were, when literally translated into English, the 
reverse of what the speakers, using a peculiar Arab idiom, meant 
to say ; for all the statements made as to the flow of rivers by the 
negroes — ^who apparently give the same meaning to *^ out" and 
"in" as we do — contradicted the Arabs in their descriptions of 
the direction of the flow of these rivers, 

Mohinna now gave us a very graphic description of his fight 
with Short-legs, the late chief of Khoko. About a year ago, as he 
was making his way down to the coast with his ivory merchan- 
dise, on arrival at Khoko, and before his camp was fortified with a 
ring-fence of thorns, some of his men went to drink at a well, 
where they no sooner arrived than the natives began to beat them 
with sticks, claiming the well as their property. This commenced 
a row, which brought out a large body of men, who demanded a 
bullock at the point of their spears. Mohinna hearing this, also 
came to the well, and said he would not listen to their demand, 
but would drink as he wished, for the water was the gift of God. 
Words then changed to blows. All Mohinna's pagazis bolted, 
and his merchandise fell into the hands of the Wagogo. Had his 
camp been fortified, he thinks he would have been too much for 
his enemies ; but, as it was, he retaliated by shooting Shor^legs in 
the head, and at once bolted back to Kaz^ with a few slaves as 
followers, and his three wives. 

The change that had taken place in IJnyanyemb^ since I last 
left it was quite surprising. Instead of the Arabs appearing mer- 
chants, as they did formerly, they looked more like great farmers, 
with huge stalls of cattle attached to their houses, while the na- 
tive villages were all in ruins — so much so that, to obtain corn for 
my men, I had to send out into the district several days' journey 
off, and even then had to pay the most severe famine prices for 
what I got. The Wanyamft&i, I was assured, were dying of 
starvation in all directions; for, in addition to the war, the last 
rainy season had been so light, all their crops had failed. 



108 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

27th and 2Sth. I novr gave all my men presents for the severe 
trials they had experienced in the wilderness, forgetting, as I told 
them, the merciless manner in which they had plundered me; but 
as I gave a trifle more, in proportion, to the three sole remaining 
pagazis, because they had now finished their work, my men were 
all discontented, and wished to throw back their presents, saying 
I did not love them, although they were " perminents," as much 
as the " temperaries." They, however, gave in, after some hours 
of futile arguments, on my making them understand, through 
Baraka, that what they saw me give to the pagazis would, if they 
reflected, only tend to prove to them that I was not a bad master 
who forgot his obligations when he could get no more out of his 
servants. 

I then went into a long inquiry with Musa about our journey 
northward to Karagud ; and as he said there were no men to be 
found in or near XJnyanyemb^, for they were either all killed or 
engaged in the war, it was settled he should send some of his head 
men on to Bungila, where he had formerly resided, trading for 
some years, and was a great &vorite with the chief of the place, 
by name Kiringuana. He also settled that I might take out of 
his establishment of slaves as many men as I could induce to go 
with me, for he thought them more trouble than profit, hired por- 
ters being more safe; moreover, he said the plan would be of 
great advantage to him, as I offered to pay both man and master 
each the same monthly stipend as I gave my present men. This 
was paying double, and all the heavier a burden, as the number 
I should require to complete my establishment to one hundred 
armed men would be sixty. He, however, very generously ad- 
vised me not to take them, as they would give so much trouble, 
but finally gave way when I told him I felt I could not advance 
beyond Karagiid unless I was quite independent of the natives 
there— a view in which he concurred. 

29th and 80^. Jafu, another Indian merchant here, and copart- 
ner of Miisa, came in from a ten days' search after grain, and de- 
scribed the whole country to be in the most dreadful state of fam- 
ine. Wanyamii&i were lying about dead from starvation in all 
directions, and he did not think we should ever get through TJsiii, 
as Suwarora, the chief, was so extortionate he would " tear us to 
pieces ;" but advised our waiting until the war was settled, when 
all the Arabs would combine and go with us. Musa even show- 
ed fear, but arranged, at my suggestion, that he should send some 



Jah.] untamuezi. 109 

men to Bumanika, informing him of our intention to visit him, 
and begging, at the same time, he would use his influence in pre- 
venting our being detained in Usui. 

I may here explain that the country Uzinza was once a large 
kingdom, governed by a king named Ruma, of Wahuma blood. 
At his death, which took place in Dagara's time (the present Bu- 
manika's &ther), the kingdom was contested by his two sons, Bo- 
hinda and Suwarora, but, at the intercession of Dagara, was di- 
vided — Bohinda taking the eastern, called Ukhanga, and Suwa- 
rora the western half of the country, called Usui. This measure 
made Usui feudatory to Karagu^, so that much of the produce of 
the extortions committed in Usui went to Karagu^, and therefore 
they were recognized, though the odium always rested on Suwa- 
rora, " the savage extortioner," rather than on the mild-disposed 
King of Karagu^, who kept up the most amicable relations with 
every one who visited him. 

Musa, I must say, was most loud in his praises of Bumanika; 
and, on the other hand, as Musa, eight years ago, had saved Bu- 
manika's throne for him against an insurrection got up by his 
younger brother Bog^ro, Bumanika, always regarding Musa as 
his savior, never lost an opportunity to show his gratitude, and 
would have done any thing that Musa might have asked him. 
Of this matter, however, more in Karagii^. 

Slst To-day, Jafu, who had lost many ivories at Khoko when 
Mohinna was attacked there, prepared 100 slaves, with Said bin 
Osman, Mohinna's brother, with a view to follow down Snay, 
and, combining forces, attack Hori Hori, hoping to recover their 
losses; for it appeared to them the time had now come when their 
only hope left in carrying their trade to a successful issue lay in 
force of arms. They would, therefore, not rest satisfied until they 
had reduced Khoko and Usekh^ both, by actual force, to acknowl- 
edge their superiority, "feeding on them" until the Bamazan, 
when they would return with all the merchants detained in Ugo- 
go, and, again combining their forces, they would fall on Usui, to 
reduce that country also. 

When these men had gone, a lunatic set the whole place in 
commotion. He was a slave of Musa's, who had wounded some 
men previously in his wild excesses, and had been tied up ; but 
now, bieaking loose again, he swore he would not be satisfied 
until he killed some " big man." His strength was so great no 
one could confine him, though they hunted him into a hut, where. 



110 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

having seized a gun and some arrows, he defied any one to put 
hands on him. Here, howerer, he was at last reduced to submis- 
sion and a better state of his senses by starvation ; for I must 
add, the A&ican is much given to such mental fits of aberration 
at certain periods : these are generally harmless, but sometimes 
not; but they come and they go again without any visible cause. 

1st. Miisa's men now started for Bungua, and promised to bring 
all the porters we wanted by the first day of the next moon. We 
found that this would be early enough, for all the members of the 
expedition, excepting myself, were suffering from the effects of 
the wilderness life — some with fever, some with scurvy, and some 
with ophth^mia — ^which made it desirable they should all have 
rest. Little now was done besides counting out my property, 
and making Sheikh Said, who became worse and worse, deliver 
his charge of Cafila Bashi over to Bombay for good. When it 
was found so much had been stolen, especidly of the best articles, 
I was obliged to purchase many things firom Musa, paying 400 
per cent, which he said was their value here, over the market 
price of Zanzibar. I also got him to have all my coils of brass 
and copper wire made into bracelets, as is customary, to please 
the northern people. 

7ih, To-day information was brought here that while MantLa 
S^ra .was on his way from Ugogo to keep his appointment with 
me. Sheikh Snay's army came on him at Tura, where he was en- 
sconced in a temb^. Hearing this, Snay, instead of attacking the 
village at once, commenced negotiations with the chief of the 
place by demanding him to set free his guest, otherwise they, the 
Arabs, would storm the temb^. The chie^ unfortunately, did not 
comply at once, but begged grace for one night, saying that if 
Manua S^ra was found there in the morning they might do as 
they liked. Of course Manua bolted ; and the Arabs, seeing the 
Tura people all under arms ready to defend themselves the next 
morning, set at them in earnest, and shot, murdered, or plundered 
the whole of the district Then, while Arabs were sending in 
their captures of women, children, and cattle, Man&t S^ra made 
off to a district called Dara, where he formed an alliance with its 
chief, Kifunja, and boasted he would attack Kaz^ as soon as the 
traveling season commenced, when the place would be weakened 
by the dispersion of the Arabs on their ivory excursions.. 

This startling news set the place in a blaze, and brought all the 
Arabs again to seek my advice ; for they condemned what Snav 



Feb.] UNYAMUEZL HI 

had done in not listening to me befoie, and wished to know if I 
could not now treat for them with Manna S^ra, which they thought 
dould be easily managed, as Manila S€ra himself was not only the 
first to propose mediation, but was actnally on his way here for 
the purpose when Snay opposed him. I said nothing could give 
me greater pleasure than mediating for them, to put a stop to 
these horrors, but it struck me the case had now gone too &r. 
Snay, in opposition to my advice, was bent on fighting; he could 
not be recalled ; and unless all the Arabs were of one mind, I ran 
the risk of committing myself to a position I could not maintain. 
To this they replied that the majority were still at Kaz^, all wish- 
ing for peace at any price, and diat whatever terms I might wish 
to dictate they would agree to. Then I said, **What would you 
do with Mkisiwa? You have made him chief, and can not throw 
him over." "Oh, that," they said, "can be easily managed; for 
formerly, when we confronted Manila S^ra at Ngfiru, we offered 
to give him as much territory as his father governed, though not 
exactly in the same place; but he treated our message with dis- 
dain, not knowing then what a fix he was in. Now, however, as 
he has seen more, and wishes for peace himself, there can be no 
difficulty." I then ordered two of my men to go with two of 
Musa's to acquaint Manna S^ra with what we were about, and to 
know his views on the subject; but these men returned to say 
Manila Sera could not be found, for he was driven from "pillar 
to post" by the diflferent native chiefe, as, wherever he went, his 
army ate up their stores, and brought nothing but calamities with 
them. Thus died this second attempted treaty. Milsa then told 
me it was well it turned out so, for Manila S^ra would never be- 
lieve the Arabs, as they had broken faith so often before, even 
after exchanging blood by cutting incisions in one another's legs 
—the most sacred bond or oath the natives know of. 
As nothing more of importance was done, I set out with Qrant 

to have a week's shooting in the district under the 
vymnuL,i9thu> guidaucc of au old fiiend. Fundi Sangoro, Milsa's 

" head gamekeeper," who assured me that the sable 
antelope and blano boc, specimens of which I had not yet seen, 
inhabited some low swampy place called N'yama, or " Meat," not 
&r distant, on the left bank of the Wal^ nullah. My companion 
unfortunately got fever here, and was prevented from going out, 
and I did little better; for, although I waded up to my middle 
every day, and wounded several blanc boc, I only bagged one. 



112 THE SOUBCB OB THE KILE. [1861. 

and should not have got even him had it not happened that some 
lions in the night palled him down close to our camp, and roared 
so violently that they told us the story. The first thing in the 
morning I wished to have at them ; but they took the hint of 
daybreak to make off, and left me only the half of the animal. I 
saw only one sable antelope. We all went back to Kaz6, arriving 
there on the 24th. 

25th to 13^. Days rolled on, and nothing was done in particu- 
lar — ^beyond increasing my stock of knowledge of distant places 
and people, enlarging my zoological collection, and taking long 
series of astronomical observations — until the 13 th, when the 
whole of Kaz^ was depressed by a sad scene of mourning and 
tears. Some slaves came in that night, having made their way 
through the woods from Ugogo, avoiding the track to save them- 
selves from detection, and gave information that Snay, Jafu, and 
five other Arabs had been killed, as well as a great number of 
slaves. The expedition, they said, had been defeated, and the 
positions were so complicated nobody knew what to do. At first 
the Arabs achieved two brilliant successes, having succeeded in 
killing Hori Hori of Khoko, when they recovered their ivory, 
made slaves of all they could find, and took a vast number of 
cattle ; then attacking Usekh^, they reduced that place to sub- 
mission by forcing a ransom out of its peopla At this period, 
however, they heard that a whole caravan, carrying 5000 dollars' 
worth of property, had been cut up by the people of Mzanza, a 
small district ten miles north of Usekh^; so, instead of going on 
to Kanyeny^ to relieve the caravans which were waiting there 
for them, they foolishly divided their forces into three parts. Of 
these they sent one to take their loot back to Kaz<S, another to 
form a reserve force at Mdabiiru, on the east flank of the wilder- 
ness, and a third, headed by Snay and Jafu, to attack Mzanza. 
At the first onset Snay and Jafu carried every thing before them, 
and became so excited over the amount of their loot that they 
lost all feelings of care or precaution. 

In this high exuberance of spirits, a sudden surprise turned 
their momentary triumph into a total defeat; for some Wahumba, 
having heard the cries of the Wagogo, joined in their cause, and 
both together fell on the Arab force with such impetuosity that 
the former victors were now scattered in all directions. Those 
who could run fast enough were saved ; the rest were speared to 
death by the natives. Nobody knew how Jafu fell ; but Snay, 



FBB.-MABCB.3 UNTAMUEZL Hg 

after running a short distance, called one of his slayes, and begged 
him to take his gun, saying, *' I am too old to keep up with you; 
keep this gun for my sake, for I will lie down here and take my 
chance." He never was seen again. But this was not all their 
misfortunes; for the slaves who brought in this information had 
met the first detachment, sent with the Khoko loot, at Kigua, 
where, they said, the detachment had been surprised by Manua 
S^ra, who, having fortified a village with four hundred men, ex- 
pecting this sort of thing, rushed out upon them, and cut them 
all up. 

The Arabs, after the first burst of their grief was over, came to 
me again in a body, and begged me to assist them, for they were 
utterly undone; Manua S^ra prevented their direct communica- 
tion with their detachment at Mdabiiru, and that again was cut 
off £rom their caravans at E^anyeny^ by the Mzanza people, and, 
in fiict^ all the Wagogo ; so they hoped at least I would not for- 
sake them, which they heard I was going to do, as Manila S^ra 
had also threatened to attack Kbz4. I then told them, finally, 
that their proposals were now beyond my power, for I had a 
duty to perform as well as themselves, and in a day or two I 
should be off. 

l^ih to 17tk. On the 14th thirty-nine porters were brought in 
from Bungua by Musa's men, who said they had collected one 
hundred and twenty, and brought them to within ten miles of 
this, when some travelers frightened all but thirty-nine away by 
telling them, "Are you such fools as to venture into Eazd now? 
All the Arabs have been killed, or were being cut up and pur- 
sued by Manila S^ra." This sad disappointment threw me on my 
*< beam-ends." For some reason or other, none of Musa's slaves 
would take service, and the Arabs prevented theirs from leaving 
the place, as it was already too short of hands. To do the best 
under these circunistances, I determined on going to Bungua 
with what kit could be carried, leaving Bombay behind with 
Musa until such time as I should arrive there, and, finding more 
men, conld send them back for the rest I then gave Milsa the 
last of the gold watches the Indian government had given me;* 
and, bidding Sheikh Said take all our letters and specimens back 
to the coast as soon as the road was found practicable, set out on 
the march northward with Grant and Baraka, and all the rest of 
* The two first gold watcket were ghen awaj at Zaadbar. 

H 



114 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

my men who were well enough to carry loads, as well as some of 
Musa's head men, who knew where to get porters. 

After passing Masang^ and Zimbili, we put up a night in the 
Break ground, village of Iviri, on the northern border of Unyan- 
ToiCMangd, yemb^ and found several officers there, sent by 
ToiVw,i»«k. Mkisiwa, to enforce a levy of soldiers to take the 
sjmS^ field with the Arabs at Eaz^ against Manila S^ra ; 

nnu^2ut. to cffcct which, they walked about ringing bells, and 
bawling out that if a certain percentage of all the inhabitants did 
not muster, the village chief would be seized, and their planta- 
tions confiscated. My men all mutinied here for increase of ra- 
tion allowances. To find themselves food with, I had given them 
all one necklace of beads each per diem since leaving Kazd, in 
lieu of cloth, which hitherto had been served out for that par- 
pose. It was a very liberal allowance, because the Arabs never 
gave more than one necklace to every three men, and that, too, 
of inferior quality to what I served. I brought them to at last 
by starvation, and then we went on. Dipping down into a valley 
between two clusters of granitic hills, beautifully clothed with 
trees and grass, studded here and there with rich plantations, we 
entered the district of Usagari, and on the second day forded the 
Gomb^ nullah again — in its upper course, called Kual6. 

Rising again up to the main level of the plantatioii, we walked 
To ungHgiPB iJito the boma of the chief of Unyamb^wa, Singinya, 
Palace, sM "vyhose wifc was my old friend the late sultana Un- 
gugii's lady's-maid. Immediately on our entering her pidace, 
she came forward to meet me with the most affable air of a prin- 
cess, begged I would always come to her as I did then, and sought 
to make every one happy and comfortable. Her old mistress, 
she said, died well stricken in years; and, as she had succeeded 
her, the people of her country invited Singinya to marry her, be- 
cause feuds had arisen about the rights of succession ; and it was 
better a prince, whom they thought best suited by birth and good 
qualities, should head their warriors, and keep all in order. At 
that moment Singinya was out in the field fighting his enemies ; 
and she was sure, when he heard I was here, that he would be 
very sorry he had missed seeing me. 

We next went on to the district of Ukiimbi, and put up in a 

ToUs«nd*.2Sd. "^^^^^ there, on 'approaching which all the villagers 

turned out to resist us, supposing we were an old 

enemy of theirs. They flew about brandishing their spears, and 



MiBCH.] UNTAMUEZI. 115 

pulliDg their bows in the most grotesque attitudes, aJarniing some 
of my porters so much that they threw down their loads and 
bolted. All the country is richly cultivated, though Indian com 
at that time was the only grain ripe. The square, flat-topped 
temb& had now been left behind, and instead the villagers lived 
in small collections of grass huts, surrounded by palisades of tall 
poles. 

Proceeding on, we put up at the small settlement of Usenda, 
the proprietor of which was a semi-negro Arab merchant called 
Sangoro. He had a large collection of women here, but had him- 
self gone north with a view to trade in Karagii^. Report, how- 
ever, assured us that he was then detained in Usui by Suwarora, 
its chief, on the plea of requiring his force of musketeers to pre- 
vent the Watiita from pillaging his country, for these WatUta 
lived entirely on plunder of other people's cattle. 

With one move, by alternately crossing strips of forest and cul- 
tivation, studded here and there with small hills of 
granite, we forded the Quand^ nullah, a tributary to 
the Gomb^, and entered the rich flat district of Mininga, where 
the gingerbread-palm grows abundantly. The greatest man we 
found here was a broken-down ivory-merchant called Sirboko, 
who gave us a good hut to live in. Next morning, I believe at 
the suggestion of my Wanguana, with Baraka at their head, he 
induced me to stop there ; for he said Rungua had been very re- 
cently destroyed by the Watiita, and this place could afibrd por- 
ters better than it. To all appearance tUfe was the case, for this 
district was better cultivated than any place I had seen. I also 
felt a certain inclination to stop, as I was dragging on sick men, 
sorely against my feelings ; and I also thought I had better not 
go &rther away from my rear property ; but, afraid of doing 
wrong in not acting up to Musa's directions, I called up his head 
men who were with me, and asked them what they thought of 
the matter, as they had lately come from Rungua. Oa their con- 
finning Sirboko's story, and advising my stopping, I acceded to 
their recommendation, and immediately gave Musa's men orders 
to look out for poiters. 

Hearing this, all my Wanguana danced with delight ; and I, 
fearing there was some treachery, called Musa's men again, saying 
I had changed my mind, and wished to go on in the afternoon ; 
but when ^e time came, not one of our porters could be seen. 
There was now no help for it; so, taking it coolly, I gave Musa's 



116 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

men presents, begged them to look sharp in getting the men np, 
and trusted all would end well in the long run. Sirboko's atten- 
tions were most warm and affeeting. He gave us cows, rice, and 
milk, with the best place he had to live in, and looked after us as 
constantly and tenderly as if he had been our father. It seemed 
quite unjust to harbor any suspicion against him. 

He gave the following account of himself: He used to trade 
in ivory on account of some Arabs at Zanzibar. On crossing 
Usui, he once had a fight with one of the chiefs of the country 
and killed him ; but he got through all right, because the native 
after two or three of their number had been killed, dispersed, and 
feared to come near his musket again. He visited Uganda when 
the late king Sunna was living, and even traded with Usoga ; but 
as he was coming down from these northern countries he lost all 
his property by a fire breaking out in a village he stopped in, 
which drove him down here a ruined man. As it happened, 
however, he put up with thp chief of this district, Ugidi — ^Mr. 
Paste — ^at a time -when the Watiita attacked the place and drove 
all the inhabitants away. The chief, too, was on the point of bolt- 
ing, when Sirboko prevented him by saying, " If you will only 
have courage to stand by me, the Watiita shall not come near ; at 
any rate, if they do, let us both die together." The Watiita at 
that time surrounded the district, crowning all the little hills over- 
looking it ; but, fearing the Arabs' guns might be many, they aoon 
walked away and left them in peace. In return for this magna- 
nimity, and feeling a ^at security in fire-arms, Ugali then built 
the large inclosure, with huts for Sirboko, we were now living in. 
Sirboko, afraid to return to the coast lest he should be apprehend- 
ed for debt, has resided here ever since, doing odd jobs for other 
traders, increasing his family, and planting extensively. His ag- 
ricultural operations are confined chiefly to rice, because the na- 
tives do not like it enough to be tempted to steal it 

25^ to 2dL I now set to work, collecting, stuffing, and drawing, 
until the 2d, when Miisa's men came in with three hundred men, 
whom I sent on to Kaz^ at once with my specimens and letters, 
directing Miisa and Bombay to come on and join us immediately. 
While waiting for these men's return, one of Sirboko's slaves, 
chained up by him, in the most piteous manner cried out to me, 
" Hai Bana wangi, Bana wangi (Oh, my lord, my lord), take pity 
on mel When I was a free man I saw you at Uvira, on tbe 
Tanganyika Lake, when you were there ; but since then the Wa- 



AM'.'. 



Mibch-Afkil.] UmrAHUEZL 119 

tuta, in a fight at Ujiji, speared me all over and left me for dead, 
when I was seized by the people, sold to the Arabs, and have 
been in chains ever since. Oh, I say, Bana wangi, if you would 
only liberate me I would never run* away, but would serve you 
faithfully all my life." This touching appeal was too strong for 
my heart to withstand, so I jcalled up Sirboko, and told him, if he 
would liberate this one man to please me, he should be no loser; 
and the release was effected. He was then christened Farhan 
(Joy), and was enrolled in my service with the rest of my freed 
men. I then inquired if it was true the Wabemb^ were canni- 
bals, and also circumcised. In one of their slaves the latter state- 
ment was easily confirmed. I was assured that he was a canni- 
bal ; for the whole tribe of Wabemb^, when they can not get hu- 
man flesh otherwise, give a goat to their neighbors for a sick or 
dying child, regarding such flesh as the best of all. No other 
cannibals, however, were known of; but the Masai, and their cog- 
nates, the Wahiimba, Wataturii, Wakasangd, Wanyaramba, and 
even the Wagogo and Wakimbii, circumcise. 

On the 15th I was surprised to find Bombay come in with all 
my rear property and a great quantity of Musa's, but without the 
old man. By a letter from Sheikh Said I then found that, since 
my leaving Kaz^, the Arabs had, along with Mkisiwa, invested 
the position of Manila Sdra .at Kigii^, and forced him to take 
flight again. Afterward the Arabs, returning to Eitz^, found 
Miisa preparing to leave. Angry at this attempt to desert them, 
they persuaded him to give up his journey north for the present ; 
so that at the time Bombay left, Musa was engaged as public auc- 
tioneer in selling the effects of Snay, Jafu, and others, but private- 
ly said he would follow me on to Earagii^ as soon as his rice was 
cut Adding a little advice of his own, Sheikh Said pressed me 
to go on with the journey as fast as possible, because all the Arabs 
had accused me of conspiring with Manila S^ra, and would turn 
against me unless I soon got away. 

2d to 80^. Disgusted with Musa's vacillatory conduct, on the 
22d I sent him a letter containing a bit of my mind. I had given 
him, as a present, sufficient cloth to pay for his porters, as well as 
a watch and a good sum of money, and advised his coming on at 
once, for the porters who had just brought in my rear property 
would not take pay to go on to Karagu^ ; and so I was detained 
again, waiting while his head man went to Rung&a to look for 
more. Five days after this, a party of Sangoro's arrived from 



120 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

Karag&6, saying they had been detained three months in Usui by 
SSwarora, who had robbed them of an enormous quantity of prop- 
erty, and oppressed them so that all their porters ran away. Now, 
slight as this little afEair might appear, it was of vital importance 
to me, as I found all my men shaking their heads and predicting 
what might happen to us when we got there ; so, as a forlorn 
hope, I sent Baraka with another letter to Miisa, offering to pay 
as much money for fifty men carrying muskets as would buy fifty 
slaves, and, in addition to that, I offered to pay them what my 
men were receiving as servants. Next day (23d) the chief Ugali 
came to pay his respects to us. He was a fine-looking young 
man, about thirty years old, the husband of thirty wives, but he 
had only three children. Much surprised at the various articles 
composing our kit, he remarked that our "sleeping-clothes" — 
blankets — were much better than his royal robes; but of all 
things that amused him most were our picture-books, especially 
some birds drawn by Wolf. 

Every thing still seemed going against me ; for on the follow- 
ing day (24th) Musa's men came in from Bungiia to say the Wa- 
tata were " out." They had just seized fifty head of cattle fix)m 
Bungua, and the people were in such a state of alarm they dared 
not leave their homes and famUies. I knew not what to do, for 
there was no hope left but in what Baraka might bring; and as 
that even would be insufficient, I sent Musa's men into Kaz6, to 
increase the original number by thirty men more. 
^ Patience, thank God, I had a good stock of, so I waited quietly 
tuitil the 80th, when I was fairly upset by the arrival of a letter 
from Kaz^, stating that Baraka had arrived, and had been very 
insolent both to Miisa and to Sheikh Said. The bearer of the 
letter was at once to go and search for porters at Rungiia, but not 
a word was said about the armed men I had ordered. At the 
same time reports from the other side came in, to the effect that 
the Arabs at Kaz6 and Msdn^ had bribed the Watiita to join 
them, and overrun the whole country from Ugogo to Usui ; and, 
in consequence of this, all the natives on the line I should have 
to take were in such dread of that terrible wandering race of sav- 
ages, who had laid waste in turn all the lands from N'yassa to 
Usiii on their west flank, that not a soul dared leave his home. 
I could now only suppose that this foolish and hasty determina- 
tion of the Arabs, who, quite unprepared to carry out their wick- 
ed alliance to fight, still had set every one against their own in- 



Mat.] UNTAMUEZI. 121 

terests as well as mine, had not reached Musa, so I made np my 
mind at once to return to Kbz6, and settle all matters I had in 
heart with himself and the Arabs in person. 

This settled, I next^ in this terrible embarrassment, determined 
OQ sending back the last of the Hottentots, as all four of them, 
though still wishing to go on with me, distinctly said they had 
not the power to continue the march, for they had never ceased 
suffering firom fever and jaundice, which had made them all yel- 
low as guineas, save one, who was too black to change color. It 
felt to me as if I were selling my children, having once under- 
taken to lead them through the journey ; but if I did not send 
them back then, I never could afterward, and therefore I allowed 
the more substantial feelings of humanity to overcome these com- 
punctions. 

Next morning, then, after giving the Tots over in charge of 
usxvhbMkto ^^^ ^^^ ^ escort them on to Kaz^ qoietly, I set 
Kaa^ utmodid, ^^^ mysclf with a dozen men, and the following even- 
ing I put up with Milsa, who told me Baraka had just left with- 
out one man, all his slaves having become afraid to go, since the 
news of the Arab alliance had reached Kaz^. Siiwarora had or- 
deTed his subjects to run up a line of bomas to protect his fron- 
tier, and had proclaimed his intention to kill every coast-man who 
dared attempt to enter Usui. My heart was ready to sink as I 
turned into bed, and I was driven to think of abandoning every 
body who was not strong enough to go on with me carrying a 
load. 

Sd to 13^. Baraka, hearing I had arrived, then came back to 
me, and confirmed Musa's words. The Arabs, too, came flocking 
in to beg, nay, implore me to help them out of their difiiculties. 
Many of them were absolutely ruined, they said; others had 
their houses full of stores unemployed. At Ugogo those who 
wished to join them were unable to do so, for their porters, what 
few were left;, were all dying of starvation ; and at that moment 
Manua S^ra was hovering about, shooting, both night and day, all 
the poor villagers in the district, or driving them away. Would 
to God, they said, I would mediate for them with Manua S^ra — 
they were sure I would be successful — ^and then they would give 
me as many armed men as I liked. Their folly in all their ac- 
tions, I said, proved to me that any thing I might attempt to do 
would be futile, for their alliance with the Watiita, when they 
were not prepared to act, at once damned them in my eyes as 



122 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

fools. This they in their terror acknowledged, but said it was 
not past remedy, if I would join them, to counteract what had 
been done in that matter. Suffice it now to say, after a long con- 
versation, arguing all the pros and cons over, I settled I would 
write out all the articles of a treaty of peace, by which they should 
be liable to have all their property forfeited on the coast if they 
afterward broke £uth ; and I begged them to call the next day 
and sign it. 

They were no sooner gone, however, than Musa assured me 
they had killed old Maiila of Bubiiga in the most treacherous 
manner, as follows : Khamis, who is an Arab of most gentleman* 
ly aspect, on returning from Ugogo attended by slaves, having 
heard that Maula was desirous of adjusting a peace, invited him, 
with his son, to do so. When old Maiila came as desired, bring- 
ing his son with him, and a suitable offering of ivory and cattle, 
the Arab induced them both to kneel down and exchange blood 
with him, when, by a previously concerted arrangement, Khamis 
had them shot down by his slaves. This disgusting story made 
me quite sorry, when next day the Arabs arrived, expecting that 
I should attempt to help them ; but, as the matter had gone so 
far, I asked them, in the first place, how they could hope Manua 
S^ra would have any faith in them when they were so treacher^ 
ous, or trust to my help, since they had killed Maiila, who was 
my proiegif They all replied in a breath, " Oh, let the past be 
forgotten, and assist us now, for in you alone we can look for a 
preserver." 

At length an armistice was agreed to ; but as no one dared go 
to negotiate it but my men, I allowed them to take pay from the 
Arabs, which was settled on the 4th by ten men taking four yards 
of cloth each, with a promise of a feast on sweetmeats when they 
returned. Ex Mrs. Musa, who had been put aside by her hus- 
band because she was too &t for her lord's taste, then gave me 
three men of her private establishment, and abused Miisa for be- 
ing wanting in "brains." She had repeatedly advised him to 
leave this place and go with me, lest the Arabs, who were all in 
debt to him, should put him to death ; but he still hung on to re- 
cover his remaining debts, a portion having been realized by the 
sale of Snay's and Jafil's effects ; for every thing in the shape of 
commodities had been sold at the enormous price of 500 per cent 
— the male slaves even fetching $100 per head, though the fe- 
males went for less. The Hottentots now arrived, with many 



Mat.] UNTAMUEZI. 128 

more of my men, -who, seeing their old '* flames," Snay's women, 
sold off by auction, begged me to advance them money to pur- 
chase them with, for they Qould not bear to see these women, who 
were their own when they formerly staid here, go off like cattle 
no one knew where. C!ompliance, of course, was impossible, as it 
would have crowded the caravan with women. Indeed, to pre- 
vent my men ever thinking of matrimony on the march, as well 
as to incite them on through the journey, I promised, as soon as 
we reached Egypt, to give them all wives and gardens at Zanzi- 
bar; provided they did not contract marriages on the road. 

On the 6th, the deputation, headed by Baraka, returned tri- 
umphantly into Kaz^ leading in two of Manua Sara's ministers 
—one of them a man with one eye, whom I called Cyclops — ^and 
two others, ministers of a chief called Kitambi, or Little Blue Cloth. 
After going a day's journey, they said they came to where Manila 
S^ra was residing with Kitambi, and met with a most cheerful and 
kind reception from both potentates, who, on hearing of my prop-, 
osition, warmly acceded to it, issued orders at once that hostilities 
should cease, and, with one voice, said they were convinced that, 
unless through my instrumentality, Manua S^ra would never re- 
gain his possessions. Eitambi was quite beside himself, and wish- 
ed my men to stop one night to enjoy his hospitality. Manua 
S^ra, after reflecting seriously about the treacherous murder of 
old Maula, hesitated, but gave way when it had been explained 
away by my men, and said, " No ; they shall go at once, for my 
kingdom depends on the issue, and Bana Mzungu (the White Lord) 
may get anxious if they do not return promptly." One thing, 
however, he insisted on, and that was, the only place he would 
meet the Arabs in was Unyanyemb^, ajs it would be beneath his 
dignity to settle matters any where else. And farther, he specified 
that he wished all the transactions to take place in Milsa's house. 

Next day, 7th, I assembled all the Arabs at Musa's "court," 
with all my men and the two chie&, four men attending, when 
Baraka, " on his legs," told them all I proposed for the treaty of 
peace. The Arabs gave their assent to it; and Cyclops, for Ma- 
nua S^ra, after giving a full narrative of the whole history of the 
war, in such a rapid and eloquent manner as would have done 
justice to our prime minister, said his chief was only embittered 
against Snay, and now Snay was killed, he wished to make friends 
with them. To which the Arabs made a suitable answer, adding 
all that they found fault with was an insolent remark which, in 



124 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

his wrath, Manila S^ra had given utterance to, that their quarrd 
with him was owing thiefly to a scurvy jest- which he had passed 
on them, and on the characteristic personal ceremony of initiation 
to their Mussulman faith. Now, however, as Manila S^ra wished 
to make fiends, they would abide by any thing that I might pro- 
pose. Here the knotty question arose again, What territory they 
(the Arabs) would give to Manila S^ra? I thought he would not 
be content unless he got the old place again ; but as Cyclops said 
no, that was not, in his opinion, absolutely necessary, as the lands 
of Unyanyemb^ had once before been divided, the matter was 
settled on the condition that another conference should be held 
with Manfta S^ra himself on the subject 

I now (8th and 9th) sent these men all off again, inviting Ma- 
nila S^ra to come over and settle matters at once, if he would, 
otherwise I should go on with my journey, for I could not afford 
to wait longer here. Then, as soon as they left, I made Musa 
order some of his men off to Bungila, requesting the chief of the 
place to send porters to Mininga to remove all our baggage over 
to his palacie ; at the same time, I begged him not to fear the 
Watilta's threat to attack him, as Musa would come as soon as 
the treaty was concluded, in company with me, to build a boma 
alongside his palace, as he did in former years, to be nearer his 
trade with Karagu^. I should have mentioned, by the way, that 
Miisa had now made up his mind not to go farther than the bor- 
ders of Usili with me, lest I should be " torn to pieces," and he 
be " held responsible on the coast" Milsa's men, however, whom 
he selected for this business, were then engaged making Mussul- 
mans of all the Arab slave-boys, and said they would not go until 
they had finished, although I offered to pay the " doctor's bill," 
or allowance they expected to get The ceremony, at the same 
time that it helps to extend their religion, as christening does 
ours, also stamps the converts with a mark effective enough to 
prevent desertion; because, after it has been performed, their own 
tribe would not receive them again. At last, when they did go, 
Miisa, who was suffering from a sharp illness, to prove to me that 
he was bent on leaving Kaz^ the same time as myself, began eat- 
ing what he called his training pills — small dried buds of roees 
with alternate bits of sugar-candy. Ten of these buds, he said, 
eaten dry, were suflScient for ordinary cases, and he gave a very 
formidable description of the effect likely to follow the use of the 
same number boiled in rice-water or milk. 



Mat.] UNYAMUEZI. 125 

Fearful stories of losses and distress came constantly in from 
IJgogo by small bodies of men, who stole their way through the 
jungles. To^lay a tremendous oommotion took place in Musa's 
tembd among all the women, as one had been delivered of still- 
born twins. They went about in procession, painted and adorned 
in the most grotesque fashion, bewailing and screeching, singing 
and dancing, throwing their arms and legs about as if they were 
drunk, until the evening set in, when they gathered a huge bundle 
of bulrushes, and, covering it over with a cloth, carried it up to 
the door of the bereaved on their shoulders, as though it had been 
a coffin. Then setting it down on the ground, they planted some 
of the rushes on either side of the entrance, and all kneeling to- 
gether, set to bewailing, shrieking, and howling incessantly for 
hours together. 

After this (10th to 12th}, to my great relief, quite unexpectedly, 
a man arrived from Usui conveying a present of some ivories from 
a great mganga or magician, named Dr. K'yengo, who had sent 
them to Musa as a recollection from an old friend, begging at the 
same time for some pretty cloths, as he said he was then engaged 
as mtongi or caravan director, collecting together all the native 
caravans desirous of making a grand march to. Uganda. This 
seemed to me a heaven-bom opportunity of making friends with 
one who could help me so materially, and I begged Musa to seal 
it by sending him something on my. account, as I had nothing by 
me ; but Miisa objected, thinking it better simply to say I was 
coming, and if he, K'yengo, would assist me in Usui, I would then 
give him some cloths as he wanted ; otherwise, Musa said, the 
man wbo had to convey it would in all probability make away 
with it, and then do his best to prevent my seeing K'yengo. As 
soon as this was settled, against my wish and opinion, a special 
messenger arrived from Suwarora to inquire of Musa what truth 
there was in the story of the Arabs having allied themselves to 
the Watuta. He had full faith in Miisa, and hoped, if the Arabs 
had no hostile intentions toward him, he, Miisa, would send him- 
two men of his own, and prevail on the Arabs to send two of 
theirs ; fiirther, Siiwarora wished Miisa would send him a cat A 
black cat was then given to the messenger for Siiwarora, and 
MtuBa sent an account of all that I had done toward effecting -a 
peace, saying that the Arabs had accepted my views, and if he 
would have patience until I arrived in Usui, the four men xe* 
quired would be sent with me. 



126 THE SOURCE OF THE NHiE. 1861. 

In the evening my men returned again with Cyclops, who said, 
for his master, that Manua S^ra desired nothing more than peace, 
and to make friends with the Arabs ; but as nothing was settled 
about deposing Mkisiwa, he could not come over here. Could 
the Arabs, was Manila Sara's rejoinder, suppose for a moment 
that he would voluntarily divide his dominion with one whom he 
regarded as his slave I Death would be preferable ; and although 
he would trust his life in the Mzungu's hands if he called him 
again, he must know it was his intention to hunt Mkisiwa down 
like a wild animal, and would never rest satisfied until he was 
dead. The treaty thus broke down ; for the same night Cyclops 
decamped like a thief, after brandishing an arrow which Manila 
S^ra had given him to throw down as a gauntlet of defiance to 
fight Mkisiwa to death. After this the Arabs were too much 
ashamed of themselves to come near me, though invited by letter, 
and Milsa became so ill- he would not take my advice and ride in 
a hammock, the best possible cure for his complaint; so, after 
being humbugged so many times by his procrastinations, I gave 
Sheikh Said more letters and specimens, with orders to take the 
Tots down to the coast as soon as practicable, and started once 
more for the north, expecting very shortly to hear of Musa's 
death, though he promised to follow me the very next day or die 
in the attempt, and he also said he would bring on the four men 
required by Suwarora ; for I was fully satisfied in my mind that 
he would have marched with me then had he had the resolution 
to do so at all. 

Before I had left the district I heard that Manila S^ra had col- 
Toiiininga,i«ft lectcd a mixcd force of Warori, Wagogo, and Wasa- 
uid 14th. kilma, and had gone off to Kigii^ again, while the 

Arabs and Mkisiwa were feeding their men on beef before setting 
out to fight him. Manila S^ra, it was said, had vast resources. 
His father, Filndi Eiira, was a very rich man, and had buried vast 
stores of property, which no one knew of but Manila S^ra, his 
heir. The Wanyamii&i all inwardly loved him for his great 
generosity, and all alike thought him protected by a halo of 
charm-power so effective against the arms of the Arabs that he 
could play with them just as he liked. 

On crossing Unyamb^wa (14th), when I a third time put up 
with my old friend the sultana, her chief sent word to say he 
hoped I would visit him at his fighting boma to eat a cow which 
he had in store for me, as he could not go home and enjoy the 



Mat.] UNYAMUBZL 127 

society of his wife while the war was going on, since by so doing 
it was considered he '' would lose strength." 

On arriving at Mininga, I was rejoiced to see Grant greatly re- 
maia^mh to covered. Three villagers had been attacked by two 
^•**" lions during my absence. Two of the people es- 

caped, but the third was seized as he was plunging into his hut, 
and was dragged off and devoured by the animals. A theft also 
bad taken place, by which both Grant and Sirboko lost property ; 
and the thieves had been traced over the borders of the next dis- 
trict No fear, however, was entertained about the things being 
recovered, for Sirboko had warned Ugali the chief, and he had 
promised to send his Waganga, or magicians, out to track them, 
down, unless ^he neighboring chief chose to give them up. After 
waiting two days, as no men came from Bungua, I begged Grant 
to posh ahead on to Ukuni, just opposite Bungua, with all my 
coast-men, while I remained behii^ for the arrival of Miisa's men 
and porters to carry on the rest of the kit; for I had now twenty- 
two in addition to men permanently enlisted, who took service 
on the same rate of pay as my original coast -men; though, as 
usual, when the order for marching was issued, a great number 
were found to be either sick or malingering. 

Two days afterward, Musa's men came in with porters, who 
To Mbba, 90U would not hire themselves for more than two marches, 
■°*'^ having been forbidden to do so by their chief on ac- 

count of the supposed Watuta invasion; and for these two 
marches they required a quarter of the whole customaiy hire to 
Karagii^. Miisa's traps, too, I found, were not to be moved, so I 
saw at once Milsa had not kept fSsiith with me, and there would 
be a fresh set of difficulties; but as every step onward was of the 
greatest importance — ^for my men were consuming my stores at a 
fearful pace — ^I paid down the beads they demanded, and next 
day joined Grant at Mbisil, a village of Ukiini held by a small 
chief called Mchim6ka, who had just concluded a war of two 
years' standing with the great chief TJkulima (the Digger), of 
Nunda (the Hump). During the whole of the two years' warfare 
the loss was only three men on each side. Meanwhile Musa's 
men bolted like thieves one night, on a report coming that the 
chief of Unyamb^wa, after concluding the war, while amusing 
himself with his wife, had been wounded on the foot by an arrow 
that fell from her hand. The injury had at once taken a mortal 
turn, and the chief sent for his magicians, who said it was not the 



128 THE SOITBCE OF THE NH-E. [1861. 

fault of the wife ; somebody else must have charmed the arrow 
to cause such a deadly result They then seized hold of their 
magic horn, primed for the purpose, and allowed it to drag them 
to where the culprits dwelt Pour poor men, who were convicted 
in this way, were at once put to death, and the chief from that 
moment began to recover. 

After a great many perplexities,! succeeded in getting a kiran* 
Mbi«a, nd to g^^> ^^ leader, by name Unguru^ (the Pig). He had 
^^ several times taken caravans to Karagii^ and knew 

all the languages well, but unfortunately he afterward proved to 
be what his name implied. That, however, I could not foresee ; 
so, trusting to him and good luck, I commenced making fresh en- 
listments of porters ; but they came and went in the most tanta- 
lizing manner, notwithstanding I offered three times the hire that 
any merchant could afford to give. Every day seemed to be 
worse and worse. Some of l^isa's men came to get palm toddy 
for him, as he was too weak to stand, and was so cold nothing 
would warm him. There was, however, no message brought for 
myself; and as the deputation did not come to me, I could only 
infer that I was quite forgotten, or that Musa, after all, had only 
been humbugging me. I scarcely knew what to do. Every 
body advised nae to stop where I was until the harvest was over, 
as no porters could be found on ahead, for Ukiini was the last of 
the fertile lands on this side of Usui. 

Stopping, however, seemed endless; not so my supplies. I 
therefore tried advancing in detachments again, sending the free 
men off under Grant to Ukulima's, while I waited behind, keep- 
ing ourselves divided in the hopes of inducing all hands to see 
the advisability of exerting themselves for the general good ; as 
my men, while we were all together, showed they did not care 
how long they were kept doing no more fatiguing work than 
chaffing each other, and feeding at my expense. 

In the mean while the villagers were very merry, brewing and 
drinking their pomb^ (beer) by turns, one house after the other 
providing the treat On these occasions, the chief— who always 
drank freely, and more than any other — ^heading the public gath- 
erings of men and women, saw the lai^e earthen pots placed all 
in a row, and the company taking long draughts from bowls 
made of plaited straw, laughing as they drank, until, half-screwed, 
they would begin bawling and shouting. To increase the merri- 
ment) one or two jackanapes, with zebras' manes tied over their 




HAtruT DC WAirrAMwfizi, 1861. 



1, 2, 8, 4. Grain. Maixe, etc., stacked for the aeasoa 

o. Men with long rackets thrashing Kafir corn (sorghum). 

J. Wosnan in the field catting »» sorghum" with a knife, and dep'witing it in a baskpt. 

T. Women separating the com from the chaflf by means of a wooden pedtle and mortar. 

8. Woman grinding com upon a tAn^ slab of stone. 



Mat.] UNYAMUEZL 131 

heads, would advance with long tubes like monster bassoons, 
blowing with all their might, contorting their faces and bodies, 
and going through the most obscene and ridiculous motions to 
captivate their simple admirers. This, however, was only the 
feast; the ball then began ; for the pots were no sooner emptied 
than five drums at once, of different sizes and tones, suspended in 
a line from a long horizontal bar, were beaten with fury, and all 
the men, women, and children, singing and clapping their hands 
in time, danced for hours together. 

A report reached me, by some of Sirboko's men, whom he had 
sent to convey to us a small present of rice, that an Arab, who 
was crossing Msalala to our northward, had been treacherously 
robbed of all his arms and guns by a small district chie^ whose 
only excuse was that the Wanyamiiezi had always traded very 
weU by themselves until the Arabs came into the country ; but 
now, as they were robbed of their property on account of the dis- 
turbances caused by these Arabs, they intended for the future to 
take all they could get, and challenged the Arabs to do the same. 

My patience was beginning to suffer again, for I could not help 
thinking that the chiefs of the place were preventing their village 
men going with me in order that my presence here might ward 
off the Watuta ; so I called up the kirangozi, who had thirteen 
""Watoto," as they are called, or children of his own, wishing to 
go, and asked him if he knew why no other men could be got 
As he could not tell me, saying some excused themselves on the 
plea they were cutting their com, and others that they feared the 
Watiita, I resolved at once to move over to Nunda; and if that 
place also failed to furnish men, I would go on to Usui or E^ara- 
gu^ with what men I had, and send back for the rest of my prop- 
erty ; for, though I could not bear the idea of separating from 
Grant, still the interests of old England were at stake, and de- 
manded it. 

This resolve being strengthened by the kirangozi's assurance 
^ ^ _ that the row in Msalala had shaken the few men who 
had half dreaded to go with me, I marched over to 
Nunda, and put up with Grant in Ukulima's boma, when Grant 
informed me that the chief had required four yards of cloth from 
him for having walked round a dead lioness, as he had thus de- 
stroyed a charm that protected his people against any more of 
these animals coming, although, fortunately, the charm could be 
restored again by paying four yards of cloth. ITkiilima, howev- 



132 



THE SOURCE OF THE NILK 



[1861. 



er, was a very kind and good man, though he did stick the hands 
and heads of his victims on the poles of his boma as a warning to 




- -^^-^^:^:i:^^^^^^^T^^ 



Ukfllima*! Village. 

Others. He kept five wives, of whom the rest paid such respect 
to the elder one, it was quite pleasing to see them. A man of 
considerable age, he did every thing the state or his great estab- 
lishment required himself. AH the men of his district clapped 
their hands together as a courteous salutation to him, and the 
women courtesied as well as they do at our court — a proof that 
they respected him as a great potentate — a homage rarely bestow- 
ed on the chiefs of other small states. Ukulima was also hospita- 
ble ; for on one occasion, when another chief came to visit him, 
he received his guest and retainers with considerable ceremony, 
making all the men of the village get up a dance, which they did, 
beating the drums and firing off guns like a lot of black devils 
let loose. 

We were not the only travelers in misfortune here, for Masudi, 
HaittoNttnda, ^^^^ scvcral Other Arabs, all formed in one large car- 
istiosd. avan, had arrived at Mchimdka's, and could not ad- 

vance for want of men. They told me it was the first time they 
had come on this line, and they deeply regretted it, for they had 
lost $5000 worth of beads by their porters running away with 
their loads, and now they did not know how to proceed. In- 
deed, they left the coast and arrived at Kaz^ immediately in rear 
of us, and had, like ourselves, found it as much as they could do 



JuKB.] UNYAMUEZI. 183 

even to reach this, and now they were at a standstill for want of 
porters. 

As all hopes of being able to get any more men were given np, 
I called on Bombay and Baraka to make arrangements for my 
going ahead with the best of my property as I had devised. They 
both shook their heads, and advised me to remain until the times 
improved, when the Arabs, being freed from the pressure of war, 
would come along and form with us a "sufari ku," or grand 
march, as TJkulima and every one else had said we should be torn 
to pieces in Usui if we tried to cross that district with so few men. 
I then told them again and again of the messages I had sent on to^* 
Riimanika in Karagiid, and to Suwarora in Usui, and begged them 
to listen to me, instancing as an example of what could be done 
by perseverance the success of Columbus, who, opposed by his 
sailors' misgivings, still went on and triumphed, creating for him- 
self immortal renown. 

They gave way at last*, so, after selecting all the best of my 
Fonn Camp In propcrty, I fonucd camp at Phunz^, left Bombay with 
^^"^^ Grant behind, as I thought Bombay the best and 
most honest man I had got, from his having had so much experi- 
ence, and then went ahead by myself, with the Pig as my guide 
and interpreter, and Baraka as my factotum. The Waguana then 
all mutinied for a cloth apiece, saying they would not lift a load 
unless I gave it. Of course a severe contest followed ; I said, as 
I had given them so much before, they could not want it, and 
ought to be ashamed of themselves. They urged, however, they 
were doing double work, and would not consent to carry loads as 
they had done at Mgunda Mkhali again. 

Arguments were useless, for, simply because they were tired of 
Halt In Phanr6 g^^^g ^"j ^^^y toould uot SCO that as they were receiv- 
tionee dayfc jjjg ^^j every day, they therefore ought to work ev- 
ery day. However, as they yielded at last, by some few leaning 
on my side, I gave what they asked for, and went to the next vil- 
lage, still inefficient in men, as all the Pig's Watoto could not be 
collected together. This second move brought us into a small 
village, of which Ghiya, a young man, was chief. \ 

He was very civil to me, and offered to sell me a most charm- 

, ing young woman, quite the belle of the country ; 

but, as he could not bring me to terms, he looked 

over my picture-books with the greatest delight, and afterward 

went into a discourse on geography with considerable perspicaci- 



134 THE 80UBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

ty, seeming fally to comprehend that if I got down the Nile it 
would afterward result in making the shores of the N'yanza like 
that of the coast at Zanzibar, where the products of his oountiy 
could be exchanged, without much difficulty, for cloths, beads, and 
brass wire. I gave him a present; then a letter was brought to 
me from Sheikh Said, announcing Musa's death, and the fact that 
Manua S^ra was still holding out at Kigii^ ; in answer to which 
I desired the sheikh to send me as many of Musa's slaves as 
would take service with me, for they ought now, by the laws of 
the Koran, to be all free. 

On packing up to leave Ghiya's, all the men of the village shut 
ToUiig«riM% ^^6 ^^^ ^f ^b® entrance, wishing to extract some 
^'*- cloths from me, as I had not given enough, they said, 

to their chief. They soon, however, saw that we, being inside 
their own fort, had the best of it, and they gave way. We then 
pushed on to Unguru^'s, another chief of the same district. Here 
the men and women of the place came crowding to see me, the 
fair sex all playfully offering themselves for wives, and wishing 
to know which I admired most. They were so importunate, aft- 
er a time, that I was not sorry to hear an attack was made on 
their castle because a man of the village would not pay his dow- 
ry-money to his father-in-law, and this set every body flying out 
to the scene of action. 

Aft;er this, as Bombay brought up the last of my skulking men, 
I bade him good-by again, and made an aft;ernoon-march on to 
Takina, in the district of Msalala, which we no sooner approached 
than all the inhabitants turned out and fired their arrows at us. 
They did no harm, however, excepting to create a slight alarm, 
which some neighboring villagers took advantage of to run off 
with two of my cows. My men followed sStev the thieves until 
these entered a boma and shut the gate in their faces. They call- 
ed out for the cows to be returned to them, but called in vain, as 
the scoundrels said, " Findings are keepings, by the laws of our 
country ; and as we found your cows, so we will keep them." For 
ray part, I was glad they were gone, as the Wanguana never yet 
kept any thing I put under their charge ; so, instead of allowing 
them to make a fuss the next morning, I marched straight on for 
M'yonga's, the chief of the district, who was famed for his infamy 
and great extortions, having pushed his exactions so far as to 
close the road. 

On nearing his palace, we heard war-drums beat in every sur- 



Juim.] UNTAMUEZL 185 

ToiTToiiga*!, roanding village, and the kuangozi would go no far- 
^ ther until permission was obtained from M'jonga. 

This did not take long, as the chief said he was most desirous to 
see a white man, never having been to the coast, though his fa- 
ther-in-law had, and had told him that the Waziingu were even 
greater people than the sultan reigning there. On our drawing 
near the palace, a small, newly-constructed boma was shown for 
mj residence ; but as I did not wish to stop there, knowing how 
anxious Grant would be to have his relief, I would not enter it, 
bat instead sent Baraka to pay the hongo as quickly as possible, 
that we might move on again ; at the same time ordering him to 
describe the position both Grant and myself were in, and explain 
that what I paid now was to frank both of us, as the whole of the 
property was my own. Should he make any remarks about the 
two cows that were stolen, I said he must know that I could not 
wait for them, as my brother would die of suspense if we did not 
finish the journey and send back for him quickly. Off went 
Baraka with a party of men, stopping hours, of course, and firing 
volleys of ammunition away. He did not return again until the 
evening, when the palace-drums announced that the hongo had 
been settled for one barsati, one liigoi, and six yards merikani. 
Baraka approached me triumphantly, saying how well he had 
managed the business. M'yonga did not wish to see me, because 
he did not know the coast language. He was immensely pleased 
with the present I had given him, and said he was much and very 
unjustly abused by the Arabs, who never came this way, saying 
he was a bad man. He should be very glad to see Grant, and 
would take nothing from him ; and, though he did not see me in 
person, he would feel much affronted if I did not stop the night 
there. In the mean while he would have the cows brought in, 
for he could not allow any one to leave his country abused in 
any way. 

My men had greatly amused him by firing their guns off and 
showing him the use of their sword-bayonets. I knew, as a mat- 
ter of course, that if I stopped any longer I should be teased for 
more cloths, and gave orders to my men to march the same in- 
stant, saying, if they did not — for I saw them hesitate — ^I would 
give the cows to the villagers, since I knew that was the thing 
that weighed on their minds. This raised a mutiny. No one 
would go forward with the two cows behind ; besides which, the 
day was fer spent, and there was nothing but jungle, they said, 



136 THE SOURCE OF^THE KILK [1861. 

beyond. The kirangozi would not show the way, nor would any 
man lift a load. A great confusion ensued. I knew they were 
telling lies, and would not enter the village, but shot the cows 
when they arrived, for the villagers to eat, to show them I cared 
for nothing but making headway, and remained out in the open 
all night Next morning, pure enough, before we could get un- 
der way, M'yonga sent his prime minister to say that the king's 
sisters and other members of his family had been crying and tor- 
menting him all night for having let me off so cheaply ; they had 
got nothing to cover their nakedness, and I must pay something 
more. This provoked fresh squabbles. The drums had beaten 
and the tax was settled ; I could not pay more. The kirangozi, 
however, said he would not move a peg unless I gave something 
more, else he would be seized on his way back. His " children" 
all said the same; and as I thought Grant would only be worsted 
if I did not keep friends with the scoundrel, I gave four yards 
more merikani, and then went on my way. 

For the first few miles there were villages, but after that a long 
tract of jungle, inhabited chiefly by antelopes and rhinoceros. It 
was wilder in appearance than most parts of Unyamu^zi. In 
this jungle a tributary nullah to the Gomb^, called Nurhungiird, 
is the boundary-line between the great Country of the Moon and i 
the kingdom of Uzinza. 



Juiis.] 



UZINZA. 



137 



CHAPTEE VI. 



UZINZA. 

The Politics of Uzinza.— The Wahtlma.— "The Pig's" Trick.— First Taste of Usfli 
TaaLation.— Pillaged by Mftobi. — Pillaged by Makaka. — Pillaged by Llim^r^i« 
—Grant stripped by M*yonga. — Stripped again by Rah^.— Terrors and Defec- 
tions in the Camp. — ^Driven back to Eaz^ with new Tribulations and Impedi- 
ments. 

Uzinza, -which we now entered, is ruled by two Wahuma 
chieftains of foreign blood, descended from the Abys- 
frontier, lOiA, smiau stock, of whom we saw specimens scattered 
all over tJnyamii^zi, and who extended even down 
south as fer as Fipa. Travelers 
see very little, however, of these 
Wahuma, because, being pastor- 
als, they roam about with their 
flocks and build huts as far away 
as they can from cultivation. Most 
of the small district chiefs, too, are 
the descendants of those who ruled 
in the same places before the coun- 
try was invaded, and with them 
travelers put up and have their 
dealings. The dress of the Wa- 
huma is very simple, composed 
chiefly of cowhide tanned black 
— a few magic ornaments and 
charms, brass or copper bracelets, 
and immense numbers of sambo 
for stockings, which looked very 
awkward on their long legs. They 
smear themselves with rancid butter instead of macassar, and are, 
in consequence, very offensive to all but the negro, who seems, 
rather than otherwise, to enjoy a good sharp nose-tickler. For 
arms, they carry both bow and spear ; more generally the latter. 
The Wazinza in the southern parts are so much like the Wan- 




Bfzinza, or Native of Usinza. 



138 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. flSSI. 

yamti^zi as not to require any especial notice ; but in the north, 
where the country is more hilly, they are much more energetic 
and actively built. All alike live in grass-hut villages, fenced 
round by bomas in the south, but open in the north. Their 
country rises in high rolls, increasing in altitude as it approaches 
the Mountains of the Moon, and is generally well cultivated, be- 
ing subjected to more of the periodical rains than the regions we 
have left, though springs are not so abundant, I believe, as they 
are in the Land of the Moon, where they ooze out by the flanks 
of the little granitic hills. 

After tracking through several miles of low bush-jungle, we 
came to the sites of some old bomas that had been destroyed by 
the Watiita not long since. Farther on, as we wished to enter a 
newly-constructed boma, the chief of which was Mafiimbu Wantil 
(a Mr. Balls), we felt the eflfects of those ruthless marauders; for 
the villagers, thinking us Watuta in disguise, would not let us in; 
for those savages, they said, had once tricked them by entering 
their village, pretending to be traders carrying ivory and mer- 
chandise, while they were actually spies. This was fortunate for 
me, however, as Mr. Balls, like M'yonga, was noted for his extor- 
tions on travelers. We then went on and put up in the first large 
village of Bogiid, where I wished to get porters and return for 
Grant, as the place seemed to be populous. Finding, however, 
that I could not get a sufficient number for that purpose, I direct- 
ed those who wished for employment to go off at once and take 
service with Grant 

I found many people assembled here from all parts of the dis* 
trict for the purpose of fighting M'yonga; but the 
'' chief Ruh4 having heard of my arrival, called me to 
his palace, which, he said, was on my way, that he might see me, 
for he never in all his life had a white man for his guest, and was 
30 glad to hear of my arrival that he would give orders for the 
dispersing of his forces. I wished to push past him, as I might 
be subjected to such calls every day ; but Ungiiru^, in the most 
piggish manner — for he was related to Riih^ — insisted that neither 
himself nor any of his children would advance one step farther 
with me unless I complied with their wish, which was a simple 
conformity with the laws of their country, and therefore absolute. 
At length giving in, I entered Ruhr's boma, the poles of which 
were decked with the skulls of his enemies stuck upon them. 
Instead, however, of seeing him myself, as he feared my evil eye, 



\" 



\ 



JuHS.] UZINZA. 139 

I condacted the arrangements for the bongo through Baraka, in 
the same way as I did at M'yonga's, directing that it should be 
limited to the small sum of one barsati and four yards kiniki. 

The drum was beaten, as the public intimation of the payment 
To mhamixH ^^ ^^® hougo, and consequently of our release, and we 
mh. went on to Mihambo, on the west border of the east- 

em division of Uzinza, which is called Ukhanga. It overlooks 
the small district of Sorombo, belonging to the great western di- 
vision, known as Usui, and is presided over by a Sorombo chie^ 
named Makaka, whose extortions had been so notorious that no 
Arabs now ever went near him. I did not wish to do so either, 
though his palace lay in the direct route. It was therefore agreed 
we should skirt round by the east of this district, and I even 
promised the Pig I would give him ten necklaces a day, in addi- 
tion to his wages, if he would avoid all the chiefs, and march 
steadily ten miles every day. By doing so, we should have 
avoided the wandering Watuta, whose depredations had laid waste 
nearly all of this country ; but the designing blackguard, in op- 
position to my wishes, to accomplish some object of his own, chose 
to mislead us all, and quietly took us straight into Sorombo to 
Kagud, the boma of a sub-chief, called Mfumbi, where we no 
sooner arrived than the inhospitable brute forbade any of his sub- 
jects to sell us food until the hongo was paid, for he was not sure 
that we were not allied with the Watuta to rob his country. 
After receiving what he called his dues — one barsati, two yards 
merikani, and two yards kiniki — the drums beat, and all was set- 
tled with him ; but I was told the head chief Makaka, who lived 
ten miles to the west, and so much out of my road, had sent 
expressly to invite me to see him. He said it was his right I 
should go to him as the principal chief of the district Moreover, 
he longed for a sight of a white man ; for, though he had traveled 
all across Uganda and Usoga into Masawa, or the Masai country, 
as well as to the coast, where he had seen both Arabs and Indians, 
he had never yet seen an Englishman. If I would oblige him, 
he said he would give me guides to Suwarora, who was his 
mkama, or king. Of course I knew well what all this meant; 
and at the same time that I said I could not comply, I promised 
to send him a present of friendship by the hands of Baraka. 

This caused a halt Makaka would not hear of such an ar- 
rangement A present, he said, was due to him of course, but of 
more importance than the present was his wish to see me. Baraka 



140 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

and all the men begged I would give in, as they were sure he 
must be a good man to send such a kind message. I strove in 
vain, for no one would lift a load unless I complied; so, perforce, 
I went there, in company, however, with Mf umbi, who now pre- 
tended to be great friends; but what was the result? On enter- 
ing the palace, we were shown into a cowyard without a tree in 
it, or any shade ; and no one was allowed to sell us food until a 
present of friendship was paid, after which the hongo would be 
discussed. 

The price of friendship was not settled that day, however, and 
my men had to go supperless to bed. Baraka offered him one 
common cloth, and then another — all of which he rejected with 
such impetuosity that Baraka said his head was all on a whirl. 
Makaka insisted he would have a d^ol^, or nothing at all. I pro- 
tested I had no d^ol& I could give him, for all the expensive 
cloths which I had brought from the coast had been stolen in 
. Mgunda Mkhali. I had three, however, concealed at the time — 
which I had bought from Musa, at forty dollars each — ^intended 
for the kings of Karague and Uganda. 

Incessant badgering went on for hours and hours, until at last 
Baraka, clean done with the incessant worry of this hot-headed 
young chief, told him, most unfortunately, he would see again if 
he could find a d^l^, as he had one of his own. Baraka then 
brought one to my tent, and told me of his having bought it for 
eight dollars at the coast ; and as I now saw I was let in for it, I 
told him to give it. It was given, but Makaka no sooner saw it 
than he said he must have another one ; for it was all nonsense 
saying a white man had no rich cloths. Whenever he met Arabs, 
they all said they were poor men, who obtained all their mer- 
chandise from the white men on credit, which they refunded aft- 
erward by levying a heavy percentage on the sale of their ivory. 

I would not give way that night ; but next day, after fearful 
battling, the present of friendship was paid by Bara- 
ka's giving first a dubuani, then one sahari, then one 
barsati, then one kisiitu, and then eight yards of merikani — all of 
which were contested in the most sickening manner — when Bara- 
ka, fairly done up, was relieved by Makaka's saying, " That will 
do for friendship ; if you had given the d66l6 quietly, all this 
trouble would have been saved ; for I am not a bad man, as you 
will see." My men then had their first dinner here, after which 
the hongo had to be paid. This for the first time was, however. 



juHi.] uzmzA. 141 

more easily settled, because Makaka at once said he would never 
be satisfied until he had received, if I had really not got a d^le, 
exactly double in equivalents of all I had given him. This was 
a fearful drain on my store ; but the Pig, seeing my concern, 
merely laughed at it, and said, '' Oh, these savage chie& are all 
alike here; you will have one. of these taxes to pay every stage 
to Uyof u, and then the heavy work will begin ; for all these men, 
although they assume the dignity of chief to themselves, are mere 
officers, who have to pay tribute to Suwarora, and he would be 
angry if they were shortcoming." 

The drums as yet had not beaten, for Makaka said he would 
not be satisfied until we had exchanged presents, to prove that 
we were the best of friends. To do this last act properly, I was 
to get ready whatever I wished to give him, while he would come 
and visit me with a bullock ; but I was to give him a royal salute, 
or the drums would not beat. I never felt so degraded as when 
I complied, and gave orders to my men to fire a volley as he ap- 
proached my tent ; but I ate the dirt with a good grace, and met 
the young chief as if nothing had happened. My men, however, 
could not fire the salute fast enough for him ; for he was one of 
those excitable, impulsive creatures who expect others to do every 
thing in as great a hurry as their minds wander. The moment 
the first volley was fired, he said, " Now fire again, fire again ; be 
quick, be quick ! What's the use of those things?" (meaning the 
guns.) " We could spear you all while you are loading : be quick, 
be quick, I tell you." But Baraka, to give himself law, said, " No ; 
I must ask Bana" (master)'" first, as we do every thing by order; 
this is not fighting at all." 

The men being ready, file-firing was ordered, and then the young 
chief came into my tent. I motioned him to take my chair, which, 
after he sat down upon it, I was very sorry for, as he stained the 
seat all black with the running color of one of the new barsati 
cloths he had got from me, which, to improve its appearance, he 
had saturated with stinking butter, and had tied round his loins. 
A fine-looking man of about thirty, he wore the butt-end of a 
large sea-shell cut in a circle, and tied on his forehead, for a coro- 
net, and sundry small saltiana antelope horns, stufied with magic 
powder, to keep off the evil eye. His attendants all fawned on 
him, and snapped their fingers whenever he sneezed. After pass- 
ing the first compliment,! gave him a barsati, as my token of 
friendship, and asked him what he saw when he went to the Ma- 



142 THE SOUBCE OF THE KILK [1861. 

sai country. He assured me " that there were two lakes, and not 
one ;" for, on going from Usoga to the Masai country, he crossed 
over a broad strait, which connected the big N'yanza with another 
one at its northeast comer. Fearfully impetuous, as soon as this 
answer was given, he said, " Now I have replied to your ques- 
tions, do you show me all the things you have got, for I want to 
see every thing, and be very good friends. I did not see you the 
first day, because, you being a stranger, it was necessary I should 
first look into the magic horn to see if all was right and safe ; and 
now I can assure you that, while I saw I was safe, I also saw that 
your road would be prosperous. I am indeed delighted to see 
you, for neither my father, nor any of my forefathers, ever were 
honored with the company of a white man in all their livesw" 

My guns, clothes, and every thing were then inspected, and 
begged for in the most importunate manner. He asked for the 
picture-books, examined the birds with intense delight — even try- 
ing to insert under their feathers his long royal finger*nails, which 
are grown like a Chinaman's by these chiefs, to show they have a 
privilege to live oti meat Then turning to the animals, he roared 
over each one in turn as he examined them, and called out their 
namea My bull's-eye lantern he coveted so much, I had to pre- 
tend exceeding anger to stop his farther importunities. He then 
began again begging for lucifers, which charmed him so intensely 
I thought I should never get rid of him. He would have one 
box of them. I swore I could not part with them. He contin- 
ued to beg, and I to resist. I offered a knife instead, but this he 
would not have, because the lucifers would be so valuable for his 
magical observances. On went the storm, till at last t drove him 
off with a pair of my slippers, which he had stuck his dirty feet 
into without my leave. I then refused to take his bullock becanse 
* he had annoyed me. On his part, he was resolved not to beat 
the drum ; but he graciously said he would think about it if I 
paid another lot of cloth equal to the second d66l6 1 ought to have 
given him. 

I began seriously to consider whether I should have this cbief 
shot, as a reward for his oppressive treachery, and a warning to 
others ; but the Pig said it was just what the Arabs were subject- 
ed to in Ub^na, and they found it best to pay down at once, and 
do all they were ordered. If I acted rightly, I would take the 
bullock, and then give the cloth ; while Baraka said, " We will 
shoot him if you give the order ; only remember Grant is behind, 



Jmn.] UZINZA. 143 

and if yoa commence a row jou will have to fight the whole way, 
for every chief in the country will oppose you." 

I then told the Pig and Baraka to settle at once. They no 
sooner did so than the drums beat, and Makaka, in the best hu* 
mor possible, came over to say I had permission to go when I 
liked, but he hoped I would give him a gun and a box of lucifers. 
This was too provoking. The perpetual worry had given Baraka 
a fever, and had made me feel quite sick ; so I said, if he ever 
mentioned a gun or lucifers again, I would fight the matter out 
with him, for I had not come there to be bullied. He then gave 
way, and begged I would allow my men to fire a volley outside 
his boma, as the Watiita were living behind a small line of granit- 
ic hills flanking the west of his district, and he wished to show 
them what a powerful force he had got with him. This was per- 
mitted ; but his wisdom in showing off was turned into ridicule ; 
for the same evening the Watuta made an attack on his villages 
and killed three of his subjects, but were deterred from commit- 
ting farther damage by coming in contact with my men, who, as 
aeon as they saw the Watuta fighting, fired their muskets off in 
the air and drove them away, they themselves at the same time 
bolting into my camp, and as usual vaunting their prowess. 

I then ordered a march for the next morning, and went out in 
the fields to take my regular observations for latitude. While 
engaged in this operation, Baraka, accompanied by Wadimoyo 
(Heart's-stream), another of my free men, approached me in great 
consternation, whispering to themselves. They said they had 
acme fearful news to communicate, which, when I heard it, they 
knew would deter our progress : it was of such great moment and 
magnitude, they thought they could not deliver it then. I said, 
" What nonsense I out with it at once. Are we such chickens that 
we can not speak about matters like men? out with it at once." 

Then Baraka said, ^^ I have just heard from Makaka that a man 
who arrived from Usui 'only a few minutes ago has said Suwa- 
rora is so angry with the Arabs that he has detained one caravan 
of theirs in his country, and, separating the whole of their men, 
has placed each of them in different bomas, with orders to his vil- 
lage officers that, in case the Watiita came into his country, with- 
out farther ceremony they were to be all put to death." I said, 
"Oh, Baraka, how can you be such a fool? Do you not see 
through this humbug? Makaka only wishes to keep us here to 
frighten away the Watuta ; for God's sake be a man, and don't be 



144 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

alarmed at such phantoms as these. You always are nagging at 
me that Bombay is the * big' and you are the * small' man. Bom- 
bay would never be frightened in this silly way. Now do you 
reflect that I have selected you for this journey, as it would, if 
you succeed with me in carrying out our object, stamp you for- 
ever as a man of great fame. Pray don't give way, but do your 
best to encourage the men, and let us march in the morning." On 
this, as on other occasions of the same kind, I tried to impart con- 
fidence by explaining, in allusion to Petherick's expedition, that 
I had arranged to meet white men coming up from the north. 
Baraka at last said, " All right — ^I am not afraid; I will do as you 
desire." But as the two were walking off, I heard Wadimoyo 
say to Baraka, "Is he not afraid now? Won't he go back?" 
which, if any thing, alarmed me more than the first intelligence; 
for I began to think that they, and not Makaka, had got up the 
story. 

All night Makaka's men patroled the village, drumming and 
shouting to keep off the Watiita, and the next morning, instead 
of a march, after striking my tent, I found that the whole of my 
porters, the Pig's children, were not to be found. They had gone 
off and hidden themselves, saying they were not such fools as to 
go any ferther, as the Watiita were out, and would cut us up on 
the road. This was sickening indeed. 

I knew the porters had not gone far, so I told the Pig to bring 
them to me, that we might talk the matter over; but, say what I 
would, they all swore they would not advance a step farther. 
Most of them were formerly men of TJtambara. The Watiita had 
invaded their country and totally destroyed it, killing all their 
wives and their children, and despoiling every thing they held 
dear to them. They did not wish to rob me, and would give up 
their hire, but not one step more would they advance. Makaka 
then came forward and said, ".Just stop here with me until this 
ill wind blows over ;" but Baraka, more* in a fright at Makaka 
than at any one else, said No ; he would do any thing rather than 
that; for Makaka's bullying had made him quite ill. I then 
said to my men, " If nothing else will suit you, the best plan I can 
think of is to return to Mihambo in Bogud, and there form a d^- 
pot, where, having stored my property, I shall give the Pig a 
whole load, or 68 lbs., of Mzizima beads if he will take Baraka in 
disguise on to Suwarora, and ask him to send me eighty men, 
while I go back to Unyanyemb^ to see what men I can get from 



juHx.] uzmzA. 145 

the late Miisa's establishment, and then we might bring on Grant, 
and move on in a body together." At first Baraka said, '* Do yon 
wish tx> have us killed ? Do you think, if we went to Suwarora's, 
you would ever see us back again ? You would wait and wait 
for us, but we should never return." To which I replied, " Oh, 
Baraka, do not think so I Bombay, if he were here, would go in 
a minute. Suwarora by this time knows I am coming, and you 
may depend on it he will be just as anxious to have us in Usui as 
Makaka is to keep us here, and he can not hurt us, as Biimanika 
is over him, and also expects ua" Baraka then, in the most dole^ 
ful manner, said he would go if the Pig would. The Pig, how- 
ever, did not like it either, but said the matter was so important 
he would look into the magic horn all night, and give his answer 
next naoming as soon as we arrived at Mihambo. 

On arrival at Mihambo next day, all the porters brought their 
Betara to V^J ^ ^®> *^^ ^^^ ^^^7 ^ould uot go, for nothing 

Mihambo, iwft. ^Quld iuducc them to advance a step farther. I said 
nothing ; but, with " my heart in my shoes," I gave what I thought 
their due for coming so far, and motioned them to be off; then 
calling on the Pig for his decision, I tried to argue again, though 
I saw it was of no use, for there was not one of my own men who 
wished to go on. They were unanimous in saying Usui was a 
"fire," and I had no right to sacrifice them. The Pig then final- 
ly refused, saying three loads even would not tempt him, for all 
were opposed to it. Of what value, he observed, would the beads 
be to him if his life was lost? This was crushing; the whole 
camp was unanimous in opposing me. I then made Baraka place 
all my kit in the middle of the boma, which was a very strong 
one, keeping out only such beads as I wished him to use for the 
men's rations daily, and ordered him to select a few men who 
would return with me to Kaz^ ; when I said, if I could not get 
all the men I wanted, I would try and induce some one, who 
would not fear, to go on to Usui ; failing which, I would even 
walk back to Zanzibar for men, as nothing in the world would 
ever induce me to give up the journey. 

This appeal did not move him ; but, without a reply, he sullen- 
ly commenced collecting some men to accompany me back to 
Kaz6. At first no one would go ; they then mutinied for more 
beads, announcing all sorts of grievances, which they said they 
were always talking over to themselves, though I did not hear 
them. The greatest, however, that they could get up was, that I 

K 



146 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILK [1861. 

always paid the Wanyamii&i " temporaries" more than they got, 
though " permanents." "They were the flesh, and I was the 
knife ;" I cut and did with them just as I liked, and they could 
not stand it any longer. However, they had to stand it; and 
next day, when I brought them to reason, I gave over the charge 
of my tent and property to Baraka, and commenced the return 
with a bad hitching cough, caused by those cold easterly winds 
that blow over the plateau during the six dry months of the year, 
and which are, I suppose, the Harmattan peculiar to Africa. 

Next day I joined Grant once more, and found he had collect- 
ed a few Sorombo men, hoping to follow after me. I then told 
him all my mishaps in Sorombo, as well as of the " blue-devil" 
Mghts that had seized all my men. I felt greatly alarmed about 
the prospects of the expedition, scarcely knowing what I should 
do. I resolved at last, if every thing else failed, to make up a raft 
at the southern end of the N*yanza, and try to go np to the Nile 
in that way. My cough daily grew worse. I could not lie or 
sleep on either side. Still my mind was so excited and anxious 
that, after remaining one day here to enjoy Grant's society, I 
pushed ahead again, taking Bombay with me, and had breakfast 
at Mchim^ka'& 

There I found the Pig, who now said he wished he had taken 
my oflfer of beads, for he had spoken with his chief, and saw that 
I was right. Baraka and the Wanguana were humbugs, and had 
they not opposed his going, he would have gone then ; even now, 
he said, he wished I would take him again with Bombay. Though 
half inclined to accept his offer, which would have saved a long 
trudge to Kaz^, yet, as he had tricked me so often, I felt there 
would be no security unless I could get some coast interpreters, 
who would not side with the chie& against me as he had done. 
From this I went on to Sirboko's, and spent the next day with 
him talking over my plans. The rafting up the lake he thought 
a good scheme ; but he did not think I should ever get through 
Usui until all the KAz^ merchants went north in a body, for it was 
no use trying to force my men against their inclinations ; and if 
I did not take care how I handled them, he thought they would 
all desert 

My cough still grew worse, and became so bad that, while 
mounting a hill on entering Ungugu's the second day after, I blew 
and grunted like a' broken-winded horse, and it became so dis- 
tressing I had to halt a day. In two more marches, however, I 



Jolt.] UZINZA. 147 

reached Kaz^, and put up with Musa's eldest son, Abdalla, on the 
2d of July, who now was transformed from a drunken slovenly 
boy into the appearance of a grand swell, squatting all day as his 
old fiither used to do. The houSe, however, did not feel the same ; 
no men respected him as they had done his father. Sheikh Said 
was his clerk and constant companion, and the Tots were well fed 
on his goats — ^at my expanse, however. On hearing my fix, Ab- 
dalla said I should have men ; and, what's more, he would go with 
me as his father had promised to do ; but he had a large caravan 
detained in Ugogo, and for that he must wait. 

At that moment Manila S^ra was in a boma at Kigii^, in alli- 
ance with the chief of that place ; but there was no hope for him 
now, as all the Arabs had allied theniselves with the surrounding 
chiefe, including Kitambi, and had invested his position by form- 
ing a line, in concentric circles, four deep, cutting off his supplies 
of water within it, so that they daily expected to hear of his sur- 
rendering. The last news that had reached them brought intelli- 
gence of one man killed and two Arabs wounded ; while, on the 
other side. Manna Sdra had lost many men, and was put to such 
straits that he had called out if it was the Arabs' determination 
to kill him he would bolt again ; to which the Arabs replied it 
was all the same; if he ran up to the top of the highest mount- 
ain or down into hell, they would follow after and put him to 
death. 

3d After much bother and many disappointments, as I was as- 
sured I could get no men to help me until aft;er the war was 
over, and the Arabs had been to Ugogo, and had brought up 
their propei^y, which was still lying there, I accepted two men 
as guides— one named Biii, a very small creature, with very high 
pretensions, who was given me by Abdalla; the other, a steady 
old traveler, named Nasib (or Fortune), who was given me by 
Fundi Sangoro. These two slaves, both of whom knew all the 
chie& and languages up to and including Uganda, promised me 
fidthfuUy they would go with Bombay on to Usui, and bring 
back porters in sufficient number for Grant and myself to go on 
together. They laughed at the stories I told them of the terror 
that had seized Baraka and all the Wanguana, and told me, as 
old Mfisa had often done before, that those men, especially Bara- 
ka, had from their first leaving Kaz^ made up their minds they 
would not enter Usiii, or go any where very far north. 

I placed those men on the same pay as Bombay, and then tried 



148 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

to buy some beads from the Arabs, as I saw it was absolutely 
necessary I should increase my fast-ebbing store if I ever hoped 
to reach Gondokoro. The attempt failed, as the Arabs would 
not sell at a rate under 2000 pef cent; and I wrote a letter to 
Colonel Bigby, ordering up fifty armed men laden with beads 
and pretty cloths — ^which would, I knew, cost me £1000 at the 
least — and left once more for the north on the 5th. 

Marching alowly, as -my men kept falling sick, I did not reach 
Grant again until the 11th. His health had greatly improved, 
and he had been dancing with Ukulima, as may be seen by the 
accompanying woodcut. So, as I was obliged to wait for a short 
time to get a native guide for Bui, Nasib, and Bombay, who 
would show them a jungle-path to Usui, we enjoyed our leisure 
hours in shooting Guinea-fowls for the pot. A report then came 
to us that Suwarora had heard with displeasure that I had been 
endeavoring to see him, but was deterred because evil reports 
concerning him had been spread. This unexpected good news 
delighted me exceedingly; confirmed my belief that Baraka, 
after all, was a coward, and induced me to recommend Bombay 
to make his cowardice more indisputable by going on and doing 
what he had feared to do. To which Bombay replied, "Of course 
I will. It is all folly pulling up for every ill wind that blows, 
because, until one actually sees there is something in it, you never 
can tell among these savages, ^shaves' are so common in Africa. 
Besides, a man has but one life, and God is the director of every 
thing." "Bravo I" said I; "we wiU get on as long as you keep 
to that way of thinking." 

At length a guide was obtained, and with him came some of 
those men of the Pig's who returned before; for they had a great 
desire to go with me, but had been deterred, they said, by Baraka 
and the rest of my men. Seeing all this, I changed my plans 
again, intending, on arrival at Baraka's camp, to prevail on the 
whole of the party to go with me direct, which I thought they 
could not now refuse, since Suwarora had sent us an invitation. 
Moreover, I did not like the idea of remaining still while the 
three men went forward, as it would be losing time. 

These separations from Grant were most annoying, but they 
could not be helped ; so, when all was settled here, I bade him 
adieu — ^both of us saying we would do our best — and set out on 
my journey, thinking what a terrible thing it was I could not 
prevail on my men to view things as I did. Neither my experi- 



Jolt.] UZIKZA. 151 

ence with native chiefi, nor my money and guns, were of any UBe 
to me, simply because my men were such incomprehensible fools, 
though many of them who had traveled before ought to have 
known better. 

More reports came to us about Suwarora, all of the most invit- 
ing natui*e; but nothing else worth mentioning occurred until we 
reached the border of Msalala, where an officer of M'yonga's, who 
said he was a bigger man than his chief, demanded a tax, which 
I refused, and the dispute ended in his snatching Nasib's gun out 
of hia hands. I thought little of this aflfair myself beyond re- 
gretting the delay which it might occasion, as M'yonga, I knew, 
would not permit such usage, if I chose to go round by his palace 
and make a complaint Both Bui and Nasib, however, were so 
greatly alarmed, that before I could say a word they got the gun 
back again by paying four yards merikani. We had continued 
bickering again, for Bui had taken such fright at this kind of 
rough handling, and the " pushrahead" manner in which I per- 
sisted *' riding over the lords of the soil," that I could hardly 
drag the party along. 

However, on the 18th, after breakfasting at Riih^'s, we walked 
into Mihambo, and took all the camp by surprise. I found the 
Union Jack hoisted up on a flag-staff, high above all the trees, in 
the boma. Baraka said he had done this to show the Watiita 
that the place was occupied by men with guns — ^a necessary pre- 
caution, as all the villages in ihe neighborhood had, since my de- 
parture, been visited and plundered by them. Lum^rdsi, the chief 
of the district, who lived ten miles to the eastward, had been con- 
stantly pressing him to leave this {xxst and come to his palace, as 
he felt greatly affronted at our having shunned him and put up 
with Ruhd He did not want property, he said, but he could not 
bear that the strangers had lived with his mtoto, or child, which 
Buh^ was, and yet would not live with him. He thought Bara- 
ka's determined obstinacy on this could only be caused by the in- 
fluence of the head man of the village, and threatened that if 
Baraka did not come to visit him at once, he would have the head 
man beheaded. Then, shifting round a bit, he thought of order- 
ing his subjects to starve the visitors into submission, and said 
he must have a hbngo equal to Buhl's. To all this Baraka re- 
plied that he Was merely a servant, and as he had orders to stop 
where he was, he could not leave it until I came ; but^ to show 
there was no ill feeling toward him, he sent the chief a cloth. 



152 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILK [1861. 

These first explanations over, I entered my tent, in which 
Baraka had been living, and there I found a lot of my brass wires 
on the ground, lying scattered about. I did not like the look of 
this, so ordered Bombay to resume his position of factotum, and 
count over the kit While this was going on, a villager came to 
me with a wire,- and asked me to change it for a cloth. ' I saw at 
once what the game was ; so I asked my friend where he got it, 
on which he at once pointed to Baraka. I then heard the men 
who were standing round us ,say one to another in under tones, 
giggling with the fun of it, "Oh, what a shame of himl Did you 
hear what Bana said, and that fool's reply to it? What a shame 
of him to tell in that way." Without appearing to know, or 
rather to hear, the by-play that was going on, I now said to Bara- 
ka, " How is it this man has got one of my wires, for I told you 
not to touch or unpack them during my absence?" To which 
he coolly replied, in face of such evidence, "It is not one of your 
wires ; I never gave away one of yours ; there are lots more 
wires besides yours in the country. T?he man tells a falsehood; 
he had the wire before, but now, seeing your cloth' open, wants 
to exchange it." "If that is the case," I said, taking things easy, 
" how is it you have opened my loads and scattered the wires 
about in the tent?" " Oh, that was to take care of them ; for I 
thought, if they were left outside all night with the rest of the 
property, some one would steal them, and I should get the blame 
of it." 

Farther parley was useless ; for, though both my wires and 
cloths were short, still it was better not to kick up a row, when I 
had so much to do to keep all my men in good temper for the 
journey. Baraka then, wishing to beguile me, as he thought he 
could do, into believing him a wonderful man for both pluck and 
honesty, said he had had many battles to fight with the men since 
I had been gone to Kaz^, for there were two strong parties in the 
camp ; those who, during the late rebellion at Zanzibar, had be- 
longed to the Arabs that sided with Sultan Majid, and were Roy- 
alists, and those who, having belonged to the rebellious Arabs^ 
were oq the opposite side. The battle commenced, he stated, by 
the one side abusing the other for their deeds during that rebel- 
lion, the rebels in this sort of contest proving themselves the 
stronger. But he, heading the Royalist party, sooti reduced them 
to order, though only for a short while, as from that point they 
turned round to open mutiny for more rations ; and some of the 



Jolt.] UZINZA. 153 

rebels tried to kill him, which, he said, thej would have done had 
he not settled the matter by buying some cows for them. It was 
on this account he had been obliged to open my loads. And now 
he had told me the case, he hoped I would forgive him if he had 
done wrong. Now the real facts of the case were these, though I 
did not find them gut at the time : Baraka had bought some slaves 
with my effects, and he had had a fight with some of my men be- 
cause they tampered with his temporary wife — a princess he had 
picked up in Pbunz^. To obtain her hand he had given ten 
necklaces of my beads to her mother, and had agreed to the con- 
dition that he should keep the girl during the journey ; and after 
it was over, and he took her home, he would, if his wife pleased 
him, give her mother ten necklaces more. 

Next day Baraka told me his heart shrank to the dimensions 
of a very small berry when he saw whom I had brought with me 
yesterday, meaning Bombay, and the same porters whom he had 
prevented going on with me before. I said, "Pooh! nonsense; 
have done with such excuses, and let us get away out of this as 
&st as we can. !Now, like a good man, just use your influence 
with the chief of the village, and try and get from him five or six 
men to complete the number we want, and then we will work 
round the east of Sorombo up to Usui, for Suwarora has invited 
us to him." This, however, was not so easy ; for Lum^r&i, hav- 
ing heard of my arrival, sent his Wanyapara, or graybeards, to 
beg I would visit him. He had never seen a white man in all 
his life, neither had his fether, nor any of his forefathers, although 
he had often been down to the coast ; I must come and see him, 
as I had seen his mtoto Euh^. He did not want property ; it 
was only the pleasure of my company that he wanted, to enable 
him to tell all his friends what a great man had lived in his house. 

This was terrible : I saw at once that all my dif&culties in So- 
rombo would have to be gone through again if I went there, and 
groaned when I thought what a trick the Pig had played me 
when I first of all came to this place; for if I had gone on then, 
as I wished, I should have slipped past Lumdr&i without his 
knowing it. 

I had to get up a storm at the graybeards, and said I could not 
stand going out of my road to see any one now, for I had already 
lost so much time by Makaka's trickery in Sorombo. Bili then, 
quaking with fright at my obstinacy, said, " You must — ^indeed 
you must — ^give in and do with these savage chie& as the Arabs 



154 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. p861. 

when they travel, for I will not be a party to riding roughshod 
over them." Still I stuck out, and the graybeards departed to 
tell their chief of it. Next morning he sent them back again to 
say he would not be cheated out of his rights as the chief of the 
district. Still I would not give in, and the whole day kept "jaw- 
ing" without eflfect, for I could get no man to go with me until 
the chief gave his sanction. I then tried to send Bombay off with 
Bui, Nasib, and their guide, by night ; but, though Bombay was 
willing, the other two hung back on the old plea. In this state 
of perplexity, Bui begged I would allow him to go over to Lum^- 
r^si and see what he could do with a present Bui really now 
was my only stand-by, so I sent him off, and next had the morti- 
fication to find that he had been humbugged by honeyed words, 
as Baraka had been with Makaka, into believing that Lum^r&i 
was a good man, who really had no other desire at heart than the 
love of seeing me. His boma, he said, did not lie much out of 
' my line, and he did not wish a stitch of my cloth. So far from 
detaining me, he would give me as many men as I wanted ; and, 
as an earnest of his good intentions, he sent his copper hatchet, 
the badge of office as chief of the district, as a guarantee for me. 

To wait here any longer after this, I knew, would be a mere 
To Lttm6rtd% ^^ste of time, BO I ordered my men to pack up that 
*^ moment, and we all marched over at once to Liim6 

r&i's, when we put up in his boma. Liimdrfei was not in then, 
but, on his arrival at night, he beat all his drums to celebrate the 




Lfim^rM* 8 Beddenoe. 



July.] UZINZA. 155 

events and fired a musket^ in reply to which I fired three shots. 
The same night, while sitting out to make astronomical observa- 
tions, I became deadly cold ; so much so, that the instant I had 
taken the star to fix my position, I turned into bed, but could not 
get up again ; for the cough that had stuck to me for a month 
then became so violent^ heightened by fever succeeding the cold 
fit, that before the next morning I was so reduced I could not 
stand. For the last month, too, I had not been able to sleep on 
either side, as interior pressure, caused by doing so, provoked the 
cough ; but now I had, in addition, to be propped in position to 
get any repose whatever. The symptoms, altogether, were rather 
alarming, for the heart felt inflamed and ready to burst, pricking 
and twingeing with every breath, which was exceedingly aggra- 
vated by constant coughing, when streams of phlegm and bile 
were ejected. The left arm felt half paralyzed, the left nostril 
was choked with mucus, and on the centre of the left shoulder- 
blade I felt a pain as if some one was branding me with a hot 
iron. All this was constant; and, in addition, I repeatedly felt 
severe pains — ^rather paroxysms of fearful twinges — ^in the spleen, 
liver, and lungs, while during my sleep I had all sorts of absurd 
dreams : for instance, I planned a march across Africa with Sir 
Boderick Murchison ; and I fancied some curious creatures, half 
men and half monkeys, came into my camp to inform me that 
Petherick was waiting in boats at the souAwest comer of the 
N'yanza, etc., etc. 

Though my mind was so weak and excited when I woke up 
from these trances, I thought of nothing but the march, and how 
I could get out of Lumdr&i's hands. He, with the most benign 
countenance, came in to see me the very first thing in the morn- 
ing, as he said, to inquire afi;er my health ; when, to please him 
as much as I could, I had a guard of honor drawn up at the tent 
door to fire a salute as he entered ; then giving him my iron camp- 
chair to sit upon, which tickled him much — for he was very cor- 
pulent, and he thought its legs would break down with his weight 
— ^we had a long talk, though it was as much as I could do to re- 
member any thing, my brain was so excited and weak. Kind as" 
he looked and spoke, he forgot all his promises about coveting 
my property, and scarcely got over the first salutation before he 
began begging for many things that he saw, and more especially 
for a d^l^, in order that he might wear it on all great occasions, 
to show his contemporaries what a magnanimous man his white 



156 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

visitor was. I soon lost my temper while striving to settle the 
hongo. Lum^r&i would have a d^l^, and I would not admit 
that I had one. 

2Sd to 81^^. Next morning I was too weak to speak moderate- 
ly, and roared more like a madman than a rational being, as, break- 
ing his faith, he persisted in bullying me. The day after, I took 
pills and blistered my chest all over; still Lum^r^si would not 
let me alone, nor come to any kind of terms until the 25th, when 
he said he would take a certain number of pretty common cloths 
for his children if I would throw in a red blanket for himself. I 
jumped at this concession with the greatest eagerness, paid down 
my cloths on the spot, and, thinking I was free at last, ordered a 
hammock to be slung on a pole, that I might leave the next day. 
Next morning, however, on seeing me actually preparing to start, 
Liim^rdsi found he could not let me go until I increased the tax 
by three more cloths, as some of his family complained that they 
had got nothing. After some badgering, I paid what he- asked 
for, and ordered the men to carry me out of the palace before 
any thing else was done, for I would not sleep another night where 
I was. Lum^r&i then stood in my way, and said he would never 
allow a man of his country to give me any assistance until I was 
well, for he could not bear the idea of hearing it said that, after 
taking so many cloths from me, he had allowed me to die in the 
jungles, and dissuaded my men from obeying my orders. 

In vain I appealed to his mercy, declaring that the only chance 
left me of saving my life would be from the change of air in the 
hammock as I marched along. He would not listen, professing 
humanity while he meant plunder; and I now found he was de- 
termined not to beat the drum until I had paid him some more, 
which he was to think over and settle next day. When the next 
day came he would not come near me, as he said I must possess 
a d^ol^, otherwise I would not venture on to Karagii^; for no- 
body ever yet "saw" Eumanika without one. This suspension 
of business was worse than the rows ; I felt very miserable, and 
became worse. At last, on my offering him any thing that he 
might consider an equivalent for the d6o\6 if he would but beat 
the drums of satisfaction, he said I might consider myself his pris- 
oner instead of his guest if I persisted in my obstinacy in not giv- 
ing him Eumanika's d^l^, and then again peremptorily ordered 
all of his subjects not to assist me in moving a load. Aft;er this, 
veering round for a moment on the generous tack, he offered me 
a cow, which I declined. 



Aug.] UZmZA. 157 

Ist to 4th, Still I rejected the offered cow until the 2d, when, 
finding him as dogged as ever, at the advice of m j men I accept- 
ed it, hoping thus to please him ; but it was no use, for he now 
said he must have two d^les, or he .would never allow me to 
leave his palace. Every day matters got worse and worse. Mfum- 
bi, the small chief of Sorombo, came over, in an Oily-Gammon kind 
of manner, to say Makaka had sent him over to present his com- 
pliments to me, and express his sorrow on hearing that I had 
fallen sick here. He farther informed me that the road was closed 
between this and Usui, for he had just been fighting there, and 
had killed the chief Gomba, burnt down all his villages, and dis- 
persed all the men in the jungle, where they now resided, plun- 
dering every man who passed that way. This gratuitous, wick- 
ed, humbugging terrifier helped to cause another defeat. It was 
all nonsense, I knew, but both Biii aoii Nasib, taking fright, beg- 
ged for their discharges. In fearful alarm and anxiety, I then 
begged them to have patience and see the hongo settled first, for 
there was no necessity, at any rate, for immediate hurry; I wish- 
ed them to go on ahead with Bombay, as in four days they could 
reach Suwarora'a But they said they could not hear of it; they 
would not go a step beyond this. All the chie& on ahead would 
do the same as Lumdrdsi ; the whole country was roused. I had 
not even half enough cloths to satisiy theWasui; and my faith- 
ful followers would never consent to be witness to my being " torn 
to pieces." 

6ih and 6ih. The whole day and half of the next went in dis- 
cussions. At last, able for the first time to sit up a little, I suc- 
ceeded in prevailing on Biii to promise he would go to Usui as 
soon as the hongo was settled, provided, as he said, I took on my- 
self all responsibilities of the result. This cheered me so greatly, 
I had my chair placed under a tree and smoked my first pipe. 
On seeing this, all my men struck up a* dance, to the sound of the 
drums, which they carried on throughout the whole night, never 
ceasing until the evening of the next day. These protracted ca- 
perings were to be considered as their congratulation for my im- 
provement in health ; for, until I got into my chair, they always 
thought I was going to die. They then told me, with great mirth 
and good mimicry, of many absurd scenes which, owing to the in- 
flamed state of my brain, had taken place during my interviews 
with Lumer&i. Bombay at this time very foolishly told Lum^ 
T&i, if he " really wanted a dfele," he must send to Grant for 



158 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

one. This set the chief raving. He knew there was one in my 
box, he said, an,d} unless I gave it, the one with Grant must be 
brought, for under no circumstances would he allow of my pro- 
ceeding northward until that was given him. Bui and Nasib 
then gave me the slip, and slept that night in a neighboring boma 
without my knowledge. 

lih to 9th. As things had now gone so far, I gave Lum^r&i the 
d&)l^ I had stored away for Bumanika, telling him, at the same 
time as he took it, that he Was robbing Bumanika, and not my- 
self; but I hoped, now I had given it, he would beat the drums. 
The scoundrel only laughed as he wrapped my beautiful silk over 
his great broad shoulders, and said, " Yes, this will complete our 
present of friendship ; now then for the hongo : I must have ex- 
actly double of all you have given." This Sorombo trick I at- 
tributed to the instigation^f Makaka, for these savages never fail 
to take their revenge when they can. I had doubled back from 
his country, and now he was cutting me off in front. I expected 
as much when the oily blackguard Mfiimbi came over from his 
chief to ask after my health ; so, judging from my experience 
with Makaka, I told Lum^r&i at once to tell me what he consid- 
ered his due, for this fearful haggling was killing me by inches. 
I had no more d6ol&, but would make that up in brass wire. He 
then fixed the hongo at fifteen masango or brass-wire bracelets, 
sixteen cloths of sorts, and a hundred necklaces of sami-sami or 
red coral beads, which was to pay for Grant as well as myselt I 
paid it down on the spot; the drums beat the " satis&ction," and 
I ordered the march with the greatest relief of mind possible. 

But Biii and Nasib were not to be found ; they had bolted. 
The shock nearly killed me. I had walked all the way to Kaz6 
and back again for these men, to show mine a good example — 
had given them pay and treble rations, the same as Bombay and 
Baraka — ^and yet they chose to desert.* I knew not what to do, 
for it appeared to me that, do what I would, we would never suc- 
ceed ; and in my weakness of body and mind I actually cried like 
a child over the whole affair. I would rather have died than 
have failed in my journey, and yet failure seemed at this juncture 
inevitable. 

8^ As I had no interpreters, and could not go forward my- 
self, I made up my mind at once to send back all my men, with 
Bombay, to Grant; after joining whom, Bombay would go back 
to Kaz^ again for other interpreters, and on his return would pick 



Aug.] UZINZA. 159 

up Grants and bring him on here. This sudden decision set all 
my men up in a flame ; thej swore it was no use my trying to go 
on to Karagu^ ; they would not go with me ; they did not come 
here to be killed. If I chose to lose my life, it was no business 
of theirs, but they would not be witness to it. They all wanted 
their discharge at once ; they would not run away, but must have 
a letter of satisfaction, and then they would go back to their 
homes at Zanzibar. But when they found they lost all their ar- 
guments and could not move me, they said they would go back 
for Grant, but when they had done that duty, then they would 
take their leave. 

10^ to 15^. This business being at last settled, I Wrote to 
Grant on the subject^ and sent all the men off who were not sick. 
Thinking then how I could best cure the disease that was keep- 
ing me down, as I found the blister of no use, I tried to stick a 
packing-needle, used as a seton, into my side ; but, finding it was 
not sharp enough, in such weak hands as mine, to go through my 
skin, I got Baraka to try ; and he foiling too, I then made him fire 
me, for the coughing was so incessant I could get no sleep at 
night. I had now nothing whatever to think of but making 
dodges for lying easy, and for relieving my pains, or else for cook- 
ing strong broths to give me strength, for my legs were reduced 
to the appearance of pipe-sticks, until the 15th, when Baraka, in 
the same doleful manner as in Sorombo, came to me and said he 
had something to communicate, which was so terrible, if I heard 
it I should give up the march. Lum^r^si was his authority, but 
he would not tell it until Grant arrived. I said to him, ''Let us 
wait till Grant arrives ; we shall then have some one with us who 
won't shrink from whispers," meaning Bombay ; and so I let the 
matter drop for the time being. But when Grant came we had it 
out of him, and found this terrible mystery all hung on Lum^rd- 
si's prognostications that we never should get through Usui with 
so Uttle cloth. 

16^ to 19thJ At night I had such a terrible air-catching fit, and 
made such a noise while trying to fill my lungs, that it alarmed 
all the camp, so much so that my men rushed into my tent to see 
if I was dying. Lum^r&i, in the morning, then went on a visit- 
ing excursion into the district, but no sooner lefl than the chief 
of Isamiro, whose place lies close to the N'y&nza, came here to 
visit him (17th) ; but, after waiting a day to make friends with 
me, he departed (18th), as I heard afterward, to tell his great Mhil- 



160 THE SOURCE OP THE NILE. [1861. 

ma chief, Bohinda, the ruler of Ukhanga, to which district this 
state of Bogiid belongs, what sort of presents I had given to Lu- 
jn6T4si. He was, in fact, a spy whom Bohinda had sent to ascer- 
tain what exactions had been made from me, as he, being the 
great chief, was entitled to the most of them himself. On Lum^ 
r&i's return, all the men of the village, as well as mine, set up a 
dance, beating the drums all day and all night 

20ih to 21sL Next night they had to beat their drums- for a 
very different purpose, as the Watiita, after lifting all of Makaka's 
cattle in Sorombo, came hovering about, and declared they would 
never cease fighting until they had lifted all those that Lum^r^si 
harbored round his boma ; for it so happened that Lum^r&i al- 
lowed a large party of Watosi, alias Wahuma, to keep their cattle 
in large stalls all round his boma, and these the Watiita had now 
set their hearts upon. After a little reflection, however, they 
thought better of it, as they were afraid to come in at pnce on ac- 
count of my guns. 

Most gladdening news this day came in to cheer me. A large 
mixed caravan of Arabs and coast-men, arriving from Karagu^ 
announced that both Bumanika and Suwarora were anxiously 
looking out for us, wondering why we did not come. So great> 
indeed, was Suwarora's desire to see us, that he had sent four men 
to invite us, and they would have been here now, only that one 
of them fell sick on the way, and the rest had to stop for him. I 
can not say what pleasure this gave me ; my fortune, I thought, 
was made ; and so I told Baraka, who, instead of rejoicing with 
me, only shook his head at it, and pretended he did not believe 
the news to be true. Without loss of time I wrote oflF to Grant, 
and got these men to carry the letter. 

Next day (22d) the Wasui from Suwarora arrived. They were 
a very gentle, nice-dispositioned-looking set of men — small, but 
well knit together. They advanced to my tent with much seem- 
ing grace ; then knelt at my feet, and began clapping their hands 
together, saying, at the same time, " My great chief, my great 
chief, I hope you are well ; for Siiwarora, having heard of your 
detention here, has sent us over to assure you that all those re- 
ports that have been circulated regarding his ill treatment of car- 
avans are without foundation ; he is sorry for what has happened 
to deter your march, and hopes you will at once come to visit 
him." I then told them all that had happened — ^how Grant and 
myself were situated — and begged them to assist me by going off 



Aug.] . UZINZA. 161 

to Grant's camp to inspire all the men there with confidence, and 
bring my rear property to me ; saying, as they agreed to do so, 
"Here are some doths and some beads for your expenses, and 
when you return I will give you more." Baraka at once, seeing 
this, told me they were not trustworthy, for at Mihambo an old 
man had come there and tried to inveigle him in the same man- 
ner, but he kicked him out of the camp, because he knew he was 
a touter, who wished merely to allure him with sweet words to 
fleece him afterward. I then wrote to Grant another letter to be 
delivered by these men. 

Lumdr^si no sooner heard of the presents I had given them 
than he flew into a passion, called them impostors, abused them 
for not speaking to him before they came to me, and ssdd he 
would not allow them to go. High words then ensued. I said 
the business was mine, and not his ; he had no right to interfere, 
and they should go. Still Lum^r^ was obstinate, and determ- 
ined they should not^ for I was his guest ; he would not allow any 
one to de&aud me. It was a great insult to himself, if true, that 
Suwarora should attempt to snatch me out of his house ; and he 
could not bear to see me take these strangers by the hand, when, , 

as we have seen, it took him so long to entice me to his den, and 
he could not prevail over me until he actually sent his copper 
hatchet 

When this breeze blew over by Liim^r&i's walking away, I 
told the Wasiii not to mind him, but to do just as I bid them. 
They said they had their orders to bring me, and if Lum^r^si 
would not allow them to go for Grant, they would stop where 
they were, for they knew that if Suwarora found them delaying 
long, he would send more men to look after them. There was 
no peace yet, however ; for Lum^r&i, finding them quietly set- 
tled down eating with my men, ordered them out of his district, 
threatening force if they did not comply at once. I tried my 
best for them, but the Wasiii, fearing to stop any longer, said they 
would take leave to see S&warora, and in eight days more they 
would come back again, bringing something with them, the sight 
of which would make Lum^r&i quake. Farther words were now 
useless, so I gave them more cloth to keep them up to the mark, 
and sent them off. Baraka, who seemed to think this generosity 
a bit of insanity, grumbled that if I had cloths to throw away it 
would have been better had I disposed of them to my own men. 
Kext day {26th), as I was still unwell, I sent four men to Grant 

L 



162 THE SOXniCE OF THE NILE. [186L 

with inquiries bow he was getting on, and a request for medi- 
cines. The messengers took four days to bring back the iufor- 
mation that Bombay had not returned from Kaz^, but that Grant, 
having got assistance, hoped to break ground about the 5th of 
next month. They brought me, at the same time, information 
that the Watuta had invested Euh^'s, after clearing off all the 
cattle in the surrounding villages, and had proclaimed their in- 
tention of serving out Lum^r^si next. In consequence of this, 
LtLm^Fesi daily assembled his gray beards and had councils of war 
in his drum-house; but, though his subjects sent to him constant- 
ly for troops, he would not assist them. 

Another caravan then arrived (31st) from Karagu^, in which 
I found an old friend, of half Arab breed, called Saim, who, while 
I was residing with Sheikh Snay at Kazd on my former expedi- 
tion, taught me the way to make plantain wine. He, like the 
rest of the porters in the caravan, wore a shirt of fig-tree bark 
called mbiigii. As I shall have frequently to use this word in 
the course of the Journal, I may here give an explanation of its 
meaning. The porter here mentioned told me that the people 
about the equator all wore this kind of covering, and made it up 
of numerous pieces of bark sewn together, which they stripped 
from the trees afber cutting once round the trunk above and be- 
low, and then once more down the tree from the upper to the 
lower circular cutting. This operation did not kill the trees, be- 
cause, if they covered the wound, while it was fresh, well over 
with plantain-leaves, shoots grew down from above, and a new 
bark came all over it. The way they softened the bark, to make 
it like cloth, was by immersion in water, and a good strong appli- 
cation of a mill-headed mallet^ which ribbed it like corduroy.* 
Saim told me he had lived ten years in Uganda, had crossed the 
Nile, and had traded eastward as far as the Masai country. He 
thought the N'yanza was the source of the Ruvuma River; as 
the river which drained the N'yanza, after passing between Ugan- 
da and Usoga, went through Unyoro, and then all round the 
Tanganyika Lake into the Indian Ocean, south of Zanzibar. 

* If one asked the name of a tree, and it happened to be the kind from which 
this cloth was made, the answer wonld be **mbagtl." I( again, the question was 
as to the bark, the same answer ; and the same if one saw the shirt and asked what 
it was. Hence I conld not determine whether the word had been originallj the 
name of the tree, of its bark, or of the article made from the bark, though I am in> 
clined to think it is the bark, as there are many varieties of these trees, which, be- 
sides being caUed mbtigtt, had their own particular names. 



Sept.] UZINZA. 188 

Kiganda, he also said, he knew as well as his own tongue ; and 
as I wanted an interpreter, he would gladly take service with me. 
This was just what I wanted — a heaven-bom stroke of luck. I 
seized at his offer with avidity, gave him a new suit of clothes, 
which made him look quite a gentleman, and arranged to send 
him next day with a letter to Grant 

Isi and 2d. A great hubbub and confusion now seized all the 
place, for the Watuta were out, and had killed a woman of the 
place who had formerly been seized by them in war, but had 
since escaped and resided here. To avenge this, Lum^rdsi head- 
ed his host, and was accompanied by my men ; but they succeeded 
in nothing save in frightening off their enemies, and regaining 
possession of the body of the dead woman. Then another hubbub 
arose, for it was discovered that three Wahilma women were 
missing (2d) ; and, as they did not turn up again, Lum^r^ sus- 
pected the men of the caravan, which left with Saim, must have 
taken them off as slaves. He sent for the chief of the caravan, 
and had him brought back to account for this business. Of course 
the man swore he knew nothing about the matter, while Lum^r&i 
swore he should stop there a prisoner until the women were freed, 
as it was not the first time his women had been stolen in this 
manner. About the same time a man of this place, who had been 
to Sorombo to purchase cows, came in with a herd, and was at 
once seized by Lum^r&i ; for, during his absence, one ofLiim^ 
r^'s daughters had been discovered to be with child, and she, 
on being asked who was the cause of it, pointed out that man. 
To compensate for damage done to himself, as his daughter by 
this means had become reduced to half her market value, Liim^- 
r&i seized all the cattle this man had brought with him. 

3c? to 10^. When two days had elapsed, one of the three miss- 
ing Wahuma women was discovered in a village close by. As 
she said she had absconded because her husband had ill treated 
her, she was flogged, to teach her better conduct It was report- 
ed they had been seen in M'yonga's establishment; and I was at 
the same time informed that the husbands who were out in search 
of them would return, as M'yonga was likely to demand a price 
for ihem if they were claimed, in virtue of their being his right- 
ful property under the acknowledged law of biini, or findings- 
keepings. 

For the next four days nothing but wars and rumors of wars 
could be heard. The Watuta were^ut in all directions plunder- 



154 ^™e source of the nilk [isei. 

ing cattle and burning Tillages, and the Wahiima of this place 
had taken such fright, they made a stealthy march with all their 
herds to a neighboring chief, to whom it happened that one of 
Lum^r^^s graybeards was on a visit They thus caught a Tar- 
tar; for the graybeard no sooner saw them than he went and 
flogged them all back again, rebuking them on the way for their 
ingratitude to their chief, who had taken them in when they 
sought his shelter, and was now deserted by them on the fiist 
alarm of war. 

10^. Wishing now to gain ferther intelligence of Grant, I or- 
dered some of my men to carry a letter to him ; but they all 
feared the Watuta meeting them on the way, and would not 
Just then a report came in that one of Lum6r^'s sons, who had 
gone near the capital of Ukhanga to purchase cows, was seized 
by Bohinda in consequence of the Lsamiro chief telling him that 
Lum6r^ had taken untold wealth from me, and he was to be de- 
tained there a prisoner until Lum^r&i either disgorged, or sent 
me on to be fleeced again. Lum^r6si; of course, was greatly per- 
plexed at this, and sought my advice, but could get nothing out 
of me, for I laughed in my sleeve, and told him such was the con- 
sequence of his having been too greedy. 

11^ to 16^. Masudi with his caravan arrived firom Mchim^a 
— ^Unguru^, " the Pig," who had led me astray, was, by the way, 
hia kirangozi or caravan leader. Masiidi told us he had suffered 
most severely from losses by his men running away, one after the 
other, as soon as they received their pay. He thought Grant 
would soon join me, as, the harvest being all in, the men about 
Bdngua would naturally be anxious for service. He had had 
fearful work with M'yonga, having paid him a gun, some gun- 
powder, and a great quantity of cloth ; and he had to give the 
same to BtLh^ with the addition of twenty brass wires, one load 
of mzizima, and one load of red coral beads. This was startling, 
and induced me to send all the men I could prudently spare off 
to Grant at once, cautioning him to avoid Biih^^s, as Lum^r&i 
had promised me he would not allow one other thing to be taken 
from me. Lum^r6si by this time was improving, from lessons on 
the policy of moderation which I had been teaching him; for 
when he tried to squeeze as much more out of Masudi as Bub^ 
had taken, he gave way, and let him off cheaply at my interces- 
sion. He had seen enough to be persuaded that this unlintiited 
taxation or plunder system would turn out a losing game, such 



Sbpt.] uzinza. 185 

as XJnyanyemb^ and IJgogo were at that time suffering from. 
Moreover, he was rather put to shame by my saying, "Pray, who 
now is biggest^ Buhd or yourself? for any one entering this coun- 
try would suspect that he was, as he levies the first tax, and gives 
people to understand that, by their paying it, the whole district 
will be £ree to them ; such, at any rate, he told me, and so it ap- 
pears he told Masiidi. If you are the sultan, and will take my 
advice, I would strongly recommend your teaching Buh6 a lesson 
by taking fiom him what the Arabs paid, and giving it back to 
Masudi" 

At midnight (16th) I was startled in my sleep by the hurried 
tramp of several men, who rushed in to say they were Grant's 
porters — Bogud men who had deserted him. Grant, they said, 
in incoherent, short, rapid, and .excited sentences, was left by them 
standing under a tree, with nothing but his gun in his hand. 
All the Wanguana had been either killed or driven away by 
ITyonga's men, who all turned out and fell upon the caravan, 
shooting, spearing, and plundering, until nothing was left. The 
porters then, seeing Grant all alone, unable to help him, bolted 
off to inform me and LUm^r&i, as the best thing they could -do. 
Though disbelieving the story in all its minutias, I felt that some- 
thing serious must have happened ; so, without a moment's delay, 
I sent off the last of my men strong enough to walk to succor 
Grant, carrying with them a bag of beads. Baraka then stepped 
outside my tent, and said in a loud voice, purposely for my edifica- 
tion, "There, now, what is the use of thinking any more about go- 
ing to EIaragu6 ? I said all along it was impossible ;" upon hearing 
which I had him up before all the remaining men, and gave him 
a lecture, saying, happen what would, I must die or .go on with 
the journey, for shame would not allow me to give way as Baraka 
was doing. Baraka replied he was not afraid ; he only meant to 
imply that men could not act against impossibilities. "Impossi- 
bilities!" I said; "what is impossible? Could I not go on as a 
servant with the first caravan, or buy up a whole caravan if I 
liked ? What is impossible ? For God's sake don't try any more 
to frighten my men, for you have nearly killed me already in do- 
ing so." 

Next day (17th) I received a letter from Grant^ narrating the 
whole of his catastrophes : 



166 THE 60UBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

''In the Jangles, near M'yonga'fl, 10th Sept., 186L 

^^My deab Speke, — The caravan was attacked, plundered, and 
the men driven to the winds, while marching this morning into 
M'yonga's country. 

" Awaking at cock-crow, I roused the camp, all anxious to re- 
join you ; and while the loads were being packed, my attention 
was drawn to an angry discussion between the head men and 
seven or eight armed fellows sent by Sultan M'yonga, to insist 
on my putting up for the day in his village. They were sum- 
marily told that as you had already made him a present, he need 
not expect a visit from me. Adhering, I doubt not, to their 
master's instructions^ they officiously constituted themselves our 
guides till we chose to strike off their path, when, quickly heading 
our party, they stopped the way, planted their spears, and dared 
our advance I 

" This menace made us firmer in our determination, and we 
swept past the spears. After we had marched unmolested for 
some seven miles, a loud yelping from the woods excited our at- 
tention, and a sudden rush was made upon us by, say, two hund- 
red men, who came down seemingly in great glee. In an instant, 
at the caravan's centre, they fastened upon the poor porters. The 
struggle was short; and with the threat of an aiix)w or spear at 
their breasts, men were robbed of their cloths and ornaments, 
loads were yielded and run away with before resistance could be 
organized ; only three men of a hundred stood by nie ; the others, 
whose only thought was their lives, fled into the woods, where I 
went shouting for them. One man, little Bahan — ^rip as he is — 
stood with cocked gun, defending his load against five savages 
with uplifted spears. No one else could be seen. Two or three 
were reported killed; some were wounded. Beads, boxes, cloths, 
etc., lay strewed about the woods. In fiict, I felt wrecked. My 
attempt to go and demand redress from the sultan was resisted, 
and, in utter despair, I seated myself among a mass of rascals jeer- 
ing round me, and insolent after the success of the day. Several 
were dressed in the very cloths, etc., they had stolen fix>m xaj 
men. 

" In the afternoon, about fifteen men and loads were brought 
me, with a message from the sultan that the attack had been a 
mistake of his subjects — ^that one man had had a hand cut off for 
it, and that all the property would be restored I 

" Yours sincerely, J. W. Grant." 



Sept.] UZINZA. 167 

V 

Now, judging from the message sent to Grant by M'yonga, it 
appeared to me that his men had mistaken their chief's orders, 
and had gone one ^tep beyond his intentions. It was obvious 
that the chief merely intended to prevent Grant from passing 
through or evading his dist^ct without paying a hongo, glse he 
would not have sent his men to invite him to his palace, doubtless 
with instructions, if necessary, to use force. This appears the 
more evident from the fact of his subsequent contrition, and find- 
ing it necessary to send excuses when the property was in his 
hands ; for these chiefs, grasping as they are, know they must 
conform to some kind of system, to save themselves from a gen- 
eral war, or the avoidance of their territory by all travelers in 
future. To assist Grant, I begged Liim^r&i to send him some 
aid in men at once ; but he refused, on the plea that M'yonga was 
at war with him, and would kill them if they went This was all 
the more provoking, as Grant, in a letter next evening, told me 
he could not get all his men together again, and wished to know 
what should be done. He had recovered all the property except 
six loads of beads, eighty yards of American sheeting, and many 
minor articles, besides what had been rifled more or less from 
every load. In the same letter he asked me to deliver up a 
Mhuma woman to a man who came with the bearers of his mis- 
sive, as she had made love to Saim at Ukulima's, and had bolted 
with my men to escape from her husband. 

On inquiring into this matter, she told me her face had been 
her misfortune, for the man who now claimed her stole her from 
her parents at Ujiji, and forcibly made her his wife, but ever 
since had ill treated her, often thrashing her, and never giving 
her proper food or clothing. It was on this account she fell in 
love with Saim ; for he, taking compassion on her doleful stories, 
had promised to keep her as long as he traveled with me, and in 
the end to send her back to her parents at Ujiji. She was a beau- 
tiful woman, with gazelle eyes, oval face, high thin nose, and fine 
lips, and would have made a good match for Saim, who had a 
good deal of Arab blood in him, and was therefore, in my opin- 
ion, much of the same mixed Shem-Hamitic breed. But, as I did 
not want more women in my camp, I gave her some beads, and 
sent her off with the messenger wlio claimed her, much against 
my own feelings. I now proposed to Grant that, as Liimir&i's 
territories extended to within eight miles of M'yonga's, he should 
try to move over the Msalala border by relays, when I would send 



168 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

some Bogiid men to meet him ; for, though Lilm^r&i would not 
lisk sending his men into the clutches of M'yonga, he was most 
anxious to have another white visitor. 

20th and 21sL I again urged Lum^r&i to help on Grant, say- 
ing it.was incumbent on him to call M'yonga to account for mal- 
treating Grant's porters, who were his own subjects, else the road 
would be shut up— he would lose all the bongos he laid on cara- 
vans — and he would not be able to send his own ivory down to 
the coast This appeal had its effect : he called on his men to 
volunteer, and twelve porters came forward, who no sooner left 
than in came another letter from Grant, informing me that be had 
collected almost enough men to march with, and that M'yonga 
had returned one of the six missing loads, and promised to right 
him in eveiy thing. 

Next day, however, I had firom Grant two very opposite ac- 
counts—one, in the morning, full of exultation, in which he said 
he hoped to reach Eiih^'s this very day, as his complement of 
porters was then completed ; while by the other, which came in 
the evening, I was shocked to hear that M'yonga, after returning 
all the loads, much reduced by rifling, had demanded as a bongo 
two guns, two boxes of ammunition, forty brass wires, and 160 
yards of American sheeting, in default of which he, Grant^ must 
lend M'yonga ten Wanguana to build a boma on the west of his 
district, to enable him to fight some Wasonga who were invading 
his territory, otherwise he would not allow Grant to move from 
his palace. Grant knew not what to do. He dared not part with 
the guns, because he knew it was against my principle, and there- 
fore deferred the answer until he heard from me, although all his 
already collected porters were getting fidgety, and two had bolt- 
ed. In this fearful fix, I sent Baraka off with strict orders to 
bring Grant away at any price, except the threatened sacrifice of 
men, guns, and ammunition, which I would not listen to, as one 
more day's delay mi^ht end in farther exactions ; at the same 
time, I cautioned him to save my property as far as he could, for 
it was to him that M'yonga had formerly said that what I paid 
him should do for all. 

Some of M'yonga's men who had plundered Grant now " caught 
a Tartar." After rifling his loads of a kilyndo, or bark box of 
beads, they, it appeared, received orders from M'yonga to sell a 
lot of female slaves, among whom were the two Wahuma women 
who had absconded from this. The men in charge, not knowing 



Skpl] 



UZINZA. 



169 



their history, brought them for sale into this district, where they 
were instantly recognized by some of Lum^r^i's men, and brought 
in to him. The case was not examined at once, Lum^r^ hap- 
pening to be absent; so, to make good their time, the men in 
charge brought their beads to me to be exchanged for something 
else, not knowing that both camps were mine, and that they held 
my beads and not Grant's. Of course I took them from them, 
but did not give them a flogging, as I knew if I did so they 
would at once retaliate upon Grant The poor Wahiima women, 
as soon as Lumdrfisi arrived, were put to death by their hus- 
bands, because, by becoming slaves, they had broken the laws of 
their race. 

22d to 24^. At last I began to recover. All this exciting 
news, with the prospect of soon seeing Grant, did me a world of 
good; so much so, that I began shooting small birds for speci- 
mens — ^watching the blacksmiths as they made tools, spears, and 




Bkcksmlth's Shopi 

bracelets — and doctoring some of the Wahiima women who came 
to be treated for ophthalmia, in return for which they gave me 
milk. The milk, however, I could not boil excepting in secrecy, 
else they would have stopped their donations on the plea that 
this process would be an incantation or bewitchment, from which 
their cattle would fall sick and dry up. I now succeeded in get- 
ting Lum^r&i to send his Wanyapara to go and threaten M'yon- 
ga that if he did not release Grant at once, we would combine to 
force him to do so. They, however, left too late, for the hongo 
had been settled, as I was informed by a letter from Grant next 
day, brought to me by Bombay, who had just returned from Kaz6 



170 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

after six weeks' absence. He brought with him old Nasib and 
another man, and told me both Bui and Nasib had hidden them- 
selves in a boma close to Lumdr&i's the day when my hongo was 
settled ; but they bolted the instant the drums beat^ and my men 
fired guns to celebrate the event, supposing that the noise was oc- 
casioned by our fighting with Lum6r6si. These cowards then 
made straight for Kazd, when Fundi Sangoro gave Nasib a flog- 
ging for deserting me, and made him so ashamed of his conduct 
that he said he would never do it again. Bui also was flogged, 
but, admitting himself to be a coward, was sent to the '^ right- 
about." With him Bombay also brought three new d&)l&, for 
which I had to pay ^160, and news that the war with Manua S^ra 
was not then over. He had effected his escape in the usual man- 
ner, and was leading the Arabs another long march after him. 

Expecting to meet Grant this morning (25th), I strolled as far 
as my strength and wind would allow me toward Euhd's ; but I 
was sold, for Buh^ had detained him for a hongo. Lum6r&i also 
having heard of it, tried to interpose, according to a plan arranged 
between us in case of such a thing happening, by sending his offi- 
cers to Euh^ with an order not to check my " brother's" march, 
as I had settled accounts for all. Later in the day, however, I 
heard from Grant that Euh^ would not let him go until he paid 
sixteen pretty cloths, six wires, one gun, one box of ammunition, 
and one load of mzizima beads, coolly saying I had only given 
him a trifle, under the condition that, when the big caravan ar- 
rived, Grant would make good the rest. I immediately read this 
letter to Lum^r&i, and asked him how I should answer it, as 
Grant refused to pay any thing until I gave the order. 

To which Liimdi^i replied, Euh6, " my child," could not dare 
to interfere with Grant after his officers arrived, and advised me 
to wait until the evening. At all events, if there were any far- 
ther impediments, he himself would go over there with a force 
and release Grant In the evening another messenger arrived 
from Grant, giving a list of his losses and expenses at M'yonga's. 
They amounted to an equivalent of eight loads, and were as fol- 
lows : 100 yards cloth, and 4600 necklaces of beads (these had 
been set aside as the wages paid to the porters, but, being in my 
custody, I had to make them good) ; 800 necklaces of beads 
stolen from the loa4s ; one brass wire stolen ; one sword-bayonet 
stolen; Grant's looking-glass stolen; one saw stolen; one box of 
ammunition stolen. Then paid in hongo 160 yards cloth ; 150 



Sept.] UZINZA. 171 

necklaces; one scarlet blanket, double; one case of ammunition; 
ten brass wires. Lastly, there was one donkey beaten to death 
by the savages. This was the worst of all ; for this poor brute 
carried me on the former journey to the southern end of the 
N'yanza, and, in consequence, was a great pet 

As nothing farther transpired, and I was all in the dark (26th), 
I wrote to Grant telling him of my interviews with Lum^r^i, and 
requesting him to pay nothing ; but it was too late, for Grant, to 
my inexpressible delight, was the next person I saw ; he walked 
into camp, and then we had a good laugh over all Our misfor- 
tunes. Poor Grant, he had indeed had a most troublesome time 
of it The scoundrel Euh^, who only laughed at Liim^r&i's or- 
ders, had stopped his getting supplies of food for himself and his 
men ; told him it was lucky that he came direct to the palace, 
for full preparations had been made for stopping him had he at- 
tempted to avoid it; would not listen to any reference being 
made to myself; badgered and bullied over every article that he 
extracted ; and, finally, when he found compliance with his ex- 
tortionate requests was not readily granted, he beat the war-drums 
to frighten the porters, and ordered the caravan out of his palace, 
to where he said they would find his men ready to fight it out 
with them. It happened that Grant had just given £uh^ a gun 
when my note arrived, on which they made an agreement that it 
was to be restored, provided that, after the full knowledge of all 
these transactions had reached us, it was both Lum^r&i's and my 
desire that it should be so. 

. I called Liim^rdsi (27th), and begged he would show whether 
lie was the chief or not by requiring Euhd to disgorge the prop- 
erly he had taken from me. His Wanyapara had been despised, 
and I had been most unjustly treated. Upon this the old chief 
hung down his head, and said it touched his heart more than 
words could tell to hear my complaint, for until I came that way 
no one had come, and I had paid him handsomely. He fully ap- 
preciated the good service I had done to him and his country by 
opening a r^ui. which all caravans for the future would follow if 
properly dealt with. Having two heads in a country was a most 
dangerous thing, but it could not be helped for the present^ as his 
hands were too completely occupied already. There were Eo- 
hinda, the Watuta, and M'yonga, whom he must settle with before 
he could attend to Biih^; but when he was free, then Buh^ should 
kuow who was the chief. To bring the matter to a climax, Mrs. 



172 THB SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

Lum^r&i then said she ought to have something, becanse Biih^ 
was her son, while Lum^rdsi was only her second husband and 
consort, for Ruh6 was bom to her by her former husband. She 
therefore was queen. 

DiflBiculties now commenced again (28th). All the Wanguana 
struck, and said they would go no farther. I argued — they ar- 
gued ; they wanted more pay — I would not give more. Bombay, 
who appeared the only one of my men anxious to go on with Grant 
and myself, advised me to give in, else they would all run away, 
he said. I still stuck out, saying that if they did go, they should 
be seized on the coast and cast into jail for desertion. I had sent 
for fifty more men on the same terms as themselves, and nothing 
in the world would make me alter what had been established at 
the British Consulate. There all their engagements were written 
down in the office-book, and the consul was our judge. 

2%ih to 4dh. This shut them up, but at night two of them de- 
serted ; the Wanyamu&i porters also deserted, and I had to find 
more. While this was going on, I wrote letters and packed up 
my specimens, and sent them back by my late valet, Rahan, who 
also got orders to direct Sheikh Said to seize the two men who 
deserted, and take them down chained to the coast when he went 
there. On the 4th, Liim6r&i was again greatly perplexed by his 
sovereign Rohinda calling on him for some cloths; he must have 
thirty at least, else he would not give up Liim^rdsi's son. Far- 
ther, he commanded in a bullying tone that all the Wahiima who 
were with Lum^r&i should be sent to him at once ; adding, at 
the same time, if his royal mandate was not complied with as 
soon as he expected, he would at once send a force to seize Lu- 
m^r&i, and place another man in his stead to rule over the dis- 
trict. 

Lum^r&i, on hearing this, first consulted me, saying his chief 
was displeased with him, accusing him of being too proud in hav- 
ing at once two such distinguished guests, and meant by these 
acts only to humble him. I replied, if that was the case, the 
sooner he allowed us to go, the better it would be fSr him ; and, 
reminding him of his original promise to give me assistance on to 
TJsiii, said he could do so now with a very good grace. 

Quite approving himself of this suggestion, Lumdr&i then gave 
me one of his officers to be my guide : his name was Sangizo. 
This man no sooner received his orders than, proud of his office 
as the guide of such a distinguished caravan, he set to work to find 



Oct.] UZINZA. 178 

US porters. Meanwhile my Wasiii friends, who left on the 25th 
of August, returned, bearing what might be called Suwarora's 
mace — ^a long rod of brass bound up in stick charms, and called 
kaquenzingiriri, ^^ the commander of all things." This, thej said, 
was their chief's invitation to us. Siiwarora did not want a 
hongo; he only wished to see us, and sent this kaquenzingiriri to 
command us respect wherever we went. 

6th. Without seeing us again, Lum^r&i, evidently ashamed of 
the power held over him by this rod of Suwarora's, walked off in. 
the night, leaving word that he was on his way to Euh^'s, to get 
back my gun and all the other things that had been taken from 
Grant The same night a large herd of cattle was stolen from 
the boma without any one knowing it; so next morning, when 
the loss was discovered, all the Wahuma set off on the spoor to 
track them down, but with what effect I never knew. 

As I had now men enough to remove half our property, I 
made a start of it, leaving Grant to bring up the rest. 
I believe I was a most miserable spectre in appear- 
ance, puffing and blowing at each step I took, with shoulder 
drooping, and left arm hanging like a dead log, which I was un- 
able ever to swing. Grant, remarking this, told me then, although 
from a friendly delicacy he had abstained from saying so earlier, 
that my condition, when he first saw me on rejoining, gave him 
a sickening shock. Next day (7th) he came up with the rest of 
the property, carried by men who had taken service for that one 
march only. 
Before us now lay a wilderness of five marches' duration, as 
the few villages that once lined it had all been de- 
populated by the Sorombo people and the Watuta. 
We therefore had to lay in rations for those days; and as no men 
could be found who would take service to Karagu6, we filled up 
our complement with men at exorbitant wages to carry our things 
on to Usui. At this place, to our intense joy, three of Sheikh 
Said's boys came to us with a letter from Kigby ; but, on opening 
it, our spirits at once fell far below zero, for it only informed us 
that he had sent us all kinds of nice things, and letters from home, 
which were packed up in boxes, and dispatched from the coast on 
the 80th of October, 1860. 

The boys then told me that a merchant, nicknamed Msopora, 
had left the boxes in TJgogo, in charge of some of those Arabs 
who were detained there, while he went rapidly round by the 



174 THE SOURCE OF THE NILR [1861. 

south, following up the Buaha Eiver to Usanga and Usenga, 
whence he struck across to Kazd Sheikh Said, they said, sent 
his particular respects to me; he had heard of Grant's disasters 
with great alarm. If he could be of service he would readily 
come to me ; but he had dreamed three times that he saw me 
marching into Cairo, which, as three times were lucky, he was 
sure would prove good, and he begged I would still keep my nose 
well to the front, and push boldly on. Manila S^ra was still in 
the field, and all was uncertain. Bombay then told me — he had 
forgotten to do so before — that when he was last at Kaz^, Sheikh 
Said told him he was sure we would succeed if both he and my- 
self pulled together, although it was well known no one else of 
my party wished to go northward. 
With at last a sufficiency of porters, we all set out together, 
walking over a new style of country. Instead of the 
constantly-recurring outcrops of granite, as in TJn- 
yamu^zi, with valleys between, there were only two lines of little 
hills visible, one right and one left of us, a good way off; while 
the ground over which we were traveling, instead of being con- 
fined like a valley, rose in long high swells of sandstone forma- 
tion, covered with small forest-trees, among which flowers like 
primroses, only very much larger, and mostly of a pink color, 
were frequently met with. Indeed, we ought all to have been 
happy together, for all my men were paid and rationed trebly — 
far better than they would have been if they had been traveling 
with any one else ; but I had not paid all, as they thought, pro- 
portionably, and therefore there were constant heart-burnings, 
with strikes and rows every day. It was useless to tell them that 
they were all paid according to their own agreements — ^that all 
short-service men had a right to expect more in proportion to 
their work than long-service ones ; they called it all love and par- 
tiality, and in their envy luould think themselves ill used. 
At night the kirangozi would harangue the camp, cautioning 
^ . .^. all hands to keep together on the line of march, as 

To Kagdra, 10th, x o , • i 

the Watuta were constantly hovering about, and the 
men should not squabble and fight with their master, else no more 
white men would come this way again. On the 11th we were out 
of Bogu^, in the district of Ugomba, and next march brought us 
into TJgomb^ (12th), where we crossed the Ukongo nullah, drain- 
ing westward to the Malagarazi Eiver. Here some of the por- 
ters, attempting to bolt, were intercepted by my coast-men and 



Oct.] UZINZA. 175 

had a fight of it, for they fired arrows, and in return the coast- 
men cut their bows. The whole camp, of course,, was in a blaze 
at this ; their tribe was insulted, and they would not stand it, un- 
til Bombay put down their pride with a few strings of beads, as 
the best means of restoring peace in the camp. 

At this place we were visited by the chief o^the district, Pongo 
Halt, ISA and (Bush-boc), who had left his palace to see us and in- 
14th. ^'1^ ^ jjj^ y^^^^ f^^ j^Q feared we might give him the 

slip by going west into Uyofu. He sent us a cow, and said he 
should like some return ; for Masudi, who had gone ahead, only 
gave him a trifle, professing to be our vanguard, and telling him 
that as soon as we came with the large caravan we would satisfy 
him to his heart's content. We wished for an interview, but he 
would not see us, as he was engaged looking into his magic horn, 
with an endeavor to see what sort of men we were, as none of our 
sort had ever come that way before. 

The old sort of thing occurred again. I sent him one kitambi 
and eight yards of kiniki, explaining how fearfully I was reduced 
from theft and desertions, and begging he would have mercy ; 
but, instead of doing so, he sent the things back in a huff, aft;er a 
whole day's delay, and said he required, besides, one sahari, one 
kitambi, and eight yards kiniki. In a moment I sent them over, 
and begged he would beat the drums; but no, he thought he was 
entitled to ten brass wires in addition, and would accept them at 
his palace the next day, as he could not think of allowing us to 
leave his country until we had done him that honor, else all the 
surrounding chiefs would call him inhospitable. 

Too knowing now to be caught with such chaff, I told him, 
through Bombay, if he would consider the ten brass 
wires final, I would give them, and then go to his 
palace, not otherwise. He acceded to this, but no sooner got them 
than he broke his faith, and said he must either have more pretty 
cloths, or five more brass wires, and then, without doubt, he would 
beat the druma A long badgering bargain ensued, at which I 
made all my men be present as witnesses, and we finally con- 
cluded the hongo with four more brass wire& 

The drums then no sooner beat the satis&ction than the Wa- 
sui mace-bearers, in the most feeling and good-mannered possible 
manner, dropped down on their knees before me, and congratu- 
lated me on the cessation of this tormenting businesa Feeling 
much freer, we now went over and put up in Pongo's palace, for 



ToPoiMo^irasl- 
!Doe,l5cJL 



176 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

we had to halt there a day to collect more porters, as half my men 
had just bolted. This was by no means an easy job, for all my 
American sheeting was out, and so was the kiniki. Pongo then 
for the first time showed himself sneaking about with an escort, 
hiding his head in a cloth lest our " evil eyes" might bewitch him. 
Still he did us a good turn ; for on the 16th he persuaded his men 
to take service with u0 at the enormous hire of ten necklaces of 
beads per man for eveiy day's march — ^nearly ten times what an 
Arab pays. Fowls were as plentiful here as elsewhere, though 
the people only kept them to sell to travelers, or else for cutting 
them open for divining purposes by inspection of their blood and 
bones. 

From the frying-pan we went into the fire in crossing from 
ToVyarB. Ugomb^ iuto the district of Wanga, where we beat 
wa2nba'8,iTtA. ^p ^j^g ^j^j^f N'yaruwamba, and at once went into the 
hongo business. He offered a cow to commence with, which I 
would not accept until the tax was paid, and then I made my of- 
fering of two wires, one kitambi, and one kisutu. Badgering then 
commenced : I must add two wires, and six makete or necklaces 
of mzizima beads, the latter being due to the chief for negotiating 
the tax. When this addition was paid, we should be freed by 
beat of drum. 

I complied at once, by way of offering a special mark of respect 
and friendship, and on the reliance that he would keep his word. 
The scoundrel, however, no sooner got the articles, than he said a 
man had just come there to inform him that I gave Pongo ten 
wires and ten cloths ; he, therefore, could not be satisfied until I 
added one more wire, when, without fail, he would beat the drums. 
It was given, after many angry words ; but it was the old story 
over again — he would have one more wire and a cloth, or else 
he would not allow us to proceed on the morrow. My men, this 
time really provoked, said they would fight it out — a king break- 
ing his word in that way I * But, in the end, the demand had to 
be paid ; and at last, at 9 P.M., the drums beat the satisfactioD. 

From this we went on to the north end of Wanga, in front of 
To border of which was a wilderness, separating the possessions of 
ukhang^iaA. Rohiuda from those of Siiwarora. We put up in a 
boma, but were not long ensconced there when the villagers got 
up a pretext for a quarrel, thinking they could plunder us of all 
our goods, and began pitching into my men. We, however, 
proved more than a match for them. Our show of guns fright- 



Oct.] UZINZA. 177 

ened them all oat of the place ; my men then gave chase, firing 
off in the air, which sent them flying over the fields, and left us 
to do there as we liked until night, when a few of the villagers 
came back and took up their abode with us quietly, l^ext, after 
dark, the little Tillage was on thQ alert again. The Watuta were 
out marching, and it was rumored that they were bound for 
N'yaruwamba's. The porters who were engaged at Pongo's now 
gave us the slip ; we were consequently detained here next day 
(19th), when, after engaging a fresh set, we crossed the wilder- 
ness, and in Usui put up with Suwarora's border officer of this 
post, ITyamanira. 
Here we were again brought to a standstill. 

M 



178 THE SOURCE OE THE NILE. [1861. 



CHAPTER VIL 

USUI. 

Taxation recommenced.— A great Doctor.— Stlwarora Pillaging.— The Arabs. — 
Conference with an Embassador from Uganda. — Disputes in Camp. — Biyaliy of 
Bombay and Banrka. — ^Departure from the inhospitable Districts. 

Wb were now in Usui, and so the mace-bearers, being on their 
own ground, forgot their manners, and peremptorily 
usfiifSo/AMid demanded their pay before they would allow us to 
move one step farther. At first I tried to stave the 
matter off, promising great rewards if they took us quickly on to 
Suwarora; but they would take no alternative — ^their rights were 
foar wires each. I could not afford such a sum, and tried to beat 
them down, but without effect ; for they said they had it in their 
power to detain us here a whole month, and they could get us 
bullied at every stage by the officers of the stations. No threats 
of reporting them to their chief had any effect ; so, knowing that 
treachery in these countries was a powerful enemy, I ordered 
them to be paid. N'yamanira, the Mkungu, then gave us a goat 
and two pots of pombe, begging, at the same time, for four wires, 
which I paid, hoping thus to get on in the morning. 

I then made friends with him, and found he was a great doctor 
as well as an officer. In £ront of his hut he had his church or 
uganga — a tree, in which was fixed a blaue boc's horn charged 
with magic powder, and a zebra's hoof, suspended by a string 
over a pot of water sunk in the earth below it His badges of 
office he had tied on his head ; the butt of a shell, representing 
the officer's badge, being fixed on the forehead, while $i small 
sheep's horn, fixed jauntily over the temple, denoted that he was 
a magician. Wishing to try my powers in magical arts, as I 
laughed at his church, he begged me to produce an everlasting 
spring of water by simply scratching the ground. He, however, 
drew short up, to the intense delight of my men, on my promising 
that I would do so if he made one first 

At night, 22d, a steel scabbard and some cloths were extracted 
from our camp, so I begged my friend, the great doctor, would 



Oct.] USIJL 179 

show us the use of his horn. This was promised, but never per- 
formed. I then wished to leave, as the Wasui guides, on receiv- 
ing their pay, promised we should ; but they deferred, on the plea 
that one of them must see their chief first, and get him to frank 
us through, else,4hey said, we should be torn to pieces. I said I 
thought the kaquenzingiriri could do this ; but they said, " No ; 
Suwarora must be told first of your arrival, to prepare him prop- 
erly for your coming ; so stop here for three days with two of us, 
while the third one goes to the palace and returns again ; for you 
know the chie& of these countries do not feel safe until they have 
had a look at the uganga." 

One of them then went away, but no sooner had left than a man 
named Makinga arrived to invite us on, as he said, at his adopted 
brother K'yengo's request. Makinga then told us that Suwarora, 
on first hearing that we were coming, became greatly afraid, and 
said he would not let us set eyes on his country, as he was sure 
we were king-dethroners; but, referring for opinion to Dr. K'y en- 
go, his fears were overcome by the doctor assuring him that ht 
had seen hosts of our sort at Zanzibar; and he knew, moreciver, 
that some years ago we had been to Ujiji and to Dk^rdw^ with- 
out having done any harm in those places ; and, farther, since 
Musa had sent word that I had done my best to subdue the war 
at Unyanyemb^ and had promised to do my best here, he, Sftwa- 
rora, had been anxiously watching our movements, and longed 
for our arrival. This looked fiimous, and it was agreed we should 
move the next morning. Just then a new light broke in on my 
defeat at Sorombo, for with Makinga I recognized one of my 
former porters, who I had supposed was a " child" of the Pig's. 
This man now said before all my men, Baraka included, that he 
wished to accept the load of mzizima I had offered the Fig if he 
would go forward with Baraka and tell Suwarora I wanted some 
porters to help me to reach him. He was not a " child" of the 
Pig's, but a " child" of K'yengo's ; and as Baraka would not allow 
him to accept the load of mzizima, he went on to K'yengo by 
himself, and told all that had happened. It was now quite clear 
what motives induced Suwarora to send out the three Wasui ; 
but how I blessed Baraka for this in my heart, though I said 
nothing about it to him, for fear of his playing some more treach- 
erous tricks. Grant then told me Baraka. had been firightened at 
Mininga by a blackguard mganga, to whom he would not give a 
present, into the belief that our journey would encounter some 



^30 ^I^HE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

terrible mishap ; for, when the M'yonga catastrophe happened, 
he thought that a fulfillment of the mganga's prophecy. 

I wished to move in the morning (23d), and had all hands 
ready, but was told by Makingpsi he must be settled with first 
His dues for the present were four brass wires, and as many more 
when we reached the palace. I could not stand this: we were 
literally, as Musa said we should be, being " torn to pieces;" so I 
appealed to the mace-bearers, protested that Makinga could have 
no claims on me, as he was not a man of Usui, but a native of 
Utambara, and brought on a row. On the other hand, as he could 
not refute this, Makiuga swore the mace was all a pretense, and 
set a fighting with the Wasui and all the men in turn. 

To put a stop to this, I ordered a halt, and called on th^ dis- 
trict officer to assist us, on which he said he would escort us on to 
Suwarora's if we would stop till next morning. This was agreed 
to ; but in the night we were robbed of three goats, which he said 
he could not allow to be passed over, lest Suwarora might hear 
of it, and he would get into a scrape. He pressed us strongly to 
stop another day while he sought for them, but I told him I would 
not, as his magic powder was weak, else he would have found the 
scabbard we lost long before this. 

At last we got under way, and, after winding through a long 
Tbviwmbo'f, forcst, wc emerged on the first of the populous parts 
***** of Usui, a most oonvulsed-looking country, of well- 

rounded hills composed of sandstone. In all the parts not under 
cultivation they were covered with brushwood. Here the little 
grass-hut villages were not fenced by a boma, but were hidden in 
large fields of plantains. Cattle were numerous, kept by the 
Wahilma, who would not sell their milk to us because we ate 
fowls and a bean called maharagu^. 

Happily, no one tried to pillage us here, so on we went to Vi« 
ToYfkan^M, kora's, another officer, living at N'yakaseny^ under 
*^^ a sandstone hill, faced with a dike of white quartz, 

over which leaped a small stream of water — ^a seventy-feet drop— 
which, it is said, Suwarora sometimes paid homage to when the 
land was oppressed by drought. Vikora's. father it was whom 
Sirboko of Mininga shot Usually he was very severe with mer- 
chants in consequence of that act; but he did not molest us, as 
the messenger who went on to Suwarora returned here just as we 
arrived, to say we must come on at once, as Suwarora was anx- 
ious to see us, and had ordered his Wakungii not to molest u& 



Oct.] USUI. 181 

Thieves that night entered our ring-fence of thorns, and stole a 
doth from off one of my men while he was sleeping. 

We set down Siiwarora, after this very polite message, " a reg- 
ToKMiwMBTi, ^1^ trump," and walked up the hill of N'yakaseny^ 
***• with considerable mirth, singing his praises ; but we 

no sooner planted ourselves on the summit than we sang a very 
different tune. We were ordered to stop by a huge body of men, 
and to pay toll, 

Siiwarora, on second thoughts, had changed his mind, or else 
he bad been overruled by two of his officers — Kariwami, who 
lived here, and Virembo, who lived two stages back, but were 
then with their chief. There wad no help for it, so I ordered the 
camp to be formed, and sent Nasib and the mace-bearers at once 
off to the palace to express to his highness how insulted I felt as 
his guest, being stopped in this manner, even when I had his ka- 
quenzingiriri with me as his authority that I was invited there as 
a guest. I was not a merchant who carried merchandise, but a 
prince like himself, come on a friendly mission to see him and 
Rumanika. I was waiting at night for the return of the messen* 
gers, and sitting out with my sextant observing the stars, to fix 
my position, when some daring thieves, in the dark bushes close 
by, accosted two of the women of the camp, pretending a desire 
to know what I was doing. They were no sooner told by the 
unsuspecting women, than they whipped off their clothes and ran 
away with them, allowing their victims to pass me in a state of 
absolute nudity. I could stand this thieving no longer. My 
goats and other things had been taken away without causing me 
much distress of mind, but now, after this shocking event, I order- 
ed my men to shoot at any thieves that came near them. 

This night one was shot, without any mistake about it ; for the 
next morning we tracked him by his blood, and aft- 
erward heard he had died of his wound. The Wasiii 
elders, contrary to my expectation, then came and congratulated 
us on our success. They thought us most wonderful men, and 
possessed of supernatural powers; for the thief in question was 
a magician, who until now was thought to be invulnerable. In- 
deed, they said Arabs with enormous caravans had often been 
plundered by these people ; but, though they had so many more 
guns than ourselves, they never succeeded in killing one. 

Nasib then returned to inform us that the king had heard our 
complaint, and was sorry for it, but said he could not interfere 



182 THE 80UBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

with the rights of his officers. He did not wish himself to take 
any thing from us, and hoped we would come on to him as soon 
as we had satisfied his 'officers with the trifle they wanted. Yi- 
rembo then sent us some pomb^ by his officers, and begged us to 
have patience, for he was then fleecing Masiidi at the encamping- 
ground near the palace. This place was alive with thieves. Dur- 
ing the day they lured my men into their huts by inviting them 
to dinner; but, when they got them, they stripped them stark- 
naked and let them go again, while at night they stoned our 
camp. After this, one more was shot dead and two others 
wounded. 
I knew that Suwarora's message was all humbug, and that his 
officers merely kept about one per cent, of what they 
took from travelers, paying the balance into the roy- 
al coffisrs. Thinking I was now well in for a good fleecing my- 
self, I sent Bombay off to Masudi's camp to tell Insang^z, who 
was traveling with him on a mission of his master's, old Musa^s 
son, that I would reward him handsomely if he would, on arrival 
at Karagiid, get Bumanika to send us his mace here in the same 
way as Suwarora had done to help us out of Bogud, as he knew 
Musa at one time said he would go with us to Karagu^ in person. 
When Bombay was gone, Virembo then deputed Kariwami to 
take the hongo for both at once, mildly requiring 40 wires, 80 
cloths, and 400 necklaces of every kind of bead we possessed. 
This was, indeed, too much of a joke. I complained of all the 
losses I bad suffered, and begged for mercy ; but all he said, after 
waiting the whole day, was, " Do not stick at trifles ; for, after 
settling with us, you will have to give as much more to Vikora, 
who lives down below." 
Next morning, as I said I could not by any means pay such an 
exorbitant tax as was demanded, Kariwami be^ed 
me to make an offer, which I did by sending him 
four wires. These, of course, were rejected with scorn ; so, in ad- 
dition, I sent an old box. That, too, was thrown back on me, as 
nothing short of 20 wires, 40 cloths, and 200 necklaces of all sorts 
of beads would satisfy him ; and this I ought to be contented to 
pay, as he had been so moderate because I was the king's guest, 
and had been so reduced by robbery. I now sent six wires more, 
and said this was the last I could give — they were worth so many 
goats to me — ^and now, by giving them away, I should have to 
live on grain like a poor man, though I was a prince in my own 



Oct.] USUI. 183 

country, jost like Suwarora. Surely Suwarora could not permit 
this if he knew it ; and if they would not suffice, I should have to 
stop here until called again by Suwarora. The ruffian, on hear- 
ing this, allowed the wires to lie in his hut, and said he was going 
away, but hoped, when he returned, I should have, as I had got 
no cloths, 20 wires, and 1000 necklaces of extra length, strung 
and all ready for him. 

Just then Bombay returned flushed with the excitement of a 
great success. He had been in Masudi's camp, and had delivered 
my message to Insang^z. Mas&di, he said, had been there a fort- 
night unable to settle his hongo, for the great Mkama had not 
deigned to see him, though the Arab had been daily to his palace 
requesting an interview. " Well," I said, " that is all very inter- 
esting, but what next? will the big king see us ?" " Oh no ; by 
the very best good fortune in the world, on going into the palace 
I saw Suwarora, and spoke to him at once ; but he was so tre- 
mendously drunk he could not understand me." " What luck 
was there in that ?" I asked. On which Bombay said, " Oh, every 
body in the place congratulated me on my success in having ob- 
tained an interview with that great monarch the very first day, 
when Arabs had seldom that privilege under one full month of 
squatting ; even Masudi had not yet seen him." To which Na- 
sib also added, "Ah ! yes — indeed it is so — a monstrous success ; 
there is great ceremony as well as business at these courts ; you 
will better see what I mean when you get to Uganda. These 
Wahuma kings are not like those you ever saw in Unyarau&i or 
any where else ; they have officers and soldiers like Said Majid, 
the Sultan at Zanzibar." " Well," said I to Bombay, " what was 
Suwarora like ?" " Oh, he is a very fine man — just as tall, and in 
the face very like Grant; in fact, if Grant were black you would 
not know the difference." " And were his officers drunk too ?" 
"Oh yes, they were all drunk together; men were bringing in 
pomb^ all day." "And did you get drunk?" "Oh yes," said 
Bombay, grinning, and showing his whole row of sharp-pointed 
teeth, " they vxmid make me drink ; and then they showed me 
the place they assigned for your camp when you come over there. 
It was not in the palace, but outside, without a tree near it — any 
thing but a nice-looking residence." I then sent Bombay to work 
at the hongo business ; but, after haggling till night with Kari- 
wami, he was told he must bring fourteen brass wires, two cloths, 
and five mukhnai of kany^ra, or white porcelain beads, which, re- 



184 



THE SOURCE OF THE NILK 



[1861. 



Halt,80dL 



duced,^ amounted to three hundred necklaces, else he said I might 
stop there for a month. 

At last I settled this confounded hongo by paying seven ad- 
ditional wires in lieu of the cloth ; and, delighted at 
the termination of this tedious affidr, I ordered a 
march. Like magic, however, Yikora turned up, and said we 
must wait until he was settled with. His rank was the same as 
the others, and one bead less than I had given them he wou^d 
not take. I fought all the day out, but the next morning, as he 
deputed the officers to take nine wires, these were given, and then 
we went on with the journey. 

Tripping along over the hill, we descended to a deep miry 
To uthunga, water-course, full of bulrushes, then over another hill, 
*^ from the heights of which we saw Siiwarora's palace 

lying down in the Uthungu valley, behind which again rose an- 




Uthunga VaUey. 

Other hill of sandstone, faced on the top with a dike of white 
quartz. The scene was very striking, for the palace indosures, 
of great extent, were well laid out to give effect Three circles 
of milk-bush, one within the other, formed the boma, or ring- 
fence. The chief's hut (I do not think him worthy the name of 
king, since the kingdom is divided in two) wap three times aa 
large as any of the others, and stood by itself at the farther end ; 
while the smaller huts, containing his officers and domestics, were 
arranged in little groups within the circle, at certain distances 
apart from one another, sufficient to allow of their stalling their 
cattle at night 
On descending into the Uthuogu valley, Grant, who was pre- 



a:" 



Nov.] USUL 187 

ceding the men, found Makinga opposed to the progress of the 
caravan until his dues were paid. He was a stranger like our- 
selves, and was consequently treated with scorn, until he tried to 
maintain what he called his right by pulling the loads off my 
men's shoulders, whereupon Grant cowed him into submission, 
and all went on again — not to the palace, as we had supposed, 
but, by the direction of the mace-bearers, to the huts of Siiwaro- 
ra*s commander-in-chief, two miles from the palace ; and here we 
found Masiidi's camp also. We had no sooner formed camp for 
ourselves and arranged all our loads, than the eternal Yikora, 
whom I thought we had settled with before we started, made a 
claim for some more wire, cloth, and beads, as he had not re- 
ceived as much as Kariwami and Virembo. Of course I would 
not listen to this, as I had paid what his men asked for, and that 
was enough for me. Just then MasUdi, with the other Arabs 
who were traveling with him, came over to pay us a visit, and 
inquire what we thought of the Usui taxes. He had just con- 
cluded his hongo to Suwarora by paying 80 wires, 120 yards of 
cloth, and 180 lbs. of beads, while he had also paid to every 
officer from 20 to 40 wires, as well as cloths and beads. On hear- 
ing of my transactions, he gave it as his opinion that I had got 
off surprisingly well. 

Next morning (1st) Masildi and his party started for Karagii^. 
They had been more than a year between this and Kaz^, trying 
all ihe time to get along. Provisions here were abundant — 
hawked about by the .people, who wore a very neat skin kilt 
strapped round the waist, but otherwise were decorated like the 
Wanyamii&L It was difficult to say wl^o were of true breed 
here, for the intercourse of the natives with the Wahuma and the 
Wanyamii^zi produced a great variety of facial features among 
the people. Nowhere did I ever see so many men and women 
with hazel eyes as at this place. 

In the evening, a Uganda man, by name N'yamgundii, came to 
pay his respects to us. He was dressed in a large skin wrapper, 
made up of a number of very small antelope skins : it was as soft 
as kid, and just as well sewn as our gloves. To our surprise, the 
manners of the man were quite in keeping with his becoming 
dress. I was enchanted with his appearance, and so were my 
men, though no one could speak to him but Nasib, who told us 
he knew him before. He was the brother of the dowager queen 
of Uganda, and, along with a proper body of officers, he had been 



188 ^^^ SOUBCE OF THE NILB. [1861. 

sent by Mtdsa, the present king of Uganda, to demand the daugh- 
ter of Siiwarora, as reports had reached his king that she was sur- 
prisingly beautiful. They had been here mpre than a year, dur- 
ing which time this beautiful virgin had died ; and now Suwa- 
rora, fearful of the great king's wrath, consequent on his procras- 
tinations, was endeavoring to make amends for it by sending, in- 
stead of his daughter, a suitable tribute in wires. I thought it 
not wonderful that we should be fleeced. 

Next day (2d) Sirhid paid us a visit^ and said he was the first 
man in the state. He certainly was a nice-looking young man, 
with a good deal of the Wahuma blood in him. Flashily dressed 
in colored cloths and a turban, he sat down in one of our chairs 
as if he had been accustomed to such a seat all his life, and spoke 
with great suavity. I explained our difllculties as those of great 
men in misfortune; and, after listening to our tale, he said be 
would tell Siiwarora of the way we had been plundered, and im- 
press upon him to deal lightly with us. I said I had brought with 
me a few articles of European manufacture for Suwarora, which 
I hoped would be accepted if I presented them, for they were 
such things as only great men like his chief ever possessed. One 
was a five-barreled pistol, another a large block-tin box, and so 
forth ; but, afi»r looking at them, and seeing the pistol fired, he 
said, "No; you must not show these things at first, or the Mkama 
might get frightened, thinking them magic. I might lose my 
head for presuming to offer them, and then there is no knowing 
what might happen afterward." " Then can I not see him at 
once and pay my respects, for I have come a great way to obtain 
that pleasure ?" " Nc^" said Sirhid, " I will see him first ; for he 
is not a man like myself, but requires to be well assured before 
he sees any body." " Then why did he invite me here?" " He 
heard that Makaka, and afterward Lum^r&i, had stopped your 
progress; and as he wished to see what you were like, he ordered 
me to send some men to you, which, as you know, I did twice. 
He wishes to see you, but does not like doing things in a hurry. 
Superstition, you know, preys on these men's minds, who have 
not seen the world like you and myself" Sirhid then said he 
would ask Suwarora to grant us an interview as soon as possi- 
ble ; then, while leaving, he begged for the iron chair he had sat 
upon ; but, hearing we did not know how to sit on the ground, 
and therefore could not spare it^ he withdrew without any more 
words about it. 



Nov.] USUI. 189 

Yirembo then said (8d) he must have some more wire and 
beads, as his proxy Kariwami had been satisfied with too little. 
I drove him off in a huff, but he soon ci^e back again with half 
the hongo I had paid to Kariwami, and said he must have some 
cloths, or he would not have any thing. As fortune decreed it, 
just then Sirhid dropped in, and stopped his importunity for the 
time by saying that if we had possessed cloths his men must have 
known it, for they had been traveling with us. No sooner, how- 
ever, did Yirembo turn tail than the Sirhid gave us a broad hint 
that he usually received a trifle from the Arabs before he made 
an attempt at arranging the hongo with Suwarora. Any trifle 
would do, but he preferred cloth. 

This was rather perplexing. Sirhid knew very well that I had 
a small reserve of pretty cloths, though all the common ones had 
been expended ; so, to keep in good terms with him who was to 
be our intercessor, I said I would give him the last I had got if 
he would not tell Suwarora or any one else what I had done. Of 
course he was quite ready to undertake the condition, so I gave 
him two pretty cloths, and he, in return, gave me two goats. But 
when this little business had been transacted, to my surprise he 
said, " I have orders from Siiwarora to be absent five days to doc- 
tor a sick relation of his, for there is no man in the country so 
skilled in medicines as myself; but, while I am gone, I will leave 
Karambul^, my brother, to officiate in my stead about taking your 
hongo; but the work will not commence until to-morrow, for I 
must see Suwarora on the subject myself first." 

Irungu, a very fine-looking man of Uganda, now called on me 
and begged for beads. He said his king had heard of our ap- 
proach, and was most anxious to see us. Hearing this, I begged 
him to wait here until my hongo was paid, that we might travel 
on to Uganda together. He said. No, he could not wait, for he 
had been detained here a whole year already ; but, if I liked, he 
would leave .some of his children behind with me, as their pres- 
ence would intimidate Suwarora, and incite him to let us off 
quickly. 

I then begged him to convey a Colt's six-chamber revolving 
rifle to hi9 king, Mt^sa, as an earnest that I was a prince most de- 
sirons of seeing him. No one, I said, but myself could tell what 
dangers and difficulties I had encountered to come this far for the 
purpose, and all was owing to his great fame, as the kipg of kings, 
having reached me even as far off as Zanzibar. The embassador 



190 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

would not take the rifle, lest his master, who had never seen such 
a wonderful weapon before, should think he had brought him a 
malign charm, and he would be in danger of losing his head. I 
then tried to prevail on him to take a knife and some other pret- 
ty things, but he feared them all ; so, as a last chance — for I wish- 
ed to send some token, by way of card or letter, ibr announcing 
my approach and securing the road — ^I gave him a red sixpenny 
pocket-handkerchief, which he accepted ; and he then told me he 
was surprised I had come all this way round to Uganda, when 
the road by the Masai country was so much shorter. He told me 
how, shortly after the late king of Uganda, Sunna, died, and be- 
fore Mt&a had been selected by the officers of the country to be 
their king, an Arab caravan came across the Masai as far as Uso- 
ga, and begged for permission to enter Uganda ; but, as the coun- 
try was disturbed by the elections, the officers of the state advised 
the Arabs to wait, or come again when the king was elected. I 
told him I had heard of this before, but also heard that those 
Arabs had met with great disasters, owing to the turbulence of 
the Masai. To which he replied, " That is true ; there were great 
difficulties in those times, but now the Masai country was in bet- 
ter order; and as Mtdsa was most anxious to open that line, he 
would give me as many men as I liked if I wished to go home 
that way." 

This was pleasant information, but not quite new, for the Arabs 
had told me Mt&a was so anxious to open that route, he had fre- 
quently offisred to aid them in it himself. Still it was most grati- 
fying to myself, as I had written to the Geographical Society, on 
leaving Bogu^, that if I found Petherick in Uganda, or on the 
northern end of the N'yanza, so that the Nile question was set- 
tled, I would endeavor to reach Zanzibar via the Masai country. 
In former days, I knew, the kings of Uganda were in the habit 
of sending men to Karagud when they heard that Arabs wished 
to visit them— -even as many as two hundred at a time — to carry 
their kit; so I now begged Irungii to tell Mt^ that I should 
want at least sixty men ; and then, on his promising he would be 
my commissioner, I gave him the beads he had begged for him- 
self. 

4:ih to 6^. Karambul^ now told us to string our beads on the 
fibre of the mwal^-tree, which was sold here by the Wasiii, as be 
intended to live in the palace for a couple of days, arranging with 
Siiwarora what tax we should have to pay, after which he would 



Nov.] U8UL 191 

come and take it from us; but we must mind and be ready, for 
whatever Suwarora said, it must be done instantly. There was 
no such thing as haggling with him ; you must pay and be off at 
once, &iling which, you might be detained a whole month before 
there would be an opportunity to speak on the subject again. 
Beads were then served out to all my men to be strung, a certain 
quantity to every khambi or mess, and our work was progress- 
ing; but next day we heard that Karambul^ was sick, or feign- 
ing to be so, and therefore had never gone to the palace at all. 
On the 6th, provoked at last by the shameful manner in which 
we were treated, I sent word to him to say, if he did not go at 
once I would go myself, and force my way in with my guns, for 
I could not submit to being treated like a slave, stuck out here in 
the jungle with nothing to do but shoot for specimens, or make 
collections of rocks, etc. This brought on another row ; for he 
said both Yirembo and Yikora had returned their hongos, and 
until their tongues were quieted he could not speak to Suwarora. 

To expedite, matters (7th), as our daily consumption in camp 
was a tax of itself, I gave these tormenting creatures one wire, 
one pretty cloth, and five hundred necklaces of white beads, which 
were no sooner accepted than Karambul^ in the same way as Sir- 
hid had done, said it would be greatly to my advantage if I gave 
him something worth having before he saw the Mkama. Only 
too glad to begin work, I gave him a red blanket, called joho, and 
five strings of m2sizima beads, which were equal to fifty of the 
common white. 

8ih and 9(h. All this time nothing but confusion reigned in 
camp, khambi fighting against khambi. Both men and women 
got drunk, while from outside we were tormented by the Wasui, 
both men and women pertinaciously pressing into our hut, watch- 
ing us eat, and begging in the most shameless manner. They 
did not know the word bakhshish, or present; but, as bad as the 
Egyptians, they held out their hands, patted their bellies, and said 
kaniwani (my friend), until we were sick of the sound of that 
word. Still it was impossible 'to dislike these simple creatures 
altogether, they were such perfect children. If we threw water 
at them to drive them away, they came back again, thinking it 
fan. 

Ten days now had elapsed since we came here, still nothing 
was done (10th), as Elarambiil^ said, because Suwarora had been 
90 fully occupied collecting an army to punish an officer who had 



192 THE SOURCE OE THE NILE. [1861. 

refused to pay his taxes, had ignored his authority, and had set 
himself up as a ^ing of the district he was appointed to superin- 
tend. After this, at midnight, Earambiil^, in an excited manner, 
said he had seen Suwarora, and it then was appointed that not 
he, but Yirembo, should take the royal hongo, as well as the wa- 
hinda, or princes' shares, the next morning, after which we might 
go as fast as we liked, for Suwarora was so fully occupied with 
his army he could not see us this time. Before, however, the 
hongo could fee paid, I must give the Sirhid and himself twenty 
brass wires, three joho, three barsati, twenty strings of mzizima, 
and one thousand strings of white beads. They were given. 

A fearful row now broke out between Bombay and Baraka 
(11th). Many of my men had by this time been married, not- 
withstanding my prohibition: Baraka, for instance, had with him 
the daughter of Ungurue, chief of Phiinzd; "Wadimoyo, a woman 
called Manamaka ; Sangizo, his wife and sister ; but Bombay had 
not got one, and mourned for a girl he had set his eyes on, unfor. 
tunately for himself letting Baraka into his confidence. This set 
Baraka on the qui vwe to catch Bombay tripping; for Baraka 
knew he could fiot get her without paying a good price for her, 
and therefore watched his opportunity to lay a complaint against 
him of purloining my property, by which scheme he would, he 
thought, get Bombay's place as storekeeper himself In a sly 
manner Bombay employed some of my other men to take five 
wires, a red blanket, and 500 strings of beads, to his would-be 
father-in-law, which, by a previously-concocted arrangement, was 
to be her dowry price. These men did as they were bid ; but 
the father-in-law returned the things, saying he must have one 
more wire. That being also supplied, the scoundrel wanted more, 
and made so much fuss about it, that Baraka became conversant 
with all that was going on, and told me of it 

This set the whole camp in a flame, for Bombay and Baraka 
were both very drunk, as well as most of the other men, so that 
it was with great difficulty I could get hold of the rights of their 
stories. Bombay acknowledged he had tried to get the girl, for 
they had been sentimentalizing together for several days, and both 
alike wished to be married. Baraka, he said, was allowed to keep 
a wife, and his position demanded that he should have one also ; 
but the wires were his own property, and pot mine,' for he was 
given them by the chiefs as a perquisite when I paid their hongo 
through him. He thought it most unjust and unfair of Baraka 



Nov.] USUI. 193 

to call him to account in that way, but he was not surprised at it, 
as Baraka, from the beginning of the journey to the present mo- 
ment, had always been backbiting him, to try and usurp his posi- 
tion. Baraka, at this, somewhat taken aback, said there was no 
such things as perquisites on a journey like this ; for whatever 
could be saved from the chie& was for the common good of aU, 
and all alike ought to share in it — ^repeating words I had often 
expressed. Then Bombay retorted, trembling and foaming in his 
liquor: "I know I shall get the worst of it, for while Baraka's 
tongue is a yard long, mine is only an inch; but I would not 
have spent any wires of master's to purchase slaves with (alluding 
to what Baraka had done at Mihambo), nor would I for any pur- 
pose of making myself richer; but when it comes to a wife, that's 
a different thing." 

In my heart I liked Bombay all the more for this confession, 
bat thought it necessary to extol Baraka for his quickness in 
finding him out, which drove Bombay nearly wild. He wished 
me to d^rade him if I thought him dishonest ; threw himself on 
the ground, and kissed my feet. I might thrash him, turn him 
into a porter, or do any thing else that I liked with him, as long 
as I did not bring a charge of dishonesty against him. He could 
not explain himself with Baraka's long tongue opposed to him, 
but there were many deficiencies in my wires before he took 
overcharge at Bogii^ which he must leave for settlement till the 
journey was over, and then, the whole question having been sift- 
ed at Zanzibar, we would see who was the most honest I then 
counted all the wires over at Bombay's request, and found them 
complete in numbers, without those he had set aside for the dowry 
money. Still there was a doubt, for the wires might have been 
cut by him without detection, as from the commencement they 
were of different lengths. However, I tried to make them friends, 
claimed all the wires myself, and cautioned every man in the 
camp again that they were all losers when any thing was misap- 
propriated ; for I brought this property to pay our way with, and 
whatever balance was over at the end of the journey I would di- 
vide among the whole of them. 

12(A and 13^. When more sober, Bombay again came to crave 
a thousand pardons for what he had done, threw himself down at ' 
my feet, then at Grant's, kissed our toes, swore I was his Ma Bap 
(father and mother) ; he had no father or mother to teach him 
better ; he owed all his prosperity to me ; men must err some- 

N 



194 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

times ; oh, if I would only forgive him — ^and so forth. Then, he- 
ing assured that I knew he never would have done as he had if a 
woman's attractions had not led him astray, he went to his work 
again like a man, and consoled himself by taking Sangizo'43 sister 
to wife on credit instead of the old love, promising to pay the 
needful out of his pay, and to return her to her brother when the 
journey was over. 

In the evening Yirembo and Karambul6 came to receive the 
hongo for their chief, demanding 60 wires, 160 yards merikani, 
300 strings of mzizima, and 6000 strings of white beads ; but 
they allowed themselves to l^ebeaten down to 50 wires, 20 pretty 
cloths, 100 strings mzizima, and 4000 kutuamnazi, or cocoa-nut- 
leaf colored beads, my white being all done. It was too late, 
however, to count all the things out, so they came the next day 
and took them. They then said we might go as soon as we had 
settled with the Wahinda or Wanawami (the king's children), 
for Suwarora could not see us this time, as he was so engaged 
with his army; but he hoped to see us and pay us more respect 
when we returned from Uganda, little thinking I had sworn in 
my mind never to see him, or return that way again. I said to 
those men, I thought he was ashamed to see us, as he had robbed 
us so after inviting us into the country, else he was too supersti- 
tious, for he ought at least to have given us a place in his palace. 
They both rebutted the insinuation ; and, to change the subject, 
commenced levying the remaining dues to the princes, which 
ended by my giving thirty-four wires and six pretty cloths in a 
lump. 

Early in the morning we were on foot again, only , too thankful 

ToKitar6.i6«k. ^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ cheaply. Then men were ap- 
pointed as guides and protectors, to look after us as 
far as the border. What an honor! We had come into the 
country drawn there by a combination of pride and avarice, and 
now we were leaving it in hot haste under the guidance of an es- 
cort of officers, who were in reality appointed to watch us as dan- 
gerous wizards and objects of terror. It was all the same to us, 
as we now only thought of the prospect of relief before us, and 
laughed at what we had gone through. 

Eising out of the TJthungii valley, we walked over rolling 
ground, drained in the dips by miry rush rivulets. The popula- 
tion was thinly scattered in small groups of grass huts, where the 
scrub jungle had been cleared away. On the road we passed 



Nov.] USUI. 195 

cairns, to which every passer-by contributed a stone. Of the ori- 
gin of the cairns I could not gain any information, though it 
struck me as curious I should find them in the first country we 
had entered governed by the Wahuma, as I formerly saw the 
same thing in the Somali country, which doubtless, in earlier 
days, was governed by a branch of the Abyssinians. Arrived at 
our camping, we were immediately pounced upon by a deputa- 
tion of officers, who said they had been sent by Semamba, the 
officer of this district. He lived ten miles from the road ; but, 
hearing of our approach, he had sent these men to take his dues.* 
At first I objected to pay, lest he should afterward treat me as 
Virembo had done ; but I gave way in the end, and paid nine 
wires, two chintz and two bidddra cloths, as the guides said they 
would stand my security against any farther molestation. 

Battling on again as merry as larks, over the same red sand- 
To ^bemb^, Btone formation, we entered a fine forest, and trended 
**^ on through it at a stiflf pace until we arrived at the 

head of a deep valley called Lohugati, which was so beautiful we 
instinctively pulled up to admire it. Deep down its well- wooded 
side below us was a stream, of most inviting aspect for a trout- 
fisher, flowing toward the N'yanza. Just beyond it the valley 
was clothed with fine trees and luxuriant vegetation of all de- 
scriptions, among which was conspicuous the pretty pandana 
palm, and rich gardens of plantains, while thistles of extraordi- 
nary size and wild indigo were the more common weeds. The 
land beyond that again rolled back in high undulations, over 
which, in the far distance, we could see a line of cones, red and 
bare on their tops, guttered down with white streaks, looking for 
all the world' like recent volcanoes ; and in the far background, 
rising higher than all, were the rich grassy hills of Karagii^ and 
Kishakka. 

On resuming our march, a bird called khongota flew across our 
path ; seeing which, old Nasib, beaming with joy, in his supersti- 
tious belief cried out with delight, " Ah I look at that good omen ! 
now our journey will be sure to be prosperous." After fording 
the stream, we sat down to rest, and were visited by all the in- 
habitants, who were more naked than any people we had yet 
seen. All the maidens, even at the age of puberty, did not hesi- 
tate to stand boldly in front of us — ^for evil thoughts were not in 
tbeiT minds. Prom this we rose over a stony hill to the settle- 
ment of Vihemb^, which, being the last on the Usui frontier, in- 



196 THE SOUECE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

duced me to give our guides three wires each, and four yards of 
bind^ra, which Nasib said was their proper fee. Here Bombay's 
would-be, bat disappointed father-in-law sent after us to say that 
he required a hongo ; Suwarora had never given his sanction to 
our quitting his country ; his hongo even was not settled. He 
wished, moreover, particularly to see us ; and if we did not re- 
turn in a fiiendly manner, an army would arrest our march im- 
mediately. 



Nov.J 



KARAGUE. 



197 



1V)Vlgaim,lTt*. 



CHAPTER Vm. 

karagiJe. 

Relief from Protectore and Pillagen.— The Scenery and Geology. — Meeting with 
the friendly King Rflmanika. — His Hospitalities and Attention. — His Services 
to the Expedition. — Philosophical and Theological Inquiries. — The Royal Fam- 
ily of Karagti^.— The M-fambiro Mountain.— Navigation of "The Little Winder- 
mere." — The New-moon Lev^ — Rhinoceros and Hippopotamus Hunting. — 
Measurement of a fattened Queen. — ^Political Polygamy.— Christmas. — ^Rumors 
of Petherick's Expedition. — ^Arrangements to meet it. — ^Biarch to Uganda. 

Tms was a day of relief and happiness. A load was removed 
from us in seeing the Wasui "protectors" depart, 
with the truly cheering information that we now had 
nothing but wild animals to con- 
tend with before reaching Kara- 
gu6. This land is " neutral," by 
which is meant that it is unten- 
anted by human beings; and we 
might now hope to bid adieu for 
a time to the scourging system of 
taxation to which we had been 
subjected. 

Gradually descending from the 
spur which separates the Lohiigati 
valley from the bed of the Lu^rfi 
lo Urigi, or Lake of Urigi, the 
tr^ck led us first through a mead- 
ow of much pleasing beauty, and 
then through a passage between 
the "saddle-back" domes we had 
seen fixjm the heights above Lo- 
hiigati, where a new geological 

formation especially attracted my notice. From the green slopes 
of the hills, set up at a slant, as if the central line of pressure on 
the dome top had weighed on the inside plates, protruded soft 
slabs of argillaceous sandstone, whose laminse presented a beef- 
sandwich appearance, puce or purple alternating with creamy- 




one of the wahoma. 



198 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

white. Quartz and other igneous rocks were also scattered 
about, lying like superficial accumulations in the dips at the foot 
of the hills, and red sandstone conglomerate clearly indicated the 
presence of iron. The soil it&lf looked rich and red, not unlike 
our own fine county of Devon. 

On arriving in camp we pitched under some trees, and at once 
were greeted by an officer sent by Eiimanika to help us out of 
Usui. This was Kachuchii, an old friend of Nasib's, who no 
sooner saw him than, beaming with delight, he said to us, "Now, 
was I not right when I told you the birds flying about on Lohu- 
gati Hill were a good omen? Look here what this man says: 
Bumanika has ordered him to bring you on to his palace at once, 
and wherever you stop a day, the village officers are instructed 
to supply you with food at the king's expense, for there are no 
taxes gathered fix)m strangers in the kingdom of Karagu^. Pres- 
ents may be exchanged, but the name of taxis ignored." Grant 
here shot a rhinoceros, which came well into play to mix with 
the day's flour we had carried on fix)m Vihembd. 

Deluded yesterday by the sight of the broad waters of the 
To Fiift urigi, Lfi^rQ. lo Urigi, espied in the distance from the top 
^^'*- of a hill, into the belief that we were in view of the 

N'yanza itself, we walked triumphantly along, thinking how well 
the Arabs at E^a^d had described this to be a creek of the great 
lake ; but on arrival in camp we heard from the village officer 
that we had been misinformed, and that it was a detached lake, 
but connected with the Victoria N'yanza by a passage in the hills 
and the Kitangul6 Biver. Formerly, he said, the Urigi vaUey 
was covered with water, extending up to Uhha, when all the low 
lands we had crossed from Usui had to be ferried, and the saddle- 
back hills were a mere chain of islands in the water. But the 
country had dried up, and the lake of Urigi became a small 
swamp. He &rther informed us that even in the late King Da* 
gara's time it was a large sheet of water, but the instant he ceased 
to exist the lake shrank to what we now saw. 

Our day's march had been novel and very amusing. The hilly 
country surrounding us, together with the valley, brought back 
to recollection many happy days I had once spent with the Tar- 
tars in the Thibetian valley of the Indus— only this was more 
picturesque ; for, though both countries are wild, and very thinly 
inhabited, this was greened over with grass, and dotted here and 
there on the higher slopes with thick bush of acacias, the haunts 



Not.] EABAGUE. 199 

of rhinoceros, both white and black ; while in the flat of the val- 
ley, herds of hartebeest and fine cattle roamed about like the ki- 
yang and tame yfik of Thibet. Then, to enhance all these pleas- 
ures, so different from our former experiences, we were treated 
like guests by the chief of the place, who, obeying the orders of 
his king, Rumanika, brought me presents, as soon as we arrived, 
of sheep, fowls^ and sweet potatoes, and was very thankful for a 
few yards of red blanketing as a return, without begging for more. 

The farther we went in this country the better we liked it, as 
lb seeand urigi, *^® pcoplc wcre all kept in good order ; and the vil- 
^•**- lage chiefs were so civil that we could do as we liked. 

After following down the left side of the valley and entering the 
village, the customary presents and returns were made. Wishing 
then to obtain a better view of the country, I strolled over the 
nearest hills, and found the less exposed slopes well covered with 
trees. Small antelopes occasionally sprang up from the grass. I 
shot a florikan for the pot ; and as I had never before seen white 
rhinoceros, killed one now ; though, as no one would eat him, I 
felt sorry ^ther than otherwise for what I had done. When I 
returned in the evening, small boys brought me sparrows for 
sale ; and then I remembered the stories I had heard from Musa 
Mzuri, that in the whole of Karagud these small birds were so 
numerous, the people, to save themselves from starvation, were 
obliged to grow a bitter corn which the birds disliked ; and so I 
found it. At night, while observing for latitude, I was struck by 
surprise to see a long, noisy procession pass by where I sat, led by 
some men who carried on their shoulders a woman covered up in 
a blackened skin. On inquiry, however, I heard she was being 
taken to the hut of her espoused, where, " bundling fashion," she 
would be put in bed ; but it was only with virgins they took so 
much trouble. 

A strange but characteristic story now reached my ears. Ma- 
siidi, the merchant who took up Insangdz, had been trying his 
best to deter Rumanika from allowing us to enter his country by 
saying we were addicted to sorcery ; and had it not been for Insan- 
g^'s remonstrances, who said we were sent up by Musa, our fate 
would have been doubtful. Rumanika, it appeared, as I always 
had heard, considered old Musa his savior for having eight years 
before quelled a rebellion, when his younger brother, Rog^ro, as- 
pired to the throne, while Miisa's honor and honesty were quite 
unimpeachable. But more of this hereafter. 



200 ^I^HE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

Khonz^, the next place, lying in the bending concave of this 
swamp lake, and facing Hangiro, was commanded by 
a fine elderly man called Muz^gi, who was chief of- 
ficer during Dagara's time. He told me, with the greatest pos- 
sible gravity, that he remembered well the time when a boat 
could have gone from this to Vigur^ as also when fish and croco- 
diles came up from the Kitanguld ; but the old king no sooner 
died than the waters dried up, which showed as plainly as words 
could tell that the king had designed it, to make men x^member 
him with sorrow in all future ages. Our presents after this hav- 
ing been exchanged, the good old man, at my desire, explained 
the position of all the surrounding countries, in his own peculiar 
manner, by laying a long stick on the ground pointing due north 
and south, to which he attached shorter ones pointing to the cen- 
tre of each distant country. He thus assisted me in the protrac- 
tions of the map to the countries which lie east and west of the 
route. 

Shortly after starting this morning we were summoned by the 
TbCampKiwd- ^^^ officcr ou the Urigi to take breakfast* with him, 
^^^^ as he could not allow us to pa«s by without paying 

his respects to the king's guests. He was a man of most af^ble 
manners, and loth we should part company without one night's 
entertainment at least; but, as it was a matter of necessity, he 
gave us provisions to eat on the way, adding, at the same time, he 
was sorry he could not give more, as a famine was then oppress- 
ing the land. We parted with reiijerated compliments on both 
sides ; and shortly after, diving into the old bed of the TJrigi, 
were constantly amused with the variety of game which met our 
view. On several occasions the rhinoceros were so numerous 
and impudent as to contest the right of the road with us, and the 
greatest sport was occasioned by our bold Wangiiana going at 
them in parties of threes and fours, when, taking good care of 
themselves at considerable distances, they fired their carbines all 
together, and while the rhinoceros ran. one way, they ran the oth- 
er. While we were pitching our tents, after sunset by some pools 
on the plain. Dr. K'yengo arrived with the hongo of brass and 
copper wires sent by Suwarora for the great king Mt&a, in lieu 
of his daughter who died ; so next morning we all marched to- 
gether on to Uthenga. 

Rising out of the bed of the Urigi, we passed over a low spur 
of beef-sandwich clay sandstones, and descended into the close, 



Nov.] KARAGUE. 201 

rich valley of Uthenga, bound in by steep hilla hang- 
^ ing over ns more than a thousand feet high, as pret- 
tily clothed as the mountains of Scotland ; while in the valley 
there were not only magnificent trees of extraordinary height, but 
also a surprising amount of the richest cultivation, among which 
the banana may be said to prevail. Notwithstanding this appar- 
ent richness of the land, the Wanyambo, living in their small 
squaUd huts, seem poor. The tobacco they smoke is imported 
jfrom'the cofFee-growing country of Uhaiya. After arrival in the 
village, who should we see but the Uganda officer Irungul The 
scoundrel, instead of going on to Uganda as he had promised to 
do, conveying my present to Mt^sa, had stopped here plundering 
the Wanyambo, and getting drunk on their pombd, called, in 
their language, rfiarwa — a delicious kind of wine made from the 
banana. He, of course, begged for more beads ; but, not able to 
trick me again, set his drummers and fifers at work, in hopes that 
he would get over our feelings in that way. 

Henceforth, as we marched, Irungii's drummers and fifers kept 
us alive on the way. This we heard was a privilege 
that Uganda Wakungii enjoyed both at home and 
abroad, although in all other countries the sound of the drum is 
considered a notice of war, unless where it happens to accompany 
a dance or festival. Leaving the valley of Uthenga, we rose over 
the spur of N'yamwara, where we found we had attained the de- 
lightful altitude of 5000 odd feet Oh, how we enjoyed it 1 every 
one feeling so happy at the prospect of meeting so soon the good 
king Rumanika. Tripping down the greensward, we now work- 
ed our way to the Rozoka valley, and pitched our tents in the 
village. 

E^chuchii here told us he had orders to precede us, and pre- 
pare Sumanika for our coming, as his king wished to know what 
place we would prefer to live at — the Arab d^p6t at Kufro, on 
the direct line to Uganda, in his palace with himself, or outside 
his inclosures. Such politeness rather took us aback ; so, giving 
our friend a coil of copper wire to keep him in good spirits, I 
said all our pleasure rested in seeing the king ; whatever honors 
he liked to confer on us we should take with good grace, but one 
thing he must understand, we came not to trade, but to see him 
and great kings, and therefore the Arabs had no relations with 
ua This little point settled, off started Kachuchu in his usual 
merry manner, while I took a look at the hills to see their geo- 



202 THE SOURCE OF THE NHiE. [1861. 

logical formation, and found them much as before, based on streaky 
clay sandstones, with the slight addition of pure blue shales, and 
above sections of quartzose sandstone lying in flags, as well as 
other metamoiphic and igneous rocks scattered about 

Moving on the next morning over hill and dale, we came to 
ToKatawMiga, ^^^ juuctiou of two Toads, whcrc Irungu, with his 
^^' drummers, fifers, and amazon followers, took one way 

to Kufro, followed by the men carrying Suwarora's hongo, and 
we led OflP on the other, directed to the palace. The hill-tops in 
many places were breasted with dikes of pure white quartz, just 
as we had seen in Usiii, only that here their direction tended 
more to the north. It was most curious to contemplate, seeing 
that the chief substance of the hills was a pure blue, or otherwise 
streaky clay sandstone, which must have been formed when the 
land was low, but has now been elevated, making these hills the 
axis of the centre of the continent, and therefore probably the 
oldest of all. 

When within a few miles of the palace we were ordered to stop 
and wait for Kachuchii's return ; but we no sooner put up in a 
plantain grove, where pomb^ was brewing, and our men were all 
taking a suck at it, than the worthy arrived to call us on the same 
instant, as the king was most anxious to see us. The love of 
good beer of course made our men all too tired to march again ; 
so I sent off Bombay with Nasib to make our excuses, and in the 
evening found them returning with a huge pot of pomb^ and 
some royal tobacco, which Bumanika sent with a notice that he 
intended it exclusively for our own use; for, though there was 
abundance for my men, there was nothing so good as what came 
from the palace; the royal tobacco was as sweet and strong as 
honey-dew, and the beer so strong it required a strong man to 
drink it. 

After breakfast next morning we crossed the hiU-spur called 
To weranhaijA, Wcranhauj^, the grassy tops of which were 5600 feet 
^*^ above the sea. Descending a little, we came sudden- 

ly in view of what appeared to us a rich clump of trees, in S. lat 
1^ 42' 42", and E.long. SV V 49"; and, 500 feet below it, we 
saw a beautiful sheet of water lying snugly within the folds of the 
hills. We were not altogether unprepared for it, as Miisa of old 
had described it, and Bombay, on his return yiesterday, told us he 
had seen a great pond. The clump, indeed, was the palace in- 
closure. As to the lake, for want of a native name, I christened 



Nov.] KABAGUE. 208 

it the Little Windermere, because Grant thought it so like our 
own English lake of that name. It was one of many others 
which, like that of Urigi, drains the moisture of the overhanging 
hills, and gets drained' into the Victoria N'yanza through the Ki- 
tangiil^ River. 

To do royal honors to the king of this charming land, I ordered 
my men to put down their loads and fire a volley. This was no 
sooner done than, as we went to the palace gate, we received an 
invitation to come in at once, for the king wished to see us before 
attending to any thing else. Now, leaving our traps outside, both 
Grant and myself, attended by Bombay and a few of the seniors 
of my Wangiiana, entered the vestibule, and, walking through 
extensive inclosures studded with huts of kingly dimensions, were 
escorted to a pent-roofed baraza, which the Arabs had built as a 
sort of government oflSce, where the king might conduct his state^ 
afBEdrs. 

Here, as we entered, we saw sitting cross-legged on the ground 

Rumanika the king, and his brother Nnanaji, both of them men 

of noble appearance and size. The king was plainly dressed in 

an Arab's black choga, and wore, for ornament, dress-stockings 

of rich-colored beads, and neatly -worked wristlets of copper. 

Nnanaji, being a doctor of very high pretensions, in addition to a 

check cloth wrapped round him, was covered with charms. At 

their sides lay huge pipes of black clay. In their rear, squatting 

quiet as mice, were all the king's sons, some six or seven lads, 

who wore leather middle-coverings, and little dream-charms tied 

under their chins. The first greetings of the king, delivered in 

good Kisilahili, were warm and affecting, and in an instant we 

both felt and saw we were in the company of men who were as 

unlike as they could be to the common order of the natives of 

the surrounding districts. They had fine oval faces, large eyes, 

and high noses, denoting the best blood of Abyssinia. Having 

shaken hands in true English style, which is the pecuhar custom 

of the men of this country, the ever-smiling Rumanika begged us 

to he seated on the ground opposite to him, and at once wished to 

know what we thought of Karagu^, for it had struck him his 

mountains were the finest in the world ; and the lake, too, did we 

not admire it? Then laughing, he inquired — ^for he knew all the 

story— what we thought of Suwarora, and the reception we had 

met with in Usui. When this was explained to him, I showed 

him that it was for the interest of his own kingdom to keep a 



204 



THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. 



[1861. 



check on Suwarora, whose exorbitant taxations prevented the 
Arabs from coming to see him and bringing things jfrom all parts 
of the world. He made inquiries for the purpose of knowing 
how we found our way all over the world ; for on the former ex- 
pedition a letter had come to him for Musa, who no sooner read 
it than he said I had called him and he must leave, as I was bound 
for Ujiji. 

This of course led to a long story, describing the world, the 
proportions of land and water, and the power of ships, which con- 
veyed even elephants and rhinoceros — in fact, all the animals in 
the world — to fill our menageries at home, etc., etc., as well as 
the strange announcement that we lived to the northward, and 
had only come this way because his friend Musa had assured me 
without doubt that he would give us the road on through Ugan- 
da. Time flew like magic, the king's mind was so quick and in- 
quiring ; but as the day was wasting away, he generously gave 
us our option to choose a place for our residence in or out of his 
palace, and allowed us time to select one. We found the view 
overlooking the lake to be so charming, that we preferred camp- 
ing outside, and set our men at once to work cutting sticks and 
long grass to erect themselves sheds. 




Our Camp ontaide the Palaoa 



Kov'.] EABAGUE. 205 

One of the young princes — ^for the king ordered them all to be 
constantly in attendance on us — ^happening to see me sit on an 
iron chair, rushed back to his father and told him about it. This 
set all the royals in the palace in a state of high wonder, and end- 
ed by my getting a summons to show off the white man sitting 
on his throne ; for of course I could only be, as all of them called 
me, a king of great dignity, to indulge in such state. Bather re- 
luctantly I did as I was bid, and allowed myself once more to be 
dragged into court Bumanika, as gentle as ever, then burst into 
a fresh fit of merriment, and after making sundry enlightened re- 
marks of inquiry, which of course were responded to with the 
greatest satisfaction, finished off by saying, with a very expressive 
shake of the head, " Oh, these Wazungu, these Wazungii ! they 
know and do every thing." 

I then put in a word for myself. Since we had entered Kara- 
gu6 we never could get one drop of milk either for love or for 
money, and I wished to know what motive the Wahiima had for 
withholding it. We had heard they held superstitious dreads, 
that any one who ate the flesh of pigs, fish, or fowls, or the bean 
called maharagud, if he tasted the products of their cows, would 
destroy their cattle, and I hoped he^did not labor under any such 
absurd delusions. To which he replied. It was only the poor who 
thought so ; and as he now saw we were in want, he would set 
apart one of his cows expressly for our use. On bidding adieu, 
the usual formalities of hand-shaking were gone through ; and on 
entering camp, I found the good thoughtful king had sent us some 
more of his excellent beer. 

The Wanguana were now all in the highest of good-humor ; 
for time after time goats and fowls were brought into camp by 
the officers of the king, who had received orders from all parts 
of the country to bring in supplies for his guests; and this kind 
of treatment went on for a month, though it did not diminish my 
daily expenditure of beads, as grain and plantains were not enough 
thought of. The cold winds, however, made the coast-men all 
shiver, and suspect, in their ignorance, we must be drawing close 
to England, the only cold place they had heard of. 

26th. Hearing it would be considered indecent haste to present 
my tributary offering at once, I paid my morning's visit, only tak- 
ing my revolving pistol, as I knew Bumanika had expressed a 
strong wish to see it. The impression it made was surprising — 
he had never seen such a thing in his life ; so, in return for his 



206 ^H£ SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

great generosity, as well as to show I placed no value on property, 
'not being a merchant, I begged him to accept it. We then ad- 
journed to his private hut, which rather surprised me by the neat- 
ness with which it was kept The roof was supported by numer- 
ous clean poles, to which he had fastened a large assortment of 
spears — brass-headed with iron handles, and iron-headed with 
wooden ones — of excellent workmanship. A large standing- 
screen, of fine straw-plait work, in elegant devices, partitioned off 
one part of the room ; and on the opposite side, as mere orna- 
ments, were placed a number of brass grapnels and small modek 
of cows, made in iron for his amusement by the Arabs at Kufix). 
A little later in the day, as soon as we had done breakfast, both 
Biimanika and Nnanaji came over to pay us a visit; for they 
thought, as we could find our way all over the world, so we should 
not find much difficulty in prescribing some magic charms to kill 
his brother, Eog^ro, who lived on a hill overlooking the Kitan- 
guld. Seating them both on our chairs, which amused them in- 
tensely, I asked Biimanika, although I had heard before the whole 
facts of the case, what motives now induced him to wish the com- 
mittal of such a terrible act, and brought out the whole story 
afresh. 

Before their old father Dagara died, he had unwittingly said to 
the mother of Bog^ro, although he was the youngest born, what 
a fine king he would make ; and the mother, in consequence, ta- 
tored her son to expect the command of the country, although the 
law of the land in the royal family is the primogeniture system, 
extending, however, only to those sons who are born after the ac- 
cession of the king to the throne. 

As soon, therefore, as Dagara died, leaving the three sons al- 
luded to, all by different mothers, a contest took place With the 
brothers, which, as Nnancgi held by Bumanika, ended in the two 
elder driving Bog^ro away. It happened, however, that half the 
men of the country, either fix)m fear or love, attached themselves 
to Bog6ro. Feeling his power, he raised an army and attempted 
to fight for the crown, which it is generally admitted would have 
succeeded, had not Musa, with unparalleled magnanimity, employ- 
ed all the ivory merchandise at his command to engage the serv- 
ices of all the Arabs' slaves residing at Kufro to bring muskets 
against him. Bogdro was thus frightened away; but he went 
swearing that he would carry out his intentions at some future 
date, when the Arabs had withdrawn from the country. 



Nov.] KARAGUE. 207 

Magic charms, of coarse, we had none ; but the king would not 
believe it, and, to wheedle some out of us, said they would not 
ki^l their brother even if they caught him — ^for fratricide was con- 
sidered an unnatural crime in their country — ^but they would 
merely gouge out his eyes and set him at large again, for without 
the power of sight be could do them no harm. 

I then recommended, as the best advice I could give him for 
the time being, to take some strong measures against Suwarora 
and the system of taxation carried on in Usui These would have 
the effect of bringing men with superior knowledge into the coun- 
try, for it was only through the power of knowledge that good 
government could be obtained. Suwarora at present stopped 
eight tenths of the ivory-merchants who might be inclined to 
trade here from coming into the country, by the foolish system 
of excessive taxation he had established. Next I told him, if he 
would give me one or two of his children, I would have them in- 
structed in England ; for I admired his race, and believed them 
to have sprung from our old friends the Abyssinians, whose king, 
Sah^a Sdlassi^, had received rich presents from our queen. They 
were Christians like ourselves, and had the Wahuma not lost their 
knowledge of God they would be so also. 

A long theological and historical discussion ensued, which so 
pleased the king that he said he would be delighted if I would 
take two of his sons to England, that they might bring him a 
knowledge of every thing. Then turning again to the old point, 
his utter amazement that we should spend so much property in 
traveling, he wished to know what we did it for; "v^hen men had 
such means they would surely sit down and enjoy it " Oh no," 
was the reply ; " we have had our fill of the luxuries of life ; eat- 
ing, drinking, or sleeping have no charms for us now; we are 
above trade, therefore require no profits, and seek for enjoyment 
the run of the world. To observe and admire the beauties of 
creation are worth much more than beads to us. But what led 
us this way we have told you before; it was to see your majesty 
in particular, and the great kings of Africa, and at the same time 
to open another road to the north, whereby the best manufactures 
of Europe would find their way to Karagii^, and you would get 
so many more guests." In the highest good-humor the king said, 
" As you have come to see me and see sights, I will order some 
boats and show you over the lake, with musicians to play before 
you, or any thing else that you like." Then, after looking over 



208 ^SS SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

our pictures with inteneest delight, and admiring our beds, boxes, 
and outfit in general, he lefb for the day. 

In the afternoon, as I had heard &om Musa that the wives of 
the king and princes were fattened to such an extent that they 
could not stand upright, I paid xnj respects to Waz^ru, the 
king's eldest brother — who, having been born before his father 
ascended his throne, did not come in the line of succession — ^with 
the hope of being able to see for myself the truth of the stoiy. 
There was no mistake about it, On entering the hut, I found 
the old man and his chief wife sitting side by side on a bench of 
earth strewed over with grass, and partitioned like stalls for deep- 
ing apartments, while in firont of them were placed numerous 
wooden pots of milk, and, hanging from the poles that supported 
the beehive-shaped hut, a large collection of bows six feet in 
length, while below them were tied an even larger collection of 
spears, intermixed with a goodly assortment of heavy-handed 
assegais. I was struck with no small surprise at the way he re- 
ceived me, as well as with the extraordinary dimensions, yet 
pleasing beauty, of the immoderately fat fair one his wife. She 
could not rise; and so large were her arms that between the 
joints the flesh hung down like large, loose -stuiSed puddings. 
Then in came their children, all models of the Abyssinian type 
of beauty, and as polite in their manners as thorough-bred gen- 
tlemen. They had heard of my picture-books from the king, and 
all wished to see them; which they no sooner did, to their infinite 
delight, especially when they recognized any of the animals, than 
the subject was turned by my inquiring what they did with so 
many milk-pots. This was easily explained by Waz6z6Tu him- 
self, who, pointing to his wife, said, " This is all the product of 
those pots: from early youth upward we keep those pots to their 
mouths, as it is the fashion at court to have very fiit wives." 

27th. Ever anxious to push on with the journey, as I felt every 
day's delay only tended to diminish my means — that is, my beads 
and copper wire — I instructed Bombay to take the under-men- 
tioned articles to Bumanika as a small sample of the products of 
my country ;* to say I felt quite ashamed of their being bo few 
and so poor, but I hoped he would forgive my shortcomings, as 
he knew I had been so often robbed on the \^ay to him ; and I 

* BSmanika's present, — One block- tin box, one Raglan coat, five yards scarlet 
broadcloth, two coils copper wire, a hundred large blae egg-beads, five bandies best 
variegated beads, three bandies minate beads— pink, bloc, and white. 



KoT.] KABAGUB. 209 

trusted, in recollection of Musa, he would rive me leave to go on 
to Uganda, for every day's delay was consuming my supplies. 
Nnanaji, however, it was said, should get something ; so, in ad- 
dition to the king's present, I apportioned one out for him, and 
Bombay took both up to the palace * Every body, I was pleased 
to hear, was surprised with both the quantity and quality of what 
I had been able to find for them ; for, after the plundering in 
Ugogo, the immense consumption caused by such long delays on 
the road, the fearftil prices I had had to pay for my porters' wages,- 
the enormous taxes I had been forced to give both in Msalala 
and Uzinza, besides the constant thievings in camp, all of which 
was made public by the constantly -recurring tales of my men, no- 
body thought I had got any thing left. 

Eumanika, above all, was as delighted as if he had come in for 
a fortune, and sent to say the Baglan coat was a marvel, and the 
scarlet broadcloth the finest thing he had ever seen. Nobody 
but Musa had ever given him such beautiful beads before, and 
none ever gave with such free liberality. Whatever I wanted I 
should have in return for it, as it was evident to him I had really . 
done him a great honor in visiting him. Neither his father nor 
any of his forefathers had had such a great favor shown them. 
He was alarmed, he confessed, when he heard we were coming to 
visit him, thinking we might prove some fearful monsters that 
were not quite human, but now he was delighted beyond all 
measure with what he saw of us. A messenger should be sent 
at once to the King of Uganda to inform him of our intention to 
visit him, with his own favorable report of us. This was neces- 
sary according to the etiquette of the country. Without such a 
recommendation our progress would be stopped by the people, 
while with one word from him all would go straight ; for was he 
not the gatekeeper, enjoying the full confidence of Uganda? A 
month, however, must elapse, as the distance to the palace of 
Uganda was great; but, in the mean time, he would give me 
leave to go about in his country to do and see what I liked, 
Nnanaji and his sons escorting me every where. Moreover, when 
the time came for my going on to Uganda, if I had not enough 
presents to give the king, he would fill up the complement from 
his own stores, and either go with me himself, or send Nnanaji to 

* NwmajCs present, — One 64o\4 or gold-embroidered silk, two coils copper wire, 
fifty 1ar{^ blue egg-beads, five bandies best variegated beads, tbree bundles minntc 
beads — pink, bine, and white. 

o 



210 



THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. 



[1861. 



conduct me as far as the boundary of Uganda, in order that Ro- 
gdro might not molest us on the way. In the evening, Masiidi, 
with Sangoro and several other merchants, came up from Kufro 
to pay us a visit of respect. 

28th and 29th. A gentle hint having come to us that the king's 
brother, Wazdz^ru, expected a trifle- in virtue of his rank, I sent 
him a blanket and seventy-five blue egg-beads. These were ac- 
cepted with the usual good grace of these people. The king then, 
ever attentive to our position as guests, sent his royal musicians 




Miuidiuia. 



to give us a tune. The men composing the band were a mixture 
of Waganda and Wanyambo, who played on reed instruments 
made telescope fashion, marking time by hand-drums. At first 
they marched up and down, playing tnnes exactly like the regi- 
mental bands of the Turks, and then commenced dancing a 
species of " hornpipe," blowing furiously all the while. When 
dismissed with some beads, Nnanaji dropped in and invited me 
to accompany him out shooting on the slopes of the hills over- 
looking the lake. He had in attendance all the king's sons, as 
well as a large number of beaters, with three or four dogs. Trip- 
ping down the greensward of the hills together, these tall, athletic 
princes every now and then stopped to see who could shoot far- 
thest, and I must say I never witnessed better feats in ray life. 
With powerful six-feet-long bows, they pulled their arrows' heads 
up to the wood, and mlide wonderful shots in the distance. They 
then placed me in position, and, arranging the field, drove the 
covers like men well accustomed to sport — indeed, it struck me 



Nov.] 



KARAGUE. 



211 



they indulged too much in that pleasure, for we saw nothing but 
two or three montana and some diminutive antelopes, about the 
size of mouse deer, and so exceedingly shy that not one was 



Returning home to the tents as the evening sky was illumined 
with the red glare of the sun, my attention was attracted by ob- 
serving in the distance some bold sky-scraping cones situated in 
the country Riianda, which at once brought back to recollection 
the ill-defined story I had heard from the Arabs of a wonderful 
hill always covered with clouds, on which snow or hail was con- 
stantly falling. This was a valuable discovery, for I found these 
hills to be the great turn-point of the Central African watershed. 
Without loss of time I set to work, and, gathering all the travel- 
ers I could in the country, protracted, from their descriptions, all 
the distant topographical features set down in the map, as far 
north as 3® of north latitude, as far east as 36°, and as far west as 
26° of east longitude ; only afterward slightly corrected, as I was 
better able to connect and clear up some trifling but doubtful 
points. 

Indeed, I was not only* surprised at the amount of information 
about distant places I was enabled to get here from these men, 




view of Mount Mf fimbiro and Drainage System of the Laos Monies, 
token from a height of 6000 feet. 



212 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [186L 

but also at the correctness of their vast and varied knowledge, as 
I afterward tested it by observation and the statements of others. 
I rely so far on the geographical information I thus received that 
I would advise no one to doubt the accuracy of these protractions 
until he has been on the spot to test them by actual inspection. 
About the size only of the minor lakes do I feel doubtful, more 
especially the Little Luta Nzigd, which on the former journey I 
heard was a salt lake, because salt was found on its shores and in 
one of its islands. Now, without going into any lengthy details, 
and giving Eumanika'due credit for every thing — ^for, had he not 
ordered his men to give me every information that lay in their 
power, they would not have done so — ^I will merely say for the 
present that, while they conceived the Victoria N'yanza would 
take a whole month for a canoe to cross it, they thought the Lit- 
tle Liita Nzig6 might be crossed in a week. The Mfumbiro 
cones in Ruanda, which I believe reach 10,000 feet, are said to be 
the highest of the " Mountains of the Moon." At their base are 
both salt and copper mines, as well as hot springs. There are 
also hot springs in Mpororo, and one in Karagii^ near where Bo- 
g^ro lived. 

30^. The important business of announcing our approach to 
Uganda was completed by Rumanika appointing Kachuchii to go 
to King Mt&a as quickly as possible, to say we were coming to 
visit him. He was told that we were very great men, who only 
traveled to see great kings and great countries ; and, as such, Ru- 
manika trusted we should be received with courteous respect, and 
allowed to roam all over the country wherever we liked, he hold- 
ing himself responsible for our actions for the time being. In 
the end, however, we were to be restored to him, as he considered 
himself our father, and therefore must see that no accident befell 
us. 

To put the royal message in proper shape, I was now requested 
to send some trifle by way of a letter or visiting-card ; but, on 
taking out a Colt's revolving rifle for the purpose, Riimanika ad- 
vised me not to send it, as Mt&a might take fright, and, consider- 
ing it a charm of evil quality, reject us as bad magicians, 'and 
close his gates on us. Three bits of cotton cloth were then select- 
ed as the best thing for the purpose ; and, relying implicitly on 
the advice of Rumanika, who declared his only object was to far- 
ther our views, I arranged accordingly, and off went KiichuchiL 

To keep my friend in good-humor, and show him how well the 



D«c.] KABAGUE. 21S 

English can appreciate a kindness, I presented him with a ham- 
mer, a sailor's knife, a Eodgers's three-bladed penknife, a gilt let- 
ter-slip with paper and envelopes, some gilt pens, an ivory hold- 
er, and a variety of other small articles. Of each of these he ask- 
ed the nse, and then in high glee put it into the big block-tin box, 
in which he kept his other cariosities, and which I think he felt 
more proud of than any other possession. After this, on adjourn- 
ing to his baraza, Unguru^ the Pig, who had floored my march in 
Sorombo, and Makinga, our persecutor in Usiii, came in to report 
that the Watuta had been fighting in Usui, and taken six bomas, 
upon which Eumanika asked me what I thought of it, and if I 
knew where the Watiita came from. I said I was not surprised 
to hear Usui had attracted the Watuta's cupidity, for every one 
knew of the plundering propensities of the inhabitants, and as 
they became rich by their robberies, they n;^ust in turn expect to 
be robbed. Where the Watuta came from nobody could tell ; 
they were dressed something like the Zulu Kafirs of the south, 
but appeared to be now gradually migrating from the regions of 
Lake N'yassa. To this, Dr^ K'yengo, who was now living with 
Bumanika as his head magician, added that, while he was living 
in Utambara, the Watuta invested his boma six months ; and 
finally, when all their <iows and stores were exhausted, they killed 
all the inhabitants but himself, and he only escaped by the power 
of the charms which he carried about him. These were so pow- 
erful, that, although he lay on the ground, and the Watuta struck 
at him with their spears, not one could penetrate his body. 

In the evening after this, as the king wished to see all my sci- 
entific instruments, we walked down to the camp ; and as he did 
not beg for any thing, I gave him some gold and mother-of-pearl 
shirt-studs to swell up his trinket-box. The same evening I made 
up my mind, if possible, to purchase a stock of beads from the 
Arabs, and sent Baraka off to Kufro to see what kind of a bar- 
gain he could make with them; for, while I trembled to think 
what those " bloodsucker^" would have the impudence to demand 
when they found me at their mercy, I felt that the beads inust be 
bought, or the expedition would certainly come to grief. 

1st and 2d. Two days after this the merchants came in a body 
to see me, and said their worst beads would stand me $80 per 
frasala, as they could realize that value in ivory on arrival at the 
coast Of course no business was done, for the thing was prepos- 
terous by all calculation, being close on 2500 per cent, above Zan- 



214 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

zibar valuation. I was " game" to give $50, but as they would 
not take this, I thought of dealing with Rumanika instead. I 
then gave Nnanaji, who had been constantly throwing out hints 
that I ought to give him a gun, as he was a great sportsman, a 
lappet of bead-work to keep his tongue quiet, and he, in return, 
sent me a bullock and sundry pots of pombd, which, in addition 
to the daily allowance sent by Bumanika, made all my people 
drunk, and so aflfected Baraka that one of the women — also drunk 
— having given him some sharp abuse, he beat her in so violent 
a manner that the whole drunken camp set upon him, and turned 
the place into a pandemonium. A row among negroes means a 
general rising of arms, legs, and voices ; all are in a state of the 
greatest excitement; and each individual thinks he is doing the 
best to mend matters, but is actually doing his best to create con* 
fusion. » 

By dint of perseverance, I now succeeded in having Baraka 
separated from the crowd and dragged before me for justice. I 
found that the woman, who fully understood the jealous hatred 
which existed in Baraka's heart against Bombay, flirted with both 
of them; and, pretending to •show a preference for Bombay, set 
Baraka against her, when from high words they came to blows, 
and set the place in a blaze. It was useless to remonstrate; 
Baraka insisted he would beat the woman if she abused him, no 
matter whether I thought it cowardly or not ; he did not come 
with me expecting to be bullied in this way^ — the whole feult lay 
with Bombay — I did not do him justice — when he proved Bom- 
bay a thief at Usiii, I did not turn him off, but now, instead, I 
showed the preference to Bombay by always taking him when I 
went to Rumanika. It was useless to argue with such a passion- 
ate man, so I told him to go away and cool himself before morn- 
ing. 

When he was gone, Bombay said there was not one man in 
the camp, besides his own set, who wished to go on to Egypt, for 
they had constant arguments among themselves about it; and 
while Bombay always said he would follow me wherever I led, 
Baraka and those who held by him abused him and his set for 
having tricked them away from Zanzibar, under the false hopes 
that the road was quite safe. Bombay said his arguments were 
that Bana knew better than any bpdy else what he was about, 
and he would follow him, trusting to luck, as God was the dis- 
poser of all things, and men could die but once ; while Baraka's 



Dbc.] kabague. 215 

arguments all rested the other way — that no one could tell what 
was ahead of him — Bana had sold himself to luck and the devil 
— but, though he did not care for his own safety, he ought not to 
sacrifice the lives of others — Bombay and his lot were fools for 
their pains in trusting to him. 

ScL At daybreak Bumanika sent us word he was off to Moga- 
Namirinzi, a spur of a hill beyond "the Little Windermere," 
overlooking the Ing&i Kag^ra, or river which separates Kishak- 
ka from Karagu6, to show me how the Kitangul^ Biver was fed 
by small lakes and marshes, in accordance with my expressed 
wish to have a better comprehension of the drainage system of 
the Mountains of the Moon. He hoped we would follow him, not 
by the land route he intended to take, but in canoes which he had 
ordered at the ferry below. Starting off shortly afterward, I 
made for the lake, and found the canoes all ready, but so small 
that, besides two paddlers, only two men could sit down in each. 
After pushing through the tall reeds with which the end of the 
lake is covered, we emerged in the clear open, and skirted the 
farther side of the water until a small strait was gained, which led 
us into another lake, drained at the northern end into a vast 
swampy plain, covered entirely with tall rushes, excepting only 
in a few places where bald patches expose the surface of the wa- 
ter, or where the main streams of the Ing^zi and Luchiiro valleys 
cut a clear drain for themselves. 

The whole scenery was most beautiful. Green and fresh, the 
slopes of the hills were covered with grass, with small clumps of 
soft cloudy-looking acacias growing at a few feet 'only above the 
water, and above them, facing over the hills, fine detached trees, 
and here and there the gigantic medicinal aloe. Arrived near 
the end of the Moga-Namirinzi Hill in the second lake, the pad- 
dlers splashed into shore, where a large concourse of people, 
headed by Nnanaji, were drawn np to receive me. I landed with 
all the dignity of a prince, when the royal band struck up a 
inarch, and we all moved on to Bumanika's frontier palace, talk- 
ing away in a very complimentary manner, not unlike the very 
pK)lite and flowery fashion of educated Orientals. 

Bumanika we found sitting dressed in a wrapper made of an 
nzo^ antelope's skin, smiling blandly as we approached him. In 
the warmest manner possible he pressed me to sit by his side, 
asked how I had enjoyed myself, what I thought of his country, 
and if I did not feel hungry ; when a picnic dinner was spread, 



216 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

and we all set to at cooked plantains and pomb^, ending with a 
pipe of his best tobacco. Bit by bit Eumanika became more in- 
terested in geography, and seemed highly ambitious of gaining a 
world-wide reputation through the medium of my pen. At his 
invitation we now crossed over the spur to the Ingdzi KIag6ra 
side, when, to surprise me, the canoes I had come up the lake in 
appeared before us. They had gone out of the lake at its north- 
em end, paddled into, and then up the Kag^ra to where we stood, 
showing, by actual navigation, the connection of these highland 
lakes with the rivers which drain the various spurs of the Mount- 
ains of the Moon. The Kagdra was deep ^.nd dark, of itself a 
very fine stream, and, considering it was only one — ^and that> too, 
a minor one — of the various affluents which drain the mountain 
valleys into the Victoria N'yanza through the medium of the 
Kitangul^ Kiver, I saw at once there must be water sufficient to 
make the Kitangul6 a very powerful tributary to the lake. 

On leaving this interesting place, with the wide-spread informa- 
tion of all the surrounding countries I had gained, my mind was 
so impressed with the topographical features of all this part of 
Africa, that in my heart I resolved I would make Biimanika as 
happy as he had made me, and asked K'yengo, his doctor, of all 
things I possessed, what the king would like best To my sur- 
prise, I then learned that Bumanika had set his heart on the re- 
volving rifle I bad brought for Mt&a — the one, in fact, which he 
had prevented my sending on to Uganda in the hands of Kachu- 
chu, and h& would have begged me for it before had his high- 
minded dignity, and the principle he had established of never 
begging for any thing, not interfered. I then said he should cer- 
tainly have it; for as strongly as I had withheld from giving an}- 
thing to those begging scoundrels who wished to rob me of all I 
possessed in the lower countries, so strongly now did I fed in- 
clined to be generous with this exceptional man Eumanika. We 
then had another picnic together, and, while I went home to join 
Grant, Bumanika spent the night doing homage and sacrificing a 
bullock at the tomb of his father Dagara. 

Instead of paddling all down the lake again, I walked over the 
hill, and, on crossing at its northern end, wished to shoot ducks; 
but the superstitious boatmen put a stop to my intended amuse- 
ment by imploring me not to do so, lest the spirit of the lake 
should be roused to dry up the waters. 

4:(h. Biimanika returned in the morning, walking up the hill, 



Dbc.] karague. 217 

followed by a long train of his officers, and a party of men carry- 
ing on their shoulders his state carriage, which consisted of a 
large open basket laid on the top of two very long poles. After 
entering his palace, I immediately called on him to thank him 
for the great treat he had given me, and presented him, as an 
earnest of what I thought, with the Colt's revolving rifle and a 
£dr allowance of ammunition. His delight knew no bounds on 
becoming the proprietor of such an extraordinary weapon, and 
induced him to dwell on his advantages over his brother Eogdro, 
whose antipathy to him was ever preying on his mind. He 
urged me again to devise some plan for overcoming him ; and, 
becoming more and more confidential, favored me with the fol- 
lowing narrative, by way of evidence how the spirits were in- 
clined to show all the world that he was the rightful successor to 
the throne: When Dagara died, and he, Nnanaji, and Bogdro, 
were the only three sons left in line of succession to the crown, a 
small mystic drum of diminutive size was placed before them by 
the officers of state. It was only feather weight in reality, but, 
being loaded with charms, became so heavy to those who were 
not entitled to the crown, that no one could lift it but the one per- 
son whom the spirits were inclined toward as the rightful success- 
or. Now, of all the three brothers, he, Eumanika, alone could 
raise it from the ground ; and while his brothers labored hard, 
in vain attempting to move it, he with his little finger held it up 
without any exertion. 

This little disclosure in the history pf Karagu6 led us on to 
fiurther particulars of Dagara's death and burial, tehen it tran- 
spired that the old king's body, aft^r the fiishion of his predeces- 
sors, was sewn up in a cowskin, and placed in a boat floating on 
the lake, where it remained for three days, until decomposition 
set in and maggots were engendered, of which three were taken 
into the palace and given in charge of the heir-elect; but, instead 
of remaining as they were, one worm was transformed into a lion, 
another into a leopard, and the third into a stick. After this the 
body of the king was taken up and deposited on the hill Moga- 
Namirinzi, where, instead of putting him under ground, the people 
erected a hut over him, and, thrusting in five maidens and fifty 
cows, inclosed the doorway in such a manner that the whole of 
them subsequently died from starvation. 

This, as may naturally be supposed, led into farther genealog- 
ical disclosures of a similar nature, and I was told by Riimanika 



218 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

that his grandfather was a most wonderful man ; indeed, EIaragu(f 
was blessed with more supernatural agencies than any other coun- 
try. Eohinda the Sixth, who was his grandfather, numbered so 
many years that people thought he never would die; and he even 
became so concerned himself about it, reflecting that his son Da- 
gara would never enjoy the benefit of his position as successor to 
the crown of Karagu^, that he took some magic powders and 
charmed away his life. His remains were then taken to Moga- 
Namirinzi, in the same manner as were those of Dagara; but^ as 
an improvement on the maggot story, a young lion emerged from 
the heart of the corpse and kept guard over the hill, from whom 
other lions came i^to existence, until the whole place has become 
infested by them, and has since made Karagu^ a power and dread 
to all other nations ; for these lions became subject to the will of 
Dagara, who, when attacked by the countries to the northward, 
instead of assembling an army of m«n, assembled his lion force, 
and so swept all before him. 

Another test was then advanced at the instigation of K'yengo, 
who thought Eiimanika not quite impressive jenough of his right 
to the throne; and this was, that each heir in succession, even 
after the drum dodge, was required to sit on the ground in a cer- 
tain place of the country, where, if he had courage to plant him- 
self, the land would gradually rise up, telescope-fashion, until it 
reached to the skies, when, if the aspirant was considered by the 
spirits the proper person to inherit Karagu^, he would gradually 
be lowered again without any harm happening; but, otherwise, 
the elastic hill would suddenly collapse, and he would be dashed 
to pieces. Now Eiimanika, by his own confession, had. gone 
through this ordeal with marked success; so I asked him if he 
found the atmosphere cold when so far up aloft, and as he said he 
did so, laughing at the quaintness of the question, I told him I 
saw he had learned a good practical lesson on the structure of the 
universe, which I wished he would explain to me. In a state of 
perplexity, K'yengo and the rest, on seeing me laughing, thought 
something was wrong; so, turning about, they thought again, and 
said, " No, it must have been hot, because the higher one ascended 
the nearer he got to the sun." 

This led on to one argument after another, on geology, geog- 
raphy, and all the natural sciences, and ended by Eiimanika 
showing me an iron much the shape- and size of a carrot. This 
he said was found by one of his villagers while tilling the ground,' 



i'L . 



Dbc.] karague. 221 

buried some way down below the surface ; but, dig as he would, 
he could not remove it, and therefore called some more men to 
his ^elp. Still the whole of them united could not lift the iron, 
which induced them, considering there must be some magic in it, 
to inform the king. • " Now," says Eumanika, " I no sooner went 
there and saw the iron, than, without the smallest exertion, I up- 
lifted the iron, and brought it here as you see it. What can such 
a sign mean ?" " Of course that you are the rightful king," said 
his flatterers. "Then," said Eumanika, in exuberant spirits, 
" during Dagara's time, as the king was sitting with many other 
men outside his hut, a fearful storm of thunder and lightning 
arose, and a thunderbolt struck the ground in the midst of them, 
which dispersed all the men but Dagara, who calmly took up the 
thunderbolt and placed it in the palace. I, however, no sooner 
came into possession, and Bog^ro began to contend with me, than 
the thunderbolt vanished. How would you account for this?" 
The flatterers said, *.*It is clear as possible; God gave the thunder- 
bolt to Dagara as a sign he was pleased with him and his rule ; 
but when he found two brothers contending, he withdrew it to 
show their conduct was wicked." 

6ih. Eumanika in the morning sent me a young male nzo^ 
(water-boc)* which his canoe-men had caught in the high rushes 
at the head of the lake, by the king's order, to please me ; for I 
had heard this peculiar animal described in such strange ways at 
Kbz6, both by Miisa and the Arabs, I was desirous of having a 
look at one. It proved to be closely allied to a water-boc found 
by livingstone on the Ngami Lake; but, instead of being striped, 
was very faintly spotted, and so long were its toes, it could hard- 
ly walk on the dry ground ; while its coat, also well adapted to 
the moist element it lived in, was long, and of such excellent qual- 
ity that the natives prize it for wearing almost more than any 
other of the antelope tribe. The only food it would eat were the 
tops of the tall papyrus rushes ; but, though it ate and drank free- 
ly, and lay down very quietly, it always charged with ferocity 
any person who went near it. 

In the afternoon Eumanika invited both Grant and myself to 
witness his New-moon Lev^e, a ceremony which.takes place every 
month with a view of ascertaining how many of his subjects are 
loyal. On entering his palace inclosure, the first thing we saw 

♦ Since named by Dr. P. L. Sclater "Tragolaphus Spekii.'* These nzo^ hare 
been drawn by Mr. Wolff from npecimens brought home by myself. 



222 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

was a blaue boc's horn stuffed full of magic powder, with very 
imposing effect, by K'yengo, and stuck in the ground, with its 
mouth pointing in the direction of Kog^ro. In the second court 
we found thirty-five drums ranged on the ground, with as many 
drummers standing behind them, and a knot of young princes and 




The Kiug'B New-moon Levee. 

officers of high dignity waiting to escort us into the third inclos- 
ure, where, in his principal hut, we found Eiimanika squatting on 
the ground, half concealed by the portal, but showing his smiling 
face to welcome us in. His head was got up with a tiara of beads, 
from the centre of which, directly over the forehead, stood a plume 
of red feathers, and encircling the lower face with a fine large 
white beard set in a stock or band of beads. We were beckoned 
to squat alongside Nnanaji, the master of ceremonies, and a large 
group of high officials outside the porch. Then the thirty-five 
drums all struck up together in very good harmony; and when 
their deafening noise was over, a smaller band of hand-drums and 
reed instruments was ordered in to amuse us. 

This second performance over, from want of breath only, dis- 
trict officers, one by one, came advancing on tiptoe, then pausing, 
contortmg and quivering their bodies, advancing again- with a 
springing gait and outspread arms, which they moved as if they 
wished to force them out of their joints, in all of which actions 
they held drum-sticks or twigs in their hands, swore with a mani- 
acal voice an oath of their loyalty and devotion to their king, 
backed by the expression of a hope that he would cut off their 
heads if they ever turned from his enemies, and then, kneeling 
before him, they held out their sticks that he might touch them. 



Die.] KARAGUE. 228 

With a constant reiteration of these scenes — ^the saluting at one 
time, the music at another — interrupted only once by a number 
of girls dancing something like a good rough Highland fling while 
the little band played, the day's- ceremonies ended. 

6ih and 7th. During the next two days, as my men had all worn 
out their clothes, I gave them each thirty necklaces of beads to 
purchase a suit of the bark cloth called mbugu, already described. 
Finding the flour of the country too bitter to eat by itself, we 
sweetened it with ripe plantains, and made a good cake of it. The 
king now, finding me disinclined to fight his brother Eog^ro ei- 
ther with guns or magic horns, asked me to give him a " doctor" 
or charm to create longevity and to promote the increase of his 
family, as his was not large enough to maintain the dignity of so 
great a man as himself. I gave him a blister, and, changing the 
subject, told him the history of the creation of man. After listen- 
ing to it attentively, he asked what thing in creation I considered 
the greatest of all things in the world ; for while a man at most 
could only live one hundred years, a tree lived many ; but the 
earth ought to be biggest, for it never died. 

I then told him again I wished one of his sons would accom- 
pany me to England, that he might learn the history of Moses, 
wherein he would find that men had souls which live forever, but 
that the earth would come to an end in the fullness of time. This 
conversation, diversified by numerous shrewd remarks on the part 
of Rumanika, led to his asking how I could account for the de- 
cline of countries, instancing the dismemberment of the Wahuma 
in Kittara, and remarking that formerly Karagu6 included Urnn- 
di, Ruanda, and Kishakka, which collectively were known as the 
kingdom of Mdruf governed by one man. Christian principles, I 
said, made us what we are, and feeling a sympathy for him made 
me desirous of taking one of his children to learn in the same 
school with us, who, on returning to him, could impart what he 
knew, and, extending the same by course of instruction, would 
doubtless end by elevating his country to a higher position than 
it ever knew before, etc., etc. The policy and government of the 
vast possessions of Great Britain were then duly discussed, and 
Rumanika acknowledged that the power of the pen was superior 
to that of the sword, and the electric telegraph and steam-engine 
the most wonderful powers he had ever heard of. 

Before breaking up, Rumanika wished to give me any number 
of ivories I might like to mention, even three or four hundred, as 



224 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

a lasting remembrance that I had done him the honor of visiting 
Karagu^ in his lifetime ; for, though Dagara had given to colored 
merchants, he would be the first who had given to a white man. 
Of course this royal oflFer was declined with politeness ; he must 
understand that it was not the custom of big men in my country 
to accept presents of value when we made visits of pleasure. I 
had enjoyed my residence in Karagu^, his intellectual conversa- 
tions and his kind hospitality, all of which I should record in my 
books to hand down to posterity ; but if he would give me a cow's 
horn, I would keep it as a trophy of the happy days I had spent 
in his country. He gave me one, measuring 3 feet 5 inches in 
length, and 18f inches in circumference at the base. He then 
offered me a large sheet, made up of a patchwork of very small 
N'y^ra antelope skins, most exquisitely cured and sewn. This I 
rejected, as he told me it had been given to himself, explaining 
that we prided ourselves on never parting with the gifts of a 
friend ; and this speech tickled his fancy so much ^that he said he 
never would part with any thing I gave him. 

8ih and 9^. The 8th went off much in the usual way by my 
calling on the king, when I gave him a pack of playing-cards, 
which he put into his curiosity-box. He explained to me, at my 
request, what sort of things he would like any future visitors to 
bring him — a piece of gold and silver embroidery ; but, before 
any thing else, I found he would like to have toys, such as Yan- 
kee clocks with the face in a man's stomach, to wind up behind, 
his eyes rolling with every beat of the pendulum ; or a china-cow 
milk-pot, a jack-in-the-box, models of men, carriages, and horses 
— all animals, in fact, and railways in particular. 

On the 9th I went out shooting, as Eumanika, with his usual 
politeness, on hearing my desire to kill some rhinoceros, ordered 
his sons to conduct the field for me. Off we started by sunrise to 
the bottom of the hills overlooking the head of the Little Winder- 
mere lake. On arrival at the scene of action — a thicket of acacia 
shrubs — all the men in the neighborhood were assembled to beat 
Taking post myself, by direction, in the most likely place to catch 
a sight of the animals, the day's work began by the beaters driv- 
ing the covers in my direction. In a very short time a fine male 
was discovered making toward me, but not exactly knowing where 
he should bolt to. While he was in this perplexity, I stole along 
between the bushes, and caught sight of him standing as if M^chor- 
ed by the side of a tree, and gave hira a broadsider withg&lissett, 



Bw.] KABA6XJE. 

which, too much for his constitution to stand, sent him off trot- 
ting, till, exhausted by bleeding, he lay down to die, and allowed 
me to give him a settler. 

In a minute or two afterward, the good young princes, attract- 
ed by the sound of the gun, came to see what was done. Their 
surprise knew no bounds ; ihey could scarcely believe what they 
saw ; and then, on recovering, with the spirit of true gentlemen, 
they seized both my hands, congratulating me on the magnitude 
of my success, and pointed out, as an example of it, a by-stander 
who shoWed fearful scars, both on his abdomen and at the blade 
of his shoulder, who they declared had been run through by one 
of these animals. It was, therefore, wonderful to them, they ob- 
served, with what calmness I -went up to such formidable beasts. 
«jhist at this time a distant cry was heard that another rhinoce- 
ros 'was concealed in a thicket, and off we set to pursue her. Ar- 
ri^Jbg at the place mentioned, I settled at once I would enter with 
only two spare men carrying guns, for the acacia thorns were so 
thick that the only tracks into the thicket were runs made by 
these animals. Leading myself, bending down to steal in, I track- 
ed up a run till halfway through cover, when suddenly before me, 
like a pig from a hole, a large female, with her young one behind 
her, came straight down whoof-whoofing upon me. In this awk- 
ward fix I forced myself to one side, though pricked all over with 
thorns in doing so, and gave her one in the head which knocked 
her out of my path, and induced her, for safety, to make for the 
open, where I followed her down and gave her another. She then 
took to the hills and crossed over a spur, when, following after 
her, in another dense thicket, near the head of a glen, I came upon 
three, who no sooner sighted me than all in line they charged 
down my way. Fortunately, at the time, my gun-bearers were 
with me ; so, jumping to one side, I struck them all three in turn. 
One of them dropped dead a little way on, but the others only 
pulled up when they arrived at the bottom. To please myself, 
now I had done quite enough ; but, as the princes would have it, 
I went on with the chase. As one of the two, I could see, had 
one of his £ore legs broken, I went at the sounder one, and gave 
him another shot, which simply induced him to walk over the 
lower end*bf the hiU. Then turning to the last one, which could 
not escape, I asked the Wanyambo to polish him off with their 
spears and arrows, that I might see their mode of sport As we 
moved up to the animal, he kept charging with snch impetuous 

P 



226 ^I^^^ SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

fary they could not go into him ; so I gave him a seoond ball, 
which brought him to anchor. In this helpless state, the men set 
at him in earnest, and a more barbarous finale I never did wit- 
ness. Every man sent his spear, assegai, or arrow into his sides, 
until, completely exhausted, he sank like a porcupine covered 
with quills. The day's sport was now ended, so I went home to 
breakfast, leaving instructions that the heads should be cut ofiTand 
. sent to the king as a trophy of what the white man could do. 

10th and 11^. The next day, when I called on Bumanika, the 
spoils were brought into court, and in utter astonishment he said, 
" Well, this must have been done with something more potent 
than powder, for neither the Arabs nor Nnanaji, although they 
talk of their shooting powers, could have accomplished such a 
great feat as this. It is no wonder the English are the greatest 
men in the world." 

Neither the Wanyambo nor the Wahuma would eat the rhi- 
noceros, so I was not sorry to find all the Wanyamu^zi porters of 
the Arabs at Kufro, on hearing of the sport, come over and carry 
away all the flesh. They passed by our camp half borne down 
with their burdens of sliced flesh, suspended from poles which 
they carried on their shoulders ; but the following day I was dis- 
gusted by hearing that their masters had forbidden their eating 
^'the carrion," as the throats of the animals had not been cut; 
and, moreover, had thrashed them soundly because they com- 
plained they were half starved, which was perfectly true, by the 
poor food that they got as their pay. 

12th. On visiting Bumanika again, and going through my geo- 
graphical lessons, he told me, in confirmation of Musa's old sto- 
ries, that in Biianda there existed pigmies who lived in trees, but 
occasionally came down at night, and, listening at the hut doors 
of the men, would wait until they heard the name of one of its in- 
mates, when they would call him out, and, firing an arrow into 
his heart, disappear again in the same way as they came. But^ 
more formidable even than these little men, there were monsters 
who could not converse with men, and never showed themselves 
unless they saw women pass by ; then, in voluptuous excitement^ 
they squeezed them to death. Many other similar stories were 
then told, when I, wishing to go, was asked if I could kill hippo- 
potami. Having answered that I could, the king graciously said 
he would order some canoes for me next morning ; and as I de- 
clined because Grant could not accompany me, as a terrible dis- 



Dtc.] karague. 229 

eaae had broken out in his leg, he ordered a pig-shooting party. 
Agreeably with this, the next day I went out with his sons, nu- 
merously attended ; but, although we beat the covers all day, the 
rain was so frequent the pigs would not bolt 

14A. After a long and amusing conversation with BiLmanika 
in the morning, I called on one of his sisters-in-law, married to an 
elder brother who was bom before Dagara ascended the throne. 
She was another of those wonders of obesity, unable to stand ex- 
cepting on all fours. I was desirous to obtain a good view of 
her, and actuaUy to measure her, and induced her to give me fa- 
cilities for doing so by offering in return to show her a bit of my 
naked legs and arms. The bait took as I wished it, and after get- 
ting her to sidle and wriggle into the middle of the hut, I did as 
I promised, and then took her dimensions, as noted below.* All 
of tEese are exact except the height, and I believe I could have 
obtained this more accurately if I could have had her laid on the 
floor. Not knowing what difficulties I should have to contend 
with in such a piece of engineering, I tried to get her height by 
raising her up. This, after infinite exertions on the part of us 
both, was accomplished, when she sank down again, fainting, for 
her blood had rushed into her head. Meanwhile, the daughter, a 
lass of sixteen, sat stark-naked before us, sucking at a milk-pot, 
on which the &ther kept her at work by holding a rod in his 
hand ; for, as fattening is the first duty of fashionable female life, 
it must be duly enforced by the rod if necessary. I got up a bit 
of flirtation with missy, and induced, her to rise and shake hands 
with ma Her features were lovely, but her body was as round 
as a ball. 

In the evening we had ianother row with my head men, Baraka 
having accused Bombay of trying to kill him with magic. Bom- 
bay, who was so incessantly bullied by Baraka's officious attempts 
to form party cliques opposed to the interests of the journey, and 
get him turned out of the camp, indiscreetly went to one of K'yen- 
go's men, and asked him if he knew of any medicine that would 
affect the hearts of the Wang&ana so as to incline them toward 
him ; and on the sub-doctor saying Yes, Bombay gave him some 
beads, and bought the medicine required, which, put into a pot of 
pomb^, was placed by Baraka's side. Baraka in the mean while 
got wind of the matter through K'yengo, who, misunderstanding 

* Bound the arm, 1 foot 11 inches ; chest, 4 feet 4 inches ; thigh, 2 feet 7 inches ; 
calf, 1 foot 8 inches ; height, 6 feet 8 inches. 



280 ^I^HE SOURCE OF THE NILK [1661. 

the true facts of the case, said it was a charm to depriye Baraka 
of his life. A court of inquiry having been convened, with all 
the parties concerned in attendance, K'yengo's mistake was dis- 
covered, and Bombay was lectured for his folly, as he had a thou- 
sand times before abjured his belief in such magical follies ; more- 
over, to punish him for the future, I took Baraka, whenever I 
could, with me to visit the king, which, little as it might appear to 
others, was of the greatest consequence to the hostile parties. 

16th and 16th. When I next called on Bumanika I gave him a 
Yautier's binocular and prismatic compass, on which he politely 
remarked he was afraid he was robbing me of every thing. More 
compliments went round, and then he asked if it was true we 
could open a man's skull, look at his brains, and close it up again ; 
also if it was true we sailed all round the world into regions 
where there was no difference between night and day, and how, 
when we plowed the seas in such enormous vessels as would car- 
ry at once 20,000 men, we could explain to the sailors what they 
ought to do ; for, although he had heard of these things, no one 
was able to explain them to him. 

Ailer all the explanations were given, he promised me a boat* 
hunt after the nzo^ in the morning; but when the time came, as 
difficulties were raised, I asked him to allow us to anticipate the 
arrival of KacbUchu, and march on to Kitangiild He answered, 
with his usual courtesy, That he would be very glad to oblige us 
in any way that we liked ; but he feared that, as the Waganda 
were such superstitious people, some difficulties would arise, and 
he must decline to comply with our request " You must not^" 
he added, ^' expect ever to find again a reasonable man like my- 
self" I then gave him a book on '' Kafir laws," which he said he 
would keep for my sake, with all the rest of the presents, which 
he was determined never to give away, though it was usual for 
him to send novelties of this sort to Mt^ king of Uganda, and 
Kamrasi, king of Unyoro, as a friendly recognition of their supe- 
rior positions in the world of great monarchies. 

nth. Biimanika next introduced me to an old woman who 
came from the island of Gasi, situated in the Little Liita Nzigd 
Both her upper and lower incisors had been extracted, and her 
upper lip perforated by a number of small holes, extending in an 
arch from one comer to the other. This interesting but ugly old 
lady narrated the circumstances by which she had been enslaved, 
and then sent by Kamrasi as a curiosity to Bumanika, who had 



Dec.] KABA6UE. 281 

ever since kept her as a servant in his palace. A man from 
Buanda then told us of the Wiljanwantii (men-eaters), who dis- 
dained all food bat human flesh ; and Riimanika confirmed the 
statement. Though I felt very skeptical about it, I could not 
help thinking it a curious coincidence that the position the j were 
said to occupy agreed with Petherick's Njam Njams (men-eat- 
ers). 

Of far more interest were the results of a conversation which I 
had with another of Kamrasi's servants, a man of Amara, as it 
threw some light upon certain statements made by Mr. Leon of 
the people of Amara being Christians. He said they bore single 
holes in the centres both of their upper and lower lips, as well as 
in the lobes of both of their ears, in which they wear small brass 
rings. They live near the N'yanza — ^where it is connected by a 
strait with a salt lake, and drained by a river to the northward — 
in comfortable houses, built like the temb& of Uny amii^zi. When 
killing a cow, they kneel down in an attitude of prayer, with both 
hands together, held palm upward, and utter Zii, a word the 
meaning of which he did not know. I questioned him to try if 
the word had any trace of a Christian meaning — for instance, as 
a corruption of Jesu — ^but without success. Circumcision is not 
known among them, neither have they any knowledge of Ghod or 
a soul. A tribe called Wakiiavi, who are white, and described 
as not unlike myself, often came over the water and made raids 
on their cattle, using the double-edged sim^ as their chief weapon 
of war. These attacks were as often resented, and sometimes led 
the Wamara in pursuit a long way into their enemy's country, 
where, at a place called Kisiguisi, they found men robed in red 
cloths. Beads were imported, he thought, both from the east and 
from Ukidi. Associated with the countries Masau or Masai, and 
Usamburu, which he knew, there was a large mountain, the exact 
position of which he could not describe. 

I took down many words of his language, and found they cor- 
responded with the North African dialects, as spoken by the peo- 
ple of Kidi, Gani, and Madi. The southerners, speaking of these, 
would call them Wakidi, Wagani, and Wamadi, but among them- 
selves the syllable wa is not prefixed, as in the southern dialects, 
to signify people. Buraanika, who appeared immensely delighted 
as he assisted me in putting the questions I wanted, and saw me 
note them down in my book, was more confirmed than ever in 
the truth of my stories that I came from the north, and thought 



282 ^^™ SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

as the beads came to Adiara, so should I be able to open the road 
and bring him more visitors. This he knew was his only chance 
of ever seeing me any more, for I swore I would never go back 
through Usui, so greatly did I feel the indignities imposed on me 
by Suwarora. 

18^. To keep the king in good humor, I now took a table- 
knife, spoon, and fork to the palace, which, after their several uses 
were explained, were consigned to his curiosity-box. Still Ru- 
manika could not understand how it was I spent so much and 
traveled so far, or how it happened such a great country as otus 
could be ruled by a woman. He asked the queen's name, how 
many children she had, and the mode of succession; then, when 
fully satisfied, led the way to show me what his father Bagara 
had done when wishing to know of what the centre of the earth 
was composed. At the back of the palace a deep ditch was cut^ 
several yards long, the end of which was carried by a subterra- 
nean passage into the palace, where it was ended off with a cavern 
led into by a very small aperture. It then appeared that Da- 
gara, having failed, in his own opinion, to arrive any nearer to 
the object in view, gave the excavating up as a bad job, and 
turned the cave into a mysterious abode, where it was confidently 
asserted he spent many days without eating or drinking, and 
turned sometimes into a young man, and then an old one, alter- 
nately, as the humor seized him. 

19^ to 22(2. On the 19th I went fishing, but without success, 
for they said the fish would not take in the lake; and on the fol- 
lowing day, as Grant's recovery seemed hopeless, for a long time 
at least,! went with all the young princes to see what I could do 
with the hippopotami in the lake, said to inhabit the small island 
of Conty. The party was an exceedingly merry one. We went 
off to the island in several canoes, and at once found an immense 
number of crocodiles basking in the sun, but not a single hippo- 
potamus was in sight The princes then, thinking me '' green" 
at this kind of sport, said the place was enchanted, but I need not 
fear, for they would bring them out to my feet by simply calling 
out certain names, and this was no sooner done than four old and 
one young one came immediately in front of us. It seemed quite 
a sin to touch them, they looked aU so innocent ; but as the king 
wanted to try me again, I gave one a ball on the head which sent 
him under, never again to be seen, for on the 22d, by which time 
I supposed he ought to have risen inflated with gases, the king 



Dm.] kabague. 288 

sent oat his men to look out for him ; but they returned to say 
that) while all the rest were in the old place, that one, in particu- 
lar, oould not be found. 

On this K'yengo, who happened to be present while our inter- 
view lasted, explained that the demons of the deep were annoyed 
with me for intruding on their preserves without having the 
courtesy to commemorate the event by the sacrifice of a goat or 
a cow. Bumanika then, at my suggestion, gave Nnanaji the re- 
volving pistol I first gave him, but not without a sharp rebuke 
for his having had the audacity to beg a gun of me in considera- 
tion of his being a sportsman. We then went into a discourse on 
astrology, when the intelligent Bumanika asked me if the same 
sun we saw one day appeared again, or whether fresh suns came 
every day, and whether or not the moon made difierent &ces, to 
laugh at us mortals on earth. 

28(2 and 24:th. This day was spent by the king introducing me 
to his five fat wives, to show with what esteem he was held by 
all the different kings of the countries surrounding. From Mpo- 
roro— which, by-the-by, is a republic — ^he was wedded to Kaogfe, 
the daughter of Kahaya, who is the greatest chief in the country; 
from Unyoro he received Kauyangi, Kamrasi's daughter; from 
Nkol4 Eambiri, the late Kasiyonga's daughter; from Utumbi, 
Earangu, the late Elit^imbua's daughter; and, lastiy, the daughter 
of Chiuarungi, his head cook. 

After presenting Bumanika with an India-rubber band — ^which, 
as usual, amused him immensely — ^for the honor he had done me 
in showing me his wives, a party of Waziwa, who had brought 
some ivory from Elidi, came to pay their respects to him. On 
being questioned by me, they said that they once saw some men 
like my Wanguana there; they had come from the north to 
trade, but, though they carried fire-arms, they were all killed by 
the people of Kidi. This was famous ; it corroborated what I 
knew, but could not convince others of, that traders could find 
their way up to Kidi by the Nile. It in a manner explained also 
how it was that Kamrasi, some years before, had obtained some 
pink beads, of a variety the Zanzibar merchants had never thought 
of bringing into the country. Bombay was now quite convinced, 
and we all became transported with joy, until Bumanika, reflect- 
ing on the sad' state of Grant's leg, turned that joy into grief by 
saying that the rules of Uganda are so strict that no one who is 
sick could enter the country. " To show," he said, " how absurd 



284 '^^^^ SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

they are, yonr donkey would not be permitted because he bas no 
trowsers ; and you even will have to put on a gown, as your un- 
mentionables will be considered indecorous." I now asked Ba- 
manika if he would assist me in replenishing my fisist-ebbing stoie 
of beads by selling tusks to the Arabs at Kufro, when for ereiy 
85 lb. weight I would give him $50 by orders on Zanzibar, and 
would insure him from being cheated by sending a letter of ad- 
vice to our consul residing there. At first he demurred on the 
high-toned principle that he could not have any commercial deal- 
ings with myself; but, at the instigation of Bombay and Baraka, 
who viewed it in its true character, as tending merely to assist my 
journey in the best manner he could, without any sacrifice to 
dignity, he eventually yielded, and, to prove his earnestness, sent 
me a large tusk, with a notice that his ivory was not kept in the 
palace, but with his officers, and as soon as they could collect it, 
so soon I should get it 

Bumanika, on hearing that it was our custom to celebrate the 
birth of our Savior with a good feast of beef, sent us 
an ox. I immediately paid him a visit to offer the 
compliments of the sesi^n, and at the same time regretted, much 
to his amusement, that he, as one of the old stock of Abyssinians, 
who are the oldest Christians on record, should have forgotten 
this rite ; but I hoped the time would come when, by making it 
known that his tribe had lapsed into a state of heathenism, white 
teachers would be induced to set it all to rights again. At this 
time some Wahaiya traders (who had been invited at my request 
by Bumanika) arrived. Like the Waziwa, they had trstded with 
Kidi, and they not only confirmed what the Waziwa had said, 
but added that, when trading in those distant parts, they heard 
of Wanguana coming in vessels to trade to the north of Unyoro; 
but the natives there were so savage, they only fought with these 
foreign traders. A man of Biianda now informed us that the 
cowrie-shells, so plentiful in that country, come there horn the 
other or western side, but he could not tell whence they were 
originally obtained. Bumanika then told me Siiwarora had been 
so frightened by the Watuta, and their boastful threats to demol- 
ish Usui bit by bit, reserving him only as a titbit for the end, that 
he wanted a plot of ground in Karague to preserve his property 
in. 

26ih^ 27th, and 28^. Some other travelers from the north again 
informed us that they had heard of Wanguana who attempted to 



Dm.] kabague. 235 

trade in Gani and Chopi, but were killed by the natives. I now 
assnred Biimanika that in two or three years he would have a 
greater trade with Egypt than he ever could have with Zanzibar; 
for, when I opened the road, all those men he heard of would 
swarm up here to visit him. He, however, only laughed at my 
folly in proposing to go to a place of which all I heard was mere- 
ly that every stranger who went there was killed. He began to 
show a disinclination to allow my going there, and though from 
the most friendly intention, this view was alarming, for one wojd 
from him could have ruined my projects. As it was, I feared my 
followers might take finght and refuse to advance with me. I 
thought it good policy to talk of there being many roads leading 
through Africa, so that Biimanika might see he had not got, as 
he thought, the sole key to the interior. I told him again of cer- 
tain views I once held of coming to see him jfrom the north up 
the Nile, and from the east through the Masai. He observed 
that, " To open either of those routes, you would reauire at least 
two hundred guns." He would, however, do something when 
we returned from Uganda; for, as Mt&a followed his advice in 
every thing, so did E^mrasi, for both held the highest opinion of 
him. 

The conversation then turning on London, and the way men 
and carriages moved up the streets like strings of ants on their 
migrations, Rumanika said the villages in Ruanda were of enor- 
mous extent, and the people great sportsmen, for they turned out 
in multitudes, with small dogs on whose necks were tied bells, 
and blowing horns themselves, to hunt leopards. They were, 
however, highly superstitious, and would not allow any strangers 
to enter their country ; for some years ago, when some Arabs 
went there, a great drought and famine set in, which they attrib- 
uted to evil influences brought by them, and, turning them out 
of their country, said they would never admit any of their like 
among them again. I said, in return, I thought his Wanyambo 
just as superstitious, for I observed, while walking one day, that 
they had placed a gourd on the path, and on inquiry found they 
had done so to gain the sympathy of all passers-by to their crop 
dose at hand, which was blighted, imagining that the voice of 
the sympathizer heard by the spirits would induce them to relent, 
and restore a healthy tone to the crop. 

During this time an interesting case was brought before us for 
judgment Two men, having married one woman, laid claim to 



236 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1861. 

her child, which, as it was a male one, belonged to the &ther. 
Baraka was appointed the umpire, and immediately comparing 
the in&nt's &ce with those of its claimants, gave a decision which 
all approved of but the loser. It was pronounced amid peals of 
laughter from my men ; for, whenever any little excitement is 
going forward, the Wanguana all rush to the scene of action to 
give their opinions, and joke over it afterward. 

29ih and 30^. On telling Bumanika this story next morning, 
he said, "Many fanny things happen in Karagu^;'' and related 
some domestic incidents, concluding with the moral that " Mar- 
riage in Karagu^ was a mere matter of money." Cows, sheep, 
and slaves have to be given to the father for the value of his 
daughter; but if she finds she has made a mistake, she can return 
the dowry-money and gain her release. The Wahuma, although 
they keep slaves and marry with pure negroes, do not allow their 
daughters to taint their blood by marrying out of their clan. In 
warfare it is the rule that the wahinda, or princes, head their own 
soldiers, and set them the example of courage, when, after firing 
a few arrows, they throw their bows away, and close at once with 
their spears and assegais. Life is never taken in Earagu^ either 
for murder or cowardice, as they value so much their Wahuma 
breed ; but for all offenses, fines of cows are exacted according to 
the extent of the crime. 

31^^. Ever proud of his history since I had traced his descent 
from Abyssinia and King David, whose hair was as strught as 
my own, Bumanika dwelt on my theological disclosures with the 
greatest delight, and wished to know what difference existed be- 
tween the Arabs and ourselves ; to which Baraka replied, as the 
best means of making him understand, that while the Arabs had 
only one Book, we had two ; to which I added. Yes, that is true 
in a sense ; but the real merits lie in the fact that we have got the 
better bookj as may be inferred from the obvious fact that we are 
more prosperous, and their superiors in all things, as I would 
prove to him if he would allow me to take one of his sons home 
to learn that book ; for then he would find his tribe, after a while^ 
better off than the Arabs are. Much delighted, he said he would 
be very glad to give me two boys for that purpose. 

Then, changing the subject, I pressed Bumanika, as he said he 
had no idea of a God or future state, to tell md what advantage 
he expected from sacrificing a cow yearly at his £Either's grave. 
He laughingly replied he did not know, but he hoped he might 



Jah.] KARA6UE. 287 

be favored with better crops if he did so. He also placed pomb^ 
and grain, he said, for the same reason, before a large stone on the 
kill-side, although it could not eat, or make any use of it ; but the 
ooast-men were of the same belief as himself, and so were all the 
natives. No one in Africa, as far as he knew, doubted the power 
of magic and spells ; and if a fox barked when he was leading an 
army to battle, he would retire at once, knowing that this prog- 
nosticated evil. There were many other animals, and lucky and 
unlucky birds, which all believed in. 

I then told him it was fortunate he had no disbelievers like us 
to contend with in battle, for we, instead of trusting to luck and 
such omens, put our faith only in skill and pluck, which Baraka 
elucidated fcom his military experience in the wars in British In- 
dia. Lastly, I explained to him how England formerly was as 
unenlightened as Africa, and believing in the same sort of super- 
stitions, and the inhabitants were all as naked as his skin-wearing 
Wanyambo; but now, since they had grown wiser, and saw, 
through such impostures, they were the greatest men in the world. 
He said, for the future he would disregard what the Arabs said, 
and trust to my doctrines, for without doubt he had never seen 
such a wise man as myself; and the Arabs themselves confirmed 
this when they told him that all their beads and cloths came from 
the land of the Waziingu, or white men. 

Istj 2rf, and Sd. The new year was ushered in by the most ex- 
citing intelligence, which drove us half wild with delight, for we 
folly believed Mr. Petherick was indeed on his road up the Nile, 
endeavoring to meet us. It was this : An officer of Bumanika's, 
who had been sent four years before on a mission to Eamrasi, had 
just then returned with a party of Kamrasi's who brought ivory 
for sale to the Arabs at Kufro, along with a vaunting commission 
to inform Bumanika that Kamrasi had foreign visitors as well as 
himself. They had not actually come into Unyoro, but were in 
his dependency, the country of Gani, coming up the Nile in ves- 
aels. They had been attacked by the Gani people, and driven 
back with considerable loss both of men and property, although 
they were in sailing vessels, and fired guns which even broke 
down the trees on the banks. Some of their property had been 
brought to him, and he, in return, had ordered his subjects not to 
molest them, but allow them to come on to him. Biimanika en- 
joyed this news as much as myself, especially when I told him 
of Petherick's promise to meet us, just as these men said he was 



238 "^^^^ SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

trying to do ; and more especiallj so when I told him that if he 
would assist me in trying to comzhunicate with Petherick, the lat- 
ter would either come here himself, or send one of his men, oon- 
veying a suitable present, while I was away in Uganda, and th^ 
in the end, we would all go off to Kamrasi's together. 

^th. Entering warmly into the spirit of this important intelli- 
gence, Bumanika inquired into its truth, and, finding no reason 
to doubt it, said he would send some men back with Elamrasi^s 
men, if I could have patience until they were ready to go. There 
would be no danger, as Kamrasi was his brother-in-law, and 
would do all that he told him. 

I now proposed to send Baraka, who, ashamed to cry off, said 
he would go with Bilmanika's officers if I allowed him a compan- 
ion of his own choosing, who would take care of him if he got 
sick on the way, otherwise he should be afraid they would leave 
him to die, like a dog, in the jungles. We consoled him bj as- 
senting to the companion he wished, and making Bumanika re- 
sponsible that no harm should come to him from any of the risks 
which his imagination conjured up. Bumanika then gave him 
and Ul^di, his selected companion, some sheets of mbugu, in order 
that they might disguise themselves as his officers while crossing 
the territories of the King of Uganda. On inquiring as to the 
reason of this, it transpired that, to reach Unyoro, the party would 
have to cross a portion of Uddu, which the late king Sunna, on 
annexing that country to Uganda, had divided, not in halves, but 
by alternate bands running transversely from Nkol^ to the Vic- 
toria N'yanza. 

5th and 6th. To keep Bumanika up to the mark, I introduced 
to him Saidi, one of my men, who was formerly a slave, captured 
in Walamo, on the borders of Abyssinia, to show him, by his sim- 
ilarity to the Wahuma, how it was I had come to the conclusion 
that he was of the same race. Saidi told him his tribe kept cattle 
with the same stupendous horns as those of the Wahuma ; and 
also that, in the same manner, they all mixed blood with milk for 
their dinners, which, to his mind, confirmed my statement At 
night, as there was a partial eclipse of the moon, all the Wangu- 
ana marched up and down from Bumanika's to Nnanaji's huts, 
singing and beating our tin cooking-pots to frighten off the spirit 
of the sun from consuming entirely the chief object of reverence, 
the moon. 

7th. Our spirits were now ferther raised by the arrival of a 



Jah.} KABAGUE. 

semi-Hindu-Siiahili, named Juma, who bad just returned from a 
visit to the King of Uganda, bringing back with him a large pres- 
ent of ivory and slaves ; for he said he had heard from the king 
of our intention to visit him, and that he had dispatched ofi&cers 
to call us immediately. This inteUigence delighted Bumanika as 
much as it did us, and he no sooner heard it than he said, with 
ecstasies, "I will open Africa, since the white men desire it; for 
did not Dagara command us to show deference to strangers ?" 
Then, turning to me, he added, " My only regret is, you will not 
take something as a return for the great expenses you have been 
put to in coming to visit me." The expense was admitted, for I 
had now been obliged to purchase from the Arabs upward of 
£400 worth of beads, to keep such a store in reserve for my re- 
turn fix)m Uganda as would enable me to push on to Gondokoro. 
I thought this necessary, as every report that arrived from Unya- 
mu&i only told us of farther disasters with the merchants in that 
country. Sheikh Said was there even then with my poor Hot- 
tentots, unable to convey my post to the coast. 

8ih to lOih. At last we heard the familiar sound of the Uganda 
drum. Maula, a royal ofl&cer, with a large escort of smartly- 
dressed men, women, and boys, leading their dogs and playing 
their reeds, announced to our straining ears the welcome intelli- 
gence that their king had sent them to call us. N'yamgundil, 
who had seen us in Usui, had marched on to inform the king of 
our advance and desire to see him, and he, intensely delighted at 
the prospect of having white men for his guests, desired no time 
should be lost in our coming on. Maiila told us that his officers 
had orders to supply us with every thing we wanted while pass- 
ing through his country, and that there would be nothing to pay. 

One thing only now embarrassed me — Grant was worse, with- 
out hope of recovery for at least one or two montha This large 
body of Waganda could UQt be kept waiting. To get on as fast 
as possible was the only chance of ever bringing the journey to a 
successful issue ; so, unable to help myself, with great remorse at 
another separation, on the following day I consigned my compan- 
ion, with several Wangiiana, to the care of my friend Eumanika. 
I then separated ten loads of beads and thirty copper wires for my 
expenses in Uganda ; wrote a letter to Petherick, which I gave to 
Baraka; and gave him and his companion beads to last as money 
for six months, and also a present both for Kamrasi and the Gani 
chief. To Nsang^z I gave charge of my collections in natural 



240 '^^^ SOUBCB OF THE NILE. [1862. 

histoiy, and the reports of my progress, addressed to the Geo- 
graphical Society, which he was to convey to Sheikh Said at 
Kaz6, for conveyance as far as Zanzibar. 

This business concluded in camp, I started my men and went 
to the palace to bid adieu to Bumanika, who appointed Bozaro, 
one of his officers, to accompany me wherever I went in Uganda, 
and to bring me back safely again. At Riimanika's request, I 
then gave Mt&a's pages some ammunition to hurry on with to the 
great king of Uganda, as his majesty had ordered them to bring 
him, as quickly as possible, some strengthening powder, and also 
some powder for his gun. Then, finally, to Maula, also under En- 
manika's instructions, I gave two copper wires and five bundles 
of beads ; and, when all was completed, set out on the march, per- 
fectly sure in my mind that before very long I should settle the 
great Nile problem forever; and, with this consciousness, only 
hoping that Grant would be able to join me before I should have 
to return again, for it was never supposed for a moment that it 
was possible I ever could go north from Uganda. Riimanika was 
the most resolute in this belief, as the kings of Uganda, ever since 
that country was detached from Unyoro, had been making con- 
stant raids, seizing cattle and slaves from the surrounding coun- 
tries. 



HISTOBT OF THE WAHUMA. 241 



CHAPTER IX. 

HISTOBY OP THE WAHXtllA. 

The AbysBiniaiis and Gallas.— Theoiy of Conquest of inferior by superior Races. — 
The Wahnma and the Kingdom of Eittara. — Legendary History of the Kingdom 
of Uganda. — ^Its Constitution, and the Ceremonials of the Court. 

The reader has now had my experience of several of the minor 
states, and has presently to be introduced to Uganda, the most 
powerful state in the ancient but now divided great kingdom of 
Kittara, I shall have to record a residence of considerable dura- 
tion at the court there ; and, before entering on it, I propose to 
state my theory of the ethnology of that part of Africa inhabited 
by the people collectively styled Wahuma, otherwise GtJlas or 
Abyssinians. My theory is founded on the traditions of the sev- 
eral nations, as checked by my own observation of what I saw 
when passing through them. It appears impossible to believe, 
judging from the physical appearance of the Wahuma, that they 
can be of any other race than the semi-Shem-Hamitic of Ethiopia, 
The traditions of the imperial government of Abyssinia go as far 
back as the scriptural age of King David, from whom the late 
reigning king of Abyssinia, Sah^la S^lassi^, traced his descent 

Most people appear to regard the Abyssinians as a different 
race from the Glallas, but, I believe, without foundation. Both 
alike are Christians of the greatest antiquity. It is true that, 
while the aboriginal Abyssinians in Abyssinia proper are more 
commonly agriculturists, the Gallas are chiefly a pastoral people ; 
but I conceive that the two may have had the same relations with 
each other which I found the Wahuma kings and Wahuma herds- 
men holding with the agricultural Wazinza in Uzinza,-the Wan- 
yambo in Karagil^, the Waganda in Uganda, and the Wanyoro in 
Unyoro. 

In these countries the government is in the hands of foreigners, 
who had invaded and taken possession of them, leaving the agri- 
cultural aborigines to till the ground, while the junior members 
of the usurping clans herded cattle — just as in Abyssinia, or wher- 
ever the Abyssinians or Gallas have shown themselves. There a 

Q 



242 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. 

pastoral clan from the Asiatic side took the government of Abys- 
sinia from its people and have ruled over them ever since, chang- 
ing, by intermarriage with the Africans, the texture of their hair 
and color to a certain extent, but still maintaining a high stamp 
of Asiatic feature, of which a marked characteristic is a bridged 
instead of bridgeless nose. 

It may be presumed that there once existed a foreign but com- 
pact government in Abyssinia, which, becoming great and power- 
ful, sent out armies on all sides of it, especially to the south, south- 
east, and west, slave-hunting and devastating wherever they went, 
and in process of time becoming too great for one ruler to control 
Junior members of the royal family then, pushing their fortunes, 
dismembered themselves from the parent stock, created separate 
governments, and, for reasons which can not be traced, changed 
their namea In this manner we may suppose that the Gallas 
separated from the Abyssinians, and located themselves to the 
south of their native land. 

Other Abyssinians, or possibly Gallas — ^it matters not which 
they were or what we call them — likewise detaching themselves, 
fought in the Somali country, subjugated that land, were defeated 
to a certain extent by the Arabs from the opposite continent, and 
tried their hands south as far as the Jub Eiver, where they also 
left many of their numbers behind. Again they attacked Om- 
wita (the present Mombas), were repulsed, were lost sight of in 
the interior of the continent, and, crossing the Nile close to its 
source, discovered the rich pasture-lands of Unyoro, and founded 
the great kingdom of Kittara, where they lost their religion, for- 
got their language, extracted their lower incisors like the natives, 
changed their national name to Wahuma, and no longer remem- 
bered the names of Hubshi or Galla, though even the present 
reigning kings retain a singular traditional account of their hav- 
ing once been half white and half black, with hair on the white 
side straight, and on the black side frizzly. It wAs a curious in- 
dication of the prevailing idea still entertained by them of their 
foreign extraction, that it was surmised in Unyoro that the ap- 
proach of us white men into their country from both sides at once 
augured an intention on our part to take back the country from 
them. Believing, as they do, that Africa formerly belonged to 
Europeans, from whom it was taken by negroes with whom they 
had allied themselves, the Wahuma make themselves a small res- 
idue of the original European stock driven from the land ; an idea 



HISTORY OF THE WAHUMA. 243 

iiyhich seems natural enough when we consider that the Wahiima 
are, in numbers, quite insignificant compared with the natives. 

Again, the princes of Unyoro are called Wawitu, and point to 
the north when asked where their country Uwitu is situated, 
doubtfully saying, when questioned about its distance, " How can 
we tell circumstances which took place in our forefathers' times? 
-we only think it is somewhere near your country." Although, 
however, this very interesting people, the Wahiima, delight in 
supposing themselves to be of European origin, they are forced 
to confess, on closer examination, that although they came in the 
first instance from the doubtful north, they came latterly from the 
east, as part of a powerful Wahiima tribe, beyond Kidi, who excel 
in arms, and are so fierce no Kidi people, terrible in war as these 
too are described to be, can stand against them. This points, if 
our maps are true, to the Gallas ; for all pastorals in these people's 
minds are Wahiima ; and if we could only reconcile ourselves to 
the belief that the Wawitii derived their name from Omwita, the 
last place they attacked on the east coast of Africa, then all would 
be clear ; for it must be noticed the Wakama, or kings, when ask- 
ed to what race they owe their origin, invariably reply, in the first 
place, from princes — giving, for instance, the titles Wawitii in Un- 
yoro, and Wahinda in Karague — which is most likely caused by 
their never having been asked such a close question before, while 
the idiom of the language generally induces them to call them- 
selves after the name applied to their country. 

So much for ethnological conjecture. Let us now deal with 
the Wahuma since they crossed the Nile and founded the king- 
dom of Kittara^ a large tract of land bounded by the Victoria 
N'yanza and Kitangiil^ Kagdra or Eiver on the south, the Nile 
on the east, the Little Liita-Nzig6 Lake* on tfie north, and the 
kingdoms of Utiimbi and Nkol^ on the west. 

The general name Kittara is gradually becoming extinct, and 
is seldom applied to any but the western portions; while the 
northeastern, in which the capital is situated, is called Unyoro, 
and the other, Uddii apart from Uganda, as we shall presently see. 

Nobody has been able to inform us how many generations old 
the Wahiima government of Unyoro is. The last three kings are 
Chiawambi, N'yawongo, and the present king Kamrasi. In very 
early times dissensions among the royal family, probably contend- 
ing for the crown, such as we presume must have occurred in 
* /. e., Dead Locast Lake — lifitA, dead ; Nzig^ locust. 



244 ^B^ SOURCE OF THE KILE. 

Abyssinia, separated the parent stock, and drove the weaker to 
find refuge in Nkol^, where a second and independent govern- 
ment of Wahiima was established. Since then, twenty genera- 
tions ago, it is said the Wahuma government of Karagii^ was es- 
tablished in the same manner. The conspirator Bohinda fled from 
Kittara to Karagii6 with a large party of Wahiima ; sought the 
protection of Nono, who, a Myambo, was king over the Wanyam- 
bo of that country ; ingratiated himself and his followers with 
the Wanyambo ; and, finally, designing a crown for himself, gave 
a feast, treacherously killed King Nono in his cups^ and set him- 
Hclf on the throne, the first mkama or king who ruled in Kara- 
gu^. Eohinda was succeeded by Ntar6, then Rohinda II., then 
Ntard II., which order only changed with the eleventh reign, 
when Eiisatira ascended the throne, and was succeeded by Me- 
hinga, then Kalim^ra, then Ntar^ Vil., then Eohinda VI., then 
Dagara, and now Eumanika. During this time the Wahuma 
were well south of the equator, and still destined to spread. 
Brothers again contended for the crown of their father, and the 
weaker took refuge in TJzinza, where the fourth Wahuma govern- 
ment was created, and so remained under one king until the last 
generation, when King Eiima died, and his two sons, Eohinda, 
the eldest, and Suwarora, contended for the crown, but divided 
the country between them, Rohinda taking the eastern half, and 
Suwarora the western, at the instigation of the late king Dagara 
of Elaragii^. 

This is the most southerly kingdom of the Wahiima, though 
not the farthest spread of its people, for we find the Watiisi, who 
are emigrants from Karagu^ of the same stock, overlooking the 
Tanganyika Lake from the hills of Uhha, and tending their cattle 
all over TJnyamiidzi under the protection of the native negro 
chiefe; and we also hear that the Wapoka of Fipa, south of the 
Eiikwa Lake, are the same. How or when their name became 
changed from Wahiima to Watiisi no one is able to explain ; but, 
again deducing the past from the present, we can not help sus- 
pecting that, in the same way as .this change has taken place, the 
name Galla may have been changed from Hubshi, and Wahiima 
from Gallas. But though in these southern regions the name of 
the clan has been changed, the princes still retain the title of Wa- 
hinda as in Karagii^, instead of Wawitii as in Unyoro, and are 
considered of such noble breed that many of the pure negro chiefe 
delight in saying I am a mhinda, or prince, to the confusion of 



mSTOBY OP THE WAHUAfA. 246 

travelers, which confusion is increased by the Wahfima habits of 
conforming to the regulations of the different countries they adopt 
For instance, the Wahiima of Uganda and Karagu^, though so 
close to Unjoro, do not extract their lower incisors; and though 
the Wanyoro only use the spear in war, the Wahiima in Eouragu^ 
are the most expert archers in Africa, ""We are thus left only the 
one yery distinguishing mark, the physical appearance of this re- 
markable race, partaking even more of the phlegmatic nature of 
the Shemitic father than the nervous, boisterous temperament of 
the Hamitic mother, as a certain clew to their Shem-Hamitic or- 
igin. 

It remains to speak of the separation of TJddii from Unyoro, 
the present kingdom of Uganda, which, to say the least of it^ is 
extremely interesting, inasmuch as the government there is as 
different fi*om the other surrounding countries as those of Europe 
are compared to Asia. 

In the earliest times the Wahiima of Unyoro regarded all their 
lands bordering on the Victoria Lake as their garden, owing to 
its exceeding fertility, and imposed the epithet of Wiru, or slaves, 
upon its people, because they had to supply the imperial govern- 
ment with food and clothing. Coffee was conveyed to the capital 
by the Wirii, also mbiigii (bark cloaks), from an inexhaustible 
fig-tree ; in short, the lands ef the Wiru were famous for their 
rich productions. 

Now Wiru in the northern dialect changes to Waddii in the 
southern ; hence Uddu, the land of the slaves, which remained in 
one connected line from the Nile to the Eitangul^ E^g^ra until 
eight generations back, when, according to tradition, a sportsman 
from Unyoro, by name Uganda, came with a pack of dogs, a 
woman, a spear, and a shield, hunting on the left bank of Katonga 
valley, not far from the lake. He was but a poor man, though so 
successful in hunting that vast numbers of the Wirii flocked to 
him for flesh, and became so fond of him as to invite him to be 
their king, saying, " Of what avail to us is our present king, living 
so &r away that when we sent him a cow as a tributary offering, 
that cow on the journey gave a calf, and the calf became a cow 
and gave another calf, and so on, and yet the present has not 
reached its destination ?" 

At first Uganda hesitated, on the plea that they had a king al- 
ready ; but, on being farther pressed, consented; when the people, 
hearing his name, said, " Well, let it be so ; and for the future let 



246 ^BB SOURCE OF THE NILE. 

this country between the Nile and E^atonga be called Uganda, 
and let your name be Eam^ra, the first king of Uganda." 

The same night Kim^ra stood upon a stone with a spear in his 
hand, and a woman and dog sitting by his side ; and to this day 
people assert that his footprints and the mark left by his spear- 
end, as well as the seats of the woman and dog, are visible. The 
report of these circumstances soon reached the great king of Un- 
yoro, who, in his magnificence, merely said, " The poor creature 
must be starving; allow him to feed there if he likes." The 
kings who have succeeded Kimera are, 1. Mahanda; 2. E^t^r^za; 
3. Chabago ; 4. Simakokiro ; 5. Kamanya ; 6. Sunna ; 7. Mt^ 
not yet crowned. 

These kings have all carried on the same system of government 
as that commenced by Kimera, and proved themselves a perfect 
terror to Unyoro, as we shall see in the sequel. Kimdra, sudden- 
/ ly risen to eminence, grew proud and headstrong — formed a 

^ strong clan around him, whom he appointed to be his Wakungu, 

or officers — rewarded well, punished severely, and soon became 
magnificent Nothing short of the grandest palace, a throne to 
sit upon, the largest harem, the smartest officers, the best-dressed 
people, even a menagerie for pleasure — in fact, only the best of 
every thing — would content him. Fleets of boats, not canoes, 
were built for war, and armies formed, that the glory of the king 
might never decrease. In short, the system of government, ac- 
cording to barbarous ideas, was perfect. Highways were cut 
from one extremity of the country to the other, and all riveia 
bridged. No house could be built without its necessary append- 
ages for cleanliness ; no person, however poor, could expose his 
person ; and to disobey these laws was death. 

After the death of Kimera, the prosperity of Uganda never de- 
creased, but rather improved. The clan of officers formed by him 
were as proud of their emancipation from slavery as the king 
they had created was of his dominion over them. They buried 
Kimdra with state honors, giving charge of the body to the late 
/ king's most favorite consort, whose duty it was to dry the corpse 
by placing it on a board resting on the mouth of an earthen open 
pot heated by fire from below. When this drying process was 
completed, at the expiration of three months, the lower jaw was 
cut out and neatly worked over with beads; the umbilical cord, 
which had been preserved from birth, was also worked with 
beads. These were kept apart, but the body was consigned to a 



■ \ 



HISTORY OF THE WAHUBiA. 249 

tomb, and guarded ever after by this officer and a certain number 
of the king's next most favorite women, all of whom planted gar- 
dens for their maintenance, and were restricted from seeing the 
succeeding king. 

Bj his large establishment of wives, Kim^ra left a number of 
princes or Warangira, and as many princesses. From the wa- 
rangira the wakungu now chose as their king the one whom 
they thought best suited for the government of the country; not 
of too high rank by the mother's side, lest their selection in his 
pride should kill them all, but one of low birth. The rest were 
placed with wives in a suite of huts, under charge of a keeper, to 
prevent any chance of intrigues and dissensions. They were to 
enjoy life until the prince elect should arrive at the age of dis- 
cretion and be crowned, when all but two of the princes would 
be burnt to death, the two being reserved in case of accident as 
long as the king wanted brother companions, when one would be 
banished to Unyoro, and the other pensioned with suitable pos- 
sessions in Uganda. The mother of the king by this measure be- 
came queen-dowager, or N'yamasor^. She halved with her son 
all the wives of the deceased king not stationed at his grave, tak- 
ing second choice ; kept up a palace only little inferior to her 
son's with large estates, guided the prince elect in the government 
of the country, and remained until the end of his minority the 
virtual ruler of the land ; at any rate, no radical political changes 
could take place without her sanction. The princesses became 
the wives of the king ; no one else could marry them. 

Both mother and son had their Katikiros or commander-in-chief, 
also titled Elamraviona, as well as other officers of high rank. 
Among them, in due order of gradation, are the Ilmas, a woman 
who had the good fortune to have cut the umbilical cord at the 
king's birth; the Sawaganzi, queen's sister and king's barber; 
Kaggao, Pokino, Sakibobo, Kitunzi, and others, governors of 
provinces ; Jumba, admiral of the fleet ; Kasuju, guardian of the 
king's sisters; Mkiienda, factor; Kunsa and Usungu, first and 
second class executioners ; Mgemma, commissioner in charge of 
tombs; S^ruti, brewer ; Mfumbiro, cook; numerous pages to run 
messages and look after the women, and minor wakungu in 
hundreds. One Mkungu is always over the palace, in command 
of the "Wanagalali, or guards, which are changed monthly ; an- 
other is ever in attendance as seizer of refractory persons. There 
are also in the palace almost constantly the Wanangalavi, or 



250 '^^^ SOURCE OF THE NILE. 

drummers; Nsas^, pea-gourd rattlers ; Mil^l^, flute-players ; Mu- 
kond^ri, clarionet players ; also players on wooden harmonicoDS 
and lap-harps, to which the players sing accompaniments ; and, 
lastly, men who whistle on their fingers — for music is half the 
amusement of these courts. Every body in Uganda is expected 
to keep spears, shields, and dogs, the Uganda arms and cogni- 
zance, while the wakungii are entitled to drums. There is also 
a Neptune Mgussa, or spirit, who lives in the depths of the 
N'yanza, communicates through the medium of his temporal 
mkungu, and guides to a certain extent the naval destiny of the 
king. 

It is the duty of all officers, generally speaking, to attend at 
court as constantly as possible ; should they fail, they forfeit their 
lands, wives, and all belongings. These will be seized and given 
to others more worthy of them, as it is presumed that either in- 
solence or disaflfection can be the only motive which would in- 
duce any person to absent himself for any length of time fix>m 
the pleasure of seeing his sovereign. Tidiness in dress is impera- 
tively necessary, and for any neglect of this rule the head maybe 
the forfeit. The punishment for such offenses, however, may be 
commuted by fines of cattle, goats, fowls, or brass wire. All acts 
of the king are counted benefits, for which he must be thanked; 
and so every deed done to his subjects is a gift received by them, 
though it should assume the shape of flogging or fine; for are not 
these, which make better men of them, as necessary as any thing? 
The thanks are rendered by groveling on the ground, flounder- 
ing about and whining after the manner of happy dogs, after 
which they rise up suddenly, take up sticks — spears are not al- 
lowed to be carried in court — ^make as if charging the king, jab- 
bering as fast as tongues can rattle, and so they swear fidelity for 
all their lives. 

This is the greater salutation; the lesser one is performed 
kneeling in an attitude of prayer, continually throwing open the 
hands, and repeating sundry words. Among them the word 
"n'yanzig" is the most frequent and conspicuous; and hence 
these gesticulations receive the general designation n'yanzig, a 
term which will be frequently met with, and which I have found 
it necessary to use like an English verb. In consequence of these 
salutations, there is more ceremony in court than business, though 
the king, ever having an eye to his treasury, continually finds 
some trifling fault, condemns the head of the culprit, takes his 



HISTORY OF THE WAHUMA. 251 

f 
liquidation-present, if he has any thing to pay, and thus keeps up 
his revenue. 

No one dare stand before the king while he is either standing 
still or sitting, but must approach him with downcast eyes and 
bended knees, and kneel or sit when arrived. To touch the 
king's throne or clothes, even by accident, or to look upon his 
women, is certain death. When sitting in court holding a lev6e, 
the king invariably has in attendance several women, Wabandwa, 
evil-eye averters or sorcerers. They talk in feigned voices raised 
to a shrillness almost amounting to a scream. They wear dried 
lizards on their heads, small goatskin aprons trimmed with little 
bells, diminutive shields and spears set off with cock-hackles, their 
functions in attendance being to administer cups of marwa (plan- 
tain wine). To complete the picture of the court, one must im- 
agine a crowd of pages to run royal messages ; they dare not 
walk, for such a deficiency in zeal to their master might cost their 
life. A farther feature of the court consists in the national sym- 
bols already referred to — ^a dog, two spears, and shield. 

With the company squatting in a large half circle, or three 
sides of a square, many deep, before him, in the hollow of which 
are drummers and other musicians, the king, sitting on his throne 
in high dignity, issues his orders for the day much to the follow- 
ing effect: " Cattle, women, and children are short in Uganda; an 
army must be formed of one to two thousand strong to plunder 
Unyoro. The Wasoga have been insulting his subjects, and must 
be reduced to subjection ; for this emergency another army must 
be formed, of equal strength, to act by land in conjunction with 
the fleet The Wahaiya have paid no tribute to his greatness 
lately, and must be taxed." For all these matters the command- 
er-in-chief tells off the divisional ofl&cers, who are approved by the 
king, and the matter is ended in court. The divisional officers 
then find subordinate officers, who find men, and the army pro- 
ceeds with its march. Should any fail with their mission, re-en- 
forcements are sent, and the runaways, called women, are drilled 
with a red-hot iron until they are men no longer, and die for their 
cowardice. All heroism, however, insures promotion. The king 
receives his army of officers with great ceremony, listens to their 
exploits, and gives as rewards women, cattle, and command over 
men — the greatest elements of wealth in Uganda — ^with a liberal 
hand. 

As to the minor business transacted in court, culprits are 



252 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. 

broaght in bound bj officers, and reported. At once the sen* 
tence is given, perhaps awarding the most torturous, lingering 
death — probably without trial or investigation, and, for all the 
king knows, at the instigation of some one influenced by wicked 
spite. K the accused endeavor to plead his defense^ his voice is 
at once drowned, and the miserable victim dragged off in the . 
roughest manner possible by those officers who love their king, 
and delight in promptly carrying out his orders. Young virgins, 
the daughters of wakuugu, stark naked, and smeared with greaae, 
but holding, for decency's sake, a small square of mbiigii at the 
upper corners in both hands before them, are presented by their 
fathers in propitiation for some offense, and to fill the harem. 
Seizing-officers receive orders to hunt down wakungii who have 
committed some indiscretions, and to confiscate their lands, wives, 
children, and property. An officer observed to salute informally 
is ordered for execution, when every body near him rises in an 
instant, the drums beat, drowning his cries, and the victim of care- 
lessness is dragged off, bound by cords, by a dozen men at once. 
Another man, perhaps, exposes an inch of naked leg while squat- 
ting, or has his mbiigu tied contrary to regulations, and is con- 
demned to the same fate. 

Fines of cows, goats, and fowls are brought in and presented ; 
they are smoothed down by the offender's hands, and then ap- 
plied to his face, to show there is no evil spirit lurking in the 
gift ; then thanks are proffered for the leniency of the king in let- 
ting the presenter off so cheaply, and the pardoned man retires, 
full of smiles, to the ranks of the squatters. Thousands of cattle, 
and strings of women and children, sometimes the result of a vic- 
torious plundering hunt, or else the accumulated seizures from 
refractory wakungu, are brought in ; for there is no more com- 
mon or acceptable offering to appease the king's wrath toward 
any refractory or blundering officer than a present of a few young 
beauties, who may perhaps be afterward given as the reward of 
good service to other officers. 

Stick-charms, being pieces of wood of all shapes, supposed to 
have supernatural virtues, and colored earths, endowed with sim- 
ilar qualities, are produced by the royal magicians. The master 
of the hunt exposes his spoils, such as antelopes, cats, porcupines, 
curious rats, etc., all caught in nets, and placed in baskets, zebra, 
lion, and buffalo skins being added. The fishermen bring their 
spoils ; also the gardeners. The cutlers show knives and forks 



\ 



mSTOEY OF THE WAHUMA. 

made of iron inlaid with brass and copper; the farriers, most 
beautifully-sewn patchwork of antelopes' skins ; the habit-maker, 
sheets of mbugu bark-cloth; the blacksmith, spears; the Quaker 
of shields, his productions, and so forth ; but nothing is ever giv- 
en without rubbing it down, then rubbing the £Eice, and goin^ 
through a long form of salutation for the gracious favor the king 
has shown in accepting it. v 

When tired of business, the king rises, spear in hand, and, lead- >. 

ing his dog, walks off without word or comment, leaving his com- ■ 

pany, like dogs, to take care of themselves. 

Strict as the discipline of the exterior court is, that of the inte- 
rior is not less severe. The pages all wear turbans of cord made, 
from aloe fibres. Should a wife commit any trifling indiscretion, 
either by word or deed, she is condemned to execution on the 
spot, bound by the pages and dragged out Notwithstanding the 
stringent laws for the preservation of decorum by all male attend- 
ants, stark-naked full-grown women are the valets. 

On the first appearance of the new moon every month, the king 
shuts himself up, contemplating and arranging his magic horns — 
the horns of wild animals stuffed with charm-powder — for two or 
three daya These may be counted his Sundays or church festi- 
vals, which he dedicated' to devotion. On other days he takes his 
women, some hundreds, to bathe or sport in ponds ; or, when 
tired of that, takes long walks, his women running after him, 
when all the musicians fall in, take precedence of the party, fol- 
lowed by the wakungii and pages, with the king in the centre of 
the procession, separating the male company fi'om the fair sex. 
On these excursions no common man dare look upon the royal 
procession. Should any body by chance happen to be seen, he is 
at once hunted down by the pages, robbed of every thing he pos- 
sesses, and may count himself very lucky if nothing worse hap- 
pens. Pilgrimages are not uncommon, and sometimes the king 
spends a fortnight yachting ; but whatever he does, or wherever 
he goes, the same ceremonies prevail — ^his musicians, wakungu, 
pages, and the wives take part in all. 

But the greatest of all ceremonies takes place at the time of the 
coronation. The prince-elect then first seeks favor from the kings 
of all the surrounding countries, demanding in his might and 
power one of each of their daughters in marriage, or else recogni- 
tion in some other way, when the ilmas makes a pilgrimage to 
the deceased king's tomb, to observe, by the growth and other 



\ 



254 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. 

signs of certain trees and plants, what destiny awaits the king 
According to the prognostics, they report that he will either have 
to live a life of peace, or, after coronation, take the field at the 
head of an army to fight either east, west, or both ways, when 
usually the first march is on Kittara, and the second on IJsoga. 
The mgussa^s voice is also heard, but in what manner I do not 
know, as all communication on state matters is forbidden in Ugan- 
da. These preliminaries being arranged, the actual coronation 
takes place, when the king ceases to hold any farther communion 
with his mother. The brothers are burnt to death, and the king, 
we shall suppose, takes the field at the head of his army. 

It is as the result of these expeditions that one half Usoga and 
the remaining half of Uddu have been annexed to Uganda. 



Jah.3 KABAGUE and UGANDA. 265 



CHAPTEE X. 

KARAGlt6 AND UGANDA. 

Gtoftpe from Frotecton. — Crp68 the EitangtlM, the first Affldent of the Nile. — Enter 
Uddli. — Uganda. — ^A rich Conntry. — Driving away the Devil. — A Conflict in the 
Camp. — A pretending Prince. — ^Three Pages witli a diplomatic Message from the 
King of Uganda. — Crime in Uganda. 

Crossing back over the Weranhanj6 spur, I put up with the 
Arabs at Kufro. ' Here, for the first time in this part 
of the world, I found good English peas growing. 
Next day (11th), crossing over a succession of forks, supporters to 
the main spur, we encamped at Liiandalo. Here we were over- 
taken by Eozaro, who had remained behind, as I now found, to 
collect a large number of Wanyambo, whom he called his chil- 
dren, to share with him the gratuitous living these creatures al- 
ways look out for on a march of this nature. 
After working round the end <rf the great spur, while following 
down the crest of a fork, we found Karagii^ separated 
by a deep valley from the hilly country of Uhaiya,. 
famous for its ivory and coffee productions. On entering the rich 
plantain gardens of Kisaho, I was informed we must halt there a 
day for Maula to join us, as he had been detained by Eiimanika, 
who, wishing to give him a present, had summoned Rozaro's sis- 
ter to his palace for that purpose. She was married to another, 
and had two children by him, but that did not signify, as it was 
found in time her husband had committed a fault, on account of 
which it was thought necessary to confiscate all his property. 
At this place all the people were in a constant state of inebri- 
ety, drinking pomb^ all day and all night. I shot a 
montana antelope, and sent its head and skin back to 
Grant, accompanied with my daily report to Rumanika. 
Maiila having joined me, we marched down to near the end 
of the fork overlooking the plain of Kitangul^, the 
Waganda drums beating, and whistles playing all the 
way as we went along. 
We next descended from the Mountains of the Moon, and span- 



256 



THE SOURCE OF THE NH-E. 



[1862. 



ToKlUngfil6, 
lUh. 



ned a long alluvial plain to the settlement of the so- 
long-heard-of Kitangiil^, "where Rumanika keeps his 
thousands and thousands of cows. In former days the dense 
green forests peculiar to the tropics, which grow in swampy places 
about this plain, were said to have been stocked by vast herds of 
elephants ; but, since the ivory trade had increased, these animals 
had all been driven oflF to the hills of Kisiwa and Uhaiya, or into 
Uddii beyond the river, and all the way down to the N'yanza. 
To-day we reached the Kitangiild Kag^ra, or river, which, as I 
ascertained in the year 1868, falls into the Victoria 
N'yanza on the west side. Most unfortunately, as we 
led off to cross it, rain began to pour, so that every body and ev- 
ery thing was thrown into confusion. I could not get a sketch 
of it, though Grant was more fortunate afterward, neither could I 
measure or fathom it ; and it was only after a long contest with 
the superstitious boatmen that they allowed me to cross in their 
canoe with my shoes on, as they thought the vessel would either 
upset, or else the river would dry up, in consequence of their Nep- 



To Ndongo, 16th. 




— — ^l^^^^r^- -^'if 



Ferry on the KitangOl^ Biver. 



tune taking oflfense at me. Once over, I looked down on the no- 
ble stream with considerable pride. About eighty yards broad, 
it was sunk down a considerable depth below the surface of the 



Jan.] KABAGUE AND UGANDA. 257 

land, like a huge canal, and is so deep it could not be poled by 
the canoemen, while it runs at a velocity of from three to four 
knots an hour. 

I say I viewed it with pride, because I had formed my judg- 
ment of its being fed from high-seated springs in the Mountains 
of the Moon solely on scientific geographical reasonings ; and, 
from the bulk of the stream,! also believed those mountains must 
attain an altitude of 8000 feet* or more, just as we find they do 
m Buanda. I thought then to myself, as I did at Bumanika^s, 
when I first viewed the Mfumbiro cones, and gathered all my dis- 
tant geographical information there, that these highly saturated 
Mountains of the Moon gave birth to the Congo as well as to the 
Nile, and also to the Shird branch of the Zamb^z^. 

I came, at the same time, to the conclusion that all our previous 
information concerning the hydrography of these regions, as well 
as the Mountains of the Moon, originated with the ancient Hin- 
dus, who told it to the priests of the Nile ; and that all those busy 
Egj^tian geographers, who disseminated their knowledge with a 
view to be famous for (heir long-sightedness, in solving the deep- 
seated mystery which enshrouded the source of their holy river, 
were so many hypothetical humbugs. Eeasoning thus, the Hindu 
traders alone, in those days, I believed, had a firm basis to stand 
upon, from their intercourse with the Abyssinians — through whom 
they must have heard of the country of Amara, which they ap- 
plied to the N'yanza — ^and with the Wanyamu^zi or men of the 
Moon, from whom they heard of the Tanganyika and Karagu($ 
mountains. I was all the more impressed with this belief by 
knowing that the two Church missionaries, Kebmann and Erhardt, 
without the smallest knowledge of the Hindus' map, constructed 
a map of their own, deduced from the Zanzibar traders, something 
on the same scale, by blending the Victoria N'yanza, Tanganyika, 
and N'yassa into one ; while to their triuned lake they gave the 
name Moon, because the men of the Moon happened to live in 
front of the central lake. And later still, Mr. Leon, another mis- 
sionary, heard of the N'yanza and the country Amara, near which 
he heard the Nile made its escape. 

Going on with the march we next came to Ndongo, a perfect 
garden of plantains. The whole country was rich — most sur- 
prisingly so. The same streaky argillaceous sandstones prevailed 
as in Karagu^. There was nothing, in fact, that would not have 

* In *' Blackwood's Magazine" for Angnst, 1859. 
S 



'258 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE, [1862. 

grown here, if it liked moisture and a temperate heat It was a 
perfect paradise for negroes : as fast as tbey sowed, thej were sare 
of a crop without much trouble; though, I must say, they kept 
their huts and their gardens in excellent order. 

As Maiila would stop here, I had to halt also. The whole 
country along the banks of the river, and near some 
impenetrable forests, was alive with antelopes, prin- 
cipally hartebeests, but I would not fire at them until it was time 
to return, as the villagers led me' to expect bufialoes. The conse- 
quence was, as no buflfaloes were to be found, I got no sport, 
though I wounded a hartebeest, and followed him almost into 
camp, when I gave up the chase to some negroes, and amused 
myself by writing to Eiimanika, to say if Grant did not reach me 
by a certain date, I would try to navigate the N'yanza, and ret¥im 
to him in boats up the Kitangiil^ Eiver. 

We crossed over a low spur of hill extending from the moun- 
ToNgMiiWri, tainous kingdom of Nkold, on our left, toward the 
i%th, N'yanza. Here I was showb by Nasib a village call- 

ed Ngandu, which was the farthest trading ddpot of the Zanzibar 
ivory-merchants. It was established by Miisa Mzuri, by the per- 
mission of Eiimanika; for, as I shall have presently to mention, 
Sunna, after annexing this part of Uddu to Uganda, gave Euma- 
nika certain bands of territory in it as a means of security against 
the possibility of its being wrested out of his hands again by the 
future kings of Unyoro. Following on Musa's wake, many Arabs 
also came here to trade ; but they were so oppressive to the Wa- 
ganda that they were recalled by Eiimanika', and obliged to locate 
themselves at Kufro. To the right, at the end of the spur, stretch- 
ing as far as the eye could reach toward the N'yanza, was a rich, 
well-wooded, swampy plain, containing large open patches of 
water, which not many years since, I was assured, were navigable 
for miles, but now, like the TJrigi Lake, were gradually drying 
up. Indeed, it appeared to me as if the N'yanza must have once 
washed the foot of these hills, but had since shrunk away from its 
original margin. 

On arrival at Ngambdzi, I was immensely struck with the neat- 
ness and good arrangement of the place, as well as its excessive 
beauty and richness. No part of Bengal or Zanzibar could excel 
it in either respect; and my men, "with one voice, exclaimed, 
" Ah I what people these Waganda are !" and passed other re- 
marks, which may be abridged as follows: "They build their 



TLi-: . 






JiH.] EABAGUE AND UGANDA. 261 

hats and keep their gardens just as well as we do at Ungiija, with 
screens and inclosares for privacy, a clearance in front of their 
establishments, and a baraza or recej^on-hut facing the build- 
ings. Then, too, what a beautiful prospect it has I rich marshy 
plains studded with mounds, on each of which grow the umbrella 
cactus, or some other evergreen tree ; and beyond, again, another 
hill-spur such as the one we have crossed over." One of King 
Mtdsa's uncles, who had not been burnt to death by the order of 
the late king Sunnn on his ascension to the throne, was the pro- 
prietor of this place, but unfortunately he was from home. How- 
ever, his substitute gave me his baraza to live in, and brought 
many presents of goats, fowls, sweet potatoes, yams, plantains, 
SQgar-cane, and Indian com, and apologized in the end for defi- 
ciency in hospitality. I, of course, gave him beads in return. 

Continuing over the same kind of ground in the next succeed- 
To seminu, iog spurs of the streaky red-clay sandstone hills, we 
^*'*- put up at the residence of Isamg^vi, a mkungu or 

district officer of Biimanika's. His residence was as well kept as 
Mt&a's uncle's ; but, instead of a baraza fronting his house, he 
had a small inclosure, with three small huts in it, kept apart for 
devotional purposes, or to propitiate the evil spirits — ^in short, ac- 
cording to the notions of the place, a church. This officer gave 
me a cow and some plantains, and I, in return, gave him a wire 
and some beads. Many mendicant women, called by some wich- 
w6zi, by others mabandwa, all wearing the most fantastic dresses 
of mbugu, covered with beads, shells, and sticks, danced before 
us, singing a comic song, the chorus of which was a long, shrill, 
rolling Coo-roo-coo-roo, coo-roo-coo-roo, delivered as they came to 
a standstill. Their true functions were just as obscure as the re- 
ligi(Mi of the negroes generally ; some called them devil-drivers, 
others evil-eye averters ; but, whatever it was for, they imposed 
a tax on the people, whose minds being governed by a necessity 
for making some self-sacrifice to propitiate something, they could 
not tell what, for their welfare in the world, they always gave 
them a trifle in the same way as the East Indians do their fakirs. 

After crossing another low swampy flat, we reached a much 
ToKkMrt. larger group, or rather ramification, of hill-spurs 
***■ pointing to the N'yanza, called Kisu^r^, and com- 

manded by M'yombo, Rumanika's frontier officer. Immediately 
behind this, to the northward, commenced the kingdom of Un- 
yoro; and here it was, they said, Baraka would branch off my 



262 THE SOURCE OF THE NILK [1862. 

line on his way to Kamrasi. Maula's home was one march dis- 
tant from this, so the scoundrel now left me to enjoy himself 
there, giving as his prete^ for doing so that Mt^ required him, 
as soon as I arrived here, to send on a messenger that order might 
be taken for my proper protection on the line of march ; for the 
Waganda were a turbulent set of people, who could only be kept 
in order by the executioner; and doubtless many, as was custom- 
ary on such occasions, would be beheaded, as soon as Mt^ heard 
of my coming, to put the rest in a fright i knew this was all 
humbug, of course, and I told him so ; but it was of no use, and I 
was compelled to halt. 

' On the 23d another officer, named Maribu, came to me and S£dd, 
H•l^90tAto Mt&a, having heard that Grant was left sick behind 
^^ at Karagud, had given him orders to go there and 

fetch him, whether sick or well, for Mt^ was most anxious to 
see white men. Hearing this, I at once wrote to Grant, begging 
him to come on if he could do so, and to bring with him all the 
best of my property, or as much as he could of it, as I now saw 
there was more cunning humbug thap honesty in what Biimanika 
had told me about the impossibility of our going north from 
Uganda, as well as in his saying sick men could not go into 
Uganda, and donkeys without trowsers would not be admitted 
there, because they were considered indecent If he was not wdl 
enough to move, I advised him to wait there until I reached Mt^ 
sa's, when I would either go up the lake and Kitangul6 to fetch 
him away, or would make the king send boats for him, which I 
more expressly wished, as it would tend to give us a much better 
knowledge of the lake. 

Maiila now came again, after receiving repeated and angry 
ToN*7«giiB8a, messages, and I forced him to make a move. He led 
**^ me straight up to his home, a very nice place, in 

which he gave me a very large, clean, and comfortable hut — ^had 
no end of plantains brought for me and my men — ^and said, " Now 
you have really entered the kingdom of Uganda, for the future 
you must buy no more food. At every place that you stop for 
the day, the officer in charge will bring you plantains, otherwise 
your men can help themselves in the gardens, for such are the 
laws of the land when a king's guest travels in it Any one found 
selling any thing to either yourself or your men would be pun- 
ished." Accordingly, I stopped the daily issue of beads ; but no 
sooner had I done so than fJl my men declared they could not ^ 



Jax.] KARAGUE and UGANDA. 268 

eat plaDioina It was all very well, they said, for the Waganda 
to do so, because thej were used to it, but it did not satisfy their . 
hunger. 

Maula, all smirks and smiles, on seeing me order the things out 
for the march, begged I would have patience, and 
wait till the messenger returned from the king; it 
would not take more than. ten days at the most. Much annoyed 
at this nonsense, I ordered my tent to be pitched. I refused all 
Maula's plantains, and gave my men beads to buy grain again 
with ; and, finding it necessary to get up some indignation, said I 
would not stand being chained like a dog ; if he would not go on 
ahead, I should go without him. Maula then said he would go 
to a friend's and come back again. I said, if he did not, I should 
go off; and so the conversation ended. 

• 26(h. Drumming, singing, screaming, yelling, and dancing had 
been going on these last two days and two nights to drive the 
ph^po or devil out of a village. The whole of the ceremonies 
were most ludicrous. An old man and woman, smeared with 
white mud, and holding pots of pombd in their laps, sat in front 
of a hut, while other people kept constantly bringing them bask- 
ets full of plantain-squash, and more pots of pombd. In the court- 
yard fronting them were hundreds of men and women dressed in 
smart mbugiis — the males wearing for turbans strings of abrus- 
seeds wound round their heads, with polished boars' tusks stuck 
in in a jaunty manner. These were the people who, all drunk as 
fifers, were keeping up such a continual row to frighten the devil 
away. In t|ie midst of this assemblage I now found Kachuchu, 
Bumanika's representative, who went on ahead from Karague 
palace to tell Mtdsa that I wished to visit him. With him, he 
said, were two other wakungu of Mtesa's, who had orders to bring 
on my party and Dr. K'yengo's. Mtfisa, he said, was so mad to 
see us, that the instant he. arrived at the palace and told him we 
wished to visit him, the king caused '^ fifty big men and four 
hundred small ones" to be executed, because, he said, his subjects 
were so bumptious they would not allow any visitors to come 
near him, else he would have had white men before. 

27th. N'yamgundii, my old friend at Usui, then came to me, 
and said he was the first man to tell Mt^ of our arrival in Usui, 
and wish to visit him. The handkerchief I had given Irungii at 
Usui to present as a letter to Mt&a he had snatched away from 
him^ and given, himself, to his king, who no sooner received it 



264 ' THE SOUECE OF THE NILE. [1862- 

than be bound it round his head and said, in ecstasies o5 delight, 
^^ Ob, the mzungu, the mzungul be does indeed want to see me." 
Then giving him four cows as a return letter to take to me, he 
said, " Hurry off as quickly as possible and bring him here." 
" The cows," said N'yamgundu, " have gone on to Kisu^rd by 
another route, but I will bring them here ; and then, as Maula is 
taking you, I will go and fetch Grant." I then told him not to 
be in such a hurry. I had turned off Maula for treating me like 
a dog, and I would not be escorted by him again. He replied 
that his orders would not be fully accomplished as long as any 
part of my establishment was behind ; so he would, if I wished 
it, leave part of his '^ children" to guide me on to Mtesa's, while 
he went to fetch Grant. An officer, I assured him, had just gond 
on to fetch Grant, so he need not trouble his head on that score; 
at any rate, he might reverse his plan, and send his children for 
Grant, while he went on with me, by which means he would fully 
accomplish his mission. Long arguments ensued, and I at length 
turned the tables by asking who was the greatest — myself or my 
children ; when he said, "As I see you are the greatest, I will do 
as you wish ; and after fetching the cows from Kisu^rd, we will 
march to-morrow at sunrise." 

The sun rose, but N'yamgundu did not appear. I was greatly 
TtoMaahond^ auuoycd Icst Maula should .come and try to drive 
^^ him away. I waited, restraining my impatience un- 

til noon, when, as I could stand it no longer, I ordered Bombay 
to strike my tent and commence the march. A scene followed, 
which brought out my commander-in-chief's temper in a raider 
surprising shape. "How can we go?" said Bombay. "Strike 
the tent," said I. "Who will guide us?" said Bombay. "Strike 
the tent," I said again. "But Bumanika's men have all gone 
away, and there is no one to show us the way." " Never mind ; 
obey my orders, and strike the tent" Then, as Bombay would 
not do it, I commenced myself, assisted by some of my other men, 
and pulled it down over his head, all the women who were as- 
sembled under it, and all the property. On this, Bombay flew 
into a passion, abusing the men who were helping me, as there 
were fires and powder-boxes under the tent I of course had to 
fly into a passion and abuse Bombay. He, in a still greater rage, 
said he would pitch into the men, for the whole place would be 
blown up. " That is no reason why you should abuse my men," 
I said, " who are better than you by obeying my orders. If I 



Jak.] KARAOUE and UGANDA. 265 

choose to blow up my property, that is my look-out ; and if you 
don't do your duty, I wiU blow you up also." Foaming and 
roaring with rage, Bombay said he would not stand being thus 
insulted. I then gave him a dig on the head with my fist He 
squared up, and pouted like an enraged chameleon, looking sav- 
agely at me. I gave him another dig, which sent him stagger- 
ing. He squared again : I gave him another ; till at last, as the 
claret was flowing, he sulked off, and said he would not serve me 
any more. I then gave Nasib orders to take Bombay's post, and 
commence the march ; but the good old man made Bombay give 
in, and off we wetit, amid crowds of Waganda, who had collected 
to witness this comedy, and were all digging at one another's 
heads, showing off in pantomime the strange ways of the white 
man. N'yamgundu then joined us, and begged us to halt only 
one more day, as some of his women were still at KisH^r^ ; but 
Bombay, showing his nozzle rather flatter than usual, said, '^ No ; 
I got this on account of your lies. I won't tell Bana any more 
of your excuses for stopping ; you may tell him yourself, if you 
like." N'yamgundu, however, did not think this advisable, and 
so we went on as we were doing. It was the first and last time 
I had ever occasion to lose my dignity by striking a blow with 
my own hands ; but I could not help it on this occasion without 
losing command and respect; for, although I often had occasion 
to award 100 and even 150 lashes to my men for stealing, I could 
not, for the sake of due subordination, sllow any inferior officer to 
strike Bombay, and therefore had to do the work myself. 

Skirting the hills on the left, with a large low plain to the 
right, we soon came on one of those numerous rush-drains that 
appear to me to be the last waters left of the old bed of the 
N'yanza. This one in particular was rather large, being 150 
yards wide. It was sunk where I crossed it, like a canal, 14 feet 
below the plain ; and what with mire and water combined, so 
deep, I was obliged to take off my trowsers while fording it 
Once across, we sought for and put up in a village beneath a 
small hill, from the top of which I saw the Victoria N'yanza for 
the first time on this march. N'yamgundu delighted me much : 
treating me as a king, he always fell down on his knees to ad- 
dress me, and made all his '^ children" look after my comfort in 
camp. 

We marched on again over the same kind of ground, alternate- 
ly crossing rush-drains of minor importance, though provokingly 



266 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

frequent, and rich gardens, from which, as we passed, 
all the inhabitants bolted at the sound of our drams^ 
knowing well that they would be seized and punished if found 
gazing at the king's visitors. Even on our arrival at Ukara not 
one soul was visible. The huts of the villagers were showa to 
myself and my men without any ceremony. The "Wanyambo 
escort stole what they liked out of them, and I got into no end 
of troubles trying to stop the practice; for they said the Waganda 
served them the same way when they went to Karagu^, and they 
had. a right to retaliate now. To obviate this distressing sort of 
plundering, I still served out beads to my men, and so kept them 
in hand a little; but they were fearfully unruly, and did not like 
my interference with what, by the laws of the country they con- 
sidered their right. 
Here I had to stop a day for some of N'yamgundtf s women, 
who, in my hurry at leaving Maula's, were left be- 
hind. A letter from Grant was now brought to me 
by a very nice-looking young man, who had the skin of a leopard- 
cat {F. Serval) tied round his neck — a badge which royal person- 
ages only were entitled to wear. N'yamgundii, seeing this, as be 
knew the young man was not entitled to wear it, immediately or- 
dered his " children" to wrench it from him. Two ruffianly fel- 
lows then seized him by his hands, and twisted his arms round 
and round until I thought they would come out of their sockets. 
Without uttering a sound, the young man resisted, until N'yam- 
gundii told them to be quiet, for he would hold a court on the 
subject, and see if the young man could defend himself. The 
ruffians then sat on the ground, but still holding on to him, while 
N'yamgundii took up a long stick, and, breaking it into sundry 
bits of equal length, placed one by one in front of him, each of 
which was supposed to represent one number in line of succession 
to his forefathers. By this it was proved he did not branch in 
any way from the royal stock. N'yamgundii, then turning, to the 
company, said, What would he do now to expiate his folly? If 
the matter was taken before Mt^ he would lose his head ; was 
it not better he should pay one hundred cows? All agreeing to 
this, the young man said he would do so, and quietly allowed the 
skin to be untied and taken off by the ruffians. 
Next day, after crossing more of those abominable rush-drains, 
while in sight of the^ Victoria N'yanza, we ascended 
the most beautiful hills, covered with verdure of all 



fkb.2 kabague and UGAin>A. 267 

de8cription& At M^ruka, where I put up, there resided some 
grandees, the chief of whom was the king's aunt She sent me a 
goat, a hen, a basket of eggs, and some plantains, in return for 
which I sent her a wire and some beads. I felt inclined to stop 
here a month, every thing was so very pleasant The tempera- 
ture was perfect The roads, as indeed they were every where, 
were as broad as our coach-roads, cut through the long grasses, . 
straight over the hills and down through the woods in the dells 
— ^a strange contrast to the wretched tracks in all the adjacent 
countries. The huts were kept so clean and so neat, not a &ult 
could be found with them — ^the gardens the same. Wherever I 
strolled I saw nothing but richness, and what ought to be wealth. 
The whole land was a picture of quiescent beauty, with a bound- 
less sea in the background. Looking over the hills, it struck the 
fancy at once that at one period the whole land must have been 
at a uniform levd with their present tops, but that, by the con- 
stant denudation it was subjected to by frequent rains, it had been 
cut down and sloped into those beautiful hills and dales which 
now so rau6h pleased the eye; for there were none of those 
quartz dikes I had seen protruding through the same kind of 
aqueous formations in Usiii and Karagu^ nor were there any oth- 
er sorts of volcanic disturbance to distort the calm, quiet aspect 
of the scene. 

From this, the country being all hill and dale, with miry rush- 
roBma^6A,UL ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ bottoms, I walked, carrying my shoes 
and stockings in my hands, nearly all the way. Bo- 
zaro's " children" became more and more troublesome, stealing 
every thing they could lay their hands upon out of the village 
huts we passed on the way. On arrival at Sangua, I found many 
of them had been seized by some men, who, bolder than the rest, 
had overtaken them while gutting their huts, and made them 
prisoners, demanding of me two slaves and one load of beads for 
their restitution. I sent my men back to see what had happened, 
and ordered them to bring all the men on to me, that I might see 
fair play. They, however, took the law into their own hands, 
drove off the Waganda villagers by firing their muskets, and re- 
lieved, the thieves. A complaint was then laid against N'yam- 
gundii by the chief officer of the village, and I was requested to 
halt That I would not do, leaving the matter in the hands of 
the governor general, Mr. Pokino, whom I heard we should find 
at the next station, Masaka. 



268 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

On arrival there at the goyemment establishment — a large col- 
^^ lection of grass huts, separated one from the other 
within large inclosures, which overspread the whole 
top of a low hill — I was requested to withdraw and put up in 
some huts a short distance off, and wait until his excellency, who 
was from home, could come and see me ; which the next day he 
did, coming in state with a large number of officers, who brought 
with them a cow, sundry pots of pomb6, enormous sticks of sug- 
ar-cane, and a large bundle of country coffee. This grows in 
great profusion all over this land in large bushy trees, the berries 
sticking on the branches like clusters of holly-berries. 

I was then introduced, and told that his excellency was the ap- 
pointed governor of all the land lying betweeh the 
Katonga and the KitanguW Rivers. After the first 
formalities were over, the complaint about the officers at Sangua 
was preferred for decision, on which Pokino at once gave it 
against the villagers, as they had no right, by the laws of the land, 
to lay hands on a king's guest. Just then Maiila arrived, and be- 
gan to abuse N'yamgundu. Of course I would not stand this; 
and, after telling all the facts of the case, I begged Pokino to send 
Maiila away out of my camp. Pokino said he could not do this, 
as it was by the king's order he was appointed ; but he put Maii- 
la in the background, laughing at the way he had "let the bird 
fly out of his hands," and settled that N'yamgundii should be my 
guide. I then gave him a wire, and he gave me three large 
sheets of mbiigu, which he said I should require, as there were so 
many water-courses to cross on the road I was going. A second 
day's halt was necessitated by many of my men catching fever, 
probably owing to the constant crossing of those abominable rush- 
drains. There was no want of food here, for I never saw such a 
profusion of plantains any where. They were literally lying in 
heaps on the ground, though the people were brewing pomb^ all 
day, and cooking them for dinner every evening. 

After crossing many more hills and miry bottoms, constantly 
ToVg(mti,6tK coming in view of the lake, we reached Ugonzi, and, 
ToKTtunta,6tA. g^p anothcr march of the same description, came to 
Kituntii, the last officer's residence in Uddii. Formerly it was 
the property of a Beliich named Eseau, who came to this country 
with merchandise, trading on account of Said Said, late Sultan of 
Zanzibar ; but, having lost it all on his way here, paying mahongo, 
or taxes, and so forth, he feared returning, and instead made great 



.rj^il 




Feb.] EABAGUE AND UGANDA. 271 

friends with the late king Sunna, who took an especial &ncy to 
him because he had a yery large beard, and raised him to the 
rank of mkungu. A few years ago, however, Eseau died, and 
left all his &mily and property to a slave named Ul^i, who now, 
in consequence, is the border officer. 

I became now quite puzzled while thinking which was the 
finest spot I had seen in Uddu, so many were exceed- 
ingly beautiful ; but I think I gave the preference to 
this, both for its own immediate neighborhood and the long range 
pf view it afforded of Uganda proper, the lake, and the large isl- 
aind, or group of islands, called S&^, where the King of Uganda 
keeps one of his fleets of boats. 

Some little boys came here who had all their hair shaved oflf 
-. ^^. excepting two round tufts on either side of the head. 

They were the king's pages; and, producing three 
sticks, said they had brought them to me from their king, who 
wanted three charms or medicines. Then placing one stick on 
the ground before me, they said, "This one is a head which, be- 
ing affected by dreams of a deceased relative, requires relief;" the 
second symbolized the king's deftire for the accomplishment of a 
phenomenon to which the old phalic worship was devoted; "and 
this third one," they said, "is a sign that the king wants a charm 
to keep all his subjects in awe of him." I then promised I would 
do what I could when I reached the palace, but feared to do any 
thing in the distance. I wished to go on with the march, but 
was dissuaded by N'yamgundu, who said he had received orders 
to find me some cows here, as his king was most anxious I should 
be well fed. Next day, however, we descended into the Katonga 
vaUey, where, instead of finding a magnificent broad sheet of wa- 
ter, as I had been led to expect by the Arabs' account of it, I 
found I had to wade through a succession of rush-drains divided 
one &om the other by islands. It took me two hours, with my 
clothes tucked up under my arms, to get through them all ; and 
many of them were so matted with weeds that my feet sank down 
as though I trod in a bog. , 

The Waganda all said that at certain times in the year no one 
could ford these drains, as they all flooded ; but, strangely enough, 
they were always lowest when most rain fell in Uganda. No 
one, however, could account for this singular fact. No one knew 
of a lake to supply the waters, nor where they came from. That 
they flowed into the lake there was no doubt — as I could see by 



272 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

the trickling waters in some few places — and they lay exactly on 
the equator. Bising out of the valley, I found all the country 
just as hilly as before, but many of the rush -drains going to 
northward; and in the dells were such magnificent trees they 
quite took me by surprise. Clean-trunked, they towered up just 
as so many great pillars, and then spread out their high branches 
like a canopy over us. I thought of the blue gums of Australia, 
and believed these would beat them. At the village of Mbul<5 
we were gracefully received by the local oflScer, who brought a 
small present, and assured me that the king was in a nervoos 
state of excitement, always asking after me. While speaking he 
trembled, and he was so restless he could never sit still. 

Up and down we went on again through this wonderful coun- 

try, surprisingly rich in grass, cultivation, and trees. 

Water-courses were as frequent as ever, though not 
quite so troublesome to the traveler, as they were more frequently 
bridged with poles or palm-tree trunks. 
This, the next place we arrived at, was N'yamgundxi's own 

residence, where I stopped a day to try and shoot 

To KibibI, 10^. ' ^^ J J 

buffaloea Maiila here had the coolness to tell me he 
must inspect all the things I had brought for presentation to the 
king, as he said it was the custom, after which he would hurry 
on and inform his majesty. Of course I refused, saying it was 
uncourteous to both the king and myself. Still he persisted, un- 
til, finding it hopeless, he spitefully told N'yamgundii to keep me 
here at least two days. N'yamgundu, however, very prudently 
told him he should obey his orders, which were to take me on as 
fiist as he could. I then gave N'yamgundii wires and beads for 
himself and all his family round, which made Maula slink fiirther 
away from me than ever. 
The buffaloes were very numerous in the tall grasses that 

Hal lUA. ^^^^^ ^^® ^^'^ ^^^ bottoms of the hills; but, al- 
though I saw some, I could not get a shot, for the 
grasses, being double the height of myself, afforded them means 
of dashing out of view as soon as seen, and the rustling noise 
made while I followed them kept them on the alert At night a 
hyena came into my hut, and carried off one of my goats that 
was tied to a log between two of my sleeping men. 

During the next march, after passing some of the most beauti- 
To Nakat6ma, fully-wooded dcUs, in which lay small rush-lakes on 
^*^ the right of the road, draining, as I fancied, into the 



Fn.] KARA6UE AND UGANDA. 278 

Victoria Lake, I met with a party of the king's gamekeepers, 
staking their nets all along the side of a hill, hoping to catch an- 
telopes by driving the covers with dogs and men. Farther on, 
also, I came on a party driving one hundred cows, as a present 
from Mtdsa to Bumanika, which the officers in charge said was 
their king's return for the favor Biimanika had done him in send- 
ing me on to him. It was in this way that great kings sent '^let- 
ters" to one another. 

Next day, after going a short distance, we came on the Mwa- 
ToiTyaiMiGo- laDgo Rivcr, a broad rush -drain of three hundred 
nw,i8tA. yards' span, two thirds of which was bridged over. 

Until now I did not feel sure where the various rush-drains I had 
been crossing since leaving the Eatonga valley all went to, but 
here my mind was made up, for I found a large volume of water 
going to the northward. I took off my clothes at the end of the 
bridge and jumped into the stream, which I found was twelve 
yards or so broad, and deeper than my height I was delighted 
beyond measure at this very surprising fact, that I was indeed on 
the northern slopes of the continent, and had, to all appearance, 
found one of the branches of the Nile's exit from the N'yanza. I 
drew Bombay's attention to the current; and, collecting all the 
men of the country, inquired of them where the river sprang 
from. Some of them said, in the hills to the southward ; but 
most of them said, from the lake. I argued the point with them ; 
for I felt quite sure so large a body of flowing water could not be 
collected together in any place but the lake.' They then all 
agreed to this view, and farther assured me it went to Kamrasi's 
palace in TJnyoro, where it joined the N'yanza, meaning the Nile. 

Pushing on again we arrived at N'yama Goma, where I found 
Irungii — the great embassador I had first met in Usiii, with all 
his " children" — my enemy Makinga, and Suwarora's deputation 
with wire — altogether, a collection of one hundred souls. They 
had been here a month waiting for leave to approach the king's 
palace. Not a villager was to be seen for miles round ; not a 
plantain remained on the trees, nor was there even a sweet potato 
to be found in the ground. The whole of the provisions of this 
beautiful place had been devoured by the king's guests, simply 
because he had been too proud to see them in a hurry. This 
was alarming, for I feared I should be served the same trick, es- 
pecially as all the people said this kind of treatment was a mere 
matter of custom which those great kings demanded as a respect 



274 ^TOE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1801. 

due to their dignity; and Bombay added, with laughter, they 
make all manner of fuss to entice one to come when in the dis- 
tance, but when they have got you in their power they become 
haughty about it, and think only of how they can best impose on 
your mind the great consequence which they affect before their 
own people. 

Here I was also brought to a standstill, for N^yamgundu said 
I must wait for leave to approach die palace. He 
wished to have a look at the presents I had brought 
for Mt&a. I declined to gratify it, taking my stand on my dig- 
nity ; there was no occasion for any distrust on such a trifling 
matter as that, for I was not a merchant who sought for gain, but 
had come, at great expense, to see the king of this region. I 
begged, however, he would go as &st as possible to announce my 
arrival, explain my motive for coming here, and ask for^an early 
interview, as I had left my brother Grant behind at Earagu^ and 
found my position, for want of a friend to talk to, almost intole^ 
able. It was not the custom of my country for great men to con- 
sort with servants, and until I saw him, and made friends, I should 
not be happy. I had a great deal to tell him about^ as he was 
the father of the Nile, which river drained the N^yanza down to 
my country to the northward. With this message N'yamgundu 
hurried off as &st as possible. 

Next day (15th) I gave each of my men a fez cap, and a piece 
of red blanket to make up military jackets. I then instructed 
them how to form a guard of honor when I went to the palace, 
and taught Bombay the way nazirs were presented at courts in 
India. Altogether we made a good show. %Vhen this was con* 
eluded, I went with Nasib up a hill, from which we could see the 
lake on one side, and on the other a large range of huts said to 
belong to the king's uncle, the second of the late king Sunna's 
brothers, who was not burnt to death when he ascended the 
throne. 

I then (16th) very much wished to go and see the escape of the 
Mw^rango Biver, as I still felt a little skeptical as to its origin, 
whether or not it came off those smaller lakes I had seen on the 
road the day before I crossed the river ; but no one would listen 
to my project They all said I must have the king's sanction 
first, else people, from not knowing my object, would accuse me 
of practicing witchcraft, and would tell their king so. They still 
all maintained that the river did come out of the lake, and said. 



;».] KABAGUE AND UGANDA. 276 

if I liked to ask the king's leave to visit the spot^ then they would 
go and show it me. I gave waj, thinking it prudent to do so, 
but resolved in my mind I would get G-rant to see it in boats on 
his voyage from Karagu^. There were no Guinea-fowls to be 
found here, nor a fowl in any of the huts, so I requested Bozaro 
to hurry off to Mtdsa, and ask him to send me something to eat 
He simply laughed at my request, and said I did not know what 
I was doing. It would be as much as his life was worth to go 
one yard in advance of this until the king's leave was obtained. 
I said, rather than be starved to death in this ignominious man- 
ner, I would return to Karagu^ ; to which he replied, laughing, 
"Whose leave have you got to do that? Do you suppose you 
can do as you like in this country?" 

Next day (17th), in the evening, N'yamgundu returned full of 
smirks and smiles, dropped on his knees at my feet, and, in com- 
pany with his "children," set to n'yanzigging, according to the 
form of that state ceremonial already described.* In his excite- 
ment he was hardly able to say all he had to communicate. Bit 
by bit, however, I learned that he first went to the palace, and, 
finding the king had gone off yachting to the Murchison Creek, 
he followed him there. The king for a long while would not be- 
lieye his tale that I had come, but, being assured, he danced with 
delight, and swore he would not taste food until he had seen me. 
"Oh," he said, over and over again and again, according to my 
informer, "can this be true? Can the white man have come all 
this way to see me ? What a strong man he must be too, to come 
80 quickly I Here are seven cows, four of them milch ones, as 
you say he likes milk, which you will give him ; and there are 
three for yourself for having brought him so quickly. Now 
harry off as fast as you can, and tell him I am more delighted at 
the prospect of seeing him than he can be to see me. There is 
no place here fit for his reception. I was on a pilgrimage which 
would have kept me here seven days longer; but, as I am so iii^- 
patient to see him, I will go off to my palace at once, and will 
send word for him to advance as soon as I arrive there." 

About noon the succeeding day, some pages ran in to say we 
iv^ Banna*! '^^^ ^ comc aloug without a moment's delay, as their 
™^^^**" king had ordered it. He would not taste food until 
he saw me, so that every body might know what great respect he 
felt for me. In the mean while, however, he wished for some 

• See p. 260. 



276 T^^ 80UBCE OF TH£ KILE. [1862. 

gunpowder. I packed the pages off as fast as I could with some, 
and then tried myself to follow, but mj men were all either sick 
or out foraging, and therefore we could not get under way until 
the evening. After going a certain distance, we came on a rush- 
drain, of much greater breadth even than the Mw^rango, caUed 
the Moga (or river) Myanza, which was so deep I had to take off 
my trowsers and tuck my clothes under myarms. It flowed into 
the Mw^rango, but with scarcely any current at all. This rush- 
drain, all the natives assured me, rose in the hills to the south- 
ward — ^not in the lake,. as the Mw6rango did — and it was never 
bridged over like that river, because it was always fordable. 
This account seemed to me reasonable; for, though so much 
broader in its bed than the Mw^rango, it had no central^ deep- 
flowing current The time for judging as to their relative size, 
too, was favorable, as it was the height of the dry season, when 
most of the long grasses were burnt When we were across this 
great rush-drain it was almost dark, so I gave orders to spend the 
night in the most favorable spot we could find. We had, how- 
ever, to pass the late king Sunna's kibuga or palace before this 
could be done, as no eyes were allowed to dwell on the royal es- 
tablishments of departed kings. 

One march more, and we came in sight of the king's kibuga or 
To Bandawaro- P^lacc, iu the proviuce of Bandawarogo, N. lat 0** 21' 
go, mh. igff^ and E. long. 82^ 44' 30''. It was a magnificent 

sight A whole hill was covered with gigantic huts, such as I 
had never seen in Africa before. I wished to go up to the palaoe 
at once, but the officers said " No, that would be considered in- 
decent in Uganda ; you must draw up your men, and fire your 
guns off, to let the king know you are here ; we will then show 
you your residence, and to-morrow you will doubtless be sent for, 
as the king could not now hold a lev^e while it is raining." I 
made the men fire, and then was shown into a lot of dirty huts, 
which, they said, were built expressly for all the king's visitors. 
The Arabs, when they came on their visits, always put up here, 
and I must do the same. At first I stuck out on my claims as a 
foreign prince, whose royal blood-could not stand such an indig- 
nity. The palace was my sphere, and unless I could get a hut 
there, I would return without seeing the king. 

In a terrible fright at my blustering, N'yamgundu fell at my 
feet, and implored me not to be hasty. The king did not under- 
stand who I was, and could not be spoken to then. He implored 



280 



THE SOURCE OF THE KILE. 



[1862. 



CHAPTER XI. 

PALACE, UGANDA. 

Preparations for the Reception at the Coart of Mt&a, King of Uganda. — The Cere- 
monial.— African Diplomacy and Dignity. — Feats with the Rifle. — Cruelty, and 
Wastefulness of Life. — The Pages. — ^The Queen-dowager of Uganda. — Her Coart 
Reception. — I negotiate for a Palace. — Conversations with the King and Queen. 
—The Queen's grand Entertainment — Royal Dissipation. 

To-day the king sent his pages to announce his intention of 
Halt, from i9«A holding a lev6e in my honor. I prepared for mj 
Feb. to 7fA July, gj^^ presentation at court, attired in my best, though 
in it I cut a poor figure in comparison with the display of the 




m^: 



MgandA, or Natire of Uganda. 

dressy Waganda. They wore neat bark cloaks resembling the 
best yellow corduroy cloth, crimp and well set, as if stifiened with 
starch, and over that, as upper cloaks, a patchwork of small ante- 
lope skins, which I observed were sewn together as well as any 



Fn.] PALACIS, UGANDA. 281 

English glovers could have pieced them ; while their head-dress- 
es, generally, were abrus turbans, set ofif with highly-polished 
boar-tusks, stick-charms, seeds, beads, or shells; and on their 
necks, arms, and ankles they wore other charms of wood, or small 
horns stuffed with magic powder, and fastened on by strings gen- 
erally covered with snakeskin. N'yamgundu and Maiila demaifd- 
ed, as their official privilege, a first peep ; and this being refused, 
they tried to persuade me that the articles comprising the present 
required to be covered with chintz, for it was considered indeco- 
rous to offer* any thing to his majesty in a naked state. This lit- 
tle interruption over, the articles enumerated below* were con- 
veyed to the palace in solemn procession thus : With N'yamgun- 
du, Maula, the pages, and myself on the flanks, the Union Jack, 
carried by the kirangozi guide, led the way, followed by twelve 
men as a guard of honor, dressed in red flannel cloaks, and carry- 
ing their arms sloped, with fixed bayonetSy^^nile in their rear 
were the rest of my men, each car ryin g sj^d^-ai licle us U pi'esent 
On the march toward the palace,'tlie admiring courtiers, won- 
der-struck at such an unusual display, exclaimed, in raptures of 
astonishment, some with both hands at their mouths, and others 
clasping their heads with their hands, " Irungi I irungi !" which 
may be translated " Beautiful I beautiful !" I thought myself ev- 
ery thing was going on as well as could be wished ; but, before 
entering the royal inclosures, I found, to my disagreeable surprise, 
that the men with Siiwarora's hongo or offering, which consisted 
of more than a hundred coils of wire, were ordered to lead the 
procession, and take precedence of me. There was something 
specially aggravating in this precedence ; for it will be remem- 
bered that these very brass wires which they saw I had myself 
intended for Mt&a ; that they were taken from me by Siiwarora 
as far back as Usui; and it would never do, without remon- 
strance, to have them boastfully paraded before my eyes in this 
fashion. My protests, however, had no effect upon the escorting 
wakungii. Resolving to make them catch it, I walked along as 
if ruminating in anger up the broad high road into a cleared 
square, which divides Mt&a's domain on the south from his kam- 
raviona's, or commander-in-chief, on the north, and then turned 

* 1 block-tin box, 4 rich silk cloths, 1 rifle (Whitworth's), 1 gold chronometer, 1 
reTolrer pistol, 8 rifled carbines, 8 sword-bayonets, 1 box ammunition, 1 box bnllets, 
1 box gun-caps, 1 telescope, 1 iron chair, 10 bundles best beads, 1 set of table-knives, 
ipoons, and forks. 



262 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1B92, 

into the court The palace or entrance quite surprised me by its 
extraordinary dimensions, and the neatness with which it was 
kept. The whole brow and sides of the hill on which we stood 
were covered with gigantic grass huts, thatched as neatly as so 
msmy heads dressed by a London barber, and fenced all round 
with the tall yellow reeds of the common Uganda tiger-grass ; 
while within the inclosure the lines of huts were joined together, 
or partitioned off into courts, with walls of the same grass. It is 
here most of Mt^'s three or four hundred women are kept^ the 
rest being quartered chiefly with his mother, known by the title 
of N'yamasor^, or queen-dowager. They stood in little groups at 
the doors, looking at us, and evidently passing their own remarks, 
and enjoying their own jokes, on the triumphal procession. At 
each gate as we passed, officers on duty opened and shut it for us, 
jingling the big bells which are hung upon them, as they some- 
times are at shop doors, to prevent silent, stealthy entrance. 

The first court passed, I was even more surprised to find the 
unusual ceremonies that awaited me. There courtiers of high 
dignity stepped forward to greet me, dressed in the most scrupu- 
lously neat fashions. Men, women, bulls, dogs, and goats were 
led about by strings ; cocks and hens were carried in men's arms ; 
and little pages, with rope turbans, rushed about, conveying mes- 
sages, as if their lives depended on their swiftness, every one 
holding his skin cloak tightly round him lest his naked 1^ 
might by accident be shown. 

This, then, was the ante-reception court; and. I might have 
taken possession of the hut, in which musicians were playing and 
singing on large nine-stringed harps, like the Kubian tambira, ac- 
companied by harmonicons. By the chief officers in waiting, 
however, who thought fit to treat us like Arab merchants, I was 
requested to sit on the ground outside in the sun with my serv- 
anta Now I had made up my mind never to sit upon the ground 
as the natives and Arabs are obliged to do, nor to make my obei- 
sance in any other manner than is customary in England, though 
the Arabs had told me that from fear they had always complied 
with the manners of the court I felt that if I did not stand up 
for my social position at once, I should be treated with contempt 
during the remainder of my visit, and thus lose the vantage- 
ground I had assumed of appearing rather as a prince than a 
trader, for the purpose of better gaining the confidence of the 
king. To avert overhastiness, however — for my servants began 



Fbb.] palace, UGANDA. 288 

to be alanned as I demurred against doing as I was bid — I allow* 
ed five minutes to the court to give me a proper reception, saying 
if it were not conceded I would then walk away. 

Nothing, however, was done. My own men, knowing me, 
feared for me, as they did not know what a '' savage" king would 
do in case I carried out my threat; while the Waganda, lost in 
amazement at what seemed little less than blasphemy, stood still 
as posts. The b&lit ended by my walking straight away home, 
^ving Bombay orders to leave the present on the ground, and to 
follow ma 

Although the king is said to be unapproachable excepting when 
he chooses to attend court — a ceremony which rarely happens — 
iatelligence of my hot wrath and hasty departure reached him in 
an instant He first, it seems, thought of leaving his toilet-room 
to follow me ; but^ finding I was walking fast and had gone far, 
changed his mind, and sent wakungu running after me. Poor 
Ga:eatures! they caught me up, fell upon their kneesj and implored 
I would return at once, for the king had not tasted food, and 
would not until he saw me. I felt grieved at their touching ap* 
peals; but, as I did not understand all they said, I simply repUed 
by patting my heart and shaking my head, walking, if any thing, 
all the faster. 

On my arrival at my hut, Bombay and others came in, wet 
through with perspiration, saying the king had heard of all my 
grievances. Siiwarora's hongo was turned out of court, and, if I 
desired it, I might bring my own chair with me, fior he was very 
anxious to show me great respect, although such a seat was ex* 
clusively the attribute of the king, no one else in Uganda daring 
to sit on an artificial seat. 

My point was gained, so I cooled myself with coffee and a pipe, 
and returned rejoicing in my victory, especially over Sxiwarora. 
After returning to the second tier of huts from which I had re- 
tired, every body appeared to be in a hurried, confused state of 
excitement, not knowing what to make out of so unprecedented 
an exhibition of temper. In the most polite manner, the officers 
in waiting begged me to be seated on my iron stool, which I had 
brought with me, while others hurried in to announce my arrival. 
But for a few minutes only I was kept in suspense, when a band 
of music, the musicians wearing on their backs long-haired goat- 
skins, passed me, dancing as they went along like bears in a fair, 
and playing on reed instruments worked over with pretty beads 



284 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1068. 

in various patterns, from which depended leopard-cat skins, the 
time being regulated by the beating of long hand-drums. 

The mighty king was now reported to be sitting on his throne 
in the state hut of the third tier. I advanced, hat in hand, with 
my guard of honor following, formed in " open ranks," who in 
their turn were followed by the bearers carrying the present I 
did not walk straight up to him as if to shake hands, but went 
outside the ranks of a three-sided square of squatting wakungtL, 
all habited in skins, mostly cowskins ; some few of whom had, 
in addition, leopard-cat skins girt round the waist, the sign of 
royal blood. Here I was desired to halt and sit in the glaring 
sun ; so I donned my hat, mounted my umbrella, a phenomenon 
which set them all a wondering and laughing, ordered the guard 
to close ranks, and sat gazing at the novel spectacle. A more 
theatrical sight I neve)* saw. The king, a good-looking, well- 
figured, tall young man of twenty-five, was sitting on a red blank- 
et spread upon a square platform of royal grass, incased in tiger- 
grass reeds, scrupulously well dressed in a new mbugiL The 
hair of his head was cut short, excepting on the top, where it was 
combed up into a high ridge, running from stem to stern like a 
cock's comb. On his neck was a very neat ornament — ^a large 
ring, of beautifully -worked small beads, forming elegant patterns 
by their various colors. On one arm was another bead orna- 
ment, prettily devised ; and on the other a wooden charm, tied 
by a string covered with snakeskin. On every finger and every 
toe he had alternate brass and copper rings ; and above the an- 
kles, half way up to the.calf, a stocking of very pretty beads. Every 
thing was light, neat^ and elegant in its way ; not a fault could 
be found with the taste of his "getting up." For a handkerchief 
he held a well-folded piece of bark, and a piece of gold-embroid- 
ered silk, which he constantly employed to hide his large mouth 
when laughing, or to wipe it after a drink of plantain wine, of 
which he took constant and copious draughts from neat little 
gourd-cups, administered by his ladies in waiting, who were at 
once his sisters and wives. A white dog, spear, shield, and wom- 
an — the Uganda cognizance — were by his side, as also a knot of 
staff officers, with whom he kept up a brisk conversation on one 
side ; and on the other was a band of wichwdzi, or lady -sorcer- 
ers, such as I have already described. 

. I was now asked to draw nearer within the hollow square of 
squatters, where leopard-skins were strewed upon the ground, and 



Feb.] 



PALACE, UGANDA. 



285 



a large copper kettle-drum, surmounted with brass bells on arch- 
ing wires, along with two other smaller drums covered with 
cowrie -shells, and beads of color worked into patterns, were 
placed. I now longed to open conversation, but knew not the 
language, and no one near me dared speak, or evep lift his head 
fix>m fear of being accused of eying the women ; so the king and 
myself sat staring at one another for full an hour — I mute, but 
he pointing and remarking with those around him on the novelty 
of my guard and general appearance, and even requiring to see 
my hat lifted, the umbrella shut and opened, and the guards face 
about and show off their red cloaks — for such wonders had never 
been seen in Uganda. 

Then, finding the day waning, he sent Maiila on an embassy to 
ask me if I had seen him ; and on receiving my reply, ** Yes, for 




King of Uganda retiring; 



fhll one hour," I was glad to find him rise, spear in hand, lead his 
dog, and walk unceremoniously away through the inclosure into 



286 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [ISeS. 

the fourth tier of huts ; for this being a pure lev^e day, no busi- 
ness was transacted. The king's gait in retiring was intended to 
be very majestic, but did not succeed in conveying to me that 
impression. It was the traditional walk of his race, founded on 
the step of the lion ; but the outward sweep of the legs, intended 
to represent the stride of the noble beast, appeared to me only to 
realize a very ludicrous kind of waddle, which made me ask 
Bombay if any thing serious was the matter with the royal pe^ 
son. 

I had now to wait for some time, almost as an act of humanity ; 
for I was told the state secret, that the king had retired to break 
his fast and eat for the first time since hearing of my arrival; but 
the repast was no sooner over than he prepared for the second 
act, to show off his splendor, and I was invited in, with all my 
men, to the exclusion of all his own officers save my two guides. 
Entering as before, I found him standing on a red blanket, lean- 
ing against the right portal of the hut, talking and laughing, 
handkerchief in hand, to a hundred or more of his admiring 
wives, who, all squatting on the ground outside, in two groups, 
were dressed in new mbtigiis. My men dared not advance up- 
right, nor look upon the women, but> stooping, with lowered 
heads and averted eyes, came cringing after me. Unconscious 
myself, I gave loud and impatient orders to my guard, rebuking 
them for moving like frightened geese, and, with hat in hand, 
stood gazing on the fair sex till directed to sit and cap. 

Mt^ then inquired what messages were brought from Riima- 
nika ; to which Maula, delighted with the favor of speaking to roy- 
alty, replied by saying Riimanika had gained intelligence of Eng- 
lishmen coming up the Nile to Gani and Kidi. The king ac- 
knowledged the truthfulness of their story, saying he had heard 
the same himself; and both wakungu, as is the custom in Ugan- 
da, thanked their lord in a very enthusiastic manner, kneeling on 
the ground — ^for no one can stand in the presence of his majesty 
— in an attitude of prayer, and throwing out their hands as they 
repeated the words n'yanzig, n'yanzig, ai n'yanzig mkahma wan- 
gi, etc., etc., for a considerable time ; when, thinking they had 
done enough of this, and heated with the exertion, they threw 
themselves flat upon their stomachs, and, floundering about like 
fish on land, repeated the same words over again and again, and 
rose doing the same, with their faces covered with earth ; for 
majesty in Uganda is never satisfied till subjects have groveled 



Fn.] PALACE, UGANDA. 287 

before it like the most abject worms. This conversation over, 
after gazing at me, and chatting with his women for a consider- 
able time, the second scene ended. The third scene was more 
easily arranged, for the day was fast declining. He simply moved 
with his train of women to another hut, where, after seating him* 
self upon his throne, with his women around him, he invited me 
to appipach the nearest limits of propriety, and to sit as before. 
Again he asked me if I had seen him, evidently desirous of in- 
dulging in his regal pride ; so I made the most of the opportunity 
thus afforded me of opening a conversation by telliug him of those 
grand reports I had formerly heard about him, which induced me 
to come all this way to see him, and the trouble it had cost me to 
reach the object of my desire ; at the same time taking a gold 
ring from off my finger, and presenting it to him, I said, " This is 
a small token of friendship ; if you will inspect it, it is made after 
the fisushion of a dog-collar, and,beiDg the king of metals, gold, is 
in every respect appropriate to your illustrious race," 

He said, in return, " K friendship is your desire, what would 
you say if I showed you a road by which you might reach your 
home in one month ?" Now every thing had to be told to Bom- 
bay, then to Nasib, my "Kiganda interpreter, and then to either 
Maiila or N'yamgundu, before it was delivered to the king, for it 
was considered indecorous to transmit any message to his majesty 
excepting through the medium of one of his officers. Hence I 
could not get an answer put in ; for as all Waganda are rapid and 
impetuous in their conversation, the king, probably forgetting he 
had put a question, hastily changed the conversation and said, 
" What guns have you got ? Let me see the one you shoot with." 
I wished still to answer the first question first, as I knew he re- 
ferred to the direct line to Zanzibar across the Masai, and was 
anxious, without delay, to open the subject of Petherick and 
Grant ; but no one dared to deliver my statement. Much disap- 
pointed, I then said, " I had brought the best shooting-gun in the 
world — Whitworth's rifle— which I begged he would accept, with 
a few other trifles; and, with his permission, I would lay them 
upon a carpet at his feet, as is the custom of my country when 
visiting sultans." He assented, sent all his women away, and had 
an mbiigu spread for the purpose, on which Bombay, obeying my 
order, first spread a red blanket, and then opened each article one 
after the other, when Nasib, according to the usage already men- 
tioned, smoothed them down with his dirty hands, or rubbed them 



288 '^^^ SOURCB OF THE NILE. [1968. 

against his sooty face, and handed them to the king to show there 
was no poison or witchcraft in them. Mt^ appeared quite cod-. 
fused with the various wonders as he handled them, made silly 
remarks, and pondered over them like a perfect child, until it was 
quite dark. Torches were then lit, and guns, pistols, powder, 
boxes, tools, beads — the whole collection, in short — were tossed 
together topsy-turvy, bundled into mbugus, and carried away by 
the pages. Mt^a now said, '' It is late, and time to break up; 
what provisions would you wish to have?" I said, "A little of 
every thing, but no one thing constantly." "And would you like 
to see me to-morrow ?" " Yes, every day." " Then you can't to- 
morrow, for I have business; but the next day come if you like. 
You can now go away, and here are six pots of plantain wine for 
you ; my men will search for food to-morrow." 

21^^. In the morning, while it rained, some pages drove in twen* 
ty cows and ten goats, with a polite metaphorical message from 
their king to the effect that I had pleased him much, and he hoped 
I would accept these few " chickens" until he could send more ; 
when both Maula and N'yamgundu, charmed with their success 
in having brought a welcome guest to Uganda, never ceased 
showering eulogiuras on me for my fortune in having gained the 
countenance of their king. The rain falling was considered at 
court a good omen, and every body declared the king mad with 
delight Wishing to have a talk with him about Petherick and 
Grant, I at once started off the wakungu to thank him for the 
present, and to beg pardon for my apparent rudeness of yesterday, 
at the same time requesting I might have an early interview with 
his majesty, as I had much of importance to communicate ; but 
the solemn court formalities, which these African kings affect as 
much as Oriental emperors, precluded my message from reaching 
the king. I heard, however, that he had spent the day receiving 
Siiwarora's hongo of wire, and that the oflScer who brought them 
was made to sit in an empty court, while the king sat behind a 
screen, never deigning to show his majestic person. I was told, 
too, that he opened conversation by demanding to know how it 
happened that Siiwarora became possessed of the wires, for they 
were made by the white men to be given to himself, and Siiwa- 
rora must therefore have robbed me of them ; audit was by such 
practices he, Mt&a, nevei; could see any visitors. The officer's 
reply was, Siiwarora would not show the white men any respect^ 
because they were wizards who did not sleep in houses at night, 



Feb.] palace, UGANDA. 289 

but flew up to the tops of hills, and practiced sorcery of every 
abominable kind. The king to this retorted, in a truly African 
fisehion, " That's a lie ; I can see no harm in this white man ; and 
if he had been a bad man, Bumanika would not have sent him on 
to me." At night, when in bed, the king sent his pages to say, if 
I desired his friendship, I would lend him one musket to make up 
six with what I had given him, for he intended visiting his rela- 
tions the following morning. I sent three, feeling that nothing 
would be lost by being " open-handed." 

22d. To-day the king went the round of his relations, showing 
the beautiful things given him by the white man — ^a clear proof 
that he was much favored by the " spirits," for neither his father 
nor any of his forefathers had been so recognized and distinguish- 
ed by any " sign" as a rightful inheritor to the Uganda throne : 
an anti-Christian interpretation of omens, as rife in these dark re- 
gions now as it was in the time of King Nebuchadnezzar. At 
midnight the three muskets were returned, and I was so pleased 
with the young king's promptitude and honesty, I begged he 
would accept them. 

28d. At noon Mt^ sent his pages to invite me to his palace. 
I went, with my guard of honor and my stool, but found I had to 
sit waiting in an ante-hut three hours with his commander-in-chief 
and other high officers before he was ready to see me. During 
this time Wasoga minstrels, playing on tambira, and accompanied 
by boys playing on a harmonicon, kept us amused ; and a small 
page, with a large bundle of grass, came to me and said, '^ The 
king hopes you won't be offended if required to sit on it before 
him ; for no person in Uganda, however high in office, is ever al- 
lowed to sit upon any thing raised above the ground, nor can any 
body but himself sit upon such grass as this; it is all that his 
throne is made of. The first day he only allowed you to sit on 
your stool to appease your wrath." 

On consenting to do in " Eome as the Romans do," when my 
position was so handsomely acknowledged, I was called in, and 
found the court sitting much as it was on the first day's interview, 
only that the number of squatting wakungu was much diminish- 
ed ; and the king, instead of wearing his ten brass and copper 
rings, had my gold one on his third finger. This day, however, 
was cut out for business, as, in addition to the assemblage of offi- 
cers, there were women, cows, goats, fowls, confiscations, baskets 
of fish, baskets of small antelopes, porcupines, and curious rats 

T 



290 1^^^ SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

caught by his gamekeepers, bundles of mbiigu, etc., etc., made by 
his linen-drapers, colored earths and sticks by his magician, all 
ready for presentation ; but, as rain fell, the court broke up, and 
I had nothing for it but to walk about under my umbrella, in- 
dulging in angry reflections against the haughty king for not in- 
viting me into his hut. 

When the rain had ceased, and we were again called in, he was 
found sitting in state as before, but this time with the head of a 
black bull placed before him, one horn of which, knocked offi was 
placed alongside, while four living cows walked about the court. 

I was now requested to shoot the four cows as quickly as pos- 
sible ; but, having no bullets for my gun, I borrowed the revolv- 
ing pistol I had given him, and shot all four in a aecond of time; 
but as the last one, only wounded, turned sharply upon me, I 
gave him the fifth and settled him. Great applause followed this 
wonderful feat, and the cows were given to my men. The king 
now loaded one of the carbines I had given him with his own 
hands, and giving it full-cock to a page, told him to go out and 
shoot a man in the outer court, which was no sooner accomplished 
than the little urchin returned to announce his success with a look 
of glee such as one would see in the face of a boy who had robbed 
a bird's nest, caught a trout, or done any other boyish trick. The 
king said to him, " And did you do it well ?" " Oh yes, capital- 
ly." He spoke the truth, no doubt, for he dared not have trifled 
with the king; but the affair created hardly any interest. I never 
heard, and there appeared no curiosity to know, what individual 
human being the urchin had deprived of life. 

The wakungu were now dismissed, and I asked to draw near, 
when the king showed me a book I had given to Bumanika, and 
begged for the inspiring medicine which he had before applied for 
through the mystic stick. The day was now gone, so torches 
were lit, and we were ordered to go, though as yet I had not been 
able to speak one word I wished to impart about Petherick and 
Grant ; for my interpreters were so afraid of the king they dared 
not open their mouths until they were spoken to. The king was 
now rising to go, when, in great fear and anxiety that the day 
would be lost, I said, in' Kisiiahili, " I wish you would send a 
letter by post to Grant, and also send a boat up to Kitangul6, as 
far as Riimanika's palace, for him, for he is totally unable to 
walk." I thus attracted his notice, though he did not understand 
one word I uttered. The result was, that he waited for the inter- 



Fm.] palace, UGANDA. 291 

pretation, and replied that a post would be of no use, for no one 
would be responsible for the safe delivery of the message ; he 
would send N'yamgundii to fetch him, but he thought Riimanika 
would not consent to his sending boats up the Kitangiil^ as far 
as the Little Windermere ; and then, turning round with true 
Mganda impetuosity, he walked away without taking a word from 
me in exchange. 

2ith. Early this morning the pages came to say Mt^sa desired 
I would send him three of my Wanguana to shoot cows before 
him. This was just what I wanted. It had struck me that per- 
sonal conferences with me so roused the excitable king that there 
was no bringing plain matters of business home to him; so, de- 
taching seven men with. Bombay, I told him, before shooting, to 
be sure and elicit the matter I wanted, which was, to excite the 
king's cupidity by telling him I had a boat fuU of stores, with two 
white men, at Gani, whom I wished to call to me if he would fur- 
nish some guides to accompany my men ; and farther, as Grant 
could not walk, I wished boats sent for him, at least as far as th^ 
fferry on the Kitangul6, to which place Rumanika, at any rate? 
would slip him down in canoes. At once, on arriving, Mt&a ad- 
mitted the men, and ordered them to shoot at some cows; but 
Bombay, obeying my orders to first have his talk out, said. No ; 
before he could shoot he must obey master and deliver his mes- 
sage ; which no sooner was told than the king, in a hurry, excited 
by the prospects of sport, impatiently said, " Very good ; I will 
send men either by water, or overland through Kidi,* just as your 
master likes; only some of ^s men had better go with mine ; but 
now shoot cows, shoot cows, for I want to see how the Wanguana 
shoot." They shot seven, and all were given to them when they 
were dismissed. In the evening the pages came to ask me if I 
would like to shoot kites in the palace with their king ; but I de- 
clined shooting any thing less than elephants, rhinoceros, or buf- 
faloes, and even for these I would not go out unless the king went 
with me — a dodge, I conceived, would tend more than any other 
to bring us together, and so break through those ceremonial re- 
straints of the court, which at present were stopping all plans of 
progression. 

25th. The king invited me to shoot with him — ^really buffaloes 
— dose to the palace; but, as the pages had been sent off in a 

* The straight road down the Nile throagh Unyoro no one dared aHnde to at this 
time, as the two kings were always fighting. 



292 1™^ SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

hurry, without being fully instructed, I declined, on the plea that 
I had always been gulled and kept waiting, or treated with inci- 
vility, for houi^ before I obtained an interview; and as I did not 
wish to have any more ruptures in the. palace, I proposed Bombay 
should go to make proper arrangements for my reception on the 
morrow, as, anyhow, at present I felt indisposed. The pages 
dreaded their master's wrath, departed for a while, and then sent 
another lad to tell me he was sorry to hear I felt unwell, but he 
hoped I would come if only for a minute, bringing my medicines 
with me, for he himself felt pain. That this second message was 
a forged one I had no doubt^ for the boys had not been long 
enough gone; still, I packed up my medicines and went, leaving 
the onus, should any accident happen, upon the mischievous sto- 
ry-beareis. 

As I anticipated, on arrival at the palace I found the king was 
not ready to receive me, and the pages desired me to sit with the 
officers in waiting until he might appear. I found it necessary to 
fly at once into a rage, called the pages a set of deceiving young 
blackguards, turned upon my heel, and walked straight back 
through the courts, intending to leave the palace. Every body 
was alarmed; information of my retreat at once reached the king, 
and he sent his wakungu to prevent my egress. These offioen 
passed me, as I was walking hurriedly along under my umbrella, 
in the last court, and shut the entrance-gate i^ firont of ma This 
was too much ; so I stamped, and, pointing my finger, swore in 
every language I knew that if they did not open the gate again, 
as they had shut it at once, and tha^ too, before my face, I would 
never leave the spot I stood upon alive. Terror-stricken, the 
wakungu fell on their knees before me, doing as they were bid ; 
and, to please them, I returned at once and went up to the king^ 
who, now sitting on his throne, asked the officers how they had 
managed to entice me back ; to which they all replied in a breath, 
n'yanzigging heartily, "Oh, we were so afraid — ^he was so terrible! 
but he turned at once as soon as we opened the gate." "How? 
what gate? tell us all about it" And when the whole stoiy was 
fully narrated, the matter was thought a good joka After paus- 
ing a little, I asked the king what ailed him, for I was sorry to 
hear he had been sick; but, instead of replying, he shook his 
head, as much as to say I had put a very uncouth question to his 
majesty, and ordered some men to shoot cowa 

Instead of admiring this childish pastime, which in Uganda is 



Feb.] PALACB, UGANDA. 298 

oonsidered royal sport, I rather looked disdainful, until, apparent- 
ly disappointed at my indifference, he asked what the box I had 
brought contained. On being told it was the medicine he desired, 
he asked me to draw near, and sent his courtiers away. When 
only the interpreters and one confidential officer were left besides 
myself, he wished to know if I could apply the medicine without 
its touching the a£Qdcted part. To give him confidence in my 
surgical skill, I moved my finger, and asked if he knew what 
gave it action ; and on his replying ip the negative, I gave him 
an anatomical lecture, which so pleased him, he at once consented 
to be operated on, and I applied a blister to him accordingly. The 
whole operation was rather ridiculous ; for the blister, after being 
applied, had to be rubbed in turn on the hands and faces of both 
Bombay and Nasib, to show there was no evil spirit in the " doc- 
tor." Now, thought I to myself, is the right time for business, 
for I had the king all to myself, then considered a most fortunate 
occurrence in Uganda, where every man courts the favor of a 
word with his king, and adores him as a deity, and he, in turn, 
makes himself as distant as he can, to give greater effect to his 
exalted position. The matter, however, was merely deferred; 
for I no sooner told him my plans for communicating quickly 
with Petherick and Grants than, after saying he desired their com- 
ing even more than myself, he promised to arrange every thing 
on the morrow. 

26th. In the morning, as agreed, I called on the king, and found 
the blister had drawn nicely ; so I let off the water, which Bom* 
bay called the malady, and so delighted the king amazingly. A 
basket of fruit, like Indian loquots, was then ordered in, and we 
ate them together, holding a discussion about Grant and Pethe- 
rick, which ended by the king promising to send an officer by 
water to Kitangtile, and another, with two c^ my men, vid Usoga 
and Eidi, to Gani ; but as it was necessary my men should go in 
disguise, I asked the king to send me four mbugu and two spears ; 
when, with the liberality of a great king, he sent me twenty sheets 
of the former, four, spears, and a load of sun-dried fish strung on 
a stick in shape of a shield. 

27^. At last something was done. One Uganda officer and 
one Kidi guide were sent to my hut by the king, as agreed upon 
yesterday, when I detached Mabriiki and Bilal from my men, 
gave them letters and maps addressed to Petherick ; and giving 
the officers a load of mtend^ to pay their hotel bills on the way, 



294 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

I gave them, at the same time, strict orders to keep by the Nile ; 
then, haying dismissed them, I called on the king to make ar- 
rangements for Grant, and to complain that mj residence in Ugan- 
da vas any thing but cheerful, as my hut was a mile from the 
palace, in an xmhealthy place, where he kept his Arab visitors. 
It did not become my dignity to live in houses appropriated to 
persons in the rank of servants, which I considered the ivory- 
merchants to be ; and as I had come only to see him and the high 
o£ELcers of Uganda, not seeking for ivory or slaves, I begged he 
would change my place of residence to the west end, when I also 
trusted his officers would not be ashamed to visit me, as appeared 
to be the case at present. Silence being the provoking resort of 
the king when he did not know exactly what to say, he made no 
answer to my appeal, but instead he began a discourse on geog- 
raphy, and then desired me to call upon his mother, N'yamaaor^ 
at her palace Masorisori, vulgarly called Soli Soli, for she also re- 
quired medicine ; and, moreover, I was cautioned that for the fu- 
ture the Uganda court etiquette required I should attend on the 
king two days in succession, and every third day on his mother 
the" queen-dowager, as such were their respective rights. 

Till now, owing to the strict laws of the country, I had not been 
able to call upon any body but the king himself. I had not been 
able to send presents or bribes to any one, nor had any one, ex- 
cept the cockaded pages, by the king's order, visited me; neither 
was any body permitted to sell me provisions, so that my men 
had to feed themselves by taking any thing they chose from cer- 
tain gardens pointed out by the king's officers, or by seizing pomb6 
or plantains which they might find Waganda carrying toward the 
palace. This non-interventive order was part of the royal policy, 
in order that the king might have the full fleecing of his visitors. 

To call upon the queen-mother respectfully, as it was the open- 
ing visit, I took, besides the medicine-chest, a present of eight 
brass and copper wire, thirty blue-egg beads, one bundle of dimin- 
utive beads, and sixteen cubits of chintz, a small guard, and my 
throne of royal grass. The palace to be visited lay half a mile 
beyond the king's, but the high road to it was forbidden me, as it 
is considered uncourteous to pass the king's gate without going 
in. So, after winding through back gardens, the slums of Bando- 
waroga, I struck upon the high road close to her majesty's, where 
every thing looked like the royal palace on a miniature scale. A 
large cleared space divided the queen's residence firom her kam- 



Feb.] palace, UGANDA. 295 

raviona's. The outer inclosures and courts were fenced with 
tiger-grass; and the huts, though neither so numerous nor so 
large, were constructed after the same fashion as the king's. 
Guards also kept the doors, on which large bells were hung to 
give alarm, and officers in waiting watched the throne-rooms. 
All the huts were full of women, save those kept as waiting- 
rooms, where drums and harmonicons were placed for amusement. 
On first entering, I was required to sit in a waiting-hut till my 
arrival was announced ; but that did not take long, as the queen 
was prepared to receive me ; and being of a more ajQfable disposi- 
tion than her son, she held rather a lev^ of amusement than a 
stiflf court of show. I entered the throne-hut, as the gate of that 
court was thrown open, with my hat off, but umbrella held over 
my head, and walked straight toward her till ordered to sit upon 
my bundle of grass. 

Her majesty — ^fet, fair, and forty-five — was sitting, plainly garb- 
ed in mbiigu, upon a carpet spread upon the ground within a cur- 
tain of mbiigu, her elbow resting on a pillow of the same bark 
material ; the only ornaments on her person being an abrus neck- 
lace, and a piece of mbiigu tied round her head, while a folding 
looking-glass, much the worse for wear, stood open by her side. 
An iron rod like a spit, with a cup on the top, charged with magic 
powder, and other magic wands, were placed before the entrance ; 
and within the room, four Mabandwa sorceresses or devil-drivers, 
fantastically dressed, as before described, and a mass of other 
women, formed the company. For a short while we sat at a dis- 
tance, exchanging inquiring glances at one another, when the 
women were dismissed, and a band of music, with a court full of 
wakungii, was ordered in to change the scene. I also got orders 
to draw near and sit fronting her within the hut. Pomb^, the 
best in Uganda, was then drunk by the queen, and handed to me 
and to all the high officers about her, whe^i she smoked her pipe, 
and bade me smoke mine. The musicians, dressed in long-haired 
Uaoga goatskins, were now ordered to strike up, which they did, 
with their bodies swaying or dancing like bears in a fair. Differ- 
ent drums were then beat, and I was asked if I could distinguish 
their different tones. 

The queen, full of mirth, now suddenly rose, leaving me sitting, 
while she went to another hut, changed her mbiigii for a d6o\6, 
and came back again for us to admire her, which was no sooner 
done to her heart's content than a second time, by her order, the 



THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

court was cleared, and, when only three or four confidential wa- 
kungii were left, she took up a small fagot of well-trimmed sticks, 
and, selecting three, told me she had three complaints. " This 
stick," she says, '^ represents my stomach, which gives me much 
uneasiness; tins second stick my liver, which causes shooting 
pains all over my body ; and this third one my heart, for I get 
constant dreams at night about Sunna, my late husband, and they 
are not pleasant" The dreams and sleeplessness I told her was 
a common widow's complaint, and could only be cured by her 
majesty making up her mind to marry a second time ; but, be- 
fore I could advise for the bodily complaints, it would be neces- 
sary for me to see her tongue, feel her pulse, and perhaps, also, 
her sides. Hearing this, the wakungu said, ^^ Oh, that can never 
be allowed without the sanction of the king;" but the queen, ris- 
ing in her seat, expressed her scorn at the idea of taking advice 
firom a mere stripling, and submitted herself for examination. 

I then took out two piUs, the powder of which was tasted by 
the wakungu to prove that there was no devilry in "the doctor," 
and gave orders for them to be eaten at night, restricting her 
pomb^ and food until I saw her again. My game was now ad- 
vancing, for I found through her I should get the key to an in- 
fluence that might bear on the king, and was much pleased to 
hear her express herself delighted with me for every thing I had 
done except stopping her grog, which, naturally enough in this 
great pomb^-drinking country, she said would be a very trying 
abstinence. 

The doctoring over, her majesty expressed herself ready to in- 
spect the honorarium I had brought for her, and the articles were 
no sooner presented by Bombay and Nasib, with the usual for- 
malities of stroking to insure their purity, than she, boiling with 
pleasure, showed them all to her officers, who declared, with a 
voice of most exquisite triumph, that she was indeed the most fk- 
vored of queens. Then, in excellent good taste, after saying that 
nobody had ever given her such treasures, she gave me, in return, 
a beautifully -worked pomb^ sucking -pipe, which was acknowl- 
edged by every one to be the greatest honor she could pay me. 

Not satisfied with this, she made me select, though against my 
desire, a number of sambo, called here gundu, rings of giraffe hair 
wound round with thin iron or copper wire, and worn as anklets; 
and crowned all with sundry pots of pomb^, a cow, and a bundle 
of dried fish, of the description given in the engraving, called by 



ViB.] palace; UGANDA. 297 

my men Samaki E^ambari. This business over, she begged me 
to show her my picture-books, and was so amused with them that 
she ordered her sorceresses and all the other women in again to 




Kambftri Flih. 



inspect them with her. Then began a warm and complimentary 
oonversation, which ended by ah inspection of my rings and all 
the contents of my pockets, as well as of my watch, which she 
called Lubari — ^a term equivalent to a place of worship, the object 
of worship itself, or the iron horn or magic pan. Still she said I 
had not yet satisfied her ; I must return again two days hence, 
for she liked me much — excessively — ahe could not say how 
much ; but now the day was gone, I might go. With this queer 
kind of adieu she rose and walked away, leaving me with my 
servants to carry the royal present home. 

28ih. My whole thoughts were now occupied in devising some 
scheme to obtain a hut in the palace, not only the better to main- 
tain my dignity, and so gain superior influence in the court, but 
also that I might have a better insight into the manners and cus- 
toms of these strange people. I was not sorry to find the king 
attempting to draw me to court, daily to sit in attendance on him, 
as his officers are obliged to do all day long, in order that he 
might always have a full. court or escort whenever by chance he 
might emerge from his palace, for it gave me an opening for as- 
serting a proper position. 

Instead, therefore, of going at the call of his pages this morn- 
ing, I sent Bombay with some men to say that, although I was de- 
sirous of seeing Um daily, I could not so expose myself to the 
son. In all other countries I received, as my right, a palace to 
live in when I called on the king of the country, and unless he 
gave one now I should feel slighted ; moreover, I should like a 
hut in the same inclosure as himself, when I could sit and con- 
verse with him constantly, and teach him the use of the things I 
had given him. By Bombay's account, the king was much struck 



298 THE SOUBCE OP THE NILE. [1862. 

with the force of my humble request^ and replied that he should 
like to have Bana, meaning myself, ever by his side, bat his huts 
were all full of women, and therefere it could not be managed; 
if, however, Bana would but have patience for a while, a hut 
should be built for him in the environs, which would be a mark 
of distinction he had never paid to any visitor before. Then 
changing the subject by inspecting my men, he fell so much in 
love with their little red " fez" caps, that he sent off his pages to 
beg me for a specimen, and, on finding them sent by the boys, he 
remarked, with warm approbation, how generous I was in sup- 
plying his wishes, and then, turning to Bombay, wished to know 
what sort of return-presents would please me best. Bombay, al- 
ready primed, instantly said, ^'Oh, Bana, being a great man in his 
own country, and not thirsting for gain in ivory or slaves, would 
only accept such things as a spear, shield, or drum, which he 
could take to his own country as a specimen of the manufactures 
of Uganda! and a pleasing recollection of his visit to the king." 

" Ah I" says Mtesa, " if that is all he wants, then indeed will I 
satisfy him, for I will give him the two spears with which I took 
all this country, and, when engaged in so doing, pierced three 
men with one stab. 

" But, for the present, is it true what I have heard, that Bana 
would like to go out with me shooting?" "Oh yes, he is a most 
wonderful sportsman — shoots elephants and buffaloes, and birds 
on the wing. He would like to go out on a shooting excursion 
and teach you the way." 

Then turning the subject, in the highest good-humor the king 
made centurions of N'yamgundu and Maula, my two wakungii, 
for their good service^ he said, in bringing him such a valuable 
guest. This delighted them so much th^^t, as soon as they could, 
they came back to my camp, threw themselves at my feet, and 
n'yanzigging incessantiy, narrated their fortunes, and begged, as 
a great man, I would lend them some cows to present to the king 
as an acknowledgment for the favor he had shown them. The 
cows, I then told them, had come from the king, and could not go 
back again, for it was not the habit of white men to part with 
their presents; but as I felt their proqiotion redounded on my- 
self, and was certainly the highest compliment their king could 
have paid me, I would give them each a wire to make their sa- 
laam good. 

This was enough ; both officers got drunk, and, beating their 



Mabcb.] palace, UGANDA. 299 

dramS) serenaded the camp until the evening set in, when, to my 
utter surprise, an elderly Mganda woman was brought into camp 
with the commander-in-chief's metaphorical compliments, hoping 
I would accept her "to carry my water;" with this trifling ad- 
dition, that in case I did not think her pretty enough, he hoped I 
would not hesitate to select which I liked from ten others, of "all 
colors, Wahiima included, who, for that purpose, were then wait- 
ing in his palace. 

Unprepared for this social addition in my camp, I must now 
confess I felt in a fix, knowing full well that nothing so offends 
as rejecting an offer at once, so I kept her for the time being, in- 
tending in the morning to send her back with a string of blue 
beads on her neck ; but during the night she relieved me of my 
anxieties by running away, which Bombay said was no wonder, 
for she had obviously been seized as part of some confiscated es- 
tate, and without doubt knew where to find some of her friends. 

To-day, for the first time since I have been here, I received a 
quantity of plantains. This was in consequence of my complain- 
ing that the king^s orders to my men to feed themselves at others* 
expense was virtually making them a pack of thieves. 

l5^. I received a letter from Grant, dated 10th of February, re- 
porting Baraka's departure for Unyoro on the 80th of January, 
escorted by Kamrasi's men on their return, and a large party of 
Bumanika's bearing presents as a letter from their king, while 
Giant himself hoped to leave Karagii^ before the end of the 
month. I then sent Bombay to see the queen, to ask after her 
health, beg for a hut in the palace inclosures, and say I. should 
have gone myself, only I feared her gate might be shut, and I 
can not go backward and forward so far in the sun without a 
horse or an elephant to ride upon. She begged I would come 
next morning. A wonderful report came that the king put two 
tops of powder into his Whitworth rifle to shoot a cow, and the 
ballet not only passed through the cow, but through the court 
fence, then through the centre of a woman, and, after passing the 
outer fence, flew whizzing along no one knew where. 

2d. Calling on the queen early, she admitted me at once, scold- 
ing me severely for not having come or sent my men to see her 
after she had taken the pills. She said they did her no good, and 
prevailed on me to give her another prescription. Then sending 
her servant for a bag full of drinking-gourds, she made me select 
six of the best, and begged for my watch. That, of course, I 



goo 'I^^^ SOUBCE OF THE IfOLE. [1862. 

could not part with ; but I took the opportunity of telling her I 
did not like my residence ; it was not only far away from every 
body, but it was unworthy of my dignity. I came to Uganda to 
see the king and queen, because the Arabs said they were always 
treated with great respect; but now I could perceive those Arabs 
did not know what true respect means. Being poor men, they 
thought much of a cow or goat given gratis, and were content to 
live in any hovels. Such, I must inform her, was not my case. 
I could neither sit in the sun nor live in a poor man's hut When 
I rose to leave for breakfiist, she requested me to stop, but I de- 
clined, and walked away. I saw, however, there was something 
wrong ; for Maula, always ordered to be in attendance when any 
body visits, was retained by her order to answer why I would not 
stay with her longer. If I wanted food or pomb^ there was 
plenty of it in her palace, and her cooks were the cleverest in the 
world ; she hoped I would return to see her in the morning. 

8d. Our cross purposes seemed to increase ; for, while I could 
not get a satisfactory interview, the king sent for N'yamgundu to 
ascertain why I never went to see him. I had given him good 
guns and many pretty things which he did not know the use o^ 
and yet I would not visit him to explain their several uses. 
N'yamgundii told him I lived too far oflF, and wanted a palace. 
After this I walked off to see N'yamasor^, taking my blankets, a 
pillow, and some cooking-pots to make a day of it, and try to win 
the affections of the queen with sixteen cubits bind^ra, three pints 
p^k^, and three pints mtend^ beads, which, as Waganda are all 
fond of figurative language, I called a trifle for her servants. 

I was shown in at once, and found her majesty sitting on an 
Indian carpet, dressed in a red linen wrapper with a gold border, 
and a box, in shape of a lady's work-box, prettily colored in diveis 
patterns with minute beads, by her side. Her councilors were in 
attendance ; and in the yard a band of music, with many minor 
wakungii squatting in a semicircle, completed her lev^. Maiila, 
on my behalf, opened conversation, in Elusion to her yesterday's 
question, by saying I had applied to Mt^ for a palace, that I 
might be near enough both their majesties to pay them constant 
visits. She replied, in a good hearty manner, that indeed was a 
very proper request, which showed my good sense, and ought to 
have been complied with at once ; but Mt^sa was only a kijana 
or stripling, and as she influenced all the government of the coun- 
try, she would have it carried into effect Compliments were now 



MiLBCB.] PALACE, UGANDA. gOl 

passed, my presents given and approved of; and the queen, think- 
ing I most be hungry, for she wanted to eat herself requested me 
ix> refresh myself in another hut I complied, spread my bedding, 
and ordered in my breakfast; but, as the hut was full of men, I 
suspended a Scotch plaid, and quite eclipsed her mbugii curtain. 
Reports of this magnificence at once flew to the queen, who 
sent to know how many more blankets I had in my possession, 
and whether, if she asked for one, she would get it She also de- 
sired to see my spoons, fork, and pipe — an English meerschaum, 
mounted with silver ; so, after breakfast, I returned to see her, 
showed her the spoons and forks, and smoked my pipe, but told 
her I had no blankets left but what formed my bed. She appear- 
ed very happy and very well, did not say another word about the 
blankets, but ordered a pipe for herself, and sat chatting, laugh- 
ing, and smoking in concert with me. 

I told her I had visited all the four quarters of the globe, and 
had seen all colors of people, but wondered where she got her 
pipe from, for it was much after the Burnish (Turkish) fashion, 
with a long stick. Greatly tickled at the flattery, she said, '' We 
hear men like yourself come to Amara from the other side, and 
drive cattle away." " The Gallas, or Abyssinians, who are tall 
and feir, like Eilmanika," I said, " might do so, for they live not 
fiur oflf on the- other side of Amara, but we never fight for such 
paltry objects. If cows fall into our hands when fighting, we al- 
low our soldiers to eat them, while we take the government of the 
country into our own hands." She then said, "We hear you 
don't like the Unyamudzi route ; we will open the Ukori one for 
you." " Thank your majesty," said I, in a figurative kind of 
speech to please Waganda ears ; and turning the advantage of the 
project on her side, " You have indeed hit the right nail on the 
head. I do not like the Unyamu^ route, as you may well 
imagine when I tell you I have lost so much property there by 
mere robbery of the people and their kings. The Waganda do 
not see me in a true light ; but if thqr have patience for a year or 
two, until the Ukori road is open, and trade between our respect- 
ive countries shall commence, they will then see the fruits of my 
advent ; so much so, that every Mganda will say the first Uganda 
year dates fix>m the arrival of the first mzungu (white) visitor. 
As one coflfee-seed sown brings forth fruit in plenty, so my com- 
ing here may be considered." All appreciated this speech, say- 
ing, " The white man, he even speaks beautifully ! beautifully ! 



802 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

beautifully I beautifully I" and, putting their hands to their moatlis, 
they looked askance at me, nodding their admiring approval. 

The queen and her ministers then plunged into pomb^ and be- 
came uproarious, laughing with all their might and main. Small 
bugu cups were not enough to keep up the excitement of the 
time, so a large wooden trough was placed before the queen and 
filled with liquor. If any was spilled, the wakungii instantly 
fought over it, dabbing their noses on the ground, or grabbing it 
with their hands, that not one atom of the queen's favor might be 
lost; for every thing must be adored that comes from royalty, 
whether by design or accident The queen put her head to the 
trough and drank like a pig from it, and was followed by ber 
ministers. The band, by order, then struck up a tune called the 
Mil^l^, playing on a dozen reeds, ornamented with beads and 
cow-tips, and five drums, of various tones and sizes, keeping time. 
The musicians, dancing with zest, were led by four band-masteis, 
also dancing, but with their backs turned to the company to show 
off their long, shaggy goatskin jackets, sometimes upright^ at oth- 
er times bending and on their heels, like the hornpipe-dancers of 
western countries. 

It was a merry scene, but soon became tiresome ; when Bom- 
bay, by way of flattery, and wishing to see what the queen's ward- 
robe embraced, told her. Any woman, however ugly, would assume 
a goodly appearance if prettily dressed ; upon which her gracious 
majesty immediately rose, retired to her toilet-hut, and soon re- 
turned attired in a common check cloth, an abrus tiara, a bead 
necklace, and with a folding looking-glass, when she sat, as before, 
and was handed a blown-glass cup of pomb6, with a cork floating 
on the liquor, and a napkin mbiigii covering the top, by a naked 
virgin. For her kind condescension in assuming plain raiment, 
every body, of course, n'yanzigged. Next she ordered her slave 
girls to bring a large number of sambo (anklets), and begged me 
to select the best, for she liked me much. In vain I tried to re- 
fuse them : she had given more than enough for a keepsake be- 
fore, and I was not hungry for property ; still, I had to choose 
some, or I would give offense. She then gave me a basket of 
tobacco, and a nest of hen eggs for her " son's" breakfast. When 
this was over, the Mukond^ri, another dancing-tune, with instru- 
ments something like clarionets, was ordered ; but it had scarcely 
been struck up before a drenching rain, with strong wind, set in 
and spoiled the music, though not the playing — ^for none dared 



Maboh.] palace, UGANDA. g03 

Stop without an order; and the queen, instead of taking pity, 
laughed most boisterously over the exercise of her savage power 
as the unfortunate musicians were nearly beaten down by the vi- 
olence of the weather. 

When the rain ceased, her majesty retired a second time to her 
toilet-hut, and changed her dress for a puce-colored wrapper, when 
I, ashamed of having robbed her of so many sambo, asked her if 
she would allow one to present her with a little English "wool" 
to hang up instead of her mbugii curtain on cold days like this. 
Of course she could not decline, and a large double scarlet blanket 
was placed before her. " Oh, wonder of wonders I" exclaimed all 
the spectators, holding their mouths in both hands at a time — 
such a "pattern" had never been seen here before. It stretched 
across the hut, was higher than the men could reach — ^indeed, it 
was a perfect marvel ; and the man must be a good one who 
brought such a treasure as this to Uddii. " And why not say 
Uganda?" I asked. "Because all this country is called Uddu. * 
Uganda is personified by Mt&a ; and no one can say he has seen 
Uganda until he has been presented to the king." 

As I had them all in a good humor now, I complained I did 
not see enough of the Waganda; and as every one dressed so re- 
markably well, I could not discern the big men from the small ; 
could she not issue some order by which they might call on me, 
as they did not dare do sa without instruction, and then I, in turn, 
would call on them? Hearing this, she introduced me to her 
prime minister, chancellor of exchequer, women -keepers, hang- 
men, and cooks, as the first nobles in the land, that I might rec- 
ognize them again if I met them on the road. All n'yanzigged 
for this great condescension, and said they were delighted with 
their guest; then producing a strip of common joho to compare ' 
it with my blanket, they asked if I could recognize it Of course, 
said I, it is made in my country, of the same material, only of 
coarser quality, and every thing of the same sort is made in 
UzungiL Then, indeed, said the whole company, in one voice, 
we do like you, and your cloth too — ^but you most I modestly 
bowed my head, and said their friendship was my chief desire. 

This speech also created great hilarity ; the queen and coun- 
cilors all became uproarious. The queen began to sing, and the 
councilors to join in chorus ; then all sang and all drank, and 
drank and sang, till, in their heated excitement, they turned the 
palace into a pandemonium ; still there was not noise enough, so 



304 ^H£ SOUBCE OF THE KILE. [1862. 

the band and drams were called again, and tomfool — ^for Uganda, 
like the old European monarchies, always keeps a jester — was 
made to sing in the gruff, hoarse, unnatural voice which he ever 
affects to maintain his character, and furnished with pomb^ when 
his throat was dry. 

Kow all of a sudden, as if a deyil had taken possession of the 
company, the prime minister, with all the courtiers, jumped -upon 
their legs, seized their sticks, for nobody can carry a spear when 
visiting, swore the queen had lost her heart to me, and running 
into the yard, returned, charging and jabbering at the queen; re- 
treated and returned again, aa if they were going to put an end 
to her for .the guilt of loving me, but really to show their devo- 
tion and true love to her. The queen professed to take this cere- 
mony with calm indifference, but her face showed that she en- 
joyed it. I was now getting very tired of sitting on my low- 
stool, and begged for leave to depart, but N'yamasor^ would not 
hear of it; she loved me a great deal too much to let me go away 
at this time of day, and forthwith ordered in more pomb^. The 
same roystering scene was repeated ; cups were too small, so the 
trough was employed ; and the queen graced it by drinking, pig- 
fashion, first, and then handing it round to the company. 

Now, hoping to produce gravity and then to slip away, I asked 
if my medicines had given her any relief, that I might give her 
more to strengthen her. She said she could not answer that 
question just yet ; for, though the medicine had moved her copi- 
ously, as yet she had seen no snake depart &om her. I told her 
I would give her some strengthening medicine in the morning ; 
for the present, however, I would take my leave, as the day was 
&LT gone, and the distance home very great; but^ though I dragged 
my body away, my heart would still remain here, for I loved her 
much. 

This announcement took all by surprise; they looked at me 
and then at her, and looked again and laughed, while I rose, 
waved my hat, and said, "Kua h6ri, bibi" (good -by, madam). 
On reaching home I found Maribii, a mkungii, with a gang of 
men sent by Mt&a to fetch Grant from KitanguW by water. He 
would not take any of my men with him to fetch the kit from 
Karagu^, as Mt^sa, he said, had given him orders to find all the 
means of transport; so I gave him a letter to Grant, and told him 
to look sharp, else Grant would have passed the Kitanguld before 
he arrived there. " Never mind," says Maribii, " I shall walk to 



liABCH.] PALACE, UGANDA. 805 

the month of the Katonga, boat it to S^ Island, where Mt^ 
keeps all his large vessels, and I shall be at Kitangol^ in a very 
short time." 

^ih. I sent Bombay off to administer quinine to the queen ; but 
the king's pages, who watched him making for her gateway, hur- 
ried up to him, and turned him back by force. He pleaded eam- 
eBtly that I would flog him if he disobeyed my orders, but they 
would take all the responsibility — the king had ordered it; and 
then they, forging a lie, bade him run back as fast as he could, 
saying I wanted to see the king, but could not till his return. In 
this way poor Bombay returned to me half drowned in perspira- 
tion. Just then another page hurried in with orders to bring me 
to the palace at once, for I had not been there these four days ; 
and while I was preparing to express the proper amount of in- 
dignation at this unceremonious message, the last impudent page 
began rolling like a pig upon my mbiigued or carpeted floor, till 
I stormed and swore I would turn him out unless he chose to be- 
have more respectfully before my majesty, for I was no peddling 
merchant, as he had been accustomed to see, and would not stand 
it ; moreover, I would not leave my hut at the summons of the 
kiiig, or any body else, until I chose to do so. 

This expression of becoming wrath brought every one to a 
sense of his duty; and I then told them all I was excessively 
angry with Mt^ for turning back my messenger; nobody had 
ever dared do such a thing before, and I would never forgive the 
king until my medicines had been given to the queen. As for 
my going to the palace, it was out of the question, as I had re- 
peatedly before told the king, unless it pleased him to give me a 
fitting residence near himself. In order now that full weight 
should be given to my expressions, I sent Bombay with the qui- 
nine to the king, in company with the boys, to give an account 
of all that had happened ; and farther, to say I felt exceedingly 
distressed I could not go to see him constantly — that I w^ 
ashamed of my domicile — the sun was hot to walk in; and when 
I went to the palace, his officers in waiting always kept me wait- 
ing like a servant — ^a matter hurtful to my honor and dignity. 
It now rested with himself to remove these obstacles. Every 
body concerned in this matter left for the palace but Maula, who 
said he must stop in camp to look after Bana. Bombay no sooner 
arrived in the palace, and saw the king upon his throne, than 
Mt^ asked him why he came. " By the instructions of Bana," 

U 



306 ^HE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [18CS. 

was his reply; "for Bana can not walk in the sun; no white man 
of the sultan's breed can do so." 

Hearing this, the king rose in a huff, without deigning to re- 
ply, and busied himself in another court Bombay, still sitting, 
waited for hours till quite tired, when he sent a boy in to say he 
had not delivered half my message ; he had brought medicine for 
the queen, and as yet he had no reply for Bana. Either with 
haughty indifference^ or else with injured pride at his not being 
able to command me at his pleasure, the king sent word, if medi- 
cine is brought for the queen, then let it be taken to her ; and so 
Bombay walked off to the queen's palace. Arrived there, be sent 
in to say he had brought medicine, and waited without a reply 
till nightfall, when, tired of his charge, he gave the quinine into 
N'yamgundu's hands for delivery, and returned home. Soon aft- 
er, however, N'yamgundii also returned to say the queen would 
not take the dose to-day, but hoped I would administer it person- 
ally in the morning. 

While all this vexatious business had been going on in couit — 
evidently dictated by extreme jealousy, because I showed, as they 
all thought, a preference for the queen — ^Maula, more than tipsy, 
brought a mkungu of some standing at court before me, contrary 
to all law, for as yet no Mganda, save the king's pages, had ever 
dared enter even the precincts of my camp. With a scowling, 
determined, hang-dog-looking countenance, he walked impudently 
into my hut, and, taking down the pombd-suckers the queen had 
given me, showed them with many queer gesticulations, intended 
to insinuate there was something between the queen and me. 
Among his jokes were, that I must never drink pomb^ excepting 
with these sticks ; if I wanted any when I leave Uganda, to show 
my friends, she would give me twenty more sticks of that sort if 
I liked them ; and, turning fix)m verbal to practical jocularity, 
the dirty fellow took my common sucker out of the pot, inserted 
one of the qtieen's, and sucked at it himself, when I snatched and 
threw it away. 

Mania's friend, who I imagined was a spy, then asked me whom 
I liked most, the mother or the son ; but, without waiting to hear 
me, Maula hastily said, "The mother, the mother, of course; he 
does not care for Mt^ and won't go to see him." The fiiend 
coaxingly responded, "Oh no; he likes Mt^ and will go and 
see him too ; won't you?" I declined, however, to answer, fix)m 
fear of mistake, as both interpreters were away. 3till l^e two 



Maboh.] PALACE, UGANDA. S07 

went on talking to themselves, Maula swearing that I loved the 
mother most, while the friend said No, he loves the son, and ask- 
ing me with anxious looks, till they found I was not to be caught 
by chaff, and then, both tired, walked away, the fnend advising 
me, next time I went to court, to put on an Arab's gown, as trow- 
sers are indecent in the estimation of every Mganda. 

6th. Alarmed at having got involved in something t}iat looked 
like court intrigues, I called up N'yamgundu; told him all that 
had happened yesterday, both at the two courts and with MaiLla 
at home, and begged him to apply to the king for a meeting of 
five elders, that a proper understanding might be arrived at ; but, 
instead of doing as I desired, he got into a terrible fright, calling 
Maula, and told me if I pressed the matter in this way men would 
lose their lives. Meanwhile the cunning blackguard MaiUa beg- 
ged for pardon ; said I quite misunderstood his meaning ; all he 
had said was that I was very fortunate, being in such favor at 
court, for the king and queen both equally loved me. 

Ifyamgundu now got orders to go to Karagud overland for Dr. 
K'yengo ; but, dreading to tell me of it, as I had been so kind to 
him, he forged a falsehood, said he had leave to visit his home for 
six days, and begged for a wire to sacrifice to his church. I gave 
him what he wanted, and away he went I then heard his serv- 
ants had received orders to go overland for Grant and K'yengo ; 
so I wrote another note to Grant, telling him to come sharp, and 
bring all the property by boat that he could carry, leaving what 
he could not behind in charge of Btimanika. 

At noon, the plaguy little imps of pages hurried in to order the 
attendance of all my men fully armed before the king, as he wish- 
ed to seize .some refractory oflicer. I declined this abuse of my 
arms, and said I should first go and speak to the king on the sub- 
ject myself, ordering the men on no account to go on such an er- 
rand; and saying this, I proceeded toward the palace, leaving in- 
structions for those men who were not ready to follow. As the 
court messengers, however, objected to our going in detachments, 
I told Bombay to wait for the rest, and hurry on to overtake me. 
While lingering on the way, every minute expecting to see my 
men, the Wazinza, who had also received orders to seize the same 
officer, passed me, going to the place of attack, and, at the same 
time, I heard my men firing in a direction exactly opposite to the 
palace. I now saw I had been duped, and returned to my hut to 
see the issue. The boys had deceived us all. Bombay, tricked 



308 ^I^HE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1882. 

on the plea of their taking him by a short cut to the palace, sud- 
denly found himself, with all the men, opposite the fenced gardens 
that had to be taken — ^the establishment of the recusant officer; 
and the boys, knowing how eager all blacks are to loot, said, 
^' Now,^then, at the houses ; seize all you can, sparing nothing- 
men, women, or children, mbiigus or cowries, all alike ; for it is 
the order of the king ;" and in an instant my men surrounded the 
place, fired their guns, and rushed upon the inmates. One was 
speared forcing his way through the fence, but the rest were taken 
and brought triumphantly into my camp. It formed a strange 
sight in the establishment of an English gentleman to see my men 
flushed with the excitement of their spoils, staggering under loads 
of mbiigu, or leading children, mothers, goats, and dogs off in tri- 
umph to their respective huts. Bombay alone, of all my men, 
obeyed my orders, touching nothing; and when remonstrated 
with for having led the men, he said he could not help it ; the 
boys had deceived him in the same way as they had tricked me. 

It was now necessary that I should take some critical step in 
African diplomacy ; so, after ordering all the seizures to be given 
up to Maula on behalf of the king, and threatening to discharge 
any of my men who dared retain one item of the property, I shut 
the door of my hut to do penance for two days, giving orders 
that nobody but my cook Ilmas, not even Bombay, should come 
near me ; for the king had caused my men to sin — ^had disgraced 
their red cloth — ^and had inflicted on me a greater insult than I 
could bear. I was ashamed to show my face. Just as the door 
was closed, other pages from the king brought the Whitworth 
rifle to be cleaned, and demanded an admittance ; but no one 
dared approach me, and they went on their way again. 

Qth. I still continued to do penance. Bombay, by my orders, 
issued from within, prepared for a visit to the king, to tell him all 
that had happened yesterday, and also to ascertain if the orders 
for sending my men on a plundering mission had really emanated 
from himself, when the bothering pages came again, bringing a 
gun and knife to be mended. My door was found shut, so they 
went to Bombay, asked him to do it, and told him the king de- 
sired to know if I would go shooting with him in the morning. 
The reply was, "No; Bana is praying to-day that Mt&a's sins 
might be forgiven hiin for having committed such an injury to 
him, sending his soldiers on a mission that did not become them, 
and without his sanction too. He is very angry about it, and 



BCabch.] palace; UGANDA. 80Q 

wishes to know if it was done by the king's orders." The boys 
said, " Nothing can be done without the king's orders." After 
farther discussion, Bombay intimated that I wished the king to 
send me a party of five elderly officers to counsel with, and set all 
disagreeables to rights, or I would not go to the palace again; but 
the boys said there were no elderly gentlemen at court, only boys 
such as themselves. Bombay now wished to go with them before 
the king, to explain matters to him, and to give him all the red 
cloths of my men, which I took from them, because they defiled 
their uniform when plundering women and children; but the 
boys said the king was unapproachable just then, being engaged 
shooting cows before his women. He then wished the boys to 
carry the cloth ; but they declined, saying it was contrary to or- 
ders for any body to handle doth, and they could not do it 



310 THE 60UBCB OF THE NILE. [Utt. 



CHAPTER Xn. 
PALACE, UGANDA — OmtirmecL 

Contiiiaed diplomatic Difficulties.— Negro Chaffing.-— The King in a new Coetnme. 
—Adjutant and Heron Shooting at Court — ^My Besidenoe changed.— Scenea at 
Coart. — The Kamranona, or Coounander - in- chief. — Qnarrek. — Confidential 
Commnnications with the King.— Coort Ezecntions and ExecutionerB. — Another 
Day with the Queen. 

7ih, The fSuxse continued, and how to manage these haughty 
capricious blacks puzzled my brains considerably ; but I felt that 
if I did not stand up now, no one would ever be treated better 
hereafter. I sent Nasib to the queen to explain why I had not 
been to see her. I desired to do so, because I admired her wis- 
dom ; but before I went I must first see the king, to provide 
against any insult being offered to me, such as befell Bombay 
when I sent him with medicine. Having dispatched him, I re- 
paired again to the palace. In the antechamber I found a num- 
ber of wakungu, as usual, lounging about on the ground, smok- 
ing, chatting, and drinking pomb6, while Wasoga amused them 
singing and playing on lap-harps, and little boys kept time on the 
harmonicon. 

These wakungu are naturally patient attendants, being well 
trained to the duty ; for their very lives depend upon their pre- 
senting themselves at court a certain number of months every 
year, no matter from what distant part of the country they have 
to come. If they failed, their estates would be confiscated, and 
their lives taken unless they could escape. I found a messenger 
who consented to tell the king of my desire to see him. He re- 
turned to say that the king was sleeping — a palpable &lsehood. 
In a huff, I walked home to breakfast, leaving my attendants, 
Maula and Ul^i, behind to make explanations. They saw the 
king, who simply asked, " Where*is Bana?" And on being told 
that I came, but went off again, he said, as I was informed, "That 
is a lie, for had he come here to see me he would not have re- 
turned ;" then rising, he walked away and left the men to follow 
me. 



MABCfi.] PALACE, UGAKDA. Sll 

I oontinued rnminating on these absurd entanglements, and the 
best way of dealing with them, when, lo I to perplex me still 
more, in ran a bevy of the royal pages to ask for mtend6 beads — 
a whole sack of them ; for the king wished to go with his women 
on a pilgrimage to the N'yanza. Thinking myself very lucky to 
buy the king's ear so cheaply, I sent Maiila as before, adding that 
I considered my luck very bad, as nobody here knew my position 
in society, else they would not treat me as they did. My proper 
sphere was the paUce, and unless I got a hut there, I wished to 
leave the country. My first desire had always been to see the 
king; and if he went to the N'yanza, I trusted he would allow 
me to go there also. The* boys replied, " How can you go with 
his women? No one ever h permitted to see them." "Well," 
said I, "if I can not go to the N'yanza with him" (thinking only 
of the great lake, whereas they probably meant a pond in the 
palace inclosures, where Mt&a constantly frolics with his women), 
"I wish to go to tJsoga and Amara, as far as the Masai; for I 
have no companions here but crows and vultures." They prom- 
ised to take the message, but its delivery was quite another thing; 
for no one can speak at this court till he is spoken to, and a word 
put in out of season is a life lost. 

On Maiila's return, I was told the king would not believe so 
generous a man as Bana could have sent him so few beads ; he 
believed most of my store must have been stolen on the road, and 
would ask me about that to-morrow. He intimated that for the 
future I must fire a gun at the waiting-hut whenever I entered 
the palace, so that he might hear of my arrival, for he had been 
up that morning, and would have been glad to see me, only the 
boys, from fear of entering his cabinet, had forged a lie, and de- 
prived him of any interview with me, which he had long wished 
to get This ready cordiality was as perplexing as all the rest. 
Could it be possible, I thought, I had been fighting with a phan- 
tom aU this while, and yet the king had not been able to perceive 
it? At all events, now, as the key to his door had been given, I 
would make good use of it and watch the result Meanwhile 
Nasib returned from the queen-dowager's palace without having 
seen her majesty, though he had waited there patiently the whole 
day long, for she was engaged in festivities, incessantly drumming 
and plapng, in consequence of the birth of twins (mabassa), which 
had just taken place in her palace ; but he was advised to return 
on the morrow. 



312 "I^HE SOUBCE OF THE NILK [1862. 

8^. After breakfisist I walked to the palace, thinkiDg I had 
gained all I wanted; entered, and fired guns, expecting an in- 
stant admittance; but, as usual, I was required to sit and wait; 
the king was expected immediately. All the wakungu talked in 
whispers, and nothing was heard but the never-ceasing harps and 
harmonioons. In a little while I felt tired of the monotony, and 
wished to hang up a curtain, that I might lie down in privacy and 
sleep till the king was ready ; but the oj£cers in waiting forbade 
this, as contrary to law, and left me the only alternative of* walk- 
ing up and down the court to kill time, spreading my umbrella 
against the powerful rays of the sun. A very little of that made 
me fidgety and impetuous, which the t^aganda noticed, and from 
fear of the consequences, they began to close the gate to prevent 
my walking away. I flew out on them, told Bombay to notice 
the disrespect, and shamed them into opening it again. The king 
immediately, on hearing of this, sent me pomb^ to keep me quiet ; 
but as I would not touch it, saying I was sick at heart, another 
page rushed out to say the king was ready to receive me; and, 
opening a side gate leading into a small open court without a 
hut in it, there, to be sure, was his majesty, sitting on an Arab's 
donkey-rug, propped against one page, and encompassed by four 
others. 

On confronting him, he motioned me to sit, which I did upon 
my bundle of grass, and, finding it warm, asked leave to open my 
umbrella. He was much struck at the facility with which I 
could make shade, but wondered still more at my requiring it. 
I explained to him that my skin was white because I lived in a 
colder country than his, and therefore was much more sensitive 
to the heat of the sun than his black skin ; adding, at the same 
time, if it gave no offense, I would prefer sitting in the shade of 
the court fence. He had no objection, and opened conversation 
by asking who it was that gave me such offense in taking my 
guard from me to seize his wakungu. The boy who had pro- 
voked me was then dragged in, tied by his neck and hands, when 
the king asked him by whose orders he had acted in such a man- 
ner, knowing that I objected to it, and wished to speak to him on 
the subject first The poor boy, in a dreadfiil firight, said he had 
acted under instructions of the kamraviona: there was no harm 
done, for Bana's men were not hurt. " Well, then," said the 
king, "if they were not injured, and you only did as you were 
ordered, no &ult rests with you ; but be gone out of my sight, 



Mabcb.] palace, U6AKDA. 818 

for I can not bear to see yon ; and the kamraviona shall be taught 
a lesson not to meddle with mj guests again until I give him 
authority to do so." 

I now hoped, as I had got the king all by himself, and appar- 
ently in a good humor with me, that I might give him a whole- 
some lesson on the manners and customs of the English nation, 
to show how much I felt the slights I had received since my resi- 
dence in Uganda; but he never lost his dignity and fussines» as 
a Uganda king. My words must pass through his mkungfi, as 
well as my interpreter's, before they reached him; and, as he had 
no patience, every thing was lost, till he suddenly asked Maula, 
pretending not to know, where my hut was; why every body said 
I lived so fer away ; and when told, he said, " Oh I that is very fiar ; 
he must come nearer." Still I could not say a word, his fussiness 
and self-importance overcoming his inquisitiveness. 

Bain now fell, and the king retired by one gate, while I was 
shown out of another, until the shower was over. As soon as the 
sky was clear again, we returned to the little court, and this time 
b€<^ame more confidential, as he asked many questions about En- 
gland, such as, Whether the queen knew any thing about medi- 
cines? whether she kept a number of women as he did? and 
what her palace was like? which gave me an opportunity of say- 
ing I would like to see his ships, for I heard they were very 
numerous; and also his menagerie, said to be full of wonderful 
animals. He said the vessels were far off, but he would send for 
them ; and although he once kept a large number of animals, he 
killed them all in practicing with his guns. The Whitworth rifle 
was then brought in for me to take to pieces and teach him the 
use of, and then the chronometer. He then inquired if I would 
like to go shooting. I said, "Yes, if he would accompany me — 
not otherwise." " Hippopotami ?" " Yes ; there is great fun in 
that, for they knock the boats over when they charge from be- 
low." "Can you swim?" "Yes." "So can I. And would 
you like to shoot buffalo ?" " Yes, if you will go." " At night, 
then, I will send my keepers to look out for them. Here is a 
leopard-cat, with white behind its ears, and a Nd^zi porcupine, 
of the short-quilled kind, which my people eat with great relish ; 
and if you are fond of animals, I will give you any number of 
specimens, for my keepers net and bring in live animals of every 
Irind daily ; for the present, you can take this basket of porcu- 
pines home for your dinner." My men n'yanzigged ; the king 



814 1^^ SOUBCE OF THE lOLE. [1862. 

walked away, giving ordeis for another offioer to follow up the 
first who went to Ukori, and bring Petherick quickly ; and I 
went home. 

This was to be a day of varied success. When I arrived at my 
hut I found a messenger sent by the queen, with a present of a 
goat, called ^' fowls for Bana, my son," and a load of plantains^ 
called potatoes, waiting for me ; so I gave the bearer a fundo of 
mtend^ beads, and told again the reasons why I had not been 
able to call upon the queen^ but hoped to do so shortly, as the 
king had promised me a house near at hand. I doubt^ however, 
whether one word of my message ever reached her. That she 
wanted me at lier palace was evident by the present, though she 
was either too proud or too cautious to say so. 

At night I overheard a chat between Sangizo, a Myamii^ and 
Ntalo, a fireed man of Zanzibar, very characteristic of their way 
of chaffing. Sangizo opened the battle by saying, '^ Ntalo, who 
are you?" N. "A mguana" (freed man). & "A mguana, in- 
deed I then where is your mother?" N, "She died at Anguja." 
& " Your mother died at Anguja ! then where is your father?" 
N. "He died at Anguja likewise." S. "Well, that is strange; 
and where are your brothers and sisters?" K "They all died 
at Anguja." S. (then changing the word Anguja for Anguza, 
says to Ntalo), " I think you said your mother and &ther both 
died at Anguza, did you not?" N. " Yes, at Anguza." & " Then 
you had two mothers and two fathers — one set died at Anguja, 
and the other set at Anguza; you are a humbug; I don't believe 
you ; you are no mguana, but a slave who has been snatched from 
his &mily, and does not know where any of his family are. Abl 
ah I ah I" And all the men of the camp laugh together at the 
wretched Ntalo's defeat ; but Ntalo won't be done, so retorts by 
saying, " Sangizo, you may laugh at me because I am an orphan, 
but what are you? you are a savage — ^a mshenzi; you come from 
the Mashenzi, and you wear skins, not clothes, as men do; so hold 
your impudent tongue;" and the camp pealed with merry bois- 
terous laughter again. 

9ih. Early in the morning, and while I was in bed, the king 
sent his pages to request me to visit his royal mother, with some 
specific for the itch, with which her majesty was then afflicted. I 
said I could not go so far in the sun ; I would wait till I received 
the promised palace near her. In the mean while I prepared to 
call on him. I observed, in fact, that I was an object of jealousy 



Maboh.] palace, UGANDA. 816 

between the two cotirls, and that, if I acted skillfallj and dedded- 
ly, I might become master of the situation, and secure my darling 
object of a passage northward. The boys returned, bringing a 
pistol to be cleaned, and a message to say it was no use my think- 
ing of calling on the king — that I must go to the queen imme* 
diately, for she was veiy iU. So four the queen won the day, but 
I did not obtain my new residence, which I considered the first 
step to accomplishing the greater object; I therefore put the iron 
&rther in the fire by saying I was no man's slave, and I should 
not go until I got a house in the palace; Bombay could teach the 
boys the way to clean the pistol. The pert monkeys, however, 
turned up their noses at such menial service, and Ul^ was in- 
structed in their stead. 

10th. To surprise the queen, and try another dodge, I called on 
her with all my dining things and bedding, to make a day of it, 
and sleep the night. She admitted me at once, when I gave her 
quinine, on the proviso that I should stop there all day and night 
to repeat the dose, and tell her the reason why I did not come be- 
fore. She affected great anger at Mt^ having interfered with 
my servants when coming to see her — sympathized with me on 
the distance I had to travel— ordered a hut to be cleared for me 
eie night — ^told me to eat my breakfast in the next court — and, 
rising abruptly, walked away. At noon we heard the king ap- 
proaching with his drums and rattle-traps, but I still waited on 
till 5 P.M., when, on summons, I repaired to the throne -hut. 
Here I heard, in an adjoining court, the boisterous, explosive 
laughs of both mother and son — ^royal shouts loud qnough to be 
heard a mile off, and inform the community that their sovereigns 
were pleased to indulge in hilarity. Immediately afterward, the 
gate between us being thrown open, the king, like a very child, 
stood before us, dressed for the first time, in public, in what 
Europeans would call clothes. For a cap he wore a Muscat alfia, 
on his neck a silk Arab turban, &stened with a ring. Then for 
a coat he had an Indian kizbow, and for trowsers a yellow woolen 
doti ; while in his hand, in imitation of myself he kept running 
nis ramrod backward and forward through his fingers. As I ad- 
vanced and doffed my hat, the king, smiling, entered the court, 
followed by a budding damsel dressed in red bindera, who car- 
ried the chair I had presented to him, and two new spears. 

He now took his seat for the first time upon a chair, for I had 
told him, at my last interview, that all kings were expected to 



816 ^HE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. 

bring out some new fashion, or else the world would never make 
progress ; and I was directed to sit before him on my grass throne. 
Talking, though I longed to enter into conversation, was out of 
the question ; for no one dared speak for me, and I could not talk 
myself; so we sat and grinned, till in a few minutes the queen, 
full of smirks and smiles, joined us, and sat on a mbugiL 1 
offered the medicine-chest as a seat, but she dared not take.it; in 
fact, by the constitution of Uganda, no one, however high in rank, 
not even his mother, can sit before the king. After sundry jokes, 
while we were all bursting with laughter at the theatrical phe- 
nomenon, the wakungii who were present, some twenty in num- 
ber, threw themselves in line upon their bellies, and, wriggling 
like fish, n'yanzigged, n'goned, and demaned, and uttered other 
wonderftil words of rejoicing — ^as, for instance, "Hai minang^! 
Hai mkama wangi I" (Oh my chief 1 Oh my king!) — while they 
continued floundering, kicking about their legs, rubbing their 
faces, and putting their hands upon the ground, as if the king 
had performed some act of extraordinary munificence by showing 
himself to them in that strange and new position, a thing quite 
enough to date a new Uganda era from. 

The king, without deigning to look upon his groveling subjects, 
said, " Now, mother, take your medicine ;" for he had been called 
solemnly to witness the medical treatment she was undergoing at 
my hands. When she had swallowed her quinine with a wry 
face, two very black virgins appeared on the stage holding up the 
double red blanket I had given the queen ; for nothing, however 
trifling, can he kept secret from the king. The whole court was 
in raptures. The king signified his approval by holding his 
mouth, putting his head on one side, and looking askance at it 
The queen looked at me, then at the blanket and her son in turn; 
while my men hung down their heads, fearfiil lest they should be 
accused of looking at the ladies of the court; and the wakungii 
n'yanzigged again, as if they could not contain the gratification 
they felt at the favor shown them. Nobody had ever brought 
such wonderful things to Uganda before, and all loved Bana. 
. Till now I had expected to vent my wrath on both together 
for all past grievances, but this childish, merry, homely scene— 
the mother holding up her pride, her son, before the state officers 
— ^melted my heart at once. I laughed as well as they did, and 
said it pleased me excessively to see them both so happy together. 
It was well the king had broken through the old-fiishioned laws 



Maxch.] palace; UGANDA. gl7 

of Uganda by sittmg on an iron chair, and adopting European 
dresses, for now he was opening a road to cement his own domin- 
ions with my country. I should know what things to send that 
would please him. The king listened, but without replying ; and 
said, at the conclusion, '' It is late, now let us move ;" and walked 
away, preserving famously the lion's gait The mother also van- 
ished, and I. was led away to a hut outside, prepared for my night's 
residence. It was a small, newly-built hut, just large enough for 
my bed, with a comer for one servant; so I turned all my men 
away save one, ate my dinner, and hoped to have a quiet, cool 
night of it, when suddenly Maula flounced in with all his boys, 
lighting a fire, and they spread their mbugiis for the night. In 
vain I pleaded I could not stand the suffocation of so many men, 
especially of Waganda, who eat raw plantains ; and unless they 
tamed out, I should do so, to benefit by the pure air. Maula said 
he had the queen's orders to sleep with Bana, and sleep there he 
would ; so, rather than kick him out, which I felt inclined to do, 
I smoked my pipe and drank pomb^ all night, turning the people 
out and myself in, in the morning, to prepare for a small house- 
fight with the queen. 

11^. Early in the moming, as I expected, she demanded my 
immediate attendance ; and so the little diplomatic affair I had 
anticipated came on. I begin the game by intimating that I am 
in bed, and have not*breakfasted. So at 10 A.M. another mes- 
senger arrives, to say her majesty is much surprised at my not 
coming. What can such conduct mean, when she arranged every 
thing so nicely for me after my own desire, that she might drink 
her medicine properly? Still I am not up ; but nobody will let 
me rest from fear of the queen ; so, to while away the time, I 
order Bombay to call upon her, give the quinine, and tell her all 
that has happened ; at which she flies into a towering rage, says 
she will never touch medicine administered by any other hands 
but mine, and will not believe in one word Bombay says, either 
about Maula or the hut; for Maiila, whose duty necessarily obliged 
him to take my servants before her majesty, had primed her with 
a lot of falsehoods on the subject; and she had a fondness for 
Maula, because he was a clever humbug and exceeding rogue ; 
and sent Bombay back to fetch me, for nobody had ever dared 
disobey her mandates before. 

It had now turned noon, and being ready for the visit, I went 
to see the queen. Determined to have her tum, she kept me 



318 THE SOUBCE OF THE KILE. [18C2. 

waiting for a long time before she would show herself; and at 
last, when she c^me, she flounced up to her curtain, lay down in 
a huff, and vented her wrath, holding her head very high, and 
wishing to know how I could expect officers, with large establish- 
ments, to be turned out of their homes merely to give me room 
for one night ; I ought to have been content with my ftire ; it was 
no &ult of Mania's. I tried to explain through Nasib, but she 
called Nasib a liar, and listened to Maula who told the lies ; then 
asked for her medicine ; drank it, saying it was a small dose; and 
walked off in ill humor as she had come. I now made up mj 
mind to sit till 8 P.M., hoping to see the queen again, while talk- 
ing with some Eidi officers, who, contrary to the general law of 
the country, indulged me with some discourses on geography, 
from which I gathered, though their stories were rather confUsed, 
that beyond the As&b. Biver, in the (ralla country, there was an- 
other lake which was navigated by the inhabitants in veiy laige 
vessels ; and somewhere in the same neighborhood there was an 
exceedingly high mountain, covered with yellow dust, which the 
natives collected, etc., etc. 

Time was drawing on, and as the queen would not appear of 
her own accord, I sent to request a friendly conversation with her 
befere I left, endeavoring, bs well as I could, to persuade her that 
the want of cdrdiality between us was owing to the mistakes of 
interpreters, who had not conveyed to her my profound sentiments 
of devotion. This brought her gracious corpulence out all smirks 
and smiles, preceded by a basket of sweet potatoes for " Bans, my 
son." I began conversation with a speech of courtesy, explain- 
ing how I had left my brother Grant and my great friend Biima- 
nika at Karagu^, hastening, in compliance with the invitaticm of 
the king, to visit him and herself, with the frill hope of making 
friends in Uganda ; but now I had come, I was greatiy disappoint- 
ed ; for I neither saw half enough of their majesties, nor did any 
of their officers ever call upon me to converse and pass away tiie 
dreary hours. All seemed highly pleased, and complimented my 
speech; while the queen, turning to her officers, said, "If that is 
the case, I will send these men to you ;" whereupon the officers, 
highly delighted at the prospect of coming to see me, and its con- 
sequence, a present, n'yanzigged until I thought their hands would 
drop off. Then her majesty, to my thorough annoyance, and be- 
fore I had finished half I had to say, rose from her seat^ and, show- 
ing her broad stem to the company, walked straight away. The 



MAIK3B.] PALACE, UGAIIDA. 819 

officers then drew near me, and begged I would sleep there an- 
other night ; but as they had nothing better to offer than the hut 
of last night, I declined, and went my way, begging them to call 
and make &iends with me. 

12ih. Immediately after breakfisist the king sent his pages in a 
great hurry to say he was waiting on the hill for me, and begged 
I would bring all my guns immediately. I prepared, thinking, 
naturally enough, that some buf^oes had been marked down ; for 
the boys, as usual, were perfectly ignorant of his designs. To my 
surprise, however, when I mounted the hiU half way to the pal- 
ace, I found the king standing, dressed in a rich filigreed waist- 
coat, trimmed with gold embroidery, tweedling the loading-rod in 
his finger, and an alfia cap on his head, while his pages held his 
chair and guns, and a number of officers, with dogs and goats for 
offerings, squatting before him. 

When I arrived, hat in hand, he smiled, examined my fire- 
arms, and proceeded for sport, leading the way to a high tree, on 
which some adjutant birds were nesting, and numerous vultures 
resting. This was the sport ; Bana must shoot a nundo (adju- 
tant) for the king's gratification. I begged him to take a shot 
himself as I really could not demean myself by firing at birds 
sitting on a tree ; but it was all of no use ; no one could shoot'as 
I could, and they must be shot I proposed frightening them 
oat with stones, but no stone could reach so high ; so, to cut the 
matter short, I killed an adjutant on the nest, and, as the vultures 
flew away, brought one down on the wing, which fell in a garden 
inclosure., 

The Waganda were for a minute all spell-bound with astonish- 
ment, when the king jumped frantically in the air, clapping his 
hands above his head, and singing out, '^Woh, wohj wohl what 
wonders 1 Oh, Bana, Banal what miracles he performs 1" and 
all the wakungu followed in chorus. " Kow load, Bana — ^load, 
and let us see you do it," cried the excited king; but, before I 
was half loaded, he said, "Come along, come along, and let us see 
the bird." Then directing the officers which way to go — ^for, by 
the etiquette of the court of Uganda, every one must precede the 
king — ^he sent them through a court where his women, afraid of 
the gun, had been concealed. Here the rush onward was stopped 
by- newly-made fences, but the king roared to the officers to 
Imock them down. This was no sooner said than done by the 
attendants in a body shoving on and trampling them under, as 



320 ^^^ SOUBGE OF THE NILK [18fi2. 

an elephant would crash small trees to keep his course. So push- 
ing, floundering through plantain and shrub, pell-mell one upon 
the other, that the king's pace might not be checked, or any one 
come in for a royal kick or blow, they came upon tiie prostrate 
bird. "Woh, woh, wohl" cried the king again, "there he is, 
sure enough ; come here, women-MX>me and look what wonders!'' 
And all the women, in the highest excitement^ " woh-wohed" as 
loud as any of the men. But that was not enough. " Gome along, 
Bana," said the king, " we must have some more sport ;" and, 
saying this, he directed the way toward the queen's palace, the 
attendants leading, followed by the pages, then die king, next my- 
self—for I 'never would walk before him — ^and finally the women, 
some forty or fifty, who constantly attended him. 

To make the most of the king's good-humor, while I wanted to 
screen myself from the blazing sun, I asked him if he would like 
to enjoy the pleasures of an umbrella; and before he had time to 
answer, held mine over him as we walked aide by side. The wa- 
kungu were astonished, and the women prattled in great delight; 
while the king, hardly able to control himself, sidled and spoke 
to his flatterers as if he were doubly created monarch of all he 
surveyed. He then, growing more femiliar, said, " Now, Bana, 
do tell me — did you not shoot that bird with something more 
than common ammunition ? I am sure you did, now ; there was 
miigic in it." And all I said to the contrary would not convince 
him. "But we will see again." " At buffaloes?" I said. " No, 
the buffaloes are too far off now; we will wait to go afler them 
until I have given you a hut close by." Presently, as some 
herons were flying overhead, he said, "Now shoot, shoot I" and 
I brought a couple down right and left. He stared, and every 
body stared, believing me to be a magician, when the king said 
he would like to have pictures of the birds drawn and hung up 
in the palace ; "but let us go and shoot some more, for it is truly 
wonderful." Similar results followed, for the herons were con- 
tinually whirling round, as they had their nests upon a neighbor- 
ing tree ; and then the king ordered his pages to carry all the 
birds, save the vulture — which, for some reason, they did not 
touch — and show them to the queen. 

He then gave the order to move on, and we all repaired to the 
palace. Arrived at the usual throne-room, he took his seat, dis- 
missed the party of wives who had been following him, as well 
as the wakungfi, received pomb^ from his female evil-eye avert- 



mabch.] palace; UGAN1)A. 821 

CIS, and ordered me, with my men, to sit in the sun &cing him, 
till I complained of the heat, and was aUowed to sit by his side. 
Kites, crows, and sparrows were flying about in all directions, and 
as they came within shot, nothing would satisfy the excited boy- 
king but I must shoot them, and his pages take them to the 
queen, till my ammunition was totally expended. He then 
wanted me to send for more shot; and as I told him he must 
wait for more until my brothers come, he contented himself with 
taking two or three sample grains, and ordering his ironsmiths 
to make some like them. 

Cows were now driven in for me to kill two with one bullet; 
but as the off one jumped away when the gun fired, the bullet 
passed through the near one, then through all the courts and 
fences, and away no one knew where. The king was delighted, 
and said he must keep the rifle to look at for the night. I now 
asked permission to speak with him on some important matters, 
when he sent his women away, and listened. I said I felt anx- 
ious about the road on which Mabruki was traveling, to which I 
added that I had ordered him to tell Petherick to come here, or 
else to send property to the value of $1000 ; and I felt anxious 
because some of the queen's officers felt doubtful about Waganda 
being able to penetrate £idi. He said I need not concern my- 
self on that score ; he was much more anxious for the white men 
to come here than even I was, and he would not send my men 
into any danger; but it was highly improper for any of his peo- 
ple to speak about such subjects. Then, assembling the women 
again, he asked me to load Whitworth for him, when he shot the 
remaining cow, holding the rifle in both hands close to his thigh. 
The fcLc, of course, brought forth great and uproarious congratu- 
lations firom his women. The day thus ended, and I was dis- 
missed. 

ISth. Mabruki and Bilal come into camp: they returned last 
night ; but the Waganda escort, afitdd of my obtaining informa- 
tion of them before the king received it, kept them concealed. 
They had been defeated in Usoga, two marches east of Kira, at 
the residence of Nagozigombi, Mt^'s border officer, who gave 
them two bullocks, but advised their returning at once to inform 
the king that the independent Wasoga had been fighting with his 
dependent Wasoga subjects for some time, and the battle would 
not be over for two months or more, unless he sent an army to 
their assistance. 

X 



322 ^™^ SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [18G2. 

I now sent Bombay to the king to request an interview, as I 
had much of importance to tell him ; but he could not be seen, 
as he was deep in the interior of the palace enjoying the society 
of his wives. The kamraviona^ however, was found there wait- 
ing, as usual, on the mere chance of his majesty taking it into his 
head to come out He asked Bombay if it was true the woman 
he gave me ran away; and when Bombay told him, he said, "Oh, 
he should have chained her for two or three days, until she be- 
came accustomed to her residence; for women often take fright 
and run away in that way, believing strangers to be cannibals." 
But Bombay replied, "She was not good enough for Bana; he 
let her go off like a dog; he wants a young and beautiful mh&na, 
or none at all." " Ah I well, then, if he is so particular, he must 
wait a bit, for we have none on hand. What I gave him is the 
sort of creature we give all our guests." A Msoga was sent by 
the king to take the dead adjutant of yesterday out of the nest — 
for all Wasoga are expert climbers, which is not the case with the 
Waganda; but the man was attacked half way up the tree by a 
swarm of bees, and driven down again. 

14:ih. After all the vexatious haggling for a house, I gained my 
object to-day by a judicious piece of bribery which I had intend- 
ed to accomplish whenever I could. I now succeeded in sending 
— ^for I could not, under the jealous eyes in Uganda, get it done 
earlier — a present of fifteen pints mixed beads, twenty blue eggs, 
and five copper bracelets, to the commander-in-chief, as a mark of 
friendship. At the same time I hinted that I should like him to 
use his influence in obtaining for me a near and respectable resi- 
dence, where I hoped he, as well as all the Waganda nobility, 
would call upon me ; for my life in Uganda was utterly misera- 
ble, being shut up like a hermit by myself every day. The re- 
sult was, that a number of huts in a large plantain garden were 
at once assigned to me, on the face of a hill, immediately over- 
looking and close to the maiif road. It was considered the " West 
End." It had never before been occupied by any visitors except- 
ing Wahinda embassadors; and being near, and in foil view of 
the palace, was pleasant and advantageous, as I could both hear 
the constant music, and see the throngs of people ever wending 
their way to and from the royal abodea I lost no time in mov- 
ing all my property, turning out the original occupants — ^in select- 
ing the best hut for myself, giving the rest to my three officers — 
and ordering my men to build barracks for themselves, in street 



Habgh.] palace, UGANDA. 828 

form, from my hut to the main road. There was one thing only 
left to be done : the sanitsuy orders of Uganda required every 
man to build for himself a house of Parliament, such being the 
neat and cleanly nature of the Waganda — ^a pattern to all other 
n^ro tribes. 

15ih. As nobody could obtain an interview with the king yes- 
terday, I went to ^e palace to-day, and fired three shots, a signal 
which was at once answered from within by a double discharge 
of a gun I had just lent him on his returning my rifle. In a little 
while, as soon as he had time to dress, the king, walking like a 
lion, sallied forth, leading his white dog, and be^oned me to fol- 
low him to the state hut, the court of which was filled with squat- 
ting men as usual, well dressed, and keeping perfect order. He 
planted himself on his throne, and begged me to sit by his side. 
Then took place the usual scene of a court lev^, as described in 
Chapter X., with the specialty, in this instance, that the son of the 
chief executioner — one of the highest officers of state — was led 
off for execution, for some omission or informality in his n'yan- 
zigs, or salutes. 

At this levfe sundry 'v^akungu of rank complained that the 
Wanyambo plundered their hoases at night, and rough-handled 
their women, without any respect for their greatness, and, when 
caught, said they were Bana's men. Bombay, who was present, 
heard th« complaint^ and declared these were Siiwarora's men, 
who made use of the proximity of my camp to cover their own 
transgressions. Then Siiwarora's deputation, who were also pres- 
ent, cringed forward, n'yanzigging like Waganda, and denied the 
accusation, when the king gave all warning that he would find 
out the truth by placing guards on the look-out at night. 

Till this time the king had not heard one word about the defeat 
of the party sent for Petherick. His kingdom might have been 
lost, and he would have been no wiser; when the officer who led 
Mabruki came forward and told him all that had happened, sta^ 
ing, in addition to what I heard before, that they took eighty men 
with them, and went into battle three times unsuccessfully. Dis- 
missing business, however, the king turned to me, and said he 
never saw any thing so wonderful as my shooting in his life; he 
was sure it was done by magic, as my gun never missed, and he 
wished I would instruct him in the art When I denied there 
was any art in shooting farther than holding the gun straight, he 
shook his head, and, getting me to load his revolving pistol for 



g24 T^^ SOUBCE OF THE NILK [1862. 

him, he fired all five barrels into two cows before the multitude. 
He then thought of adjutant-shooting with ball, left the court sit- 
ting, desired me to follow him, and, leading the way, went into 
the interior of the palace, where only a few select officers were 
permitted to follow ua The birds were wild, and as nothing was 
done, I instructed him in the way to fire from his shoulder, plac- 
ing the gun in position. He was shy at first, and all the people 
laughed at my handling royalty like a school-boy ; but he soon 
took to it very good-naturedly, when I gave him my silk neck-tie 
and gold crest-ring, explaining their value, which he could not 
comprehend, and telling him we gentlemen prided ourselves on 
never wearing brass or copper. 

He now begged hard for shot; but I told him again his only 
chance of getting any lay in opening the road onward ; it was on 
this account, I said, I had come to see him to-day. He answered, 
" I am going to send an army to TJsoga to force the way firom 
where your men were turned back." But this, I said, would not 
do for me, as I saw his people traveled like geese, not knowing 
the direction of Gani, or where they were going to when sent. 1 
proposed that if he would call all his traveling men of experience 
together, I would explain matters to them by a map I had brought; 
for I should never be content till I saw Petherick. 

The map was then produced. He seemed to comprebend it 
immediately, and assembled the desired wakungu ; but, to my 
mortification, he kept all the conversation to himself, Waganda 
fashion ; spoke a lot of nonsense ; and then asked his men what 
they thought had better be done. The sages replied, " Oh, make 
fiiends, and do the matter gently." But the king proudly raised 
his head, laughed them to scorn, and said, *' Make friends with 
men who have crossed their spears with us already I Nonsense! 
they would only laugh at us ; the Uganda spear alone shall do 
it," Hearing this bravado, the kamraviona, the pages, and the 
elders, all rose to a man, with their sticks, and came charging at 
their king, swearing they would carry out his wishes with their 
lives. The meeting now broke up in the usual unsatisfectory, 
unfinished manner, by the king rising and walking away, whUe I 
returned with the kamraviona, who begged for ten more blue 
eggs in addition to my present to make a full necklace, and told 
my men to call upon him in the morning, when he would give 
me any thing I wished to eat Bombay was then ordered to de- 
scribe what sort of food I lived on usually, when, Mganda fashion, 



AUbob.] palace, UGANDA. S25 

he broke a stick into ten bits, each representing a different article, 
and said, "Bana eat mixed food always;" and explained that 
stick No. 1 represented beef; No. 2, mutton ; No. 8, fowl ; No. 4, 
eggs ; No. 5, fish ; No. 6, potatoes ; No. 7, plantains ; No. 8, pom- 
b^; No. 9, butter; No. 10, flour. 

16^. To-day the king was amusing himself among his women 
again, and not to be seen. I sent Bombay with ten blue eggs as 
a present for the kamraviona, intimating my desire to call upon 
him. He sent me a goat and ten fowls' eggs, saying he was not 
visible to strangers on business to-day. I inferred that he re- 
quired the king's permission to receive me. This double failure 
was a more serious affair than a mere slight; for my cows were 
eaten up, and my men clamoring incessantly for food; and though 
they might by orders help themselves " ku n'yangania" — ^by seiz- 
ing — ^from the Waganda, it hurt my feelings so much to -witness 
this, that I tried from the first to dispense with it, telling the king 
I had always flogged my men for stealing, and now he turned 
them into a pack of thieves. I urged that he should either allow 
me to purchase rations, or else feed them from the palace as Bii- 
manika did ; but he always turned a deaf ear, or said that what 
Sunna his father had introduced it ill became him to subvert; and, 
unless my men helped themselves, they would die of starvation. 

On the present emergency I resolved to call upon the queen. 
On reaching the palace, I sent an officer in to announce my ar- 
rival, and sat waiting for the reply fully half an hour, smoking 
my pipe, and listening to her in the adjoining court, where music 
was playing, and her voice occasionally rent the air with merry 
boisterous laughing. 

The messenger returned to say no one could approach her sanc- 
tuary or disturb her pleasure at this hour; I must wait and bide 
my time, as the Uganda officers do. Whew I Here was another 
diplomatic crisis, which had to be dealt with in the usual way. 
" I bide my time I" I said, rising in a towering passion, and thrash- 
ing the air with my ramrod walking-stick, before all the visiting 
wakungu, " when the queen has assured me her door would al- 
ways be open* to me ! I shall leave this court at once, and I sol- 
emnly swear I shall never set foot in it again, unless some apol- 
ogy be made for treating me like a dog." Then, returning home, 
I tied up all the presents her majiesty had given me in a bundle, 
and calling Maula and my men together, told them to take them 
where they came from, for it ill became me to keep tokens of 



S26 THE SOUBCE OF THE KILE. [1862. 

fnendship when no friendsbip existed between ns. I came to 
make £riends with the queen, not to trade or take things from her 
— ^and so forth. The blackguard Maula, laughing, said, '' Bana 
does not know what he is doing ; it is a heinous offense in Ugan- 
da sending presents back ; nobod^r for their lives dare do so to 
the queen ; her wrath would know no bounds. She will say, ' I 
took a few trifles from Bana as specimens of his country, but they 
shall all go back, and the things the king has received shall go 
back also, for we are all of one family ;' and then won't Bana be 
very sorry ? Moreover, wakungu will be killed by dozens, and 
lamentations will reign throughout the court to propitiate the 
devils who brought such disasters on them." Bombay, also in a 
fright, said, '^ Pray don't do so ; you don't know these savages as 
we do ; there is no knowing what will happen ; it may defeat our 
journey altogether. Farther, we have had no food these four 
days, because row succeeds row. ff we steal, you flog us; and 
if we ask the Waganda for food, they beat us. We don't know 
what to do." I was imperative, however, and said, " Maula must 
take back these things in the morning, or stand the consequences." 
In fact, I found that, like the organ-grinders in London, to get 
myself moved on I must make myself troublesome. 

nth. The queen's presents were taken back by Maula and Na- 
sib, while I went to see the kamraviona. Even this gentleman 
kept me waiting for some time to show his own importance, and 
then admitted me into one of his interior courts, where I found 
him sitting on the ground with several elders, while Wasoga min- 
strels played on their lap-harps, and sang songs in praise of their 
king, and the noble stranger who wore fine clothes and eclipsed 
all previous visitors. At first, on my approach, the haughty 
young chief, very handsome, and twenty years of age, did not 
raise his head ; then he begged me to be seated, and even inquired 
after my health in a listless, condescending kind of manner, as if 
the exertion of talking was too much for his constitution or his 
rank ; but he soon gave up this nonsense as I began to talk ; in- 
quired, among other things, why I did not see the Waganda at 
my house, when I said I should so much like to make acquaint- 
ance with them, and begged to be introduced to the company who 
were present. 

I was now enabled to enlarge the list of topics on which it is 
prohibited to the Waganda to speak or act under pain of death. 
No one even dare ever talk about the royal pedigree, of the coun- 



MikRCH.] PALACE, UGANDA. S27 

tries that have been conquered, or even of any neighboring coun- 
tries ; no one dare visit the king's guests, or be visited by them, 
without leave, else the king, fearing sharers in his plunder, would 
say, What are you plucking our goose for ? Neither can any,one 
cast his eye for a moment on the women of the palace, whether 
out walking or at home, lest he should be accused of amorous in- 
tentions. Beads and brass wire, exchanged for ivory or slaves, 
are the only article of foreign manufacture any Mganda can hold 
in his possession. Should any thing else be seen in his house — 
for instance^ cloth — his property would be confiscated and his life 
taken. 

I was now introduced to the company present, of whom one 
Mg^ma, an elderly gentleman of great dignity, had the honor to 
carry Sunna, the late king; Mpungu, who cooked for Sunna, also 
ranks high in court ; then Usungu and Kiinza, executioners, rank 
very high, eujoying the greatest confidence with the king ; and, 
finsJly, Jumba and Natigo, who traced their pedigree to the age 
of the first Uganda king. As I took down a note of their several 
names, each seemed delighted at finding his name written down 
by me ; and Kunza, the executioner, begged as a great favor that 
I would plead to the king to spare his son's life, who, as I have 
mentioned, was ordered out to execution on the last lev^ day. 
At first I thought it necessary, for the sake of maintaining my 
dignity, to raise objections, and said it would ill become one of 
my rank to make any request that might possibly be rejected ; 
but as the kamraviona assured me there would be no chance pf 
failure, and every body else agreed with him, I said it would give 
me intense satisfaction to serve him ; and the old man squeezed 
my hand as if overpowered with joy. 

This meeting, as might be imagined, was a very dull one, be- 
cause the company, being tongue-tied as regards every thing of 
external interest, occupied themselves solely on matters of home 
business, or indulged their busy tongues, Waganda fashion, in 
gross flatteiy of their " illustrious visitor." In imitation of the 
king, the kamraviona now went from one hut to another, reques^ 
ing us to follow, that we might see all his greatness, and then took 
me alone into a separate court to show me his women, some five- 
and-twenty of the ugliest in Uganda. This, he added, was a 
mark of respect he had never conferred on any person before ; 
.but, fearing lest I should misunderstand his meaniug, and covet 
any of them, he said, " Mind, they are only to be looked at" 



328 ^^^ SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1802. 

As we retired to the other visitors, the kamraviona, in return 
for some courteous remarks of mine, said all the Waganda were 
immensely pleased with my having come to visit them ; and as 
he heard my country is governed by a woman, what would I say 
if he made the Waganda dethrone her, and create me king in- 
stead. Without specially replying, I showed him a map, mark- 
ing off the comparative sizes of British and Waganda possessions, 
and shut him up. The great kamraviona, or commander-in-chief, 
with all his wives, has no children, and was eager to know if my 
skill could avail to remove this cloud in his fortunes. He gene- 
rously gave me a goat and eggs, telling my men they might help 
themselves to plantains fjx)m any gardens they liked beyond cer- 
tain limits, provided they did not enter houses or take any thing 
else. He then said he was tired, and walked away without an- 
other word. 

On returning, home I found Nasib and M aula waiting for me, 
with all the articles that had been returned to the queen very 
neatly tied together. They had seen her majesty, who, on re- 
ceiving my message, pretended excessive anger with her door- 
keeper for not announcing my arrival yesterday — flogged him 
severely — inspected all the things returned — ^folded them again 
very neatly with her own hands — said she felt much hurt at the 
mistake which had arisen, and hoped I would forgive and forget 
it, as her doors would always be open to me. 

I now had a laugh at my friends Maula and Bombay for their 
misgivings of yesterday, telling them I knew more of human na- 
ture than they did ; but they shook their heads, and said it was 
all very well Bana having done it, but if Arabs or any other per- 
son had tried the same trick, it would have been another affair. 
"Just so," said I; "but then, don't you see, I know my value 
here, which makes all the difference you speak of." 

18^. While walking toward the palace to pay the king a 
friendly visit, I met two of my men speared on the head, and 
streaming with blood ; they had been trying to help themselves 
to plantains carried on the heads of Waganda; but the latter 
proving too strong, my people seized a boy and woman from their 
party as witnesses, according to Uganda law, and ran away with 
them, tied hand and neck together. With this addition to my 
attendance I first called in at the kamraviona's for justice ; but, 
as he was too proud to appear at once, I went on to the king's, 
fired three shots as usual, and obtained admittance at once, when 



Makch.] palace, UGANDA. 829 

I found him standing in a yard, dressed in cloth, with his iron 
chair behind him, and my double-gun loaded with half charges 
of powder and a few grains of iron shot, looking eagerly about 
for kites to fly over. His quick eye, however, readily detected 
my wounded men and prisoners, as also some Wazinza prisoners 
led in by Waganda police, who had been taken in the act of en- 
tering Waganda houses and assailing their women. Thus my 
men were cleared of a false stigma ; and the king, while praising 
them, ordered all the Wazinza to leave his dominions on the 
morrow. 

The other case was easily settled by my wounded men receiv- 
ing orders to keep their prisoners till claimed, when, should any 
people come forward, they would be punished, otherwise their 
loss in human stock would be enough. The Wangiiana had done 
quite right to seize on the highway, else they would have starved ; 
such was the old law, and such is the present one. It was no use 
our applying for a change of system. At this stage of the busi- 
ness, the birds he was watching having appeared, the king, in 
a great state of excitement, said, "Shoot that kite," and then 
"Shoot that other;" but the charges were too light, and the 
birds flew away, kicking with their claws as if merely stung a 
little. 

While this was going on, the kamraviona, taking advantage of 
my having opened the door with the gun, walked in to make his 
salutationa A blacksmith produced two very handsome spears, 
and a fisherman a basket of fish, from which two fish were taken 
out and given to me. The king then sat on his iron chair, and I 
on a wooden box which I had contrived to stuff with the royal 
grass he gave me, and so made a complete, miniature imitation of 
his throne. The contrivance made him laugh, as much, I fancy, 
at his own folly in not allowing me to sit upon my portable iron 
stool, as at my ingenious device for carrying out my determina- 
tion to sit before him like an Englishman. I wished to be com- 
municative, and, giving him a purse of money, told him the use 
and value of the several coins ; but he paid little regard to them, 
and soon put them down. The small-talk of Uganda had much 
more attractions to his mind than the wonders of the outer world, 
and he kept it up with his kamraviona until rain fell and dis- 
persed the company. 

19ih. As the queen, to avoid future difficulties, desired my offi- 
cers to acquaint her beforehand whenever I wished to call upon 



gSO ^I'HE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1868. 

her, I sent Nasib early to say I would call in the afternoon ; but 
he had to wait till the evening before he could deliver the mes- 
sage, though she had been drumming and playing all the day. 
She then complained against my men for robbing her gardeners 
on the highway, wished to know why I didn't call upon her oft- 
ener, appointed the following morning for an interview, and 
begged I would bring her some liver medicines, as she suffered 
from constant twinges in her right side, sealing her "letter" with 
a present of a nest of eggs and one fowl. 

While Nasib was away, I went to the kamraviona to treat him 
as I had the king. He appeared a little more affable to-day, yet 
still delighted in nothing but what was frivolous. My beard, for 
instance, engrossed the major part of the conversation ; all the 
Waganda would come out in future with hairy fSaces; but when 
I told them that, to produce such a growth, they must wash their 
faces with milk, and allow a cat to lick it off, they turned up their 
noses in utter contempt. 

20th. I became dead tired of living all alone, with nothing else 
to occupy my time save making these notes every day in my 
office letter-book, as my store of stationery was left at Kara^d 
I had no chance of seeihg any visitors, save the tiresome pages^ 
who asked me to give or to do something for the king every day; 
and my prospect was cheerless, as I had been flatly refused a visit 
to Usoga until Grant should come. For want of better amuse- 
ment, I made a page of Lugoi, a sharp little lad, son of the late 
Beliich, but adopted by Ul^di, and treated him as a son, which he 
declared he wished to be, for he liked me better than TTl^i as a 
father. He said he disliked Uganda, where people's lives are 
taken like those of fowls ; and wished to live at the coast^ the 
only place he ever heard of, where all the Wanguana come from 
— ^great stoeHs in Liigoi's estimation. Now, with Lugoi dressed in 
a new white pillow-case, with holes trimmed with black tape for 
his head and arms to go through, a dagger tied with red bindera 
round his waist, and a square of red blanket rolled on his shoulder 
as a napkin for my gun to rest on, or in place of a goatskin rag 
when he wished to sit down, I walked off to inquire how the 
kamraviona was, and took my pictures with me. 

Liigoi's dress, however, absorbed all their thoughts, and he was 
made to take it off and put it on again as often as any fresh visitor 
came to call. Hardly a word was said about any thing else; even 
the pictures, which generally are in such demand, attracted but 



JtfABCH.] PALACE, UGANDA. 831 

little notice. I asked the kamrayiona to allow me to draw his 
pet dog; when the king's sister Miengo came in and sat down, 
laughing and joking with me immoderately. 

At first there was a demur about my drawing the dog — ^whether 
firom fear of bewitching the animal or not, I can not say ; but, in- 
stead of producing the pet — a beautifuUy-formed cream-colored 
dog — a common black one was brought in, which I tied in front 
of Miengo, and then drew both woman and dog together. After 
this unlawful act was discovered, of drawing the king's sister 
without his consent, the whole company roared with laughter, 
and pretended nervous excitement lest I should book them like- 
wise. One of my men, Sangoro, did not return to camp last night 
&om foraging; and as my men suspect the Waganda must have 
murdered him, I told the kamraviona, requesting him to find out; 
but he coolly said, " Look for him yourselves two days more, for 
Wanguana often make friends with our people, and so slip away 
fix)m their masters ; but as they are also often murdered, pro- 
vided you can not find him in that time, we will have the mganga 
out." 

21sL Last night I was turned out of my bed by a terrible hue 
and cry firom the quarter allotted to Bozaro and his Wanyambo 
companions; for the Waganda had threatened to demolish my 
men, one by one, for seizing their pomb^ and plantains, though 
done according to the ordeis of the king; and now, finding the 
Wanyambo nearest to the road, they set on them by moonlight 
with spear and club, maltreating them severely, till, with re-en- 
forcements, the Wanyambo gained the ascendency, seized two 
spears and one shield as a trophy, and drove their enemies off. 
In the morning I sent the wakungu off with the trophies to the 
king, again complaining that he had turned my men into a pack 
of highwaymen, and, as I foresaw, had thus created enmity be- 
tween the Waganda and them, much to my annoyance. I there- 
fore begged he would institute some means to prevent any iai- 
ther occurrence of such scenes, otherwise I would use fire-arms in 
self-defense. 

While these men were on this mission,! went oh a like errand 
to the queen, taking" my page Lugoi with the liver medicine. The 
first object of remark was Liigoi, as indeed it was every where ; 
for, as I walked along, crowds ran after the little phenomenon. 
Then came the liver question ; and, finally, what I wanted — her 
complaint against my men for robbing on the road, as it gave me 



382 ^I^^^ SOUBCE OF THE KILE. [1862. 

the opportunity of telling her the king was doing what I had 
been trying to undo with my stick ever since I left the coast; 
and I begged she would use her influence to correct these dis- 
agreeables. She told me for the future to send my men to her 
palace for food, and rob no more ; in the mean while, here were 
some plantains for them. She then rose and walked away, leav- 
ing me extremely disappointed that I could not make some more 
tangible arrangement with her — such as, if my men came and 
found the gate shut, what were they to do then? there were forty- 
five of them ; how much would she allow ^ eta, etc. But this 
was a true specimen of the method of transacting business among 
the royal family of Uganda. They give orders without knowing 
how they are to be carried out, and treat all practical arrange- 
ments as trifling details not worth attending to. 

After this unsatisfactory interview I repaired to the king's, 
knowing the power of my gun to obtain an interview, while doubt- 
ing the ability of the wakungu to gain an audience for me. Such 
was the case. These men had been sitting all day without see- 
ing the king, and three shots opened his gate immediately to me. 
He was sitting on the iron chair in the shade of the court^ attend- 
ed by some eighty women, tweedling the loading-rod in his fin- 
gers ; but as my rod appeared a better one than his, they were 
exchanged. I then gave him a tortoise-shell comb to comb his 
hair straight with, as he invariably remarked on the beautiful 
manner in which I dressed my hair, making me uncap to show 
it to his women, and afterward asked my men to bring on the 
affair of last night. They feared, they said, to speak on such sub- 
jects while the women were present I begged for a private 
audience ; still they would not speak till encouraged and ui^ 
beyond all patience. I said, in Kisuahili, " Kbakka" (king), *'my 
men are afraid to tell you what I want to say;" when Maiila, tak- 
ing advantage of my having engaged his attention, though the 
king did not understand one word I said, said of himself, by way 
of currying favor, " I saw a wonderful gun in Eumanika's hands, 
with six barrels ; not a short one like your fiver" (meaning the 
revolving pistol), "but a long one, as long as my arm." "In- 
deed," says the king; "we must have that." A page was then 
sent for by Maula, who, giving him a bit of stick representing the 
gun required, told him to fetch it immediately. 

The king then said to me, " What is powder made of?" I be- 
gan with sulphur (kibriti), intending to explain every thing; but 



Maxch.] palace, UGAKDA. 333 

the "word kibriti was enough for him, and a second stick was sent 
for kibriti, the bearer being told to hurry for his life, and fetch it. 
The king now ordered some high officers who were in waiting to 
approach. They came, almost crouching to their knees, with eyes 
averted from the women,and n'yanzigged for the favor of being 
called till they streamed with perspiration. Four young women, 
virgins, the daughters of these high officers, nicely dressed, were 
shown in as brides, and ordered to sit with the other women. A 
gamekeeper brought in baskets small antelopes, called mp^o— 
with straight horns resembling those of the saltiana, but with 
coats like the hog-deer of India — ^intended for the royal kitchen. 
Elderly gentlemen led in goats as commutation for offenses, and 
went through the ceremonies due for the favor of being relieved 
of so much property. Ten cows were then driven in, plundered 
from Unyoro, and outside, the voices of the brave army who 
captured them were heard n'yanzigging vehemently. Lastly, 
some beautifully -made shields were presented, and, because ex- 
tolled, n'yanzigged over; when the king rose abruptly and walked 
straight away, leaving my fools of men no better off for food, or 
reparation for their broken heads, than if I had never gone there. 

22d. I called on the queen to inquire after her health, and to 
know how my men were to be fed ; but, without giving me time 
to speak, she flew at me again about my men plundering. The 
old story was repeated ; I had forty-five hungry men, who must 
have food, and, unless either she or the king would make some 
proper provision for them, I could not help it. Again she prom- 
ised to feed them, but she objected to their bearing swords, " for 
of what use are swords? If the Waganda don't like the Wan- 
guana, can swords prevail in our country?" And, saying this, 
she walked away. I thought to myself that she must have di- 
rected the attack upon my camp last night, and is angry at the 
Wanguana swords driving her men away. At 3 P.M. I visited 
the king, to have a private chat, and state my grievances; but the 
three shots fired brought him out to lev^e, when animals and 
sundry other things were presented ; and appointments of wa- 
kungii were made for the late gallant services of some of the men 
in plundering Unyoro. 

The old executioner, Kiinza, being present, I asked the king to 
pardon his son. Surprised, at first Mt&a said, '^ Can it be possi- 
ble Bana has asked for this?" And when assured, in great glee 
he ordered the lad's release, amid shouts of laughter from every 



334 I'HE SOUBOE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

body but the agitated father, who n'yanzigged, cried, and fell at 
my feet, makiiig a host of wonderful signs as a token of his gratK 
tude, for his heart was too full of emotion to give utterance to his 
feelings. The king then, in high good-humor, said, " You have 
called on me many times without our broaching the subject of 
TJsoga, and perhaps you may fancy we are not exerting ourselves 
in the matter ; but my army is only now returning from wax" 
(meaning plundering in TJnyoro), "and I am collecting another 
one, which will open TJsoga effectually." Before I could say 
any thing, the king started up in his usual manner, inviting a se- 
lect few to follow him to another court, when my medidncKshest 
was inspected, and I was asked to operate for fistula on one of the 
royal executioners. I had no opportunity of incuning this re- 
sponsibility ; for, while professing to prepare for the operation, 
the king went off in a fling. 

When I got home I found Sangoro, whom we thought lost or 
murdered, quietly ensconced in camp. He had been foraging by 
himself a long way from camp, in a neighborhood where many 
of the king's women are kept ; and it being forbidden ground, he 
was taken up by the keepers, placed in the stocks, and fed until 
to-day, when he extricated his legs by means of his sword, and 
ran away. My ever-grumbling men mobbed me again, clamor- 
ing for food, saying, as they eyed my goats, I lived at ease and 
overlooked their wants. In vain I told them they had fered more 
abundantly than I had since we entered Uganda ; while I spared 
my goats to have a little flesh every day, they consumed or 
squandered away the flesh of their cows as rapidly as possible, 
selling the skins for pomb^, which I seldom tasted; they robbed 
me as long as I had cloth or beads, and now they had all become 
as fat as hogs by lifting food off the Waganda lands. As I could 
not quiet them, I directed that, early next morning, Maiila should 
go to the king and Nasib to the queen, while I proposed going 
to the kamraviona's to work them all three about this affiur of 
food. 

28d, According to the plan of last night, I called early on the 
kamraviona. He promised me assistance, but with an air which 
seemed to say. What are the sufferings of oth^r men to me? So 
I went home to breakfast, doubting if any thing ever would be 
done. As Kaggo, however, the second officer of importance, had 
expressed a wish to see me, I sent Bombay to him for food, and 
waited the upshot Presently the king sent to say he wished to 



March.] PALACE, UGANDA. 335 

see me with my compass; for the blackgaard Mafila had told him 
I possessed a wonder&l instrament, by looking at which I could 
finji my way all over the world. I went as requested, and found 
the king sitting outside the palace on my chair dressed in cloths, 
with my silk neckerchief and crest-ring, playing his flute in con- 
cert with his brothers, some thirty-odd young men and boys, one 
half of them manacled, the other half &ee, with an officer watch- 
ing over them to see that they committed no intrigues. 

We then both sat side by side in the shade of die court walls, 
oonversed and had music by turns ; for the king had invited his 
brothers here to please me, the first step toward winning the cov- 
eted compass. My hair must now be shown and admired, then 
my shoes taken off and inspected, and my trowsers tucked up to 
show that I am white all over. Just at this time Bombay, who 
had been in great request, came before us laden with plantains. 
This was most opportune; for the king asked what he had been 
about, and then the true state of the case as regards my difficulties 
in obtaining food were, I fancy, for the first time made known to 
him. In a great fit of indignation he said, ^'I once killed a hund- 
red wakungu in a single day, and now, if they won't feed my 
guests, I will kill a hundred more; for I know the physic for 
bumptiousness." Then, sending his brothers away, he asked me 
to follow him into the back part of the palace, as he loved me so 
much he must show me every thing. We walked along under 
the umbrella, first looking down one street of huts, then up an- 
other, and, finally, passing the sleeping-chamber, stopped at one 
adjoining it. " That hut," said the king, " is the one I sleep in ; 
no one of my wives dare venture within it unless I call her." 
He let me feel inmiediately that for the distinction conferred on 
me in showing ^e this sacred hut a return was expected. Could 
I after that refiise him such a mere trifle as a compass? I told 
him he might as well put my eyes out and ask me to walk home, 
as take away that little instrument, which could be of no use to 
him, as he could not read or understand it. But this only excited 
his cupidity ; he watched it twirling round and pointing to the 
north, and looked and begged again, until, tired of his importuni- 
ties,! told him I must wait until the ITsoga road was open before 
I could part with it, and then the compass would be nothing to 
what I would give him. Hearing this, he reared his head proud- 
ly, and, patting his heart, said, '^ That is all on my shoulders ; as 
sure as I live it shall be done ; for that country has no king, and 



ggg THE SOURCE OF THE NH^E. [1862. 

I have long been desirous of taking it." I declined, however, to 
give him the instrument on the security of his promise, and he 
went to breakfast 

I walked off to Usungii to see what I could do for him in his 
misery. I found that he had a complication of evils entirely be- 
yond my healing power, and among them inveterate forms of the 
diseases which are generally associated with civilization and its 
social evils. I could do nothing to cure him, but promised to do 
whatever was in my power to alleviate his suflferings. 

24:th. Before breakfiwt I called on poor Usungii, prescribing 
hot coffee to be drunk with milk every morning, which astonished 
him not a little, as the negroes only use coffee for chewing. He 
gave my men pomb^ and plantains. On my return I met a page 
sent to invite me to the palace. I found the king sitting with a 
number of women. He was dressed in European clothes, part of 
them being a pair of trowsers he begged for yesterday, that he 
might appear like Bana. This was his first appearance in trow- 
sers, and his whole attire, contrasting strangely with his Dative 
habiliments, was in his opinion very becoming, though to me a 
little ridiculous; for the legs of the trowsers, as well as the sleeves 
of the waistcoat^ were much too short, so that his black feet and 
hands stuck out at the extremities aa an organ-player^s monkey's 
do, while the cockscomb on his head prevented a fez cap, which 
was part of his special costume for the occasion, from sitting prop- 
erly. This display over, the women were sent away, and I was 
shown into a court, where a large number of plantains were placed 
in a line upon the ground for my men to take away, and we were 
promised the same treat every day. From this we proceeded to 
another court, where we sat in the shade together, when the wom- 
en returned again, but were all dumb, because piy interpreters 
dared not for their lives say any thing, even on my account^ to 
the king's women. Getting tired, I took out my sketch-book and 
drew Liibuga, the pet, which amused the king immensely as he 
recognized her cockscomb. 

Then ' twenty naked virgins, the daughters of wakungu, all 
smeared and shining with grease, each holding a small square of 
mbugii for a fig-leaf, marched in a line before us, as a fresh ad- 
dition to the harem, while the happy fathers floundered n'yan- 
zigging on the ground, delighted to find their darlings appreciated 
by the king. Seeing this done in such a quiet, mild way before 
all my men, who dared not lift their heads to see it, made me 



ACabch.] 



PALACE, UGANDA. 



837 



burst into a roar of laughter, and the king, catching the infection 
from me, laughed as well ; but the laughing did not end there ; 
for the pages, for once giving way to nature, kept bursting — my 
men chuckled in sudden gusts — while even the women, holding 
their mouths for fear of detection, responded — and we all laughed 
together. Then a sedate old dame rose from the squatting mass, 
ordered the virgins to right-about, and marched them oflF, show- 
ing their still more naked reverses. I now obtained permissioi\ 
for the wakungu to call upon me, and I fancied I only required 
my interpreters to speak out like men when I had any thing to 
say, to make my residence in Uganda both amusing and instruc- 
tive; but, though the king, carried off by the prevailing good- 
humor of the scene we had both witnessed, supported me, I found 
that he had counterordered what he had said as soon as I had 
gone, and, in fact, no mkungu ever dared come near me. 

25th. To-day I visited Usungii again, and found him better. 
He gave pombd and plantains for my people, but would not talk 
to me, though I told him he had permission to call on me. 

I have now been for some time within the court precincts, and 
have consequently had an opportunity of witnessing court cus- 
toms. Among these, nearly every day since I have changed my 
residence, incredible as it may appear to be, I have seen one, two. 




A Queen dragged to Execafcioo. 



or three of the wretched palace women led away to execution, 
tied by the hand, and dragged along by one of the body-guard, 

Y 



338 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

crying out, as she went to premature death, "Hai minang^r 
(Oh my lord I) " Kbakka !" (My. king !) " Hai n'yawo I" (My 
mother!) at the top of her voice, in the utmost despair and lam- 
entation ; and yet there was not a soul who dared lift hand to 
save any of them, though many might be heard privately com- 
menting on their beauty. 

26th. To-day, to amuse the king, I drew a picture of himself 
holding a lev^e, and proceeded to visit him. On the way I found 
the high road thronged with cattle captured in Unyoro; and on 
arrival at the antechamber, among the officers in waiting, Maaimbi 
(Mr. Cowries or Shells), the queen's uncle, and Congow, a young 
general, who once led an army into Unyoro, past Kamrasi's pal- 
ace. They said they had obtained leave for me to visit them, 
and were eagerly looking out for the happy event At once, on 
firing, I was admitted to the king's favorite place, which, now 
that the king had a movable chair to sit upon, was the shade of 
the court screen. We had a chat; the pictiire was shown to the 
women ; the king would like to have some more, and gave me 
leave to draw in the palace any time I liked. At the same time 
he asked for my paint-box, merely to look at it Though I re- 
peatedly dunned him for it, I could never get it back from him 
until I was preparing to leave Uganda. 

27th, After breakfast I started on a visit to Congow; but, 
finding he had gone to the king as usual, called at Masimbi's, and 
he being absent also, I took advantage of my proximity to the 
queen's palace to call on her majesty. For hours I was kept 
waiting; firstly, because she was at breakfast; secondly, because 
she was " putting on medicine ;" and, thirdly, because the sun 
was too powerful for her complexion ; when I became tired of 
her nonsense, and said, '^ If she does not wish to see me, she had 
better say so at once, else I shall walk away ; for the last time I 
came I saw her but for a minute, when she rudely turned her 
back upon me, and left me sitting by myself." ,1 was told not to 
be in a hurry — she would see me in the evening. This promise 
might probably be fulfilled six blessed hours from the time when 
it was made ; but I thought to myself, every place in Uganda is 
alike when there is no company at home, and so I resolved to sit 
the time out, like Patience on a monument, hoping something 
funny might turn up after all. 

At last her majesty stumps out, squats behind my red blanket, 
which is converted into a permanent screen, and says hastily, or 



Mabch.] palace; UGANDA. 

rather testily, "Can't Bana perceive the angry state of the weath- 
er — clouds flying about, and the wind blowing half a gale? 
Whenever that is the case, I can not venture out." Talking her 
lie without an answer, I said, I had now been fifty days or so do- 
ing nothing in Uganda; not one single visitor of my own rank 
ever came near me, and I could not associate with people far be- 
low her condition and mine ; in fact, all I had to amuse me at 
home now was watching a hen lay her eggs upon my spare bed. 
Her majesty became genial, as she had been before, and promised 
to provide me with suitable society. I then told her I had desired 
my officers, several times to ask the king how marriages were 
conducted in this country, as they appeared so different from 
ours, but they always said they dared not put such a question to 
him, and now I hoped she would explain it to me. To tell her 
I could ndt get any thing from the king I knew would be the 
surest way of eliciting what I wanted from her, because of the 
jealousy* between the two courts; and in this instance it was 
fully proved, for she brightened up at once, and, when I got her 
to understand something of what I meant by a marriage cere- 
mony, in high good-humor entered on a long explanation, to the 
following effect: i 

There are no such things as marriages in Uganda ; there are 
no ceremonies attached to it If any mkungii possessed of a 
pretty daughter committed an offense, he might give her to the 
king as a peace-offering; if any neighboring king had a pretty 
daughter, and the King of Uganda wanted her, she might be de- 
manded as a. fitting tribute. The wakungii in Uganda are sup- 
plied with women by the king, according to their merits, from 
seizures in battle abroad, or seizures from refractory officers at 
home. The women are not regarded as property accqrding to the 
Wanyamuezi practice, though many exchange their daughters ; 
and some women, for misdemeanors, are sold into slavery, while 
others are flogged, or are degraded to do all the menial services 
of the house. 

The wakungii then changed the subject by asking, If I married 
a black woman, would there be any o^pring, and what would be 
their color? The company now became jovial, when the queen 
improved it by making a significant gesture, and with roars of 
laughter asking me if I would like to be her son-in-law, for she 
had some beautiful daughters, either of the Wahiima or Waganda 
breed. Rather staggered at first by this awful proposal, I con- 



840 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

suited Bombay what I should do with oiue if I got her. He, 
looking more to number one than my convenience, said, *^ By all 
means accept the offer, for if you don't like her, lue should, and it 
would be a good tneans of getting her out of this land of death, 
for all black people love Zanzibar." The rest need not be told ; 
as a matter of course, I had to appear very much gratified, and as 
the bowl went round, all became uproariolis. I must wait a day 
or two, however, that a proper selection might be made; and 
when the marriage came off, I was to chain the &ir one two or 
three days, until she became used to me, else, firom mere fright, 
she might run away. , 

To keep up the spirits of the queen, though her frequent po- 
tions of pomb^ had well-nigh done enough, I admired her neck- 
ring, composed of copper wire, with a running inlaid twist of 
iron, and asked her why she wore such a wreath of ^ne-leaves, 
as I had often seen on some of the wakungu. On this she pro- 
duced a number of rings similar to the one she wore, and taking 
off her own, placed it round my neck. Then, pointing to her 
wreath, she said, "This is the badge of a kidnapper's ofiice: who- 
ever wears it catches little children." I inferred that its posses- 
sion, as an insignia of royalty, conferred on the bearer the power 
of seizure, as the great seal in this country confers power on pub- 
lic officers. 

The queen's dinner was now announced ; and, desiring me to 
remain where I was for a short time, she went to it She sent 
me several dishes (plantain-leaves), with well-cooked beef and 
mutton, and a variety of vegetables, from her table, as well as a 
number of round moist napkins, made in the shape of wafers, 
from the fi:eshly-drawn plantain fibres, to wash the hands and 
face with. There was no doubt now about her culinary accom- 
plishments. I told her so when she returned, and that I enjoyed 
her parties all the more because they ended with a dinner. 
" More pomb^, more pomb6," cried the queen, full of mirth and 
glee, helping every body round in turn, and shouting and laugh- 
ing at their Kiganda witticisms — making, though I knew not a 
word said, an amusing scene to behold — ^tiU the sun sank; and 
her majesty remarking it, turned to her court and said, " K I get 
up, will Bana als6 rise, and not accuse me of deserting him?" 
With this speech a general rising took place, and, watching the 
queen's retiring, I stood with my hat in hand, while all the wa- 
kungu fell upon their knees, and then all separated. 



March.] PALACE, UGANDA. 341 

28ih. I went to the palace, and found, as nsnal, a large lev^ 
waiting the king's pleasure to appear, among whom were the 
kamraviona, Masimbi, and the king's sister Miengo. I fired my 
gun, and got admitted at once, but none of the others could fol- 
low me save Miengo. The king, sitting on the chair with his 
women by his side, ordered twelve cloths, the presents of former 
Arab visitors, to be brought before him, and all of these I was 
desired to turn into European garments, like my own coats, trow- 
sers, and waistcoats. It was no use saying I had no tailors^the 
thing must be done somehow ; for he admired my costume ex- 
ceedingly, and wished to imitate it now he had doth enough for-'^ 
ever to dispense with the mbugu. 

As I had often begged the king to induce his men, who are all 
wonderfully clever artisans, to imitate the chair and other things 
I gave him, I now told him if he would order some of his semp- 
sters, who are fer cleverer with the needle than my men, to my 
camp, I would cut up some old clothes, and so teach them how 
to work. This was agreed to, and five cows were ofltered as a re* 
ward ; but, as his men never came, mine had to do the job. 

Maula then engaged the king's attention for fully an hour, re- 
lating what wonderful things Bana kept in his house, if his maj- 
esty would only deign to see them ; and, for this humbug, got re- 
warded by a present of three women. Just at this juncture an 
adjutant flew overhead, and, by way of fun, I presented my gun, 
when the excited king, like a boy from school, jumped up, forget- 
ting his company, and cried, " Come, Bana, and shoot the nundo; 
I know where he has gone : follow me." And away we went, 
first through one court, then through another, till we found the 
nundo perched on a tree, looking like a sedate old gentleman 
with a bald head, and very sharp, long nose. Politeness lost us 
the bird ; for while I wished the king to shoot, he wished me to 
do so, from fear of missing it himself. He did not care about 
vultures — ^he could practice at them at any time ; but he wanted 
a nundo above all things. The bird, however, took the hint and 
flew away. 



342 I^HE SOUBCE OF TH^ KILEL [L862. 



CHAPTER Xin. 
PALACE, UGANDA — Coniintied. 

A Visit to a disdngiiished Statesman. — A Visit from the King. — ^Royal Sport— The 
Queen^s Present of Wives. — ^The Court Beauties and their Rcrerses. — Jndidfll 
Procedure in Uganda.— Buffalo-hunting. ->-A Musical Party. — ^My Medical Ptm- 
tice.— A Royal Excursion on the N'yanza. — ^The Canoes of Uganda. — A Begatti. 
— ^Bifle Practice. — Domestic Difficulties. — Interference of a Magician. — The 
King's Brothers. 

29th. According to appointment, I -went early this morning 
to visit Congow. He kept me some time waiting in his outer 
hut, and then called me in to where I found him sitting with his 
women — a large group, by no means pretty. His huts are nu- 
merous, the gardens and courts all very neat and well kept He 
was much delighted with my coming, produced pomb^, and asked 
me what I thought of his women, stripping them to the waist 
He assured me that he had thus paid me such a compliment as 
nobody else had ever obtained, since the Waganda are very jeal- 
ous of one another — so inuch so, that any one would be killed if 
found staring upon a woman even in the highways I asked him 
what use he had for so many women. To which he replied, 
"None whatever; the king gives them to us to keep up our rank, 
sometimes as many as one hundred together, and we either tarn 
them into wives, or make servants of them, as we please." Just 
then I heard that Mkuenda, the queen's woman-keeper, was out- 
side waiting for me, but dared not come in, because Congow's 
women were all out ; so I asked leave to go home to breakfast^ 
much to the surprise of Congow, who thought I was his guest for 
the whole day. It is considered very indecorous in Uganda to 
call upon two persons in one day, though even the king or the 
queen should be one of them. Then, as there was no help for it 
— Congow could not detain me when hungry — ^he showed me a 
little boy, the only child he had, and said, with much fatherly 
pride, " Both the king and queen have called on me to see this 
fine little fellow ;" and we parted to meet again some other day. 
Outside his gate I found Mkuenda, who said the queen had sent 



MikBCB.] PALACB; UGANDA. S43 

him to invite " her son" to bring her some stomach medicine in * 
the morning, and come to have a chat with her. With Mkuenda 
I walked home ; but he was so awed by the splendor of my hut, 
with its few blankets and bit of chintz, that he would not even 
sit upon a cowskin, but asked if any Waganda dared venture in 
there. He was either too dazzled or too timid to answer any 
questions, and in a few minutes walked away again. 

After this, I had scarcely swallowed .my breakfast before I re- 
ceived a summons from the king to meet him out shooting, with 
all the Wanguana armed, and my guns ; and going toward the 
palace, found him with a large staff— pages and officers, as well 
as women — ^in a plantain garden, looking eagerly out for birds, 
while his band was playing. In addition to his English dress, ho 
wore a turban, and pretended that the glare of the sun was dis- 
tressing his eyes ; for, in fact, he wanted me to give him a wide- 
awake like my own. Then, as if a sudden &eak had seized 
bim, though I knew it was on account of Maiila's having excited 
his curiosity, he said, "Where does Bana live? lead .away." 
Bounding and scrambling, the wakungu, the women and all, went 
pell-mell through every thing toward my hut If the kamraviona 
or any of the boys could not move fast enough, on account of 
the crops on the fields, they were piked in the back till half 
knocked over; but, instead of minding, they trotted on, n'yanzig- 
ging as if honored by a kingly poke, though treated like so many 
dogs. 

Arrived at the hut, the king took off his turban as I took off 
my hat, and seated himself on my stool, while the kamraviona, 
with much difficulty, was induced to sit upon a cowskin, and the 
women at first were ordered to squat outside. ^ Every thing that 
struck the eye was much admired and begged for, though noth- 
ing so much as my wideawake and musquitp-curtains ; then, as 
the women were allowed to have a peep in and see Bana in his 
den, I gave them two sacks of beads to make the visit profitable, 
the only alternative left me from being forced into inhospitality, 
for no one would drink from my cup. Moreover, a present was 
demanded by the laws of the country. 

The king, excitedly impatient, now led the way again, shooting 
hurry-scurry through my men's lines, which were much com- 
mented on as being different from Waganda hutting, on to the 
tall tree with the adjutant's nest. One young bird was still liv- 
ing in it. There was no shot, so bullets must be fired ; and the 



344 THE SOUBCE OF THB NILE. [1862. 

cunning king, wishing to show off, desired me to fire simultane- 
ously with himself. We fixed, but mj bullet struck the bough 
the nest waB resting on ; we fired again, and the bullet passed 
through the nest without touching the bird. I then asked the 
king to allow me to try his Whitworth, to which a little bit of 
stick, as a charm to secure a correct aim, had been tied below the 
trigger-guard. This time I broke the bird's leg, and knocked 
him half out of the nest ; £o, running up to the king, I pointed to 
the charm, saying, That has done it — hoping to laugh him out of 
the folly ; but he took my joke in earnest, and he turned to hia 
men, commenting on the potency of the charm. "While thus en- 
gaged,! took another rifle and brought the bird down altogether. 
" Woh, woh, woh I" shouted the king; "Bana, mzungu, mzungu!" 
he repeated, leaping and clapping his hands, as he ran full speed 
to the prostrate bird, while the drums beat, and the wakungu fol- 
lowed him: "Now, is not this a wonder? but we must go and 
shoot another." "Where?" I said; " we may walk a long way 
without finding, if we have nothing but our eyes to see with. 
Just send for your telescope, and then I will show you how to 
look for birds." Surprised at this announcement, the king sent 
his pages flying for the instrument, and when it came I instructed 
him how to use it; when he could see with it, and understand its 
powers, his astonishment knew no bounds ; and, turning to his 
wakungu, he said, laughing, " Now I do see the use of this thing 
I have been shutting up in the palace. On that distant tree I 
can see three vultures.. To its right there is a hut, with a woman 
sitting inside the portal, and many goats are feeding all about the 
palace, just as large and distinct as if I was close by them." 

The day was now far spent, and all proceeded toward the pal- 
ace. On the way a mistletoe was pointed out as a rain-producing 
tree, probably because, on a former occasion, I had advised the 
king to grow groves of coffee-trees about his palace to improve 
its appearance, and supply the court with wholesome food; at the 
same time informing him that trees increase the falls of rain in a 
country, though very high ones would be dangerous, because they 
attract lightning. Next the guns must be fired off; and, as it 
would be a pity to waste lead, the king, amid thunders of ap- 
plause, shot five crows, presenting his gun froni the shoulder. 

So ended the day's work in the field, but not at home; for I 
had hardly arrived there before the pages hurried in to beg for 
powder and shot, then caps, then cloth, and, every thing else fiul- 



Mjuich.] PALACi; UGANDA. 845 

ing, a load of beads. Such are the persecutions of this negro 
land : the host every day must beg something in the most shame- 
less manner from his guest, on the mere chance of gaining some- 
thing gratis, though I generally gave the king some trifle when 
he least expected it, and made an excuse that he must wait for 
the arrival of fresh stores from Gani when he asked. 

80^. To fulfill my engagement with the queen, I walked off 
to her palace with stomach medicine, thinking we were now such 
warm friends all pride and distant ceremonies would be dispensed 
with ; but, on the contrary, I was kept waiting for hours, till I 
sent in word to say, if she did not want medicine, I wished to go 
home, for I was tired of Uganda and'every thing belonging to it 
This message brought her to her gate, where she stood laughing 
till the Wahuma girls she had promised me, one of twelve and 
the other a little older, were brought in and made to squat in 
front of us. The elder, who was in the prime of youth and 
beauty, very large of limb, dark in color, cried considerably; 
while the younger one, though very fair, had a snubby nose and 
everted lips, and laughed as if she thought the change in her des- 
tiny very good fun. I had now to make my selection, and took 
the smaller one, promising her to Bombay as soon as we arrived 
on the coast, where, he said, she would be considered a Hubshi or 
Abyssinian. But when the queen saw what I had done, she gave 
one the other as well, saying the little one was too young to go 
alone, and, if separated, she would take fright and run away. 
Then with a gracious bow I walked off with my two fine speci- 
mens of natural history, though I would rather have had princes, 
that I might have taken them home to be instructed in England; 
but the queen, as soon as we had cleared the palace, sent word to 
say she must have another parting look at her son with his wives. 
Still laughing, she said, " That will do ; you look beautiful ; now 
go away home;" and off we trotted, the elder sobbing bitterly, 
the younger laughing. 

As soon as we reached home, my first inquiry was concerning 
their histories, of which they appeared to know but very little. 
The elder, whom I named M^ri (plantains), was obtained by Sun- 
na, the late king, as a wife, from Nkol6; and though she was a 
mere kahaJa, or girl, when the old king died, he was so attached 
to her he gave her twenty cows, in order that she might fatten up 
on milk after her native fashion ; but on Sunna's death, when the 
establishment of wonien was divided, M^ri fell to N'yamasor^'s 



346 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1662. 

(the queen's) lot The lesser one, who still retains the name of 
KahaJa, said she was seized in Unyoro by the Waganda, who took 
her to N'yamasor^, but what became of her father and mother she 
could not say. 

It was now dinner-time, and as the usual sweet potatoes and 
goat's flesh were put upon my box-table, I asked them to dine 
with me, and we became great friends, for they were assured they 
would finally get good houses and gardens at Zanzibar; but 
nothing would induce either of them to touch food that had been 
cooked with butter. A dish of plantains anc^goat-flesh was then 
prepared ; but, though Kahala wished to eat it, M^ri rejected the 
goat's flesh, and would not allow Kahala to taste it either; and 
thus began a series of domestic difficulties. On inquiring how I 
could best deal with my difficult charge, I was told the Wahuma 
pride was great, and their tempers so strong, they were more diffi- 
cult to break in than a phunda or donkey, though when once 
tamed they became the best of wives. 

Slst I wished to call upon the queen and thank her for her 
charming present, but my hungry men drove me to the king's 
palace in search of food. The gun-firing brought Mt^fea out, pre- 
pared for a shooting trip, with his wakungu leading, the pages 
carrying bis rifle and ammunition, and a train of women behind. 
The first thing seen outside the palace gate was a herd of cows, 
from which four were selected and shot at flfly paces by the king, 
firing from his shoulder, amid thunders of applause and hand- 
shakings of the elders. I never saw them dare touch the king's 
hand before. Then Mt&a, turning kindly to me, said, " Pray 
take a shot;" but I waived the offisr off, saying he could kill bet- 
ter himself. Ambitious of a cut above cows, the king tried his 
hand at some herons perched on a tree, and, after five or sijj at- 
tempts, hit one in the eye. Hardly able to believe in his own 
skill, he stood petrified at first, and then ran madly to the fallen 
bird, crying " Wob, woh, wohl can this be? is it true? Woh, 
woh I" He jumped in the air, and all his men and women shouted 
in concert with him. Then he rushes at me, takes both my hands 
— shakes, shakes — ^woh, woh I — ^then runs to his women, then to 
his men ; shakes them all, woh-wohing, but yet not shaking or 
wohing half enough for his satisfaction, for he is mad with joy at 
his own exploit 

The bird is then sent immediately to his mother, while he re- 
tires to his palace, woh-wohing, and talking <' ten to the dozen" 



Apbil ] PALACE, UGANDA. 847 

all the way, and boasting of his prowess. " Now, Bana, tell me 
— do you not think, if two such shots as you and I were opposed 
to an elephant^ would he have any chance before us 7 I know I 
can shoot — I am certain of it now. You have often asked me to 
go hippopotamus shooting with you, but I staved it off until I 
learned the way to shoot. Now, however, I can shoot, and that 
remarkably well, too, I flatter myself I will have at them, and 
both of us will go on the lake together." The palace was now 
reached; musicians were ordered to play before the king, and 
wakungu appointments were made to celebrate the feats of the 
day. Then the royal cutler brought in dinner-knives made of 
iron, inlaid with squares of copper and brass, and goats and vege- 
tables were presented as usual, when by torchlight we were dis- 
missed, my men taking with them as many plantains as they 
could carry. 

1^^. I staid at home all this day because the king and queen 
had set it apart for looking at and arranging their horns — ma- 
pemb^ or fetishes, as the learned call such things — ^to see that 
there are no imperfections in the Uganga. This was something 
like an inquiry into the ecclesiastical coqdition of the country, 
while, at the same time, it was a religious ceremony, and, as such, 
was appropriate to the first day after the new moon appears. 
This being the third moon by account, in pursuance of ancient 
custom, all the people about court, -including the king, shaved 
their heads; the king, however, retaining his cockscomb, the 
pages their double cockades, and the other officers their single 
cockades on the back of the head, or either side, according to the 
official rank of each. My men were occupied making trowsers 
for the king all day, while the pages, and those sent to learn the 
art of tailoring, instead of doing their duty, kept continually beg- 
ging for something to present to the king. 

2d, The queen, now taking a sporting fit into her head, sent 
for me early in the morning, with all my men, armed, to shoot a 
crested crane in her palace ; but, though we were there as re- 
quired, we were kept waiting till late in the afternoon, when, in- 
stead of talking about shooting, as her wakungu had forbidden 
her doing it, she asked after her two daughters — whether they 
had run away, or if they liked their new abode ? I replied I was 
Sony circumstances did not permit of my coming to thank her 
sooner, for I felt grateful beyond measure to her for having 
charmed my house with such beautiful society. I did not follow 



S48 ^I^HE SOURCE OF THE NILE. ^ [1862. 

her advice to chain either of them with iron, for I found cords of 
love, the only instrument white men know the use of, quite strong 
enough. Fascinated with this speech, she said she would give 
me another of a middle age between the two, expecting, as I 
thought, that she would thus induce me to visit her more fre- 
quently than I did her son ; but, though I thanked her, it fright- 
ened me from visiting her for ages after. 

She then said, with glowing pride, casting a sneer on the kings 
hospitality, "In the days of yore, Sunna, whenever visitors came 
to see him, immediately presented them with women, and, second- 
ly, with food ; for he was very particular in looking after his 
guests' wel&re, which is not exacUy what you find the case now, 
I presume." The rest of the business of the day consisted in ap- 
plications for medicine and medical treatment, which it was diffi- 
cult satisfactorily to meet. 

Sd. To-day Katiimba, the king's head page, was sent to me 
with deo]6a to be made into trowsers and waistcoats, and a lai^ge 
sixty-dollar silk I had given him to cover the chair with. The 
king likes rich colors, and I was solemnly informed that he will 
never wear any thing but clothes like Bana. 

4:th. By invitation, I went to the palace at noon with guns, and 
found the king holding a lev^, the first since the new moon, with 
all heads shaved in the manner I have mentioned. Soon rising, 
he showed the way through the palace to a pond, which is de- 
scribed as his bathing N'yanza, his women attending, and pag^ 
leading the way with his guns. From this we passed on to a 
jungle lying between the palace hill and another situated at the 
northern end of the lake, where wild buflGeiloes frequently lie con- 
cealed in the huge papyrus rushes of a miry drain ; but as none 
could be seen at that moment, we returned again to the palace. 
He showed me large mounds of earth, in the shape of cocked 
hats, which are private observatories, from which the surround- 
ing country can be seen. By the side of these observatories are 
huts, smaller than the ordinary ones used for residing in, where 
the king, after the exertion of " looking out^'^ takes his repose. 
Here he ordered fruit to be brought — ^the matungurii, a crimson 
pod filled with acid seeds, which has only been observed growing 
by the rivers or waters of Uganda, and kasori, a sort of liquorice- 
root He then commenced eating with us, and begging again, 
unsuccessfully, for my compass. I tried again to ms^e him see 
the absurdity of tying a charm on Whitworth's rifle, but without 



AfBiL.] PALACE, UGANDA. 849 

the least effect. In fact, he mistook all my answers for admira- 
tion, and asked me, in the simplest manner possible, if I would 
like to possess a charm ; and even when I said " No, I should be 
afiddd of provoking Lubari's" (God's) "anger if I did so," he only 
wondered at my obstinacy, so thoroughly was he wedded to his 
belief. He then called for his wideawake, and walked with us 
into another quarter of his palace, when he entered a dressing- 
hut, followed by a number of full-grown, stark-naked women, his 
valets; at the same time ordering a large body of women to sit on 
one side of the entrance, while I, with Bombay, were directed to 
sit on the other, waiting till he was ready to hold another lev^. 
From this we repaired to the great throne -hut, where all his 
wakungu at once formed court, and business was commenced. 
Among other things, an officer, by name Mbogo, or the Buffalo, 
who had been sent on a wild-goose chase to look after Mr. Peth- 
erick, described a journey he had made, following down the 
morning sun. After he had passed the limits of plantain-eating 
men, he came upon men who lived upon meat alone, who never 
wore mbugus, but either cloth or skins, and instead of the spear 
they used the double-edged sim^. He called the people Wasewe, 
and their chief Kisawa; but the company pronounced them to be 
Masawa (Masai). 

AftGT this, about eighty men were marched into the court, with 
their faces blackened, and strips of plantain-bark tied on their 
heads, each holding up a stick in his hand in place of a spear, un- 
der the regulation that no person is permitted to carry weapons 
of any sort in the palace. They were led by an officer, who, 
standing like a captain before his company, ordered them to 
jump and praise the king, acting the part of fugleman himself. 
Then said the king, turning to me, "Did I not tell you I had sent 
many men to fight? These are some of my army returned; the 
rest are coming, and will eventually, when all are collected, go in 
a body to fight in Usoga." Goats and other peace-offerings were 
then presented; and, finally, a large body of officers came in with 
an old man, with his two ears shorn off for having been too hand- 
some in his youth, and a young woman who, after four days' 
search, had been discovered in his house. They were brought 
for judgment before the king. 

Nothing was listened to but the plaintiff's statement, who said 
he had lost the woman four days, and, after considerable search, 
had found her concealed by the old man, who was indeed old 



.•^ 



350 THE SOUBCS OF THE KILE. [1862. 

enough to be her grandfather. From all appearances, one wodd 
have said the wretched girl had run away from the plaintifrs 
house in consequence of ill treatment, and had harbored hdhelf 
on this decrepid old man without asking his leave; but tfldr 
voices in defense were never heard, for the king instantly sen- 
tenced both to death, to prevent the occurrence of such impropri- 
ety again ; and, to make the example more severe, decreed that 
their lives should not be taken at once, but^ being fed to preserve 
life as long as possible, they were to be dismembered bit by bit, 
as rations for the vultures, every day, until life was extinct The 
dismayed criminals, struggling to be heard, in utter despair, were 
dragged away boisterously in the most barbarous manner, to the 
drowning music of the mil^^ and drums. 
. The king, in total unconcern about the tragedy he had thus 
enacted, immediately on their departure said, *^ Now, then, for 
shooting, Bana; let us look at your gun." It happened to be 
loaded, but fortunately only with powder, to fire my announce- 
ment at the palace ; for he instantly placed caps on the nipples^ 
and let off one barrel by accident, the contents of which stuck in 
the thatch. This created a momentary alarm, for it was supposed 
the thatch had taken fire ; but it was no sooner suppressed than 
the childish king, still sitting on his throne, to astonish his officers 
still more, leveled the gun from his shoulder, fired the contents 
of the second barrel into the faces of his squatting wakungu, and 
then laughed at his own thck. In the mean while cows were 
driven in, which the king ordered his waktingu. to shoot with car- 
bines; and as they missed them, he showed them the way to 
shoot with the Whitworth, never missing. The company now 
broke up, but I still clung to the king, begging him to allow me 
to purchase food with beads, as I wanted it, for my establishment 
was always more or less in a starving state ; but he only said, 
"Let us know what you want, and you shall always have it;'' 
which, in Uganda, I knew from experience only meant. Don't 
bother me any more, but give me your spare money, and help 
yourself from my spacious gardens — Uganda is before you. 

6ih. To-day the king went on a visit to his mother, and there- 
fore neither of them could be seen by visitors. I took a stroll 
toward the N'yanza, passing through the plantain-groves occupied 
by the king's women, where my man Sangoro had been twice 
taken up by the mgemma and put in the stocks. The plantain 
gardens were beautifully kept by numerous women, who all ran 



Amil.] palace, UGANDA. 851 

away from fright at seeing me, save one who, taken by surprise, 
threw herself flat on the ground, rolled herself up in her mbiigu, 
and, kicking with her naked heels, roared murder and help, until 
I poked her up, and reproached her for her folly. This little in- 
cident made my fisdries bolder, and, sidling up to me one by one, 
they sat in a knot with me upon the ground ; then clasping their 
heads with their hands, they woh-wohed in admiration of the 
white man ; they never in all their lives saw any thing so won- 
derful ; his wife and children must be like him ; what would not 
Sunna have given for such a treat? but it was destined to Mtdsa's 
lot. What is the interpretation of this sign, if it does not point to 
the favor in which Mt^ is upheld by the spirits? I wished to 
go, but no : " Stop a little more," they said, all in a breath, or 
rather out of breath in their excitement; '^remove the hat and 
show the hair ; take off the shoes and tuck up the trowsers ; what 
on earth is kept in the pockets? Ob, wonder of wonders I and 
the iron I" As I put the watch close to the ear of one of them, 
"Tick, tick, tick — ^woh, woh, woh"— every body must hear it; 
and then the works had to be seen. " Oh, fearful I" said one ; 
" hide your faces ; it is the Lubari. Shut it up, Bana, shut it up ; 
we have seen enough ; but you will come again and bring us 
beads." So ended the day's work. 

6th, To-day I sent Bombay to the palace for food. Though 
rain fell in torrents, he found the king holding a lev^, giving ap- 
pointments, plantations, and women, according to merit, to his 
officers. As one officer, to whom only one woman was given, 
asked for more, the king called him an ingrate, and ordered him 
to be cut to pieces on the spot ; and the sentence was, as Bombay 
told me, carried into effisct; not with knives, for they are prohib- 
ited, but with slips of sharp-edged grass, after the executioners 
had first dislocated his neck by a blow delivered behind the head 
with a sharp, heavy-headed club. 

No food, however, was given to my men, though the king, an- 
ticipating Bombay's coming, sent me one load of tobacco, one of 
butter, and one of coffee. My residence in Uganda became much 
more merry now, for all the women of the camp came daily to 
call on my two little girls, during which time they smoked my 
tobacco^ chewed my coffee, drank my pomb^, and used to amuse 
me with queer stories of their native land. Bozaro's sister also 
came, and proposed to marry me, for Maiila, she said, was a brutal 
man ; he killed one of his women because he did not like her, 



\ 



852 ^^^ 80UBCE OF THE KILE. 

and now he had clipped one of this poor creature's ears off for 
trying to run away from him ; and when abused for his brutality, 
he only replied, '^ It was no fault of his, as the king set the exam- 
ple in the country." 

In the evening I took a walk with Kahala, dressed in a red 
scarf, and in company with Lugoi, to show my children off in the 
gardens to my fair friencis of yesterday. Every body was siu^ 
prised. The mgemma begged ns to sit with him and drink pombd 
which he generously supplied to our heart's content; wondered 
at the beauty of Elahala, wished I would give lim a wife like her, 
and lamented that the king would not allow his to wear sucli 
pretty clothea We passed on a little &rther, and were invited 
to sit with another loan, Liikanikka, to drink pomb^ and chew 
coffee, which we did as before, meeting with the same remarks; 
for all Waganda, instructed by the court, knew the art of flatteiy 
better than any people in the world, even including the French. 

^th. In the morning, while it rained hard, the king sent to say 
he had started buffalo-shooting, and expected me to join him. 
After walking a mile beyond the palace, we found him in a plan- 
tain garden, dressed in imitation of myself, wideawake and all, the 
perfect picture of a snob. He sent me a pot of pomb^ which I 
sent home to the women, and walked off for the shooting-ground, 
two miles farther on, the band playing in the front, followed by 
some hundred wakungu — ^then the pages, then the king, next my- 
self, and finally the women — the best in front, the worst bringing 
up the rear, with the king's spears and shield, as also pots of pom- 
b^, a luxury the king never moves without It was easy to see 
there would be no sport, still more useless to offer any remarks, 
therefore all did as they were bid. The broad road, likq all in 
Uganda, went straight over hill and dale, the heights covered with 
high grass or plantain-groves, and the valleys with dense masses 
of magnificent forest-trees surrounding swamps covered with tall 
rushes half bridged. Proceeding on, as we came to the first wa- 
ter, I commenced flirtations with Mt^'s women, much to the sur- 
prise of the king and every one. The bridge was broken, as a 
matter of course; and the logs which composed it, lying conceal- 
ed beneath the water, were toed successively by the leading men, 
that those who followed should not be tripped up by thenf This 
favor the king^did for me, and I, in return, for the woknen be- 
hind ; they had never been favored in their lives with Much gal- 
lantry, and therefore could not refrain from laughing, which at- 



April.] PALACE, UGANDA 853 

tracted the king's notice, and set every body in a giggle ; for till 
now no mortal man had ever dared communicate with his women. 

Shortly after this we left the highway, and, turning westward, 
passed through a dense jungle toward the eastern shores of the 
Murchison Creek, cut by runnels and rivulets, where on one oc- 
casion I offered, by dumb signs, to carry the Mr ones pick-a-back 
over, and after crossing a second myself by a floating log, offered 
my hand. The leading wife first fears to take it, then grows bold 
and accepts it ; when the prime beauty, Lubiiga, following in her 
wake, and anxious to feel, I fancy, what the white man is like, 
with an imploring face holds out both her hands in such a capti- 
vating manner, that though I feared to draw attention by waiting 
any longer, I could not resist compliance. The king noticed it; 
but, instead of upbraiding me, passed it off as a joke, and running 
up to the kamraviona, gave him a poke in the ribs, and whisper- 
ed what he had seen, as if it had been a secret ^Woh, woh 1" 
says the kamraviona; "what wonders will happen next?" 

We were now on the buffalo ground ; but nothing could be 
seen save some old footprints of buffaloes, and a pitfall made for 
catching them. By this time the king was tired ; and as he saw 
me searching for a log to sit upon, he made one of his pages kneel 
upon all fours and sat upon his back, acting the monkey in aping 
myself; for otherwise he would have sat on a mbiigu, in his cus- 
tomary manner, spread on the ground. We returned, pushing 
. along, up one way, then another, without a word, in thorough 
confusion, for the king delights in boyish tricks, which he has 
learned to play successfully. Leaving the road and plunging into 
thickets of tall grass, the band and wakungil must run for their 
lives, to maintain the order of march, by heading him at some 
distant point of exit from the jungle ; while the kamraviona, lead- 
ing the pages and my men, must push head first, like a herd of 
buffaloes, through the sharp-cutting grass, at a sufficient rate to 
prevent the royal walk from being impeded ; and the poor wom- 
en, ready to sink with exhaustion, can only be kept in their places 
by fear of losing their lives. 

We had been out the whole day ; still he did not tire of these 
tricks, and played them incessantly till near sundown, when we 
entered the palace. Then the women and wakungu separating 
firom us, we — ^that is, the king, the kamraviona, pages, and myself 
— sat down to a warm feast of sweet potatoes and plantains, end- 
ing with pomb^ and fruit, while moist circular napkins, made in 

Z 



854 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

the shape of magnificent wafers out of plantain fibre, acted at 
once both the part of water and towel. This over, as the guns 
had to be emptied, and it was thought sinful to waste the bullets, 
four cows were ordered in and shot by the king. Thus ended 
the day, my men receiving one of the cows. 

8ih. As Mt^ was tired with his yesterday's work, and would 
not see any body, I took Liigoi and Kahala, with a bundle of 
beads, to give a return to the mgemma for his late treat of pombd 
His household men and women were immensely delighted with 
us, but more so, they said, for the honor of the visit. They gave 
us more pomb^, and introduced us to one of N'yamasord's numer- 
ous sisters, who was equally charmed with myself and my chil- 
dren. The mgemma did not know how he could treat us proper- 
ly, he said, for he was only a poor man; but he would order some 
fowls, that I might carry them away. When I refused this offer, 
because we came to see him, and not to rob him, he thought it the 
most beautiful language, and said he would bring them to the 
house himself. I added, I hoped he would do so in company 
with his wife, which he promised, though he never dared fulfill 
the promise ; and, on our leaving, sent all his servants to escort 
us beyond the premises. In the evening, as the king's musicians 
passed the camp, I ordered them in to play the mil^ld, and give 
my men and children a treat of dancing. The performers received 
a bundle of beads and went away happy. 

9th. I called on C!ongow, but found him absent, waiting on the 
king as usual ; and the king sent for my big rifle to shoot birds 
with. 

10^. In consequence of my having explained to the king the 
effect of the process of distilling, and the way of doing it, he sent 
a number of earthen pots and bugus of pombe that I might pro- 
duce some spirits for him ; but as the pots sent were not made 
after the proper fashion, I called at the palace, and waited all day 
in the hope of seeing him. No one, however, dared enter his cab- 
inet, where he had been practicing " Uganga" all day, and so the 
pomb6 turned sour and useless. Such are the ways of Uganda 
all over. 

11^. The king was out shooting; and as nothing else could be 
done, I invited Ul^di's pretty wife Giiriku to eat a mutton break- 
fast, and teach my child M^ri not to be so proud. In this we 
were successfiil ; but, whether her head had been turned, as Bom- 
bay thought, or what else, we know not; but she would neither 



Apml.] palace, UGANDA. 355 

walk nor talk, nor do any thing but lie at full length all day long, 
smoking and lounging in thorough indolence. 

12th. I distilled some fresh pombd for the king ; and taking it 
to him in the afternoon, fired guns to announce arrival. He was 
not visible, while fearful shrieks were heard from within, and 
presently a beautiful woman, one of the king's sisters, with cocks- 
comb erect, was dragged out to execution, bewailing and calling 
on her king, the kiamraviona, and mzungu, by turns, to save her 
life. Would to God I could have done it ! but I did not know 
her crime, if crime she had committed, and therefore had to hold 
nay tongue, while the kamraviona, and other wakungu present, ' 
looked on with utter unconcern, not daring to make the slightest 
remark. It happened that Irungu was present in the antecham- 
ber at this time ; and as Maula came with my party, they had a 
fight in respect to their merits for having brought welcome guests 
to their king. Mt&a, it was argued, had given N'yamgundu 
more women and men than he did to Maula, because he was the 
first to bring intelligence of our coming, as well as that of K'yen- 
go, and Suwarora's hongo to his king ; while, finally, he super- 
seded Maula by taking me out of his charge, and had done a far- 
ther good service by sending men on to Karagii^ to fetch both 
Grant and K'yengo. 

Maula, although he had received the second reward, had liter- 
ally done nothing, while Irungu had been years absent at Usui, 
and finally had brought a valuable hongo, yet he got less than 
Maiila. This, Irungu said, was an injustice he would not stand ; 
N'yamgundu fairly earned his reward, but Maiila must have been 
tricking to get more than himself. He would get a suitable of- 
fering of wire, and lay his complaint in court the first opportuni- 
ty. " Pooh I pooh I nonsense 1" says Maula, laughing ; " I will 
give him more wires than you, and then let us see who will win 
the king's ear." Upon this the two great children began collect- 
ing wire and quarreling until the sun went down, and I went home. 
I did not return to a quiet dinner, as I had hoped, but to meet 
the summons of the king. Thinking it policy to obey, I found 
him waiting my coming in the palace. He made apologies for 
not answering my gun, and tasted some spirits, resembling toddy, 
which I had succeeded in distilling. He imbibed it with great 
surprise; it was wonderful tipple; he must have some more; 
and, for the purpose of brewing better, would send the barrel of 
an old Brown Bess musket, as well as more pomb^ and wood in 
the morning. 



856 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

13^. Afl nothing was done all day, I took the usual promenade 
in the Seraglio Park, and was accosted by a very pretty little 
woman, Kariana, wife of Dumba, who, very neatly dressed, was 
returning fix)m a visit. At first she came trotting after me, then 
timidly paused, then advanced, and, as I approached her, stood 
spell-bound at my remarkable appearance. At last recovering 
herself, she woh-wohed with all the coquetry of a Mganda wom- 
an, and a flirtation followed ; she must see my hair, my watch, 
the contents of my pockets — every thing; but that was not 
enough. I waved adieu, but still she followed. I offered my 
arm, showing her how to take it in European fashion, and we 
walked along, to the surprise of every body, as if we had been in 
Hyde Park rather than in Central Africa, flirting and coquetting 
all the way. I was surprised that no one came to prevent her 
forwardness ; but not till I almost reached bome did any one ap- 
pear, and then, with great scolding, she was ordered to return — 
not, however, without her begging I would call in and see her 
on some future occasion, when she would like to give me some 
pomb^. 

liih. As conflicting reports came about Grant, the king very 
courteously, at my request, forwarded letters to him. I passed 
the day in distilling pomb^, and the evening in calling on Mrs. 
Dumba, with M^ri, Kahala, Lugoi, and a troop of Wanyamu&i 
women. She was very agreeable; but, as her husband was at- 
tending at the palace, could not give pomb^, and instead gave my 
female escort sundry baskets of plantains and potatoes, signify- 
ing a dinner, and walked half way home, flirting with me as be- 
fore. 

15^. I called on the king with all the spirits I had made, as 
well as the saccharine residue. We found him holding a levfe, 
and receiving his offerings of a batch of girls, cows, gQats, and 
other things of an ordinary nature. One of the goats presented 
gave me an opportunity of hearing one of the strangest stories I 
had yet heard in this strange country : it was a fine for attempted 
regicide, which happened yesterday, when a boy, finding the king 
alone, which is very unusual, walked up to him and threatened 
to kill him, because, he said, he took the lives of men unjustly. 
The king explained by description and pantomime how the aflGsdr 
passed. When the youth attacked him he had in his hand the 
revolving pistol I had given him, and showed us, holding the 
weapon to his cheek, how he had presented the muzzle to the 



Apbil.] palace, UGANDA. 357 

boy, which, though it was unloaded, so. frightened him that he 
ran away. All the courtiers n'yanzigged vigorously for the con- 
descension of the king in telling us this story. There must have 
been some special reason why, in a court where trifling breaches 
of etiquette were punished with a cruel death, so grave a crime 
should have been so leniently dealt with ; but I could not get at 
the bottom of the afiair. The culprit, a good-looking young fel- 
low of sixteen or seventeen, who brought in the goat, made his 
n'yanzigs, stroked the goat and his own face with his hands, 
n'yanzigged again with prostrations, and retired. 

After this scene, officers announced the startling fact that two 
white men had been seen at Elamrasfs, one with a beard like my- 
self, the other smooth-&ced. I jumped at this news, and said, 
" Of course they are there ; do let me send a letter to them." I 
believed it to be Petherick and a companion whom I knew he 
was to bring with him. The king, however, damped my ardor 
by saying the information was not perfect, and we must wait 
until certain wakungu, whom he sent to search in Unyoro, re- 
turned. 

16^. The regions about the palace were all in a state of com- 
motion to-day, men and women running for their lives in all di- 
rections, followed by wakungu and their retainers. The cause 
of all this commotion was a royal order to seize sundry refractory 
wakungii, with their property, wives, concubines — if such a dis- 
tinction can be made in this country — and families all together. 
At the palace Mt^ had a musical party, playing the flute occa- 
sionally himself. After this he called me aside, and said, "Now, 
Bana, I wish you would instruct me, as you have so often pro- 
posed doing, for I wish to learn every thing, though I have little 
opportunity for doing so." Not knowing what was uppermost 
in his mind, I begged him to put whatever questions he liked, 
and he should be answered seriatim^ hoping to find him inquisi- 
tive on foreign matters; but nothing was more foreign to his 
mind : none of his countrymen ever seemed to think beyond the 
sphere of Uganda. 

The whole conversation turned on medicines, or the cause and 
eflFects of diseases. Cholera, for instance, very much aflfected the 
land at certain seasons, creating much mortality, and vanishing 
again as mysteriously as it came. What brought this scourge? 
and what would cure it? Supposing a man had a headache, 
what should he take for it? or a leg-ache, or a stomach-ache, or 



358 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [18fi2. 

itch — in fact, going the rounds of every disease he knew, until, 
exhausting the ordinary complaints, he went into particulais in 
which he was personally much interested; but I was unfortunate- 
ly unable to prescribe medicines which produce the physiqal 
phenomenon next to his heart. 

nth. I called upon the king by appointment, and found a large 
court, where the wakungu caught yesterday, and sentenced to 
execution, received their reprieve on paying fines of cattle and 
young damsels — their daughters. A variety of charms, among 
which were some bits of stick strung on leather and covered with 
serpent-skin, were presented and approved of Kaggao, a large 
district officer, considered the second in rank here, received per- 
mission for me to call on him with my medicines. I pressed the 
king again to send men with mine to Kamrasi's, to call Petherick. 
At first he objected that they would be kUled, but finally he 
yielded, and appointed Budja, his Unyoro embassador, for the 
service. Then, breaking up the court, he retired with a select 
party of wakungii, headed by the kamraviona, and opened a con- 
versation on the subject which is ever uppermost with the king 
and his courtiers. 

l^Oi. To-day I visited Kaggao with my medicine-chesL He 
had a local disease, which he said came to him by magic, though 
a different cause was sufficiently obvious, and wanted medicine 
such as I gave Mkuenda, who reported that I gave him a most 
wonderful draught Unfortunately, I had nothing suitable to 
give my new patient, but cautioned him to have a care lest con- 
tagion should run throughout his immense establishment, and ex- 
plained the whole of the circumstances to him. Still he was not 
satisfied ; he would give me slaves, cows, or ivory, if I would 
only cure him. He was a very great man, as I could see, with 
numerous houses, numerous wives, and plenty of every thing, so 
that it was ill-becoming of him to be without his usual habita 
Rejecting his munificent offers, I gave him a cooling dose of 
calomel and jalap, which he drank like pomb6, and pronounced 
beautiful — holding up his hands, and repeating the words "Beau- 
tiful, beautiful I they are all beautiful together ! There is Bana 
beautiful! his box is beautiful! and his medicine beautifiill" 
and, saying this, led us in to see his women, who at my request 
were grouped in war apparel, viz., a dirk fastened to the waist by 
many strings of colored beads. There were from fifty to sixty 
women present, all very ladylike, but none of them pretty. Kag- 



Apml.] palace, UGANDA. 859 

gao then informed me the king had told all his wakungii he 
would keep me as his guest four months longer to. see if Pethe- 
rick came; and should he not by that time, he would give me an 
estate, stocked with men, women, and cattle, in perpetuity, so that, 
if I ever wished to leave Uganda, I should always have some- 
thing to come back to ; so I might now know what my fate was 
to be. Before leaving, Kaggao presented us with two cows and 
tea baskets of potatoes. 

19^. I sent a return present of two wires and twelve fundo of 
beads of sorts to Kaggao, and heard that the king had gone to 
show himself off to his mother dressed Bana fashion. In the 
evening Katunzi, N'yamasord's brother, just returned from the 
Unyoro plunder, called on me while I was at dinner. Not know- 
ing who he was, and surprised at such audacity in Uganda, for he 
was the first ofiicer who ever ventured to come near me in this 
manner, I offered him a knife and fork, and a share in the repast, 
which rather abashed him ; for, taking it as a rebuff, he apolo- 
gized immediately for the liberty he had taken, contrary to the 
etiquette of Uganda society, in coming to a house when the mas- 
ter was at dinner ; and he would have left again had I not press- 
ed him to remain. Katunzi then told me the whole army had re- 
turned from Unyoro, with immense numbers of cows, women, and 
children, but not men, for those who did not run away were kill- 
ed fighting. He offered me a present of a woman, and pressed 
me to call on him. 

20th. Still I found that the king would not send his wakungii 
for the Unyoro expedition, so I called on him about it. Fortu- 
nately, he asked me to speak a sentence in English, that he might 
hear how it sounds, and this gave me an opportunity of saying, 
if he had kept his promise by sending Budja to me, I should have 
dispatched letters to Petherick. This was no sooner interpreted 
than he said, if I would send my men to him with letters in the 
morning, he would forward them on, accompanied with an army. 
On my asking if the army was intended to fight, he replied in 
short, " First to feel the way." On hearing this, I strongly ad- 
vised him, if he wished the road to be kept permanently open, to 
try conciliationwith Kamrasi, and send him some trifling present. 

Now were brought in some thirty-odd women for punishment 
and execution, when the king, who of late had been trying to 
learn Kisuahili, in order that we might be able to converse to- 
gether, asked me, in that language, if I would like to have some 



360 



THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. 



[18GS. 



of these women ; and if so, how many. On my replying " One," 
he begged me to take my choice, and a very pretty one was se- 
lected. God only knows what became of the rest ; but the one I 
selected, on reaching home, I gave to Umas, my valet, for a wife. 
He and all the other household servants were much delighted 
with this charming acquisition ; but the poor girl, from the time 
she had been selected, had flattered herself she was to be Bana's 
wife, and became immensely indignant at the supposed transfer, 
though &om the first I had intended her for Umas, not only to 
favor him for his past good services, but as an example to my 
other men, as I had promised to give them all, provided they be- 
haved well upon the journey, a "free-man's garden," with one 
wife each and a purse of money, to begin a new life upon, as soon 
as they reached Zanzibar. The temper of M^ri and Kahala was 
shown in a very forcible manner: they wanted this maid as an 
addition to my family ; called her into the hut and chatted till 




**SS^ 



viewer the 



midnight, instructing her not to wed with Umas; and then, in- 
stead of turning into bed as usual, they all three slept upon the 
ground. My patience could stand this phase of henpecking no 
longer, so I called in Manamaka, the head Myamu^zi womim, 
whom I had selected for their governess, and directed her to as- 
sist Umas, and put them to bed "bundling." 

21sL In the morning, before I had time to write letters, the 
king invited me to join him at some new tank he was making be- 
tween his palace and the residence of his brothers. I found him 



April.] PALACE, UGANDA. 361 

sitting with his brothers, all playing in concert on flutes. I ask- 
ed him, in Kisuahili, if he knew where Grant was. On replying 
in the negative, I proposed sending a letter, which he approved of; 
and Budja was again ordered to go with an army for Petherick. 

22d. Mabruki and Bilal, with Budja, started to meet Petherick, 
and three more men, with another letter to Grant. I called on 
the king, who appointed the 24th instant for an excursion of three 
days' hippopotamus shooting on the N'yanza. 

23d To-day occurred a brilliant instance of the capricious rest- 
lessness and self-willedness of this despotic king. At noon, pages 
hurried in to say that he had started for the N'yanza, and wished 
me to follow him without delay. N'yanza, as I have mentioned, 
merely means a piece of water, whether a pond, river, or lake ; 
and as no one knew which n'yanza he meant, or what project 
was on foot, I started off in a hurry, leaving every thing behind, 
and walked rapidly through gardens, over hills, and across rushy 



.L^r^' 



i^r#4^^": 




MaichiMO Creek. 

swamps, down the west flank of the Murchison Creek, till 3 P.M., 
when I found the king dressed in red, with his wakungu in front 
and women behind, traveling along in the confused manner of a 
pack of hounds, occasionally firing his rifle that I might know 
his whereabouts. He had just, it seems, mingled a little business 
with pleasure; for noticing, as he passed, a woman tied by the 
hands to be punished for some offense, the nature of which I did 
not learn, he took the executioner's duty on himself, fired at her, 
and killed her outright. 



/ 



862 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1882. 

On this occasion, to test all his followers, and prove their readi- 
ness to serve him, he had started on a sadden freak for the three 
days' excursion on the lake one day before the appointed time, 
expecting every body to fall into place by magic, without the 
smallest regard to each one's property, feelings, or comfort The 
home must be forsaken without a last adieu, the dinner untasted, 
and no provision made for the coming night, in order that his im- 
petuous majesty should not suffer one moment's disappointment 
The result was natural : many who would have come were no- 
where to be found ; my guns, bed, bedding, and note-books, as 
well as cooking utensils, were all left behind, and, though sent for, 
did not arrive till the following day. 



O- 




Uganda Boat 

On arrival at the mooring station no one boat was to be found, 
nor did any arrive until after dark, when, on the beating of drums 
and firing of guns, some fifty large ones appeared. They were 
all painted with red clay, and averaged from ten to thirty paddles, 
with long prows standing out like the neck of a siphon or swan, 
decorated on the head with the horns of the nsunnu (lencotis) 
antelope, between which was stuck upright a tuft of feathers ex- 
actly like a grenadier's plume. These arrived to convey us across 
the mouth of a deep rushy swamp to the royal yachting estab- 
lishment, the Coweis of Uganda, distant five hours' traveling from 
the palace. We reached the Gowes by torchlight at 9 P.M., when 
the king had a picnic dinner with me, turned in with his women 
in great comfort, and sent me off to a dreary hut, where I had to 
sleep upon a grass-strewn floor. I was surprised we had to walk 



Apkil] • PALACE, UGANDA. 868 

SO far, when, by appearance, we might have boated it from the 
head of the creek all the way down ; but, on inquiry, was inform- 
ed the swampy nature of the ground at the head of the creek pre- 
cluded any approach to the clear water there, and hence the long 
overland journey, which, though fatiguing to the unfortunate 
women, who had to trot the whole way behind Mt^'s four-mile- 
an-hour strides, was very amusing. The whole of the scenery — 
hill, dale, and lake — ^was extremely beautiful. The Wanguana in 
my escort compared the view to their own beautiful poani (coast) ; 
but in my opinion it far surpassed any thing I ever saw, either 
from the sea or upon the coast of Zanzibar. 

The king rose betimes in the morning and called me, unwashed 
and very uncomfortable, to picnic with him during 
the collection of the boats. The breakfast, eaten in 
the open court, consisted of sundry baskets of roast beef and 
plantain-squash folded in plantain-leaves. He sometilhes ate with 
a copper knife and picker,, not forked ; but more usually like a 
dog, with both hands. The bits too tough for his mastication he 
would take from his mouth and give as a treat to the pages, who 
n'yanzigged, and swallowed them with much seeming relish. 
Whatever remained over was then divided by the boys, and the 
baskets taken to the cooks. Pomb^ served as tea, coffee, and beer 
for the king, but his guests might think themselves very lucky if 
they ever got a drop of it. 

Now for the lake. Every body in a hurry falls into his place 
the best way he can — wakungii leading, and women behind. 
They rattle along, through plantains and shrubs, under large trees, 
seven, eight, and nine feet in diameter, till the beautiful waters are 
reached — a picture of the Eio scenery, barring that of the higher 
mountains in the background of that lovely place, which are here 
represented by the most beautiful little hills. A band of fifteen 
drums of all. sizes, called the mazaguzo, playing with the regular- 
ity of a lot of factory engines at work, announced the king's ar- 
rival, and brought all the boats to the shore, but not as in Eng- 
land, where Jack, with all the consequence of a lord at home, in- 
vites the ladies to be seated, and enjoys the sight of so many pret- 
ty faces. Here every poor fellow, with his apprehensions written 
in his face, leaps over the gunwale into the water, ducking his 
head from fear of being accused of gazing on the fair sex, which 
is death, and bides patiently his time. They were dressed in 
plantain-leaves, looking like grotesque Neptunes. The king, in 



304 'I'HE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

his red coat and wideawake, conducted the arrangements, order- 
ing all to their proper places — ^the women in certain boats, the 
wakungii and Wanguana in others, while I sat in the same boat 
with him at his feet, three women holding mbiigus of pomW be- 
hind. The king's Kisuahili now came into plaj, and he was 
prompt in carrying out the directions he got from myself to ap- 
proach the hippopotami. But the waters were too large and the 
animals too shy, so we toiled all the day without any effect, going 
only once ashore to picnic ; not for the women to eat — ^for they, 
poor things, got nothing — ^but the king, myself, the pages, and the 
principal wakungiL As a wind-up to the day's amusement, the 
king led the band of drums, changed the men according to their 
powers, put them into concert pitch, and readily detected every 
slight irregularity, showing himself a thorough musician. 
This day requires no remark, every thing done being the coun- 
terpart of yesterday, excepting that the king, grow- 
ing bolder with me in consequence of our talking to- 
gether, became more playful and familiar — ^amusing himself, for 
instance, sometimes by catching hold of my beard as the rolling 
of the boat unsteadied him. 
We started early in the usual manner; but, after working up 
and down the creek, inspecting the inlets for hippo- 
potami, and tiring from want of sport, the king 
changed his tactics, and, paddling and steering himself with a pair 
of new white paddles, finally directed the boats to an island occu- 
pied by the mgussa, or Neptune of the N'yanza, not in person— 
for mgussa is a spirit — ^but by his familiar or deputy, the great 
medium who communicates the secrets of the deep to the King of 
Uganda. In another sense, he might be said to be the presiding 
priest of the source of the mighty Nile, and as such was, of course, 
an interesting person for me to meet. The first operation on 
shore was picnicking, when many large mbugus of pombd were 
brought for the king ; next, the whole party took a walk, wind- 
ing through the trees, and picking fruit, enjojring themselves 
amazingly, till, by some unlucky chance, one of the royal wives, 
a most charming creature, and truly one of the best of the lot, 
plucked a fruit and offered it to the king, thinking, doubtless, to 
please him greatly ; but he, like a madman, flew into a towering 
passion, said it was the first time a woman ever had the impu- 
dence to offer him any thing, and ordered the pages to seize, bind, 
and lead her off to execution. 



Afbil.] palace, UGANDA. 8g5 

These words were no sooner uttered by the king than the 
whole bevy of pages slipped their cord turbans from their heads, 
and rushed like a pack of cupid beagles upon the &iry queen, 
who, indignant at the little urchins daring to touch her majesty, 
remonstrated with the king, and tried to beat them off like flies, 
but was soon captured, overcome, and dragged away, crying, in 
the names of the kamraviona and mzungii (myself), for help and 
protection ; while Lubiiga, the pet sister, and all the other wom- 
en, clasped the king by his legs, and, kneeling, implored forgive- 
ness for their sister. The more they craved for mercy the more 
brutal he became, till at last he took a heavy stick and began to 
belabor the poor victim on the head. 

Hitherto I had been extremely careful not to interfere with any 
of the king's acts of arbitrary cruelty, knowing that such inter- 
ference, at an early stage, would produce more harm than good. 
This last act of barbarism, however, was too much for my EngUsh 
blood to stand ; and, as I heard my name, mzungii, imploringly 
pronounced, I rushed at the king, and, staying his uplifted arm, 
demanded from him the woman's life. Of course I ran imminent 
risk of losing my own in thus thwarting the capricious tyrant ; 
but his caprice proved the friend of both. The novelty of inter- 
ference even made him smile, and the woman was instantly re- 
leased. 

Proceeding on through the trees of this beautiful island, we 
next turned into the hut of the mgussa's familiar, which at the 
fisurther end was decorated with many mystic symbols — ^among 
others a paddle, the badge of his high office— and for some time 
we sat chatting, when pombe was brought, and the spiritual me- 
dium arrived. He was dressed wichw&i fashion, with a little 
white goatskin apron, adorned with numerous charms, and used a 
paddle for a mace or walking-stick. He was not an old man, 
though he aflFected to be so, walking very slowly and deliberately, 
coughing asthmatically, glimmering with his eyes, and mumbling 
like a witch. With much aflfected difficulty he sat at the end of 
the hut beside the symbols alluded to, and continued his cough- 
ing full hal5an hour, when his wife came in in the same manner, 
without saying a word, and assumed the same affected style. The 
king jokingly looked at me and laughed, and then at these strange 
creatures by turn, as much as to say, What do you think of 
them ? but no voice was heard save that of the old wife, who 
croaked like a frog for water, and, when some was brought, croak- 



366 I^HE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

ed again because it was not the purest of the lake's produoe— had 
the first cup changed, wetted her lips with the second, and hob- 
bled away in the same manner as she came. 

At this juncture the mgussa's familiar motioned the kamraviona 
and several oflSicers to draw around him, when, in a very low 
tone, he gave them all the orders of the deep, and walked away. 
His revelations seemed unpropitious, for we immediately repaired 
to our boats and returned to our quarters. Here we no sooner 
arrived than a host of wakungu, lately returned from the Unyoro 
war, came to pay their respects to the king : they had returned 
six days or more, but etiquette had forbidden their approaching 
majesty sooner. Their successes had been great, their losses ml 
for not one man had lost his life fighting. To these men the king 
narrated all the adventures of the day, dwelling more particularly 
on my defending his wife's life, whom he had destined for execu- 
tion. This was highly approved of by all ; and they unanimous- 
ly said Bana knew what he was about, because he dispenses jus- 
tice like a king in his own country. 

Early in the morning a great hue and cry was made because 
the Wanguana had been seen bathing in the INTyanza 
* naked, without the slightest regard to decency. We 

went boating as usual all day long, sometimes after hippopotami, 
at others racing up and down the lake, the king and wakungu 
paddling and steering by turns, the only break to this fetigue be- 
ing when we went ashore to picnic, or the king took a turn at the 
drums. During the evening some of the principal wakungu were 
collected to listen to an intellectual discourse on the peculiarities 
of the different women in the royal establishment, and the king 
in good-humor described the benefits he had derived from this 
pleasant tour on the water. 

While I was preparing my Massey's log to show the use of it 
to the king, he went off boating without me ; and as 
the few remaining boats would not take me off be- 
cause they had received no orders to do so, I fired guns, but, get- 
ting no reply, went into the country hoping to find game; but, 
disappointed in that also, I spent the first half of the day with a 
hospitable old lady, who treated us to the last drop of pomb^ i° 
her house — ^for the king's servants had robbed her of nearly every 
thing — smoked her pipe with me, and chatted incessantly on the 
honor paid her by the white king's visit, as well as of the horrors 
of Uganda punishment, when my servants told her I saved the 



Apkil.] palace, UGANDA. 867 

life of one queen. Betuming homeward, the afternoon was spent 
at a hospitable officer's, who would not allow us to depart until 
my men were all fuddled with pomb^, and the evening setting in 
warned us to wend our way. On arrival at camp, the king, quite 
shocked with himself for having deserted me, asked me if I did 
not hear his guns fire. He had sent twenty officers to scour the 
country, looking for me every where. He had been on the lake 
the whole day himself, and was now amusing his officers with a 
little archery practice, even using the bow himself, and making 
them shoot by turns. A lucky shot brought forth immense ap- 
plause, all jumping and n'yanzigging with delight, whether it was 
done by their own bows or the king's. 

A shield was the mark, stuck up at only thirty paces; still they 
were such bad shots that they hardly ever hit it. Now tired of 
this slow sport, and to show his superior prowess, the king order- 
ed sixteen shields to be placed before him, one in front of the 
other, and with one shot from Whitworth pierced the whole of 
them, the bullet passing through the bosses of nearly every one. 
" Ah !" says the king, strutting about with gigantic strides, and 
brandishing the rifle over his head before all his men, " what is 
the use of spears and bows? I shall never fight with any thing 
but guns in future." These wakung^, having only just then re- 
turned from plundering Unyoro, had never before seen their king 
in a chair, or any body sitting, as I was, by his side ; and it being 
foreign to their notions, as well as, perhaps, unpleasant to their 
feelings, to find a stranger sitting higher than themselves, they 
complained against this outrage to custom, and induced the king 
to order my dethronement. The result was, as my iron stool was 
objectionable, I stood for a moment to see that I thoroughly un- 
derstood their meaning ; and then, showing them my back, walk- 
ed straightway home to make a grass throne, and dodge them that 
way. 

There was nothing for dinner last night, nothing again this 
morning, yet no one would go in to report this fact, 
as rain was falling, and the king was shut up with 
his women. Presently the thought struck me that the rifle, which 
was always infallible in gaining me a speedy admittance at the 
palace, might be of the same service now. I therefore shot a dove 
close to the royal abode, and, as I expected, roused the king at 
once, who sent out his pages to know what the firing was about 
When told the truth — ^that I had been trying to shoot a dish of 



368 THE SOURCE OF THE NELK [IBO!. 

doves for breakfast, as I could get neither meat nor drink from 
his kitchen — the head boy, rather guessing than understanding 
what was told him, distorted my message, and said to the king, 
as I could not obtain a regular supply of food from his house, I 
did not wish to accept any thing farther at his hands, but intend- 
ed foraging for the future in the jungles. The king, as might be 
imagined, did not believe the boy's story, and sent other pages to 
ascertain the truth of the case, bidding them listen well, and be- 
ware of what they were about. This second lot of boys conveyed 
the story rightly, when the king sent me a cow. As I afterward 
heard, he cut off the ears of the unfortunate little mischief-maker 
for not making a proper use of those organs ; and then, as the lad 
was the son of one of his own officers, he was sent home to have 
the sores healed. After breakfast the king called me to go boat- 
ing, when I used my grass throne, to the annoyance of the at- 
tendants. This induced the king to say before them, laughing, 
" Bana, you see, is not to be done-, he is accustomed to sit before 
kings, and sit he will." Then, by way of change, he ordered all 
the drums to embark and play upon the waters, while he and his 
attendants paddled and steered by turns, first up the creek, and 
then down nearly to the broad waters of the lake. 

There was a passage this may, it was said, leading up to Usoga, 
but very circuitous, on account of reefs or shoals, and on the way 
the Kitiri island was passed ; but no other Kitiri was known to 
the Waganda, though boats sometimes went coasting down the 
western side of the lake to Ukdrdw^. The largest island on the 
lake is the Sds^,* off the mouth of the Katonga River, where an- 
other of the high priests of the Neptune of the N'yanza resides. 
The king's largest vessels are kept there, and it is famous for its 
supply of mbiigu barks. We next went on shore to picnic, when 
a young hippopotamus, speared by harpoon, one pig, and a pongo 
or bush-boc, were presented to the king. I now advised boat- 
racing, which was duly ordered, and afforded much amusement, 
as the whole fifty boats formed in line, and paddled furiously to 
the beat of drum to the goal which I indicated. 

The day was done. In great glee the king, ever much attached 
to the blackguard Maiila, in consequence of his amusing stories, 
appointed him to the office of seizer, or chief kidnapper of wa- 
kungii; observing that, after the return of so many officers from 
war, much business in that line would naturally have to be done, 

* Some say a group of forty islands compose S^. 



AraiL.] PALACE, UGANDA. 8g9 

and there was none so trustworthy now at court to carry out the 
king's orders. All now went to the camp ; but what was my 
astonishment, on reaching the hut, to find every servant gone, 
along with the pots, pans, meat, every thing, and all in conse- 
quence of the king's having taken the drums on board, which, 
being unusual, was regarded as one of his delusive tricks, and a 
sign of immediate departure. He had told no one he was going 
to the N'yanza, and now it was thought he would return in the 
same way. I fired for my supper, but fired in vain. Boys came 
out^ by lie king's order, to inquire what I wanted, but left again 
without doing any thing farther. 

At my request the king sent off boats to inquire after the one 
that left, or was supposed to have left, for Grant on 
the 8d of March, and he then ordered the return 
home, much to my delight; for, beautiful as the N'yanza was, the 
want of consideration for other people's comfort, the tiring, inces- 
sant boating, all day long and every day, in the sun, as well as 
the king's hurry-scurry about every thing he undertook to do, 
without the smallest forethought, preparation, or warning, made 
me dream of my children, and look forward with pleasure to re- 
joining them. Strange as it may appear to Englishmen, I had a 
sort of paternal love for those little blackamoors as if they had 
been my ofepring; and I enjoyed the simple stories that their 
sable visitors told me every day they came over to smoke their 
pipes, which they did with the utmost fiimiliarity, helping them- 
selves from my stores just as they liked. 

Without any breakfast, we returned by the same route by 
which we had come, at four miles an hour, till half the way was 
cleared, when the king said, laughing, " Bana, are you hungry ?" 
— a ridiculous question after twenty-four hours' starvation, which 
he knew full well — and led the way into a plantain-grove, where 
the first hut that was found was turned inside out for the king's 
accommodation, and picnic was prepared. As, however, he or- 
dered my portion to be given outside with the pages', and allowed 
neither pomb^ nor water, I gave him the slip, and walked hur- 
riedly home, where I found Kahala smirking, and apparently 
glad to see us, but M^ri shamming ill in bed, while Manamaka, 
the governess, was full of smiles and conversation. She declared 
M^ri had neither tasted fopd nor slept since my departure, but 
had been retching all the time. Dreadfully concerned at the 
doleful story, I immediately thought of giving relief with medi- 

A A 



370 



THE SOURCE OF THE NILK 



[1862. 



cines, but neither pulse, tongue, nor any thing else indicated the 
slightest disorder ; and, to add to these troubles, Umas's woman 
had tried during my absence to hang herself^ because she would 
not serve as servant, but wished to be my wife ; and Bombay's 
wife, after taking a dose of quinine, was delivered of a stillborn 
child. 

Ist. I visited the king, at his request, with the medicine-chest 
He had caught a cold. He showed me several of his women 
grievously affected with boils, and expected me to cure them at 
once. I then went home, and found twenty men who had passed 
Grant, coming on a stretcher from Karagu^, without any of the 




Captain Grant leaving Karague. 



rear property. Mdri, still persistent, rejected strengthening medi- 
cines, but said, in a confidential manner, if I would give her a 
goat to sacrifice to the Uganga she would recover in no time. 
There was something in her manner when she said this that I did 
not like — ^it looked suspicious ; and I contented myself by say- 
ing, "No, I am a wiser doctor than any in these lands; if any 
body could cure you, that person is myself; and, farther, if I 
gave you a goat to sacrifice, God would be angry with both of us 
for our superstitious credulity ; you must, therefore, say no more 
about it," 



Mat.] palace, UGANDA. 371 

2d. The whole country around the palace was in a state of 
commotion to-day, from Maiila and his children hunting down 
those officers who had returned from the war, yet had not paid 
their respects to the king at the N*yanza, because they thought 
they would not be justified in calling on him so quickly after 
their arrival. Maula's house, in consequence of this, was full of 
beef and pomb^ ; while in his court-yard, men, women, and chil- 
dren, with feet in stocks, very like the old parish stocks in En- 
gland, waited his pleasure, to see what demands he would make 
upon them as the price of their release. After anxiously watch- 
ing, I found out that M^ri was angry with me for not allowing 
Ilmas's woman to live in my house ; and, to conquer my resolu- 
tion against it — although I ordered it with a view to please Ilmas, 
for he was desperately in love with her — she made herself sick 
by putting her finger down her throat. I scolded her for her 
obstinacy. She said she was ill — ^it was not feigned ; and if I 
would give her a goat to sacrifice she would be well at once ; for 
she had looked into the magic horn already, and discovered that 
if I gave her a goat for that purpose it would prove that I loved 
her, and her health would be restored to her at once. Halloo I 
here was a transformation from the paternal position into that of 
a henpecked husband I Somebody, I smelt at once, had been 
tampering with my household while I was away. I commenced 
investigations, and aft^er a while found out that Rozaro's sister 
had brought a magician belonging to her family into the hut dur- 
ing my absence, who had put Mdri up to this trick of extorting a 
goat from me, in order that he might benefit by it himself, for the 
magician eats the sacrifice and keeps the skin. 

I immediately ordered him to be seized and bound to the flag- 
staflF, while Maula, Ul^di, Bozaro, and Bombay were summoned to 
witness the process of investigation. Bozaro fiew into a passion, 
and tried to release the magician as soon as he saw him, affecting 
intense indignation that I should take the law into my own hands 
when one of Bumanika's subjects was accused, but only lost his 
dignity still more on being told he had acknowledged his inabil- 
ity to control hia men so ofl«n when they had misbehaved, that I 
scorned to ask his assistance any longer. He took huff at this, 
and, as he could not help himself, walked away, leaving us to do 
as we liked. The charge was fully proved. The impudent ma- 
gician, without leave, and contrary to all the usages of the coun- 
try, had entered and set my house against itself during my ab- 



372 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

sence, and had schemed to rob me of a goat I therefore s^- 
tenced him to fifty lashes — ^twenty-five for the injury he ha in- 
flicted on me by working up a rebellion in my house, ana the re- 
maining twenty-five for attempting larceny — saying, as he had 
wanted my goat and its skin, so now, in return, I wanted his skio. 
These words were no sooner pronounced than the wretched M^ri 
cried out against it, saying all the fault was hers : '' Let the stick 
skin my back, but spare my doctor ; it would kill me to see him 
touched." 

This appeal let me see that there was something in the whole 
matter too deep and intricate to be remedied by my skill. I 
therefore dismissed her on the spot, and gave her, as a sister and 
free woman, to U16di and his pretty Mhiima wife, giving Bombay 
orders to carry the sentences into execution. After walking 
about till after dark, on returning to the empty house I had some 
misgivings as to the apparent cruelty of abandoning one so help- 
less to the uncertainties of this wicked world. Umas's woman 
also ran away, doubtless at the instigation of Bozaro's sister, for 
she had been denied any farther access to the house, as being at 
the bottom of all this mischief. 

8c?. I was haunted all night by my fancied cruelty, and in the 
morning sent its victim, after Uganda fashion, some symbolical 
presents, including a goat, in token of esteem ; a black blanket^ as 
a sign of mourning; a bundle of gundii anklets; and a packet 
of tobacco, in proof of my forgiveness. 



'^Mat,2 palace, UGANDA. 878 



oret 

1- 



CHAPTER XIV. 
PALACE, UGANDA — OofUinued, 

Reception of a Tictorions Army at Court. — ^Boyal Sport. — ^A Beriew of the Troops. 
— ^Negotiations for the Opening of the Boad along the Nile. — Grant's Betnm. — 
Pi]lagings.--Coart Marriages. — The King's Brothers.— Divinations and Sacri- 
fices. — ^The Boad granted at last.— The Preparations for continning the Expedi- 
tion. — ^The Departure. 

I NOW received a letter from Grant to say he was coming by 
boat &om Kitangal^, and at once went to the palace to give the 
welcome news to the king. The road to the palace I found 
thronged with people; and in the square outside the entrance 
there squatted a multitude of attendants, headed by the king, si^ 
ting on a doth, dressed in his national costume, with two spears 
and a shield by his side. On his right hand the pages sat wait- 
ing for orders, while on his left there was a small squatting clus- 
ter of women, headed by wichw&is, or attendant sorceresses, of- 
fering pomb^. In fix)nt of the king, in form of a hollow square, 
many ranks deep, sat the victorious officers, lately returned from 
the war, variously dressed; the nobles distinguished by their 
leopard-cat skins and dirks, the commoners by colored mbugii 
and cow or antelope skin cloaks, but all their faces and arms were 
painted red, black, or smoke-color. Within the square of men 
immediately fronting the king, the war-arms of Uganda were ar- 
ranged in three ranks ; the great war-drum, covered with a leop- 
ard-skin, and standing on a large carpeting of them, was placed in 
advance ; behind this, propped or hung on a rack of iron, were a 
variety of the implements of war in common use, offensive and 
defensive, as spears — of which two were of copper, the rest iron — 
and shields of wood and leather ; while in the last row or lot 
were arranged systematically, with great taste and powerM effect, 
the supematund arms, the god of Uganda, consisting of charms 
of various descriptions and in great numbers. Outside the square 
again, in a line with the king, were the household arms, a very 
handsome copper kettle-drum, of French manu&cture, surmount- 
ed on the outer edge with pretty little brass bells depending from 



874 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

swan-neck-shaped copper wire, two new spears, a painted leather 
shield, and magic wands of various devices, deposited on a carpet 
of leopard-skins — the whole scene giving the effect of true barbar- 
ous royalty in its uttermost magnificence. 

Approaching, as usual, to take my seat beside the king, some 
slight sensation was perceptible, and I was directed to sit beyond 
the women. The whole ceremonies of this grand assemblage 
were now obvious. Each regimental commandant in turn nar- 
rated the whole services of his party, distinguishing those subs 
who executed his orders well and successfully from those who 
either deserted before the enemy or feared to follow up their suc- 
cess. The king listened attentively, making, let us suppose, very 
shrewd remarks concerning them ; when to the worthy he award- 
ed pombd, helped with gourd-cups from large earthen jars, which 
was n'yanzigged for vehemently ; and to the unworthy, execu- 
tion. When the fatal sentence was pronounced, a terrible bustle 
ensued, the convict wrestling and defying, while the other men 
seized, pulled, and tore the struggling wretch fix)m the crowd, 
bound him hands and head together, and led or rather tumbled 
him away. 

After a while, and when all business was over, the king begged 
me to follow him into the palace. He asked again for stimulants 
— ^a matter ever uppermost in his mind — ^and would not be con- 
vinced that such things can do him no possible good, but would 
in the end be deleterious. Grant's letter was then read to him 
before his women, and I asked for the dismissal of all the Wan- 
yambo, for they had not only destroyed my peace and home, but 
were always getting me into disrepute by plundering the Wagan- 
da in the highways. No answer was given to this ; and on walk- 
ing home, I found one of the king's women at my hutj imploring 
protection against the Wanyambo, who had robbed and bruised 
her so often, she could not stand such abuse any longer. 

4t.1h. I sent Maula early in the morning, with the plundered 
woman, and desired him to request that the Wanyambo might 
be dismissed. He returned, saying he delivered my message, but 
no reply was given. I then searched for the king, and found him 
at his brothers' suite of huts playing the flute before them. On 
taking my seat, he proudly pointed to two vultures which he had 
shot with bullet, saying to his brothers, " There, do you see these 
birds? Bana shoots with shot, but I kill with bullets." To try 
him, I then asked for leave to go to Usoga, as Grant was so fitf 



N 



M^T.] PALACE, UGANDA. 375 

off; but he said, " No, wait until he comes, and you shall both go 
together then ; you fancy he is far off, but I know better. One 
of my men saw him coming along carried on a stretcher." I said, 
" No, that must be a mistake, for he told me by letter he would 
come by water." 

Heavy rain now set in, and we got under cover ; but the broth- 
ers never moved, some even sitting in the streaming gutter, and 
n'yanzigging whenever noticed. The eldest brother offered me 
his cup of pomb6, thinking I would not drink it; but when he 
saw its contents vanishing fast, he cried "lek^rowl" (hold festi) 
and as I pretended not to understand him, continuing to drink, he 
rudely snatched the cup from my lips. Alternate concerts with 
the brothers, and conversation about hunting, in consequence of 
a bump caused by a fall when steeple-chasing, which was discov- 
ered on my forehead, ended this day's entertainment. 

6th. As all the Wangiiana went foraging, I was compelled to 
stop at home. The king, however, sent an officer for Grant, be- 
cause I would not believe in his statement yesterday that he was 
comiQg by land ; and I also sent a lot of men with a litter to help 
him on, and bring me an answer. 

6th. I went to thfe palace at the king's command. He kept us 
waiting an hour, and then passing out by a side gate, beckoned 
us to follow. He was dressed in European clothes, with his guns 
and tin box of clothes leading the way. His first question was, 
"Well, Bana, where are your guns? for I have called you to go 
shooting." " The pages never said any thing about shooting, and 
therefore the guns were left behind." Totally unconcerned, the 
king walked on to his brothers-, headed by a band and attendants, 
who were much lauded for being ready at a moment's notice. A 
grand flute concert was then played, one of the younger brothers 
keeping time with a long hand-drum ; then the band played ; and 
dancing, and duets, and singing followed. After the usual pres- 
entations, fines, and n'yanziggings, I asked for leave to go and 
meet Grant by water, but was hastily told that two boats had been 
sent for him when we returned from the N'yanza, and that two 
runners, just returned from Karagu^, said he was on the way not 
fer off. The chUd-king then changed his dress for another suit 
of clothes for his brothers to admire, and I retired much annoyed, 
as he would neither give pomb^ for myself nor plantains for my 
men ; and I was farther annoyed on my arrival at home to find 
the Wangiiana mobbing my hut and clamoring for food, and call- 



876 ^^^ SOUBCE OF TH£ NILE. [1862. 

ing for an order to plunder if I did not give them beads, which, 
as the stock had ran short, I could only do by their returning to 
Karagil^ for the beads stored there ; and, even if they were ob- 
tained, it was questionable if the king would revoke his order 
prohibiting the sale of provisions to us. 

7^. To-day I called at the queen's, but had to wait five houi^ 
in company with some attendants, to whom she sent pombe oc- 
casionally ; but, after waiting for her nearly all day, they were 
dismissed, because excess of business prevented her seeing them, 
though I was desired to remain. I asked these attendants to sell 
me food for beads, but they declared they could not without ob- 
taining permission. In the evening the queen stumped out of 
her chambers and walked to the other end of her palace, where 
the head or queen of the wichw&i women lived, to whom every 
body paid the profoundest respect On the way I joined her, she 
saying, in a state of high anger, " You won't call on me now I 
have given you such a charming damsel : you have quite foi^got- 
ten us in your love of home." Of course Mori's misdemeanor 
had to be explained, when she said, " As that is the case, I will 
give you another; but you must take M^ri out of the country, 
else she will bring trouble on us; for, you know, I never gave 
girls who lived in the palace to any one in my life before, because 
they would tell domestic affairs not proper for common people to 
know." I then said my reason for not seeing her before was, that 
the four times I had sent messengers to make an appointment for 
the following day, they had been repulsed from her doors. This 
she would not believe, but called me a story-teller in very coarse 
language, until the men who had been sent were pointed out to 
her, and they corroborated me. 

The wichw&i queen met her majesty with her head held very 
high, and, instead of permitting me to sit on my box of grass, 
threw out a bundle of grass for that purpose. All conversation 
was kept between the two queens ; but her wichw^zi majesty had 
a platter of claj^-stone brought, which she ate with great relish, 
making a noise of satisfaction like a happy Guinea-pig. She 
threw me a bit, which, to the surprise of eveiy body, I caught 
and threw into my mouth, thinking it was some confection ; but 
the harsh taste soon made me spit it out again, to the amusement 
of the company. On returning home I found the king had request- 
ed me to call on him as soon as possible with the medicine^chest 

8^. Without a morsel to eat for dinner last night, or any thing 



Mat.] PALACB, UGANDA. 877 

this morning, we proceeded early to the palace, in great expecta- 
tion that the medicines in request would bring us something ; but 
after waiting all day till 4 P.M., as the king did not appear, leav- 
ing Bombay behind, I walked away to shoot a Guinea-fowl with- 
in earshot of the palace. The scheme was successful, for the re- 
port of the gun which killed the bird reached the king's ear, and 
induced him to say if Bana was present he would be glad to see 
him. This gave Bombay an opportunity of telling all the facts 
of the case, which were no sooner heard than the king gave his 
starving guests a number of plantains, and vanished at once, tak- 
ing my page Lugoi with him, to instruct him in Kisuahili (Zanzi- 
bar language). 

9ih. As the fruit of last night's scheme, the king sent us four 
goats and two cows. In great good-humor I now called on him, 
and found him walking about the palace environs with a carbine, 
looking eagerly for sport, while his pages dragged about five half- 
dead vultures tied in a bundle by their legs to a string. " These 
birds," said he, tossing his head proudly, " were all shot flying, 
with iron slugs, as the boys will tell you. I like the carbine very 
well, but you must give me a double smooth gun." This I prom- 
ised to give when Grant arrived, for his good-nature in sending 
so many officers to fetch him. 

We next tried for Guinea-fowl, as I tell him they are the game 
the English delight in ; but the day was far spent, and none could 
be found. A boy then in attendance was pointed out as having 
seen Grant in TJddu ten days ago. If the statement were true, he 
must have crossed the Katonga. But, though told with great ap- 
parent circumspection, I did not credit it, because my men sent 
on the 15th ultimo for a letter to ascertain his whereabouts had 
not returned, and they certainly would have done so had he been 
so near. To make sure, the king then proposed sending the boy 
again with some of my men; but this I objected to as useless, 
considering the boy had spoken £Eblsely. Hearing this, the king 
looked at the boy and then at the women in turn, to ascertain 
what they thought of my opinion, whereupon the boy cried. 
Late in the evening the sly little girl Kahala changed her cloth 
wrapper for a mbiigu, and slipped quietly away. I did not sus- 
pect her intention, because of late she had appeared much more 
than ordinarily happy, behaving to me in every respect like a 
dutiful child to a parent A search was luade, and guns fired, in 
the hopes of frightening her back again, but without effect. 



378 THE SOURCB OF THE NHJS. [1862. 

10^. I had promised that this morning I would teach the king 
the art of Guinea-fowl shooting, and when I reached the paLac5e at 
6 A.M, I found him already on the ground. He listened to the 
tale of the missing girl, and sent orders for her apprehension at 
once ; then proceeding with the gun, fired eight shots successive- 
ly at Guinea-birds sitting on trees, but missed them all. A&ex 
this, as the birds were scared away, and both iron shot and bul- 
lets were expended, he took us to his dressing-hut, went inside 
himself, attended by full-grown naked women, and ordered a 
breakfast of pork, beef, fish, and plantains to be served me out- 
side on the left of the entrance, while a large batch of his women 
sat on the right side, silently coquetting, and amusing themselves 
by mimicking the white man eating. Poor little Lugoi joined in 
the repast, and said he longed to return to my hut, for he was 
half starved here, and no one took any notice of him; but he was 
destined to be a royal page, for the king would not part with 
him. A cold fit then seized me, and as I asked for leave to go, 
the king gave orders for one of his wives to be flogged. The 
reason for this act of brutality I did not discover; but the mo- 
ment the order was issued, the victim begged the pages to do it 
quickly, that the king's wrath might be appeased ; and in an in- 
stant I saw a dozen boys tear their cord turbans from their heads, 
pull her roughly into the middle of the court, and belabor her 
with sticks, while she lay floundering about, screeching to me for 
protection. All I did was to turn my head away and walk rap- 
idly out of sight, thinking it better not to interfere again with the 
discipline of the palace ; indeed, I thought it not improbable that 
the king did these things sometimes merely that his guests might 
see his savage power. On reaching home I found Kahala stand- 
ing like a culprit before my door. She would not admits what I 
suspected, that M^ri had induced her to run away, but said she 
was very happy in my house until yester-evening, when Eozaro's 
sister told her she was very stupid living with the mzungu all 
alone, and told her to run away ; which she did, taking the di- 
rection of N'yamasor^'s, until some officers finding her, and notic- 
ing beads on her neck, and her hair cut, according to the common 
court fashion, in slopes from a point in the forehead to the breadth 
of her ears, suspected her to be one of the king's women, and kept 
her in confinement all night, till Mt^sa's men came this morning 
and brought her back again. As a punishment^ I ordered her to 
live with Bombay ; but my house was so dull again from want 



Hat.] palace, UGANDA. 379 

of some one to eat dinner with me, that I remitted the punish- 
ment, to her great delight. 

11^. To-day I received letters from Grant, dated the 22d, 25th, 
28th of April, and 2d of May. T^Jey were brought by my three 
men, with Karagu^ pease, flour, and ammunition. He was at 
Mania's house, which .proved the king's boy to be correct; for 
the convoy, afraid of encountering the voyage on the lake,. had 
deceived my companion and brought him on by land, like true 
negroes. 

12ih. I sent the three men who had returned from Grant to lay 
a complaint against the convoy, who had tricked him out of a 
pleasant voyage, and myself out of the long-wished-for survey of 
the lake. They carried at the same time a present of a canister 
of shot from me to the king. Delighted with this unexpected 
prize, he immediately shot fifteen birds flying, and ordered the 
men to acquaint me with his prowess. 

18^. To-day the king sent me four cows and a load of butter 
as a return present for the shot, and allowed one of his officers, at 
my solicitation, to go with ten of my men to help Grant on. He 
also sent a message that he had just shot thirteen birds flying. 

14^. Mabruki and Bilal returned with Budja and his ten chil- 
dren from Unyoro, attended by a deputation of four men sent by 
Bjunrasi, who were headed by Kidgwiga. Mt^sa, it now trans- 
pired, had followed my advice of making friendship with Kam- 
rasi by sending two brass wires as a hongo instead of an army, 
and Kamrasi, in return, sent him two elephant tusks. Kidgwiga 
said Petherick's party was not in Unyoro; they had never reached 
there, but were lying at anchor off Gani. Two white men only 
had been seen — one, they said, a hairy man, the other smooth- 
faced; they were as anxiously inquiring after us as we were aftier 
them : they sat on chairs, dressed like myself, and had guns and 
every thing precisely like those in my hut. On one occasion 
they sent up a necklace of beads to Kamrasi, and he, in return, 
gave them a number of women and tusks. If I wished to go 
that way, Kamrasi would forward me on to their position in 
boats; for the land route, leading through Kidi, was a jungle of 
ten days, tenanted by a savage set of people, who hunt every 
body, and seize every thing they see. 

This tract is sometimes, however, traversed by the Wanyoro 
and Gani people,. who are traders in cows and tippet monkey- 
skins, stealthily traveling at night ; but they seldom attempt it. 



380 ^H^ SOUBCE OF THE KILE. [1862. 

from fear of being murdered. Baraka and UlAii, sent fix)m Kara- 
ga6 on the 30th of January, bad been at Kamrasi's palace up- 
ward of a month, applying for the road to Gani, and as they 
could not get that, wished to come with Mabruki to me; but this 
Kamrasi also refused, on the plea that, as they had come from 
E^aragud, so they must return there. E^mrasi had heard of my 
shooting with Mt^, as also of the attempt made by Mabruki and 
TJl^di to reach Gani vid Usoga. He had received my present of 
beads from Baraka, and, in addition, took Ulddi's sword, saying, 
" If you do not wish to part with it, you must remain a prisoner 
in my country all your life, for you have not paid your footing." 
Mabruki then told me he was kept waiting at a village, one hour's 
walk from Kamrasi's palace, five days before they were allowed 
to approach his majesty; but when they were seen, and the pres- 
ents exchanged, they were ordered to pack off the following 
morning, as Kamrasi said the Waganda were a set of plundering 
blackguards. 

This information, to say the least of it, was very embarrassing 
— a mixture of good and bad. Petherick, I now felt certain, was 
on the look-out for us ; but his men had reached Kamrasi's, and 
returned again before Baraka's arrival. Baraka was not allowed 
to go on to him and acquaint him of our proximity, and the Wa- 
ganda were so much disliked in TJnyoro that there seemed no 
hopes of our ever being able to communicate by letter. To add 
to my embarrassments. Grant had not been able to survey the 
lake from Kitangul^, nor had Usoga and the eastern side of the 
lake been seen. 

15^. I was still laid up with the cold fit of the 10th, which 
turned into a low kind of fever. I sent Bombay to the king to 
tell him the news, and ask him what he thought of doing next 
He replied that he would push for Gani direct, and sent back a 
pot of pomb6 for the sick man. 

16^. The king to-day inquired after my health, and, strange to 
say, did not accompany his message with a begging request 

17th. My respite, however, was not long. At the earliest pas- 
sible hour in the morning the king sent begging for things one 
hundred times refused, supposing, apparently, that I had some 
little reserve store which I wished to conceal from him. 

18^ and 19^. I sent Bombay to the palace to beg for pomb^ 
as it was the only thing I had an appetite for, but the king would 
see no person but myself. He had broken his rifle washing-rod, 



.-::_J 



Mat.] palace, UGANDA. 888 

and this must be mended, the pages who brought it saying that 
no one dared take it back t^ him until it was repaired. A 
Guinea-fowl was sent after dark for me to see, as a proof that the 
king was a sportsman complete. 

20ih. The king, going out shooting, borrowed my powder-horn. 
The Wanguana mobbed the hut and bullied me for food, merely 
because they did not like the trouble of helping themselves from 
the king's garden, though they knew I had purchased their priv- 
ilege to do so at the price of a gold chronometer and the best 
guns England could produce. 

21st I now, for the first time, saw the way in which the king 
collected his army together. The high roads were all thronged 
with Waganda warriors, painted in divers colors, with plantain- 
leaf bands round their heads, scanty goatskin fastened to their 
loins, and spears and shield in their hands, singing the tambur^ 
or march, ending with a repetition of the word mkavia,or monarch. 
They surpassed in number, according to Bombay, the troops and 
ragamuffins enlisted by Sultan Hajid when Sayyid Sw^ni threat- 
ened to attack Zanzibar; in &ct, he never saw such a large army 
collected any where. 

Bombay, on going to the palace, hoping to obtain plantains for 
the men, found the king holding a levde, for the purpose of dis- 
patching this said army somewhere, but where no one would pro- 
nounce. The king then, observing my men who had gone to 
Unyoro together with Kamrasi's, questioned them on their mis- 
sion; and when told that no white men were there, he waxed 
wrathful, and said it was a falsehood, for his men had seen them, 
and could not be mistaken. Kamrasi, he said, must have hidden 
them somewhere, fearful of the ntimber of guns which now sur- 
rounded him ; and, for the same reason, he told lies — ^yes, lies ; 
but no man living shall dare tell himself lies ; and now, as he 
could not obtain his object by fidr means, he would use arms and 
force it out. Then turning to Bombay, he said, " What does 
your master think of this^ business?" upon which Bombay re- 
plied, according tp his instructions, " Bana wishes nothing done 
nntil Grant arrives, when all will go together." On this the 
king turned his back and walked away. 

22d. Kitunzi called on me early, because he heard I was sick. 
I asked him why the Waganda objected to my sitting on a chair; 
but, to avoid the inconvenience of answering a troublesome ques- 
tion, without replying, he walked off, saying he heard a noise in 



384 THE SOURCE OF THE KILE. [1862. 

the neighborhood of the palace which must be caused by the king 
ordering some persons to be seized, and his presence was so neces- 
sary he could not wait another moment My men went for plan- 
tains to the palace and for pomb^ on my behalf; but the king, 
instead of giving them any thing, took two fez caps off their 
heads, keeping them to himself, and ordered them to tell Bana all 
his beer was done. 

2Sd. Kidgwiga called on me to say Kamrasi so very much 
wanted the white men at Gani to visit him, he had sent a hongo 
of thirty tusks to the chief of that country in hopes that it would 
insure their coming to see him. He also felt sure if I went there 
his king would treat me with the greatest respect. This afforded 
an opportunity for putting in a word of reconciliation. I said 
that it was at my request that Mt^ sent Kamrasi a present; and 
so now, if Kamrasi made friends with the Waganda, there would 
be no difficulty about the matter. 

24:th. The army still thronged the highways, some going, oth- 
ers coming, like a swarm of ants, the whole day long. Kidgwiga 
paid another visit, and I went to the palace without my gun, 
wishing the king to fancy all my powder was done, as he had 
nearly consumed all my store; but the consequence was that, 
after waiting the whole day, I never saw him at all. In the even- 
ing pages informed me that Grant had arrived at N'yama Goma, 
one march only distant 

25th. I prepared twenty men, with a quarter of mutton for 
Grant to help him on the way, but they could not go without a 
native officer, lest they should be seized, and no officer would lead 
the way. The king came shooting close to my hut and ordered 
me out I found him marching Bozaro about in custody with 
four other Wanyambo, who, detected plundering by Kitunzi, had 
set upon and beaten him severely. The king, pointing them out 
to me, said he did not like the system of plundering, and wished 
to know if it was the practice in Karagud. Of course I took the 
opportunity to renew my protest against the plundering system ; 
but the king, changing the subject, told me the wazungii were at 
Gani inquiring after us, and wishing to come here. To this I 
proposed fetching them myself in boats, but he objected, saying 
he would send men first, for they were not farther off to the north- 
ward than the place he sent boats to to bring Grant He said he 
did not like TJnyoro, because Kamrasi hides himself like a Nep- 
tune in the Nile whenever his men go on a visit there, and in- 



Mat.] palace, UGANDA. 885 

Stead of treating his guests with respect, he keeps them beyond 
the river. For this reason he had himself determined on adopt- 
ing the passage by Kidi. 

I was anxious, of course, to go on with the subject thus unex- 
pectedly opened, but, as ill luck would have it, an adjutant was 
espied sitting on a tree, when a terrible fuss and excitement en- 
sued. The women were ordered one way and the attendants an- 
other, while I had to load the gun in the best way I could with 
the last charge and a half left in the king's pouch. Ten grains 
were all he would have allowed himself, reserving the residue, 
without reflecting that a large bird required much shot; and he 
was shocked to find me lavishly use the whole, and still say it 
was not enough. 

The bird was then at a great height, so that the first shot mere- 
ly tickled him, and drove him to another tree* "Woh! woh!" 
cried the king; "I am sure he is hit; look there, look there;" 
and away he rushed after the bird ; down with one fence, then 
with another, in the utmost confusion, every body trying to keep 
his proper place, till at last the tree to which the bird had flown 
was reached, and then, with the last charge of shot, the king killed 
his 'first nundo. The bird, however, did not fall, but lay like a 
spread eagle in the upper branches. Wasoga were called to climb 
the tree and pull it down ; while the king, in ecstasies of joy and 
excitement, rushed up and down the potato-field like a mad bull, 
jumping and plunging, waving and brandishing the* gun above 
bis head, while the drums beat, the attendants all woh-wohed, and 
the women, joining with their lord, rushed about lullalooing and 
dancing like insane creatures. Then began congratulations and 
hand-shakings, and, finally, the inspection of the bird, which, by 
this time, the Wasoga had thrown down. Oh ! oh! what a won- 
der! Its wings outspread reached farther than the height of a 
man ; we must go and show it to the brothers. Even that was 
not en/)ugh — ^we must show it to the mother; and away we all 
rattled as fast as our legs could carry us. 

Arrirved at the queen's palace, out of respect to his mother, the 
king changed his European elothes for a white kidskin wrapper, 
and then walked in to see her, leaving us waiting outside. By 
this time Colonel Congow, in his full-dress uniform, had arrived 
in the -square outside, with his regiment drawn up in review or- 
der. The king, hearing the announcement, at once came out with 
spears and shield, preceded by the bird, and took post, standing 

Bb 



386 '™^ SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

armed, by the entrance, encircled by his staff all squatting, when 
the adjutant Was placed in the middle of the company. Before 
us was a large open square, with the huts of the queen's kamra- 
viona, or commander-in-chief beyond. The battalion, consisting 
of what might be termed three companies, each containing 200 
men, being drawn up on the left extremily of the parade-gronnd, 
received orders to march past in single file from the right of coiq- 
panies, at a long trot, and re-form again at the other end of the 
square. 

Nothing conceivable could be more wild or fimtastic than the 
sight which ensued — ^the men all nearly naked, with goat or cat 
skins depending from their girdles, and smeared with war colors 
according to the taste of each individual — one half of the body 
red or black, the other blue, not in regular order — as, for instance, 
one stocking would be red, the other black, while the breeches 
above would be the opposite colors, and so with the sleeves and 
waistcoat Every man carried the same arms — ^two spears and 
one shield — held as if approaching an enemy, and they thus moved 
in three lines of single rank and file, at fifteen to twenty paces 
asunder, with the same high action and elongated step, the ground 
leg only being bent, to give their strides the greater force. After 
the men had all started, the captains of companies followed, even 
more fantastically dressed ; and last of all came the great Colonel 
Congow, a perfect Eobinson Crusoe, with his long white-haired 
goatskins, a fiddle-shaped leather shield, tufted with white hair 
at all six extremities, bands of long hair tied below the knees, and 
a magnificent helmet, covered with rich beads of every color, in 
excellent taste, surmounted with a plume of crimson feathers, from 
the centre of which rose a bent stem, tufted with goathair. Next 
they charged in companies to and ftx>; and, finally, the senior of- 
ficers came charging at their king, making violent professions of 
faith and honesty, for which they were applauded. The parade 
then broke up, and all went home. 

26th. One of King Mt&a's officers now consenting to go to 
N'yama Goma with some of my men, I sent Grant a quarter of 
goat The reply brought to me was that he was very thankful 
for it ; that he cooked it and ate it on the spot ; and begged I 
would see the king, to get him released from that starving place. 
Bozaro was given over to the custody of Kittinzi for punishment 
At the same time, the queen, having heard of the outrages com- 
mitted against her brother and women, commanded that neither 



<n' 



I \_ J_' A., i «- Li -' i ' ♦ ■ 






Mat.] palace, UGANDA. 889 

my men nor any of Rozaro's should get any more food at the 
palace ; for as we all came to Uganda in one body, so all alike 
were, by her logic, answerable for the offense. I called at the 
palace for explanation, but could not obtain admittance because I 
would not fire the gun. 

27rt. The king sent to say he wanted medicine to propitiate 
lightning. I called and described the effects of a lightning-rod,, 
and tried to enter into the Unyoro business, wishing to go there 
at once myself. He objected, because he had not seen Grant, but 
appointed an ofl&cer to go through Unyoro on to Gani, and begged 
I would also send men with letters. Our talk was agreeably in- 
terrupted by guns in the distance announcing Grant's arrival, and 
I took my leave to welcome my friend. How we enjoyed our- 
selves after so much anxiety and want of one another's company 
I need not describe. For my part, I was only too rejoiced to see 
Grant could limp about a bit, and was able to laugh over the pic- 
turesque and amusing account he gave me of his own rough travels. 

28^. The king in the morning sent Budja, his embassador, 
with Kamrasi's kidgwiga, over to me for my men and letters, to 
go to Kamrasi's again and ask for the road to Gani. I wished to 
speak to the king first, but they said they had no orders to stop 
for that, and walked straight away. I sent the king a present of 
a double-barreled gun and ammunition, and received in answer a 
request that both Grant and myself would attend a lev^e, which 
he was to hold in state, accompanied by his body-guard, as when 
I was first presented to him. In the afternoon we proceeded to 
court accordingly, but found it scantily attended ; and after the 
first sitting, which was speedily over, retired to another court, and 
saw the women. Of this dumb show the king soon got tired ; he 
therefore called for the iron chair, and entered into conversation, 
at first about the ever-engrossing subject of stimulants, till we 
changed it by asking him how he liked the gun. He pronounced 
it a famous weapon, which he would use intensely. We then be- 
gan to talk in a general way about Suwarora and Eumanika, as 
well as the road through Unyamii^zi, which we hoped would soon 
cease to exist, and be superseded by one through Unyoro. 

It will be kept in view that the hanging about at this court, 
and all the perplexing and irritating negotiations here described, 
had always one end in view — that of reaching the Nile where it 
pours out of the N'yanza, as I was long certain that it did. With- 
out the consent and even the aid of this capricious barbarian I 



890 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

was now talking to, such a project was hopelQss. I naturally 
seized every opportunity for putting in a word in the directibn of 
my great object, and here seemed to be an opportunity. We 
now ventured on a plump application for boats t^t we might feel 
our way to Gani by water, supposing the lake and river to be 
navigable all the way ; and begged Kitunzi might be appointed 
to accompany us, in order that whatever was done might be done 
all with good effect in opening up a new line of commerce, by 
which articles of European manufacture might find a permanent 
route to Uganda. It was " no go," however. The appeal, though 
listened to and commented on, showing that it was well under- 
stood, got no direct reply. It was not my policy to make our ob- 
ject appear too important to ourselves, so I had to appear toler- 
ably indifferent, and took the opportunity to ask for my paint- 
box, which he had borrowed for a day, and had kept in his pos- 
session for months. I got no answer to that request either, but 
was immediately dunned for the compass, which had been prom- 
ised on Grant's arrival. Now, witli a promise that the compass 
would be sent him in the morning, he said he would see what 
pomb^ his women could spare us ; and, bidding good evening, 
walked away. 

29th. 1 sent Bombay with the compass, much to the delight of 
the king, who no sooner saw it than he jumped and woh-wohed 
with intense excitement at the treasure he had gained, said it was 
the greatest present Bana had ever given him, for it was the thing 
by which he found out all the roads and countries — it was, in 
fact, half his knowledge ; and the parting with it showed plainly 
that Bana entertained an everlasting fiiendship for him. The 
king then called Maula, and said, " Maula, indeed you have spoken 
the truth ; there is nothing like this instrument," etc., eta, repeat- 
ing what he had already told Bombay. In the evening, the king, 
accompanied by all his brothers, with iron chair and box, came 
to visit us, and inspected all Grant's recently brought pictures of 
the natives with great acclamation. We did not give him any 
thing this time, but, instead, dunned him for the paint-box, and 
afterward took a walk to my observatory hill, where I acted as 
guide. On the summit of this hill the king instructed his broth- 
ers on the extent of his dominions-; and as I asked where Liibari 
or God resides, he pointed to the skies. 

80^. The king at last sent the paint-box, with some birds of 
his own shooting, which he wished painted. He also wanted him- 



f* 



Mat-Juhis.] palace, UGANDA. 898 

self drawn, and all Grant's pictures cjopied. Then, to wind up 
these mild requests, a demand was made for more powder, and 
that all our guns be sent to the palace for inspection. 

81^^ I drew a large white and black hombill and a green 
pigeon sent by himself; but he was not satisfied ; he sent more 
birds, and wanted to see my shoes. The pages who came with 
the second message, however, proving impertinent, got a book 
fiung at their heads, an4 a warning to be off, as I intended to see 
•the king myself, and ask for food to keep my ever-complaining 
Wanguana quiet Proceeding to the palace, as I found Mt&a 
had gone out shooting, I called on the kamraviona, complained 
that my camp was starving, and as I had nothing lefk to give the 
king, said I wished to leave the country. Ashamed of its being 
supposed that his king would not give me any food because I had 
no more presents to give him, the kamraviona, from his own 
stores, gave me a goat and pombe, and said he would speak to 
the king on the subject. 

1st I drew for the king a picture of a Guinea-fowl which he 
shot in the early morning, and proceeded on a visit with Grant 
to the queen's, accompanied only by seven men, as the rest pre- 
ferred foraging for themselves to the chancy of picking up a few 
plantains at her majesty's. After an hour's waiting, the queen 
received us with smiles, and gave pomb6 and plantains to her 
new visitor, stating pointedly she had none for me. There was 
deep Uganda policy in this : it was for the purpose of treating 
Grant as a separate, independent person, and so obtaining a fresh 
hongo or tax. Laughing at the trick, J thanked her for the beer, 
taking it personally on my household, and told her when my 
property arrived from Karagu6 she should have a few more 
things as I promised her ; but the men sent had neither brought 
my brother in a vessel, as they were ordered, nor did they bring 
my property from Karagii^. 

Still the queen was not content: she certainly expected some- 
thing from Grant, if it was ever so little, for she was entitled to 
it, and would not listen to our being one house. Turning the 
subject, to put in a word for my great object, I asked her to use 
her influence in opening the road to Gani, as, after all, that was 
the best way to get new things into Uganda. Cunning as a fox, 
the queen agreed to this project, provided Grant remained behind, 
for she had not seen enough of him yet, and she would speak to 
her son about the matter in the morning. 



394 ^HE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [186S. 

This was really the first gleam of hope, and I set to patting 
our future operations into a shape that might lead to practical re- 
sults without alarming our capricious host I thought that while 
I could be employed in inspecting the river, and in feeling the 
route by water to Gani, Grant could return to Elaragu^ by water, 
bringing up our rear traps, and, in navigating the lake, obtain the 
information he had been frustrated in getting by the machina- 
tions of his attendant Maribu. It was agreed to, and all seemed 
well ; for there was much left to be done in Uganda and Usoga, 
if we could only make sure of communicating once with Pethe- 
rick. Before going home we had some more polite conversation, 
during which the queen played with a toy in the shape of a cocoa 
du mer, studded all over with cowries: this was a sort of doll, or 
symbol of a baby, and her dandling it was held to indicate that 
die would ever remain a widow. In the evening the king re- 
turned all our rifies and guns, with a request for one of them, as 
also for the iron chair he sat upon when calling on us, an iron 
bedstead, and the Union Jack, for he did not honor us with a 
visit for nothing; and the head page was sent to witness the 
transfer of the goods, and see there was no humbug about it It 
was absolutely necessary to get into a rage, and tell the head page 
we did not come to Uganda to be swindled in that manner, and 
he might tell the king I would not part with one of them. 

2c?. K'yengo, who came with Grant, now tried to obtain an in- 
terview with the king, but could not get admission. I had some 
farther trouble about the disposal of the child M^ri, who said she 
never before had lived in a poor man's house since she was bom. 
I thought to content her by offering to marry her to ohe of Bii- 
manika's sons, a prince of her own breed, but she would not listen 
to the proposal. 

ScL For days past, streams of men have been carrying fagots 
of fire- wood, clean-cut timber, into the palaces of the king, queen, 
and the kamraviona ; and to-day, on calling on the king, I found 
him engaged having these fagots removed by Ciolonel Mkavia's 
regiment from one court into another, this being his way of as- 
certaining their quantity, instead of counting them. About 1600 
men were engaged on this service, when the king, standing on a 
carpet in front of the middle hut of the first court, with two spears 
in his hand and his dog by his side, surrounded by his brothers 
and a large staff of officers, gave orders for the regiment to run 
to and fro in column, that he might see them well ; then turning 



Juke.] PALACE, UGA^^A. 395 

to his staff, ordered them to run up and down the regiment, and 
see what they thought of it This ridiculous order set them all 
flying, and soon they returned, charging at the king with their 
sticks, dancing and jabbering that their numbers were many, he 
was the greatest king on earth, and their, lives and services were 
his forever. The regiment now received orders to put down their 
&gofs, and, taking up their own sticks in imitation of spears, fol- 
lowed the antics of their officers in charging and vociferating. 
Next, Mkavia presented five hairy Usoga goats, n'yanzigging and 
performing the other appropriate ceremonies. On asking the king 
if he had any knowledge of the extent of his army, he merely 
said, " How can I, when these you see are a portion of them just 
ordered here to carry wood ?" 

The regiment was now dismissed ; but the officers were invited 
to follow the king into another courts when he complimented 
them on assembling so many men ; they, instead of leaving well 
alone, foolishly replied they were sorry they were not more nu- 
merous, as some of the men lived so far away they shirked the 
summons ; Maiila then, ever forward in mischief p^t a cap on it 
by saying, if he could only impress upon the Waganda to listen 
to his orders there would never be a deficiency. Upon which 
the king said, "If they feil to obey you, they disobey me; for I 
have appointed you as my orderly, and thereby you personify 
the orders of the king." Up jumped Maiila in a moment as soon 
as these words were uttered, charging with his stick, then flounder- 
ing and n'yanzigging as if he had been signally rewarded. I ex- 
pected some piece of cruel mischief to come, of all this, but the 
king, in his usual capricious way, suddenly rising, walked off to 
a third court, followed only by a select few. 

Here, turning to me, he said, " Bana, I love you, because you 
have come so far to see me, and have taught me so many things 
since you have been here." Eising, with my hand to my heart, 
and gracefully bowing at this strange announcement — ^for at that 
moment I was full of hunger and wrath — ^I intimated I was much 
flattered at hearing it, but as my house was in a state of starva- 
tion, I trusted he would consider it. " What I" said he, " do you 
want goats?" "Yes, very much." The pages then received or- 
ders to furnish me with ten that moment, as the king's farm-yard 
was empty, and he would reimburse them as soon as more con- 
fiscations took place. But this, I said, was not enough; the 
Wanguana wanted plantains, for they had received none these 



THE SOURCE OF THE KILE. [1862. 

fifteen days. " Whatl" said the king, turning to his pages again, 
"have you given these men no plantains, as I ordered? Go and 
fetch them this moment^ and pomb^ too, for Bana." 

The subject then turned on the plan I had formed of going to 
Gani by water, and of sending Grant to Karagii^ by the lake ; but 
the king's mind was fully occupied with the compass I had given 
him. He required me to explain its use, and then broke up the 
meeting. 

Ath. Viarungi, an officer sent by Eumanika to escort Grant to 
Uganda, as well as to apply to King Mt&a for a force to fight his 
brother Kog^ro, called on me with Rozaro, and said he had re- 
ceived instructions from his king to apply to me for forty cows 
and two slave-boys, because the Arabs who pass through his 
country to Uganda always make him a present of that sort after 
receiving them from Mt&a. Aft«r telling him we English never 
give the presents they have received away to any one, and never 
make slaves, but free them, I laid a complaint against Eozaro for 
having brought much trouble and disgrace upon my camp, as 
well as much trouble on myself, and begged that he might be re- 
moved from my camp. Rozaro then attempted to excuse himself, 
but without success, and said he had already detached his resi- 
dence from my camp, and taken up a separate residence with Vi- 
arungi, his superior officer. 

I called on the king in the afternoon, and found the pages had 
already issued plantains for my men and pomb6 for myself. The 
king addressed me with great cordiality, and asked if I wished to 
go to Gani. I answered him with all promptitude, " Yes, at once, 
with some of his officers competent to judge of the value of all I 
point out to them for future purposes in keeping the road perma- 
nently open. His provoking capriciousness, however, again broke 
in, and he put me off till his messengers should return from Un- 
yoro. I told him his men had gone in vain, for Budja left with- 
out my letter or my men ; and, farther, that the river route is the 
only one that will ever be of advantage to Uganda, and the sooner 
it was opened up the better. I entreated him to listen to my ad- 
vice, and send some of my .men to Kamrasi direct, to acquaint 
him with my intention to go down the river in boats to him ; but 
I could get no answer to this. Bombay then asked for cows for 
the Wanguana, getting laughed at for his audacity, and the king 
broke up the court and walked away. 

6th. I started on a visit to the queen, but half way met Con- 



Jro«.] PALACE, UGANDA. 897 

gow, who informed me he h^ just escorted her majesty from his 
house, where she was visiting, to her palace. By way of a joke 
and feeler, I took it in my head to try, by taking a harmless rise 
out of Congow, whether the Nile is understood by the natives to 
be navigable near its exit from the N'yanza. I told him he had 
been appointed by the king to escort us down the river to Gani. 
He took the affair very seriously, delivering himself to the follow- 
ing purport : " Well, then, my days are numbered, for if I refuse 
compliance I shall lose my head ; and if I attempt to pass Kam- 
rasi's, which is on the river, I shall lose my life, for I am a marked 
man there, having once led an army past his palace and back 
again. It would be no use calling it a peaceful mission, as you 
propose, for the Wanyoro distrust the Waganda to such an extent, 
they would fly to arms at once." 

Proceeding to the queen's palace, we met Murondo, who had 
once traveled to the Masai frontier. He said it would take a 
month to go in boats from Kira,.the most easterly district in 
Uganda, to Masai, where there is another N'yanza, joined by a 
strait to the big N'yanza, which King Mt&a's boats frequent for 
salt; but the same distance could be accomplished in four days 
overland, and three days afterward by boat The queen, after 
keeping us all day waiting, sent three bunches of plantains and a 
pot of pomb^, with a message that she was too tired to receive 
visitors, and hoped we would call another day. 

6^1. I met Pokino, the governor general of Uddu, in the morn- 
ing's walk, who came here at the same time as Grant to visit the 
king, and was invited into his house to drink pomb^. His badge 
of office is an iron hatchet, inlaid with copper and handled with 
ivory. He wished to give us a cow, but put it off for another 
day, and was surprised we dared venture into his premises with- 
out permission from the king. Aft;er this we called at the palace, 
just as the king was returning from a walk with his brothers. 
He saw us, and sent for Bana. We entered, and presented him 
with some pictures, which he greatly admired, looked at close and 
&r, showed to the brothers, and inspected again. Pokino at this 
time came in with a number of well-made shields, and presented 
them groveling and n'yanzigging ; but, though the governor of 
an important province, who had not been seen by the king for 
years, he was taken no more notice of than any common mkungii. 
A plan of the lake and Nile, which I brought with me to explain 
our projects for reaching Karagu^ and Gbtni, engaged the king's 



898 THE SOUBCE OP THE NILK [186?. 

attention for a wliile, but still he would not agree to let any thing 
be done until his messenger returned firom Unyoro. Finding him 
inflexible, I proposed sending a letter, arranging that his men 
should be under the guidance of my men after they pass Unyoro 
on the way to Oani ; and this was acceded to, provided I should 
write a letter to Petherick by the morrow. I then tried to teach 
the king the use of the compass. To make a stand for it^ I turn- 
ed a drum on its head, when all the courtiers flew at me as if to 
prevent an outrage, and the king laughed. I found that, as the 
instrument was supposed to be a magic charm of Very wonderful 
powers, my meddling with it and treating it as an ordinary mov- 
able was considered a kind of sacrilege. 

llh. I wrote a letter to Petherick, but the promised wakungu 
never came for it As K'yengo was ordered to attend court with 
Bumanika's hongo, consisting of a few wires, small beads, and a 
cloth I gave him, as well as a trifle f]X)m Nnanaji, I sent Bombay, 
in -place of going myself, to remind the king of his promises for 
the wakungu to Gani, as well as for boats to Karagu^, but a grunt 
was the only reply which my messenger said he obtained. 

8<A. Calling at the palace, I found the king issuing for a walk, 
and joined him, when he suddenly turned round in the rudest 
manner, re-entered his palace, and left me to go home without 
speaking a word. The capricious creature then reissued, and, 
finding me gone, inquired after me, presuming I ought to have 
waited for him. 

9ih, During the night, when sleeping profoundly, some person 
stealthily entered my hut and ran off with a box of bullets toward 
the palace, but on the way dropped his burden. Maula, on the 
way home, happening to see it, and knowing it must be mine, 
brought it back again. I staid at home, not feeling well. 

10^. K'yengo paid his hongo in wire to the king, and received 
a return of six cows. Still at home, an invalid, I received a visit 
from M^ri, who seemed to have quite recovered herself Speak- 
ing of her present quarters, she said she loved Ul^di's wife very 
much, thinking birds of a feather ought to live together. She 
helped herself to a quarter of mutton, and said she would come 
again. 

11^. To-day Viarungi, finding Eozaro's men had stolen thirty 
cows, twelve slaves, and a load of mbttgii from the Waganda, laid 
hands on them himself for Biimanika, instead of giving them to 
King Mt^sa. Such are the daily incidents among our neighbors. 



Juin.] PALACS; UGANDA. 399 

12^. At night a box of ammunition and a bag of ahot, which 
were placed out as a reserve present for the king, to be given on 
our departure, were stolen, obviously by the king's boys, and 
most likely by the king's orders, for he is the only person who 
could have made any use of them, and his boys alone know the 
way into the hut; besides which, the previous box of bullets was 
found on the direct road to the palace, while it was well known 
that no one dared to touch an article of European manufacture 
without the consent of the king. 

18th. I sent a message to the king about the theft, requiring 
him, if an honest man, to set his detectives to work and ferret it 
out; his boys, at the same time, to show our suspicions, were 
peremptorily forbidden ever to enter the hut again. Twice the 
king sent down a hasty message to say he was collecting all his 
men to make a search, and, if they do not succeed, the mganga 
would be sent; but nothing was done. The kamraviona was 
sharply rebuked by the king for allowing K'yengo to visit him 
before permission was given, and thus defrauding the royal ex- 
chequer of many pretty things, which were brought for majesty- 
alone. At night the rascally boys returned again to plunder, but 
Kahala, more wakeful than myself, heard them trying to untie 
the door-handle, and frightened them away in endeavoring to 
awaken me. 

14^ and 16ih. Grant, doing duty for me, tried a day's penance 
at the palace; but, though he sat sJl day in the antechamber, and 
musicians were ordered into the presence, nobody called for him. 
K'yengo was sent with all his men on a wakungu-seizing expe- 
dition — ^a good job for him, as it was his perquisite to receive the 
major part of the plunder himself. 

16^. I sent Kahala out of the house, giving her finally over to 
Bombay as a wife, because she preferred playing with dirty little 
children to behaving like a young lady, and had caught the itch. 
This was much against her wish, and the child vowed she would 
not leave me until force compelled her; but I had really no other 
way of dealing with the remnant of the awkward burden which 
the queen's generosity had thrown on me. K'yengo went to the 
palace with fifty prisoners; but as the king had taken his women 
to the small pond, where he has recently placed a tub canoe for 
purposes of amusement, they did no business. 

17th. I took a first convalescent walk. The king, who was 
out shooting all day, begged for powder in the evening. Ul^i 



400 



THE SOURCE OF THE NILE, 



lOtt 



returned from bis expedition against a recusant officer atKitunto; 
bringing with him a spoil of ten women. It appeared that l\i% 
officer himself had bolted from his landed possessions, and as they 
belonged to " the Church," or were in some way or other saiciei 
from civil execution, they could not be touched, so that Ul^i lost 
an estate which the king had promised him. We heatd iV^ 
Ilmas, wife of Majanja, who, as I already mentioned, had achieved 
an illustrious position by services at the birth of the k\xig,^i«A 
been sent to visit the late king Sunna's tomb, whence, after oh- 
serving certain trees which were planted, and divining by inys6c 
arts what the future state of Uganda required, she would return 
at a specific time, to order the king at the time of his coronation 
either to take the field with an army, to make a pilgrimage, or to 
live a life of ease at home ; whichever of these courses the influ- 
ence of the ordeal at the grave might prompt her to order must 
be complied with by the king. 

18th. I called at the palace with Grant, taking with us some 
pictures of soldiers, horses, elephants, etc. We found the guard 
fighting over their beef and plantain dinner. Bombay remotkeA 




i'Miiice GuardJ at Diuu&r—l'gaada. 



that this daily feeding on beef wo.uld be the lot of the WangdaTia 
if they had no religious scruples about the throat-cutting of a.ni- 



7.,fi2 JuKB.] PALACE, UGANDA. 401 

mals for food. This, I told him, was all their own fault, for they 
have really no religion or opinions of their own ; and had they 
been brought up in England instead of Africa, it would have been 
all the other way with them as a matter of course ; but Bombay 
replied, " We could no more throw oflf the Mussulman fisdth than 
you could yours." A man with a maniacal voice sang and 
whistled by turns. E^atumba, the officer of the g^^d, saw our 
pictures, and, being a favorite, acquainted the king, which gained 
us an admittance. 

We found his majesty sitting on the ground, within a hut, be- 
hind a portal, encompassed by his women, and took our seats out- 
side. At first all was silence, till one told the king we had some 
wonderfiil pictures to show him, when in an instant he grew live- 
ly, crying, "Oh, let iis see them!" and they were shown, Bombay 
explaining. Three of the king's wives then came in, and offered 
him their two virgin sisters, n'yanzigging incessantly, and be- 
seeching their acceptance, as by that means they themselves would 
become doubly related to him. Nothing, however, seemed to be 
done to promote the union, until one old lady, sitting by the 
king's side, who was evidently learned in the etiquette and tra- 
ditions of the court, said, "Wait and see if he embraces, otherwise 
you may know he is not pleased." At this announcement the 
girls received a hint to pass on, and the king commenced bestow- 
ing on them a series of huggings, first sitting on the lap of one, 
whom he clasped to his bosom, crossing his neck with hers to the 
right, then to the left, and, having finished with her, took post in 
the second one's lap, then on that of the third, performing on each 
of them the same evolutions. He then retired to his original 
position, and the marriage ceremony was supposed to be con- 
cluded, and the settlements adjusted, when all went on as be- 
fora 

The pictures were again looked at and again admired, when 
we asked for a private interview on business, and drew the king 
outside. I then begged he would allow me, while his men were 
absent at Unyoro, to go to the Masai country, and see the Salt 
Lake at the northeast comer of the N'yanza, and to lend me some 
of his boats for Grant to fetch powder and beads from Karagud 
This important arrangement being conceded by the king more 
promptly than we expected, a cow, plantains, and pomb^ were re- 
quested ; but the cow only was given, though our men were said 
- to be feeding on grass. Taking the king, as it appeared, in a 

Cc 



402 THE SOURCE OF THE NHiE. [1862. 

good humor, to show him the abuses arising from the system of 
allowing his guests to help themselves by force upon the high- 
ways, I reported the late seizures made of thirty cows and twelve 
slaves by the Wanyambo ; but, though surprised to hear the news, 
he merely remarked that there were indeed a great number of 
visitors in Uganda. During this one day we heard the sad voices 
of no less than four women, dragged from the palace to the slaugh- 
ter-house. 

19^. To follow up our success in the marching question and 
keep the king to his promise, I called at his palace, but found he 
had gone out shooting. To push my object farther, I then 
marched off to the queen's to bid her good-by, as if we were cer- 
tain to leave next day ; but, as no one would dare to approach 
her cabinet to apprise her of our arrival, we returned home tired 
and annoyed. 

20th. The king sent for us at noon, but when we reached the 
palace we found he had started on a shooting tour ; so, to mske 
the best of our time, we called again upon the queen for the same 
purpose as yesterday, as also to get my books of birds and ani- 
mals, which, taken merely to look at for a day or so, had been 
kept for months. After hours of waiting, her majesty appeared 
standing in an open gateway, beckoned us to advance, and offered 
pomb^ ; then, as two or three drops of rain fell, she said she could 
not stand the violence of the weather, and forthwith retired with- 
out one word being obtained. An officer, however, venturing in 
for the books, at length I got them. 

2l8L To-day I went to the palace, but found no one ; the king 
was out shooting again. 

22c?. We resolved to-day to try on a new political influence at 
the court. Grant had taken to the court of Karagu^ a jumping- 
jack, to amuse the young princes ; but it had a higher destiny, 
for it so fascinated King Rumanika himself, that he would not 
part with it, unless, indeed, Grant would make him a big one out 
of a tree which was handed to him for the purpose. We resolved 
to try the influence of such a toy on King Mtdsa, and brought 
with us, in addition, a mask and some pictures. But^ although 
the king took a visiting-card, the gate wag never opened to us. 
Finding this, and the day closing, we deposited the mask and pic- 
tures on a throne, and walked away. We found that we had thus 
committed a serious breach of state etiquette ; for the guard, as 
soon as they saw what we had done, seized the Wanguana for 



JOME.] PALACE, UGANDA. 408 

our offenses in defiling the royal seat, and would have bound 
them had they not offered to return the articles to us. 

28c?. Early in the morning, hearing the royal procession march- 
ing off on a shooting excursion, we sent Bombay running after it 
with the mask and pictures, to acquaint the king with our desire 
to see him, and explain that we had been four days successively 
foiled in attempts to find him in his palace, our object being an 
eager wish to come to some speedy understanding about the ap- 
pointed journeys to the Salt Lake and Karagu^. The toys pro- 
duced the desired effect ; for the king stopped and played with 
them, making Bombay and the pages don the mask by turns. 
He appointed the morrow for an interview, at the same time ex- 
cusing himself for not having seen us yesterday on the plea of 
illness. In the evening Kahala absconded with another little girl 
of the camp in an opposite direction from the one she took last 
time ; but as both of them wandered about not knowing where 
to go to, and as they omitted to take off all their finery, they were 
soon recognized as in some way connected with my party, taken 
up, and brought into camp, where they were well laughed at for 
their folly, and laughed in turn at the absurdity of their futile 
venture. 

2ith. Hoping to keep the king to his promise, I went to the 
palace early, but found he had already gone to see his brothers, 
so followed him down, and found him engaged playing on a har- 
monicon with them. Surprised at my intrusion, he first asked 
how I managed to find him out; then went on playing for a 
whiles but suddenly stopping to talk with me, he gave me an 
opportunity of telling him I wished to send Grant off to Karagud, 
and start myself for TJsoga and the Salt Lake in the morning. 
"What! going away?" said the king, as if he had never heard a 
word about it before ; and then, after talking the whole subject 
over again, especially dwelling on the quantity of powder I had 
in store at Karagu^, he promised to send the necessary officers for 
escorting us on our respective journeys in the morning. 

The brothers' wives then wished to see me, and came before us, 
when I had to take off my hat and shoes as usual, my ready com- 
pliance inducing the princes to ppss various compliments on my 
person and disposition. The brothers then showed me a stool 
made of wood after the fashion of our sketching-stool, and a gun- 
cover of leather, made by themselves, of as good workmanship as 
is to be found in India. The king then rose, followed by his 



404 1^^ SOUBCE OF THE NILK 

brothers, and we all walked off to the pond. The effect of stim- 
ulants was mooted, as well as other physiological phenomena, 
when a second move took us to the palace by torchlight, and the 
king showed a number of new huts just finished, and beautifully 
made. Finally, he settled down to a miisical concert, in which he 
took the lead himself. At eight o'clock, being tired and hungry, 
I reminded the king of his promises, and he appointed the morn- 
ing to call on him for the wakungu, and took leave. 
* 25th. Makinga, hearing of the intended march through Usoga, 
was pleased to say he would like to join my camp, and spend his 
time in buying slaves and ivory there. I went to the palace for 
the promised escort, but was no sooner announced by the pages 
than the king walked off into the interior of his harem, and left 
me no alternative but to try my luck with the kamraviona, who, 
equally proud with his master, would not answer my call, and so 
another day was lost. 

26th, This morning we had the assuring intelligence from BjmJ- 
da that he had received orders to hold himself in readiness for a 
voyage to Karagu^ in twenty boats with Grant, but the date of 
departure was not fixed. The passage was expected to be rough, 
as the water off the mouth of the KitanguW Kag^ra (river) always 
runs high, so that no boats can go there except at night, when the 
winds of the day subside, and are replaced by the calms of night 
I called at the palace, but saw nothing of the king, though the 
court was full of ofiicials ; and there were no less than 160 wom- 
en, besides girls, goats, and various other things, seizures from le- 
fractory state officers, who, it was said, had been too proud Jo pre- 
sent themselves at court for a period exceeding propriety. 

All these creatures, I was assured, would afterward be given 
away as return presents for the hongos or presents received from 
the king's visitors. No wonder the tribes of Africa are mixed 
breeds. Among the officers in waiting was my friend Budja, the 
embassador that had been sent to Unyoro with Kidgwiga, Kam- 
rasi's deputy. He had returned three days before, but had not 
yet seen the king. As might have been expected, he said he had 
been any thing but welcomed in Unyoro. Kamrasi, after keep- 
ing him half starved and in suspense eight days, sent a message— 
for he would not see him — that he did not desire any communi- 
cation with blackguard Waganda thieves, and therefore advised 
him, if he valued his life, to return by the rqad by which he came 
as speedily as possible. Turning to Congow, I playfully told him 



Jinvs.] PALACE, UGANDA. 405 

that^ as the road through Unybro was closed, he would have to go 
with me through Usoga aud Kidi ; but the gallant colonel mere- 
ly shuddered, and said that would be a terrible undertaking. 

21ih. The king would not show, for some reason or other, and 
we still feared to fire guns, lest he should think our store of pow- 
der inexhaustible, and so keep us here until he had extorted the 
last of it. I found that the Waganda have the same absurd no- 
tion here as the Wanyambo have in Karagu6 of Kamrasi's super- 
natural power in being able to divide the waters of the Nile in 
the same manner as Moses did the Bed Sea. 

28^. The king sent a messenger-boy to inform us that he had 
just heard from Unyoro that\he white men were still at Gani in- 
quiring after us ; but nothing was said of Budja's defeat I sent 
Bombay immediately off to tell him we had changed our plans, 
and now simply required a large escort to accompany us through 
Usoga and Kidi to Gani, as farther delay in communicating with 
Petherick might frustrate all chance of opening the Nile trade 
with Uganda. He answered that he would assemble all his offi- 
cers in the morning to consult with them on the subject, when he 
hoped we would attend, as he wished to further our views. A 
herd of cows, about eighty in number, were driven in from Un- 
yoro, showing that the silly king was actually robbing Kamrasi 
at the same time that he was trying to treat with him. K'yengo 
informed us that the king, considering the surprising events which 
had lately occurred at his court, being very anxious to pry into 
the future, had resolved to take a very strong measure for accom- 
plishing that end. This was the sacrifice of a child by cooking, 
as described in the introduction — a ceremony which it fell to 
K'yengo to carry out 

29th. To have two strings to my bow, and press our departure 
as hotly as possible, I sent first Frij off with Nasib to the queen, 
conveying, as a parting present, a block-tin brush-box, a watch 
without a key, two sixpenny pocket-handkerchiefe, and a white 
towel, with an intimation that we were going, as the king had ex- 
pressed his desire of sending us to Gani. Her majesty accepted 
the present, finding fault with the watch for not ticking like the 
king's, and would not believe her son Mt^ had been so hasty in 
giving us leave to depart, as she had not been consulted on the 
subject yet. Setting off to attend the king at his appointed time, 
I found the kamraviona already there, with a large court attend- 
ance, patiently awaiting his majesty's advent As we were all 



406 ^^^ SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

waiting on, I took a rise out of the kamraviona by telling him I 
wanted a thousand men to march with me through Kidi to Gani. 
Surprised at the extent of my requisition, he wished to know if 
my purpose was fighting. I made him a present of the great 
principle that power commands respect, and it was to prevent 
any chance of fighting that we required so formidable. an escort 
His reply was that he would tell the king ; and he immediately 
rose and walked away home. 

K'yengo and the representatives of Usui and Karagu^ now ar- 
rived by order of the king to bid farewell, and received the slaves 
and cattle lately captured. As I was very hungry, I set off home 
to breakfast. Just as I had gone, the provoking king inquired 
after me, and so brought me back again, though I never saw him 
the whole day. K'yengo, however, was very communicative. 
He 'Said he was present when Sunna, with all the forces he could 
muster, tried to take the very countries I now proposed to travel 
through; but, though in person exciting his army to victory, he 
could make nothing of it. He advised my returning to Kiuragu^, 
when Eumanika would give me an escort through Nkol^ to 
Unyoro; but, finding that did not suit my views, as I swore I 
would never retrace one step, he proposed my going by boat to 
Unyoro, following down the Nile. 

This, of course, was exactly what I wanted ; but how could 
King Mt&a, after the rebuff he had received from Kamrasi, be 
induced to consent to it? My intention, I said, was to try the 
king on the Usoga and Kidi route firsts then on the Masai route 
to Zanzibar, affecting perfect indifference about Kamrasi; and 
all those failing — which of course they would — ^I would ask for 
Unyoro as a last and only resource. Still I could not see the 
king to open my heart to him, and therefore felt quite nonplused. 
" Oh," says K'yengo, " the reason why you do not see him is 
merely because he is ashamed to show his face, having made so 
many fair promises to you which he knows he never can carry 
out; bide your time, and all will be weD." At 4 P.M^ as no 
hope of seeing the king was left;, all retired. 

80^. Unexpectedly, and for reasons only known to himself, 
the king sent us a cow and load of butter, which had been asked 
for many days ago. The new moon seen last night kept the king 
engaged at home, paying his devotions with his magic horns or 
fetishes in the manner already described. The spirit of this re- 
ligion — if such it can be called — is not so much adoration of a 



July.] PALACE, UGANDA. 407 

Being supreme and beneficent, as a tax to certain malignant furies 
— a propitiation, in fact, to prevent them bringing evil on the 
land, and to insure a fruitful harvest It was rather ominous 
that hail fell with violence, and lightning burnt down one of the 
palace huts, while the king was in the midst of his propitiatory 
devotions. 

Ist. As Bombay was ordered to the palace to instruct the king 
in the art of casting bullets, I primed him well to plead for the 
road, and he reported to me the results thus: First, he asked one 
thousand men to go through Kidi. This the king said was im- 
practicable, as the Waganda had tried it so often before without 
success. Then, as that could not be managed, what would the 
king devise himself? Bana only proposed the Usoga and Kidi 
route, because he thought it would be to the advantage of Uganda. 
"Oh," says the king, cunningly, "if Bana merely wishes to see 
Usoga, he can do so, and I will send a suitable escort, but no 
more." To this Bombay replied, " Bana never could return ; he 
would sooner do any thing than return — even penetrate the 
Masai to Zanzibar, or go through Unyoro;" to which the king, 
ashamed of his impotence, hung down his head and walked away. 

In the mean while, and while this was going on at the king's 
palace, I went with Grant, by appointment, to see the queen. As 
usual, she kept us waiting some time, then appeared sitting by an 
open gate, and invited us, together with many wakungu and 
Wasiimbiia, to approach. Very lavish with stele sour pomb^, 




WagaadA Offloen drinking Fomb6, or Plaatoin Wine. 



408 THE SOURCE OP THE NH-E. [18C2. 

she gave us all some, saving the Wasombua, whom she addressed 
very angrily, asking what they wanted, as they have been months 
in the country. These poor creatures, in a desponding mood, de- 
fended themselves by saying, which was quite true, that they had 
left their homes in Sorombo to visit her and to trade. They had, 
since their arrival in the country, been daily in attendance at her 
palace, but never had the good fortune to see her excepting on 
such lucky occasions as brought the wazungu (white men) here, 
when she opened her gates to them, but otherwise kept them 
shut. The queen retorted, " And what have you brought me, 
pray? where is it? Until I touch it you will neither see me nor 
obtain permission to trade. Uganda is no place for idle vaga- 
bonds." We then asked for a private interview, when, a few 
drops of rain felling, the queen walked away, and we had orders 
to wait a littla During this time two boys were birched by the 
queen's orders, and an officer was sent out to inquire why the 
watch we had given her did not go. This was easily explained. 
It had no key ; and, never losing sight of the main object, we 
took advantage of the opportunity to add, that if she did not ap- 
prove of it, we could easily exchange it for another on arrival at 
Gani, provided she would send an officer with us. 

The queen, squatting within her hut, now ordered both Orant 
and myself to sit outside and receive a present of five eggs and 
one cock each, saying coaxingly, "These are for my children." 
Then taking out the presents, she learned the way of wearing her 
watch with a tape guard round her neck, reposing the instrument 
in her bare bosom, and of opening and shutting it, which so pleased 
her that she declared it quite satisfactory. The key was quite a 
minor consideration, for she could show it to her attendants just 
as well without one. The towel and handkerchiefe were also 
very beautiful, but what use could they be put to? "Oh, your 
majesty, to wipe the mouth with after drinking pomb6." " Of 
course," is the reply — "excellent; I won't use a mbugu napkin 
any more, but have one of these placed on my cup when it is 
brought to drink, and wipe my mouth with it afterward. But 
what does Bana want?" " The road to Gani," says Bombay for 
me. " The king won't see him when he goes to the palace, so 
now he comes here, trusting your superior influence and good- 
nature will be more practicable." "Ohl" says her majesty, 
" Bana does not know the facts of the case. My son has tried all 
the roads without success, and now he is ashamed to meet Bana 



July.] PALACE, UGANDA. 409 

face to face." " Then what is to be done, your majesty ?" " Bana 
must go back to Karagu^, and wait for a year, until my son is 
crowned, when he will make friends with the surrounding chiefs, 
and the roads will be opened." " But Bana says he will not re- 
trace one step ; he would sooner lose his life." " Oh, thatfs non- 
sense ; he must not be headstrong ; but, before any thing more 
can be said, I will send a message to my son, and Bana can then 
go with Kaddu, K'yengo, and Viarungi, and tell aU they have to 
say to Mt^ to-morrow, and the following day return to me, 
when every thing will be concluded." We all now left but Kaddu 
and some of the queen's officers, who waited for the message to 
her son about us. To judge from Kaddu, it must have been very 
different from what she led us to expect, as, on joining us, he said 
there was not the smallest chance of our getting the road we re* 
quired, for the queen was so decided about it no farther argument 
would be listened to. 

2d. Three goats were stolen, and suspicion falling on the king's 
cooks, who are expert foragers, we sent to the kamraviona, and 
asked him to order out the mganga; but his only reply was that 
he often loses goats in the same way. He sent us one of his own 
for present purposes, and gave thirty baskets of potatoes to my 
men. As the king held a court, and broke it up before 8 A.M., 
and no one would go there for fear of his dot appearing again, I 
waited till the evening for Bombay, Kaddu, K'yengo, and Via- 
rungi, when, finding them drunk, I went by myself, fired a gun, 
and was admitted to where the king was hunting Guinea-fowl. 
On seeing me, he took me affectionately by the hand, and, as we 
• walked along together, he asked me what I wanted, showed me 
the house which was burnt down, and promised to settle the road 
question in the morning. 

8cL With Kaddu, K'yengo, and Viarungi all in attendance, we 
went to the palace, where there was a large assemblage prepared 
for a lev^, and fired a gun, which brought the king out in state. 
The sakibobo, or provincial governor, arrived with a body of 
soldiers armed with sticks, made a speech, and danced at the head 
of his men, aU pointing sticks upward, and singing fidelity to their 
king. ' 

The king then turned to me and said, " I have come out to 
listen to your request of last night. What is it you do want?" 
I said, " To open the country to the north, that an uninterrupted 
line of commerce might exist between England and this country 



410 THE SOURCE OF THE J^TILE. [18C2. 

by means of the li^^ile. I might go round by Nkol^" (K'yengo 
looked daggers at me); "but that is out of thjB way, and not suit- 
able to the purpose." The queen's deputation was now ordered 
to draw near, and questioned in a whisper. As K'yengo was 
supposed to know all about me, and spoke fluently both in 
Kiganda and Kisuahili, he had to speak first; but K'yengo, to 
every body's surprise, said, "One white man wishes to go to Earn- 
rasi's, whUe the other wishes to return through Unyamii&L" 
This announcement made the king reflect; for he had been pri- 
vately primed by his mother's attendants that we both wished to 
go to Grani, and therefore shrewdly inquired if Eiimanika knew 
we wished to visit Elamrasi, and whether he was aware we should 
attempt the passage north from Uganda. " Oh yes ; of course 
Bana wrote to Bana Mdogo" (the little master) "as soon as he ar- 
rived in Uganda, and told him and Eiimanika all about it" 
"Wrote I what does that mean?" and I was called upon to ex- 
plain. Mtdsa, then seeing a flaw in K'yengo's statements, called 
him a story-teller; ordered him and his party away, and bade 
me draw near. 

The moment of triumph had come at last, and suddenly the 
road was granted ! The king presently let us see the motive by 
which he had been influenced. He said he did not like having 
to send to Eiimanika for every thing : he wanted his visitors to 
come to him direct ; moreover, Eiimanika had sent him a mes- 
sage to the efiect that we were not to be shown any thing out of 
Uganda, and when we had done with it, were to be returned to 
him. Eiimanika, indeed! who cared about Eiimanika? Was 
not Mt&a the king of the country, to do as he liked? and we all 
laughed. Then the king, swelling with pride, asked me whom I 
liked best, Eiimanika or himself— an awkward question, which I 
disposed of by saying I liked Eiimanika very much because he 
spoke well, and was very communicative; but I also liked Mtdsa, 
because his habits were much like my own — ^fond of shooting and 
roaming about; while he had learned so many things from my 
teaching I must ever feel a yearning toward him. 

With much satisfaction, I felt that my business was now done; 
for Budja was appointed to escort us to Unyoro, and Jumba to 
prepare us boats, that we might go all the way to Eamrasi's by 
water. Viariingi made a petition, on Eiimanika's behalf, for an 
army of Waganda to go to Karagii^, and fight the refractory 
brother, Eog^ro; but this was refused, on the plea that the whole 



July.] PALACE, UGANDA. 411 

army was out fighting at the present moment The court then 
broke up and we went home. 

To keep the king up to the mark and seal our passage, in the 
evening I took a Lancaster rifle, with ammunition, and the iron 
chair he formerly asked for, as a parting present, to the palace, 
but did not find him, as he had gone out shooting with his 
brothers. 

4cih. Grant and I now called together on the king to present 
the rifle, chair, and ammunition, as we could not thank him in 
words sufficiently for the favor he had done us in granting the 
road through Unyoro. I said the parting gift wafi not half as 
much as I should like to have been able to give ; but we hoped, 
on reaching Gani, to send Petherick up to him with every thing 
that he could desire. We regretted we had no more powder or 
shotj as what was intended, and actually placed out expressly to 
be presented on this occasion, was stolen. The king looked hard 
at his head page, who was once sent to get these very things now 
given, and then turning the subject adroitly, asked me how many 
cows and women I would like, holding his hand up with spread 
fingers, and desiring me to count by hundreds; but the reply 
was. Five cows and goats would be enough, for we wished to 
travel lightly in boats, starting from the Murchison Creek. Wom- 
en were declined on such grounds as would seem rational to him. 
But if the king would clothe my naked men with one mbugii 
(bark cloth) eaSsh, and give a small tusk each to nine Wanyamu^zi 
porters, who desired to return to their home, the obligation would 
be great. 

Every thing was granted without the slightest hesitation ; and 
then the king, turning to me, said, " Well, Bana, so you really 
wish to go?" "Yes, for I have not seen my home for four years 
and upward" — ^reckoning five months to the year, tlganda fash- 
ion "And you can give me no stimulants?" "No." "Then 
you will send me some from Gani — ^brandy if you like ; it makes 
people sleep sound, and gives them strength." Next we went to 
the queen to bid ferewell, but did not see her. 

On returning home I found half my men in a state of mutiny. 
They had been on their own account to beg for the women and 
cows which had been refused, saying, If Bana does not want them, 
we do, for we have been starved here ever since we came, and 
when we go for food get broken heads ; we will not serve with 
Bana any longer; but, as he goes north, we will return to Kara- 



412 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

ga6 and UnyanyemW. Bombay, however, told them they never 
had fed so well in all their lives as they had in Uganda, counting 
from fifty to sixty cows killed, and pornW and plantains every 
day, whenever they took the trouble to forage ; and for their 
broken heads they invariably received a compensation in wom- 
en, so that Bana had reason to regret every day spent in asking 
for food for them at the palace — ^a favor which none but his men 
received, but which they had not, as they might have done, turned 
to good effect by changing the system of plundering for food in 
Uganda. 

6th. By the king's order we attended at the palace early. The 
gun obtained us all a speedy admittance, when the king opened 
conversation by saying, "Well, Bana, so you really are going?" 
"Yes; I have enjoyed your hospitality for a long time, and now 
wish to return to my home." "What provision do you want?" 
I said. Five cows and five goats, as we sha'n't be long in Uganda; 
and it is not the custom of our country, when we go visiting, to 
carry any thing away with us. The king then said, " Well, I 
wish to give you much, but you won't have it;" when Budja 
spoke out, saying, ^* Bana does not know the country he has to 
travel through ; there is nothing but jungle and famine on the 
way, and he must have cows ;" on which the king ordered us 
sixty cows, fourteen goats, ten loads of butter, a load of coflfee and 
tobacco, one hundred sheets of mbug& as clothes for my men, at 
a suggestion of Bombay's, as all my cloth had been expended 
even before I left Karagu6. 

This magnificent order created a pause, which K'yengo took 
advantage of by producing a little bundle of peculiarly -shaped 
sticks and a lump of earth, all of which have their own particular 
magical powers, as K'yengo described to the king's satis&ction. 
After this, Vtarungi pleaded the cause of my mutinous ibllowers 
till I shook my finger angrily at him before the king, rebuked 
him for intermeddling in other people's affairs, and told my own 
story, which gained the sympathy of the king, and induced him 
to say, " Supposing they desert Bana, what road do they expect 
to get?" Maula was now appointed to go with Bozaro to Eara- 
gu^ for the powder and other things promised yesterday, while 
Viarftngi and all his party, though exceedingly anxious to get 
away, had orders to remain here prisoners as a surety for the 
things arriving. Farther, Kaddu and two other wakungu received 
orders to go to Usui with two tusks of ivory to purchase gun- 



July] PALACE, UGANDA. 413 

powder, caps, and flints, figdling which they would proceed to 
Unyanyemb^ and even to Zanzibar, for the king must not be 
disappointed, and failure would cost them their lives. 

Not another word was said, .and away the two parties went, 
with no more arrangement than a set of geese — Maula without 
a letter, and Kaddii without any provision for the way, as if all 
the world belonged to Mt^, and he could help himself ifrom any 
man's garden that he liked, no matter where he was. In the 
evening my men made a humble petition for their discharge^ 
even if I did not pay them, producing a hundred reasons *for 
wishing to leave, but none which would stand a moment's argu- 
ment: the fact was, they were afraid of the road to Unyoro, think- 
ing I had not suf&cient ammunition. 

&1h. I visited the king, and asked leave for boats to go at once 
but the fleet admiral put a veto on this by making out that dan- 
gerous shallows exist between the Murchison Creek and the Kira 
district station, so that the boats of one place never visit the oth- 
er ; and, farther, if we went to Kira, we should find impracticable 
cataracts to the Urondogani boat-station ; our better plan would 
therefore be to deposit our property at the Urondogani station, 
and walk by land up the river, if a sight of the falls at the mouth 
of the lake was of such material consequence to us. 

Of course this man carried every thing his own way, for there 
was nobody able to contradict him, and we could not afford time 
to visit Usoga first, lest by the delay we might lose an opportu- 
nity of communicating with Petherick. Grant now took a por- 
trait of Mt^sa by royal permission, the king sitting as quietly as 
his impatient nature would permit. Then at home the Wan- 
yamu^zi porters received their tusks of ivory, weighing from 16 
to 60 lbs. each, and took a note besides on Bumanika each for 
twenty fundo of beads, barring one Bogu6 man, who, having lent 
a cloth to the expedition some months previously, thought it 
would not be paid him, and therefore seized a sword as security ; 
the consequence was, his tusk was seized until the sword was re- 
turned, and he was dismissed minus his beads for having so mis- 
conducted himself. The impudent fellow then said, " It will be 
well for Bana if he succeeds in getting the road through Unyoro; 
for, should he fail, I will stand in his path at Bogud." Kitunzi 
offered an ivory for beads, and when told we were not merchants, 
and advised to try K'yengo, he said he dared not even approach 
K'yengo's camp lest people should tell the king of it, and accuse 



412 .af^^^^' l^^®^- 

gii^ an ^^ ^ against his sovereign. Old 

had fe ti^ ^ ^^J& -f* ^** granted, and he took a 



from ^^ (^^%^^d» ^^^^ ^^ emancipation for himself 

^y> V/tf''* ^"^^^ ^/t/^^/ written in Kisuahili, for ten fimdo 

brol ho^^^f. besi^^.^ wbici^ made, him very happy. 



t 



en, ^^^on^^%e ^^ SkgaAn at the palace with pictures of 

foT ^^^^^ffgreq^^ froDi Eumanika, and a letter inform- 

rf %if^^^ ^b&^ ^® wished done with them, in order that 

/* ffit^^\^ no mistake, requesting the king to forward them 
!uete ^^ /ast then Kaddii's men letumed to say they wanted 
sfi^^ foT tJi® ^^y» ^ ^^ "Wazinza, hearing of their mission, 
P^^^^Tm i^^^y ^^^ what they were about, going to a strange 
^ ^jthout any means of paying their way. But the king, 
oo^/^fUstdnmg to reason, impetuously said, "If you do not 
^'^^^gat once, and biing me the things I want, every man of 
^^dSi los® l^is head ; and as for the Wazinza, for interfering 
^'ih ^y orders, they shall be kept here prisoners until you re- 
turn* 
On the way home, one of the king's favorite women overtook 

^ talking, with her hands clasped at the back of her head, to 
execution, crying "N'yawol" in the most pitiful manner. A 
man was preceding her, but did not touch her ; for she loved to 
obey the orders of her king voluntarily, and, in consequence of 
previous attachment, was permitted, as a mark of distinction, to 
walk free. Wondrous world ! it was not ten minutes since we 
parted from the king, yet he had found time to transact this 
bloody piece of business. 

lik. Early in the morning the king bade us come to him to say 
farewell. Wishing to leave behind a favorable impression, I in- 
stantly complied. On the breast of my coat I suspended the 
necklace the queen had given me, as well as his knife and my 
medals. I talked with him in as friendly and flattering a manner 
as I could, dwelling on his shooting, the pleasant cruising on the 
lake, and our sundry picnics, as well as the grand prospect there 
was now of opening the country to trade, by which his guns, the 
best in the world, would be fed with powder, and other small 
matters of a like nature, to which he replied with great feeling 
and good taste. We then all rose with an English bow, placing 
the hand on the heart while saying adieu ; and there was a com- 
plete uniformity in the ceremonial, for, whatever I did, Mt&a, in 
an instantj mimicked with the instinct of a monkey. 



Jdlt.] palace, UGANDA. 416 

We had, however, scarcely quitted the palace gate before the 
king issued himself, with his attendants and his brothers leading, 
and women bringing up the rear; here K'jengo and all the Wa- 
zinza joined in the procession with ourselves, they kneeling and 
clapping their hands after the fiashion of their own country. 
Budja just then made me feel very anxious by pointing out the 
position of TJrondogani, as I thought, too £ar jiorth. I called the 
king's attention to it, and in a moment he said he would speak to 
Budja in such a manner that would leave no doubts in my mind, 
for he liked me much, and desired to please me in all things. As 
the procession now drew close to our camp, and Mt^sa expressed 
a wish to have a final look at my men, I ordered them to turn 
out with their arms and n'yanzig for the many favors they had 
received. Mt&a, much pleased, complimented them on their 
goodly appearance, remarking that with such a force I would 
have no difficulty in reaching Gani, and exhorted them to follow 
me through fire and water ; then, exchanging adieus again, he 
walked ahead in gigantic strides up the hill, the pretty favorite of 
his harem, Lubuga — ^beckoning and waving with her little hands, 
and crying "Banal Bana!" — trotting after him conspicuous 
among the rest, though all showed a little feeling at the severance. 
We saw them no more. 



416 THE SOURCE OF THE NILK [1862. 



CHAPTER XV. 

MABCH DOWN THE NOBTHEBN SLOPES OP AFRICA. 

Kari. — Tragic Incident there. — Renewal of Troubles. — Quarrels with the Kadves. — 
Reach the Nile. — ^Description of the Scene there. — Sport. — Church Estate. — As- 
cend the River to the Junction with the Lake. — ^Ripon Falls. — General Account 
of the Source of the Nile. — Descend again to Urondogani. — ^The truculent Saki- 
bobo. 

7ih to 11^. With Budja appointed as the general director, a 
lieutenant of the sakibobo's to furnish us with sixty cows in his 
division at the first halting-place, and Kasoro (Mr. Gat), a lieuten- 
ant of Jamba's, to provide the boats at Urondogani, we started at 
1 P.M. on the journey northward. The Wangfiana still grumbled, 
swearing they would carry no loads, as they got no rations, and 
threatening to shoot us if we pressed them, forgetting that their 
food had been paid for to the king in rifles, chronometers, and 
other articles, costing about $2000, and, what was more to the 
point, that all the ammunition was in our hands. A 
7^ Moa^on jii^ciQ^g threat of the stick, however, put things 
To Namaoi^a, Hght, and ou wc marchcd five successive days to ELan 
ToBiO«,io<ft. — ^as the place was afterward named, in consequence 
of the tragedy mentioned below — the whole, distance 
accomplished being thirty miles from the capital, through a fine 
hilly country, with jungles and rich cultivation alternating. The 
second march, after crossing the Katawana Eiver, with its many 
branches flowing northeast into the huge rush-drain of Liiajerri, 
carried us beyond the influence of the higher hills, and away from 
the huge grasses which characterize the southern boundary of 
Uganda bordering on the lake. 

Each day's march to Kari was directed much in the same man- 
ner. After a certain number of hours' traveling, Budja appointed 
some village of residence for the night, avoiding those which be- 
longed to the queen, lest any rows should take place in them, 
which would create disagreeable consequences with the king, and 
preferring those the heads of which had been lately seized by the , 
orders of the king. Nevertheless, wherever we went, all the vil- 



THE KOBTHERN SLOPES OF AFRICA. 417 

lagers forsook their homes, and left their houses, property, and 
gardens an easy prey to the thieving propensities "bf the escort. 
To put a stop to this vile practice was now beyond my power ; 
the king allowed it, and his men were the first in every house, 
taking goats, fowls, skins, mbiigus, cowries, beads, drums, spears, 
tobacco, pomb^ — in short, every thing they could lay their hands 
on — in the most ruthless manner. It was a perfect marauding 
campaign for them all, and all alike were soon laden with as 
much as they could carry. 

A halt of some days had become necessary at Kari to collect 
the cows given by the king; and, as it is one of his most exten- 
sive pasture-grounds, I strolled with my rifle (11th) to see what 
new animals could be found ; but no sooner did I wound a zebra 
than messengers came running after me to say Elari, one of my 
men, had been murdered by the villagers three miles off; and 
such was the fact. He, with others of my men, had been induced 
to go plundering, with a few boys of the Waganda escort, to a 
certain village of potters, as pots were required by Budja for 
making plantain wine, the first thing ever thought of when a 
camp is formed. On nearing the place, however, the women of 
the viHage, who were the only people visible, instead of running 
away, as our braves expected, commenced huUalooing, and brought 
out llieir husbands. Flight was now the only thought of our 
men, and all would have escaped had Kari not been slow and his 
musket empty. The potters overtook him, and, as he pointed his 
gun, which they considered a magic horn, they speared him to 
death, and then fled at once. Our survivors were not long in 
bringing the news into camp, when a party went out, and in the 
evening brought in the man's corpse and every thing belonging 
to him, for nothing had been taken. 

12th. To enable me at my leisure to trace up the Nile to its 
exit from the lake, and then go on with the journey as quickly 
as possible, I wished the cattle to be collected *and taken by Budja 
and some of my men with the heavy baggage overland to Kam- 
rasi's. Another reason for doing so was, that I thought it advis- 
able Kamrasi should be forewarned that we were coming by the 
water route, lest we should be suspected and stopped as spies by 
• his officers on the river, or regarded as enemies, which would pro- 
voke a fight Budja, however, objected to move until a report 
of Kari's murder had been forwarded to the king, lest the people, 
getting bumptious, should try the same trick again ; and Kasoro 

Dd 



418 ^I^HE 60UBCE OF THE NILEL [1862. 

said he would not go up the riyer, as he had received no oidera 
to do BO. 

In this fix I ordered a march back to the palace, mentioning 
the king's last words, and should have gone, had not Budja or- 
dered Kasoro to go with me. A page then arrived fix)m the king 
to ask after Sana's health, carrying the Whitworth rifle as his 
master's card, and begging for a heavy double-barreled gun to be 
sent him from Gani. I called this lad to witness the agreement 
I had made with Budja, and told him, if Elasoro satisfied me, I 
would return by him, in addition to the heavy gun, a Massey's 
patent log. I had taken it for the navigation of the lake, and it 
was now of no farther use to me, but, being an instrument of com- 
plicated structure, it would be a valuable addition to the king's 
museum of magic charms. I added I should like the king to 
send me the robes of honor and spears he had once promised me, 
in order that I might, on reaching England, be able to show my 
countrymen a specimen of the manufactures of his country. The 
men who were with Kslti were now sent to the palace, under ac- 
cusation of having led him into ambush, and a complaint was 
made against the villagers, which we waited the reply to. As 
Budja forbade it, no men would follow me out shooting, saying 
thp villagers were out surrounding our camp, and threatening de- 
struction on any one who dared show his face; for this was not 
the high road to Uganda, and therefore no one had a right to 
turn them out of their houses and pillage their gardens. 

18th. Budja lost two cows given to his party last night, and, 
seeing ours securely tied by their legs to trees, asked by what 
spells we had secured them, and would not believe our assurance 
that the ropes that bound them were all the medicines we knew 
of. One of the queen's sisters, hearing of ELari's murder, came on 
a visit to condole with us, bringing a pot of pomb^, for which she 
received some beads. On being asked how many sisters the 
queen had, for we could not help suspecting some imposition, she 
replied she was the only one, till assured ten other ladies had pre- 
sented themselves as the queen's sisters before, when she changed 
her tone, and said, " That is true, I am not the only one ; but if 
I had told you the truth I might have lost my head." This was 
a significant expression of tiie danger of telling court secrets. 

I suspected that there must be a considerable quantity of game 
in this district, as stake-nets and other traps were found in all the 
huts, as well as numbers of small antelope hoofi spitted on pipe- 



JuLT.] THE NOBTHEBN SLOPES OF AFRICA. 419 

Sticks — ^an ornament which is counted the special badge of the 
sportsman in this part of Africa. Despite, therefore, of the warn- 
ings of Budja, I strolled again with my rifle, and saw pallah, 
small plovers, and green antelopes with straight horns, called 
mp^, the skin of which makes a favorite api^n for the Ma* 
bandwa. 

Uth. I met to-day a Mhttma cowherd in my strolls with the 
rifle, and asked him if he knew where the game lay. The un- 
mannerly creatnre, standing among a thousand of the sleekest cat- 
tle, gruffishly replied, " What can I know of any other animals 
than cows?" and went on with his work as if nothing in the 
world could interest him but his cattle-tending. I shot a doe len- 
cotis, called here n'sunnii, the first one seen upon the journey. 

15^ In the morning, when our men went for water to the 
springs, some Waganda in ambush threw a spear at them, and 
this time caught a Tartar, for the " horns," as they called their 
guns, were loaded, and two of them received shot-wounda In 
the evening, while we were returning from shooting, a party of 
Waganda, also lying in the bush, called out to* know what we 
were about; saying, "Is it not enough that you have turned us 
out of our homes and plantations, leaving us to live like animals 
in the wilderness?" and when told we were only searching for 
sport, would not believe that our motive was any other than hos- 
tility to themselves. 

At night one of Budja's men returned fi*om the palace to say 
the king was highly pleased with the measures adopted by his 
wakungu in prosecution of Kari's affair. He hoped now, as we 
had cows to eat^ there would be no necessity for wandering for 
food, but all would keep together " in one garden." At present 
no notice would be taken of the murderers, as all the culprits 
would have fled &r away in their fright to escape chastisement 
But when a little time had elapsed, and all would appear to have 
been forgotten, officers would be sent and the miscreants appre- 
hended, for it was impossible to suppose any body could be igno- 
rant of the white men being the guests of the king, considering 
they had lived at the palace so long. The king took this oppor- 
tunity again to remind me that he wanted a heavy solid double 
gun, such as would last him all his life ; and intimated that in a 
few days the arms and robes of honor were to be sent. 

16th. Most of the cows for ourselves and the guides — ^for the 
king gave them also a present, ten each — were driven into camp. 



420 THE SOURCE OF THE NH^E. [1862. 

We also got 50 lbs. of butter, the remainder to be picked up on 
the way. I strolled with the gun, and shot two zebras, to be sent 
to the king, as, by the constitution of Uganda, he alone can keep 
their royal skins. 

Vllh, We ha4 to halt again, as the guides had lost most of their 
cows, so I strolled with my rifle and shot a ndjezza doe, the first 
I had ever seen. It is a brown animal, a little smaller than the 
lencotis, and frequents much the same kind of ground. 

18^. We had still to wait another day for Budja's cows, when, 
as it appeared all-important to communicate quickly with Pethe- 
rick, and as Grant's leg was considered too weak for traveling 
fast, we took counsel together and altered our plans. I arranged 
that Grant should go to Kamrasi's direct with the property, cattle, 
and women, taking my letters and a map for immediate dispatch 
to Petherick at Gani, while I should go up the river to its source 
or exit from the lake, and come down again navigating as fiir as 
practicable. 

At night the Waganda startled us by setting fire to the huts 
our men were sleeping in, but providentially did more damage to 
themselves than to us, for one sword only was buried in the fire, 
while their own huts, intended to be vacated in the morning, 
were burnt to the ground. To fortify ourselves against another 
invasion, we cut down all their plantains to make a boma or 
fence. 

We started all together on our respective journeys ; but, after 
Cross the Ltta- *^® third milc, Grant turned west, to join the high 
T?Kiw&ri, road to Kamrasi's, while I went east for Urondogani, 
sot*. crossing the Luajerri, a huge rush-drain three miles 

broad, fordable nearly to the right bank, where we had to feny 
in boats, and the cows to be swum over with men holding on to 
their tails. It was larger than the Katonga, and more tedious to 
cross, for it took no less than four hours, musquitoes in myriads 
biting our bare backs and legs all the while. The Luajerri is 
said to rise in the lake and fall into the Nile due south of our 
crossing-point. On the right bank wild buflFalo are .described to 
be as numerous as cows, but we did not see any, though the 
country is covered with a most inviting jungle for sport, with in- 
termediate lays of fine grazing grass. Such is the nature of the 
country all the way to Urondogani, except in some &vored spots, 
kept as tidily as in any part of Uganda, where plantains grow in 
the utmost luxuriance. Prom want of guides, and misguided bj 



July.] THE NORTHERN SLOPES OF AFRICA. 421 

the exclusive ill-natured Wahiima, who were here in great num- 
bers tending their king's cattle, we lost our way continually, so 
that we did not reach the boat-station until the morning of the 
21st. 

Here at last I stood on the brink of the Nile. Most beautiful 
To urondogani, ^^ ^^^ sccuc; nothing could surpass it! It was the 
^^^ very perfection of the kind of eflfect aimed at in a 

highly -kept park ; with a magnificent stream from 600 to 700 
yards wide, dotted with islets and rocks, the former occupied by 
fishermen's huts, the latter by sterns and crocodiles basking in 
the sun, flowing between fine high grassy banks, with rich trees 
and plantains in the background, where herds of the n'sunnii and 
hartebeest could be seen grazing, while the hippopotami were 
snorting in the water, and florikan and Guinea-fowl rising at our 
feet. Unfortunately, the chief district officer, Mlondo, was from 
home, but we took possession of his huts — clean, extensive, and 
tidily kept — ^feeing the river, and felt as if a residence here would • 
do one good. Delays and subterfuges, however, soon came to 
damp our spirits. The acting officer was sent for, and asked for 
the boats ; they were all scattered, and could not be collected for 
a day or two ; but, even if they were at hand, no boat ever went 
up or down the river. The chief was away and would be sent 
for, as the king often changed his orders, and, after all, might not 
mean what had been said. The district belonged to.the sakibobo, 
and no representative of his had come here. These excuses, of 
course, would not satisfy us. The boats must be collected, seven, 
if there are not ten, for we must try them, and come to some un- 
derstanding about them, before we march up stream, when, if the 
officer values his life, he will let us have them, and acknowledge 
Kasoro as the king's representative, otherwise a complaint will be 
sent to the palace, for we won't stand trifling. 

We were now confronting Usoga, a country which may be said 
to be the very counterpart of Uganda in its richness and beauty. 
Here the people use such huge iron-headed spears with short 
handles, that, on seeing one to-day, my people remarked that they 
were better fitted for digging potatoes than piercing men. Ele- 
phants, as we had seen by their devastations during the last two 
marches, were very numerous in this neighborhood. Till lately, 
a party from Unyoro, ivory -hunting, had driven them away. 
Lions were also described as very numerous and destructive to 
human life. Antelopes were common in the jungle, and the hip- 



422 ^H£ SOUBCS OF THE KILE. [1862. 

popotami, though frequenters of the plantain garden and constant- 
ly heard, were seldom seen on land in consequence of their un- 
steady habits. 

The king's page again came, begging I would not forget the 
gun and stimulants, and bringing with him the things I asked for 
— ^two spears, one shield, one dirk, two leopard-cat skins, and two 
sheets of small antelope skins. I told my men they ought to 
shave their heads and bathe in the holy river, the cradle of Moses 
— ^the waters of which, sweetened with sugar, men carry aU the 
way from Egypt to Mecca, and sell to the pilgrims. But Bom- 
bay, who is a philosopher of the Epicurean school, said, " We 
don't look on those things in the same fanciful manner that you 
do; we are contented with all the con^monplaces of life, and look 
for nothing beyond the present. K things don't go well, it is 
God's will ; and if they do go well, that is His will also," 

22d The acting chief brought a present of one cow, one goat, 
and pomb^, with a mob of his courtiers to pay his respects. He 
promised that the seven boats, which are all the station could 
muster, would be ready next day, and in the mean while a num- 
ber of men would conduct me to the shooting-ground. He asked 
to be shown the books of birds and animals, and no sooner saw 
some specimens of Wolff's handiwork, than, in utter surprise, he 
exclaimed, '' I know how these are done ; a bird was caught and 
stamped upoja the paper," using action to his words, and showing 
what he meant, while all his followers n'yanzigged for the favor 
of the exhibition. 

In the evening I strolled in the antelope parks, enjoying the 
scenery and sport excessively. A noble buck n'sunnii, standing 
by himself, was the first thing seen this side, though a herd of 
hartebeests were grazing on the TTsoga banks. One bullet rolled 
my fine friend over, but the rabble looking on no sooner saw the 
hit than they rushed upon him and drove him off^ for he was only 
wounded. A chase ensued, and he was tracked by his blood, 
when a pongo (bush boc) was started and divided the party. It 
also brought me to another single buck n'sunnu, which was floored 
at once, and lefl to be carried home by some of my men in com- 
pany with Waganda, while I went on, shot a third .n'sunnii buck, 
and tracked him by his blood till dark, for the bullet had pierced 
his lun^ and passed out on the other side. Failing to find him 
on the way home, I shot, besides florikan and Guinea-chicks, a 
wonderful goatsucker, remarkable for the exceeding length of 



JutT.] 



THE NORTHERN SLOPES OF AFRICA. 



428 



some of its feathers floating out far beyond the rest in both wings .♦ 
Returning home, I found the men who had charge of the dead 




Goatencker (Gosmetomls BpeUi). 

buck all in a state of excitement; they no sooner removed his 
carcass than two lions came out of the jungle and lapped his 
blood. All the Waganda ran away at once; but my braves 
feared my anger more than the lions, and came off safely with 
the buck on their shoulders. 

23rf. Three boats arrived, like those used on the Murchison 
Creek, and when I demanded the rest, as well as a decisive answer 
about going to Kamrasi's, the acting mkungu said he was a&aid 
accidents might happen, and he would not take me. Nothing 
would frighten this pig-headed creature into compliance, though 
I told him I had arranged with the king to make the Nile the 
channel of communication with England. I therefore applied to 
him for guides to conduct me up the river, and ordered Bombay 
and Kasoro to obtain fresh orders from the king, as all future wa- 
zungu, coming to Uganda to visit or trade, would prefer the pas- 
sage by the river. I shot another buck in the evening, as the 
Waganda loved their skins, and also a load of Guinea-fowl — 

* Named by Dr. F. L. Sclater Cosmetomis Spekii, The seyenth pen feathers are 
doable the length of the ordinaries, the eighth doable that of the seventh, and the 
ninth 20 inches long. Bombay says the same bird is fonnd in Uhiyow. 



424 THE SOURCE OF THE IHLE, [1862. 

three, four, and five at a shot — as Elasoro and his boys prefer 
them to any thing. 

24:th. The acting officer absconded, but another man came in 
his place, andr offered to take us on the way up the river to-mor- 
row, humbugging Kasoro into the belief that his road to the pal- 
ace would branch off from the first stage, though in reality it was 
here. The mkungu's women brought pomb^, and spent the day 
gazing at us, till, in the evening, when I took up my rifle, one ran 
after Bana to see him shoot, and followed like a man ; but the 
only sport she got was on an ant-hill, where she fixed herself 
some time, popping into her mouth and devouring the white atits 
as fast as they emanated from their cells ; for, disdaining does^ I 
missed the only pongo buck I got a shot at in my anxiety to show 
the fair one what she came for. 

Eeports came to-day of new cruelties at the palace^ Kasoro 
improved on their off-hand manslaughter by saying that two 
kamravionas and two sakibobos, as well as all the old wakungu 
of Sunna's time, had been executed by the orders of King Mt^sa. 
He told us, moreover, that if Mt^sa ever has a dream that his 
father directs him to kill any body as being dangerous to his per- 
son, the order is religiously kept. I wished to send a message to 
Mt&a by an officer who is starting at once to pay his respects at 
court ; but, although he received it, arid promised to deliver it, Ka- 
soro laughed at me for expecting that one word of it would ever 
reach the king ; for, however appropriate or important the matter 
might be, it was more than any body dare do to tell the king, as 
it would be an infringement of the rule that no one is to speak to 
him unless in answer to a question. My second buck of the first 
day was brought in by the natives, but they would not allow it 
to approach the hut until it had been skinned ; and I found their 
reason to be a superstition that otherwise no others would ever 
be killed by the inmates of that establishment. 

I marched up the left bank of the Nile, at a considerable dis- 
ToiMimi^Rap. taucc from the water, to the Isamba Eapids, passing 
id8,»MA. through rich jungle and plantain gardens. Nango, 

an old friend, and district officer of the place, first refreshed ns 
with a dish of plantain-squash and dried fish, with pomb^. He 
told us he is often threatened by elephants, but he sedulously 
keeps them off with charms ; for if they ever tasted a plantain 
they would never leave the garden until they had cleared it out 
He then took us to see the nearest falls of the Nile— extremely 



July.] THE NOBTHERN SLOPES OF AFEICA. 425 

beautiful, but very confined. The water ran deep between its 
banks, which were covered with fine grass, soft cloudy acacias, 
and festoons of lilac convolvuli ; while here and there, where the 
land had slipped above the rapids, bared places of red earth could 
be seen, like that of Devonshire ; there, too, the waters, impeded 
by a natural dam, looked like a huge mill-pond, sullen and dark, 
in which two crocodiles, laving about, were looking out for prey. 
From the high banks we looke(J down upon a line of sloping 
wooded islets lying across the stream, whitsh divide its waters, 
and, by interrupting them, cause at once both dam and rapids. 
The whole was more fairy-like, wild, and romantic than — I must 
confess that my thoughts took that shape — any thing I ever saw 
outside of a theatre. It was exactly the sort of place, in fact, 
where, bridged across fix)m one side-slip to the other, on a moon- 
light night, brigands would assemble to enact some dreadful trag- 
edy. Even the Wanguana seemed spell-bound at the novel beau- 
ty of the sight, and no one thought of moving till hunger warned 
us night was. setting in, and we had better look out for lodgings. 

Start again, and after drinking pomb6 with Nango, when we 
heard that three wakungu had been seized at Kari in 
consequence of the murder, the march was recom- 
menced, but soon after stopped by the mischievous machinations 
of our guide, who pretended it was too late in the day to cross 
the jungles on ahead, either by the road to the source or the pal- 
ace, and therefore would not move till the morning ; then, leav- 
ing us on the pretext of business, he vanished, and was never seen 
again. A small black fly, with thick shoulders and bullet-head, 
infests the place, and torments the naked arms and legs of the 
people with its sharp stings to an extent that must render life 
miserable to them. 

After a long struggling march, plodding through huge grasses 
To cbupch eb- ^^^ j^^gl^j w© reached a district which I can not oth- 
tot©,2TiA. erwise describe than by calling it a " Church Estate." 

It is dedicated in some mysterious manner to Lubari (Almighty), 
and although the king appeared to have authority over some of 
the inhabitants of it, yet others had apparently a sacred character, 
exempting them from the civil power, and he had no right to dis- 
pose of the land itself. In this territory there are small villages 
only at every fifth mile, for there is no road, and the lands run 
high again, while, from want of a guide, we often lost the track. 
It now transpired that Budja, when he told at the palace that 



426 ^™^ SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [18fi8. 

there was no road down the banks of the Nile, did so in conae* 
quence of his fear that if he sent my whole party here they would 
rob these church lands, and so bring him into a scrape with the 
wizards or ecclesiastical authorities. Had my party not been un- 
der control, we c6uld not have put up here ; but on my being an- 
swerable that no thefts should take place, die people kindly con- 
sented to provide us with board and lodgings, and we found them 
very obliging. One elderly man, half-witted — ^they said the king 
had driven his senses &om him by seizing his house and &mily 
—came at once on hearing of our arrival, laughing and singing 
in a loose, jaunty, maniacal manner, carrying odd sticks, shells, 
and a bundle of mbiigu rags, which he deposited before me, dan- 
cing and singing again, then retreating and bringing some more, 
with a few plantains from a garden, which I was to eat, as kings 
lived upon flesh, and " poor Tom" wanted some, for he lived with 
lions and elephants in a hovel beyond the gardens, and his belly 
was empty. He was precisely a black specimen of the English 
parish idiot. 

At last) with a good push for it, crossing hills and threading 
ToiuponFaiiB, ^^g^ grasscs, as well as extensive village plantations 
^"^ lately devastated by elephants — they had eaten all 

that was eatable, and what would not serve for food they had de- 
stroyed with their trunks, not one plantain nor one hut being left 
entire — ^we arrived at the extreme end of the journey, the farthest 
point ever visited by the expedition on the same parallel of lati- 
tude as King Mt^'s palace, and just forty miles east of it. 

We were well rewarded; for the "stones," as the Waganda 
call the falls, was by far the most interesting sight I had seen in 
Africa. Every body ran to see them at once, though the march 
had been long and fatiguing, and even my sketch-block was called 
into play. Though beautiful, the scene was not exactly what I 
expected ; for the broad surfiaoe of the lake was shut out from 
view by a spur of hill, and the falls, about 12 feet deep, and 400 
to 500 feet broad, were broken by rocks. Still it was a sight that 
attracted one to it for hours — ^the roar of the waters, the thousands 
of passenger-flsh, leaping at the falls with all their might, the Wa- 
soga and Waganda fishermen coming. out in boats and taking post 
on all the rocks with rod and hook, hippopotami and crocodiles 
lying sleepily on the water, the ferry at work above the falls, and 
cattle driven down to drink at the margin of the lake, made, in 
all, with the pretty nature Of the country — small hills, grassy-top- 



1 - . . 



JuLT.] THE NORTHEBN SLOPES OF AFBICA. 429 

ped, with trees in the folds, and gardens on the lower slopes — as 
interesting a picture as one could wish to see. 

The expedition had now performed its functions. I saw that 
old Father Nile without any doubt rises in the Victoria N'yanza, 
and, as I had foretold, that lake is the great source of the holy 
river which cradled the first expounder of our religious belief. I 
mourned, however, when I thought how much I had lost by the 
delays in the journey having deprived me of the pleasure of go- 
ing to look at the northeast comer of the N'yanza to see what 
C5onnection there was, by the strait so often spoken of, with it and 
the other lake where the Waganda went to get their salt, and 
from which another river flowed to the north, making " Usoga 
an island." But I felt I ought to be content with what I had 
been spared to accomplish ; for I had seen full half of the lake, 
and had information given me of the other half, by means of 
which I knew all about the lake, as far,*at least, as the chief ob- 
jects of geographical importance were concerned. 

Let us now sum up the whole and see what it is worth. Com- 
parative information assured me that there was as much water on 
the eastern side of the lake as there is on the western — ^if any 
thing, rather more. The most remote waters, or top head of ike 
Nile, is the southern end of the lake, situated close on the third 
degree of south latitude, which gives to the Nile the surprising 
length, in direct measurement, rolling over thirty-four degrees of 
latitude, of above 2800 miles, or more than one eleventh of the 
circumference of our globe. Now from this southern point, round 
by the west, to where the great Nile stream issues, there is only 
one feeder of any importance, and that is the Kitangul^ Eiver ; 
while from the southernmost point, round by the east, to the 
strait, there are no rivers at all of any importance ; for the trav- 
eled Arabs one and all aver, that from the west of the snow-clad 
Kilimandjaro to the lake where it is cut by the second degree, 
and also the first degree of south latitude, there are salt lakes and 
salt plains, and the country is hilly, not unlike Unyamu&i ; but 
they said there were no great rivers, and the country was so 
scantily watered, having only occasional runnels and rivulets, that 
they always had to make long marches in order to find water 
when they went on their trading journeys ; and farther, those Ar- 
abs who crossed the strait when they reached Usoga, as mention- 
ed before, during the late interregnum, crossed no river either. 

There remains to be disposed of the " salt lake," which I be- 



430 TBS SOURCE OF THE IULK [\^i^ 

lieve is not a sAlt, hut a fresh-water lake ; and my reaaona are, as 
before stated, that the natives call all lakes salt if tbey find salt 
beds or salt islands in such places. Dr. Krap^ when he obtained 
a sight of the Kenia Mountain, heard from the natives there that 
there was a salt lake to its northward, and he also heard that a 
river ran from Kenia toward the Nile. If his information was 
true on this latter point, then, without doubt, there must exist 
some connection between his river and the salt lake I have heard 
of, and this, in all probability, would also establish a connection 
between my salt lake and his salt lake, which he heard was called 
Baringo.* In no view that can be taken of it, however, does this 
unsettled matter touch the established fact that the head of the 
Nile is in 8^ south latitude, where, in the year 1858, 1 discovered 
the head of the Victoria N'yanza to be. 

I now christened the " stones" Ripon Falls, after the nobleman 
who presided over the Soyal Geographical Society when my ex- 
pedition was got up ; and the arm of water from which the Nile 
issued. Napoleon Channel, in token of respect to the French Geo- 
graphical Society, for the honor they had done me, just before 
leaving England, in presenting me with their gold medal for the 
discovery of the Victoria N'yanza. One thing seemed at first 
perplexing — the volume of water in the Kitangul^ looked as 
large as that of the Nile ; but then the one was a slow river and 
the other swift, and on this account I could form no adequate 
judgment of their relative values. 

Not satisfied with my first sketch of the fidls, I could not resist 
Ripon Fans, skctchiug them again ; and then, as the cloudy state 
•**• of the weather prevented my observing for latitude, 

and the officer of the place said a magnificent view of the lake 
could be obtained from the hill alluded to as intercepting the 
view from the falls, we proposed going there ; but Kasoro, who 
had been indulged with n'sunnii antelope skins, and with Guinea- 
fowl for dinner, resisted this, on the plea that I never should be 
satisfied. There were orders given only to see the "stones," and 
if he took me to one hill I should wish to see another and an- 
other, and so on. It made me laugh, for that had been my nature 
all my life ; but, vexed at heart, and wishing to trick the young 
tyrant, I asked for boats to shoot hippopotami, in the hope of 
reaching the hills to picnic; but boating had never been ordered, 

* It is qaestionable whether or not tfaig word u a corruption of Bahr (sea of) 
Ingo. 



JvLT-Auo.] THE NORTHERN SLOPES OF AFRICA. 481 

and he would not listen to it '' Then bring fish," I said, that I 
might draw them : no, that was not ordered. " Then go you to 
the palace, and leave me to go to Urondogani to-morrow, after I 
have taken a latitude;" but the willful creature would not go un- 
til he saw me under way. And as nobody would do any thing 
for me without Kiisoro's orders, I amused the people by firing at 
the ferry-boat upon the Usoga side, which they defied me to hit, 
the distance being 500 yards; but^ nevertheless, a bullet went 
through her, and was afterward brought by the Wasoga nicely 
folded up in a piece of mbiigii. Bombay then shot a sleeping 
crocodile with his carbine, while I spent the day out watching the 
falls. 

This day also I spent watching the fish flying at the £dls, and 
RfpoDFtfOB, ^^1^ as if I only wanted a wife and family, garden and 
*^ yacht, rifle and rod, to make me happy here for life, 

so charming was the place. What a place, I thought to myself, 
this would be for missionaries I They never could fear starva- 
tion, the land is so rich ; and, if famAig were introduced by them, 
they might have hundreds of pupils. I need say no more. 

In addition to the rod-and-line fishing, a number of men, armed 
with long heavy poles with two iron spikes, tied prong-fashion 
to one end, rushed to a place over a break in the falls, which 
tired fish seemed to use as a baiting-room, dashed in their forks, 
holding on by the shaft;, and sent men down to disengage the 
pinned fish and relieve their spears. The shot they make in this 
manner is a blind one — only on the chance offish being there — 
and therefore always doubtful in its result. 

Church Estate again. As the clouds and Kasoro's willfulness 
were still against me, and the weather did not give 
hopes of a change, I sacrificed the taking of the lati- 
tude to gain time. I sent Bombay with Kasoro to the palace, 
asking for the sakibobo himself to be sent with an order for five 
boats, five cows, and five goats, and also for a general order to go 
where I like, and do what I like, and have fish supplied me; "for, 
though I know the king likes me, his officers do not; and then, 
on separating, I retraced^my steps to the Church Estate. 

1st To-day, afl»r marching an hour, as there was now no need 
for hurrying, and a fine pongo buck, the ngubbi of Uganda, of- 
fered a tempting shot, I proposed to shoot it for the men, and 
breakfast in a neighboring village. This being agreed to, the 
animal was dispatched, and we no sooner entered the village than 



432 



THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. 



[i8e2. 



we heard that n'samma, a magnificent description of antelope, 
abound in the long grasses close by, and that a rogue elephant 
frequents the plantains every night. This tempting news created 
a halt. In the evening I killed a n'samma doe, an animal very 
much like the Kobus EUipsiprymnus, but without the lunated 
mark over the rump ; and at night, about 1 A.M., turned out to 
shoot an elephant, which we distinctly heard feasting on plan- 
tains ; but rain was falling, and the night so dark, he was left till 
the morning. 

2c?. I followed up the elephant some way, till a pongo offering 
an irresistible shot, I sent a bullet through him, but he was lost 
after hours' tracking in the interminable large grasses. An enor- 
mous snake, with fearful mouth and fangs, was speared by the 
men. In the evening I wounded a buck n'sarama, which, after 




M^aamma Antelope— Uganda. 



tracking till dark, was left to stiffen ere the following morning; 
and just after this, on the way home, we heard the rogue elephant 



Aue.] THE NOBTHEBN SLOPES OF AFKICA. 433 

cranching the branches not hx off from the track ; but as no one 
would dare follow me against the monster at this late hour, he 
was reluctantly left to do more injury to the garden& 

Sd. After a warm search in the morning we fomid the n'samma 
buck lying in some water ; the men tried to spear him, but he 
stood at bay, and took another bullet. This was all we wanted, 
affording one good specimen ; so, after breakfisist, we marched to 
Kirindi, where the villagers, hearing of the sport we had had, and 
excited with the hopes of getting flesh, begged us to halt a day. 

4ih. Not crediting the stories told by the people about the sport 
here, we packed to leave, but were no sooner ready than several 
men ran hastily in to say some fine bucks were waiting to be shot 
close by. This was too powerful a temptation to be withstood ; 
so, shouldering the rifle, and followed by half the village, if not 
more, women included, we went to the place, but, instead of find- 
ing a buck — for the men had stretched a point to keep me at their 
village — we found a herd of does, and shot one at the people's 
urgent request 

We reached this in one stretch, and pnt np in our old quarters, 
where the women of Mlondo provided pomb^ plan- 
tains, and potatoes, as before, with occasional fish, and 
we lived very happily till the 10th, shooting buck. Guinea-fowl, 
and florikan, when, Bombay and Kasoro arriving, my work be- 
gan again. These two worthies reached the palace after crossing 
twelve considerable streams, of which one was the Luajerri, rising 
in the lake. The evening of the next day after leaving me at 
Kira they obtained an interview with the king immediately ; for 
the thought flashed across his mind that Bombay had come to re- 
port our death, the Waganda having been too much for the party. 
He was speedily undeceived by the announcement that nothing 
was. the matter excepting the inability to procure boats, because 
the officers at IJrondogani denied all authority but the sakibobo's, 
and no one would show Bana any thing, however trifling, without 
an express order for it. 

Irate at this announcement, the king ordered the sakibobo, who 
happened to be present, to be seized and bound at once, and said 
waiialy, " Pray, who is the king, that the sakibobo's orders should 
be preferred to mine?" and then, turning to the sakibobo himself, 
asked what he would pay to be released. The sakibobo, alive to 
his danger, replied at once, and without the slightest hesitation. 
Eighty cows, eighty goats, eighty slaves, eighty mbugii, eighty 

Ee 



Urondoeaiii 
■gain, MAT 



434 THE SOURCE OP THE NILE. [1862. 

butter, eighty coffee, eighty tobacco, eighty jowari, and eighty of 
all the produce of Uganda. He was then released. Bombay said 
Bana wished the saMbobo to come to TJrondogani, and giye him 
a start with five boats, five cows, and five goats ; to which the 
king replied, " Bana shall have all he wants ; nothing shall be de- 
nied him, not even fish ; but it is not necessary to send the saki- 
bobo, as boys carry all my orders to kings as well as subjects. 
Kasoro will return again with you, fully instructed in every thing, 
and, moreover, both he and Budja will follow Bana to Ganl" 
Four days, however, my men were kept at the palace ere the kiog 
gave them the cattle and leave to join me, accompanied with one 
more officer, who had orders to find the boats at once, see us ofl^ 
and report the circumstance at court. Just as at the last inter- 
view, the king had four women, lately seized and condemned to 
execution, squatting in his court He wished to send them to 
Bana, and when Bombay demurred, saying he had no authority 
to take women in that way, the king gave him one, and asked 
him if he would like to see some sport, as he would have the re- 
maining women cut to pieces before him. Bombay, by his own 
account, behaved with great propriety, saying Bana never wished 
to see sport of that cruel kind, and it would ill become him to see 
sights which his master had not Yiariingi sent me some tobac- 
co, with kind regards, and said he and the Wazinza had just ob- 
tained leave to return to their homes, K'yengo alone, of all the 
guests, remaining behind as a hostage until Mt6sa's powder-seek-, 
ing wakungu returned. Finally, the little boy Liigoi had been 
sent to his home. Such was the tenor of Bombay's report 

11^. The officer -sent to procure boats, impudently saying there 
were none, was put in the stocks by Kasoro, while other men 
went to Kirindi for sailors, and down the stream for boata On 
hearing the king's order that I was to be supplied with fishj the 
fishermen ran away, and pomb6 was no longer brewed &om fear 
of Kasoro. 

12th. To-day we slaughtered and cooked two cows for the jour- 
ney — ^the remaining three and one goat having been lost in the 
Luajerri — ^and gave the women of the place beads in return for 
their hospitality. They are nearly all Wanyoro, having been 
captured in that country by King Mt^ and given to Mlondo. 
They said their teeth were extracted, four to six lower incisors, 
when they were young, because no Myoro would allow a person 
to drink from his cup unless he conformed to that custom. The 
same law exists in TJsoga. 



Aug.] BAHB EL ABIAD. 4S5 



CHAPTER XVI. 

BAHB EL ABLAD. 

First Voyage on the OTe.— The Starting. —Description of the Rirer and the Conn- 
try. — ^Meet a hostile Vessel. — A naval Engagement. — Difficulties and Dangers. — 
Judicial Piocednre. — Messages from the King of Uganda. — His Efforts to get us 
back. — ^Desertion. — The Wanyoro Troops. — Kamram. — ^Elephant-stalking. — Dia- 
bolical Fossessiona 

In five boats of five planks each, tied together and calked with 
ToN'TaasLisflk. "^^^S*^ ^^S^, I Started with twelve Wanguana, Kla- 
soro and his page -followers, and a small crew, to 
reach E^amrasi's palace in Unyoro— goats, dogs, and kit, besides 
grain and dried meat, filling up the complement — ^but how many 
days it would take nobody knew. Paddles propelled these ves- 
sels, but the lazy crew were slow in the use of them, indulging 
sometimes in racing spurts, then composedly resting on their pad- 
dles while the gentle current drifted us along. The river, very 
unlike what it was from the Ripon Falls downward, bore at once 
the character of river and lake — clear in the centre, but fringed 
in most places with tall rush, above which the green banks sloped 
back like park lands. It was all very pretty and very interest- 
ing, and would have continued so had not Kasoro disgraced the 
Union Jack, turning it to piratical purposes in less than one hour. 

A party of Wanyoro, in twelve or fifteen canoes, made of single 
tree trunks, had come up the river to trade with the Wasoga, and 
having stored their vessels with mbugii, dried fish, plantains 
cooked and raw, ponib^, and other things, were taking their last 
meal on shore before they returned to their homes. Kasoro see- 
ing this, and bent on a boyish spree, quite forgetting we were 
bound for the very ports they were bound for, ordered our sailors 
to drive in among them, landed himself, and sent the Wanyoro 
fiying before I knew what game was up, and then set to pillaging 
and feasting on the property of those very men whom it was 
our interest to propitiate, as we expected them shortly to be our 
hosts. 

The ground we were on belonged to King Mt6sa, being a de- 



486 "^^^ SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [I8e2. 

pendency of Uganda, and it struck me as singolar that Wanyoro 
should be found here ; but I no sooner discovered the truth than 
I made our boatmen disgorge every thing they had taken, called 
back the Wanyoro to take care of their things, and extracted a 
promise from Kasoro that be would not practice such wicked 
tricks again, otherwise we could not travel together. Getting to 
boat again, after a very little paddling we pulled in to shore, on 
the Uganda side, to stop for the night, and thus allowed the in> 
jured Wanyoro to go down the river before us. I was much an- 
noyed by this interruption, but no argument would prevail on 
Kasoro to go on. This was the last village on the Uganda front- 
ier, and before we could go any fiulher in boats it would be neces- 
sary to ask leave of Kamrasi's frontier officer, N'yamyonjo, to en- 
ter Unyoro. The Wangiiana demanded ammunitiou in the most 
imperious manner, while I, in the same tone, refused to issue any, 
lest a row should take place, and they then would desert, alluding 
to their dastardly desertion in Msalala when Grant was attacked. 
If a fight should take place, I said they must fldck to me at onoe, 
and ammunition, which was always ready, would be served out 
to them. They laughed at this, and asked. Who would stop with 
me when the fight began? This was making a jest of what I 
was most afraid of-— that they would all run away. 
I held a leyfe to decide on the best manner of proceeding. 
The Waganda wanted us to stop for the day and 

Down the Nile n t ^ i • -i. ij 

radbMk again, feel the Way gently, argumg that etiquette demands 
it. Then, trying to terrify me, they said N'yam- 
yonjo had a hundred boats, and would drive us back to a cer- 
tainty if we tried to force past thtm, if he were not first spoken 
with, as the Waganda had often tried the passage and been re- 
pulsed. On the other hand, I argued that Grant must have ar- 
rived long ago at Kamrasi's, and removed all these difficulties for 
us ; but, I said, if they would send men, let Bombay start at once 
by land, and we will follow in boats, after giving him time to say 
we are coming. This point gained after a hot debate, Bombay 
started at 10 A.M., and we not till 6 P.M., it being but one hour's 
journey by water. The frontier line was soon crossed; and 
then both sides of the river, Usoga as well as Unyoro, belong to 
Eamrasi. 

I flattered myself all my walking this journey was over, and 
there was nothing left but to float quietly down the Nile, for 
Kidgwiga had promised boats, on Kamrasi's account, fix)m Un- 



Aug.] BAHB £L ABIAD. 487 

yoio to Gani, where Petherick's vessels were said to be stationed; 
but this hope shared the &te of so many others in Africa. In a 
little while an enormous canoe, full of well-dressed and well- 
armed men, was seen approaching us. We worked on, and found 
they turned, as if afraid. Our men paddled faster, they did the 
same, the pages keeping time playfully by beat of drum, until at 
last it became an exciting chase, won by the Wanyoro by their 
superior numbers. The sun was now setting as we approached 
N'yamyonjo's. On a rock by the river stood a number of armed 
men, jumping, jabbering, and thrusting with their spears, just as 
the Waganda do. I thought, indeed, they were Waganda doing 
this to welcome us ; but a glance at Kasoro's glassy eyes told me 
such was not the case, but, on the contrary, their language and 
gestures were threats, defying us to land. 

The bank of the river, as we advanced, then rose higher, and 
was crowned with huts and plantations, before which stood 
groups and lines of men, all fully armed. Farther, at this junc- 
ture, the canoe we had chased turned broadside on us, and joined 
in the threatening demonstrations of the people on shore. I could 
not believe them to be serious — ^thought they had mistaken us — 
and stood up in the boat to show myself, hat in hand. I said I 
was an Englishman going to Kamrasi's, and did all I could, but 
without creating the slightest impression. They had heard a 
drum beat, they said, and that was a signal of war, so war it should 
be; and Kamrasi's drums rattled up both sides the river, prepar- 
ing every body to arm. This was serious. Farther, a second 
canoe full of armed men issued out from the rushes behind us, 
as if with a view to cut off our retreat, and the one in front ad- 
vanced upon us, hemming us in. To retreat together seemed our 
only diance; but it was getting dark, and my boats were badly 
manned. I gave the order to close together and retire, offering 
ammunition as an incentive, and all came to me but one boat, 
which seemed so paralyzed with fright it kept spinning round 
and round like a crippled duck. 

The Wanyoro, as they saw us retreating, were now heard to 
say, "They are women — they are running — let us at them;" 
while I kept roaring to my men, " Keep together— come for pow- 
der ;" and myself loaded with small shot, which even made Ka- 
aoro laugh* and inquire if it was intended for the Wanyoro. 
"Yes, to shoot them like Guinea-fowl; and he laughed again. 
But confound my men I they would not keep together, and re- 



488 ^H£ SOUBCE OF THB NILE. [1862. 

treat with me. One of those served with ammunitioii went as . 
hard as he could go up stream to be out of harm's way, and an- 
other preferred hugging the dark shade of the rushes to keeping 
the clear open, which I desired for the benefit of our guns. It 
was now getting painfully dark, and the Wanyoro were stealing 
on us, as we could hear, though nothing could be seen. Present- 
ly the shade-seeking boat was attacked, spears were thrown, for- 
tunately into the river instead of into our men, and grappling- 
hooks were used to link the boats together. My men cried, 
"Help, Banal they are killing us;" while I roared to my crew, 
"Go in, go in, and the victory will be ours;" but not a soul would: 
they were spell-bound to the place ; we might have been cut up 
in detail ; it was all the same to those cowardly Waganda, whose 
only action consisted in crying "ISTyawo! n'yawo!" — ^Mother, 
mother, help us ! 

Three shots from the hooked boat now finished the action. 
The Wanyoro had caught a Tartar. Two of their men fell — one 
killed, one wounded. They were heard saying their opponents 
were not Waganda ; it were better to leave them alone ; and re- 
treated, leaving us, totally uninjured, a dear passage up the river. 
But where was Bombay all this while? He did not return till 
after us, and then, in considerable excitement, he told his tale. 
He reached N'yamyonjo's village before noon, asked for the offi- 
cer, but was desired to wait in a hut until the chief should arrive, 
as he had gone out on business ; the villagers inquired, however, 
why we had robbed the Wanyoro yesterday, for they had laid a 
complaint against us. Bombay replied it was no fault of Bana's ; 
he did every thing he could to prevent it, and returned all thai 
the boatmen took. 

These men then departed, and did not return until evening, 
when they asked Bombay, impudently, why he was sitting there, 
as he had received no invitation to spend the night; and, unless 
he walked off soon, they would set fire to. his hut Bombay, 
without the smallest intention of moving, said he had orders 
to see ITyamyonjo, and until he did so he would not budge. 
" Well," said the people, " you have got your warning, now look 
out for yourselves;" and Bombay, with his Waganda escort, was 
left again. Drums then began to beat, and men to hurry to and 
fit) with spears and shields, until at last our guns were heard, and, 
guessing the cause, Bombay with his Wagand^ escort rushed out 
of the hut into the jungle, and, without daring to venture on the 



Aug.] BAHB £L ABIAD. 439 

b€atei\ track, through thorns and thicket worked his way back to 
me, lame, and scratched all over wnth thorns. 

Crowds of Waganda, all armed as if for war, came to congratu- 
Retan to Kiwfl- ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ moming, jumping, jabbering, and shak- 
k6ri, vkh, jj^g ^^^^ spears at us, denoting a victory gained — ^for 

we had shot Wanyoro and no harm had befallen us. " But the 
road," I cried, "has that been gained? I am not going to show 
my back. We must go again, for there is some mistake; Grant 
ia with Kamrasi, and N'yamyonjo can not stop us. If you won't 
go in boats, let us go by Itgid to N'yamyonjo's, and the boats will 
follow after," Not a soul, however, would stir. N'yamyonjo 
was described as an independent chief, who listened to Kamrasi 
only when he liked. He did not like strange eyes to see his se- 
cret lodges on the N'yanza ; (ind if he did not wish us to go down 
the river, Kamrasi's orders would go for nothing. His men had 
now been shot ; to go within his reach would be certain death. 
Argument was useless, boating slow, to send messages worse ; so 
I gave in, turned my back on- the Nile, and the following day 
(16th) came on the Liiajerri. 

Here, to my intense surprise, I heard that Grant's camp was 
not far off, on its return from Kamrasi 's. I could not, rather 
would not, believe it, suspicious as it now appeared after my re- 
verse. The men, however, were positive, and advised my going 
to King Mt&a's — ^a ridiculous proposition, at once rejected ; for I 
had yet to receive Kamrasi's answer to our queen about opening 
a trade with England. I must ascertain why he despised English- 
men without speaking with them, and I could not believe Kam- 
rasi would prove less avaricious than either Biimanika or Mt^sa, 
especially as Eumanika had made himself responsible for our ac- 
tions. We slept that night near Kari, the Waganda eating two 
goats which had been drowned in the Luajerri ; and the. messen- 
ger-page, having been a third time to the palace and back again, 
called to ask after our welfere on behalf of his king, and remind 
us about the gun and brandy promised. 

17th and 18^. The two following days were spent wandering 
about without guides, trying to keep the track Grant had taken 
after leaving us, crossing at first a line of small hills, then traver- 
sing grass and jungle, like the dfik of India. Plantain gardens 
were frequently met, and the people seemed very hospitably in- 
clined, though they complained sadly of the pages rudely rushing 
into every hut, seizing every thing they could lay their hands on, 



440 ^I^^^ SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

and even eating the food which they had just prepared fqr tiieii 
own dinners, saying, in a mournful manner, " K it were not out 
of respect for you we should fight those little rascals, for it is not 
the king's guest nor his men who do us injury, but the king's 
own servants, without leave or license." I observed that special 
bomas or fences were erected to protect these villages against the 
incursions of lions. Buffaloes were about, but the villagers cau- 
tioned us not to shoot them, holding them as sacred animals; 
and, to judge firom the appearance of the country, wild animals 
should abound, were it not for the &ct that every Mganda seems 
by instinct to be a sportsman. 

At last, after numerous and various reports about Qrant, we 
To N-yaidnyaiiia, heard his drums last night, but arrived this morning 
*•**• just in time to be too late. He was on his march 

back to the capital of Uganda, as the people had told us, and 
passed through N'yakinyama just before I reached it What had 
really happened I knew not, and was puzzled to think. To insist 
on a treaty, demanding an answer to the queen, seemed the only 
chance left ; so I wrote to Grant to let me know all about it, and 
waited the result. He very obligingly came himself, said he left 
Unyoro aft;er stopping there an age asking for the road without 
effect, and left by the orders of Kamra^i, thinking obedience the 
better policy to obtain our ends. Two great objections had been 
raised against us ; one was that we were reported to be cannibals, 
and the other that our advancing by two roads at once was sus- 
picious, the more especially so as the Waganda were his enemies ; 
had we come from Rilmanika direct, there would have been no 
objection to us. 

When all was duly considered, it appeared evident to me that 
the great king of Unyoro, " the fiather of all the kings," was mere- 
ly a nervous, fidgety creature, half afraid of us because we were 
attempting his country by the unusual mode of taking two routes 
at once, but wholly so of the Waganda, who had never ceased 
plundering his country for years. As it appeared that he would 
have accepted us had we come by the friendly route of Basu^r^, 
a farther parley was absolutely necessary, and the more especially 
so as now we were all together and in Uganda, which, in conse- 
quence, must relieve him fh)m the fear of our harboring evil de- 
signs against him. No one present, however, could be prevailed 
on to go to him in the capacity of embassador, as the fix)ntier of- 
ficer had warned the wagdni or guests that, if they ever attempted 



Avo.] BAHB EL ABIAD. 441 

to cross the border again, he was bound in duty, agreeably to the 
orders of his king, to expel them by force; therefore, should the 
wag^ni attempt it after this warning, their first appearance would 
be considered a casus belli; and so the matter rested for the day. 

To make the best of a bad bargain, and as N'yakinyama was 
Tooann "eatcn up," we repaired to Grant's camp to consult 
cvnpfMM. ^|.j^ Budja ; but Budja was found firm and inflexible 
against sending men to Unyoro. His pride had been injured by 
the rebufls we had sustained. He would wait here three or four 
days as I proposed, to see what fortune sent us, if I would not be 
convinced that Kamrasi wished to reject us, and he would com- 
municate with his king in the mean while, but nothing more. 
Here was altogether a staggerer: I would stop for three or four 
days, but if Eiunrasi would not have us by that time, what was 
to be done? Would it be prudent to try Kisii^r^ now Baraka 
had been refiised the Gani route? or would it not be better still 
for me to sell Kamrasi altogether by oflFering Mt63a five hundred 
loads of ammunition, cloth, and beads, if he would give us a thou- 
sand Waganda as a force to pass through the Masai to Zanzibar, 
this property to be sent back by the escort from the coast? Kam- 
rasi would no doubt catch it if we took this course, but it was ex- 
pensive. 

Thus were we ruminating, when, lo, to our delight, as if they 
had been listening to us, up came Kidgwiga, my old friend, who, 
at Mt^'s palace, had said Kamrasi would be very glad to see 
me, and Vittagura, E^amrasi's commander-in^hief, to say their 
king was very anxious to see us, and the Waganda might come 
or not, as they liked. Until now, the deputation said, Kamrasi 
had doubted Budja's word about our friendly intentions, but 
since he saw us withdrawing from his country, those doubts were 
removed. The N'yansweng^, they said — meaning, I thought, 
Petherick — ^was still at Gani ; no English or others on the Nile 
ever expressed a wish to enter Unyoro, otherwise they might 
have done so ; and Baraka had left for Karagu^, carrying off an 
ivory as a present from Kamrasi. 

21st. I ordered the march to Unyoro ; Budja, however, kept 
brooding over the message sent to the Waganda, to the effect that 
they might come or not, as they liked; and considering us, with 
himself, to have all been treated "like dogs," begged me to give 
him my opinion as to what course he had better pursue ; for he 
must, in the first instance, report the whole circumstances to the 



442 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [18e2. 

king, and could not niarch at once. This was a blight on our 
prospects, and appeared very vexatious, in the event of Budja 
waiting for an answer, which, considering Mt^ had ordered his 
wakungu to accompany us all the way to Gani, might stop our 
march altogether. 

I therefore argued that Kamrasi's treatment of us was easily 
accounted for: he heard of us coming by two routes from an 
enemy's country, and was naturally suspicious of ;is ; that had 
now been changed by our withdrawing, and he invited us to him. 
Without doubt, his commander-in-chief was never very far away, 
and followed on our heels. Such precaution was only natural 
and reasonable on Elamrasi's part, and what had been done need 
not alarm any one. " If you do your duty properly, you will 
take us at once into Unyoro, make your charge over to these 
men, and return or not, as you like; for in doing so you will have 
fulfilled both Mt&a's and Kamrasi's orders at once." "Very 
good," says Budja ; " let it be so ; for there is great wisdom in 
your words ; but I must first send to my king, for the Waganda 
villagers have struck two of your men with weapons" (this had 
happened just before my arrival here), "and this is a most heinous 
offense in Uganda, which can not be overlooked. Had it been 
done with a common stick, it could have been overlooked ; but 
the use of weapons is an offense, and both parties must go before 
the king." This, of course, was objected to on the plea that it 
was my pwn a&ir. I was king of the Wangiiana, and might 
choose to dispense with the attendance. The matter was com- 
promised, however, on the condition that Budja should march 
across the border to-morrow, and wait for the return of these men 
and for fiirther orders on the Unyoro side. 

The bait took. Budja lost sight of the necessity there was for 
his going to Gani to bring back a gun, ammunition, and some 
medicine — that is to say, brandy — for his king, and sent his men 
off with mine to tell Mt^ all our adventures — our double re- 
pulse, the intention to wait on the Unyoro side for feither orders, 
and the account of some Waganda having wounded my men. I 
added my excuses for Kamrasi, and laid a complaint against 
Mt&a's officers for having defrauded us out of ten cows, five 
goats, six butter, and sixty mbiigu. It was not that we required 
these things, but I knew that the king had ordered them to be 
given to us, and I thought it right we should show that his offi- 
cers, if they professed to obey his orders, had peculated. Afier 



Aug.] BAHB £L ABIAD. 448 

these men had started, some friends of the yillager who had been 
apprehended on the charge of assailing my men came and offered 
Budja five eows to overlook the charge ; and Budja, though he 
could not overlook it when I pleaded for the man, asked me to 
recall my men. Discovering that the culprit was a queen's man, 
and that the ^tfOsdr would cause bad blood at court should the king 
order the man's life to be taken, I tried to do so, but things had 
gone too fiur. 
Again the expedition marched on in the right direction. We 
_ reached the last village on the Uganda frontier, and 

To North Fiont. , , . , -rr ^ i. i w 

ier s^tJ^b^ there spent the night. Here Grant shot a n'sunnu 
buck. The Wanguana mutinied for ammunition, 
and would not lift a load until they got it, saying, " IJnyoro is a 
dangerous country," though they had. been there before without 
any more than they now had in pouch. The fact was, my men, 
in consequence of the late issues on the river, happened to have 
more than Grant's men, and every man must have alike. The 
ringleader, unfortunately for himself, had lately fired at a dead 
lion, to astonish the IJnyoro, and his chum had fired a salute, 
which was contrary to orders ; for ammunition was at a low ebb, 
and I had done every thing in my power to nurse it Therefore, 
as a warning to the others, the guns of these two were confiscated, 
and a caution given that any gun in future let off, either by de- 
sign or accident) would be taken. 
To-day I felt very thankful to get across the much -vexed 
boundary -line, and enter Unyoro, guided by Kam- 
ier station, un. rasi's deputation of officers, and so shake off the ap- 
prehensions which had teased us for so many days. 
This first march was a picture of all the country to its capital : an 
interminable forest of small trees, bush, and tall grass, with scanty 
villages, low huts, and dirty-looking people clad in skins; the 
plantain, sweet potato, sesamum, and ul^zi (millet) forming the 
chief edibles, besides goats and fowls ; while the cows, which are 
reported to be numerous, being kept, as every where else where 
pasture-lands are good, by the wandering, unsociable Wahiima, 
are seldom seen. No hills, except a few scattered cones, disturb 
the level surface of the land, and no pretty views ever cheer the 
eye. Uganda is now entirely left behind j we shall not see its 
like again ; for the &rther one leaves the equator, and the rain- 
attracting influences of the Mountains of the Moon, vegetation de- 
creases proportionately with the distance. 



444 "^HE SOUBCE OF THE KILE. [1862. 

Fortunately, the frontier village could not feed so large a party 
ToKUgwiga's, ^ ^^^ ^^^ therefore we were compelled to move 
****• farther on, to our great delight, through the same 

style of forest acacia, cactus, and tall grass, to Kidgwiga's gardens^ 
where we no sooner arrived than Mt&a's messenger-page, with a 
party of fifty Waganda, dropped in, in the most unexpected man- 
ner, to inquire after "his royal master's friend, Bana." The king 
had heard of the fight upon the river, and thought the Wanguana 
must be very good shots. He still trusted we would not forget 
the gun and ammunition, but, above all, the load of stimulants, 
for he desired that above all things on earth. This was the 
fourth message to remind us of these important matters which we 
had received since leaving his gracious presence, and each time 
brought by the same page. While the purpose of the boy's com- 
ing with so many men was not distinctly known, the whole vil- 
lage and camp were in a state of great agitation, Budja fearing 
lest the king had some fault to find with his work, and the Wan- 
yoro deeming it a menace of war, while I was afraid they might 
take fright and stop our progress. 

But all went well in the end; Massey's log, which I have men- 
tioned as a present I intended for Mt^, was packed up, and the 
page departed with it Some of Rumanika's men, who came into 
TJnyoro with Baraka, with four of K'yengo's, were sent to call us 
by Kamrasi. Through Bfimanika's men it transpired that he 
had stood security for our actions, else, with the many evU reports 
of our being cannibals and suchlike, which had preceded our 
coming here, we never should have gained admittance to the 
country. The Wanyoro, who are as squalid-looking as the Wan- 
yamii^zi, and almost as badly dressed, now came about us to hawk 
ivory ornaments, brass and copper twisted wristlets, tobacco, and 
salt, which they exchanged for cowries, with which they purchase 
cows from the Waganda. As in Uganda, all the villagers forsook 
their huts as soon as they heard the wagdni (guests) were coming; 
and no one paid the least attention to the traveler save the few 
head men attached to the escort, or some professional traders. 

26th to 28^ I had no sooner ordered the march than Yittagu- 
ra counterordered it, and held a lev^e to ascertain, as he said, if 
the Waganda were to go back ; for, though Kamrasi wished to 
see us, he did not want the Wagsmda. It was Kamrasi's orders 
that Budja should tell this to his '^ child the mkavia," meaning 
Mt^ ; for when the Waganda came the first time to see him, 



7^ Aug.] BAHB EL ABIAD. 445 

three of his family died ; and when they came the second time, 
three more died; and as this rate of mortality was quite unusual 
in his femily circle, he could only attribute it to foul magic. The 
presence of people who brought such results was of course by no 
means desirable. This neat message elicited a declaration of the 
necessity of Budja's going to Gani with us, and a response from 
the commander-in-chief, probably to terrify the Waganda, that al- 
though G^ani was only nine days' journey distant from Kamrasi's 
palace, the Gktni people were such barbarians, they would call a 
straight-haired man a magician, and any person who tied his 
mbugii in a knot upon his shoulder, or had a full set of teeth as 
the Waganda have, would be surely killed by them. Finally, we 
must wait two days, to see if Kamrafli would see us or not Such 
was Unyoro diplomacy. 

An announcement of a different kind immediately followed. 
The king had heard that I gave a cow to Yittagura and Kidgwi- 
ga when they first came to me in Uganda, and wished the Wan- 
yamil^zi to ascertain if this was true. Of course, I said they were 
my guests in Uganda, and if they had been wise they would have 
eaten their cow on the spot ; what was that to £[amrasi ? It was 
a pity he did not treat us as well who have come into his coun- 
try at his own invitation, instead of keeping us starving in this 
gloomy wilderness, without a drop of pomb^ to cheer the day ; 
why could not he let us. go on? He wanted first to hear if tiie 
big mzungu, meaning myself, had really come yet. All fudge I 

Three days were spent in simply waiting for return messages 
on both sides, and more might have been lost in the same way, 
only we amused Yittagura and gave him confidence by showing 
our pictures, looking-glass, scissors, knives, etc., when he promised 
a march in the morning, leaving a man behind to bring on the 
Wanguana sent to Mt&a's, it being the only alternative which 
would please Budja; for he said there was no security for life in 
Unyoro, where every mkungu calls himself the biggest man, and 
no true hospitality is to be found. 

The next two days took us through Chagamoyo to Ejratosi, 
Tochagamoyo. ^7 *^® ^^ ^^ *^® compass; for the route Kamrasi's 
To KiMtod, ^®^ *^o^ differed from the one which Budja knew, 
^*'**" and he declared the Wanyoro were leading us into a 

trap, and would not be convinced that we were going on all right 
till I pulled out the compass and confirmed the Wanyoro. We 
were any thing but welcomed at Kiratosi, the people asking by 



446 ^^^ SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

what bad luck we had come there to eat up their crops; but in a 
little while they flocked to our doors and admired our traps, re- 
marking that they believed each iron box contained a couple of 
white dwarfe, which we carry on our shoulders, sitting straddle- 
legs, back to back, and they fly off to eat people whenever they 
get the order. One of these visitors happened to be the sister of 
one of my men, named Baruti, who no sooner recognized her 
brother than, without saying a word, she clasped her head with 
her hands, and ran off, crying, to tell her husband what she had 
seen. A spy of Kamrasi dropped the report that the Wanguana 
were returning from Mt&a's, and hurried on to tell his king. 

Slst Some Waganda hurrying in, confirmed the report of last 
night, and said the Wanguana, footsore, had been left at the 
Uganda frontier, expecting us to return, as Mtdsa, at the same 
time that he approved highly of my having sent men back to in- 
form him of Kamrasi's conduct, begged we would instantly return, 
even if found within one march of Kamrasi's, for he had much 
of importance to tell his friend Bana. The message continued to 
this effect : I need be under no apprehensions about the road to 
the coast, for he would give me as many men as I liked ; and, 
fearing I might be short of powder, he had sent some with the 
Wanguana. Both Wanguana were by the king given women 
for their services, and an old tin cartridge-box represented Mt^'s 
card, it being an article of European manufacture, which, if found 
in the possession of any Mganda, would be certain death to him. 
Finally, all the houses and plantains where my men were wound- 
ed had been confiscated. . 

When this message was fully delivered, Budja said we must re- 
turn without a day's delay. I, on the contrary, called up Kidg- 
wiga. I did not like my men having been kept prisoners in 
Uganda, and pronounced in public that I would not return. It 
would be an insult to Kamrasi my doing so, for I was now in his 
" house" at his own invitation. I wished Bombay would go with 
him (Badgwiga) at once to his king, to say I had hoped, when I 
sent Budja with Mabruki, in the first instance, conveying a friend- 
ly present from Mtdsa, which was done at my instigation, and I 
found Kamrasi acknowledged it by a return present, that there 
would be no more fighting between them. I said I had left En- 
gland to visit these countries for the purpose of opening up a 
trade, and I had no orders to fight my way except with the force 
of friendship. That Bumanika had accepted my views Kamrasi 



Aug.] BAHB £L ABTAT). 447 

must be fully aware by Baraka's having visited him ; and that 
Mt^ did the salne must be also evident, else he would never 
have ordered his men to accompany me to Gani ; and I now fond- 
ly trusted that these Waganda would be allowed to go with me, 
when, by the influence of trade, all animosity would cease, and 
friendly relations be restored between the two countries. 

This speech was hardly pronounced when Kajunju, a fine ath- 
letic man, dropped suddenly in, nodded a friendly recognition to 
Budja, and wished to know what the Waganda meant by taking 
us back, for the king had heard of their intention last night ; and 
when told by Budja his story, and by Kidgwiga mine, he vanish- 
ed like a shadow. Budja, now turning to me, said, '^-If you won't 
go back, I shall ; for the orders of Mt&a must always be obeyed, 
else lives will be lost ; and I shall tell him that you, since leaving 
his country and getting your road, have quite forgotten him." 
"If you give such a message as that," I said, "you will tell a 
&lsehood. MtSsa has no right to order me out of another man's 
house, to be an enemy with one whose friendship I desire. I am 
not only in honor bound to speak with Kimrasi, but I am also 
bound to carry out the orders of my countiy just as much as^you 
are yours ; moreover, I have invited Petherick to come to Kam- 
rasi's by a letter from Karagild, and it would be ill-becoming in 
me to desert him in the hands of an enemy, as he would then cer- 
tainly find Kamrad to be if I went back now." Budja then tried 
the coaxing dodge, saying, " There is much reason in your words, 
but I am sorry you do not listen to the king, for he loves you as 
a brother. Did you not go about like two brothers — ^walking, 
talking, shooting, and even eating together? It was the remark 
of all the Waganda, and the king will be so vexed when he finds 
you have thrown him over. I did not tell you before, but the 
king says, ' How can I alnswer Biimanika if Kamrasi injures Bana? 
Had I known Kamrasi was such a savage, I would not have let 
Bana go there ; and I should now have sent a force to take him 
away, only that some accident might arise from it by Kamrasi's 
taking fright ; the road even to Gani shall be got by force, if nec- 
essary.' " Then, finding me still persistent, Budja turned again 
and threatened us with the king's power, saying, " If you choose 
to disobey, we will see whether you ever get the road to Gani or 
not ; for Elamrasi is at war on all sides with his brothers, and 
Mt^sa will ally himself with them at any moment that he wishes, 
and where wUl you be then ?" 



448 ^^^ SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

Saying tliis, Budja walked o£^ muttering that our being here 
would much embarrass Mt^'s actions, while mj Wangiiana, who 
have been attentively listening, like timid hares, made up their 
minds to leave me, and tried, through Bombay, to obtain a final 
interview with me, saying they knew Mt6sa's power, and disobe- 
dience to him would only end in taking away all chance of es- 
cape. In reply, I said I would not listen to them, as I had seen 
enough of them to know it was no use speaking with a pack of 
unreasonable cowards, having tried it so often before; but I sent 
a message requesting them, if they did desert me at last^ to leave 
my guns ; and, fSurther, added an intimation that, as soon as they 
reached the coast, they would be put into prison for three yeais. 
The scoundrels insolentiy said "tiiend^ s^tu" (let's be off), rushed 
to the Waganda drums, and beat the march. 

IsL Early in the morning, as Budja drummed the home march, 
I called him up, gave him a glass rain-gauge as a letter for Mt6sa, 
and instructed him to say I would send a man to Mt^ as so<xi 
as I had seen Kamrasi about opening the road ; that I trusted he 
would take all the guns from the deserters and keep them for me, 
but the men themselves I wished transported to an island on tiie 
N'yanza, for I could never allow such scoundrels again to enter 
my camp. It was the effect of desertions like these that pre- 
vented any white men visiting these countries. This said, the 
Waganda all left us, taking with them twenty-eight Wanguana, 
armed with twenty-two carbines. Among them was the wretch- 
ed governess Manamaka, who had always thought me a wonder- 
ful magician, because I possessed, in her belief) an extraordinary 
power in inclining all the black king's hearts to me, and induced 
them to give the roads no one before of my color had ever at- 
tempted to use. 

With a following reduced to twenty men, armed with fourteen 
carbines, I now wished to start for Kamrasi's, but had not even 
sufficient force to lift the loads. A littie while elapsed, and a 
party of fifty Wanyoro rushed wildly into, camp, with their spears 
uplifl^ed, and looked for the Waganda, but found them gone. The 
athletic Kajunju, it transpired, had returned to Kamrasi's, told him 
our story, and received orders to snatch us away firom the Wagan- 
da by force, for the great mkamma, or king, was most anxious to 
see his white visitors ; such men had never entered Unyoro be- 
fore, and neither his father nor his father's fathers had ever been 
treated with such a visitation ; therefore he had sent these fifly 



Sept.] BAHB EL ABIAD. 449 

men to fall by stuprise on the Waganda and secure us. But 
again, in a little 'while, about 10 A.M., Kajunju, in the same wild 
manner, at the head of 160 warriors, with the soldier's badge— -a 
piece of mbiigu or plantain-leaf tied round their heads, and a leath- 
er sheath on their spear-heads, tufted with cow's-tail — ^rushed in 
exultingly, having found, to their delight, that there was no one 
left to fight with, and that they had gained an easy victory. They 
were certainly a wild set of ragamuffins — ^as different as possible 
from the smart, well-dressed, quick-of-speech Waganda as could 
be, and any thing but prepossessing to our eyes. However, they 
had done their work, and I offered them a cow, wishing to have 
it shot before them ; but the chief men, probably wishing the 
whole animal to themselves, took it alive, saying the men were 
all the king's servants, and therefore could not touch a morsel. 

E^mrasi expected us to advance next day, when some men 
would go on ahead to announce our arrival, and bring a letter 
which was brought with beads by Gani before Baraka's arrival 
here. It was shown to Baraka in the hope that he would come 
by the Karagu^ route, but not to Mabruki, because he came from 
Uganda. Kidgwiga informed us that Kamrasi never retaliated 
on Mt6sa when he lifted Unyoro cows, though the Waganda keep 
their "cattle on the border, which simply meant he had not the 
power of doing so. The twenty remaining Wanguana, convers- 
ing over the sudden scheme of the deserters, proposed, on one side, 
sending for them, as, had they seen the Wanyoro arrive, they 
would have changed their minds; but the other side said, "What! 
those brutes who said we should all die here if we staid, and yet 
dared not &ce the danger with us, should we now give them a 
helping hand ? Never ! We told them we would share our fate 
with Bana, and share it we will, for God rules every thing: every 
man must die when his time comes." 

We marched for the first time without music, as the drum is 
never allowed to be beaten in Unyoro except when 
the necessities of war demand it, or for a dance. Wan- 
yamuezi and Wanyoro, in addition to our own twenty men, car- 
ried the luggage, though no one carried more than the smallest 
article he could find. It was a pattern Unyoro march, of only 
two hours' duration. On arrival at the end, we heard that ele- 
phants had been seen close by. Grant and I then prepared our 
guns, and found a herd of about a hundred feeding on a plain of 
long grass, dotted here and there by small mounds crowned with 

F r 



450 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

shrub. The animals appeared to be all females, much smaller 
than the Indian breed ; yet, though ten were fired at, none were 
killed, and only one made an attempt to charge. I was with the 
little twin Manua at the time, when, stealing along under cover 
of the high grass, I got close to the batch and fired at the largest, 
which sent her round roaring. The whole of them then, greatly 
alarmed, packed together and began sniffing the air with their up- 
lifted trunks, till, ascertaining by the smell of the powder that 
their enemy was in front of them, they rolled up their trunks and 
came close to the spot where I was lying under a mound. My 
scent then striking across them, they pulled up short, lifted their 
heads high, and looked down sideways on us. This was a bad 
job. I could not get a proper front shot at the boss of any of 
them, and if I had waited an instant we should both have been 
picked up or trodden to death ; so I let fly at their temples, and, 
instead of killing, sent the whole of them rushing away at a much 
faster pace than they came. After this I gave up, because I never 
could separate the ones I had wounded from the rest, and thought 
it cruel to go on damaging more. Thinking over it afterward, I 
came to the conclusion I ought to have put in more powder ; for 
I had, owing to their inferior size to the Indian ones, rather de- 
spised them, and fired at them with the same charge and in the 
aame manner as I always did at rhinoceros. Though puzzled at 
the strange sound of the rifle, the elephants seldom ran far, packed 
in herd, and began to graze again. Frij, who was always ready 
at spinning a yarn, told us with much gravity that two of my men, 
TJl^di and Wadi Hamadi, deserters, were possessed of devils {ph6 
po) at Zanzibar. TJlddi, not wishing to be plagued by his satanic 
majesty's angels on the march, sacrificed a cow and fed the poor, 
according to the great ph^po's orders, and had been exempted 
from it; but Wadi Hamadi, who preferred taking his chance, had 
been visited several times : once at Usui, when he was told the 
journey would be prosperous, only the devil wanted one man's 
life, and one man would fall sick ; which proved true, for Has- 
sani was murdered, and Grant fell sick in Karagu^. The second 
time Wadi Hamadi saw the devil in Karagu6, and was told one 
man's life would be required in Uganda, and such also was the 
case by Kari's murder ; and a third time, in Unyoro, he was pos- 
sessed, when it was said that the journey would be prosperous, but 
protracted. 
Sd, Though we stormed every day at being so shamefully neg- 



J 

I 



;i 



Skft.] BAHB £L ABIAD. 453 

lected and kept in the jungles, we could not get on, nor find out 
the truth of our position. I asked if Kamrasi was afraid of us, 
and looking into his magic horn ; and was answered " No ; he is 
very anxious to see you, or h© would not have sent six of his 
highest officers to look after you, and prevent the unruly peas- 
antry from molesting you." "Then by whose orders are we 
kept here?" "By Kwnrasi's." "Why does Kamrasi keep us 
here?" "He thinks you are not so near, and men have gone»to 
tell him." "How did we come here from the last ground?" 
" By Kamrasi's orders ; for nothing can be done excepting by 
his orders." "Then he must know we are here?" "He may 
not have seen the men we sent to him ; for, unless he shows in 
public, no one can see him." The whole affair gave us such an 
opinion of Kanirasi as induced us to think it would have served 
him right had we joined Mt^ and given him a thrashing. This, 
I said, was put in our power by an alliance with his refractory 
brothers; but Kidgwiga only laughed and said, "Nonsense! 
Kamrasi is the chief of all the countries round here — Usoga, 
Kidi, Chopi, Gani, Ul^ga, every where ; he has only to hold up 
his hand and thousands would come to his assistance." Kwibdya, 
the officer of the place, presented us with five fowls on the part 
of the king, and some baskets of potatoes. 

4^. We halted again, it was said, in order that Kwib^ya might 
give us all the king had desired him to present. I sent Bombay 
off with a message to Kamrasi explaining every thing, and beg- 
ging for an early interview, as I had much of importance to com- 
municate, and wished, of all things, to see the letter he had from 
Gani, as it must have come from our dear friends at home. Seven 
goats, fiour, and plantains were now brought to us; and as Kidg- 
wiga begged for the flour without success, he flew into a fit of 
high indignation because these things were given and received 
without his having first been consulted. He was the big man 
and appointed go-between, and no one could dispute it. This 
was rather startling news to us, for Vittagura said he was com- 
mander-in-chief; Kajunju thought himself biggest, so did Kwi- 
b^ya, and even Dr. K'yengo's men justified Budja's speech. 

5ih and 6th. Still another halt, with all sorts of excuses. Frij, 
it appeared, dreamt last night that the King of Uganda came to 
fight us for not complying with his orders, and that all my men 
ran away except IJlddi and himself. This, according to Uie in- 
terpretation of the coast, would turn out the reverse, otherwise 



454 THE SOUBCE OF THE NILE. [1S62. 

his head must be wrong, and, according to local science, shonld be 
set right again by actual cautery of the temples ; and as Grant 
dreamt a letter came from Gani which I opened and ran away 
with, he thought it would turn out no letter at all, and therefore 
Kamrasi had been humbugging us. We heard that Bombay had 
shot a cow before Kamrasi, and would not be allowed to return 
until he had eaten it. 

At last we made a move, but only of two hours' duration. 
Change gnmnd, through the usuoJ forcst^ in which elephants walked 
'^^ about as if it were their park. We hoped at starting 

to reach the palace, but found we must stop here until the king 
should send for us. We were informed that doubtless he was 
looking into his uganga, or magic horn, to discover what he had 
to expect from ns; and he seemed as yet to have found no ground 
for being afraid of na Moreover, it is his custom to keep visit- 
ors waiting on him in this way, for is he not the king of kings, 
the King of Kittara, which includes' all the countries surrounding 
Unyoro? 



Sept.] 



UNYORO. 



466 



CHAPTER XVn. 

UNYOEO. 

Inyitation to the Palace at last.— Jonrney to it.— Bombay's Vifiit to King Eamrasi. 
— Our Keputation as Cannibals.— Reception at CJourt.— Acting the Physician 
again. — Royal Mendicancy. 

We halted again, but in the evening one of Dr. K'yengo's men 
ToChi«a«i,on came to invite us to the palace. He explained that 
2S lliamvCT^ Kamrasi was in a great rage because we only received 
®^ seven goats instead of thirty, the number he had or- 

dered Kwib^ya to give us, besides pombd and plantains without 
limitation. I complained that Bombay had been shown more 
respect than myself, obtaining an immediate admittance to the 
king's presence. To this he gave two ready answers — that every 
distinction shown my subordinate was a distinction to myself, and 
that we must not expect court etiquette from savages. 




King Kamrasi's PaUoe, from my but— Unyora 



9^. We set off for the palace. This last march differed but 
little from the others. Putting Dr. K'yengo's men in front, and 



^ nS SOUBGE OF THE NILE. {TdfiZ. 

goinc on despite all entreaties to stop, we passed the last bit of 

jungie, ^ghted the Kidi hills, and, in a sea of swampy grass, at 

last we s^od in front of and overlooked the great king's palace, 

sitaated N, lat V 87' 43", and E. long. 82° 19' 49", on a low 

toDgae of land between the Kaf u and Nile Bivers. It was a 

dampy, large hut, surrounded by a host of smaller ones, and the 

worst royal residence we had seen since leaving IJzinza. Here 

Kajunju, coming from behind, overtook us, and, breathless with 

running, in the most excited manner abused Dr. K'yengo's men 

for leading us on, and ordered us to stop until he saw the king, 

and ascertained the place his majesty wished us to reside in. 

BecoUecting Mtdsa's words that Kamrasi placed his guests on the 

N'yanza, I declined going to any place but the palace, which I 

maintained was my right, and waited for the issue, when Elajunju 

returned with pombd, and showed us to a small, dirty set of huts 

beyond the Kafii Kiver — the trunk of the Mw^rango and N'yanza 

branches which we crossed in Uganda — ^and trusted this would 

do for the present, as better quartersvin the palace would be 

looked for on the morrow. This was a bad beginning, and caused 

a few of the usual anathemas in which our countrymen give vent 

to their irritation. 

Two loads of flour, neatly packed in long strips of rush-pith, 
were sent for us " to consume at once," as more would be given 
on the morrow. To keep us amused, Kidgwiga informed us that 
Kamrasi and Mt&a — in fact, all the Wahuma — came originally 
! from a stock of the same tribe dwelling beyond Kidi. All bury 
I their dead in the same way, under ground ; but the kings are 
' toasted first for months till they are like sun-dried meat, when 
the lower jaw is cut out and preserved, covered with beads. The 
royal tombs are put under the charge of special officers, who oc- 
cupy huts erected over them. The umbilical cords are preserved 
from birth, and, at death, those of men are placed within the door- 
frame, while those of women are buried without — this last act 
corresponding, according to Bombay, with the custom of the Wa- 
hiyow. On the death of any of the great officers of state, the 
finger-bones and hair are also preserved ; or, if they have died 
shaven, as sometimes occurs, a bit of their mbugu dress is pre- 
served in place of the hair. Their families guard their tomba 

The story we heard at Karagu^, about dogs with horns in Un- 
yoro, was confirmed by Kidgwiga, who positively assured us that 
he once saw one in the possession of an official person, but it died. 



Sbpt.] unyobo. 457 

The horn then was stuffed with magic powder, and, whenever an 
army was ordered for war, it was placed on the war-track for the 
soldiers to step over, in the same way as a child is sacrificed to 
insure victory in Unyamu&i. Of the Karagud story, according 
to which all the Kidi people sleep in trees, Kidgwiga gave me a 
modified version. He said the bachelors alone do so, while the 
married folk dwell in houses. As most of these stories have some 
foundation in fisu^t, we presumed that the people of Kidi sometimes 
mount a tree to sleep at night when traveling through their for- 
ests, where lions are plentiful, but not otherwise. 

10^. I sent Kidgwiga with my compliments to the king, and a 
request that his majesty would change my residence, which was 
so filthy that I found it necessary to pitch a tent, and also that he 
would favor me with an interview after breakfast The return 
was a present of twenty cows, ten cocks, two bales of flour, and 
two pots of pomb^, to be equally divided between Grant and my- 
self, as Kamrasi recognized in us two distinct camps, because we 
approached his country by two different routes — ^a smart method 
for expecting two presents from ns, which did not succeed, as I 
thanked for all. Grant being " my son" on this occasion. The 
king also sent his excuses, and begged pardon for what happened 
to us on entering his country, saying it could not have taken place 
had we come from Bumanika direct His fear of the Wagauda 
gave rise to it, and he trusted we would forget and forgive. To- 
morrow our residence should be changed, and an interview fol- 
low, for he desired being fiiends with us just as much as we did 
with him. 

At last Bombay came back. He reported that he had not been 
allowed to leave the palace earlier, though he pleaded hard that 
I expected his return ; and the only excuse that he could extract 
from the king was, that we were Coming in charge of many wa- 
kungii, and he had found it necessary to retard our approach in 
consequence of the famine at Ghagiizi. His palace proper was 
not here, but three marches westward: he had come here and 
pitched a camp to watch his brothers, who were at war with him. 
Bombay, doing his best to escape, or to hurry my march, replied 
that he was very anxious on our account, because the Waganda 
wished to snatch us away. 

It was no doubt this hint that brought the messenger to our 
relief yesterday, as otherwise we might have been kept in the 
jungle longer. When told by Bombay of our treatment on the 



468 THE SOURCE OF THE NHiE. 11862. 

Nile, the king first said he did not think we wished to see kdxi, 
else we would have come direct from Riimanika ; but when ask- 
ed if Baraka's coming with Bumanika's officers was not sufficient 
to satisfy him on this point, he hung down his head and evaded 
the question, saying he had been the making of King Mt^sa of 
Uganda; but he had turned out a bad fellow, and now robbed 
him right and left * The Gani letter, supposed to be from Peth- 
erick, was now asked for, and a suggestion made about opening a 
trade with Gani, but all with the provoking result we had been 
so well accustomed to. No letter like that referred to had ever 
been received, so that Frij's interpretation about Grant's letter- 
dream was right ; and if we wished to go to Gani, the king would 
send men traveling by night, for his brothers at war with him lay 
upon the road. As to the Uganda question, and my desiring him 
to make friends with Mtdsa, in hopes that the influence of trade 
would prevent any plundering in future, he merely tossed his 
head. He often said he did not know what to think about his 
guests, now he had got them ; to which Bombay, in rather success- 
ful imitation of what he had heard me say on like occasions, re- 
plied, " If you do not like them after you have seen them, cut 
their heads off, for they are all in your hands." 

llih. With great apparent politeness Kamrasi sent in the mom- 
itig to inquire how we had slept. He had " heard our cry" — ^an 
expression of regal condescension — and begged we would not be 
alarmed, for next morning he would see us, and after the meeting 
change our residence, when, should we not approve of wading to 
his palace, he would bridge all the swamps leading up to it; but 
for the present- he wanted two rounds of ball cartridge — one to 
fire before his women, and the other before his ofi^cers and a large 
number of Ki4i men who were there on a visit. To please this 
childish king, Bombay was sent with two other of my men, and 
no sooner arrived than a cow was placed before them to be shot. 
Bombay, however, thinking easy compliance would only lead to 
continued demands on our short store of powder, said he had no 
order to shoot cows, and declined. A strong debate ensued, 
which Bombay, by his own account, turned to advantage by say- 
ing, "What use is there in shooting cows? we have lots of meat; 
what we want is flour to eat with it." To which the great king 

* This obyiously was an allusion to the way in which the first king of Uganda 
was countenanced by the great king of Eittara, according to the tradition given in 
Chapter IX. 



iy2 Sbpt.] unyoro. 459 

retorted, " If you have not got flour, that is not my fault, for I or- 
dered your master to come slowly, and to bring provisions along 
with him." 

Then getting impatient, as all his visitors wanted sport, he or- 
dered the cow out again, and insisted on my men shooting at it, 
saying at the same time to his Kidi visitors, boastfully, " Now I 
will show you what devils these Wanguana are : with fire-arms 
they can kill a cow with one bullet ; and as they are going to 
Gani,I aid vise you not to meddle with them." The Kidi visitors 
said, " Nonsense ; we don't believe in their power, but we will 
see." Irate at his defeat, Bombay gave ordera to the men to fire 
over the cow, and told Kamrasi why he had done so — Bana 
would be angry with him. " Well," said the king of kings, " if 
that is true, go back to your master, tell him you have disap- 
pointed me before these men, and obtain permission to shoot the 
cow in the morning ; after which, should you succeed, your mas- 
ter can come after breakfast to see me ; but for the present, take 
him this pot of pombd" 

12th. To back Bombay in what he had said, I gave him two 
more cartridges to shoot the cow with, and orders as well to keep 
Kamrasi to his word about the oft-promised interview and change 
of residence. He gave me the following account on his return : 
Upward of a thousand spectators were present when he killed the 
cow, putting both bullets into her, and all in a voice, as soon as 
they saw the effect of the shot, shouted in amazement ; the Kidi 
visitors, all terror-stricken, crying out, as they clasped their 
breasts, "Oh, great king, do allow us to return to our country, for 
you have indeed got a new spiecies of man with you, and we are 
greatly afraid!" a lot of humbug and affectation to flatter the 
king, which pleased him greatly. It was not sufficient, however, 
to make him forget his regal pride ; for, though Bombay pleaded 
hard for our going to see him, and for a change of residence, the 
immovable king, to maintain the imperial state he had assumed as 
" king of kings," only said, " What difference does it make wheth- 
er your master sees me to-day or to-morrow ? If he wants to 
communicate about the road to Gani, his property at Karagu^, or 
his guns at Uganda, he can do so as well through the medium of 
my officers as with me direct, and I will send men whenever he 
wishes to do so. Perhaps you don't know, but I expect men 
from Gani every day, who took a present of slaves, ivory, and 
monkey-skins to the foreigners residing there, who, in the first 



460 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

instance, sent me a necklace of beads [showing them] by some 
men who wore clothes. They said white men were coming from 
Karagii^, and requested the beads might be shown them should 
they do so. They left this two moons before Baraka arrived 
here, and I told them the white men would not come here, as I 
heard they had gone to Uganda." * 

Bombay then, finding the king very communicatiye, went at 
him for his inhospiUdity toward us, h^ turning us back from his 
country twice, and now, after inviting us, treating us as Siiwarora 
did. On this he gave, by Bombay's account, the following curious 
reason for his conduct : " You don't understand the matter. At 
the time the white 'men were living in Uganda, many of the peo- 
ple who had seen them there came and described them as such 
monsters, they ate up mountains and drank the N'yanza dry ; 
and although they fed on both beef and mutton, they were not 
satisfied until they got a dish of the ' tender parts' of human be- 
ings three times a day. Now I was extremely anxious to see 
men of such wonderful natures. I could have stood their mount- 
ain-eating and N'yanza-drinking capacities, but on no considera- 
tion would I submit to sacrifice my subjects to their appetites, 
and for this reason I first sent to turn them back; but afterward, 
on hearing from Dr. K'yengo's men that, although the white men 
had traveled all through their country, and brought all the pretty 
and wonderful things of the world there, they had never heaixl 
such monstrous imputations cast upon them, I sent a second time 
to call them on : these are the facts of the case. Now, with re- 
gard to your accusation of my treating them badly, it is all their 
own fault. I ordered them to advance slowly and pick up food 
by the way, as there is a famine here; but they, instead, hurried 
on against my wishes. That they want to see -and give me pres- 
ents you have told me repeatedly — so do I them; for I want 
them to teach me the way to shoot, and when that is accomplished 
I will take them to an island near Kidi, where there are some 
men [his refiractory brothers] whom I wish to frighten away with 
guns ; but still there is no hurry ; they can come when I choose 
to call them, and not before." Bombay to this said, "I can not 
deliver such a message to Bana ; I have told so many fidsehoods 
about your saying you will have an interview to-morrow, I shall 
only catch a flogging," and forthwith departed. 

18^. More disgusted with Kamrasi than ever, I called Kidg- 
wiga up, and told him I was led to expect from Bumanika that I 



Sbft.] iinyoro. 461 

should find his king a good and reasonable man, which I believed, 
considering it was said by an unprejudiced person. Mt^a, on 
the contrary, told me Kamrasi treated all his guests with disre- 
spect, sending them to the farther side of the N'yanza. I now 
found his enemy mere truthful than his friend, and wished him 
to be told so. " For the future, I should never," I said, " men- 
tion his name again, but wait until his fear of me had vanished ; 
for he quite forgot his true dignity as a host and king in his sur- 
prise and fear, merely because we were in a hurry and desired to 
see him." He was reported to-day, by the way, to be drunk. 

As nothing could be done yesterday in consequence of the 
Change to West ^^^^g being in his cups, the wakungu conveyed my 
End,i4<A. message to-day, but with the usual effect, till a dip- 
lomatic idea struck me, and I sent another messenger to say, if 
our residence was not changed at once, both Grant and myself 
had made up our minds to cut off our hair and blacken our faces, 
so that the king of all kings should have no more cause to fear 
us. Ignoring his claiins to imperial rank, I maintained that his 
reason for ill treating us must be fear — it could be nothing else. 
This message acted like magic ; for he fully believed we would 
do as we said, and disappoint him altogether of the strange sight 
of us as pure white men. The reply was, Kamrasi would not 
have us disfigured in this way for all the world ; men were ap- 
pointed to convey our traps to the west end at once; and Kidg- 
wiga, Yittagura, and Kajunju rushed over to give us the news in 
all haste, lest we should execute our threat, and they were glad 
to find us with our faces unchanged. I now gave one cow to the 
head of Dr. K'yengo's party, and one to the head of Rumanika's 
men, because I saw it was through their instrumentality we gained 
admittance in the country; and we changed residence to the west 
end of Chaguzi, and found there comfortable huts close to the 
Kafu, which ran immediately between us and the palace. 

Still our position in Unyoro was not a pleasant one. In a long 
field of grass, as high as the neck, and half under water, so that 
no walks could be taken, we had nothing to see but Kamrasi's 
miserable huts and a few distant conical hills, of which one, 
Udongo, we conceive, represents the Padongo of Brun-BoUet, 
placed by him in 1^ south latitude, and 85° east longitude. We 
were scarcely inside our new dwelling when Kamrasi sent a cheer 
of two pots of pomb^, five fowls, and two bunches of plantains, 
hoping we were now satisfied with his favor; but he damped 



462 THE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [18«2. 

the whole in a moment again by asking for a many-bladed knife 
which his officers had seen in Grant's possession. I took what 
he sent from fear of giving offense, but replied that I was sur- 
prised the great king should wish to see my property before see- 
ing myself, and although I attached no more vaJue to my prop- 
erty than he did to his, I could not demean myself by sending 
him trifles in that way. However, should he, after hearing my 
sentiments, still persist in asking for the knife to be sent by the 
hands of a black man, I would pack it up with all the things I 
had brought for him, and send them by a black man, judging that 
he liked black men more than white. 

Dr. K'yengo's men then informed us that they had been twice 
sent with an army of Wanyoro to attack the king's brothers, on 
a river-island north of this about three days' journey, but each 
time it ended in nothing. You fancy yourself, they said, in a 
magnificent army, but the enemy no sooner turn out than the 
cowardly Wanyoro fly, and sacrifice their ally as soon as not into 
the hands of the opponents. They said Kamrasi would now ex- 
pect us to attack them with our guns. Bionga was the head of 
the rebels ; there were formerly five, but now only two of the 
brothers remained. 

16th. Kamrasi, after inquiring after our health, and how we 
had slept, through a large deputation of head men, alluded to the 
knife question of yesterday, thinking it very strange that, after 
giving me such nice food, I should deny him the gratification of 
simply looking at a knife ; he did not intend to keep it if it was 
not brought for him, but merely to look at and return it. To my 
reply of yesterday I added, I had been led, before entering Un- 
yoro, to regard Kamrasi as the king of all kings — the greatest 
king that ever was, and one worthy to be my father ; but now, as 
he expected me to amuse him with toys, he had lowered himself 
in my estimation to the position of being my child. To this the 
sages said, " Bana speaks beautifully, feelingly, and moderately. 
Of course he is displeased at seeing his'property preferred before 
himself; all the right is on his side ; we will now return and see 
what can be done, though none but white men in their greatness 
dare send such messages to our king." 

Dr. K'yengo's men were now attacked by Kidgwiga for having 
taken a cow from me yesterday, and told they should not eat it, 
because both they and myself were the king's guests, and it ill 
became one to eat that which was given as a dinner for the other. 



Sbft.] unyobo. 468 

Fortunately, foreseeing this kind of policy, as Elamrasi had been 
watching our actions, I invariably gave in presents those cows 
which came with us from Uganda, and therefore defied any one 
to meddle with them. This elicited the true facts of the case. 
Dr. K'yengo's men had been sent to our camp to observe if any 
body received presents from us, as Kamrasi feared his subjects 
would have the fleecing of us before his turn came, and these men 
had reported the two cows given by me as mentioned above. 
Kamrasi no sooner heard of this than he took the cows and kept 
them himself In their justification, Dr. K'yengo's men said that, 
had they not been in the country before us, Kamrasi would not 
have had such guests at all ; for when he asked them if the Wa- 
ganda reports about our cannibalism and other monstrosities were 
true, their head man denied it all, offered to stand security for our 
actions, and told the king if he found us cannibals he might make 
a Mohammedan of him, and sealed the statement with his oath by 
throwing down his shield and bow and walking over them. To 
this Kamrasi was said to have replied, " I will accept your state- 
ments, but you must remain with me until they come." 

Kajunju came with orders to say Kiimrasi would seize any 
body found staring at us. I requested a definite answer would 
be given as regards Kamrasi's seeing us. Dr. K'yengo's men then 
said they were kept a week waiting before they could obtain an 
interview, while Kajunju excused his king by saying, " At pres- 
ent the court is full of Kidi, Chopi, Gani, and other visitors, who 
he does not wish should see you, as some may be enemies in dis- 
guise. They are all now taking presents of cows from Kamrasi, 
and going to their homes, and, as soon as they are disposed of, 
your turn will come." 

16^. We kept quiet all day, to see what effect that would have 
upon the king. Kidgwiga told us that, when he was a lad, Kam- 
rasi sent him with a large party of Wanyoro to visit a king who 
lived close to a high mountain, two months' journey distant, to 
the east or southeast of this, and beg for a magic horn, as that 
king's doctor was peculiarly famed for his skill as a magician. 
The party carried with them 600 majemb^ (iron spades), two of 
which expended daily paid for their board and lodgings on the 
way. The horn applied for was sent by a special messenger to 
Kamrasi, who, in return, sent one of his horns ; from which date 
the two kings, whenever one of them wishes to communicate with 
the other, sends, on the messenger's neck, the horn that had been 



464 ^HE SOURCE OF THE NILE. [1862. 

pven him, which both serves for credentials and security, as no 
one dare touch a mbakka with one of these horns upon his neck. 

A common source of conversation among our men now was the 
desertion of their comrades, all fancying how bitterly they would 
repent it when they heard how we had succeeded, eating beef 
every day ; and Ul^i now, in a joking manner, abused Mektub 
fdr having urged him to desert. He would not leave Bana, and 
if he had not stopped, ^ektub would have gone, for they both 
served one master at Zanzibar, and therefore were like brothers; 
while Mektub, laughing over the matter as if it were a good joke, 
said, " I packed up my things to go, it is true, but I reflected if I 
got back to the coast Said Majid would only make a slave of me 
again." M'yinzuggi, the head of Eiimanika's party, gave me to- 
day a tippet monkey-skin in return for the cow I had given him 
on the 14th. These men, taking their natures from their king 
Eumanika, are by far the most gentle, polite, and attentive of any 
black men we have traveled among. 

nth. Tired and out of patience with our prison — a river of 
crocodiles on one side, and swamps in every other direction, while 
we could not go out shooting without a specific order from the 
king — I sent Kidgwiga and Kajunju to inform Kamrasi that we 
could bear this life no longer. As he did not wish to see white 
men, our residing here could be of no earthly use. I hoped he 
would accept our present fix)m Bombay, and give us leave to de- 
part for Gani. The wakungu, who thought, as well as ourselves, 
that we were in nothing better than a prison, hurried off with the 
message, and soon returned with a message from their king that . 
he was busily engaged decorating his palace to give us a triumph- 
ant reception, for he was anxious to pay us more respect than 
any body who had ever visited him before. We should have 
seen him yesterday, only that it rained; and, as a precaution 
against our meeting being broken up, a shed was being built 
He could not hear of our leaving the country without seeing 
him. 

18^. At last we were summoned to attend the king's lev^ ; 
but the suspicious creature wished his officers to inspect the 
things we had brought for him before we went there. Here was 
another hitch. I could not submit to such disrespectful suspi- 
cions ; but if he wished Bombay to convey my present to him, I 
saw no harm in the proposition. The king waived the point, and 
we all started, carrying as a present the things enumerated in the 



Sbpt.] tjnyobo. 465 

note.* The Union Jack led the way. At the ferry three shots 
were fired, when, stepping into two large canoes, we all went 
across the Kafu together, and found, to our surprise, a small hut 
built for the reception, low down on the opposite bank, where no 
strange eyes could see us. 

Within this, sitting on a low wooden stool placed upon a double 
matting of skins — cows' below and leopards' above — on an ele- 
vated platform of grass, was the gr^at king Kamrasi, looking, en- 
shrouded in his mbugii dress, for all th^ world like a pope in state 
—calm and actionless. One bracelet of fine-twisted brass wire 
adorned his left wrist, and his hair, half an inch long, was worked 
up into small peppercorn-like knobs by rubbing the hand circu- 
larly over the crown of the head. His eyes were long, face nar- 
row, and nose prominent, after the true fashion of his breed ; and 
though a finely-made man, considerably above six feet high, he 
was not so large as Bumanika. A cowskin, stretched out and 
fastened to the roof, acted as a canopy to prevent dust falling, 
and a curtain of mbugii concealed the lower parts of the hut, 
in front of which, on both sides of the king, sat about a dozen head 
men. 

This was all. We entered and took seats on our own iron 
stools, while Bombay placed all the presents upon the ground be- 
fore the throne. As no greetings were exchanged, and all at first 
remained as silent as death, I commenced, after asking about his 
health, by saying I had journeyed six long years (by the African 
computation of five months in the year) for the pleasure of this 
meeting, coming by Karagu6 instead of by the Nile, because the 
" Wanya B^ri" (Bari people at Gondokoro) had' defeated the proj- 
ects of all former attempts made by white men to reach Unyoro. 
The purpose of my coming was to ascertain whether his majesty 
would like to trade with our country, exchanging ivory for arti- 
cles of European manufacture ; as, should he do so, merchants 
would come here in the same way as they went from Zanzibar to 
Karagu^. Eiimanika and Mt&a were both anxious for trade, and 
I felt sorry he would not listen to my advice and make friends 
with Mt&a ; for, unless the influence of trade was brought in to 

* 1 doable rifle, 1 block-tin box, 1 red blanket, 1 brown do., 10 copper wire, 4 
socks fall of different-colored minute beads, 2 socks fall of blue and white pigeon 
oggs, 1 Bodgers's penknife, 2 books, 1 elastic circle, 1 red handkerchief, 1 bag gan- 
caps, 1 pair scissors, 1 pomatum-pot, 1 quart bottle, 1 powder-flask, 7 lbs. powder, 
1 dressing-case, 1 blackhig-box, 1 brass lock and key, 4 brass handles, 8 brass sock- 
ets, 7 chintz, 7 bindera, 1 red bag, 1 pair glass spectacles, 1 lucifer-box. 

Gg 



466 THE SOURCE OF TETE NILE. [1862. 

check the Waganda from pillaging the countiy, nothing wotdd 
do so. 

Kamrasi, in a very quiet^ mild manner, instead of answering the 
question, told us of the absurd stories which he had heard from 
ihe Waganda, said he did not believe them, else his rivers, de- 
prived of their fountains, would have run dry ; and he thought, 
if we did eat hills and the tender parts of mankind, we should 
have had enough to satisfy our appetites before we reached XJn- 
yor9. Now, however, he waa glad to see that, although our hair 
was straight and our faces white, we stUl possessed hands and feet 
like other men. 

The present was then opened, and every thing in turn placed 
upon the red blanket. The goggle? created some mirth ; so did 
the scissors, as Bombay, to show their use, cUpped his beard ; and 
the lucifers were considered a wonder; but the king scarcely 
moved or uttered any remarks till all was over, when, at the insti- 
gation of the courtiers, my chronometer was asked for and shown. 
This wonderful instrument, said the officers (mistaking it for my 
compass), was the magic horn by which the white men found their 
way every where. Kamrasi said he must have it ; for, besides it, 
the gun was the only thing new to him. The chronometer, how- 
ever, I said, was the only one left, and could not possibly be part- 
ed with ; though, if Elamrasi liked to send men to (xani, a new 
one could be obtained for him. 

Then changing the subject, much to my relief, Kamrasi asked 
Bombay, " Who governs England ?" " A woman." " Has she 
any children?" "Yes," said Bombay, with ready impudence; 
"these are two of them" (pointing to Grant and myself). That 
settled, Kamrasi wished to know if we had any speckled cows, or 
cows of any peculiar color, and would we like to change four large 
cows for four small ones, as he coveted some of ours. This was 
a staggerer. We had totally failed, then, in conveying to this stu- 
pid king the impression that we were not mere traders, ready to 
bargain with him. We would present him with cows if we had 
such as he wanted, but we could not bargain. The meeting then 
broke up in the same chilling manner as it began, and we returned 
as we came, but no sooner reached home than four pots of pomb^ 
were sent us, with a hope that we had arrived all safely. The 
present gave great satisfaction. The Wanguana accused Frij of 
having " unclean hands," because the beef had not lasted so long 
as it should do; it being a notable fi^t in Mussulman creed, that 



\ 



Sept.] UNYOEO. 467 

unless the man's hands are pure who cuts the throat of an animal, 
its flesh will not last fresh half the ordinary time. 

19^. As the presents given yesterday occupied the king's mind 
too much for other business, I now sent to offer him one third of 
the guns left in Uganda, provided he would send some messen* 
gers with one of my men to ask Mt&a for them, and also the same 
proportion of the sixty loads of property left in charge of Eiima- 
nika at E^aragud, if he would send the requisite number of porters 
for its removal. But of all things, I said, I most wished to send 
a letter to Petherick at Gani, to apprise him of our whereabouts, 
for he must have been four years waiting our arrival there, and 
by the same opportunity I would get a watch for the king. He 
sent us to-day two pots of pomb^ one sack of salt^ and what might 
be called a screw of butter, with an assurance that the half of ev- 
ery thing which came to his house — ^and every thing was brought 
from great distances in boats — ^he would give me ; but for the 
present the only thing he was in need of was some medicine or 
stimulants. Farther, I need be under