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Full text of "Journal of the Indian Roads Congress"

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801.812 




<i^Ji^. 




^^RAfS^' 




idian Roads Congrl 
Journal Volume 41-1 



u MOUiC 



TENTATIVE PROGRAMME OF THE 

41st ANNUAL SESSION 

OF THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 

TO BE HELD AT PATNA FROM THE 27th 

DECEMBER, 1980 TO 2iid JANUARY, |981 



December, 1980 
Saturday, the 27th 



Sunday, the 28th 



Monday, the 29th 09.30-.10.00 

10.30-13.00 

10.30-13.00 

14.00-16.30 

16.30 



Tuesday, the 30th 



Wednesday, the 31st 

January^ 1981 
Thursday, the 1st 

Friday, the 2nd 



08.00-1 3.00 R^stration 
10.00-13.00 Meetings of Committees 
1 1.30-1 3.00 Meeting of the Highway 

Research Board 
14.00-16.00 100th Council Meeting 
16.00-17.00 Meeting of the Managmg 
Conmiittee of the Indian 
National Group of the lABSE 

09.30-11.00 Inauguration 

11.30-13.00 Papers 

1 1 . 30- 1 3.00 Meetings of Committees 

14.00-17.00 Papers 

17.15 Group Photo 

Annual General Meeting of the 

Indian National Group of the 

lABSE 

Papers 

Meetings of Committees 

Papers 

Meeting of the New Managing 

Committee of the ING/IABSE 

09.30-11.30 Papers 

11.30-13.00 General Report on Road 

Research 
14.00-17.00 General Report on Road 

Research 

10.00-13.00 Panel Discussion 
14.00-16.00 Business Meeting 
16.30 New Council Meeting 



1 0.00-1 3.00 Chief Engineers' meeting 
1 4.00- 1 7.00 Chief Engineers' meeting 

Local visits for other delegates 
— Inspection tour. 



INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 
JOURNAL VOLUME 41-1 






Published by the Indian Roads Congrtss 

Copies can be had by V. P, P. from the 
Secretary^ Indian Roads Congress, 
Jamnagar House, Shahjahan Road 
New Delhi 110 011 

NEW DELHI 19ia Price: Rs. 7-5D 
Foreien: 9 1..50 



83^ 306fiflS ^0J3* SVi ^^^^ 



TENTATIVE PROGRAMME OF THE 

41st ANNUAL SESSION 

OF THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 

It) BE HELD AT PATNA FROM THE 27th 

DECEMBER, 1980 TO 2nd JANUARY,-;981 



December, 1980 
Saturday, the 27th 



Sunday, the 28th 



Monday, the 29th 09.30-10.00 

10,30-1 3,00 

10.30-13.00 

14.00-16.30 

16.30 



Tuesday, the 30th 



Wednesday, the 31st 

January^ 1981 
Thursday, the 1st 

Friday, the 2nd 



08.00-1 3.00 Registration 
10.00-13.00 Meetings of Committees 
11.30-13.00 Meeting of the Highway 

Research Board 
14.00-16.00 100th Council Meetmg 
16.00-17.00 Meeting of the Managmg 
Committee of the Indian 
National Group of the lABSE 

09. 30- 1 1 .00 Inauguration 

11.30-13.00 Papers 

1 1 . 30- 1 3.00 Meetings of Committees 

14.00-17.00 Papers 

17.15 Group Photo 

Annual General Meeting of the 

Indian National Group of the 

lABSE 

Papers 

Meetings of Committees 

Papers 

Meeting of the New Managing 

Committee of the ING/IABSE 

09.30-11.30 Papers 

11.30-13.00 General Report on Road 

Research 
14.00-17.00 General Report on Road 

Research 

10.00-13.00 Panel Discussion 
14.00-16.00 Business Meeting 
16.30 New Council Meeting 



1 0.00-1 3.00 Chief Engineers* meeting 
14.00-17.00 Chief Engineers* meeting 

Local visits for other delegates 
~ Inspection tour, 



INDUN ROADS CONGRESS 
JOURNAL VOLUME 41-1 



/ 



# ^ Or 

A/ 14. ^ i^ Q^ 



Published by the Indian Roads Congrtss 

Copies can be had by V, P. P. from the 
Secretary, Indian Roads Congress, 
Jamnagar House, Shahjahan Road 
New Delhi 110 011 

NEW DELHI 19ia Price: Rs. 7-5D 
Foreign: 9 1*50 



L*^ 



83^ 308RRS Sv-s' ^>^ ^^^""^ 



{The Rights of PMicatUm and TnmsUokm are reserved) 



The Indian Roads Congress as a body does not 
hold itself responsible for statements made, or for 
opinions expressed in the Papers published in this 
Volume. 



Printed at New Century Printers, 41-B, Sidco Estate, Ambattj 
Madras-600 098. Edited, Printed and Published by P. C. Bhad 
Secretary, Indian Roads Congress, Jamnagar House, Shahjahan, Rol 
New Delhi-110 011 under the authority of the Indian Roads CongrM 
5,750— September, 1980. 



INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 

istablished: 1934 Registered: 1937 

OFFICE-BEARERS AND COUNCIL 19S0-81 

President: 

Shri M. D. Patel, 

Secretary to the Government of Gujarat, 

B & C Department, 

Block No.5 (1st Floor), 

Sachivalaya, 

GANDHINAGAR - 382021. 

Vice-Presidents : 

Prof. C. G. Swaminathan, 
Director, 

Central Road Research Institute, 
P.O. C.R.R.I., Okhla, 
NEW DELHI- 110 020. 

Lt. Gen. S. N. Sharma, 

Engineer-in-Chief, 
Army Headquarters, 
D.H.Q. P.O., 
NEW DELHI- 110 011. 

Shri K. K. Sarin, 

Chief Engineer-cum-Additional Secretary, 
Rajasthan P.W.D., B & R., 
JAIPUR -302 006 

Shri P. S. Gokhale, 

Chief Executive, 

The Freyssinet Prestresscd Concrete Co. Ltd., 

6th Floor, Sterling Centre, 

Dr. Annie Besant Road, Worli, 

BOMBAY -400 01 8. 



Ofrce-Bearers and Council 



Honorary Treasurer: 
Shri J. S. Marya, 

Director General (Road Development) & 
Additional Secretary to the Government of Ii 
Ministry of Shipping & Transport (Roads Wi 
Transport Bhawan', 
NEW DELHI -110 001. 



Honorary Secretary: 



Shri P. C. Bhasin, 



Chief Engineer (Bridges), 

Ministry of Shipping & Transport, (Roads Wing), 

Transport Bhawan', 

NEW DELHI- 110 001. 





Members of the Council: 


1. 


Qazi Mohd. Afzal 


25. 


P.S. Mazumdar 


2. 


Brig. S.S. Ahluwalia 


26. 


Y.K. Mehta 


3. 


K. Tong Pang Ao 


27. 


B.M. Mukherjee 


4. 


K.S. Bansal 


28. 


S.K. Mukherjee 


5. 


H. Barua 


29. 


K.P. Nair 


6. 


Lt. Gen. J.S. Bawa 


30. 


A.C. Padhi 


7. 


D.N. Bhobc 


31. 


S.S. Panda 


8. 


K.K. Biswas 


32. 


Dr. V.K. Raina 


9. 


L.B. Chhetri 


33. 


A.R. Rao 


10. 


S. Dasgupta 


34. 


N.S.L. Rao 


11. 


J. Deivasigamany 


35. 


C. Rama Rao 


12. 


S.C. Dikshit 


36. 


S.A. Reddi 


13. 


Achyut Ghosh 


37. 


K.C. Rcddy 


14. 


B.S. Grewal 


38. 


R.V. Reddy 


15. 


I.e. Gupta 


39. 


B. Sarangi 


16. 


Jose F.F. de Albuquerque 


40. 


D. Ajitha Simha 


17. 


Dr. C.E.G. Justo 


41. 


Col. Avtar Singh 


18. 


E. Krishnan 


42. 


N.K. Sinha 


19. 


F. Kharkongor 


43. 


N.G. Sitaram 


20. 


Rokima Lianhna 


44. 


Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 


21. 


K.S. Logavinayagam 


45. 


S.R. Tambe 


22. 


H.C. Malhotra 


46. 


Dr. D.J. Victor 


23. 


O.P. Malhotra 


47. 


K. Yegnanarayana 


24. 


B.L. Mathur 


48. 


A Rep. of Govt, of 
Maharashtra 



PERSONNEL OF THE TECHNICAL 
COMMITTEES 



1. BITUMINOUS PAVEMENTS COMMITTEE 



Prof.C.G. Swaminathan 
N. Sivaguru 



Convenor 
Member-Secretary 



Brig. S.S. AMuwalia 

V.K.Arora 

Col. Avtar Singh 

Dr. Aruo Kumar 

Prof. S.P. Bindra 

R.R.Bendre 

MXChatteiiee 

B.M.Das 

Y.CGokhalc 

Gulzar Singh 

Sailapati Gupta 

AY. Guptc 

D.P.Jain 

M.B. Jayawant 

R.S. Jindal 

LR. Kadiyali 

K.L. Kapoor 

D.N. Khurana 

N.H. Keshwani 

SB. Kullcami 

P-K. Lauria 

M.R. Malya 



PJ. Mehta 
B.S. Mathur 
S.S. Mongia 
P.M. Nadgauda 
K.P. Nair 
T.H. Peshori 
Mahabir Prasad 
Satish Prasad 
K.C. Reddy 
A. Sankaran 
R.P. Sikka 
S.N. Sinha 
G.M. Shonthu 
K. Yagnanarayana 
Rep. ofE-in-C, A.H.Q. 
Director, Highways Research 
Station, Madras 
(S. Natarajan) 

Rep. of Kerala Highway Research 
Institute 



2. BRIDGES COMMITTEE 

Addl. Director General (Bridges) 

AD. Narain 

^r- Ramji Agrawal 

^R. Alimchandani 

I>r.AS.Arya 

Anitava Banerjee 

J*.C.Bhasin 



Convenor 

Member-Secretary 

T.K. Basu 

Dr. P. Ray Chaudhury 

K.L. Kapoor 

A.K. Lai 

N.V. Merani 



The Director General (Road Development) and Addl. Secretary to the 
^ovt. of India is Ex-officio member of all Committees, Sub-committees, 
^^kinf Groups and Panels of the LR,C. 



PtRSONNEL OF THE TECHNICAL COMMITIEES 



C B. Malhur 

P.V. Naik 

J.R.K. Prasad 

A.C. Padhi 

Kartik Prasad 

Dr. V.K. Raina 

B. Balwant Rao 

V. Rama Rao 

A.R. Rao 

M.P. Gajapathy Rao 

Dr. K. Sreenivasa Rao 

T.N. Subba Rao 

A. Sankaran 

S. Seetharaman 



Shitala Sharan 

D. Ajitha Simha 

Dr. M.G. Tamhankar 

P.K. Thomas 

B.T. Unwalla 

Director, Hydrology-Small 

Catchment 
Prof, of Structural Engineering, 

College of Engineering, 

Madras (Dr. G. Jayaraman) 
Rep. of R.D.S.O. 
Rep. of D.G.B.R. (S.S. Dhanjal) 
Rep. of Cement Research Insthu 

of India 

(Structural Department) 



3. CEMENT CONCRETE ROAD SURFACE^G COMMITTEE 



K.K. Nambiar 
Dr. R.K. Ghosh 

Brig. S.S. Ahluwalia 
Col. Avtar Singh 
Dr. K.L. Bhanot 
H.S. Bhatia 
D.C. Chaturvedi 
M.G. Dandavate 
Dr. M.P. Dhir 
P.K. Issac 
P.J. Jagus 

Maj. Gen. R.K. Kalra 
Dr. S.K. Khanna 
D.N. Khurana 
P.J. Mehta 
Y.K. Mehta 

4. EDUCATION COMMITTEE 

M.D. Kale 
Dr. O.S. Sahgal 

Brig. Gobindar Singh 
I.e. Gupta 
Y.C. Gokhaie 
Dr. A.V. Jalota 
Dr. C.E.G. Juste 
Dr. R.K. Katti 
Dr. S.K. Khanna 
P.J. Mehta 
I.D. Mirchandani 



Convenor 
Member-Secretary 

N.V. Merani 

Y.R. Phull 

G.S. Rao 

M.M.D. Seth 

Amarjit Singh 

N. Sivaguru 

P.V. Somashekhar 

S.D. Vidyarthi 

Director General, Cement 

Research Instt. of India 
City Engineer. 

Municipal Corporation of 

Bombay 
Rep. of I.S.I. 



Convenor 
Member-Secretary 

Dr. S.K. Mukherjee 

A.C. Padhi 

Prof. M.V. Ranganath 

K.C. Reddy 

K.K. Sarin 

Prof. C.G. Swaminathan 

Dr. D.J. Victor 

Rep. of Ministry of Education 

[(Deputy liducational Advfser( 



Personnel of the Technical Committees 5 

5. HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION AND MECHANTZATION COMMITTEE 

P.K. Thakur . . Convenor 

G. Viswanathan . . Member-Secretary 

R.J. Bhakni H.A. Shahdadpuri 

Brig. Gobindar Singh P.K. Sen 

S.K. Gupta Amaijit Singh 

S.K. Kelavkar Satinder Singh 

S.B. Kulkami G.P. Sharma 

M.R. Malya D. Ajitha Simha 

J.F.R. Moses H.N. Singh 

P.M. Nadgauda Prof. C.G. Swaminathan 

K.K. Nambiar A. Rep. of C.W.C. 

S.S. Panda A Rep. of Ministry of Industrial 

K.R Patel Development 

5. Ramanatha PiJlai A Rep. of D.G3.R. 
H.S. Rastogi (A.K. Mukherjee) 

Rep. of E-in-C, A.H.Q., A Rep. of Bharat Eartfi Movera 

(Brig. M.R. Sikka) Ltd. 

6. HIGHWAY ENVIRONMENT AND POLLUTION COMMmEE 

K.K. Nambiar Convenor 

Prof. M.S.V. Rao . . Member-Secretary 

Jose F.F. de Albuquerque L.R. Kadiyali 

Y.N. Bahl H.N. Kumar 

B.K. Bansal N. Ranganathan 

M.K. Bhalla K.C. Reddy 

Prof. H.U. Bijlani K.K. Sarin 

Prof. J.M. Dave Dr. A.C. Sama 

LC. Gupta R.P. Sikka 

R.S. Jindal R. Thillainayagam 

C.E., P.W.D., Kerala 

7. LANDSCAPING OF ROADS COMMTTTEE 

I.e. Gupta . . Convenor 

Y.N. Bahl .. Member-Secretary 

V.K. Arora R.C. Jain 

J.M. Benjamin K.L. Kapoor 

M.K. BhaUa H.K. Mewada 

D.K. Bhattacharya I. K. Modi 

K.K. Biswas J.B. Pradhan 

F.K. Davar B.N. Rahalkar 

Jose F.F. de Albuquerque Prof. M.S.V. Rao 

S.C. Gupta K.K. Sarin 

J.D. Goyal R.P. Sikka 



Personnel of the Technical Committees 



L. Shivalingaiah 
Amarjit Singh 
Sayed S. Shafi ' 
M. Mathew Varghese 



Director, Higways Reteaich 
Station, Madras 
(S. Natarajan) 
CE(N.H.)A.P. 



8. METROFOLrrAN ROADS COMMITTEE 



M.K. Chatterjce 
S.K. Chanda 

Y.N. Bahl 
P. Banerjee 
Prof. H. U. Bijlani 
M. Dinakaran 
Dr. R.K. Ghosh 
J.D. Goya! 
I.e. Gupta 
S. Sen Gupta 
R.C. Jain 
P.K. Lauria 
P.S. Mazumdar 
PJ. Mehta 
B.C. Mitra 



9. PAPERS COMMTFTEE 
Director Gen. (Road Devclopnient) 



Secretary, I.R.C. 

Lt. Gen. J.S. Bawa 
K.K. Nambiar 
AC. Padhi 



Convenor 
Member'Secretary 

K.K. Nambiar 

S.M. P&rulkar 

Dr. A.C. Sarna 

L. Shivalingaiah 

R.P. Sikka 

Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

Prof. C.G. Swaminathan 

S.S. Virdhi 

Rep. of P.W.D., B & R., A.P., 

(J.V. Prasad) 
S.E. (Traffic Engineering 

Managennent Cell), Madras 
City Engineer, Madras 
C.E., P.W.D., Kerala 



Convenor 



. Member-Secretary 

N.S.L. Rao 

Addl. Director General (Bridge 
Brig. Gobindar Singh 
Prof. C.G. Swaminathan 



10. PREVENTION OF RIBBON DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE 



Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

Deputy Secretary (R), I.R.C. 

Prof. G.M. Andavan 

Dr. F.P. Antia 

Y.N. Bahl 

P.C. Bhasin 

K.S. Bansal 

J. Datl 

Brig. Gobindar Singh 

O.P. Gupta 

L.R. Kadiyali 

N.H. Keswani 



Convenor 
Member-Secretary 

O.P. Malhotra 

MJ>. Patel 

Prof. M.S.V. Rao 

K.C. Reddy 

R.K. Sharma 

Sayed S. Shah 

G.P. Sharma 

R.P. Sikka 

Prof. C.G. Swaminathan 

R. Thillainayagam 



Personnel of the Technical Committees 



C.E. (N.H.), Kerala 

(K.C. Alexander) 
C^., P.W.D., West Bengal 
E-in-C., U.P. P.W.D., B & R 

(S.C. Dikshit) 



Director, Gujarat Engg. Research 

Institute (CD. Thatte) 
Director, Maharashtra Engg. 

Research Institute 

(P.K. Nagarkar) 



11. ROAD TRANSPORT COST COMMITTEE 



S. M. Sinha 

Lt. Gen. J.S. Bawa 

D.P. Gupta 

Dr. P.P. Antia 

M.G. Dandavate 

I.e. Gupta 

A.Y. Gupte 

LR. Kadiyali 

S.B. Kulkami 

A. Krishna Murthy 

Mil. Malya 

Lt Gen. T.B. Nanda 

K.K. Nambiar 

M.D. Patel 

R. Prabhakar Rao 



Convenor 

Co-Convenor ^ 

Member-Secretary 

Prof. M.S.V. Rao 
Dr. A.C. Sarna 
H.C. Sethi 
Add!. Director General (Roads), 

(Brig. Gobindar Singh) 
Director, Transport Research, 
Ministry of Shipping&Transport 

[Dr. (Mrs.) I.K. Barthakar] 
Director, Highways Research 

Station, Madras (S. Natanuan) 
A Rep. of Planning Commission 

D.G.B.R. 



II RO.\D TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE 



Dr. F P. Antia 
S.K. Ghorai 

Prof. M.Q. Dalvi 

J. Datt 

S.K. Ganguly 

Brig. Gobindar Singh 

D.P. Gupta 

Mrs. Mridula Krishna 

i.K. Modi 

KK. Nambiar 

Lt Gen. T.B. Nanda 

R. Prabhakar Rao 

V.S. Rane 

S.K. Samaddar 

K.K. Sarin 

H.C. Sethi 

K.K. Sharma 

Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 



Convenor 
Member-Secretary 

Prof. C.G. Swaminathan 

R. Thillainayagam 

V.R. Vengurlekar 

Y. Verma 

Rep. of the Transport Wing, 

Ministry of Shipping & 

Transport 

(B.R. Chavan) 
Director, Transport Research, 

Ministry of Shipping & 

Transport 

[Dr. (Mrs.) I.K. Barthakar] 
A Rep. of Automobile 

Manufacturers' Association 

M.S. Wazc 
A Rep. of I.R.T.D.A., Bombay. 



10 



Personnel of the Technical Committees 



Jagman Singh 

P.K. Thakur 

Rep. of Directorate General of 

Technical Development 

(T. Ramasubraroanian) 

17. TEST TRACK COMMFTTEE 

The £ngineer-in-Chief& Secretary to 

the Govt, of West Bengal 

K.K. fiisv^as 
Director, R & B Research 

Institute, West Bengal (C.N. Bote) 
H. Barua 
R.R. Bendre 
Dr. S.P. Brahma 
M.K. Chatterjee 
Dr. M.P. Dhir 
T.A.E.D'sa 
S. Dasgupta 
Prof. S.C. Das 
I.e. Gupta 
S.N. Gupta 
Dr. B.K. Kaul 
F. Kharkongor 
A.R. Rao 



Addl. Director General (Roads) 
(Brig. Gobindar Sin^) 

Director (P. & M.) CW.C 
(C.R. Chopra) 

A Rep. ofD.G.B.R. 



Convenor 

Member-Secretary 

Prof. S. Koteswara Rao 

C. Rama Rao 

N. Sen 

N. Sivaguru 

Prof. C.G. Swaminathan 

H.S. Varma 

Addl. Director General (Roads), 

(Brig. Gobindar Singh) 
Rep. of Maharashtra Engineering 

Research Institute 

(V.T. Kulkami) 
R«p. of Calcutta Tramways Co., 

Ltd. (A.N. Bhaduri) 



18. TRAFFIC ENGINEERING COMMFTTEE 



H.C. Malhotra 

Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

Prof. G.M. Andavan 

Dr. M.G. Arora 

A.K. Bandopadhyaya 

P.S. Bawa 

A.K. Bhattacharya 

Prof. H.U. Bulani 

M.K. Chatteijee 

P. Das 

T. Ghosh 

I.e. Gupta 

D.P. Gupta 

Dr. C.E.G. Justo 

L.R. Kadiyali 

B.C. Mitra 

I.K. Modi 

G. Nandagopal 

S.M. Paruikar 

P. Patnaik 

Dr. K.S. Pillai 



Convenor 

Member-Secretary 

S. Ramanatha Pillai 

Dr. S. Raghava Chari 

N. Ranganathan 

Prof. M.S.V. Rao 

K.C. Reddy 

Dr. O.S. Sahgal 

K.K. Sarin 

Dr. A.C. Sarna 

H.C. Sethi 

R.P. Sikka 

J.S. Sodhi 

R. Thillainayagam 

K. Yegnanarayana 

P.R. Wagh 

Director, Transport Research, 

Ministry of Shipping & 

Transport 

[Dr. (Mrs.) I.K. Barthakar] 



Personnel of the Technical Committees 



11 



Svipermteiidiiig Engineer, TraflBc 
Engineering Management CeU, 
Madras 



Member-Secretary, Transport & 
Communications Board, 
B.M.R.D.A. 



19. PERSONNEL OF THE COMMITTEE TO SUGGEST IMPROVEMENT 
IN THE WORKING OF THE HIGHWAY CONTRACTING INDUSTRY 
IN THE COUNTRY 



Resident, Indian Roads Congress 
(M.D. Patel) 

Members : 

Lt Gen. J.S. Bawa 

H.S. Bhatia 

S. Dasgupta 

A.C. Padhi 

T.H. Ptahori 

N.S.L. Rao 

V.R. Vaish 

D.G. (RD) (J.S. Marya) 

Secretary, IRC (P.C. Bhasin) 



Convenor 



Secretary to the Govt, of 

Maharashtra 

P.W. & Housing Department 
Preaidait, Central Builders', 

Association, Delhi-(Hazari Lai 

Marwah) 
President, Builders* Association 

of India, Bombay-(Harbans Lai 

Arara) 
Chftlrman-cum-Managing 

Director, N.B.C.C. 



PERSONNEL OF THE TECHNICAL 
SUBCOMMITTEES 



SUBCOMMITTEE FOR REVISION OF BRII>GE 
CODE— SECTION II 



P.C. Bhasin 
Ninan Koshi 

C.R. Alimchandani 

Amitava Banerjce 

A.S. Bishnoi 

Dr. P. Ray Chaudhury 

B.J. Dave 

S.B. Joshi 

H.N. Kumar 

V.M. Madge 

N.V. Merani 

Dr. R. Nagaraja 

J.R.K. Prasad 



Convenor 
Member-Secretary 

Prof. D.R. Pathak 
Dr. V.K. Raina 
Dr. C.K. Ramesh 
M.C. Sharma 
Dr. K. Sreenivasa Rao 
T.N. Subba Rao 
Shitala Sharan 
Dr. M.G. Tamhankar 
V.R. Vengurlekar 
Rep. of R.D.S.O. 



SUBCOMMITTEE FOR REVISION OF BRIDGE 
CODE— SECTION IH 



P.C. Bhasin 
S.P. Chakrabarti 

Amitava Banerjee 

C.V. Kand 

H.N. Kumar 

V.M. Madge 

N.V. Merani 

Dr. A.K. Mullick 

Dr. V.P. Narayanaswamy 

Kartik Prasad 

N.S. Ramaswami 

K.S. Rakshit 

3. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR REVISION OF BRIDGE 
CODE— SECTION V (STEEL BRIDGES) 



Convenor 
Member-Secretary 

Dr. K. Sreenivasa Rao 
Dr. P. Srinivasa Rao 
T.N. Subba Rao 
Satinder Singh 
M.C. Sharma 
Shitala Sharan 
D. Ajitha Simha 
S. Venkataramani 
Rep. of R.D.S.O. 



S. Seetharaman 

N.K. Sinha 

Mrs. Shakuntala A. Bhagat 

P.C. Bhasin 

A. Ghosh 

Rep. of B.B.J. (N.E.V. Raghavan) 



Convenor 
Member-Secretary 
Rep. of Binny & Co. (S. Sridhara) 
Rep.of R.D.S.O.(Dr. H.S.S.Prasad) 
Rep. of I.S.I. (D. Ajitha Simha) 
Rep. of Structural Engg. 

Research Centre, Roorkee 

(D.S. Prakash Rao) 



Personnel of the Technical Subcommittees 13 

Rep. of EngineecB India Ltd. Rep. of Triveni Sinictural, 

(T.K.D. Munsi) Lucknow 

Rep. of Roorkee University AddJ. Director General 

(Dr. Prem Krishna) (Bridges) 

Rep. of I.I.T., Delhi (M. Raghupati) Rep. of H.C.L. 

4. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR REVISION OF BRIDGE CODE- 
SECTION VI (COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION) 

Amitava Banerjee . . Convenor 

K.S. Rakshit . . Member-Secretary 

S.S. Danjal K.B. Sarcar 

(kniranga Ganguly G. Venkatasulu 

A. Ghosal Rep. of Gammon India Ltd. 
S.K. Ghosh (S.R. Pinheiro) 

P.V. Naik Rep. of STUP (Consulunt) Ltd. 

M.S. Kapila (M.C. Tandon) 

U.T. Khcmani Rep. of R.D.S.O. (M.S. Ekbote) 

Dr. K. Sreenivasa Rao Rep. of I.S.L (D. Ajitha Simha) 
Dr. V.K. Raina 

5. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR FRAMING A CODE OF PRACTICE 
FOR THE DESIGN OF BRIDGE SUB-STRUCTURES— 

SECTION vn 

B. Balwant Rao . . Convenor 

5. Seetharaman . . Member^Secretary 
Amitava Banerjee Dr. K.S. Sankaran 
P.C. Bhasin Shitala Sharan 
Dr. P. Ray Chaudhury S.B.P. Sinha 

V.M. Madge Rep. of D.G.B.R. (S.S. Dhanjal) 

Dr. K. Sreenivasa Rao A Rep. of R.D.S.O. 

T.N. Subba Rao 

6. SUBCOMMTTTEE FOR EVALUATING THE PASSIVE RESIS- 
TANCE OF SOIL BELOW THE MAXIMUM SCOUR LEVEL IN THE 
DESIGN OF WELL FOUNDATIONS 

P.C. Bhasin . . Convenor 

D.V. Sikka . . Member-Secretary 

Dr. A.S. Arya Shitala Sharan 

Dr. R.K. Katti Dr. S.C. Sharda 

M.K. Mukherjee C.E., Pamban Bridge Project 

P.V. Naik (E.C. Chandrasekharan) 

N. S. Ramaswami A Rep. of R.D.S.O. 

Dr. K.S. Sankaran A Rep. of C.B.R.I., Roorkee 



14 Personnel of the Technical Subcommittees 

7. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR PREPARING STANDARDS FOR MIDGE 
BEARINGS AND EXPANSION JOINTS 

T.N. Subba Rao . . Convenor 

A.D. Narain . . Member-Smretan' 

J.N. Chhaudda N.S. Ramaswami 

B.J. Dave A.P. Remedios 

Achyut Ghosh M.C. Sukharamwala 

P.S. Gokhalc P.K. Thomas 

S.Y. Khan Dr. D. Johnson Victor 

V.M. Madge A Rep. of R.D.S.O. 

M.K. Navaney A Rep. of Kirloskar Oil Enginos 

Dr. V.K. Raina Ltd. (Bearing Division) 

8. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR PREPARATION OF GUIDELINES FOR 
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF RIVER TRAINING AND 
PROTECTIVE WORKS FOR ROAD BRIDGES 

M.K. Navaney . . Convenor 

R.L. Kaul Member-Secretory 

Rep. of C.W. & P.R.S. Poona " Rep. of P.W.D., U.P. 

(M.L. Godbolc) (M.L. Shukla) 

Rep. of P.W.D., West Bengal, Satinder Singh 

(D. Ghosh) N. Sivaguru 

Rep. of P.W.D., Gujarat Director, 

(M.S. Jalundhwala) (Barrage Design) C.W.C. 

Rep. of R.D.S.O. (U.S. Pandey) (K.N. Raju) 

Rep. of C.B. I. & P. P.K. Thomas 

(S.P. Kaushish) 

9. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR PREPARATION OF GUIDELINES FOR THE 
DESIGN AND ERECTION OF FORMWORK & CENTERING FOR 
ROAD BRIDGES 

G. Venkatasulu . . Convenor 

S.C. Motwani . . Member-Secretary 

K.D. Bali Rep. of M/s. Gammon (India) 
T.S. Chandrasckhar Ltd. (S.R. Sivaswamy) 

G.S. Jyer Rep. of U.P.S.B.C. Ltd. 
D.N. Khurana (Brijendra Singh) 

G.C. Mathur Rep. of M/s. Indian Plywood 
N.V. Merani Manufacturing Co., Ltd., 

A.D. Narain Bombay (Lt.Col.G.B. Singh) 

K. Suryanarayana Rao Rep. of N.B.C.C. (A.I. Ibrahim) 

P.S. Sandhawalia Rep. of C.A.I.(T.M.Mcnon) 
J.S. Sodhi 



Personnel of the Technical Subcommittees 15 

10. SUBCOMMTTIEE TO FRAME A CODE OF PRACTICE ON ROAD 
DRAINAGE FOR INDIAN CONDITIONS 

H.C. Malhotra . . Convenor 

K,\P. Sikka Member-Secretary 

M.K. Bhalla Rep. of D.G.CA. & C.P.W.D. 

D.C Chaturvedi (M.P. Patkar) 

O.P. Gupta Rep. of International Airports 

J.B. Mathur Authority of India 

B.C. Padhi (H.S. Bhatia) 

M.K. Saxena T.K. Natarajan 

Rep. of E-in-C, A.H.Q. S. Patnaik 

(B.R. Govind) Gulzar Singh 

11. SUBCOMMTTTEE FOR SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS OF 
PAVEMENTS 

Mahabir Prasad . . Convenor 

Dr. M.P. Dhir . . Member-Secretary 

K. Arunachalam B.C. I%dhi 

Prof. G.M. Andavan M.K. Saxena 

Dr. K.L. Bhanot R.P. Sikka 

OJ*. Gupta Gulzar Singh 

Dr. S.P. Jain Rep. of D.G.B.R. 

L.R.Kadiyali (E.V. Narayanan) 

N.H. Keshwani Director, Highways Research 

Station, Madras (S. Natar^an) 

12. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR TRAFFIC SURVEY 
R. Thillainayagam . . Convenor 
The Director, Institute of Road 

Transport, Madras . . Member - Secretary 

O.P. Gupta Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

L.R. Kadiyali G.P. Sharma 

N.H. Keshwani Superintending Engineer 

L.M. Patra (H.&.R.W.) Traffic Engg. 

R. Prabhakar Rao Management Ctll, Tamil Nadu 

B.N. Sahay Director, Transport Research, 

R Sarangi Ministry of Shipping & 

Dr. A.C. Sama Transport 

R.P. Sikka Pr. (Mrs.) T.K. Barthakar] 

13. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR SHORT TRAFFIC COUNTS 

R. Thillainayagam . . Convenor 

The Director, Institute of Road . . Member-Secretary 

Transport, Madras Dr. A.C. Sarna 

K.K. Bhatia G.P. Sharma 

Karam Chand R.P Sikka 

J.B. Mathur Superintending Engineer 

Dr. K.S. POlai (H.& R.W.) Traffic Engg. 

B. Sarangi Management Cell, Tamil Nadu 
IRC— 41-1— 2 



16 Personnel of the Technical Subcommittees 

14. SUBCOMMTITEE TO STUDY THE PROBLEM OF URBAN 
TRANSPORT— URBAN ROADS SYSTEM 

P. Banerjee B. Sarangi 

Narain Das R.P. Sikka 

Dr. A.C. Sama Dr. O.S. Sahgal 

H.C. Sethi Prof. C.G. Swaminathan 

B.N. Sahay 

15. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR COST-BENEFTT ANALYSIS 

R. ThiUainayagam . . Convenor 

The Director, Institute of Road . . Member-Secretary 

Transport, Madras B. Sarangi 

Prof. G.M. Andavan Dr. A.C. Sama 

A.K. Bhattacharya Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

Narain Das Director, Transport Research, 

D. P. Gupta Ministry of Shipping & 

L.M. Patra Transport 

R. Prabhakar Rao Pr. (Mrs.) I.K. Barthakar] 

16. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR GRADE SEPARATION 

K. Anmachalam L.R. Kadiyali 

A.G. Boricar G. Nandagopal 

A.K. Bandopadhyaya S.M. Parulkar 

A.K. Bhattacharya R.P. Sikka 

M.K. Chatterjee Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

17. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR TRAFFIC SIGNAL STANDARDS 

A. K. Bhattacharya Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

A.G. Borkar S.M. Parulkar 

18. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR SPEED VOLUME STUDIES & PARKING 
STUDIES 

P. Banerjee A Rep. of Highways Research 
Dr. A. C. Sama Station, Madras 

Dr. N.S. Srinivasan A Rep. of Traffic Engineering Cell, 
S.K.B. Narayan Andhra Pradesh 

19. SUBCOMMHTEE for GEOMETRIC STANDARDS FOR ROAD 
INTERSECTIONS 

Dr. N.S. Srinivasan Dr. A.C. Sarna 

C. Ramdas N. Ranganathan 

20. SUBCOMMTTTEE OF THE HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION AND 
MECHANIZATION COMMirTEE FOR FIXING ECONOMICAL 
SIZES OF BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTS 

P.K. Thakur . . Convenor 

G. Viswanathan . . Member-Secretary 



Personnel of the Technical Subcommittees 17 

S.Y. Bopardikar Mohan Singh 

^.S. Goitonde K.D. Sharaia 

Dinesh Mohan Gupta B.V. Shirodkar 

VX. Kanitkar The Chairman & Managing 
^S. Merani Director, National Projects 

MJLS. Ra^avan Construction Corpn. 

G. Raman A Rep. of Hindustan Moton 

Ltd., Calcutta 

21. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR GEOMETRIC STANDARDS FOR URBAN 
ROADS 

EABindra R.P. Sikka 

Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

22. SUBCOMMTETEE TO FINALISE THE DRAFF STANDARDS FOR 
SPEED BREAKERS 

EA. Bindra R.P. Sikka 

Dr. A.C. Sama Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

23. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR COLLECTION OF BASIC DATA ON TRAVEL 
CHARACTERISTICS ASA PART OF THE GENERAL CENSUS 

EA. Bindra N. Ranganathan 

B.C. Padhi Prof. M.S.V. Rao 

Dr. A.C. Sama 

24. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR ROAD ACCIDENT FORMS Al AND 4 

Dr. (Mrs.) I.K. Barthakar H.A. Bindra 

Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

25. SUBCOMMTITEE FOR REST AND TERMINAL AREAS 

^f. S.K. Roy Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

^P. Sikka Rep. of Ministry of Works & 



Housing (N.Ranganathan) 



^^. SUBCOMMITTEE ON HILL ROADS 



Gobindar Sin^ . . Convenor 

^•S. Sodhi . . Member-Secretary 

^jor K. Barua Rep. of CRRI (T.K. Natarajan) 

^. Chaudhury Rep. of Mahrashtra P.W.D. (V.M . Bcdsc) 

^^. Gupta Rep. of Tamil Nadu P. W D.(A. Annamalai) 

^^r. M.P. Dbir Rqp. of H.P. P. W.D.'^ (R. A. Chaudhry) 

I>r. NJB. Lai Rep. of Kerala P.W.D. (M.V. Ittycheria) 

G- R. Laharwal Rep. of Nagaland P.W.D. (S.Chakraborty) 
Y.N. Zutshi 



18 



Personnel of the Technical Subcommittees 



Rep. of Tripura P.W.D. 

(N.K. Sinha) 
Rep. of Mizoram P.W.D. 

(Robula) 
Rep. of Karnataka P.W.D. 

(S. Rudraiah) 
Rep. of West Bengal P.W.D. (A.K. Sen) 
Rep. of Mcghalaya P.W.D. 
(BrowntoD Kharmalki) 



Rep of Mani pur P.W.D. 

(B.M. Mukheijee) 
Rep. of Arunachal Pradesh 

P.W.D. (Ravinder Lai) 
Rep. of Geological Survey of 

India (S.N. Chaturvedi) 
Rep. of D.G.B.R. (The Deputy 

Director, Technical Planning) 



27. SUBCOMMITTEE FOR PREPARING GUIDELINES AND NORMS 
FOR FIXING PRIORITIES FOR SELECTION OF RURAL ROADS 
AGAINST LIMITED FUNDS AVAILABLE FOR CONSTRUCnON/ 
IMPROVEMENT 



S.C. Dikshit 
D.P. Gupta 

S. Adaviyappa 
Dr. NJB. Lai 
K.S. Bansal 



Convenor 
Coordinator 

H.C. Malhotra 
I.K. Modi 
P.V. Somasekher 



K.K. Sarin 



28. MONITORING COMMITTEE FOR THE NINE DISTRICT LEVEL 
STUDIES AND RURAL ROAD DEVELOPMENT 



S. Adaviyappa 

Dr. N.B. UI 

A. Choudhury 

Prof. M.Q. Dalvi 

S.C. Dikshit 

Brig. Gobindar Singh 

D.P. Gupta 

LC. Gupta 

K.S. Logavinayagam 



Convenor 

Member-Secretary 

O.P. Malhtora 

M.D. Patel 

V.S. Rane 

K.K. Sarin 

Prof. C.G. Swaminathan 

C.E. (C&B Karnataka) 

P.V. Somasekhar 



PERSONNEL OF THE WORKING GROUPS 
AND PANELS 



1. WORKING GROUP FOR PREPARING PRESTRESSED CONCRETE 
CODE 

JJUL Prasad . . Convenor 

CR. Alimchandani N.S. Ramaswami 

SJ. Joshi P.K. Thomas 

B. fialwaot Rao Dr. M.G. Tamhankar 

T.N. Subba Rao A Rep. of D.G.B.R. 

1 PANEL TO CONSIDER AND APPROVE DRAFT EXPLANATORY 
NOTES ON I.R.C BRIDGE CODE--«ECnON I— GENERAL 
FEATURES OF DESIGN 

Addl. Director General (Bridges) . . Convenor 

Deputy Secretaiy (Bridges) » I.R.C. . . Member-Secretary 
T.N. Subba Rao A Rep. of C. W.C , 

Shitala Sharan A Rep. of R.D.S.O. 

A Rep. of Irrigation Researdi 
Institute, Roorkee 

3. PANEL TO GO INTO THE REVISION OF THE PRESENT LR.C. 
LIVE LOADS 

^JL Thomas . . Convenor 
SJ>. Chakrabarti V.R. Vengurlekar 

J'KK, Prasad Rep. of E-in-C, A.H.Q. 

^r. K. Sreenivasa Rao (P.C. Jain) 

"^-K. Subba Rao A Rep. of R.D.S.O. 

^r. M.G. Tamhankar 

^- SPECIAL PANEL DEFINING THE SCOPE FOR DIFFERENT 
SECTIONS OF BRIDGE CODES 

^ddl. Director General (Bridges) . . Convenor 

-'•ILK. Prasad . . Member-Secretary 
*^r. A.S. Arya Dr. V.K. Raina 

"^Jiiitava Banerjee B. Balwant Rao 

(Convenor of Section VI) (Convenor of Section VII) 

^-C. Bhasin S. Scetharaman (Convenor of 

(Convenor of Sections II A HI) Section V) 

5. PANEL FOR THE PREPARATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT 
STATEMENT FOR URBAN AREAS 

^JC. Bansal Prof. P.B. Bhagv^at 



20 



Peks'.uv'nIi. zm Tffi Wgkonc Gatnrw a>o Foel* 



J»raf.J.M Dbi^ 
I>r. SP DrshpnTiOf 

€. PANO. ON NOVI.«a.%> 
A.ND POUXTKIN 

AX. SbBXQL±ani 
Dr. SP. Dcshntndf 

lYrf I4.S. V Rfco 



7. PANEL TO OCINSnMEX UK 

OBGAMSATIONS ABOtT UK 
C0^6TRLCIED WTTli KILT-TP 

Prof. CG. S^-amingAan 
L.R. K&dn-ftlj 

ILP 






AT I>A»OM 



3- VCi 

Dr. Xii STi»»»i 

IJLC 



ANTE OF ■QAD^ 
AT GBOiT 

Pn»e 
Pkil: 



8. WOUONG GSOIT TO SnJDT DATA REaUHHNG ^UXW 
CX>MPAIUTT\T AXALiaS FOR UK 1IC\NL AL AND 
MECHAMC.\L METHODS OF COVSmLCTiON 



D5.N. A>->-ar 
AJL Bhattad\iL«>ii 



G. \ls«i 



L.R.KadT««lt 
iihm 



WORKING GROtP FOR MANT.AL FOR BRIDGE STTTNG SURETY 
AND IN'\TSTiaAT1WS AND PREPAR.AT10N OF BRIDCZ 
PROJECTS 



AddL Director GeoenI (Bridsesi 
DS. (B). IRC 

B. Balvbant Rao 
P.C Bha^ir. 



J.R.IC Pnsid 
J^SodU 



10. WORKING GROUP ON SOaO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF RLILAL 
ROAD DE>TLOPMENT AND THE DESIRED PATTERN OF 
URBANISATION 



CF. (H. & Rural Works) 
Tarril Nadu 



J.S. Man-a 
Direcior. C.R.R. 



Eh-. M.P. Dhir 



11. WORKING GROUP TO CONSIDER THE DR.\Fr RECOMMENDED 
PRACTK E FOR ROADWAY DELLNEATORS 



A.K. Bhattacharya 



R.P. Sikka 
Dr. N. S. Srinivasan 



Personnel of the Working Groups and Panels 2 1 

\X EXPERT GROUP— USE OF PORTLAND POZZOL.ANA CEMENT 
IN STRUCTURAL CONCRETE ON BRIDGES 

I.R.C.-cuni-I.S.I. . . Convenor 

AJ>. Narain - . Member-Secretary 

R.S. Melliole Rep. of Central Building Research 

Dr. Iqbal Ali Institute (£>r.R.K. Datta) 

Rep. of R.D.S.O. (A. Chellam) Rep. of Cement Manufacturers, 

Rep. of C.P.W.D. (S.C. Gupta) Association (Laxman Swaroop) 

Rep. of N.B.O. (A.V.R. Rao) Rep. of Roads Wing, Ministry of 

R^. of £ngineer-in-Chief Branch, Shipping & Transport 

A.H.Q. (S.O.I. Pig. DirectofBte (B. Balwant Rao) 

of Designs/E2 Pig.) Rep. of Concrete Assodatioo of 

Rep. of D.G.B.R. (S.S. Dhanjal) India (Y.K.Mehta or T.M. 

A Rep. of D.G.T. Menon or B.T. Unwalla) 
Rq>. of C.ILR.I. (Dr. R.K. Ghosh) 
Rep, of Cenient Research Institute of India 
(Dr. A.K. Mullick) 

13. WORKING GROUP ON DEVELOPMENT OF BENKELMAN BEAM 
DEFLECTION TECHNIQUE FOR DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE 
PAVEMENTS 

Prof. C.G. Swaminathan . . Convenor 

D.G. Phadnavis . . Member-Secretary 
EC. Chandrasekharan N. Sen 

Dr. M.P. Dhir R.P. Sikka 

Mahabir Prasad 

14. WORKING GROUP FOR MANUAL ON MAINTENANCE ASPECTS 
OF VARIOUS ITEMS OF ROAD MAKING MAClIINFi> 

CoL Avtar Singh D.M. Prasad 

TJ). Bijlani S.S. Rup 

G. Viswanathan 

15. WORKING GROUP TO STUDY FEASIBILITY OF MANUFACTURE 
OF PROPER MACHINERY AND ALSO OTHER TECHNICAL 
REQUIREMENTS OF LAYING WET MIX MACADAM ETC 

^f. C.G. Swaminathan . . Convenor 
IU>. Sikka Rep. of Manufacturers of Road 

Rep. of Maharashtra P.W.D. Making Machinery 

(N.G. Thattc) 

Id. WORKING GROUP FOR AIRFIELD PAVEMENTS 

Dr. Anin Kumar N. Sivaguru 

CoL Avtar Singh Rep. of I.A.A.I. (U.K. Kulshrestha) 

J. Mchta Rep. of C.P.W.D. (M.P. Patkar) 



22 Personnel of the Working Groups and Panels 

17. WORKING GROUP FOR INVOLVING THE USE OFCATIONIC 
EMULSION FOR TRIAL ON ROADS 

Dr. Arun Kumar N. Sivaguni 

M.B. Jayawant A Rep. from the laboratory of 

State where trials are 

carried out 

18. WORKING GROUP ON MALNTENANCES OF BITUMINOUS 
SURFACES 

V.K. Arora R.P. Sikka 

Dr. Arun Kumar N. Sivaguru 

K.P. Nair 

19. PANEL ON FIXING THICKNESS OF STEINING OF WELL 
FOUNDATIONS 

P.C. Bhasin . . Convenor 

D.V. Sikka . . Member-Secretary 

C.R. Alimchandani A.D. Narain 

A. Banerjee S.A. Reddy 

K.J.N. Kutty Shitaia Sharan 

V.M. Madge 

20. WORKING GROUP TO DISCUSS MOTOR VEHICLES RULES 
Dr. (Mrs.) I.K. 'Barthakar R.P. Sikka 

Dr. S.K. Khamia Dr. A.C. Sama 

S.M. Parulkar 



PERSONNEL OF THE TECHNICAL COMMITTEES 
OF HIGHWAY RESEARCH BOARD 



COMMITrEE TO IDENTIFY AREAS OF HIGHWAY RESEARCH, 
RECOMMENDING PROGRAMMES OF RESE.\RCH INCLUDING 
PRIORITIES 



I.S.Marya 
t)S(R),I.R.C. 

VtqS. cm. Andavan 

CKBosc 

EC Chandrasekharan 

M.G. Dandavate 

Br^ Gobindar Singh 

Dr. R.K. Ghosh 

PJ.Jagus 

Mahabir Prasad 

M.R. Malya 

PK. Nagarkar 

T.K. Natarajan 

Addl. Director General (Bridges) 

Dr. C.K. Ramesh 

T.N. Subba Rao 

N.Sen 



Convenor 
Member-Secertary 

Dr. O.S. Sahgal 

M.M.D. Seth 

R.P. Sikka 

D.G.B.R. 

Prof. C.G. Swaminathan 

CD. Thatte 

Director General Cement 

Research Institute of India 

Director, R & B Research 

Institute (Chandigarh) 
A Rep. of National Committee on 

Science and Technology 
Secretary, TRC Highway Research 

Board (P.C. Bhasin) 



COMMITTEE TO EVALUATE, MONITOR, INTERPRET AND 
DEAL WITH FEED-BACK DATA OF RESEARCH FINDINGS ON 
ROADS AND ROAD TRANSPORT INCLUDING TRAFFIC 
ENGINEERING 



Pfof. C.G. Swaminathan 
y.C. Gokhale 

Dr. K.L. Bhanot 
Brig. Gobindar Sin^ 
B.R. Govind 
I.C. Gupta 
S. Ramakrishna Iyer 
M.B. Jayawant 
H.C. Malhotia 
M.D. Pbtel 
P.S. Sandhawalia 
Dr. A.C. Sama 
R.C. Sharma 
R.P. Sikka 
D.G.B.R. 



Conyenor 
Member-Secretar v 

Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

A representative of C.P.W.D. 

A representative of Structural 

Engg. Research Centre, Roorkec 
Dr. M.G. Tamhankar 
Chairman IRC Highway 

Research Board, (J.S. Marya) 
Secretary IRC Highway 

Research Board, 

(P.C. Bhasin) 
The Director, Highways 

Research Station, Madras 

(S. Natarajan) 



24 Personnel of the Technical Committees of H.R.B. 



3. COMMrriEE TO EA^ALUATE, MONITOR, INTERPRET AND 

WITH FEEDBACK DATA OF RESEARCH FINDINGS ON BRIDGl 
STRUCTURES 



Addl. Director Genenl (Bridges) 
J.R.K. Prasad 
C.R. Alimchandani 
Dr. A.S. Arya 
Dr. P.Ray Chaudhuri 
Dr. S.P.Gupto 
R.S. Melkote 
Dr. V.K. Raina 
B.V. Ranganathan 
Dr. K. Sreenivasa Rao 
Dr. P. Srinivasa Rao 
T.N. Subba Rao 
S.K. Samaddar 
Shitla Sharan 
Dr. M.G. Tamhankar 
ChairmaD, IRC Highway Research 
Board, (J.S. Marya) 



Convenor 

Member-Secretary 

Secretary, IRC Highway Researf=: 

Board (P.C. Bhasin) 

Deputy Secretary (Bridges) ,I.R.^^ 

Director, Central Water & 
Power Research Station, Pune 

A representative of R.D.S.O. 

A rep. of Border Roads Organi- 
sation (S.S. Daojal) 

A rq>. of Irrigation Research 
Institute, Roorkee 

A rep. of National Committee 
on Science & Technology 

Director of Engineering 
(Geology), G.S.L 



4. COMMITTEE TO COLLECT INFORMATION ON LATEST TECHNO- 
LOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS, RESEARCH FINDINGS IN OUR OWN 
COUNTRY AND ABROAD AND DISSEMINATE INFORMATION 
(THE COMMnTEE DEALING WITH THIS SUBJECT WILL ALSO 
TAKE CARE OF THE PUBLICATION POLICY AND PROGRAMME 
OF THE HIGHWAY RESEARCH BOARD) 



S.N. Sinha 

Deputy Secretary, (R) IRC 

(H.A. Bindra) 

Brig. S.S. Ahluwalia 

C.R. Alimchandani 

Dr. K.L. Bhanot 

M.G. Dandavate 

Dr. M.P. Dhir 

Brig. Gobindar Singh 

Y.C. Gokhale 

S. Ramakrishna Iyer 

Prof. B.1C Kaul 

Dr. S.K. Khanna 

D.R. Kohli 

J.R.K. Prasad 

Satish Prasad 

Addl. Director General (Bridges) 

Prof. M.S.V. Rao 

N.Sen 



Convenor 

Member-Secretary 
R.P. Sikka 

Prof. C.G. Swaminathan 
Dr. M.G. Tamhankar 
Director General, 

Cement Research Institute of 

India 
Chairman IRC Highway 

Research Board, (J.S. Marya), 

D.G. (R.D.), M.O.S. & T. 
Secretay IRC Highway Researdi 

Board (PC. Bhasin) 
A Rep. of National Committee 

on Science & Technology 
Director, 

Highways Research Station, 
Madras (S. Natarajan) 



Personnel of the Technical Committees of H.R.B. 



25 



5. COMMIITEE ON APPUCATTON OF HNDINGS OF RESEARCH A 
FOLLOW-UP ACTION 



Brig. Gobindar Singh 
N. Sivaguru 

Dr. Anin Kumar 

Prof. H.U. Bijlani 

E.C. Chandrasekharan 

I.C Gupta 

Dr.N.B. La! 

EC. Malhotra 

A.CPadhi 

MD.Patel 

JJLK. Prasad 

Naod Kishore Prasad 

Sitish Prasad 

S. Seetharaman 

ILP.Sikka 



Convenor 
Member-Secretary 
Prof. CO. Swaminathan 
B.T. Unwalla 
Managing Director, 

U.P. Bridge Construction 

Corporation (D.C. Chaturvedi) 
ChairmanJRC Highway Rewaich 

Board, (J.S. Marya) 
Secretary, IRC Highway Research 

Board (P.C. Bhasin) 
Arep. ofCP.W.D 
A rep. of National Conunittee 

on Science and Technology 
Addl. Director General (Bridges) 
Director General, Border Roads 



PERSONNEL OF THE EXPERT GROUPS FOR 
PREPARATION OF STATE OF THE ART REPORTS 

1. EXPERT GROUP FOR PREPARING A PAPER ON THE 
FEASIBILITY OF HIGHER AXLE LOADS 

Prof. C.G. Swaminathan . . Convenor 

D.P. Gupta . . Member-Secretary 

C.E. (R) Stds., Roads Wing Rep. of Engmccr-in-Chiefs 

Director, Highways Research Branch, A.H.Q. 

Station, Madras (S. Natarajan) Secretary, Indian Roads Congrats 

2. EXPERT GROUP FOR THE PREPARATION OF STATE-OF-ART 

REPORT ON URBAN TRAVEL CHARACTERISTICS 

Prof. CM. Andavan R.P. Sikka 

A.K. Bandopadhyaya Dr. N.S. Srinivasan 

Dr. K.S. Pillai P.R. Wagh 

Prof. M.S.V. Rao W.R. Wakankar 

Dr. A.C. Sama 

3. EXPERT GROUP FOR PREPARATION OF STATE-OF-THE 

ART REPORT ON «THIN BITUMINOUS CARPETS AND 
SURFACE DRESSING' 

Prof. CO. Swaminathan . . Convenor 

L.R. Kadiyali 

Rep. of Indian Oil Corporation A Rep. of Highway Research 

(Satish Prasad) Station, Madras 

A Rep. of E-in-Cs Branch Secretary, Highway Research Board 

4. EXPERT GROUP FOR PREPARATION OF THE STATE-OF 
THE-ART REPORT ON 'FUNDAMENTALS OF HIGHWAY 
MINERALS AND ROCK AGGREGATES' 

CD. Thatte . . Convenor 

A.K. Bhattacharya . . Member Secretary 

Dr. B.K.Kaul R.P. Sikka 

Rep. of C.R.R.I. (Y.C. Gokhle) Rep. of G.S.I. (Zamir Ashraf ) 

„ „ Roorkee University Director, Highways Research 

(Teaching Eng. Geology) Station, Madras (S. Natarajan) 

5. EXPERT GROUP FOR PREPARATION OF STATE-OF-THE 
ART REPORT ON 'WEARING COAT ON BRIDGE DECKS* 

J.R.K. Prasad Shitla Sharan 

Amitava Banerjee M.C. Tandon 

Dr. R.K. Ghosh Secretary, I.R.C. 



Personnel of the Expert Grol'ps for Prfparation of 27 
State of the Art Reports 

6. EXPERT GROUP TO PREPARE STATE-OF-ART REPORT ON 
•VIBRATION PROBLEM IN BRIDGES* 

Dr. C.K. Ramesh Dr. M.G. Tamhankar 

Dr. K. Sreenivasa Rao J.R.K. Prasad 

S.R. Pinheiro Secretary, IRC 
D.S.(B),IRC 

7. PANEL ON 'ESTABLISHING CORRELATION BETWEEN 
IN-SITU STRENGTH OF CONCRETE Vis-A-Vis CYLINDER OR 
CUBE STRENGTH' 

Rep. of Cement Research Institute of India (Dr. A.K. Mullick) 

» „ Central Road Research Institute (Dr. R.K. Ghosh) 

n „ Maharashtra Engg. Research Instt. (L.S. Dottihal) 

M mR'D. S.!0. (M.S.Su]aiman) 

Member Secretary, IRC Bridges Committee (A.D. Narain) 



INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 
NOTICES AND ANNOUNCEMENTS 



I. CONTRIBUTION OF PAPERS FOR THE FORTY- 
FIRST SESSION OF THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 

The next Annual Session of the Indian Roads Congress will 
be held at Patna, from 27th December, 1980 to 2nd January, 1981. 
The detailed programme of the Session will be intimated in due 
course. Members are requested to contribute Papers on any 
subject connected with Highways, Bridges or Traffic Engineering 
for discussion at that Session. 

2. Past experience has shown that most of the Members send 
in their contributions at the last moment, when the Congress Office 
is busy with the work connected with arrangements for the Annual 
Session and, therefore. Papers cannot be given due attention and 
are sometimes left out or carried over to the next year. As it takes 
a long time to edit the Papers, put the same in order and get them 
printed in the Journal, Members are requested to make an effort 
to send their contributions as early as possible and not wait for the 
last date. The complete Paper for the 41st Session should be 
submitted as early as possible but not later than the 30th September , 
1980. 

3. The younger engineers are particularly requested to con- 
tribute Papers. The Indian Roads Congress Office will gladly assist 
them by way of suitably editing the Paper and putting it in proper 
form before publication. 

4. Rules and Regulations for the contribution of Technical 
Papers and the Award of Medals are given at pages 29 to 34. 



n. RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR 1HE 
CONTRIBUTION OF TECHNICAL PAPERS AND THE 
AWARD OF MEDALS 

1. The following Medals are available for award: 

(i) The MitdieU Medal: 

This is a bronze medal to be awarded annually for exceptionally 
good Papers contributed to the Indian Roads Congress in any year. 
This has been instituted to perpetuate Sir Kenneth Mitchell's 
connection with the Indian Roads Congress. 

(/7)T1ie Indian Roads Congress Medal: 

This is also a bronze medal to be awarded annually for Papers 
considered by the Council of the Indian Roads Congress to be of a 
decidedly more than average merit. 

2. RULES FOR THE CONTRIBUTION OF TECHNICAL 

PAPERS 

2.1. The Standing Rules for guidance when contributing 
Papers, are reprinted below. It is requested that Members read 
these rules and observe them when submitting Papers to the 
Congress. 

2.2. Members intending to contribute Papers to the Indian 
Roads Congress on any subject connected with Highway Engineer- 
ing are requested to send their contributions to the Secretary as 
and when these are ready without waiting for a special invitation. 

2.3. Final accept;^nce of the Papers rests with the Council. In 
order, however, to avoid disappointment through the Council 
having to reject Papers owing to an excessive number being written 
on any one subject or for any other reason, it is requested that any 
Member intending to write a Paper should intimate to the Secre- 
tary the subject on which he wishes to write and enclose a short 
synopsis of the proposed Paper. He will then be informed whether 
his offer can be accepted. 



30 Rules And Regulations For 

2.4. The Council reserve the right to publish any Paper in 
the form of an abstract. When a Paper is published in abstract 
form the manuscript copy of the Paper as sent by the Author will 
be added to the Indian Roads Congress Library and made avail- 
able for inspection by interested Members. 

2.5. The Council have decided that Papers from non-Members 
who are experts or who have specialized knowledge will be welcome 
and acceptance of the Paper will carry honorary membership 
for the Author for the year provided there are good reasons that 
the contributor cannot join the Congress as an ordinary member. 

2.6. The Council have expressed the opinion that members, 
when choosing subjects for contributing Papers should bear in 
mind the fact that there is often a good deal more to be learnt from 
failures than from success. 

2.7. All Authors of Papers which are accepted for publication 
in the Journal of the Indian Roads Congress will be supplied 
twenty-five complimentary reprints of their Paper besides a copy 
of the Journal of the Indian Roads Congress in which it is published. 

3. SCRIPT 

3. 1 . The following instructions are for the guidance of Authors 
of Papers: 

(a) All contributions should be drafted in the third 

person and metric units should invariably be given 
in all contributions. 

(b) Papers should be typed on one side of good stout 
paper of foolscap size, double spacing being used 
and an ample margin (not less than 5 cms) should 
be left on the left hand side. At least diree 
copies of the typescript matter should be sent 

(c) The Author's full name, designation and correct 
postal address should be given below the title of 
the Paper. 

4. ILLUSTRATIONS 

4.1. Illustrations fall into two classes, viz., 

(a) Line drawings. 

(b) Half-tones. 



CONTIUBUnON OF TECHNICAL PAPERS 31 

4.2. Une drawings should be made in black Indian ink on 
superior white drawing paper or tracing cloth. Blue prints are of 
no use for reproduction and black line prints are also unsatis- 
factory. 

Line drawings are goierally classified into two cat^ories: 

(a) Diagrams which go into the body of the Paper, and 

(b) Hates which are generally on separate large size 
sheets. 

4.3. Diagrams: The matter for the Journal is printed in 10 pt 
o» type (nearly 1.5 nmi in height); therefore the written matter 
iQ^diagrams should be so made that the size of the letter when 
reduced for reproduction should be about l.S mm. The printed 
area of a page measures 170 mm deep and 108 nmi wide. There- 
fore» the ultimate size of such drawings will not generally be more 
than 127 nmi x 100 mm. Thus if a diagram is to be reduced to 
one quarter of the size submitted by the Author, the lettering on 
it should not be less than 6 nun height. 

4.4. Plates: Plates should preferably be prepared in widths 
that are multiples of 190 nun. The size of letters used in the plate 
should be so chosen that after reduction no letter would be less 
than l.S nmi size. Thus if theTwidth is 380 mm the minimum size 
of the letter should be 3 mm. The thickness of the letter should 
also stand corresponding reduction. The title should be in the right 
hand bottom comer in letters of such size that when reduced the 
size will be at least 3 nmi. 

4.5. Scale should be drawn in the plate below the title to 
admit of reduction of drawings without altering the correct relation 
of the scale to the drawing. Mere mention of the scale thus *'Scale 
of 1/100 (1cm =lm)" should be avoided as this would be incorrect 
when size of the plate is reduced photographically. 

4.6. Coloured inks should not be used. When it is'desired to 
distinguish lines, dotted or chain dotted lines should be used 
instead of colours. 

4.7. In drawing diagrams or graphs,{^the following point 
deserve the consideration of Authors. 

IRC— 41-1— 3 



32 Ru.ES And Regulation^ For 

4.7.1. From the standpoint of pleasing appearance, a rect- 
angular graph or drawing with proportions between 3 by 5 and 
3 by 4 is to be preferred to a square one. 

4.7.2. The appearance and eflFectiveness of a graph depend 
in a large measure on the relative thickness of lines used in its 
component parts. The thickest line should be used for the principal 
curve. If several curves are presented on the same graph, the line 
width used for curves should be less than that used when a single 
curve is presented. Co-ordinate rulings should be the narrowest in 
thickness. Principal reference lines such as the axes should be 
wider than other rulings but narrower than curves. For the size of 
reduction that is usually adopted for the IRC Journals it is con 
sidered that the thickest line when finally reduced should not be more 
than 2} points, i.e., 1 mm in width. 

4.8. Finished illustrations should not be folded for purposes 
of despatch. When mailed flat, they should be stiflFened by using 
cardboards or rolled with the drawing outside to prevent cracking 
of the Indian ink lines and securely packed. 

4.9. ^* Half-tones^' are ordinary photographs and it is necessary 
to see that prints are clear, slightly over-printed and preferably 
glazed. Photographs which are dim or out of focus do not come out 
distinctly in reproduction and make a bad **half-tone." Negatives 
should accompany the photographs whenever possible, and will, 
if desired, be returned when done with. Captions should be written 
on the back of prints in soft pencil. 

BRIDGE DETAILS 

5. 1 . Members contributing Papers on any bridge work actually 
carried out are requested to give inter-alia the following details: 

(a) A site plan showing the road and river for two miles 
on either side of the bridge site; 

(b) A dimensioned cross-section of the roadway; 

(c) The loading on which the design is based; 

(d) The cost per square metre of elevation area 
comprising the formation level and the bottom 
of the foundations; and 



Contribution of Technical Papers 33 

(e) The ratio of the total cost of the substructure to 
the cost of those parts of the superstructure as 
are subject to variation with variation of span. 

6. UNITS 

6.1. S.I. metric units shall only be used. Technical or other 
metric units shall not be used. Decimal multiples or submultiples 
other than those mentioned in Appendix-II of IRC:71-1977 
'*Reconmiended Practice for Preparation of Notations" shall also 
not generally be used. All units are to be denoted by symbols 
only as reconmiended in Appendix-ll of IRC:71-1977. 

7. FORMULAE 

7.1. Mathematical formulae should be drawn carefully by 
hand and not set out with the typewriter. 

8. NOTATION 

8.1. Notation used shall be prepared to conform to IRC: 
71-1977 "Reconmiended Practice for Preparation of Notations." 

9. ITAUCS AND EMPHASIS 

9.1. Only those words and phrases which are to be printed 
in italics should be underlined. 

10. PARAGRAPHING 

10.1. When divisions and sub-divisions are designated by 
numbers and letters, the following symbols may be used in the 
arrangements indicated: 

I 
II 

1. 
2. 

(a) 
(*) 

(0 
00 



34 Rules And Regulations for Contribution of 

TJBCHNiCAL Papers 

11. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

11.1. Sources of quotations appearing in the Papers should 
be stated and acknowledgement should be made for all infor- 
mation culled from books, periodicals, and proceedmgs of sister 
Societies, etc 



m. PROCEDURE REGARDING TEIE DISCUSSION OF 

PAPERS AT THE ANNUAL SESSIONS OF THE 

INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 

1. The order in which Papers will be taken up for discussion 
will be decided by the Council and intimated to members attend- 
ing the Session. 

2. The Chairman will introduce the Author and will call upon 
him to present his Paper for discussion. The Paper will be tidcen 
as read. Introductory remarks by the Author should not normally 
take more than 10 minutes except when the Author has something 
new to say which came to his notice since the submission of his 
Paper. The introduction should be limited to 250 words. After the 
introduction, the Paper will be open to discussion. 

3. To facilitate the conduct of business and the fixation of 
time for various sittings and individual Papers, those desirous of 
raising questions or offering comments at the meeting should 
inform the Secretary well in advance at least 24 hours before the 
meeting about the Pftp^s on which they would like to speak and 
the time they would take. Those who have not given advance 
intimation to the Secretary may, at the discretion of the Chairman, 
be allowed to take part in the discussion if time permits after those 
who had given advance information have spoken. 

4. It is desirable that a copy of comments which a member 
intends to make should be sent in advance to the Author of the 
Paper. A copy should also be endorsed to the Secretary, Indian 
Roads Congress. 

5. If the comments are likely to take more than ten minutes 
or if they involve lengthy mathematical matter or diagrams, it 
would be desirable to send a copy of these to the Secretary at least 
2 weeks before the date of the meeting so as to enable him to have 
them printed and circulated to all members attending the meeting 
before the discussion on the Paper takes place. These comments 
may, at the discretion of the Chairman,^be taken as read and the 
member making them will thus only be required to explain generally 



36 Procedure for Discussion of Papers 

the nature of his comments. The Author will, if possible, reply at 
the meeting as if the conmients had been made orally. 

6. Members who do not want to speak but want clarification 
of any issues arising out of the discussion or the introductory 
remarks of the Author should write out their queries on **Comment 
Slips" which will be provided for the purpose while the discussions 
are in progress. Volunteers will be depute to distribute and collect 
these slips at frequent intervals. The slips will be sorted out by the 
Secretary and at the end of the talk by the speaker or the speakers, 
the Chairman will read out the queries and the speaker or the 
Author will give reply. 

7. Members who are unable to attend the Session and who 
desire to conmient on any Paper should send one copy of a note 
of their comments to the Authors of the Paper and two type script 
copies to the Secretary. A gist of the comments together with the 
Authors' reply thereto will appear in the Proceedings. 

8. After all members wishing to do so have spoken on a Paper, 
or when the Chairman considers that because of lack of time the 
discussion must be brought to a close, the Author will be called 
upon to reply. 

9. If the Author of a Paper is unable to be present, he should 
depute another member to introduce his Paper and to reply to the 
discussion and should inform the Secretary accordingly. 



IV. LIBRARY 

Information and books on loan from the libraries of the Director 
General (Road Development) and the Indian Roads Congress are 
available to Members of the Indian Roads Congress and can, on 
application, be had from the Secretary, Indian Roads Congress 
New Delhi, under the following arrangements: 

(a) For Members of the fndiim RMds Congress who 
are fai the serrioe of the Central or State Govern- 



Specifically named books or literature in response 
to enquiries on technical subjects will be sent to 
oflScers of the rank of Executive Engineer and 
above. Others should apply through their 
Executive Engineers or officers of equivalent 
rank. 

(b) For Members of the Indian Roads Congress who 
are not fai the ser?ice of the Central or State 
Governments. 

Applications for specifically named books as well as 
enquiries for literature on technical subjects should 
clearly state the member's roll number, his correct 
postal address, and the title and author of the book* 

2. The library is intended primarily for reference. It is the 
source of information from which the Secretary, Indian Roads 
Congress, is enabled to answer enquiries addressed to him. 

3. Books are loaned for reference only and not for oon- 
tfamous nse: The library cannot be expected to relieve officers 
of the necessity of purchasing books required constantly or for long 
periods of time. 

4. Ordinarily not more than two books will be issued at a 
time, but in special cases a large number may be issued at the 
discretion of the Secretary. 



38 Library Rules 

S. The following rules will be strictly enforced: 

(a) Books are issued for one month in the first instance. 

If a book is required for a longer period, an inti- 
mation should be sent to the Secretary, Indian 
Roads Congress for renewal before the due date of 
return. The book may then be re-issued for another 
month at a time at the discretion of the Secretary 
but in no case will any book be issued for a total 
period exceeding three months. 

(b) Ifa member does not return library books when the 

period of loan has expired or in any case within 
three months of the date of issue and thus deprives 
other members of their use he will be liable for a 
fine at the rate of 10 paise a day for every day of 
retention upto three months and 20 paise a day 
thereafter upto six months. The Secretary will 
also have no power to issue any more books to 
the member until all the books aheady issued 
are returned. If all books are not returned within 
six months, twice the cost of books will be debited 
to the borrower in addition to the fine referred 
to above. 

(c) Current issues of Journals cannot be issued to 
members outside the Director-General's (Road 
Development) OfGk^ but back issues of certain 
Journals may be sent on loan for a limited period. 

(d) Books are issued strictly subject to the condition, 
in all cases, that they will be returned promptly if 
actually reqmred and called for by the Secretary, 
Indian Roads Congress. Retention of a book 
after it had been recalled will render the member 
liable to the same penalties as if he had retained 
a book beyond the period of original loan. 

(e) Borrowers are requested to take every care of 
books, while in their possession, and particularly 
not mark, underline, or note on the pages. 

(f) If, during the period of issue to a borrower, any 
book is lost or so damaged as to be unserviceable 



Library Rules 39 

for future use, the Secretary shall recover from 
the borrower a sum equal to cost of obtaining 
another copy of the book. 



6. 



(a) No acknowledgement is required other than the 

postal acknowledgement card. 

(b) While returning books, care should be taken to get 
them adequately packed to prevent damage in 
transit They should be sent ^'Registered and 



7. General 



(a) Rare or specially valuable books and certain books 
of reference will not be sent out of the librarv. 

(b) Any book may, however, be consulted in the 
library during office hours. 

(c) Members who retain books for longer than a 
month after they have been called back or for 
longer than six months from the date of original 
issue and thus selfishly deprive other members 
of the use of the books, will be fined and/or 
charged subject to the penalties stated in these 
rules and deprived of all the privileges of member- 
ship until the dues are paid. 



NEW ADMISSIONS 

LIST OF MEMBERS OF THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS ENROLLED 
FROM THE 1st SEPTEMBER 1979 TO THE 31it JULY 1900 



S.No. Roll. No. 



Name of Member 



Address 



ORDINARY MEMBERS 
1. 8720 S. Gangopadhyay 



2. 8721 ILK. Sharda 



3. 8722 S.V. Rao 



4. 8723 V.K. Palamsamy 



5. 8724 A.P. Ooswami 



8725 H.P. Shamia 



8726 D.K. Nandi 



8727 S.L. Mahipal 



9. 8728 J.S. Rana 



Scientitt, CRRI» 
G-161, Nanakpura, 
NEW DELHI- 110021. 

D-56, Mod Bagh-I, 
NEW DELHI -110021. 

Assistant Engiiieer (R&B), 
N.H. Sub Dn. 
NAIDUPET-524126 
District Ncllorc(A.P.) 

Assistant Divisional Engineer 
(H&RW), 

TUnCX)RlN-628003 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Assistant Engineer, P.WJ>.» 

B & R, 
Quality Control Sub Dn.No J, 
BIKANER - 334 001 (Riu'.). 

Executive Engineer, 
atyDn.,P.W.D.,B&R. 
BIKANER . 334 001 (Rbj.). 

Assistant Engineer, P.WJ>., 
Bank Road, Gol^r, 
GORAKHPUR (U.P.) 

Assistant Engineer, 
P.W.D..B&R,SubDn.n, 
SRIGANGANGAR (Raj.). 

Assistant Engineer, P.W.D., 
KC 54/12, Kavi Nagar, 
GHAZJABAD (U.P.). 



New Admissions 



41 



SJ^o.RoUNo, 



Name of Member 



Address 



la 8729 N. Dhannaiajan 



11. 8730 T.R. Krishnamoorthy 



12. 8731 K. Karmegam 



13. 8732 VJL Mundasad 



14. 8733 C. Reogaswamy Pandian 



15. 8734 S. Robert EUennu 



Assiataiit Engineer (H), 
Soils Laboratory, 
Highways Research Statioa» 
Guindy,MADRAS - 600 025. 

Assistant Engineer (H), 
Plot No. 85, 
IHulmavathy Nagar, 
Selaiyur, MADRAS- 600 073. 

Assistant Engineer, 
Highways Research Station, 
Guindy, MADRAS - 600 025. 

Assistant Engineer, 
P.W J>., Sub Dn., 
YELBURGA.583 236. 
(Kamataka) 

Assistant Engineer (H), 

Atfaikkattuvilai, 

P.O. M.K. POTTAL -629051 . 

District Kanyakumari 

(Tamil Nadu). 

Assistant Divisional 

Engineer (H), 
665, K.K. Nagar, 
ITRUCHY. 620021. 



16. 8735 H.G. Mustafa 



Executive Engineer, 
R&B Dn., 
LEH(Ladakh). 



17. 8736 Sudarshan S. Rana 



P.O. Box 6457, 
HAWALLI (Kuwait). 



18. 8737 V.R. Veerappan 



Assistant Engineer (H), 
50/5,Housing Board Quarters, 
Kajamalai Colony, 
TIRUCHY-620020. 



19. 8738 N. Animugam 



Assistant Engmetr (H), 
TraflPc Engg. Cell., 
TIRUCHY 620 020. 



42 



New Admissions 



SJio.RoiiNo. 



Name of Member 



Address 



20. 8739 V. Kuppusamy 

21. 8740 P.N. Ramaswamy 

11. 8741 VJ>. Sharma 

23. 8742 M. Subramanian 

24. 8743 A.L. Pttiyannan 

25. 8774 M.S. Ramamijam 

26. 8745 H. Abdul Bakki 

27. 8746 P. Packiam 

28. 8747 K. Mohamed AU 

29. 8748 M. Kalaiappan 

30. 8749 C. Arumugam 



Assistant Engineer (H), 
C-21. IV Cross, Western 

Extn., 
Thillainagar 
TIRUCHY-620018. 

Assistant Divisional 
Engineer (H), 
TrafiSc Engg. Cell, 
Subramaniapuram, 
TIRUCHY-620020. 

Assistant Engineer, 
KL-156, Old Kavi Nagar, 
GHAZIABAD-201001. v 

Divisional Engineer, 

H&RW, 

TUTICORIN-628002. 

Assistant Divisional 
Engineer (H), 

'raiRUCHENDUR-62821 5 
District ITRUNELVELI, 

(Tamil Nadu), 

Asstt. Engineer (Hi^ways), 
Mechanical, 
TUT1CORIN.628 002. 
Asstt. Divisional Engineer, 
H&RW, 

KOILPATTI (Tamil Nadu). 
Assistant Engineer (H), 
KOILPATTI (Tamil Nadu). 

Asstt Divisional Engineer, 
H&RW, 
VILATHIKULAM 
(Tamil Nadu). 
Asstt. Engineer, (H & RW), 
VILATHIKULAM 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Assistant Divisional 
Engineer (H), 

PALAYAMKOTTAI.627002 
(Tamil Nadu). 



New Admissions 



43 



SJfo. Eott No. Name of Member 



AddresM 



31. 87S0 A. Rigagopalan 



3Z 8751 M. Mobamed Mohideeo 



33. 8752 G J>. Vaithialii 



34. 8753 V. VaiathaRuan 



35. 8754 M. Ramaswamy 



36. 8755 S. J^araman 



37. 8756 Suijeet Sin^ 



38. 8757 Krushna Chandra Sahoo 



39. 8758 K. Sisupalan 



Assistant Divisional Engineer, 
H&R W, 

KUZHITHURAI -629 163. 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Asstt Divisional Engineer, 
H&RW, 

THUCKALAY-629175 
CTamil Nadu). 

Asstt. Engineer (HX PERT, 
C/o.S£.,H&RW, 
imUNELVEU - 627 0Q2 
CTamil Nadu). 

Assistant Engineer (H) 

Technical, 
C/o.S^.,H&RW, 
ITRUNELVEU . 627 002 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Assistant Divisional Engineer 
(H), Special Sub-Dn., 
MoovallumugamBridgeWorks, 
KUZHITHURAI-629 123 
District K.K. (Tamil Nadu) 

Asstt. Divisional Engineer, 
Highways, 
PARAMAKKUDI 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Executive Engineer, 
Constn. Dn. m. 
Capital Project Admn., 
BHOPAL-462016. 

Executive Engineer, 
Subamarekha Bridge Dn., 
At P.O. RAJGHAT-756 030, 
District Balasore (Orissa). 

Assistant Executive Engfaieer, 

P.W.D..N.H.SubDn., 

HARIPAD, 

Distt. Allepp^ (Kerala). 



44 



New Admissions 



S.No. Roll No. 



Name of Member 



Address 



40. 8759 



Satish Kumar Sharma 



41. 8760 T.P. Kala 



42. 8761 



Harbhajan Singh 



43. 8762 S. Antony Cruz 



44. 8763 S.C. Aggarwal 



45. 8764 M. Xavier 



46. 8765 M. Thiraviam 



47. 8766 Y. Srinivasan 



48. 8767 DcvilalJPatcl 



49. 8768 S. Seecfaaraman 



Assistant Executive Engineer^ 
CP.W.D.. 
2687/199, Tri Nagar, 
DELHI- 110035. 
Assistant Engineer, 
Provl. Dn., P.W.D., 
TEHRl-249001 (U.P.). 
Assistant Engineer, P.WJ>.» 
B&R, 

R.CP. Works Sub. Dn« n, 
P.O. SiU VUEYNAGAR. 
District Sriganganagar (Riy.) 
Assistant Engineer (H), 
Piandiayat Union, 
THENTHIRUPERAI, 
via Alwarthirunagari, 
Distt Thirunetveli 
(Tanul Nadu). 

Senior Engineer, 

Bridge Constn. Unit, 

U.P. State Bridge Corpn. 
Ltd., 

KASGANJ.207 123, 

Etah (U J*.). 

Asstt. Divisional Engineer » 

H&RW, 

DEVAKOTTAI-623 302, 

(Tamil Nadu). 

Astt. Divisional Engineer, 
H&RW, 

AMBASAMUDRAM 
627 401, (Tamil Nadu). 
AssttDivisional Engineer(H)» 
MUDUKULATHUR-623704 
Distt Ramnad(TamflNadu). 
Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
Mohan Colony, 
Behind T.B. Clinic, 
BANSWARA-327 001 (R^.). 
AssttDivisional Engineer(H), 
Sugarcane 

Road Development, 
MADURAI-625 020. 



New Admissions 



45 



SJ^o. Rali No. Name of Member 



Address 



50. 8769 P. Govindany 



51. 8770 J. Vasudcvan 



52. 8771 AmiitiDder Singh 



53. 8772 S. Gnaoasundaram 



54. 8773 A.M. Umarani 



55. 8774 Ramesh Kumar 



56. 8775 D. Thinmavukkarasu 



57. 8776 N.K. Sarkar 



58. 8777 NJ5. Subnunanian 

59. 8778 R. Jaya Singb 

eo. 8779 Jagdish Prasad 



Asstt. Engineer (H), 
Sugarcane Road Develop- 
ment Scheme, 
UDAMALPET-642 126, 
DisttCoimbatore (Tamil 
Nadu). 

Asstt. Engineer (H), 

AL 118, Anna Nagar West, 

MADRAS-600 040. 

Sub-Divisional Engineer, 
Municipal Corporation, 
LUDHIANA (Puiuab). 

Periyar Nagar,Madippakkam» 
MADRAS-600091. 

Asstt. Engineer, 
No. 2, N.H. Sub-Dn.. 
Hindwadi, 
BELGAUM-590 011 

(Kamataka). 

Asstt. Director, C.W.C., 
A-8B, DDA Flats, Munirka, 
NEWDELHI-110067. 

Asstt. Enghieer (H), 
E-73, Todhunter Nagar, 
Saidapet, MADRAS-600010. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
Kamakhyaguri Constn. 
Sub-Dn., 

P.O. KAMAKHYAGURI 

-736202, 

Distt. Jalpaiguri (W.B.). 

No. 4, Moopparappan Street, 

T. Nagar,MADRAS-600 017. 

Asstt. Divisional Engineer, 

National Highways Sub Dn ., 

KARUR-639002. 

Distt. Tiruchy (Tamil Nadu). 

Resident Engineer, P.W J>., 
DHAMPUR-246 761, 
Distt Bunor (U.P.). 



46 



New ADifissiONS 



SJio. Moll No. Name of Member 



Address 



61. 



6Z 



63. 



87g0 SoUiash Gbander Chhabra 



64. 



8781 



Suresh Chand Gaig 



8782 VJ>. Borkar 



8783 M. Motfao 



65. 8784 M. Mayandi 



Antt Engineer, KV^jyjMcR 
Kaura Cokmy, Rani Bazar, 
Hospital Road, 
BIKANER-334001 (Rig.). 

Junior Engineer, P.W J>., 
FaiBagii, 
BHARATPUR-321 001 (Rid) 

Executive Engineer, P.W J>., 
Bungalow No. 7/2, 
Kopri Colony, 
P.O. THANE (East)-400 603 
Distt Thana (Maharashtra). 

Superintending Engineer, 
Highways & Rural Works, 
Subramaniapuram, 
TIRUCHY-620020, 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Assistant Divisional Engineer, 
H&RW, Subramaniapuram, 
ToUgate, TIRUCHY-620 020. 



66. 8785 K. Thangarasu 



Asstt Divisional Engineer, 
Highways, Floods, 
17, Madurai Road, 
NfANAPPARAI-621 306, 
Distt Tirudiy CTamil Nadu). 



67. 8786 T. Kalimuthu 



Asstt Engineer (Highways), 

Subramaniapuram, 

TIRUCHY-620020. 



68. 



8787 T. Thirunarayanan 



Asstt Engineer, 
C/o. S.E. (H&RW), 
TIRUCHY-620020. 



69. 



8788 R. Venkatesan 



Asstt.Divisional Engineer(H), 
Sugarcane Road Develop- 
ment Scheme, 
TIRUCHY-620 OOU 



New Admissions 



47 



SJfo, BaiiNo, 



Name of Member 



7a 8789 N.P. Valson 



71. 8790 D.P. Ghalonvirtfay 



71 8791 R. Murugesan 



73. 8792 G. Ramalingam 



Address 



74. 8793 A. Nasnilla 



75. 8794 M. Sugumar 



76. 8795 M. Subramaniam 



77. 8796 N. Thinippathiraju 



78. 8797 N. Rigamani 



IRC^l-1— 4 



Divisional Eogiiieer, 
Highways, Rural Roadi, 
DHARM APURl-636 702, 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Asstt Divisional Engineer, 
(H), Rural Roads Sub-Dn., 
HARUR-636903, 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Asstt Divisional Engineer 
(H), 
Rural Roads, 
HOSUR-635 125, 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Junior Engineer (HighwaysX 
Rural Roads Section, 
P,0, PENNAGARAM 

-636 810, 
DistL Dharmapuri, 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Asstt Engineer (Highways), 
Rural Roads, 
KRJSHNAGIRI, 
(Tamil Nadu), 

Asstt Engineer (H), 
Rural Roads, 
DHARM APURI-636 701 , 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Junior Engineer (H), 
Rural Roads IT, 
HARUR.636903, 
{TamU Nadu). 

Asstt. Engineer (H), 
Rural Roads Section I, 
DENKANIKOTTA-635 107, 
Dlstt Dharmapun, 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Junior Engineer (H), 
Rural Roads, 
HARUR-636903, 
Distt Dharmapuri, 
(Tamil Nadu). 



48 



New AronssiQNS 



SJ/o. Roll No. Name cf Member 



^/Urf»9 



79. 8798 S. Sbanmugam 



80. 8799 S. Sowriaathan 



81. 8800 Om Prakash Sanfilii 



82. 8801 S.Rm. Kannappan 



83. 8802 N. Manimozhi 



84. 8803 S.C. Maitra 



85. 8804 B. Madhava Rao 



86. 8805 D.S. Fadale 



87. 8806 F.A. Khan 



Junior Engineer (H), 
Rural Roads, 
UTHANGARAI-635 207, 
Distt Dharmapuri, 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Divisional Engineer 
(H &RW), 
TlRUCHI-620020. 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 
Quarter No. R-287, 
New Colony, 
JHUNJHUNU OUm.). 

Asstt Divisional Engineer 
(HX 
Special Flood Works* 

TIRUCHENDUR-628 215. 
Distt. Tirunetvdi, 
CTamil Nadu). 

Asst Divisional Engineer(H), 
World Bank Project for Road 
Development Sub-Dn.VI, 
No. 32, Santhome 
High Road, Mylapore, 
MADRAS-600 004. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
Torsa Bridge Constn. 
Sub-Dn. No. n, 
P.O. MADARIHAT, 
Distt Jalpaiguri (W.B.), 

Junior Engineer (R A'B), 
IS-30, Imim Manzil Colony. 
HYDERABAD-500 004. 

Executive Engineer, M.CB., 
18/50-51, Nityanadnagar-2, 
Swami Nityanand Marg, 
Andheri (East), 
BOMBAY.400069. 
Asstt. Engineer, 
P.W.D.,R&B Sub-Dn., 
Anandpur, 

P.O. SALPADA-758 020. 
Distt. Keonjhar (Orissa). 



New Admissions 



49 



S.No, Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



8807 PJL C3iakraborty 



8808 P. Talukdar 



90. 8809 Ram Awadh Singb 



91. 8810 OJ». Shaima 



92. 8811 DA. Bhkk 



93. 8812 S.C Batala 



94. 8813 D.T. Namdiu 



9S. 8814 G. RAJu 



96. 8815 J. Panda 



97. 8816 Sheikh Husain 



Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
C/o. Chief Engineer, P.WJ>. 

(Roads), Chandmari, 
GAUHATI-781 003. 

Superintending Engineer, 
P.WJ>. (Roads), Chandra 
Kumar Agarwalla Road, 
Uzan Bazar, 
GAUHATI.781 001. 

Director, 

Road Research Laboratory, 

GAUHATI.781 009. 

Superintending Engineer, 
HaryanaP.W.D.,B&R. 
National Highway Circle 
FARIDABAD. 

C/o. Gammon India Ltd., 
Gammon House, 
Prabhadevi, 
BOMBAY.540002. 

25/123, Dr. Masheri Road, 
Shiv Mahal, 4th Floor, 
BOMBAY-400009. 

Asstt. Engineer, 
(Bldgs.) West, 
Sikkim P.W.D., 
GAYZING.737111, 
West Sikkim. 

Asstt Divisional Engineer, 
Highways & Rural Works, 
SANKARANKOIL, 
Distt. TiruneWeli. 
Tamil Nadu 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 
Gangpur (R&B) Sub-Dn., 
Distt Sundargarh (Qrissajk 

Deputy Engineer, 
Pandiayat Samiti, 
JAlJHAR-401 603, 
Distt Thana (Maharashtra). 



50 



New Admissions 



S. No, Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



98. 8817 H.S. Sandhu 



99. 8818 C. Ramamoortlii 



100. 8819 J.G. Subramanian 



101. 8820 P. Thirumalai 



Site Engineer, 
D.CL (SecdoQ 1-4), 
P.O. Box 25582, Safat, 
KUWAIT (A.G.). 

Asstt Divisional Engineer, 

H&RW, 

THIRUPATHUR, 

Distt Ramnad (Tamil Nadu; 

Asstt Divisional Engineer, 
H&RW, 

RAMANATHAPURAM, 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Asst. Divisional Engineer, 
H&RW, 
PARAMAKUDI-623 707. 



102. 8821 Narain Das 



103. 8822 S. Ramanathan 



104. 8823 Miu*. S. Jayanathan 



105. 8824 M.A. Quieshi 



106. 8825 K.L. Sethia 



107. 8826 B.S. Dhole 



Transport Project Analyst, 
Bombay Metropolitan Regie 

Development Authority, 
Griha Nirman Bhawan, 
Bandra (East), 
BOMBAY-400051. 

Divisional Engineer, 
Highways & Rural Works, 
SALEM-636007. 

113, Engineer Regiment, 
C/o. 56 A.P.O. 

Asstt Engineer (Civil), 
All India Radio, 
Shantinagar Ward, 
Railway Station Road, 
JAGDALPUR-494 001, 
(M.P.). 

Executive Engineer, 
P.W.D., S&J Dn., 
BIKANER-334 001. 

Junior Engineer, 
P.W. Dn., 
BHANDARA.441 904. 



New Admissions 



51 



SJfo.EoUN<K 



i\ame of Member 



Address 



108. 8827 BJ>. Garg 



109. 8828 G.K. Gupta 



110. 8829 V.D. Gautam 



111. 8830 P. Lai Chhunga 



IIZ 8831 H.N. Sachdeva 



113. 8832 Janardan Ray 



114. 8833 J.S. Knshwah 



115. 8834 R.K. Biswas 



116. 8835 Sukumar Ghosh 



117. 8836 B.V. Adaikalamkathan 



118. 8837 Y.R. Balaji 



269, Kurukshetra Hostel* 
Pum'ab Engmeering College^ 
CHANDIGARH-160 OIZ 

Asst. RtigfncCT', 

SCF 156, Grain Market, 

CHANDIGARH. 

SA Ode 1, C/o. CWE, 
Gauhati M.E.S., 
Santipur, 
GAUHATI 781 009. 

Executive Engiiieer. P.W J>., 

MamitDn., 

SAIRANG (Mizoram). 

Superintending Engineer, 

CP.W.D., 

Kothi No. 23, Sector 3-A, 

CHANDIGARH. 

Asstt Engineer, 
R&B Sub Dn. No.II, 
KEONJHAR-758001. 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 
Qr. No. F-16, Thatipur 
Colony, Morar, 
GWAUOR-474 006. 

Asstt Engineer (OviO, VilLft 
P.O. JAGADISHPUR HAT 
Distt. Howrah (W.B.). 

Asstt. Engineer (Civil), 
32/12, *«L** Road, Belgachia, 
HOWRAH.711 108. 

Divisional Engineer (H), 
24/5, Vannayampathi Street, 
R.K. Nagar, 
MADRAS-600 028. 

Asstt Engineer (H), 
MIG Block 93-D, Flat-D, 
Ashok Pillar Road, 
K.K. Nagar, 
MADRAS-600 078. 



52 



New Admissions 



S,No. Roll No. Name of Member 



AUkms 



119. 8838 S.R. Raja Ram 



No. 78, SabnmaiQfa Swamy 
KoflSttcet, Saidi^ 
MADRAS-^X) 015. 



120. 8839 S. Ganesan 



121. 8840 R.C Gupta 



122. 8841 R.T. Sushama 



123. 8842 T.S. Chandra Sekhara Rao 



124. 8843 I. Anmadialam 



Asstt Eogiiieer (H), 
89, Old M.LJL Hostd, 
MADRAS-6000Q2. 

Asstt. PngifiBCf, 
P.WJ>. Sub-DiL, 
DALHOUSIE-176 304 (H.P.) 

Scoior PngifiBCf, 

UP. State Bridge Corpn. 

Ltd.. 
IQ/SOl-B, Khalasi Line, 
KANPUR (UJP.). 

Room Na 140^ VS Hall, 
Indian Institute of Tedmo- 
lo8yJCHARAGPUR-721 302. 

Divisional Engineer (H), 
Weak Stroctoies Dn., 
No. 1, Second Street, 
New Colony, Mannarpuram, 
TIRUCHY-620 020. 



125. 8844 Dilip Miuumdar 



Executive Engineer (Pig.), 
Barrick Compound, 
SHILLONG-793 001. 



126. 8845 D.P. Sharma 



127. 8846 Basudeb Dhar 



Asstt. Engineer, H.I.T., 
C/o. Shri Mukul Maitra, 
Santragadii, Ramngatala, 
HOWRAH.711 104. (W.B.) 

Asstt. Engineer (Q, Design, 
2, Bhawani Datt Lane, 
CALCUTTA.700073. 



128. 8847 N.N. Sinha 



Asstt. Engineer (Civil), 
121, Ramknshnapur Lane, 
HOWRAH-711 102 (W.B.). 



New Admissions 



53 



SJfo. Roil No, Name of Member 



Addreu 



129. 8848 DS. Dliaraiaseelan 

130. 8849 Mnityuiuay Pftttanaik 

131. 8850 K. Sridhar Rao 

132. 8851 Chander Farkash Gupta 

133. 8852 Sukhamay Ray 

134. 8853 HaribilaiRay 

135. 8854 M.K. Ifinforani 

136. 8855 P.K. Kulahrtstha 



137. 8856 A.H. Abassi 



138. 8857 Munindra Chandra Oaur 



Atstt Dtvisional 

H&RW, 

52, VeUala Street, 

Ayyanavaram, 

MADRAS-600023. 

Asstt. Engiiieer, 

Kaiaivia (R&B) Sab-Dn., 

KARANJIA, 

Dbtt Mayurbhai^ (Orissa). 

Aflstt Diviuonal Rnginecr^ 
Highways & Rural Works, 
TINDIVANAM, 604001. 
(Tamil Nadu), 

Asstt JEngineer, 
P.W.D., B&R **Madhubun", 
42 C/C, Gandhi Nagar, 
JAMMU (Tawi)-180 004. 

S.D.O. (TQ, 
C/o. Chief Engineer, 
Nagaland P.W.D., 
KOHlMA-790001. 

15, Iswar Chandra Vidya- 

sagar Road, 
CALCUTTA-700 077. 

Executive Engineer (F.CLX 
Masnet-34, Shanker Nagar» 
RAIPUR-492001(MJP.). 

Asstt. Director, 

Hydel Civil Design, n. 
Central Water Commission^ 
West Block-I, R.K. Puram, 
NEW DELHI-110022. 

Executive Engineer, P.WJD., 
SB-50, Subhash Nagar, 
JAIPUR OM.) 

Asstt. Engineer, 
Provl. Dn., P.W.D., 
LAUTPUR (U.P.). 



54 



New Admissions 



S,No. Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



139. 8858 S^.S. Tuladhar 



140. 8859 J.K. Dutta 



141. 8860 P.C Btttnaik 



14Z 8861 A.N.C Okonkwo 



143. 8862 C. Vaithilingam 



144. 8863 Chittaraiuan M^jee 



145. 8864 Amamath Arora 



146. 8865 S.P. Gupta 



147. 8866 N.G. Nair 



148. 8867 Poonam Chand Agarwal 



Deim. of Civil Engiiieerios* 
University Vlsveswaiaya 

College of Engg., 
Bangalore University, 
Jnana Bharathi, 
BANGALORB-560 056. 

Nandan Niwas, K.M. Tank, 
LAHERIASARAI-846 dbl, 
(Bihar). 

Asstt. Engineer, 
Sub-Dn. No.n, Capital 
Constn. Dn. No.l, 
BHUBANESWAR-751 001. 

Ajaokuta Steel Co., Ltd., 
P.M3. 12015, 
LAGOS (Nigeria). 

Asstt Divisional Engineer, 
Highways & Rural Works, 
DINDIGUL^24001. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 

Kandi Sub-Dn., 

P.O. KANDI, 

Distt. Murshidabad (W3.). 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D^ 
B &R, 

C-112,RamgaliNo. 5, 
Adarshnagar, 
JAJPUR-302004. 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 

B & R, 

3-GA/50, Housing Board 

Colony, 
Shastriya Nagar, 
JAIPUR-302 012. 

Executive Engineer, P.W.D., 
Vineetha,0-14, Jawahamagar , 
TRIVANDRUM-695 003. 

S.D.O., P.W.D., BAR, 

BURHANPUR, 

Distt. East Nimar (M.P.) 



New Admissions 



55 



SM Boll No. 



Name of Member 



Address 



149. 8868 Suresh Chandra Jain 



150. 8869 C Venkataswamy Naidii 



151. 8870 B.N. Fradhan 



Afistt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
H.Q. Sub-Dn , 
GUNA-473 001 (MJ>.). 

Junior Engineer, 
Bangalore City Corpn., 
No. 476, 1st Floor, 40th 

Cross, 
9th Nfain, 5th Block, 
Jayanagar, 
BANOALORE-560 041. 

Divisional Engi jeer, 
Sikkim P.W.D., 
GANGTOK-737 101. 



151 8871 H.R. Sharma 



153. 8872 V.K. Nigam 



154. 8873 Ganesh Datt Sharma 



155. 8874 Om Prakash Sharma 



156. 8875 K. Packiaraman 



157. 8876 R.V. Raghavan 



1 58. 8877 R. Sundara Moorthy 



Divisional Engineer, 
Sikkim P.W.D., 
GANGTOK-737 101. 

S.D.O., P.W.D., B&R, No.2, 
SEONI (M.P.). 

Asstt. Engineer, 
Provincial Dn., P.WJD., 
JHANSI (U.P.). 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W J>., B&R 
Near Hathi Ram Ka Oda, 
Inside Parakh Bhawan, 
JODHPUR-340 001. QBLai.) 

Asstt. Executive Engineer, 
Corporation of Madurai 
MADURAI (Tamil Nadu). 

P-9, P.G. Quarters, Engineer- 
ing College Staff Quarters, 
MADRAS-600 025. 

Asstt Transportation Planner, 

Transport & Communications 
Board, 

Bombay Metropolitan 
Region Development 
Authority, Bandra (East), 

BOMBAY-400 051. 



56 



New Admissions 



S,No, Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



159. 8878 B.N. Patra 



160. 8879 Kumar Pramodray Dave 



161. 8880 C.V.R. Murthy 



162. 8881 H.P. Jamdar 



163. 8882 A.K. Shanbhag 



164. 8883 RJ>. Varade 



165. 8884 O.P. Tripathi 



166. 8885 Bhabatosh Sikdar 



167. 8886 G. Viswanathan 



Asstt. Engineer, 
R.E. Sub-DivisioD, 
Bhanjanagar, at P.O.- 

BHANJA NAGAR, 

Distt. Ganjam (Orissa). 

Junior Engineer, GERI, 
15, Parekh Nivas, Alkapuri, 
VADODARA-390 005. 

Executive Engineer-I, 
Hyderabad Urban Develop* 
ment Authority, 3-4-376/5, 
Ungampally, 
HYDERABAD-500 027. 

Dy. Secretary, 

Bldgs. & Communication 

Deptt., Sachivalaya, 

GANDHINAGAR-382 010. 

(Gujarat). 

Junior Engineer, 

N.H. Sub-Division No.2, 

BELGAUM-590 011. 

Deputy Engineer, 

P.W. South Sub-Division, 

NASIK-422 002. 

Executive Engineer. 
Tempy. Division, P.WJ>., 
MAINPURI.205 001 (U.P.) 

Asstt. Engineer, 
Project Sub-Dn. n, 
KillaFort, 
CUTTACK-753 001. 

Superintending Engineer 

(Mech.), 
Ministry of Shipping & 

Transport (Roads Wing), 
Transport Bhawan, 
NEWDEUflllOO-Ol. 



New Admissions 



57 



SMf. RoONo. 



Name (^Member 



Address 



168. 8887 A3. Agnwal 



169. 8888 PJL Rawmghani 



17a 8889 L.P. Srivastava 



171. 8890 Y.S.R. Aivan^yulu, 



172. 8891 BJB. Bhoomannavar 



173. 8892 H.D. Shanna 



174. 8893 M.L. Das 



175. 8894 J.K. Saikia 



176. 8895 N. Palantswamy 



Dqmty EngiiMer, 

PA. to the Chief Engioeer, 

(B & C)., Joint Secretary to 

GovcnuDent of Gi:uarat» 
Saduvatya, 
GANDHlNAGAR-382 Oia 

Junior Engineer, BMRDA, 
Flat No. 417, Sector m, 
C.G.S. Quarters, AntophUl, 
BOMBAY-400 037. 

Executive Engineer, 
Construction DivisioQ No. VI, 
CJ».W J).. IJ>. Bhawan, 
NEWDELHI-110 0Q2. 

Executive Engineer, 
J.N.K.V.V., 
JABALPUR-480 0Q2. 

Asstt Engineer, 
N.H. Sub-Division No.2, 
Hindu Wadi, 
BELGAUM-590 011. 

Superintending Engineer, 
D.D.A., No. 10, D.D.A^ 
Officers' Flats, 
7, Bhagwan Dass Road, 
NEWDELHI-110 001. 

Chief Engineer, 

R.E.O.. 

BHUBANESWHAR-751 001. 

SX).0., P.WJ>., 

New Amolapathy, 
TEZPUR-784 001. 
Distt. Darrang (Assam). 

Asstt. Divisional Engineer, 
National Highways Sub- 
Division, P.T.C Work 
Shop Buildings, Kottapattu, 
TIRUCHI-620 020, 
(Tamil Nadu). 



58 



New Admissions 



SJ^o. Boll No. 



Name of Member 



Address 



177. 8896 P.S. Krishna swamy R^a, 



178. 8897 R.P. Joshi 



179. 8898 B.S. 



180. 8899 N.K. Mulgund 



181. 8900 A.V. Ohanguide 



Superinteiidiiig Engioeer, 
National Higjiways, Adayar, 
MADRAS-600 020. 

Executive Engineer, 
Bombay Metropolitan Region 
Development Aathority» 
HURE Board, Oriha 

Nirman Bhavan, 
5th Floor, Bandra (E), 
BOMBAY-400 051. 



Resident] 

M /s. Mangat Patd and 

Partners Limited, 
Consulting Engineers, 
P.O. Box 1084, 
DAR-ES-SALAAM, 
(Tanzania, East Afrfca). 

Junior Engineer, 
National Highway Sub- 
Division, HUBLI, 
Distt Dharwar. 

Asstt Engineer (Traflfic), 
Transport & Communi- 
cations Board, 
BMRDA, Griha Nirman 

Bhavan, 
Bandra (East), 
BOMBAY-400 051. 



18Z 8901 A.C. Maini 



183. 8902 Vinodesh Chhabra 



184. 8903 E. Viswanathan 



S.D.E., P.W.D., B & R, 
Provl. Sub-Dn. No.4, 
PALWAL, Distt. Faridabad, 
(Haryana). 

2, Sarai Phatak, 
Ganesh Ganj\ 
LUCKNOW (U.P.). 

Senior Transportation 
Engineer, RUGS, Central 
Road Research Institute, 

NEWDELHM10 020. 



New Admissions 



59 



SJ<fo. Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



185. 8904 ILP. Shanna 



186. 8905 D.M. Savur 



Asstt Eogioeeer, D.D A^ 
567, Nimri Colony, 
DELHI-110 05Z 

AddL Chief Engineer (QvflX 
The Hindustan Construction 

Company Limited, 
Construction House, 
Wakhand Hirachand Marg; 
BOMBAY-400 038. 



187. 8906 JJ. Shah 



188. 8907 S.V. Deo 



The Hindustan Construction 

Company Limited, 
C/o. The Indian Hume Pipe 

Company Limited, 
Budwarpeth, Karamba Road, 
SHOLAPUR-413 002. 
(Maharashtra). 

Design Engineer, 

The Hindustan Construction 
Co. Ltd., Construction 
House, Ballard Estate, 

BOMBAY-400 038. 



189. 8908 H.N. Ravishankar 



Design Engineer, 

The Hindustan Construction 
Co. Ltd., Construction 
House, Ballard Estate, 

BOMBAY-400038. 



190. 8909 P.N. Sivarama PiUai 



Executive Engineer, 
National Highways Division, 
CANNANORE.670 002. 



191. 8910 Avtar Singh 



191 8911 K.R. Sheth 



AEE(Q, 

75, Road Construction Coy., 

(GREF), C/o. 99 APO. 

Sectional Oflkcr, A.M.C., 
2/33, Sunder Nagar, 
Naranpura Charrasta, 
AnkurRoad, 
AHMEDABAD-380 013. 



60 



New Admissions 



S.No. Roll. No. Name of Member 



Address 



193. 8912 B. Lakshminarasaiah 



194. 8913 L.M. Sadhwani 



195. 8914 K. P^utfaasarathy 



196. 8915 BalUr Singh 



197. 8916 fi. Sankaralingam 



198. 8917 C.B. Lai 



199. 8918 Jaladhar Behm 



200. 8919 J.K. Bhatt 



201. 8920 V.O. Bhadange 



Junior Engineer (RAB), 
Office of the Sperinleoding 

Engineer (RABX 
HANAMKONDA-506 001 , 
Distt. Warangal (A JP.). 

Executive Engineer, 
G.LD.C., Fatehgaiu, 
Opp. Methodist Chuidi, 
BARODA (Giuarat). 

Executive Engineer, 
19 B.R.T.F. (GREF). 
C/o.99,A.P.O. 

Superintending Surveyor of 
Works, P.W.D., Delhi 
Admn., 12th Floor, 
M.S.O. Building, 
NEWDELHI-110 002. 

Asstt. Engineer, 
Divisional Engineer's Office, 
National Highways, banning 
37, South Car Street, 
Palayamkottai, 
TIRUNELVEU-627 002, 
(Tamil Nadu). 

Executive Engineer, 
Ajmer Central Dn., 
C.P.W.D., AJMER (Raj.). 

Superintending Engineer, 
Eastern Circle, R&B, 
BALASORE-756 001. 

Deputy Engineer (Civil), 
B&C, Sector 30, 
Block No. 43/6 (CH). 
Near Primary School, 
GANDHINAGAR-382 030. 

Asstt. Engineer (U), 
P.W. Sub-Dn., 
PALGHAR, Distt Thane, 
(Maharashtra). 



New Admissions 



61 



S.No, RoU No. 



Name of Member 



Address 



201 8921 Riuesh BaMdsaiui Laddha 



203. 8922 TJ. Jain 



204. 8923 Thmt It Sulochana 



Asstt Fugmrw, 
P.W. Sub-Dn., 
CHALISGAON-414 201. 

D^uty Engineer, 
P.W. Sub-Dn., 
SAILU-431 503. 
Distt Parbhani 
(Maharashtra). 

Asstt Executive Engineer, 
(Qvil), Office of the Superin- 
tending Engineer, Projects, 
Ovil-Hydel. IV Floor. 
M ulti Storeyed Building, 
Tamil Nadu Elecy. Board, 
AnnaSalai, 
MADRAS-600 002. 



205. 8924 D.O. Marathe 



206. 8925 Kamlesh Kumar 



Executive Engineer, 

P.W. Dn., 

SEED (Maharashtra). 

Asstt. Executive Engineer, 
(Civil), Ministry of Shipping 
& Transport (Roads Wing), 
D-38-A, Ashok Marg, 
C-Schcme. JAIPUR. 



207. 8926 S.C Shanna 



Executive Engineer, 
Ministry of Shipping & 

Transport (Roads Wing), 
D-38-A, Ashok Marg, 
•CSdicme, 
JAIPUR. 



208. 8927 Aseem Sharma 



209. 8928 S.C Mathur 



Junior Engineer, 
P.W.D. (BAR), Circle m, 
JAIPUR (lUJ.). 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
2215, Man Kyastha Ka 

Chowk, 
Chand Pole, 
JAIPUR (Riu.). 



62 



New Admissions 



S.No. Boll No. Name of Member 



Address 



2ia 8929 N.K. Mahetfawari 



211. 8930 K.L.Bairwa 



21Z 8931 G^ianaiid Shanna 



213. 8932 R.K. Bagda 



214. 8933 L.S. Mathur 



215. 8934 S.C. Shanna 



Junior Engineer, P. W J>.» 
2032, Pitlion Ka Chowk, 
Johari Bazar, 
JAIPUR-302003. 

Engineer, *Neel Kamal,' 
Shiviui Nagar, Civil Lines, 
(Behind office of G.S. Mills), 
JAIPUR-302 006. 

House No. 1331. Kishan 
Marg, Barkat Nagar, 
JAIPUR-302 004. 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
1806, Bagda Bhawan, 
Choura-Rasta, 
JAIPUR (R^.). 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 
3306, Bhindo Ka Rasta, 
ChandPole, 
JAIPUR (Riu.). 

Lecturer in Civfl Engg., 
B-134, Riuendra Marg, 
Bapunagar, 
JAIPUR-302 004. 



216. 8935 Damodar Agrawal 



Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
SB-57, Subash Nagar, 
JAIPUR-302 006. 



217. 8936 H.S. Gandhi 



218. 8937 R.C. Mishra 



Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
Plot No. 4, "Baikunth" 
New Saogaher Road, 
Sodala, JAIPUR-302 006. 

Asstt. Engineer, M.C., 
2336, Wright Town, 
JABALPUR (M.P.). 



219. 8938 Shekhar Pradhan 



Distt. Engineer, Z.P., 
49, Convent Road, 
DARJEELING 
(West Bengal). 



New AiMOSSiONS 



63 



S. No, Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



220. 8939 D.K. Basak 



221. 8940 U.S. Sen Oupta 



222. 8941 aL. Roy 



223. 8942 G.H. Mir 



224. 8943 T. Saku Aier 



225. 8944 S.H. Deshmukh 



226. 8945 N.G. Thatte 



227. 8946 N.R. Mathur 



228. 8947 J.P. Singh 



229. 8948 N.P. Tiwari 



230. 8949 R.K. Saniuaoba Singh 



Asstt Engiiieer, Corp. of 

Calcutta, 
331. Rahiiidra Sarani, 
CALCUTTA-700 006. 

17, Babu Bagan Lane, 
CALCUTTA-700 031. 

Executive Engineer (Design), 
OflSce of the Chief Engineer, 
Nagaland P.W.D., KOHIMA 

Executive Engineer, 
Pand Rathan, 
P.O. Pantha Chowk, 
Srinagar (Kashmir). 

S.D.O., P.W.D., Nagaland, 

Tsumenyu, 

P.O. TSUMENYU-797 109. 

Dl/81/805, M.I.G. Colony, 
Gandhi Nagar, Bandra (East) 
BOMBAY-400051. 

Superintenduig Engineer, 
Designs Circle 
Konkan Bhawan, 4th Floor, 
NEW BONfBAY-400 614. 

Executive Engineer, P.W.D., 
Man Kayasth Ki Gali, 
Qiand Pole Bazar, 
JAIPUR-302 001. 

Asstt. Engineer, 
P.W.D. (BAR), 
PHULERA (Jaipur). 

Asstt. Manager, 
M.P. Bridge Corporation, 
334, Katiu Nagar 
Distt. RATLAM (M.P.) 

Executive Engineer, 
Jiribam Dn., JIRIBAM, 
(Manipur). 



IRC 41-1—5 



64 



SJio.RoaNo. 



231. S9S0 



232. «9S1 SiibirDis 



233. 89S2 Oinbari Ul 



234. 8953 RJC. BhMi 



rDivkkxi, 
CHURACIiANDPUR. 
79512|,(MaDipiirX 



r. F.WJD.. 
53/3»GBDladR(MKl, 
JadsfDor, 
CALOimA-lOOOSl. 



Sub^XvkkmalJ 
Ctautnictioii SiMMvirior. 

Na],F.WJ>.,BMU 
HOSmARFUR (PiiiQia>). 



AatL Eoghmr, F.W J>., 
l^T.FhxitierCdloqy, 



JAIPUR-3020(M. 



235. 8954 Tahir Muned Nir 



23d. 8955 P.N. Mathur 



AatLJ 
Kanm] 
SRINAGAR dUdmir). 



Atttt] 

F.WJ>., (BARX Oly Sob- 

DiviBioiiXI. 
JAIPUR-30200d. 



237 8956 Mukul Raiyan Chatteijee 



Sdentkt, Oentnl Road 
Rcseavdi IntliUiie^ 

NEWDELHi-iioaaa. 



238. 8957 Br^ Kbhore Mdita 



239. 8958 R.L. Purohit 



240. 8959 R.R. JakaH 



Project] 

Bihar Rw<i Pol Niniian 

Nigam Limited. 
DANDNAGAR-824 113, 
Dittt Aurangabad (Bihar) 

C-58, Sivar Area, 
Babunagar, JAIPUR (Rig.) 

Divisioiial Engiiieer, 
Dandeli Division, 
Mysore Power Coiporatioiv 
DANDEU-581 325. 



New Admissions 



65 



S.No. RoUNo, 



Name of Member 



Address 



241. 8960 S.C. Sin^ 



24Z 8%1 R.K. Singh Kushwaha 



243. 8962 S.N. Shrivastava 



Sub-Divisioiial fiogmeer, 
Psanipat Provincial Sub- 
Division No.111, Haryana 
P.W.D., B&R, 
PANIPAT (Haryana). 

Executive Engineer, LSGD, 
Parkota Ward, 
SAUGOR-470 002. 

Planning Engineer, 
Bihar Riuya Pul Nirman 

Nigam Limited, 
7, Mangles Road, 
PATNA-800 015. 



244. 8%3 C Chaub^ 



Prcject Engineer, Bihar 
R^ya Pul Nirman Nigam 
Ltd., 
NARKATIAGANJ, 
West Champaran (Bihar). 



245. 8964 J.L. Agrawal 



Executive Engineer, 
R.E.O. Agriculture Market 

Works Division, 
MUZAFFARPUR, (Bihar). 



246. 8965 Dhanaiu'oy Das 



S.D.O. (TC), 
S.E.'s OflSce, P.W.D., 
Kohima Circle I, 
KOHIMA (Nagaland). 



247. 8966 M.TJoseph 



S.D.O. (TQ. Oiief Engineer's 
OflBcc (P.W.D.), 
KOHIMA-797 00U 
(Nagaland). 



248. 8967 S.N. Dixit 



Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
A-43, Sikar House Scheme, 
Outside Chand Pole Gate, 
JAIPUR-302 006. 



249. 8968 S.D. Maheshwari 



1 197, Pbrtanion Ka Rasta, 
Johari Bazar, 
JAIPUR-302 003. 



66 



New Admekions 



S,No. Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



250. 8969 D.K. Sanyal 



251. 8970 P.Y. Maiyurc 



252. 8971 S.K. fihattacharya 



253. 8972 Bhagwan Oeriani 



254. 8973 B.C. Sarmah 



District Engiiieer, Cofpn. of 
Calcutta, 4, Old Nimta 
Road, P.O. Nimta, 

CALCUTTA-700 049. 

C/o The Freyssinet Prcs- 

tressed Concrete Co. Ltd., 
6B, Sterling Centre, 
Dr. Annie Besant Road, 
WorU, BOMBAY-400 018. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
21 7» Subhashnagar Byelane, 
CALCUTTA- 700 065. 

Executive Engineer, 
Municipal Council, 
UDAIPUR (Raj.). 

S.D.O., P.W.D., R&B. 
Hafkmg *C Sub-Dn., 
P.O. HAFLONG, 
Distt. N.C. HOI (Assam). 



255. 8974 A.K. Choudhury 



256. 8975 Manoraiyan Kar 



Asstt. Engineer, 
Chief Engineer's oflSce, 
P.W.D., Assam, 
OAUHATI. 

Asstt Engineer (L.R.), 
Office of the Chief Engineer, 
R.fi.O., at P.O. BHUBA- 
NESHWAR (Orissa). 



257. 8976 M.L. Nfandal 



Superintending Engineer, 
Ministry of Shipping & 

Transport (Roads Wing), 
NEWDELHI-110 001. 



258. 8977 S.P. Arya 



259. 8978 K.S. Mittal 



Executive Engineer, P.W.D. 
B-214, Janta Colony, 
JAIPUR (Raj.). 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
Ramdoot Bhawan, 
Naharaarh Road. 



Nbw AmmsiONS 



67 



S,No. Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



260. 8979 A.K. Sanghi 



261. 8980 H.L. Mina 



262. 8981 S. DatU 



263. 8982 Manai\|ay Saba 



264. 8983 Rameshwar Pal 



^^5. 89S4 Ddbibrata Ouha 



266. 8985 A.K. Niyogi 



267. 8986 S.C. Gupta 



268. 8987 MG.S.Ooel 



269. 8988 J.R. Jain 



Asstt. Engiiieer, 
Quality Central Sub- 
Dtvision I, P.W.D., 
AJNfER. 

Asstt Engiiieer, 
P.W.D., BAR, 
SIKAR (R^.). 

Asstt Engineer, Higjiway 
Design Division No J, 
P.W. (RoadsXDeptt., 
Bhabani Bhaban, 
CALCUTTA-700 027. 

Asstt. Engineer, 
Plassey Sub Division, P.W.D., 
P.O. PLASSEY-741 156, 
Distt Nadia (West Bengal). 

Executive Engineo-, 

Berhampore Division No. n, 

P.W.D., 

at P.O. BERHAMPORE, 

Distt. M urshidabad, 

(West Bengal). 

Deputy Director, H.R.B.C., 
32, Broad Street, 
CALCUTTA-700 019. 

Asstt. Project Manager, 

H.R.B.C., 

34C, Rai Bahadur Road, 

Calcutta-700 034. 

Asstt. Engineer, 
Maintenance Division No.3, 
P. W.D.,LUCKNOW-226001 . 

Executive Engineer, 
Maintenance Division No.3» 
P.W.D., LUCKNOW-226001 

Superintending Engineer, 
41, Circle P.W., 
198, Tuckker Road, 
AGRA CANTT. (U.P.) 



68 



New Admsbkins 



S,No. Roll No. Name of Member 



Addreu 



270. 8989 I. Rathinaiamy 



271. 8990 N.N.Boghani 



272. 8991 C.N. NaUmuan 



273. 



274. 



8992 . J. Pfeti 



8993 P.C. Puti 



275. 



276. 



277. 



278. 



8994 M. Zahiruddin 



8995 S.C. Mishra 



8996 OP. Purohit 



8997 Dudheshwar Ram 



Asm. jBngiiieer, HARW, 
837, Poonamalke 

High Road. Kilpauk, 
MADkA$-500 010. 

Deputy EogiDeer, 
C/o Superintending 

EngLKer*8 Office, Riykot 

B&CCiide, 
Dr. Ri^axlra Prasad Road, 
RAJKOT-1 (Gujarat). 

Executive Engineer, 
P^u^dip Port Trust, P.O. 
PARADIP PORT-754 142, 
Distt. CuttarV (Orissa). 

Chief Engineer, 
Paradip Port Trust, P.O. 
PARADIP PORT, 
ORISSA-754 142. 

Asstt. Engineer, Paradip 
Port Trust at C&B Division, 
P.O. PARADIP PORT 
754 142, 
Distt. Cuttack (Orissa). 

Planning Engineer, Bihar 
Riuya Pul Ninnan Nigam 
Ltd.,ShaheedCliowk, 

RANCHI^34 001. . 

Asstt Engineer, 
Capita] Maintenance 

Sub-Division No.111, 
BHUBANESHWAR, 

(Orissa) 

Executive Engineer, P.W.D., 
(B&R), Quality Control 
Division, 
BIKANER (Raj.) 

Executive Engineer, P.W.D., 
M.I.G., 3J0, Lohia Nagar, 
PATNA-800 030. 



New Admissions 



69 



SJ^o, Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



279. 899S H.C. Gupta 



A»tt. Engineer, P.WJ^., 
Plot A7, Behind Adarah 

Nagar Thana Adjacent to 

Tancga Block, 
JAIPUR-302 001. 



280. 8999 N.S. Das 



281 . 9000 Jagadish Kai^ilal 



282. 9001 G.S. Kulkarni 



283. 9002 Jag Pravesh 



Superintending Engineer, 
P.W.D., Northern Circle, 
P.O & Distt 
JALPAIGURl-735 101, 
(West Bengal). 

Executive Engineo', P.W.D., 
18, Banamali Sarkar St., 
CALCUTTA-700 005. 

Group Engineer, Mysore 

Power CorpcM^tion Ltd., 
KUMBHARWADA (N.K.), 
(Kamataka). 

Executive Engineer, P.W.D., 
B-2, Shastri Nagar, 
JAIPUR-302 006. 



284. 9003 A.K. Paul 



Superintending Engineer, 

C.P.W.D., 

Assam Central Circle, 

GAUHATI-781 021. 



285. 9004 I. Koti Padmakar 



Asstt Manager (Asphalt), 
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., 
254 C, Dr. Annie Besant 
Road, BOMBAY-400 025. 



286. 9005 S.K. Moorthy 



AssU. Manager (Asphalt), 
Indian Oil Corporation, 
150-A, Mount Road, 
MADRAS -600 002. 



287. 9006 J. Sridhar 



Saks Engineer (Asphalt), 
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., 
Khivnu Mansion, 
Mount Road, 
MADRAS-600 002. 



70 



New AjomaBioM 



S.No.RoHNo. Name of Member 



Addreu 



288. 9007 IndnuitSeo 



289. 9008 A.C. Baoeijee 



290. 9009 fi.B. Sharan 



291. 9010 K.C. Alexander 



292. 9011 KishorJoshi 



293. 9012 Anirudh Singh 



294. 9013 Parvcz Qufcshi 



295. 9014 fialmiki Prasad 



296. 9015 N.K. Sinha 



AMOciate Design Eogineer, 
CMDA, Block No.23. 
Flat No.8, Regent Plaik, 
Govt Housing Estate, 
ToUygunge, 
CALCUTTA-700040. 

Asstt Engineer (DesignX 
CMDA,93A/l-A,Suien 

Sarkar Road, 
CALCUTTA-TOOOIO. 

Executive Engineer, Bridges. 
Eastern Railway, 
17, Netiui Subash Road, 
CALCUTTA-700 004. 

Chief Engineer, 

National Hifijiways, P.W.D., 

TRIVANDRUM-690 001. 

Asstt. Engineer, M.P. Riyya 

Setu Nirroan Nigam, 
E-5, Mahavir Nagar, 
BHOPAL-462 016. 

Executive Engineer, 
Design & Quality Control 
Division No. 2, National 
Highways, P.W.D., 
PATNA-800001. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
(R&B), 30-B, Gandhinagar, 
Govt. Quarters, 
JAMMU (J&K). 

Executive Engineer, P.W.D., 
Planning & Investigation 

Division, 
MUZAFFARPUR (Bihar). 

Asstt. Engineer, (P.W.D.), 
Prcm Mandir, P.O. 
Kadam Kuan, 
Anugroh Narain Road, 
PATNA-800 003. 



New AiHOSSiONS 



71 



S.No.RoiiNo. Name of Member 



Address 



297. 9016 S.D. Maodal 

298. 9017 A.L. Sancbeti 

299. 9018 U.J. ShuUa 

300. 9019 Dr. J.P. Shrivastava 

301. 9020 K.K. Smsh 

302. 9021 S.C. Chauhan 

303. 9022 G.K. P^nde 

304. 9023 P.K.Dcb 

305. 9024 J. Pduna 

j06. 9025 A.K. Sanghl 

307. 9026 U. Salio B..C:hynnang 

306. 9027 P.C. Mohapatra 



Aflstt. Engiiieer, Bric^ 
Design Division No. 1, 
Advance Planning, P.W.D., 
Boring Canal Road. 
PATNA-800 001. 

S.D.O., P.W.D.. No. 1, 
MANDSAUR (M.P.). 

188, Phoolbag, 
LUCKNOW-226 001. 

Prof, in Applied Meduuiics, 
Shri G.S. Institute of Tedi. 
Science, INDORE-452 003. 

51, Qay Square, 
LUCKNOW (U.P.). 

Asstt Engineer, 
U.P. State Bridge 

Corporation, 
GORAKHPUR (U.P.). 

Gopal Sadan, Ramadhin 
Singfa Road, Daliganj, 
LUCKNOW (U.P.). 

182/2, M.B. Road, 
CALCUTTA.700 049. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
Sunny Hill, 
SHILLONG-793 002. 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
C-46, Siwar Area, 

Babu Nagar, 
JAIPUR-302 004. 

longpialu Jowai, 
P.O. JOWAI 793 150, 
Jaintia Hilb District 
(Me^laya). 

Asstt. Engineer, 
R.E. Sub-Division, 
ANANDPUR (Orissa). 



72 



New Adudbkihs 



SJfo. Roil No. 



Ndtnt ofhiwmitf ' 



AtKB^tSt 



309. 9028 N. Stehoo 



310. 9029 B. 



311. 9030 CRMatheo 



312. 9031 P.B. Sengupta 



313. 9032 S.L. Shanna 



314. 9033 A.K.Plir6liit 



315. 9034 C.K. Matty 



316. 9035 A.L.D<Mhi 



317. 9036 S.Deo9kar 



318. 9037 A.P. Dalvi 



ILE. Sub-DiviMOii, 
KEONIHAR ((AISSA). 

Esoeciitive Engineer 

(Vahiatioii), 
LT. Dq^t, 5th Floor, 
K.G.M. Ayurvedic Ho^Ntal 

BUg., Neuji Subhai Road* 
BOMBAY-4000Q2. 

Aflstt Engineer, 
Munidpal Council, 
Chhindwara (M.P.). 

Esoecutive Engineer, CMD A, 
S2-D/l^ Babu Bagin Lane, 
CALCUTrA-700031. 

Junior Engineer, P.W J>., 
749, Chaubey Ptta, 
KARAUU-322 241, 
Distt Sawai Madbopur 
(RiU).. 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
C-55-A, Priya Danhi Marg, 
Tilak Nagar, 
JAIPUR-3e2004. 

Asstt Engineer J».W. (Roads), 
Deptt Higbway Survey 

DivitioQ No.111, 
Bbawani Bbawan, 
CALCinTA-700027. 

Esoecutive Engineer, 
P.W.D., (B&RX Ganganagar 

Sugur Mills Ltd., 
SRIGANOANAOAR (Rij.). 
Executive Entineer, P.W.D., 
GulabBhawan, 
4, Pratap Marg, 
UDAlPUR-313 001. 

Executive Engineer, 
Bridge 11, P.W.D., B^A, 
JAIPUR-302006. 



New ADMtisiONS 



73 



S,No. Foil No. Name of Member 



Address 



319. 9038 S.R. 



320. 9039 K. M^^lakw 



321. 9040 Y.R. BUgi 



321 9041 fi.Son)9iiath 



323. - 9042 J.^fahOO 



324. 9043 B. Behera 



325. 9044 N.K. Sinha 



326. 9045 J.N. Rawa 



327. 9046 G.M,L. Mathur 



328. 9047 P.IC Gukti 



Addl. EsGecutivtJ 
aty Division. (P.W.D.). 
Writer's Bmldings, 
CALCUTTA-TOOOOI. 

Asstt. Engineer, 

Jhalda Highway Sub-Divi- 
sion, P.W. (Roads) Dq>tt, 

P.O. PURULIA, Distt. 
Pnrulia, West Bengal. 

Asstt. Engineer, No. 11, 
West of Chord Road, 
II Stage, 
BANGALORE-560 010. 

Asstt. Executive Enginea-, 
No. 3^ Snb-Division (South), 
Bangalore Develofmient 
Authority,Kuniara ParkWest. 
BANGALORE-560 020. 

Asstt. Efigineer, Keonjhar 
N.H. Division, At/P.O. 
KEONJHAR, Distt., 
Keonjhar (Orissa). 

Antt. Engineer, 
N.H. Sub- Division No. I, 
At P.O. BALASORE, 
Distt. Balasore (Orissa). 

Asstt. Executive Engineer, 
CP.W.D., D/26, Subhash 
Marg, *C Scheme, 
JAIPUR (Raj.). 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D,, 
H-36, Tagore Path, 
Bani Park, JAIPUR. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
Barkat Colony, Tonk Phatak, 
1059, Udai Bbawan, 
JAIPUR-302004. 

Junior Engines, P.W.D., 
Plot No. 352, Adarash 
Nagar ,JAIPUR-302 004. 



74 



New AmonoNS 



S, No. RoU No. Name of Member 



AddretM 



329. 9048 Shankor Ul Sharma 



330. 9049 A.K. Jain 



331 . 9050 Sukh Dev Siogh Soin 



332. 9051 S.K. Chatterjee 



333. 9052 B.B. Mathur 



334. 9053 A.K. Sen 



335. 9054 S. Pilbag 



336. 9055 D,M. Tcjwani 



337. 9056 Ratncsh Kumar 



AaMt Engioeer, P.W J>^ 
B-22, Anita Coiooy, 
Bwi Nacar, JAIPUR. 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
846-A, Sin^vi Sadan, 
Anandpuri, Adrash Nagar, 
JAIPUR (Riu.). 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W J>., 

lUy-VUla, 

Fmciismi Marg, 

^ jc n e m e, 
JAIPUR (Raj.) 

Asstt Engineer, CMDA, 
47/4, BC-Block, 
Salt Lake Qty, 
Sector I, 
CALCUTTA-700064. 

Junior Engineer, P,W.D., 
D-96, Tuki Ma^ 
BahiPftrk, 
JAIPUR dUJ.). 

Chief Engineer, 
National Highways, P.W. 

(Roads) Deptt., 
Writers* Buikling, 
CALCUTTA-700 001. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.WJ>., 
65/66-B, Rani Harshamukhi 
Road, Rental Housing 

Estate, Blodc-'B', Flat-1, 
CALCUTTA-700002. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
2650, Phuta Khura, 
Ram Ganj Bazar, 
JATPUR-302 002. 

Executive Engineer, 
Riyasthan State Agriculture 
Marketing Board, 
UDAIPUR (R^.). 



New ADMBSKms 



75 



S.No. RoU No. Name of Member 



Adtkeu 



338. »)57 KJ. Singh Bhmder 



339. 9058 P.K. Dhawan 



340. 9059 H.C Ooel 



341. 9060 A.V. Ddhinglcar 



342. 9061 A.P. MaAur 



343. 9062 A.K. Gupta 



3 14. 9063 S.V.Oiiina 



345. 9064 C.S. Sarin 



346. 9065 ILG.Afrawal 



347. 9066 P.V. Prabhakara Rao 



348. 9067 S.R. Das Roy 



Sub-Divisioiial Eagfaaeer, 
Housing Const Sub-Divisioo. 
No. 1, Punjab P.W.D., BAR, 
BR, Kothi No.89, 
Sector-2, 
CHANDIGARH. 

Scientist, Extension Division, 

C.R.R.I., 

NEW DELHI-110 020. 

Scientist, Central Road 
Research Institute, 
NEW DELHM10 020. 

Executive Engineer, P.W. 
Division, CHIPALUN, 
Distt Ratnagiri. 

Asstt Engmeer, P.W.D., 
Shiv Sadan, Jobner Ba^, 
Ptuedc College Road, 
JAIPUR-302 006. 

L-1, Krishna Marg, 
^ oCDeme^ 
JAIPUR (Raj). 

Asstt. Engineer, 
65, Gopal Wari, 
JAIPUR.302 001. 

C/o. Dr. R.G. S'irin, 
Anand Niketan, 
Hospital Marg, 
JAIPUR.302 001. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.WX)., 
C/o. Dr.C. S. Agrawal 
1 Gha 12, Jawahar Nagar, 
JAIPUR-302 004. 

Chief Engineer, 
A.P. Housing Board, 
HYDFRABAD-500 001. 
S.D.O., P.W.D., (R&B). 
P.O., NONOSTCMN, 
Distt. West Khazi Hills 
(Meghalaya). 



76 



New ADMnHONs 



S.No. Foil No. Name of Member 



AUreu 



349. 9068 G.R. Mahala 



iM). 9069 K.K. Gupta 



351. 9070 R.GopAJan 



352. 9071 R.M. Jain 



353. 9072 M.N. Sharma 



354. 9073 D.K. Kunar 



355. 9074 B.S. Godbole 



356. 9075 S.P. Khidlar 



357. 9076 O.P. Bohra 



358. 9077 V.K. Singhvi 



r, F.W.D., 
VJ>.O..PALSANA. 
Dtftt Sllcar(RiU.). 

Executive Engineer, 
P.WJ>., (BAR), Disa. 
Division I, JAIPUR (Raj.). 

Executive Engineer (Civil), 

International 
Airports Authority of 
India, Yashwant Place, 

Chanakya Puri, 

NEW DELHm0 021. 

Junior Engineer, P.WJ>., 
18-A, Bichun Bag Sansar, 
Chandra Road, 
JAIPUR-302 001. 

Executive Engineer, P.W.D.. 
L/7, Krishna Marg, 
C^ Scoeme, 
JAIPUR (RiU). 

Manager, The Hindustan 
Construction (To., Ltd., 
Cliambal Bridge Works, 
DHOLPUR-328 001 (Rij.). 

Divisional Engineer, 

The Hindustan Corstruction 

Co., Ltd., Construction 
House, Ballard Estate, 
Fort, BOMBAY-400 038. 

Superintending Engineer, 
Exchange Road, 
Green Court, 
JAMMU TAWI-180 001, 
(J&K). 

Site Engineer, R.H.B., 
C/o 451, Inside Bohr an 
KiPoI,JODHPUR(R^.). 

Asstt. Engineer, I.T., 
D-644, Gandhi Nagar, 
JAIPUR-302 004. 



New AnaMONS 



77 



S^o. RaU No. Name of Member 



Address 



359. 9078 Nazir AhmMl 



3€0. 9079 SLT. Detai 



^1. 9060 V.K.Garg 



m 9081 Chandra Kumar Baftia 



363. 9082 P.K. Hingorani 



364. 9083 S.C. Shanna 



36S. 9084 ILP. Khaddwal 



366. 9085 S.K. Oaiy 

367. 9086 K.C Gupta 



Divisional Engineer (HX 
Tribal Area Devetopment 

Works, No.16, Narayanan 

Street, Extension, 
SALEM-636 007. 

21-A, DhuUacot, 
Opp. N.C.C. Camp, 
Ellis Bridge, 
AHNfEDABAD-380 006. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
R-12, Shadev Maig, 
*C Scheme, 
JAIPUR. 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 
102-'A*, 'Bafoa Niwas*, 
Chittnu\jan Lane, "C Scheme, 
JAIPUR-302 001, 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
C/o. Prof. J.S. Haijani, 
26, Sindhi Colony, 
Ban! Park, 
JAIPUR-302006. 

Junior Engineer, P»W.D., 
C/a Sh. BX. Sharma, 
Advocate, Old City, 
DHOLPUR-328 001. 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 
C/o. Sh. H.C. Gupta, 
A-7, Adjacent to Tancja 

Block, Behind Adrash 

NagarThana, 
JAIPUR.302 004. 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
42, Gyan Lok, Hapur, 
GHAZIABAD-245101 (U.P.) 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
Kailash ttiawan. Road No.2, 
ALWAR-301 001. 



78 



New. 



S.No. Roll No. Name cfMenAar 



368. 9087 P.N. Roy 

369. 9088 O.P. Shanna 

370. 9089 S.P. Punhani' 

371. 9090 D.K. Lalla 

372. 9091 S.N. Mishra 

373. 9092 J.N. Bahl 

374. 9093 Mohinder Khanna 

375. 9094 R.A. Krishna 

376. 9095 S.N.P. SHnha 

377. 9096 P.C. Shrivastav 

378. 9097 J.R. Karnad 



F.WJ>.. 



U J^., LUCICNOW. 



Aatt Engineer, P.W.D^ 
(BftRXAJM£R(RiM.). 

Super intending Fnginpcr, 
Hfanachal Pradesh P.W.D., 
5thCiccle, 
DHARMSALA (H.P.). 



Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
420, Daya Cottage, Near 
Oeeta Bhawan, Adrash Nagar, 
JAIPUR-302 004. 

Asstt. Engineer, 

Ty. Division No. 3, P.W.D., 

AZAMGARH (U.P.). 

Executive Engineer, 
Medianical Division, 
RP., P.W.D., 
DHARMSALA (H.P.). 

Asstt. Engineer, 5th Cirde, 
H.P., P.W.D., 
DHARMSALA (RP.) 

Deputy Chief Engineer, 
(avil), M.P. Electricity 
Board, 
JABALPUR-482 008. 

Superintending Engineer, 
U.P. P.W.D., Azamagarh 
XV Circle, 
AZAMGARH-276 70L 

Deputy Chief Engineer, 
(Civil), M.P. Electricity 

Board, 
JABALPUR (M.P.). 

Chief Engioeei (Civil), 
M.P. Electricity Board, 
Vidyutnagar, 
JABALPUR-482 008. 



New AmasaoNS 



79 



SMf. Raii No. Name of Member 



Address 



379. 9096 G.L. Shaima 



38a 9099 Dr. G J". Saba 



381. 9100 M. KmniEir 



38Z 9101 S.L. Vialmoi 



383. 9102 S.P. Bakshi 



384. 9103 CP. Bnhmawar 



385. 9104 R.N. Kumaway 



386. 9105 SJ". PkuKloh 



387. 9106 R.H. Pfttd 



388. 9107 B.D. P&td 



Asstt Engioeer, UXT., 
8, MissioD Compound, 
Aimer Road, 
JAlPUR-302 006. 

Aflstt Technical Manager, 
Gammon India Ltd., 
Gammon House, 
Prabhadevi, 
BOMBAY-400025. 

Assn. Engfaieer, P.W J>., 
Building Sub-Division, 
MUZAFFARPUR-842 001. 

Asstt Engfaieer, 
P.W J>., (BAR), 
aty Sub-Division 5, 
JAIPUR dUJ.). 

Executive Engineer, 
Near Shaw Brothers Sl 
MJEJ&. Office, Shivpora 
(Bativara), SRINAOAR 
Kashmn'.190 004. 

Executive Engineer, 
P.W.D., BAR. TONK (Rnj.) 

Kumaway Mohalla, 
P.O. CHOMU, 
Distt Jaipur (Rig.) 

Asstt. Engnieer, 
National Hi^way 
Bye-Pass Division, 
JAMMU (J&K). 

Executive Engineer, 
H/7, Dash Bungla, 
Gulbari Tekra, 
AHMEDABAD-380 015. 

Dq>uty Engine^*, P.WJ>., 
A/4., Ram Narayan Nivas, 
Karmachari Nagar, 
Naranpura-Ankur, 
Ghatlodia Road, 
AHNfEDABAD-380 061. 



IRC 41-1— 6 



80 



NewAbtesNyte 



S.No, RoU No. Name of Member 



AUum 



389. 9108 M.M. OmMa 

390. 9109 U.N. Saieoa 

391. 9110 S.S. PfttwanlhaD 

392. 9111 U.P.Misni 

393. 9112 M.K. Shaima 

394. 9113 N.L.Fueek 

395. 9114 R.S. Gupta 



396. 



9115 K.D.Lahkar 



397. 9116 V.K. Oadhoke 



398. 9117 M.N. Karoliwal 



399. 9118 M^\LM. Ahmed 



Junior rnginrcf , 
D-19-A, Meera Marg 
BaniPftrk, 
JAIPUR-3Q2006. 

Executive EngiDeer, P.WJ3., 
7JIIA 36, Jawahar Colony, 
JAIPUR (RiU.). 

Executive Fnginficr (DeBigo)^ 
MJP. Rjuya Setu I^Qnnaii 

Nigam Ltd., 
BHOPAL-462016. 

Aatt EogiDeer, 
Capital CoottnictioD 

DivisioQ Nal, 
BHUBANESHWAR-751 001 

Sub-Eogiiieer, P.WJ>., 
Takra, Distt Bundi (R^i-). 

Sub Engineer, P.W.D., 
163, Barkat Colony, 
TonkPhatak, 
JAIPUR-3Q2004. 

Executive Engineer (CSvil), 
RSRTC, SB-54, Nand Nfarg; 
Subash Nagar, 
JAIPUR OUJ.). 

Managing Director, Assam 
Government Constn. Corpn., 
Rupnagar, 
GAUHATI-781 005. 

Executive Engineer, P.W.D., 
C-27, Bbagwan Das Road, 
'C Schemc,JAIPUR (Raj.). 

Assft. Engineer, Rai Ji Ka 
Ghar, Chandi Kitaksar, 
JAIPUR (R^.). 

Room No. 56, AA Hostel, 
University of Roorkee, 
ROORKEE (U.P.). 



New ADliissiONS 



81 



Roil No. Name of Member 



Address 



9119 U. Mohd. 



9120 R.LJ. Mathur 



9121 L.L. Chhabra 



9122 S. Sunder 



9123 Rame Gowda 



9124 S3.K. Sin^ 



9125 M.A. Bodi 



9126 MX. Oarg 



9127 SJC. Shartna 



9128 Girish Chandra Gupta 



9129 P. Panda 



S-24, Azad Bhawan, 
University of Roorloee, 
ROORKEE (U.P.). 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 
7, Everest Colony, Behind 
Shanti Niketan Sdiool, 
LalKothi, 
JAIPUR (R^.). 

Asstt. Engineer, P.WJ>., 
2161/20, Rasta Manibaran, 
Gudwalan Ki Haveli, 
JAlPUR-302 003. 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 

G-19, Krishna Marg, 

'C Sdieme, JAIPUR-302001. 

Asstt Executive Engineer, 
Bangalore City Corp<n^tion, 
BANGALORE-560 002. 

Superintending Engineer, 
P.W.D., Moirangkhom, 
IMPHAL-795 001. 

Asstt. Engineo', 
BieinNishat, 
SRINAGAR-191 121, 
iKashmir). 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
11, Mohan Vilas, 
Vivekanand Marg, 
'C ScfaeoQe, JAIPUR (R^.). 

Junior Engineer, 
B-89, BiyiU Nagar, 
JAIPUR -302 004. 

Superintending Engineo", 
P.WJD.. 12/476, Macrobert- 
gaiu, KANPUR (U.P.). 

Asstt. Engineer, OflSce of 

the Chief Engineer, R.E.O., 
BHUBANESHWAR(Orissa) 



82 



New Admissions 



SJ4o.RoUNo. Home of Member 



AtKB^tSt 



411. 9130 M. Tariang 



41Z 9131 B.R. Gupta 



413. 9132 P.V. George 



414. 9133 S.C Sharma 



415. 9134 A.K. Gupta 



416. 9135 A.N. Sharma 



417. 9136 M^\ N.R. Mathur 



418. 9137 D.N. Dwivedi 



419. 9138 V.D. Sharma 



420. 9139 R.N. Mathur 



421. 9140 G.P. Mathur 



Asstt Eogiiieer, P.WJ>., 
longpiah, Jowai P.O., 
MEGIIAIAYA-793 150. 

Junior Engiiieer, P.WJ>., 
C-90, Babunagar, 
JAIPUR-3Q2004. 

Deputy TraiiH>ort Coomoisii- 

oner, Gentiid Zone, 
Emakiilam, CX)CHIN»16, 
(Kerala). 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 

(B&R), Sub-Division H, 

BA YANA, Distt BhanUpur 

(RiU.). 

C/o. Sh.T.C OtqMa, 

V.P.O. AUND MEENA, 

ViaKherla, 

Distt. SAWAI MADHOPUR 

322 240 (R^.). 

Executive Engineer, P.W.D., 
SB-56, N&nd Marg; 
Subhash Nagar, 
JAIPUR (Rig.), 

Executive Engineer, P.WJ>., 
Jeewan Bhawan, Azad Marg, 
Ashok Nagar, 
JAIPUR-302010. 
Executive Engineer, 
110/37.F, 1464Qrs., 
Sliiviyinagar, 
BHOPAL(M.P.). 

Sub-Engineer, P.W.D., 
B-198, Janta Colooy, 
JAIPUR.302 004. 

Sub-Engineer, P.W.D., 
E-73-A, Shastri Nagar, 
JAIPUR-302 002. 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 
m/m Type Quarter, 
Near Tdisfl Building, 
Shiv Marg, Bani Park, 
JAIPUR (R^-.). 



New Admissions 



83 



RoU No. Name of Member 



Address 



9141 R.C TVagi 



9142 SJL Shanna 



9143 S.V. Ratoam 



9144 B.S^ Murthy 



9145 SJS. Jain 

9146 MJS. Karanawat 

9147 Liyaquat Husain 

9148 G. Singh 

9149 S.B. Mittal 

9150 R.K. Goyal 

9151 JJP. Mandhana 



Asstt Engineer, P.W J>., 
C/56, Amba-Badi, 
JAIPUR (Riu). 

Junior Engineer, P.W J>., 
SD 214, Shanti Nagar, 
JAlPUR-302 006. 

Scientist, Central Road 
Research Institute, 
NEW DELUI-110Q20. 

Superintending Engineer 
Gtoads), Mhiistry of 
Shipping of Transport 
(Roads Wing), 
Tranqx>rt Bhawan, 
No.l, Parliament Street, 
NEWDEUn-llOOOl. 

C/o Sh. Sukhmal Chand Jain, 
Riuul General Store, 
8, Civil Lines, (New Hardwar 
Road), ROORKEE-247 667, 

Asstt Engineer, P.WJ)., 
Vyay Bhawan, 
Opp. Old Kotwali, 
JAIPUR-3Q2 003. 

Executive Engineer, P.W.D., 
163, Shastri Nagar, 
AJMER (Riu-)- 
Asstt Engineer, 
P.WJ)., BAR, 
BHADRA-335 501. 
Distt Sriganganagar(Riu.)* 

Sub-Engineer, P.W.D., 
G-42, Maj. Shatan Shigh 
Colony, JAIPUR-302 012. 

Sub-Engineer, P.W.D., 

26-A, Laxmi Nagar, 

N.B.C. Road, JAIPUR (Ri^. 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
B-17-B, Chomu House, 
JAIPUR-302 001. 



84 



New Admosions 



S.No. RoU No. Name of Member 



433. 9152 S.B. Agtfwal 



434. 9153 Bhaowar Singh Jaio 



435. 9154 N.1L Pfttd 



436. 9155 iLP. P&liwal 



437. 9156 S.K. Gupto 



438. 9157 R.iL Gupta 



439. 9158 O.C Mathur 



440. 9159 S.R. Bansal 



441. 9160 J.C. Sharma 



442. 9161 S.K. Bansal 



443. 9162 Poonam Chand 



r, P.W.D., 
Sfagram >Qvas, Thaoft Bazar, 
ALMORA.263 601 (U.P.). 

Sub^Eogmeer, P.WJ>^ 
Hook No.2152. Maniharoo 

KaRasta, 
JAIPUR-302 001. 
Executive Pjigineer (BridgesX 
T^(R)to CE., Rnj., P.W.D., 
28, Sai^am Cokny. 
JAIPUR (Rig.). 

Sub-Engineer, P.WJ>., 

F-14, Jai Bhawan, 

Todar Mai Maig, Bani Park, 

JAIPUR (Riu). 

Junior Engineer, P.WJ>., 

102, Ndiru B^iar, 

Rastogi Steel Furniture, 

JAIPUR. 

Junior Engineer, P.WJ>., 
B-322, Janta Colony, 
JAIPUR (R^.). 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
C/o Shri P.C Mathur, 
Advocate, 

PARBATSAR-341 512, 
QisttNagaur(RiU.). 

Sub-Engineer, P.W.D., 
B-99, Janta Colony, 
JAIPUR-302 004. 
Sub-Engineer, P.W.D., 
E/2S, JamunaNagar, 
Ajmer Road, 
JAIPUR-302 006. 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 

34, Keshav Nagar, 

avil Line, JAIPUR (Raj.). 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
Bal Kishan Ji Ka Temple, 
Ashop-House, Juni Mandi, 
JODHPUR (Raj.). 



New Admissions 



85 



SJfo. Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



444. 9163 D.P. God 



445. 9164 U.P. Mishra 



446. 9165 N.N. Shanna 



447. 9166 RJS. Yerma 



448. 9167 Ram Singh 



449. 9168 R.T. Patd 



450. 9169 V.P. Dedipande 



451. 9170 L.C. Chandil 



Opp. Vikram Cold Storage. 

Jhotwara^ 

JAIPUR (R^.). 

Asstt. Eogiiieer, Provincial 
Division, P.W.D., 
NA1N1TAL.263 002 (U.P.). 



Junior] 

F-150, Gandhi Nagar, 

JAIPUR-302 004. 

Junior Engineer, P.W.D., 
B-252, Janta Colony, 
JAIPUR-302 004. 

Executive Engineer, 
Madhopur Central Div., 
C.P.W.D., 
MADHOPUR-145 024. 

Executive Engineer, 
BSlC Division, P.W J5., 
PanchFanas, 
BHARUCH-392 001. 

Nfanager, Bearing Dn^ 
M/S. Kirloskar Ofl Engines 
Ltd., Laxman Rao Kirloikar 
Road,Khadki, 
PUNE411003 

Asstt. Engineer, P.WJ)., 
N.H., Sub-Division, 
BINAGANJ^73 115. 



451 9171 M.M. Maheshwari 



453. 9172 T.R. Natarajan 



454w 9173 V. Sundaresan 



Chief Eexcutive, Indian 
Splicing (Mechnical) & 
Accessories Ltd., 

Tatisilwai, 

RANCm-835 103 (Bihar). 

Asstt. Divbional Engineer, 
(H&RW), SATTUR.626203. 

Asstt Engineer, Highways, 
SATTUR-626 203. 
Ramnad Distt. (TamilJNadu) 



86 



New 



SJh. RoU No. Name of Member 



455. 9174 N. Subnunamam 



456. 9175 P3. PMfl 



457. 9176 lUmoh Oumaola] Shih 



458. 9177 B.C Dabhade 



459. 9178 S.V. Rxmogi 



460. 9179 M.R. Sbanna 



461. 9180 K.K. Riuu 



462. 9181 M.S. Sian 



463. 9182 L.R. Singh 



464. 9183 B.K. Mukheijee 



465. 9184 D. Singade 



AHtt] 

24, Avanun patty. 
Sailor North Street, 
RAJAPALAYAM.«26 117. 

Deputy Bnginwi, 
Pld)lic Works Deptt, 
Mantralaya, 
BOMBAY-40D03X 



EiBCullve] 
Oiuaiat Industrial 

Devdopmeot Corpontkxi, 
*VrindaYan1>arbar Oopaldas 
Road, Near Bhakfhiagar 

Chde, RAJKOT. 

Asstt GUefEngiiieer, P.WJ>. 
Bageshri, Ajabnagar 
AURANOABAIM31 001, 
(Maharashtra). 
Asstt Engineer, P.WJ>., 
68, Tyagi Road, 
DEHRA DUN (U J.). 
Junior Engineer, RP. P.WJ). 

Health Sub-Division. 
SALOONI, Distt Ghamba 
(RP.). 

Asstt. Engineer, 
(R&BX PEDDAPURAM, 
East Godavari Distt., (A.P.). 
Asstt Engineer, Qipital 
Project Civfl Sub-Division 

No. 3/n, 
ITANAGAR.791 111. 
Asstt Surveyor of Works, 
Leisangthem Leikai, 
Smgjamei, 

IMPHAL-795 001 (Manipur). 
Superintending Engineer, 
Plot NO.-67, Abhyankar 
Nagar, NAGPUR-440 010. 
Asstt. Engineer, National 

Highways Sub-Division, 
SURYAPET, 

Distt Nalgonda 
(A. P.) 508 213. 



New Adihssions 



87 



S.No. Boil No. Name of Member 



Address 



466. 9185 S.O. Sada Shiva 



467. 9186 J.B. Agarwal 



468. 9187 S.C Shin^bal 



469. 9188 OJCPhUip 



470. 9189 B.K. Thammaiah 



471. 9190 Anirudha Swain 



472. 9191 O. Sukumar 



473. 9192 K.K. Appukuttan 



474. 9193 M.A. N. Mohammad 



475. 9194 Brig. M.R. Siklca 



Executive Engiiieer, P.WJ>., 
ConstructioD Division I, 
SUNABEDA-763 001, 
Distt-Koraput 
(Orissa). 

Executive Engineer, 

Xy. Division No. 1, P.WJ3., 

BAHRAICH (U.P.). 

Asstt Executive Engineer, 
77, Road Constroctioo Co., 
C/o. 99 APO. 

Asstt Engineer, P.WJ)., 
Idupadlckal Oraof , Vappala, 
CHEPPARA P.O. 691 512. 
KOTTARAKARRA, 
Quilon (Kerala). 

Superintending Engineer, 
P.W.L).. BeDary Circle, 
BELLARY.583 101, 
(Kamataka). 

Executive Engineer, 
Qr.No. 3B/5, M.e.S. Barrack, 
P.O. S.C.fi.Medkal Collie, 
CUTTACK (Orissa). 

Asstt. Executive Engineer, 
National Highways Sub- 
Division, 
CANNANORE-670 002. 

Pttsonal Asstt to Executive 
Engineer, National Highway 

Division, 
CANNANORE.670 002. 

Sub-Divisional Engineer, 
Public Woiks Sub-Division, 
DHARNI-414 702, 
(Maharashtra). 

Engineer-in-Chiefs Branch, 
Army Headquarters, 
Kashmir House, 
NEWDELHI-110 011. 



38 



New Admissions 



S,No, Roll No, Name of Member 



Address 



476. 9195 M.K. Choudhury 



477. 9196 Nand fCishore Birmiwa] 



478. 9197 S.S. Thomas 



479. 9198 S.L.. Kaninakaran 



480. 9199 Dr. S. DWakaran 



481. 9200 P. Singh 



482. 9201 J.P.N. Mishra 



483. 9202 N.M. Dastane 



484. 9203 Dr. .Pran Nath Kachroo 

485. 9204 J.K. Gupta 

486. 9205 G.R. Chandrasekharaiah 



SJD.C, P.W.D.. (BAR), 

GossaigaonL .B.Sub-Divisioii, 

P.O. GOSSAIGAON 

Distt Goalpara (Assam). 

Consultant A Contractor, 

Opp. Canara Bank, 

A. T. Road, 

TINSUKIA-786125, (Assam) 

Divisional Engineer (H), 

No. 19, United India Colony, 

3rd Main Road, 

KODAMBAKKAM, Madnu 

Executive Engineer (Valua- 
tion), Income T^x Depart- 
ment,Bank of Baioda Bidg. 

State Bank Road, 

CX)IMBATORE^l 018. 

Professor & Head of 

Structural Engineering, 

M3.M. Engg. College, 

JODHPUR-342 001. 

Executive Engineer, 

iH.No. 840, Sector 16-D, 

CHANDIGARH-160 017. 

Asstt Engineer, 

3, Officers' Colony. 

LALITPUR, 

Distt. Lalitpur (U.P.). 

Divisional Nfanager, 

Hindustan Construction 

Co., Ltd., Slal Hydro 

Electric Project, P.O. 

PAVANPURAM-182 314, 

(Via-Jammu) (JAR). 

Professor, 

Deptt. of C^ivil Engg., 

Regional Engg. Colle{», 

Hazrat Bal, SRINAGAR, 

(Kashmir)-190 006. 

A.E., Proincial Division, 

P.W.D., UNNAO (U.P.). 

Junior Engineer, No. 2, 

C.H.B. Layout. 8th Main, 

V^ayanagar, 

BANGA LORE-560 040. 



New Apmissions 



89 



SJro. RottNo. 



Name of Member 



Address 



487. 9206 S.K. Gupta 

488. 9207 S. J9in 

489. 9208 K. Moliamed 

490. 9209 Y J4. Sharma 

^91. 9210 R.1L Sioflji iCharbanda 



^92. 9211 Dibyendu Sinha 
^93. 9212 K. Subramanian 



494* 9213 S. AlagsiHian 



495. 9214 T.N. MaluQan 



496. 9215 G.V. Subba Reddy 



497. 9216 K.V. Neelakantaii 



498. 9217 J.D. Gupta 



Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 
Inspection House, 
G.T. Road, 
GHAZIABAD-201 001. 

B^/92, Aahok Mhar, 
Phase II,OELHI-l 10 052. 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
Building Section H 
CALICUT^73 020. 

Executive Engineer, 
R&B Divn.. P.W.D., 
fCATHUA (J&K). 

S.D.E., P.W.D., 

10, Ashok Nagar, 
JULLUNDUR OTY-n. 

27, Free School Street, 

CALCUrTA-700 016. 

Superintending Engineer 
(Roads), National Youth 
Service, Oflke of the 
Presidoity C/o. Permanent 
Secretary, P.O. Box No. 
30510, NAIROBI, (Kenya). 

Divisional Engineer, 

(Highways & Rural Works), 

Special Flood Division, 

VILLUPURAM 

(Tamil Nadu). 

Lecturer, Civil Engg. 

(Class-D. Govt. Polytechnic 

HAMIRPUR-177 030, 

(Himachal Pradesh). 

Junior Engineer, (R&B), 

YERRAGUNTLA, 

Distt Cuddappah (A.P.). 

Asstt Engineer (N.H.), 

No.8, 18th Avenue, 

Ashok Nagar, 

MADRAS-600 083. 

Executive Engineer, 

Tcmpy. Division, P.W.D., 

KALSl, Dchra Dun (U.P.). 



90 



New Admissions 



S.No. Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



499. 9218 O.C. Atftfwal 



500. 9219 YJC. Jain 



501. 9220 K.M. Shaima 



502. 9221 B.L. Jain 



503. 9222 A.B. Kanveer 



504. 9223 V. Nainaol 



505. 9224 V.P. Gupta 



506. 9225 C.K. Vcrma 



507. 9226 A.K. Mebla 



508. 9227 S.R. PatU 



509. 9228 K. Srinath 



510. 9229 B.V.S. Nandan 



Aastt ^Dvaaa. P.WJ>^ 
Tcmpy. Diviaion, KALSI, 
DEHRA DUN (U JP.) 

Asatt Eogioeer, 
Tempy. Project Dn., U^. Jal 
Nigam,99/3, DhannPura* 
DEHRA DUN (UJP.) 

Asstt JEngiDeer, P.W J)., 
BAR, P.O. OULABPURA 
Distt Bhflwara, 
(RiU). 

Junior Eogiiieer, P.W.D., 
(BAR), Bhihwaia West 
Sub-DivitioD. 
AHILWARA (Riu). 
Anlt Eogioeer, QDOO, 
1^1/8, Brindanui Society, 
lHak Nagar, Chembur, 
BOMBAY-400089. 

Executive Engineer, 
Food Storage Division, 
CPWD, Gandhi Chowk, 
RAIPUR-492 001 (MJP.). 

Asstt. Engine^*, Pwvl. Dn., 
P.W.D., PAURI 
Garhwal (U.P.). 246 001. 

S.D.O., P.W.D., 
HQ.-3, Civil Lines, 
JABALPUR (MJ>.). 

Asstt. Engineer, P.W.D., 
(B & R). Sub-Division-2, 
SAGAR (M.P.) 

Engineers & Contractors, 
Jayashree Building!, 
Shanti Colony, 
(HUBLI)-580 021. 

Room No. 9, School of 
Planning & Architecture 
Hostel, LP. Estate, 
NEWDELHI-110 002. 

D-n/35, Kidwai Nagar East, 
NEW DHLHI-nO 023. 



New Admessions 



91 



SMf. Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



511. 9230 A. Arora 

512. 9231 P. Mabaian 

513. 9232 B.K. Shukla 

514. 9233 OJ". Bhatia 

515. 9234 M.K. Dave 

516. 9235 SX. Mittal 

517. 9236 OJP. Gupta 

518. 9237 P.K. Singhi 

519. 9238 P. Balakrithnan 

520. 9239 S.G. Anandikar 

521. 9240 M.A. Abdul Rasheed 



Asstt Engiiieer, 

Tempy. DivisiQii, P.WJ)., 

NAINTTALCUJ^). 

S/O. Sh. Pritam Chand 

Mahigaii, Ootfi Mefdiaiit» 
Main Bazar, KANGRA 
Kaiigra-176 00] (RP.). 

Asstt Engioeer, 
133/84, 'O' Block, 
KidwaiNagar, 
KANPUR(U.P.). 

Junior Engiiieer, P.WJ>., 
S&I Division. 
BARMER (R^.).-344 001. 

Junior Engineer, P.W J>., 
S/o. Sh. Laxmi Kant Dave, 
Near Chora Chowk, 
Nagarwara, 
BANSWARA-327 001, 

Asstt Engineer, P.WJ)., 
fi-2<'), OflBcers' Colony, 
D.M. Compound, 
MATHURA (U.P.) 

S.D.E., 

P.W.D., BAR, 
Provl. Sub Dn. No.3, 
GURGAON (Haiyana) 

16, Babar Lane, 

NEW DELHI MIO 001. 

Technical Asstt to C E., 
(National Highways), 
Chepauk, 
MADRAS-600 005. 

Asstt Superintending Eng. 
P. W. Circle OfiQce, 
AMRAYAH 
(Maharashtra). 

Asstt Engineer, P.W.D., 
K.N. House» 
BEKAL-670 318 (Kerala) 



92 



New 



SJio. MMHo. 



522. 9241 OJt. 



523. 9242 A.IL 



524. 9243 AJLJ 



525. 9244 LV. Rju 



526. 9245 Qui BMldr Ahmed 



527. 9246 LA. ShiddMiavi 

528. 9247 D J". Nayak 

529. 9248 R.N. Puiohtt 

530. 9249 S.K. Nanda 

531. 9250 A.K. Chattojee 
531 9251 P.P. Matbur 



ftovL 



GUHLA. 



Na < P.WJ>, 
BDLASPUR (li^.X 
S.D.O^ P.W J>^ 
NJLSobDo. No. II, 
SEONMS0661 (ICP.X 



Asm. EnpMcr, P.W J>^ 
Im ppayil H oiMe, P.O. 
KUTnFPURAM-679 571, 

UBIt. MaiUNBOnill. 

(KoalaX 

S/a Late Qazi Yabym Shah, 
Qa Qazi Gh. Nabi, Imam 
Ma9edJCISHTWAR.i82 204 
DitttDodadftlO. 



Asitt] 

No. LN.R Sub. DiL, 

BELGAUM(Fdrt) 

(Kamataka). 

Jooior Eoatneer, 

At P.O. CHHATIA-754 023, 

Distt Cuttactf (Orissa). 

Junior Engiiieer, 
P.WJ)., B&R Sub-DiL, 
MERTA CITY-345 510^ 
(M) 

Asstt. Engioeer, 
O/a PtincQMd Engiiieer, 
Andaman P.W J>., 
PORT BLAIR-744 101. 

A-23/183, Lodhi Colony, 
NEWDELHI-110 003. 

Asstt. Engineer, N.H. Sub- 
Divn., P.W J>., B&R, 
KHERWARA, 
Distt Udaipur (lUu.). 



New Admissions 



93 



SJ^o. Roll No. Name of Member 



Address 



533. 9252 k.R. Jain 



534. 9253 B.P. SingH 



535. 9254 DJL Ohaipuie 



536. 9255 J.N. Kulkattii 



537. 9256 Ham Chand 



538. 9257 RJP. Bhatia 



539. 9258 D JL Mehan 



540. 9259 P.C. Agarwal 



541. 9260 R.C. Chojar 



542. 9261 V. Kumar 



543. 9262 MR. Udayashankar 



Asstt. Engiiieer, 
U.P. State 

Bridge Corporation Ltd., 
108, Civil Lines, 
BARE1LLY.243 001. 

Senior Engineer, 
Bridge Constn. Unit-I, 
U.P.State Bridge Corpn.Ltd., 
/Visn Bagh, Lucknow (\J.P.). 

C/o. The Hindustan Onistn. 

Co. Ltd., 
Post, PALWAL-121 102, 
Distt. Faridabad (Haryana). 
Town Planner, 
Town Planning & Valuation 

DQ)artn]ent, Branch Office, 
Sangli, Market Yard, 
SANGLI, (Maharashtra). 

Asstt. Engineer III, 
Provincial Division, P.W.D., 
NAINITAL (U.P.). 

Scientist, Central Road 
Research Institute, 
P.O. CRRI. Okhla, 
NEWDELHI-110 020. 

Project Engineer, 
P3. 7030, 
BAGHDAD araq). 

Executive Engineer, 

Ty. Dn., P.W.D., KHURJA 

(Bulandshahr) (U.P.) 

B-9, MIG Flats, 
Prasad Nagar, 
NEW DELHI. 
Consulting Sogineer, B-63, 
N.D.S.E. Part I, 
NEWDELHI-110 049. 

Asstt. Engineer, K.H.B., 
New No. 24, Block XU, 
Behind B.D.A., 
Kumara Park West, 
BANGALORE-560 020. 



94 



New Aembsunb 



SJfo. EoU No. Name cf Member 



544. 9263 S. Socot 



545. 9264 KuDdMrift P. I«ac 



546. 9265 PJSL Bhati 



547. 9266 B.a Vema 



548. 9267 P. Aggarwal 



549. 9268 C J>. Kulkami 



550. 9269 Suijit Singh BhaUa 



551. 9270 Shaikh Fazhir Rahman 



552. 9271 Sanat Kumar Chattojee 



553. 9272 Ajoy Kumar Hazra 



SJ>£^ P.WJ>.. BAR. 
Frovfaidal Snb-Dn., KOSU 
Diitt Rohtak (Baiyana). 

Lcct u iBi, 

Deptt of Ovfl Eott.» 

Govt Eqb. CoOoiB^ 

TRICHUR.680009. 

(KcnOa). 

Junior Engineer, P.WJ)., 
F-5, Gandhi Nagur, 
JAIFUR-3Q2004. 

Aaitt Engineer, 

Soil InveMigation Division, 

Khabra Bhawan, 

Roosa^pur aianee^ 

ChadcarRoad, 

MUZAFFARPUR-842 001, 

(Bihar). 



r,N.TJ.C. 

71, Ram Nagar, 
NEWDELHI-110055. 

Dqmly Eieciitive Engineer, 
P.W. Dn., FuSamiNira, 
Aurangabad-431 001. 

Superin tending ^^ g'^fl T, 

Munictpal Cocpocation, 
AMRTTSAR-U 

Dq;>uly Chief Engineer, 
Roads & Highways Dcptt^ 
Sarak Bhaban, Ramna, 
DACX:A (Bangladesh). 

Asstt Engineer, 
P&nposh (K&B) Sub-Dn., 
ROURKELA-769004, 
Distt. Sundaigaih (Orhsa), 

Resident EngiDeer, 
Bridge & Roof Co. a) Ltd., 
427/1, G.T.Road, 
HOWRAH-711 101. 



New Admissions 



95 



SMo. Moil No. Name of Member 



Name of Representative 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS 
(GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS/INSITrUTIONS/FIRMS) 



261 



263 



265 



266 



267 



The Chief Eiigiiieer-€um-Housing| Shri J.M. Malhotra, 
Conunissioiier, Chief Ecgineer-cum- 

Riuasthan Housing Board, Housing Commissioner 

C-38, Bhagwan Dass Road, 
JAIPUR-3Q2 001. 



M /s. Gokuu Brothers, 
Civil Engineers & Contractors, 
303, Dakunal Chambers, 
29, New Marine Lines, 
BOMBA Y-400 020. 

M/s. Atlanta^Constniction Co., 

D-2/22, Bharat Nagar, 

Grant Road, BOMBAY-400 007. 



Shri N J>. Gdani, 
Managing Partner 



Shri Ri^dra A. Barot 



M/s. Elastomet Bearings Pvt Ltd., Shri Mukul Roy, 
37/1, Nirmal Chunder Street, Director 

3rd Floor, CALCUTTA-700 013. 



M/s. Steehnet Bridge Bearings 

Pvt. Ltd., 
235/2, Bepin Behari Ganguly 

Street, 5th Floor, 
CALCUrTA-700 012. 



Shri Subrata Datta, 
Director 



ASSOOATE MEMBERS 
(INDIVIDUALS) 



262 Shri Amaijit Singh 



264 Shri G.H. Ajwani 



M/s4Kishai4S]ngh & Co. 
3037, Sector 28-D, 
CHANDIGARH-160 002. 

438, Sind Co-op. Housing 
Society, Aundh, 
PUNE-411007. 



IRC 41-1—7 



96 



Deaths 



SMo.EoUNo. 



Ntunt cfMetnbfr 



AdUnsu 



DEATHS 



L 53Q5 Mai. S.B. Bawe 



3275 S.S. Bhattacbaiya 



1496 K.P. Chattopadhymy 



4. 7721 L.S. Oaig 



5. 2489 S.R. Gupta 



6. 4127 K.L. Sastiy 



7. 6765 U.K Sinha 



8. H.M. S.N.:Siiiha 



son(Pig.x 

HQ CE» Pme ZoiiB» 
PUNB411001. 

RAIOARH-496001. 

R/F-2» Govt Hdwiof 
Estate^ Old Dog Race 
Cdone, Bdbala, 
CALCUTTA-700 038. 

Execative Engiiieer, 
A-3, Rhfcr Bank Gbkxqr, 
OHAZIPUR-233 001. 

Chief Engioeer, NJL, 

aV*lr* JraWvJiJay 

HiiOPAL-462 003. 

Siqwrintendiiig Engloeer, 
H.NO. 15^17, Bapivinagar, 
KOWUR-534 350, 
DisttWeatGodavari (AJ^.) 

SLD.O., P.W.D.. 
Road Sub-DiL, 
HAZARIBAGH (Bihar). 

49-B, Srikrishiiapiici 
PATNA (Bihar) 



Paper No. 333 

""ESTIMATING SUBGRADE MOISTURE 
FOR PAVEMENT DESIGN -A SIMPLE METHOD*'! 

By 

S. R. BiNDRA* 

A 

Dr. N. B. Lal** 

CONTENTS 

Page 

1. Introduction .. 98 

2. Field and Laboratory Investigations . . 100 

3. Development of a Method for the Determination 

of Critical Subgrade Moisture . . 103 

4. Brief Discussion on the Recommended Method . . 113 

5. Conclusion .. US 



SYNOPSIS 

Determination of the subgrade strength under soaked condition in terms 
of soaked CBR value, as is mostly bdng practised in India, results in grossly 
undo'-estimating the subgrade strength and consequently the design pavement 
thickness works out to be highly uneconomical. For a realistic evaluation 
of subgrade strength Jt is very essential to determine it under equilibrium moisture 
conditions anticipated in the subgrade during the design life of the pavement 
Towards this end, a mathematical escpression for the determination of equili- 
brium subgrade moisture, involving only simple parameters like particle size 
distribution, plastkily index, dry density, ground water table depth and rainfoU, 
was evolved and is presented in this Paper. The development of this expression 
was based on an analysis of field and laboratory data obtained from 206 road 
sections spread over eight States of the country, covering a wide spectrum of 
variables whidi influence the critical subgrade moisture such as different types 
of road surfaces, subgrade soU types, ground water conditions, rainfall and other 
climatic conditions. 

t Written comments on this Paper are invited and will be received upto 
50th November, 1980. 

* Scientist & ^ Central Road Research Instituiei 

** Head, Bxteosion DiviaioQ, C New Delhi-1 10 020. 



98 BiNDRA & Dr. Lal on 

1. INTRODUCTION 

1.1. "Subgrade Strength" may be said to be by far the most 
significant pavement design parameter around which pivots the 
determination of the pavement thickness and composition require- 
ments. For a meaningful evaluation of subgrade soil strength, 
however, it is^essential to determine the worst moisture condition 
of the subgrade anticipated during the design life. Since the 
subgrade strength values are very significantly influenced by its 
water content besides other^factorsVlike soil type — its engineering 
characteristics, level of densification etc., it is of vital importance 
that critical or equilibrium moisture content be estimated with a 
fair degree of precision. 

An in-depth study of the very wide variety of factors that 
influence the "critical" or the worst moisture content that may be 
expected during the design life of the pavement and at which the 
pavement thickness should be evaluated, shows that the 
problem is indeed complex. Unfortunately, the determination 
of such a critical moisture content has not received the attention 
that it deserves. In spite of the fact that the conventional practice 
of determining the subgrade strength under soaked conditions 
results in grossly over-designed pavements for the site conditions 
that do not warrant full saturation or soaking, the conventional 
practice of determining subgrade CBR after four days' soaking still 
continues. Road designers often argue that basing pavement 
thickness requirements on soaked CBR values is resorted to, 
mainly because it is considered a safe expediency measure in the 
absence of any more scientific and yet simple-to-use procedure. 
Taking a clue from these often repeated arguments of pavement 
designers, it was considered absolutely necessary to work out a 
scientific and rational but simple approach of determining critical 
subgrade moisture content which can find ready acceptance by 
road designers. 

1.2. A review of available literature on the subject of predicting 
critical moisture or equilibrium moisture content indicates that 
research work in this area can very broadly be divided into two 
categories. Work in the first category involves sophisticated 
testing based on theoretical considerations of soil suction charac- 
teristics !"■■, which although rational, are quite cumbersome and 
time^onsuming and, therefore, have a rather limited practical 
application. Work in the second category involves the use of 



Estimating Subgrade Moisture for Pavement Design 99 

simple expressions relating to the critical or equilibrium moisture 
content involving one or the other parameters like liquid limit, 
plastic Umit, per cent fines etc., based on actual observations of a 
large number of subgrades of road and airfield pavements •"^•. 

Considering the importance of subgrade moisture in the 
design of pavements, an all-India study was undertaken by the 
C.R.R.1. 1^1*, in the 1950s when the whole country was mapped 
into different moisture saturation zones. These zones weie us^ul 
for getting only a general idea about the subgrade moisture varia- 
tions, but within the zone, the degiee of variation in the subgrade 
moisture, due to variations in topography, water-table, rainfall, 
soil-type etc. was so high that only limited use could be made of 
the findings of this study. Apart from this study carried out in 
India, fairly comprehensive studies have been reported by the 
Economic Co-operation and Development Organization, published 
in 1973*». Due to the complexity of the problem, this OECD 
report has only provided different empirical methods in vogue and 
a rational method based on suction property of soil. As a^result 
of the study carried out by the O.E.C.D. and other similar studies 
based on field observations, the following empirical relationships 
between the probable moisture content of subgrade (Wn) and the 
plastic limit (LP) and other index properties, appear to emerge: 



(0 


W^ ^ LP 


(H) 


Wn - 1.16LP-7.4 


(iii) 


ffn = LP + 2 


(iv) 


0.8LP < W^< 1.2 LP 


(V) 


Wn = 1.17 LP — 4 



(vi) The average value of the water content/Liquid Limit ratio was found 
between 0.38 and 0.49 with a standard deviation of the series rangmg 
between 0.07 to 0.17. 

(vii*) The average value of the ratio water content : Particle content passing 
75 micron was found between 0.33 to 0.60 with a standard deviation of 
the series ranghig from 0.08 to 0.29. 

(viii) 0.87 LP < Wn < lH ^ 

None of the above relationships, however, offer a workable method 
for the predktion of subgrade moisture content within acceptable 
degrees of accuracy. 



100 BiNDRA & Dr. LALon 

1.3. Recognising the immediate need for evolving a simpio and 
workable, yet rational approach for evaluating the critical moisture 
content of subgrades for pavement design purposes, the CRRI 
undertook a comprehensive study on a large number of existing 
3-S years old roads covering a wide spectrum of the different influ- 
encing variables. This Paper contains field and laboratory data 
collected during the studies on existing roads and presents a simi^ 
regression analysis of data resulting in a simple expression for 
evaluating the critical moisture content. Considering that the 
multi-correlation co-efiicient of the fitted expression is 0.83, it is 
reasonable to assume that the different variables appearing in this 
expression have been meaningflilly identified and the aocura^ 
of prediction is considered acceptable for all practical purposes. 
It is to be hoped that the approach proposed in this Pftper will 
find ready use by road designers and that it abwould help hnog about 
very substantial economies in construction costs by cutting down 
the avoidable expenditure associated with over-designedpavements. 

2. FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS 

2.1. Towards evolving a simple but effective method for the 
determination of critical subgrade moisture content, a simple 
approach was adopted, essentially consisting in observations 
of subgrade moisture contents for a large number of existing 
road-sections constructed at least three to five years ago, with 
different specifications in different types of terrain, ground water 
and climatic conditions. These observations were taken on 206 
road-sections spread over 8 States of the country namely, Haiyana, 
Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Tripura, Uttar Prad^, Madhya 
Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. The wide spectrum of variables 
reflected in these studies included different soil types ranging 
from highly clayey black cotton soils to granular moorums and 
sands of various regions, climatic conditions including high, 
medium and low rainfall, ground water depth and fluctuations 
varying from waterlogged conditions to very deep water-table in 
deserts and hilly areas, different types of terrain from plain to 
mountainous and different types of road surfaces varying from 
unsurfaced gravel roads to metal roads, provided with bitimiinous 
carpetting. Photographs representing four typical road types 
like the ones in waterlogged areas, hilly and high rainfall areas 
and in deserts are shown in Photos 1 to 4. 





Photo 2. Hilly Road in high rainfall area 



lia 




MmHm Ir %mA in (^imMX umi with low rainfall and low water-tabk 





Phoio 4. Another Rood in desert aii?a m\\\ 
hntv^jiorlntion vehicle (camel curl) 



Estimating Subgrade Moisture for Pavement Design 103 

2.2. The field observations for each of the 206 road sections 
included the determination of in situ density and moisture content 
of the subgrade and the depth of ground water-table. The sub- 
gnde flioisture content observations were taken at the time of 
recession of the rainy season for purposes of collecting data on 
the subgrade moisture at a time when the ground water-table is 
at its shallowest and the subgrade moisture at its highest. Detailed 
information was also collected in respect of the average annual 
rainfall in the area, fluctuatioiis of the GWT, natural drainage 
conditions, terrain type, pavement composition and thickness, 
profile and condition of roadside shoulders and other relevant 
envinMUiieiital conditions. 

Representative samples of subgrade soil were collected from 
each of the road-sections incorporated in the study. These 
sami^ ^^^^ subjected to the fcdlowing laboratory tests :- 

Q) P&rticle size distribation using a standard (set of Indian 

Staodard Sieves. 
00 Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit tests, and 
(jM) Standard Proctor Compaction test 

The results of the various field and laboratory investigations 
as outlined above, are tabulated at Tables 1 and 2. The data at 
TaUe 1 pertains to 152 road-sections and were used to evolve 
the mathematical expression relating the observed subgrade mois- 
ture content to parameters like index properties of soil, ground 
water-taUe depth and rainfall etc. The corresponding data on 
52 test-sections given at Table 2 was used for purposes of comparing 
the actually observed subgrade moisture content values with the 
fitted critical moisture content values using the expression evolved 
on the basis of data from 152 test-sections given in Table 1. 

3. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD FOR DETERMINATION 
OF aUTICAL SUBGRADE MOISTURE 

3.1. As mentioned earlier, there are a number of empirical 
methods available for estimating critical subgrade moisture content. 
These methods are essentially based on one or the other physical 
properties of subgrade soil like the plastic limit, liquid limit,per cent 
fines, optimum moisture content, etc. In practically all such 
methods available for estimating critical subgrade moisture 
content, the very significant parameters of in situ density, water- 
able and rainfall have been ignored. 



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The rehrionshiiw betweoa the critiad moistiiie amteot and 
simple index properties like Liquid Liiiiit» Plasticity Index, 
per cent fines, optimum moistme oootent, etc have only limited 
applications specially oonsideriiig the fiict that the data used for 
evolvii^ these rdationshqis was ooDected only from a few selected 
locations/regions which covered onl|y a limiled laqgD of sofl types, 
climatic conditions, efc. 

3.2. For evolving a simpb linear relationship, the following 
parameters were considered of stgnificanoe: 



(0 Per cent oottne faction in tnfagnKfe soil as icfloded by the per cent 

ielaiaDdonlSS2J6nM. 
GO Per cent faction ptmam ISS 2J6 mm and ratuned on ISS 7S 



Qa) Percent fines as icOeded by the perjoent faction ptmam ISS 75 



Qv) Plasticity Index of soil 

(v) In sita dcydeoiilyor sirivnKfesoiLandJ 

(vO Average amuial ralnfalL 

The parameters mentioned above, were comhmed in a linear 
fashion and a statistical, expression fitted in the following form: 

Critical mositure content (CMQ — AXi + BX^ + CX^ + DX^ 

^ EX, + FX.+GX, + H 

where Xi a Percent retained on ISS 2.36 mm sieve 
JT, = Per cent fraction passing ISS 2.36 mm sieve 

and retained on ISS 75 micron 
JT, » Per cent fraction passii^ ISS 75 micron 
X4 - ♦Plasticity Index 

1 



r. 



X. - 



In situ dry density (gm/oc) 

1 



shallowest water-table (in metres) 
Xf a Average annual rainfall in cms. 
and A, B, C, D, £, F, G, /Tare constants. 

It may be noted in the above expression that inverse values 
of the parameters of in situ dry density and water-table have been 
incorporated^considering the fact that the critical moisture content 

♦ For oon-Plastic soils, assumed PI = 3« 



Estimating Subgrade Mcmsture for Pavement Design 113 

of the subgrade would decrease with an mcrease in dry density 
and depth of water-table. Simple linear regression analysis was 
resorted to for analysing the data from 152 road-sections as given 
at Table 1. Such an analysis gave rise to the following values of 
the constants or co-efficients A^ B^ C, A £> ^> G^ & H: 



A = 


0.023 


B =. 


0.011 


C = 


0.045 


D = 


0.31 


E = 


10.70 


F = 


3.37 


G - 


0.02 



H =--4.76 

It may be seen from the values of these co-efficients that the 
in situ dry density and the depth of the water-table are the most 
significant parameters for evaluating the critical subgrade moisture 
content. A plot of the observed values of subgrade moisture and 
the values fitted by using the above statistical expression is shown 
in Fig. 1. 

4. BRIEF DISCUSSION ON THE RECOMMENDED METHOD 

4.1. It is well-known that the critical subgrade moisture con- 
tent of a road or airfield pavement depends on a large number of 
factors like the particle size distribution; the specific area and mi- 
neralogical composition of the subgrade soil; level of densification 
mthe subgrade; degree of water proofnessofthe pavement; edge 
effects particularly at the roadside shoulders; ground water depth; 
and climatic conditions, etc. All these factors were broadly taken 
into consideration while selecting the roads for subgrade moisture 
content observations based on which the statistical "^pression as 
outlined in Section 3 of the Paper was developed. 

It may be pointed out here that due to several practical cons- 
traints, it was possible to incorporate in the evolved expression, 
only the combined efiect of variables like the type of road surface, 
terrain, natural drainage conditions, condition of shoulders, 
temperature variations etc. and not the individual effects of each 
of these variables. 

IRC 41-1— « 



114 



EiNDitA & Dr. Lal on 



i3e 



20 



S10 
o 



•*•.:; 



m 10 to 2i 

ACTUAL SUIGRADC- MOISTUK CONTCNT I KftCCNT ) 

Fig. 1. Relationship between actual subgrade moisture content and fited 
critical moisture content 

4.2. In order to check the precision with which the critical 
subgrade moisture content can be determined by the use of the 
mathematical expression evolved, data from 54 road-sections was 
used. A comparison of the actually observed subgrade moisture 
values on these 54 road-sections with the corresponding values 
fitted by the expression evolved is given at Table 2. It may be seen 
from this Table that the difference between the observed and 
fitted critical moisture content values is generally of the order of 
2 per cent or so only. Approximately 90 per cent of the fitted 
values show a variation of less than 3 per cent in the subgrade 
moisture content. This smaU variation between the actual and 
fitted values can be considered acceptable for all practical purposes. 

4.3. As pointed out earlier in the Paper, eva luation of subgrade 
strength at critical moisture content for pavement design pur- 
poses can go a long way in working out highly economical pave- 



Estimating Subgrade Moistuiie for Pavement Design US 

ment designs in comparison to the designs obtained by subgrade 
strengths evaluated by soaked CBR values. The rcconrnr ended 
procedure involving the use of this expression based on actual ob- 
servations is expected to fill a long-felt gap in paveirent design 
practices all over the country. The expression involves only such 
data as can easily be made available to the paveirent designeif and 
carefully avoids any elaborate sophisticated testing. For ins- 
tance, just the knowledge of index properties of subgrade soil, 
level of densification expected to be achieved, ground water depth 
and rainfall is all that is needed for working out the critical subgrade 
moistiire content. All such data are generally collected as part 
of routine preliminary surveys and investigations for any road or 
airfield project. 

5. CONCLUSION 

Based on the studies conducted on 206 road-sections spread 
over eight States of the countryjt has been found possible to develop 
a simple expression for the evaluation of critical subgrade moisture 
content. This expression involves the use of simple index properties 
of the subgrade soil like gradation and the plasticity index, density 
of the subgrade, ground water depth and rainfall. The precision 
with which the subgrade strength can be predicted by the use of this 
expression can be considered acceptable for all practical purposes 
of design of foad^and airfield pavements. 

ACKNOV^LEDGEMENT 

The Paper is published with the kind permission of 
Prof. C. G. Swaminathan, Director, Central Road Research 
Institute, New Delhi. 



REFERENCES 

1. Black, W.P.M., Croney, D.C, and Jacobs, J.C, Field Studies of the 
Movement of SoU Moisture, Road Research Tech. Paper No. 41, 
H.M.S.O., London (1958). 

2. Russam, K, Hflie Distribution of Moisture in Soils at Overseas Airfield**, 
H.M.S.O., London (1962). 



116 BlNMU ft Dl« LAL on ESTDfATINO SUBOEAM MOBTURB 

FOR Pavement Design 

3. Cotoman, J J>^ and Rumni. K» ^TIm Eflbct of GHimtic F&Btan on 
Subgrade Moiituie C4¥iditioni^ Oootadmkpio II, Maichp 1964^ pp. 22^, 
The Institute of Civfl fiofineen, London. 

4. Road Reiearch L abo ia tocy, **Bitimatioo of Subfrade MoiHofe Gootem", 
Leaflet LF098, CrowdKMme (1967). 

5. Spangjer. MO. and MkUe, J.L., **Aciniimn1ation of Moittiife in Soil 
Under an Impervious Suifiue**» Final Reportp Fraject 309-S, University 
of IOWA, Ames, Iowa (1961). 

6. Swanberg, J.R., Hansen, CC, "Water Content >f Hignway Sobgrade**. 
Highway Research Board, Proceedings 26, 4t-57, H.R.B., Washington, 
D.C. (1946). 

7. Kersten, M.S.; "Survey ofSubgrade Moistore Conditions**, Hi^way, 
Research Board, Proceedingi 24, 497-512, RR.B.; Washington, 
D.C, (1944). 

8. Kersten, M .S., "Subgrade Moisture Conditionsbeneath Airport Favements**' 
Highway Research Board, Froceedings 25, 450-463: RR.B., Washington 
D.C, 1945. 

9. Woolterton, P.L.D., "Moisture Content and the CBR Method of Design"*, 
Highway Research Board, Special R^KMt No.40, 268-29^, RR.B., Washhig- 
ton, D.C. 1958. 

la Waterways Bxperiment Station, "Field Moisture Content-^Investigation 
Report No.2/* Technical Memorandum Na4014 (April, 1955),U.S. Amqr 
Corps of Bngineen, Washington , D.C, 1955. 

11. Uppal, H.L., "A Study on Moisture Movement in Alluvial Soil under 
Road Surface for Economical Design of Favemeat**, Thira Conference 
of Australian Road Research Board, held at Sydney, 1966. 

12. Uppal, H.L., "Field Study on the Movement of Moisture In Blade Cotton 
Soil under Road Favements**, Symposium on "Moisture Equilibrium and 
Moisture Changes in Soils beneath covered Areas*', convenedby Common- 
wealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia in 
Collaboration with NBRI, C5IR, .>outh Africa, 1965. 

13. "Prediction of Moisture Content of Road Subgrades'*, Organisation for 
Economics Co-operation and Development, Paris, 1973. 



INFOBMATION SECTION 



1. "CATHODIC PROTECTION FROM CORROSION 
IN CONCRETE BRIDGE DECKS** 

2. «AN APPROACH TO THE PROVISION OF HINGED 
BASES FOR LARGE-SPAN STEEL TRUSSED 
PORTALS USING STEEL ^IRE ROPES** 

3. "TABULAR VALUES FOR DETERMINING THE 
ECONOMICAL GRIP LENGTH AND DIAMETER OF 
CIRCULAR WELLS AS PER IRC: 4S-72** 

4. "CONCEPTS OF URBAN ROADWAY SYSTEM 
PLANNING" 



^CATHODIC PROTECTION FROM CORROSION IN 
CONCRETE BRIDGE DECKS'* 

By 
Dr. p. Ray Chaudhuri* 

ft 
M. V. Bhaskara Rao** 



CWITENTB 



1. 


Introduction 


• • 


Paeg 
120 


1 


Mechanism of Corrosion 


• • 


120 


3. 


Cathodic Protection 


•>• 


121 


4. 


Discussion of Cathodic Protection Meteod 




126 


5. 


Condusioas 


• • 


127 



SYNOPSIS 

A number of reiiif oroed and prestnssed concrete bridges in India experi 
ence spalling and craddng of concrete due to corrosion of steel. In q»te of 
the annual maintenance of such bridges, no wortfiwhik solution to combat 
corrosion is being tried in India at present Cathodic protection of steel 
has been successfully employed in some foreign countries to check the deterio- 
ration of concrete bridges due to corrosion. This Paper deals with the preven- 
tive measures and its advantages in adopting this tedmique to concrete bridges 
located in the coastal regions of India. 



^Head, Bridges Division, \ Central Road Research Institute, 
** Scientist, J New Delhi -110 020. 



120 Dr. Ray Chaudhuri & Rao on 

1. INTRODUCTION 

1.1. Corrosion of steel in reinforced and prestressed con- 
crete bridges is one of the problems that confronts the mainte- 
nance engineers, particularly in the coastal r^ons of India. While 
the causes of corrosion are many, it is aggravated in hot and marine 
environment. In cold coimtries, the prime cause can be attributed 
to the deicing operations with salts during winter months of the year. 

1.2. Corrosion in bridge structures results in spalling and 
delamination of concrete. Repairs are to be carried out to keep 
the structure serviceable. Normally such repairs involve chipping 
of the concrete cover, sand blasting the surface and finally shot- 
cretmg with or without epoxy resin grouting in cracks. In spite 
of such repairs, it has been observed that corrosion is a recurring 
phenomenon in the same structure, as the forces that cause corrosion 
are not combated, but only by-passed. Again, attention is drawn 
to the problem only when the effects of corrosion have become 
acute. Although the repairs costs for bridges in India are not 
readily available, in all probability it is a large amount. 

1.3. In order to avoid high maintenance costs, it is impera- 
tive that"^ a preventive measure should be carried out, if possible, 
during the construction stage. 

1.4. One such method is cathodic protection technique which 
has been successfully implemented in Western countries. This 
method can be adopted in India. This Paper highlights the feasi- 
bility of the technique and precautions that are to be taken during 
the construction stages. This protection can also be provided 
to existing bridges which are showing distress due to corrosion. 
Some appurtenant works will be necessary to provide cathodic 
protection. 

2. MECHANISM OF CORROSION 

2.1. There are ten^ forms of corrosion which occur due to 
electro-chemical means and result m the deterioration of concrete, 
causing spalling, cracking, etc. The deterioration m concrete may 
occur due to chemical reactions sudi as alkali aggregate reaction, 
sulphate attack, etc. for which standard methods of prevention are 
available. In this Paper the phenomenon of corrosion is confined 
to the interaction of concrete, steel and moisture in bridge 
structures. 



Cathodic Protection from Corrosion in Concrete 

Bridge Decks 121 

2.2. The corrosion in reinforced and prestressed concrete 
bridges occurs due to electro-chemical reaction of steel, concrete 
and water which results in the formation of 'cells' capable of gene- 
rating electricity. These cells tend to revert back the steel to its 
native compound by using electricity as the basic source of energy. 
The electro-chemical cells contain the four basic components viz, 
electrolyte (which is water in the pores), cathode (concrete) anode 
(steel hsLTS or tendons) and the conductor (moist air). It may be 
mentioned that corrosion occurs only on steel due to oxidation 
reaction due to the formation of ions and release of electrons. 
These electrons are accepted by the cathode resulting in reduction 
reaction; hence no corrosions occurs in concrete due to the electro- 
chemical reactions. However, the formation of corrosion products 
on the steel results in built-up stresses in concrete. These stresses 
are the main causes of spalling and deterioration of concrete. 

2.3. As the corrosion cell is basically dectrical in nature 
obeying Ohm's law, the amount of corrosion is directly proportional 
to the potential difference between steel and concrete and the ability 
of electrolyte to react and the amount of resistance in the exter- 
nal air circuit. The flow of electricity through an electrolyte 
depends on ion concentration. Presence of oxygen in atmosphere 
and the high^ambient temperature accelerate the process of corro- 
sion in bridge structures. 

2A The physics and chemistry of corrosion is well under- 
stood andjhavd been explained in detail by various investigators*'*. 

2.S. In order to contain corrosion, it is imperative that a 
potential difference, opposed to the one that is generated electro- 
chemically in the steel-concretc-electrolyte interaction, is to be 
applied, so that^the electro-motive forces that initiate the process 
are neutralized fully. 

3. CATHODIC PROTECTION 

3.1. Cathodic protection is basically a method of corrosion 
mitigation. This is accomplished by applying a negative D.C. 
potential to the reinforcements/tendons by means of suitable 
anodes, external D.C. power source etc. 

3.2. Cathodic protection has been successfully used for some 
time to inhibit corrosion of buried pipelines, concrete water 



122 Dr. Ray Chaudhuri ft Rao on 

tanks and ship hulls, where the.oonductinf medium is eithar soil 
or saline water. 

3.3. This method was first used by Stratfull^ in 1960s when 
he applied it to the reinforced concrete beams of San Mateo bridgo 
over San Francisco Bay. Encouraged by the results, this technique 
was adopted by others on three bridges in Canada*. Subsequent 
investigations revealed that the technique of cathodic protection 
is quite reliable and cheap. 

3.4. For concrete bridge decks although the humid air acts 
as the conductor, it is quite inadequate to fimction as a conducting 
medium, for cathodic protection. Hence in order to control 
corrosion, it is necessary to provide an additional conductive layer, 
preferably in the construction stage of thej^bridge deck. Stratfull^ 
provided a conductive layer consisting of coke breeze-asphalt 
mixture, which was energized by graphite or Duriron anodes spaced 
at regular intervals for even distribution of potential. The power 
can be supplied either through a rectifier um't or a storage battery. 
It is necessary to provide a conventional wearing course over the 
conductive layer for the movement of trafiSc. 

3.5. It may be mentioned that the conductive layer is to 
be insulated from any other steel component or expansion joints 
so as to prevent a direct short circuit^with the deck reinforcements. 
If some steel bars are exposed even they should be insulated from 
the conductive layer which is to be laid. In prestressed concrete 
bridges cable ducts guard rails and stirrups should be checked 
for dectrical continuity so that no part of the steel remains electri- 
cally isolated and thus in danger of exposed to corrosion due to 
localised cdls and currents. 

3.6. In the following paragraphs the salient features of 
cathodic protection, together with the precautions that are to 
be taken in its implementation have been described. 

3.7. The basic circuit diagram of cathodic protection is 
shown in Fig. 1, while its details have been shown in Fig. 2. Storage 
battery/rectifier unit and other equipment are generally kept on 
an abutment under the bridge. 

3.8. As the very name cathodic protection suggests, the 
reinforcing steel is to be connected to the cathode of a D.C. source. 
In a reinforced concrete bridge as the steel bars are all inter-connec- 



Cathodic Proiectiqn fk(m Corrosion in Concreiz 123 
Bridge Decks 

ted, there would be in general a perfect electrical continuity. Hence 
a few bars atong the safety kerbs may be chosen and 3 mm diameter 
holes drilled, for fixing steel lugs. These steel lugs are the 
terminals, for connecting insulated copper wires which are taken 
along ducts in kerbs to the controlling panel at the abutment 
This precaution is meant to eliminate a possible contact resistance, 
if the wire is loosely wound round a steel bar. 





'(!<:<^<(M(:^<^(<^((^<1 


WCAIIINC COURSI 


AMOOI 




S 


S.VVNSSS^^V'vVwxn; 


^ ASfHA^T (JOit^ M*X 


- 




^ COMC«ETe lil&GE 


dieK 


L V 


«ARS 




*\ CAIHODt \ SlttL 



Fig. 1. Basic circuit diagram of cathodic protection 

S3 



Sz 



Si 



\< 




No — S5 

<5)- 



S2 






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Ri 



Rz 



1 






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Fig. 2. Details of cathodic protection 

3.9. For prestressed concrete tendons, depending on the 
extent of continuity, it may be necessary to connect tendon to 
the cathode, through the insulated copper wires as described before. 
For identification the electrical leads may be numbered. 

3.10. At this stage, the technique of cathodic protection as 
applied to an existing bridge is to be distinguished from that 



124 Di« Ray Chaudhuii ft Rao on 

of a bridge under constroctioiL In the case of an existing bridge, 
the extent of corrosion is to be first estimated by using a Co — CuSo^ 
half-cel] (CSE) by connecting a voltmeter to the reinfoidng steel 
and to the copper anode of the half-cdl, the porous bottom of which 
is to be placed on concrete. Corrosion is indicated when the pola- 
rized voltage drops bdow -0.30V by the measurement of half-cell. 
Then it is necessary to determine the current reqmrements for 
cathodic protection of the bridge. 

3.11. When the concrete has badly deteriorated due to 
corrosion, the reinforcements are to be exposed by chipping and 
sand blasting and a few steel bars randomly chosen are to be oon- 
verted as 'Cathodes'^as explained earlier. Then the reinforcements 
are coated with epoxy resin and covered by concrete. But the 
problem lies in providing the 'conductive layer* over the bridge 
deck. For doing so, the entire wearing course is to be removed 
first and the top surface thoroughly cleaned so that the conductive 
layer can be properly laid. 

3. 12. In the case of ajbridge under construction, all the opera- 
tions can be well planned in advance and implemented without 
affecting the aesthetics of the bridge. 

3.13. For laying the coke-breeze asphalt mix together with 
fixing of graphite/Duriron anodes, there is no distinction bet- 
ween a new bridge under construction and an old bridge whose 
wearing course has been removed. 

3.14. It was found that the best anode configuration is in the 
cross. Each arm of graphite anode measuring about 300 mm length 
and 30 mmp Is to be bonded to the top of the concrete deck with 
epoxy resin so as to prevent displacement during construction and 
service. It may be mentioned that since the resistance of graphite 
anodes is less han the Duriron anodes, Duriron anode size would 
be slightly larger. Such anode configurations are placed in two stag- 
gered rows, longitudinally at approximately 1 5 m intervals, for uni- 
form distribution of potential. The electrical copper leads of the 
anodes are to be heavily insulated so as to resist the high laying 
temperature (150®C) of the coke-asphalt layer. The insulation also 
protects the copper wires from getting 'consumed' while in opera- 
tion. The electrical leads are taken out of the deck system to 
the abutments, preferably through ducts in safety kerbs. After 
making sure about the electrical connections, the coke-mix is to 
be poured and compacted to attain a thickness of at least S cm. 



Cathodic Protection from Corrosion in 

Concrete Bridge Decks 12S 

3.15. Coke Mix: Although 'cathodic protection* was in 
vogue in preventing corrosion of ship-hulls and buried conduits, 
it could not be applied to reinforced concrete bridges, for want of 
a suitable 'conductive medium' which is cheap and durable. It is 
found that only coke breeze asphalt layer can serve the purpose 
at the moment. 

3.16. From the experiments of Stratfull^ it is found that 
the coke breeze is to be blended with 85 to 100 penetration grade 
asphalt, with 20 per cent of asphalt by weight. Such a mix shall 
have a density of 1.17 gm/cm* with a resistivity of 0.0143Qm. This 
mixture has been found to have sufficient strength to withstand 
the impact of traffic and proper resistivity for their conditions. It 
may be necessary to change the grade of bitumen in our country 
due to higher ambient temperature. 

3.17. Before laying the coke asphalt mix the position of the 
anodes and voltage probes (described later) is to be checked. The 
mix is poured at a temperature of 150*C and compacted to a 
thickness of at least 5 cm, so that the anodes and probes are buried 
well within the layer. It may be added that to prevent any damage 
to the cables and anodes the mix is preferably hand spread. 

3.18. Over the conductive layer, usual wearing course of 
3-4 cm asphaltic concrete is provided for smooth movement of 
traffic. 

3.19. Voltage Probes: The function of a voltage probe 
is to assess the extent of corrosion of steel and monitor 
the progress or retardation of corrosion by measuring 
the e.m.f. in active and retarded states. Voltage probes made 
of carbon are to be placed on the concrete deck and 
buried in the coke mix, like the anodes, except with their bottom 
insulated from concrete surface. The voltage probes measure 
about 15 X 2.5 cm and connected through a thicker insulated cables. 
The potential difference is measured between the concrete and the 
reinforcing steel by means of a high-impedance solid state volt- 
meter. The difference between the technique of using CSE half- 
cell and the voltage probe is that for half-cell it is necessary to keep 
the porous bottom of odl on the **exposed concrete**, and the volt- 
age between steel and copper electrode is measured. While in 
voltage probe the back EMF due to corrosion is directly moni- 



126 Dr. Ray Chaudhihu ARaoqn 

torod without stripping off the oonductive modimn (ooke layer) 
and exposing concrete. Tests conducted by Stratfull have confirmed 
that tto polarised voltage (due to corrosion) as monitored by volt- 
age probes correlate very wdl with that measured by CSE half cdl, 
by exposing concrete and sted bars. 

3.20. Electrical CSrcoit: The electrical circuits could be so 
designed that current control may be eflfocted at dififorent anodes 
with the help of rheostats. A switching arrangement as shown 
in Fig. 2 would bring the panel ammeter into the dicuit so that 
current flow to individual anodes could be measured. 

3.21. As mentioned earlier, the power could be supplied 
through storage batteries kept under the deck. But where the 
weather is not favourable, alternating current as available to the 
public is to be rectified and used in place of a D.C. source. The 
rectifier unit must be of the constant current type. Generally the 
voltage requirement is about 1.6 to 1.8 V. 

4. DISCUSSION OF CAIHOIHCPROlECnON METHOD 

4.1. The selection of anodes depend on the amount of 
current required for protection, cost of anodes in terms of current 
output per kg of anode and the desired life of anode. In spite 
of the wide range of anode materials such as Magnesium, 2^ 
etc. only Duriron and Graphite anodes are found to be durable 
and cheap. 

4.2. The majority of the anodes used abroad are made of 
high silicon-iron alloy (Duriron) which is slightly costly. This 
alloy is very resistant to corrosion and the loss of its weight in 
corrosion is quite low (about 0.18 kg per ampere year). This 
aspect may be compared to the rate of corrosion of steel which is 
9.1 kg per ampere year. If the Duriron anodes are not available 
one may choose graphite anodes which are not sacrifidal as the 
anode reaction is some chemical reaction other than the oxidation 
of electro-positive material to form ions. 

4.3. Of all the conductive layers that can be thought of,, 
only coke breeze-asphalt mixture has sufficient strength to with- 
stand the impact of traffic, without deterioration. The presence 
of coke powder (Breeze) not only makes the asphalt mix (which 



Cathobic Protection from Corrosion n 127 

CoNCRFFE Bridge Decks 
is insulator) conductive, but also makes it dense and less porous. 
Hence such a layer can find its application in heavy rainfall regions 
of Eastern India. 

4.4. In long span bridges, extra long electrical leads are to 
be employed, and in order to keep the circuit resistance low, 
atleast 10-12 gauge copper wires are to be used. To make such 
a wire insulated only best quality insulating materials are to be 
used as they have to withstand a temperature of 150* C which 
is the laying temperature of coke-asphalt mixture. 

4.5. If A.C. supply is available at the bridge, a constant 
current rectifier unit with rheostat connected to the A.C. mains 
may most profitably be used for supplying the required energy. 
There are some diflSculties with the usage of constant current type 
of rectifiers, but they can be overcome by adjustment of rheostats 
in the initial stages. 

4.6. As the amount of power required is negligible and it 
could be supplied by solar cells in conjunction with storage batteries. 
The maximum power consumption for a major bridge would be 
about SW while the current flow per square meter of deck would 
be around S mA. Proper protection of storage batteries from 
extreme *^cold weather is to be provided. These units are also 
to be guarded against all types of vagaries. 

4.7. As mentioned earlier, the consumption of energy is 
very low and standard storage batteries can supply the requisite 
energy. Moreover, such cells are to be emb^ded in concrete 
or placed under the abutment seatings for ease of installation. 
But they get damaged in extreme cold weather or in very humid 
atmosphere. 

4.8. Before embarking on a project of this nature it is neces- 
sary to go into the economics of the proposition as the designer is 
very much limited in his choice of materials of anodes, electrical 
wires, insulation sheets and the source of energy. 

5. CONCLUSIONS 

(1) Cathodic protection of bridge decks is ideally suited for 
marine environment. 

(2) Voltage probes buried in the conductive layer could 
monitor the applied as well as the polarized voltage. 



128 Dr. RAYCHAUI»URlftRAOON 

Cathodic Pkoibchos from ComosiQN IN Concrete 
Bridge Decks 

(3) The method is suitable for both prestfesied oonciete as 
well as reinfoioed concrete bridge. 

(4) The conductive layer of coke-asphalt mix is dense and less 
porous. It is also impact resistant 

(5) The power required for negating the corrosion is quite 
low. 

(6) Inspite of the initial cost of installation the method proves 
to be cheaper over a period of time. 

(7) Sacrificial anodes are to be replaced once in five/ten years 
depending on the degree of corrosion. 

ACXSOWLEDCSMESt 

The Authors sincerely thank Prof. C. G. Swaminathan, 
Director, Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi for gran- 
ting permission to publish this Paper. 

BIBUOGRAPHY 

1 . R.P. Brown and RJ. Kessler, 'Fundamentals of Corrosion*, TRB-TRR 
604. 

2. J. Plahn & H. Cordes, 'Conosion of Reinforcing and Pr e str es siu g 
Steels in Concrete*.! Seminar on Problems of Prestressimg, Madrast 
1970. Organised by ING-IABSE. 

3. B.Tremper, J.L.Beatom and R.F. Stratfull, 'Causes and Rqwir. 
of deterioration to a California Bridge Due to Corrosion of Rein- 
forcing Steel in a Marine Environment*, HRB BuL, 182, 1958. 

4. R.F. StratAill, 'Ejqperimental Cathodic Protection of a Bridge DedcS 
TRB-TRR, 500. 

5. H.J. Fromm & O.P. Wilson, 'Cathodic Protection of Bridge Decks*, 
Study of three Ontario Bridges, TRB-TRR, 604. 

6. R.F. Stratfull, *Half Cell Potentials [and the Corrosion of Steel in 
Concrete', HRB-HRR, 433. 



«*AN APPROACH TO THE PROVISION OF HINGED BASES 
FOR LARGE-SPAN STEEL TRUSSED PORTALS USING 
STEEL WIRE ROPE TIES" 

By 



Major S. G. Vombatkere 



CONTENTS 

1. Introduction 

2. Design Pftiameters 

3. Support Conditions of the Main Portals 

4. Computer Analysis of the Portals 

5. The Base Hinge and Steel Wire Rope Ties 

6. Erection of the Portals 

7. Conclusion 



Page 

129 
130 
132 
135 
136 
138 
138 



SYNOPSIS 

Large-span portals are often provided with ties to withstand the outward 
motion of the 1^ under vertical loads. Ties are usually of rigid steel and 
are used with clevises and tumbuckles. In the construction described, steel 
wire rope ties were used. The method of hinges provided at the base of the 
52.8 m span portal using mild steel hinge pins is also unusual for large spans. 
The Paper is descriptive m nature and should be of interest to practismg engi- 
neers who may wish to consider similar i^ovisions. 

1. INTRODUCTION 

The ONGC required the design and construction of an 
aircraft hangar of size 76.2 metres x S2.8 metres with a maximum 
height of 10.6 metre with the following special requirements: 

(a) the hangar should be capable of being dismantled and re-erected 
at another location. 

(b) the compcments should be easily transportable. 
* Corps of Engineers. 

I.R.C— 9 



1 30 Maj. VOMBATKERE ON 

The requirements further allowed a very short period for the 
completion of the design, preparation of the drawings and 
execution of the work and resulted in an unconventional solution. 
The hangar was designed and completed by the Military Engineer 
Services of the Corps of Engineers in the first half of 1976 and now 
stands at Juhu, Bombay, where it is in use. 

In this Paper, the reasons for the engineering solution even- 
tually adopted and the details are given as it may be of interest 
and use to practising engineers faced with similar situations. 

2. DESIGN PARAMETERS 

The requirements of dismantling and re-erection at another 
location* and the transportability led to two main conclusions : 

(a) the cost of foundations should be kept to the barest miniinum to 
minimise the recurring cost; and 

(b) the nature of the foundation soil at a new location is not known 
and required that the loads to the foundation should be as low 
as possible. 

The sizes and weights of the members were also to be kept 
within the limits conducive to easy transportability. The portal 
as finally designed, comprises 11 pre-fabricated welded sections 
which are bolted together at their interfaces at erection time. The 
maximum length of a section is 7.5 metre and the maximum weight 
is 2.0 tonnes. Fig. 1. 

The choice of steel as the material, needs no justification; 
the obvious form of trussed portal followed from considerations 
of weight and transportability. Fig. 1 shows the form of the portal 
of S2.8 metres span with other ruling dimensions and the 11 prdab- 
ricated sections. The portals were at a centre to centre distance 
of 5.86 metres with bracing at rafter level, at the knee and in the 
vertical plane. 

The hangar sliding doors (in 6 segments, 3 sliding away to 
each side to a trestle) were 7.5 metres high and, together with 
the gable end cladding, presented an area of about 480 sq. metres, 
reflecting a large wind load at the level of the top of the doors. 
A wind girder at each end of the hangar was provided at the 
level of the top of the doors and also formed the top guide rails 
for the doors; the wind girder was 4.0 metres in depth (while the 
distance of the portals was 5.86 metres c/c) and the inner(or tension) 



thiovLsioN OF Hinged Bases for Large Span Steel 
Trussed Portals 



131 




.1 • ^ 



ok 



132 



Maj. VOMBATKEREON 



boom was hung from the purlins to keep the wind girder horizonid. 
The wind girder was designed as a true truss with true huiged joints. 
Fig. 2, so that bending moments were diminated from most of 
the members. 




PLAH O* NORIZOMTAL VlND SMOeil 







0C7UL 11 c 



wanmsfM 





«ecrfQII4rH •£CnOK47M motion 4T ^ 

Fig. 2. Wind girder & connections 
3. SUPPORT CX)NDITIONS OF THE MAIN PORTALS 

The fixity against rotation that may be required to itsist 
moments in a foundation and which may be assumed in deiigii» 
is almost never achieved unless foimdations are massive or founda- 
tion is on rock close to the ground level. The time and oost con- 
siderations consequently ruled out fixed bases, and hinged supports 
were assumed. 

In the case of large spans, the assumption of hinged bases 
with base ties eliminates the heavy moments and horizontal 




Photo 2. Showing ihe arrangement of the SWR hase lies 




r hoto 3. Election of a portal in progress 




f 



JL.^ #* . t 



E<M!ti 






i^hoto 4. Insi4^ view of the ha agar showing the bracing a act the wmd girda 



Provision of Hinged Bases for Large Span Steel 
Trussed Pcwtals 



135 



reactions associated with fixed bases, as hinged bases have a base 
tie which takes up the horizontal reactions and the foundation, 
accordingly has to withstand only vertical loads. 

Initial computer runs for analysis of the portal were made 
with fixed and with hinged b^ses. It was seen that the variation 
of stresses in the members of the portal legs was more near the base 
and not very appreciable near the knee while the variation in the 
roof portion was negligible. Thus it was confirmed that no great 
superstnictural advantage would accrue from assuming fixed 
bases and therefore hinged bases were provided. In the location 
of first erection of the hangar, the soil consisted of expansive black 
cotton strata (3,000 mm thick) overlying soft moorum and achiev- 
ing base fixity in practice would be impossible or prohibitively 
e?^)ensive and time-consuming. 

4. COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF THE PORTALS 

The portal was analysed as a plane truss by the stiffness method 
using a computer programme run on a ICL 1904 computer system. 
Fig. 1 shows the members and nodes. The support reactions 
with the critical loading conditions are shown in Fig. 3. It will 
be seen that under conditions of no-wind, the base tie tension 



wito Qoo He/tn^ 







S*.7 



DRAO L04D + VmO LOAD 

AL0M6 9H0RTAX16 




Fig. 3. Support reactions with criticol 
kxid combinations 



136 



Maj. VOMBATKHUB ON 



is about 21 tons with a vertical load of about 27 tons while the 
full effect of wind at 200 kg/sq metre reversed both horizontal 
and vertical reactions. At the maximum wind load, the inward 
horizontal thrust at the base was 21 tons and this is borne by the 
concrete which encases the SWR ties. At partial wind conditions, 
the loads would be much smaller. As expected, the knees and 
crown of the portal were most heavily stressed. The portaf was 
given a camber of 2.0 cms based upon the computed mid-span de- 
flection. 



5. THE BASE HINGE AND STEXX. WIRE ROPE TIES 

The support reactions are withstood totally by the hinge-pin 
in the base support. Fig. 4 shows the details of the base hinge-pin 



mLm\$m >09U^ 







* '" \ I 



5«Avf 40«lvi&Ly 



Fig. 4. Details of base hinge 



Provision op Hinged Bases for Large Span Steel 
Trussed Pchitals 



137 




I 

8 

1 



i 



138 Maj. VOMBATKERE ON 

with its trunnions and tie-plate. A 90 mm diameter greased mild 
steel pin served as hinge-pin, with enough spare material as a 
buffer against corrosion. The load is transferred by the portal 
leg through the hinge-pin to the trunnions, as a vertical and horizon- 
tal load. The horizontal load is to be borne by the tie. The design 
load on the hinge pins was 27 tons. It was foimd that with the pin 
support arrangements assumed, bending ruled over bearing and 
shear. The hinge joint is in an accessible well below the jBoor 
level for inspection and lubrication. 

The practice in the USA and other countries in the provi- 
sion of base ties is to use steel bars with clevises and tumbuckles. 
The bar is upset to a larger diameter at the ends and threaded 
internally to take clevises and tumbuckles. Due to difficulties 
of ready availability of such facilities for a 52 metre long tie, it 
was decided to use SWR as ties. Since the primary task of the 
ties is to withstand tension, SWRs' are well suited to the task. 
The SWR was passed around fixed semi-circular sheave plates of 
500 nun diameter, tensioned and secured with bull-dog grips at 
time of erection. The tie was then encased in M-200 concrete, 
which however had no bond with the SWR due to the SWR having 
been greased earlier, the concrete being meant mainly for pro- 
tection of the SWR. Figs. 4 & 5 indicate details of the method 
of reeving the SWR. The SWR used was in two continuous loops, 
one above and one below the tie plate, and was of 26 mm diameter 
IWRC with a minimum breaking load of 36.0 tons as per IS: 2266. 

6. ERECTION OF THE PORTALS 

The portals can be erected section-wise or in several sections 
at a time depending upon the erection equipment available. The 
portals were erected by first positioning the base sections (Sections 
No. 1) and the remaining sections were bolted together, hoisted as 
one assembly and bolted into place on the base sections. Bracing 
members at the interface of sections are provided and these are 
fitted as the portal is erected. 

7. CONCLUSION 

Expediency often dictates the practical solution to engineering 
problems. The use of hinge-pins for the base support of a 52.8 
metre span portal coupled with steel wire rope ties is one such 



ntovisioN OF Hinged Bases for Large Span Steel 139 
Trussed Portals 

solution. The use of hinge-pins in the wind girder as well, show 
that such arrangements are not difficult to fabricate and give 
very distinct advantages in some situations. 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The Author wishes to thank the Engineer-in-Chief, Army 
Headquarters and the Director of Designs, E-in-Cs Branch, Army 
Headquarters, New Delhi. The credit for providing the motive 
force in the design efifort goes to Shri D. B. Naik, Supdtg. Engineer 
and to the many persons on the construction site goes the credit 
for making the job possible in the face of many constraints. 

REFERENCES 

L Koa, M.P., "Steel Rigid Frame Manual - Desiga and Constnictien 
Pub: J. W. Edwards Inc., Ann Arbor, 1953. 

2. Lothers, J. E., "Design in Structural Steel." 



"TABULAR VALUES FOR DETERMINING ECONOMICAL 
GRIP LENGTH AND DIAMETER OF CIRCULAR WELLS 
AS PER ntC: 4S-7r' 





By 








Dr. B. p. 


Bagish* 






& 








U. P. Verma* 






CX>NTENTS 










Page 


1. 


Introduction 




.. 141 


2. 


Description of Method 




.. 142 


3. 


Illustrative Example 




.. 147 


4. 


Ambiguities in IRC: 45-72 




.. 155 


5. 


Conclusion 




.. 155 



SYNOPSIS 

Computation of the stability of wdl at per IRC: 45-72 is lengthy. In 
order to DEicilitate quick design of well tables for different grip length/outer 
diameter ratio have been developed for varying values of 0. Design of well 
with the aid of these tables as wdl as determination of economical size of well 
has been described in detail. 

1. INTRODUCnON 

1.1. The procedure of design of well foundation of bridges 
resting on non-cohesive soil like sand and surrounded by same soil 
below maximum scour level has been outlined in IRC:4S-72. 
This Publication recommends to calculate base pressure by 
elastic theory with the use of sub-grade moduli and ultimate soil 
resistance with appropriate factor of safety. 



* Executive Engineer, P.W.D., P&tna, Bihar. 



142 Dr. Bagish & Verma on 

1 .2. The computation of the stability of well as per IRC:45-T2 
is lengthy. In order to facilitate design of wdls as per IRC:45-72, 
tables for different grip length/outer diameter ratio have been 
developed for varymg from 20® to 40® to enable quick determi- 
nation of parameters enumerated in Elastic Theory as well as tl 
Ultimate Resistance Method, Appendix-^h 

2. DESCRIPTION OF METHOD 

2.1. The notations and symbols used in the following part 
have been kept same as given in IRC: 45-72 except the foUowings: 

B.L - Buoyancy load at base. 
B.L.M - Moment at base due to buoyancy load 
CI - Coefficient as given in Appendix-Z 

C3 :- Coefficient as given in i4/7/ie/tt/ix-3 
C4 - Coefficient as given in AppendixA 
C5 - Coefficient as given in Appendix-S 
C6 « Coefficient as given in Appendix-^ 
D.L - Dead load at base 
D.L.M - Moment at base due to dead load 
/ - factor 

L,L - Live load at base 

L.L.M « Moment at base due to live load 

A/t-8 - Moment at base due to tilt and shift 

A/u - Ultimate moment 

iS.A/dl - Moment at base due to seismic force on dead load 

S.Mll - Moment at base due to seismic force on Live load 

Wc - Force due to water current 

WcM - Moment at base due to water current force 

Wu - Ultimate load 

El = 

and Ea = 

0.075 

2.2. Details of calculations for determining coefficieots 



18 


»»' 


12 


IT 


El 





TABtn.A]t Valub von Deivrmining Economical Grip Lingth 
AND Diameter op Circular Wells as per IRC: 43-72 143 

2.2.1. Coefficients Ka and A? have been calculated from the 
following formulae as given in Ref. 2 : 

Sin* ( oti + ) cos 5 



«:a= 



Sin« Sinf« /jJlo. / Sin(0 + a)Sin(0-ig; )'|2 
Sm «, Sin («!-« ) [1 + ^ Sin ( a,^8 ) Sin (a, 4- fii)\ 

... (1) 



Af^ 



Sin* ( «!— ) Cos a 



1 V i-r / 1^1 ^ Sin(a^ + « Sin(ai + yjj) J 

... (2) 

In case of well foundation ai= 90" and Pi =0», Therefore Ka 
an<i ATp reduce to the form given below. 



ATa ~ 



K,= 



Cos 



y Sin ( + 8) S i 
1 4-*/ Cos 8 

Cos 



Sia0 



.J- 



Sin(0 -f 8) Sin 



Cos 8 



(4) 



(4) 



In calculating the values of Xa and K,, 3 has been takenequal 
to 2/3 but limited to a value of 22-1/2* as specified in Ref.l. 

For ready reference values of <», »*', Sin 8, (l + n^'), 
d^p^'), Xp. Ka, (ifp - ^a) and (ifp - Aa) Sin 3 have been 
calculated for varying from 20' to 40* and are given in 
Appendix— I. 

2.2.2. From step 2 of Elastic Theory of Ref. 1, 

/ = /b + w /v (1 + 2 »»'«) 

Therefore, for circular wells and assuming m = l. 



tL* .9 LP* /I + 21^'L 

64 "'" 



9L0* /) 
12 V 



tL* ^ 0.9Li)* ^ 



64 



12 



■wD) I 

\.%P'L*D* 
12ir 



144 Dr. Baobh k Vbum on 

-wL* L 0.9J:»L* ^ l.git'JPl,* -;.^-._ D 
--6r + \i + 12x .Siace^--^ 

= (0.04909 + 0.075a:* + EiK*) L\ where E^ = ^j*^' 

= CJ.* ... (5) 

Value of £i for varying from 20" to 40* areas given befew: 






£i 





El 





^ 


20 


0.01132 


25 


0.01429 


30 


0.01738 


21 


0.01190 


26 


0.01490 


31 


0.01801 


22 


0.01250 


27 


0.01551 


32 


0J01865 


23 


0.01309 


28 


0.01613 


33 


0.01929 


24 


0.01369 


29 


0.01675 


34^40 


0.01978 



Values of C, are given in Appendix-2 for varying ftom 
20* to 40* at an interval of one degree and K varying from 0.S 
to 2.5 at an interval of 0.1. 

2.2.3. From step 3 of Elastic Theory of Ref. 1, 
Therefore, for circular wells and assuming mssl. 

0.9 *:•!,« . _ D 

.since jr=- 



12 '""^ "~ L 
= 0.075 K*L* 
From Eq (5), / = ( 0.04909 + 0.075A:* + EiK* ) £* 

Therefore. . = ,.5KL ( 004909 ^^075^^ + ^. A:" ) 
- °-^ r + 6.615 A* * 0075/ 



Tabular Values vor Determining Economical Grip Length 
AND Diameter OF Circular Wells as per IRC: 45-72 145 

^0.5(K+ 5^^^+ E, ) L, where £,= -^^i^j - 

=^C^L ... (6) 

Value of £9 for varying from 20* to 40* are as given below: 






E. 





E. 





E. 


20 


0.15093 


25 


0.19053 


30 


0.23173 


21 


0.15867 


26 


0.19867 


31 


0.24013 


22 


0.16667 


27 


0.20680 


32 


0.24867 


23 


0.17453 


28 


0.21507 


33 


0.25720 


24 


0.18253 


29 


0.22333 


34-40 


0.26373 



value of C3 are given in Appendix-S for varying from 20^ to 
40* at an interval of one degree and K varying from 0.5 to 2.5 
at an interval of 0.1. 

2.2.4. From step 2 of Ultimate Resistance Method of Ref. 1 

Aft = QWuB tan 

A shape factor of 0.6 is to be multiplied for circular walls 
and value of constant g is to be taken from Appendix-l of Ref. 1 

Therefore, 3/b Q W^ (0.6L) tan 0, since ^ = L for 
circular well. 

= (0.6 e tan )W^L 

Values of constant Q for values of -j-( ^ K) from 0.5 to 

2.5 at an interval of 0.1 are taken from Appendbc-X of Ref. 1 and 
are reproduced below with intermediate values linearly 
interpolated. 



K 


Q 


K 


Q 


K 


Q 


0.5 


0.410 


1.2 


0.470 


1.9 


0.548 


0.6 


0.418 


1.3 


0.480 


2.0 


0.560 


0.7 


0.426 


1.4 


0.490 


2.1 


0.576 


0.8 


0.434 


1.5 


0.500 


2.2 


0.592 


0.9 


0.442 


1.6 


0.512 


2.3 


0.608 


1.0 


0.450 


1.7 


0.524 


2.4 


0.624 


1.1 


0.460 


1.8 


0.536 


2.5 


0.640 



146 Dtu Bmobh 4 \mMK m 

valw of C4 are incn IB i4p«^r-4lbr wiyii« fh»m 2(r 

at aa interval of ow degree and K wyiqg flrom O.S to 2.5 at an 

iaierval of 0.1. 



Z2.S From step 2 of Ukinate Resistanoe Method of Ref. 1. 

Afo s 0.10r D^ (JC^— JTa )L 
For circular wcib» 

Ms = OAOtP £• ( JTr-ifA ) (0.9£). smce ^ =-j- 

= C5y£* 

Values of CS are given in 4^qpmdfar-S for varying from 
20* to 40* at an intnrval of one degree and K varying fh>m 0.5 
to 2.5 at an interval of 0.L 

2.2.6. From step 3 of Ultimate Resistanoe Method of Ref. 1> 
for circular well 

M[f^OAlriKr — KA)M*It^uah 

» 0.11 r (JTp — J^A ) I.* />* Sin », since B=L for 

drcokrwdl 

= 0.11 y(Ji:r-^A)i* («L)* sin I, since Ji:= ^ 
- [0.11(Ji:p-#:A)sin8iC»lyL4 

= C6 y L* (9^ 

Values of C6 are given in Appendix-i for varying fix)m 20* ta 
40^ at an interval of one d^roe and K varying from 0.5 to 2.5 
at an interval of 0.1. 

2.3. Computational Procedure 

2.3.1. From step 4 of Elastic Theory given in Ref.l. 

Therefore, for ideal case 

fnM 

—f—^ y (JTp — ATa) 

Replacing JIf =Mo+/f.Z)+3f/.j and assuming m«l. 



Tabular Values for DETERMihaNG Economical Grip Length 

AND DL^METER of CIRCULAR WELLS AS PER IRC: 45-72 147 

Mo + HkL-\-Mt.s ^, ^ ^^ 
cTT^^ = y(^P — ^a) 

OT Mo+ HkL +Mt.s- r(K^ — KA)Cj,L'^ ... (10) 

Eq. (10) includes moment due to tilt and shift but since grip 
length is not known, its value at present cannot be arrived at. 

Generally it is seen that when seismic condition [ j is governing 

the design, the value of moment due to tilt and shift is maximum 
upto 20 per cent of the moment at S.L, Also in case when seismic 

Condition ( ~\ot wind condition is governing, its value is maximum 

V20/ 
upto 30 per cent of the moment at SL and when non-seismic condi- 
tion is governing, its value is maximum upto 40 per cent of the 
moment at S.L. Therefore, introducing a factor to account for 
moment due to tilt and shift Eq. (10) can be written as 

{l+f)Mo + HkL^y(Kf — KA)C^L' ... (11) 

For known values of/. Mo, H^y { K^-Ka ) and diameter of well, 
grip length close to the exact value can be calculated as a first 
approximation from Eq. (11). Therefore, stability of the well has 
to be checked according to the steps mentioned in Ref 1 with the 
aid of AppendicesA to 6. 

2.3.2. When wells of different diameters are to be analysed 
for comparative study of cost, values of Mo and /f are to be calcu- 
lated for the respective diameter and grip length in each case deter- 
mined from Eq. (1 1) and stability of the wells has to be checked. 
3. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE 

3.1. A numerical example illustrating the use of Appendices 
\ to 6 \s given below. 

3.1.1. A pier well of a bridge in North Bihar has to be designed 
for following loads and moments: 

External diameter of well (assumed) 

(i) Above 5.L. ... = 7.061 m 

(ii) Below 5.L. ... = 7.366 m 

Diameter of dredge hole = 5.435 m 

Live load reaction = 91.947 tonne 

LR.C-10 



148 



Dr. BAOBBft VkUfAON 



ftaldiig Force 

Moment at SJL due to Bimkiqg Force 

Water Force on pier in trnflk 

direction 
Water Force on wdl in tnflBc 

direction 
Water Force on pier in cuneot 

direction 
Water Force on well in cuneot 

direction 
Resultant Water Force at S.L. 
Moment at S.L. due to Water Force 

in traflSc direction 
Moment due to Water Force in 

current direction 
Resultant Moment at S.L. due to 

water Force 
Moment at SX. due to ecoentcicity 

of Live Load in traflk direction 
Moment at S.L. due to eccentricity of 

Live Load in current direction 
Resultant Moment at S.L. dm to Live 

Load (including Braking Force) 
Total Resultant Moment at S.L. 
Total Resultant Force at S.L. 
Seismic Force on Live load at S.L. 
Seismic Force on Dead load at S.L. 
Moment at S.L, due to Seismic Force 

on Live Load 
Moment at S.L. due to Seismic 

Force on Dead Load 
Design Moment at S.L. 
(Seismic G/10 governing), Mo 
Design Horizontal force at S.L.^ H 
Scour Level, in metre 
Level of top of well cap, in metre 
Angle of internal friction of soil, 
Submerged density of soil> 



= 70J022 tonne 

= 4Q3.719 t-m 

s 3.882 tonne 

= L374 tonne 

= 2.068 tonne 

= 3.129 tonne 

= 7.392 tonne 

= 72.473 trm 

= S8.20S t-m 

= 92.952 t-m 

=s 77.287 t-m 

= 104.386 tm 

= 492J202 tm 

= 576.866 t-m 

= 25.807 tonne 

= 2.862 tonne 

:= 142.812 tonne 

= 69.951 t-m 

= 1800.234 t-m 

= 2447.051 t-m 

= 171.481 tonne 

= R.L. 46.543 

= R.L. 58.796 

= 30^ 

= 0.90 tonne/m» 



Tabular Values for Determining Economical Grip Length 
AND Diameter of Circular Wells as per IRC: 45-72 149 



3.1^ From AppaiOx-l for 30*, the value of different 


rameters are as given 


below; 


i 


20" 


!>■ = 


0.57735 


*»' 


0.36397 


! + <»*»' 


1.21014 


1— *»^' 


0.78986 


r^p-j^A) = 


5.45778 


(A^P— *a) Sin i = 


1.86667 



3.1.3. Putting values of/, Af., H.L. y and (Ap— Aa) inEq. 
(1 1), we have 

1.2x2447.051 + 171.481x7.366 ifc=0.900x5.458x7.3664C, 

or, 2936.46 + 1263.13 fc= 14461.15 

From AppendiX'2 value of k and lvalue of Cg corresponding to 
this k has to be chosen in such a way thati the above equation is 
almost satisfied* 

Choosing k = 1 .475, value of C, from Table No. 2 =0.3282275, 
putting these values in the above equation, 

L.H.S. 4799.58 t-m 

R.H.S. 4746.55 t-m 

Therefore, L.H.S. is R.H.S. 

3.1.4. Grip length D=z kL 

= 1.475x7.366 
= 10.865 m 
For above grip length, design weight at base,fF = 1504.346 tonne 
Normal weight at base . . . =2248.897 tonne 

Buoyancy weight at base . . . =744.551 tonne 

Moment at base excluding moment 
due to tilt and shift . . . =4310.882 t-m 

A^oment due to tUt (1/80) \for dead load =388.887 t-m 
and shift (0.5 ft.), J for Live load = 40.590 t-m 

Design moment at base . . . =4740.359 t-m 

Area at base, ^ = -^ (7.366) • =42.614 m* 

Bearing pressure at base . . . =52.085 tonne/m * 



150 Dr. Bagbh A Vbrma on 

3. 1 .5. From step 2 of Elastic Theoiy, 

=0.3282275 X (7.366)* 

=966.277 m* 
From step 3 of Elastic Theory 

r=C,L 
From Appendtx-3 for it= 1.475, C,s 1.00420 

r = 1.00420x7.366 
=7.397 m 

^ (1 + ^^')—^w 

4740 359 
= %^9T ^ 1.21014 - 0.57735 X 1504.346 

= —93.017 toraie < 171.481 tomie 
M 



(I — (»0 + ^^ 

4740.359 
= y 3yy X 0.78996+0.57735x1504.346 

= 1374.715 tomie > 171.481 tonne 
From step 4 of Elastic Theory, 

mM 4740.359 .Qn,o . • 
"7~~ 966277 =^-'"'°' assuring »i=l 

y (Kp — A^)=0.900 x 5.45778 

=4.9120 > 4.9058 (O.K.) 

From step 5 of Elastic Theory, 
oi\ _ W— p' P ^MB 






<r, J A ^n 

W— P' M ML 



^yr- , since 5=L for circular well 
4740.359 



1504.346—0.36397 7.397 ^ 4740.359 x 7.366 
42.614 2x966.277 

= (29.828*18.068) tonne/m» 



BULAR Values for Determining Economical Grip Length 
iND Diameter of Circular Wells as per IRC: 45-72 151 

Therefore,^!, = 47.896 tonne/m* 1.25x52.085 tonne/m* 
and 0*,, = 11.76 tonne/m* (no tension) (O.K.) 
3.1.6. Check by Ultimate resistance method moment at 
int of rotation due to water force. 

= 92.952+7.392X 10.865x0.8 = 157.203 t-m 
Moment at point of rotation due to Live 
Load (including Braking Force) 

=492.202+20.022 x 10.865 x 0.8 = 666.233 t-m 
Moment at point ot rotation due tos eismic force 
on Dead Load =1800.234+ 142.812 x 10.865x0.8 

= 3041.556 t-m 
Moment at point of rotation due to seismic 
force on Live Load =69.951 +2.862 x 10.865x0.8 

= 94.828 t-m 
Moment of Dead Load at point of rotation due to 

tUt and shift =361.047 t-m 

Moment of Live Load at point of rotation due 
to tilt and shift =38.096 t-m 

Ultimate Load at base: 
(i) 1.1 D.£. = 1.1x2248.897 =2473.787 tonne 

(u) 1.1 DX.+AL. + 1.4JFc =1.1x2248.897-744.551 

= 1729.236 tonne 

(iii) 1.1 Z).L+1.6L.L=1. 1x2248.897+1.6x91.947 

=2620.902 tonne 

(iv) 1.1 D.L.+B.L. + IA(L.L+Wc) 

= 1.1x2248.897-744.551 + 1.4 (91.947+0) 

= 1857.962 tonne 
(v) 1.1 Z).L.+AL+ 1.25 (L.L+Wc) 

= 1.1x2248.897-744.551 + 1.25 (91.947+0) 

= 1844.169 tonne 

Critical Ultimate load at base, Wu =2620.902 tonne 
Ultimate moment at base 
(i) 1.1 />.L.M. = 1.1x361.047 =397.152 t-m 

(ii) 1.1 D.L.M.+B.L.A(.+ IA (WcM+SMdl) 
= 1.1x361.047-0 + 1.4 (157.203+3041.556) 

=4875.414 t-m 



1 52 Dr. Bagish & Verma on 

(ui) 1.1 D.L.M.+\.6L.L.M. 

= 1.1x361.047+1.6(38.096+666.233) =1524.078 t-m 
(iv) 1.1 D.L.M.+B.L.M.+IA (L.L.M. + WM.) 
= 1.1 X 361.047-0+ 1.4(38.096+666.233+ 157.203) 

= 1603.293 t-m 
(v) 1.1 D.L.M.+ B.L.M. +\.25 

(L.L.Af.+ WM.+SMDh+S.Mu. 
=1.1 X 361.047-0+1.25(38.096+666.233+ 
157.203+3041.556+94.828)=5394.547 t-m 
Critical Ultimate moment at base, Mg =5394.547 t-m 
From step 1 of Ultimate Resistance Method, 

Ff„ 2620.902 ^, «,, » , , 
—r= 42 614 ~ 61.503 tonne/m" 

ff allowable =2.5 x 6 allowable 

=2.5 X 52.085 

=130.213 tonne/m* 

^° - 65.1065 tonne/m* >61. 503 tonne/m" 

From step 2 of Ultimate Resistance Method, 
Mb = QWnB tan 

From Appendix No. 4, for k= 1.475, C4=0.17240 

Mb = 0.17240x2620.902x7.366 

= 3328.279 t-m 

M, = 0.10 VD* (Kv-Ka)L 

From Appmdix-S for *= 1.475, C,= 1.58700 

M, = 1 .58700 X 0.900 X (7.366)* 
=4204.809 t-m 
From step 3 of ultimate Resistance Method, 
M{ = 0.ny (Kit-Ka) B*D* Sin 9 

= C,rL* 
From Appendix 6 for A: = 1 .475,C, =0.47475 
A/r=0.47475 X 0.900 X (7.366)* 

= 1257.866 t-m 
From stq> 4 of Ultimate Resistance Method, 
M, = 0.7(Mb + 3/, + 3/f) 



Tabular Values for Determining Econchmical Grip Length 
AND Diameter of Circular Wells as per IRC: 45-72 153 

= 0.7(3328.279+4204.809+ 1257.866) 
= 6153.668 t-m > 5394.547 t-m (O.K.) 

In second trial it was found that the minimum grip length for 
this diameter is 10.790 metre. 



3.2. Determination of diameter and grip length of wdls 
from economic consideration. 



3.2.1. To investigate the most economical size of wdl, three 
more cases of wells were computed whose details aie given below: 

Outer dia. of well above S.L. 7.671 m 7.366 m 7.061m 
Outer dia. of wells below S.L. 7.975 m 7.671 m 7.061 m 
Diameter of dredge hole 5.944 m 5.690 m 5.182 m 

3.2.2. The stability of wells of 7.975 m, 7.671 m and 7.061 m 
diameters at scour level with computed grip lengths of 10.173 m 
10.485 m and 11.018 m respectively was checked from Elastic 
Theory as well as Ultimate Resistance Method and the quantities 
of different items were estimated. From comparative chart showing 
cost of wells at Appendix-l, it is evident that amongst the four 
weUs considered, the well of 7.366 m diameter is the cheapest* 
The rates are based on latest Schedule of Rates of North Bihar on 
prevalent market rate of the area. 

3.3. For academic interest numerical example as given in 
para 3.1 was examined for a non.seismic-zone with common para- 
meters. 

3.3.1. Two type of wells with three velocity of water current 
were examined. The entire calculation is summarised in the 
Table 1. 



154 



Dft. Bagbh St Vebma cm 
Tabu 1 



Itemf 

■ 


Velocity 


Vciodlj 




•6.1iq/!Hc 


Outer dia. of well 
above S.L. (m) 


7MI 


7J061 


7J061 


JAM 


7MI 


Outer dia. ofweU 

below S.L. (m) 


7J66 


7.061 


7J66 


7MI 


7MI 


DIa. of dredge hole 
(m) 


5.44 


5.18 


5.44 


5.18 


5.18 


Moment at S.L. (tm) 


578.21 


578J21 


726J0 


726.30 


1214^ 


Antidpaled M due to 
t & s (t-m) 


231.28 


231.28 


29052 


29052 


485.70 


Grip length at 

computed (m) 


4 


4.58 


5.18 


6.1 


8.06 


Min. Grip length as 
per code (m) 


6J1 


6.27 


6.27 


6l27 


6.27 


Actual M due to 
t A 8 (t-m) 


330J8 


318J2 


33038 


318.32 


330.09 


Actual Moment at 

base (M) (t-m) 1056.38 


1044.62 


1056.38 


1044.62 


1544.34 


Weight at baae(W) (t) 1298.18 


1189.55 


1298.18 


1189.55 


1235.46 


Horizontal Foice (H) 
(t) 


25.87 


25.87 


38.59 


38J9 


64.77 


Ultimate Moment at 
base (Mu) (t-m) ) 


1386.50 


1389.41 


1386.50 


1389.41 


2436.65 


Ultimate weight at 

base (Wu) (t-m) 1428.19 


1308.64 


1428.19 


1308.64 


1359.10 


mM/I 


3.35 


i.li 


3.89 


4.» 


Ui 


~-(l + /^/^>/^W(t) 573.64 


502.73 


549.55 


460.00 


32.82 


^(1.^0+'^W(t) 864.09 


807.27 


879.55 


835.00 


925.00 


Maximum 

Compression 
(t/mi) 


41.57 


42.06 


43.03 


44.50 


44.21 


Minimum compression 

(t/m«) 


^NO TENSIOh 


I 








Available bearing 
pressure (t/m*) 


47.2 


47.2 


47.2 


47.2 


52.03 


Available Ultimate bearing 
pressure (t/m«) 41.86 


41.76 


41.86 


41.76 


43.38 


0.7 Mt (t-m) 


1980.88 


1793.79 


1980.88 


1793.79 


2663.87 


Ultimate compression 
(t/m«) 


33.50 


33.70 


33.50 


33.70 


34.67 


Factor of Mt & s to 
Ms. L. 


0.342 


0.365 


0.342 


0.365 


0.365 



Tabular Values for Determinino Economical Grip Length 

AND DLU^ETER GP CIRCULAR WELLS AS PER IRC: 45-72 155 

3.3.2. From the above calculation it is evident that in non- 
seismic zones, the well is safe at much higher level than the well 
in seismic zones indicating that seismic force plays a vital role 
in determining the size and grip length of well. From this calcu- 
lation, the effect of variation in water-force on size and grip length 
of well is also quite apparent. The factor /to account for moment 
due to tilt shift as 40 per cent of Moment at S.L. is fairly reasonable 
for calculatmg initial grip length. 

4. AMBIGUITIES IN IRC: 45-72 

4.1. IRC:45-72 is not clear on certain points and designers 
find difficulties while designing different wells. Some of these 
points are given in brief below. 

4.1.1. The cutting edge and well curb are generally kept 
25 nun to 50 mm projected from the outer face of well steining to 
facilitate sinking of well. Due to this mcrease, the area and moment 
of inertia at base are greater than those calculated with well dia~ 
meter just above the well curb. Hence the friction at base and 
skin resistance on sides of well should also change. 

4.1.2. For the reasons mentioned above some multiplying 
factor for step 5 of Elastic theory and Step 1 of Ultimate Resis- 
tance Method be introduced. 

5. CONCLUSION 

5.1. From the example given in para 3, it will be seen that 
time and labour involved are very much reduced when compared 
to normal computational process. The possible human error that 
may occur in computation is also minimised to a great extent. 

5.2. The most economical type of well diameter and grip 
length can be found out with the help of Appendices without 
much extra labour. 

5.3. The Authors hope that the Appendices 1 to 6 would 
be of great use to design engineers. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The Authors are thankful to Public Works Department, 
Government of Bihar for permission to pubUsh this Paper. 



Dr. Bagish & Verma on 
Tabular Values for Determining Economical Grip Length 
156 AND Diameter of Circular Wells as per IRC: 45-72 

The Authors are thankful to Shri D. C. Jha, Superintending 
Engineer, P.W.D., Bihar for his valuable guidance in preparation 
of the Paper and to Shri A. K. Bhagat, Executive Engineer, 
P.W.D., Bihar for checking the calculations. 

REFERENCES 

1. IRC : 45-1972: Recommendatioiis for estimating the resistance of soil 
below the maximum scour level in the design of well foundation of 
bridges, Indian Roads Congress, New DelhL 

2. Theoretical Soil Mechanics by Karl Terzaghi, Pages 80 
& 107, November, 1965, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 



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Tabular Values for Determining Economical Grip Length 
AND Diameter of Circular Wells as per IRC 45-72 161 

M^=zC4lVuL Appendix— A (Contd.) 



Value of C4 for given below 
35* 36** 37^ 38'' 39^ 40* 



0.5 0.17225 0.17873 0.18537 0.19220 0.19921 0.20642 

0.6 0.17561 0.18222 0.18899 0.19595 0.20309 0.21045 

0.7 0.17897 0.18570 0.19261 0.19970 0.20698 0.21447 

0.8 0.18233 0.18919 0.19622 0.20345 0.21087 0.21850 

0.9 0.18570 0.19268 0.19984 0.20720 0.21475 0.22253 

1.0 0.18906 0.19617 0.20346 0.21095 0.21864 0.22656 

1.1 0.19326 0.20053 0.20798 0.21564 0.22350 0.23159 

1.2 0.19746 0.20488 0.21250 0.22032 0.22836 0.23663 

1.3 0.20166 0.20924 0.21702 0.22501 0.23322 0.24166 

1.4 0.20586 0.21360 0.22154 0.22970 0.23808 0.24670 

1.5 0.21006 0.21796 0.22607 0.23439 0.24293 0.25173 

1.6 0.21510 0.22319 0.23149 a24001 0.24876 0.25777 

1.7 0.22015 0.22842 0.23692 0.24564 0.25459 0.26381 

1.8 0.22519 0.23366 0.24234 0.25126 0.26043 0.26985 

1.9 0.23023 0.23889 0.24777 0.25689 0.26626 0.27590 

2.0 0.23527 0.24412 0.25319 0.26251 0.27209 0.28194 

2.1 0.24199 0.25109 0.26043 0.27001 0.27986 0.28999 

2.2 0.24871 0.25807 0.26766 0.27751 0.28763 0.29805 
23 0.25544 0.26504 0.27490 0.28501 0.29541 0.30610 

2.4 0.26216 0.27202 0.28213 0.29251 0.30318 0.31416 

2.5 0.26888 0.27899 0.28936 0.30002 0.31096 0.32221 

NOTE: For intermediaie values of 0and k value of co-effkleni C^ 
may be linearly Interpolated, 



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Tabular Values for Determining Ecx>nomical Grip Length 
AND Diameter of Circular Wells as per IRC : 45-72 163 

Af,=C,yL* Appendix— 5 (Conid.) 

Value of C. for given below 
35^ 36^ 37^ 38^ 39^ 40^ k 

0.5 0.09627 0.10362 0.11171 0.12064 0.13053 0.14152 

0.6 0.16636 0.17906 0.19303 0.20846 0.22555 0.24455 

0.7 0.26418 0.28434 0.30653 0.33103 0.35816 0.38834 

08 0.39434 0.42444 0.45756 0.49413 0.53463 0.57967 

0.9 0.56147 0.60433 0.65149 0.70355 0.76122 0.82535 

1.0 0.77020 0.82899 0.89367 0.96509 1.04420 1.13217 

1.1 1.02513 1.10338 1.18948 1.28453 1.38983 1.50692 

1.2 1.33090 1.43249 1.54427 1.66767 1.80438 1.95639 
13 1.69213 1.82128 1.96340 2.12030 2.29411 2.48738 

1.4 2.11342 2.27474 2.45224 2.64820 2.86529 3.10668 

1.5 2.59942 2.79783 3.01615 3.25718 3.52419 3.82108 

1.7 3.78398 4.07281 4.39062 4.74148 5.13017 5.56236 

1.8 4.49180 4.83465 5.21191 5.62840 6.08979 6.60283 

1.9 5.28279 5.68602 6.12972 6.61954 7.16219 7.76557 
ZO 6.16159 6.63189 7.14940 7.72071 8.35363 9.05738 
Zl 7.13281 7.67724 8.27632 8.93769 9.67037 10.48505 
2.2 8.20107 8.82705 9.51585 10.27627 11.11868 12.05537 
23 9.37100 10.08628 10.87334 11.74224 12.70482 13.77514 
2.4 10.64722 11.45991 12.35416 13.34139 14.43507 15.65115 
2-5 12U)3435 12.95291 13.96367 15.07951 16.31568 17.69019 

NOTE: for imermediate values of Qiandk value of oheffktent Cg 
may be linearly Interpolated. 

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Tabular Values for Determining Economical Grip Length 

AND DLKMETER of CIRCULAR WELLS AS PER IRC : 45-72 165 

Aff=C^yL* Appendix-e (Contd.) 

Value of Cg for given below 

k « 

35^ 36^ 37^ 38^ 39^ 40^ Remarks 

0.5 0.09006 0.09693 0.10450 0.11285 0.12210 0.13239 

0.6 0.12969 0.13958 0.15048 0.16250 0.17582 0.19063 

0.7 0.17652 0.18999 a20482 0.22118 0.23931 0.25947 

0.S 0.23055 0.24815 0^751 0.28889 0.31257 0.33891 

0.9 0.29179 0.31406 0.33857 0.36563 0.39560 0.42893 

10 0.36024 0.38773 0.41799 0.45139 0.48839 0.52954 
' 1.1 0.43589 0.46916 0.50577 0.54618 0.59096 0.64074 

1.2 0.51874 0.55834 0.60191 0.65000 0.70329 0.76254 

U 0.60880 0.65527 0.70640 0.76285 082539 0.89492 

1.4 0.70606 0.75996 0.81926 0.88473 0.95725 1.03790 

1.5 0.81053 0.87240 0.94048 1.01563 1.09889 1.19147 

1.6 0.92221 0.99260 1.07005 1.15556 1.25029 1.35562 

1.7 1.04108 1.12055 1.20799 1.30452 1.41146 1.53037 
U 1.16717 1.25626 1.35429 1.46251 1.58240 1.71571 
19 1J0045 1.39972 1.50894 1.62952 1.76310 1.91164 
2.0 1.44095 1.55093 1.67196 1.80557 1.95358 2.11816 

11 1.58864 1.70990 L84334 1.99064 2.15382 2.33527 

2.2 1.74355 1.87663 2.02307 2.18474 2.36383 2.56297 

2.3 1.90565 2.05111 2.21117 2.38786 2.58361 2.80127 
14 2.07496 2.23334 2.40762 2.60002 2.81315 3.05015 
^ 2.25148 2.42333 2.61244 2.82120 3.05247 3.30963 

NOTE: For iniermediaie values of and k value of co-efficient 
C% may be linearly interpolated. 



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S2 a 



"CONCEPTS OF URBAN ROADWAY SYSTEM 
PLANNING" 





By 






Arun Chatterjee* 






CONTENTS 


Page 


1. 


Introduction 


169 


2. 


Sketch Planning 


172 


3. 


Detailed Planning of Internal System 
Components 


174 


4. 


Circulation for Small Spatial Units 


176 


5. 


Develop Area-wide Arterial Ssrstem 
Configuration 


187 


6. 


Integration of System Components 


192 


7. 


Summary and Comments 

1. INTRODUCTION 


195 



Long-range transportation planning techniques in recent years 
have become complex and to some extent mecbaiiical in riature. For 
a large portion of the planning process, transportation planners go 
through routine procedures of data collection, data processing and 
developing mathematical models of travel demand. The underlying 
purpose of these analytical procedures is twofold: (1) to identify 
existing [Hroblems and opportunities, and (2) evaluate future alter- 
natives quantitatively; both of these undoubtedly are critical tasks* 
Another equally important task of the planning process is the identi- 
fication or development of transportation alternatives to be evalua- 
ted. This task usually is performed on a conceptual basis after 
a traffic assignment of the future travel on the '^existing plus commit- 
ted'' network is made and a capacity deficiency analysis is comple- 
ted. A few alternatives are developed based on judgement to 
eliminate the predicted capacity deficiencies and these alternatives 

^ Associate Professor, Deptt. of Qvil ^ Engineering, The University of 
Tennessee, KnoxviUe, Teoneasee 37916 



170 Arun Chatteree on 

are tested by assigning future traffic on the respective networks. 
Usually one of the alternatives is chosen after two or three net- 
works are tested. 

The conceptual approach of developing alternative transpor- 
tation systems for testing is basically sound. Conceptual analysis 
actually is a powerful tool for planning as it permits the synthesis 
of many considerations and creative ideas which is difficult, if not 
impossible, to accomplish by mathematical techniques. However, 
in many cases this key task of developing alternative 
plans for testing is not given adequate attention, and 
planners spend a great deal of effort in developing tools, wiuch 
are utib'zed to evaluate quickly developed and poorly conceived 
alternatives. The truth of this allegation has be^i established in 
the United States where many cities found some of the elements 
of their highway plans to be impossible to implement because they 
were not compatible with the local environment. 

The Author believes that many urban transportation planners 
are too concerned with the goal of eliminating capacity deficiencies 
to pay adequate attention to the basic principles and concepts of 
conununity planning and roadway system design. Many engmeers 
indeed are not adequately tramed in the art of community and envir- 
onmental design. There is a need for bringing together the 
knowledge that already exists in these areas and develop a comprdi- 
ensive framework for roadway planning which wouki enable fdanners 
to design sound alternatives compatible with the environmoit and 
acceptable to the citizens. 

1.1. Transportation PlanDing for Soudl Urban Areas 

Roadway planning procedures based on idealistic concepts and 
principles would have special application in small urban aieasTrans- 
portation problems and issues in these areas usually are not very 
complicated and the feasibility of idealistk long-range plans is rda- 
tively high through advance acquisition of right-of-way and appro- 
priate land use controls. It is interesting to note that in large urban 
areas, proposals for roadway improvements often involve widening 
of existmg roads which require the removal of existing structures 
and development. In such cases, public opposition is likdy to arise 
and a conceptual analysis based on judgement may not be sufficient 
to justify the projects and convince the public. Thus a thorough 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 171 

travd analysis using models and computers would be required In 
the case of small urban areas, a simple procedure based on basic 
concepts and princifrfes, if adopted, would provide rdief from 
the increasing complexities and resource requirements of the 
modelling oriented traditional planning process. 

1^ O^ecthes •Tthe Paper 

To meet the goal of providing a simplified and at the same time 
a sound procedure of roadway system planning, some of the basic 
concepts and principles of community planning and roadway design 
are presented within a broad framework of system planning. The 
entire procedure would be applicable for developing area-wide road 
networks. Procedures for testing these system plans or networks 
would vaiy from case to case. In small urban areas, the use of 
travd models and traffic assignments may not be necessary, whereas 
in some cases these techniques may be used for further refinement of 
the network. The individual concepts and principles discussed 
in the Paper would be useful for a variety of purposes including neigh- 
bourhood and sub-division design and planning of route segments. 

It should be pointed out that there is no imiversal definition 
of small urban areas. In the United States of America the upper 
limit of the popukition of these areas usually is 250,000. In other 
countries with denser urban development, the population would 
be larger. 

1.3. Framework of the Systems Planoing Process 

A sound plan cannot be developed without a logical and compro> 
hensive thinking process. A planner must not decide on the detafls 
of the plan before outlining the broader aspects clearly. To provide 
a meaningful and methodical transition from the broad to the more 
specific considerations of a transportation plan, a procedure consisting 
of three phases: (1) sketch planning, (2) detailed plannmg of internal 
system components, and (3) integration of system components — is 
proposed. Ilie different tasks related to each of these phases and 
their relationships are shown in the flow chart of Fig. 1. The scope 
of each phase and its tasks are discussed in the following sections 
of the Paper. It may be noted that the process presented in this 
Paper focuses on only a portion of the overall comprehensive planning 
process which would include many other tasks such as citizen partici- 
pation, evaluation and implementation. 



172 



Arun Chatterjee on 



ltegien«l Analrsls 



Goals Establishaent 



bitaiMl 
Sk«tcli riamiiAf 



\ -z 



D*v«lof CIrcuUtiM 

^tt^ms For 
SiMll Spatial Units 



Dovelop Aroawida 
Systaa Configuration 



Intagrate Intent 1 
Systaai ComponMits 



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• M 



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an J Rcjicvnal 
Transportation Net«>«rk5 



^ o o 
« o 



Fig 1. CoDceptmd transpoctatioD systcmi pUnning process 

2, SKETCH PLANNING 

The phase of sketch planmng is intended to develop a broad 
perspective and framework within which detailed planning is to 
be done. The broad framework must be based on a clear under- 
standing of the goals related to transportation planning. It is also 
important to examine the regional setting of the urban area and 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 173 

to have a clear picture of the desired internal urban structure. The 
diflFerent tasks comprising the sketch planning phase are discussed 
below : 

2.1. Goab EstabUshmeiit 

The process of establishing goals and objectives of trans- 
portation plannmg is complex and often controversial. However, 
it is a necessary task that must be performed in order to provide 
a clear direction to the planners. The task of determining goals 
and objectives usually is carried out in a step-wise manner be- 
ginning with statements of broad goals each of which leads to the 
identification of more specific objectives. At the next step 
each objective is analyzed to develop quantitative standards or 
criteria, which can be used as guidelines for design or the basis 
for evaluation of an alternative system. When the conceptual 
systems planning procedure is to be used without the aid of travel 
models and network assignments, the goals establishment 
process does not have to te carried out beyond the step 
of identifying the objectives. The quantitative*; standards or 
criteria would not be needed in this case because the conceptual 
procedure is not capable of generating detailed quantitative 
measures of performance or eflTectiveness of transportation 
alternatives. The broad goals and objectives would be adequate 
for a qualitative evaluation of a roadway system plan. 

2. 2. RegioDal Analysis 

The regional setting of an urban area should be examined from 
all angles relevant to transportation.* The economic base of the 
urban area and its present and fbture role in regional development 
should be analyzed to have a feel for the growth in external freight 
and passenger travel. The patterns of external movements of 
passengers and goods — ^the through and external-internal travel — 
also should be examined so that the adequacy of the facilities for 
these movements can be assessed. It should be pointed out that 
these analyses can be very complex if they are to be carried out at 
a refined level. However, for the purpose of sketch planning, a 
coarse analysis would be adequate. One of the underlying pur- 
poses of this task is to identify the need for by-pass facilities for 
through traffic. The need for passenger and freight transportation 
terminals and Une-haul facilities to handle inter-city passenger and 



174 ArUN CHATmiBB ON 

ftei^t movemeots in and out of an urban ana abo diould be 
addressed. 

2.3. Iirteraal Sketch nanriag 

The internal analysis at the sketch planning levri shouU e¥aluate 
alternative urban devetopment patterns and suitable tranqportation 
systems to matdi eadi urban form. Riamples of aheraative urban 
forms to be considered are corridor patterns, multicentered devefep- 
ment, concentric form with a strong centre ud so oil The details 
of the transportation (dan cannot be outlined at this stage of the 
planning process. However, the transportatkm implicatkms <^ 
alternative development patterns are to be examined in selecting 
an appropriate urban form. 

This macro analysis is extremdy important for tong-range 
idanning. Although the experience with the imfdementation of 
long-range land-use {dans often has been frustrating, the significance 
of land use planning to achieve eflSciency in urban transportation 
must not be overlooked. Small urban areas in particular should 
have dearly defined long-range land-use plans to guide ftiture 
devdopment 

After the desired development pattern is identified, the next 
task is to outline broad polides and strategies to be followed in 
developing the transportation plan in the subsequent steps. A few 
examples of questions that should be addressed in order to identify 
specific strategies are given below: 

(1) How mudi emphasis should be placed on freeway devekipmeotf 

(2) How much emphasis should be placed on public transportationT 

(3) What types of public transportation modes wouki be mon 
appropriate for the desired urban form? 

(4) Should the line-haul public transit system be limited to radial 
corridors? 

(5) What configuration of the roadway network would be most 
appropriate for the desired urban form? 

(6) What are the primary modes of freight transportation in the 
area and where should the m^or freight terminals be located? 

3. DETAILED PLANNING OF INTERNAL 
SYSTEM COMPONENTS 

At the completion of the tasks of the sketch planning, the 
planner would have a broad framework and guidelines to develop 
the details of the transportation system. As mentioned earlier* 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 175 

this Paper will focus on developing a roadway system and the de- 
tailed planning for this purpose includes two major tasks: (l)develop- 
ing internal circulation of small spatial units, and (2) devetoping 
the area-wide system configuration. The work of these two tasks 
should be co-ordinated and ultimately integrated as proposed during 
the next phase of the systems planning process. The basic princi- 
ples of system design that should be recognized during this phase 
of the planning process as well as others are examined first followed 
by the discussion of the two major tasks of this phase. 

3.1. Bask Concerts of System Design 

A system consists of inter-related components that function 
in a co-ordinated manner to perform specific objectives. The two 
basic concepts that should be recognized when designing the com- 
ponents and integrating them into a system are: (1) hierarchy and (2) 
scale. These two concepts are inter-related and scale is reflected 
in the hierarchy of the system components and vice versa. 

The concept of hierarchy recognizes an ordered ranking of 
system components. A system has to perform different tasks and 
usually it is not desirable to have all the components of a system 
designed to perform all these functions because such a group of 
undifferentiated components would lead to an imbalanced utili- 
zation of the individual components and result in an overall in- 
efficiency. The components should be specialized according to 
specific tasks to be performed and combined to form an ordered 
relationship so that they can jointly meet the objectives in the most 
efficient manner. The specialization, however, should not be too 
rigid and it should admit some degree of commonality and overlap 
for the sake of flexibility and co-ordination. 

The concept of scale is inherent in the development of human 
settlements. With the advancement of tecfinology the range of 
the scale of human activities and the transportation modes has 
increased tremendously. If the human characteristics of urban 
conmiunities have to be preserved and at the same time the advan- 
tages of new technologies be utilized to the full extent, the variety 
of transportation modes ranging from walking to high speed auto- 
mobiles have to be utilized in an integrated manner without up- 
setting the environment. For this purpose it is not only necessary 
that the service characteristics of a transportation mode meet the 
requirements of travel but also that the scale of the transportation 



176 Arun Chatterjee on 

mode matches that of the enviromnent where it is located. For 
example, a freeway is desirable for long distance travel but it should 
not pass through a neighbourhood, which does not match with its 
scale. Similariy, a narrow and winding roadway with numerous 
street intersections may be appropriate for a residential sub-division, 
but it would not be suitable for accommodating long trips along 
a major travel corridor. It should be noted that neither a freeway 
nor a narrow winding road are undesirable under all circumstan- 
ces. On the other hand, each has a specific role to play and each 
can be very effective when used for its intended purpose in a suitable 
environment. A freeway located in a major travel corridor and 
secluded from neighbourhoods can be an asset for a transportation 
system especially for accommodating long trips. Similarly, a 
narrow winding road when used as a local street can be aesthetic 
and also effective in discouraging through traffic in a 
neighbourhood. 

4. CIRCULATION FOR SMALL SPATIAL UNITS 

An urban area is an agglomeration of many small units of 
development. Actually urban designers recognize a hierarchy 
of spatial levels and activity centres. These activity centres 
interact with each other and generate travel which is to be accom- 
modated by the roadway system. A substantial portion of all 
travel in an urban area is contained entirely within the smaller 
spatial ^units and these also contain the terminal segments of 
longer trips. Thus the circulation facilities of these |units 
are important components of the overall transportation system. 
A systematic approach or process for developing the circulation 
systems for the smaller spatial units is depicted in Fig. 2 and the 
different tasks are discussed below. 

4.1. Analyze Hierarchy and Scale of Spatial Units 
and Activity Centres 

Urban planners and designers have recognized a hierarchy of 
spatial levels beginning with the smallest level of an individual 
household or a business establishment.^ Although the terminology 
varies, the various levels identified in different sources are similar 
to those shown in Table 1. The area sizes of these spatial levels 
would vary depending on the density of development. 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 



177 



Analyze Hierarchy 
and Scale of Spatial 
Units and Activity 
Centers 



Analyze Hierarchy 
and Scale of Roadways 



Analyze Hierarchy 

of Internal 
Travel Patterns 



Assenble Systen Conponcnts -- 

Activity Centers, Spatial Units, 

and Roadways 



Fig 2. Process of developing drculation systems for 
small spatial um'ts 

One of the most signif icant spatial levels or areal unit is the 
neighbourhood, which is almost universally recognized as the 
'*cell" of the urban structure. It may be pointed out that the 
expression ''neighbourhood" usually implies a residential area, 
but for the purpose of this discussion it also means developments 
of other land uses, such as commercial or industrial. The expression 
''environmental area** may be preferred as a substitute of neighbour- 
hood in this context. It is also widely accepted that a neighbour- 
hood should be designed at the human scale and its layout should 
have an "inward" orientation. One of the early tasks is to identify 
the boundaries of each neighbourhood and other larger spatial 



178 



Arun Chatterjee on 



Table 1. Hierarchy of Acnvmr Centres 
WITHIN AN Urban Area 



Spatial Unit 


Site* 


AcclvUn Outers 


Household (or lusinMS 
Establishnent) 






Clutttr 




bMllljif (kiit« or 
ftusiness EscablislvMiiitt 


viroruaontai Ar««s ,, 
(R«sid«ntial or Coaw 
■ercial) 








Clusc«r of DMlliRf 
(kiits. Neighborhood 
scoro. SMll park. 
•iMMCary school 




h- 


^ 0.4 ka CO 
0.8 lui 


Area 

Pop. 


- 0.8(co l.6)ka.x 0.8(to 

1.6) k» 
• l.SOO to SOOO 


Coimunity 






'1.6 CO , 
3.2 kft 


SbmII shopping conter. 
Junior High school . 
Mdicsl clinics 


Ar«a 

Pop. 


.3.2(to 6.4)ka 

6.4) ka 
. 10.000 to 2S.C 


K 3.2C^o 

roo 


Sector (or Town) 


Area'lO.CKto 13.0ka xl0.6(to 

13.0 ) la 
Pop. 8 SO. 000 to 100.000 


Major shopping cencar. 
High School, thaacar 
cowplex. large park, 
basic eMploraent can- 
ters. 


Urbanized or Metro- 
politan Ar«a 


Variable 


Basic eaploynent cen- 
ters, CBD. regional 
shopping centers, coo. 
college/univcrslCx. 
■useua. etc. 


Region 


Variable 





•The size in terns of area as wall as population m»y vary depending on the density 
of developeent. 

units, and develop an understanding of their relationship. All 
major activity centres also should be identified. 

4.2e Analyze Hierarchy of Intemal Travel Patterns 

The interaction between the spatial units generate trips which 
are to be accommodated by a transportation system. These trips 
are made for a variety of purposes and their lengths and spatial 
orientation also are varied. A hierarchical pattern can be re- 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 179 

cognized among the individual trips as listed below : 

(1) Local Circolatioo Tri|i9 : These include trips made 
vrithin a residential neighbourhood or a large activity centre. The 
trip length usually is less than 3.0 km. These trips can be further 
categorized according to their location: (a) trips within low 
density areas, e.g., suburban neighbourhoods, and (b) trips within 
high density areas, e.g., a central business district (CBD). 

(2) Commanity Trips : These include trips between activity 
centres within the same community or between those of two 
different communities located close to each other. The trip length 
usually is between 3.0 to 8.0 km in a sprawling area and 
3.0 to 5.0 km in a compact area. These trips can be further 
stratified based on the land use characteristics at their origins 

I and destinations: (a) trips between low density areas to high density 
areas, e.g., suburb to shopping centre; (b) trips between low den- 
sity areas, e.g., suburb to suburb; and (c) trips between high den- 
sity areas, e.g., a shopping centre to a medical compleji. 

(3) Sector Level Trips: These include trips between activity 
centres within the same sector or between those of two different 
sectors located close to each other. The trip length usually is 
between 8.0 to 16.0 km and S.O to 8.0 km in sprawling and compact 
areas respectively. These trips can be further stratified based on 
the land use characteristics at their origins and destinations in a 
way similar to the community trips. 

(4) Metropolitan Trips: These include trips between activity 
centres of different sectors. The trip length usually is between 
16.0 to 32.0 km and 8.0 to 20.0 km in sprawling and compact cities, 
respectively. These trips can be further stratified based on the land 
use characteristics at their origins and destinations in a way 
similar to the community trips. 

The above jclassification of internal trips is not rigid by any 
means and one may develop a more detailed hierarchical scheme, 
if necessary. Also, the rangis of trip lengths may be adjusted 
to fit the development pattern of a specific urban area. 

An individual trip itself, especially a long trip, can be broken 
up into several components, which reveal a hierarchy of stages 
as listed in the following page: 

LR.C— 12 



180 



Arun CHATmm cm 



(1) Aow (Golleolkm/DlMribaiioo) 

Ct) TranHioo (Feeder) 

(1) MovBtiieiit QJa^-MmOi 

(4) Trmnsttion (Feeder) 

(5) AooeM (CoUectkm/Distrihiitioa) 



Tht above components of a trip are illustrated in Fig. 
which traces the path ofa typical home to work trip. If isinteresti 




HOME 



4 



ACCESS 

(CUL-DE-SAC) 



ACCESS (local) 



r TRANSITION 

/ (collector) 



MOVEMENT (aKTEMIAL) 



< 



TRAMS I HON (COLLECTOR) 



/ 



ACCESS (local) 




IFFICE 



^ 



MOVEMENT (FREEMAY) 



MOVEMENT ( ARTERIAL) 



t 



Fig 3. Hierarchy of Trip Components and Roadways for a 
Typical Home-to-Woric Trip 

to note that the individual stages of a longer trip have some sim 
larities with the lower hierarchies of complete trips with regai 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 181 

to their spatial orientation. For example, the access and transi- 
tion portions of the trip illustrated in Fig. 3 are similar in many 
respects to local circulation or intra-neighbourhood trips. This 
implies that a long trip has to utilise several types of roadway 
facilities each suitable for a specific stage or component of the trip. 

The conceptual procedure does not require a refined quantifi- 
cation and classification of all internal trips. The planner, however, 
should have an understanding of the various categories of travel 
as presented above and also develop a qualitative *'fed" for tht 
magnitude of travel in different locations within the urban area. 



4.3. Analyze Hierarchy and Scale of Roadways 



Transportation planners recognize a hierarchy or classification 
of roadways based on their basic functions which are, (a) movement 
(or mobility), and (b) access to adjacent land. Most of the roadway 
facilities perform both functions, which usually are in conflict 
with each other. A roadway facility ordinarily cannot provide 
a high level of one function adequately unless the level of the other 
function is lowered. This implies that ''specialization" is needed 
to increase the efiiciency of a specific function. The basic func- 
tional classes of roadways are: (a) arterial, (b) collector, and (c) local. 
The general characteristics of these classes with respect to the two 
basic functions are shown in Table 2. The arterials primarily 
cater to the "movement" function, whereas the main function of 
local roads is to provide access to adjacent land. The collector 
roads provide a transition between local and arterial facilities and 
cater to both movement and access functions to a moderate extent. 
The extreme cases of specialized facilities — ^freeways (arterials) 
and cul'de-sacs (local) — are also included in Table 2. It should 
be noted that the non-freeway arterials and the collectors can be 
further classified into more refined categories. The hierarchical 
linkage between the various categories of roadways in the spatial 
sense is depicted n Fig. 3. The functional classification of 
existing roadways is an essential step toward the development of 
the future network and also for setting appropriate design standards 
for various road segments. 



182 Arun Chatterjee on 

TABLE 2 FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF ROADWAYS 



Roadway Qassification 


Intensity of Function 


Movement 


Access to 
Adjacent Land 


Freeway (Arterial) 

Non-freeway Arterial^ 

CoUector* 

Local 

Cul-de-Sac (Local) 


Very High 

High 
Moderate 

Low 

None 


None 

Low 
Moderate 

High 
Very High 



^ Non-freeway Arterials can be classified into Principal and minor 
categories. 

Collectors can be classified into Major and Minor categories. 

A note of explanation may be appropriate to avoid a possible 
misinterpretation. The meaning of providing "access to adjacent 
land" which is also referred to as "land access" or simply "access", 
should not be confused with "accessibility". Whereas "land access" 
specifically implies the provision of driveways between a roadway 
and adjacent properties, the expression "accessibility" often is 
used to express the ease or ability of reaching a general area. Using 
the broad meaning of "accessibility", freeways, which provide no 
"land access" by definition, enhance the accessibility of an area 
significantly. 

4.4. Assemble System Components— Activity Centres, Spatial 
Units and Roadwajrs 

After the analysis of the hierarchy of spatial units, travel pat- 
terns, and roadways respectively, a transportation planner would be 
adequately prepared to examine their relationship with each other 
and begin the assembly of system components. For this task, 
the concept of scale implicit in the hierarchies of spatial units and 
roadways plays an important role as the planner begins to identify 
or propose specific roadway components for serving individual 
spatial units and activity centres. It should be pointed out that 
the scale to be adopted for different spatial units may not be the 
same for all urban areas. Thus, the goals and objectives of the 
concerned urban area should be analyzed to identify the desired 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 183 

scales. The commonly accepted scales may be defined in broad 
terms as follows: 

Spatial Units Scale 

Neighbourhoods Human; and low Speed 

Vehicles, e.g.. 
Bicycles 

Communities Low Speed Vehicles, e.g.. 

Bicycles and Medium Speed 
Vehicles, eg.. Cars and 
Buses on Non-freeway Arteriab 

Sector Medium Speed Vehicles; 

e.g.. Cars and Buses, on 
Non-freeway Arterials 

Metropolitan High to medium Speed 

Area Vehicles, e.g.. Cars 

and Buses on Freeways 

Region High Speed Transportation, 

e.g.. Rapid Transit (Bus or 
Rail) 

In addition to the general guidelines as to the need for recog- 
nizing the scale of various spatial units, a few specific guidelines 
are available for matching roadway system components with the 
activity centres and spatial units. It may be pointed out that with 
regard to the matching of scales, a planner may have to achieve 
a compromise between the conflicting circulation objectives of 
different interest groups — ^motorists and residents. Whereas a 
motorist would want to reach a high speed facility quickly in order 
to minimize his travel time, the residents of a neighbourhood 
would like to locate high speed facilities away from their area 
for the purpose of minimizing noise and air pollution. A 
planner has to recognize all objectives and develop a balanced 
approach. 

4.4.1 . Guidelines for locatiiig activity centres: The specific 
location of an activity centre in relation to the roadway system has 
significant influence on the traffic flow and the general environment 
in the vicinity. It is believed that one of the common causes of 
local traflSc problems in an urban area is the mis match of the 
hierarchy and scale of activity centres with those of the roadways 
serving the de\ elopments*. For example, a large shopping centre 
would give rise to a serious trafiSc situation if it is located on 
a collector road. Usually a higher order activity centre should be 
located on a higher order facility and a lower order centre on a 
lower order facility. It should be pointed out that the location 



184 Arun Chatterjee on 

of an activity centre alone may not be sufficient for avoiding 
or causing traffic and environmental problems and that other 
factors including the features of entrances and exits also affect 
the traffic situation. 



4.4.2. GvideliMS for selectnig romtwrnyn for asambUiff spatial 

It was discussed earlier that multiple units of a lower order 
spatial unit constitute a single higher order spatial unit. Roadway 
facilities play an important role in assembling spatial units, and each 
facility actually plays a dual role as a separator and integrator of 
spatial units. The following guidelines presented by Marks' 
would be useful in selecting appropriate types of facilities for 
the various spatial units : 

Roie with respect to Spatial Units 
Type of Roadway Separates Integrates 

Local DwelUng Units (D. U.) A Ouster of D. U.'s 

Collector QuMn of D. U.'s A Nd^bourfaood 

Minor Arterial Ndajtiboiirlioods A Community 

Principal Arterial Communities A Sector 

Freeway Sectors Urbanized or 

Metro Area 

The roles of different types of roadways in assembling spatial 
units are schematically illustrated in Figs. 4 and S. It may be 
noted that the principle or concept of scale has been recognizeil 
in selecting the roles of each type of a roadway facility and the 
above described roles of the different types of roadways is 
compatible with the scales specified for the different spatial units 
in an earlier section. 

4.4.3. Guidelines for residential neighbourhood roads: Generally 
it is the goal of most communities to preserve "human scale" 
in the lower spatial units, especially neighbourhoods. To accomplish 
this goal several strategies can be used, but a detailed account of 
them is beyond the scope of this Paper. However, a few principles 
pertaining to residential development are discussed below: 

(1) Local streets may be made discontinuous with the use of cui-de-sacs 
and **T* intersections in order to discourage through traffic. 

(2) The collector road system in a neighbourhood must have continuity 
and directness to permit easy access to the inner portions of a neigh- 
bourhood. For large neighbourhoods two classes of collectors may be used, 
tbenuyor collectors having continuous and direct alignment, and minor 
oollectors being somewhat discoatinuous. 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 185 



(3) Arteriaf roads should not pass through a ndghbourhood. They 
should run along the boundary of a neighbourhood. 

(4) Driveway access on arterial road> should be mnzmpnid in order 
to reduce conflict and i>rotect the traffic-carrying capacity of arterial 
facilities. Back-lotting may be used along the boundary of a neighbourhood 
in order to provide frontage on an internal local road instead of the arterial 
facifa'ty. 

4.4.4. Sfttdag of roadways: One of the practical decisions 
to be made while actually developing a roadway system is related 
to the spacings of different types of roads. No rigid guidelines 
can be provided in tliis matter because the actual location and 

A LOCAL ROAD (SEPARATING 
INDIVIDUAL DU'S AND INTEGRATING A 
CLUSTER OF DU'S 



A COLLECTOR (SEf>ARATIN« CLUSTERS 
OF DU's) 




(a) assembly of CLUSTERS OF 
DU'S 



COLLECTOR ROADS (iNTESaATING 
A NEIGHBORHOOD) 



-^ AN ARTERIAL (SEPARATING 
NEIGHBORHOODS) 



A DISCONTINUOUS 
MINOR COLLECTOR 



A CONTINUOUS MAJOR 
COLLECTOR 




(B) ASSEMBLY OF A NEIGHBOIWOCD 

Fig. 4. Roles of local, collector and arteriak in serving 
a neighbourhood 



186 



Arun Chatterjee on 



pacing would depend on the density of development Howevere, 
to provide some *'feer' for spacing, typical values rei»esentativo 
of low density development are shown in Figs. 4 and S. These 
values are as follows: 0.4 kilometre for collectors, 1.6 kilometre 
for non-freeway arterials and 6.4 kilometre for freeways. 



ARTERIALS (SEPARATING NEIGHBORHOODS AND 
/ INTEGRATING A COMMUNITY) 




FREEWAYS (SEPARATING COMMUNITIES) 



A COMMUNITY CONSISTING OF SEVERAL NEIGHBORHOODS 

Fig. 5. Roles of arterials and freeway in serving 
communities and sectors 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 187 

5. DEVELOP area-wide ARTERIAL 
SYSTEM CONFIGURATION 

One of the major and perhaps the most visible aspect of a 
roadway system is the area-wide arterial network. The arterials 
cany a high proportion, usually between 65 to 75 per cent, of the 
vehicle miles of travel in an urban area and the impact of their 
deficiencies generally are not localized and have area-wide con- 
sequences. Thus it is imperative that the arterial system of an urban 
area be planned and designed with utmost care. 

There are several different configurations that may be adopted 
for an arterial road network. Each configuration has unique advan- 
tages and disadvantages and the pattern chosen for an area must 
be compatible with the desired urban form and the area-wide com- 
posite travel pattern. The findings and conclusions of intehial sketch 
planning performed at an earlier step should be examined and taken 
into consideration in developing an appropriate roadway configu- 
ration. 

5.1. Area-wide Composite Internal Travel Pattern 

In an earlier section of this Paper, the characteristics of trips 

generated by the small spatial units in an urban area were examined 

^d a hierarchy of trips was developed. Of these categories, the 

local circulation and community trips are mostly acconmiodated 

*ttd contained within the different local, collector and minor arterial 

r^ad sub-systems in the various parts of an urban area. The sector 

level and metropolitan trips, on the other hand, rely primarily on 

tl^e area-wide principal arterial system. These longer trips generated 

^ different spatial units pass through the local and collector roads 

of individual areas and merge onto the principal arterials. Thus 

it is necessary to develop and examine the aggregate or composite 

travel patterns that emerge by superimposing the sector level 

and the metropolitan trips. The major components of aggregate 

internal travel patterns are illustrated in Fig. 6. The planner must 

identify the concentrations of sector level and metropolitan trips 

forming travel corridors with radial, circumferential or other 

spatial orientation, which would require arterial facilities of adequate 

capacity. 



188 



Arun Chatterjee on 



LOCAL CIRCULATION 



RADIAL MOVEMEUT 




CIRCUMFERENTIAL MOVEMENT 



Fig. 6. Aggregate internal travel patterns in urban areas 

The aggregate pattern of area-wide travel depends largely on 
the urban form or the land use pattern of an urban area. It is 
interesting to note how the composite travel pattern in urban 
areas have changed over the years as new transportation modes 
brought about changes in the urban form. One of the major 
consequences of the increased usage of personal automobiles in 
the United States was the urban sprawl and the diffused travel 
desires. The radially oriented highways and the radial lines of 
public transportation modes are not capable of accommodating 
the new travel pattern espedally the circumferential trips. 

The desired urban form and the anticipated location of major 
activity centres should be analyzed carefully to develop a clear 
picture of the future area-wide aggregate or composite travel desires. 
This analysis can be performed conceptually without resorting to 
quantitative models. A sound understanding of existing and 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 189 

future travel desires is essential for identifying the appropriate 
configuration of the arterial highway network. It should be 
pointed out that traffic volumes on existing roads do not always 
reflect the travel desire. When using the conceptual approach the 
planner should attempt to visualize the travel desires without 
being influenced by the actual location and availabihty of existing 
facilities. 

5.2. AltematiTe Configoratioiis for Arterial Highways 

There are many regular and irregular network configurations 
that can possibly be adopted for a roadway system. Some of these, 
such as the triangulp.r or hexagonal patterns, are more appropriate 
for an inter-city highway network. For the typical urban forms 
that are commonly found, the choice is limited to only a few regular 
configurations. The primary advantages and disadvantages of 
three predominant patterns are discussed below: 

5.2.1. Rectangular (rid iMtteni: The grid pattern of roadways 
is one of the earliest and most common configuration of roads. 
The use of this pattern is most predominant at the level of local 
and collector roads. However, it is equally applicable to arterial 
roads. Fig. 5. 

There are many advantages of a grid system including its simpli- 
city for understanding and layout. Perhaps the greatest advantage 
is its ability to ''spread out" the traffic as opposed to funnelling it 
Onto a few major routes. This ability of traffic distribution is 
attributable to the fact that a grid network offers several alter- 
native routings of nearly equal distance between a pair of origin 
^nd destination. 

An engineering oriented disadvantage of a grid pattern is the 

^fficulty of adapting it to a hilly terrain. A more generally appli- 

^^ble and more serious disadvantage of the pattern is the lack of 

^ocus on a central location, and thus a grid network of arterial 

i^oads may not be appropriate if the goal is to develop an urban form 

>^th a strong central area. In a few cases, diagonal roads were 

superimposed on a grid pattern in order to provide direct routes 

to a central location. However, the superimposed diagonals tend 

to cause serious problems by creating odd shaped plots and irregular 

iiitersections. 



190 Arun Chatterjee on 

5.2.2. Radial pattern: A pure radial oonfiguation of arterial 
roads converging on a focal area is compatible with oonidor orrented 
urban forms with a strong central business district. This pattern 
is appropriate for bus or rail rapid transit systems which usually 
are intended to provide direct access to the central area. However, 
for other urban forms that generate non-radial travel desires, the 
radial pattern is not satisfactory. 

5.2.3. Radial-drcumferential pattern: Perhaps the most 
popular configuration for urban arterials, especially the freeways, 
is the radial-circumferential pattern. This configuration is compa- 
tible with concentric as well as multi-centre urban forms with a 
strong central area. 

The radial-circumferential pattern (Fig. 7) retains the primary 
advantage of a purely radial pattern, which provides a focus and 
direct access to the central area from several directions. It also 
eliminates the inability of a radial system to acconmiodate circum- 
ferential travel desires by superimposing the loop or ring roads. 
One of the disadvantages of a ladial-circumferential pattern is 
the tendency of the radials to converge near the central area, which 
creates a high concentration of traffic*. The convergence and 
discontinuity of radials must be avoided with careful design strate- 
gies, an example of which is shown in Fig. 7. 





B) radial-circumferential F»mTTERN avoiding DISCONTI^ 
A) TYPICAL RADIAL-CIRCUMFERENTIAL OF RADIALS 

PATTERN 

Fig. 7. Radial-circumferential patterns of roadways 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 191 

S3. Configmtion €t Freeway Systems 

Freeways are essentially a type of principal arterial roads. 
An urban roadway system has to have principal arterials, but 
it does not necessarily have to include freeways. A community 
which does not want to encourage high speed automotive travel 
may deliberately exclude freeways. However, in urban areas where 
the transportation system is oriented primarily to private auto- 
mobiles, freeways are considered an indispensable means for 
high speed travel. 

* In the case that a freeway system is to be developed for an urban 
area, the tremendous attraction of these facilities for the sector 
level and metropolitan trips should be recognized fully, and the 
configuration of the system must be developed very carefully. 
The conmients regarding arterial roadway configurations presented 
above are generally applicable to freeway networks also. A few 
guidelines especially applicable to freeways are presented below: 

(1) Convergence of two freeways to form a Y-type junction 
or interchange should be avoided. In case this type of situa- 
tion cannot be avoided, adequate capacity must be provided along 
the down-stream section of two merging flows of trafiic. 

(2) Abrupt interruption or discontinuation of a freeway 
alignment resulting in a T-type interchange, or an 'offset', i.e., 
jog, should be avoided. In case this type of situation cannot be 
avoided,the inter-changes should be designed to allow uninterrupted 
flow of through traffic. 

(3) A grid configuration of the freeway system would avoid 
concentration of CBD oriented travel in the central area. However, 
if a radial-circumferential configuration is pereferred in order 
to provide a better focus on the central area and also the right-of-way 
for radial bus or rail rapid transit lines, the inner loop should 
be designed carefully considering the following points: 

(a) The inner loop shouki not be too small, /.e., tight. 

(b) An outer loop, and if necessary an intermediate loop, should be 
provided to prevent the external through traffic and interna 
cross-town traffic from using the inner loop. 

(c) The inter-face of radials with the inner loop must be designed 
very carefully to avoid T-type interchanges and lack of continuity. 
A conceptual strategy of avoiding the discontinuity of radials is 
shown in Fig. 7 (b). 



192 Arun Chattbrjee on 

(d) 71m radial freeways should not be extended beyond Uie inner loop 
and the inter-faoe of the inner loop with the aon-freeway arteriab 
also should be phumed carefully to avoid undue tfalTic concen- 
tration. 

6. INTEGRATION OF SYSTEM COMPONENTS 

The components of a system must be integrated properly so 
that they can function in a co-ordinated manner. In the case of 
an urban roadway system the integration must be achieved at two 
levels: (1) co-ordination between ntemal components, and 
(2) co-ordination between the internal and regional networks | 

6.1. Integration of Internal System Components 

An urban area consists of multiple units of neighbourhoods, 
communities and sectors and, therefore,incIudes several sub-systems 
of roadways of lower hierarchy for circulation within the small 
spatial units. The highest hierarchy of roadways, fiz., freeways 
and principal arterials, however, constitute a single system covering 
the entire urban area. The different units of lower order systems 
must be fitted together in a common overall framework which 
usually is formed by the higher order facilities. 

There are two general approaches that can be used for assem- 
bling the different circulation systems for the small spatial units. 
One of the approaches utilizes a strict hierarchical or branching 
system that estabUshes clearly defined routes composed of a sequence 
of links of different hierarchy, as shown in Fig. 8. The connection 
between adjacent spatial units, e.g., neighbourhoods and communi- 
ties, in this case is provided via higher order roadways and there 
is alack of continuity of the lower order roadways*. The other 
approach is to develop an open-ended system as shown in Fig. 8. 
In this case each category of roadway forms a continuous sub- 
system and the hierarchy of roadways also is maintained. The 
composite network is formed by superimposing one sub-system 
upon another. The open-ended system offers flexibility of move- 
ment and choice of alternative routes between an origin and a 
destination*. 

It should be pointed out that the hierarchical and open-ended 
systems can be used in combination. The hierarchical system is 
appropriate for neighbourhood circulation where the discontinuity 
of local and mmor collector roads would be desirable to discourage 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 193 

































- 






























- 










' 












1 


1 






1 










1 





a) heirarchical roadhax system^ 



II 




















1 




Jl 




1 








1 


1* 



h OPEN-ENDED ROADWAY SYSTEM"^ 
^ SEE REFERENCE 4 

Rg, 8. Hierarchical and open-ended roadway systems 



194 Arun Chatterjee on 

through traffic. However, the major collector roads and especially 
the arterials must have continuity and, therefore, the open-ended 
system is ideally suited for these higher order fadUties. 

It should also be noted that the configuration or the geometric 
pattern of the lower order roadways may vary in the various small 
spatial units — ^the neighbourhoods or environmental areas. For ins- 
tance, residential neighbourhoods may have a curvilinear roadway 
pattern for local and collector roads whereas for the central business 
district or an industrial park a rectangular grid pattern may be 
preferred for these lower order faciUties. Beginning with minor 
arterials and higher categories of roadways, a uniform pattern 
should be adopted for the entire urban area. The freeway network 
configuration, however, may be dififerent from that of the non- 
freeway arterials. For instance, a radial-circumferential confi- 
guration may be desired for the freeway system although the non- 
freeway arterials have a grid pattern. These two dififerent confi- 
gurations can be integrated by carefully superimposing one on the 
other. The actual alignments of the loop and radial freeways in 
such a case must be selected with utmost care and adequate atten- 
tion must be paid to the geometric details especially in the central 
area. It should be pointed out that the superimposition of radials 
on a grid pattern at the levels of minor arterial, collector, and local 
roads usually should be avoided since it creates odd shaped parcels 
of land and complicated intersections. 

6.2. Integration of Internal and Regional Networks 

The external traffic may have considerable impact on the internal 
transportation system of an urban area. Therefore, the regional 
transportation system has to be linked with the internal network 
carefully, and adequate capacity should be provided for accommo- 
dating the through and external-internal trips. The findings of 
the regional analysis performed as part of sketch planning would 
provide valuable inputs for identifying the needs of external traffic 

6.2.1. Through traffic: A by-pass highway must be provided 
for the through traffic and it is imperative that the location of the 
facility be selected with due consideration given to its probable 
impact on the urban development. The outer loop of a radial- 
circumferential or a grid pattern principal arterial system is generally 
utilized by through traffic for by-passing an urban area. If the 



Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 195 

magnitude of the through traffic is substantial, the feasibility of a 
by-pass location far removed from an urban area should be given 
due consideration to minimize adverse impacts. 

6.2.2. Extermd-intemal traffic: An urban area generates 
external-internal trips made by non-residents as well as residents 
for which continuous facilities should be provided between the 
central area of a city and the surrounding region. The radial princi- 
pal arterials are ideally suited for external-internal travel and they 
should continue beyond the urbanized area and join the inter-city 
highways. The radial freeways in particular must be integrated 
with the regional freeways to permit continuous movement to and 
from an urban area. 

7. SUMMARY AND COMMENTS 

Urban transportation planners should pay adequate attention 
to developing a sound and versatile roadway network system, 
which is essential for both private and public passenger transporta- 
tion as well as urban goods movement. To be skilful in this 
task, transportation planners must draw from several different 
disciplines including community planning and environmental 
design. To provide some help in this direction the Author has 
assembled from different sources the basic concepts and principles 
of roadway systems planning and presented these within a 
comprehensive framework. 

The guidelines presented in this Paper are general in scope 
and are not meant to be used rigidly. Each area must develop 
clearly its own goals and objectives with regard to its roadway 
system and these objectives should be utilized in adjusting and refi- 
ning these guidelines as necessary. Transportation planners should 
pay particular attention to the objectives related to the scale 
and density of development since these should dictate the nature 
of transportation modes and facilities to be used as well as their 
spacing. For example, an lurban area committed to the preserva- 
tion of the human scale may not choose to develop any freeways. 
However, it still would have a system of principal arterials with 
geometric features suitable for slow-moving vehicles. Thus, the 
basic functional approach and aspects of the guidelines presented 
in this Paper would be valid in most cases although some of the 
guidelines with regard to certain specific issues and faciUties may 
not be relevant in all cases. 

LR.G-13 



196 Arun Chatterjeb on 

Concepts of Urban Roadway System Planning 

The overall process presented m the Paper would be useAd 
for all areas and is especially relevant to small urban areas. Consi- 
dering the potential for pUm implementation in small urban areas 
through land use controls and the reservation or acquisition of right- 
of-way in advance, the opportunities for developing idealized 
roadway networks in these areas should not be forsaken. 

To avoid possible misunderstanding it shoukl be pointed out 
that the conceptual approach presented in this Paper does not 
entirely eliminate or negate the need or role of detailed travd 
demand analysis or modellmg. Although the conceptual approadi 
can be used without detailed demand modelling, it does requiro a 
sound understanding of the existing and future travel pattern 
in the urban area. The selected roadway configuration must be 
suitable for anticipated travel pattern. Therefore, a detailed travd 
analysis and forecasting, if available, would definitely increase 
the effectiveness of the conceptual approach. Moreover, a detailed 
travel analysis and forecasting would be essential if there is a need 
to evaluate alternative roadway proposals or justify a specific 
proposal in a quantitative manner. 



REFERENCES 

1. Canty, Eugene T., ^'Transportation and Urban Scaled* Oenera 
Motors Research Laboratory; Warien, Michigan, 1969. 

2. Marks, Harold, '^Protection of Highway Utility**, National Co-op 
erative Research Program Report 121, Highway Researdi Board, 
National Research Council, Washington, D. C, 1971. 

3. Levinson, H. S. and Roberts, K. R., ^Syston Configuratioiii 
in Urban Transportation Planning**, Highway Research Record^ 
Number 64, Highway Research Board, National Researcfa 
Council, Washington, D. C, 196S, PM. 71-^3. 

4. Marks, Harold, 'Traffic Circoladon for Communities** Gruen 
Associates, Los Angeles, California, under commission 
from Motor Vehicle Manufacturers, Association, Inc., Detroit 
Michigan, 1974. 



ST OF INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS SPfidnCAIIONS, STANDARDS, DESIGN, 
CODES, SPECIAL PUBUCAHONS AND BOUND VOLUMES OF 
JOURNAL OF INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 

PRICE 
per copy 
(Postage A 
paddng 
extra) 

Rs. P. 

Route Marker Signs for National Highways (in Metric 
Units) (First Revision) 3 00 

Type Designs for Furlong and Boundary Stones 1 00 

Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Road 
Bridges, Section I— General Features of Design (in Metric 
Units) C^th Revision) Under print 

Standard Specifications St, Code of Practice for Road 
Bridges, Section 11— Loads and Stresses (in Metric Units) 
(Third Revision) 10 00 

Recommended Practice for Numbering Bridges and Culverts 
(First Revision) 5 00 

Type Designs for Highway Kilometre Stones (First 
Revision) Under print 

TraflSc Census on Non-Urban Roads (First Revision) 3 00 

Recommended Practice for Borrowpits for Road Embank- 
ments Consttiicted by Manual Operation 
(Second Reprint) 3 00 

Recommended Practice for the Design and Layout of Cycle 
Tracks (Second Reprint) 3 00 

Recommended Practice for Location and Layout of Road- 
side Motor-Fuel Filling-cum-Service Stations (First 
Revision) 2 00 

Recommended Practice for Location and Layout of Road- 
side Motor-Fuel Filling Stations (First Revision) Under print 
Recommended Practice for 2 cm Thick Bitumen and Tar 
Carpets (Third Revision) 5 00 
Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Construction 
of Concrete Roads (First Revision) Under print 
Tentative Specification for Priming of Base Course with 
Bituminous Primers 3 00 
Tentative Specification for Single Coat Bituminous Surface 
Dressing 2 00 
Design Criteria for Prestressed Concrete Road Bridges 
(Post-Tensioned Concrete) (First Revision) 8 00 
Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Water 
Bound Macadam (Second Revision) 8 00 
Reconunended Practke for Bituminous Penetration 
Macadam (Full Grout) (First Reprint) 5 00 
Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road 
Bridges, Section 111— Cement Concrete (Plain and Rein- 
forced) (First Revision) 10 00 



RC 


• M968 


RC 


4-1955 


RC 


5-1970 


iC: 


6-1966 


C: 


7-1971 


Z: 


8-1969 


1i 


9-1972 


^i 


10-1961 


. I 


11-1962 


!: 


12-1967 


:: 


13-1967 


;: 


14-1977 


:: 


15-1970 


J: 


16-1965 


': 


17-1965 


•• 


18-1977 


I: 


19-1977 


;: 


20-1966 


;. 


21-1972 



20. IRC: 22-1966 Standard Specifications and Code of Practioe for Road 

Bridges, Section VI— Composite Construction for Road 
Bridges (Third Reprint) 7 00 

21. IRC: 23-1966 Tentative Specification for Two Coat Bituimnoiis Surfooe 

Dressing 5 00 

22. IRC: 24-1967 Standard Specifications and Code of Practioe for Road 

Bridges, Section V— Steel Road Bridges 9 00 

23. IRC: 25-1967 Type Designs for Boundary Stones (in Metric Units) 2- 00 

24. IRC: 26-1967 Type Designs for 200-Metre Stones 5 00 

25. IRC: 27-1967 Tentative Specification for Bituminous Macadam (Base & 

Binder Course) 5 00 

26. IRC: 28-1967 Tentative Specification for the Construction of Stabilized 

Soil Roads with Soft Aggregate in Areas of Moderate and 
HighRainfaU 2 00 

27. IRC : 29-1968 Tentative Specification for 4 cm (1 1 in.) Asphaltic Concrete 

Surface Course 5 (X) 

28. IRC: 30-1968 Standard Letters and Numerals of Different Hetgfits for 

Use on Highway Signs (in Metric Units) 2 00 

29. IRC: 31-1969 Route Marker Signs for State Routes (in Metric Units) 3 00 

30. IRC: 32-1969 Standard for Vertical and Horizontal ClearaiKes of Overhead 

Electric Power and Telecommunication Lines as Rdated to 

Roads (in Metric Units) 3 00 

31. IRC: 33-1969 Standard Procedure for Evaluation and Condition Surv^s 

of Stabilised Soil Roads 5 00 

32. IRC: 34-1970 Recommendations for Road Construction in Water-logged 

Areas 

33. IRC: 35-1970 Code of Practice for Road Markings (with Paints) 

34. IRC: 36-1970 Recommended Practice for the Construction of Earth 

Embankments for Road Works 

35. IRC: 37-1970 Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements 

36. IRC: 38-1970 Design Tables for Horizontal Curves for Highways Under prim 

37. IRC: 39-1970 Standards for Road-Rail Level Crossings 3 00 

38. 1R( : 40-1970 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road 

Bridges, Section IV — (Brick, Stone and Block Masonry) 6 00 

39. IRC: 41-1972 Type Designs for Check Barriers Under print 

40. IRC: 42-1972 Proforma for Record of Test Values of LocaUy Available 

Pavement Construction Materials 3 00 

41. IRC: 43-1972 Recommended Practice for Tools, Equipment and Appliances 

for Concrete Pavement Construction 5 (X) 

42. IRC: 44-1976 Tentative Guidelines for Cement Concrete Mix Design for 

Road Pavements (for non-air entrained and continuously 

graded concrete) (First Revision) 8 00 

43. IRC: 45-1972 Recommendations for Estimating the Resistance of Soil 

below the Maximum Scour Level in the Design of Well 
Foundations of Bridges 5 00 

44. IRC: 46-1972 A Policy on Roadside Advertisements (First Revision) 5 00 

45. IRC: 47-1972 Tentative Specification for Built-up Spray Grout 5 00 

46. IRC: 48-1972 Tentative Specification for Bituminous Surface Dressing 

using Precoated Aggregates 5 (X) 

47. IRC: 49-1973 Recommended Practice for the Pulverization of Black 

Cotton Soils for Lime Stabilization 5 (X) 

48. IRC : 50-1 973 Recommended Design Criteria for the Use of Cement Modi- 

fied Soil in Road Construction 5 (X) 

(2) 



5 


00 


5 


00 





00 


7 


00 



t 



^. IRC: 51-1973 Reoommended Dctign Cdtaiia for die Use of Soil Lime 

Mixes in Road CoostnictiOP 5 00 

5)LIRC: 52-1973 Recommendations about the Alignment Survey and 

Geometric Design of HiU Roads Under prin 

51. IRC: 53-1973 Road Accident Foims A-land4 3 00 

51 IRC: 54-1974 Lateral and Vertical dearanoe at Underpasses for Vehicu- 
lar TraflSc 3 00 

53. IRC: 55-1974 Recommended Practice for Sand-Bitumen Base Courses 3 00 

54. IRC: 56-1974 Recommended Practioe f<^ Treatment of Embankment 
Slopes for Erosion Control 3 00 

55. IRC: 57-1974 Recommended Practioe for Sealing of Joints in Concrete 
Pavements 3 00 

56. IRC: 58-1974 GuiddinesfOT the Design of Rigid Pavements for Highways 5 00 

57. IRC: 59-1976 Tentative Guidelines fdr Design of Gap Graded Cemmt 
Concrete Mixes for Road Pavements 5 00 

58. IRC: 60-1976 Tentative Guiddines for the Use of lime-flyash Concrete 

as Pftvement Base or Sub-base 5 00 

59. IRC: 61-1976 Tentative Guiddines for the Construction of Cement Con- 

crete Pftvements in Hot-Weather 
€0. IRC: 62-1976 Guidelines for Control of Access on Hi^ways 

61. IRC: 63-1976 Tentative Guidelines f<K the use of Low Grade Aggr^ates 

and Sofl Aggregate Mixtures in Road Pftvcment Construction 5 

62. IRC: 64-1976 Tentative Guidelines on Capacity of Roads in Rural Areas 

63. IRC: 65-1976 Recommended Practioe for Traflfc Rotaries 

64. IRC: 66-1976 Recommended Practioe for Sight Distance on Rural 

Highways 

65. IRC: 68-1976 Tentathw Guiddines on Cement Flyash Concrete for Rigid 

Pavement Constniction 

66. IRC: 69-1977 Space Standards for Roads in Urban Areas 
I 67. IRC: 70-1977 Guidelines on Regulation and Control of Mixed Traffic in 

Urban Areas 

68. IRC: 71-1977 Recommended Practice for Preparation of Notations 

69. IRC: 72-1978 Recommended Practice for use and Upkeep of Equipment 

Tools and Appliances for Bituminous Pavement Construc- 
tion 10 00 

70. IRC: 73-1980 Geometric Design Standards for Rural 

(Non-urban) Hi^\^ays 20 00 

71. IRC: 74-1979 Tentative Guiddines for Lean-cement concrete and Lean 

Cement-Fly Ash concrete as a Pavement Base or 
Sub-base 8 00 

72. IRC: 75-1979 Guidelines for the Design of High Embankments 20 00 

73. IRC: 76-1979 Tentative Guidelines for Structural Strength Evaluation of 

Rigid Airfield Pavements 10 00 

74. IRC: 77-1979 Tentative Guidelines for Repair of Concrete pavemrats 

using Synthetic Resin ] 5 00 

75. IRC: 78-1979 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road 

Bridges - Section VII- Foundations A Substructure Part I: 
Genera] Features of Design 16 00 

76L IRC: Foldo* for Keeping Standards 10 00 

n. SPECLO. PUBLICATIONS 

1. Special Publication-M971 Bridging India's Rivers, Vol. 1 10 00 

2. Special Publication-4-1966 Bridge Loadings Around the World 3 00 

(3) 



5 


00 


5 


00 


i5 


00 


5 


00 


8 


00 


5 


00 


6 


00 


6 


00 


12 


00 


6 


00 



3. S|iecidI^iblicatioii-5-19CTBMidIkiinMBPncli0HAfiiaiidteltadd 3 M 



5. SpedalPublicatkm-9^1972IUtinforBridiBi < 00 

6. Speda] PublicatkKi —10-1972 Bridgiiig Indit'i Rimi, VoL n 15 00 

7. Speda] Publicttion —1 1-1977 Handbook of QuaHtr Control for Goortm- 

tkm of Roads and Ruiiwa3ft(FfailR0vUon) 15 00 

8. Spedal Publication —12-1973 Tentative Reconmendatkn on te Fkovi- 

rion of Finidng Spaces for IManAnai 2 00 

9. Spedal PublicatioD —13-1973 Guidelines for the DeslgD of SmaH BddfBS 

&CQlwts 15 00 

10. Spedal IHiblication —14-1973 A Manual forte Appikartion of te^ _ ^ 

cal Fitfi Method of Higtnvay Projects in India 12 00 

11. Special Publication —15-1974 Ribbon Devdopment along Httfiways and 

its Prevention 10 00 

12. Special Publication —16-1977 Surface Evenness of Hi^iway Fsranents 7 00 

13. Special Publicadon —17-1977 Recommendations about Overlays on 

Cement Concrete Pavements 15 00 

14. Special Publication —18-1978 Manual for Highway Bridge Mafrtsnanoe 

Inspection 15 00 

15. Spedal Publication —19-1977 Manual for Survey, Investigstion and 

Preparation of Road Projects 15 00 

16. Spedal Publication —20-1979 Manual on Route Location, Design. Con- 

struction and Maintenance of Rural Roads (Otiier 

District Roads A Village Roads) 20 00 

17. Spedal Publication —21-1979 Manual on Landscaping of Roads 30 00 

18. Special Publication —22-1980 Recoamaendations for the siaes for each 

type of Road making macfaineor to cater to the 
general demand of Road Works 5 00 

19. Environmental Considerations in Planning A Design of 

Highways in India (1979) 15 00 

20. Paper on Panel discussion —Limit State of Crack-Width by 

P.C Bhasin & S.P. Chakrabarti 10 00 

21. Ministry of Shipping & Transport (Roads Wing)— Standard Plans 

for Highway Bridges, Volume II— Concrete 

Slab Bridges 35 00 

22. Ministry of Shipping & Transport (Roads Wing) Specification for 

Road and Bridge Works (First Revision) 30 00 

23. Paper No. 238— Considerations in the Design and Sinking of Well 

Foundations for Bridge Piers by B. Balwant Rao 

and C Muthuswamy 5 00 

24. Paper No. 257— Construction of a Ohat Road from Bodinayakanur 

to Bodimettu by E.C Cliandrasekharan 4 00 

25. Paper No. 278— The Use of Restrained-Neoprene Bearings in Civil 

Engineering by J.W. Sk>ttje AP.S. Gokhale 2 00 

26. Paper Na 317— Experience in the Improvement and Modernization 

of Roads in Tamil Nadu by E.C Chandrasekharan 4 50 

27. Papers for Panel Discussion on Intermediate technology in Highway 

Construction and Discussion thereon presented at the 37th 

Annual Session, Bhopal, December, 1976 10 00 

28. Highway Research Bulletin No.l, 1975— Traffic Engineering 5 00 

29. Highway Research Bulletin No.2, 1975— Flexible Pavements 5 00 

30. Highway Research Bulletin No.3, 1976— Rigid Pavements 5 00 

(4) 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



12 00 



31. Highway Research Bulletin Ko.5, 1977— Rigid P&vemeDts 5 

32. Highway Research Bulletiii No.6, 1977— Flexible Pavements 5 

33. Highway Researdi Bulletin No.8, 1978— Traffic Engineering 5 

34. Highway Reseaich Bulletin No.9, 1978— Flexible Pavements 5 

35. Highway Reseaich Bulletin No.lO» 1979— Soil Engineering 5 

36. Highway Researdi Bulletm No.ll, 1979— Rigid Pavements 5 

37. Highway Reseaich Board Special Report No.l, 1976-'State of the Art: 

Lime Scnl Stabihsation* 

38. Highway Reseaich Board Special Rqxxrt No.2, 1976-'State of the Art: 

Pavements, Slipperiness and Skid Resistance* 12 00 

39. Highway Research Board Special Rqxxrt No.3, 1978-'State of the Art: 

Compaction of Earthwork and Subgrades* 15 00 

40. Highway Reseaich Record No.l, 'General Report on Road Research Work 

done in India during 1973-74* 5 00 

41. Highway Research Record No.2, 'Oen^^l Report on Road Research Work 

done m India during 1974-75' 5 00 

42. Hi^way Reseaich Record NaS^ ^General Report on Road Research Work 

done in India during 1975-76* 5 00 

43. Highway Reseaich Record No.5, 'General Report on Road Researdi Work 

done in India during 1977-78' 5 00 

44. Highway Researdi Record No.6, 'General Report on Road Researdi Work 

done in India during 1978-79* 5 00 

III. BOUND VOLUMES OF THE JOURNAL OF THE 

INDIAN icOADS CONGRESS 

Original 











Price 












Rs. 


P. 




45. 


Bound Vol. XUi 


Parts 1 to 2 


(1948-49) 


5 


50- 




46. 


Bound Vol. XVII 


lto4 


(1952-53) 


9 


00 




47. 


B.>und Vol. XXI 


»» 


(1956-57) 


10 


00 




48. 


Bound Vol. XXn 


»f 


(1957-58) 


13 


00 




49. 


Bound Vol. XXni 


tt 


(1958-59) 


15 


00 


, 50% 


50. 


Bound Vol. XXVU 


Parts 1 to 5 


(1962-63) 


20 


00 


' concession 


51. 


Bound Vol. XXXI 


Parts 1 to 4 


(1967-68) 


20 


00 




52. 


Bound Vol. XXXn 


»t 


(1969-70) 


20 


00 




53. 


Bound Vol. XXXni 


>t 


(1970-71) 


20 


00 




54. 


Bound Vol. XXXIV 


Parts 1 to 5 


(1971-73) 


30 


00, 




55. 


Bound Vol XXXV 


Parts 1 to 3 


(1973-75) 


15 


00 ^ 


25 per cent 


56. 


Bound Vol XXXVI 


Parts lto4 


(1975-76) 


25 


00 1 


concession 


57. 


Bound Vol. XXXVn 


Parts 1 to4 


(1976-77) 


30 


00 1 


' is allowed 


58. 


Bound Vol. XXXVm 


Parts lto4 


(1977-78) 


30 


00 J 


to IRC members 




Postage A PMdi« Is charged extra on aU the pubUcati 


008 



Copies of the publications will be sent by V.P.P., on receipt of orders addressed to th 
Secretary, Indian Roads Congress, Jamnagar House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi-llOOl 



(5) 



Total authority in 
Construction 
Equipment 

Kiiiiaks 






WHEN YOU THINK OF ANY MAJOR 
CONSTRUCTON PROJECT-A BRIDGE 
OR A BUILDING-THE FIRST THOUGHT 
IS KILLICKS CONCRETE VIBRATOR AND 
PRESTRESSING SYSTEM. 

A RANGE OF THE FINEST PRECISION 
ENGINEERED PRODUCTS CONSTANTLY BEING 
DEVELOPED. EXPANDED AND DIVERSIFIED TO 
SUIT ANY OF YOUR CHANGING REQUIREMENTS. 

OUR DESIGN AND SITE ASSISTANCE 
DEPARTMENTS ARE ALWAYS AT YOUR SERVICE. 

Wadala fly-over Bridge. Bombay 

Contractors: M/s Universal Construction Corporation 

Consultants: M/s Shirish Patel & Associates 




SS=I=: For further details, please contact 

\\%_ KILLICK NIXON LTD. 

*— ^ » Construction Equipment Division 
-— ^"- 31 . Murzban Road. BOMBAY 400 001 
Branches at: Ahmedabad. Bangalore. 
Calcutta, Madras, and New Delhi 
Depots at : Cochin. Kanpur and Secunderabad 



Garden Rea^hi^/ 

Portable 
Steel Bridge 



Garden Reach 
Road Roller 



GARDEN REACH Portable Steel 
Bridges, designed on the "unit 
construction" principle are sui* 
table for temporary, semi-perma- 
nent and permanent use on 
highways and secondary/minor 
roads 

The system enables erection 
and launching of the bridges by 
unskilled labour under super- 
vision of a trained engineer. 
Bridges of various lengths in 
multiples of 3.048 M (10 feet) 
can be erected within a short 
time. All components are sui* 
table for transportation to site 
in commercial 3 tonne trucks. 



GARDEN REACH Road 
Rollers are eqoally efficient- 
be it on a steep incline or 
on the plains. 

The secret of GRSE's 8/10 
tonnes diesel road roller 
versatility to go about its job 
in difficult terrains as well 
as flat lands depends on its 
incorporating the latest com« 
paction technology. ^ 



■'■^ 





SHIPBUILDERS & ENGINSRS UD. 

(A Government of Indie Undefteking) 

43/46, Garden Reach RofdL Oilcutts-700024 ^ ^ 

Phone : 45-1 721 (7 lines) ■ Gram : Combine ■ Telex : 021 -7839 ft 228SL> 



GR.82 



.s 



Ill 



10 BRID 



POO 



Gammon 
to construct 



F 





Proof: 

' Ganga 

Bridge 

at Patna 

Gammon is proud to design 
• and'construct the 
world's longest river bridge. 

This bridge is 5575 m long— a world 
record for river bridges with 
prestressed concrete superstructure, 
having 45 intermediate spans of 
1 21 .65 m and 2 end spans of 
63.53 m each. 

It's just one of the 800 bridges 
constructed by us all over India. 

GAMMON INDIA LIMITED 

Construction Engineers and Contractors 

Gammon House, Veer Savarkar Marg. Bombay 400 025. 
Grams: "GAMMON" Bombay-Dadar 400 014. 
Phone: 454261 (6 lines). Telex: Oil 2552, Oil '5738 

everest/79/GIL/427r 



Statemeat about ownership and other partfcnlars about 
ewspaper (JOURNAL OF THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS) 
to be published in the first iasue every year 
after the last day of February. 
FORM IV 
(See Rule 8) 
Place of Publication . . Delhi 

Periodicity of its publication . . QUARTERLY 

Printer's Name P. C. Bhasin 

Nationality — whether citizen 

of India . . Indian 

(If foreigner, state the country of origin) 

Address . . Secretary, 

Indian Roads Congress, 
Prefabricated Building, 
Jamnagar House, 
New Delhi-lIOOll. 

P. C. Bhasin 
Indian 

Secretary, 

Indian Roads Coo^reVr 
Prefabricated Building, 
Jamnagar House, 
New Delhi-nOOll. 

P. C. Bhasin 

Indian 

Secretary, 

Indian Roads Con^ess^ 
Prefabricated Building, 
Jamnagar House, 
New Delhi-IIOOll. 

Indian Roads Congress^ 
Prefabricated Building, 
Jamnagar House, 
New Delhi-no Oil. 



Publisher's Name 

Nationality — whether citizen 

of India 

(If foreigner, state the country of origin) 

Address 



Editor's name 

Nationality- -whether citizen 

of India 

(If foreigner, state the country of origin) 

Address 



Names and addresses o\ indivi- 
duals who own the newspaper 
and partners or shareholder^ 
holding nuTe than one per cent 
of the total capital 



I, P. C. Bhasin, Secretary, Indian Roads Congress, hereby 
ieclare thai the particulars given above are true to the best of my 
mowledge and belief 

(Sd.) P. C. Bhasin 
lated 30— 9— 1 9 80 Swwture of the Publisher 




L L 




e«iitin<iAt«ttton Q«p 

it Ofilv I part of tht vtory 
d«cao«l otd *n^ C0¥#ri 
bfi40i ci^nvf. ruction tfitt c«rrY 
Vthicoiit rfiffic. co#tibtfi»d 
ftiJ ■rid rovd i;r«ffie, wiT*r 
mtmi. wil«r Eurr«nt «TC. 
W« burld tr»*m tp th« utmoii 
utiifictton o< iha chfnif 
ind us*fs, « . 

Tli« rtft 4>f iha ilory if 
•«|uitlv vitat ind* tmpof tint: 
CDnitru<ctJon of Dami, 
Barrggoj^ Tunntli. Powet Hous«s 
{H^dro. Th«rmil, Nuclur} 
Mari-nfl Structurii, Induslriil 
Sirucrurvt, Foundatponi 
f ngm#«irn^ atid Turn-k«y 
EnvifOnmsnt £no»ni*ii»ri>g iwOfk.s 
#rtd 10 on. . . 



;tion House, Walchand Hirachand Marg. Ba'lard Estate 
400 038. India. Tel: 268091 . Telex: 01 1 -2780 WALB -* IN 



■W!Cr!PWS^flW 



i 



Indian Roads Cong^ress 
Journal Volume 41-2 



^ncf^ili. 



^jjfvjf N.J 334 •'Appfj^cfi lor Dcvelupmg 
fKi-guren Immediate Action Proposals for Re 
Transport In Mot/opolitan CUy^Cas^ Study of 
Ahmedabaa** Prof. M.S.V Rao & A*K. Sharf 

ZZa Paper No. 335 ''A Field Stud/ on the 
St/engtlienlng of Thin Cement Concrolo 
Pavements with Flexible Overlays" 
Of. MP, Dhlf & J. Miliar 

335 PariL •rtion— Thenie Paper ''HIghWd 

ConiM.. .., Industry (Present Status & Mi 
for Grov.'ih)'' P.C. Bhasin 



INFORMATION SECTION 

•*Prodlctron ol But Depth In Rexible Pavomenif 
Or, Surendrs Prakash Jd'n 

^Structural Thlcknassos of PflVcnr»oiUt (or 

Bullock Carta" 

Dr. M.S. Rao & C.S. Sahu 

389 "Dtitortional Am^tvs's of Slnata CbU Prlflrhallc 
Box Girder: 
Or. InOi N. Raidyopdid.t & B^K^ Raisgopaiaa 



rica: Rs 7-60 
5o«ian : S (U.S.) 1-50 



DECEMBER T980 
NEW DELHI 



nMTAUVE ROGIAMME OF TOE 

41it ANNUAL SESSION 
OF THE INDIAN BOAD6 CONGIESS 
TO BE HELD AT FA1MA FEOM THE 27llii 
DBCEMBEB, IfM TO 2il JANUARY, 1981 



er, 1980 
^the 27tli 



the 28th 



.the 29th 



the 30th 



lay, the 31st 

1981 
y, the 1st 

the2iKl 



08X0-I3.00 
10.00-13.00 
11.30-13.00 

14.00-16.00 
16.00-17.00 



09.30-11.00 
11.30-13.00 
11.30-13.00 
14.00-17.00 
17.15 

09.30-10.00 



10.30-13.00 

10.30-13.00 

14.00-16.30 

16.30 

09.30-11.30 
11.30-13.00 

14.00-17.00 

10.00-13.00 

14.00-16.00 

16.30 



10.00-13.00 
14.00-17.00 



RegiitiBtion 

M eetings at Committees 
M eetiiig of the Highwqr 
RoMuch Bottd 
100th CoaacU Meeting 
Meedng of the Managiiig 
Committee of the bdian 
Natioiial Group of the lABSE 

Inaagontioii 

Ftpen 

Meetings of Committees 

Pinpen 

Group Photo 

Annual General Meeting of th 

Indian National Group of tb 

lABSE 

Papers 

Meetings of Committees 

Papers 

Meeting of the New Managiuj 

Committee of the ING/IABSJ 

Papers 

General Report on Road 

Research 

General Report on Road 

Research 

Panel Discussion 
Business Meeting 

Meeting 



New Council 



Chief Engineers' meeting 
Chief Engineers' meeting 
Local visits for other delegate 
Inspection tour. 



INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 
JOURNAL VOLUME 41-2 



PublitlMd by the Indian Roads Congress 

CkfpkM can be had by V.P. P. from the 
Secretary^ Indian Roads Congress^ 
Jamnagar Hoyse, Shahjahan Road, 
New Delhi 110.011. 

NEW DELHI 1900 Price: Re. 7-M 
Foreign: I (U.S.) l-SO 



(The K^us €f PMieatkm and TtmOathn are reserved) 



The Indian Roads Congress as a body does not 
hold itself responsible for statements made, or for 
opinions expressed in the Papers published in this 
Volume. 



Printed at New Century Printers, 41-B, Sidco Estate, Ambattur, 
Madras-600 098. Edited, Printed and Published by P. C. Bhasln, 
Secretary, Indian Roads Congress, Jamnagar House, Shahjahan Road, 
New Delhi-110 Oil under the authority of the Indian Roads Congress— 
5,750— November, 1980. 



Paper No. 334t 

"APPROACH FOR DEVELOPING INTEGRATED 
IMMEDIATE ACTION PROPOSALS FOR ROAD 
TRANSPORT IN METROPOLITAN CITY— CASE 
STUDY OF AHMEDABAD'' 

By 

Prof. M. S. V. Rao* 

& 

A. K. Sharma** 

Page 
CONTENTS 

1. Growth of Ahmedabad .. 198 

2. Travel Characteristics . . 200 

3. Agencies and their Development Programmes . . 202 

4. PoUcy and Objectives of Study . . 204 

5. Growth of Passenger Traffic .. 204 

6. Fleet Characteristics and Bus Replacement Cycles . . 208 

7. Supporting Facilities ..213 

8. Road Development Programme . . 213 

9. Investments— AMC and AMTC .. 220 
10. Economic Evaluation . . 221 

SYNOPSIS 

A sectoral approach has been presently adopted to solve the city's 
^ansport problems. Lack of integration within and between the Sectors) 
pas resulted in low priority treatment to public transport operations, resulting 
!& increasing traflSc congestion on roads and the rapid growth of other modes 
>nttiedty. 

The study aims at achieving an integrated road and road transport 
<«veIopment programme for Ahmedabad by route" rationalisations on Dfatc- 
jioii-cam-Destination oriented system, and unprovement to operation charac- 
5istics of the bus service by the quality improvement of the fleet and rephai- 
ing the development priorities for road construction. 

An investment of 27 crores between 1978-79 and 1982-83 by Ahmedabad 
Municipal Corporation and Ahmedabad Municipal Service is envisaged. The 
^leoaientation of the project will ensure reducing the avonge fleet age from 
10.5 years existing at 1977 to 3.5 years in 1982, fleet utilization from 78 to 85 
percent vehicle utilization from 190 to 210 kms/day. Witii the 
2^>rovement in operation diaracteristics the A.M.T.S. will be able to satisfy 
mefatu re demand at an average growth rate of 8 per cent per annum. 

tWritten Conmients on this Paper are invited and will be received 
nptolOdi December, 1980. 

*Dean of Studies, School of Planning and Architecture, 
New Delhi -110 002. 

^^Assistant Professor of Transport Planmng, School of Planning and 
Ardiitecture, New Delhi - 1 10 002. 



198 PMF. Rao a Shaima on 

1. GSO^TH OF AHMEDABAD 

The city of Ahmedabtd has experienoed a rapid and varying 
trends of groij^lh during different decades. The origin of this city 
lies in the citadel of Bhadia, which later became the centre of the 
fortified settlement of the present walled dty. Construction of 
bridges across the ri\'er led to the e^umsion of urban growth in 
Western direction,such as the emergence of multi-storey buildings 
along Ashram Road, establishment of Gujarat University and 
sprawl of C. B. D activities. 

Ahmcdabad is the sixth largest dty in the country and is the 
second fastest growing city ranking next to Delhi. 

Since 1911, the population of the city is continuously on the 
increase and is now estimated to be around 1S.9 lakhs (1971). 
The city in reaching this population size has recorded different 
groijkth trends. However, the growth trends have now stabilised 
and the dty is growing at the rate of 4 percent per annum. 

Ahmedabad dty can be classified as a major industrial, com- 
merdal and service centre of the State. Nearly 90 per cent of the total 
working force, i.e. 4.5 lakhs is engaged in the above categories. 
Significant changes have occurred in the occupational structure 
of the industrial, trade and commerce and transport and communi- 
cation sectors of employment. These changes reflect that the dty*s 
economic base is slowly changing from uni-functional to a multi- 
functional. The emergence of a balanced occupational structure 
is a healthy change and conforms to the requirements of a metro. 
poUtan dty. 

Inconsistencies in socio-economic and area-wise growth trends, 
coupled with urban sprawl have affected the city structure in 
varied ways. The overall population density of the dty has in- 
creased from 11,276 to 17,053 persons per sq. km during 1941- 
71. Imbalances in ward-wise densities have not only distorted the 
Jand-use system of the city but have also posed problems for pro- 
vision of social infrastructure. 

On account of high accessibility offered by the regional 
transport system Le. road and rail, the city has physically grown in 
a concentric shape and the process of urban sprawl in the absence 



Ikteorated Road Transport in Ahmeoabad 



199 



of perspective plan has aided the city in achieving the present 
form and structure, (Figs. 1 and 2). 




CJty Area 1330 
City Area^O 
Carpofatiw Arti 



LfgrHid 

g^ CJty Area VM 

^■t City Ar#* tg|0 



Fig. 1 Growth of Ahmedabad City— 1900-1960 
(Source: Structural Metropolitan Plan, Ahmedabad, 1978) 

Area-wise concentration of activities has posed serious 
problems for the provision of an adequate urban transport system 
in the area. Apart form the locational distortions which are 
likely to affect the travel characteristics, the present land-use 
system also suffers from a number of imbalances affecting the 
movement pattern. 



200 



Pbop. Rao a Shamia on 




Fig. 2. Growth of Ahmedabad Qty— 1960-1971 
(Source: Structural Metropolitan Plan, Ahmedabad, 1978) 

The most oonspicuous features of the existing landuse 
system are the total inadequacy of the area devoted to roads 
and streets in Ahmedabad. Only 12.9 per cent of the total area is 
devoted to roads and streets in Ahmedabad. The total road 
lengths in Ahmedabad have experienced a marginal increase 
of 10 per cent (63.4 km) over the 1961 figures of 777.4 km. 

2. TRAVEL CHARACTERISTICS 

A phenomenal increase in the number of vehicles has been 
observed in Ahmedabad city since 1966-67. The vehicular popul- 



Integrated Road Transpchit in Ahmedabad 201 

ation in a decade has nearly doubled. At present, there are more 
than 100,000 registered private vehicles in the city. The growth 
in vehicles by mode indicates a sharp rise in the number of two. 
wheeler scooters amongst the private vehicles and auto-rickshaws 
in the public vehicles. The actual number of these vehicles 
has increased from 33,189 in 1966-67 to 61,679 in 1973-74 
registering an average growth of 10 per cent per annum. It is 
estimated that there are 12,000 auto-rickshaws at present. 

An interesting feature of travel characteristics is the area^ 
wise use of vehicles. The auto-rickshaws and two-wheeler scooters 
are extensively used for movements within the walled city 
area where the roads are narrow and density of population is hi^ 
In such conditions, it is usually recommended that bus/rail systems 
should be given high priority. Distortions in the use of modes 
in walled city have crept in, due to the poor accessibility offered by 
the public transport system. Limitations to diversify the bus 
fleet to suit the network characteristics have made auto-richshaws 
and scooters preferential modes of transport in the walled city 
on account of their manoeuvrability and availability. 

Roadway congestions in the walled city need a special mention. 
Travel speed study conducted in 1971 estimated average travel 
speed over the city as 29 kmph. Recent studies have indicated that 
average speed has declined by IS to 20 per cent. Variations in 
travel speed are significant in Ahmedabad on an area-wise basis. 
In comparison to the average speed of 29 kmph of the city, speed 
along Gandhi Road and Relief Road in the walled city area has 
been estimated to be S.O kmph. It is difficult to justify econo. 
mical operation of buses at such low speeds. 

Optimal utilisation of road space assumes great importance 
in areas with low road space. Application of conventional methods 
of traffic management in heterogeneous flows have not improved 
the road space utilisations. Bus priority measures adopted so far 
have also failed to improve the level of service as management of 
roads still provide preferential treatment to private transport. 
The problems of management in the city are aggravated on account 
of large-scale use of bicycles for passenger trips and manually and 
animal-drawn vehicles for goods movement in the city. 

The intensive use of private modes such as cars and scooters 
in core and congested areas of the city has aggravated the parking 



202 PnoF. Rao 3t Sharma on 

IH'ohlems. Increasing gap between supply and demand of parking 
facilities has led to parking of vriiides in unaothorised places and 
already congested footpaths. This in turn has resulted in 
increasing congestion and unsafe travd conditions along roads. 

Use of cycles for intra-city trips is continuously on the in- 
crease in most of the urban areas and Ahmedabad is no exception. 
At present, there are about S lakh cycles in Ahmedabad. Conti- 
nued increase in the use of cycles though [referable from the 
economics and environmental view-points, however, poses serious 
problems for optimising the use of available road space in the 
central areas. 

Analysis of accident records has reflected that the number of 
accidents has increased from 623 in 1962 to 1023 in 1973; recording 
an increase of 65 percent. During the period, the fatal accidents 
have recorded a three-fold increase. The accident details and 
trends are given in Table 1. 

Area-wise variations in land-use and socio-economic charac- 
teristics have resulted in the formation of strong travel corridors. 
Inadequacies in circumferential road systems coupled with concen- 
trated activity developments in the city have led to uni-directional 
flows. At present more than 20 per cent through traffic is obser- 
ved along important radial routes within the walled city. 

The emerging situation of urban travel indicates that private 
mobility in the city is becoming increasingly important, though the 
existing/forecasted situations warrant the need for improving the 
total population mobility. Inconsistencies in prevailing and desi- 
rable trends can be substantially removed if the bus services are 
sufficiently strengthened. 

3. AGENCIES AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES 

Though a well-defined urban transport policy for the country 
is yet to emerge, there is a general agreement at centre* 
state and local levels to promote the public transport systems vis- 
a-vis private transport. Considering the socio-economic dispari- 
ties in urban living and specially the needs of economically weaker 
sections of the society, the importance and priority for developing 
public transport system is even greater in our cities. However, in 



INTEGRAIED ROAD TRANSPORT IN AhMEDABAD 203 

Table 1. TkENM in Fatal and Non-Fatal Accidents in Ahmedabad 







1>pcof Acddcnts 




Year 










Total 


Fatal 


Serious 


Ordinary 


1962 


623 


35 


43 


545 


1963 


728 


50 


55 


623 


1964 


742 


43 


33 


696 


1965 


780 


40 


33 


707 


1966 


708 


53 


30 


625 


1967 


739 


68 


38 


633 


1968 


871 


68 


33 


770 


1969 


835 


78 


40 


717 


1970 


1029 


81 


53 


895 


1971 


866 


73 


42 


751 


1972 


922 


59 


62 


801 


1973 


1158 


86 


58 


1014 


1974 


1021 


105 


29 


837 



SOURCE: A.M.C - Draft Revised Development Plan--1975-85. 

working out future development programmes, social concern and 
improved road space utilisation have been receiving low^ priority 
treatments. Moreover, lack of integrated approach, multipli- 
city in functions and varying systems are other major reasons 
which contribute to the widening of gap between supply and demand- 
The above weaknesses, specially in transport sector programmes* 
find an important place in sectoral policy paper of World Bank on 
"Urban Transport."* 

A systematic approach to urban transport problems warrants 
a detailed study of external and internal factors. External factors 
largely comprise of components such as roads, terminals, depots, 
prevailing environmental conditions and assessment of local agencies 
and the internal factors are concerned with the soft- ware components 
such as equipments, operation and user characteristics, etc. It is 
interesting to note that considerable efforts in the past have been 
made in Ahmedabad to improve both the soft and hard-ware 
components of the system. However, in devising the solutions, 
the concerned agencies lacked in developing integrated solutions. 
Moreover, the capital intensive nature of envisaged programmes 
and distortions in plan phasing limited the implementation of the 
envisaged projects only to a piece-meal improvements. 



204 Prof. Rao ft Sharma on 

A number of agencies are, at present, engaged in solving the 
city's trafSc and transport problems. Notable amongst these are 
the Municipal Corporation, Ahmedabad Municipd Transpor; 
Services, Town Planning and Valuation Department, Traffic 
Police and recently constituted Ahmedabad Urban Development 
Authority. 

4. POUCY AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY 

Having the background of the two reports on urban transport 
projects for Bombay and Madras submitted for World Bank 
assistance, the study has been undertaken with the following 
objectives: 

(a) Assessment of travel demand for Five Years Period by bus 
transport system on the basis of growth trends and likely structural 
changes in the dty. 

(b) Critical assessment of the route and operational characteristics of 
AMTS including maintenance of depots and workshops to develop 
meaningful replacement pyde of buses and requirements of bus fleet 
during Five-years Plan period. 

(c) Re-phasing of road construction programme to promote public 
transport. 

The project design aimed at largely meeting its data require- 
ments from secondary sources such as Ahmedabad Municipal 
Transport Services, Municipal Corporation, Town Planning and 
Valuation Department, Government of Gujarat etc., on various 
aspects of the problem. Limited field surveys were also envi- 
saged to study the bus passenger and utilisation characteristics. 
The analytical phase of the study aimed at determining the bus 
replacement cycle and assessing the Ukely improvements in its 
existing route design, workshop and other infrastructural faci- 
lities and their financial implications. 

5. GROWTH OF PASSENGER TRAFFIC 

Comprehensive traflSc and transportation studies for 
Ahmedabad are still to be completed to establish a scientific base 
for assessing the future travel demand. Collection of available 
data sets for land-use, socio-economic and passenger travel charac- 
teristics in time profile reveal that gaps and shortftills in the existing 



Integrated Road Transpchit in Ahmedabad 205 

data prohibit the use of sophisticaed technique for travel projec- 
tions. The travel projections for the present framework of study 
is confined to five-year period (1978 to 1983). The approaches 
used in determining the travel demand for five year period are 
based on the inter-relationships observed between the trends of 
growth of population, user and system characteristics. Due 
weightage has been given to the area-wise variations prevailing in 
the city before accepting a projected figure. Future projections 
for travel have also been cross-compared with the prevailing trip 
generation and modal choice characteristics observed in other 
metropolitan cities of the country. 

Population forecasts for the city and its influence area have been 
made in the structural plan for the region." As per the plan, the 
Ahmedabad Urban Area is likely to hold a population of 36 lakhs 
by 1991 at the growth rate of 4 percent per annum. This trend of 
growth for the population is generally accepted. It is 
estimated that by 1983, the city (within Corporation boundaries) 
would hold a population of about 25 lakhs. 

The city is facing a serious problem of peripheral growth. 
It is expected that peripheral population would depend mainly upon 
municipal transport services for their travel needs. Detailed study 
of peripheral villages are made in collaboration with Bureau of 
Economics and Statistics, Government of Gujarat. It is ascertai- 
ned from the study that another 3.0 lakhs population would have 
to be catered to by the AMTS Services. On the basis of this, it is 
estimated that the total population that has to be catered to would 
be of the order of 28.0 lakhs by 1983. 

Municipal Transport Services were started in Ahmedabad 
just at the time of Independence. Since then, a steady increase in the 
number of passengers has been observed till 1971 . Between 1971 - 
76, the passenger growths have registered a fall in passenger demand. 
This is largely attributed to the declining level of services offered by 
the mimidpal transport service. In order to overcome the inconsi- 
stencies in growth trends, it was considered desirable to delete 
the growth trends beyond 1971 for assessing future travel demand. 
The period of 1951-71 which reflects certain consistencies in 
growth trends is considered appropriate for predicting the fut- 
ure travel demand. The number of passengers availing the city 



206 Prof. Rao ft StaARiiA on 

services has increased from 1.S3 lakhs in 19S1 to S.43 lakhs in 1971 
recording an increase of 3.90 lakhs passengers in two decades of 
operation. Annual average growth of passenger tmfBc in the last 
two decades (1951-71) is estimated at 12.6 per cent. 

A characteristic feature of the projection methodology is the 
determination of passenger km. likely to be generated in future 
years. This is important to determine the future system require- 
ments for the city. Study of average passenger trip length has 
indicated that there is no significant variation. Since major 
changes in the physical expansion of the city are not being envi- 
saged, it is expected that there will be no significant variations in 
trip length. For estimation of futiure bus passenger km the current 
trip length of 4.5 km is accepted. 

The population of the city has increased from 7.78 lakhs to 
15.85 lakhs during 1951-71, Table 2 recording an average growth 
rate of 5.2 per cent per annum. During the same period the growth 
rate of passenger trafGic has been estimated at 12.6 per cent per 
annum. The ratio of growth rates of population and passenger 
traffic are in a proportion of 1 : 2.4. However, considering the 
population and passenger trends upto 1975-76 the ratio work up 
to 1 : 2. The envisaged rate of growth of population is 
4 per cent. On the basis of the above ratio it is assessed that 
the future passenger traffic is likely to grow at 8 per cent per 
annum. The operational experiences of other transport 
undertaking justify the adoption of this growth rate. On the 
basis of this growth rate it is expected that the future passenger 
traffic would be of the order of 9.00 lakhs. This traffic would 
generate 40.25 lakhs of bus passenger km by the end of the 
projected period. 

Assessment of future bus passenger traffic has also been made 
on the basis of number of passenger per thousand population. The 
number of passengers per thousand population increased from 
197 to 290 in the decade 1951-61; recording an overall increase in 
trip making by 58 per cent. In the next decade i.e, 1961-71 a 
marginal increase of 17 percent has been observed. This increase 
has raised the number of trips per thousand population to 341 , 
Table 3. Operational experiences in other metropolitan cities 
reflect that bus passenger trips per thousand population range 



Intboratbd Road Transport in Ahmedabad 207 

Tablb 2. Tbxsdb m Growth w PAfiDKUR and Pcvulation 
IN Ahmedabad (1951-76) 



Year 


Population 
(Lakhs) 


No.of 
Passoh 

{Lakhs) 


Decadal Changes % 


Annual Growth 
Rates 




Passenger 


Popuh- 
tton 


Passenger 


Popu- 
lation 


1951 


7.88 


1.53 


^^ 


__ 


_„ 


^^ 


1961 


11.49 


333 


118.2 


45.8 


11.8 


4.5 


1971 


15.91 


5.41 


62.0 


37.9 


6.2 


3.8 


1976 


18.78 


5.34 


1.2 


15.9 


0.2 


3.2 


Average 
(1951-71) 








_ 


12.68 


5.2 


(1951-76) 




— 


— 


— 


10.08 


5.6 



SOURCE: (1) Census oflndia- 1951-71 
(2) A.M.T.S. 

Table 3. Trends m Numbbr of Passbnqbrs Pbr 1000 Population 





Population 


Passengers 


No, ofPassengersI 


Year 


{Lakhs) 


{Lakhs) 


1000 Population 


1951 


i.n 


1.53 


197 


1961 


11.49 


3.33 


290 


1971 


15.85 


5.41 


341 


Average 








(1951-71) 


• 


• 


276 



SOURCE: (1) Census of India -1951-71 
(2) A.M.T.S. Statistics 

between 350 to 5(X). The figures for Ahmedabad is close to the 
lower limits. On the assumption that improvement in bus trans- 
port system would at least result in stabilising the ratio at 350 
during the projected period, it is estimated that the likely travel 
would be of the order of 9.80 passengers and 43 passengers km 
per day. 

Provision of an integrated public transport system for 
Ahmedabad metropolitan area is feasible in a long-range perspe- 
ctive. Thus keeping in view the form and structure of the city 
and limitation of single transport system operation, it is expected 



208 Prop. Rao ft Sharma on 

that bus transport system with renewed fleet and route rationali- 
sation will be in a position to cater to a maximum of 45 per cent of 
the total travel demand. 

Comprehensive traffic and transportation studies in Indian 
cities have highlighted that per capita trip generation is 0.7 trip/ 
person. Considering that Ahmedabad represent a typical metropo- 
litan city of the country as regards its growth, structure and net- 
work, the above figure should largely be accepted. Assessment of 
future passenger travel on this basis reveals that the future trave 
would be of the order of 9.0 lakhs passengers and 40.0 lakhs 
passenger km (1983). 

Comparative analysis of the result obtained from above 
methods. Table 4 has been used to determine the future travel 
demand. The result obtained from the various methods differ 
marginally. A conservative approach has been adopted to select 
the final figures and the lowest of the three values have finally been 
selected. From the above it is concluded that the travel by 1982- 
83 would be of the order of 9.00 lakhs passengers or 40.00 lakhs 
passengers km respectively. 

Disaggregation of future travel demand on an area-wise 
basis has been by considering the future population distribution in 
the city and adjoining settlements. Keeping in view the feasibility 
of operating mini buses in the walled city, area-wise passenger km 
with and without mini bus operations has been detailed out in 
Tables 5 & 6, respectively. 

6. FLEET CHARACTERISTICS AND BUS 
REPLACEMENT CYCLES 

The review of user travel characteristics has revealed that 
distortions and inadequacies in public transport system have given 
impetus to private mobility. Increased waiting, transfer times and 
passenger accumulation trends warrant the review of internal 
factors. Fleet and its utilisation trends form an important compo- 
nent of internal factors, in the adopted approach. 

The present AMTS scrapping policy is to scrap the bus after 
eight years of service life. This policy is based upon the Under- 
taking's experience of operating the indigenous buses in the city. 
The main criterion for replacement is the condition of vehicle after 



Intboratbd Road Transport in Ahmedabad 



209 



a spedfiod service life. Ho^^ever, considering the present mix 
of fleet, the scrapping policy is largdy non-operational on account 
of fiscal constraint. 

Table 4. Comparativb Analysis of Futurb Travel Esumaies 



SI. 
No. 



Method 



Forecasting 
Raiioltrend 



Future £stiinate8 



Passenger 
{Lakhs) 



Passenger 
Kms {Lakhs) 



1. Growth Trend Ratio 8% 9.00 

2. F&ssengerinPopula- 350/1000 9.80 
tion Ratio Populaticm 

3. Optimisaticm of 45% modal 9.00 
Existing System split 



40.25 
43.00 

40.00 



Table 5. Growth of Daily Passenger Trips for the 
PERIOD 1977-1978 TO 1982-1983 
(Without mini-bus operation in walled dty area) 



Area/year 

Central 

(Walled dty) 

North 

South 

East 

West 



Passenger km per day 



1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 
90046 98263 106482 114699 122918 131135 



457543 474701 491858 509016 

250219 262230 274240 286250 

797399 659476 921554 983631 

1120783 1279755 1438727 1438727 



526174 543332 

298262 310272 

1045708 1107786 

1756671 1915642 



Total 2715990 2974425 3232861 3491295 3749733 4008167 

Table 6. Growth of Daily Passenger Trips for the 
Perkh> 1977-1978 to 198M983 
(With mini-bus operation in walled dty area) 



Area/Year 



Central 

(Walled dty) 

North 

South 

East 

West 



Passenger km per day 



1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982^3 



90046 148263 161482 174699 187918 201135 

457543 474701 491858 509016 526174 543332 

250219 262230 274240 286250 298262 310272 

797399 859476 921554 983631 1045708 1107786 

1120783 1279755 1438727 1597699 1756671 1915642 

Total- 2715990 3024425 3287861 3551295 3814733 4078167 



210 PROT. Rao & Sharma on 

At present the total fleet strength of AMTS is 595 buses. 
Of these SS7 are smgle deckers and the remaining 38 account for 
conventional and articulated double decker buses. The average 
seating capacity of the single decker is SO^and the double decker is 
90. The study of the fleet by make revealed that the existing fleet 
is made of two types— Inland and Tata buses. Review of fleet 
augmentation trends have revealed that the organisation prefers 
to maintain a single mix fleet for improving the operating eff'ici- 
ency. On account of familiarity with maintenance practices, 
availability of spares and low maintenance cost, the organisation 
has preferred Leyland buses for their fleet. 

The study of external factors and the analysis of operating 
characteristics in walled city area have revealed that significant 
improvements in both operations and level of service can be 
achieved, if the present emphasis on fleet augmentation by procuring 
large buses is replaced by introduction of smaller vehicles such 
as mini-buses in an organised manner. Introduction of mini- 
buses in the walled city has also been recommended by other 
agencies. Experimental studies undertaken in the walled city to 
assess the manoeuvrability of mini-buses vis-chvis convmtionai 
bus has further confirmed that introduction of smaller vehicles in 
core and congested areas can help in improving the level of service 
and operating characteristics. 

The analysis of the fleet with respect to growth and replace- 
ment of buses revealed that only marginal improvements in the 
fleet have been achieved since 1967. The overall fleet strength 
has only increased from 481 to 595 diuring the last ten years. The 
study of scrapped buses reflected that nearly 246 buses have been 
replaced during the same period. Cumulatively only 350 new 
buses have been added to the fleet services of 1967. This means 
that on an average 36 buses have been added to the fleet and nearly 
seventy percent of these are for replacement of scrapped buses. 
The limitations in maintaining a viable fleet have directly affected 
the bus operations. Inconsistencies have crept in the growth 
rate of passengers which recorded a marginal increase of only 
10 per cent during the last ten years. 

Details of scrapped buses reveal that nearly all the scrapped 
buses were more than 10 years old and had completed nearly 5 



Integrated Road 'Vransport in Ahmedabad ill 

lakhs km of operation. £>etails of scrapped buses when read in 
conjunction with the stipulated policy reflect that scrapping of 
buses has been largely related to the availability of new buses. 

Non-adherence to scrapping policy has resulted in the gradual 
increase of fleet age from 4.27 years in 1961-62 to 10.27 years in 
1977-78; reflecting an overall increase of 120 per cent in the fleet 
age. As against the recommended economic mix of the fleet of 
3.S to 4.0 years the present fleet age is 10.27 years. 

Before determining the fleet requirements of the buses for the 
next five years and the replacement cycle, it would be desirable to 
review the existing fleet characteristics and identify the improve- 
ments required for maximum output from the buses now in use. 

The scheduled fleet utilisation of the municipal transport 
services has gradually dropped from 85 per cent to 78 per cent in 
the last decade. Comparisons with well-developed public transport 
system reflect that the existing fleet utilisation is low and needs to 
be suflSciently improved. The obvious reason for the decline is 
the increasing age of the fleet. Considering the present age, only 
marginal improvements in the fleet utilisation can be expected with 
improvemmt in workshop and maintenance practices and sub- 
stantial improvements can only be achieved by proper replacement 
of buses. 

The vehicle utilisation during 1977-78 is estimated to be 
180 km/day. Significant variations in vehicle utilisation exist on 
area-wise basis ranging from 121 km/day in walled city area to 
190 km/day in southern parts of the city. Considering the present 
traffic and vehicle utilisation, they are considerably low and needs 
to be improved. It is expected that improvements in route charac- 
teristics, such as reduction in parallel route operation, reduction 
in journey times etc.,and reduction of overall age of the fleet would 
improve the vehicle utilisation by 20 per cent. This in turn will 
raise the overall vehicle utilisation to about 210 km. 

Increase in age of buses has a pronounced efiect upon the rate 
of breakdowns. An inter-relationship developed between the 
fleet age and number of breakdowns per day by fitting a second 
degree curve between the two indicators with a co-efficient corre- 
lation of 0.97 and standard error of 2.10 is given in Annexurel. The 

IRC-41-2— 15 



ill PRW. lUo ft Sharma ON 

ettimated values reflect a high degree of agreemoit with the presoot 
value of IS to 16 breakdowns/day and the gmeially adopted 
standard value of 2 to 3 breakdowns/days for various ages. At 
the standard value, the curve indicates an average fleet age of 
3.5 to 4 years. This agrees favourably with the age d^ennined from 
the economic view-point. 

Considering the existing fleet and operating diaracteristics 
cumulatively, it is concluded that a number of improvements can 
be directly achieved by reducing the average fleet age. Reduction 
of age necessarily needs a bus replacement cycle and policy. Re- 
placement policy stipulated primarily aims at revitalising the 
existing fleet of the municipal bus services within a span of five 
years. Adoption of this cycle beyond the project period would 
ensure a stable fleet. 

It is estimated that the AMTS would require an overall fleet 
of 704 buses by the end of the projected period. The recommen- 
ded system includes operation of mini-buses in the walled city area 
to improve the level of service and current accessibility standards. 
An increase of 25 per cent is anticipated in vehicle utilisation over 
the present coverage of 120 km with mini-bus operation on account 
of its flexibility in operation. Considering the travel demand, 
seating capacity and operating cost, fleet utilisation and load 
factor for mini-bus operation has been fixed at 90 per cent. The 
number of mini-buses required for meeting the walled city demand 
has also been estimated. It is observed that 75 mini-buses would 
be needed to cater to the likely travel demand. 

It is expected that improvement in fleet will directly affect 
the economics of operations. At present, a sizeable gap exists 
between the prevailing load factor (51 per cent) and the break- 
oven load factor (62 per cent). Projected improvements in fleet 
age will result in improved vehicle utilisation and the break-even 
load factor is expected to occur at 58 per cent. 

The adoption of proposed replacement cycle for determining 
the fleet requirements of the city reflects that nearly 551 new buses 
and 75 mini-buses would be needed for replacement and new addi- 
tions in the next five years. Yearly breakdown of the total bus 
requirements indicates that higher number of buses would be 
required in the early periods to clear the existing backlogs. It is 



IhTTEORATED ROAD TRANSPORT IN AhMEDABAD 213 

envisaged that beyond the projected period the organisation would 
require even number of buses to maintain the recommended fleet 
age of less than four years. Details of the bus replacemmt/ 
augmentation and projected operation characteristics are given 
in Tables 7, 8, 9 and 10. 

7. SUPPORTING FACILITIES 

AMTS Central Workshop located in Jamalpur was built in 
19SS-S6. The workshop is designed for an optimiun capacity 
of 1000 vehicles. However, it can adequately cater for 700 vehi- 
cles. AMTS at present is served by only one depot adjoining the 
workshop. The depot has all the faciUties for repairing for and 
docking for buses. There is acute shortage of parking space for 
stabling the buses. The present depot can stable 441 buses. 
SO buses at Vadaj bus terminus and 90 buses at Lai Darwaja are 
stabled during the night where minor repairing and daily attention 
jobs are carried out on the vehicles. 

There is a need for rationalising routes on destination-cum- 
diredion-oriented system. This would be requiring the decent- 
ralisation of routes from the existing two terminals, Lai Darwaja 
and Kalupur to two additional terminals located near Delhi Gate 
and State Transport Terminal and strengthening of the existing 
terminals at Pdadi and Navarangpura, Fig. 3. 

With the rapid growth of the city, careful planning of depots 
and terminals have become essential, as they will play a vital role 
in ensuring optimum fleet and vehicle utilisation. With this in 
view, AMTS have already initiated the following progranune for 
devdoping the depot and terminals. All the schemes are included 
in the sectoral outlay in the AMC Revised Development Plan^ 
1975-1985. Location of proposed depots are shown in Fig. 4, 
Each depot is so located that buses attached to the depot can go 
out for service in its close vicinity thereby the dead kilometeragp 
oan be kept down to 1 per cent of the total scheduled kilometerage. 

g. ROAD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME 

The other works of systems improvement which can facili- 
tate the movement of bus services are removal of bottlenecks; 
improvement in engineering, regulation and control measures of 



214 



Prof. Rao & Sharma ok 




I. e g e n d 
^^ Bus Ttrminals 
^ Pick up Points 

' i Rmito Thrpugh S.T.T«rmina1 

izxi^uRouv Through K B Terminal 

Rout* Through Otihi Gate Terminat 
^ Route Through L al DarwajaTermtnat 



Fig. 3. Proposed Minibus routes in central area 



eusting roads to achieve better level of service. These are to be 
undertaken by other agencies such as Municipal Corporation and 
TrafBc Police. The road development programmes including 
Installation of trafSc signals are undertaken by Municipal Cor- 
poration. Traffic regulation and control is, however, the responsi- 
bility of the traffic police. 

The earlier sections of this report have largely explained the 
problems and variation of road network on an area-wise basis. 
The study of routes has also highlighted that vehide utilisation and 
bus travel speeds arc considerably affected due to the above varia- 
tions e.g. bus operations are severely affected due to level crossings 



iKraoRAin) Road Transport in Ahmedabad 



215 



I 

\ 



DC ( 



Ig 



Ugtnd 

Routes 

c=aRing 

Ei3Propos«d Outef Link 

cm M'niBtB Routes 

Vmmils Stanons 
$ Exist^n^ Bis lemiiftal 
"l Proposed Bus Tefminal 
« Pick Up Stai^ofis 
^ Bus Depots 




Fig. 4. Route latiooalisation— Concept Plan 
and congostions on bridges across Sabarmati in the Western parts 
of the city. Similarly, operations in the Eastern and walled city 
areas are affected by the absence of a well-developed arterial net- 
work and low road space allocations. 

A ten-year road devdopment programme for improvement 
of roads within the municipal limits has been developed by the 
municipal corporation on the basis of the Five- Year Road 



j 



i f 



it 

i 



f 



I 

I 

o 

J 

e 



I 



8 S 8 S 8 
^ d i ^ ^ 
a s S 8 s 



S^*««-52 ^ »^ »"" »^ 

11 I 

I i|ll5i 



St s s{ p s 

S - S 2 2 






fij 

L 
ill 

II 



P 

ik 






' • -a 



' Si s s «^ ^ 

2 s :: 2 o 

!^ S ^ o •#« 

^ ^ ^ S S 

§ § § 









i 



-1-4 *J 



if 

5j 



111 < 



00 <«. 



•s e 



« ^ go's 



s I 



(M O 00 

^ O OS 



^ O 

OS OS 



i 




1 




s 


?5 


s 


*-< 

00 


S 


00 




i 


OS 


1 

i 


00 



Intbgrated Road Transport in Ahmedabad 217 

Table 8. PRomcno Qperatun GHARAcraumcs— Vehiclb 
Utilisation (km)— kni thb Fbrud 1977-78 to 1982-83 



Area/Year 


1977-78 


1978-79 


1979^ 


1980-81 


1981-82 


1982^3 


(Antral 


121 


123 


125 


130 


135 


140 


(Walled dty) 














NcMlh 


190 


192 


198 


198 


203 


210 


South 


190 


192 


198 


198 


203 


210 


East 


172 


181 


187 


192 


198 


198 


West 


184 


187 


192 


198 


203 


210 


Central 














Mini-Bases 


- 


150 


150 


150 


150 


150 



Table 9. FmamcnD Operational Characteristics— Fleet 
Utilisation (%)— for the Period 1977-78 to 1982-83 



Area/Year 


1977-78 


1978-79 


1979-80 


1980-81 


1981-82 


1982^3 


Central 


78 


80 


82 


84 


85 


85 


(WaDeddty) 














Nortli 


78 


80 


82 


84 


85 


85 


South 


78 


80 


82 


84 


85 


85 


East 


78 


80 


82 


84 


85 


85 


West 


78 


80 


82 


84 


85 


85 


Central 














Mini-Buses 


- 


90 


90 


90 


90 


90 



Table 10. Projecied Operational Characteristics — 
Load Factor(%>— for the Period 1977-78 to 1982-83 



Area/Year 


1977-78 


1978-79 


1979-80 


1980-81 


1981-82 


1982-83 


Capa- 
dty 


Central 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


61.15 


(Walled dty) 
















Nordi 


46 


46 


49 


51 


53 


55 


61.15 


Soudi 


49 


50 


52 


54 


56 


58 


61.15 


East 


54 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


61.15 


West 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


61.15 


Centra] 
















Mini-Buses 


— 


90 


90 


90 


90 


90 


22.00 



118 Pkop. Rao A Sharma on 

Development Programme ^, * and Traflfe Operations Plan* prepared 
by the Town Planning Department and Valuation Department of 
theGovemment of Gujarat. Expenditures on road development in 
previous years have largely been made for improving the general 
traflBc conditions in the dty. This approach has not made any 
appreciable impact on bus operations in the city. 

In order to fully optimise the road investments, it is necessary 
to mtegrate the road devdopment prognunmes with route ration- 
alisation programme for bus operations. 

The revised bus operation programme is based upon deve- 
loping a directional-cum-destination-oriented system. The envi- 
saged conceptual framework (Fig. 4) aims at operating buses along 
radial and circumferential routes. The ten-year road development 
programme of AMC has been studied in relation to the above 
route concept. Devdopment programmes which significantly 
affect the bus mobility and are hkdy to be completed within the 
envisaged projected /.e. five-year have been recommended for 
implementation. 

Under ideal conditions, selection of road schemes from the 
ten-year road development plan should have been done on the 
basis of scientific studies which quantify the likely improvements 
in bus operations. Since, future travel demand estimates and their 
refinements have still to be completed, it has become difi'icult to 
exactly quantify the benefits. Under these conditions, the road 
development programmes drawn by the municipal corporation have 
been largely accepted for selecting the schemes for the bus trans- 
port project. 

The selected road development projects aim at solving the 
predominant problems faced in bus operation on an area-wise 
basis. The major characteristics of the programme areas follows: — 

(!) The bus movem^ts in the Western area are considerably afiected 
by the existing road-rail level crossinfls along the radial routes. The 
programme aims at the removal of these bottlenecks by construction 
of grade separated facilities. 

(ii) Congestion on bridges across Sabarmati river is considerably eff- 
ecting the bus travel speeds. Construction of new bridges and repl- 
acement of existing bridges across Sabarmati has also been recom- 
mended. Construction of these bridges would help in improving 
the bus travel speeds and inter-area accessibility. 



^ Intboraivd Road Transport in Ahmedabad 21 9 

Qii) The watted dty aimisdiarTtwised by narrow and obsolete network. 
Widening of roads Ukely to be used for routing mini-bus service 
in tliis area has been incocporated. This would substantially help in 
improving the existing vdikle utilisation and popularity of the bus 
tranqxirt systrai. 

Qv) The radial and ctrcumfoential routes in the eastern parts of the dty 
need to be considerabty inqvoved. At present these roads are consi- 
derably congested and operate at a low level of service. Widening 
and imp ro vements of existing roads along the desired corridors has 
been recommended. This would help in improving the current 
level of bus tranqxxrt service. 

(v) Area improvemmt sdiemes require special priorities for improving 
the bus operations in the walled dty, such improvements on a prio- 
rity basis are being reoommeoded for Kalupur-Sarangpur area— 
oppodte existing rail tenninaL At present, bus operations in this 
area are seriously affected on account of poor integration between 
road and rail terminals, traffic congestions and frequent ill-designed 
intefsections. Bus delay studies conducted in this area revealed that 
nearly 129 hours in bus operations are lost every day. Preliminary 
Cost Studies in line with the approadi adopted by B.E.S.T. for system 
improvemmts, revealed that a total benefit of 53.00 lakhs/year is 
likely to accrue if grade separated fadlities are envisaged for this area/. 
Of this, the bus operations are likely to be benefitted by 18.6 lakhsf 
year. It is estimated that the initial investment for construction of 
grade sq)arated facility and improving the terminal fadlity can be 
recovered within a span of six years on the basis of the above benefits. 

(vO Apart from the area-wise improvement suggested for improving 
the bus mobility, marginal improvement has also been suggested 
in the network on overall basis to improve the overall level of 
service in the dty. 

The financial implication of the selected schemes for road 
development has been studied. Against the total expenditure of 
^s 21.92 crores envisaged by the municipal corporation in the 
Revised development plan/ the outlay for the selected schemes 
iB only Rs 12.00 crores. 

Management of roads in Ahmedabad is characterised by 
adoption of conventional approaches which have marginally aided 
\>us operations. It is accepted that considerable scope for intro- 
<luction of bus priority measures exists in the city which can signi- 
tomdy help in bus operations. Devising management solutions 
and assessing their financial estimates requires detalied studies 



220 nuw. Rao ft Shauu ON 

at micro levri. Since such ttudiot have not been undertaken, 
detailed financial estimates have not been made. However, 
lump sum provision of Rs 1.33 crores is made vvfaich includes 
construction of two pedestrian subways. The finandal allocations 
for management includes improvement to intersections and to 
their signalisation, construction of guard rails, installation or 
traflSc signs, pavement marking and control equipments. 

9. INVBGnMENTB— AMC AND AMTS 

The implementation of the proposed project require financial 
involvement of Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation and Muni- 
cipal Bus Services. The Municipal Corporation would be basi- 
cally involved towards improving the external Ibctors le. roads and 
their management and the munidpal bus services for bus trans- 
port systems. Financial outlay for these organisations has been 
determined on both cumulative and individual basis.. 

The financial requirements of the Municipal transport 
services have been determined separatdy for buses and improve- 
ments to depots and workshops facilities. Separate provision has 
also l^een kept for future studies whidi are essential in the ligiht of 
the present findings. 

The municipal transport services outlay for the project would be 
Rs 14.93 crores spread over the S-year's period. The annual aggre- 
gated outlay is given in Table 11. 

The investments that have to be made by the municipal cor- 
poration would cover the expenditure for grade separated facili- 
ties at road and rail crossings, road widening schemes and traffic 
management works in collaboration with Police departments. 

The estimated costs for the various items are based upon the 
estimates prepared by the municipal corporation. Outlay for 
road improvement works is given in Table 12. The investment 
schedule for the above works has been uniformly distributed over 
the projected period. 

It is estimated that a total investment of Rs 26.93 crores is 
required by AMC and AMTS within the projected span to improve 
the public transport system in the city. 



Intbqratbd Road TkANSPonT in Ahmedabad 221 

Table 11. Agoreoais Annual Outlay for Ddferint Items op AMTS 

Rain Lakhs 



Items 


1978-79 


1979-80 


1980-81 


1981-82 


1982-83 


Total 


Buses 
Siqyporting works 

Studies/Plaiining 
and Management 


296.00 

106.00 

10.00 


182.50 
67.00 
10.00 


200.00 
65.00 
10.00 


205.25 
65.00 
10.00 


193.00 
64.00 
10.00 


1076.75 

367.00 

50.00 


Total 


412.00 


259.50 


275.00 


280.25 


267.00 


1493.75 


Table 12. Agokeoate Annual Outlay for Difffrrnt Items - 

Rsin 


AMC 
Lakhs 


Items 






Years 








1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 


1981-82 


1982-83 


1 Total 


Bridges 

Roads 

Mestrian Subways 

TraflSc Management 

Area Improvement*^ 

Kahipur-Sarangpur 

area 


84.0 
89.4 
11.6 
15.0 

40.0 


84.0 
89.4 
11.6 
15.0 

40.0 


84.0 
89.4 
11.6 
15.0 

40.0 


84.0 
89.4 
11.6 
15.0 

40.0 


84.0 
89.4 
11.6 
15.0 

40.0 


420.00 

447.00 

58.00 

75.00 

200.00 


Total 


240.0 


240.0 


240.0 


240.0 


240.0 


1200.00 



SOURCE: (1) A.M.C. -Draft Revised Development Plan, 1975-85. 
10. ECONOMIC EVALUATION 

The economic evaluation of the investment in Road 
Transport Project is made. This is based on calculations of m- 
cremental costs and benefits associated with three distinct com- 
ponents of the project shown below: 

Component Major Quantifiable Benefits 

A. Replacement of overage —Reduced costs of operating new 

buses 

— Increased bus passenger travel 
utilising additional service oofpot 
available from new buses. 



222 Pkop. Rao ft ^arma on 

B. Augmentatioii ofbus — bcreased bus passenger travel 
fleet and supporting utilising additional service output 
ftdlities available from additional buses. 

C. Improvement of road — ^Reduced costs of operating 
traflSc circulation on high- buses and of passenger travd 
frequency bus routes. on existing services. 

-^Increased bus passenger travel 
utilising additional service output 
made available from existing 
buses. 

— Reduced costs of operating other 
vdiiclesand of passenger travd 
by other vehicles. 



To quantify the costs and ben^ts, two situations were con 
sidered. In the first, it is considered that the status-quo would 
be maintained. The operational efficiency of the bus service would 
remain at the level as in the year 1977-78 and that all frustrated 
travel demand for the future would be lost altogether. The bus 
replacement would take phice between 20 and 2S years of its 
Life when it would become impossible to exceed the life by main- 
tenance, cannibilization and other processes. 

In the second, it is considered that the replacement of over- 
age buses, augmentation of bus fleet and supporting facilities 
and improvement of road traffic circulation would be carried 
out as per the programme stipulated in this project. The AMTS 
would adhere to the scrapping policy as stipulated by them, Le. 
at the end of eight years or have done not less than S lakhs 
kms. The level of service would gradually improve. 

The major assumptions made for assessing the economic 
feasibility of the envisaged work programme are listed in 
Table 13. 



Integrated koAD TitAKSPOitt in Ahmedabad 



223 



Item 



Table13. PAiLUMrivtSAMdCoffrAflsuiiPTiONB for Economic 
Evaluation With and WimouT Improvement Cases 

AatumptioDs 



With 



Without 



Capital Cost 



Cost including physical 
contingencies excluding 
interest. 



Economic Life New buses: 8 years 
of Assets Roads: 25 years' 

Supporting 25 years 

facilities 



Residual value 



Vehicle Opera- 
ting cost 



Growth 

Vdiicle 
Utilisation 



Fleet 
utilisation 



Bus chassis: 15% of 
purchase cost at the 
end of ecomomic life. 

Bus body: 35% of the 
puidusecostatthe 
end of economic life. 

Other Assets: Zero at 
the end of the economic 
life. 

All vehicle operating 
cost comprise of 
fixed and variable costs 
and are subject to varia- 
tions according to 
operating characteristics. 

P&ssenger traflfic would 
increase at 8 per cent 
per annum 

Vehicle utilisation would 
gradually increase from 
exiting 180 km to 210 km 
as a result of integrated 
road and road transport 
programmes envisaged in 
this project. 

Bus augmentation and 
replacement would raise the 
fleet utilisation from 
78 peroeotto85 per oent 



Cost including physical 
contingencies excluding 
interest. 

Maximum Age: 25 years 



Scrap value at maximum age 
Rs 10,000. 

Bus body: Zero at the 
maximum age. 

Other Assets : Zero at the 
end of economic life. 



Vehicle operating cost would 
remain static at present 
level. 



Status-quo would be 
maintained. 

No increase in vehicle 
utilisation is envisaged. 



The fleet utilisation would 
remain static at the exis- 
ting level. 



224 Prof. Rao 8l Sharma on 

Note 1. Social benefits accruing from the project siidi as increased 

«cr convenience and time-saving have not been considered in this 
analysis. 

2. The non-recurring investment cost of replaced buses in—with and 
without project case— are computed at the unit cost bans and 
disposal value of the replaced buses. 

3. It is assumed that reductions in operating costs would stabilize 
at the end of the project period and would remain stable if the 
replacement policy and route rationalisation programme b 
strictly adhered. 

4. The benefits associated with increased bus passenger travel utili- 
sing additional service output available from new buses is based 
upon the assumptions that additional km output would be 
effectively utilised in scheduled services. 

5. The cost for the economic evaluation would include the 

nonrecurring investment and operating costs. 

6. The benefit of increased passenger travel utilising increased 
service output available is equivalent to the total fare receipts. 

7. The benefit cost assessment is the ratio of the difference between 
the benefit and costs of with and without prcjecti 



As envisaged in the above assumptions, the following 
benefit cost methodology have been adopted for assessment. 

The 'without case' repres^its the status-quo conditions, 
wherein the operating costs and benefits would record a little or 
no variations over the existing values on account of unstable growth 
and overage fleet. The costs and benefits in this case therefore 
represent existing values over the project period. These values 
are used for determining the actual benefits and costs over the 
project period in the 'with case' analysis. 

The capital costs in 'with case' comprise of captial and 
operating costs. The capital cost comprises of non-recurring 
investemmts i. e. bus replacement, fleet augmentation and suppor- 
ting facility costs without interests. The financial outlay for five 
years have been determined on the basis of traffic growth, adopted 
bus replacement and scrapping policy. The total duration during 
which the investment is likely to generate additional service km 
is 13 years. This is based upon the assumptions that buses 
procured during the project pmod would be scrapped after eight 



Inhorated Road 'DtANSPORT in Ahmedabad 225 

years of operatioiL The c^>ital cost of bus leplaoement and aug* 
mentation^ Table 14 is derived after deducting the residual values 
of the existing scrapped buses and acquired buses during the pro- 
ject period. The bracketed figures in Table 14 give the investment 
that has to be incurred beyond the project period for maintaining 
an effective fleet 

Table 1 4. Costs ahd Beneftts SntEAM of Bus Replacement and 
Augmentation and Supporting FAOunEs for the Period 
FROM 1978- 1979 to 1962-83 

(1977 Prices) 





C6sts(Rs. laklM) 


Benefits (Rs.lakhs) 


Y^ 






— Trttfflr RflUiMiiie 


M «MU 


CapitRl 


OperatiDg 


~-" IIBIUU XVwT«Uli^ 


1^78-79 


355.80 


3.97 


14.73 


1979-80 


201.00 


11.88 


38.20 


1980-81 


211.30 


25.73 


67.03 


1981-82 


210.50 


45.85 


223.47 


1982-83 


198.00 


69.29 


294.86 


1983-84 


(73.50) 


89.43 


444.10 


1984-85 


(126.25) 


133.04 


511.44 


1985-86 


(197.08) 


173.43 


553.50 


1986-87 


(364.77) 


148.89 


417.71 


1987-88 


(270.38) 


132.91 


339.60 


1988-89 


(272.51) 


98.54 


236.34 


1989-90 


(162.92) 


47.73 


114.48 


1990-91 


(153.20) 


0.00 


0.00 



Benefit -Cost Ratio- 1.5090. 

The operating cost in 'with case' have been determined 
excluding depreciation and interests. With bus replacement and 
augmentation the operating cost is expected to decline by 29 paise 
per km from Rs 2.04 to Rs 1.75 per km. No further reductions 
in this cost is anticipated beyond the project period. However, 
due to increase km output and growth of passenger traffic the 
total operating costs would register an increase over the prevailing 
cost. Proportionate share of these costs in relation to replaced 
buses have been taken in the cost-benefit analysis. 

The benefits have been quantified on the additional traffic 
receipts over the existing collections. Proportionate share, as esti- 
mated for operating costs, have been taken to ascertain the total 



226 Prof. tUo A SharIia ON 

benefits. The benefits include revision of each slab of the existing 
fare structure by S Faise from 1981 onwards. 

The costs /. e. capital, operating the revenues i. e. fare receipts 
are given in Table 14. As defined earlier in assumptions, the 
benefit-cost ratio is then determined. It is expected that the 
benefit-cost ratio would be 1.509. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

The study was conducted by the Authors as Consultants to 
Ahmedabad Municipal Transport Services A.M.T.S. were associated 
in various stages of the study. The Authors acknowledge the help 
and assistance received from Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, 
Traffic Police, Ahmedabad Urban Development Authority and 
Bureau of Economics and Statistics. 



EmUOGRAPHY 

1 . Urban Transport Sector Policy Paper, 1975, World Bank. 

2. Structural Metropolitan Plan, Ahmedabad, 197M991, Town Plan- 
ning and Valuation Department, Otuarat. 

3. Policy and Rqplaoement of Buses, 1977, Central Institute of Road 
Transport, Poena. 

4. Revised Development Plan — 1975-1985, Ahmedabad Municipal 
Corporation. 

5. Outline Proposals for Development of Transport Facilities in 
Ahmedabad Metropolitan area during Fifth Five-Year Plan period— 
1974-75 to 1978-79— November, 1972, Town Planning and Valuation 
Department, Oigarat. 

6. Traffic Operations Plan, Walled Qty, Ahmedabad, January, 1971 
(Study Group for Transportation Plan for Ahmedabad Metropolitan 
Area), Town Planning and Valuation Department, Gujarat. 



/. 



Policy on Replacement of Buses— Central Institute of RoadTransport, 
Poona. 



Intbgrated Road Transpcat in Ahmbdabad 227 

Annexurt 1 

CORRELATION BETWEEN AVERAGE FLEET AGE 
AND BREAKDOWNS 

For the years 1966-1977, average age of the fleet in years 
was plotted against number of breakdowns per 10,000 km. 

A second degree curve was fitted to the observed data. 
Statistical model used is: 
EQUATION: 

r= 0.1223 Jf" 





r= 


No. of Breakdowiis/10,000kms. 




X= 


Average 


age of the fleet in years. 


For this statistical model 






Co^Cndent of Coordation 


- 0.97 




Standard 


error 


- 2.10 




Average age of the fleet 


Estimated number of Breakdowns 


in years (JO 






per 10,000 kms (7) 


1 








0.12 


2 








0.48 


3 








1.10 


4 








1.94 


5 








3.03 


« 








3.32 


7 








5.94 


8 








7.7< 


9 








9.82 


10 








12.13 


11 








14.68 


12 


-16 






17.47 


IR041-2 







Paper No. 335t 

**A FIELD STUDY ON THE STRENGTHENING OF THIN 
CEMENT CONCKETE PAVEMENTS WITH FLEXIBLE 
OVERLAYS ** 

By 
Dr. M. P. DmR* 

A 
J. Mirraii** 

CGNIKNTS 







Page 


1. 


Introduction 


230 


2. 


The Test Track 


231 


3. 


Study of Performance of Experimental 
Overlays 


244 


4. 


Concluding Remarks 


262 



SYNOPSIS 

The Geotnl Rotd ReMuch Irndtote, in oo-operation with the PaUie 
Works Depertmeot (Buildiiigi and Jloadt) of Uttar Pradesh, coottructed a Test 
Tnck in 1965 on a lection of the Grand Trunk Road near Aligarh for studying 
io-aervioe performance of about fifty different flexible overlays consisting of 
mnalar layers, bituminous layers, and their combinations of varying total 
(Uckness. The old cement concfele pavement had a thickness of 7.5 cm with 
difaent degrees of structural integrity. The road was carrying a traflBc of about 
(,000 tonnes in 1965 wfakh had increased to about 20,000 tonnes by 1979. 

The p er f o rma nce of the various overlay designs was observed during the 
14-year traffiddng period throu^ 6-monthly observations of surface deflection, 
cncking and other performance features. Brought out in the Paper are the 
aspects of design, eonstruetion and p er f ormance of the various overlays tried. 
The aspect of relative initial and total costs has also been covered for a foller 
picture of imperatives of stnogtliening thin concrete pavements with flexible 
overli^. 

- -^ - - _ 

t Written comments on this Paper are invited and will be received upto 
10th December, 1980 

/ Domty Director ft He84 Koads Division ) Central Road Kesi^^ 
^* SAndti, Rotdg DMsion j New DeM— WO (nO 



230 Dr. Dhir & MmER on 

1. INTRODUCTION 
1.1. GeneralJ 

l.l.L During nineteen forties and fifties, relatively sizeable 
road lengths came to be provided with cement concrete pavements 
in the country. In most cases, thickness of the concrete slab was 
in the range of 7.S to 12.5 cm. With the all round build-up of 
traffic, the structural inadequacies in these pavements started showing 
up, in a significant way, by the early nineteen sixties. Identification 
and institution of suitable measures for strengthening of these 
pavements became a matter of considerable concern at thai nme. 
There was a Panel Discussion on the subject in the Indian Roads 
Congress (I.R.C.) during 1962-63, based on a P^per prepared by 
the Central Road Research Institute ^,*. In 1963, an Ad-hoc 
Committee was set up by the I.R.C. for preparing recommendations 
on overlays for such pavements*. 

1.1.2. Whereas the need for strengthening of existing pave- 
ments has been felt world-wide, our thin cement concrete pavements 
for roads have constituted a special category of their own, largmy 
due to aspects of pavement composition and high degree of structural 
inadequacy, environmental conditions, design of joints, and local 
economics of the various alternatives. It came to be realised quite 
early that supplementary studies are required for Jevolving more 
appropriate design and construction practices for overlaying such 
pavements in the ccountry. The heightened interest in this problem 
during the sixties had spurred a number of laboratory and field 
studies ^'^^*. The I.R.C. brought out on the subject an interim 
report of a Working Group in 1971^* and a set of recommendations 
for overlaying in a special publication in 1977^^. 

1.1.3. As part of research work in this subject area, the 
CR.R.I. constructed in 1965 a test track for studying the perfomiaiioe 
and relative performance of a range of experimental flexible over- 
lays. This test track has been under trafficking and observation 
since then. A Paper was published in 1971^^ by way of an 
interim report This was based on performance data availaUe 
after 5 years of service. With the experimental overlays getting 
13-] 4 years old and manifestation of certain amount of distress on 



Strengthening of thin C. C. Pavements with 

Flexible Overlays 231 

a number of test sections, it was decided to conclude the experi- 
ment. This Paper is based on data now available from this test 
track and covers the various aspects of design, construction, traflSck- 
ing, maintenance, analysis of performance data, and findings. 

2. THE TEST TRACK 

2.1. LocatiM and the OU Cemeat Concrete PaTement 



2.1.1. The test track is located on km 115-116 (from Delhi) 
of the Delhi-Aligarh Road, a State Highway, Fig. 1. The reach is 
generally in low embankmmt (upto 0.6 m height) and is in shallow 
cutting at a few places. The annual rainfall is about 90 cm and the 
depth of the ground water table fluctuates between 2.S and 4.S m 
during the year. The annual temperature cyde ranges generally 
between 43^ and 5^. Thereach is well drained. 

2.1^. Small test pits were made at 4 well-spread locations 
(3 locations in transition slabs and one location in an extensively 
cracked slab) for sub-surfiuse observations and tests. The sub- 
snr&oe conditions met with on these points were found to be fairly 
Uniform. The subgrade soil is of CL-ML type with P.I. of about 
S and sand content of 25 to 30 per cent (fine sand). The subgrade 
Was in a well-compacted state and samples remoulded at field 
density yidded soaked CBR of 6 to 7 per cent. The subgrade is 
overlaid wi|th kankar sub-base, ranging in thickness from 30 to 4S cm, 
the average thickness being about 37 cm. Plate bearing tests were 
done on tbb top of kankar sub-base and on the subgrade. It was 
found that the modulus of reaction over the subgrade was about 
6.10 kg/cm. cube (220 pd). The same on the top of the kankar 
sub-base was found to be about 12.48 kg/cm. cube (450 pci). At 
the time of these plate tests, the field moisture content of the sub- 
grade was 13 per cent (against the saturation moisture of 17.5 
percent). 

2.1.3. The concrete slab is 76 mm thick and is laid directly 
•n the kankar sub-base. The width of the concrete pavement is 
3.66 metre (12 feet) and there are transverse jomts of plain butt type 
at 10.06 metre (33 feet) spacing. Nominal mix of 1 : 2 : 4 by 
volume it understood to have been used for concrete. ThA ^N^toso^ 



232 



Dk DuK A Matn, OH 



I 



of V 



S 

St 



z 

? 

9 

M 

t 
t 



s. 



s 



9 



9 

8t 



§:< 



8t 



< 



< - 




MOl'9 Me^-^ MOi'« 



Strengtihenino op thin C. C. Pavements with 

FkJDaUE OfviLAYS 23s 

was oonstructed in 194MS. As the concrdD slab was onfy 7i mm 
thick and with a rough underface, direct strength determination 
could not be effected satisfactorily for this concrete with 40 mm and 
down aggr^ate. For concrete laid similarly and of similar age, 
fleximt strengthiias been reported to be in the range of 42-70 l|g/ 
cm.sq. (600-1000 psi)*. 

2.1.4. In 1965, when the experimental overlay construction 
work was to be taken up, tho3.66 m (12 feet) wide concrete eairii^e- 
way had brick-on-edge shoulders of 0.91 m (3 feet) width on either 
side. In 1968, when carriageway widening became necessary, 
the brick shoulders were replaced by regular flexible pavement by 
«be Utte Pradesh P.W.D. so as to have S-49 m (18 feet) wide 
carriageway (Photo S, Fig. 1). 

2.1.5. It is to be noted that the thin concrete pavement had 
been carrying traffic fbr s^tit 20 years by the time it was to be 
overlaid in 1965. A few of the slabs in the 1 km long test section 
were still in apparently sound condition with little or no visible 
distress. On the other hand» several of the slabs had devek)ped 
^sdy spaced cracking all ovet^ with notaUe dsfoanalioBs 
(settkaMSis) ift afcw oaset. Thsn Ihcce ware other daba with 
^€gttt of craddng^iistress aojrwherein between these two extremes. 
In a few cases» the cracked concrete slabs (with cracking at ends 
^ahy wera nKkKfiad to nncracbed slabs (of shorter kngtb) by 
sawing off the cracked portions. Four typical levels of cracking 
in slabs obeonfodattfttftfano of overlaying are shown in Fig. 2. 

It goes without saying that in each of the above 4 levels of 
cr a cknig, there wflf be snb-ranges, espedaDy In the bst three cate- 
gories. For the fairly imifonn sttbgrade conditions, ttds differential 
in degree of cracking of concrete slabs under the same traffic raises 
a ^ueslioii. The foHowing may be consulered as possible e^da- 
nations t*"** 

(a) Thon may be sfgnMnsnt variatioos in the quality of conaets and ia 

slabtfaickncM. 

(b) tlaceneralsiMi already fotigisotf fa semeonesto a signiffcantex^ 
and the appaieotly unpacked slabs/slab portiom may havs micro- 
CFBddng aod it may be only a matter of months to all the slabs to 
develop significant cracking. Ihb was actually observed in a similar 



234 

Little to I 
Cracking 



oetNi 



Dl« Dhir ft MnTBR ON 




Low Degree of 
Graddng 



Otl.NI 



Medium Degree of 
CndBom 

DCLNI 



Ekleoshrely 
Cracked 

OELHI 






ALieARH 



AtieAIlN 



AiieARH 



ALieARH 



SLAB N0.S4 SLAB NO. Se SLAB NO. S SLAB NO. 22 

Fig. 2. Showing four typical degrees of Initial Chicking 
•f Concrete Slabe 

SLAB No. 54. Little to no cnddng (typkal dab 54): to Im length, 
of cncks per 10 sq. m. of slab area. 

SLAB Na 88 : Low degree of cracking i.e. cracking confined to end 
portions (typicid slab 88): 1 to 2.5m length of cracks per 10 sqjn. of slab 
area. 

SLAB No. 5: Medium degree of cracking i.e. sizeable cracking but 
short of large-scale coverage of slab area, (typical slab 5): 5 to 25m length 
of cracks per 10 sq.m. of slab area. 

SLAB No. 22: Extensively cracked i.e. cracking extending to most oi 
the slab area (typical slab No. 22): more than 25m length of cracks per 
10 sq.m. of slab area. 

2.1.6. Before commencing overlay construotion, the structural 
state (cracking and deformation) of each slab was carefully mapped, 
Plate 1-A to G. A few plate bearing tests were carried out on the 
interior locations of slabs with different degrees of cracking. The 
pressure intensities required on IS on (6 in.) diameter plate for 
producing displacement of O.S mm (0.02 in.) were found to be as 
Under : — 



Sarface CoBditkHi 

(0 Uncrackcd 

(li) With single crack and plate placed 
over this crack 
(ill) With extensive cracking .. 



Pressure Intensity 

24.61 kg/cm sq. (350 psi) 

19.33 kg/cm sq. (275 psi) 
10.55 kg/cm sq. (150 psi) 



Strengthenino Of THIN C. C. Pavements with 

FlBxiBLB Overlays 23S 



2.2, 

2.2.1. TraflBc counts (24 hr.) were taken at the time of over- 
laying and also subsequently at 6-12 month intervals. Table 1 
presents the data on daily traffic using the road section in 1965, 
1971, 1975 and 1979. It is to be noted that the number of heavy 
vdiides per day has grown from about 600 in 1965 to about 1,600 
in 1979. The daily tonnage of traffic increased from about 7,700 
to 18,800 during this period. 

TaKB l^bmHRTY AND GOMPOSnnON OP TRAVnC 



Year 




1965 


1971 


1975 


1979 




L 


478 


711 


682 


1140 


Tmcks 
(Na) 


E 


10 


90 


45 


76 


T 


488 


801 


727 


1216 


Buses 
(No.) 


L 


137 


170 


241 


344 


B 


— 


— 


— 


28 




T 


137 


170 


241 


372 


Light Motor 

Vehicles 

(No.) 




128 


213 


205 


290 


Taiicu& 

Carts 

(No.) 




66 


97 


151 


125 


Total 
Daily 
TomiacB 
(approK.) 




7,700 


11,600 


11.600 


18,800 



I^— Loaded. B-Bmpty. T— Total. 

2.2.2. Observations were also taken for the lateral placement 
of vdiicles on the carriageway. It was found that whereas one side 
rear wheels were on the central 3.66 m (12 ft wide old concrete 
pavement) of the carriageway for all the heavy vehicles, only about 
70 per cent of them had both sets of rear wheds on this part of the 
carriageway. About 90 per cent of light vehicles and nearly 100 
per cent of carts were found to be travelling wholly on the central 
3.66 m width. 

23. Overiay Sequfarenieats and Design of the ExperimeBt 

2.3.1. The overlay requirements for the old thin concrete 
pavement were assessed as per the following prooedutt^ '.— 



236 Dk. DHDt A Mimnt ON 

CO Tbe VS. Cdrpt of ri^iiinn •qptttion for tte 

(0 



offloiUe 



kf m 7L5 (F.A^-d^., 



F - fiMtcvwlriGfakaABCliooorialniilyorioidii«aiid 
iiiodiilatorai^bgnd»iMCtioo(ttevali» would be 
in tiw nmte of Oa^-OJ in lUi caM) ; 



A^ m dwigttthirin— ofaonoiltfdctlibifitwereto be 
kddoatlieaHBeeab-taieaS-aOcaiintUiMM) ; 

C « fnctor for tlw stmctonl ooodliioQ of tlw exitilng 
ooocMb ptvement at tte time of 0¥ErlayiDg (-1.0 
for ancndDed liabi •nd-0.75 for cndoed slabs); 



00 The 



4^ « uuomeM 01 enNuK I 

(n ovcriay lOQuired ii determined from die flcjubie 



2.3.2. As per (i) above, U. Eq. Ip the thieknesi of fkzibk 
overlay required for different cases works out as in Table 2. 



Taki 2 





M^ — Ucm 


A« — 20Ga 


t 


-IX) 


C-0.75 


C-1.0 


C-0.75 






0¥erlay thir.lriiftis roQuired in cm 


0.8 


17.2 


21.9 


2U 


26.2 


03 


21J 


26J 


2s.e 


31.0 



2.3.3. As regards the procedure (ii), the total thickness of 
flexiUe pavement required may be worked out for Curves E & Fand 
for subgrade CBR values of 6 & 7, assuming that saturation or near 
saturation conditions may prevail. Also, there is a thick (34 cm) 
kankar sub-base. The overlay requirement needs to be ascertained 
also from the kankar CBR (about 25). Counting the thickness 



SntBNOTHBNINO OP THIN C. C PAVEMENTS WITH 

PtExiBLB Overlays 237 

of the old concrete slab cm for cm of flexible pavement the overlay 
requirements work out in Table 3. 

Tablb 3 



DneE D«iBiOv?eF 



Dedgn Tocil Overlay Total Overlay 

FiYcmeot Thidaiesi Pivement Thickness 

CBR ThJckneM Required Thickness Required 

Requlfed Required 

(cm.) (cm.) (cm.) (cm.) 



Subgrade 


6 


37.5 


m 


42J 


• 




7 


34i) 


m 


37.5 


• 


Kankar 


25 


15Jd 


7.5* 


17.0 


9.5* 


^The requircnieots of appropriate base and surface 1 


courses 1 


to be met 



2.3.4. In the light of the above, it was decided to have flexible 
overlays ranging in thickness from 50 mm (2 in.) to about 240 mm 
(9.S in.). Also, it was decided to have all-granular, all-bituminous 
and composite overlays in this rango. The overlay compositions 
decided on are given in Appendix 1 together with the parti- 
culars of slabs they were laid on. Distribution in regard to concrete 
cracking and type and thiolaiess of overlay is as shown in Table 4. 
It would be noted that out of 93 test slabs, 7 were uncracked (little 
to no cracking or made uncracked by sawmg off cracked ends), 
14 were with low cracking, 35 with medium cracking and 37 with 
extensive cracking. The overlay thickness ranged from 90 to 
240 mm (3.5 to 9.S in.) for all-granular overlays, \\5 to 240 mm 
(4.S to 9.5 in.) for composite overlays, and 50 to 190 mm (2 to 7.5 in.) 
for all-bituminous overlays. The overlay thickness for uncracked 
slab was limited to 165 mm (6.5 in.). 

2.3.5. Each overlay specification was to be laid by and large* 
over two slabs i.e. for a length of 20 metres approxhnately (66 feet). 
The various overlay specifications were located on about 1 km long 
stretch with the following considerations : — 



238 Dr. Dhir ft MrriER on 

(0 Matching of the overteycompotttion with te ttnictiinl 
of the skb (craddiig). 

(iO As far as possible, overlays of same total thidmess may come next 
to each other so that there are less changes in ovoky thickness. 

(iii) Upto 12-13 mm diff erence in tUdmess of overlays on adijaoen t 
skbs was taken care of through a sloping patch of about 1 metre 
length centred at the common point For laiger differeooes in 
thickness, one slab length was left as a transitioiialab. Theover- 
Uiy on the transition slab was either of WBM or of die same material 
as on the adjacent shdKs). Transition skbs had also to be pro- 
vided at and near die culverts. On account of difficulties of 
diversion of traffic oo culverts, a sort of buOt-iq) qxray grout Hwdfi- 
cation was used for overhying these spots. Not counting the 
transitions at the two ends of test track, there were 11 transitioo 
slabs. 

2.3.6. With 93 slabs under experimental overlays {Appendix 1 
and Table 4) and 11 transition slabs, the test track involved 104 
slabs, making a total length of about 1,046 metre (3,432 feet) U* 
slightly over 1 km. 

2.4. CoBStractioii of the Overlay Test T^radL 

2.4.1. The overlay test track was constructed in 196S, depart* 
mentally. For road construction at and around the location of the 
track, hard stone and coarse sand are generally taken from quarrieg 
near Delhi. For this departmental construction, therefore, almost 
all the materials, equipment and operators were tidcen from Delhi* 

2.4.2. No preparatory work was carried out by way of sub- 
grade treatment or repair/sealing of cracks and joints. Construction 
of W.B.M., two-coat surface dressing, and the seal coated premix 
surfacing was as per the then I.R.C. specifications. The cleaned 
surface of cement concrete was given a tack coat of heated 80-100 
bitumen sprayed at the rate of 7.32-9.76 kg. per lOsq. metre (15-20 
lb per 100 sq. ft.). The higher value was used when the WBM was 
to be the layer next to concrete and the lower value when the latter 
was to be a bituminous layer. 

2.4.3. WBM construction was carried out with 40 mm and 
down aggregate, using a non-plastic coarse sand (Badarpur sand 



STRBNOTHEhONO Of THIN C C. PAVEMENTSWriH 
FLBXIBLB OVEMAYt 



239 



^1 



I 



I 



^7 Q 



^ 9 






-•IS 






I 



8 f 
51 3 



=1 



3! 
8 o 



0\ 1 
00 ^ 






^ So 



-8. 






PC 



8 1 f Sf f 

S*|| Sol P^ol 

o-ZS f^gS K82 

•^eS "z3 "*z>A 







^^g ^^ ^g 



I 



I 



240 Dr. IXdr ft Miim OH 

«$ filler. It was found potdbk to oonstnict WBM tatiifactorily 
on the tack-coated concrete surface. WBM, when a surfleioe course, 
was covered with 2-coat surfiice dressmg. When WBM was to bo 
overlaid with a bituminous layer tack coat was andied at the rate 
of9.76-1120 kg. per 10 sq.m (20-25 lb per lOOsq. ft.) 

2.4.4. For bituminous macadam, the coarse aggregate used 
was 25 mm and down. Stone-dust was used as fins aggregate. 
TUdng into account the sub-gradations avaSaMe, the snb-finaotions 
were suitably combined to obtain a grading according to the Mix He 
of the Asphalt Institute (U.S.A.) as in Table 5. 



Tasli 5 



liniiti ef Gnidiiig of die 

Mix n e combined 1 
St silo 



AJS.T.M. 


LS. 






UllZin. 


[40 mud 


100 


100 


lin. 


[25 mm] 


70-100 


70 


3/4in. 


[20 mm] 


5M0 


98 


l/2in. 


[1Z5 mm] 


• . 


32 


No.4 


[4.75 mm] 


10-30 


22 


No. 8 


[2.36 mm] 


S-20 


11 


No.30 


[300 micron] 


•• 


3 



2.4.5. The bitumen content for bituminous macsdam mix 
was kept at 4 per cent by weight of aggregate. Bituminous macadam^ 
when a surface course, was covered with seal coated 2-cm premix 
surfacing. 

2.4.6. For asphaltic concrete mix, sub-fractions of the aggre- 
gate were suitably comlmied to obtain a grading corresponding 

/d/ireM;rA1>oftheAspbaltInstitutie(^3.SA.>a&mT«^^^ 6. 



SnENGTHEFONO Of THIN C. C PAVEMENTS WITH 

FLEXIBLE Overlays 
Tau6 



241 



Faoentage by weight pttdng 

LimitB of OnuUng of the combtned 
MixIV-b METOgAteatsite 



^&T.M. 



IS. 



^0.8 
^0.30 
>^o.50 
>^o.lOO 
No. 200 



[25 mm] 

[20 mod 

[12Jmm] 

[10 mm] 

[4.75 mm] 

[Z36mm] 

[dOOmkroo] 

[300microfi] 

(150microD] 

[75microD] 



100 

80-100 

70-90 

50-70 

35-50 

18-29 

13-23 

8-16 

4-10 



100 
98 
81 
80 
65 
46 
30 
15 
9 
5 



2.4.7. Whoreas the fine aggregiate in case of A.C. was also 
stone dust, the filler was hydrated lime (constitoting 7 per cent of the 
aggregate by weight). The bttumen content was 7 per cent by weight 
of aggregate. 

2 AS. In the case of a bituminous layer coming over another 
bituminous layer* tack ooat was not applied at the interface whenever 
it could be possiUe to lay them witlK)ut any significant time gap. 
In other cases, a light tack ooat was applied depending upon the 
condition of the receiving surface. The bituminous mixes were 
prepared in a smaO-size mobile hot-mix plant with batch*type 
operation. Photo 1. It could handle only upto 25 mm aggregate 
and even with that size there was fiur amount of breakage of paddles 
of the pug-mill. As the plant had only two hoppers, the sub- 
fractions of the ooarse aggregate were ]>re-mixed. Bitumen was 
heated in a sepaiale boiler and both the binder asdlYA lUkic iits^ 
juidod directly into the pug-mill. An oil-fixed bxxmttc \LtaX»^ ^^ 



242 Dr. Dhir ft Mrrm oir 

aggregate in the drier. The mix was expeditiously taken manually, 
m platform trolleys, to the laying site. It was manually spread and 
compacted with a smooth wheel 8-10 tonne sted roller. 

2.4.9. The Expanded metal, where uaed^ was first flattened 
under the roller and was then nailed down as required before covering 
it with the bituminous mix, Photo 2. 

2.4.10. Quality of the various constructions was continually 
checked and controlled through a fidd laboratory, as well as through 
testing at CRRI. In addition to the testing of constituent materials 
and control of processes, the following tests were carried out for 
B.M. 4 A.C. : 

BJMU 

(1) Field density 

(2) Binder oontent 

A.C. 

(1) Density 

(2) Binder coQteot 

(3) Voidi 

(4) StabiUtyvalue 

(5) Flow value 

2.4.11. Information with rpgard to the number of tests con-^ 
ducted and the range and average of test values on the above saicL 
tests for B.M. & A.C. is given in Table 7. For the equipment and thcr 
methods used, the quality of bituminous work may be termed a$ 
satisfactory. The average binder content for B.M. turned out to b^ 
slightly less than the design value. On the other hand, the average 
binder content of A.C. samples turned out to boslightly higher than, 
the design value which was akeady at the upper limit indicated for 
such mixes. The values of field density ud stability were quite 
satisfactory; but some values of flow and per cent voids exceeded 
the respective upper limits. 

2.4.12. Even though the overlay surface on individual slabs 
was well finished from the point of surface evenness, the riding 
quality of the test section as a whole was not so good because of 
differmocs in the top level of overlap si^fications which generally 



Strengthenino of thin C. C. Pavements with 

Flexible Overlays 243 

Tablb 7. Summarised Test Data on quality ccmrROL 

OP BfFUMINOUS MACADAM AND ASPHALTIC CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS 



FtofMrty 


B.M. 

(21 samples) 


A.C. 
(18 samples) 


HemAflcs 


Range 


Average 


Range Average 




I. XHomty Gab. compac- — - 
tioa) 


— 


2.18-2.36 


2.24 




2. Field density (gm/cc) 1.98-2.13 


2.07 


2.06-2.24 


2.16 




3. BjiHl^ content 3.4-4.4 


3.89 


6.8-7.5 


7.14 




4. StabiKty value Ob) — 


— 


944-1660 


U60 




5. Flow value — 


— 


12-18 


14.6 




6. Voids (per cent) — 


— 


2.6-8.6 


5.8 





varied at 10-20 metre intervals. Photos 3 to 5 show three general 
views of tUeoomplet^ overlay tesit track. 

2^. Mi|iiiteDa|K:e of the Test Track 

2.5-1. During the first summer after overlay construction (1966), 
ficlmess was observed on A.C. surface at some locations. With 
qvinkling of sand during the first 2-3 sunmiers, the problem was 
aUevi^led at a few of the locations. At a few other locations, the 
richness was of higher order, leading to low stability and flow under 
traffic, PtiQto 19. CuttiAg/m^lLin^ up of the surface coyrse had to be 
carried out at such spots. 

2.5.2. In the case of the thinner WBM overlays, and to a 
Umit^ ftxteQt in tl\e c^se of thin B.M. overlays, pot-holes tended to 
develpp wjtb time and between renewals of the surfacing (second 
QQfkX surface dressing for WBM and seal coat for premix surfacing 
over B.M.). These pot-holes were attended to during the six- 
monthly visits. In one case, a relatively wide reflection crack had 
iqptpqund over a transversa joint. This crack was sealed with 

LR.C— 41-2.17 



244 Dr. Dhir ft Mitter on 

sand-bitumen mixture. The details of the above work of routine 
maintenance are given in Appendix 1 (Col. 12). 

2.5.3. Renewal coats for bituminous surfacing? weve pro- 
vided during 1965-79 as under : 

(i) Renewals of second coat of surface dressing over tmo-eomX surboe 
dressing during June, 1968 and October, 1973. 

(ii) Renewal of seal coat over premix suifKmgin October, 1973. 

2.5.4. Appendix 1 shows that the requirements of routine 
maintenance (essentially pot-hole repair) varied with the overlay 
composition and the degree of cracking of the concrete slabs. As is 
to be expected, pot-holing started earlier and was more extensive 
in the case of the thiimer WBM overlays over cracked concrete. 
This problem was there with the BM overlays (covered with prcniiz)^ 
also but the pot-holes were shallower in depth and smaller in area. 

3. STUDY OF PERFORMANCE OF EXPERIMENTAL 
OVERLAYS 

3*1* Oeoeral 

3.1.1. As ahready mentioned in para 2.1.6, observations 
the structural state of each concrete slab were recorded just befor 
commencing overlay construction. Observations on the performanoe^ 
of overlaid slabs were started just after the completion of construc- 
tion in December, 1965 and continued till February, 1979. Thes^ 
observations were taken generally at 6-month intervals (summer and. 
winter) and a total of 22 sets of observations were taken during thi» 
period. 

3.1.2. The performance observations included the following :— ^ 

(i) Observation and record of deforaiations and surfoce cmddn^ 
and record of repairs and renewals carried out 

(ii) Surface deflection measurements at the marked edge and interior 
loading locations. Additional measurements were made at 
certain selected locations to assess the progression of cracking in 
concrete slabs. For this, small test pits were also made in WJBlM, 
overlays of upto 150 mm thickness. 

3.1.3. Cracking was plotted for each slab for the purposes of 
comparison with the initial state from the point of reflection cracking 



245 




Photo 1. Construction of the Overlay 
Test Track in progress 
(1965). The hot-mix plant 
used is on the left. 



Photo 2. Laying of B. M. overlay 
with a layer of expanded 
nnetal (1965). 




Photo 3. A view of the compieted 
test track from the Delhi 
end (1966). 



Photo 4. Another view of the comp- 
leted test track with 
initial summer deflection 
measurement in progress 
(1966). 




Photo 5, Another view of the test 
track in 1968 when the 
carriageway had been wid- 
ened (Para 2.1.4). The 
white paint crosses were 
for marking test locations 
for deflection measurements 
(1968). 



Photos 3 to 5: Three views of the completed overUv X^%X X^^cV. 



246 




Photo 6. Condition of overlay of 
75 mm BM & PSC on slab 
with low degree of crac- 
king after about 14 years 
of trafficking (1979). 



Photo 7. Condition of overlay of 
115 mm BM & PSC on 
slab with low degree of 
cracking after about 14 
years of trafficking (1979). 




Photo 8. Condition of overlay of 
115 mm BM&PSCon slab 
with medium degree of 
cracking after about 14 
years of trafficking (1979). 



Photo 9. Condition of overlay of 150 
mm BM & PSC on slab 
with medium degree of 
cracking after about 14 
years of trafficking (1979). 




Photo 10. Reflection cracking and 
general condition of over- 
)a> composed of 75mm 
W.BM. and 115 mm B.M. 
with PSC on slab with 
medium degree of crack- 
inu after about 14 years of 
tranicking(l979). 



247 




[Photo il. 



Appearance of reflection 
cracking after about four 
years of trafficking in ihc 
overlay of 75mni BM & 
PSC on extensively cra- 
cked slab (1^69). 





Photo 12. Extensive reflection cra- 
cking m overlay of 75 mm 
WBM & 2SD on exten- 
sively cracked slab after 
about 12 years of traffic- 
king (1977). 





Photo 13. Altci jomui i^ ,>cars of Pm«.mm 1-4. After about 14 years of 

trafficking without expan- trafficking with expanded 

ded metal ( 1977), metal ( 1 979). 

Photos 13 & 14. Reflection cracking in overlay of 115 mm BM 

& PSC on extensively cracked (slates. 




Photo 15. Condition of overlay com^ 
posed of 75 mm W B.M. 
-1-40 mm A,C on exten- 
sively cracked slab after 
about IZ v^a^cs oC tt^?&6- 




Photo 16. Condition of overlay of 
100 mm A.C. on exten- 
sively cracked slab after 
about 12 years of traflfic- 
king (1977). 




Photo 18. Reflection cracking and ge- 
neral condition of overlay 
of] 50 mm WBM-f75mm 

BM -t PSC on extensively 
cracked slab after about 
12 years of trafficking 
(1977). 



Photo 17^ Condition of overlay of 75 
mm WBM 4-75 mm BM 
4-PSC on extensively cra- 
cked slab after about 12 
years of trafiicking (1977^ 




Photo 19. Condition of overlay of 
100 mm A.C. on slab with 
low degree of cracking 
after about 12 years of 
trafficking. Some flow of 
binder/ A.C. due to rich- 
ness is also to be observed 
(1977). 




Ignore) 20. The condition of 115 mm 
thick BM overlay with 
prcmix surfacing on a slab 
with low degree of crack- 
\y\^ ;xUcv aVov\V svx ^^a.rs of 



sniengthenino of thin c. c. pavements with 

Flexible Overlays 249 

and ftirther distress to the slab below. Plate 1 (A to G) presents the 
slab-wise information on cracking and deformations in the concrete 
slab in 1965 before overlaying and on the condition (cracking, 
deformations^ etc.) of the overlaid surface in 1979. This also shows 
slabs being grouped according to the commonness of overlay 
materials. As already indicated in para 2.S.2., the information 
on maintenance measures for different slabs during the period 
1965-79 is given in Appendix 1 (Col. 12). 

3.1.4. Rebound surface deflections were measured with the 
Benkelman Beam for edge (eastern) and interior loading locations 
along a transverse line at or near the mid-length of slabs, Photo 4, 
The measurements were made with a truck with rear axle loaded to 
8, 1 82 kg. (1 8,000 lb) and tyre pressure at 5.6 kg. per cm. sq. (80 psi). 
The truck was positioned so that its outer rear wheel was tangent to 
the eastern edge (right hand side when facing towards Delhi) of the 
concrete carriageway. With the truck in this position, the centre 
of the outer duals gave the position for measuring deflection under 
edge loading and the centre of the inner dual gave the corresponding 
position for interior loading. The probe point of the beam was 
initially placed about 46 cm (1 ft 6 in.) ahead of the tyre contact 
(in the direction of motion) and initial reading taken. As the truck 
moved at creep speed, the maximum reading was noted and also 
the final reading was taken when the rear axle had crossed over to 
the next slab and the dial gauge reading had stabilised. Repeat 
observations were taken till three consistent readings were obtained- 

3.1.5. Additional useful information would have become 
available if it were possible to observe the condition of the old 
concrete slab at the end of the study period. Problems of diversion, 
of heavy traflSc and other considerations came in the way of removal 
of overlays for this purpose. Thought was then given to assess- 
ment of progression of cracking in concrete from measurements, 
with surface wave propagation technique. This had also not been 
possible. Under the circumstances, assessment of progression of 
cracking was made at selected locations (33s labs with no significant, 
light or medium cracking) through measurement of deflections on 
top of the overlay and successivdy shifting the point of loading. 
Additionally, all-WBM overlays of upto 15 cm thickness were re- 



250 Dr. Dhir & Mitter on 

moved at selected spots to obtain direct infonnation on the condition 
of the concrete slab there. One incidental observation made was 
about thc^condition of the tack coat. Generally, the tack coat was 
not found to be intact. 

3.1.6. Appendix 1 presents the foUowmg information for 
each slab : 

(i) Degree of initial cracking of concrete, composition of overlay. 

(ii) Initial and terminal deflections at edge and interior locations for 
summer and winta*, deflection trends. 

(iil) Reflection cracking. 

(iv) Indications as to progression of cracking in the concrete slab, 
(v) Maintenance inputs, deformations and riding quality. 

3 J. Deflectioii Data 

3.2.1. The surface deflection under a given loading of an 
overlaid cement concrete pavement, though determined largely 
by the stiffness of the slab (quality of concrete, slab thickness and 
structural state of concrete slab), is also afifected by the quality 
of foundation (modulus of reaction) and the thickness and 
properties of overlays. Also, the provision of flexible overlays 
can even lead to increased surface deflections in certain situations*. 
The case of cement concrete pavement with a flexible overlay is thus 
more complicated than a normal flexible pavement from the point 
of establishing criteria of structural adequacy in terms of surface 
deflections. 

3.2.2. The main purpose of deflection measurements on the 
test track was to monitor structural changes in concrete slab as 
reflected through changes in surface deflections at edge and interior 
locations in the mid-slab portions, and to study the deflection 
response over period of time for dificrent slab-overlay com- 
binations. It may be recalled here that the surface deflection histo- 
ries of overlaid sections would also be affected by the following : 

(i) Progressive seating and densification through r»-ori0otation of 
particles in overlay layers. This would be relativdy pronounced 
in the case of thicker and granular overiays. 



Strengthening of thin C. C. Pavements with 

Flexible Overlays 251 

(ii) Non-cOAStatit conditions of temperature and moisture during the 
difllbrent sets (winter and sumrn^' separately) of observations. 

(iiO Seating and reteating of cracked/l»t>ken pieces of tlie concrete 
slabs, lying close to the edge and interior loading positions 
(marked with paint on the overlay surface), or sporadic cracking 
at those locations due to non-uniformities in the construction of 
concrete slab. 

3.2.3. On account of the said variations, the deflection histories 
^X"e to be expected to have some apparently erratic short-term 
*^^ends. Plotted in Plate 2 are 24 typical deflection history plots 
c^overing a range of conditions with regard to state of concrete 
^lab before overlaying^ overlay composition^ and level of overlay 
t>^rformance. 

3.2.4. From the deflection data given in Appendix 1 and Plate 
2» the following indications are available : 

(9 In the case of slabs with little to no cracking initially, deflections 
continued to be low with 15-16 cm thick overlays (granular, bitu- 
minous and composite). 

(il) In the case of slabs with low degree of cracking initially, deflections 
registered considerable increase with thinner overlays (5 cm A.C> 
7.5-8 cm B.M./W.B.M., etc). The position improved with im- 
provement in thickness/composition of overlay and deflections 
become nearly comparable with the case (i) when overlays were 
10 cm A.C., 7.5ctoB.M. + 4cm A.C., 11.5cmB.M.,«c. 

(iiO In the case of slabs with medium degree of cracking initially, tiie 
position differed witii tiiat of Uie case (ii). Deflections increased 
considerably with 7.5—8 cm overlays of all types. This increase 
was less marked in the case of 11-12 cm thick bituminous/compo- 
site or 15 cm thick granular overlays. Bituminous/composite 
overlays of 19 cm or more thickness and granular overlays of 
24 cm thickness yielded deflections comparable with those of the 
case (0. Whether the mid-slab area was cracked or not initially 
was an important factor governing deflection response. 

(iv) In the case of slabs with extensive cracking initially, deflections 
continued to be high with 8 — 16 cm thick granular overlays, 7.5-10 
cm thick A.C. overlays, 9 — 16 cm thick B.M. overlays and upto 
16 cm thick composite overlays (W.B.M.+ B.M.). Though the 
deflection vahies could not be brought to levels comparable with 
those of the case (iX sizeable fanprovement could be eflbcted with 
thicker overlays, viz, of 19—24 cm thickness. 



252 DsL DassL ft Mrmit on 

(v) Altliou^theoc3weniaBtotheawofiriiifaraeaMOtiiiedi(eq»^^ 
metaO te lindled, the availabfe data indicUBi dM 
of the ineih the deflection vabm (tfaoiiiiiUilifirin^^ 
upon the teating of the medi oo the co n cwle dab) are aamewfaat 
loifcr than thoiote the caie of flieoott fai H Widmg ofcriayi without 
thei 



(vO Thidmen for thidmcn^ the three ovcdaj malerials nnk in die 
reducing order of efficacy from the point of deflection as A.C, 
B.M* and W.B.M* 

<vii) Even with lUily thicic flenUi overlayiy die ftrnctnnl ilale of the 
concrete dab remain! a dominam fKtor from the point of suiftoe 



(viii) Significant faicreare in deflection vabm with time it to be takeo 
to be indicative of tedierdelefioradon of ooocretoilab. 

X3. ReflectfoB Qnckbv 

3.3.1. Joints^and cracks in oonerete pavement involve hi^ei 
horizontal and vertical movements which can cause the corres- 
ponding ruptures in the overlay in the form of reflection cracks 
Apart from unsightliness, the reflection cracks provide ready means 
for accentuated effects of water and other natural dements, leading 
to progressive erosion of durability. The cracking can also lead 
to loss of surface profile and thus the serviceability level. 

3.3.2. The two importantjvariables in the present case are : 
the structural state of concrete slab and thickness and composition 
of the overlay. It may be recalled here that, in the case of uncracked 
slabs, horizontal movements are more (at the edges) and vertical 
movements are less than those in the cracked slabs. The character- 
istics of the overlay materials viz. W.B.M., 2 S.D., B.M., P.S.C. and 
A.C. have already been described in sub-para 2.4. It is to be parti- 
cularly recalled that the asphaltic concrete mix had somewhat higher 
binder content and exhibited general richness and even instability 
at some spots. 

3.3.3. Plotted in Plate 1 (A to O) are the surface condition data 
of each concrete slab just before overlaying in 1965 and as observed 
in February, 1979. The six-monthly observations enable the study 
( in the case of each slab) of cracking as to when it first started and 
how it progressed with time 4p/'^'|^ I- The following are the 
indications from observations on reflection cracking: 



SlUENGTEIENINO OF THIN C. C. PAVEMENTS WITH 

Flexible Overlays 253 

(0 For thb caae of thick kankar sub-base and thin concrete slab, 
no profile distortioiis woe to be observed by and large at the cracks 
in the overlay surface. Digging at a few typical locations 
showed that in afl cases the cracks extended to full depth and were 
not just superficial. 

Oi) The reflection cracking is indicative of additional cracking of 
ooocrate in several cases. 



OiO In the case of slabs with little to no cracking initially, 15-16 cm thkk 
overlays of WBM and BM tried may be said to have been quite 
satiifiBctory from the standpoint of reflection cracking. The 
cracking, during 13-14 year period has been generally very limited. 

(iv) In the case of slabs with low-degree of cracking initially, the thinnest 
overlay namdy 5 cm A.C. had no reflection cracking for about 
10 years but had devel(^)ed sizeable cracking by 1979. On the 
other hand, the 8-9 cm thick overlays of WBM and BM had 
devek>ped much more reflection cracking by 1979, Photo 6. In 
the WBM overlay, crackmg started appearing within 3-4 years. 
The thicker B.M. overlay (12 cm) had, by 1979, reflection cracking 
comparable to that in 5 cm thick A.C. overlay. Photo 7. The 
thicker overlays with A.C. surface course remained free from 
cracking. These were (10 cm A.C.), (7.5 cm. B.M. +4 cm A.C), 
(7.3 cm WBM + 4 cm A.C.) etc. 

(v) In the case oi slabs with medium degree of cracking initially : 

(a) The 8-9 cm thick granular overlay had developed extensive 
reflection cracking vdiich started within 3 years of overlay 
construction. The position v^as same with 16 cm thick WBM 
overlay exo^t that the terminal reflection cracking was less. 
The 24 cm thick granular overlay was also susc^tible but 
reflection cracking has been of only limited extent. 

(b) B.M. overlays (^cq>to 16-17 cm thickness have not been immune 
to reflection cracking although the intensity has been somewhat 
less than in WBM overlay of the same thickness. Photos 8 
and 9. 

(c) As regards A.C. overlays, 10 cm thickness has been free from 
cracking whereas 7.5 cm thickness has suffered from little to 
appreciable cracking. 

(d) Combinations of WBM and BM of upto 24 cm thickness have 
not been immune to reflection cracking. Photo 10. 

(e) However, combinations of WBM/BM and A.C. have per- 
formed much better. Whereas 4 cm A.C. over 7.5 cm WBM/ 
B.M. did develop some reflection cracking, overlays of 4 cm 
A.C. over 15 cm or more of WBM/B.M. or WBM+BM have 
beoi free from reflection (a!adcing. 



254 Dr. DiiiR & Mitter on 

(vi) In the caae of slabs with extensive cracking initially, the position 
has been essentially similar to that at (v) above (Photos 11 to 16). 
One notoble difference is that the specification of 11.5 cm B.M.+4 
cm A.C. (not tried on slabs with medium degree of cracking) has 
also been free from reflection cracking. Abo, the various overlays 
of WBM and BM (and their combinations) developed relativdy 
more cracking. Photos 17 and 18. 

(vii) For the limited trials with the use of expanded metal, it b to be 
observed that provision of the mesh meant either no difference in 
itflection cracking or sh^tly reduced nsdectton craddng. 

3.4. Progmsion of Craddog te CtacWte 

3.4.1. Although provision of flexible overlays over concrete 
pavements means impartation of characteristics of flexible pavements 
in so far as surface characteristics, maintenance, etc. are concerned, 
one important objective bdiind this measure can be to bring about 
stress refieffor the concrete pavement*. It goes without saying 
that the latter aspect is the most relevant for concrete pavement in 
sound state and the least relevant for pavement with extensively 
cracked concrete. 

3.4.2. Whereas a trend of significantly increasing deflections 
can be a direct indication of deterioration of structural state of the 
concrete slab, it is to be recalled that the deflections measured at 
the edge and interior locations along mid-slab transverse line cannot 
indicate adequately the varying extent of structural degradation of 
the various slabs with different degrees of structural soundness 
initially and with different overlays. Under the related constraints 
(para 3.1.5), additional information was obtained through successive 
deflection measurements in selected cases. The deflections were 
measured successively at 2 — 4ft (0.6 — 1.3 m) intervals along the 
length of the slab for edge and/or interior loading. The following 
slabs were covered : 

Slab Nos. 2, 4, 5, 10, 11, 13, 16, 17, 50, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 
59, 61, 62, 65, 66, 67, 70, 72, 73, 79, 81, 85, 86, 88, 90, 92, 
101. 

3.4.3. The information given in Appendix 1 on progression of 
cracking in different slabs is based on the data from regular deflec- 
tions, reflection cracking, and successive deflection measurements. 
A foy^ typical plots of successive deflections are presented in Plate 3. 



Strenothenino of thin C. C. Pavements with 

Flexible Overlays 255 

3.4.4. In the background of inromiation referred to in para 
3.4.3, the indications available with regard to the progression of 
cracking in concrete are generally as under : 

G) In the case of slabs with Uttk to no cracking, initially, there are 
iiidicatioiis of additiotial distress to concrete with the 16-17 cm 
thick overlays (^WBM abd BM. At the same time, the rate of 
further distress has been slow enough not to cause any serious 
breakup over 13-14 year period and the deflections continue to be 
fairly low. 

(ii) In the case of slabs with low degree of cracking, noneofthe over- 
lays tried (r&hgltig In thickness from 5 cm to 15.5 cm) could pre- 
vent further distres. Of cdUne, the reUcf is more with richer (thick 
or quality) overlays. 



Cm) Jntbc case of slabs with medium to extensive cracking inidally, 
also, there are indications of further distress with overlays of upto 
24 cm thickness. However, the relief is significantly more with 
increasing thickness and with superior overlay material. 

3.4.5. In the practical range of thicknesses and compositions 
^f flejuble overlays, it is therefore to be assessed that the purpose of 
Such overlays is not so much to check further distress to the concrete 
))avenient as is to slow down the rate of further distress. In other 
"words, it is to be expected that with time (depending upon factors 
such as quality of foundation, initial state and degree of structural 
inadequacy of the concrete slab, and thickness and composition of 
the overlay) the concrete slab will become less and less rigid and 
eventually pass on to a more or less flexible state. In the meantime 
also, the various characteristics (user aspects, construction, main- 
tenance) would be that of flexible pavements except that the surface 
deflections would be lower. 

3.5. Deformatioin, Riding Qnlity aad MainteDauce 

3.5.1. In addition to cracking (already discussed in sub-paras 
3.3 and 3.4), other blemishes noted in some cases were (Col. 12» 
Appendix 1) : general roughness, deformations in asphaltic concrete 
due to richness, pot-holing in surface-dressed WBM overlays and 
to some extent in BM surface courses, settlements, abraded sur- 
faces, and tendency for ravelling. 



256 DsL Dhol ft MiTTEit on 

3.S.2. In the case of WBM overlays, the general surface 
roughness was quite ourked in 8-9 cm tfakdc overlay constructions. 
On the other hand 24 cm thick overlays retained a more even surfiioe. 
The same also i4)plied to pot-holing except that the structural state 
of the concrete pavement also influenced the intensity of pot-holing— 
the more cracked the concrete, the more were the pot-holes, by and 
large. The intensity of pot-holing in different cases was quantified 
on an arbitrary scale of to 4. The resulting picture is broadly 
as in Table 8. 

Tamje 8 



Relative Intcnrify of pot-hofiog for debt 
wim omenoi oearaes or crarmna 
ioitiaDy for die fbOowing 
Levid of crKking in ooDCiele nunben of 7.5 cm dildc W.B.ML 

slab lay» widi 2-cott msdacc 



^5 


.. 


— 


2.7 


1.8 


0.3 


3.3 


Z5 


0.6 



(1) (2) (3) 

^ Litdetonocraddng — 0.6 — 

^ Low degree (^ cnddng 

^ Medium degree of craddng . . 

* Extensive crackiiig 

Note : ^Dashes as entries mean that tfaeie were no overiays tried for the 
req)ective cases. 

3.5.3. Pot-holing was suffered to some extent by BM surface 
courses also. The pot-holes in this case were relatively small 
sized and shallow. The general picture is similar to that of WBM 
overlays: 

Q) In the case of slabs with little to no cracking initially, there were 
no pot-holes in the 16-17 cm thick overlay, including die one with 
the lower half part made up of WBM. 

GO In the case of slabs with low degreeof cracking, there were 2-3 pot- 
holes with 7.5 cm B.M. and no pot-hole with 1 1 .25 cm B.M. 

(iii) In the case of slabs with medium degree of cracking, there was 
hardly any crackmg with 11.25 cm B.M. 

(iv) In the case of slabs with extensive cracking, the number of pot- 
holes varied with the thickness of B.M. overlays: over 20 with 
7.5 cm, 10 with 11.25 cm, 1.5 with 15 cm, and 0-1 with 22.5 cm 
(W.B.M. and B.M.) 



Strengthening op teon C. C. Pavements with 

Flexible Overlays 257 

3.5.4. During the 13-14 year period, there had been no pot- 
holing in overlays with A.C. surface courses. The asphaltic con- 
crete mix used was on the rich side (para 3.3.2) which led to fat spots 
and even instability and flow at a few locations (Photo 19 and 
Appendix 1, Col. 12). Aside from this, the A.C. surface courses 
remained quite healthy and did not appear to be in need of renewal 
even in the near future. Excepting the unstable spots, there was no 
loss of riding quality over the long trafficking period. 

3.5.5. The traffic on the test track may be considered to be 
rather heavy for topping with 2-coat surface dressing over W.B.M. 
Two renewals of the second coat were given in 1968 and 1973. Just 
before these renewals, there were signs that the bituminous surfacing 
was getting abraded. This blemish was to a considerably reduced 
scale with the seal-coated premix carpet (laid over BM ) which was 
given a seal-coat renewal only once, i.e. in 1973, Photo 20. 

3.5.6. In some of the cracked slabs, settlements had taken place 
before overlaying in 1965 (Plate 1 slab Nos. 30, 31, 37, 38, etc.). 
In a few other cases some spots with multiple cracking had also 
become prone to settlements under traffic. Slight settlements 
were to be observed at those locations, especially under the wheel 
paths. This happened even with thick overlays although the 
occurrence and intensity were less with such overlays. The broken- 
away comers, where the support conditions are also likely to be 
deficient, were particularly susceptible to lateral and vertical move- 
ments. 

3.6. Orer-all Performance tad Costs 

3.6.1. In the foregoing sections the performance of the different 
overlay-slab combinations was discussed in respect of : deflections 
and deflection trends ; reflection cracking ; progression of crackmg 
in concrete ; and deformations, riding quality, and maintenance 
required. The relative significance of deflections and deflection 
trends, and progression of cracking in 'concrete was discussed in 
paras 3.4.2 and 3.4.4. An attempt was further made to relatively 
rate the various overlay-slab combinations from the considerations 
of serviceability level, maintenance required and'reflection cracking. 
The resulting over-all picture is given in Plate 4. 



258 Dr. DmR & MtitBR OH 

3.6.2. A number of considerations are involved in arriving 
at rational cost comparisons. There has been v^ considerable 
escalation in costs since the overlays \vere constructed in 1%S. 
It was decided to base all cost considerations on rates prevailing at 
Ddhi in the middle of 1979. The related unit cosU of various itons 
of overlay construction involved are given in Appendix 2. The 
basic rates adopted for materials, labour, etc. are given in 
Appendix 3. 

3.6.3. One way of making cost comparisons is on the basis 
of mitial cost of construction. Keeping the cost of IS cm thick 
WBM overlay (with two coat surface dressing) as unity the relative 
initial costs of construction of the various overlays were worked 
out (indicated as factor C^in Hate 4). 

3.6.4. Another way of making cost comparisons is to consider 
the initial cost of construction^ ix>st of routine maintenance, cost of 
periodic renewals, user costs and salvage value. It was decided to 
also make comparison of this net total cost (only for overlays which 
gave satisfactory performance) by using the present -worth method, 
making appropriate assumptions (Cost Factor C^). Unfortu- 
nately, data is not available on the relative user costs. Other 
assumptions were also required to be made from engineering judge- 
ment. The renewals and renewal cycles were decided to be kept 
diflferent from those actually adopted on the test track for the 
following considerations : 



(i) The test track data relate to a construction which was carried out 
as a research project and therefore differences in quality control etc^ 
are likely to be present vis-a-vis routine overlay construction. 

(ii) In the absence of data on relative user costs, renewals and theinK 
frequency were so kept that the differences in user costs will g&'i 
reduced. 

(iii) It is to be expected that overlay performance and therefore renewal 
needs will be affected by the total thickness and composition oi 
the flexible overlay, as well as by the structural state of the concre-T^ 
slab below. However, less-varying renewals have been considett^^l 
in cost comparison because of simplicity and also because of ttK' 
fact that in this cost comparisons are being considered ott^Y 
those overlays which gave satisfactory performance. 



Strengthening of thin C. C. Pavements with 

Flexible Overlays 259 

3.6.5. The various other assumptions made for comparing 
he present worths of the net total costs of the diflTerent overlay 
slab combinations are as under : 

(1) The period for cost comparisons b taken as 15 years. 

(2) The charge on mon^ Is kept at 10 per cent per anpum. 

(3) For W3.M., the salvafe value after 15 years is taken to be IQQ 
perc^t. 

(4) The two-coat suriaoe dressing (over WQM) to be renewedevciy 

3 years. 

(5) For BM., the salvage value after 15 years is taken to be 35 per cent 
when under piemix carpet and 50 per cent when under asphaltic 
concrete. 

(6) The seal-coated premix carpet (over B.M.) to be renewed every 

4 years. 

(7) For asphaltic concrete : 

—4 cm thick over WBM to be renewed every 12 years, the 
salvage value at the repewal time being 25 per cent 
' — 4 cm thick over g.M. to be renewed every }5 years, the 

salvage value at that time being 30 per cent 

—7.5 to 10 cm thick all-AC overlay to be renewed every 15 
years, the salvage value at that time being 30'per cent. 

(8) Differences in user costs with different overlays are not taken 
into consideration. 

3.6.6. Based on the above assumptions, the net-worths of the 
various ' satisfactory and above' overlays were worked out. Then 
the values of the relative cost factor (present worth) C^ were arrived 
at, keeping the present worth of ISO mm WBM-f-2SD overlay as 
unity. 

3.6.7. The values of the relative cost factors C^ and C, as 
above are given in Plate 4. It is to be observed that the relative 
picture as per Ci is quite different from that as per C,. With 
factor Ci (initial cost only) as the criterion, use of BM and AC con- 
structions appear to be rather costly. The relative costs per unit 
thickiiess for WBM, BM and AC work out respectively tojl, 3.6 and 
6 approximately. Against Ci=:1.0 for ISO mm WBM +2 SD over- 
lay, the all-bituminous overlays tried have factor C^ as high as 3.0. 
The lowest value of factor C^ is 0.72 for the thinnest granular overlay 
of (7S mm WBM+2SD). The overlays with below satisfactory 
performance have factor C, values ranging from0.1lVol«S^« 



260 



IMl Dhir ft Mmnt on 



3.6.8. As the criterion is switched from initial cost to the 
net total present worth, the picture is changed significantlyt largely 
because of long life between renewals of AC and salvage value con- 
siderations. The range in C^ values for the satisfactory and above 
overlays is from 0.83 to 2.2S. As the diffefcnce in contributions 
to overlay performance by WBM and BM is oonsideraUy less than 
that in their costs, use of WBM emerges as more cost effective. 
Again use of AC comes out as very advantageous due to superior 
performance (reflection cracking, deformations, etc.) and long life. 
Overlays of WBM+AC therefore emerge as the more desirable 
from the point of performance as well as cost As the provision 
of expanded metal did not contribute significantly to performance 
and involves substantial extra cost, the few specifications tried with 
the use ofexpanded metal are not included in Plate 4. 

3.6.9. The satisfactory and above overlays with low cost 
emerge as in Table 9. 

Tama 9 



Degfeeof 
initial cnddng 
01 coficiclc slsb 


Oenena 

Levd^oT 

PcfformanoB 


Overiay 
CompositioQ 


Factor 


(1) Uttk to DO 
cracking 


Good 


75WBM+75BM+PSC 


1.55 


Fair 


150WBM+2SD 


1.00 


(2) Low degree 


Good 


75WBM+40AC 
75 BM4.4OAC 
100 AC 


0.83 
1.12 
1J4 




Fair 


115 BM+PSC 


1.64 



(3) Medium degree 
(^Cracking 



150 WBM +40 AC 0.97 

Good 75 WBM+75 BM+40 AC 1.20 

100 AC 1.34 



Fair 


75WBM+40AC 

75 BM+40AC 

225WBM4.2 SD 


a83 
1.12 
1.13 


(4) Extensive craddng 

Good 


150WBM+40AC 
75 WBM +75 BM+40 AC 
100 AC 


a97 
1.20 
1.34 


Fair 


75WBM+40AC 
225WBM+2SD 


0.83 
1.13 



Tbe thidmesses are in miUimetres. 



Strengthening of thin C. C Pavements with 

Flexible Ovrlays 261 

3.6.10. It is observed that the overlay performance is essen- 
tially the same for ' medium ' cracking and * extensive ' cracking 
of concrete initially. 

3.6.11. Further, it would be informative to compare the 
indications given in Table 9 (para 3, 6, 10) and in Plate 1, with the 
recommendations of I.R.C. Ad-hoc Overlay Conmiittee and I.R.C. 
Special Publication 17 : 1977. For this comparison, gists of the 
two latter sets of reoonmiendations for overlaying are given below : 

A* LR.C Ad-hoc Overlay Committee 

—Overlay of 75 BM +40 AC for traflSc of more than 3,000 tonnes per 
day when the concrete slab Is not badly broken. 

Overlay of 75 WBM (or bituminous construction) + 75 BM 40 AC 
when the concrete slab Is badly broken. 
— Also, overlay oi 150 WBM +2 SD as stage construction when the 
trafiic b less than 3,000 tonnes per day . 

B. LILC. Special PoUicatioB : 17-1977 

(a) Annual rainfell oi npto 1250 mm and favourable conditions of 
sobgrade and drainage : 

—Overlay of 75 BM +40 AC 
or 150 WBM (or 75 WBM +75 BUSG) +40 AC 
for daily traffic of more than 1 »500 commercial vehicles . 

— Overlay (^ 75 BM +PSC 
or 75BUSO+PSC 
or 150WBM+PSC 
or 75 WBM +40 AC 
for daily traflSc of 151 to 1»500 commerdal vehicles. 

3.6.12. Even though the indications from this overlay test 
track and the I.R.C. recommendations in force are in conformity 
to a certain degree, the test track data and the related cost analysis 
do provide additional information in regard to the following 
aspects : 

(D Effects of the degree oi initial structural damage to concrete on 
overlay performance. 

00 Relative efltocy of a variety of overlay compositions. 
QiO Progression (^cracking in concrete after oveclayiDft. 



262 Dft. DmR ft Mmm on 

(iv) The relative cfficn^ of diffienot maleriali and fh i i^lrnBMfa in oon- 
troUing ivflectian oickiiif. 

(v) The rdative ooit alhcfiww of d tf h idrt avvriaya in different 
areas. 

4. CONCLUDING RSafA|KK9 

4.1. The Paper describes the data and analysis about the 
cmiUtions and 14-year porformanoe of experimental iexiUe overlays 
provided on an old concrete pavement (with varying degree of 
distress then) of a heavily trafficked arterial road at a site not very 
far from Delhi. It goes without saying that the results are essen- 
tially valid only for the conditions of this test track. All the same 
there seem to be eipergi|ig a aumberQf useful fiodipgs as under : 

(1) Construction of walv-bound maradam directly on a«ed concrete 
surfiioe 4oe9 involve proUoqs frgm tiie pqint of OQppaction and 
keying in of the opaifi ^prolate. FMfty jftjiftctoiy results 
were Qt)tatiied by tbi mc of a iMtuminpus |9d(-ooat (atthe rate 
(^9.76 kg/10 sqjn.). Qowpvqf; 4e ta^-cgat get damaged 
during wet consdidation. The cparw aggregate was Delhi 
Quartzite and the flikr was non-plastic. lUek WBM overiays 
4id cshibil «cinie nuasiiie of gqmmil nmgbnns under 
trafficking, there was little degndatigq of ngfrtgr** during 
construction and afterwards. 

(2) The bituminous macadam, #s used (25 mm and down aggregate 
with 4 per cent binder), performed well but not significantly better 
than WBM. 

(3) All WBM surface courses of overlays were covered witii two-coat 
bituminous surface dressing. During the 14-year service, the 
surface could be kept traflio-worthy ivith only two renewals and 
those also merely with the second coat. The BM surface 
courses were covered with seal-coated prenux and only one. 
renewal (of seal-coat only) was provided during the 14-year period. 
It would seem that the thin surfacings in these experimental 
constructions did pecform somewhat beyond e?q;>ect9tions.' 

(4) The mix used for aq;dialtic concrete may be tcra^ as special. 
It had relatively hi^ Under and filler contents (at 7 per cent each). 
The asphaltic concrete performed exceptionally well in many 
ways. It is believed that this performance may in no small 
measure be due to the hi^ binder content 

(5) A few trials were made with the provision of expanded metal (hud 
directly on cement conocete) in bituminous overiays. In relation 
to the cost involved, the contribution of the expanded metal to 
overlay performance was not sigyuficant 



Strengthening of thin C. C. Pavements with 

Flexible Overlays 263 

(6) The important observations (and criteria for overlay performanoe) 
included : deflections and deflection trends ; reflection cracking ; 

progression of cracking in concrete: deformations, riding quality 
and maintenance. The detailed findings in regard to them are 
discussed in Fua 3. A few broad* findings are however given 
below: 

Q) Initial structural stale of concrete was a dominant factor 
oootrolling deflectiofis. Depending upon quality and 
thickness, overiaying did mean some co m pensation for 
the structural state of concrete. Thickness for thick- 
ness the three materials from the point of rehitive eflfcacy 
in the descending order woe AC, BM and WBM. 

00 As regards reflectioo crackmg, use of asphaltic concrete 
has been the most effective measure. The initial struc- 
tural state of concrete influenced reflection cracking also. 

(iiO It is to be observed that none of the overlays tried 
(ranging in thickness from 5 cm to 24 cm) was comple- 
tely effective in checking further distress to concrete. Of 
course, the rate of further distress was found to be 
dependent on quality and thickness of the overlay. 

(iv) Barring some ridmess due to site variations in binder 
content, the asphalt concrete remained essentially main- 
tenance free. The thin WBM overlays underwent the 
most deformations and the other overlays performed 
in between. 

(7) Sutject to the conditions of the case and the stated assumptions, 
the relative performance and the cost effectiveness of various over- 
lay compositions are indicated in Plate 4 and Sub-para 3.6. From 
tbe considerations of performance as well as net total cost Qn 
tnms (^ present worth), overlays composed of WBM and AC 
stand out. 

(8) It would seem that, for the case of concrete pavements with fairly 
thick base and sub-base courses the overlay requirements may be 
arrived at from considerations of [flexible pavement design 
reasonable control of reflection cracking and serviceability leve^ 
desired. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The Paper is published with the permission of the Director, 
Central Road Research Institute. The test track was conceived and 
constructed when Prof. S. R. Mehra was the Director, most of the 
tnfficking and performance observations were completed during 



264 Diu Dam * IfniBi on 

Dr. Bh. Subbarvu** Directonhipb and oondntion of the test track 
IstaUngidfloewithPjrDr.CO. Swifldiiittlittast^ Tho 

Authors aregrateAil to them for their gaidanoe and kmd interest 
hi the study. The Authors aie thankfbl to tho Beads of Fknbk 
Bavemeat Division (Ptof. C G. Swaminatiuu thm) and Rigid 
Pavement Division (Dr. R. K. CHiosh) for thdr kifld oo-openttion 
in the pkuming stages of thb prajoct Shri Y. R. Phnll (then 
Scientist* Roads Division) and Shri K. L. Sethi (Scientist, Rigid 
BaveflMnt Division) partidpalfld hi fliis niitial phase of work. 

Almoit the entire staff of the Roads Division was invohred 
m one way or the other with the oonstmctioit of the test track. 
While acknoirtedging their assistanee^ special mention is made of 
Sarvashri A. K. Bhat (Bx-SdentistX O. S. Bhatnagar (Scientist^ 
R. S. Mdifa (Ute Scientist), P. C Vefgihese (SdentistX Munshi, 
Ram (S.S.A.X Roop Chand (Ex-SLA) and C L. Handa 
(Construction Foreman). The aaslsfafice Mildeied by Dr. O. R. 
Bahri (Ex-Scientist) and Sarvadiri V. K. Jaitly (ScientistX N. D. 
Vermani (Sdoitist) and D. C God (S.S. A.X all of FteiUe Pavement 
Division.towardsmixdesignandqualityoontrolof BM and AC is 
also thankfully acknowledged. They all worked under the guidance 
of Prof. C. G. Swaminathan. Thanks are also due to the Institute's 
Workshop for operation of machmery. Photo Section for periodic 
photo coverage and Drawing Section for crack mapping, etc. 

Grateful thanks are also due to the Public Works Department 
(Buildings and Roads), Govt, of Uttar Pradesh for making available 
the test stretch and for the excellent co-operation throughout. 

1. CtoinALRoADREBAaeHlNSTmjn. Fuiel discossionon Strengthen- 
ing of Bxistiog Thin Oemeot Concrete Pavements, Journal of Indian 
Roads Congress, Vol 27, No. 2, Oct, 1962. 

2. Central Road Research iNnrruiB. In coUaboraticMi with Con- 
crete Association ot India. Strengthening of Cement Concrete 
Pavements. Unpublished Report, 1962. 

3. Indian Roads Congress. Overiays on Cement Concrete PkvementSy 
Uiuniblished rqxMt of Ad-hoc Committee of Indian Roads Congress, 
1963. 



Strenothenino of thin C. C. Pavements with 

Flexible Overlays 265 

4. Obosh, R.K., Shear dtsign of floodble WAM. overlay over badly 
cmdoed Oooaete Pftvementt. Qvil Engiiieeriiig and Public Works 
Review, No. 1401, Nov., 1963. 

5. Dhir, M.P., Investigatioiis of noant of the design aspects related 
to the stTBngfhsnhigof OmcptOoiigeie Pavements with flfexibleand 
rigid overlays, Poi^ UniveKiity, Ph. D. Thesis, Oct, 1968. 

6. Mahabir Prasad, Tyagi, S.C, A Jain, R.K., Overlays on faOed 
thin cement concrete pavements, Indian Roads Congress, National 
Seminar on 20 yean (tf Design and ConstmctioQ of Roads and Bridges 
Bombay, 1968. 

7. C^turvidi, D.C, & MaIhur, RJL, Use of built-up 4>ray grout 
method for flenble overlay over rigkl and flc3iit>le pavements on the 
O. T. Road in Uttar Pradesh. Indian Roads Congress, Vol 31, 
No. 3, 1968. 

8. SwAMiNATHAN, CO., & Nair, ILP., Eaqwrimental flexible over- 
lays on Cement Concrete cm National Highway No. 7, near Hyderabad 
Indian Roads Congress, Road Researdi Bulletin No. 17, 1970. 

9. Ghosh, R.K., Puri, M.L., Phull, Y.R., Sethi, K.L., & Bhatia, 
M.L., Construction and performance of ten years old bonded Rigid 
Overlay Test Track on N.H. 24, Indian Roads Congress Seminar on 
Strengthening ofExisting Road Pavements, Srinagar, Aug.-Sept., 1971» 

10. Ghosh, R.K., Dinakaran, M., and Krishnamachari, R., Effect 
oi flexible overlays on temperature and load stress variation in Cement 
Concrete Pavement and their Economics, Indian Roads Congress, 
Seminar on Strengthening of Existing Road Pavements, Srinagar, 
Aug.-Sept., 1971. 

11. Sathe, p. v., and Merani N.V., Strengthening of pavement on 
Bombay-Poona Road, Indian Roads Congress, Seminar on Streng- 
thenmg of Existing Road Pavements, Srinagar, Aug.-Sept., 1971. 

12. Mahabir Prasad, Sharma, V.P.S., and Jain, R.K., Performance of 
overlays on failed Thin Cement Concrete Pavement in Uttar Pradesh, 
Indian Roads Congress, Seminar on Strengthening of Existing Road 
Pavements, Srinagar, Aug.-Sept., 1971. 

13. Iyengar, CL.N., and Patel, N.L., Strengthening of existing Road 
Pavements in Bombay City by Overlaying Methods, Indian Roads 
Ccmgress, Seminar on strengthening of existing Road Pavements, 
Srinagar, Aug.-Sept., 1971. 



266 Dtu DHDt A Mrrm on SnENonDrnmo op nm C C 
Pavembnib wiih FLbxbu Ovbulats 



of TUn Gemeot Cottcwle Filiiiwli widi Ftadbio 0««liys» Indiaii 
Roadi Coogreii, Semiiiir oo iln«|i0i8BiQg of 
PkvemeoH, Srinafv, Aqi.-Scpt, 1971. 



15. Dhib,MJP., SmdlsroftoiBeaipeetiof iln«|i0i8BiQgofTliin Geomt 
CooaelD Fi fenie nit with Fkadfate Omtey, Tte IliM laleniatioiial 
CootoeDoe oo tfiB Stractonl DmIpi of Afpiwilt FiRveuieiifSy Loodoiiy 
1972. 



16. buxAN RoADt GdNOMM. imecim npott of te Indten Roads 
CoQgroH Worldng Qtoop oo owci'liys ifviog pcfWHimnop ttscatment 
of 0¥eriay» oo Cdpcpt Cone Jdo Rotd Ptvcoxott io differeot puts 
oftfaeoounCiyaiidits i moo inmm rtrtioos oo OveriaySy liidkui Roads 
CoogKiSy Scflnioar oo slioimilMDinK of osirtios Road Favcmeots, 
Srinafv, Aug.- Sqit, 1971. 

17. Indian Roads Oonohrbb. R uc omm Bi i datioos about overlays oo 
GeoHot CoBcrals Fin^eaieDts^ IndiaD Roads Ooogress* Special 
PiiUicatioo 17» 1977. 




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316 ' Dr. Dhir & Mitter oh 

Appendix 1 (Cootd.) 

Notes: 1. The abbreviatioiis used are as under : — 

T —Tackooat on oonoete surface 

T — Tadc coat on WBM surface 

WBM —Water bound "yifflilflni 

2SD —Two coat surfiioe dressing 

BM — Bituminous macadam 

PSC —20 mm tliickpremix carpet with seal coat 

AC ^Asphaltic concrete 

AV —Average 

BUSG —Built-up Bpcay grout 

Z All layer thicknesses given are in mm and refer to final com- 
pacted thicknesses. 



3. When the overlay construction was planned and executed 
layer thicknesses were fixed in indies. Denotion of thick 
nesses above in mm has been done as under : — 



mm 



i 


20 


1 


25 


4 


40 


2 


50 


3 


75 


4 


100 


H 


115 


6 


150 


9 


225 



Strengthening or twn C. C. Pavements with 

Flexible Overlays 317 



Appendix 2 

UNIT COST OF VARIOUS OVERLAY CONSTRUCTIONS 

Seria] Item Unit Cost 

No. 

RsP 

1. Tack coat on cement concrete pave- 
ment for W.B.M. overlay . . Sq.m. 2.30 

2. Tack coat on cement concrete pavement for 
bituminous overlay 

3. Tack coat on WBM for bituminous overlay 

4. 75 mm thick water bound macadam 

5. Two coat surface dressing 

6. 20 mm premix carpet with seal coat for laying on 
fresh bitimiinous macadam 

7. Bituminous seal coat for premix carpet 

8. Second coat surface dressing renewal 

9. 75 mm thick bituminous macadam 

10. 40 mm thick asphaltic concrete 

11. Expanded metal at 5 kg./sq.m. 

Note : The above unit costs are based on the rates for materials, labour 
and machinery as given in Appendix 3. 



Sq.m. 


1.75 


Sq.m. 


Z90 


Sq.m. 


7.70 


Sq.m. 


9.80 


Sq.m. 


13.20 


Sq.m. 


3.10 


Sq.m. 


3.85 


Sq.m. 


28.10 


Sq.m. 


24.50 


Sq.m. 


18.45 



318 



Dr. DHIR & MnTER on STRENGTHEhONG OF THIN C. C. 

Pavements with Flexible Overlays 



Appendix 3 



BASIC RATES USED FOR COSTING OVERLAY 
SPEOFICATIONS 



1 . 63-40 mm size stone aggregate 

2. 1Z5 mm size stone aggregate 

3. 10 mm size stone aggregate 

4. 6 mm size stone aggregate 

5. Graded aggregate (25 mm-6 mm) 

6. Graded aggregate (12.5 mm-6mm) 

7. Coarse sand/crusher stone dust 

8. Moorum/gravel 

9. Lime stone dust 

10. Bitumen 80/100 in drums 

11. Diesel 

12. Expanded metal at 5 kg. per sq.m. 

13. Beldar-coolie 

14. Chowkidar 

15. Mate 

16. Sprayman 

17. Bhishti 

18. Mistry 

19. Hire charges of road roller excluding fuel 

20. Hire charges of H.M.P. excluding fuel 

21 . Hire charges of paver finisher 

22. Hire charges of tipper 

23. Hire charges of loader (small) 

24. Hire charges of loader (big) 

25. Hire charges of bitumen boiler 

26. Hire charges of bitumen spraying unit 

27. Hire charges of bituminous mixer for premix 
chipping carpet 



Rs 

49/-pcr cu.m. 

55/-per cu.m. 

58/-pcr cu.m. 

60/-pcr cu.HL 

55/-pcr cu.m, 

58/-pcr cu.m. 

39/-pcr cu.m. 

25/-pcrcu.m. 

200/-per tonne 

1900/-per tonne 

1 .45 per litre 

3.25 per kg. 

6.45 per day 

10.50 per day 

6.84 per day 

10.55 per day 

6.84 per day 

13.00 per day 

129.37 per day 

987.75 per day 

234.50 per day 

130.75 per day 

117.25 per day 

186.00 per day 

15.00 per day 

20.00 per day 

233.00 per day 



Dr. Dhir & Mn 
Plate 1 



CONCRETE SL 
ANC 



W.B.M. 
2.S.O. 

P.S.C. 

B.M. 

A.C. 

EX.M. 

AV. 



1X3 



TR. 



NOTE ALL , 

?^EFe 

r »' Paper No.335— Inc 



Jft?: 



SI 



328 



« Strenothening of Th 



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OVERLAY 



7S AC 



RLAY SPEC 

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SPK; IIS •.M* MAC 



ft€BOUN> DEgLECTIQItf 

INTERIOR O 

EASTERN EDGE k 

WESTERN KGE 4. 



Mt5 Oil Overlays Measured in Feb., 1979. 



SH 



Journal, Volume 4 1 , Pam 2. 





1 




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I. R. C. PANEL DISCUSSION 



HIGHWAY CONTRACTING INDUSTRY 
(Present Status and Meaanres for Growth) 



THEME PAPER 
By 
P. C. Bhasin 



f 



1. Over the successive 5-year Plans, substantially heavy invest- 
ments have been made both in the Central and the State sector 
for the development of roads to meet the ever-increasing demands 
for a better road-transport system. Heavier and faster traffic 
calls for highways built with sophisticated designs and specifications 
using advanced construction-techniques under strict quality control 
at all stages of construction. This is all the more important for 
our stage development processes being pursued in phases at present 
on account of our restricted financial resources. Unfortunately 
the Highway contracting industry, through which the bulk of road 
construction in the country is got carried out, has not developed 
to any worth-while standards to handle efiiciently the work-load 
and quality requirements in the road-sector of development. Most 
of the contracting firms are of small or medium size, woefully 
lacking in technical competence, management expertise and 
requisite resources in terms of finance, machinery and testing 
facilities essential for quality control etc. There has been prac- 
tically no concerted effort for overcoming these deficiencies in the 
highway construction industry. As a matter of fact, there seems 
to be lack of proper quality-consciousness amongst not only the 
contracting industry but also amongst the Highway Construction 
Departments. 

2. At present most of contracts are being split up both hori- 
zontally and vertically to suit the capacity of small and medium 
size contractors. This unavoidable fragmentation results in time 
over-runs, poor quality control and unsatisfactory finished-road- 
surface due to lack of co-ordination and the absence of undivided 
responsibility of one contractor. There is an urgent need for 
letting out composite contracts in sufiiciently large project sizes 
to experienced and well-organised contracting firms having adequate 
resources in terms of qualified experienced men, plant and equip- 
ment, finance, etc. However, for such quality performance, 
contract bids and therefore construction costs are bound to go up. 
Thus, immediate necessary measures are needed to improve and 
encourage growth of the healthy road construction contracting 
industry. The Ministry of Shipping and Transport and the State 
Chief Engineers have been jointly giving serious thought to this 
problem and have tried to identify areas of deficiencies in the present 



336 Panel Discussion €»i 

set-up of the contractiiig system for road construction and 
suitable measures for improvement. The Ministry of ShijqHiig k 
Transport (Roads Wing) set up a Committee under the Chairman- 
ship of the Director General (Road Development) with membcn 
from the Central Road Research Institute, Planning Commission 
National Committee on Science & Technology, Director Geoflol 
(Border Roads) and some senior State Chief Engineers for reportim 
on the subject of '*More efficient and economical constmctiot 
and maintenance of roads". In their Report brought out in 1974 
the Committee devoted full one chapter to the Contracting Indostiy 
wherein the present inadequacy and inefficiency of the system mi 
clearly identified after sufficiently detailed study of the promt 
working system for road construction in diJOTerent States. Lack 
of financial resources, difficulty of raising finance at reasonabh 
rates of interest, somewhat stringent and meagre advances availabb 
under terms of the existing contract system and uncertainty about 
continuity of an optimum economically viable work load, systoa 
of awarding work to the lowest contractor in spite of his othenriw 
apparent lack of proper resources for inputs needed for effiaat 
performance and delivering quality specifications are some of tb 
deterrents to the development of road-making contracting industij. 
The Committee observed that imfortunately, construction was not 
recognised as an industry by banking institutions and as suck 
contractors, even if they wanted to develop their capacity and 
expertise, could not do so for want of liquid funds raised at reaso- 
nable rates of interest and had to resort to private market borro- 
wings at exorbitantly high rates. Again, for want of assured 
continuity of work, speciality built-up for road-making work 
obviously has to be dispersed to other types of works. 

The Committee recommended that department should give 
advances for mobilisation, for purchase of machinery, advances 
against materials of construction, ensure prompt payments and 
take steps to reduce earnest moneys and security deposits and 
accept bank guarantees for the same so as to avoid tying up of 
the scarce financial resources of the contractor. 

The Committee strongly recommended judicious registration 
of contractors, their pre-qualification for jobs and floating of 
composite contracts of sufficient size rather than splitting up of 



Highway Contracting Industry (Present Status and 

Measures for Growth) 337 

work into various items as at present. Furthermore, employment 
of qualified engineers in their management for supervision of work 
should be insisted upon for registration and for award of work. 

3. Earlier, the Planning Commission (Construction Division) 
bad also set up a Panel for advising on ways and means of effecting 
**Economies in Construction Costs". In their report submitted 
in 1968, while discussing the business of construction, the Panel 
pointed out the fact about banks not recognising construction as 
an industry and hence denying the construction-contractors' 
borrowings at reasonable lending rates and thus forcing them to 
raise finances from private parties at exorbitant rates of interest. 
This was inhibiting the growth of construction industry as con- 
tractors were always short of liquid funds for taking on new con- 
tracts, for financing those in hand and for purchase of new plant 
and machinery. 

For encouraging growth and modernising the industry, financial 
assistance from the Govt, was considered essential by the Panel- 
It suggested setting up of a " Construction Finance Corporation", 
grant of advances for mobilisation and purchases of machinery, 
advance against materials, acceptance of bank guarantees or 
fidelity bonds of Insurance Companies as earnest money and 
security deposit. The Panel also suggested selective tendering 
(i.e., pre-qualification), introduction of a National Register of 
Qualified Contractors, some changes in the contract forms so as to 
make conditions equitable as far as possible. 

4. The Indian Roads Congress, which is the premier organi 
sation of highway engineers in the country and provides forum 
(for pragmatic and useful discussions on all problems relating to 
design and construction of roads and bridges) to the representatives 
of all the Govt, departments, dealing with roads and those from 
the highway construction industry has also been emphasising the 
need for organising the road construction industry so that it employs 
modem techniques, engages properly quaUfied staff, equips itself 
with adequate plant and machinery for increased productivity 
and quality work. The Congress has constituted ^.'^otMciXXsifc v^ 
look into the shortcomings and needs of the Hi^Vvwa^ CcyDXx^olvR% 



338 Panel Discussion on 

industry and suggest improvements. This Committee has 
members from the industry, besides those from the Public Worb 
Department, Border Roads, M.E.S., E-in-C's Branch, etc. 

During deliberations of the Committee (which are still to 
continue) the representatives of the contractors have highlighted 
the need for : 



(a) Controlled Enlistment and Registration based on 

resources in terms of men, materials, plant, machinery and |«| 
performance, pre-qualification and selective tendering. 

(b) Financial assistance in the form of advances for mol»l]8atioii,p»' 
diase of machinery, etc., l^ reducing quantum of earnest 
and security deposits and accepting bank guarantees. 



(c) Tendering in two parts v/r.,— Part *A' containing 
design and specifications with all technical and financial 
tioDS etc. and Part *B' containing price bid to be opened alkr A , 
conditions have been settled and financially assessed. 

(d) Escalation Clauses in the contract which should be easily ip» 
kable and should cover increase in labour wages, increaie k 
cost of materiate to be arranged by contractor, petrd, oil aii 
lubricants since in the context of present-day unpredictable and 
constantly rising inflation, contractors cannot fairly assess price 
rise effect on completion costs of contracts and makes them 
gamble or leave works incomplete or skimp on spedficatioos to 
avoid loss. 

(e) An efiicient system to settle disputes early and capable of ins- 
piring confidence about fair treatment to both parties. 

(/) Assured continuity of work so that investments made by coo- 
tractors do not become unproductive. 

(g) Completeness of N.I.T. with reliable data. 

It was jointly appreciated that there is certainly an urgent 
need for the industry to arrange for : 

(a) Quality control wtib contractors* own site laboratory to enable fail 
supervising staff to test and control material-quality and oots* 
truction processes. (E>epartmental supervision and diecking 
will be there always.) 

(b) Assured performance of contracts and delivering roads capabk 
of giving defccl-ttte sciN\cfc loi ^ %\5ffic\ent period fcf 
defect-liability. 



IiGHWAY Contracting Industry (Present Status and 

Measures for Growth) 339 

(c) Timely completion ofprojects as perjointly agreed time schedules 
within the time-frame of the contract with requirements of inter- 
mediate progress levels. 

>. Roads Wing of the Ministry of Shipping & Transport is 
conscious of this 'inadequately organised' status of the road 
acting industry and the resulting lack of requisite quality 
ol, time over-runs and cost over-runs on projects. It has 
having detailed in-depth discussions with all the State Chief 
leers, at every possible forum, (IRC Annual Sessions, All- 
meetings of Chief Engineers, Technical Symposiums or 
[larson Highway Construction Techniques and Quality Control 
rejects). For achieving quality, speed and economy on road 
cts, joint efforts of engineers in-charge of the project and the 
actors are absolutely essential. The Contracting Industry 
Road Project Engineers have jointly to appreciate their res- 
ibility to ensure quality work and to complete the same within 
me-frame of the contract and for that purpose the contractors 
Id equip themselves with — 

(a) Experienced, qualified personnel at management and field level 

(6) Necessary plant and machinery in good running condition with 
proper arrangement for repairs and maintenance ; 

(c) Their own systematic and responsible tedinical quality check of 
materials of construction and of the construction processes as 
well as of the finished inx)duct ; 

(d) A small field laboratory of their own for large projects to be 
handled by adequately trained experienced staff. 

For making such a set-up economically viable and profitable 
e contractors the departments should let out composite con- 
( of sufficiently large size and arrange works so as to ensure, 
r as possible, continuity of a certain level of work-load to 
!e the contractors to recover investments on inputs. The 
n of spUtting road work horizontally into different small size 
. should be stopped and the small size contractors 
d be asked to join into co-operatives for handling large 
>osite road works. In the context of all the above, an 
able rise in contract bids and therefore pToied cosVs \s tlqX 
? grudged but accepted. 



340 Panel Discussion on 

For improving quality, in addition to the nonnal 
checking of materials and construction processes an ad 
independent set-up under the direct control of the Chief 
for performing random checking on materials, field coi 
processes and on finished samples has also been 
to be instituted. But any worth-while results can be 
only if all concerned jointly realise their responsibility to 
sincerely and deliver goods of requisite quality as designel 

6. For alleviating the complaints of the contractors 
restrictive and unequitable provisions of the present 
forms, to afford adequate financial assistance and to hdp 
the contractor for increase in labour wages, material price 
price of P.O.L., a Committee of Chief Engineers has evoM 
"Model N.I.T. and Contract Documents" which by and 
would meet the requirements considered necessary for the 
of the contracting industry as suggested by contractors tl 
This model NIT has also tried to introduce the requireiml 
phased intermediate progress level on works at different 
of time during the construction period. Steps arc befaig 
to finalise this document. 

As regards the provision of escalation clauses in the Modi 
Contract Documents, it is now being realised alround that fl 
the continuing inflation and the unprecedented increase in pri» 
witnessed during the last few years, very few contractors arc 
position to absorb the increase in prices in their original tendotl 
cost and it has also become very difficult for them to makeflf 
correct assessment of the likely increase in the prices of matoidi^ 
labour wages, machinery and POL etc. and provide for the 
in their tender. Over the past few years, big contractors hi*' 
been invariably stipulating their own conditions regarding co* 
pensation for escalation in the prices of materials, increase 
labour wages and other social benefits to the labour, increase ill 
the prices of POL etc. These conditions are varying in difftrt*] 
tenders and are sometines very difficult to assess for their financiili 
implications at the tender stage. There is thus an urgent vf^i 
for a critical review of the situation as it exists today and 
evolving a standard proceAui^ ^ox xcsayAxv% ^\SRfc ^^^^vsveats 
the contracts for sucVv v^inaWoTvs, >w\v\Okv ^Vo\\Vs. \ifc ^«sJ^x^^ 



Highway Contracting Industry (Present Status and 

Measures for Growth) 341 

equitable both to the Contractors and the Government. Such an 
exercise is now being attempted by evolving suitable escalation 
dauses to be introduced in the above mentioned Model Contract 
Documents. It has, however, been observed in some cases that 
presence of an escalation clause in a contract, ha3 led to a tendency 
towards delaying the completion of work without much justifiable 
reasons. To avoid this tendency or any such feeling in the clients 
it will have to be ejuunined that any adjustment in the tender 
price by way of payments/refunds arising out of variations in the 
cost of materials, POL and labour wages etc. is limited to the stipu- 
lated contract completion period except when there is an increase 
lA the original scope of the work requiring extension in .conti- 
miation of the stipulated date of completion in the accepted con- 
tract. In other words, for extension of time granted for any other 
reason whatsoever, adjustment in the contract price may not be 
admissible on account of variation in the prices of materials, 
POL and labour wages. Another method may be to fix an overall 
ceiling/limit for payments on account of increase in the prices of 
materials, labour wages and POL each separately. It has, however, 
been argued by the representatives of the Contracting Agency that 
in the present context of inflationary trends in the economy it would 
not be fair to suggest any such limit/ceiling. All these points 
need to be considered in depth so as to evolve an equitable formula 
for taking care of the esoEdation in the prices of materials and 
labotnr wages etc 

7. Earlier, to encourage purchase of equipment and machi- 
nery by contractors, loans were advanced to a few contractors but 
OTperienoe in a few cases has not been good and recovery has been 
ftsrimd to be difficult besides the contractors not using these on 
Govt works. It is, therefore, considered advisable that advances 
be given only in terms of contracts, proportionate to the value of 
the contract and against proper safeguards — duly executed bank 
guarantees and with hypothecation of machinery (as has been 
proposed in the Model NTT). 

8. Another important aspect that is causing concern both 
to the Contracting Industry and the Departments is the existing 
arbitration system. The contractors have been complaining about 
long delays in the arbitration proceedings and in implementation 

I.R.C. 41-2-22 



342 Panel DDCUSSKm on 

of the awards. The Departments have felt that being non-speaking 
awards, they have not been able to fully convince the finance about 
full justification of the award against different items of disputfli 
This matter has been recently discussed in detail by a group of 
senior State Chief Engineers and the representatives of Transpoit 
Ministry and after examining the existing systems in different 
States the Group suggested the setting up of full time Arbitration 
Tribunal. This Tribunal can hold arbitration proceedings al 
different stations in the States concerned most convenient for 
the parties involved for early settlement of the claims. 

This Group of Chief Engineers also considered the otto 
alternative which at present is in vogue in the State of Maha* 
rashtra. There a Committee of Secretaries has been set up with-* 

Secretary, Irrigation A Power Department 

Secretary, Fioance Dqwrtment/Joint Secretaiy, FfoanoD 

Department 
Secretary, Buildings & Communications Department 

One Chief Engineer/Addl. Chief Engineer torn the LrrigtfiOB 

A Power Department. 
One Chief Engineer/Addl. Chief Engineer from the Buildingi A 

Communications Dcpt., as members. 

The Chairman of the Conmiittee is the senior-most Secretai; 
and the Chief Engineers/Addl. Chief Engineers are those who aie 
not connected with the work in question directly. This Standing 
Committee have full powers to decide the claims in respect of 
disputes under the contract and their decision, if unanimous, is 
final as far as the Govt, is concerned. In case of non-unanimous 
decisions, the claims are referred to the Cabinet for final orders. 
However, the contractors have still got the right to go to the Court 
of Law if they are not satisfied with the decision of the Govt. For 
claims being referred to the Standing Committee the accepted 
value of the contract should be more than Rs S lakhs and claim 
should be for an amount of Rs 50,000. 

Anyhow, this matter of Arbitration or settlement of claims 
through a high powered Committee is proposed to be discussed 
further at the meeting of the All-India State Chief Engineers m 
order to devise ways and means of ensuring early settlement of 



Highway Contrachno Industry (Pusbnt Status and 

Mbasuus RMt GlU>WTri) 343 

ciaims in a manner fair to both the parties and making implemen- 
tation without mireasonable delays. 

9. It may also be mentioned that taking note of this present 
inadequate devdoped status of the Contracting Industry in the 
fidd of road construction and the absence of any concerted effort 
in the private sector to devdop the road construction techniques 
and improve quality. Road Construction Corporations in the 
Public Sector may also have to be considered. These can be 
managed by wdl-qualified experienced persons and can acquire 
n ecessary plant and equipment for carrying out road construction 
Jobs economically, expeditiously and with proper quality control^ 
Such Corporations may also serve as healthy competitors to the 
inivate road buikling contracting industry and help in developing 
the same to the required standards. 

10. It would certainly be worthwhile having a complete 
exidiango of ideas between the Engineers in-charge of execution 
of road works and the members of the Highway Contracting 
Agen^. The requirements for executing road works with speed 
and of requisite quality can be discussed openly and necessary 
measures can be identified jointly by the Profession and the 
Highway Contractors for taking further immediate steps to initiate 
and encourage proper growth of Highway Contracting Agency 
capable of discharging their responsibility as expected of them 
by the Nation. 

Some of the points calling for discussions are suggested here- 
under: 



(/) Fragmentation of road-work contracts— horizontaUy A vertl« 
cally versus composite contracts. 

(If ) Registration and pre-qualification of contractors for road 
works — minimum qualifications therefor. 

(///) Deterrents for development and efficient performance of the 
highway construction contracting Industry. 



Panel Docussion on Highway CoNntAciuio Indusiey 
344 (Present Status and Measures for Growth) 

(/f)How to eoture meatuict and achieve (luality cootnl 
construction in the fidd and giving performance guanmtee. 

(y) Measures for eliminating time ovtr-runs. 

(vl) Ffnandal Assistance to the Contracting Industry— General as! | 
under the contract 

(vtf) Madunery forear)y settlement of claims and for aibitiitiQa 
(riii) Escalation Clanses. 



INFORMATION SECTION 



1. ''PREDICTION OF RUT DEPTH IN FLEXIBLE 
PAVEMENTS** 

2. ^'STRUCTURAL THICKNESSES OF PAVEVIENTS 
FOR BULLOCK CARTS'* 

3. "DISTORTIONAL ANALYSIS OF SINGLE CELL 
PRISMATIC BOX GIRDERS" 



"PREDICTION OF RUT DEPTH IN FLEXIBLE 
PAVEMENTS** 

By 

Dr. SURENDRA PRAKASH JaIN* 



GCmXENTS 

L Introduction 

2. Distress Index Modd 

3. Rut Depth Model 

4. Load Deformation Curves 

5. Models to Characterize the ''Repeated 
Load-Deformation*' Characteristics 

6. Characterization of Subgrade 'Tine-Grained 
Cohesive Soils" 

7. Permanent Strain in a particular Month 

8. Procedure to Compute the Rut Depth 

9. Computer Programme 
10. Conclusions 



Fat9 

348 

348 

351 

353 

356 

358 
362 

364 

364 

367 



SYNOPSIS 

A pavement should be designed and evahiated in terms of the level of 
service or performance it can provide. CQncq)tual distress in a pavement can 
be measured in terms of fracture, distortion and disintegration. In the view of 
hl^way users, the distortion part of distress can be corrdated In terms of rut 
depth. In Uiis Paper, a model for predicting the rut depth Is presented wfaidi can 
be rq)resented as a permanent portion ci the total deformation In a pavement 
structure due to rq)etition of loads. A cooq>uter programme Is developed for 
computatioos. 



Executive Engineer, El/A2,lUverBankCokmy«lAidisinw^ \^S« 



348 Dr. Jain on 

1. iNntoDucncm 

The design of flexible pavements requires knowledge of complei 
structural systems. Many variables are involved, including the 
behaviour of soils and paving materials, combinations of static and 
dynamic loading, and different environmental and climatic oondi- 
tions. Early design procedures for flexible pavements were primarily 
rule-of-thumb. In time, many empirical and semi-empirical methods 
of design were developed. The empirical nature of the methods is 
due in part to limited knowledge of the behaviour of materials and 
of actual failure mechanisms and in part to the limitations of analy- 
tical techniques in handling the complex mathematjcal fimctions 
required. 

The inability to predict pavement performance under certain 
conditions with any existing design method has been due to the 
manner in which design procedures were developed; a particalar 
development was applicable only within certain limited geognqiliic 
boundaries and suitable only for the characteristics of available 
materials, environmental conditions, and traflSc loads withm these 
boundaries. 

The term failure as applied in the design of many engineering 
structures cannot be ured fe r pavement systems. For example, a 
pavement cculd be ccnridered to have failed according to structural 
design standards, such as appearance of cracks, but may still be 
capable of performing at a reduced level. A pavement should be 
designed and evalr ated in terms of the level of service or performance 
it can provide*. Distress mechanisms have been defined* as 
responses which lead to some form of distress when carried to a ex- 
treme limit. When the distress index exceeds some acceptable 
level, the pavement system is considered to have failed. 

2. DISTRESS INDEX MODEL 

A conceptual distress index can be expressed as follows*. 

DI(X^t)^FJC(xs\S(x^l D(x,s)xt] (1) 



■^ffF- ^^ 



Rut Depih in Fuxau Pavembots 349 

where 

I stme; 

X Kpo8iti(m vector of a point referred to a 

OD-oidiiiate system; 

PI (x, Hidistiess indei, a matrix function of 
space and time; 

C ix,t) »measoreof fracture, a matrix function 
ofspaoe and time; 

jS (x, t) ismeasure of distortion, a matrix func- 
tion ofspaoe and time; 

D (x, t) ^measure of disint^ration, a matrix 
function of space and time. 

The distress index is a function of the history of the variable 
lown from time zero to current time r. In a system's framework, 
\c parameters in Eq. 1 must be quantified from the input para- 
leto^. The three modes of distress may be e34)ressed as a function 
r load, evironment, construction, maintenance, and structural 
iriables in space and time. 
For fracture: 

C^ (x, t) is a function of load, environment, const- 
ruction, maintenance, and structural vari- 
ables, space and time; (2) 

For distortion: 

S ix, t) is a function of load, environment, cons- 
truction, maintenance, and structural 
variables, space and time; 

For disintegration: (3) 

D (x, t) is a function of load, environment, cons- 
truction, maintenance, and structural vari- 
ables, space and time. (4) 

The substitution of Eqs. 2, 3, and 4 for fracture, distortion and 
^integration into Eq. 1 gives a measure of a distress index, 
•^ed on the riding quality, economics, and safety as required in 
rticular circumstances, acceptable limits to the distress index can 
assigned. These limits define the failure of the pavement, 
Of siviag M criterion for pavement design. 



350 Dit. Jain ON 

Development of an ideal distress index moddisa oonqJa 
problem; however, the AASHO Road test concept of present service, 
ability index is recognised as the best effort to date in this direction. 
The present serviceability index equation developed in the AASHO 
Road Test^ is a widely accepted statistically derived regression 
equation which relates the distress manifestations to the present 
level of service. It has been found that in the view of highway users, 
the distress index can be very well explained and correlated in terms of 

(1) slope variance SV. ^Mdi can be related to disimpsntko 
and distortion; 

(2) rut depdi RD, wUdi can be related to distortiofi; 

(3) area of craddng C per thousand square feet, wliicfa ii 
related to fiwctue; and 

(4) area of patdiingP per thousand square feet, ^pdddi If rekled 
to iicacture, disint«gratk» and dislortioQ. 

At the AASHO Road test, these four factors were measured and 
the distress index or PSI of the sections was calculated and defined 
according to the following equation for flexible pavements (Ret 4^ 
Appendix F). 

P5/=5.0-.1.9fo^(l+5F)-1.375^Z)*-0.01 \/CTF (5) 

The pavement design models were developed statistically 
correlating PSI with axle load, repetitions of load, and the design 
variables (depths of various layers). A distress index curve 
is shown in Fig 1. An increase in load repetitions will 
increase the distress in the pavement. The form of 
distress development is shown by curves for distress indices for cra- 
cking (Z)/ci)> nit depth (Z)/rd) and roughness or slope variance 
(DIsw). The cracking index curve shows that although there is crac- 
king at the beginning of Stage in, theoretically actual distress in 
the pavement due to cracking starts at the beginning of Stage II. 
Once the visible cracking starts at Stage III, this effect tends to pro- 
gress rapidly.The pavement has some roughness due to imperfect 
construction even in the beginning, and the roughness 
increases further with the number of load repetitions, as shown. 
The rut depth distress due to permanent deformation in pavement 
layers will progress at a decteasvaftYaXft. DI XQ\a\\^^^\s^\a\tf&si. 



kuT Depth in Flbxdlb Pavements 



351 



DIasI>btTe88 Indn due to Cnuddng. 
DIu>=I>i*ti€S8 bd« due to Rut Depth. 
DIsv=Distre88 Index due to Roughness or Slope Variance. 
DIioTAL^Total Distress Index. 



i*oi 



B 

iS 

z 



99 

i 

V) 

5 



(DUE TO imperfect] 

C ON 9TRUCTI ON) ^^ - 



> 




J>jc!,. 



''-'^'_Pi5?— y^ 




VISIBLE 
CRACKING 



19^ 



NUMBER OF LOAD REPETITIONS, N 

Fif. 1. Distreti Index Curves for Flexible Pavements 



In this Pftper, a model for predicting the rut depth is presented. 
The rut depth may be represented as a permanent portion of the total 
deformation in a pavement structure due to repetition of loads. 



3. RUT DEPTH MODEL 

Fig. 2 outlines the procedure developed to compute rut depth 
in a pavement structure. The rut depth is calculated in terms of 
permanent deformation in different layers due to repeated loading 
The vertical deformation in an asphaltic concrete layer is very small 
rdative to other layers and thus is not considered. The total 
deformation consists of the sum of the deformations in all the layers 
below the 5iir&ceia>'er. Mathematically, rut dq^Wi\SL\!b& ^Ntnsvfiai 



3S2 



Dr. Jain on 



S&» /{applied load* £j,/i|,REPEATED LO>tf> V/S OeFOAMATfON CUSVe] 



OUTPUT 





START 1 




INPUTS 








CRITERIA 


AXLE LOAD, Ei,TrRE 
PR£9SURE,JUi6rDi 




LATERED ANAUVSI8 
COMPUTER PROGRAM 


" 


> 






( 





Ol AND Cfl 



TRAFRC DATA n/Ef^Vi 
^STRESS RELATIONSHIP 



REPEATED U>AO V/8 
DEFORMATION CURVE 



PERMANENT STRAIN 
ti 



D] 



RDs CD; CI 



nM3 



Fig. Z Flow Chart for Quantification of Rut Depth Index 
is represented as : 



Rut depthia>it% =f[^^(Of(^nh^ii^)\ 



Where 



iKO -/ [MtlHOfDiit), IF,]; 



(6) 







(t) — ftinction of time; 

ay = vertical and confining stresses in the i^ layer due to 

applied load fFj» inpsi; 
itj » number of load applications of level J; 
Pi = Poisson's ratio of the i^ layer; 
£i m elastio modulw c^ tYiib t^ \K!j«t/tfiL p^\ 



Rut Depth in FLexiblb Pavements 3S3 

A = depths of the i^ layer^ in inches; 
(e.ii)i = repeated load deformation curve for the i^ layer; 
ei s permanent vertical strain in the ^ layer. 

4. LOAD DEVCWMATION CURVES 

In triaxial loading, the permanent deformation of a parti- 
cular layer depends upon the number of load repetitions and vertical 
and confining stresses. Load deformation curves and regression 
equations developed from these curves, required to calculate the 
permanent deformation in various layers, are discussed below. 
These curves and regression equations give an estimate of the per- 
manent strain and deformation in each layer in terms of vertical 
stress, confining stress, and number of stress repetitions. 

Base and Sob-Base Gramlar Materiab 

The behaviour of granular materials under repeated loading 
is highly dependent on the degree of confinement. Haynes and 
Yoder* presented the results of undrained repeated-load triaxial 
compression tests on gravel and crushed stone used as base course at 
the AASHO Road Test. In these tests, a lateral pressure of IS psi 
and a deviator stress of 55 psi were used. For the present analysis, 
curves representing the actual developed stresses in the pavement 
section were requked. A literature review revealed that the results 
ofa study performed at Texas A & M University* on nine types 
of granular materials could be used to obtain this information. To 




LOCUS OF MINIMUM VALUES 



200 100 50 30 

Fig. 3. OnuSng Curve toe Sa\>-\Mib 



16 ft 4 3/g 3/^ \^/2 

SIEVE NUMBER 



?54 



£>R. Jain on 



JIOO 

Q 
^ 80 

> 
tf 60 

ttj 

z 

s: 

,.40 

Z 
ttJ 

S(ao 



LOCUS OF MAXIMUM VALUES 
M£AN OF ALL LABORATORIES - 




A&M ANGULAR MEDIUM 
CRUSHED LIMESTONE % 



LOCUS OP MINIMUM VALUES 



4- 



4- 



200 100 50 



90 



16 



•V 



•a' 



• v; 



Fig. 4. Grading Curve for Base 
NOTES: (1) Dotted and firm lines show the result ofAASHORoMl Test 
Materials. * 

(2) Chain Line shows the Result of A & M materials 
(Ref. 2, Figs. 3.5 and 3.6) 

ascertain the possibility of using this information to characterize the 
properties of the granular materials used at the AASHO Road 
Test, a comparison of various properties of the two materials 
was made. This comparison (Table 1) shows that the angular 
medium aggregate used for the A & M University test is similar to 
the AASHO base material and the rounded fine aggregate is similar 
to the AASHO sub-base material. 

Table 2 compares the repeated load test results given by Hay- 
nes and Yoder* for the AASHO Road Test base material with those 
given in the A & M University study for angular medium aggre- 
gate. The comparison is made for the total strain at an axial pres- 
sure of 70 psi and a confining pressure of 1 5 psL The values of total 
strain in the two cases are approximately the same at 10,000 re- 
petitions. A relatively large difference exists at 100,000 repetitions, 
which is not likely to influence the average results since the samples 
were near the failure point at these levels of strains and number of 
applications. There are many reasons for the difference between 
the total strain values. A part of the difference can be assigned to 
the difference in frequency and time of loading during the test in the 
two cases. Higher straiix values v^ouVi uox \^n^ \^ft\!L obkWsLod for 



Tabu 1. Oomfauonop AASHOBas andSub-«ab MATntuLwmiA&M 




TypiCAL AooaBOAn 








'jTOpCftlCS 


Base Material 


Sub-base Material 




AASHO 


A&M 


AASHO 


» AAM 


Qnulatioo 


See Figures 


3and4 




Optiiiiiimmotttiireoofitait,peroat 7.6 


7.0 


7.7 


7.3 


Maximum unit weight 


137.9 


136.0 


133.1 


134.0 


Texas triaxial class 


1 


1 


3.7 


3.0 


Plasticity (a) Uquidlimit — 


17.8 


^_ 


21.3 


(b) Plasticity index NJ'.-4.3 


Z3 N.P.— 3.4 


7.4 


(c) Linear shrinkage — 


14 


-~ 


5.6 


Los Aogales abnsioo 










(500 revohitions) 


23.9-28.3 


25-3 


25-35.4 


137 




178 


163 


169 
^3—7 


164 


Penneability (ft/day) 


.006-140 


0.003 


20x10 


0.006 
Rounded 
fine lime 




Angular 


stone mixed 


Brief description 


Crushed medium 




with sand 




limestone crushed 


Natural 


and other 






lime- 




calcium 






stone 


gravel 


carbonate 


Tablb Z Comparbon 


OF Total Strain i>or . 


\ASHO 


Road Test and 


Texas A & M U^avERsr^Y Test KfATEHiALS 








Total strain for 


Number of 


Total strain for AASHO angular medium 


Applkations 


Road Test materials. 


aggregate at A & M 




per cent 


University test, per cent 


m 


021 




ai5 




1,000 


0.41 




0.6 




10,000 


1.08 




1.0 




100,000 


4.4 




1.3 





the AASHO Road Test material if the time and frequency of loading 
were the same as those for the A & M test materials. For the 
reasons outlined above and since better data were not available, it 
is considered appropriate to characterize the fatigue characteristics 
of the AASHO Road Test base and sub-base materials respectively 
by the angular medium and rounded fine aggregates used at the 
A & M Universi^ test 



3S6 Dr. Jain on 

5. MODEI^TOCHARACTElUZETHEniEPEATED 
LOAD- DEFORMATimr CHARACTEIUSIICS 

The values of permanent strain and corresponding load 
repetitions are presented in Tables 3 and 4 for various combinations 
of vertical and confining pressures. The range of values for 
stresses is selected to be comparable with the expected values in the 
pavement structures imder normal traffic loads. 

So that the data given in Tables 3 and 4 could be convenieatfy 
used for the present analysis, a regression analysis was performed 
to predict the total strain value as function of the number of load 
repetitions, vertical stress, and confining stress.* Tte regressioit 
equations are given below: 

Base Material: 

Correlation co-efl5cient /?■ = 0.9938 
Standard error of residuals a= 0.074S 
e^ 0.57852-O.20640a.+0.07854#^-0.01464#^g JVL 
-.0.00121critog iV-0.00408cricr,+0.03846(/£»iV)" 
-0.00093a'i-0.00062 log iVa%-0.00292(&« N)^ 
+0.00204cr/+0.000Icr\-0.004a/ei+0.00006#V, 
+0.00046cricr, logN (8) 

Sub-base Material:- 

Correlation co-efficient /?■= 0.9772 
Standard error of residuals ^^0.1442 
^=-0.75465+0.256051 log N +0.n0O9ai-0.l4433 log Na^ 
~.^MXO1187-/i^j y # x 4- - 00 1^3a^^4^aO4>94 7 # /^n ,0 11 32 »*| 
+0.03340 log ^cr,•+0.00113% JVa/-0.01885#^f ; 
+0.00025ai* +0.00367a/ai-0.00072 cr^V, 
^-O.OlOlia la Jog N (9) 

Where 

ag= radial or confining stress, psi; 
e=per cent permanent strain; 
iV= number of stress application; 
ai= vertical stress, /7ji. 

Each of the above equations is based on 100 observations. For 
an actual design problem, the designer will replace these equations 
with the actual properties oblam^ ?ot \feft materials to be used. 



"'"sr^' 



Rut Depth in Flexible Pavements 



357 



b) 



s 



I 



i 



I 



a 

.2 



o 



=* 5,8. 



<s ^ ^ 



». 


«^ 


r^ 


r^^ 




r4 


«>i 


^ 


^N 


h) 


«n 


r^ 


«^ 


00 


2 


r* 


•^ 


•-* 


d 


^ 


as 


(>i 


^ 


in 


M 




• 


d 


d 


-^ 


R 


00 


m 


n 


i 


-^ 


d 


d 


d 


^ 


00 


»o 


«^ 


,^ 


K 


d 


d 


o 


d 


S 




s 


»n 


^ 




n 


>o 


q 


r« 


i 


ri 


-*' 


'^ 


d 


00 


^ 


r- 


'^r 


9 


^ 


^ 


d 


d 




ri 


r- 


■^ 




3 


^N 


d 


d 


d 


cn 






m 


r* 


a^ 


r- 


^ 


•-* 


s 


O 


d 


d 


d 


d 


LU 

1 


'^. 


o\ 


rn 


q 


f>l 


— 


^ 


^^ 


1 


^ 


«n 


<^ 


>o 


ci 


-^ 


o 


d 


1 


1^ 


q 


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ro 


g 






d 


d 










Q 


^^ 


vO 


ro 


^M 




^ 


d 


d 


d 


s 


>o 


en 


^ 


s 


5 


d 


d 


d 


d 


i 


»n 


00 


M 


as 


1 


r4 






d 


S 


p 


^. 


00 


»n 


(S 




d 


d 


>o 


as 


«o 


<^ 


3 


^* 


d 


d 


d 


'^r 


q 


»n 


n 


O 




wm^ 


d 


d 


d 






m 




5 


*n 


«s 


o 


S 


H 


d 


d 


d 


o 




o 


q 


q 


o 




ro 


«n 


I-: 


ON 





r4 ^ -: 






s: S.S. 



o 


q 


>o 


***. 


^* 


r4 


^ 




q 


>o 


ri 


00 


r< 


^ 




d 


2 




S 


so 

d 


2 


00 

d 


d 


d 


»n 


^ 


en 


«n 


d 


d 


d 


d 


o 

en 


2 


in 


2 


00 


't 


^ 


r* 


^ 




^ 


d 


rn 


q 


00 


m 


«^ 


^ 


d 


d 


OS 

d 


d 


i 


S 


't 


en 


C4 


Pi 


d 


d 


d 


d 


o 


>o 


''T 


q 


r4 


— 


^ 


^N 


>o 


<s 


q 


so 


— 


^ 


^ 


d 


^ 


00 


«J 


-* 


^^ 


d 


d 


d 


00 


'^ 


^ 


m 


d 


d 


o 


d 


ro 


<^. 


^ 


s 


d 


d 


d 


d 


•n 


tT 


a 


OS 


— 


^ 


^ 


d 


«s 


q 


OS 


m 


•^ 


^ 


d 


d 


q 


CO 


s 


m 


^ 


d 


d 


d 


r- 


rj 


«n 


n 


d 


d 


d 


d 


«s 


^ 


o 


s 


d 


d 


d 


d 


q 


q 


o 


o 


r4 


en 


'i- 


*n 



358 Dr. Jain on 

6u CHAHACTERI£ATIONCV6UBGRAI»''nNE 
CaUINED CQHEBIVB SOnjr 

DcforauitkNi Plrq^crtics ■rior t b gfnM Lofldhv 

The procedure developed in this Paper requires Btres^-strdn 
{dots for various axial and oonfhnqg piessure oomlmiations. The 
AASHO Road Test subgrade soil was lestedin fhe rqieated Load 
Test^* at a confinmg pressure of 3.5 pst for various axial sticssos- 
The test was made at a moisture content of 15J ptf cent A vaii- 
atk>n in permanent deformation characteristic is observed due to 
variation in moisture content, but at the tow stress levels 
encountemi in the pavements this variation wiU be very smaU. 
. For practical apidication of the method, r epe ti t ive load tests at 
various moisture contents expected in the field can be obtained Ibr 
inmeased accuracy. 

For AASHO Road Test subgrade soil, the repetitive load 
test curves are available on^ for 3.5 jm/ confining pressure. For As 
analysis, similar data are required for various oonfining pressures 
in the range expected in the ana^s. To make use of the avail- 
able information, it has been assumed that the total axis! 
deformation is the same for the same deviator stress. Knowmg the 
deviator stress (a'l— a'^) in the actual pavement, total strsin 
corresponding to a'l— 3.5can be obtained from the curves 
developed for a confining pressure of 3.5 pst. Equivalent vertical 
stress a' I will be computed as foOows: 

a\-3.5=a/-cr% (10) 

Where 

a'i—a%= Deviator stress in actual pavement 

a'x=^ equivalent vertical stress. 

Table 5 shows the values of the permanent strains vs. strois 
applications for various axial stresses at a constant confining 
pressure of 3.5 psi. 

Regression Model to Characterize Deformatioii—Repeated Lesl 
Characteristics 

To utilize the available information a r^ression ana^ 
was performed on iVie data sY^o^mti m Table S^ and tbD 



Rut Depth in Flexible Pavements 359 

Table 5. REPnrnvE Load and Deformation Data of AASHO 
Road Tot Suboradb Material 

Confining pressure <f^ - 3.5 psi 
Moisture content - 15.3 per cent. 



Axial stress 


Number of stress 


Total strain 


^1 


repetitions N 


per cent e 


0.0 


1 


0.0 


0.0 


10 


0.0 


0.0 


100 


0.0 


0.0 


1000 


0.0 


0.0 


10,000 


0.0 


0.0 


100,000 


0.0 


0.0 


1,000,000 


0.0 


6.6 


1 


0.1 


6.6 


10 


0.2 


6.6 


100 


0.3 


6.6 


1,000 


0.4 


6.6 


10,000 


0.6 


6.6 


100,000 


0.8 


6.6 


1,000,000 


1.0 


9.7 


1 


0.2 


9.7 


10 


0.4 


9.7 


100 


0.6 


9.7 


1,000 


0.8 


9.7 


10,000 


1.0 


9.7 


100,000 


1.2 


9.7 


1,000,000 


1.5 


16.0 


1 


0.6 


16.0 


10 


1.8 


16.0 


100 


3.0 


16.0 


1,000 


4.3 


16.0 


10,000 


5.7 


16.0 


100,000 


7.0 



following regression model was obtained: 

for a, =3.5 psi in compressioiL 

The correlation co-efficient i{*=0.99, and standard error of 
residimls=0.16=0.0016 in/in. 

^=0.35461^1-0.04064 a xhg N ^0.06511 a i* +0.00283^1* 
+0.00744 cri* log N (11) 

where symbols are as previously defined. 



360 



Dr. Jain on 



In the case of actual design problems, the user may replace 
this regression equation by the data obtained from the tests on 
actual subgrade material. 

Vertical and confining stresses 

Vertical and confining stresses are considered in two categories: 

(1) Those due to wheel load, for which stresses are calculated 
from the layered programme. The means of the stress at 
the bottom and of those at the top of each layer represent 
the vertical and confining stresses due to wheel load. 

(2) Those due to over-burden, for which stresses in each layer 
are calculated as follows: 



EflFective Height of 
Layer Over-burden Ai, 

inches 



EflFective Weight of 
over-burden 
ynu pci 



Base 



^i+/>>/" —Tf {Ykc X Z)i + ^8X0.5/),) 



hi 



/.I 



Sub-base Z>i+/>s+^8/*-gf (yAcxZ)i+yBXZ),+ysBx0.5x/),> 
Subgrade />!+/>,+/>• -^ (^ac x Z)i + y b x Z), + ^sb x A) 



^IROB = ydi*Ai*- 



l-At, 



(12) 
(13) 



Where 

Vkc* ?'b= unit weight of asphalt concrete, base, etc., pci 

^iROB ~ radial stresses due to over-burden in the /'*» Layer, 

psi 
^izoB = Vertical stresses due to over-burden in thei^ layetr 

psi 

t^i =Poisson's ratio of the i^^ layer 

^di =eflFective weight of overburden pci. 

Final stresses to compute the deformation in each layer, ar' 
obtained from the following equations: 

©"ir =^IZOB+^IRL (14) 

^iz =^IZOB+^IZL (15) 

Where 

o-jr = Total radial stress in the i^ layer, psi^ 

ai^ = Total vertical sttess *m l\va \^^\^:j^\. psi. 



Rut Defth in Flexible Pavements 361 

airi =meaii radial stress in the i^ layer due to wheel 

load psU 
^izi sMeaii vertical stress in the i^ layer due to wheel 

load, psi^ 
Elastic ModiihB 
Elastic modulus for each layer is considered monthly; Le., 

Eiif) ^flE^Ei^ £iii,£iiJ (16) 

Where 

Eix =average modulus value of the /^ layer for January, 
£i, = average modulus value of the V^ layer for February, 

etc. 

Applied Wheel Load 

For various load groups, equivalent repetitions in terms of 
one single load group can be calculated as portrayed in Fig. S^ 
Chan* found a linear relationship for total strain versus the log 
of the number of repetitions for several sands and gravel. There- 
fore, a straight-line relationship between the cumulative permanent 
strain e and the logarithm of the number of load repetitions log 
^ for materials of various pavement layers, other than the surface 
asphaltic concrete layer, is assumed. However, similar compu- 
tations can be made if the straight Une relation is different from the 
assumed one. The equivalent repetitions are calculated in 
^s of the heaviest load group to give the least error in this 
computation. It is also assumed that load group h is the heaviest 
load group. For equivalent permanent strain, Fig 5. 

l0gNi _ lognh ,jyx 

Ni -10.0 
Total equivalent repetitions in terms of the load group, say 
^fct is given by 

N^t=^N^+N^+ +Nt^lNi (19) 

Combining equations 18 and 19 

N.=l 10.0 {^^^^) (20) 



362 



Dr. Jain on 




/ lO<5 fii. 



LOG N (load repetition)- 



Note: The number on the Curves represents the Load Group 

Fig. 5. Development of Equivalent Load Repetitioiis for one load group io 
terms of other load group 

Where 

i^i = equivalent number of load repetitions of load 
group of level i in terms of heaviest load group A, 
Hi = actual load repetitions of load group of level /, 
Mit = total equivalent load repetitions in terms of heaviest 

load group, 
e\ = total permanent strain corresponding to load group iff. 

7. PERMANENT STRAIN IN A PARTICULAR MONTH 

Due to monthly variation in the material properties, the same 
load group creates different stress conditions in each layer each 



Rut Depth in Fleuble Pavements 363 

month. To find the cumulative deformation in each layer in a parti- 
cular month, the net permanent strain caused by a particular load 
group in that month is required. This permanent strain in each 
layer, in per cent inches per inch, is obtained from the difference of 
the permanent strain correq[N>nding to the number of load repe- 
titions at the beginning and at the end of that moth. 

^|p(0=^IE(0-^iB(0 (21) 

Where 

^ip (/) =neC permanent strain in the i^ layer for the /^ 

month, 
fiB (/) = permanent strain in the i^ layer for the t^ month 

and at the beginning of that month. 
eiB (/) =same as e^ (0, but at the end of the month. 



The permanent deformation for each month in the pavement is 
calculated as : 

A/(0 =^ip (O.'^i. lin (22) 

A(/) =SA'i(0 (23) 

i=rl 
where 

Ai(0 = Permanent deformation in the i^ layer and 

t^ month, 
^(/) = Permanent deformation in the whole 
pavement structure in the t^ month, in inches, 
/ =number of layers. 

CanmlatiTe Deformation or Rot Depth 

The rut depth in a particular month is represented by the 
Cumulative deformation of the pavement structure from the 
l^ginning of the pavement facility to the end of that month. 
Kfathematically, the rut depth is given by : 

RD (0 =s,tA (0 (24) 

Therefore, knowing the monthly deformations (/), the rut 
4epth is calculated by Eq 24. 



364 Dr. Jain on 

8. PROCEDURE TO GOMPUTB TOE RUT DEPTH 

The stq>s in the calcuhtion of nit depth, shown in 
Fig. 2, are: 

(1) Fromtlieaxfek»d»modiihaofclatticilarQf VBxiow 

tyre presniie, Poiiion*t nlio^ and thirWwii of l^fca^ 
conqNile the vertical and nuiial ^^^**^"g itienes at tiie 
top and bottom of cadi layer. 

(2) Compute the total radial and vertica] stresses in eadi layer 
due to over-burden and wheel load from Eqs. 14 and 15. 

(3) Input of the. repealed load defocmatfcm curves obtained 
from the field f<x eadi layer except for the asphaltic con- 
crete suifrux layer. Regressioo equatioos used in die 
computer programme are devdoped fronr the repealed 
load dcfonnation data (Eqs; 8, 9 and 11). 

Compute permanent strain co r re sp onding to stress oondi- 
tions and number of load repetitions atthe beginningand 
end of each month for eadi Igad group- 

(4) Calculate the equivalent repetitions in terms of \ 
heaviest load group, using Eq. 18. 

(5) Again compute the permanent strain from the 
equations at the b^inning and end of eadi month (as in 
item 3), but only for the heaviest load group for the equi- 
valent number of repetitions calculated in item 4. 

(6) For each month, the permanent strain in each layer is 
calculated from the difference of the strain values oonea- 
ponding to the number of load repetitions at the beginning 
and end of that month from Eq. 21 . 

(7) From the permanent strain in each layer for each month, 
the total permanent deformation in the individual layeis 
and for the whole pavement for each month is calculated 
with Eqs. 22 and 23. 

(8) Finally, cumulative deformation for each month, repre- 
senting the rut depth in the pavement is calculated by Eq. 24. 

9. COMPUTER PROGRAMME 

The whole procedure for computing the expected rut depth is 
too lengthy to handle by hand calculations. Therefore, a computer 
programme has been written which solves all the above-mentioned 
steps and computes the values of the expected rut depth. 



Rut Depth in Flexible Pavements 365 



START 



Read 

Ry unit weight of material. 

DRQ radial pressure for which 
deformation characteristics 
of the material are given. 



Calculate 

RD, composite weight of layers. 
H, composite thickness of layers. 



Determine and Print 

for each layer and for each month of design period. 
Strain to beginning of month; and 
strain through month by use of 
regression equations with cumulative 
applications and design vertical 
stress for highest design load group. 



Calculate and Print 

for each month and each layer 
except subgrade deformation due to 
strain to beginning of month and 
deformation due to strain through month. 

Deformation = strain + thickness of 
layer/100. 



366 Dr. Jain oh 



Calculate and Print 

for subgrade 

D = (STR ♦ V. DISP *JS)KV. stmt 

-2* Nu ♦ R. stress) 
Where 

D — Doformation 

STR — Strain from rpgressioii equations 
V.DISP— Vertical disfdaoemeat at sub- 
grade due to design load group (LAYER ) 
E —elastic modidus of subgrade 
N — Poisson's ratio of subgrade 
R. stress — radial stress at subgrade 
due to design load group 
V. stress — Vertical stress at subgrade 
due to design load group. 



Determine and Print 

Deformation for each month as the 

difference in deformation to the 

beginning of month and deformation 

through that month, 

cumulative deformation for each layer 

at each month. 

Rut Depth — cumulative deformation for 

all layers of each month. 



GO TO START 



Fig 6. FlOY/ Chart oC Cocnputec Programme 



Rut Depth in Flexible Pavements 367 

10. CXmCLUSIONS 

The model explained and developed in this Paper can be used to 
compute the rut depth in the design of flexible pavements. A com- 
friete perfonnanoe equation, including fatigue and stochastic 
concepts, for the pavement design is discussed in] Ref . 8 by the 
Author, and a designer, for a oonqriete design to include otherper- 
formance indices also, may have to refer the Ref. 8. 

The data and the developments in this Paper are based upon 
the research work done in U.S.A. Thus, the actual procedure laid 
down uses the information as were made available in U. S. A. How- 
ever, the procedure is applicable for Pavements in our country also 
and the model may be used with similar procedure based on Indian 
conditions, materials, available information and data here. Load 
deformation curves and regression equations ot the actual material 
to be used may be developed and employed to determine the actual 
rut depth for the pavement to be designed. 

Actual field observations of the rut depth were available from 
the AASHO Road Tcst^ and these were utilized for verification 
and validation of the model results with actual field observations 
for the same loadings etc., in both cases. It was found that the res- 
ults compared very well to place confidence in the use of the 
model for the design of flexible pavements. A satisfactory model 
should give residual error that average about the same as the 
deviations of replicate observations from their own mean. 
The rut depth difference between observed and computed values 
were within this criteria proving the adaptability of the model.* 
For the ease of the use, a computer programme has been developed 
which may be seen in reference* for complete details. 

REFERENCES 

1. Chen L.S., *'An Investigation of stress-strain and strength characteri- 
stics of cohesionless Soils,** Proceedings, Second International Con- 
ference on Soil Medianics A Foundation Engineering, Rotterdam 
Vol V, 1948. 

2. Dunkp, A. Wayne, "Deformation characteristics of Granular 
Materials subjected to Rapid, Repetitive Loading/* Research Report 
No.27-4, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A & M University 
College, Station Texas, No. V, 1966. 



368 Dr« Jain on 

3. riaynes, J.H. and Yoder E. J.. ** Effects of Rqieated loading cm Gia- 
vtl and Crushed stone Base Course materials used in the AASHO 
Load Test** High;i^iy R^ssirch Rtsord No. 39^ HRB, 1964, pp82-96. 

4. Highway Reseaidi Board, '*The AASHO Road Test: Report 5, Pave- 
ment Research**, Special Report. 6IE9 1962. 

5. Hi^wayReseaidi Board, *«AASHO Road Test Tecfanica] Staff 
Papers,*' AASHO Road Test Tscfanical Staff,Special Report, 66,1961. 

6. Hudson, W.R.JP.N.Finn, B.F.McCulk»gh, K.Nair, and B.A.Va]lecga. 
**SystBms Apinroadi to Pavement Design,** Interim Report, NCHRP 
Project 1-10, Submitted to National Co-operativB Hisbway Reseaicfa 
Programme, Highway Research Board, March, 1968. 

7. Hudson, W.R., B.F. McCnUougfa, FJELScrivner, mid James L Aown, 
*'A Systems Approach Applied to Pavement Design and Research,** 
Reseuch RQXMt 123-1, C^tre to Hi^iway Research, the Univecstly 
of Texas at Austin, March, 1970. 

8. Jain, Si*., **Flexible Pavement Sfystems-Seooiid Generation Inooi^ 
porating Fatigue and Stodiastic CooocplB/* Ph.D. Dissertation, the 
University of Texas at Austm, Dec, 1971. 

9. McCullough, BJF., CJ.Valkfga, and R.O.HickB, ''Evaluation of* 
AASHO Interim Guide for Design of Pavement Structure,** NCHRP 
Project 1-11, submitted to National Co-operative Highway Reseaidi 
Programme, Highway Research Board, December, 1968. 

10. Scrivner, F.H., and Chester H.Mischalak, '^Flexible Pavement Ftt- 
formanoe Related to Deflections, Axle Applications, Temperature and 
Foundation Movement** Research Report 32-13, Texas Trasnporta- 
tion Institute, Texas A & M University College, Station Texas, 1969. 

11. Scrivner, F.H., W.M., Moore, andO.R. Carey, "A Systems Approadi 
to the Flexible pavement Design Problem,** Research RQX>rt 32^11, 
Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A & M University College, 
Station Texas, 1968. 

12. Sesd, H.B., C.ICKhin, & C.E.'lee. "Resilience Characteristics of 
Subgrade Soils and their Relation to Fatigue failure in Asphalt 
Pave-ments,*' Proceedings, International Conference on the Stru- 
ctural Design of Asphalt Pavement, Braun-Brumfield, Inc., Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, 1963, pp. 611-636. 

13. Barksdale, R.D., and A.H.Leonards, ''Predicting Performance o^ 
Bituminous Surface Pavements** Proceedings, Second Internationa'^ 
Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements, Augus^^ 
1967, Braun-Brumfield, Inc., Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1968, pp 321-340^-^ 



-if K ^v^ ""- -*r"^ . 4 ' ^ ■^< i ^ pg ''^-"=-^ 



Rut Depth in Flexible Pavements 369 

14. Boussinesq, J., "Applkation deespotentials a Petude de F equelibre 
etde mouvement des solids elastiqiiite**, Gauthier Villars, Paris, 1885. 

15. Buniiister» D.M.» **The Ilieory of Stresses and Displaoeinent Layered 
Systems and Application to the Design of Airport Runways,** 
Proceeding Vol. 23, Highway Researdi Board, 1943. 

16. Carey, W.N., Jr., and PJE. Irick, *The Pavement Serviceability 
Poformance Concept**, Bulletin 250, Highway Research Board, 
January, 1960. 

17. Highway Research Board, ''Structural Design of Asphalt Concrete 
Pavement System,** Proceedings of Workshop held 7-10, December, 
1970, Austin, Texas. 

18. Highway Research Board, "AASHO interim Guide for Design of 
Flexible Pavement Structure,** AASHO Committee on Design, April 
1962. 

19. Highway Research Board, "AASHO Interim Guide for Design Fle- 
xible Pavement,** AASHO Committee on Design, October, 1961. 

20. Hudon, W.R., and B.F. McCullough,"An Extension of Rigid Pave- 
ment Design Methods,** Highway Research Record No. 60, Highway 
Research Board, 1963. 

21. Hutchinson, B.G., and R.CG.Haas, "A system Analysis of the 
Pavement Design Process,** Highway Research Record No. 239, 
Highway Research Board, 1968. 

22. Jain, S.P., '^Significance of Different Variables in FPS-7,** Research 
Report, Centre for Highway Research, the University of Texas at 
Austin, m progress. 

23. Jain, S.P., "Application of TraflSc Data of Texas Highway Depart- 
ment to Determine the Load Distribution Factor,** Technical 
Memorandum, 123-01, Centre for Highway Research, The 
University of Texas at Austin, November, 1969. 

24. Jain, S.P., ^'Effect on Value of the Modulus of the Subgrade 
Reaction (K), Due to Variation in Soil Support or Erodability,** 
Technical Memorandum 123-04, Centre for Highway Research, The 
University of Texas at Austin, April, 1970. 

25. Jain, S.P., "Rating of the Variables in FPS-2," Technical Memo- 
randum 123-07, Centre for Highway Research, The University of 
Texas at Austin, July, 1970. 

26. Jain, S.P., "Sensitivity Analysis on FPS-6 (AASHO Model)", 
Technical Memorandum 123-08, Centre for Highway Research, The 
University of Texas at Austin, July, 1970. 



370 DiL Jain on 

Rut Derh in FLsxnu Pavbubnts 

27. Jain« SJ"., *«An Bxtnnsioii of AASHO FladUe Dcrign Mediod,*' 
TtdwMi Mcnorandmii 121-11, GeDtre for HUnnqr Itaeaitli, Hie 
Uoivmity of Tent at AnMiii, Nomnter, 1970. 



28. McCuUoush, B.F., *'A Pftvemeot Overlay Dengn ^ysteoi. oonskkring 
Whed Loads, tTemperature ChaoiBB, and tatomaiioe,** PhJ). 
D i ater tatl o n , Umvctifty of Criifoniia at Beritetey, Joly, 1969. 

29. Vesic Akkniider S., ^^ffiam H. Ferioff. and Cari L. Mooimfth. 
Bdhon, **fimkm or.fiKMng Thooriei and Mediodt of Fawmeot 
Derign,** Chcalar Ninnber 112, Highway Rcteaidi Board, Oct.,1970. 

30. Yoder, EJ., Princ^iln of Favmeat Deilsii. Jolm WHey and Sooi, 
Inc., New York. 19S9. 



^'STBUCrURAL THICKNESSES OF 
PAVEMENTS FOR BULLOCK CABTS *' 

By 

Dr. M. S. Rao* 

ft 
C. S. Sahu** 

CONTENTS Page 



1. Introduction 

2. Types of BuUock Carts & Loads considered 

3. Road Crusts considered 

4. Contact Areas and Stresses 

5. Subgrade variations 

6. Design of Structural Thickness 

7. Discussion on the Data and the Results— 



371 
372 
372 
373 
373 
373 
383 



Contact Areas & Stresses 
8. Conclusions •• S85 

1. INTRODUCTION 

Bullock carts constitute the bulk of traffic on our village 
ads, the district roads (O.D.R.) and to a certain extent on the 
ajor district roads also. A nation-wide consciousness prevails 
to the need for improving our bullock cart design, for ensuring 
)t only an efficient running condition for the cart as well as the 
lUocks, but also to reduce the damaging effect of the wheel on 
e road surfacing. Different types of wheel designs exist in 
Cerent States. Even though attempts are being made to evolve 
suitable common cart model, it will be a long course to attain 
and in fact, it may need a sort of a revolutionary work and change. 
tr present bullock cart will continue definitely for a few more 

Reader in OvilEngiDeerine, iSSSSSii^^JSS^ 

Lectu^io Civil BogmecSg. ]^^^%^y 



372 Dr. Rao & Sahu on 

decades and our roads have to take the chaUepge of the bullock- 
cart. It will be but proper that steps are taken to segregate the 
bullock carts and run them on roads or tracks which may be buih 
separately for this traffic or laid alongside the existing roads. The 
crusts of such roads are to be designed for the loads and inten- 
sities of the existing bullock carts. Although the gross loads 
may not be high, the small contact areas leading to high contact 
stresses influence the design. 

In this Paper an attempt is nmde to determine suitable 
structural thicknesses of road crusts, directly laid on the 
subgrade. Typical crusts of flexible, semi-rigU and rigid types 
have been considered. Hree types of bullock carts under three 
separate loading conditions are included. Five variations in 
subgrade strength have been assumed, ranging from day to 
compact moorum. Only the static loading conditions have been 
taken up in this study. 

2. TYPES OF BULLOCK CARTS A LOADS CONSIDERED 

Three types of bullock carts, which were considered by 
Gokhale and Mehta^ are included in this study. Two of tbon 
have iron tyres of difTerent widths and the third one has pneu- 
matic tyres. 

They are: 

(a) 122 cm diameter x 38 mm wide iron tyre 

(b) 114 cm diameter x 88 mm wide iron tyre 
and (c) 6.00 x 19 ADV Dunlop imeumatic tyre. 

Three magnitudes of wheel loads, considered on each of 
the above cart wheels are, 
(i) 410 kg. 
(ii) 615 kg. 
and (iii) 820 kg. 

Thus total of nine loading variables are included. 

3. ROAD CRLSTS CONSIDERED 

Two types of flexible Ciusts, namely the water bound macadam, 
and the bituminous concrete type are included. To represent 
the semi-rigid and rigid types, soil-cement pavement and lean 



Structural Thicknesses of Pavements ran Bullock Carts 373 

cement concrete pavement, are chosen respectively. The full 
depth of the pavement is selected to be one of the above mater- 
ials, directly laid on the subgrade. As such, the pavement and the 
subgrade could be taken as a two-layer system. 

4. CONTACT areas AND STRESSES 

The contact areas of the bullock cart wheels vary with the 
type of the wheel i.e iron or rubber and also depending on width of 
the rim. Also, the contact of the wheel rim may vary with the 
type of the surfacing on which it runs. The contact areas for 
wheels with very heavy loads such as heavy trucks or aircraft, 
may be either elliptical or rectangles with rounded comers. How- 
ever, for the ranges of loads from bullock carts, the contact areas 
which are very small can be assumed as circular, without much 
error. For the three typical bullock cart wheels and the three loading 
conditions, contact areas over the four types of surfacings were 
experimentally determined by Gokhale and Mehta^ These 
contact areas 'A' in sq. cm and the average contact stress (p in kg./ 
cm*) and also the radii ('a' in cm) of the equivalent circular areas 
of contact are shown in Table 1. From this table, the varia- 
tions of the contact areas and stresses, with respect to the wheel, 
type of the load and also the contact surfaces are evident. 

5. SUBGRADE VARIATIONS 

In order to determine the effect of strength of the subgrade 
in the design of the flexible, semi-rigid and rigid pavements consi- 
dered, five subgrades are chosen. They are clay, sandy-clay, 
sand-moorum mix, loose moorum and compact moorum, whose 
CBR values ranged from 3 to 20. The equivalent values of modulii 
of subgrade reactions (K) varied from 2.77 to 6.92 kg./cm». The 
elastic modulii values adopted for these subgrade soils are the 
averages of ranges given by Leonard* . These properties (CBR, 
* and E^) of the subgrade and the modular ratios EJEi for each 
set of subgrade and pavement combination are reported iu Table 2. 

6. DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL THICKNESS 

Since the pavements considered include flexible semi-rigid 
and rigid types, appropriate design methods which are available 
for these, are sq)arately adopted. 

L R. C— 41-2-24 



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376 Dr. Rao ft Sahu on 

They are outlined below. 
6.1. FiexibkCraHs 

For the thickness design of the water bound nwcadHfn and 
the bituminous types, two methods were considered. 

(A) In the U. S. Corps of Engineers' equation using theCB.R. 
values of the subgrade, the thickness of pavement is given by 

- r_L75 1 1^ 

*^^ ^ '^^ L CBR "Ip* J^ 

where Pawheel load in kg. 

pes intensity of wheel load or 
contact stress kg./cm*. 

For the different pavement-subgrade combinations and loads, 
using the relevant CBR, P and p values, the crust thidmeases aie 
determined for both water bouiul macadam and Bituminous types 
and are given in Table 3. 

(B) Hie deflection equation by the two-layer theory of DIM. 
Burmister was used in second method. From the equation the 

W=lliL x^ Fw 

deflection co-efficients *Fw' are evaluated using these deflecti<m 
co-efiicients and the relevant modular ratio (£s/£x)values,and usmg 
standard Bunnister*s curves, the values of h/a and therefrom tho 
thickness values *A* of the pavements are evaluated. The design, 
values for water bound macadam type are given in Table 4-A and. 
those for Bituminous crust are given in Table 4-B. It may be noted, 
that the thickness values have been recorded in those cases of sub— 
grade-load-combinations for whom the deflection co-eflSdents ar^ 
less than one. Also the thickness values are evaluated for four" 
levels of permissible deflection values(0.12S, 0.2S, 0.375 and O.Scm.;^ 

6.2. Semi-rigid (Soil-cement) pavements 

There is no standard method available for the desiyi of theses 
types. Neither the treatment as purely flexible pavement nor a» 
a rigid-pavement hold good. However, the non-dimensional eq^ 
nation given by Naussbaum and adopted by Usheta and^ 
WBtanabo^ and the equation bv Justo and Khanna,^ 



i 



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li 

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Is 

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>e 00* 9^ 



m 00 



^ 00 x> 



228 

^ « 00 



IS 0^ m 

^ m ^* 



•n fM p 



*n ^ >0 
1^ ^' O 



^ O p 

— V >0 



•i "^ — 



m r*« 00 
iri >o r*: 



f*^ OS rA 
so t^ o^ 



P O «^. 
00 o *-* 



>o ^ vo 
^ ^ so 



M r. vo 

2 2^ 



228 

^ \0 00 



e 

I 



I 



^ m ^ 
^ in >d 



f-. PS 

i#* r* ^ 

•^00 



«n *M VO 

r*-' OS d 



en 9s O 
«-^ m vd 



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irj N© t*" 



O SO 9s 

vd r*"' oD 



00 \o <^ 
1^' OS* -^ 



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«-< in «n 

V> 00 -^ 

-^ ^ <s 



228 

^ SO 00 



V 



\ 



I 






51 

N 

o c 

E w 
w 

at 

ZQ 



i2 



I 



r4 



i 






? 



5? 
? 






8 



? 



ri 

"I- 



I 








1 O^cn 
1 O^ 


Il2 


oqoovo 


— CM en 


-•s;s 


0.91 
1.4 . 
1.94 


0.86 

1.3 

1.96 


0.34 

■1.2- 

1.9. 




nS5 






122 


1 12 






2«S 




vOOOO 






vooom 

rr] O •^' 


1 l§ 




ONOOO 












— <00O 

t^dvS 


Kdm 


OJQO 

'5r vooo 


22S 

•♦>ooo 


53g 


< 


I « 


. y 



e 



\ 



l y I jm^wmi Pi - 



ei 
O 



o 



ii 

< 
H 3 

1^ 

a* •- 

^^ 

o^ 
6. -J 

l> 

H J 

^ 2 

C H 

5^ 



Si z 



I. 



E 
B 

8 

I 



E 



? 



d d 



I o -^ 






1^ p-^ r^ 
o -^ ^' 



00 00 00 

^ ri rn 



d ^ ^* 






ri r-i 



kj "* 



|.s 






>o v^ «n 
r'i «rl r-* 



O m o 
^ — ri 

'^ NO 00 



^ < 



I I 



d d 



VO fs| v^ 

d ^ ^ 



00 r^ o 



d 



^ fO CJ 

— ri r^ 



1^ vo 



O m o 

^ Co 00 



E 

E 

00 
00 



v8 rs| 

d — * 



— VO TJ- 

^ ^ ri 



>o o r^ 

d ^ ^ 



00 00 r- 
^' ri r^ 



•* rj NO 
d d .-i 



«n >o n 
^* ri ro 



VO NO 5t 

m* "o r-.' 




380 Dr. Rao A Sahu on 

oorrelating the deflection (w), the sul^rade reactkm (k) and the 
loading intensity (p) have been used to study their comparative 
nature. 

(A) Naussbaum's equation as for deflection Of soil cement 
bases is: 

W = 0.058 (A/a"** ■■ X p/a from which the pavement 
thickness 



r 0058 p n 1 
•*• can be evaluated as A = 1 ^ ^ f^ I X 



a 



Thickness values evaluated from this equation are given in 
Table 5-A. 

(B) From their studies on soil cement slabs on tyincal (A^ 
soil-subgradc, Justo and Khanna proposed a non-dimensiona 
equation for deflection as: 

wz^plk [0.1634 a/A— 0.08861 

Although, this was suggested for the particular soil-cement mix 
and the subgrade used by them, this equation was also used for 
comparison and the thicknesses are evaluated as: 

0.1634 a 



h = 



whip 4- 0.0886 



The calculated thickness values by this equation are given in 
Table 5-B. In both cases, three levels of deflection (»F= 0.025, 
0.05 and 0.075 cm.) were adopted. 

6.3. Lean Cement Concrete Crust 

This layer is treated as rigid type and elastic modulus value 
(£x) 14.1 X 10* kg./cm* was adopted. The thicknesses are deters 
mined, by adopting the equation of H.M.Westergaaid as modified 
by Kelly for comer stresses.* The comer stress is given as: 



ip 



thickness can be determined as: 



* = 74['-(f) ] 



■wff^i^awmip^yr 



z 

I 



3 



I 






z 



I 






S 



z 

U 



t 



so 

5 •" 
I 5 









so' 



S •" 

§ s 

o ^ 

I 






00 



2S8 

-^ r> NO 

'^ m «*» 
00 «-* in 

^ « t*^ 



¥^ ^ 00 



m ^-« ^ 
00 ^ p 
in t*^ OS 

OS CO 00 

m ^ 00 
1^ Os' 1-1 



9S!9 

«o vo ri 

00 ^-« ro 

CS O 00 

vd 00 OS 

r* so m 
00 r* r* 

vo' 00 O* 

00 r* 1^ 

«o so 00 
K OS ^ 

OS S V? 

OS c4 »n 



vo (N| Q 

*n OS ^. 
00 o r*^ 



OS 3 V? 
OS c4 «n 



00 00 OS 

O en so 



^ « m 
OS ri r* 



2 2'S' 



r* ri -^ 
r* <s m 



jn O OS OS r4 »n 



<s rn r4 
O in Q 

^ vo 00 



m 



8.05 
4.90 
6.90 


3.45 
5.72 
5.1 


P! m o 
OS in 00 


5s;;- 


S <>i t^ 

O NO 00* 


4.36 
7.24 
6.43 


11.25 
6.83 
9.64 


Ss? 


14.7 
8.93 
12.60 


3s: 


o r- OS 


m 1^ S 
-^ in so 


ri 00 O 


in so (^ 


13.3 
9.40 
11.4 


5.7 

7.24 

8.4 


14.70 
10.37 
12.6 


ro 8 «^ 

SO 00* OS 


19.20 

13.6 

16.5 


8.22 
10.5 
12.12 


16.53 
10.07 
14.22 


7.10 
9.03 
10.5 


19.20 
11.66 
16.46 


8.72 

10.45 

12.1 


20.98 
12.74 
18.0 


8.98 
11.4 
12.9 


23.18 
14.08 
19.9 


9.92 
12.6 
14.2 


30.3 

18.39 

25.96 


12.97 

16.5 

18.5 


S82 

OS c4 in 


4.72 
5.92 
6.13 


7.66 
4.02 
4.88 


5.25 
5.75 
6.52 


228 

"^ vo 00 


2 28 


A 


u 



o 
I 



s 



2 


^R8 


•* 


^ «n in 




n r*- ri 


p: 


« in«i 


H 


^ «n 




00 ^ in 
f*^ ^ ^ 



-** -^ -^ 



^ vi vJ 



f^ P 00 

'* T- '* 



5 8 & 

^ r* o 



so <-4 >o 
(o r^ — 
<s in in 



SS9 

-*' «n SO 

«n fn 00 

"^ in so 

:^ fn oo 

r*- m o 

^' in t*^ 

^' in i^ 

fn »-* Q 

<« n 00 



S S <-i 

"^ in r<; 
in ¥S t^ 



00 iri «-^ 
in NO 00 



m so r^ 

^ p vo 
00 w^ — . 



xn m vo 
■^ in n 



-2 8 a 

W fn ri 

22S 

^ \0 00 



^ On in 

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^ O 00 

fn ^ -^* 

^ NO 00 



Ol m CM 

*o ro ^ 
"^ in 

S o^ s 

^ in NO 



«n vo (^ 

m vi ^ 

¥^ so NO 

in NO i^ 

NO t^ 00 



fO 1^ f*i 

in NO t*-* 



00 O^ OS 

in vd K 



28 



00 OS »-* 

vd r*' OS 

r- OS 00 
<s r^ in 
K oo' OS 

-^ cs Tt 

in so 00 

t^ 00* OS 

m in o 
t-; 00 — , 

t-^ 00 O 



in in 

o 
so 



22S 



I 

I 



i 

§. 






^. y. \ 



Structural Thicknesses of Pavements for Bullock Carts 383 

Where j^ =^J2a 

P=z wheel load. 

ac= allowable stress or modulus of rupture of concrete* 

a^ = distance of the centre of contact area from 
the slab corner. 

/ e= radius of relative stiffness 



fj 12(l-0* 



Thicknesses of the Lean Cement Concrete (L.C.C.) pavement were 
calculated for modulus of rupture value of 16 kg./cm*. To study 
the influence of subgrade reaction value '/:', if any, in the design 
of thickness, calculations are made for the subgradcs of clay, and 
compact Moorum, whose */:' values are 2.77, and 6.92 and CBR 
values arc 3 and 20 respectively. The results arc given in Table 6. 
The intermediate values of */:' arc not considered, as the thickness 
values for *^' equal to 3 and 20 arc th<:msclves very close or 
almost equal. 

Table 6. Thickness Values of Lean Cement 
Concrete for Different Wheels and Loadings 



Cartwheel 


Wheel load 
P in Kg. 


Thickness of L.C.C. Pavement in Cm. 


At -2.77 


it -6.92 


38 nun wide 
Iron tyre (A) 




416 
615 
820 


8.6 
10.6 
12.2 


8.5 
10.5 
12.1 


88 mm wide 
Iron tyre (B) 




410 
615 
820 


8.5 
10.5 
12.1 


8^ 
10.4 
12.0 


ADV Dunlop Pneu- 
matic tyre (C) 




410 
615 
820 


8.4 
10.4 
11.9 


8.3 
10.3 
11.8 



7. DISCUSSION ON THE DATA AND THE RESULTS- 
CONTACT AREAS & STRESSES 

The contact areas and stresses for the wheels considered are 
presented in Table 1, and they show the typical nature of the tradi- 
tional Bullock Carts (iron tyre) compared to the pneumatic 
wheels. The influence of tyre width on the contact areas is most 
pronounced on the water ix)und macadam atvA X\vt VwjsX ^w ^^ 



384 Dr. Rao St Sahu on 

lean cement concrete surfaces, especially for the low and medhm 
loading condition. At the heavy load, the infloenoe seems to be 
rather uniform. From the narrow iron type to the pneamatic 
tyre, the reduction in contact stresses arc in the ranges of 1/3 to 
i while the reductions from the wide iron tyre to pneumatic tyiei 
are around 2/3 to ^. In case of bituminous surface, the contact 
stress values for wide iron tyre varied only m a rgin a ll y. The 
absolute values of the contact areas and stresses, in gonenl, 
seem to be governed by the rebtive hardness of the wheds and the 
flexibility of the road surface. 

7.1. Thickncas of FlexIHe orvla 

In the CBR method of design, usually the load and the subgiade 
strength form the basis. The thickness for water bound rnrntmAmm 
and bituminous surfacings do not vary. In the absence of suitaUe 
design curve for the range of loading for the bullock carts, tb 
U. S. Corps of Engineers equation was used, whi^ involves tte 
contact pressure y also. In Table No. 3, the sHgiht variation m 
thickness for water bound macadam and Mtumhious road for the 
given subgrade and loading conditions are due to the variation in 
the contact areas and pressures on these two surfaces. The thick- 
ness values for the water bound macadam and bituminous crusts, 
for wide iron tyre (B) and pneumatic rubber tyres (C) are close to 
each other for identical subgrades, whereas the variation of values 
between the narrow iron wheel and either the wide iron tyre or 
pneumatic tyre is marked. This may be due to the wide variation 
in the contact pressures developed by these wheels. 

7.2. The design thickness values for water bound marjiHinn and 
bituminous types, calculated from Burmister's two layer theory, 
are observed (Ref. Table 4-A, 4-B) to be always less than the 
values obtained from the CBR equation. The reason may be 
due to the conservative nature of the CBR method, which does not 
take into account the action of the overlying layers, as is done 
in the Burmister method. It may be noted that even by the two 
layer method, the thickness values for bituminous crusts are less 
than half the values for the water bound macadam crusts, 
thus projecting the effect of the strengtfi of the layer. At 
mU deflection levels, the dtsig^ \Yv\c\ji^sol>\i^5^inc^(^ft>Bq^ 



Structural Thicknesses of Pavements for Bullock Carts 385 

not appear to be much infhienoed by the type of bullock cart wheel 
but it varies with total load only. 

7 J. SoO CeMBt (SoBi-riiM) Crists 

Although the thiclcness values of soil cement crusts, calculated 
by the two methods and given in TaUes S-A and S-B, indicate a 
trend of reduction of thickness with increase in deflection levels 
and subgrade strength, the reductions are not to the extent as 
observed in the case of flexible layers. The thickness values by 
Naussbaum*s equation do not follow a specific trend. This may 
be due to the combined influence of the various factors, instead 
of any single one. The values of thickness from Table S-B are 
by far, less than the values obtained in Table S-A. Also the 
thickness values in the former Table do not seem to be affected by 
the strength of the subgrade to the same extent as in the latter. 
This contrast may be due to the differences in the original mixes 
assumed in arriving at the respective equations. Naussbaum's 
equation gives high values of thickness at low deflection level of 
0.02S cm. The soil cement mix considered by him seems to tend 
towards a flexible pavement. 

7.4. Rigid (Lean Cement CoBcrete) Crusts 

The thickness values of Lean Cement Concrete, shown in 
Table 6, are seen to depend entirely on the total load only. Neither 
the variation in contact stress nor subgrade strength has any influ- 
ence. For the selected lean cement concrete mix, with an elastic 
modulus (El) of 14.1 x 10^ Kg./cm* and modulus of rupture 
(^c) of 16 Kg./cm", the thickness values are lower than the corres- 
ponding thicknesses of soil cement crusts calculated by Naussbaum's 
equation. However, they are higher than the thickness values 
obtained from Justo-Khanna equation. This is perhaps due 
to the rich mix of soil cement and a high subgrade strength involved 
in framing the later equation. The evaluation of thicknesses in 
Table 6 has been done for the static wheel loads only. Temperature 
stresses are not considered. 

8. CONCLUSIONS 

(i) The thickness obtained for Lean Cement Concrete, only 
on the basis of strength of pavement may not be economical 



386 Dr. Rao & Sahu on 

initially, compared to the other types. However, 
its adoption may be advocated from the point of view 
of better wearing properties and longer life. 

(ii) The use of Justo-Khanna equation for design of soil 
cement crusts may be limited to rich soil-cement mixes 
only. Naussbaum's equation may be suitable for lean 
mixes laid on stronger subgrades. The later equation 
gives high values of thicknesses at low deflection levels. 

(iii) The thicknesses of water bound macadam, soil cement 
and lean cement concrete for a regular roadway, even 
under the lowest traffic or load intensities, are likely to 
be twice or at least 50% more than their thicknesses 
needed under the heaviest of the bullock cart wheek. 
It is therefore better to have separate car tracks with 
suitable design thicknesses than to combine the bullock 
carts with other fast traffic and designing the road crusts. 

(iv) The thickness values reported in the Tables are appli- 
cable only for the materials and variables considered in 
the study and also for static loading conditions only. 
Suitable corrections will have to be applied to obtain 
design thicknesses for dynamic effects and repeated 
application of the bullock cart loads. 

( ) Although the thicknesses in reported Tables are the 
actual calculated values, it should be taken that while 
adopting in construction, values rounded up to the 
nearest half or full centimetre values should be adopted. 

ACKNO WLEDGEM ENTS 

Acknowledgements are due to the Authors of the various 
references quoted, from which certain datas have been used in 
this study. 

REFERENCES 

1. Y. C. GoKHALE and R. S. Mehta— "Contact stress between Bullock Cart 
Tyre and Road Surface'*, Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India), 
Civil Engineering Division, July, 1965. 

2. Leonard— "Foundation Engineering". 



KucTURAL Thicknesses of Pavements for Bullock Carts 387 

£. J. YoDER— "Principles of Pavement Design,** John Wiley A Sons^ 
Inc. 1959. 

K. UsHETA and Watanabe— "Deflection Studies in Pavemeuu/* 2nd 
Internationa] Conference on Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements, 
Michigan, 1966. 

C. E. G. JusTO and S. K. Khanna— "Design of Soil Cement PavemenU,** 
Symposium on Modem Trends in Civil Engineering, University of 
Roorkec, 1972. 

Indian Roads CoNCRESs~"Guidelines for the Design of Rigid Pavements 
for Highways". IRC Code— 58. 1974. 



* 



<«DiSrQRTIONAL ANALYSIS OF SINGLE CELL 
PRISMATIC BOX GIRDERS^ 

By 

Dr. Ino. N. Rajagopalan* 

& 

B. K. Rajagopalan** 

CONTENTS ?ag€ 

1. Introduction .. 389 

2. Distortion and BEF analogy . . 390 

3. Effect of Supports on the Behaviour of Diaphragms . . 395 

4. Case Studies and Discussion of Results . . 398 

5. Conclusions . . 406 

INTRODUCTION 

Box girder bridge decks are found to be the best suited for long 
span bridges owing to the advantages of better load distribution, 
high torsional rigidity, better detailing of reinforcement and gre- 
ater economy. Due to high torsional rigidity of the box section, the 
longitudinal flexure plays a major role in dimensioning the cross- 
scction.However,investigations have shown that the box girder sub- 
jected to eccentric loading suffers deformation of the cross-section 
which introduces stresses in the longitudinal and the transverse 
direction. Such a distortion reduces the torsional rigidity of the 
sections and hence needs attention in ^the analysis of the box 
girder bridge sections. 

While classical methods are available for studying all the 
structural effects of a box girder section, the distortional effect of 
the box girder alone has to be studied by some special methods 
since classical methods fail to give reasonable results. Beam on 
elastic foundation analogy is most commonly adopted for studying 
the distortional behaviour of the box girder. This method is very 

* Assistant Professor of Civil Engineering, ') Indian Institute 

( of Technology, 
** Research Sdiolar, Department of Civil Engineering, ) Madras 600 036. 

I.R.C. 41-2-25 



390 Dr. N. Rajagopalan and B. K. Rajagopalan on 

popular because of its simplicity and adaptability for hand calcu- 
lations. This Paper brings in an improvement on the BEF analogy 
to analyst the box girder bridge decks for distortional effect. 

2. DISTORTION AND BEF ANALOGY 

2.1. Distortioiial Behayiov 

Even though the box section has sufficient stifihess against 
torsion, the individual elements of which the section is made are 
not very stiff and hence are subjected to transverse flexure which 
leads to distortion of the section under eccentric loading. Any 
eccentric load appUed to a box section can be divided into symme- 
trical and anti-symmetrical components as shown in Fig. 1. The 
symmetrical component causes longitudinal bending while the 
anti -symmetrical component causes torsion and distortion. Shear 
stresses are developed in the section to resist the torsional 
and distortional effects. The distortional deformations of the 
cross-section varies from a maximum at the point of application 
of the torsional moment to zero at a point away from it, resembling 
the bending behaviour of a beam on elastic founda,tion. The 
analogy between the distortion of the box section and bending 
behaviour of a beam on elastic foundation was noticed by Vlassov^ 
but was later developed by investigators like Wright, Abdel Samad 
and Robinson.* This method accounts for the distortional 
behaviour of the box section and also takes care of the diaphragm 
placed anywhere on the span. The aim of this Paper is to 
bring about the difference in distortional behaviour of a box 
section due to a diaphragm placed over and cast monolithically 
with the support and a diaphragm placed anywhere on the span, 
using the beam on elastic foundation analogy. 

2.2. Distortional Warping and the Concept of Bbnomeat 

Fig. 2 shows the distortion of a box girder section under anti- 
symmetrical loading. W is the distortion of the cross-section and 
it varies from section to section as stated earlier. The variation of W 
along the span introduces longitudinal stresses called distortional 
warping stresses. It can be proved by detailed analytical tre- 
atment that such a warping strees system does not cause any re- 
sutant force or moment. Hence, it can be represented by an equi- 
valent system of 4 forces as shown in Fig. 3-a. It is convenient 



DisTOKiioNAL Analysis of Single Cell 
Prismatic Box Girders 



Qi 



Pi 



Pj 



391 



^-^ 



'I 



Pi 



Pi 



Pi- Pi 



P.-P2 



P1-P2 Pi- Pi P1-P2 o Pi-Pi o 

-z — -I — —i—'-^-n-'-*^ 



c d <, 

Fig. 1. Treatment of reactions due to live loads on deck 

f F 

Torsiond lood 




distortion stress from 
transverse flexure 

Oefonmotion of cross section 




Worping stress pattern 



Fig. 2. Response of box girder with deformable cross-section to 
torsional load 

to represent these 4 forces by a pair of equal and opposite 
moments acting in two parallel planes as shown in Figs. 3-b and c. 
The moment can be taken about a vertical or a horizontal axis as 
desired. Such a pair of moment is called Bimoment and the measure 
is a product of the magnitude of moment and the distance between 
the parallel planes. This gives a simple physical representation 
of longitudinal warping stress system. The specific property of 
bimoment is that it is in equilibrium by itself and cannot be evolved 



392 Dr. N. Rajagopalan and B. K. Raiagopalan on 




Worping force group(four Positive bimoment Positive 
forces equol m mognrtude) (Shown using horlzo b^ mo mari 

''*°* °**^ (ShcM^ using 

verticd axis) 

3.0 3b. .3 c 

Fig. 3. Wanring force and bimoment 
by means of equilibrium equations. Hence the system is inter- 
nally indeterminate. Only when the deformational components 
like the angle of twist, the distortional deflection and their second 
derivative with respect to longitudinal co-ordinates are known, the 
bimoment due to distortion can be evaluated. 

2.3. Description of BEF Analogy 

The analogy between the behaviour of beam of elastic founda- 
tion and that of the box beam subjected to eccentric loading (dis- 
tortion) is dealt in detail in the article by Wright et al* The 
resistance to torsional loading and the corresponding distortion is 
provided by the frame action of the cross-section and it is analogous 
to the structural action of a beam on elastic foundation. The 
different terms of analogy can be expressed on the following lines: 

(1) The angle if distortion 0¥) [Fig.21 of the box section is analogous 
to the deflection of the BEF and hence the distortional defor- 
mation. 

(2) The transverse bending moment due to distortion is propor- 
tional to the deflection of the BEF. 

(3) The first derivative of the bimoment on the box beam with res- 
pect to the longitudinal co-ordinate corresponds to the shear 
force on the BEF. 

(4) The bimoment at any section on the box girder is represented 
by the bending moment at that section on the analogous BEF. 

(5) The distortional warping stiffness of the girder is represented by 
the flexural rigidity of the analogous BEF. 



DiSTORTIONAL ANALYSIS OF SiNGLE CeLL 

Prismatic Box Girders 393 

(6) The stiffness of the cross-section against the distortional defor 
mation is represented by the foundation modulus of the analo. 
gous BEF. 

(7) Concentrated torsional moments on the box girder are equi- 
valent to point loads of the same magnitude and distributed 
torsional moments are equivalent to distributed loads on BEF. 

Using the above analogy, Wright et al ■ derived expression for 
foundation modulus and moment of inertia of the analogous BEF 
in terms of the dimensions of the box section. For evaluating the 
foundation modulus, the box section of unit width is considered 
and it is analysed as a frame using any one of the traditional app- 
roaches such as consistent deformation method as could be seen 
from Fig 4. The shear force V and the distortional deformation W 
are given by the expressions. 



|. ^h 



■ I . "' >| 




Fig. 4. Dimensional Parameters of analogous BEF 
— ^ [(2a+6) aftc) +-4i- *a* 



■'C 



(n^hV «• , 2c{a'-\.ab+b') b* 

(a+b). -^- + ^^ + -^] 



where a, fr, c, are dimensions of the flange and web members anp 
Da, X>b, X>c, are flexural rigidity of top, bottom flanges and web 
members. 



394 Dr. N. Rajacjopalan and B. K. Rajacjopalan on 

The moment of inertia of the beam on elastic foundation can 
also be derived using the analogy and it is found that the moment of 
inertia of BEF is approximately equal to l/4th the moment of 
inertia of the box section about its centroidal axis. Further, using 
the principle of bimoment, i.e. moment about the vertical centro- 
idal axes of the box girder due to warping stresses is self-equili- 
brating, it can be proved that the ratio between the warping stresses 
at the top and the bottom of the web is given by 

fc«/b + C(2fl-f-*) /c 

^ " (a+dy (3) 

yT') U+C{2b+a)tc 

2.4. Effect of Diaphragms 

Transverse diaphragms or cross bracings placed at any section 
arrest the distortional deformation of the section. Hence they 
are considered analogous to simple supports on the BEF model. 
A diaphragm which is infinitely rigid in its own plane and comple- 
tely flexible for out-of-plane displacement can arrest the distortion, 
but allow the section to warp. Hence such a diaphragm can be 
represented by a simple non-deflecting support on BEF. A dia- 
phragm which is rigid both for in-plaue and for out-of-plane 
displacements correspond to a fixed support on the BEF. Simi" 
larly, a diaphragm which is fully flexible for out-of-plane displa- 
cement and has a definite stiffness against in-plane displacement is 
represented by elastic support on the analogous beam. Thus 
formulating the analogous beam on elastic foundation, and analy- 
sing the same, result in the deflection of the beam and bending 
moment which correspond to distortional deformation and 
warping stress in the box section. 

Transverse B.M.at the top of the web = -^| -tt— v 1 k.y 



Transverse B.M. at the bottom of the web= -=— k.y 



m 



M 

Warping stress at top of the web =-= • y^^p 

J^ (5) 

Warping stress at the bottom of the v/eb = ^ .yy^ 



} 



DiSTCMmoNAL Analysis of Single Cell 

Prismatic Box Girders 395 

where M is bending moment on BEF at the section, 
yxop» ^bot are the distances of top and bottom fibres from 

the axis of zero warping stress 
y = the deflection of BEF at the section 
In terms of the ratio p the values of yu^p >w are given by 
p . A . 

ytop = -rqp^ ^, JKbot = -j^ d 

3. EFFECT OF SUPPORTS ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF 
DIAPHARAGMS 

All diaphragms on the box girders are considered analogous 
to simple supports on the BEF irrespective of the location of the 
diaphragms along the length of the box girder. If two such dia- 
phragms of infinite rigidity for in-plane displacement and completely 
flexible for out-of-plane displacements are considered, one being 
placed over the support and the other anywhere on the span, the 
latter is free to warp as a section as a whole and assume any shape 
while the former is restrained from warping at the bottom face 
full as it is connected to the support, Fig. 5. The restraint may 
be partial or full, depending on whether the box beam rests over a 
smooth bearing or cast monolithic with support as in the case of 
bridge decks constructed using cantilever method of construction. 
This restraint introduces extra stresses at the support, the efiect of 
which on the beam is to be determined. 

Fig. 5 shows the warping behaviour of a beam at support 
diaphragm point and that at an intermediate diaphragm point* 
The warping restraint created at the bottom of the support to annul 



Fixed diaphragm Diaphragm over support 



i n tcrmcdiatc diaphrogm 




Fig. 5. WanMnig behaviour of support and inlarDftdaaXJt 



396 



Dr. N. Rajagopalan and B. K. Rajagopalan on 



the warping displacement that would have occurred otherwise, 
introduces a stress distribution as shown in Fig 6-a. Here 'P' 
is the value of the stress intensity at the bottom face of tk 
diaphragm and it reduces to zero at the top face. This type of 
stress pattern is resolved into two individual stress patterns as 
shown in Figs. 6-b and 6-c. 




Fig. 6. Resolution of support restraint 



From equation 3, it could be seen that a warping stress 
pattern of intensity 'P' at bottom and ^BF at top corresponds to 
complete warping restraint at the support. The warping stress 
pattern and warping displacement are represented by bending 
moment and slope in the corresponding BEF respectively. Hence 
such a stress system corresponds to a fixed support moment on BEF 
which annuls the slope at the support due to applied load. So a 
partial restraint on the BEF causing a stress system with *xp' at 
bottom and ^xp at top as shown in Fig. 6-c is equivalent to nuBi- 
fying the slope caused by applied load partially. This stress 
system along with a lateral bending stress pattern as shown in 
Fig.6-b, leads to the required stress pattern as shown in Fig.6-a- 
The value of 'x' in Fig.6-c. can be determined from the condition 
that the resultant stress at tVve bottom V& *p* w^^^xWv^x^^v^-Kxioi 



Destortional Analysis of Single Cell 

Prismatic Box Girders 397 



1 



JC= 



From the discusison above, it is evident that the stress system 
shown in Fig. 6-c, represents a bending moment on the analogous 

BEF which annuls only . . ^ times the rotation occurring at the 

support due to applied load. By analysing the analogous BEF 
for unit support moment, the value of the bending moment 
required for the above can be obtained as 

A/e = —(slope at the support due to applied load/slope at the 
support due to unit support moment) x 1/1 +)! (6) 

Kotesx 

(i) The negative sign indicates that M^, creates a slope in a 
direction opposite to that of slope due to applied loads. 

(ii) This expression also solves indirectly the value of stress 
(P) in Fig. 6-a. As stated earlier, it may be noted that the 
bimoment being statically indeterminate qantity, can be 
evaluated only by using the deformation criterion.) 

The effect of A/b on the BEF is now readily obtained by 
multiplying the deflection, bending moment, etc. due to unit moment 
by A/e. These results can be superposed over those obtained for 
applied load and the net results can be converted into transverse 
bending moment and warping stresses on the box beam using 
equations 4 & 5 . This would give the solution for the problem 
shown in Fig. 6 c. The other component of the restraint shown in 
Fig. 6-b obviously represents a bending moment at the support 
section of the box beam about the vertical centroidal axis. This 
does not cause any transverse bending stresses. The longitudinal 
stresses at any section caused by the lateral bending can be eval- 
uated using simple theory of bending and added algebraically to 
the warping stresses, already calculated using BEF analogy, repre- 
senting the support diaphragm also as a simple support on the BEF. 
Having obtained a method for analysing a box girder subjected to 
distortion taking into account the warping restraint created at 
supports, this method has been applied to soVve \Yatft ^\^^\%s^ 



398 Dr. N. Rajagopalan and B. K. Rajagcmpalan on 
cases of diaphragm arrangements as given below: 

(i) Simply supported box girder of span 70 m widi only end suppor, 
diapbragms. 

(ii) Simply supported box beam of 70 m q;>an widi suf^ort diaphragii 
and two intermediate diaphnims at 15 m frooi the ends. 

(ili) Simply supported box beam of centre span of 40 m with equal* over- 
hangs of 15 m on either side, with diaphragms over the supports 
and at the cantilevering ends. 

The analogous beam on dastic foundation is solved using 
Newmark's numerical procedure as explained by Tandon*. The 
BEF is solved for applied load and for unit restraining support 
moment. The value of support moment is evaluated using the 
equation 6. The effect of applied load and the restraining moment 
are superposed to get warping stresses and transverse flexuial 
stresses. The effect of lateral bending is then added to warping 
stresses to get the final warping stress pattern. The analogous BEF 
in the first case remains a simply supported beam while in other 
cases the BEF becomes a continuous beam. The Newmark's 
procedure is extended to solve such beams also. In case of simply 
supported beam on elastic foundation the shear and slope at the 
left support are taken as unknowns and are solved using the 
boundary conditions at the right hand end. In case of continuous 
beams, in addition to shear and slope at the left end, the reactions 
at intermediate supports are also taken as unknowns and solved 
simultaneously. The additional number of equations are obtained 
by applying deflection compatibility at the intermediate supports. 
This approach has been explained in reference*. The warping 
component due to warping restraint on BEF, is applied at that 
particular support of the BEF which corresponds to the support 
of diaphragm of the box girder. Similarly, while adding 
the effect of bending component of warping restraint as shown in 
Fig. 6-b, for box girder with overhangs, only the simply supported 
span portion is considered and not the overhanging portion as 
lateral bending effect will not cause any stress on the overhang 
portion. 

4. CASE STUDIES AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

4.1. Typical Cases 

The method explained above is used to analyse a box beam of 
70 m length. The different types of diaphragm arrangements consi- 
dered are given earlier. In eac\v o^ x\v^^ c.^&^s, v«<^ ^^sible 



distcmttional analyses of single cell 

Prismatic Box Girders 399 

loadings are considered: (i) An eccentric load causing torsional 
moment at the centre of the span, (ii) An eccentric load causing 
torsional moment at 20 m from the end of the beam. The trans- 
verse bending moment and warping stresses at the top and the 
bottom of the web are calculated for various sections and plotted 
along the length of the beam. The analysis is done with and 
without the effect of bottom restraint for the diaphragm over the 
support, and the two corresponding values are compared. 

4.2. DiscissiM of Resrils 

From the results it is noted that the fixity at the bottom of the 
diaphragm at the support affects the transverse bending moment and 
warping stresses along the length of the beams more in the case of 
beams with non-central torsional moment than in the case of beam 
with central torsional moment. This is due to the fact that distor- 
tional effect dies down with distance from the point of application 
of torsional moment. In large spans the distortion introduced at 
the centre has negligible deformation effect at the support point and 
hence any fixity at the bottom of the diaphragm over support does 
not introduce any change in stresses due to distortion. But in 
case of loading, the nearer the supports, the possible deformation 
effect due to distortion is very high and any restraint at support 
produces changes in warping stresses and transverse moment. This 
effect is more prominent as the torsional moment moves nearer the 
support. Hence a comparison of warping stresses and transverse 
bending moment at the bottom and the top of the web along the 
span for non-central torsional moment only are given in Figs. 7 to 
12, for the cases of analysis with and without the restraint at the 
bottom of the support diaphragm. 

Secondly, the effect of the bottom restraint of support dia- 
phragm is more in case of overhanging beams or beams with con- 
tinuity at supports than in the case of simply supported beams 
either with end diaphragms only or with intermediate diaphragms 
also. The continuity over t he support in case of overhanging beams 
introduces warping restraint and stresses along the length of the 
beam. To this, an extra warping restraint at the bottom of the 
support diaphragm is added which increases the warping stresses 
along the length. The increase in warping sltess *vs ^.s \i\^ ^ \^ 



400 



Dr. N. Rajaoopalan and B. K. Rajaoopalan on 




D i STOitT iOK AL Analysis of SiNca^ Cell 
Prismatic Box GntoERS 



401 




•J»M« SMJUOI Ul |U*«MOMi 



N. RAiAOQPAtAN AND B. IC RAJACOTALAN ON 



.S 




.s 

I 

•s 
"5 

•8 






«»/•« Ul M«i|S 



DisitHtnoNAL Analysis op Single Cell 

Prismatic Box Girders 403 




O o 

•j)«Ai sauuoi ui lUMioui 6ufpu«g 



404 Dr. N. Raiagotalan and B. K. Rajaootalan on 




a 

& 

M 

§ 

a 

a 

1 



*l 

•a 

K 



00 



^uf9/6i| u> «SAjis 



^i^BWTP'"^ 



Dbiomiokal AHALvisov SmouC^u. . 

FuMAXic Box GntDOUl 409 



V 




a 41-2-26 



406 Dtu H^MMMMM III AHyj^^pL BlMflW^MIIgOW 

per (Deal at the support section wbereUo bofiom fixity of the dift- 
phragm is oonsidered as GUI be seeo in Fig. 11. 

The tnmsve.sebendiiig moment is not very much aflEbctod 
by the bottom fixi^ of the suppCMrt diaphmgn in all the cssa 
But even here, in case of overhaogiQg beams transvHse beoding 
momeal shows ome deviation if bottom fixity of the sappoti 
diqduagm is considered. The tnmsverse bendpng moment red- 
uces in geiMa' akng the Ingth of the beam and also changes tk 
mtfnre in the overhangiiig portion which is near the loadiog. 
Fig. IX 

SL 



(1) It is observad that in msinijboen box ghder bridge dedc 
there is a difiemce in structural action between a diiqdinigm jdaoed 
over a sUj^rt and a diaphragm pbced anywhere in the span wfaik 
dislortioiial eflfects are considered. The base support creates t 
restraint to warping at that section. This effiDCt is to be oonsideied 
speiciaUy in beams where support etatinuitjr tffo involved (ncliisivo 
of overhanging beams). 

(2) Since the distortional response of a box girder is analogous 
to flejoiral deformation of beam on' elastic foundation the efiect 
of distortion is felt only over a certain distance from the point of 
application of torsional moment. Only if the support is within 
this zone of influence, the bottom fixity of support diaphragm will 
have any efiect in the distortional behaviour. In any practical 
case the possibility of distprtional moment occurring near the 
support section cannot be ruled out a^d^tiegce analysis has to be 
done taking into efiect the bottom reslx^t of Hie support dia- 
phragm At least in spans where beam-is CDfitinuous over a support 

(3) The magnitude of change of warping stresses and transverse 
bending moment due to bottom fixity for support diaphragm is 
small and can be neglected in simply supported span. 

(4) In case of overhanging beams and beams 0(^nlmuaus over 
a support, the change in warping stresses and tramyerse'1)ending 
moment due to bottom restraint at support diaphragm is large. 
Warp ng stress can increase by 100 per cent and transverse 
bending moment decreases and also changes sign in the over* 
baoging portion. 



DiSTOItnONAL ANALYSB OB SiNOLB CELL 

PiOSMATIC Box GiRDBRS 407 

(5) Hence analysis for distortion in case of overhanging 
earns or beams where support continuity is present, has to be 
one considering the bottom fixity of the support diaphragm, 
[ere the modified beam on dastic foundation as presented in this 
aper can be made use of. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

This work is carried out as partial fulfilment for the degree 
f M . Tech in Civil Engineering by the second Author under the 
uidance of the first Author. 



REFERENCES 

VlatMV, VX, «Thln-walled Battle B68m•^ Natiooal Scknce Founda- 
tioo,1961. 

Witfit, R.N., AlxU-Samad, SiL and Robioaoo. A.R., 'BEF Ana* 
logy for Ana]ysiiofBox.strden»*Ptoc. ASCE, VoLH No.ST7» 
Juty 1968, PP.171M743. 

Tandco, M.C., 'Box Oirden iul^ected to TorsioD-I,* Indian Concrete 
Journal, Feb. 1976, pp.47-51. 

B. K. Ri^iagopalaji, 'Distortion of Box Girder Bridge Declcs under 
EoocDtrie Loading*, Thesis submitted for the award of M.Tech Degree 
in Qvil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, 1979. 



LIST OF nSDIAN ROADS CONGRESS SPEOnCATIONS, STANDARDS, DESIGN 
CODES» SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS AND BOUND VOLUMES OF 
JOURNAL OF INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 

PRICE 

per copy 

(Postage & 

packing 

extnO 



Ra. P. 



1. IRC: 2-1968 



2. IRC: 

3. IRC: 



4-1955 
5-1970 



00 
00 



4. IRC: 6-1966 



5. IRC: 

6. IRC; 

7. IRC: 

8. IRC: 

9. IRC: 
10. IRC: 

H. mC: 
IZIRC: 

13. IRC: 

14. IRC: 

15. IRC: 

16. mC: 

17. IRC: 

18. IRC: 

19. IRC: 



7-1971 

8-1969 

9-1972 
101961 

11-1962 
12-1967 

13-1967 
14-1977 
15-1970 
16-1965 
17-1965 
18-1977 
19-1977 
20-1966 
21-1972 



L CODES & STANDARDS 

Route Marker Si^ for National Highways (in Metric 
Units) (First Revision) 3 

Type Designs for Furlong and Boundary Stones 1 

Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Road 
Bridges, Section 1 — General Features of Design (in Metric 
Units) (Fifth Revision) Under print 

Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Road 
Bridges, Section 11— Loads and Stresses (in Metric Units) 
(Third Revision) . 10 00 

Recommended Practice for Numbering Bridges and Culverts 
(First Revision) 5 00 

Type Designs for Highway Kilometre Stones (First 
Revision) Under print 

TraflSc Census on Non-Urban Roads (First Revision) 3 00 

Recommended Practke for Borrowpits for Road Embank- 
ments Constructed by Manual Operation 
(Second Reprint) 3 00 

Recommended Practice for the Design and Layout of Cyde 
Tracks (Second Reprint) 3 00 

Recommended Practice for Location and Layout of Road- 
side Motor-Fuel Filling-cum-Servioe Stations (First 
Revision) 2 00 

Recommended Practice for Location and Layout of Road- 
side Motor-Fuel Filling Stations (First Revision) Under print 
Recommended Practice for 2 cm Thick Bitumen and Tar 
Carpets (Third Revision) 5 00 
Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Construction 
of Concrete Roads (First Revision) Under print 
Tentative Specification for Priming of Base Course with 
Bituminous Primers 3 00 
Tentative Specification for Single Coat Bituminous Surface 
Dressing 2 00 
Design Criteria for Prestressed Concrete Road Bridges 
(Post-Tensioned Concrete) (First Revision) 8 00 
Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Water 
Bound Macadam (Second Revision) 8 00 
Recommended Practice for Bituminous Ftoetration 
Macadam (Full Grout) (First Reprint) 5 00 
Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road 
Bridges, Section Ill-Oment Concrete (Plm and Rein- 
forced) (Fast Revision) Under prbtf 



20. IRC: 22-1966 Standard Specifications and Code of Plcactioe for Road 

Bridges, Section VI— Composite Construction for Road 
Bridges (Third Reprint) 7 00 

21. IRC: 23-1966 Tentative Specification for Two Coat Bituminous Surfitoe 

Dressing 5 00 

22. IRC: 24-1967 Standard Specifications and Code of Pnctice for Road 

Bridges, Section V— Steel Road Bridges 9 00 

23. IRC: 25-1967 Type Designs for Boundary Stones (in MetricUnits) 2 00 

24. ntC: 26-1967 l^pe Designs for 200-Metre Stones 5 00 

25. IRC: 27-1967 Tentative Specification for Bituminous Macadam (Base & 

Binder Course) 5 00 

26. IRC: 28-1967 Tentative Specification for the Construction of Stabilized 

Soil Roads with Soft Aggregate in Areas of Moderate and 

High Rainfall 2 00 

27. IRC: 29-1968 Tentative Specification for 4 cm (1 i in.) AsphMc Concrete 

Surface Course 5 00 

28. IRC: 30-1968 Standard Letters and Numerals of Different Heighli Ibr 

Use on Highway Signs (in Metric Units) 2 00 

29. IRC: 31-1969 Route Marker Signs for State Routes Qn Metric Units) 3 00 

30. IRC: 32-1969 Standard for Vertical and Horizontal Clearances of Overhead 

Electric Power and TelecommunicatioD Lines as Related to 
Roads (in Metric Units) 3 00 

31. IRC: 33-1969 Standard Procedure for Evaluation and Condition Survciyt 

of Stabilised Soil Roads 5 iO 

32. IRC: 34-1970 Recommendations for Road Construction in Watcr-loigBd 

Areas 

33. IRC: 35-1970 Code of Practice for Road Markinp (with F)dnts} 

34. IRC: 36-1970 Recommended Practice for the Construction or Earth 

Embankments for Road Works 

35. IRC: 37-1970 Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements 

36. IRC: 38-1970 Design Tables for Horizontal Curves for Highways 

37. IRC: 39-1970 Standards for Road-Rail Level Crossings 

38. IRC: 40-1970 Standard Spedfications and Code of Practice for Road 

Bridges, Section IV— <Brick, Stone and Block Masonry) 6 00 

39. IRC: 41-1972 Type Designs for Check Barriers Under prM 

40. IRC: 42-1972 Proforma for Record of Test Values of Locally Avaihible 

Pavement Construction Materials 3 00 

41. IRC: 43-1972 Recommended Practice for Tools, Equipment and Applianoes 

for Concrete Pavement Construction 5 00 

42. IRC: 44-1976 Tentative Guidelines for Cement Concrete Mix Design for 

Road Pavements (for non-air entrained and continuously 
graded concrete) (First Revision) 8 OO 

43. IRC: 45-1972 Recommendations for Estimating the Resistance of Soil 

below the Maximum Scour Level in the Design of Wdl 
Foundations of Bridges 5 00 

44. IRC: 46-1972 A Policy on Roadside Advertisements (First RevidoD) 5 00 

45. IRC: 47-1972 Tentative Specification for Built-up Spray Grout 5 00 

46. IRC: 48-1972 Tentative Specification for Bitimiinous Surface Dressing 

using Precoated Aggregates 5 00 

47. IRC: 49-1973 Recommended Practice for the Pulverization of Black 

Cotton Soils for Lime Stabilization 5 00 

48. IRC: 50-1973 Recommended Design Criteria for the Use of Oement Modi- 

fied Soil in Road Construction 5 00 

O) 



« « 

5 00 


to « 

1 7 00 
3 00 



49. mC: 51-1973 Hooommeoded Dctign Criteria for the Use of Sofl Lime 

Mixes in RosdCoostnictioii 5 00 

SOL IRC: 52-1973 Reco mm endatioiis about the Alig;Diiient Surv^ and 

Geometric Design of Uili Roads Under prka 

51. nC: 53-1973 Road Accident Foims A-land4 3 00 

52. IRC: 54-1974 Lateral and Vertical Oearance at Underpasses for Vehiai- 

krTraffic 3 00 

53. IRC: 55-1974 Recommended Pcactioe for Sand-Bitumen Base Courses 3 00 

54. IRC: 56-1974 Recommended Pnctice for Treatment of Embankment 

Slopes for Erosion Control 3 00 

55. IRC: 57-1974 Recommended Prsctice for Sealing of Joints in Concrete 

Pavements 3 00 

56. IRC: 58-1974 Guidelines for the Design of Rigid Pavements for Highways 5 00 

57. IRC: 59-1976 Tentative Guidelines for Design of Gap Graded Cement 

Concrete Mixes for Road Pavements 5 00 

58. IRC: 60-1976 Tentative Goideimes for tlie Use of Lime-flyash Concrete 

as Pavement Base or Sub-base 5 00 

99. BC: 61-1976 Tentative Guidelines for tlie Construction of Cement Con- 
cme Pavements in Hot- Weather 

60. IRC: 62-1976 Guidelines for Control of Access on Hi^ways 

61. IRC: 63-1976 Tentative Guidelines for the use of Low Grade Aggregates 

and Soil Aggregate Mixtures in Road Pavement Construction 5 
Q. IRC: 64-1976 Tentative Guidelines on Capacity of Roads in Rural Areas 

63. IRC: 65-1976 Reco m men d ed Practice for TraflSc Rotaries 

64. IRC: 66-1976 Recommended Practice for Sight Distance on Rural 

Highways 
^. IRC: 68-1976 Tentative Guiddines cm Cement Flyash Concrete toft Rigid 
Pavement Construction 

66. IRC: 69-1977 Space Standards for Roads in Urban Areas 

67. IRC: 70-1977 Guidelines on Regulation and Control of Mixed TrafiBc in 

Urban Areas 
C8. IRC: 71-1977 Recommended Practice for Preparation of Notations 
9. IRC: 72-1978 Recommended Practice for use and Upkeep of Equipment 

Tools and Appliances for Bituminous Pavement Construc- 
^ tion 10 00 

70. IRC: 73-1980 Geometric Design Standards for Rural 

(Non-urban) Uigh^^ays 20 00 

71. IRC: 74-1979 Tentative Guidelines for Lean-cement concrete and Lean 

Cement-Fly Ash concrete as a Pavement Base or 
Sub-base 8 00 

71 IRC: 75-1979 Guidelines for the Design of High Embankments 20 00 

73. ntC: 76-1979 Tentative Guidelines for Structural Strength Evaluation of 

Rigid Airfield Pavements 10 00 

74. IRC: 77-1979 Tentative Guidelines for Repair of Concrete pavements 

using Synthetic Resin 1 5 00 

75. IRC: 78-1979 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road 

Bridges - Section Vll- Foundations & Substructure Part I: 
General Features of Design 16 00 

7&IRC Folder for Keeping Standards 10 00 



5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


8 


00 


5 


00 


6 


00 


6 


00 


12 


00 


6 


00 



IL SPECIAL PUBUCATIONS 

1. Special Publication-1-1971 Bridging India's Rivers, Vol. I 

29 Special Publication-4-1966 Bridge Loadings Around the World 

(3) 



10 00 
3 00 



3. Spedal Publication --5-1967 Road Draimige PrectkM Ar^ 3 00 

4. Special PubUcadon ^8-1972 Methodology of Flexible Pavement Derign 

Around the World Out of & 

5. Special Publication —9-1972 Rating of Bridges 8 00 

6. Special Publication —10-1972 Bridging India's Rivers, VoL II 15 00 

7. Special Publication —1 1-1977 Handbook of Quality Control for Cdnstnio- 

tion of Roads and Runways (First Revision) 15 00 

8. Special Publication —12-1973 Tentative Recommendation on the nrovi- 

sion of Parking Spaces tat Urban Areas 2 00 

9. Special Publication —13-1973 Guidelines for the Design of Small Bridges 

& Culverts 15 00 

10. Special Publication —14-1973 A Manual for the Application of the Criti- 

cal Path Method of Highway Projects in India 12 00 

11. Special Publication — 15-1974 Ribbon Devdopment along Highways and 

its Prevention 10 00 

12. Special Publication — 16-1977 Surface Evenness of Hi^wayPavemenCt 7 00 

13. Special Publication — 17-1977 Recommendations about Overlays on 

Cement Concrete Pavements 15 '00 

14. Special Publication -18-1978 Manual for Highway Bridge Maintenance 

Inspection 15 00 

15. Special Publication —19-1977 Manual for Survey, Investigation and 

Preparation of Road Projects 15 00 

16. Special Publication —20-1979 Manual on Route Location, Design, Con- 

struction and Maintenance of Rural Roads (Other 

District Roads & Village Roads) 20 00 

17. Special Publication —21-1979 Manual on Landscaping of Roads 30 00 

18. Special Publication — 22-1980 Recommendations for the sizes for eadi 

type of Road making machinery to cater to the 
general demand of Road Works 5 : 00 

19. Environmental Considerations in Planning & Design of 

Highways in India (1979) 15 00 

20. Paper on Panel discussion — Limit State of Crack-Width by 

P.C. Bhasin & S.P. Chakrabarti 10 00 

21. Ministry of Shipping & Transport (Roads Wing) — Standard Plans 

for Highway Bridges, Volume 11— Concrete 

Slab Bridges 35 00 

22. Ministry of Shipping & Transport (Roads Wing]| Specification for 

Road and Bridge Works (First Revision) 30 00 

23. Paper No. 238 — Considerations in the Design and Sinking of Well 

Foundations for Bridge Piers by B. Balwant Rao 

and C. Muthuswamy 5 qq 

24. Paper No. 257 — Construction of a Ghat Road from Bodinayakanor 

to Bodimettu by E.C. Chandrasekharan 4 00 

25. Paper No. 278 — The Use of Restrained-Neoprene Bearings in Civfl 

Engineering by J.W. Slottje&P.S. Gokhale 2 00 

26. Paper No. 317— Experience in the Improvement and Modenuzation 

of Roads in Tamil Nadu by E.C Chandrasekharan 4 50 

27. Papers for Panel Discussion on Intermediate technology in Hig;hway. 

Construction and Discussion thereon presented at the 37th 
Annual Session, Bhopal, December, 1976 

28. Highway Research Bulletin No.l, 1975— TraflSc Engineering 

29. Highway Research Bulletin No.2, 1975— Flexible Pavements 

30. Highway Research Bulletin No.3, 1976— Rigid Pavements 



10 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 


5 


00 



31. Hi^way Reseaicfa Bulletin NaS, 1977— Rigid PftvcmcDts 

32. Highway Reseaicfa Bulletin No.6» 1977— Flexible Pftvements 

33. Hi^way Reseaicfa Bulletin No.8, 197&— Trafiic Engineering 

34. Highway Reseaidi Bulletin No^. 197S— Flexible Pavements 

35. Highway Research Bulletin No.10, 1979— SoO Engineering 

36. Highway Research Bulletin No.ll, 1979— Rigid Pavements 

37. Highway Research Bulletin Nal2, 1980— Traffic Engineering* 

38. Highway Research Bulletin No.l3, 1980— Rigid & Flexible Pavements 

39. Highway Reseaidi Board Special Report Nal, ]976-*StatB of tiie Art: 

limeSoOStabiluation* 

40. Highway Research Board Special Report No.2, 1976-*State of Uie Art: 

Pavements, Slipperiness and Skid Resistance* 

41. Highway Research Board Special Report No.3, 1978-*State of tiie Art: 

Compacticm of Earthwork and Subgrades* 

42. Highway Research Record No.l, 'General Report on Road Research Work 

done m India during 1973-74* 

43. Highway Research Record NoJt, 'General Report on Road Research Work 

done in India during 1974-75* 

44. Highway Research Record No.3, 'General Report on Road Research Work 

done in India during 1975-76* 5 

45. Hi^way Reseaidi Record No.5, 'General Report otk Road Research Work 

done m India during 1977-78* 5 

46. Highway Research Record No.6» 'General Report on Road Research Work 

done in India during 1978-79* 5 

lU. BOUND VOLUMES OF THE JOURNAL OF THE 
INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 

Original 
Price 
Rs. P. 





00 




00 




00 




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00 




00 




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12 00 
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15 00 



5 00 

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00 



00 



00 



47. 


Round Vol. XUI 


Parts 1 to 2 


(1948-49) 


5 


50-1 




48. 


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49. 


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•9 


(1956-57) 


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51. 


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. No. 17S49/57 ffUi tiie Rtfblnr of Newsytpers 


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OF THK ^^1 




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JAM^UU 




J 




Indian Roads Cong^ress 
Journal Volume 41-3 



Pag« 

409 Paper No 
Chamt>«< 
Rjijasihar 
J. M. M«ihoua< R S. Bitittt H, 



INFORMATION SP^-^^" 



497 'Tyn Mr 

L.R. Kad,. 



S (US.) 1-60. 



Dcrn inar. 



TENTATIVE PROGRAMME OF THE 

4l8t ANNUAL SESSION 

OF THE INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 

TO BE HELD AT PATNA FROM 1HE 27tfi 

DECEMBER, 1980 TO Tnd JANUARY, 1981 



December, 1980 
Saturday, the 27th 



Sunday, the 28th 



Monday, the 29th 09.30-10.00 

10.30-13.00 

10.30-13.00 

14.00-16.30 

16.30 



Tuesday, the 30th 



Wednesday, the 31st 

January, 1981 
Thursday, the 1st 

Friday, the 2nd 



08.00-1 3.00 Registration 
10.00-13.00 Meetings of Committees 
1 1.30-1 3.00 Meeting of the Highway 

Research Board 
14.00-16.00 100th Council Meeting 
16.00-17.00 Meeting of the Managing 
• Conmiittee of the Indian 
National Group of the lABSE 

09.30-11.00 Inauguration 

11.30-13.00 Papers 

1 1 . 30- 1 3.00 Meetings of Committees 

14.00-17.00 Papers 

17.15 Group Photo 

Annual General Meeting of the 

Indian National Group of the 

lABSE 

Papers 

Meetings of Committees 

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Meeting of the New Managing 

Committee of the ING/IABSE 

09.30-11.30 Papers 

11.30-13.00 General Report on Road 

Research 
14.00-17.00 General Report on Road 

Research 

10.00-13.00 Panel Discussion 
14.00-16.00 Business Meeting 
16.30 New Council Meeting 



1 0.00-1 3.00 Chief Engineers' meetmg 
1 4.00- 1 7 .00 Chief Engineers' meeting 

V-OC8\n\%\V& lot Q^^^X " 



INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 
JOURNAL VOLUME 41-3 



Published by the Indian Roads Congress 

Copies can be had by V. P. P, from the 
Secretary^ Indian Roads Congress^ 
Jamnagar House, Shahfahan Road, 
New Delhi 110 011. 

NEW DELHI 19M Price: Rt. 7-50 
Foreiri: % \-9b 



(Ike Ktkts nf RMkaikm mid Thwihtftow mt nBemi) 



Tho Indian Roads Coogms as • body does aoC 
hold ilseir reqwnsibk tot statwicats made^ or for 
opinions capressad in the B^ws pablished in ttiis 
Volume. 



Printed at New Century Printers, 41-B, Sidco Estate. Amhatfsi 
Madra»-600 09S. Edited, Printed and Published by P. C. Bhasii 
Secretary, Indian Roads Congress, Jamnag ar House, Shaliialian Road 
New Ddhi-llO Oil under the authority of die Indian Roads Congresa- 
6,000--Deoeaiber, 19S0. 



Pkpor No. 336 




<*GROUI1NG OF FOUNDATIONS— CHAMBAL 




BBIDGE ON N. H. N«. 3, NEAR DHOLPUR, 




RAJASTIIAN"t 




My 




J. M. Malhotra* 




R. S. B|UTi»* 




M. P. Jain»»* 




CONTENTS 






Page 


1. Introduction.. 


411 


2. Salient features of the Bridge 


411 


2.1 Existing span arrangements A Foundations.. 


411 


2.2 Hydraulic dau 


412 


2.3 Layout of new foundations 


413 


3. Geology at Bridge site St sub-strata 


413 


3.1 Observed surface geology of the site 


413 


3.2 Distribution of bed rock and cap rock 


414 


3.3 Characteristics of bed-rock, cap-rock 




and over-burden 


414 


3.4 Foundation Exploration 


416 


3.5 Need for grouting 


417 


4. Grouting of existing foundations under 




Piers No. 1 to 13 


417 


4.1 Design requirements & Criteria . . 


417 


4.2 Experimental grouting at Pier No. 6 


418 



t Written oommentt on this Pliper are invited and wiJl be received 
Dpto 20ch December. 1980 

*J. M. Malhotra - Chairman A Managing Director, 

Rajasthan State Bridge A Construction 

Corporation Ltd., Jaipur. 
**R. S. Bhati - Superintending Engineer, 

PWD (BAR), Circle-Ill, Jaipur. 
•••M. P. Jain - Assistant Engineer, 

PWD (B&R), Dholpur. 



410 J.M. Malhotra, R.S. Bhati & M.P. Jain on 

Contents (Contd.) 

. . 4,2,1. Method of execution . ^^ . . .^^^^ 4 

, j 4.2.2. Experunentatipn . • % ' ;" . , \- > . 4! 

4.2.3. Engineoriug ^pi^pi^l ' .. 4: 

4.2.4. Recommendations .. .. 4- 

4.3 Grout Mixes & its prbperties . . . . 4 

4.4 Grouting Technique . ^ y . . 4^ 

4.5 Formulation of grouting' scl^me for piers 

No. 1 to 13 ^ ^.. , .,.. .. .. 4 

4.6 Observations & records of drilling & grouting 4 

5. Grouting of strata under hew foundations Piers 

No. 14N to 20N and 22 old .. .. 4 

5. 1 Design criteria & requirements . . ' ' ' ' '' . . ' 4 

5.2 Experimental grouting at piet to 19N'! i,4 : 4: 

5.3 Mptbpd of execution 4 

5.4 Experimentation ......... .4 . 4 

5.5 Formulation of detailed scheme forjfoundation 

No. 14N to 20N and 22 oid . . * . . 4( 

5.6 Operational Sequences *>? .. .>.* 4( 

5.7 Observations and record of drilling and 

grouting . . . . . . 4( 

6. Grout Consumption & Cost 

Analysis . . . . 4' 

7. Drilling and Grouting equipment .. .. 4' 

8. Conclusions . . . . . . .• . 4' 

SYNOPSIS 

Grouting of foundations for bridges has rarely bee^i attempted. T 
bridge over river Chambal on N. H. No, 3, Agni-Bombay route near Dholr 
in Rajasthan was damaged in April, 1973, due to settlement preceded by exi 
ssive scour under one of the piers. The bridge has since been rehabilitated 
reconstruction of eight new spans supported on seven new well foundatioi 
The existing and new foundations have been treated by grouting to prot< 
the treacherous clay shale or clay seams inter-bedded with thin layers of saj 
stone, lime stone and -or silt stone underneath the foundations against sdutic 
cum-erosional effect of artesian water. The post-grouting water peroolati 
tests under limiting pressures have shown renuu-kable results indkati 
successful grouting of the strata. 

The Authors highlight the geology of the strata,need for grouting desi 
criteria, construction details based on experimental studies, quality coDtrol a 
^xhniquc of grouting. 



Groutin© OF^Fob4!>AlK)NS *? ChambM:: BklDGE 411 

•,.\}j;4NTROPUCXION . : r / 

y I.l. TTie existing Chambil Bridge near Dholpur' on K ft. 
No. 3, Agra-GwaliorjSectioQ^^ bridge,742 mQ,43|^ft.) 

long desigaed for a (tischarge of 45^000 cii m/sec. (i;6 milijon'Cu. ft/ 
Sice.) The t^irjcig^ Wjas conistrupted in a period of five.yetos 'from 
1955^59 by the Central Public Works Department! the Bridge 
is located on the apex of a curve in perennial river channel, where 
the depth 6f w^er even during the dry seasoii remains Aiore than 
6 metres. TTie ihitxiniiim depth of water column at -the highest 
fldod level is ndarly 35;85 xn from average river bcdi 

1.2. Unfortunately, four.jspans each 43.3m between abut- 
mont piers No^ 16 to 2Q collapsed on the 3rd April, 1973 subsequent 
to settlement of Ker No. 17 iiotioed m February, 1973. This 
pier showed.and suffered settlement prior to failure. The boreiholo 
samples indicated that the day matrix conglomerate, has been 
altered to amass of one metre thick residual clay with gravel sand 
boulders. This waa found immediately below the cutting edge. 
The fitulure of .th& Pier might be also due to the settlement as> the 
well under Pier 17 could not withstand the load of 10 kg/Cm*, 
hence shearing of the residual day. Further, it appears to have 
been preceded by excessive scour of the over-burdom material 
around the pier effecting the bearing capadty of the strata. 

1.3. The bridge has been reconstructed between piers No. 13 
& 22 by proyidii^. new^ well foundations and superstructure having 
eight spans of prestress concrete box-girders. The old existing 
foundations between piers No. 1 to 13 and new foundations pier 
No. 14 to 20 and old foundation No. 22 have been strengthened 
by providing curtam and consolidation grouting and same is dis- 
cussed in this Paper for information and professional interest. 

2.. SAIJK^a' REATIIRES OF THE BRIDGE 

2.1. Existing span arrangements & foondations : The old 

bridge comprised three distinct segments. From Dholpur end, 
there are 12 spans (Pier No. 1-13) varying from 14.02 to 16.46 m 
(46 ft to 54 ft), of R.C.C. rigid portal frame structure with open 
foundations resting on rock in the shallow portion of the river. 
Prior to damage, the foundation had pucca floor, and now further 
strengthening hais been completed by providing curtain walls 



412 SM. MALHOttA, ILS. Bhah k M.P« Jain on 

and floKiUd apron on up-stMun and down-ftMUn wick out in li 
oenmit ooncrete blocks I.S2)( 1.52x0.60 m. The second segmc 
comprised Piers No. 13 to 22 having nine qians varying from 33.: 
to 43.59 m. bridging the deeper channel of over by ILC.C. arch 
springing from masonry piers (No. 14-22) uliich in turn are suppio 
ted on woU foundations. Pier Nos. 13, 16, 20 Jk 22 wDte abuteie 
piers. 

The thifd segment con^wises another 14 qians vaiying firo 
13.72 to 16.46 m on Owalior side. These spans also consist < 
R.C.C. portal frame simifaur to IMiolpur end and footings a 
resting <m sandy strata at shallow depths, duly prot e ct e d by puo 
floor and curtain walls upstream and downstream and with loo 
ipron of 8 m in width and one metre thidc beyond curtain wi 
on downstream side. As alrcMly mentioned in para 1.1 th 
the bridge is located on the apex of the curve and Gwalior sa 
being saltingend, the foundations for pier Not. 23 to 36 have n 
been taken to rock leveL A boU design indeed. As inch, tl 
bridge had total 36 spans before damage and now after reoon^ru 
tion consists of only 34 spans having eight new spans s u ppo rt ! 
on newly constructed wdl foundations. Phte 1 shows 
arrangement of old submersible bridge across Chambal 
near Dholpur. 

2.2. Hydraulic Data: 

(a) Design discharge : 45,000 cum./sec. 

(16,00,000cu ft/sec.) 
(jb) Observed velocity : 4.54 m/sec. 

(15 ft/sec.) 

(c) Highest iSood level : R.L. : 149.05 m 

(R.L. 489.00 ft) 

(d) Observed maximum R.L. 143.80 m 
flood in recent years : (R.L. 471.66 ft) 

(e) Dry season water level : R. L. 120.00 m 

(R.L. 394.00 ft) 

(/) Lpwest bed level : R.L. 113.20 m 

(R.L. 371.29 ft) 
(g) Deck level : 

(f) Dholpur end : R.L. 141.12 m 

(R.L. 462.87 ft) 



OioifnMo or Foundatiow of Cbambal Budob 413 

(0) Owalior tod : R*I. 140.S1 m 

(R.L. 461.00 ft) 

(*) Length of ttebridsB: 742m 

(2,436 ft) 



13. iMfmftttmm t&mkfOmm : The new foundfttions con- 
sists ofthrae numbers of twin dumb-well at a distance of 11.42 m 
apart and four numbers sfaigie dumb-well of varying sizes. The 
locations for new foundations are des^nated as 14N, ISN, IjSN 
(upstreamX 16N (downstreamX 17N (upstream), 17N (downstieamV 
19N and 20H between M foundations No. from 13 to 22. 
It was desirable and necessary to construct two separate wells 
at each new locations vir., 16N, 17N and 18N up-stream and down- 
stream of the fallen arches, as the fallen arches and arch debris in 
the rrver bed between pier Nos. 16 to 19 was not economically 
feasible to be removed or to sink the weOs through it. 

The upstream and downstream wells were connected by a 
common ILC.C. tie monolithic with the well caps of the upstream 
and downstream wells. 'A' frame R.C.C. piers were raised to 
support the superstructure. Plate 2 shows general arrangements 
of new spans and hiyout of new foundations No. 14N to 20N 
Chambal bridge near Dholpur. 

3. GBOixxnrAT mix» 8rrE*8UB«nATA 

3.1. Obnnti wmbet geology ef the site : The area around 
the bridge site is mostly covered by alluvium deposits, except for 
limited exposures of Bhander lime-stone on the left bank of the 
river, which form the ultimate bedrock foundation in the area. 
It is observed that the bed rock is overbid by 0.9 to 1.6 m. (3 to 
3 ft) thick bed of subrecent, predominantly cakareous conglo- 
merate which, although removed, probably by excavation close 
to the Bridge piers Nos. 1 to 12 are seen both downstream and 
upstream of the bridge site, capping the bed rock below. 

The bed rock in the river section and on the right bank is 
nowhere exposed, and lies buried under thick cover of alluvium, 
which consists of an older and an younger unit. The older unit 
occurs in the form of a thick siit/cbty bed, which is well exposed 
on both the banks of the river. The younger alluvium, blankets 
the bed rock in the river section from pier No. 13 onwards 
to pier No. 22. The alluvium deposit depth ranging 



414 axt MALHontA^ R.& ftuwn •& M.R Jam • oN'C: ) 

from 0.2 to 4.8 m from pin'. Not. 14 to : IS aodvS (o 13.Si 
from pier Nos.^ 1'^ to 2i occurs, but from pier No. i 
and onwards upto pier No. 22 'the i^atid'Vlaj^er is imderiakil t 
another unit of recent ' athiVium consisting of clay mixed wit 
roimdpd ^gr^y^i^ and pebUes wIMpM^r^P/? •^ t)ijck j^.jiier Np. 1 
and increase^ to.S^.4 p at pierlocatipaNo. 22^';,^f^tom*tk^ iiq 
22 to 36k tjiere is a thic)c.pile of rivj^ sand being silting eiyi^.., 
•■'• '■■ ■■ ■"• •;;. "- "■ ...- — • -t '.■■:■: r.. ' '. •.. ••:* -'Tti!.-. 

3.2. IHstijbiition of bed rock and cap ro6k : The 6ed Vodl 
fomfng the original rocky 1y6d of the river, pfbbiabiy ait thi^'b^ 
iting'of the pteistocehe period so^mi^ two million yearis' ago is te^^ 
to view from pfer Nos. 1 to 12 on the left bank (Dhdlpui^ tenM 
These exposures of the Bharider fime-stone occur over the vertita 
interval between elevation 120 m atid 130 m (R.L.' 394.W aii 
R.L. 426.5 ft). The^ overlying cap-rock as exposed liere, dbffsls 
of predominately cakarebus conglomerates about ,2 to 3 iii:thic 
ondie ieft tide of the peccnnial channel of the river. The capNK 
by implication, includes material .which caps the bedrock of Ik 
area*' This cap rock is not entirely of therquahty as expose 
on the left bank and consists of tite harder Qiemtber at the bottol 
and a softer member on the top. Only the Jianler member c 
the cap rock zonjp seeips to haye been preserved on the left ban 
which is 0.9 to 1.6 m thick, and has an irregular configuration o 
its contact with the bed rock, on account of its deposition on th 
erosiona! surface of Bhander formation. 

3.3. Characteristics of bed-rock, cap-rock and over-bordeii 

3.3.1. The Bhander lime-st^ne is generally sandy in nitdn 
fine grained in texture, compact and fairly hard. It is grey c 
yellowish in colour and in thiii section reveals pellets of shal 
and occasional grains of quartzite, limonite and haematite set in 
matrix of calcium carbonate. The lime stone bed constitiitih 
the left bank of the river at the convex bend, is subject to cohstar 
river attack and periodic submergence and hence is weatherei 
in the upper layers. Besides, there are cavities in the lime-ston 
partly of solution but mostly of erosional origin which ranges froii 
a few centimetres to 30 cm in width. These cavities occastorialii 
extend to a depth of One metre evidenced in some of the deep cuC 
exposing the bed rock around I § m downstream of pier No^ 1 3 



GROUtlNitr OF I^OONt^ATW^S OF CkAMBAt BRIDGE 415 

3.3.2. The lime stone is thinly bbddtod and is fibYizohtal to 
sul>honz<Hitai, i^ disposition, .but occasionally, shows ai. well- 
define4 .strike of NE-S>Y and a dip of 8 to 10 degrees towaijd^ ihq 
NW,. Ipcally^^he strike appears veer, to NNE-SSW. The predoini-^ 
nant .joint systems seen iathie hed rqck are. as follows : . 

0> .Bedding joints; sptfoed $-15. Cnft. apart, 
GO AppNxxinU^tt^ dip joints, treDdfnaNNW-SSW 

aod dippiiia vertically*'at spapngtof )^25 Cms, -. 
: (iii) Appf o xim atciy strike Jointii, ttciiding NNE»SSW * 
', 4 and dipping vMicall^ctspMiogef 10-30 cms. . 

3.33. Soluffdii^^uih-crosionar effects Have beetif facffitartett 
by the presence of above-inentibhed three sets of joints in thij bed 
rock and the iteulting features are expected to "be either open joints 
or extended at depth as cavities and may be either with filled clay 
or devoid of the same. The cap rock zone as exposed, on the 
left bank shows up as a highly lateritised, calcareous conglomerate, 
in Which about 10-20 per cent of the sofler matrix material wherein, 
occurring as pockets, have, uppn erosion, given rise to the tortuous 
cavities noticed therelp. Jhe rem^^ing mass, however, is foiihd 
to be quite resistant to the river erbsjon and to be capable of 
taking cohsidei^ble imposed loads. The calcareous conglo- 
merates overlying the bed roek is designated as -caprock. . Jt 
consists of altered, angular to rounded fragments of calcareous 
sand stonet genei^y ranging in size from 5. mm to 10 mm witb 
occasional blocks upto 30 cm and pellets of shale^ sandy lime 
stQne and lamonite. All of these, have probably been derived 
frpm thp break-doiwn of the bedrock, that must have been exposed 
in the adjacent areas during the pleistocene period. The cap 
rock also has occasioiial fragments pf chert (flint-like form of quartz) 
and chalcedony, probably derived from beccan-trap, together 
with angular to sub-rounded sand-sized grains of quartz, set in 
a matrix of caknum carbonate and limonite clay. . The cap rock 
has been considered into two units viz.^ (a) soft day matrix conglo- 
merate, and {b) hard lime matrix conglomerate. The thickness 
of conglomerate zone is O.S m to 1.6 m close to the bridge pier 
Nos. \ to 12. At locations of pier Nos. 14N to 20M, the data revealed 
the existence of l.S to 4m thick caprock zone. The bedrock 
mainly consists of thinly bedded sand stone, lime stone and, sik 
stone with clay seams and/or shale pockets occasionally. 



416 J.M. MALHorntA, KS. Bhah St U.P. Jaim on 
3.4. P« 



3.4.1. For geo*iecliiiieal iiiv«t«fitioiit» wmtiy 30 Nos. i 
ttqiloi»tory bore holes 10 to 30 m deep were drilled between pi 
Not, 1 to 22, after tbe fiuhne of the ttmeture. The bore-holi 
were located closer to end in some cases through the <rid piers < 
the Bridge. The e3q)loratory bore results also estaUisbed two fo 
mation units of conglomerates vb., (a) daynnatrix and (fr) Km 
matrix congtomerates having 60 to 7S per csnta ggi eg ates in bo* 
units. The percentage of day matrix in unit (a) and lime matr 
in unit (6) vary from 40 to 2S per cent r e sp ec ti vely. The nvenij 
•oie recovery in the caprock ooq^merate having ct 
matrix ranges from to 85 per cent and improves to 44 to I 
per cent in conglomerate of lime matrix origin in relatively h%h 
strength. 

3.4.2. The bed rock consisting of sand stone, lime stone ai 
sik stone have shown values of imoonihied c omp re ss ion strem 
ranging from 33 to 575 kg/Cm*. The laboratory results confii 
hi^ber strength of the bed rock oonsistiiig of sand stone^ hi 
stone and sik stone as compared to theoveriying layers of cmi^ 
merate, and are considered adequate for receiving imposed Iom 



Flite^3(t) thews die eeotoeical section across Chsnibsl river near Dbo^ 
000 metro downstream of centre lino of brides for pien Ncl tc 



Flite-3(b) thews the feologica] section across Cluumbalriver near IMioli 

one metro downstream of centre line of Bridae for piers M 

to 13. 
PIate-4(t) shews the geologica] section across Chsmbsl river near Dbdi 

one metre downstream oCoentie line of brides fbrpiosNcMV 

16N. 

Plate-4(b) shews the geologica] section across Chsmbsl river near Dbd] 
one metre down-stresm of centre line of bridge for pi 
No. 17N to 18N. 

Ptete^c) shows tfie geologica] section across Chambal river near Dho| 
one metre downstream of centre line of bridge for piers No. 1 
to20N. 

3.4.3. In almost all the bore-hoies, artesian water was i 
countered after drilling through the caprock and readimg 
bottom of the hole in the bedrock. This is due to open join 
nature of bedrock. The ground water contains sulphates rang 
from 1,400 to 2,099 p.p.m. 



OkOUTIMG op FtoUNDAnONS OF Cbambal Bmdob 417 

3.5. 



The surfaoe goological site oonditioiis and confinned by txplky- 
ralory results, hidictte that piers No. 1 to 12 on the left bank have 
probably been taken down into the bed rock asone having open or 
day filled joints and cavities devek>ped atong the joint systems. The 
presence of such features would dictate that remedial measures 
like consolidation grouting wouU be necessary and desirable to 
ensure hompgeneous mechanical response of the foundation to 
impose leads. 

The exploration has also revealed completely the constituent 
sub-units of the bed rock zone which is made up of silt stone, sand 
stone and lime stone beyond the tentative foundation levels. The 
thickness of individual sub-unit varies from a few centimetres to 
about a metre. The compressive strength values of the sub-unit 
of the bed rock zone are all very high and rock units are just com- 
petent, both from the point of view of strength as well as eroda- 
bility. Hence the new foundations were preferred to rest into the 
bedrock with sufficient embedment varying from 1.5 to 4 m. 
Since bed rock exhibits thin hiyers of sand stone, lime stone or 
silt stone inter-bedded with day or clay shale seams, open jointed 
nature of bed rock resulting in confined water conditions and high 
permeability, consolidation grouting of the foundations under 
new piers, and of rock upto a depth of 9 m below the cutting edge 
levels and adjoining area within a radial distance of 9 m all around 
the periphery of the wells has been provided to ensure impermea- 
bilization and improve load reception of the rock mass as a whole. 

4. GEOUTING OF EXISTING FOUNDATIONS UNDER PIERS 

NO. 1 TO U 

4.1. Deate recndreneat and criteria 



Rock grouting is normally carried out to fill the discontinuity, 
cavities or voids in rock mass by suitable materials, to improve 
load reception capacity and to minimise erodability. Under the 
present circumstances, pier location Nos. 1 to 13 is supporting 
R.C.C. rigid frame portal superstructure. The portal frame is 
resting on open foundations. These foundations are resting on 
lime stone, sand stone and clay layers. Cavernous lime stone is 



41« ' I.M. MfbMmA, R.S: IMait & 'M.V. Jaot >oN':: 

cavity ridden and joints, filled with d«yi Thi bMeSprtoniie iuid< 
these foundations is limited to (3 tons/sq. fk) 30 ton8/sq.m in tl 
ddsigii. the 'pressufic btdb' develops wHUki 4.572 m"(l5 ft) < 
th6 strata, KenSethe zorie to be groiited is co ns idered <o^a iSi^ 
of 4:572 m (Mh) horn the fbiindatkm'Ievd and 3.048 m'tBi f 
iedl around the foundations. Besides^' f6r the ebnitApment* oif tl 
iday .Stems MbW'foti^ df pi6rs Ko. t to 13, andflfedth 

^orciirtain is, tberelbin^'desiftd;Th^ idea \kimi tfak ts to ptcvA 
po^ie Wbsion of day^^Mrft'wIu&lhay weaken tlie fbiindatlofli 
The criteria adopted to evaluate and assess the efflbcdvicfiesflf x 
tbf grouting IS to.xaduoe thi^ pe^meabiUty.of the,arca>af))er-pos 
gcoytbg and.obmpaie the samewifh. theresubte.of pre-groutiiij 
Iberefore,i.the efficacy of grouting may be tested by.iyater peiGpl^ 
tibn tcs^t tp ^taui^ the^ value. of 1-2 Jitres per iqctie per miniH.e: 
limiting piessura^ Genorally«.hoW .w^^ wi|^ at the iqM 

bolqw, 3 litres, per minute per .stage of J Jtp 2 miDtie at .. hs^j^ 
grout, preMpie, are not grouial^e. ... . .... ' : ,\-^ 



.4.2. jSs^aAmfo^^ 



•I • 



.i'. • 



' Th6 bbject 6f test ^rout |)lot was to detdrtiiiiftl the jiroiiCikb 
Bty of thib strata Under the existing foundations iind to; detertti&l 
the various parameters such as all6wable grout pressures, pattrt 
and spacing of the holes, type and grout mixes etc. Tbt wbr 
was completed during the month of April/ 1976 by M/s. Rod! 
Hazarat, the expert firm dealing in foundation problems. 'Accoi 
dfhgly, foundation location under Pier No. 6 was selected for tib 
grouting. 

4.2.1. Method of execution: The exposed rock out-cro 
showed that the strata consists of layers of sand stom 
shale and lime stone which is of . a cavei7\ous nature 
Also foundation exploration confirmed ' the presence o 
Cavernous lime stone. The core recovery in this 'striata varied bel 
ween 20 to 60 per cent. It was considered necessary to <:arry ou 
consolidation git>uting to a width of about 10 ft. all around th 
existing pier foundation. The work was carried out by tisin 
48 nun size percussive pneumatic equipment. ■ The depth of ^h 
grout holes was 6.706 m (22 ft) and the strata was to be groute 
from 2.134 m (7 ft.) below at whiqh level the existing foundation 



GRQimWr :. op .FQyi^AT!lpN3 OF ^CfUMB/Os BRIDGE 41$ 

aro.^ iocated^ Thp- qiethoil . . of exe9ution is, .. described,: in 
brk^r as uncles • ' -"v'^" •.• • ■ * »-. ■<:•■■•; -^ 

-0) tending o^48 ^m dii. ftote^ to k depth d^ 4.572 m (IS ft) ttstng ilbii- 
- * '^' boriiiglneiiiittte^4U|MiieMkiid water- lesth^ l»f tlwholal 

by fixing packer at a dq^ of 2.134 m (7 ft)^ 

(]a) Grouting of this stage by using neat cement mixes to specified refusal 

PIUHUCB. 

!•>.,: '. .it.s •• *. ••: t'. :• ■ •..' , • •■■'.;■•.. 

(ill) Re-drillmg of first Stage from 2.134 to 4.572 m (7 to IS ft) and further 
^ .dijUlns. uptQ^ 6^706 m (22ilQ depth. 

Therefore, the stage between 4.572 to 6.706 m (15 to^ fl> w«l washed, 
water tested and grouted in the same manner indicated above. 

4.2.2. E^erinifiitstioB. ^ 

42.2. 1. StagNbrilHiig: Grouting was taken up in twd* stages, 
the first ttage cdnsisted of 2.438 m (8 ft) froni R.L. 12435 to 
121.92 m (R.L. 408.00 to 400.00 ft) and second stage of 2.134 m 
(7 ft) fromR.L. 121.92 to 119.78 m (R.L. 400.00 to 393.00 ft 
average). Thus, this provided a total depth of 4.572 m (15 ft ) of 
sub-strata* bdow foundation level to bt grouted. Descending 
method of stage grouting was adopted. After con4)letion of 
first stage, the second stage was done in the same, nianner. : 

E>nlling and grouting; can either be done by ascending or 
descending stage depending on site conditions. In ascending 
stage method, the hole is drilled to a full depth initially and 
grouting is done in stages with use of packer. The advantages 
in this method are: 

6) The pfOoess pf drilling and grouting is quicker and cheaper as redril-> 
liQ^ is not required; 

(ir) W«rkcansimukaneously proceeded at various locations in the area; and 
(iii) Economical for 5-6 m depths of holes. 

But it has many disadvantages, some of them are: 

(0 The chances of side collapse in holes and blocking the entire depth 
causing hindrances. 

(ii) The fissures, joints and cavities in the surroundings of the hole get 
blocked, due to upward travel of grout and in that case when grouting 
is done hi upper stagey there are chances of grout not going inside the 
strata. Thus, may lead to poor grouting of the area, undetected. 



420 J.M. Malhotiu, R.S. Bhah A M.P. Jain on 

In C186 of dosoeoding stage method, eadi ttage is drilled an 
grouted starting from top. Full depth of the stage is drilled, deanet 
water tested and grouted. After lapse of 4-6 days re-drilling 
done in the 1st stage to reach the 2nd stage and process is repeattt 
The advantages are that : 

(i) Oroittiiif b perfect and resuld ait better. This is because froi 
tiavelt oBly in the desired directions and 



(ii) Len chances of side coUapse and blocking of hole, as the depth < 
fliouttng is limited to 3-5 n). 

4.2.2.2. Patton Adepth of holes: Accordingly, the grout hok 
were drilled to a depth of 4.572 m (IS ft.) in two stag( 
plus the depth of overburden. Attempts were made to dri 
holes in trianguhttion system to establish inter-connections s 
as to ensure flow of grout in all directions. 



4.2.2.3. SpHt-apadag: In the beginning a sequence of eigl 
primary vertical holes of 48 mm diameter in the smes < 
FY I to PYg on the outer periphery at 6.55 m (21 ft. 6 in.) apa 
approximately and PX^ to PX^ series on the inner row were driUc 
as shown in Fig. 1 so as to form triangles. 



The average R.L. of floor from where the drilling commence 
was R.L. 126.79 m (416.00 ft). The average foundation lev( 
was R.L. 124.35 m (R.L. 408.00 ft) Once the drilling of li 
stage was complete, percolation tests were conducted. In som 
of the holes, water loss was 2.0 to 2.3 litres/minute/metre at 
pressure of 2.5 kg/cm*. It was also observed that inter-connec 
tions were not established at these spacings of holes. Therefori 
some more holes were drilled in between so as to reduce the spacin 
to 3 m (10 ft) in the series of PY,, PY^o, PY^ & PYj. an 
PXy, PXg & PX,. But the inter-connections could not be achieve 
even after washing and air jetting alternately for 20-30 minutei 
Finally, it was decided to reduce further spacing to 2.15 m (7 ft 2 it 
centre to centre to form triangular grid. It was observed that i 
most of the holes, inter-connections were established after washin 
the holes by alternate cycles of air and water at this spacing^ 



OsounNG OP Foundahom of Chambal Bmdgb 421 



4,2.2.4, If ■IhlliB if ivhMfal gmgn: Two upheavil 
gauges were installed one on either faces of the pier (towards 
Dholpur and Gwalior end) in order to find out the 
pressure at whidi the rode is likdy to e^iperienoe upheaval* 
In case of first stage* grouting upheaval was indicated at a pressure 



»5S 



^7 







OWALiOR END 

1. itiiTi^L uocaft* _ 

2. ^miAi. HOLaft. ^ 

3. Ti.%T Moua% . O "^^ *• 

^. UP MCAVEL A^i AG^ ^^SQ 
5. GRID FIMALIXKD ^ 



^v.^x aania.^. 



L A^ OUT OF GROUT HOLES FOR 
EXPERtMEKTAL GROUTIUG AT 
PiERHO.g>.CMAMBALE>RIPGE 
DHOLPUR> 



422 . Jf^M. Mai»HQTRa^ )R.S. BnATivA M^P. Jain on* 

pfrmorp than 0.7S JKg/om\ Whereas in tbexttseof th&2iid^ta; 
HO; upheaval w^s observed or notioed upto pressure of 2 kg/cn 
Accordingly, a; maximum) pressure of 0.75. kg/cm*. for grouti 
of Ji€t siage.and? kg/Cm* for vthe 2nd stege was found to bes 
.table, from, upheaval considerations* . The ootitrol .of. pressi 
was necessary, otherwise it would damage the portal frame sup 
structure or cause fracture in- the rock mass itself. 

Since in the^ beginning of the experiment, upheaval gauj 
wete not available, the same oould not be provided. As'^d 
in^fl^ initial stages, pressure at HWiich W&shiiig and ah- jetting v 
done at 2.5 kg/Cm*. At. this pressure, it was observed! that 
the surface of the flgor, air etscaping, from the ground was sefcn 
*the form of bubbled of watei" with slight noise. This was due 
high pressure and subsequently it «¥as reduced. 

Detaib of installation ' 

" '/ ■ * . 

For installation of upheaval gauge, three hole$ were drill 
at A, B & C. The holes A and B having 38 mm dia. are drill 
nearly 1.22 m (4 ft) inside the grout zone wh^eas hole ^C 
i33 mm dia. is drilled 3 m (l6 ft.) below the zone to be groutt 
In holes A and B, 37 mm dia. (1.5 inches) G.I. pipe class *B' 
inserted upto founding level i.e. covering .the overburden zoi 
Thereafter, another pipe 32 mm (1.25 inches) dia. G.I. pi 
upto 1.22 m (4 ft) inside the grput zone and bottom 1.22 
is firmly fixed by grouting and tops are connected with proj 
elbow-joints and horizontal pipe to connect A & B pipes as sho^ 
in Fig. 2. In hole *C outer, casing of 33 mm dia. (1.25 inch 
is inserted covering upto the grout zone and then inside 12 mm d 
pipe (0.5 inch) is inserted reaching :3 m beyond grout zone a 
this 3 m depth in the rock is grouted With cement to hold it fim 
in the strata below grout zone. The cement grout is allowed 
set for 60 hours. Thereafter, a dial gauge with least count 
0.002 inch, is fixed as shown at the top of 12 mm. dia. pipe a 
connected to upper 33 mm dia. horizontal pipe. Thus, i 
assembly of upheaval gauge is complete. After installation of i 
upheaval gauge as above, single packer or double packer is fixed 
the grout hole and subjected to water pressure under percolati 
test or grout is injected in various stages at various pressui 
and pressures^ at wh\c\\ lYv^ A\a\ ^\x^ \«fc^^ ^x^xi-^ mov] 



Grouting of Foundations of Chambal Bridge 423 



DETERMtNATlQUi OF LIMITING GROUTING PBESSUREtUPHEAWL GAU86^ 

}f * ^ 4' ^ 




5^ 

TTIT 



_0'A cr HOlEYtxont 



*-T' 



DIAL 0AU6C 

LEAST COUMT 

002 IHCM 



2' 



OVERBUIIOCN ZONE 



Jtmin OIA MOLf 



-HOLEllff 
OIA 



CEMENT V* 
CROUT 



OHOUT ZONr 
IS 

..i.... 



1/2 00 I'a* 
CLASS ptn. - 



CEMENT CROUT , 



lV( • I VCLASt FiRg 



® 




to' 



© 



Fig. 2. Details of Upheaval Gauge 

showing the upheavals are recorded. These pressures are the 
limiting grout pressures for various depths. In case of not deter- 
niming the limiting pressures correctly, may lead to deflection of 
superstructure and damage the same and/or also fracture of the 
rock mass due to excessive pressure. On the other hand, grouting 
at low pressure may result in ineffective grouting of the strata. 
Hence, determination of limiting pressure correctly is of great 
importance. 

4.2.2^. Pressure gaoge: Pressure gauges to read minimum 
of 0.01 kg/cm* were installed for reading water, air or grout 
pressures. The assembly comprising in-let valve return wall and 
pressure gauge provided on the top of grout hole is called 
'Manifold* or 'Header'. 

4JL2.6. Washing of holes with water & Ahr: Cleaning or 
washing of holes was carried out to the extent to clean the 
holes from rock cuttings, deposited as a result of drilling. 
And also to clean the clay seams by alternate cycles of Water 
and air jetting at appropriate pressures. Durmg drilling of grout 
botes, the rock cuttings with yellow lelum dt\X!L ^^X^\ \xv^v5a\»^ 

IR.C. 41—3—28 



424 J.M. Malhotra, R.S. Bhah^A M.P. Jain on 

tbe presence of clay mixed with gravel size fragments of lime 
stone at a depth of 2.13 to 2.43 m (7 to 8 ft) visual examination 
of the material indicated highly plastic nature of clay deposits. 

4^2.7. Percolation test and we of Padken 

(i) A simple percolation test involves isolating a segment 
of the hole, generally 3-S m in length by means of a 
single or double packer and pumping in water at a uni- 
form rate at constant pressure for a period of 5-10 
minutes. Tests carried out in longer lengths do not give 
any indication of the existence of fissures. But, for 
areas above water table sufficient time should be allowed 
for saturation of the rock mass in the inunediate vicinity 
of the hole. Here, percolation means continuous loss 
of water through joints, fissures and/or filling up of the 
cavities present in the rock mass. The resulting water 
loss is expressed in litres per metre per minute at limi- 
ting pressure. When test conducted at pressure of 
10 kg/cm*, the result may be expressed in lugeon units. 
The water loss in litres per metre per minute at pressure 
of 10 kg/cm* as measured from percolation test is 
called ''Lugeon Co-efficient'\ In homogeneous porous 
rock, a lugeon co-efiicient of 1.0 equals approximately 
a permeability of lO^'cm/sec. 

(ii) The test is conducted immediately after drilling the 
hole, indicating the percolation in the rock mass before 
grouting. Once the grouting is complete, another 
hole is made nearby and percolation test conducted 
to know the efiicacy of the grouting. Low results are 
indications of presence of thin joints in the strata and 
thus thin mixes are used. On the othw hand, 
high results indicate presence of wide joints, fissures 
etc., in the rock mass requiring high consumption of 
grout with varying consistencies and even requires 
additives like sand, bentonite, etc. 

(iii) Details of Installation 

Fig. 3 shows the details of double packer assembly for 
conducting percolation test. Section marked *A* is 



Grouting of Foundations of Chambal Bridge 425 



DOUBLE PACKER ASSEMBLY FOR 
CONDUCTING WATER TEST 

/T| 0-10 Kg/Cm' ^^^^ ADJUSTAaLC 




PERFORATED \/2 6 

a I b'cl ASS pjPE 5' Oft 10' 

PCRFORATEO l^-^* ^ " *b'clASS 
PlPeW»TH COLLARS WELDED 
AT BOTH ENDS 



COLLAR WtLOfD TO 
1/f G I B* CLASS PIPE 

PLUe 

BORE HOLE 



Fig 3. InstaUatioD of Double Packer 



426 J.M. Malhotra, R.S. Bhah A M.P. Jain on 

a unit of double packer. It consists of two peiforated 
G.I. pipes 1.52 m or 3 m in lengths 33mm (1.25 in.) 
dia., outer pipe and 12 mm (0.5 in.) dia., inner pipe 
which is extended upto the top. The bottom end is 
plugged. At the ends, two rubber packers 46 mm dia., 
with central hole 12.5 mm dia., are fixed. The lower 
packer rests on collar welded to 12 mm dia.» innw pipe. 
The packer assembly is lowered inside the hole to the 
required depth or stage where test is to be conducted. 
It should be ensured that the hole is absolutdy ctean 
of mud, rock chipping, etc. To fix the assembly at the 
required depth, the tightening bolt, provided with lever 
havmg threads is operated, whfch pulls the 12 mm dia. 
inner pipe upward, simultaneously pushing the outer 
33 mm dia. pipe downwards causing compression in 
the rubber packer. Thus, the rubber packers get fixed 
tightly in the hole. Once the packer is fixed, water 
flow is put on and required pressure is developed with the 
operation of valve. Initially water is allowed to flow 
for sometime in order to saturate the side walls of the 
hole and then test is performed. 

(iv) Details of test 

By operating the valve and regulating the discharge, 
the limiting pressure for that stage or depth is achieved 
and then discharge readings are recorded at an interval 
of five minutes using stop watch. When three to five 
similar readings are obtained consecutively, the discharge 
is represented in litres/metre/minute for that test section. 

(v) On completion of 1st stage driUing, percolation tests 
were conducted in each hole at water pressure of 2 to 2.5 
kg/cm* when upheaval gauges were not installed 
and once upheaval gauge were installed and limiting 
pressure known, further percolation tests were conduc- 
ted at water pressure of 0.50 to 0.75 kg/cm* for the 
1st stage and 2 kg/cm* for the 2nd stage. The results 
show percolation in the range of 0.49 to 17.60 litres/ 



Grouting of Foundations of Chambal Bridge 427 

metre/minute and to 19.30 litrcs/metrc/minute for 
1st stage and 2nd stage respectively. 

4J2JL%. Grovthig method : The work was carried out by drilling 
and grouting of the holes at about 6 m interval initially in the outer 
periphery as shown in Fig.l. Inner row grouting was taken up only 
after completion of outer row holes. The spacing of the holes was 
gradually reduced so as to determine as to what spacing inter- 
connection takes place. The grout consistency was initially kept a^ 
1 : 20 (cement : water) and flow of grout was allowed for 45 minutes. 
During this period about 20 batches (50 litres of grout in each batch) 
were consumed. The pressure gauge showed only a reading of 
0.5 kg/cm*. Then grout consistency was increased to 1 : 10 
which developed a pressure of 0.75 kg/cm* and also resulted in 
upheaval of the mass in the order of 0.007 inch. The grouting 
was continued till the grout consumption was less than 2 litre/ 
minute, at limiting pressure of 0.75 kg/cm*. 

This was continued for at least 30 minutes before disconnecting 
the grout injection. After achieving the 'REFUSAL' the top 
was kept plugged for at least 30 minutes so that at the time of 
taking out packer, no grout mix comes out of the grout hole due 
to back pressure. The grout was allowed to set for 60 hours 
before redrilling was taken in hand for 2nd stage. The second 
stage drilling and grouting was carried out after completion of the 
1st stage. Subsequently, additional holes were carried out near 
the holes which had indicated relatively more water loss. Three 
check holes were also executed for final confirmation. Data 
giving the extent of water loss during water test and grout consump- 
tion in various grout holes as well as percolation test data of check 
holes is given in Tables 1 to 4. The water loss in the first stage 
at a pressure of 2 Kg/cm* varied between 0.37 litre to about 
16.4 litres and for the second stage for a pressure of 1.25 Kg/cm* 
between nil to 6.5 litres. The corresponding grout varied bet- 
ween 4 to 25 Kg. and between nil to 65 Kg. However, in majority 
of the cases, the water loss per stage was quite low i.e. below 5 litres 
and the total grout consumption was about 735 Kg. which corres- 
ponds to less than 150 Kg/ft. or less than 5 Kg/metre. Plate 5 
shows cement grout consumption in various holes for experi- 
mental grouting at pier No. 6 



I 






I 



S 
9 

(2 



I 



hi 



is 

Is 



p 



OS 

c 
12 OS 



I CO 



I - 



P NO 






CO 



s 



•go M 



o 



osr4 
6^ 



^ t^'d^ i-;«>i^ ^ ^e>c> ^c4^ <^ioa 



22 2 F:B!0 as5 S '^'^^ SS? S8S 



s= § RSs ;;gs s 9K^ iSS f^B^ 

S8 i p?s sss * «"'"'' ^'^^ aas 

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GhROUTiNO w Foundahons op Chambal Bridge 437 

4JL3. EagiMeriiig Appraisal: Based on the experimental 
data available, various grouting parameters are discussed as under: 

(a) l^dBgoriiokt 

After successive drilling of holes at closer intervals, it was 
observed that inter-connections could be established with 
a hole spacing of 2 metres. The wash water was found to 
be free of any clay particles. Judging from the low perco- 
lation test resuhs and grout consumption data, 2 metre 
spacing is considered to be too close. Hence it was suggested 
to restrict spacing of 2.5 metre unless otherwise some holes 
indicated excessive water loss in which case, in such areas 
additional holes may be made. 

(b) Grout prcMora 

The limiting pressures may be kept at 0.75 Kg/cm" for 
first stage and 1.5 to 2 Kg/cm* for second stage grouting 
with appropriate pressure correction factors. 

(c) brter-cooDectioiit 

No efforts be made for establishing inter-connections if 
inter-connection is not established for a minimum distance 
of 3 m. No clay washing by higher pressure need be adopted. 
This is, because, clay washing would create voids, cavities 
and make open the joints and seams, inter-bedded in lime 
stone or sand stone which may cause settlement of the super- 
structure causing damage to rigid frame. 

(d) Grout Mix 

Grout mix of 1 :20 may be adopted in the beginning which 
may be thickened to 1:10 or more according to develop- 
ment of pressure and grout intake. 

(e) EflScacy test 

The efficacy of grouting may be tested by water perco- 
lation test to attain a value of 1 to 2 litres per metre 
per minute at limiting pressures. 

(f) No inclined holes be drilled as this may damage the 
existing foundations as envisaged earlier by geologistsr. 



438 J.M. MALHontA, R.S. Bh41I & NLP. Jain on 

(1) Vertical grout boles of 48 mm diameter be drilled 
2.S to 3 metre spacings. Groutmg should be can 
out til! the acceptance of grout is between 2 to 3 
Mtr/Minute at limiting grout pressure. 

(2) Since it is not desirable to dislodge the entrap 
clay for determining the qiadng of the holes, the criti 
of inter-connection between two boles is not considc 
suitable. Grouting should, therefore, be carried 
in principle on the basis of results of percolation ti 
after completion of each set of hole, Le. first of 
primary holes at 6 m centre to centre to be complc 
and later on secondary holes at 3 m. centre to centre 

(3) Grouting pressures of 0.75 Kg/cm* and 2 Kg/c 
for first and second stage are considered to be suits 
as this would not lead to any up heavals of the surrou 
ing rock mass. 

(4) Considering the low water loss, basically neat cem 
mix starting with a consistency of 1:20 would be suita 
and depending upon the rate of consumption, ext 
of water loss etc., the mix can be gradually thicken 

(5) Grouting is to be done in all holes irrespective of per 
lation results. 

(6) Descending method of stage grouting is to be followed 
avoid side collapse in the holes, and jamming of packt 

(7) Efficacy of grout shall be checked by drilling additio 
holes in the zone where percolation is more and 
grout consumption is less. 

(8) After completion of grouting, holes shall be plugj 
by filling up to the top with cement sand mortar 
1:3 ratio with water sufficient to make workable m 

4.3. Grout mix & its properties 

4.3.1. The various grout mixes of cement used had t 



Grouting of Foundations of Chambal Bridge 439 
following properties: 



Grout 


Viacodty in 


Density 


Bleed 


Orushing 


COQSIS- 


seconds 


gms/cc 


% 


strength 


toipy 










1:20 


24 to 27 


1.01 


89 


Test not conducted 


1:10 


25 to 28 


1.05 


85 


.. 


1:5 


27 to 30 


1.12 


67 


... 


1:2 


30 to 33 


1.25 


41 


^~m 


1:2 


30 to 33 


1.25 


41 


_ 


1:1 


35 to 38 


1.48 


23 






The results of water tests have indicated generally low water 
loss indicating the presence of fine fissures. These can only be 
filled with neat cement grout of thin consistency. Accordingly, 
starting mix of cement to water in the ratio of 1 :20 was found 
to give satisfactory results. In case of higher intakes, the consis- 
tency of the mix can be suitably thickened depending on the rate 
of intake, and in case of excessive consumption, filler mix contai- 
ning cement and sand may be used. In some cases, it may also 
be necessary to add 2 to 3 per cent of bentonite to facilitate injec- 
tion of the grout and also to provide a stable mix. But, however, 
bentonite or any other admixtures were not used at Chambal 
bridge for grouting. 

4.3.2. Methods for deteraodMlioB of gro«t prapertifls 
For proper control on the grout mixes of various consis- 
tencies, time to time tests were conducted to ensure good quality 
mix being injected into the grout hole. As such following tests 
were conducted in site laboratory. 

43J.1. Deasity: The density of a grout mix is|determined 
with the help of a equipment known as MUD-BALANCE. It 
consists of fluid container with lid mounted on one end of long 
graduated lever arm, supported on adjustable fulcrum. The 
lever arm carries one counter weight fitted with spirit level on 
top. In conducting the test, the balance is levelled truly horizontal, 
by filling water in the container and keeping the adjustable counter- 
weight at scale reading of 1.00 on longer arm (Deasity of water 
1.00. gm/cc.) 

This is brought in horizontal position by operation of screws 
of fulcrum and bringing the bubble of spirit level in centre fitted 

I.R.C-41-3-29 



440 J.M. MALHontA, R.S. Bhati A M.P. Jain on 

on the top of the counter. Once adjustments are made and tr 
horizontal position is achieved, the fluid, the cement grout 
which density is required to be determined is poured in to t 
container upto the ^brim and adjustable counter-weight is mov 
along the scale in such a way that the bubble of the spirit le 
oomes to centre making the arm horizontal, at this stage the leadi 
on the scale gives directly the density of grout. Frequent te 
conducted at site will have control on the consistency of the m 
It may happen at site that the grout being injected does not poss< 
^he required density because of less or more quantity of cem< 
poured in the mixing tank. Therefore, by comparing the dens 
of standard mix to that of field mix, it can very weU be control! 
that what is the consistency of the grout mix which is being pump 
and correction can be made on the spot. If it is not prope 
controlled and thicker or thinner mix is injected, it will lead 
choking of fine pores in case of thicker mix or consume m< 
time by using thinner mixes as the case may be. 

4^3.2.2. Bleed Test: The test apparatus consists of 
cylindrical graduated glass jar of 1000 c.c. The grout nun 
filled in upto 1000 c.c. mark and allowed to settle for 24 ho 
and cement set is observed, say, 'x', c.c. 

Bleeding is expressed in percentage, 

1000— X 
^'^- 1000 ^^Q^ 
(Results shown in table at para 4.3.1.) 

The test results are significant in calculating the depth 
re-drilling through partially set cement grout. The depth 
grouting stage is say 3 m. and the grout mix was 2:1, the con 
ponding bleed is 41 per cent (refer table in para 4.3.1). Th 
fore, the cement deposit depth is calculated 100—41 1=59 per c< 
So the depth of partially set grout shall be 59 per cent of 3 m wh 
is 1.77 m. For precise calculation, the grout held in vertical p 
or hole should also be taken into account. 

43.2.3. Flow test: Flow test indicates the flowability of gr 
mix. The test is simple and is conducted in a standard metal a 
known as 'MARSH-CONE'. The cone is held in hand having < 
finger at the bottom keeping the hole closed. Grout mix is pourec 



Grouting cm^ Foundations of Chambal Bridge 441 

the cone and filled upto the mark. Once the cone is filled upto 
the mark, finger held at bottom is removed and grout mix is allowed 
to flow. The time taken in seconds to run down the grout from the 
cone is known as flow time in seconds, and is an indicator o^ 
consistency of mix. Fig. 4 shows the apparatus used for determi- 
nation of density, bleed and flow tests of grout. 



LIO 




MUD BALANCE 






ADJUSTABLE 
FULCRUM 



Qr— SCALE GRaGUATEO 
IN DENSITY OFSTEEL 
^ — n 
-COUNTER WEIGHT 
FITTED WITH SPRIT 
LEVEL (5 AT TOP 






^L-rWQD*^ 





MEASURING JAR MARSH CONIF 

Fig 4. Apparatus for determination of Density, Flow A Bleed of grout 

4.4. Grootiiig Technique 

4.4.1. By thumb rule, grout pressure at any particular packer 
position may be calculated by the following empirical rule: 

0.17 Kg/Cm» Metre of overburden 
0.23 Kg/Cm«/Mctrc of rock 

In case of mix with sand, double of the above pressures are 
assumed. Fig. 5 gives a Guide for grouting pressures 



442 J.M. MALHomtA, R.S. Bhati A M.P. Jam oh 



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APPROXIMATE PRESSURUREM Kg/Cn?AT GIVEN OEPT H 
Fig. 5. Guide for OroiitiQg FraMiue 

4A2. Typeofnixis 

(D: NEAT CEMENT MIXES: 

Water 



6^ kg. 


50Utres 




1:8 


12.50 „ 


50 „ 




1:4 


25.00 „ 


SO „ 




\X 


50.00 .. 


» „ 




1:1 


00 STANf CaiOUT MIXES: 








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SiliMte 


Wata 


CB-1 50 Kg. 


5kg. 


0.25 Ut 


50 ih. 


C8-2 50Kg. 


10 kg. 


0.25,, 


50 „ 


Gii) CEMENT SAND MDDB8 








Type CtaMrt 


Bitoalto 


Sarf 


Wata 


CSB-1 50 Kg. 


IKg. 


25 Kg. 


50 lit 


CSB-2 50 „ 


2,. 


50 „ 


50„ 


CSB.3 50 .. 


3,. 


75,. 


50„ 


CSB-4 50., 


2., 


50„ 


50„ 


CSB-< 50,. 


3h 


75 „ 


50„ 


CSM 50., 


2„ 


100 „ 


SO- 


CSB-12 SO „ 


3,. 


75,. 


50„ 



Grouting of Foundations of Chambal Bridge 443 

4,43. Tips OB GroQtiiig tedmiqiie: Let the refusal pressure 
observed at experimental grout and calculated as per 4.4.1 be 
called T\ Initially, after placing the packer in position at desired 
stage, water is injected by grout pump running at about 16 strokes 
per minute. Let this pressure of water be called T^'. 



Ftcflsure 


Mix 


Type 


Batch 


Pump strokes 
per minute 

• 


-l/2p 


1:8 


Neat cement 


10 


40 


Otol/2^ 


1:4 


i> 


10 


40 


Otol/2p 


1:2 


»> 


10 


40 


Otol/^ 


1:1 


ft 


10 


40 


Otol/2p 


CB-l 


Stable 


20 


50 


Otol/^ 


CB-2 


fft 


20 


50 


Otolllp 


CSB-1 


Cement A sand 


20 


60 


Otolllp 


CSB-2 


»» 


20 


60 


Otol/^ 


CSB.3 


Iff 


20 


60 


Oto]/2p 


CSIM 


*t 


20 


60 


Oto]/2p 


CSB^ 


>* 


20 


60 


Otol/2p 


CSB-8 


»t 


20 


60 


Otol/2p 


CSB-1 2 


** 


20 


60 



Notes: (Q If P^ • Oor— I'Pstart with 1:4 mix and then in progression 
for development of pressure, if pressure develops to half, 
reverse the order of mix. At Pi 2/3p change to neat cement 
mixes only. If P^ is l/2p start with 1:8 mix and in this case 
use only neat cement mixes. 

(ii) In cascLof cavity, start with 1 :4 mix and straight to CSB-1 mix. 

4.4.4. It is observed in some cases, pressure does not develop 
even with CSB-12 mix, allow ''rest'' of 12 hours and then resume. 
If there is continuous in-take at same pressure (for example near 
refusal) change to higher mix after 40 batches of neat mix. Only 
thing to be noted is that between 2/3 P to P stable and sand grout 
mixes should never be used. If 40 batches of 1:1 mix also do 
not increase the pressure to refusal, grout upto half a ton limit, 
same mix -and then stop. In case of grouting with sand, after 
every 5 bags of cement grouted, a mix of 1 :4 will be sent along 
with one kik>gram of bentonite in order to clean the line and hn 
so that choking does not oocur. 



444 J.M. MALHontA, ILS. Bha^ ft M.P. Jain oh 



43. Fmiriattai of pMll« MtawtePkr Ntiil to 12 

Btted on nperimental ob$ervatioiis mide at pier lootfio 
N6.6^ the various parameters were flnaOy decided in oonsultatio 
with the Director* Geological Survey of India and Ministiy c 
Tranqx>rt <Roads Wing), New Delhi, the gnmtmg 
finally formulated as under for pier Nos.i to 13. 



4J.1. Sbe Ml depth ef hekt (fcrtkd) mI 
The grout holes should be 48 mm in diameter 4.572 m. dee 
(two stages of 2.134 ft 2.438 m respectivdy) befew fonndalloa 
kvds, of the individual fuer for vertical holes. InieHned hoi 
at 25^ firom vertical (depth 9.449 m) 4 Nos. (two on either wk 
of pier) parallel to the flow of wato* may be driOediVad wnie 
tested. Inter-eonnection through the indmed holes shookl not b 
attempted. The holes should be cleaned by alternate qfdes of ai 
and water at limiting pressures for at least 30 minutes. 

4S2. Sp a ring : The vertical grout holes of *x* aond y aierie 
be initially drilled at 6 m centres and washed thoroughly b; 
water jetting only. If the inter-connection at 6 m spadng di 
not develop, the spacing can be further reduced to 3 m am 
inter-connections should be tried by water only. 

Further reduction of spacing of holes is not necessary if inter 
connections do not develop at 3 m spacings. 

4.5.3. Water test : Water percolation tests are to be performec 
on each hole and record should be maintained. The wate 
pressure for first stage should be 0.75 kg/cm* to 1 kg/cm* am 
for second stage it should be 1.25 kg/cm* to 2 kg/cm*. 

4.5.4. Groat mix: The grout mix should be 1 :20 (Cement 
Water) initially and the consistency should be increased in viev 
of individual holes requirements in the ratio and sequence 1 :1C 
1 :S, 1 :2 and 1:1 as per instructions of the site Engineer. 

4.5.5. Groat Pressure: The grout pressure ranging fron 
0.75 kg/cm' for first stage of 2.134 m and 1.25 kg/cm* for seoonc 
stage of 2.438 m shall be maintained by providing a pressun 
release valve. The grout causing excess pressure should retun 
to the grout mixer. 



Groutinq of Foundations of Chambal Bmdce 44S 

4&6. GfMtfaig: Prior to start of fixing packer for grouting* 
the grout hole shall be checked for depth and should ba 
perfectly clean. There should not be any rock chippings 
left in the bole. Then packer should be proptfly fixed and 
seated at foundation levol for grouting the first stage 
of 2.134 m bdow foundation level, there should be no 
leakage of grout by the sides of the packer. The grouting 
shaft contmue till the grout consumption is less than 0.20 Lit/Min/ 
Metre at limiting pressure. This should be seen for at least 
30 minutes before disconnecting the grout injection and hole 
shouM be kept plugged at top for 30 minutes so that at the time 
of taking out of packer no grout mix comes out of the grout hole. 
The grout shaU be allowed to set for 60 hours before re-drifling 
is taken in hand. After 60 hours of groutmg, the depth of hole 
shaU be diecked and it is confirmed that fuU grouted zone i^ filled 
of eement and then only re-drilling shall be carried out for second 
stage. The exercise is to be repeated in the same manner lor 
second stage. 

4^.7. Check holes: For testing efficacy two check holes are 
to be drilled in each stage as suggested by the Engineer- 
in-charge or representative of G.S.I. and water test is to be 
co^ttcted. If water loss is more than one litre/min/stage at 
liositing pressure, further grouting shall be carried out by 
driUing more holes at the places indicated by Engineer-in-diargfr 
or Geologist. 

4SS. Phiggfaig of Grout holes: After 60 to 80 hours of 
groutmg fof the second stage, the depth of holes should be 
checked and it should be ensured that grouted zone is filled of 
cement and then only the hole is to be plugged by insertmg 
sand cement mortar 1:3 upto top. 

4.5^. Reporthig of reanlts: The daily progress report 
indicating water tests, grout consumption and efficacy test results, 
shall be maintained at site of work. Plate 6-a shows the detailed 
sG^Mne of driUing and grouting at pier Nos. 1 to 4. Plate 6-b shows 
the detailed scheme of drilling and grouting at pier Nos.S to 9* 



446 J.M. MAUiOTRA, R.S. Bhah A M.P. Jain on 

Plate 6-c shows the detailed scheme of drilling and grouting at 
pier Nos. 10 to 13. 

N<rte: Initially it was suggested and envisafed by geologist to provide 
inclined holes, for grouting tlie strata underneath the foun- 
dations. But it was feared that drilling of faidined holes tOKi 
cause vibrations as weH as disturb the strata whidi is alresdy 
. in compression resulting in . settkment of deflectiop 
of the framed structure. Hepce, driDiiig of tpdioed hoki 
was abandoned. 

4.6. ObsermtioDB ft record of drillfaig ft gnMtiiig 

4.6.1. Day to day record of drillmg in stages, water percola- 
tion test results and grout consumption were kept properly at .^ite 
of work in proper formats i.e. in the form of registers. 
Specimen of formats are given as Appendices 1, 2 & 3 for daily 
drilling report, daily percolation test report and daily grouting 
report respectively. Separate registers were maintained foreadi 
pier location. Besides, day to day recording as work progressed, 
some of the grout tests viz.. Bleed test, Density test and Flow test 
etc., as discussed in para 4.3.2 were conducted so as to ensure 
proper quality control. 

4.6.2. As a specimen, the abstracts of observations viz., 
record of water percolation test results and grout consumption 
at pier location Nos. 6 and 9 arc given in Table 1 to 4 and 5 to 6 
respectively. Table 7 gives an abstract of overall position of 
drilling and grouting for pier Nos. 1 to 13. It will be observed 
from Table 7 that quite a good quantity of cement was consumed 
in surface preparation for pier location Nos. 8 to 13. This shows 
that the strata below the pucca floor was very much porous and 
cavity ridden. The maximum quantity of cement to the time 
of 10,957 kg. was consumed at pier No. 8. The quantity of 
cement consumed at the same location for 1st and 2nd sta^ was 
to the tune of 4,544 kg and 3,297 kg. respectively. This was 
quite low as compared to the quantities of 15,494 kg and 12,092 kg. 
consumed for 1st and 2nd stage respectively for pier No. 9. This 
indicates that some of the quantity of cement grout consumed in 
surface preparation at pier No. 8 might have travelled down to 
foundation strata and provided partial grouting of 1st & 2nd 
stage during surface preparation. 



Grouting of Foundations op Chambal BpuDCB 447 

4.6.3. The jHe-groutiiig perodation results at pier location 
Nos. 8 and 9 were very high to the tune of 98.SQ aiid 52.48 litr/ 
Met/Minute. 

The post - grout check holes have indicated water 
percolation to the tune of nil to 0.16 lit/met/Minute at limiting 
pressures at pier location Nos.8 and 9. This is an indication that 
satisfactory grouting has been completed providing an effective 
curtain and thus consolidation grouting achieved . 

5. GROUTING OF STRATA UNDER NEW FOUNDAHONS—PIER 
NO. 14N TO 20N AND 22 OLD 

Before commencing the grouting of foundations, it was felt 
necessary to conduct e)q>erimental grouting and arrive at various 
design parameters as done at pier location No. 6 to formulate 
detailed scheme for execution. Accordingly, pier location No.l9N 
was selected for trial grouting. 

5.1 Design criteria and its reqidrements 

As discussed earlier, the object of grouting the new 
foundation is: 

(a) To inqvove bearing capacity of the founding strata. The 8trat» is 
gmenUly thinly bedded sand stone, Ihne stone and sflt stone with clay shale 
seams vaiying in thidcness from few centimetres to about two metres. 

(b) To reduce permeability and solubility and reduce the possibility of 
day shale getting eroded and also, to fill up the cavities, fissures etc ., in caver- 
neous Kme or sand stone strata. 

Assuming a simple stress distribution at 45*, the intensity of pressure at 
various depths bdow the founding level (Design for 6 ton/sq.ft) shaU be as under : 

Just at foundation level 64.58 Ton/sq m (6 Ton/s ft) 



at 0.30 m (1ft) bdow F.L 


57.48 


f» 


(5.34^) 


at 0.60 m (2 ft) Below F.L. 


51.99 


*ff 


(4.83J 


at 0.91m (3 ft) - 


47.25 


9ff 


(4.39,,) 


at 1.21m (4 ft) " 


43.05 


9* 


(4.00,.) 


at 1.52 m (5 ft) " 


39.50 


t» 


{3.670 


at 3.05 m (10 ft) „ 


27.12 


»f 


(2.52„) 


at 6.09 m (20 ft) ., 


15.28 


99 


(1.42..) 


at 9.10 m (30 ft) „ 


9.25 


99 


(0.86.,) 



TIk actual pressure bulb shall cause even faster reduction of pressure. 
The grouting if achieved successfully, does not improve bearing capacity more* 



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Grouting of Foundations of Chambal Bridge 4S3 

than 20 to 25 per cent as such the bearing capacity could be improved 
to the extent of 80.73 tons/sq m. (7.5 tons/sq.lt). The.pressure as evaluated 
above is quite safe for sand stone/silt stone. The impr o vem en t in bearing 
capacity would result in added safety alto. Since in our country* static and 
dynamic methods of finding modulus of '£* of rock befoce and 
after grouting are not available, we had accepted water percolation test as 
the only check of eff kacy. As such, water km not exceeding 2 Itr/mtr/min at 
limiting pressure for water tests in r e sp ect iv e stages shall be considered as 
satisfactory criteria. 

SJL ExperimeBtal grootiiv at PierNoJ9N 

5.2.1. The test plot was selected on the upstream side of the 
well foundation No.l9N as shown in Fig. 6. The present test 
which was commenced in May, 1976 could be completed only 
after the monsoon in December, 1976. The inferences drawn on 
the basis of the work executed are discussed below. 

5.2.2. The test plot which is located on the up-stream side of 
the proposed well foundation 19N as shown in plan consists of 
6 holes spaced 3.048 m. (10 ft) centre to centre on outer periphery 
and 2 check holes Nos. 7 & 8 within the enclosed area. One up- 
heaval gauge was also installed in the centre of the plot for which 
3 holes Gl, G2 and G3 were drilled. The strata was to be treated 
by consolidation grouting to a depth of 9.144 m (30 ft) below the 
proposed founding level of the wells. 

53. Method ofExecotkni 

(a) The grouting was to be taken in three stag?s each of 
3.048 m. Each stage was to be completed in descen- 
ding order. 

(b) Installation of upheaval gauge and determination of 
limiting pressures for each stage. 

(c) Drilling of 48 mm. dia. holesTusing non-coring pneu- 
matic equipment. Washing of holes by alternate 
cycles of air and water at limiting pressures. 

(d) Percolation test at limiting pressures. 

(e) Washing of holes with 2 per cent solution of sodium 
Hexametaphosphate in water for 40 to 60 minutes. 

(f) Grouting in stages using neat cement mixes to speci- 
fied 'refusal' at limiting pressure. 



454 J.M. M ALHOTRA, R.S. Bhati & M.P. Jain on 




GteouTiNO OF Foundations of Chaiibal Bridge 4SS 

(g) Re-drining of the first stage and further drilling upto 
6.09 m. Thereafter, the stage between 3.048 to 6.09 m 
was water tested, washed and grouted in the same 
manner as above. 

(h) ReHlrilling of the 2nd stage upto 6.09 m and further 
drilling upto 9.144 m depth. The stage between 6.09 m 
to 9.14 m was washed, water tested and grouted in the 
same manner as indicated above. 

(0 Making of two test holes and conducting percolation 
tests to observe post-grout loss of water in litres per 
metre/ minute at limiting pressure. 

5^ ExpcrfaBffltatiM 

5.4.1. DrlDiag: Initially standard-rotary-cum-percussive rig 
with drilling mud and/or casings was used to pass through over- 
burden oonsistmg of about 10.66 m sand layer and about 7.31 
m (24 ft) thick clay layer below. As soon as the bedrock was 
encountered, further drilling in the same was done by using 48 nun, 
size pneumatic percussive non-coring drilling equipment using 
water flush method. General ground level was about R.L.121.9S 
m(400'.00 ft) and the tentative founding level of the well was at 
R.L. of 100.69 m (330.29 ft). 

SAX Waskiiv ft Water TestiBg 

After completing drilling to the required depth, the holes 
were washed by lowering 25 mm. dia. pipes upto bottom and 
passing alternate water and air jets for about 30 minutes. There- 
after, water Tests were conducted in the holes in stages of 3.048 m. 
starting from top-most stage by using double and single mechanical 
packer. Maximum pressure applied was 4 kg/cm* and the results 
of water loss for different stages are given in Table 8. Minimum 
and maximum water loss at 4 kg/cm* was found to be 10 lit/mtr/min. 
and 19 lit/mtr/min. respectively for the top-most stage and minimum 
and maximum water loss at the same pressure for bottom-most 
stage i.e. between R.L. 91.55 m(300.29 ft) to 94.60 m (R.L. 310.29ft) 
was observed to be 4.26 lit/mtr/min., and 13.86 lit/mtr/min. 
Since the holes originally drilled got partially choked, they had to 
be cleaned after monsoon. Water tests were accordingly repeated 
as mentioned above. The results of the same are persented in 
Table 9 and the same were found to be comparable with Table 8. 

LR.C. 41-3-30 



'^'i^lH. MALHcmtA, R.S.BttAll ft MP. Jain ON ^ 

Take 8. Watoi Ttarr Rttotii 

JExpnuMEtrtAL Gbouiino at Pier No. 19N 

Presstire Waicr loss Water \os& 

i From To in Kg/Cm" in Lit/5 Min, in Ltr/Mtr/Min. 

at4Ks-/Cma 
2 3 4 5 6 



, 


100.59 m 


97.56 m 


I 


U6 








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2 


147 






1 


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1 


i72 








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195 


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97 J6 m 


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155 








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13.06 




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97.56 m 


2 


165 






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2.25 


210 


19.00 


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100 69 m 


97.56 m 


I 


126 




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2 


166 








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303 


16.06 


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100.69 m 


97.56 m 


1 


82 








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2 . 


106 








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131 








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150 


10.00 




6 


100.69 m 


97.56 m 


1 


120 







2 149 

3 141 

4 200 13.33 



97.56 m 94.60 m I 100 
2 135 



3 179 

4 175 11.66 



97.56 m 94.60 m 1 116 

2 151 

3 225 
.. „ 4 176 



5 176 11.73 



Grouting of Foundations of Chambal Bridge 457 

TMt 8 (Contd.) 



97.56 m 94.60 m 



97.56 m 94.60 m 



97.56 m 94.60 m 



97.56 m 94.60 m 



94.60 m 91.55 m 



94.60 m 91.55 m 



94.60 m 91.55 m 



94.60 m 91.55 m 



94.60 m 91.55 m 



94.60 m 91.55 m 





154 








190 








214 


14.26 






115 








154 








199 


16.06 


Extrapola- 
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96 








117 








165 








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46 


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107 








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9.33 






80 








99 








116 








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62 


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80 








97 








87 








139 








156 








208 


13.86 






121 






1.5 


161 
93 


22.06 


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150 








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30 


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CLOUTING OF JFOUNDATIONS OF ChAMBAL ftODGE 459 

S.4.3. Spedal WmUmg 

After conducting water Pressure Tests, Water Injection was 
continued in respective stages for about an hour to find out if inter- 
connections could be developed with other holes. Inter-connections 
were observed in the following cases: 

(f) PiM:kcr]n3rdStafei.e.beCweeiiItX. 94.60 m. to 91.55 in.(R.L.310.29 
ft and 300.29 ft). Borehole Nos.1 connected with Bofeb<rfe No. 5. 

(ii) PiM:ker in 2iid stage i.e. between ILL. 97J6 to 94.60 m(lLLJ20J9 ft 
and310.29ft). Borehole No. 1 comiBcted with borehole Nos. 5 A 6. 



m PiMdKar in 2nd stage i.e. between ILL.97.56 to 94.60 m (R.L.320.29 
and 310.29 ft) Borehole No. 3 connected with Borehole No. 4. 

(iv) Packer in 2nd Stage i.e.. between ILL. 97.56 to 94.60 m (R.L.320.29 
and 310.29 ft) Bordiole No. 4 connected with Boreh<rfe No. 5. 

(V) Packer in 1st stage Le. between R.L.100.69 m. to 97.56 m.(R.L.330.29 
and 320. 29 ft) Borehole No.4 connected with Borehole No. 5. 

2 per cent solution of Sodium Hexametaphosphate in water was 
also iiyected on trial basis in Borehole No.5 and no inter-connection 
could be established even upto S kg/cm*, and hence, this exercise 
was not continued further. About 31 kg. of chemical was injected 
during this triaL 

S.44. iBBtaliatioii of Uphearal gaige 

Upheaval gauge was installed as mentioned earlier in the 
centre of the plot. The central datum hole was taken to a depth 
of 3.04 m below the deepest depth to be grouted. Whereas for 
observing movements in the grouted zone two holes were drilled 
to a depth of 1.219 m in top zone of the strata to be grouted. A 
careful watch was kept during water test and grouting operation. 
Upheaval gauge indicated minor movements while grouting in 
Boreholes Nos. 2 and 5 only at the following pressures: 

(i) 3rd stage (le. between R, L. 94.60 m. and 91.55 m.) at grouting 
pressure of 7 Kg/cm*. 

(ii) 2nd stage (i.e. between ILL^7.56 m and 94.50m) at gnmtiogpre^ 
SBore of 6.5 Kg/cm*. 

(iii) 1st stags (i.e. between ILL. 100.69ni. and 97J6m.) at grouting 
»or61Cg/cm«. 



460 J.M. Malhotra, R.S. Bhati & M.P. Jain on 
5.4.S. Grouting 

Grouting of the boreholes was done in ascending stages i.e. 
grouting 3fxl stage between R.L. 94.60 m. and R.L. 9.55 m first 
and so on. Initially, the comer holes were grouted in order of 
borehole Nos. I 3, 4, & 6 for the 3rd stage and the same sequence 
was repeated for grouting in 2nd stage and 1st stage respectively. 
The grouting pressures were restricted to 5 kg/cm*. 

Grouting of boreholes No. 2 and 5 was carried out in the 
same sequence as given above. The grouting consumption are 
shown in Table 10. From the same it will be noted that minimum 
and maximum cement consumption varied between 1.67 kg/mtr.^ 
in case of boreholes No.5 between stage R.L. 100.69 to 97.56 m 
and 166.67 kg/mtr., in borehole No. 6 for stage between R.L. 
94.60 m 91.55 m respectively. 

5.4.6. iBter-CoimecdoBB 

The following inter-connections were observed during grouting 
of 1st, 2nd and 3rd stages : 

0) Grouting 3rd stage between R.L. 94.60 m to 91.55 m of borehole 

Nal6- Interconnection with borehole No. 5. 
(ii) Grouting 3rd stage at the same depth as above of borehole No.l- 

inter-connections with borehole Nos. 5 & 6. 

(ill) Grouting 3rd stage at the same depth as above of Borehole No. 3— 
inter-connection with borehole No. 4. 

5.4.7 Check Holes 

On completion of the grouting as mentioned above, two check 
holes No. 7 & 8 were executed. The details of water Tests con- 
ducted in these holes are given in Table 11. From the same it 
will be noted that the water loss does not exceed in any stage by 
more than 2 Itr/mtr/min. 

5.4.8. Conclusions and Recommendations 

Based on the above data, the following conclusions could be 
arrived : 

(a) Spacing of borehole at 3.048 m centre to centre as indicated 
by various inter-connections and results of subsequent check 
holes is considered adequate. The grouting should be carried 



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Groutino gp Foundations op Chambal BtiDOB 463 

out till rate of aodeptanoe reaches between 2 to 3 lit/mtr/min., at 
appropriate grouting pressures. 

(b) Considering the presence of substantial over-burden and on 
the basis of upheaval observations the following limited grou- 
ting pressures can be adopted. 

(0 For 3rd stage (between R.L.94.60m and 91.55 iii)7ki/cm. A 
(tt) For 2nd state (between R.L. 97.56 m and 94.60 m) 6.5 kg/cm. • 
(liO For 1st state (between R.L.100.69 m and 97.56 m) 6 kg/cm. • 

The above criteria nuty be adopted provided depth of the over- 
burden is 21.33 m. This criteria may suitably be modified at site 
in case of significant variations in thickness of over-burden. 

(c) The details of grout consumption indicates that the overall 
cement consumption is about 140 kg/mtr. (i.e. approx. 40 kg/ft) 
which is considered to be moderate. In case the cement con- 
sumption eiceed, in any particular stage, by more than 250 to 
3(X) kg/mtr« It may be necessary to use coarse filler mix con- 
sisting of cement, sand and smaU quantity of bentonite. 

(d) In view of the fact that inter-connections have been obser- 
ved without resortmg to the use of chemicol i.e. Sodium- 
Hexameta-Phosphate, it is not considered necessary to go in 
for any special chemical washing and washing with water alone 
would be adequate. 

5.5 Fdiwrfidot of Scheme 

S.S.I. Based on' conclusions drawn after completion of experi- 
mental grouting at pier Location No.l9N, the detail scheme was 
formulated as shown in Plate 7 for pier locations Np.l4N, ISN, 
16N, 17N, 18N, I9N, 20N, A 22 old. Assuming that the grout 
travels minimum of 1 .52 m in a horizontal direction, the holes have 
been arranged within 7.62 m (25 ft) radius from periphery of the 
well. This shall provide an effective grouted area upto a distance 
of 9.144 m all around the well. According to this plan, some of the 
holes fall on the existing well caps, such hole shall be drilled through 
the wdl cap and if difficulty is experienced during execution, the 
location of such holes shall be re-arranged in the vicinity. In case 
of foundation location No. 18 new, where the cutting edge of up- 
stream well is about 0.91 m higher, than the cutting edge of down- 



464 J.M. Malhotra, R.S. Bhati & M.P. Jain on 

stream well, the grouting in the area between these two wells shall 
be taken up as shown in the drawing and first stage shall be of 
3.962 m instead of 3.048 m. 

S.5.2. Based on the layout as explained above, the number 
of holes for each location were as under : 

No. of holes 

Well No. 22 N 79 

Wdl No. 20 N 74 

Well No. 19 N 111 

Well No. 18 N 110 

Well No. 17 N 104 

Well No. 16 N 103 

Well No. 15 N 71 

Well No. 14 N 70 



Total : 722 



5.5.3. Final design adopted in execution of grouting scheme at 
various pier locations is given below : 

(i) Diameter of grout hole 48 mm. 

(ii) Spacing 3.048 m (about 10 ft in). 

(ill) Three stages of 3.048 m each below founding level. 

(iv) Limiting Grouting Pressure :- 

(a) 1st Stage depth 3.048 m. 6.00 kg/Cm>. 

(b) 2nd Stage depth 3.048 m to 6.09 m 6.50 kg/cm*. 

(c) 3rd Stage depth 6.09 to 9.14 m 7.00 kg/cm«. 

(v) Inter-connections of holes at each stage or in desired stage to be tried 
upto 45 minutes by alternate cycles of water and air jets at limiting 
grout pressures. 

(vi) Washing to be done till clear water comes out from inter-connected 
holes. 

(vii) No chemical washing is to be done. 



Grouting of Foundations of Chambal Bridge 465 

(viu) Bentonite to be used for drilling through overburden that too, 
upto 5 ft above the foundation level. 

(ix) Grouting of the bole is to be taken when washing of the adjacent 
holes is completed. 

(x) Sequence of grout mixes : 



Ccmnt: Water 


No. of Mizct (batch of 50 Utm) 


1:10 


20 


1:5 


20 


1:2 


20 



<xi) "Refusal cntdrion** when grout consumption is equal to or less than 
one Itr/mtr/min. at respective limiting grout pressures. The final 
refusal is considered when grout consumptioo of next thinner mix is 
less than or equal to 1 Itr/mtr/min. 

(xii) Descending order of drilling and grouting shall be followed for 1st 
stage and remaining two stages shall be done by ascending order. 

(xili) The grout holes shall be finally sealed by cement mortar 1:3. 

(xiv) Check holes : After completion of grouting for any pier, two holes in 
areas of maximum and minimum grout consumption are drilled as 
check holes. Water percolation tesu are conducted hi these holes 
and if water intake is less than 3 lit/metre /min., at limiting pressure 
than grouting of that pier is considered as satisfactory. 

5.6. OperationI S e f eo e w 

5.6. 1 . The layout plan as approved in hexagonal pattern is 
marked on the ground. 

5.6.2. The work shall commence with the principles of working 
from '*WHOLE TO THE PART' i.e. holes falling on outer perir 
phery on the plan shall be tackled first. The whole layout plan is 
considered in four segments. The first segment is taken up first 
for drilling of holes. Drilling in overburden is executed by stand- 
ard rotary cum percussion drilling rig using drilling mud and casing 
wherever required. In doing so initially 100 mm dia, pipe is 
driven into a maximum depth with the help of monkey hammer 
weighing 365 lbs., to penetrate into sandy strata. 

5.6.3. Once the 100 mm casing refuses to penetrate, the casing 
is cleaned by water and further drilling is done by using NX size 
T.C. bit and drilling mud (bentonite slurry) upto a level 1.52 m 
above founding level. 



466 J.M. MALHontA, R.S. Bhati A M.P. Jaw oh 

5.6.4. Once 63 mm casing is lowered upto the overburden 
drilled depth and 100 mm. casing is removed. 

5.6. S. Rock drilling beyond this level is continued by wagon 
drill (using cross T.C. bits) 48 mm. dia, having bottom discharge to 
a depth of 3.048 m constituting first stage. 

5.6.6. The central hole of the extreme hexagon is* selected for 
water test and its prc^grouting permeability is recorded in lit/mtr/ 
min. 

5.6.7. All holes are washed by simple water for 20 to 30 minutes 
till clear water returns. 

5.6.8. A single packer is fixed at top of Ist stage and inter-con- 
nection is attempted by alternate cycles of water and air at limiting 
grouting pressures. 

5.6.9. After establishing of inter-connedions in the neigh- 
bouring holes, the hple where packer is Sxod is again dcaned after 
removing the packer and it is refixed for grouting process to be 
commenced. 

5.6.10. Grouting of the hole whose adjacent holes are washed 
and tried for inter-oonnections is taken up by fixing packer at the 
top of 1st stage. Initially the cement grout of consistency 1 :10 is 
injected and it is watched whether pressure starts developing or not. 
If i>ressure starts building up within 15 mixes then same consistency 
mix is continued. And if pressure does not start building up, then 
consistency of grout mix is switched over to 1 :5 after injecting 15 
batches (each of 50 lit.) similarly. If by this mix also pressure does 
not start building up, then next consistency of 1 :2 is switched over 
after 15 batches. Finally 1 :1 consistency mix is injected till refusal 
at specified limiting grout consumption is 1 Itr/mtr/min. or less. 
The final refusal is tried with the next thinner mix at the end. If 
the consumption of grout reaches 1(X) kg. of cement, then grouting is 
stopped for 24 hours and regrouted after 24 hours and final con- 
sumption is recorded. 

5.6.11. All the adjacent holes are washed by simple water after 
grouting is completed. 

5.6.12. When grouting of all the six hole^ of the hexagon is 
completed, the centre hole is tested for permeability (i.e.efficacy of 
grouting) after 3 to 6 days and finally grouted. 



ChtouTiNG OF Foundations of Chambal Bridge 467 

5.6.13. The drilling in descending order for 2nd and 3rd stage 
(6.09 m below 1st stage of 3.04 m) is started in the first quadrant 
when grouting of all the holes in 1st and 2nd quadrant is completed 
in 1st stage. 

S.6.14.The packer is fixed at the top of 3rd stage and the same 
op^ations repeated as stated in preceding paras mentioned above. 

S.6.1S. The packer is fixed at the top of 2nd stage and the same 
operations are repeated as stated above. 

5.6. 16. After completing groutmg in all the holes, the holes are 
sealed upto founding level by cement sand mortar 1:3. 

5.6.17.TWO check holes are selected as suggested by the resi- 
dent geologist posted at site for checking efficacy of grouting by 
conducting water tests. 

5.6.18. If the percolation result is below 2 ltr/mtr/min.^the area 
is considered satisfactory grouting. If permeability exceeds 2 Itr/ 
mtr/min, more holes are to be drilled in the vicinity and grouted 
again to achieve required permeability. 

Plate 8 shows general sequences of drilling and washing of 
holes and grouting operations. 

5.7. ObscrvatioB aad Record of DrilUog & Groadng 

5.7.1. Similar to discussions in para 4.6, record of drilling and 
grouting were kept for each pier location while execution of grou- 
tmg scheme. After completion of work at each location, a com- 
ptetion drawing was prepared indicating the number of holes, 
the pr&^outing and post-grouting water percolation test results and 
details of cement consumed in each grout hole. For the interest 
of readers a specimen completion drawing for drilling and grouting 
at pier location No. 14N is shown in Plate 9. 

5.7.2.AS a specimen, abstracts of record of water test results, 
and grout consumption in each hole for pier No. 14 is given in 
Tables 12 and 13 respectively. It will be seen from these tables that 
the minimum and maximum grout consumption was 24 to 2082 kg., 
respectively in grout holes No.43 and 35 considering all the three 
stages. The prc-grout and post-grout water percolation results 
indicated remarkable reduction from 20 to 2 lit/mtr/min. It will 



I 

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Grouting of Foundations of Chambal Bridge 471 

also be observed from Table 12 that in general the grout consu- 
mption in the second stage is comparable less than 1st and 3rd 
stages. This may be due to the fact that grouting for 2nd and 3rd 
stages was done by ascending stage method. Under these circum- 
stances, while grouting of 3rd stage, the grout might have 
travelled upward in 2nd stage zone through fissures, joints etc. 
and partial grouting achieved before actual grouting in 2nd stage 
was done. 



6. GROUT CX>NSUMPnON AND COST ANALYSIS 

6.1. Grout CoDsnmpdon 

The drilling and grouting was carried at pier location No.l tol3 
under the existing structure and also at new pier locations No.l4N 
to 20N and 22 old. The site conditions were different at these 
two locations. As such, they are separatdy discussed. 

6.1.1. Case (i): FoondatioB locatioiis ander pier Nos. 1 to 13 

As discussed in^Table 7 the total cement consumed in grouting 
of pier No. 1 to 13 was 88.57 M.T. This quantity of cement wa 
used in 380 holes with an approximate 2,856 m lengths in rock 
mass to be grouted. The depth of each hole was 4.57 m. In other 
words, the total volume of rock-mass zone grouted was 2,830 
cu m. This works out to (average) 31 kg of cement per metre depth 
each hole or 31.3.kg per Cu m of rockmass. 

6.1.2. Case (ii): Foundation No. 14N to 20N & 22 Old 
In this case tba total cemoat used for pouting ^mounts to 334 M. 
Tons as given in Table 14. This quantity of cement was used in 
722 holes drilled through 6,606 m. lengths. On an average each 
hole was 9.15 m in depth in rockmass and the total quantity of 
rockmass giouted under various foundation is 52,544 cu m. This 
works out to an average of 50.50 kg. of cement per metre depth of 
rockmass grouted or 6.35 kg. per Cu m. of rockmass. 

6.2. CostAulysis 

The Qost analysis is given as under > 
ULC 41-3-31 




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z 



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II 

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d < 



i 



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ET S* S £' 2 

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*rt -: oo 1^ 2 

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f!| 






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3 



SSStSSSPJ j2 



GSQUTI^ OF fOUNDATiaHS QP CHAMRAL BitlDGE 473 



6.2.1. CaseXi): F( 



pier Nos. 1 to 13 : 





Hw eatpendlture detaib 


are as under: 


Rs. 


«) 


Rock drilling 


2856.86 m. 9Rs.106.68 


327967.00 




OndjidingdriUngfor 


P.Mtr. 






diedc Ik^ iqriiea- 








val gauge etc.) 






&> 


Resbflling in 


596 m. @Rs 60.96 


39056.00 




partial^ tet holes 


P.Mtr. 




m 


iQiecting cement 


88.57 ®Rs TOO/. 
M.T P.MT. 


61699.00 


0») 


CDOdtlCtlllS 


757 Noa. 9Rs 55/- 


37850.00 




water tests 


each 




(V) 


Driningm 


197.25 M @Rs 167.64 


35858.00 




overburden 


P.Mtr. 




(vO 


Fixing of up- 


2Nos @Rs2i3- 


506.00 




heaval gauges 


each 








502936.00 



Rs 5,02,936/- was for total 380 holes having average rock drilling 
depth of 4,57 m in each hole in rockmass to be grouted. This 
works out to Rs 290 per metre approximately in grouted zone. 



6.2.2. Case (H) Foandatioo locadon No. 14N to 20N & 22 oM: 
There were total 722 Nos. of holes each 9.1 S m in depth in 
I'ockmass to be grouted. This has effectively grouted approximately 
52, 544 cum. of rockmass having an average overburden of 19 m. For 
grouting these foundations, an expenditure of Rs 23,17,138 was 
incurred. As such, the cost of drilling and grouting works out 
to Rs 350.75 or say Rs 351.00 per metre or Rs 44 par cu m. of 
rockmass having overburden of 19 m. These cost datas are 
based on prices of cement ® Rs 4S0 per M. Ton in the year 
1976-77. 

Note: The site eonditions in case (ii) were quite difficult, viz., 

(a) There was an average over burden drilling of 19 m in sand, day and 
boulden. 



(b) 



in case of foundations No. 14N, 15N, 16N & 17N drilUng 
and grouting was difficult iu there was velocity of flow as much as 3 
to4Mtr/Sec.,withaveni^4to6Mtr. depth ofwater in river channel. 
S^wdalievirfving platforms were fiibricated and installed for working 
of drilling and groutfaig machines. This involved ejttra expenditure 
to Uw tune of Rs 3.00 lakhs. 



474 J.M. MALHOnA, R^. BKAlt ft: M.F.Jiiiif Oft 

7.1. In general, the following equipment and macfaiaeri& 
are necessary for drilling and grouting work. Particulars in 
brief are given for reader's interest and guidances 

7.2. DrilliBg eqdiMeM 

The equipment should be capable of drilling holes of req- 
uired sizes and depths. It should also be capaUe of providing 
continuous water or air flush of adequate capacity. 

7.2.2. The two types of drillmg equipment used are: 

(i) Percussive standard drifter or wagon drill working on 
compressed air. These drifters are suitable for all types of rock 
drilling. It can be used with greater speed and economy. It is 
suitable for drilling even for inclined boles, also. 

(ii) Rotary drilling equipment with suitable drive hydra- 
ulic, electric or diesel or compressed air. We had five numbers 
Rotary drilling equipment commercially named 'Suniska* (Manu- 
factured by M/S Rodio Hazarat) each 25 H. P. capacity diesel 
engine. This machine was used even for driving casing and most 
suitable for overburden drilling with bentonite. The^e machines 
proved quite cccicniical ccnsvmiig cnly 2 litres of diesel per 
hour. 

7.2.3. Accessories: The following accessories were 
required for smooth working of the drilling equipment. 

(a) Drilling rods: Approximately 200 m. length of hard 
steel casting round threaded both ends are required. 



Size O.D l.D. Wt.Kg.pcr Thread per 

3.048 Mtr. inch. 



B 48.4 


35.7 


19.0 


5 


N 60.3 


50.8 


22.6 


4 


BW 53.9 


44.4 


19.5 


3 


NW 66.6 


57.1 


24.6 


3 



(^tOimNO OF FoUN^ATfONS OF CHABfBAL BRIDGE 475 

b) Casings; 



Size OD 

mm 


I.D 

mm 


Wt.Kg.pcr 

3.048 Mtr. 


Thread per 
inch 


EX 46.0 


38.1 


12.5 




8 




AX 57.1 


5a8 


12.7 




8 




BX 73.0 


62.7 


25.8 




8 




NX 88.9 


77.7 


34.4 




8 




c) Coring His; 












Size EX 


AX 


BX 


NX 






Cora mm 22.2 
Hole mm 38.1 


28.5 
49.2 


41.2 
60.3 


53.9 
76.2 






d) G.I. Pressure 


pipes: 










Size 


1/2" 


3/4" 


V 




'V 


Outer dia. mm. 
loner dia. tnm^ 


21.25 
15.75 


26.75 
21.25 


33.50 
27.00 




42.25 
35.75 



e) Rubber pressure bose pfpe of Tarioos diameters 

7.2.4. Air Convressor: Two air-compressors were required 
(make ^consoltdation pneumatic' each 80 H.P. capacity 350 cuft. 
per minuto at 100 p.s.i.). The fuel consumption was nearly 4 
litre/hour. 

7.2.5. Afar receiyer— One. 

7i2.6. Wattr pmnps : Two water pumps 12 to 25 H.P. 
1500 r.p.m. diesel or electricity operated were used. 

7.3. Grout pmips or injectors: A pump suitable for grouting 
should permit close control of pressures, allow a flexible rate of 
injection and minimise clogging of valves. There are three types 
of grout pumps liz: piston, screw and centrifugal. Two Air* 
driven dujplegi. double acting pumps each 120 cu.ft. @ 1000p.s.i. 
were used. 



476 J.M. MALHontA, ILS. Bhati ft M.P. Jain cm 

7.4. Grout mixer 

Mixers are generally -cyUndrical in shape with the 
axis either horizontal or vertical and equipped with a 
system of power-driven paddles -for mixing. Some mixiers use a 
high speed centrifugal pump for mixing. Vertical, barrd-type 
mixers were used and they proved satisfactory. This type of 
mixer consists essentially of vertical barrel having a shaft with 
blades for mixing* driven 1^ a motor monnterl on ttetop of the 
mixer above the barrel. 

7.5. Other eqidpnieiits ftaeeessorics: 

(i) Single or double packer 2 Nos 

(ii) Water Meters 5 Nos 

(iii) Pressure Valves 10 kg/cm* 5 Nos 

(iv) Manifold— It is a *T arrangement of pipe and various 
fittings, such as coupling, nipples, union, tees, valves and 
a pressure gauge, all attached to the collar of the grout 
hole. 

8. CONCLUSIONS 

8. 1. The treatment of rock foundation by pressure grouting 
in the field of bridge engineering has not been commonly 
applied. The technique of applying the knowledge of geology 
and certain basic principles, covering grout penetration and 
travel, to the specific requirements of a job, can be made use in 
treating the foundation strata. It may be possible to lay the 
foundations at much higher levels resulting in considerable 
economy both in time and money. 

8.2. Water percolation test is a satisfactory design criteria 
to know the efficacy of grouting. 

8.3. The foundation strata under various piers at Chambal 
bridge near Dholpur was generally, thinly bedded comprising lime 
stone, sand stone and silt stone interbedded with clay seams and/ 
or clay shale layers and pockets varying in thickness from few 
centimetres to a metre. Such. stnLta ti;bib\t^ ^oot core recoveiy 
and high water percolation. TYi^ s\i«Xa \& \xfiaj3bwKfa&%2D^^'w^\stt 



Groutino of Foundations of Chambal Bridge 477 

to think twice to take a decision to have the foundations under 
these conditions. 

One of the answers to safeguard the foundations is to take 
the weHs, two to three metre in the strata to provide a sufficient 
embedment. And also, to provide a curtain and consolidation grou- 
ting of the strata below foundations. After completion of j(he 
groutfng work at Chambal bridge, it is experienced that the per- 
meability of rockmass has been drasticalfy reduced. This indi- 
cates that the strata is now more homogeneous, quite safe against 
scour and solution-cum-erosional effects, resulting in improved 
bearing capacity of rockmass. In the present case, no post- 
grouting tests for determination of bearing capacity or modulus 
of elasticity of strata were carried out. It will be worthwhile to 
conduct the test now and in future at intervals of few years to 
evaluate actual improvements in load reception of the strata. 
This will help to lay down broad guidelines for future works. 
The increase in bearing capacity if made use of, can certainly 
lower the cost of construction of bridges considerably. 

ACKNOi;VL£DG£MENlS 

The Authors thank Shri K. K. Sarin, Chief Engineer, PWD 
(BAR), Rajasthan, Jaipur for kindly permitting the publication 
of-tUs Paper. Grateful acknowledgement is made of personal 
interest taken by Shri P. C. Bhasin, Chief Engineer (Bridges), 
Ministry of Shipping & Transport (Roads wing). New Delhi and 
the encouragement given by him during execution of work and 
in writing this Paper. The Authors would express their sincere 
thanks. ta^ShriP. Dayal, Executive Engineer, PWD (B&R) 
Dirision,— Kiolpur- for-his unsparmg* help and co-operation 
white- p r eparati o n -of the -Paper; Thaiikff arealso^ due to" TJf/S 
Hindustan Construction Company Ltd., and M/S Rodio Hazarat, 
Bombay for execution of work and providing needful infor- 
mation from time to time. 

REFERENCES 

U Chambal Bridge Conunitte (1974), Report of Uie Chambal Bridge Enquiiy 
Cbnunittee, Ministry of Shipping & Transport (Roads Wing), New Delhi. 

2. MathurS.K. and Debnath B. "Failure and Rehabilitation of Chamba] 
Bridge** Geo-Con India, I.G.S. Conference on Geo-technical Engineerina. 
Dec 20-22, 1978. ^^ 

3. Indian Standard 5066 • 1971. ''Recommendations for Pressure Grouting 
of Rock Foundations in River Vall^r Projects". Indian Standard Insti- 
tme^NewDdhl. 



478 J. M. Malhotra, R. S. Bhati A M. P. Jain on 



APPENWX.l 



DAILY ORILUMC REI^ftT> 



CONTRACTOR A^. 



Site. 

joaiio.- 



RCPorma. 

OATftf. 





^^ 


TlMt 


DtA. 

OF 




n 


DRLLLfNfS. 






- 


1 


KOLl 
KO. 


F«©« 


TO 


STEEL 

OR 
DJAMORP 


FROM 


TO 


TOUL 


(TTPtOFftO<lR 
WATER LOSifj^ Etc.) 






















































































































































































































































































































































































































TOTALMETftAGE ORn.i.iHG i 


HO* 

OF 


ROCK 


COhCHETE 




HOUS 


DU„, 


5U..,. 


WA,„ 


b)A ,. c 


hA. e 


M 








TMlttSUiFl 


r, 




















TO PAT i. 























contractor's REPRtStNTATlVE 



CNOlNCeR-INCMAmt 



Groutino op Foundations <xb Chambal Bridgb 479 

Appendix 2 

QAIIY f ERCOLATIOM TEST 8E.P0RT 



SITE 
JOS HO 



DATE 
K£POftTNO«i 



COUnrRACTOTI H 


f" 


















aoRE 

MOLB 
HO. 


STAGE 


PREftS^ 
Uf^ElM 


'Vi'mc 


MMincs 


RCADIMa .1 


OlSCM- 

AMCM 
LITRK 


EfiMiUUCft. 


PMM 


To 


IMTIAL 


PlHAL 










































































































































































































• 




























































































































































































































































































TOTAL 




















TMSMfT 




















ll9»ATft 




















COM 


iriACTO 


R'S RCPI 


RESIMTA" 


nvE 








CN&IN 


CCR-IN 


CHMIGC 



478 J. M. Malhotra, R. S. Bhati A M. P. Jain on 



APPfNWX.l 



DAILY OPlUUHg ttEPOftT> 



CONTRACTOR A^B. 



>^>- 



JOAMO* 



RePORTNa. 
OAT&f. 





^^ 


TlMt 


DIA. 
OF 




"1 


ORlLLrM<S. 


" ^'" 




^^^^ 


1 


bOAC 
MO, 


FAM 


TO 


STEEL 

OR 


FROM 


TO 


TOTAL 


HEM AUKS 
(tifPtOf ROCK 

WATfcft uoiats etc) 






' 
















































































































































































































































































































































































































TOTALMETRAGE QRi*.i.*He | 


MO, 

or 


ROCK 


COKCHiTE 


1 


HOtrS 


ou„. 


PtA.... 


o*A... 


OiA... C 


HA . 6 


i* , 








TH ISSHIFI 


r 




















TODATE 























contractor's REPRtStNTATlVE 



ENOiNi^eR-iNCMAfrae 



Groutino or Foundations w Chambal Bridqb 479 

Appendix 2 

QAIIY f ERCOLATIOM T£ST gfePORT 



siTe 

JOiSHO 



DATE 
REPORT NO«i 



COunrRACTOR m 


/» 
















s.- 
net 


ftORE 

MOLR 

NO. 


STAG!. 


PRESSA 


'VImc 


UMVTES 


RtAOtMa 1 


mscN- 


..-^ 


PROM 


To 


IMTIAL 


PlMAL 


• 








































































































































































































• 




























































































































































































































































































lOTAU 




















TmsmfT 




















10»ATR 




















COM 


irtACTO 


R'S RtPI 


RESEMTK 


nvr 








EN»IN 


CER-«N( 


CMMIGC 



J. M. Malhotra, R. S. Bhati A M. P. Jain on 
480 Grouting of Foundations of Chambal BRnxa 



AppendU 3 






JO»NO 



Rt^OIIVllOi^ 



DATI^ 










» 










lUlC- 
teR 


MOLE 
MO 


TiMt \H 


DtPTMJilMtTfttI 


«Tt,OVMATf.RU 




KJrswJ 


au4A- 






FftOM 


TO 


PHOII 


TO 


TDWL 


CEM- 


Samd 






SIMT 


tHD 








































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































TOTAUTO*PAt - 














ToTAU UP TO OATC 















contractor's RtPRESENTATWE 



CNGINEER-IMCHARGE 




Photo 1. The position of grout 
holes of PY & PX 
series at experimental 
grout plot at pier 
No. 6 



Photo 2. The gaui^e and 

upheaval grout holes 

at cxpcrin entiil grout 

plot at pier No. ^. 





"r-/* 



Pnoio 3. Drilling by wagon 
drill. Experimental 
grout plot at pier 
No. 6. 




Photo 4. Grout mixer & I 
injector workii 
pier No. 6 for < 
mental grouting. 



Photo 5. Experimental grouting 
at pier No. 19N. 
Rotary drilling eqi'ip- 
ment 'Suniska* 





Photo 6 Water Percolatior 
at experimental 
ting pier No. 19 



Photo 7. Washing of hole 




PHOTO 8. Thinly bedded strata 
at R. L. 99.75 m. . 
comprising of lime- 
stone, sand stone and 
silt-stone with clay _ 
seams and shale 
pockets in well No. 
19N. 




.\ 



ȴf - 



PnoTo 9. Percussive standard 
drifter- wagon drill. 




Phofo 10. Air driven dup 
double acting ] 



Photo 11. Grout-mixer 

electrically operated 





Photo 12. T. C. bit with b< 
discharge and n 
is packer. 



.CC£M& 




<^k^^^"N!:ri:6 



I 



Photo 



I: 



I 



INFORMATION SECTION 



TYRE MANAGEMENT IN ROAD TRANSPORT 



I.R.G-41-3— 32 



"TYRE MANAGEMENT IN ROAD TRANSPORT^ 

By 

L. R. Kadiyali* 

& 
S. K. Ummat** 

CONTENTS 

Page 

1. Introduction 498 

2. Functions of Tyres 498 

3. Parts of the Pneumatic Tyre 499 

4. Size of Tyres 502 

5. Inflation Pressure 502 

6. Factors affecting Tyre Performance 503 

7. Tyre Condition: Causes of Troubles and Remedies 517 

8. Tyres and Road Safety 520 

9. Tyre Maintenance and Care 521 

10. Tyre Retreading 524 

1 1 . New Developments in Tyre Technology 529 

12. Acknowledgements 530 

SYNOPSIS 

Tyres constitute an important component of Vehicle Operation Cost and 
such tyre management Js an important function in Road Transport Manage- 
ment. The Paper gives an account of the functions of the tyres, their sizes and 
iflation pressures and discusses the factors which affect tyre performance. 
he various points that need attention in tyre maintenance are discussed, after 
sting out the common tyre troubles and their remedies. The practice of 
^treading of tyres is dealt with and the new developments in tyre industry 
■« briefly mentioned. 

* Study Director, Road User Cost Study, Central Road Research Institute, 
cw Delhi. 

** Junior Scientific Assistant, Road User Cost Study, Central Road 
cscarch Institute, New Delhi. 



498 Kadiyau and S. K. UmfAT on 

1. iNnoDUcnoN 
Tyres oonstiCute an imporUmt compofOMtci vdiide opentai 



ooft In vi0w citbt mounting ooti of tyiet, ¥Oiy caxtMtyn 
OMU polky bu become ¥Oiy importwiL A reseaicii on the Roil 
Uier Costs in lodia is comntly being i mp lemented by the Goilal 
Road Reseucfa Institute.As part of this work, an endeavour is bcoi 
made to relate the road user costs to the type and condition oftb 
roads. During the prooessof data collection from a large mmta 
ci vehide operators, the Authors had the privilege of studjai 
intimateijf their maintenance management policies. The Andion 
had also the opportunity to discuss various issues with the tjn 
manufacturers themselves. Tyre nmnagement on a systeonts 
manner pays rich dividends. In view of the importance of tUs 
aspect of transport management^ the present Aiper sets out tk 
various issues involved. 

2. FUNcncms OF TVUS 

The motor vehide is Htted with pntunatie tyrea which i^ 
form sfneiml useful functions: 

(i) While springs and shock absorbers take oare of major 
jolts caused by road imperfections and undulations, the 
pneumatic tyres provide additional cushion between the 
road and the suspension and safeguards against minor 
bumps being transmitted to the body. 

(ii) It is the tyre which transmits the vehicle load to the road 
surface. Since the tyre is formed of rubber, which is i 
deformable material under load, the tyre enables a satis- 
factorily low contact pressure at the tyre-road suifttf 
interihce. This pressure varies within the broad limiti 
of 16.5 to 65.5 N/cm* or 24 to 95 lb per sq. faich. sad 
can be safely withstood by the modern pavement snr- 
facings, the bottom layers of the pavement and the soil 
subgrade. In fact, it is this property of the tyre, whi^ sco- 
res over the rigid steel-rimmed wheels of the bullock-cait 
which inflicts some damages to the pavement oomponeats. 

(iii) The tyre acts a$ the medium for transmitting the tractive 
force developed by the engine of the vehicle. 



Tyre Mahaobmbnt and Road Transport 



499 



(iv) The tyre provides necessary grip on the tyre surface and 
prevents the vehicle from skidding, especially when the 
surface is wet. This is accomplished by the hysteris-is 
losses suffered by the rubber on deformation^ and by the 
tread pattern on the tyres. 

(v) The tyre provides resistance to abrasion caused by the 
constant wear of its surface with the road. 

3. PARTS OF THE PNEUMATIC TYRE 

The pneumatic tyre consists of three important parts: 

(/) Casing 
an Tube 
(///) Flap 

The cross*8ection of a typical tyteis given in Fig. 1. 

TRCAO PATTERN 

TREAD RUBBER 

CARCAOSS 




FLAP 
Fig. 1. Parts of a pneumatic tyre 



The casing is the most important part of the tyre. The casing 
forms the cover to the inner tube and provides the adhesio n 
anti-skid properties, strength, abrasion resistance to the tyres. 



SOO Kadiyau and S. K. Ummat on 

Tlie Guiqg oonsisU of the following parts; 

(OOuCMi 

(ir)Tiaul 
(Itf) Bmkcn 
(Ir) Side wall 
(r)Edie 
(W) 



The Carcass forms tba main structure of the tyre consisting 
of several layers (called plies) of cord fieibric with rubber layers 
interposed. The same ^ect can also be obtained by impreg- 
nating rubber with cord fabric. If there are regular layers of the 
fabric, the tyre is said to have a particular number of ply (e.g. 
12 ply, 16 ply etc.). If the same effect is obtained by impregnat- 
ing or strengthening the rubber by some other method, the tyre 
is designated as 12 ply rating, 16 ply rating, etc. The rating 
identines the tyre with its maximum recommended load when 
used in a specific service. It is an index of tyre : strength and 
does not necessarily represent the number of actual plies of 
nmterial.* 

The material used for cord fabric can be cotton, rayon or 
nylon. Rayon cords give better strength than cotton, and nylon 
cords are better than rayon cords. This is because of the higher 
strength of nylon when compared to rayon, permitting carcass 
of thinner dimensions and consequent loss head build-up. Nyloi 
is more resistant to heat, impact, moisture than rayon and 
cotton. If the cords are located along the shortest distance bet- 
ween the beads, the tyre is said to be of the "radial" type, which 
is a recent innovation in tyre technology. Considerable economy 
in tyre life is claimed by the use of radial tyres. This design is 
yet to make a commercial entry in the Indian market, although 
one manufacturer has introduced tyres of this design for pass- 
enger cars. The future tyre technology perhaps lies in favour 
of radial tyres. 

The tread is the pattern grooved on the surface of the tyre 
formed by strong wear-resistant rubber. The actual pattern o 
grooving is determined by a number of factors such as: 



Tyre Management and Road Transport 



501 



(/) Conditioiis of the road, /.e., whether it is smooth, rough or 
rugged. 

(if) Load to be carried, /.e., whether the tyre is for buses or trucks* 

Car tyres generally have a fine tread pattern, since they are 
operated on good hard surfaces. Jeep tyres have wide and deep 
recesses which make them fit for mud and plough conditions- 
Truck tyres with wide and deep recesses are suitable for ofF-road 
(cross-country) conditions. Fig. 2 indicates the typical 4-groovt 
tread pattern. 




Fig. 2. Grooving pattern on a typical tyre 

The breakers consist of rubber and cords similar to plies and 
are located between the carcass and the tread. Their main 
function is to prevent the separation of the tread from the car- 
cass. 

The side wall consists of rubber material covering the car- 
casson the sides. Its function is to protect the carcass. 



502 KADfYAU Mb S. K. UMMAT OM 

Th6eigmo(mA9totpMettiMlAtbt9itidi of tte tyfttattbe 
junction with tbe tread. The edges are intended to supply t 
wiping action over a wet siu^aoe, removing quicUy thd water 



The beads an the thidBHied bottoM free ends of the ^ 
oroaa me di an. They are partirailariy straogtheDed with steel wini 
10 prevent the tyiea froas stretohing. 

The inner tube is an elastic, flexible rubber tuht dnd is 
fitted with air under pressure when inflated. The air pressure 
within tube carries the external load. The tube is inflated sad 
deflated through a valve. 

The flap is made of rubber and protects the tube against 
damage caused by its rubbmg with the steel rim. 

Tubeless tyres are those without the inner tube. The air is 
filled in directly into the tyre space, the air-tightners being ensured 
by the provision of special seals and air-retaining liners. 

4. SIZE OP TYRfig 

The tyre sizes are designated by external section diameter of 
the tyre in inches (and two decimals), followed by a hyphen 
and the inside diameter of the tyre, again in inches (whok 
number). Tbe faiside diameter is also the rim size. Thus, a tyre 
9.00-20 signifies a section diameter of 9.00 inches and an inside 
diameter of 20 inches. Fig. 3. 

Some of the tyres in common use in the oountry are given 
in Table 1. 

5. INFLATION PRESSURE 

The inflation pressure in the tyres is a very important factor 
which governs the satisfactory performance of the tyres. For 
each make of tyre, the manufacturers specify the infiation 
pressure which must be maintained if the specified load is to be 
carried. The infiation pressure for the same tyre wiD vary 
according to its position. For example, the infiation pressure on 
the front tyres is generally less than that on the rear bocanse of 
be heavier load on the rear axle. 



Tyre Manaoeiient and Road Transport 



503 



The inflatioti pressure varies within the broad range of 16.S 
o 65.5 N/cm* or 24-95 lb per sq. inch (psi), for diflFerent types 



S 

ly 
o 



o 



D 



9!:§ 

B 



^ 



SECTION 

DIAMETER 

9.00 



Hg. 3. Size of Tyred 
6. FACTORS AFFECTING TYRE PERFORMANCE 

6.1. Numerous factors affect tyre performance. The 
nterpiay of these factors can be cumulative with disastrous effect, 
rhe factors will be considered in detail under the following heads: 

(1) Proper etrd in use of tyres 

(2) Road conditions 

(3) Speed 

(4) Seasonal effect 

(5) Driving habit 

(6) Vehicle MtctB. 



Kadiyali and S* K. Ummat on 
Table 1 : Tyre Sizes in Common use in India 



Tyre Six 



Recommended u&e 



3.50-8 

3.50-10 

4.00-S 

2,00-23 
2.25-16 
2.5frl9 
2.75-19 

3.00-19 

3J5-16 

5.20-10 

120^12 

5 60-13 

5,90-13 

6.40-13 

7.00-13 

5.20-14 

5.90-14 

7.00-14 

5.60-15 

5.90-15 

6.40-15 

6.70-15 

7.10-15 

7.60-15 

5.00-16 

5.25-16 

5.75-16 

6.00-16 

6.70-15 

7.00-15 

6.00-16 

7.00-16 

7.50-16 

9.00-16 

7.00-20 

7.50-20 

8.25-20 

900-20 

10.00-20 

11.00-20 

12.00-20 

14.00-20 



Scooter 
Scooter 
Scooter 
Moped 
Moped 
Moped 
Motor Cycle 
Motor Cycle 
Motor Cycle 
Motor Cycle 
Passcnier Car 
Pastenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger C^r 
Passenger C^r 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
Passenger Car 
PftssengerCar 
Light Truck 
Light Truck 
Light Truck 
Light Truck 
Light Truck 
Light Truck 
Truck/Bus 
Truck/Bus 
Truck/Bus 
Truck/Bus 
Truck 
Truck 
Truck 
Truck 



Tyre Management and Road Transport 505 

6.2. Proper care in the use of tyres 

6.2.1. The first and foremost thing to do to get increased 
kilometrage from tyres is to select the proper tyres for the 
anticipated load and running conditions. Since each tyre type 
is (ideally) intended only for a particular set of conditions, any 
wrong choice is likely to be costly. 

6.2.2. A given tyre size is associated with a correct rim 
size. Any mis-match is likely to create extra stresses in the tyre 
for which it is not designed and may lead to premature failure. 
This becomes extremely important in the case of dual tyres, 
where a mis-match in tyres and rims can lead to rubbing of the 
tyres and prevention of tyres from deflating under loads. 

6;3.3. The observance of correct inflation pressure is the 
key to long tyre life. Both over-inflation and under-inflation are 
harmful to the tyre. Over-inflation imposes severe strain on the cords 
beyond their designed capacity and thus impairs the structure of 
the tyre. Over-inflation decreases the area of contact and hence 
increases the tread wear in the centre. Over-inflation reduces 
grip and skid-resistance and is dangerous on wet surfaces. The 
chances of cuts, bruises and bursting are increased in an over- 
inflated tyre since the tyre components are in a weakened state. 

Under-inflation is equally harmful. It is the air-pressure 
which supports the load and if there is not sufficient pressure the 
tyre structure is in state of unnatural bending. The weakened 
cords and carcass succumb to early wear and premature failure. 
Under-inflation can be due to leaks in the valve or the tube and 
can be easily detected by periodic checking of the pressure. It is 
desirable to keep the inflation pressure within + 0.2 kgf/cm* for 
trucks and + 0.1 kgf/cm* for cars. In SI units, these limits are 
+ 2 N/cm* for trucks and + 1 N/cm* for cars. In the British 
units, these limits are + 3 psi for trucks and +1.5 psi for cars. 

6.2.4. Routine tyre inspection and maintenance must form 
a regular part of the vehicle inspection. This will enable defects 
to be noticed in time and corrective measures applied before it 
is too late. This aspect is discussed in detail subsequently. 



506 KADtTAU AND S. IL UMHAt ON 



6.2.S. Tyra p«illMk|gs Ttetyiei on a irtfiieledo notior 
uaiforaily. Sonie oT the aspects detling with diflfo^ 
' afe discussed bebw: 



(I) On roads in plain terrain, where the onrvatnre is mat^ 
lale, it is usoal to find the fear tyies wear out moie qnlDldy ftei 
the front ones. This is true geamdly of passenger carsand trocb 
The reason for this is the higher load carried by the rear wfaok 
andtnmsfefenoeofthetractioQofvdiidethroaili therevwtak. 



(2) On extremely bendy roads, sodi as those encoitnteiedi 
the ^hat sections (hflly and mountafaious terrain), the front tjie 
aresubfeeted to severe steering forces and are, therefore, likelytD 
wear out to the same extent as the rear ones, if not more. 

(3) Since the front tyres contnrf the direction of tfud. 
any tyre burst or sud<ten fidlure of the fW>nt tyre can be hti^ 
doui. The Ihflure of the reartyreis not that cmcia]. It is. IU» 
fore, a wise policy to fit the best tyres to the fhmt. Some of|^ 
sations do not use retreaded tyres on the ftoat at all on (lb 
account. This also is the rationale behind the rotational paticn 
of tyres, whereby the new tyres are always fitted to the fhai 
After they wear out for about 1/3rd of their useftil life, thejrin 
transferred to the rear wheels.* 

(4) Forward control passenger buses normally renal i 
higher rate of wear on the front tyres than on the rear, or at ksst 
the same rate *,•/. 

(5) On dual tyres, it is extremely important that the tym 
are properly matched. The objective is to obtain equal distri- 
bution of loads between the two tyres. This can be achieved, by 
and large, if the two tyres are of ihe same diameter. This implies 
that if one worn tyre is to be matched with another, the amoust 
of wear should be the same in both. The maximum tolenuiot 
allowed in tyre diameter is 6 mm for sizes upto and inchidiof 
8.25 and 12.7 mm for sizes 9.00 upwards*. As a general rule, whei 
fitting tyres of different diameter conforming to the tolerances 
indicated, the tyre having the smaller diameter should be fitted oo 
the inside position, Fig. 4. 



Tyre MANAOWi^Nr AMD Road Transport 



507 



(6) Under Indian road conditions with a high camber and 
overloading, it is n^ual.to work, with (about 3-7 N/Cm"), a slightly 
lesser tyre pressure for the inside tyre than the outer. This 
ensures the transference of excess load from the inner to the 
outer tyre. 





RIGHT WRONG 

Fig. 4. Correct position of smaller tyre in dual assembly 

(7) It is always a wise policy to desist from matching 
tyres of different tread patterns or of difTerent cord material 
(Rayon, Nylon etc.) 

(8) Repaired tyres should be positioned on the outside of 
the dual assembly. 

6.2.6. Tjwt rotatioB 

It has ahready been mentioned that tyres wear out unevenly, 
the rear ones wearing out more quickly than the front ones. 
With this in view it becomes necessary to rotate the tyre 
position within a vehicle. The rotation is generally carried out 
every SOOO-6000 km., so as to ensure uniform wear of tyre. 

The rotation sequence for a passenger car is given in Fig. S(a). 
Fig. 5 (b) gives the sequence of rotation for a commercial 
vehicle with dual tyres in the rear. 

6.2.7. Overloading 

Overloading a commercial vehicle is very common in India. 
25 per cent overloading above the manufacturer's rated oapadt** 



Kadiyau and S. K. Ummat on 



officUy, but unofljcttl overioading is very mxk 
bcycNMl this limit. At times even 100 per cent overloading ii 





(a ) 



Fig. 5. Rotation sequence of tyres 



not uncommon. The effect of such overloading on the 
performance of the tyres can only be visualised. Table 2 gives 
the reduction in tyre life as the load is increased 



Tyre Management and Road Transport 509 

Table 2 : Reduction in Tyre Life Due to Overloadino 



Load 


Life of Tyres as percentage of 
normal life 


Under load 20% 


160 


Correct load 


100 


Overload 20% 


70 


Overload 40% 


50 


Overload 60% 


35 


Overload 80% 


30 


Overload 100% 


25 



The data presented above underscores the point that a tyre 
should be loaded only to its rated capacity. If a greater load is 
to be carried by the vehicle, the correction solution is to fit a 
larger tyre with a higher rated capacity. 

6.2.8 Tyre Bleeding 

The practice of letting out air from the tyres when . the 
inflation pressure builds up due to heat is commonly known as 
'bleeding* of tyres. 

This practice is known to cause detrimental effect on tyre 
life, and should be avoided for die following reasons: 

(1) Bleeding does not reduce the temperature of the tyre at 
all, but only reduces the pressure. Thus, the expectations of 
rdief in temperature and consequently stress on the tyres is 
ill-founded. It is only a lay-man's conjecture that letting out 
air reduces heat. 

(2) If a tyre is not bled when it is hot, a sort of equilibrium 
is reached between heat generated by tyre action and heat 
dissipated. The result is a stable tyre temperature. If tyre is 
bled, this equilibrium is likely to get lost and the temperature 
may actually rise, giving a cause for tyre failure. 

63. Road Conditioiis 

6.3.1. Road conditions have a decided effect on tyre life. 
Factors which are important are: 



SIO Kapiyau and S. K, Ummat qn 

(0 Tyre of road surface, measured by the roufijiness of the road 

surfuia. 

(H) Curvature 

(W) Gradient 

(/v) Camber 

(v) Width of the pavement 

(v/) Type of the shoulder and its conditions 

6.3.2. Type of r9«d imface 

Road surface can be broadly classified as under: 
Paved Unpaved 

(1) Ceinent Concrete (1) Water-bound Macadam 

(2) Bitumen Surfaces (2) GrVY^ 

— Aspbaltic Concrete (3) Earth 
—PremJx Carpet 
-r-Surfaoe Dressing 

Paved surfaces have a firm bod wd are relatively frte from 
ruts, depressions and large undulations. The punishment 
received by the tyres on paved surfgci^ i^ therefore, inuch 
less when compared to the unpaved surfaces. Experimental 
data to relate the tyre wear to different types of surfaces is 
available from studies conducted abroad, but such a data tiftso is 
yet to be built up under Indian conditions. The Road User 
Cost Study, being implemented by the Central Road Research 
Institute is expected to yield precise data on these aspects'. 

The tentative figures ip Table 3 give tbc life of tyirs oP 
different types of surfaces, based on a quiok examination of the 
data being collected by the Road User Cost Study. 

The effect of the type of road surfaces can also be 
considered by accounting for the rovgbness of the road 
surface. The roughness is measured by a number of nMlbods, 
but the most common equipment used for this purpose is the 
Towed Fifth Wheel Bump Integrator, developed by the 
Transport and Road Research Laboratory, U.K. An Indian 
version of this equipment is in use by a number of organisations 
in this country*. This instrument accumulates the vertioil 



Tyre Mai^^bbobnt and Road 'HtANSPOitr 511 

Tabes 3: Atbraob Lire of Tvns on DnmoENr Rbmu> 

SUKPACES 



Type of Sudace 



Life oflVset in km 
(On plajn Terrain) 



}. Cement Concrete, Asphaltic 
Concrete 

2. Premix Carpet, Airfaoe 

Dressing 

3. Water-bound Macadam 

4. Gfwel 

5. Earyi 



Truck Bm Car 

45,009 49,000 4O,DO0 

35»00O 40.000 35,000 

30,000 30,000 27,500 

27,500 27,500 25,000 

25,000 25,000 22,250 



pumps in mm/ km. The average vahies of the roughness of 
different types of roads are:- 

Table 4 : Average Rouohnesb Valvjis or Ind»^ Road* 





IVpe of Surface 


Rangg of Romfamw Values 

BWl./kBl. 


I. 


Concrete 


.. 1.000-3,000 


2. 


Surface Dressing 


. . 3,000-6,000 


3. 


Water-bound Macadam 


.. 6.000-8,000 


4. 


Gravel 


.. 8,000-12,000 


5. 


Earth 


. . 10,000-14,000 



6.3.3. Conratore and gradient.The curvature of a road involves 
steering the vehicles, which in turn imposes severe wear on the 
tyres, especially the front ones. The effect of cuirves may not be 
felt on long and djasy curves, which are more than 250 m radius or 
so, as are oonunonly met with in the plain terrain. But 
curves of radii 2&400 m are very fsasfjontly met with in 
hilly and mountainoiis terrain and those wvth radii 100-2S0.m are 
met with in rolling terrain. Such sharp bondii tause excessive 
tyre wear. The effect gets aggravated if ^the curves are not 
properly super-elevated, which causes unequal load distribution 
on the tyres. With inadequate super-elevation, the tyres on the 
inner side of the curve gets extra load, 

I.R.C 41.3—33. 



512 



Kadiyau and S. K. Ummat on 



The gradients on hilly and mountainous roads also cause 
severe wear of tyres. This is because of the extra tractive force 
transmitted to the wheels to negotiate the gradient, and the 
frequent acceleration, deceleration and braking resorted to on 
such roads. 

The effect of bends and gradients can be considered together 
and may be represented as in Table 5 which gives the percentage 
of normal tyre life on roads in difficult terrain. 

Table 5 : Life of Tyres on Different terrains 

Tyre Life (fixpnaacd as 

pooentage of life on 

level terram) 



1. Level Terrain (Gradient : 

0-2.5%- Curves : 150 m. radii) 

2. Rolling terrain (Gradient : 

2.5-5.0%- Curves : 100-150 m. 
radii) 

3. Hilly terrain (Gradient > 5%. 

Curves : I^ess than 100 radii) 



100 

70-W 
50-60 



6.3.4. Camber: The camber of the road is the cross-section 
slope given to it from the crown of the road so as to drain away 
the surface water. The camber is generally 2-2.5 per cent on Mack- 
topped roads and is 3 per cent or so on unpaved roads. If the 
camber is excessive, the outer wheels of a dual-tyre assembly wiD 
be left practically hanging in the air. Fig. 6, thus transferring aU 
the load to the inner tyres. It is for this reason that the inner 
tyre should preferably be having a smaller radius, when matching 
tyres. 




Fig. 6. T^Te po»XVoii otk cambered roads 



Tyre Management and Road Transport 513 

6.3«5. Width of the payement and type and condition of the 
slioulderg: The minimum width of a road pavement for two-way 
operation should be 7.0 in, which is termed as a 2-lane road, 
lliis width permits crossing and overtaking manoeuvres on the 
pavement itself. Due to constraints of finance, many roads in 
India are narrower. Single lane roads (3.75 m wide) and 
intermediate lane roads (5.5 m wide) constitute a good 
percentage of road length. While single lane roads do not 
permit any crossing or overtaking manoeuvres between 2 
vehicles, intermediate lane roads permit these manoeuvres to a 
limited extent. The result is that the tyres of the vehicles involved 
will have to traverse on the shoulders during these manoeuvres. 
The shoulders are generally of earth and are rarely maintained 
in a good condition. Often, there is a difference of 75 mm 
to 1 50 mm between the pavement level and the shoulders and 
the tyres will have to suddenly descend and ascend these level 
differences. The body of the tyres will rub harshly against the 
pavement edges during such negotiations and get damaged too 
soon and suddenly. The shoulders are undulating and rough, 
which adds to the tyre wear. 

The exact quantification of tyre life on pavements of 
different widths is not done under Indian conditions. But some 
tentative findings can be given as in Table 6. 



Table 6 



TyreLffe 



(Expressed as percentage 
on normal life on 2-Uuie roads) 



1. 2-laiie Pavements 


100 


2. Intermediate lane Pavements 


80 


3. Single-lane Pavements 


70 



Paved shoulders 1 m wide on either side of single lane 
roads are commonly provided to alleviate the hardship of 
singlo-lane traffic. The paved shoulders are generally of bricks, 
water-bound macadam or gravel. 




r S^xaa m B9d has an eObct os tyre life. For travellifigM 
hjgber ipeeds, Ki Mgoie btti to develop greater powo*, whiti 
«il immiaiefy iie tnmifrrml to the tyne& as tractive fam 
Um Ibt fraiter llic >pccij of irav^^ ibe higher the tyre wsf* 

^*^ peeds, Ibe tyre gentiatcs greater heat Heit i 

iteit oiemks of tym life since it ralum 

^Q the fabrie and the rubber compounds. Hi 

ttiai ts '^'^^ * -*" — beat, and wear« moit 
&» - ij 
»cal tyre teti]peratmG» on a 9.00x20 12 ply ma^ 
tyre lor difierecii speeds are given below: 



>f«f(lCMPH> 


Type Temperature <00 


64 


96 


HI 


)14 


n 


U5 




6.5 SeafoniJ Effect 

The effect of heat and temperature on tyre life has beoi 
briefly referred to above. This leads to the logical oonclusjon 
that the tyre life is less in areas of high temperature and in 
seasons of excessive heat Tht rehtionship b e tw ee n wtaffi 
air-temperature and tyre life is illustrated in Fig. 7, wfaidi 
shows that an increase of temperature by 10* C over 2fi*C 
riduces tyre life by 2S per cent. This is one of the reasons for 
the preferred journey of truck drivers during night, whoa dis 
temperatures are low. 

6.6. DririBg Habit 

Bad driving habit can cause a tyre to wear out early. For 
example, frequent and sudden application of brakes in situations 
where the speed reduction could have been brought about 
by gradual control of fuel input (accelerator pedal operation), 
necessitates that the full power developed by the engine and 
transmitted to the tyres be dissipated through friction, 
mamly between the tyres and the road surface. This causes 
excessive heat and excessive abrasion of the tyres. Instead of 



Tyre Management and Road TuAraPORT 



515 



EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON TYRE MILEAGE 



105% 
2 100% 

9 «% 



^ 90V* 

I 

8 85% 



60% 






S: 75% 



* 



240 267 294 32 2 35-0 

AVERAGE AIR TEMPERATURES - CENTIGRADE 
lug. 7. Relationship between air temperature and tyre life 



lf€ 



the rolling frictional resistanoe coming to play, the sliding 
frictional resistance has to be mobilised. The rolling frictional 
rasistance co-efficient is very small, of the order of 0.01 S to 0.035 
whereas the sliding friction varies from 0.2 to 0.8. Sudden 
acceleration and starting can also cause similar results. 

Cornering on curves at high speeds mobilises high cornering 
friction and causes excessive wear. 

Some of the practical hints for he drivers are given below: 

(1) Do not over-speed. 

(2) Negotiate sharp curvet at low speeds. 

(3) Do not apply brakes suddenly. Slow the vdiicle at far as poatible 
by controlling the accelerator. 

(4) Do not start suddenly or accelerate quickly. 

(5) Avoid riding on the edge of pavements. 

(6) Do not mount curbs or come down from curbt. Try to use a 
ramp for climbing or coming down. 

(7) On rough roads with sh arp edges, drive at very low speeds. 



5i6 Kadiyau and S.K. Ummat on 

(8) Avoid improper load distribution. 

(9) Do not overload the vehide. 

(10) Check periodically the tyre pressure. 

6.7. Vdiide Defects 

Vehicle defects of various types cause excessive tyre wear. 
Some of these are discussed below : 

( 1 ) Wheel mis-alignment : 

The front axle wheels must be aligned properly. The diffe- 
rence in the distance between the tyres at the opposite ends of 
the axle is known as the Toe-in, Fig. 8. Normally, the values 
A and B in Fig. 8 should be the same, so that the tyre is not 
dragged sideways, but rolls uniformly. Some vehicle manufac- 
turers recommend a toe— in value which must be adhered to. 

j |<.'a' minus B maximum of 32iiini (1/8^) -^ I 

.|< FRONT WHEELS Hp^ 





Ml * \\\ 

jJJ DIRECTION OF MOTION Ui 
K A 9\ \ 

Fig. 8. Toe-in io tyre position 

(2) Wheel camber: 

Wheel camber is the inclination of the centre— line of the 
wheel with reference to the vertical centreline. Fig. 9. Its value 
is generally about T or 1^"*. Any deviation from this value will 
cause improper distribution of loads between tyres in a dual—tyie 
assembly, and across the tyre width in a single tyre. 

(3) Defective Brakes: 

The mal-adjustment of brakes and brake drums causes rapid 
tyre wear. 



Tyre Management and Road Transport 



517 



SPINDLE 
TILT 




Fig. 9. Wheel Camfer 

(4) Steering Linkage: 

Loose steering linkages cause irregular and rapid tyre wear. 

(5) Worn wheel bearings: 

Worn wheel bearings can cause non-uniform and rapid tyre 
wear. 

(6) Wobbly Wheels: 

Wobbly wheels are the cause of rapid tyre wear. 

7. TYRE CONDITION, CAUSES OF TROUBLES AND 
REMEDIES 

7.1. It is necessary to understand the various tyre conditions 
that can result due to use or mis-use, to identify the cause of the 
tioubles and to be knowledgeable regarding the remedial measures 
that can be applied. These are detailed out below: 



Tyre Conditions 



Possible Causes 



Remedies 



1. "Feather edges** oo Wheel mis- alignment 1. Check front wheel 



tread. Sharp edge on 
one side of tread, 
irregular tread wea^. 



2. One-sided wear 



(*Toe-in' and *Toe-ouf) 



Incorrect wheel camber. 
Sagging Axle 
Overloading or 
Cambered roads 



aligmnent. 

2. Chedc axle idign- 
ment with chassis. 

3. Check wheel bea- 
rings etc 

1. Check wheel camber. 

2. Check for sag- 
ging axle. 

3. Check for loads. 





era UaifiMiiiatiort. Oor 

Moe dermiJoti snd brcaJting 
Ower-iBftttioa. 




eeamiic brake 
Fiioltr wbed beaiitig, 
Fatdty bol) or axk 

(finks. 



7. Itaid endkiof 



8. Tmdcuts 



9. Tmd or p^ aopMat- 
km not due tonnes- 
Icuts. 



Acckkotal ^ mft y. , 



Ova>iiiflatioo 



la Traid tqwinition due 
to noriedod fuMd cuts 



11. 



ddiiv 



Hi^ s pee ds impact 
NfjUecled tDBftdculB 



Ovcrloftdiiig 
Under-inflatkNi 

t foflm-odit 



I. Cbedc iiiiatkn 

Z Check ioidi 

3. EosuTt oatM ^ 



L Caciart bnkt a^ 
2. GdBd brake dniEi 

CODOCDlriC 

X Qieck wheel ta- 
ring. 

4. Oicck axle md to 
assefiiblie& 

5, Oveck siDcrini 
Mnkagie. 



botis^ spring <^Kdckks. 
Frequeat mbbmg 

dg&tnst kerb or other 
simiUf objects 
Overload- Ovw-inllatJOfi . 



K 



cauK d 
damage. 
Ensure careful dri- 
ving habit&. 

Ctieck load. 
Check mfiatjoo 
picssufie. 

Tyres to beiemcyvBd 
for repairs imsK- 



2. Check inflatioii 



3. Avoid high 

1. Remove tyre 
dial^y for 

2. IiMpect lyres 
krly. 

1. Checkload 

2. Chedc inflatioii 



Avoid storage of 
tyiet under direct 
sun*srays. 



Tyre Management and Road Transport 

Tyn Conditions Possible Causes 



519 



IZ Bead Chafing 
bead burst 



and 



13. Weatho: Checking 



Damaged wheel 
Rusty or distorted 
wheel flange. Under- 
inflation. Overloading. 
InsufiScient clearanoe 
between dual tyres 



Overloading 
Under-inflation 
Exposure to sunlight 
Old tyres 



Remedies 



1. Inspect and repair 
wheel 

2. Check inflatioii 
pressure 

3. Oieckload 

4. Ensure adequate 
clearance between 
dual tyres 

1. Check load 

2. Check inflation 
pressure 

3. Avoid storage 
under sun*s rays 



14. Damaged beads 



15. Diagonal and **X** 
fractures 



16. Casing burst starting 
from bead area 



17. Rim 



18. Casing break-up or 
fabric fatigue 



19. Loose cords inside 
tyre casing 



Careless use of tyre 
levers. Faulty flange 
or lock-ring. 



Over-inflation 
Overloading 
High Speeds 
Accidental impact 
damage. 

Overloading 
Under-inflation 
InsuflSdent twin-tyre 
clearanoe 



Pinching 'iof tyre bet- 
ween object and wheel 
flange, under inflation. 



Under-inflation 

Over-inflation 

Overloading 

Running tyre in a 
grossly under-inflated or 
deflated condition 



1. Use correct tools 
and adopt proper 
fitting and dismoun- 
ting methods. 

2. Ensure that flange 
and lock-ring are in 
good condition. 

1. Check inflation 
pressure 

2. Check load 

3. Ensure carefbl dri- 
ving habits 

1. Check load 

2. Check inflation 
pressure 

3. Ensure adequate 
clearance between 
twin tyres. 

1. Ensure careful dri- 
ving habits 

2. Oieck inflation 
pressure 

1. Check inflation 
pressure 

2. Check load 

1. Check inflation 
pressure 



520 Kaoiyau and S. K. Ummat on 

due to Trq^ed sloaa or 1. IiHpecttyrB 

nHds or other otjodi 

cntn^iped 

21. 




22. Scuffing of the imer 
tide walk of twin- tietween twin-tyrai 



t. TYRES AND ROAD SAFETY 



twin tyres 



8.1. Tyres play an important role in road safety. The safety 
is ensured try the devetopment of adequate skid resistance at tbe 
tyre-road surfiioe. The tyre characteristics which influence the 
devdopment of adequate skid resistance are: 

L Traftd depth and pattern; and 
iL Reriftanoe and hardness of rubber. 

8.2 The friction at the tyre road surface interface is cem- 
posed of: 

L Adhesion component; and 
ii. Hyiterisis component. 

The adhesion component is the surface friction, whereas 
the hysterisis component is developed by the energy losses sus- 
tained by rubber as it gets deformed by the surface irregularities 
on a pavement. 

The tread pattern and depth are designed to develop adequate 
skid resistance. If the tread gets worn out, the co-efficient of fri- 
ction drops down considerably. Hence, bald tyres are extremely 
dangerous, especially when the road surface is also smooth and 
wet. Driving with worn-out tyres should be avoided at any 
cost. 

The tread composition is very important for ensuring a high 
degree of hysterisis. The proportion of the constituents such as 
rubber, oil and carbon black are selected carefully to yield highly 
wear-resistant and skid-resistant tread. Synthetic rubber compo- 
nents have been developed to meet these requirments. 



Tyre Management and Road Transport 521 

9. TYRE MAINTENANCE AND CARE 

9.1. Tyres arc a costly item in the operation of vehicles. 
In some of the State Transport Undertakings, the cost of tyres 
and tubes varies from Rs.0.13 to Rs.0.68 per km. in the period 
1975-78.'' With the rise in the cost of tyres now, this component is 
expected to be about Rs. 0.25 to Rs. 0.75 per km. This deariy 
shows how important it is to take adequate steps to maintain 
the tyres in a good condition. A good maintenance policy. 

9.2. MaioteBaBce ManageflMnt 

For a large operator, it is perferable to set up a separate 
tyre maintenance unit within the maintenance workshop. For 
general guidance, a depot with 100 vehicles needs the services 
of two first-class tyre fitters each with an assistant 

Night-shift maintenance may be ideal for a garage, where 
the vehicles return to their base for the night. 

The drivers should be encouraged to follow good driving 
rules conducive to better life. In addition, they should perform 
simple visual inspections during the journey and report about 
any abnormal behaviour likely to affect tyre life. Special men- 
tion may be made of wheel wobbling and misalignment. A tyre 
repair kit for emergency repairs en route is always an asset. 
Punctures, minor cuts and bruises can be corrected during the 
journey by applying a rubber patch. The maintenance staff 
should be provided with proper tools. Some of these are: 

t. Inflation pressure gauges. 

ii. Tread depth gauges. 

iiL Levers for tyre fitment and removal (Normally a set of two levers 

is needed), 
iv. Wheel alignment gauge. 

9.3. Periodical diecks 

Routine checks should be a part of the regulardrill in any 
garage. The following schedule is recommended: 

Daily BudnteBance 

i. All tyres must be inspected daily. 

ii. Clean the tyres of dirt, stone pieces, nails and other foreign objects, 
ill. Check the tyre pressure and inflate or deflate as the case may be. 
iv. A quicker method is to check with a hammer to detect gross under- 
inflation. 



S22 KADfYAU AND S. K. Ummat on 

V. Check for AlMioiiiiBlappettiiioai ill lilt tiCBdiM^ 

of impendliig tyrt fsihire. 
vL Remove any totpidoiis tyre for refMun. 

i The tyre p re ani re i mutt be diedoed with a p i cMUf e imfe. 
iL Etemine and remove any foraisn bodies. 
iiL Look for tlie defects indicated in Sec 6 and take appropriate icoBdU 



PertidkMly/MentMy 

L Carry out daily and weekly maintenance routines. 
iL Rotate the tyics as per prascribed practice at the tcfaodoled Ub* 
meteraflB. 

9.4. 1>r« Reeords 

tyre records are a ^luable source of judging the perfonnanoe 
of tyres. They provided valuable dues as to whether tyres an 
performing as expected or whether anything is serioualy wn»g. 
Necessary corrective actions can be taken on the bmm of the 
analysis of such records. The records also give an idea of the 
per kilometre cost of tyres. They can indicate the rehtivt 
economy of a new tyre as compared to the retreaded tyre, mie 
brand as compared to another, one tyre type (rayon/nylon/radial) 
as compared to another, the retreadibility of tyres etc. 

The basic document is the Tyre Record Card. Each tyre has 
a separate card. The tyre card shows the following information 
pertaining to the tyres: 

(1) Tyre Identification Number 

(2) Make 

(3) Ply Rating 

(4) Type 

(5) Cord (Nyk)n/Rayon) 
(Q Date Purchased 

Entries are made in the Card whenever it is removed from 
or fitted to a vehicle. The following entries are made: 

(1) Vehicle No. 

(2) Wheel Position 

(3) Date 



Tyre Management and Road TkANSP<»iT S23 

(4 VeliideOdofDelerieadiiig(kin) 

(5) Tyre mileage (km) 

(6) Cumulative tyre mileafe (km) 

(7) Reasons for removal 

(8) Repair Date 

(9) Repair Cost 

The card also should contain provision for entries pertaining 
to cost of new tyres, retreading, repairs etc. The data of scrapping 
completes the card. 

Atypical card design is given in Appendix 1. 

The data from each individual tyre card is transferred on to 
a Tyre Record Register, sample page of which is given in 
Appendix-2. The entries are made at the time of final scrapping 
of the tyres. 

It is desirable to review the performance of tyres every 
month. A form devised for this purpose is given in Appendix'3. 
From the data entered, it is possible to perform a number of 
statistical analysis, such as: 

L Whether the performance of any one Brand is superior to the other? 

iL Whether the average performance for the month compares fovour- 
ably with the targetted average in respect of new tyres and 
different retreads. 

9.5. Procedure for fltment aad removal of tyres 

9.5.1. Adherence to well bud-out procedures for fitment and 
removal of tyres is necessary for safety and good performance. 

9.5.2. Some general notes on the subject are given below: 

i. Clean the rims, flanges and locking ring before fitment 

ii. Smear the tube, flap and inside of tyre with Frendi dialk before 
fitting. 

iii. The tube and flap shouki be inserted into the casing with an faiitial 
inflation just sufficient to round the tube. The flap shovkl be 
central with respect to the beads. 

iv. The valve shcmkl be pkKxd correctly in the rim hole. 



S24 KAmvAU AMD S. K. Ummat on 

V. After thD riiwi «e leciired. te tube should be inflated ioitidly to 
or6u> 15 N.fcm* (9lo22pti) toobierve whether all putsne 
Ttetyre should then be inflaiedto the desired 



vL Bsfofc nmovul. thD tyre should be deflated fully, and the riiv 
with the help of the tyre levers. 

M. Slin«e«f Tyres 

Proper stonae of tyres prolongs their life. Ejiposiire to sun's 
direct imys caneos cracks and early failure. It is always dcsirabk 
to store all new tyres, retieaded tyres and tyres intended for 
repairs under a cover. 

IC TYKBREIBEADING 

10.1. Tyres are a costly component of operation cost of 
vehicles and one of the proven methods of stretching the life of 
a tyre is to retread. The most common part of the tyre to wear oat 
is the tread. Retreading is the process of providing a new tiesd 
in substitution of the worn out one. 

Though retreading is the general term commonly used to 
denote the entire operation, yet there are three distinct types of 
retreading commonly met with: 

L Top-cappiiif 

vL Reo4>ping 

iii. Re-treading. 

Top-capping is the simplest of all, and involves just the 
replacement of only the tread rubber which has worn out. Fig. 10. 
The process starts with the preparation of the tyre surface by 
rasping and roughening, care being taken to see that the lower 
layers (breakers and plies) are not damaged. A suitable adhesive 
solution is then applied over the prepared surface and the new 
tread rubber in the shape of a band of rubber compound is fitted 
over the surface and the tyre is cured. The new tread rubber 
is generally about 50 per cent by weight of the original tread. 

Re-capping is resorted to in more complicated cases where 
the tread design is not easily amenable to top-capping or serious 
damage has occurred to the tread. In this process, a portion 
of the shoulders is also rasped. Fig. 10, and the new addition of 



Tyre Management and Road Transport 525 




Rg -TREADING 





TOP -CAPPING RE- CAPPING 

Fig. 10 

rubber provides for the tread as well as the shoulders. The new 
rubber is about 75 per cent by weight of the original tread. 

Re-treading is the most complete replacement of the worn- 
out parts, and involves the provision of new breakers and the full 
tread, along with the side shoulders. Fig. 10. Since this process 
involves more rubber compounds than the two earlier processes, 
it is the costliest. At the same time it is the most satisfactory of 
the thiee» taking care as it does of major damages to tread/ 
shoulders and breakers. 

The grooving of the new tread and curing is generally done 
by encasing the tyre in suitable moulds and heating to the desired 
temperature by steam. The retreading plants commonly use coal 
or fire-wood to generate steam for the purpose. 

10.3. Retreadlbility of tyres 

Not all worn-out new tyres are fit for retreading. Some of the 
tyres would have been damaged beyond retreadibility. A good 
operator will always be careful to keep a watch on the tyres, 
their condition and their kilometerage and will be alert to remove 
them in time for retreading. 



52< KADIYAUAMDS.ILUlllfATOK 

Tyiescu be retradeda nwaber of times. Two to tfane 
fCtreMb are very oommoa, eveo tlioai^ some operators takeout 
eigbt to ten streMls. 

Tbt analyus of tuo years* data of the Andhra Pradesh State 
Road Tranqxxt Corporation on scrapped tyres re veals the vabKs 
of retieadibihty* as given in Table 7. 

TahjiNo?. Tyke REraEAOHiiY 

1974-1975 1975-1976 



L Rrst RctfcedAiikiy firom new 

Ijns »% 67% 

2. Second Rc u e a d M i iy from First 
RetmdT>m 52% 40% 

3. Third RetrradibflHy fixm 

Second Rctmdtd Tyres 37% 28% 

4w Foorth Relicadibtlity from 

Third RclrendedT>m 5% 8% 

lt.4. LHe af RcCreaied 1>m 

Since retreading is a process of addition of new material to 
the old, it cannot restore fully the old strength of tyres. In fact, 
the heating of the tyres to a high temperature is b'kely to 
weaken its structure. It can thus be said that the life of a retre- 
aded tyre is less than that of a new. 

Successive retreading damages the structure further. The 
life of successiYO retreads thus diminishes. 

Table 8 gives a comparison of the average life of a new tyre 
with successive retreads in a major bus undertaking*. The 
average life is based on the total tyre consumption per year io 
the undertaking for the year 1975-76 which was of the order 
of 26,000 t>Te$ per year. 

Table 8. Lifb of REntEAOGD Tran as Compared to new 
(Source : Ref. S) 



S.No. 


Particulars 


A\-er. 


life in km. 


%agcLlle 


1. 


New Tyres 




32,916 


100 


2. 


First Retread 




21,515 


65 


3. 


Second Retread 




20,853 


63 


4. 


Third Retread 




18,191 


55 


5. 


Fourth Retread 




10,364 


31 



TYre Management and Road Transport 527 

The table illustrates how successive retreading g^ves lesser 
life of tyres. 

Roughly it can be assumed that the total life of a tyre in- 
cluding its successive retreadings is 1.8 times the life of a new 
tyre. Thus, if a new tyre is expected to givea life of 40,000 km. 
before it is retreaded, successive retreads can extend its life to 
72,000 km. 

103. EconoiBica of ftetreadtof 

The cost of retreading a tyre can be calculated by ordinary 
costing procedures taking into account the cost of the plant, its 
depreciation, interest charges, labour, material consumed and 
overheads. T^ical calculations are given in Appendix 4 for a 
large retreading unit capable of retreading nearly 2,500 tyres a 
year. The data used is from an actual unit. 

The average cost of retreadmg a tyre of a commercial 
vehicle ranges between Rs. 300 and Rs. 400. 

10.6 CalcnIatioB of Tyre Requirement 

A good management policy should always aim at having an 
adequate stock of tyres and tubes. In order to intimate the new 
tyre requirment, various factors such as life of new and successi- 
vely retreaded tyres and percentage retreadibility are involved. 
The following calculations illustrate the procedure involved: 

Let K = Number of vehicles in the Organisation. 

R at Route km per vehicle per year. 

La = Average life of new tyres (km.) 

L^«i Average life of first retread (km.) 

L, = Average life of second retread (km.) 



Lj = Average life of yth retread (km.) 

X^— % Retreadibility from new to first retread. 

X^ x= %Retreadibility from first to second retread. 
m.C. 41-3-34 



S28 Kamyau am> S. K. Ummat on 

IjB %R0tmdtbiltt3rfiPOfli(/-l)di to/lhretrad 
Total vehicle km. per yetr= VR 
Told tyre knL per yew aswuning JVtyrot per 
vehiobasJVKJL 
Total life of oae nevr tyie 

+ •'••^^100 ^ TwT^ ••• iW" 

A No. of tyres needed per years 

NVRXt .• jr, X^ 
iT+XTTSir"*" • 100 • 100 

The example bdow illustrates the ase of the above equation 

Exaniple: 

Calculate the yearly requirement of new tyres in a 
Depot with 100 buses, each vehicle covering 1,00,000 km. per 
year. The average life of tyres and retreadibility are given bdow: 

Average life of tyres (km.) 



New 


40.000 (U) 


Retread I 


22,000 (Lj) 


Retread II 


20.000 (L.) 


Retread III 


18.000 (L,) 


Retread IV 


10,000 (LJ 


RetreadibUity% 




New to Retread I 


80% i.e. (Jiri=0.8) 


Retread I to Retread II 


70%i.e.(Jir,=0.7) 


Hetread n to Retread III ... 


40%i.e.(jr,-0.4) 


Retread III to Retread IV . . . 


2%i.e. (Jir«=0.02) 



Tyre Management and Road Transport 529 

SohirioD V = 100 

R = 1,00,000 
VR = Total vehicle km. per year =100x1,00,000 

-10,000,000 km. 
/. Average annual tyre run, 

assuming 6 tyres per bus =60,000,000 Tyre-km. 

Total life of one tyre 

= 40,000+22,000x0.8+20,000x0.8x0.7 H- 18,000x0.8 x0.7x 
0.4+10,000x0.8x0.7x0.4x0.02 

= 40,000+17,600+11,200+4,032+45 
= 72,877 

60,000,000 

/.Number of tyres needed per ycar= 

72,877 

= 823.3, 
say 823. 
Since there is a stepney in each bus, 
number of tyres needed = 823 x J 

= 960. 

This extra number (i.e. 960—823 = 137) will be needed for 
anew Depot. For an old Depot/ the extra needed will be much 
less, if a stock of stepneys has already been built up initially. 

11. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN TYRE TECHNOLOGY 

11.1. Tyre technology has always been progressive and 
forward looking, and has come a large way from the introduction of 
the rubber tyres by Dunlop years ago. Research into more durable 
and efficient tyres continues. 

11.2. Tubeless tyres are those which dispense with the tube 
for encasing the air. The air is retained within the casing itself. This 
is achieved by the provision of a rubber seal with several shoulders 
over the external surface of the bead. An air-retaining liner with 
a high degree of air-tightness is provided inside the tubeless tyre. 
These tyres are gaining in popularity. 



KaDRTAU AMD & K. lAOttT Off 

S30 Tvia MAMAfonoMT A» Road ntA»^^ 

11.3 Radial lyvM tie a nop ioncyvatioii. Thogr havD bees 
inlrodiioed widely inoountriatalmad, and one oomiMiiy in ladii 
has introduoed tUt on ckr iftm. As 4aiiiBt cross pfy goaonBi 
iii0lwithinth0O(«ftetioadQFnB|fadidtyios lia^D radU plies. 
Many sdvanlafos haiebssn oUmsd IbnadkltyiM sodiatfiiel 
eoonomyt slow naar^ bsttar frip^ bsttar MsislsBOo to tanpoa- 
tun, etc 

11.4w A naw introdwtJAi^ in tfeo (^lifadm BRKjo^ 
*teld** piooess at aiunst.tbDffMiVBataQiial "M*' pr ocossnt. Hw 
now piooeu diminstas the itsinain UMl to ^ oausod in tbs 
strucCoro of the tyre duo to the hj^ heat it is subjected to 
duriog grooving and coring. 



The Authors wish to admo wiedge with thanks iho permission 
given by Prof. C O. Swaminathao, Director, Central Road 
Research Institute, to publish the Riper. 



1. Stste of the Art: PSRveomt Slipperiiieit and SUd RstiMnoe. Spedsl 
Report No.2, IRC Hishway Resesidi Board, New DeUii,1976. 

2. Truck and Bus Tyre Service Manual, A Dunlop (India) PublicatioD, 

1972 a 

3. Notes on Tyres, Technical Service Department, Geat Tyres of India. 

4. fjikihinikanthan PJR. and PJL Kanchsn, Ptcliminaxy Statistical 
Analysis of Satellite Study on Tyre Wear, RUGS Tecfanica] Paper 
No. 4d, EtovQotfa Quarterly Report, Road User Cost Stu^. Centnk 
Road Reaeardi Institute, New Delhi, 198a 

5. Kadiyali, L.R., Road User Cost Study in India-Obtjectives and Medio^ 
dology, Indian Hi^ways, New Delhi, 1979. 

6. KadiyaU, L.R.» and P.K. Jafai, Pilot Measurements of Rousbaess with 
an Indian Bump Intesrator, RUCS Tedmical Vapcr No. 15, SevS^ 
Quarterly Prosress Report, Road User Cost Study, New IMhi, 1979 

7. Association of State Road Transport Undertakinss. Report on the 
Pwformanoe of Nationalised Road Transport Undertakinss, 1976-77 
and 1977-78, Central Institute of Road Transport (Trainins & Rese- 
arch), Pune, 1979. 

8. Annual Administration Report, 1975-76, Andhra Pradesh State Road 
Transport Corporation, Hyderabad. 



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LIST OF INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS SPECIFICATIONS, STANDARDS, DESIGN 
CODES, SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS AND BOUND VOLUMES OF 
JOURNAL OF INDUN ROADS CONGRESS 




1. IRC: 2-1968 



2.IRC: 
3. IRC: 



4-1955 
5-1970 



00 
00 



4. IRC: 6-1966 



5. IRC: 


7-1971 


d.IRC: 


8-1969 


7. IRC: 


9-1972 


8. IRC: 


10-1961 


9. IRC: 


11-1962 


laiRC: 


12-1967 


n. IRC: 


13-1967 


IZIRC: 


14-1977 


13. IRC: 


15-1970 


14. IRC: 


16-1965 


15. ntC: 


17-1965 


I6.IRC: 


18-1977 


17. IRC: 


19-1977 


1«. IRC: 


20-1966 


19. ntC: 


21-1972 



I. CODES & STANDARDS 

Route Marker Signs for National Highways (in Metric 
Units) (First Revision) 

Type Designs for Furlong and Boundary Stones 
Standard Specifications & Code of Practice for Road 
Bridges, Section I— General Features of Design (in Metric 
Units) (Fifth Revision) 

Standard Specifications A Code of Practice for Road 
Bridges, Section II— Loads and Stresses (in Metric Units) 
(Third Revision) 

Recommended Practice for Numbering Bridges and Culverts 
(First Revision) 

Type Designs for Highway Kikmietre Stones (Pint 
Revision) 

Traflfic Census on Non-Urban Roads (First Revision) 
Recommended Practice for Borrowpits for Road Embank- 
ments Constructed by Manual Operation 
(Second Reprint) 

Recommencted Practice for the Design and Layout of Cyde 
Tracks (Second Reprint) 

Recommended Practice for Location and Layout of Road- 
side Motor-Fuel Filling-cum-Service Stations (First 
Revision) 

Recommended Practke for Location and Layout of Road- 
side Motor-Fud Filling Stations (First Revision) Under prim 
Recommended Practice for 2 cm Thick Bitumen and Tar 
Carpets (Third Revision) 5 00 
Standard Specifications A Code of Practice for Construction 
of Concrete Roads (First Revision) Under print 
Tentative Specification for Priming of Base Course with 
Bituminous Primers 3 00 
Tentative Specification for Single Coat Bituminous Surface 
Dressing 2 00 
Design Criteria for Prestressed Concrete Road Bridges 
(Post-Tensioned Concrete) (First Revision) 8 00 
Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Water 
Bound Macadam (Second Revision) 8 00 
Recommended Practice for Bituminous Penetration 
Macadam (Full Grout) (First Reprint) 5 00 
Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road 
Bridges, Section m—Cement Concrete (Plain and Rein- 
forced) (First Revision) Under pr&a 



Under prim 



10 00 



5 00 

Underprim 
3 00 



3 00 
3 00 



2 00 



2a ntC: 22-1966 Sttmdanl Spedficatioiii and Code of Plractioe for RomI 
Bridges, Section VI— Co mp o site Construction for Road 
Bridges (Thiid Rqxrint) 7 00 

21. ntC: 23-1966 Tentative Specification for Two Coat Bituminous Surfiwe 

Dressing 5 00 

22. IRC: 24-1967 Standaid Specifications and Code of Fractioe for Road 

Bridges, Section V— Steel Road Bridges 9 00 

23. ntC: 25-1967 Type Designs for Boundary Stones Cm Metric Units) 2 00 

24. IRC: 26-1967 Type Designs for 200-Metre Stones 5 00 

25. ntC: 27-1967 Tentative Specification for Bituminous Macadam (Base & 

Binder Course) 5 00 

26. mC: 28-1967 Tentative Specification for the Consunction of StabiUzed 

Soil Roads with Soft Aggregate in Areas of Moderate and 
HighRainfaU 2 00 

27. IRC: 29-1968 Tentative Specification for 4 cm (l|hL)Aqihaltic Concrete 

Surface Course 5 00 

28. IRC: 30-1968 Standard Letters and Numerals of Different Heists for 

Use on Highway Signs (in Metric Units) 2 00 

29. IRC: 31-1969 Route Marker Signs for State Routes Cm Metric Unite) 3 00 

30. IRC: 32-1969 Standard for Vertical and Horizontal OearanoeB of Ovcrliead 

Electric Power and Teleccmmiunication lines as Related to 
Roads (in Metric Units) 3 00 

31. IRC: 33-1969 Standard Procedure for Evaluation and Condition Surveys 

of Stabilised Soil Roads 5 00 

32 IRC: 34-1970 Recommendations for Road Construcdon in Water-logged 

Areas 6 00 

33. IRC: 35-1970 Code of Practice for Road Marldngi (widi Painte) 5 00 

34. IRC: 36-1970 Recommended Practice for the Construction of Earth 

Embankments for Road WoHes 10 00 

35. IRC: 37-1970 Guidelines for the Design of FlodUe PSavemsnte 7 00 

36. ntC: 38-1970 Design Tables for Horizontal Curves for Hifljiways Under priKf 

37. IRC: 39-1970 Standards for Road-Rail Level Crossfai^ 3 00 

38. IRC: 40-1970 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road 

Bridges, Section IV— (Brick, Stone and Block Masonry) 6 00 

39. IRC: 41-1972 l^pe Designs for Check Barriers VmkrpHit 

40. IRC: 42-1972 Proforma for Record of Test Values of LocaQy AvailaUe 

Pavement Construction Materials 3 00 

41. IRC: 43-1972 Recommended Practice for Tools, Equqxnent and Api^ianoes 

for Concrete Pavement Construction 5 00 

42 IRC: 44-1976 Tentative Guidelines for Cement C^oncrete Mix Design for 
Road Pavements (for non-air entrained and omtinuouBly 
graded concrete) (First Revision) 8 00 

43. IRC: 45-1972 Recommendations for Estimating the Resistance of Sofl 

below tiie Maximum Scour Levd in the Design of Wdl 
Foundations of Bridges 5 00 

44. IRC: 46-1972 A PoUcy on Roadside Advertisements O'lrst Revisioo) 5 00 

45. IRC: 47-1972 Tentative Specification for Buflt-up Spray Grout 5 00 

46. IRC: 48-1972 Tentative Specification for Bitumhious Surface Dressfaig 

using Precoated Aggregates 5 00 

47. IRC: 49-1973 Recommended Practice for the PuKerization of Black 

Cotton Soils for Lime Stabilization 5 00 

48. IRC: 50-1973 Recommended Design Criteria for the Use of Cement Modi- 

fied Soil in Road Construction 5 00 

(2) 



49. OilC: 51-1973 Recommendect Design Criteria for the Use of Soil Lime 

Mixes in Road Construction 5 01 

5Ql IRC: 52-1973 Recommendations about the Alignment Survey and 

Geometric Design of Hill Roads Under pr 

51. IRC: 53-1973 Road Accident Forms A-land4 3 a 

52. ntC: 54-1974 Lateral and Vertical Clearance at Underpasses for Vefaidi- 

larTraflBk: 3 (N 

53. IRC: 55-1974 Recommended Practice for Sand-Bitumen Base Courses 3 (X 
54b IRC: 56-1974 Recommended Fractioe for Treatment of Embankment 

Slopes for Erosion Control 3 (X 

55. IRC: 57-1974 Recommended Practice for Sealing of Joints in Concrete 

Pftvements 3 (X 

5d. IRC: 58-1974 Guidelines for the Design of Rigid Pftvements for Higliways 5 (X 

57. IRC: 59-1976 Tentative Guidelines for Design of Gap Graded Cement 

Concrete Mixes for Road Pavements 5 (N 

58. IRC: 60-1976 Tentative GuideUnes for the Use of Lime-flyash Concrete 

as Pftvement Base or Sub-base 5 0( 

59. IRC: 61-1976 Tentative Guidelines for the Construction of Cement Con- 

crete Pftvements in Hot-Weather 
60l IRC: 62-1976 Guidelines for Control of Access on Hi^ways 
^. IRC: 63-1976 Tentative Guiddines for the use of Low Grade Aggregates 

and Sofl Aggregate Mixtures in Road Pavement Construction 5 
€L IRC: 64-1976 Tentative Guidelines on Capacity of Roads in Rural Areas 

63. IRC: 65-1976 Recommended Practice for Traflk Rotaries 

64. IRC: 66-1976 Recommended Practice for Si^t Distance on Rural 

Highways 
63. IRC: 68-1976 Tentative Guiddines on Cement Flyash Concrete for Rigid 
Pavement Construction 

66. IRC: 69-1977 Space Standards for Roads in Urban Areas 

67. IRC: 70-1977 Guidelines on Regulation and Control of Mixed Traflfc in 

Urban Areas 

68. IRC: 71-1977 Recommended Practice for Preparation of Notations 

69. IRC: 72-1978 Recommended Practice for use and Upkeep of Equipment 

Tools and Appliances for Bituminous lavement Cons^u^' 

tioo 10 0( 

70. ntC: 73-1980 Geometric Design Standards for Rural 

(Non-urban) Highways 20 OC 

71. IRC: 74-1979 Tentative Guidelines for Lean-oemeat concrete and Lean 

OementrFly Ash concrete as a Pftvement Base or 
Sub-base 8 00 

72. IRC: 75-1979 Guiddines for the Design of High Embankments 20 OC 

73. IRC: 76-1979 Tentative GuideUnes for Structural Strength Evaluation of 

Rigid Aiifieki Pavements 10 OC 

74b IRC: 77-1979 Tentative Guiddines for Repair of Concrete pavements 

using Synthetic Resin 15 OC 

75. IRC: 78-1979 Standard Specifications and Code of Practice for Road 

Bridges -Section VII- Foundations A Substructure Pftrt I: 
General Features of Design 16 OC 

76. IRC Folder for Keeping Standards 10 OC 

IL SPECIAL PUBUCAHONS 

1. Sfpedal Publication-1-1971 Bridgmg India's Riven» VoL I 10 OC 

2. 1%)ecial PubUcation-4-1966 Bridge Loadings Around the World 3 a 





(X 




(X 




OC 




(X 




a 




« 




« 


6 


(X 


12 


(X 


6 


(X 



3. SpsGMl PubKatioa —5-1967 RomI Dnkmm Pnctioct Around the World 3 « 

4. Speckl Publicitioo — «-1972 Methodology of Fkxible Ftvement Derign 

Aroond the World Ompf M 

5. Speckl Publicatioii —9-1972 Rating of Brid«tt I (K 

6. SpecMl Publicitioo —10-1972 Bridging India's Riven. Vol. n IS 00 

7. SpKiel PubKation —11-1977 Handbook of Quality Control for Construc- 

tion of Roads and Runi»ays (First Reviiioa) IS 00 

8. Spedal Publication —12-1973 Tenuove Recommuidation on the Provi- 

sion oT Pluting Spaces for Urban Areas 2 00 

9. Special Publication —13-1973 Guidelines for the Design of Small Bridpes 

ACuKerts IS 00 

la Special Publication —14-1973 A Manual for the Application of the Criti- 
cal PHtfa Method of Highway Plcjects in India 12 00 
11. Special PubKcatioo — 1M974 Ribbon Deveiopaient along Hgfaways and 

its Pretention 10 00 

IZ Special Publication —16-1977 Sur^KX Evenness of Highway Pavements 7 OD 

13. Special Publication -17-1977 Resommendations about Overlays on 

Cement Concrete Rivements IS OD 

14. Specia] Publication —18-1978 Manual for Highway Bridge Maintenance 

Inspection 15 OD 

15. Special Publication —19-1977 Manual for Survey, Investigation and 

Preparation of Road Projects IS 00 

16. Special Publication —20-1979 Manual on Route Location, Design, Con- 

struction and Maintenance of Rural Roads (Other 

District Roads & Village Roads) 20 00 

17. Specia] Publication —21-1979 Manual on Landscaping of Roads 30 00 

18. Special Pubhcation —22-1980 Rccommendatioos for the siaes for eadi 

type of Road making madiinery to cater to the 
general demand of Road Works S 00 

19. Environmental Considerations in Plaiming A Design of 

Highways in India (1979) IS 00 

20. Paper on Panel discussion —Limit State of Crack- Width by 

P.C. Bhasin A S.P. Chakrabarti 10 00 

21. Ministry of Shipping & Transport (Roads Wing)— Standard Plans 

for Highway Bridges, Volume II — Concrete 

Slab Bridges 3S 00 

22. Ministry of Shipping & Transport (Roads Wing) Specification for 

Road and Bridge Works (First Revision) 30 00 

23. Paper No. 238— Considerations in the Design and Sinking of Well 

Foundations for Bridge Piers by B. Balwant Rao 

and C. Muthusu-amy 5 00 

24. Paper No. 2S7 — Construction of a Ghat Road from Bodinayakanur 

to Bodimettu hy E.C. Chandrasekharan 4 00 

25. Paper No. 278— The Use of Restrained-Ncoprenc Bearings in Civil 

Engineering by J.W. Slottje&P.S. Gokhale 2 00 

26. Paper No. 317 — Experience in the Impiovement and Modernization 

of Roads in Tamil Nadu by E.C. Chandrasekharan 4 SO 

27. Papers for Panel Discussion on Intermediate technology in Highway 

Construction and Discussion thereon presented at the 37th 

Annual Session, Bhopal, December, 1976 10 00 

28. Highway Research Bulletin No.l, 1975— Traffic Engineering 5 00 

29. Highway Research Bulletin No.2, 1975— Flexible Pavements 5 00 

30. Highway Research Bulletin No.3, 1976 — Rigid Pavements 5 00 

(4) 



vay Research Bulletin No.5, 1977~Rlgid Pavements 

vay Research Bulletin No.6, 1977~Flexible Pavements 

vay Research Bulletin No.8, 1978— Traffic Rngineering 

vay Research Bulletin No.9, 1978— Flexible Pavements 

vay Research Bulletin No.10, 1979— Soil Engineering 

vay Researdi Bulletin No.ll, 1979— Rigid Pavements 

way Research Bulletin No. 12, 1980— Traffic Engineering* 

way Research Bulletin No. 13, 1980— Rigid A Flexible Pavements 

vay Research Board Special Report No.l, 1976-*State of the Art: 

Lime Soil Stabilisation* 
vay Research Board Special Report No.2, 1976-*State of the Art: 

Pavements, Slipperiness and Skid Reststaooe* 
way Research Board Special Report No.3, 1978-*State of the Art: 

Compaction of Earthwork and Subgrades' 
way Research Record No.l, 'General Report on Road Research Work 

done in India during 1973-74* 
way Research Record No.2, 'General Report on Road Research Work 

done in India during 1974-75* 
vay Research Record No.3, ^General Report on Road Research Work 

done in India during 1975-76* 5 

way Research Record No.5, ^General Report on Road Research Work 

done in India during 1977-78* 5 

way Research Record No.6, 'General Report on Road Research Work 

done in India during 1978-79* 5 

ni. BOUND VOLUMES OF THE JOURNAL OF THE 
INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS 

Original 
Price 
Rs. P. 





00 




00 




00 




00 




00 




00 




00 




00 



12 00 



12 00 

15 00 

5 00 



5 00 



00 



nd Vol. 
nd Vol. 
nd Vol. 
nd VoL 
nd Vol. 
nd Vol. 
nd Vol. 
ind VoL 
ind Vol. 
nd Vol. 
nd Vol. 
nd Vol. 
nd Vol. 
tnd VoL 



XUI 

XVll 

XXI 

XXII 

XXIII 

XXVII 

XXXI 

XXXII 

XXXIII 

XXXIV 

XXXV 

XXXVI 

XXXVII 

XXXVIII 



Parts 1 to 2 
lto4 



Parts 1 to 5 
ParU 1 to 4 



Parts 1 io5 
Parts 1 to 3 
Parts 1 to 4 
Parts 1 to 4 
Parts 1 to 4 



(1948-49) 

(1952-53) 

(1956-57) 

(1957-58) 

(1958-59) 

(1962-63) 

(1967-68) 

(1969-70) 

(1970-71) 

(1971-73) 

(1973-75) 

(1975-76) 

(1976-77) 

(1977-78) 



5 

9 
10 
13 
15 



50"^ 

00 

00 

00 
00 



20 00 

20 00 

20 00 

20 00 

30 00, 

15 00^ 

25 00 I 

30 00 r 

30 00 J 



30% 
concession 



00 
00 



25 percent 

concession 

is allowed 

to IRC members 



A Packing la charged extra on aU the publications 

iei of the publications will be sent by V.P.P., on receipt of orders addressed to th 
; Indian Roads C^ongress, Jamnagar House, Shaluahan Road, New DelM-UO 01 



(5) 



BuiKby 
Gammon 




Ganga 
Bridge at 
Buxar 




India's first long-span bridge using 
precast segmental construction. 

This 1 1 22 m long prestressed concrete 
bridge, designed and built by Gammon, 
consists of 1 1 double cantilever spans of 
1 01 m each, with end cantilevers supporting 
5.5 MRC floating spans. 

It's just one of the 800 bridges constructed 
by us all over India. 

ijAMMON INDIA LIMITED 

Construction Engin««r8 and Contractors 

Gammon Hogse, Veer Savarkar Marg, Bombay 400 025. 
Grams: "GAMMON" Bombay-Dadar 400 014. 
Phone: 454261 (6 lines) . Telex : Oil ,'2552. 011/5738 

^ everest/79/GIL/428 




hkodiKing ' "^S 

Shand-sfi^&ing 

Hill 11 m nm Priii Iff rmiiiiiliiu lifiiniliifi ) "^ 




eoneret* sr^urtd tendons. 

* Jflcti h front g lipping ^vf% mGr* fhiin isfi« 
fool pf stnnd it sicH j«ckmg end- 

* U0^t. ■conomtcil irfd fiit opersiing 
jtcks itr«u itrindi iri^vidajKv miblt 
Ortitcr foad contTOl 

TTiit n*w tytltm pro^idei lh« t>ett combination 

Of petrrnsirg jick. pur^o arcT accessDrws suit«blc to 
rndiiin Condihons. !n p^ACIiC^I Itr^i thus m««ns 
low inifiil cosi. «isy aperar or* ''educed CTDwyding 
of girder^, sddfd mit«Hdl serfng-^^^arid in 
trtonnout Mving ol time and rT!»ir'«i^» 



CCL/CAeCO U' Type 
Strand 'Stressing System. 
Tha mtemational system 
now madfr specialty 
for India. 



iSIWAL miso offers fmckm mnd pumpm mn tUrm^ 
phiw mssistMnee &n a^sisn mn^ mt Mite. 



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Digital terrain models. Topographic surveys. Profiles Cross secUons^ 
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J Tlie.SHoiilirif* Instiiimeiit Co. Lid. 

AUAHABftO. BONV^M. t^VtVill^ >^kWk^. H\^H ^\VA\. VWfHAtAO 
fSro «T9ll MYOtRABl^O. GA\iHM\. V\1L¥.HQ>M. ^V^*^V^\i^ , ^VU^\^^ . ^vn^^vU^V 




1960 



Over the fence... 
into the next field 



T«I1 \ 960 w usfld Imporifld prntreislng equipnrkent 
To avoid th« high costt ind delavs, w« bvgan to 
manufacture the vitil elements, Like : 

• Anchorage Cones : to anchor the stressed w^res 

• Sheathings : to provide conducts in coricrete for 
cabtes 

« Htgh Pressure Pumps : yp 1o 700 kgjtm^ fo 

operate prestfei^sing jact^s 
Sort of vaulting over the fence into the next field 
'This bf ought benefits : 
• Freedom from tmports 
m Lower construction costs 
m Saving of foreign «xchar>g« 
frestressed concrete technology orid »dvantage« 
«ire spfsadmg. 
That's tM«f) part of our efforts Part of our Silver 

Star Service., for otir Silver Jubitee.Year .,to serve 

vou better. 



\ 



^ 




1 



The Freyssinet Pre-stressed 
Concrete Company Limited 

tTH FLOOR. STERLING CfftTRC DR, ANNIE BCSAKT ROAD. 

WOtu. BOMBAY iOO Ota FHONt ; 3T8163. 3984(1 GRAMS; FREYS51 ttOMBAY 

MCGIONAL OFFICES : CALCUTTA, DELHI 

LOCAL REPRESENTATIVES: AHMfOASAO. CALCUTTA. KANRUR MADRAS