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UNIV.OI 

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JOURNAL 



OF THE 




VOLUME VII 
APRIL, 1914, TO JANUARY, 1915 




Entered at Washington, D. C., as Second Class Matter under Act of Congress 
of July 16, 1894, 



-7 
1915 




VOL. 7 



APRIL 1914 



No. 1 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Illinois State Historical Society 




Published .Quarterly by the Illinois State Historical 
Society, Springfield, Illinois 



Entered at Washington, D. C., as Second Class Matter under Act of Congress 
of July 16. 1894 



ILLINOIS PRINTING CO., DANVILLE, ILL. 




T 






JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



Editor-in-Chief 
JESSIE PALMER WEBER 

Associate Editors 

J. H. BURNHAM GEO. W. SMITH 

WM. A. MEESE ANDREW RUSSEL 

H. W. CLENDENIN EDWARD C. PAGE 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 



Honorary President 

Col. Clark E. Carr Galesburg 

President 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First Vice-President 

W. T. Norton Alton 

Second Vice-President 

L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third V ice-President 

Richard Yates Springfield 

Fourth V ice-President 

George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Directors 
Edmund J. James, President University of 

Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

E. B. Greene, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp, President Illinois 

College Jacksonville 

J. O. Cunningham Urbana 

George W. Smith, Southern Illinois Normal 

University Carbondale 

William A. Meese Moline 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page, Northern Illinois State 

Normal School DeKalb 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Honorary Vice-Presidents 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

I. John P. Senning The Know-Nothing Movement in 

Illinois from 1854-1856 7 

II. Anna R. Morrison Diary of Anna R. Morrison, 

Wife of Isaac L. Morrison, 1840-1841 34 

III. Kathleen M. Clyne Senatorial Disputes Resulting 

from the Apportionment Act of 1841 51 

IV. John M. Lansden Abraham Lincoln, Judge David 

Davis and Judge Edward Bates 56 

V. Charles M. Thompson An Early Character Sketch 

of Mr. Lincoln 59 

VI. W. W. Sweet Bishop Matthew Simpson and the 

Funeral of Abraham Lincoln 62 

VII. General Fred D. Grant Some Reminiscences of 

General U. S. Grant 72 

VIII. Dr. Daniel Berry Brief Sketch of Hon. John M. 

Robinson 77 

IX. Frederic E. Voelker The Piasa 82 

X. Mrs. E. S. Walker Revolutionary Soldiers Buried in 

Illinois 92 

XI. Dr. Daniel Berry Cotner's Crisis 99 

XII. Howard F. Dyson Biographical Sketch of Lewis 

D. Erwin 110 

XIII. List of Books, Manuscripts and Pictures presented to 

Illinois State Historical Society and Library 115 



XIV. Editorial. 

Annual Meeting Illinois State Historical Society, 
May 7-8, 1914 121 

The Flag of Co. "C." Seventy-seventh Illinois 
Volunteers placed in Memorial Hall at Springfield, 
Illinois 124 

William Beekman, an Old Stage Driver of Northern 
Illinois 127 

Minor Notes -. 132 

XV. Necrology. 

Death of Mrs. Adlai E. Stevenson 139 

Death of Senator Shelby M. Cullom 140 

Members of the Illinois State Historical Society, 
Deceased. 

James M. Ryrie 141 

Herbert B. Henkel 142 

Charles B. Campbell 143 



t, 



THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT 

IN ILLINOIS 

1854-1856 



READ BEFORE THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY, SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS 

MAY 18, 1912 



BY 



JOHN P. SENNING 



THE KNOW-NOTHING MOVEMENT IN ILLINOIS. 



BY JOHN P. SENNING. 

A new political phenomenon appeared on the stage of national 
politics in the year 1854. The time of its appearance was most 
opportune. Incessant agitation of the slavery question had 
weakened party cohesion. Whatever mode of solving that 
question parties adopted gave offence. Both North and South 
had reached that stage in the evolution of slavery agitation when 
they began to distrust each other at every point. Plans pro- 
posed by either Whigs or Democrats instantly aroused scepticism 
as to the sincerity and motive involved. 

Men who felt the pulse of disunion beat fast and regular, 
threw themselves into the breach, and by barter and concession, 
checked the disrupting forces. The Compromise of 1850 was a 
victory for the conservative northern and southern Whigs, but 
the radical elements of both sections never gave their allegiance 
to the settlement. In the Southern states, they talked of seces- 
sion; in the North they opposed the operation of the Fugitive 
Slave Law. Whig majorities diminished in the state elections 
during the succeeding two years, thus showing distinctly the 
drift of sentiment. All efforts of the Whigs to rescue themselves 
in the presidential election of 1852 were in vain. Democratic 
majorities swamped them in all except four states, Massachu- 
setts, Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee. The aggressive 
attitude of northern and southern Whigs had made union on a 
national platform and candidate impossible. The hour of 
mutual concession had closed ; national leaders had retired from 
party councils and radicals had taken their places. The Whig 
defeat in 1852 therefore marks another mile-post in the annals 
of party disintegration. 

Less than two years from the Whig defeat, the victorious party 
pledged to a finality on the Compromise measure, overturned 

*The author desires to acknowledge the assistance of Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 
secretary of the Illinois State Historical Society, in the selection and transcribing of 
newspaper excerpts, and to Dr. Solon J. Buck of the University of Illinois in the prep- 
aration of maps. 



10 

that settlement, and for it substituted a policy which imme- 
diately opened up a flood of bitter sectional feeling. The enact- 
ment of the Kansas-Nebraska Law undid the work of half a 
century of compromise and concession directed toward the pres- 
ervation of the Union. Civil war in Kansas fed sectional 
hatred, hastened secession, and helped materially in pushing the 
country into Civil war. The Kansas-Nebraska Law divided the 
political elements into two great groups, pro-Nebraska and anti- 
Nebraska men. The former gave their allegiance to the Demo- 
cratic party, but the latter had no common party affiliation. 
The Whig party continued only as a local or state organization ; 
the Free-Soilers were not united; and the Abolitionists had 
fastened a stigm'a upon their name which was hard to lose. 
For nearly a quarter of a century, party disintegration in the 
North had gone on. The Kansas-Nebraska Law supplied the 
irritant for a nucleus, around which gravitated the molecular 
elements of opposition to the Democratic party. It was, how- 
ever, merely the beginning of a nucleus. While these languid 
elements were negotiating with each other for a common princi- 
ple upon which to organize and assume a party name, the new 
political phenomenon, the Native-American Party, more com- 
monly known as the Know-Nothing Party, suddenly put in its 
appearance, and it seemed, for a time, that all the elements 
might unite under the banner of this organization. From the 
beginning of American history, a natural distrust and jealousy 
of an overweaning foreign influence in American politics laid the 
foundation of a nativistic movement. Interest varied in direct 
ratio to the tide of immigration. When that tide reached hith- 
erto unprecedented heights between 1850 and 1854 organizations 
which before had been only quasi-political, made politics their 
specialty and built up, under the guise of a secret society, a 
formidable political party. During its nascent stage, it con- 
tented itself by cooperating with leaders of other parties, but its 
influence proved so far-reaching that it soon advanced its own 
candidates. By means of secrecy, the native Americans pro- 
duced startling results in elections, since neither platforms nor 
candidates were announced to the public. To understand how 
the Know- Nothings accomplished their ends so successfully it 
is necessary to examine their organization. 

In the earliest stages of growth, members, before being accepted 
into the order, were obliged to pledge themselves to support 
all efforts to require a longer term of residence for foreigners 



11 



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11 

before the privileges of naturalization were conferred, and to 
oppose the election of Roman Catholics to public office. To secure 
thoroughness a plan of lodge organization was adopted, and, by 
a system of gradation, a hierarchy was formed. At the bottom 
was the ward or county council, composed of delegates from 
respective councils within the prescribed area, and so on to the 
district, state and finally the Grand or National Council. Initi- 
ation into a lodge consisted of three degrees the first was 
open to anyone who would subscribe to the general pledge 
against foreigners and Catholics ; the second and third were con- 
ferred with more caution. The direction of the order rested in 
the hands of those at the top of the hierarchy ; the few councilors 
issued their dictum to the next lower grade, and so on down. 
Such a system was well adapted to local purposes, but as the 
organization reached out, the system itself broke down, and by 
1855 all pretence at secrecy was officially abolished. 

It will be recalled that such a combination of circumstances, 
in the later forties and early fifties, as (1) political revolutions on 
the Continent, (2) economic distress in Ireland, (3) the discovery 
of gold in California, and (4) the activity of emigrant agents, 
stimulated a great influx of Germans and Irish. The immi- 
grants from 1851 to 1854 more than trebled those of the entire 
preceding decade. They caused congestion in the cities, 
crowded the industries, and lent themselves as willing tools to 
political bosses. As a result of the attention shown them, many 
acquired an exaggerated sense of their self-importance, became 
arrogant at the polls, and, in the eyes of the better class of citi- 
zens, appeared as a menace to political, economic, social and 
religious progress. The political responsibility of this condition 
rested in part on both political parties, but especially upon the 
Democrats. Even the party name, Democrat, became a lure 
to the foreigner unacquainted with American institutions. The 
politicians were fully aware of the influence they were bringing 
to bear upon the foreigner and exerted every line of persuasion 
to enlist the immigrants into the ranks of the Democratic party. 
Often before the ocean brine had a chance to dry on their 
clothes, bosses rushed them to the polls. 

The era was also one of religious unrest. The Protestants 
were constantly at variance with the Catholics and nursed the 
belief that the Catholic church aspired to temporal power in the 
United States. Street preachers in practically every large city 



12 

took advantage of this natural credulity and prejudiced the 
public mind against the Church of Rome. 

These external causes gave the native American party vital- 
ity, and stimulated its growth; while the close organization 
within gave it unity and efficiency. However, nativism spent 
its force in the Atlantic sea-board states. It must be noted that 
the movement spread across the United States and into the 
territories, but it was practically without any issue west of the 
Alleghenies. . Opposition to the foreign immigrant in the West 
would have proved suicidal to its development. 1 Newspapers 
gave glowing accounts of the vast opportunities the West offered 
to foreigners who sought the United States as their home. No 
section was more disappointed than the Northwest at the failure 
of the Homestead Bill 2 to receive the endorsement of Congress in 
1853. 

As the means of communication by water and rail improved, 
western communities advanced in material prosperity; and, 
among them, Illinois was in the lead. In 1850, Illinois may still 
be called a frontier state, but, like the neighboring common- 
wealths, she had crossed the meridian of frontier life and was 
rapidly advancing in manufactures, commerce and the indus- 
trial arts. Her Legislature responded to the needs of the time, 
enacted wise laws, and granted charters for the improvement of 
means of communication. The net-work of railways, begun in 
1848, within the next ten years spread over the entire State, 3 
bringing Illinois into close touch with the markets of the United 
States and stimulating growth in wealth and population. Prac- 
tically every state in the Union contributed to her population, 
as is shown by the census of 1850. 4 Easy access by water to the 
Southern and Middle states drew from them large numbers 
which, in time, constituted the old conservative element of 



Illinois State Register, November 27, 1851. The paper is elated that no native 
American party exists in Illinois, and praises emigration organizations for directing 
foreigners to the West. 

2 Illinois Journal, July 6, 1854. Anticipating the enactment of the Homestead 
Bill before the Senate, The Journal urges foreign immigrants to "lose no time" in 
getting ready to accept the opportunity. 

Ibid, July 25, 1855. Speaking of the excellent reputation of German immigrants 
"Our German settlers * * * are valuable acquisitions to the State and are doing 
good service in opening up its waste places to the hand of cultivation. * * * It 
is seldom indeed that we hear of one being in the poorhouse or under the care of a 
pauper committee." 

3 Poor, Henry V.: Manual of Railroads of U. S. 1883, pp. 687-745. 

4 United States Census Report of 1850. 



13 

Southern Illinois. The completion of the Erie Canal and the 
extension of the railroads westward made Illinois also accessible 
to the emigrant from New England, New York, and Ohio. Mr. 
Greeley's injunction, "Young man, go West," was a conviction 
with thousands long before that sage gave the advice. Illinois 
was in the very heart of the West, and therefore offered excep- 
tional advantages to the frugal Yankee, the opportunist, the 
famine-stricken Irishman, and the oppressed on the European 
continent. The open prairies welcomed the settler in whose 
behalf the State used every legitimate means to secure liberal 
Homestead legislation from Congress. The construction of 
railways and public works of every description, the growing 
factories and the land rapidly increasing in value, offered oppor- 
tunity for capital and labor. It may be observed from these 
conditions that the population of Illinois lacked homogeneity 
since it was assembled from widely separated geographical areas. 
The emigrants from the Southern and Middle states were gradu- 
ally outnumbered by an influx from New England, New York, 
and Ohio as seven to three. 1 These elements from the East 
and South were generously infiltrated with foreigners, chiefly 
from Germany, Ireland, and England. Except for the thickly 
settled colonies of Germans and English in Monroe, St. Clair, 
Madison, and Clinton counties, in the pit between the Kaskaskia 
and Mississippi rivers, the bulk occupied the northern half of 
the State. 2 A large corporation 3 had its agents on the conti- 
nent, in England, and in Ireland, who distributed literature 
describing the "wonderful opportunities" men would find in the 
frontier states. By this means, and with the help of those 
already in Illinois, thousands were annually directed from their 
homes beyond the Atlantic to the rich Prairie State. The Irish 
except where employed on railroad construction, showed a 
decided predilection for the cities, while the Germans and 
English became prosperous farmers. 



1 United States Census Report of 1850. 

The Southern States ranging in order of contribution Kentucky, Tennessee, Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Missouri, Maryland. Total, 74,584. The 
Northern states ranging in order of distribution New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
Indiana, Vermont. Total 248,305. Ranging states of both sections in order New 
York, Ohio, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Indiana, Virginia, North Carolina, 
Vermont. 

2 See map on Distribution of Foreign Population. 

3 Illinois State Register, Sept. 13, 1849. "North American Land and Emi- 
gration Company." Its central office was at 130 Broadway, New York. Agents 
for Illinois were Messrs. Ash and Diller of Springfield. 



14 

A clear understanding of political conditions in Illinois 
throughout the 50 's is impossible without taking into consider- 
ation the elements of population, and by noting the distribution 
of the various nationalities. A line drawn east and west through 
Springfield, divides the State into two fairly well defined political 
sections; the origin of the population south of this line may be 
traced to Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia and North and South 
Carolina, interspersed with a few Yankee families and other 
Northerners, and a sprinkling of foreigners; while the origin of 
the population north of this line may be traced to New England, 
New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania, and a large portion of it to 
European states. In every respect Northern Illinois showed 
superior industrial vigor and prosperity. The East and West 
were united in 1852 by rail when the Michigan Central reached 
Chicago. 1 From this rapidly growing city, steel rails threaded 
every part of the State and points beyond. Along these great 
highways moved the commerce of the Mississippi Valley, and 
emigrants made their way westward to transform the forests of 
Illinois into cornfields and the raw prairie into wheatfields. 
Until the opening of the Erie Canal and the building of railroads, 
Southern Illinois dominated the political ideals of the State. 
When, however, the population from New England and from 
states in the same latitude poured in and was constantly reinforced 
by large numbers from beyond the Atlantic, two rival sections with 
different political ideals and social interests appear. Then, as 
now, State politics had its source in national politics, and local 
parties derived their inspiration from national parties. Internal 
improvements and the tariff were questions .of great concern to 
the entire State and found equal support by either party ; but on 
slavery there was no such unanimity of opinion. Mere mention 
of that question would array one section of the State against the 
other. 

Party organization in Illinois was severely tested after 1850. 
Illinois ranked as a safe Democratic State; yet the Whigs 
managed to maintain a bold front through the perilous campaign 
of successive defeats for State offices. In 1851, the Illinois 
Legislature endorsed, by unanimous vote, the principle of 
squatter sovereignty as applied to the Territory of New 



1 Poor's Manual of Railroads, 1883, p. 637. 



15 

Mexico, 1 while four years later, not even all the Democrats in 
the General Assembly 2 would support a resolution favoring the 
Kansas- Nebraska measure. This change of sentiment may be 
attributed to the operation of the Fugitive Slave Law. Shortly 
after its enactment, the Common Council of Chicago declared it 
unconstitutional, and for four successive days large crowds 
gathered in front of North Market condemning its passage in 
vigorous terms. 3 The voice of protest was unanimous through- 
out Northern Illinois. 4 Party disintegration, very apparent 
among the Whigs since 1852, also infected the strong Democratic 
organization in 1854. 

The very men who were responsible for the party schism in the 
Democratic ranks, upon returning to their constituencies, were 
confronted by an angry electorate. Douglas' own city, Chicago, 
repudiated him, refused to welcome him home, and, when he 
attempted to address his people, they jeered him, and pro- 



1 Illinois State Register, August 31, 1854. Quotes the Resolution from the Legis- 
lative Journal of 1851. "Resolved That our Liberty and Independence are based 
upon the right of the people to form for themselves such government as they may 
choose. And that this great privilege, the birthright of freemen, * * * ought to 
be extended to future generations, and no limitations ought to be applied to this 
power, in the Organization of any Territory in the United States, of either a Terri- 
torial government or State constitution, provided the government so established 
shall be Republican and in conformity with the Constitution of the United States." 

2 Illinois State Register, March 2, 1854. The State Senate sustained Douglas 
on Feb. 24, 1854, by a vote of 14 to 8. Of those in the negative, five, Campbell, 
Cook, Judd, Osgood and Palmer were Democrats, and three, Gillespie, Gridley and 
Talcott were Whigs. See House Journal, pp 52-53. The House of Representatives 
voted on the same resolution, Feb. 15, 1854. 33 Democrats and 3 Whigs voted for, 
and 8 Democrats, 13 Whigs, and 1 Free Soiler against it. Those not voting 13 
Democrats and 5 Whigs. In Lincoln's Works, Vol. II, page 245, occurs a letter of 
Lincoln to a friend, dated Aug. 24, 1855, in which he hints at the possible origin of 
the resolution sustaining Douglas' course in 1854. "Of the 100 members compris- 
ing the two branches of that body, about 70 were Democrats. These latter held a 
caucus in which the Nebraska Bill was talked over, if not formally discussed. It was 
thereby discovered that just three, and no more, were in favor of the measure. In 
a day or two, Douglas' orders came on to have resolutions passed approving the bill, 
and they were passed by large majorities." 

3 Illinois Journal, Feb. 11, 1854. 
Illinois Journal, Feb. 15, 1854. 

4 Quincy Whig, Sept. 15, 1854. 
Alton Daily Courier, Feb. 11, 1854. 

At a mass meeting of Whigs, Democrats, Germans and Irish in Alton, the people 
declared the portion of the Nebraska bill repealing the Missouri Compromise Line 
a gross violation a compromise which the states are morally bound to preserve." 

Morris Gazette (Grundy Co.) March 2, 1854. 

Illinois Journal, Sept. 2, Sept. 11, Sept. 16, 1854. 

Illinois State Register, Apr. 6, 1854. A mass meeting at Freeport declared 
"Resolved That the free states should now blot out all former political distinction 
by uniting themselves into one great Northern Party, and pledge their property and 
lives that there shall be no further extension of slavery, either by the abrogation of 
the Missouri Compromise or annexation from Mexico or Spain." 

Tazewell Mirror, August 3, 1854. 



16 

nounced him a ' ' renegade, " a " traitor. ' ' William A. Richardson, 
Douglas' lieutenant in the House of Representatives, found no 
one except his own family to greet him upon returning to his 
home at Rushville, 111. The antagonism created, wherever 
Douglas sought to explain his position before audiences from 
Chicago to Quincy, and from the latter to Springfield, exceeded 
all bounds. Crowds might jeer and hurl bitter invective at 
Douglas, but he knew how to fight; he may have flinched at 
times but never did he crouch. 1 The fury against the champion 
of the Kansas-Nebraska measure led him to suspect the exist- 
ence of secret organized opposition, the like of which he had very 
recently encountered in the East; and so the sharp edge of his 
abuse fell upon what he knew with certainty to be the Know- 
Nothing order. These secret organizations, of long standing in 
the East, were of exotic nature in the West. The Democratic 
party trembled at the formidable opposition first in the Sea- 
board states and now in the Mississippi Valley. Leaders, like 
Douglas, felt that the main purpose of this society aimed at 
the destruction of their party. The Illinois State Register 
reflects that: "The entire project was aimed directly against the 
Democratic party; started solely for the purpose of breaking 
down Democracy." 2 

Know-Nothingism in Illinois is rather elusive. Mention of it 
in the newspapers, prior to 1854, is usually made for the sake of 
party argument; never as an issue. 3 David L. Gregg's defeat 
for nomination by the Democrats for governor in 1852 and the 
victory over him of Joel A. Matteson, were attributed by the Whig 
press to the fact that Gregg was a Catholic. The contest, one of 
personalities and fitness for the peculiar conditions under which 
Illinois then suffered, turned upon a very close margin. The 
people demanded a business-like administration, and Mr. Matte- 
son's wide experience in the commercial world recommended 
itself to the astuteness of the Democratic leaders. On the other 
hand, the Whigs preferred Gregg because he was the weaker 
man, and if he had been nominated the chance of a Whig victory 
would have been much greater. The Know-Nothings are men- 
tioned with increasing frequency as the campaign of 1854 waxed 
warm ; yet they merely awakened suspicion. The Illinois State 



1 Johnson, Allen: Stephen A. Douglas, pp. 258-280. 

2 Illinois State Register, August 3, 1854. 

3 Illinois State Register, June 17, 1852. 
Alton Daily Courier, June 24, 1852. 



17 

Register said: "The Know-Nothings are suspected of being 
about, but no one knows anything of them or what they 
design." 1 Their identity was guarded by handgrips, signs and 
manner of speech; local lodges seldom met twice in the same 
place and usually convened at night; meetings and meeting- 
places were announced by little scraps of blank paper, varying in 
shape, size, and color, the meaning of which was intelligible only 
to the regularly initiated Know-Nothings ; and no records what- 
ever were kept of their meetings. Everything was done under 
the closest oath-bound secrecy as long as the original organiza- 
tion remained intact. 

As the Campaign of 1854, advanced Democratic papers 
scented danger, and announced repeatedly, in bold headlines, 
"Democrats, Beware of Secret Societies." 2 The election indi- 
cated unmistakably the validity of the suspicion for the direct 
and indirect success of the "Secret Societies" and awakened 
profound misgivings for the future of the party whose organiza- 
tion had until recently been invulnerable. The Know-Nothings 
elected their candidates in the Third and Fourth Congressional 
Districts, and in the Seventh lost by only a single vote. 3 Their 
influence was also felt in the elections to the Lower House of the 
General Assembly, which the Democrats lost by a good margin. 
From the first mention of it in 1852 until the close of the cam- 
paign in 1854, Know-Nothingism remained an uncertain factor. 
The Whigs lost all party coherence after the crushing defeat in 
1852; the Free Soilers in Northern Illinois gained vitality in 
these trying times due to the operation of the obnoxious Fugitive 
Slave Law, and the Democrats were hopelessly divided upon the 
Kansas-Nebraska measure. Therefore the results Know-Noth- 
ingism achieved in the one campaign of 1854, in view of the 
general political chaos, State and Nation wide, augured well for 
it to step into the place of the decadent Whig party. Each 
political group now made a careful inventory of its stock, pre- 
paratory for the presidential election of 1856. 

The Know- Nothing order developed into a political power in 
less than a decade preceding the enactment of the Kansas- 
Nebraska measure. Leaders of the isolated ward lodges acquired 

1 Illinois State Register, August 16, 1854. 

2 Illinois State Register, Nov. 2, 1854. 
Joliet Signal, Oct. 29, 1854. 

3 Norton and Knox were labeled Know-Nothings. It should be noted however, 
that they, as Archer in the 7th Dist., merely had the endorsement and support of the 
secret order. 



18 

political sagacity and saw the influence their secret oath- 
bound organization could play in politics. They capitalized 
this valuable asset by building up a hierarchy 1 of lodges in city, 
state, and nation. Municipal and State elections 2 were often 
determined in their entirety by careful planning in the mystic 
shrines of city, district and state councils. The influence of the 
Order repeatedly proved itself in the city elections of New York, 
Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Boston, and, after 1852, in New 
Orleans, Cincinnati and St. Louis. Since the defeat of the 
Whigs in 1852 the Know-Nothings showed their influence in the 
State elections of New York, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, 
Maryland, and Pennsylvania. These results inspired hope of 
electing the next president. 

However, the Know-Nothing party possessed none of the 
characteristics which could adapt it to a national organization. 
Its very element of strength as a vote-getter, secrecy, was 
impossible of enforcement as the party reached out to control 
national politics. Its creed was neither a national nor a vital 
issue, for opposition to the Roman Church even in that bigoted 
age was restricted to a few states only, and the war upon for- 
eigners arose from a corrupt use of them by political bosses, a 
practice most common in immigration centres. Nor was the 
ambitious' Order immune to the powerful disintegrating force, 
slavery. No party could embrace or ignore slavery and remain 
national. The day of compromise was past ; yet there were those 
who still clung to the idea of a Union based upon compromise. 
It was this fraction of conservatives who sought refuge in the 
issueless Know-Nothing party in 1855 and 1856. 

Bearing in mind, then, the political chaos existing in Illinois 
in 1854, and the influence Know-Nothingism had in the election 
of that year, the further object of this paper is to trace, as well 
as the records yield the information on the subject, the Know- 
Nothing organization in Illinois as a party. The election con- 
test of 1854, closed with the political star of the Know-Nothings 
in the ascendant. The Kansas- Nebraska measure had furnished 
the fuel for the heat of the contest. With the Democrats it was 
a test of party loyalty, and since the followers of Douglas con- 
stituted the dominant party of Illinois, it became a question 
whether the people of his state were ready to support the doc- 

1 Whitney, Defence of the American Policy, p. 283. 

2 Iowa Journal of History and Politics, vol. 4, pp. 534, 537-8. Forum, vol. 17, 
pp. 530, 534. 



19 

trine of popular sovereignty in the territories or whether they 
preferred to stand by the settlement of 1850. The ranks of 
Douglas' followers came from the conflict sadly diminished. 1 
Whither were those voting against the doctrine of popular 
sovereignty to go? The Free Soilers of Northern Illinois were 
utterly opposed to popular sovereignty, as well as to the settle- 
ment of 1850. Consequently the only hope of the anti- 
Nebraska Democrats lay in a union with the Whigs who, how- 
ever, were also without leadership. Here then were the essen- 
tial elements for the crystalization of a new party elements 
which the Know-Nothing organization seized upon. 

Under the highly exciting conditions of the times, the Know- 
Nothing party built its hierarchy which, in less than a year, ram- 
ified every section of the State. 2 Old party lines were broken; 
new party alignments along sectional lines were in the process of 
formation. Therefore, the appearance, at this juncture, of the 
ritualistic secret organization, made men susceptible to it. 
Northern and Central Illinois had the largest representation in 
the State Council which met alternately at Chicago and Spring- 
field. Those most active in shaping the policy of the party 
were: W. W. Danenhower of Chicago, President of the Council; 
Joseph Gillespie of Madison County ; Judge S. T. Logan and Dr. 
William Jayne of Springfield; James Miller and O. M. Hatch, 
every one of whom had been active leaders in the Whig party. 
Early in the history of the party its leaders must have been con- 
vinced of the impossibility of forming a strong state-wide party. 
Of a Council meeting held in Chicago, May, 1855, the Chicago 
Democrat 3 makes this observation : ' ' We understand they had 
a very stormy time yesterday afternoon. The council is divided 
on the Jonathan and Sam question. The Jonathans, who 
were first started in this city by a gentleman who was a candi- 
date for a high official position at the late city election, appear 
to be in the ascendant. 

' 'The Sams are anti-foreign and anti-Catholic. The Jonathans 
are anti-slavery, but not against foreigners. They will admit all 
foreigners who disavow temporal allegiance to the Pope. 



1 This fact was well shown in the election to the U. S. Senate of Lyman Trumbull, 
a Fusion candidate, over Joel A. Matteson. 

2 By the Fall of 1855, repeated mention in the press from every section of the 
State would, at least lead to that conclusion. 

3 Chicago Democrat, May 5, 1855. 



20 

"The Sams are backed up by Judge Douglas, who was yesterday 
visited by large numbers of the Order of pro-slavery tendencies, 
who are delegates from the Southern part of the State. He 
evinces a great interest in the progress of Sam * * * The 
Jonathans, however, are taking the lead * * * Already 
large numbers of Germans, English, Scotch and Irish have joined 
them and they promise to swallow up Sam completely, who is 
now chiefly supported by old Hunker Whigs, Old Hunker Demo- 
crats, and old fogies generally with Judge Douglas to cement the 
whole if possible into one mass in order to revenge himself upon 
the foreigners, who are distinctly opposed to his pro-slavery 
principles. * * * ' The session evinced a sharp division of 
opinion between the leaders from the northern and southern 
sections of the State. It also revealed the stratagem 1 used 
throughout the approaching campaign by the followers of the 
astute Little Giant of the West, a stratagem which forced the 
Know-Nothings into many clandestine alliances. Two months 
later their tenets found formal expression in a party platform 2 
adopted at Springfield. The document was evidently designed 
to catch votes. It declared the repeal of the Missouri Compro- 
mise "a gross violation and disregard of a sacred compact," that 
the Compromise "should be restored" and demanded of its 
"candidates for office * * their open and undisguised 

opinions upon this question." Those who had opposed the 
repeal in 1854, must have found consolation in these declara- 



1 Illinois Journal, Oct. 2, 1854. Quotes the Bloomington Pantagraph on a speech 
of Douglas at Bloomington, in which he is credited to have said: "We have a lodge 
whose members are freely admitted to all other lodges throughout the State and we 
are thus kept posted upon all their secrets." It is doubtful whether Douglas was 
quoted correctly, even more doubtful whether he ever made the statement with 
which the Pantagraph credits him. By Oct. 1854, the Know-Nothings were merely 
beginning to organize in the State. However, one thing is fairly well established, 
namely, that the Pro-Nebraska men succeeded in becoming members and fraternized 
with Fillmore men. 

2 Illinois Journal, July 11, 1855. 

The platform was adopted according to the Illinois State Register of July 19, 1855, 
by a vote of 74 to 35. The content bears a striking resemblance to the Whig platform 
of the previous year. All save the part which related to the restoration of the 
Missouri Compromise line seems to have been ignored but that portion alone was 
widely commented upon. Of the men attending the Council meeting the Illinois 
State Register, July 18, 1855, says: "Not more than three or four of them had ever 
been heard of before in connection with politics. The actual leaders in different 
parts of the State had not the courage to appear openly in a State Council, but sent 
cat's-paws, who had nothing to lose by exposure. Still, their finger marks are 
quite apparent." The men referred to were Jesse O. Norton, and Joseph Gillespie, 
On the Know-Nothing tenets in the platform the same paper comments: "Recent 
popular developments have softened the harsh features of their prescriptive platform 
in this respect." 



21 

tions. Again, "We distinctly assert that Congress has full 
power under the Constitution, to legislate upon the subject" 
(slavery) "in the territories of the United States." There was 
no disguising of the fact that this was intended for the Free 
Soilers. Native Americanism received only slight consideration 
at the hands of the men who made the platform. What they 
said on the point was so ambiguous and so modified as to be prac- 
tically meaningless. The ingredients in the "American Plat- 
form of Illinois." were selected with a view to appeal to a wide 
electorate, but only caused general disappointment instead. 
Poor "Sam" who had been the storm centre at the Chicago 
meeting two months earlier, found himself entirely outdone. 
Still the platform possessed the merit of containing enough of 
each ingredient to make it acceptable in some respect to every 
interest the half-hearted Free Soiler, he who opposed the 
repeal of the Missouri Compromise, and the man with nativistic 
tendencies. 

With a public enunciation of its principles, the Know- Noth- 
ing party in Illinois entered upon its last stage of existence, 
namely, the active participation in the election of 1856. Its 
leaders took part in the meeting of the National Council, which 
convened at Philadelphia in February, 1856, to devise a platform 
and nominate candidates. When a portion of the Northern 
delegates bolted the convention, on account of the bitter slavery 
discussion, seventeen from the Illinois delegation are said to have 
followed. The loyal contingent of Illinois carried the Fillmore 
enthusiasm into the State organization, nominated a State 
ticket, 1 a full quota of presidential electors, and also entered into 



1 Illinois State Register, May 15, 1856. 

ILLINOIS KNOW-NOTHING TICKET. 

"We understand the Know-Nothings have published the following : For governor, 
Wm. B. Archer, of Clark; lieutenant governor, M. L. Dunlap, of Cook; secretary of 
state, Anthony Thornton of Shelby; auditor, Hiram Barber, of Washington; treasurer, 
James Miller, of McLean; superintendent of public instruction, Ezra Jenkins, of 
Fayette. 

Presidential Electors Senatorial: W. W. Danenhower, of Cook County, and 
Joseph Gillespie, of Madison county. 

Congressional 1st district, Charles M. Willard, of McHenry county; 2d district, 
Henry M. Kirk, of Cook county; 3d district, Alfred M. Whitney, of Champaign 
county; 4th district, John Durham, of Tazewell county; 5th district, James Erwin, of 
Brown county; 6th district, Shelby M. Cullom, of Sangamon county, 7th district, 
Thos. Mulligan, of Piatt county; 8th district, Joseph H. Sloss, of Madison county; 
9th district, William H. Parish, of Saline county." 

The Know-Nothings doubted for some time whether to nominate State officers. 
A portion of them insisted, however, on a full State ticket. Archer, Dunlap, Thorn- 
ton, and Miller declined the nomination. Thornton joined the Buchanan forces 



22 

the contest of nominating for the National House of Representa- 
tives. Their ardor, however, received a set-back when four 
of the candidates nominated for high State offices courteously 
declined the honor. Still undaunted, the Council bolstered up 
a second State ticket for all the offices except that of State 
Treasurer. Their nominee for that office ran on the Repub- 
lican ticket. The Congressional field proved extremely barren 
for the Know-Nothing party. In the sixth district an "Old 
Line Whig " accepted the nomination, with a clear field against 
the Democrats, while in the Fifth district its candidate found 
strong opposition from both Democrats and Republicans. The 
entire remaining field had been pre-empted by the Republicans. 
The diligent and microscopic search for candidates, who were 
willing to offer themselves for slaughter on Election day, sapped 
the State Council of all its Fillmore enthusiasm. Popular senti- 
ment in Illinois showed a keen appreciation of the changing 
feeling in regard to slavery as seen in the phenomenal growth of 
the Fusion party; 1 yet there was still a considerable Fillmore 
following, men who were wedded to the Compromise principle. 
Buckner S. Morris, candidate for governor, in his letter of ac- 
ceptance, states their view when he says : ' ' Ought not Mr. Fill- 
more be elected? He is an experienced statesman, and an 
honest man, as all know and admit. His fair fame is without 
a blot or blemish thereon. This is more than can be said of the 
other two. His election will restore peace and confidence to the 
people. The bona fide citizens of the territories will be pro- 
tected in the enjoyment of all their rights and privileges, and all 
outside or foreign interference will cease, and the people of the 
territory left to pursue their own happiness in peace, and they 
may admit or refuse slavery as their best judgment shall dic- 
tate." 2 Such fulminations from the official spokesman of his 
party meant little, except to those who sought to satisfy their 
sluggish consciences in compromise. Whatever popularity the 

while the other three ranged themselves with the Republicans. After a long search 
the ticket was doctored up as follows: 

Governor, Buckner S. Morris, of Cook county. 

Lieut. Governor, T. B. Hickman, of Fayette county. 

Secretary of State, Wm. H. Young, of Logan county. 

Auditor of State, Hiram Barber, of Washington county. 

State Superintendent, Ezra Jenkins, of Fayette county. 
None of them were known outside their respective counties, except Morris. 

1 The prime movers of the Know-Nothings transferred their allegiance to the 
Republican ranks by the spring of 1856. 

2 Illinois State Register, Aug. 16, 1856. The entire letter does not contain a soli- 
tary allusion to the Know-Nothing tenets. 



23 



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Know-Nothings had in the campaign, was due not to the per- 
sonnel of the State ticket, for that possessed neither merit nor the 
power to arouse enthusiasm, but to the man whom thousands 
were ready to follow as their champion of Union and Com- 
promise. The nominations were not uncommonly regarded as a 
travesty upon the political intelligence of an enlightened people. 
The contemporary press seldom referred to the State candi- 
dates, except in derision, but flashed in bold head-lines the 
announcement of Fillmore meetings as "Old Line Whigs Rally," 
and "Enthusiastic Fillmore Meeting." 1 

The Know-Nothings labored in the face of insuperable 
obstacles 2 to make a strong showing at the polls. The election 
returns however, revealed no commensurate results. In Central 
and Southern Illinois, the home of the Union Whigs and the 
Anti-Nebraskans, their success was most pronounced. Fill- 
more carried five counties by a liberal margin over Buchanan 
and received sixteen per cent of the total vote cast in the State. 
Of these five counties, B. S. Morris, candidate for governor, 
carried only one, and polled hardly eight per cent of the State's 
total vote. 3 The relative standing of the two candidates repre- 
sent in part, an expression of Fillmore's popularity, but more 
particularly a protest against the repeal of the Missouri Com- 
promise. The Union men who had no sympathy with the 
pro-Nebraskans in Southern Illinois and who nurtured a strong 
dislike for the abolition doctrines held in Northern Illinois, found 
an outlet for their feeling in voting the Fillmore ticket. The 
same idea was further expressed in the election of William H. 
Bissell, Republican candidate for governor, over his rival William 
A. Richardson, a Democrat. From a comparison of the election 



1 Illinois State Register, Aug. 7, 1856. The Register delights to comment upon 
Fillmore and his following: "From numerous demonstrations throughout the state, 
it is obvious that a very large body of the Illinois Whigs will never be inveigled into 
the Fremont ranks, those that will not vote for Buchanan will vote for Fillmore. 
. . . . While we oppose both the Fillmore and Fremont tickets, we decidedly 
prefer the former to the latter." Illinois Journal, Oct. 27, 1856. A train of young 
ladies toured the State. These ladies were dressed to represent the different states 
of the Union. 

2 Already in the fall of 1855, as soon as secrecy of the Order was officially abolished, 
and the irritation caused by the discussions of slavery over, lodges throughout the 
Northern part of the State gave up their charters, and many lodges in Central and 
Southern Illinois disbanded. The Chicago Tribune quoted by the Illinois Journal, 
Aug. 23, 1855, says: "Lodges that once boasted of 300 members are now reduced to 
fifty, and those of fifty have barely enough for organization. These facts with the 
throwing up of charters in every county are significant " 

3 A comparison of the maps showing the election results for President and for 
Governor will emphasize this point. 



24 

returns it may be observed that had the percentage of votes 
Fillmore received over Morris been cast for Fremont as they 
were for Bissell, 1 the Republican candidate for president would 
have carried the State instead of Buchanan. 2 In this election, 
as heretofore in Illinois, the Know- Nothings proved themselves 
only a minor factor and unrewarded with office they pass from 
the political field. But they had not been without a purpose. 
Though transient, the Know-Nothing party, for a brief period, 
nursed the political hopes of men with uncertain party affiliations. 
That the "Midnight Lantern" Order was destined to only an 
ephemeral existence in Illinois was clear from the start. Many 
Whigs who preferred Fillmore, felt themselves aggrieved in 1852, 
when Gen. Scott won the nomination at the Baltimore Conven- 
tion. They looked upon him as the "cat's-paw" of Seward, the 
champion of Free Soilism, whom not a few suspected of designs 
upon the presidency in 1856. 3 As the political discord was aug- 
mented in Pierce's administration, the Union Whigs began to 
see in the Know-Nothing movement an opportunity to resusci- 



1 Alton Daily Courier, Oct. 24, 1856, states that the Fillmore Club of Centralia 
resolved to vote for Bissell instead of Morris. Illinois Journal, July 10, 1856, observes 
that a large portion of the Know-Nothings throughout Southern Illinois favored 
Bissell. Illinois State Register, Nov. 20, 1856, has the official election returns which 
bear out the statement. 

2 Illinois State Register, Oct. 13, 1856, p. 2. A confidential letter by Lincoln to 
Fillmore Organ in Springfield dated Sept. 15, 1856. 

"Dear Sir: I understand you are a Fillmore man. Let me prove to you that 
every vote withheld from Fremont and given to Fillmore in this State, actually 
lessens Fillmore's chances of being president. Suppose Buchanan gets all the slave 
states and Pennsylvania, and any other one state besides, then he is elected, no 
matter who gets all the rest. But suppose Fillmore gets the slave states of Mary- 
land and Kentucky, then Buchanan is not elected. Fillmore goes into the House of 
Representatives and may be made president, by a compromise. But suppose again, 
Fillmore's men throw away a few thousand votes on him in Indiana and Illinois, it 
will inevitably give these states to Buchanan, which will more than compensate him 
for the loss of Maryland and Kentucky, will elect him, and will leave Fillmore no 
chance in the House of Representatives or out of it. This is as plain as adding up 
the weight of three small hogs. As Fillmore has no possible chance to carry Illinois 
for himself, it is plainly to his interest to let Fremont take it and thus keep it out of 
the hands of Buchanan. Be not deceived: Buchanan is a hard horse to beat in this 
race. Let him have Illinois and nothing can beat him; he will get Illinois if men 
persist in throwing away votes upon Fillmore. Does some one persuade you that 
Fillmore can carry Illinois? Nonsense. There are over seventy newspapers in Illi- 
nois opposing Buchanan, only three or four of which support Fillmore, all the rest are 
going for Fremont. Are not these newspapers a fair index of the proportion of voters? 
If not, tell me why. Again of these three or four Fillmore newspapers, two at least 
are supported in part by Buchanan men, as I understand. Do not they know where 
the shoe pinches? They know the Fillmore Movement helps them, and therefore 
they help it. Do think these things over, and then act according to your judgment. 

Yours truly 

A. Lincoln." 

3 Alton Daily Courier, July 12, 1852. 
llinois State Register, Sept. 30, 1852. 



I t> 




24 




25 

tate their own party with something of its old time energy ; and 
so, without giving up any of their old traditions, or yielding 
any of their party principles, 1 they adopted the new organiza- 
tion as their own. They, and all others who rallied under the 
Know- Nothing standard drew upon themselves also the attack 
to which the Order was constantly exposed in the East. Douglas 
and his followers adroitly manipulated the attack and directed 
their abuse with withering effect. The press, the stump, in 
fact, every artifice known to the politician, were used to be- 
fuddle the mind of the public with reference to the aims of the 
new party. Conditions in Illinois furnished no basis of fact for 
the malicious tactics; yet in self-defence, to shield their own 
party disorganization, 2 the Democrats exhausted every possible 
resource to focus attention upon their opponents, and for this 
purpose they borrowed the information from the Eastern 
papers. 3 

But abuse alone failed to dwarf the growth of the Know- 
Nothing party. A most vulnerable attack was made upon it 
when pro-Nebraskans under one subterfuge or another secured 
admission to the membership of local lodges. The effect of this 
scheme was well illustrated in the session of the council at 
Chicago, when slavery divided the party's following and caused 
a definite split between the Northern and Southern leaders. All 
hope of forming a party into which might be gathered all the 
Anti-Nebraska element and uniting them into an effective op- 
position, was frustrated when the movement was still young. 
Whether signal success could have been achieved, even without 
the opposition already mentioned, is a matter of grave doubt. 
The trend of events were against the Know-Knothing movement 

1 Illinois Journal, July 10, 1854. "The Whigs of the North .... are 
firmly devoted to the carrying out in good faith of the Missouri Compromise." 

Illinois Journal, July 27, 1854. "The Whigs as a body will act against the Ne- 
braskanites." 

Ibid, Dec. 1, 1854. "We confess that we look to this American sentiment for the 
restoration of the prosperity enjoyed by this country under the tariff of 1842." 

2 Illinois Journal, Sept. 11, 1854. 
Ibid, Sept. 16, 1854. 

Urbana Union, Oct. 10, 1854. 
Illinois State Register, Sept. 14, 1854. 

3 The local papers are loaded with quotations from the Eastern press of street 
brawls, riots at the polls, supposed confessions of Know-Nothing deserters, secret 
conspiracies of the most diabolical nature attributed to Know-Nothings. The papers 
would twist the account of any disorder in such a way that the blame would fall upon 
the secret organization. "Hindoo Order," "Thugs," "Midnight Brawlers," "Rene- 
gades" and so forth were names constantly used in designating the Know-Nothings. 
See Illinois State Register, Illinois Journal, Quincy Whig, Chicago Democrat, Alton 
Daily Courier for 1854-56. 



26 

in Illinois. The crisis in Kansas hastened the formation of the 
Republican party. Before the campaign of 1854 closed senti- 
ment was gravitating 1 toward it and success to the Know-Noth- 
ings was thereby forestalled. 

The term " Know- Nothing " was more frequently applied as 
an opprobrious epithet than as a party designation. However, 
the men most actively associated with the organization were 
"Old Line Whigs" and it was they who remained loyal to their 
standard-bearer, Fillmore. There is nothing in the press or in 
the campaign literature, from the time that the Know-Nothing 
party made its appearance in Illinois in 1854, until its dis- 
appearance in 1856 which bears any resemblance to the issue 2 
which gave rise to the party in the East. In the kaleidoscopic 
party changes of the day, the Know-Nothing organization served 
as a medium by which men of uncertain political affiliations found 
an easy transport to other political moorings. 



1 The Anti-Nebraska Democrats preferred the Fusion movement to an association 
with Old Line Whigs who were merely changing their party label from Whig to Know- 
Nothing. Koerner, in his Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 21, says that "the Germans were so 
opposed to slavery that without exception. . . . almost all marched to the 
polls under the Republican banner." The array of names of men once active in the 
Democratic party is very prominent among fusion leaders. As a matter of fact the 
Fusion party had appropriated all the vital issues. 

2 There is no question but that in isolated communities at different times, strained 
feeling between the foreigner and American existed. Lawlessness was quite common 
and it was an easy matter for the American, in order to shield himself, to put the blame 
of crime upon the foreigner who, ignorant of the chicanery and sharp practices of the 
frontier, became the scapegoat. Perhaps the foreigner also found the word " Democ- 
racy" a lure, and under the easy election laws of the day voted the winning ticket 
when his vote may have decided a local election. But in no case do the files of local 
papers and the writer had the opportunity to examine them in practically every 
county reveal the existence of an issue to proscribe them. The very party against 
which the storm of protest swept in 1854 was crumbling to pieces, and from its 
diminishing ranks large numbers were contributed to the real opposition, the Republi- 
can party. Public opinion was shaped by the moral and political issue of slavery and 
not by an opposition to foreigners or to the political influence of the Roman church. 



27 



APPENDIX A. 

ILLINOIS AMERICAN PLATFORM.* 

The following platform is set forth and avowed as the princi- 
ples of the American Party of Illinois: 

1. We believe in the existence of an Almighty Being, who 
rules the universe, and governs nations, and to whose all wise 
and paternal care we are indebted for our unparalleled advance- 
ment in national and individual prosperity. 

2. We admit the privilege, and will defend the right, of all 
persons of whatever religious sect or denomination, to exercise 
perfect freedom in religious opinion, and to "worship God 
according to the dictates of their own consciences," so long as they 
shall not, as a sect or church, seek to exercise any temporal 
power ; hereby denying all wish or purpose to interfere with the 
religious opinions of any one. 

3. We are opposed to all political associations of men com- 
posed exclusively of persons of foreign birth, and to the forma- 
tion of foreign military companies in our own country. 

4. The cultivation and development of a purely American 
sentiment and feeling a passionate attachment to our country, 
and its government of admiration of the purer days of our 
national existence of veneration of our national fathers, and of 
emulation of the virtues, wisdom and patriotism that framed our 
Constitution. 

5. That the time has arrived when the American party of 
the United States are called upon to take open, fearless, and 
unreserved ground upon the great question of slavery that is 
now agitating the people of every section of this Union ; and that 
the intense excitement and agitation which at the present time 
are distracting our country upon the subject of slavery have been 
caused by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise ; and that that 
repeal was uncalled for, a gross violation and disregard of a 
sacred compact, entered into between the two great sections of 
this Confederacy, and in the highest degree destructive]^ the 



"Illinois Journal, July 11, 1855. 



28 

peace and welfare of this Union That a restoration of the 
Missouri Compromise, as it will restore the territory for which 
it was originally made to the same situation in which it was 
before that line was unnecessarily destroyed, so it will restore 
peace and harmony to the country, without injury or injustice 
to any portion of the Union ; that while it will only give to free- 
dom that which with due solemnity and in good faith was long 
since conveyed to her under the contract, it will equally preserve 
the full and undisputed rights acquired under it by the South, 
and that, therefore, the Missouri Compromise should be restored, 
and that in all political national contests the American party in 
the State of Illinois will demand of its candidates for office, 
among other qualifications, their open and undisguised opinions 
upon this question. 

6. The essential modification of the naturalization laws by 
extending the time of residence required of those of foreign birth 
to entitle them to citizenship. A total repeal of all State laws 
allowing any but citizens of the United States the right of suf- 
frage. But a careful avoidance of all interference with rights 
of citizenship already acquired under existing laws. 

7. Resistance to the corrupting influences and aggressive 
policy of the Roman Church, unswerving opposition to all 
foreign influence, or interference of foreign emissaries, whether 
civil or ecclesiastical. 

8. A radical improvement in the present system of execu- 
tive patronage, which unsparingly confers rewards for political 
subserviency, and punishes for manly independence in politi- 
cal opinion and a fearless exercise of political rights. 

9. The education of the youth of our land in the schools of 
our country, which should be open to all, without regard to con- 
dition or creed, and which shall be free from all influences of a 
denominational or partizan character but in which the Holy 
Bible shall ever be freely introduced and read, as the book which 
contains the best system of morals, and the only system of pure 
religion, and from which every true Christian must derive the 
rule of his faith and practice. 

10. The just and proper protection to American labor and 
American enterprise and genius, against the adverse policy of 
foreign nations; asserting also that it is both within the power 
and duty of the general government to aid and facilitate internal 
commerce by an improvement of our rivers and the harbors upon 
our lakes. 



29 

11. We declare our attachment to the union of these states, 
and while we do not partake of the fears so often entertained of 
its dissolution, we will endeavor to promote its perpetuity by a 
firm adherence to all the principles, as well of the constitution 
as the declaration of American independence. 

12. We disclaim all right of the general government to 
interfere with the institution of slavery as it exists in any of the 
states of this Union; but we distinctly assert that Congress has 
full power under the Constitution, to legislate upon the subject 
in the territories of the United States. 

13. Such a radical modification of the laws in reference to 
emigration as will effectually prevent the sending to our shores 
the paupers and felons of other nations. 

14. We condemn, in the most positive manner, the assaults 
upon the elective franchise in Kansas, and the efforts to control 
the free exercise of the right of suffrage, to which every American 
citizen is entitled. 

RESOLVED, That the principles and objects of the American 
party shall hereafter be everywhere distinctly and openly avowed 
and published; and we invite all persons who believe in true 
American principles, to aid us in carrying out our principles, as 
herein set forth and we will cheerfully cooperate with any 
party as a national party, whose object it will be to carry into 
effect the above sentiments. 

Done in Council, at Springfield, on this llth day of July, 
A. D. 1855. 

W. W. DANENHOWER, 

President of State Council. 
HENRY S. JENNINGS, Sec'y. 



30 



APPENDIX B. 

LETTER OF BUCKNER S. MORRIS ACCEPTING THE KNOW- 
NOTHING NOMINATION FOR GOVERNOR.* 

CHICAGO, Aug. 12, 1856. 

To Messrs. B. D. Eastman, A. Salisbury and others, of the 
Executive Committee of the American Party of the State of 
Illinois. 

GENTLEMEN : I had the honor of receiving yesterday, (through 
one of your members) your notice of the 7th inst., informing me 
that I had been selected by you, in behalf of those you repre- 
sent, as their candidate for the office of governor of this State, 
at the ensuing election for State officers, and urging my accept- 
ance thereof, &c. 

In reply, allow me to state that I feel and hope I duly ap- 
preciate the honor you have conferred upon one so humble as 
myself, and for whom you have manifested such confidence and 
respect. And, although I had retired from taking any active 
part in political matters, yet, in these stormy times, when the 
integrity of the Union is threatened by internal foes, it becomes 
the duty of every citizen to come to its rescue, and repeal the 
attacks of the foes. We see in the political firmament, as well in 
the South as in the North, dark, angry and stormy clouds 
gathering in their onward course, all the ill-natured and fiery 
elements in their way, threatening destruction to the people of 
this mighty nation. And it forces upon my mind to ask : Ought 
Mr. Buchanan to be elected president of this nation when it is 
very evident, if elected, he will be in no condition to restore 
quiet, peace and confidence of the people, as his party are pledged 
to follow the miserable example set by Gen. Pierce' s adminis- 
tration, viz : Trying by fraud and violence to force slavery into 
Kansas. His election by the South will be considered and 
treated by the North as another aggravated and ill-natured 
triumph of the slave-power over the people of the North, and 



"Illinois State Register, Aug. 16, 1856. 



31 

thereby kindle anew and set in motion, all these violent feelings 
of hatred and blind prejudices of the people of the North 
against the people of the South. It will also be considered 
as sanctioning all those wrongs and outrages done by their 
partizans against the Northern emigrants in that territory. 
The South should know they are using the Democratic party 
on the present issue, under the disguise of a national cloak, to 
carry slavery into the territories by fraud and violence ; that they 
indirectly aid and abet slavery extension, and they are unjustly 
exciting their brethren of the North, It is true the Democratic 
party is national in its organization and character, while it 
lends itself and its influence to the South for forcing slavery into 
the territories and on this question their party ceases to be 
national, and becomes sectional. There is reason in all things. 
On the other hand, ought Mr. Fremont to be elected by the 
people of the North, when it is certain it will be considered and 
treated by their brethren in the South as a declaration of the 
North to dissolve the Union, and a dissolution will most likely 
follow with civil war, blood and carnage such as the world 
never saw since the downfall of the Grecian Republic. It is 
evident therefore, that the election of either Buchanan or Fre- 
mont, will tend, if not actually result, in the overthrow of this 
Government. And he that shall vote for Fremont, will be 
guilty of moral treason to his country. 

Ought not Mr. Fillmore to be elected ? He is an experienced 
statesman, and an honest man as all know and admit. His 
fair fame is without a blot or blemish thereon. This is more than 
can be said of the other two. His election will restore peace and 
confidence to the people. The bona fide citizens of the terri- 
tories will be protected in the enjoyment of all their rights and 
privileges, and all outside or foreign interference will cease, and 
the people of the territory left to pursue their own happiness in 
peace, and they may admit or refuse slavery as their best judg- 
ment shall dictate. 

The Missouri Compromise Line. The repeal of this famous 
act of 1820, is under the foundation of bitter strife and warfare. 
It has furnished the material for the demagogues and fanatics, 
North and South. It has put in motion all the vindictive 
machinery for agitation and excitement, including all the political 
fog, fire and smoke which could be brought to bear on the sub- 
ject. Rule or ruin seems to be the determination of these 
Northern and Southern parties. They are fairly by the ears 



32 

in hostile conflict, and now is the time when the country needs a 
peacemaker. But to the repeal. Its legal effect is of small 
moment, as all know the famous ordinance of 1787 did not keep 
out of the territories of Indiana and Illinois negro slavery. But 
the people of these territories, without foreign aid societies, in 
forming their several constitutions, provided for the general 
extinguishment of slavery within their borders. Such would 
have been the practical effect of the act of 1820, had it not been 
repealed. And the only effect of the repealing statute was to 
enable the people of the territory to end that important ques- 
tion at once, while it was yet a territory, and not wait till they 
should form their constitution. . It was only a question of time 
between the two laws. For no man denies the right to the terri- 
torial convention, to prohibit or admit slavery by it constitu- 
tion. Popular sovereignty in the repealing act is made by the 
Fremont party the raw-head and bloody-bones of slavery, to 
scare and frighten the people of the North. So do the Turners 
make Christianity. So may you make of any other good thing. 
The supporters of Fremont are opposed to the people in the 
territory managing their own affairs. So did Old England con- 
tend for the same thing against her colonies (Territories) which 
demanded of her "popular sovereignty." 

The right to manage their own affairs, exclusive of all foreign 
interference. This England denied to the colonies, as does 
Massachusetts and Missouri deny to Kansas. For this our 
fathers fought, and achieved our independence. Old Massa- 
chusetts was then in favor of "popular sovereignty." But 
where are her sons that go for Fremont now? Let her answer 
next November. If the principle was right in the one case, it is 
so in the other. I denounce all outside or foreign interference 
with the people of Kansas, whether by the North or South by 
the Beechers, and the Atchisons, and their respective aiders and 
abettors, as unwarrantable and dangerous to our government. 
Popular sovereignty is that grand lever power in our govern- 
ment against all kinds of slavery. It rooted out negro slavery 
in the North. It extinguished it in Illinois and Indiana. By it, 
slavery was kept out of California. And so would have been the 
case with Kansas, if emigration had been left to its natural flow 
therein by the usual and ordinary means. The states should by 
law prohibit their own citizens from raising companies of armed 
men to go into the territories for any hostile purpose, unauthor- 
ized by the laws of the United States. And the territories should 



33 

(and so ought our own states), be provided with a registry law 
for voting at all elections.) It is the only means of securing the 
people against illegal voting. The election franchise is a right 
dear to every American citizen, and it should be carefully 
guarded and protected, for a single vote has decided the fate of 
empires. 

In conclusion, allow me, gentlemen, to offer you, severally, 
my thanks for the honor you have conferred upon me, and I 
willingly submit to the call of my country, made through you. 
I have the honor to be your obedient servant, 

BUCKNER S. MORRIS. 



34 



DIARY OF ANNA R. MORRISON, WIFE OF 
ISAAC L. MORRISON. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The diary which follows was written by the late Mrs. Isaac 
L. Morrison, of Jacksonville, Illinois (then Mrs. George Rapalje), 
during her journey from New York to Jacksonville in November 
and December, 1840, to which have been added a few incidents of 
her early life in Jacksonville written at a slightly later date. 

In order to understand some of her allusions, and especially 
the mental distress under which she was evidently laboring, a 
few words of explanation are necessary. 

The writer was born in New York City, December 27th, 1820, 
the daughter of Mr. Jonathan and Miriam D. (Weeks) Tucker, 
and received the best education the city then afforded to 
young ladies especially in music, literature and French. 
Before she was quite fifteen years of age she was married to Mr. 
George Rapalje, a gentleman of position in New York. Shortly 
afterward, (it being necessary for Mr. Tucker to leave New 
York on account of his health) her father and husband estab- 
lished a wholesale mercantile house in Mobile, Ala., and removed 
their families to that city. There her first child was born, be- 
fore she was eighteen years of age. On account of its ill health, 
she was advised to take it to New York. While making the 
journey on a sailing vessel, the child died. To prevent its burial 
at sea, she carried it in her arms during the latter part of the 
voyage and buried it in the family burying ground at Oyster 
Bay. 

In the following year, Mobile was visited by a terrific epidemic 
of yellow fever. Business was prostrated, the family returned 
to New York, and a fire in his store added greatly to Mr. Tuck- 
er's financial reverses. About the same time Mrs. Rapalje 
separated from her husband because of offenses on his part 
which she would never condone. 




MRS. ISAAC L. MORRISON 




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V5 \ j2}^T4^.f^ 

j 



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fe <n 

^ 
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M 

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35 

During the summer of 1840, Mr. Tucker was again advised to 
leave New York and the seaboard, on account of pulmonary 
troubles, and to seek a home in the West. He decided to make 
an investigation before removing all of his family. For this 
purpose, Mrs. Rapalje accompanied him, while still suffering 
from the three causes above mentioned, as only a sensitive, 
affectionate and proud woman could suffer. 

She attracted attention wherever she went, for she was noted 
for her beauty and wit before she left New York, and was easily 
the most beautiful and brilliant woman in her new western home. 

Her diary tells her story for a brief period, and gives us a 
glimpse of some of the early characters and customs of Illinois. 

MIRIAM MORRISON WORTHINGTON. 

DIARY OF MRS. ISAAC L. MORRISON. 

llth November, 1840. Again I have left New York. This 
day three years ago witnessed my departure for Mobile. What a 
lifetime of events has been crowded into those three years! 
This afternoon I was in Philadelphia; tonight in Baltimore. 
Oh, that the miseries of this night could be buried in oblivion! 
Another subject shall occupy my thoughts. My dear, dear 
mother! God guard and bless thee. My sister; could I but 
see her! Tomorrow at 9 A. M. I leave for Frederick, where I 
take the stage to cross the mountains. 

Saturday, 14th November. Arrived in Wheeling at 4 P. M. 
Stopped at the Virginia House. Took supper, then went on 
board Steamer Artisan. Our stage companion, Mr. T. T. Mills, 
went to the boat with us, in the pouring rain. Father had heard 
stories of murder and robbery, and was dreadfully frightened. 

15th November. Last night Mr. Mills came down at 11 and 
took passage for Cincinnati. Lying in my bed with a headache 
when the door opened and presented to my sight my mountain 
breakfast friends, Mrs. Hall and Mrs. Bigelow. Mrs. Hall 
rooms with me tonight. In bed all afternoon, Mr. Duncan 
reading Mrs. Adams' letters to Mrs. Hall and Mrs. Bigelow. 
In the evening, conversed with Mrs. B. and Mrs. H. Much 
pleased. I become acquainted with Mr. Duncan, 1 who was on 
the Grey Eagle last summer. He read to us. 

Monday, November 16th. A warm and animated dispute 
with Mrs. Bigelow on the Apostolic Foundation of the Episcopal 



Governor Joseph Duncan, of Illinois. 



36 

Church. She favors Romanism. Mrs. Hall is an Episcopalian. 
Mr. Duncan came in and read to us the greater part of the 
day. Mr. Etter, the protector of Mrs. Hall, a very gentlemanly 
man, resides at Newark. Lost Mrs. Hall at 7 this evening, at 
Portsmouth. Mrs. Brown is with me tonight. My dear 
mother and sister! May you be well and comfortable. Could 
I but see you a moment ! 

Tuesday, 17th. Last night I overheard a conversation in the 
next stateroom, in which I occupied a prominent situation. 
Never was so much amused in my life. I attempted to waken 
Mrs. Brown, to enjoy it also; but. she unfortunately spoke aloud, 
which stopped the conversation. 

I was serenaded often with "A Place in Thy Memory," and 
"The Carrier Dove." M. sang before last night, but I could 
not distinguish the words. 

Arrived in Cincinnati this morning at 9 o'clock. Left the 
Artisan and took the Pike for Louisville. M. never bowed to 
me on board the boat, but this morning while Mrs. Bigelow, 
Father and I were sitting in the cabin of the Pike, in he walked, 
much to my amusement with his curling locks and all 
his jewelry. He stood a few minutes, spoke some words 
to Father, wished us a pleasant journey and retired, evidently 
much excited and confused. 

Mr. Duncan amused us by a conversation today. 

A few moments ago we were alarmed by a cry of fire. This 
was in the early evening, and about half an hour after boarding 
the boat. All passengers on our boat rushed to the deck and 
were furnished with life preservers by the officers. In a few 
minutes the passengers had jumped into the water. The only 
ones remaining on deck were the bridal couple from Boston, 
father and I. I had on a life preserver, but refused to jump, 
as I could not see much difference between burning to death 
and drowning, and meant to stay until the last minute. I did 
not see why the fire could not be put out, when there was so 
much water close at hand, and did not believe it would make 
as much progress as they feared. Fortunately, it was ex- 
tinguished. How can I be sufficiently thankful to the Almighty 
for His goodness in preserving me and guarding me through 
every danger! 

Louisville is to be illuminated tonight. General Harrison 
is there and Mr. Duncan has prepared a speech, which he intends 
to deliver tonight. They think we will be in time. 



37 

Wednesday, 18th. Arrived last night at twelve too late 
for the illuminations. Mr. Duncan was obliged to forego his 
speech. Breakfasted this morning with General Harrison at 
the Gait House. When I was presented to him by Mr. Dun- 
can, he said something about the "touch of a lady's hand," 
when he took mine. Was much disappointed in him. Shall not 
at present express an opinion to any one until I have had time 
to analyze this cause of my disappointment, which at present 
I do not fully understand. 

This morning, Mrs. Bigelow left us for St. Louis. I employed 
myself till dinner writing to my dear mother. What are they 
doing? Is mother any worse? How wretched I am, some- 
times ! 

Thursday, 19th. A dull, weary day, without an event to 
enliven its monotony. Went into the parlor and conversed with 
Mrs. Warfield, from Lexington. No letters from home. I am 
distracted between hope and fear. God preserve you, dear 
ones! 

Friday, 20th. Sewed this morning; walked out this after- 
noon and am truly wretched tonight. Must devise some plan 
of action to render my situation tolerant. Assist me, merciful 
God; watch and direct me. In Thee I trust, oh, Lord! No 
letters today. Are they ill? 

Saturday, 21st. No letters. Why do they not write ? They 
almost make me crazy. 

Sunday, 22nd. Rained. I could not go to church. Wrote 
home, but will not send it today. This morning, in conversing 
with Mrs. Warfield, she gave me a description of a friend of hers, 
Mr. Dudley Hadyn, an Eastern and European Traveler; a 
Parisian gentleman, but a native of Kentucky. Mrs. Warfield 
left this morning. If I had imagined she regarded me as more 
than a stranger, I would have given her my card. She supposes 
me to be Miss Tucker. 

Tonight, in the bar-room, father discovered an acquaintance, 
Henry Lazerus, of Mobile. 

Monday, 23rd. Mr. Lazerus breakfasted with us this morn- 
ing. I was sitting alone in the parlor this morning, about 
twelve, when the servant advanced toward me with a note in 
her hand. I had no acquaintances in the place and it alarmed 
me a little, as my imagination presented a writer. I took it. 



38 

It was addressed to "Miss Tucker." I opened it and found it 
to be from Mrs. Warfield, introducing Mr. Hadyn. I knew not 
what to do. As Miss Tucker, I could not receive. I went up- 
stairs and told father and I concluded to go down and explain, 
which I did. He is a most perfect gentleman. He gave father 
his address and left us. I was both sorry and amused at the ad- 
venture. I daresay he enjoyed it. This afternoon I luckily 
discovered from Miss Raine that in the evening she expected 
two gentlemen who were coming to be introduced to Miss Tucker. 
I told her I was Mrs. Rapalje, not Miss Tucker, and put an end 
to the coming farce. 

No letters today. How long do they intend to keep us here? 
I am discouraged. 

Sunday, Dec. 8th. How long it is since I have written in this 
little book! Procrastination and incidents relative to travelers 
have prevented my pursuing my intention of writing every night. 

The 25th. I received a letter. They were as usual. What 
pleasure it gave me to see their writing ! 

Was introduced to Mr. Bates. He is a good-natured man; 
was very anxious for us to go to a concert which he said was 
attracting the elite of the town. 

Every boat so crowded we could not get a berth. Got on 
board the Transit Saturday, 28th; was snagged and broke our 
wheel the night of the 2nd of December. Ashore on an island. 
Thursday they had a deer hunt; killed a buck. In the after- 
noon, I went on the island. It is uninhabited; about 70 miles 
below St. Louis. We got off Friday morning, and Friday night 
she struck another snag and tore a hole in her hull. We were in 
the widest part of the river, in the middle. If the aperture 
had been larger, she would have sunk before we could have 
reached the shore. As it was, they were obliged to take out the 
cargo . The hold was full of water. They found the hole , mended 
it, and we started once more on Saturday morning. After 
we reached the shore, I thought we would be obliged to leave the 
boat, and a night in the woods, where the water was freezing, 
had no charms for me. Again must I offer my feeble thanks to 
the Great and Mighty God who has so mercifully preserved not 
only my life, but saved me from exposure and cold, and the 
water. How little do I merit it! Oh, Thou Glorious Being, 
whose attributes and mercies are so great that the human mind 
must be lost in wonder at its nobleness, how Thou hast regarded 



39 

and cared for so trifling and humble a creature ! Words cannot 
express my feelings. God, Thou knowest my heart. I thank 
Thee. 

This morning I visited the Episcopal Church (in St. Louis). 
The discourse was upon Dives' regard for his brethren. 

Monday, Dec. 7. Wrote to my dear Mrs. Wilson. 1 Walked 
through some of the principal streets. I am agreeably dis- 
appointed in St. Louis. It is a fine city. We are at the City 
Hotel. Applied at the National, but could not get rooms. I 
like this house. They set a good table; no style, but everything 
very good. St. Louis requires larger hotels. One large one will 
be opened in two months. It is a fine building, delightfully 
situated. I was much pleased in the appearance of the jail. 
It fully realized my idea of a place of confinement; low, stone 
building surrounded by a high stone wall; not high enough, I 
think. 

Received but one letter from mother, dated 17th of November. 
God bless and protect them ! 

There is a lady whom I met in the parlor who is a living table 
of prices current. She can talk nothing else. Sitting by the 
fire in a reverie sufficiently deep to produce some philosophic or 
scientific idea, she will suddenly utter the words, "What does 
butter sell for in the city ?" From her countenance and manner, 
one would fancy her an intelligent woman; but on no other 
subject is she conversable. If I were an editor, I should consider 
her a valuable wife; for she is perfectly competent to give a 
daily table of prices. If I knew a little more of bank or railroad 
stock, I would attack. As it is, she is to me truly formidable. 

This evening, a visit from Mrs. B bringing an invitation 

from 'Mrs. C , who is from Maine and quite fashionable- 
looking people, to visit her in her room. I thought she ought 
to call on me, and I told Mrs. B. that I would be engaged. I 
do not know but I ought to have gone, for the manner of the 
invitation was equivalent to a call. 

Father had a visit from R. Rundle Smith, Philadelphia, and 
John H. Greene, England, this afternoon. He was out, and they 
left their names. 

If it were not for the hope of receiving a letter tomorrow, I 
should urge father to leave more strongly than I have. He does 
not seem disposed to go. 



1 Mrs. L.yM. Wilson, of Mobile, Ala. 



40 

Tuesday, 8th. A letter from Ma and Amelia this morning, 
containing unpleasant information about the furniture. Mr. 
Cole has not done as I wished about it. 

I discovered this morning that I made a mistake in the per- 
son whom I took for Mrs. C. The Mrs. C. is a dashing woman 
with blue silk dress, red cuffs, black and pink cape, a quantity 
of showy jewelry. I thought it best to call, as she invited, and 
this afternoon I went down. As usual, I found out it was 
through some gentleman's curiosity and admiration that I re- 
ceived the extraordinary invitation. Was invited in the evening 
to come again, but I did not go. Did not admire Mr. C. much, 
and I was determined not to gratify the gentleman by an intro- 
duction to me. Wrote to E. Thompson tonight. If I could only 
see Ma and Meel for a few minutes ! 

Wednesday, Dec. 9th. Left St. Louis for Springfield at 11 
this morning in the mail stage; dined two miles this side of 
Collinsville ; venison for dinner, but it was wretchedly cooked. 
In the parlor there was a piano, center table, and glass case con- 
taining curiosities. 

After we crossed the Mississippi, we passed through some 
woodland and then came to what they call the American Bot- 
tom. It seems to me that this land must once have been the 
bed of a stream, for it is bounded on one side by high, sandy and 
rocky bluffs from 50 to 200 feet high. Could the majestic 
Mississippi have once rolled over this ground, and, for some wild 
fancy, deserted and sent its mighty waters in another channel? 

After we passed the "bottom," we came to a prairie upon 
which were numerous mounds which I at first supposed to be the 
remains of Indian; but they are nature's work and probably have 
been sandbars around which the current of waters has swept. 
We passed through Edwardsville and arrived at Bunker Hill at 
8 P. M., where we supped and remain until ^ past 2 tomorrow 
morning. Our room is directly over the bar, and I fear we will be 
much disturbed by the talking below. 

Thursday, Dec. 10th. As I thought, they talked all night 
and I did not sleep at all ; got up at two, started at half -past two ; 
rode 19 miles to Carlinville; there we took breakfast by candle- 
light. We arrived just as the day dawned at this little cabin, 
and were met by a young woman, whom we asked if she could 
give us breakfast immediately, to which she answered, "Yes." 
Shefgave us a seat by the fire and immediately commenced the 



41 

proceedings for breakfast. First, she took out a long-handled 
frying pan and, resting the handle on a chair before the wood 
fire in the fireplace, she put in some coffee, which she quickly 
parched. Removing the coffee and washing out the frying pan, 
she made a ' 'pone" of corn bread and put it in to bake. Then she 
ground and prepared the coffee, which she proceeded to make in 
a pot over the fire. Then the performance was varied by the 
movement of first one curtain and then another, from behind 
which came men who had been guests at the cabin over night, 
and each as he emerged immediately took the wash basin and 
went out of doors to perform his ablutions and returned ready 
for breakfast. 

After the "pone" was done, the "lady of the house" cut some 
bacon, put that in the pan and fried it, and then asked me if I 
would like some eggs, which she fried, and in a few minutes we 
were called to breakfast for which we paid four shillings 
apiece, and which I must say I ate with a good appetite, for its 
very novelty was interesting to me. The table was a plain 
wooden one, and while I had a cup and saucer, the rest of the 
guests had tin cups. ("Pone" and "dip" are expressions much 
used here). 

Started again, and arrived in Springfield at half-past three 
P. M.; stopped at the American Hotel. The Legislature is sit- 
ting here, the house is crowded and I did not get a room till 8 
o'clock. There was a ball here tonight and they made a dressing- 
room of the ladies' parlor, and I sat there and viewed them all as 
they came in. A number of the ladies carried bundles in their 
arms and were accompanied by maids. The bundles, which 
were a mystery to me, were deposited on the bed, where the 
mystery soon developed, for the bundles began to kick and squeal, 
as hungry babies will. The mothers, after performing their 
maternal duties, wrapped the infants up again and left them 
with many charges to nurse-maids not to mix them up. The 
ladies were handsomely dressed, but not in the latest style. 
They wore handsome gowns of silk and satin, made with low 
necks and short sleeves. 

No fireplace in my room. Heartsick. 

Friday, Dec. llth. One month since we left them! It seems 
a year. In the parlor all day. Conversed with the ladies 
Mrs. Davis, from Alton, Mrs. Hocum, Miss Ellen Field and 
cousin, Miss Edmonson, Vandalia, and a lady whose name 
sounds like "Bleahard," from Monticello. 



42 

This morning, while sitting in the parlor of the hotel by the 
fire, Minerva and Murilla McConnel and James McDougall 
joined the circle. My father, who was downstairs, shortly made 
his appearance, accompanied by Murray McConnel, 1 whom 
he presented to me and who, in turn, introduced me to his 
daughters. James McDougall 2 is to marry Murilla McConnel. 

Saturday, Dec. 12th. Did not get up to breakfast. Feel 
heartsick, the prospect is so dreary. What are we to do ? They 
are hoping and expecting to hear our decision, and here we are, 
not knowing which way to go. Merciful God, guide and 
direct us. 

Mrs. Hocum came in to see if I was sick. Mrs. Davis came 
in and invited me to the parlor. The people are very kind. 
I was introduced to Judge Martin, Colonel Buckmaster 3 and 
Mr. Walker. 4 Judge Martin is Master in Chancery ; the Colonel 
is sheriff and Mr. W. is a lawyer. I have also met Mr. and Mrs. 
J. T. Stewart (Stuart) and have been introduced to some of the 
members of the Legislature, but have forgotten their names. 
Introduced to Mr. Judd, 5 from Chicago. He told father that 
Griswold lived there and a sister of Mr. G. called Miss Dunham. 
I wonder if it is not Mrs. Townsend? 

This evening, they had a Mr. Davis, Clerk of the Senate, 
in the parlor, who sang for us most delightfully "The Old Arm 
Chair." Almost made me sob aloud. He sang a medley of his 
own arrangement. The most amusing thing I ever heard. There 
were parts of 21 airs in it. He accompanied himself on the 
guitar. Mr. Walker sang, "He Never Said He Loved" half 
frightened to death; his voice failed him. 

Sunday, Dec. 13th. Did not get up till dinner; too wet to 
go out, and no fireplace in my room. I thought I could read 
and meditate if I laid in my bed till I was obliged to get up. 
Went to Church this afternoon; Episcopal. A small wooden 
building that you would never imagine was a Church. They 
intend to build a new one next summer. The State House is a 
fine building, not quite finished yet. 



1 Prominent lawyer and politician of Jacksonville, then a member of the State 
Senate. 

2 Later U. S. Senator from California. 

3 Col. Nathaniel Buckmaster of Alton. 

4 Cyrus Walker, a presidential elector in 1839. 

8 Norman B. Judd, well known lawyer and politician. 



43 

No one can know the definition of "Mud" until they come to 
Springfield. I think scrapers and mats must be fast selling 
articles here. 

This evening, talked with Colonel Buckmaster; very kind. 
He said if we would remain a few days longer, he would lend us 
his horses and buggy five or six days. He is a widower. 

Mr. Walker recommended Danville as a pleasant residence. 
Left the parlor quite early and went to my room. Before tea, 
I wrote to dear mother; tonight, to sister and Meg. 

Monday, Dec. 18th. Started at 11 A. M. for Athens, 15 
miles from Springfield. Five miles from Springfield, we crossed 
the Sangamon River; drove in. It was over the wheels, and 
such a mud bank ! It was a terrible sight to see their exertions. 
They sprang and flounced in the mud. I never wish to go up 
again. We did not know the road, and whirled about on a large 
prairie, not knowing which road to take. Drove to the only 
house in sight and found it inhabited by chickens only, which 
were not able to give us the necessary information. It was in- 
tensely cold and I suffered very much. We at last found our 
way to Athens. It is beautifully situated, but the town is com- 
prised of log houses placed directly on the street. Directly 
opposite the house, there is a man very low with the pleurisy. 
I wish I was in Springfield again. No, if I had my wishes, they 
would be this : to be seated between my dear mother and sister. 
I feel very nervous tonight. How quickly all my philosophic 
and stoical reasoning vanishes before one thought of that dear 
mother ! How vain and foolish is all human reasoning, and I too 
often find that I am not the calm, dispassionate being that I 
would be. By slacking the tight rein which I constantly hold 
on my feelings, and giving way one moment, I lose as much self 
control as it will take weeks to recover. I will this once indulge 
myself. It can cause no grief to others. This paper cannot 
feel. Tears, so great a luxury, for nearly two years have I de- 
nied myself. I would not grieve, by their traces on my counte- 
nance, those who love me. How little does any one think who 
views my smiling face, of the mighty current of feeling which 
sometimes almost checks the beating of my heart. I fear some- 
times that this checking of emotion will cause my death. The 
feeling is a peculiar one. It is a pause in all the pulsations of the 
body, with a perfect retention of my mental powers. It causes 
no visible changes, and one may be conversing with me and be 
totally unsuspecting of any agony within. It is almost immedi- 



.- 44 

ately succeeded by a throbbing sensation about the temples, and 
a look, a word or action which recalls some past reminiscence will 
cause it. And thus I suffer fortunately, unknown to anyone. 
Many have been my trials. New ones are added day by day. 
But, oh, it is my earnest prayer that I may be carried safely 
through and at last reach my home in Heaven. My sins are 
great; but oh, dear Jesus, Thy blood is sufficient, and may I 
have faith and love to reach Thy feet and wash myself clean in 
Thy blood. How variable are my feelings! Sometimes I long 
to leave this world and feel secure of my place in that happy land 
and again clinging to earth and its creatures; thoughts of my 
own unworthiness ; want of faith ; the knowledge of being sinful 
and unprofitable, yet so held down by Satan that I have not the 
power to shake him off. Oh, merciful Father, be ever near me 
in those moments, and when so enthralled, send Thy Holy 
Spirit to burst the bonds and let it soar to Thee in prayer. Wilt 
Thou watch over those loved ones, oh, God? I would ask Thee 
to keep their souls from sin. Oh, increase their love for Thee. 
Let them feel that Thou art the Rock of Ages. 

We return to Springfield, tomorrow. They are very kind 
people here. I feel very sorry for the old man. This place is to 
be sold tomorrow. They are very poor. 

Tuesday, Dec. 15. I expect the old man died about 10 last 
night, and the shrieks of his family were dreadful. In that still, 
dark room, they rang on my ear and almost crazed me. May I 
be forgiven for the unjust suspicions which, after going to my 
room, I entertained of the people. It was a dismal room, and 
full of strange holes. I knew the pressing want of the old man, 
and I knew not what act he might be tempted to commit. The 
driver, who slept in the next room, was one of McKenzie's 
patriots which knowledge only increased my fear, and I 
determined not to sleep till daylight. 

Not long after I had retired, father came and aroused me in a 
very quiet manner, saying: "Get up as quick as you can, and 
dress yourself. There are very strange noises and something 
strange going on downstairs. Take this bowie knife and defend 
yourself, if necessary. I have my sword cane and we will do the 
best we can." We sat for an hour or more and heard heavy 
breathing and groans and the tread of feet hurrying backwards 
and forwards, and then the sound of nailing and sawing, and of 
whispering voices. And shortly we heard sobs and women cry- 
ing, which reassured us in some degree. I thought if I only 



45 

had a candle, that I could read my Bible and it would have re- 
lieved me. I tried repeatedly before I could compose myself for 
prayer. I believe nervousness to be one of Satan's temptations. 
However, we soon made up our minds that the old man was dead 
and a coffin was being made, though we were not entirely at rest 
as to the danger of our position until daylight, when a crying 
woman came and called us and told us breakfast would soon be 
ready, and I ventured to ask her what was the matter. She 
replied that her father had died during the night. The sounds 
we heard were caused by relatives and neighbors coming and 
preparing for the burial. While feeling the greatest sympathy 
for the people, it was a great relief to us to know that there was 
no danger of robbery or murder. 

We concluded we had had enough of Athens, and left at 9 
A. M. for Springfield, and took a different route. We came 
through Sangamon Town. The river is more easily forded at 
this place. A bad hill to ascend, but not so muddy. The town 
consists of a mill and two other houses. A dangerous hill to 
descend ; one skittish horse. 

Arrived in Springfield, to dinner. My new friends all ap- 
peared pleased to see me. The Colonel B. distressingly polite. 
Mr. Walker was civil, but the Colonel would give him no 
chance. 

Mrs. Davis very agreeable. They offered every inducement 
for me to remain, but I shall leave at three tomorrow morning. 

Wednesday, Dec. 16th. Arrived in Jacksonville at 11 A. M. 
Passed over a beautiful country. Breakfast at candlelight. 
- seemed to be in the eyes of several persons the most 
desirable thing on the table. For ten miles out of Jacksonville, 
there are farms in a high state of cultivation and houses that 
would be respectable anywhere. Jacksonville is a pretty place; 
a good road between Jacksonville and Springfield. We are at 
the Morgan House, kept by a Mr. Scott. 

I feel lonely and sad. Six years ago tonight, I stood arrayed 
in bridal habiliments. What a change six years has wrought! 
Then a child, not quite fifteen; tonight a thoughtful, saddened 
woman with nothing to cheer me but the prospect of an 
eternity spent in Heaven. Oh, that my faith may not prove 
fallacious! Oh, that I am not deceived in myself! Satan may 
be busy and have lulled me with the idea of forgiveness. Jesus, 
if rightly sought, can forgive all. Oh, that I may be in the 
right path ! 



46 

Sunday, 20th Dec. Jacksonville, 111. Yesterday I wrote 
and received a letter from my dear mother. I fear she is not as 
well as she would have us think. Amelia is well. Margaret ap- 
pears in good spirits. Today, one year ago, Margaret, Amelia, 
father and I went to the Court House 1 for the first time. Mr. 
Lewis preached. It was crowded to excess. I could not help 
contrasting the difference today as I wended my way, unknow- 
ing and unknown, to the Episcopal Church in this place, to last 
year when our carriage drove up, numerous friends greeted us, 
expressed their pleasure at our coming to Episcopal service. 
From that Sunday, I date my love for the Episcopal service. 
I was struck by its singular "beauty. Mr. Lewis' mild, expres- 
sive and affectionate delivery served to soothe my feelings which, 
for months, had been strongly excited on the subject of religion. 
Mr. Meyer preached today; the same person whom I heard in 
St. Louis. I have been twice today. This morning, Mr. 
Meyers omitted the commandments, and changed his gown 
during the psalm. The hymn was sung after the sermon. 

Today, year, Molt came to see us immediately after morning 
Church, and brought his dog, about whom he made a speech 
which amused us very much. 

I could not have thought I was so much attached to Mobile 
as my absence from it proves to me. 

What are dear Mother, Amelia and Mag 2 doing tonight? 
One year since, we were all at home. It is useless to repine. 
Through the mercy of God we may all again be united. 

Wednesday, Dec. 23. This afternoon Father met Mr. 

and several others. Tonight, I attended a sewing meeting in 
Mrs. Bucklin's 3 parlor. Judge Breese, 4 McConnell, Judge Martin, 
Judge Lockwood, 5 Mr. Sturtevant 6 and Col. Buckmaster called 
this evening. I was introduced to all the ladies ; very much 
pleased with Mrs. McClure, 7 Mrs. Rockwell 8 and Mrs. Post. 9 

1 Episcopal services in Mobile were held in the Court House after the Church edi- 
fice was destroyed by fire. Mrs. Rapalje was confirmed by Bishop Polk, afterward 
a Confederate General. 

2 Miss Margaret Napier, a cousin, still (1914) living in Brooklyn in her 94th year. 

3 Wife of James Bucklin, engineer of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. 

4 Judge Sidney Breese. 

6 Judge Samuel D. Lockwood of the Supreme Court of Illinois. 

6 J. M. Sturtevant, afterward and for many years, president of Illinois College at 
Jacksonville. 

7 Wife of Judge Henry B. McClure. 

8 Wife of Dennis Rockwell. 

9 Sister of Mrs. McClure and wife of Rev. Truman Post, then a professor in Illi- 
nois College. 



47 

Thursday, 24th. What a lovely day it has been ! I have had 
a nervous headache all day; did not leave my room until tea 
time. This morning Col. Buckmaster and Mr. Douglas 1 called. 
Miss Wolkman sat an hour with me this afternoon. Mrs. 
Rockwell and Mrs. McClure called. I am very much pleased 
with them. Mr. and Mrs. Hardin 2 invited father and me to 
tea. As they had not called, I wanted to decline. 

One year ago today, Mag and I went down town; met Mott. 3 
He came home with us; did not go in. Two years ago today, 
I held with a mother's pride my lovely babe, who is now an angel 
in Heaven. Three years today, preparing for company on 
Christmas. Mr. Rearney was to dine with us. Perhaps in 
another, I will have passed from this earth. Oh, that it may be 
with my dear child in Heaven. Now I am in Jacksonville. 
One year ago, had I been told my present situation, I should have 
deemed it improbable ! Fickle, fickle fortune ! 

My dear mother and sister! Could I but see you tonight! 
A happy Christmas to you. Even as I am placed, I will rejoice. 
It is the anniversary of the birth of our blessed Saviour. The 
Lamb of God, through whose precious blood my child was, and 
I hope to be, made pure enough to occupy a place in Heaven. 
Blessed Jesus, who clothed Thyself in mortality and suffered 
physical death ; Thou knowest the weakness of the human heart. 
Endow me with strength to do Thy will ! Forgive my sins, and 
if in a year I am not still on earth to again rejoice in the event, 
which has ransomed so many, may I be in Heaven, singing 
praises to Thy glorious name. 

Mr. Duncan called and asked us to tea tomorrow night. His 
wife is an invalid and, he explained, could not call. Father 
knew -her father and mother in New York and had met them 
again in Washington. 

Friday, Dec. 25. Father and I went to Trinity Church. 4 
The building is not unlike an Eastern Church. Mr. Duncan's 5 
carriage came for us, and we went to their house, which is in a 
grove and quite far in the country. When I saw the china, 
which is like my dear mother's pink tea set, I could only with 



1 Judge Stephen A. Douglas. 
1 John J. Hardin. 

3 A brother of L. M. Wilson, first president of the M. & O. R. R. 

4 The same edifice is still standing, but now faces State street. It then faced Morgan 
street. 

5 Governor Joseph Duncan. 



48 

great difficulty restrain my tears. Oh, my Father in Heaven, 
will that another Christmas we may be united in New York. 

The other guests were some people connected with Illinois 
College. 

Sunday, Dec. 27. Twenty years old today. 

Monday, Dec. 28th. Started early this morning for Waverly ; 
arrived about 11 o'clock. The driver took us to the only house 
he knew of where strangers were received; a shocking place. 
The room assigned to me and which I might call a garret, is 
reached by means of a ladder going up from the summer kitchen. 

Jan. 2, 1841. There was a -dance at this house last evening, 
at which the principal residents of Apple Creek and the sur- 
rounding country were present. In the morning, before break- 
fast, the big turkey gobbler was put in a tremendously big pot 
over the fire, and I was informed that I would not have any 
dinner, but just a "piece" at noon. The gobbler boiled until 
afternoon, when he was taken out of the pot and put into the 
oven before the fire to roast for supper, and there was cake of " a 
fearful and wonderful ' ' construction. The guests having arrived 
supper was eaten at early candlelight. The room was illumi- 
nated by numerous "dips," and the guests being happy and 
hilarious, the supper passed off much to their satisfaction. The 
table was quickly cleared and, the fiddlers making their appear- 
ance, the crowd was soon arranged for the dancing. Each 
woman carried a very large pocket handkerchief, about a yard 
and a half square, which she held by both hands stretched out in 
front of her, except when one hand was given to the partner in 
the dance. I was invited to dance, but, not understanding those 
dances, I declined but was a highly amused looker-on. I 
retired at about ten o'clock, but I think the gaiety was kept up 
until nearly morning. 

Mr. Cleveland J. Salter called on us today and very kindly 
told us that he had a couple of rooms at our disposal, if I would 
take a room with his daughter and they would give up one 
room entirely to father. They have a very nice, large brick 
house with 20 acres for the dooryard, and we have accepted 
their kind offer. 

I am pleasantly situated at Mr. Salter's with Miss Julia for my 
roommate, and with no drawback except the wolves, which come 
up so frequently into the barnyard and howl, and which I fancy 
climb sometimes up to the second story window and are looking 



49 

at me. I am passing the time studying Metaphysics, Latin, 
and improving myself in spiritual knowledge. The Salters are a 
pious family; like Julia Salter very much. Mrs. Salter very 
amiable. Have made the acquaintance of a number of very 
pleasant people in Waverly and have attended one delicious 
"tea", which I shall always remember, at the home of Dr. 
Brown. 1 

March 1, '41. We decided to come to Quincy, which has 
been highly recommended to us, and with which we are very 
much pleased. We had looked at a very pleasant house on the 
banks of the Mississippi and were just waiting to see the land- 
lord, when we were informed that the city has been ravaged by 
bilious fever and the inhabitants of that house had suffered fear- 
fullv. It has decided us on leaving Quincy. 

We have returned to Jacksonville, by the way of Meredosia. 
We came by train to this city, the railroad following what is 
known as the "State Road," and its tracks being laid down the 
principal street and the station, or stopping place, is in the 
center of the Public Square. When about a mile or so out of 
town, the engine, which had been traveling at a tortoise pace, 
was halted and a man got out and preceded the engine on foot 
in which style we came through the town, passing the hotel and 
other houses on the main street, going up to the "Square" and 
stopping at the station in the center, much to my amusement. 
I got out and walked over to the Morgan House. 



A few additional words of explanation may be of interest to 
those who have found a human interest in this diary, and from 
its narration of facts. 

Mr. Tucker decided to engage in business in Jacksonville and 
rented a storeroom under the Morgan House, afterward the 
Park House. For a residence he rented the Bibb cottage on 
East Court street (where the Roman Catholic school now 
stands) not far from the residence of John J. Hardin. The 
two families formed ties of the closest friendship. 

Early in May, 1841, they were joined by Mrs. and Miss M. A. 
Tucker, the remaining members of the family. Within about a 
year they purchased and removed to the property on Grove 
street, afterward known as "The Morrison Place." 



1 His daughter is the widow of Rev. E. A. Tanner, for many years president of Illi- 
nois College. 



50 

Although Mrs. Rapalje had ample ground to obtain a divorce 
from her husband, she would not apply for one, but in time Mr. 
Rapalje sought a divorce from her in the courts of Mobile on the 
ground of abandonment, and it was granted for that cause. 
They had no children to be cared for. 

Mr. Tucker returned to New York in 1846 to investigate a 
favorable proposal to enter into business there again, when he 
was taken suddenly ill and died before word could reach his 
family. 

Mrs. Rapalje then found an opportunity to make practical 
use of her excellent training in music and French by teaching 
those subjects in the Methodist College, now known as the Illi- 
nois Woman's College. 

Meanwhile, her list of friends rapidly extended and included 
all the leading men and wo men of Jacksonville, some of whom are 
mentioned in her diary. It also included such men as Abraham 
Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas. Of the former she predicted 
at an early day that he would sometime be president of the 
United States. 

In 1851, a young lawyer came from Kentucky to Jacksonville 
Mr. Isaac L. Morrison. He soon met Mrs. Rapalje, a mutual 
love affair ensued, and they were married in 1853. Thus the 
tragedy of her early life was replaced by a happy union, which 
continued, with great mutual devotion, throughout their lives. 

M. M. W. 



51 



SENATORIAL DISPUTES RESULTING FROM THE AP- 
PORTIONMENT ACT OF 1841. 



BY KATHLEEN M. CLYNE. 

The increase of population in the State of Illinois as exhibited 
by the census of 1840, made a reapportionment of representa- 
tion necessary. Accordingly, the Twelfth General Assembly 
passed "An Act to Apportion the Representation of the Several 
Counties in this State," Feb. 26, 1841. This act is a master- 
piece of clumsy legislation. It is so ambiguous that today the 
districts which it established can be determined only with the 
aid of the election returns. This, however, was not its greatest 
defect. It made no provision for the sixteen senators whose 
terms did not expire. 

When the Thirteenth General Assembly met in December, 
1842, there were many important questions to be settled; the 
State was practically bankrupt; the canal was unfinished; the 
people were desirous of curbing the power of the Mormons ; and 
the election of a United States senator was imperative. Before 
any of these important questions could be taken up in the 
Senate, its personnel must be determined and there were four dis- 
puted seats. The question was a delicate one. The places of 
some of the oldest and most influential members were endangered. 
Any legislature which would take upon itself the exclusion of any 
of these men, who had not served out the term for which they 
had been duly elected, would be committing an unwarranted 
act. But the new members had been elected just as lawfully 
under the act passed by the last Legislature. 

The most complicated dispute was that involving John 
Pearson, Joel A. Matteson, and Samuel Hoard. John Pearson 
was the hold-over senator from the district containing the counties 
of Cook, Will, DuPage, and McHenry. Joel A. Matteson, 
later governor of Illinois, was senator from the newly-formed 
district of Will, DuPage and Iroquois, and Samuel Hoard from 
the newly-formed district of Cook and Lake. The Select 



52 

Committee to which the disputes were referred brought in a 
report, Dec. 13, 1842, recommending that Matteson be ex- 
cluded. It was argued that otherwise the counties involved 
would have one more senator than they were entitled to have. 
At the time that Matteson was elected there was, the Commit- 
tee maintained, no vacancy in that district; John Pearson had 
been duly elected by the people and was still their lawful repre- 
sentative. Mr. Matteson then withdrew, but December nine- 
teenth Governor Ford informed the Senate of John Pearson's 
resignation, which was to take effect January first, 1843. The 
same day a bill to hold a special election for senator in the dis- 
trict composed of Will, DuPage and Iroquois, passed both the 
Senate and the House. This bill is another example of the 
loose methods of the day. The resignation of Mr. Pearson left 
a vacancy in the old district of Cook, Will, DuPage, and Mc- 
Henry, while the new election was ordered for the new district of 
Will, DuPage, and Iroquois. The election was held January 
second, and Joel A. Matteson was returned to the Senate. He 
qualified and took his seat five days later. 

The exclusion of Matteson had been strongly opposed by 
Senator Pearson. A protest against the exclusion of him and of 
Gilham was made to the Senate by six members. Pearson, 
James, and Cavarly, all of whose seats were involved in the 
disputes, were among the signers. A long speech by Pearson 
on the resolution to declare the elections of Matteson and Gil- 
ham void, was published in the Illinois State Register. In this 
he maintained that each new district embracing counties which 
had not taken part in the election of a hold-over senator was en- 
titled to another senator. He urged that the exclusion of these 
men would leave some counties without representatives elected 
by themselves, and would establish a precedent dangerous to a 
Republican government. Neither Matteson nor Pearson were 
men of irreproachable character, and the whole settlement looks 
like a deal between them. The Joliet Courier, Jan. 4, 1843, said 
that ' ' efforts were made to defeat Mr. Matteson on the grounds 
that he bargained with the Senator from Cook, Mr. Pearson, 
to secure the resignation of the latter." The Courier said that 
these reports were untrue. Pearson may have expected some 
recompense for his resignation, for two weeks later in the Demo- 
cratic caucus he was a candidate for the nomination for justice 
of the supreme court, but was defeated. 



53 

The second dispute was between the renowned Colonel E. D. 
Baker, who fell at Ball's Bluff in 1861, and Reuben Harrison, 
both of Sangamon county. Baker was the hold-over senator 
from the old district of Sangamon, Menard, Logan, and Chris- 
tian counties. Reuben Harrison was elected from the newly- 
formed district of Sangamon. The Committee reported that 
Harrison was not legally a member of the Senate. It said that 
if Harrison were admitted, Sangamon county would have 
double representation, since it already had a resident senator on 
the floor. Menard, Logan, and Mason counties constituted one 
district after 1841, and having no senator within their limits, 
"they had an indisputable right to elect one." There seems to 
have been no protest against Mr. Harrison's exclusion. 

The third contest was between T. M. Kilpatrick and James 
Gilham. Under the apportionment of 1836, Morgan county 
elected three senators. After Cass and Scott counties were set 
off from Morgan, it voted alone for one senator, with Cass for 
one, and with Scott for one. The term of the senator from 
Morgan and Cass expired in 1842, but the other two held over. 
The new apportionment made Cass and Scott, though not con- 
tiguous, into one district, and Morgan into another, each 
entitled to only one senator. Kilpatrick was the hold-orer 
senator from the counties of Morgan and Scott. Gilham 
was the senator from the newly-formed district of Cass 
and Scott. The select committee declared that Gilham was 
not legally a member of the Senate; Scott, one of the counties 
in the new district, had participated in Kilpatrick 's election; 
Morgan had a separate senator; and Kilpatrick resided in Scott. 
The Senate apparently accepted this reasoning, for Gilham was 
excluded, and as a result there was no senator in the Thirteenth 
General Assembly in whose election the voters of Cass county 
had participated. 

The hardest case for the Senate to decide was the contest 
between two well known men who had both formerly served in 
the Legislature, Alfred Cavarly and Revel W. English. They 
were both newly elected. Cavarly was elected from the 
Counties of Greene and Jersey to fill a vacancy caused by the 
death of Senator John Allen, who had been elected in 1840. 
English was elected from the newly -formed district of Greene 
and Calhoun counties. The Committee in its report stated the 
facts, but it had been unable to reach an agreement on the case. 
It was finally taken up by the Senate as a committee of the whole. 



.54 

deliberated on at both sessions December twentieth, and then 
laid on the table. The following day the Senate adopted by a 
vote of 22 to 18, this amendment: "That neither Mr. Cavarly 
nor Mr. English have been legally elected to fill the vacancy of 
John Allen, deceased." Mr. English, not wishing his district 
to be unrepresented in the Senate and realizing that these dis- 
putes were keeping them from the great work before them, re- 
signed at once. The State Register says, "There being no 
further contest, the Senate rejected the whole resolution of which 
the above amendment was a part." Since it was not adopted, 
the resolution is not printed in the Journal and its contents have 
not been determined. Mr. Cavarly retained his seat. 

Another case, which is notable chiefly because it was not 
contested, is that involving the counties of Madison, St. Clair, 
Monroe, and Randolph. Under the old apportionment Madi- 
son, St. Clair, and Randolph were each entitled to one senator, 
while Monroe was joined with Madison and St. Clair in the elec- 
tion of a fourth. The new law gave a senator each to Madison 
and St. Clair, and joined Monroe and Randolph together to 
form a third district, thus reducing the representation of the 
four counties from four to three. In each of the four old dis- 
tricts, except Madison, senators were elected in 1840, and were 
entitled to hold over. Adam W. Snyder, the senator from St. 
Clair County resigned, however, in 1841, to accept the Demo- 
cratic nomination for governor. St. Clair and Madison coun- 
ties each elected a senator in 1842 and these, with the hold-over 
senators from Randolph and the district composed of Monroe, 
St. Clair, and Madison made four senators in the Thirteenth 
General Assembly from these counties instead of three as pro- 
vided by the new apportionment law. All of them held their 
seats, however, and voted throughout the session without any 
question of their credentials. John Pearson mentioned the case 
in the long speech referred to above, and said that some of the 
senators in question were representing counties from which they 
were not elected. The puzzle was apparently too complicated 
for the Select Committee or the Senate to solve, and as a result 
there was one more senator in this General Assembly than 
was provided for by the Apportionment Act. 

The settlement of these disputes was certainly an irregular 
procedure. The only consistent aim appears to have been to 
have the specified number of senators on the floor, and even this 



55 

was not achieved. The decisions were extra-legal, and it is 
doubtful if they would have been tolerated had not the Thir- 
teenth General Assembly realized that it was facing one of the 
greatest crises in the history of the State. The creditors were at 
the door clamoring for satisfaction. Such minor questions had to 
be pushed aside as quickly as possible and attention focused on 
the duty of upholding the honor of the State in a time of peril. 



56 



ABRAHAM LINCOLN, JUDGE DAVID DAVIS AND JUDGE 
EDWARD BATES. 



BY JOHN M. LANSBEN, OF CAIRO, ILLINOIS. 

I was a student at Illinois College from January to June, 
1861. I had spent almost the whole of my college course in the 
South, but my home being in Sangamon county, and it appear- 
ing probable that we would soon have war in the country, I left 
the Southern institution and entered the senior class at Illinois 
College early in January, 1861, and graduated there the June 
following. On the 30th day of January of that year, I was called 
by telegram to visit my father, the Rev. A. W. Lansden, who was 
ill at Bethany, Moultrie County, where he was visiting relatives. 
I took the train on the Wabash at Jacksonville, and was joined 
by my two sisters at Bates or New Berlin, 12 or 15 miles west of 
Springfield. At Springfield, Mr. Lincoln, Judge Davis and 
Judge Bates came aboard the train and into the car in which we 
were riding. They took seats almost opposite to us, Mr. Lin- 
coln himself turning the forward seat so that the three could sit 
facing each other. He seemed to be in charge of his two dis- 
tinguished friends. Our attention, and that of every one else in 
the car was, of course, attracted to them, and every one seemed 
anxious to hear their conversation. The noise of the train 
made it necessary for them to speak somewhat louder than 
usual, and it was therefore not difficult for us to hear much of 
what they said. They were on their way to Charleston, Coles 
County. 

What also drew our attention to these public men was the 
stories Mr. Lincoln was telling them, and his very hearty 
laughter, so hearty that his whole frame seemed to join in the 
merriment. I may be mistaken at this distant day, but my 
present impression is that his two eminent companions did not 
join heartily in the laughter. They were interested, of course, 
but not as much as we who sat by and gave the closest attention. 
The first political speech I ever heard was one made by Mr. 



57 

Lincoln at Waverly, in Morgan County. It may have been 
during the campaign of 1852, between Pierce and Scott. I do not 
now recall anything that he said. I do remember, however, just 
how he appeared and looked as our large wagon, fixed up for the 
occasion, was driven close to the crowd of people who were listen- 
ing to him. We were just starting home, it being somewhat late 
in the afternoon, and the cheering and hurrahing greatly inter- 
ested me, who had never heard so much of it before. He was 
dressed in a black suit and appeared very much indeed as he 
now appears in what is said to be the earliest picture of him now 
in existence, one taken, I believe, in 1848. I had seen him now 
and then at Springfield, but did not know much of his habit of 
telling stories ; and seeing and hearing what I had that day on the 
train from Springfield to Decatur, I wrote back soon afterward 
to some of my friends in the South and told them of my seeing 
and hearing Mr. Lincoln on the train, and how his stories and 
laughter seemed so out of keeping with the condition of our 
country, of which he was within a month to become the presi- 
dent. I need not say that I came to understand it better 
afterwards. 

About the time our train reached Mechanicsburg, fifteen or 
twenty miles east of Springfield, some one handed him a tele- 
gram, stating that at Memphis they had fired one hundred guns in 
honor of the withdrawal of Texas from the Union. He read it 
and then handed it to Judge Bates, saying, "Yes, yes, she came 
in afiring and she goes our afiring." He recalled the fact that 
when Texas was admitted into the Union, December 29, 1845, 
such guns were fired in many parts of the country. 

A little while before we reached Decatur we passed the place, 
on the south, where Mr. Lincoln had made those rails in 1830, 
and he told his companions about it. I cannot, of course, 
recall all that he said, but this I remember very distinctly. He 
said that he and the person working with him, whose name he 
must have mentioned, and which was, no doubt, John Hanks, 
made a sufficient number of rails to fence about ten acres of 
ground. That of the two he was somewhat the stronger, and 
probably made more of the rails than did the other. This was 
in January, 1861, and the rail-making had occurred in 1830, 
about thirty years before; and Mr. Lincoln closed his account 
by saying that he felt quite sure that he could not identify any of 
the rails, but he added, in that same jocular way, "That was 
about thirty years ago, and it is hardly to be expected that I 



58 

could identify any of the rails now." Judge Bates became Mr. 
Lincoln's first Attorney General and Judge Davis, by appoint- 
ment of Mr. Lincoln, became a member of the Supreme Court of 
the United States, December 8, 1862. 

Here are some extracts from the Illinois State Journal and the 
State Register, of Springfield, in reference to Mr. Lincoln's trip 
to Charleston at that time : 

"Mr. Lincoln left town yesterday morning by the Great 
Western road for the purpose of making a visit to his step- 
mother who resides near Charleston, in Coles County. He 
expects to return on Friday evening's train * * * * Judge 
Bates of St. Louis, arrived in this city on Tuesday evening and 
remained here during yesterday." (Daily State Journal, 
Thursday, January 31, 1861.) 

"Mr. Lincoln, with Honorable Edward Bates of St. Louis 
and several leading Republicans of this and other states left 
here for Charleston, Coles county, yesterday. This visit of the 
president-elect with such company, to the quiet town of Charles- 
ton is attributed to a desire for rest, not to be had in Springfield, 
where the incoming dispenser of place and pap 'is run to death' 
by eager and hungry crowds of patriots 'who carried the lamps' 
and split the rails in the late canvass." (Daily State Register, 
Springfield, Thursday, January 31st, 1861.) 

' ' Mr. Lincoln returned from Coles County yesterday morning. 
He reached Charleston on Wednesday evening, and spending the 
night at Senator Marshall's, rode out the next morning six miles 
in the country to the residence of his step-mother, where he re- 
mained the rest of the day. While there he paid a visit to the 
grave of his father. In the evening, he rode back to town in 
company with his aged relative, and at the urgent request of the 
citizens of the place held an impromptu reception at one of the 
public halls. A large number of the ladies and gentlemen took 
advantage of the opportunity to shake him by the hand. 
Though called upon Mr. Lincoln declined to make any remarks 
shadowing forth his views of the present state of the country or 
the policy of the incoming administration. His visit was 
pleasant, and in every way most satisfactory." (Daily State 
Journal, Saturday, February 2, 1861.) 

It was but ten days after this trip to Charleston that he left 
Springfield for Washington, starting from the same station and 
by the same railroad. 



59 



AN EARLY CHARACTER SKETCH OF MR. LINCOLN. 



BY CHARLES M. THOMPSON. 

Characterizations of Mr. Lincoln made by his friends after his 
election to the presidency in 1860, must necessarily be viewed 
with caution. The tendency to magnify unconsciously the vir- 
tues and vices of an old acquaintance, after he has become great 
in the eyes of the world, is a human weakness common to all 
mankind. Our knowledge of the early life of Lincoln is drawn 
very largely from friendly reminiscences made public after his 
death ; and any information on the subject coming from a total 
stranger at a time when the future president was comparatively 
unknown, is of considerable importance, especially when it sub- 
stantiates what his closest friends have said about him. 

The Alton Telegraph, in its issue of August 20, 1847, copied 
from an Eastern newspaper a native Bostonian's account of his 
travels in Illinois, in which, without mentioning names, he drew 
character sketches of several of the public men of the State, one 
of whom was Representative Abraham Lincoln. Fortunately 
the Telegraph named the men characterized in an explanatory 
paragraph as follows : 

"We shall begin our extracts with the following description of 
two congressmen from Illinois, who accompanied our traveler, 
in his land journey from Peoria to Springfield. It will be ob- 
served that their names are not given nor is it, indeed, neces- 
sary; for anyone in this State will guess at once who they are, 
just as readily as he can say A be Lincoln, and Bob Smith, or any 
other familiar words. It should perhaps be stated here, that the 
'grumbling humor' to which Mr. Buckingham [our traveler from 
Boston] alludes, was occasioned by a night's voyage on the Illi- 
nois river, in a small steamboat, crowded with volunteers and 
other passengers, and every nook and corner of which was filled 
with mosquitoes and other insects unknown in Massachusetts, 
and rendering sleep, to those unaccustomed to this kind of annoy- 
ance, absolutely impossible." 



60 

Following the above introduction, the Telegraph printed an 
extract in which the traveler from Boston drew a picture of Mr. 
Lincoln among his own people. " 'Our party was again changed. 
We had two members of Congress from the State of Illinois, 
one Whig [Lincoln] and one Locof oco [Smith of Madison County] 
and persons of other professions. Query Is a member of Con- 
gress a professional man or not? We started in a grumbling 
humor ; but our Whig congressman was determined to be good- 
natured, and to keep all the rest so if he could. He told stories, 
and badgered his opponent, who, it appeared, was an old personal 
friend, until we all laughed, in spite of the dismal circumstances 
in which we were placed. ' 

At this point in his narrative, the traveler took occasion to 
comment on the people of Illinois, and the electioneering meth- 
ods of their politicians. " 'The character of the Western people 
is in every respect different from ours. Our Locofoco friend is a 
regular canvasser; he says that he has a way in his district of 
bowing to everybody, of kissing every man's child, and making 
love to every man's wife and daughter. He regretted that he 
did not ask 'Long John,' as everybody calls Mr. Wentworth, 
how he should behave in Went worth's [Chicago] district, because 
the force of habit is so great with him, he feared he might exceed 
the bounds of propriety it may be that the fashion with 'Long 
John' is more abrupt, and in that case he might be going con- 
trary to established usage. For some miles we were in Went- 
worth' s district, and a tolerably poor district it appeared to 
be.' 

When the Springfield district was reached he saw Mr. Lincoln 
at his best as a local politician. There the future president dis- 
played the side of this character so well known to his friends and 
neighbors. " 'We were now in the district represented by our 
Whig congressman; and he knew, or appeared to know, every- 
body we met, the name of the tenant of every farm-house, and 
the owner of every plat of ground. Such a shaking of hands- 
such a how-d'ye-do's such a greeting of different kinds as we 
saw, was never seen before. It seemed as if he knew every- 
thing; and he had a kind word, a smile, and a bow, for everybody 
on the road, even to the horses, and the cattle, and the swine.' ' 

The writer closed his sketch of the two "congressmen" with 
an observation on what he was pleased to call "Etiquette among 
Western Congressmen." The labors of Mr. Lincoln, in speaking 
to everybody along the way, " 'appeared to be so great, that we 



61 

recommended' to our Locofoco friend to sit on the other side of 
the coach and assist in the ceremonies ; but he thought that that 
would be an interference with the vested rights of his friend and 
opponent, and so he declined, although he was evidently much 
disposed to play the amiable to several rather pretty girls that 
we fell in with* at one of our stopping places. It seems that, as 
there is honor among thieves, so there is etiquette among 
Western Congressmen. ' 



62 



BISHOP MATTHEW SIMPSON AND THE FUNERAL OF 
ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 



W. W. SWEET, DE?AUW UNIVERSITY, GREENCASTLE, IND. 

The publication of the ' ' Recollections of the Assassination and 
Funeral of Abraham Lincoln" by Edmund Beall, 1 in one of the 
recent issues of the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 
has led me to believe that the readers of the Journal might be 
interested in Bishop Matthew Simpson and his funeral oration 
over the body of Lincoln, delivered in Springfield, Illinois, 
May 4th, 1865. 

Abraham Lincoln, though a member of no church, had been a 
regular attendant on the services of the Presbyterian church, 
both during his residence at Springfield and at Washington, and 
it might have been naturally supposed that a Presbyterian minis- 
ter would have been asked to deliver the principal address at the 
grave. But as a matter of fact, Rev. Dr. Matthew Simpson, one 
of the bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, then living 
in Philadelphia, 2 was requested to render this honored service. 
This request was a very natural one, especially to those who 
were familiar with the intimacy which had existed between the 
dead President and this Methodist Bishop. 

Just before and during the war, Bishop Simpson and Lincoln 
had become well acquainted, and fast friends, Bishop Simpson 
being frequently summoned to Washington by Mr. Lincoln for 
the purpose of consultation. 3 Bishop Thomas Bowman, 4 who is 
still living in East Orange, New Jersey, now a very old man, 
and who was chaplain of the United States Senate during the 
latter part of the war, tells of one occasion when he and several 
friends were conversing with Mr. Lincoln in the White House, 



1 "Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society," Jan. 1913, pp. 488-492. 

2 Bishop Simpson had lived in Evanston, Illinois until the last years of the war. 
8 Life of Bishop Simpson, G. R. Crooks, pp. 370-371. 

4 Both Bishop Simpson and Bowman, are ex-presidents of DePauw University, 
Greencastle, Indiana. Bishop Simpson having been the first president. 



63 

when unexpectedly the door opened and in came Bishop Simp- 
son. The President raised both arms and started for the Bishop, 
and on reaching him grasped both hands and explained: "Why 
Bishop, how glad I am to see you!" 1 Later the two retired for 
a private interview, where they spent several hours together. 
Dr. Bowman further states that he later learned that Bishop 
Simpson had been specially summoned to Washington by the 
President, for this interview. 2 

Before his election to the Episcopacy, Bishop Simpson had 
been editor of "The Western Christian Advocate" published in 
Cincinnati, and in his editorials he had discussed vigorously 
"Clay's Compromise measure of 1850," and other public 
questions, taking what became the Republican point of view, and 
had thereby won the confidence of Mr. Chase. Bishop Simpson 
was also very friendly with Mr. Stanton, who came from a 
staunch Methodist family, and when the Bishop was in Wash- 
ington, he almost invariably called at the War Department. 
In 1863, Stanton asked the Bishop to serve on a commission to 
visit Fortress Monroe, Newbern, Port Royal and New Orleans, 
to examine the condition of the colored people, and make sug- 
gestions, the Secretary saying that he wanted three men apart 
from politics to perform this service. But this position the 
Bishop declined. In the same letter in which Bishop Simpson 
communicates these facts to his wife, he also states that he 
"called on Mr. Lincoln this morning" and he was "very 
friendly." 3 

Another reason, besides the friendly relationship which existed 
between President Lincoln and the Bishop, which was no doubt 
influential in deciding the family and the Cabinet to request the 
Bishop's services at the President's funeral, was the fact that 
he was one of the most eloquent preachers in the country, and 
had performed a great service during the war, by means of his 
eloquent sermons and lectures on patriotic subjects. During 
the four years of the war he had gone up and down the North, 
preaching to great congregations, and delivering his great lecture 
on "Our Country," which everywhere aroused the greatest 
patriotic enthusiasm, often bringing whole audiences to their 
feet by the power of his eloquence. 

1 Life of Bishop Simpson, Crooks, p. 272. 

2 For other testimony regarding the intimacy between Lincoln and Bishop Simpson, 
see testimony of Gen. C. B. Fisk Crook's Life of Simpson, pp. 273-274. Also the 
Methodist Episcopal Church and the Civil War." Sweet, pp. 154-157. 

3 Letter of Bishop Simpson to his wife, quoted in Crooks' Life of Simpson, p. 387. 



64 

In 1864, he delivered this lecture at Elmira, New York, and a 
college president who heard it stated afterwards that "the gov- 
ernment should employ that man to visit all the principal 
cities in the loyal states and pronounce that discourse ; it would 
bring down the price of gold. MI Harper's Weekly thus describes 
the effect of this lecture, which he delivered in Pittsburgh in 
October, 1864. "The effect of his discourse is described as very 
remarkable. Toward the close an eyewitness says: 'Laying 
his hand upon the torn and ball-ridden colors of the Seventy - 
third Ohio, he spoke of the battlefields, where they had been 
baptized in blood, and described their beauty as some small 
patch of azure, filled with stars that an angel had snatched from 
the heavenly canopy to set the stripes in blood.' With this 
description began a scene that Demosthenes might have envied. 
All over the vast assembly, handkerchiefs and hats were waved 
and before the speaker sat down the whole throng arose as if by 
magic influence, and screamed and shouted, and stamped and 
clapped, and wept and laughed in wild excitement. Colonel 
Moody, a Methodist preacher who was Colonel of the Seventy- 
fourth Ohio, sprang to the top of a bench and called for the 
'Star Spangled Banner,' which was sung, or rather shouted, 
until the audience dispersed." 2 

This great speech of Bishop Simpson's played a rather import- 
ant part in the Campaign of 1864. It was arranged to have 
the lecture delivered in New York, just before the presidential 
election. Mr. Ward Hoyt, who had the preparation for the 
meeting in charge, thus writes to Bishop Simpson: "All your 
friends agree that you should speak before the election. Speak- 
ing at that time, with the full report, promised in the Tribune, 
Times, Herald, and Evening Post, is equivalent to speaking to 
the nation. ' ' The speech was accordingly delivered on Novem- 
ber 3rd, 1864, in the Academy of Music, New York. Of the 
great mass of people who came to hear it, the New York Tri- 
bune says: "Such an audience gathered at the Academy of 
Music as seldom, or never before, was crowded within its 
walls. Long before the time announced for the lecture to com- 
mence, the spacious building was crowded from pit to dome ; the 



1 Western Christian Advocate, Aug. 31, 1864. 

2 "Harper's Weekly," Oct. 15, 1865, p. 659. Colonel Moody, referred to in the 
above quotation, was a Methodist minister from southern Ohio, and was Colonel 
of an Ohio Regiment. He was a rough and ready preacher and a gallant officer. 



65 

seats were soon filled, the standing room all taken up, and still 
the crowd poured in, until no more room was left in which 
to squeeze another person." 1 

With the above facts before us, it becomes clear why this 
Methodist Bishop should have had such an important part in 
the funeral of President Lincoln. 

Before the body of the president left Washington, brief and 
simple services were conducted in the East room of the White 
House. The Rev. Dr. Hall, of the Church of the Epiphany, 
read the burial service; Bishop Simpson, as Nicolay and Hay 
says, "distinguished equally for his eloquence and his patriot- 
ism," offered prayer, and Dr. P. D. Gurley, at whose church 
(Presbyterian) the president and his family habitually attended 
worship, delivered a short address, "commemorating the quali- 
ties of courage, purity, and sublime faith, which had made the 
dead man great and useful." 2 At the close of this service the 
body was taken to the funeral train, and the long, sad journey 
from Washington to Springfield was begun. 

I will not stop here to describe at length the scenes which took 
place at the various stops along the route. The body was viewed 
by thousands at Baltimore and Harrisburg; at Philadelphia it 
lay in state in Independence Hall; at New York, among the 
thousands who came to look upon the wrinkled face of the dead 
president, was General Scott, pale and feeble; at Syracuse, 
30,000 people came out in a storm at midnight to pay their re- 
spects to the great dead; at Cleveland a special building was 
erected in the public square for the lying-in-state, and as the 
train neared the old home, the crowds increased. At Colum- 
bus, Ohio, and at Indianapolis, "the whole of each state seemed 
to be gathered to meet their dead hero," 3 and at Chicago practi- 
cally the whole city passed in one long, mournful stream past 
his open bier. 

On Wednesday, May the 3rd, at 9 A. M., the funeral train 
reached Springfield, arriving at the Chicago and Alton station. 
The body was taken immediately to the Hall of Representatives 
in the State House, the walls of the room being decorated with 
such mottoes as "Sooner than surrender this principle I would 
be assassinated on the spot!" and "Washington the Father, 



1 New York Tribune," Nov. 7, 1864. Quoted in Crook's Life of Simpson, pp. 
378-79. 

2 Nicolay and Hay Lincoln, vol. x, pp. 317-318. 

3 Ibid, pp. 319-322. 



,66 

Lincoln the Savior of his country." 1 Here the body lay in 
state, to be viewed by his old friends and neighbors until the next 
(Thursday) morning. The coffin, in which the dead president 
was encased, was of mahogany, lined with lead, the inside cov- 
ered with white box-plaited satin, and was said to be the most 
beautiful and costly coffin ever manufactured in this country. 
The outside of the coffin was covered with rich, black cloth, 
heavily fringed with silver, and on each side four silver medal- 
lions, in which were the four silver handles. A silver plate bear- 
ing the following inscription was placed on the center of the lid : 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN 

SIXTEENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

BORN FEBRUARY 12, 1809 

DIED APRIL 15, 1865 2 

For days before the body reached Springfield, all trains coming 
into the little city were crowded with people coming from Illi- 
nois and other neighboring states, to pay their last respects to 
their dead chieftain, and while the body lay in state, thousands 
of people passed by his coffin, and great crowds visited the 
Lincoln home. The house was then occupied by Mr. Tilton, 
president of the Great Western Railroad, and his family very 
kindly showed the strangers through the rooms made sacred by 
Lincoln's presence and use. Finally, however, the crowds 
around the house became so numerous, it was found necessary 
to place a guard around the house to prevent depredations. 
Permission had been given the visitors to carry away a leaf 
or a flower as a souvenir, but many were not content with this 
and chipped off pieces of the fence, and one man was caught in 
the act of carrying away a brick from the wall. 

Visitors were also shown the old Lincoln house-dog, and "old 
Tom," the family horse, the latter occupying a conspicuous 
place in the funeral procession, led by two grooms and capari- 
soned with velvet cloth. He had been sold some time previously, 
and had been used as a drayhorse, until the assassination, when 
he was purchased by two speculators for five hundred dollars, 
with the intention of showing him throughout the country. 



1 Western Christian Advocate, May 10, 1865. 

2 Ibid. 



67 

There were others who attempted to turn the occasion into a 
means for financial profit, by taking photographs of the house, 
horse and dog and selling them to the thousands on the streets. 1 
Thursday, May the Fourth, 1865, dawned clear and beautiful, 
the day on which the closing funeral honors to the dead president 
were to take place. At noon of that day, a salute to the dead of 
twenty-one guns was fired, and afterwards single guns at inter- 
vals of ten minutes. About noon the remains were brought 
from the State House and placed in the hearse, which was 
surmounted by a magnificent crown of flowers. While this was 
taking place, a great chorus 2 sang the hymn from the portico of 
the capitol: 

Children of the Heavenly King, 
As we journey let us sing, 
Sing our Saviour's worthy praise, 
Glorious in his works and ways. 

We are traveling home to God, 
In the way our fathers trod; 
They are happy now, and we 
Soon their happiness shall see. 

O ye banished seed, be glad; 
Christ our Advocate is made ; 
Us to save our flesh assumes, 
Brother to our souls becomes. 

Lord, obediently we'll go, 
Gladly leaving all below; 
Only thou our leader be, 
And we still will follow thee. 3 

The chief marshal of the day was Major General Hooker, 
aided by Brigadier-General Cook and staff, and Brigadier- Gen- 
eral Oakes and staff. Among those who followed the hearse to 
the grave, besides the relatives and family friends (Mrs. Lin- 
coln was not physically able to go), were Judge Davis of the 
United States Supreme Court, six or seven governors of states, 
members of Congress and other distinguished men, and. an im- 
mense multitude of others. 



1 Western Christian Advocate, May 17, 1865. 

2 Chorus led by Prof. B. Meissner, 

3 Christian Advocate and Journal (New York) May 11, 1865. 



68 

The procession reached Oak Ridge cemetery at about a quar- 
ter to one o'clock. The coffin was taken reverently from the 
hearse, and placed in the tomb, a stone structure built in a hill- 
side, and nearby in the same vault was the body of little Willie, 
whom the dead president had loved so dearly. When this was 
done the services began, in the presence of the great multitude 
gathered around. Prayer was offered by the Rev. Albert Hale, 
which was followed by a dirge, composed for the occasion by 
G. W. Root of Chicago. Then Rev. N. W. Miner read selec- 
tions from the first chapter of John's Gospel, after which a choral 
was sung^by a great choir, seated on a platform built for the 
occasion. After the reading of the dead president's second 
Inaugural by Rev. A. C. Hubbard, one of the noblest state 
papers of all time, Bishop Simpson gave the funeral oration, 
which Nicolay and Hay characterize as pathetic. At its 
close, there was a requiem, then the benediction, the services 
closing with a funeral dirge, composed by the Rev. Dr. Gurley, 
the president's pastor. 

It will be impossible here to give Bishop Simpson's address in 
full, but my intention in writing this paper would not be fulfilled 
without giving at least some extracts from it. Accordingly 
I here append something of this address : l 

"Fellow citizens of Illinois, and of many parts of our entire 
Union : Near the capital of this large and growing State of Illi- 
nois, in the midst of this beautiful grove, and at the open mouth 
of the vault which has just received the remains of our fallen 
chieftain, we gather to pay a tribute of respect and drop the 
tears of sorrow. A little more than four years ago he left his 
plain and quiet home in yonder city, receiving the parting words 
of the concourse of friends who, in the midst of the droppings 
of a gentle shower, gathered round him. He spoke of the pain 
in leaving the place where his children had been born, and where 
his home had been rendered so pleasant by many recollections. 
And as he left he made an earnest request in the hearing of some 
who are present at this hour, that as he was about to enter upon 
responsibilities which he believed to be greater than those which 
had fallen upon any man since the days of Washington, the 
people would offer up their prayers that God would aid and sus- 



1 The address may be found in full in "The Christian Advocate and Journal" 
(New York) May 11, 1865. Lengthy extracts from the address may also be found 
in Crook's Life of Simpson, pp. 397-403; also in "The Methodist Episcopal Church 
and the Civil War," Sweet, pp. 214-218. 



69 

tain him in the work they had given him to do. His company 
left your city; but as it went, snares were set for the Chief 
Magistrate. Scarcely did he escape the dangers of the way or 
the hand of the assassin as he neared Washington. I believe he 
escaped only through the vigilance of the officers and the prayers 
of the people, so that the blow was suspended for more than four 
years, which was at last permitted, through the providence of 
God, to fall. 

"How different the occasion which witnessed his departure 
from that which witnessed his return ! Doubtless you expected 
to take by the hand, to feel the warm grasp which you felt in 
other days, and to see the tall form among you which you had 
delighted to honor in years past. But he was never permitted 
to return until he came with lips mute, his frame encoffined, and 
a weeping nation following. Such a scene as his return to you 
was never witnessed. Among the events of history there have 
been great processions of mourners. There was one for the 
Patriarch Jacob, which went out of Egypt, and the Canaanites 
wondered at the evidence of reverence and filial affection which 
came from the hearts of the Israelites. There were mourners 
when Moses fell upon the heights of Pisgah and was hid from 
human view. There has been mourning in the kingdoms of the 
earth when kings and princes have fallen. But never was there 
in the history of man such mourning as that which has attended 
this progress to the grave. If we look at the multitudes that 
followed him we can see how the Nation stood aghast when it 
heard of his death. Tears filled the eyes of manly, sunburned 
faces. Strong men as they grasped the hands of their friends, 
were unable to find vent for their grief in words. Women and 
children caught up the tidings as they ran through the land, 
and were melted into tears. The Nation stood still. Men left 
their plows in the fields and asked what the end should be. 
The hum of manufactories ceased, and the sound of the hammer 
was not heard. Busy merchants closed their doors, and in the 
exchange gold passed no more from hand to hand. Though 
three weeks have elapsed, the Nation has scarcely breathed 
easily. Men of all political parties and all religious creeds have 
united in paying this tribute. The Archbishop of the Roman 
Catholic Church in New York and a Protestant minister walked 
side by side in the sad procession, and a Jewish rabbi performed 
a part of the solemn service. Here too are members of civic 
professions, with men and women from the humblest as well as 



70 

from the highest occupations. Here and there, too, are tears 
as sincere and warm as any that drop which come from the 
eyes of those whose kindred and whose race have been freed from 
their chains by him whom they mourn as their deliverer. More 
races have looked on the procession for sixteen hundred miles 
by night and by day, by sunlight, dawn, at twilight, and by 
torchlight than ever before watched the progress of a proces- 
sion on its way to the grave. 

"A part of this deep interest has arisen from the times in which 
we live and in which he who Ira's fallen was a leading actor. It is 
a principle of our nature that, feelings once excited, turn readily 
from the object by which they -are aroused to some other object, 
which may for the time being, take possession of the mind. 
Another law of our nature is that our deepest affections gather 
about some human form in which are incarnated the living thoughts 
of an age. If we look then at the times, we see an age of excite- 
ment. ' ' These thoughts were by the Bishop copiously illustrated. 

"The tidings came that Richmond was evacuated, and that 
Lee had surrendered. The bells rang merrily all over the land. 
The booming of cannon was heard; illuminations and torch- 
light processions manifested the general joy, and families looked 
for the speedy return of their loved ones from the field. Just in 
the midst of this in one hour nay in one moment the news 
was flashed throughout the land that Abraham Lincoln had 
perished by the hand of an assassin; and then all the feeling 
which had gathered for four years, in forms of excitement, grief 
horror, joy, turned into one wail of woe- a sadness inexpress- 
ible. But it is not the character of the times, merely, which has 
made this mourning; the mode of his death must be taken into 
account. Had he died with kind friends around him; had the 
sweat of death been wiped from his brow by gentle hands while 
he was yet conscious how it would have softened or assuaged 
something of our grief ! But no moment of warning was given to 
him or to us. He was stricken down, too, when his hopes for the 
end of the rebellion were bright, and prospects for a calmer life 
were before him. There was a cabinet meeting that day, said 
to have been the most cheerful of any held since the beginning 
of the rebellion. After this meeting he talked with his friends, 
and spoke of the four years of tempest, of the storm being over, 
and of the four years of content now awaiting him, as the weight 
of care and anxiety would be taken from his mind. In the 
midst of these anticipations he left his house, never to return 



71 

alive. The evening was Good Friday, the saddest day in the 
whole calendar for the Christian Church. So filled with grief 
was every Christian heart, that even the joyous thoughts of 
Easter Sunday failed to remove the sorrow under which the true 
worshipper bowed in the house of God. 

' ' But the chief reason for this mourning is to be found in the 
man himself." And here follows a summary of the character 
of Lincoln, in which the Bishop tells of his early life and self- 
training; he speaks of his administration, of his religious life, 
and finally of his home life, referring to Mrs. Lincoln, who was 
unable to be present at the grave, and also to Robert Lincoln, 
who was standing near. Of Lincoln's goodness, he says: 
"Abraham Lincoln was a good man. He was known as an 
honest, temperate, forgiving man, a just man, a man of noble 
heart, in every way. Certainly, if there ever was a man who 
illustrated some of the principles of pure religion, that man was 
our departed President. His example urges the country to 
trust in God and do right. 

"Standing as we do by his coffin today, let us resolve to carry 
forward the policy which he so nobly began. Let us do right 
to all men. Let us vow, before heaven, to eradicate every 
vestige of human slavery; to give every human being his true 
position before God and man; to crush every form of rebellion, 
and to stand by the flag which God has given us. How joyful 
that it floated over parts of every State before Mr. Lincoln's 
career was ended! How singular that to the fact of the assas- 
sin's heel being caught in the folds of the flag we are probably in- 
debted for his capture. The time will come when, in the beauti- 
ful words of him whose lips are now forever sealed, 'The mystic 
chords of memory, which stretch from every battlefield and from 
every patriot's grave, shall yield a sweeter music when touched 
by the angels of our better nature.' 

"Chieftain, farewell! The Nation mourns thee. Mothers 
shall teach thy name to their lisping children. The youth of 
our land shall emulate thy virtues. Statesmen shall study thy 
record and from it learn lessons of wisdom. Mute though thy 
lips be, yet they still speak. Hushed is thy voice, but echoes 
of liberty are ringing through the world, and the sons of bondage 
listen with joy. Thou didst fall not for thyself. The assassin 
had no hate for thee. Our hearts were aimed at; our national 
life was sought. We crown thee as our martyr, and humanity 
enthrones thee as her triumphant son. Hero, Martyr, Friend, 
Farewell!" 



72 



REMINISCENCES OF GEN. U. S. GRANT, READ BEFORE 

ILLINOIS COMMANDERY LOYAL LEGION OF 

THE UNITED STATES, JANUARY 27, 1910 

y 

BY GEN. FRED. D. GRANT. 

Kind friends, companions of my father, I am indeed happy to 
be with you again, appreciating gratefully your warm reception, 
realizing, however, that it is not so much for me personally, all 
this kindness, as it is in honor of the memory of a loved one gone 
before; your old commander and comrade in arms, General 
U. S. Grant. 

I have written out a few reminiscences which I venture to 
read, as requested to-night. 

It was my great good fortune to be with my father, close at 
his side, much of the time during the Civil War, when I had the 
opportunity of seeing and listening to many of the noble and 
distinguished men, who were loyally serving their country 
during that great struggle; thus I had the honor and happiness 
of seeing and meeting our revered and martyred President, 
Abraham Lincoln. 

In looking back to those dark days of the Civil War, I have 
distinct personal recollections, of the first two meetings between 
President Lincoln and my father, General U. S. Grant. These 
two occasions seem, to my mind, the most momentous and 
memorable in the history of our nation, as these meetings 
marked the beginning of the end of our great struggle for the 
existence of our Nation. 

The principal and determined efforts of President Lincoln's 
administration were directed to the preservation of the Union, 
which, naturally could not be accomplished without the success 
of the Union armies in the field. Up to the spring of 1864 the 
progress of the Civil War had not been satisfactory to the people 
of the North, and little success had been accomplished, except in 
the victories at Donelson, Vicksburg and Chattanooga. 



73 

After the Campaign of Chattanooga, the President and the 
people of the United States turned impulsively to General 
Grant as the leader of the Union armies, and a bill was intro- 
duced in Congress, reviving for him the grade of lieutenant- 
general, which grade had died with Washington (though Scott 
had held it by brevet). The enthusiastic members of the House 
of Representatives received the bill with applause. They made 
no concealment of their wishes, and recommended Grant by 
name for the appointment of lieutenant-general. The bill 
passed the House by a two-thirds majority, and the Senate 
with only six dissenting votes. 

President Lincoln seemed impatient to put Grant in this 
high grade, and said he desired to do so to relieve himself from 
the responsibilities of managing the military forces. He sent 
the nomination to the Senate, and General Grant, who was at 
Nashville, received an order from the Secretary of War, to 
report in person at Washington. In compliance with this order, 
he left Chattanooga on March 5th for Washington, taking with 
him some members of his staff. My father also allowed me to 
accompany him there, I having been with him during the 
Vicksburg campaign and at Donelson. He reached Wash- 
ington in the afternoon of March 7th, and went direct to the 
Willard's hotel. After making our toilets, my father took me 
with him to the hotel dining-room; there I remember seeing at 
the table next to where we were seated, some persons who 
seemed curious, and who began to whisper to each other. After 
several moments one of the gentlemen present attracted atten- 
tion by striking on the table with his knife, and when silence was 
secured, he arose and announced to the assembled diners, that 
he had "the honor to inform them that General Grant was 
present in the room with them." A shout arose "Grant! 
Grant! Grant!" and people sprang to their feet wild with ex- 
citement, and three cheers were proposed, which were given 
with wild enthusiasm. My father arose and bowed, and the 
crowd began to surge around him ; after that, dining became im- 
possible, and an informal reception was held for perhaps three- 
quarters of an hour; but as there seemed to be no end to the 
crowd assembling, my father left the dining-room and retired 
to his apartments. All this scene was most vividly impressed 
upon my youthful mind. 

Senator Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania, ex-Secretary of 
War, soon called at the Willard's hotel for my father, and 



74 

accompanied him, with his staff, to the White House, where 
President and Mrs. Lincoln were holding a reception. 

As my father entered the drawing-room door, at the White 
House, the other visitors fell back in silence, and President 
Lincoln received my father most cordially, taking both his hands, 
and saying, "I am most delighted to see you, General." I my- 
self, shall never forget this first meeting of Lincoln and Grant. 
It was an impressive affair, for there stood the executive of this 
great nation, welcoming the commander of its armies. I see 
them now before me, Lincoln, tall, thin and impressive, with 
deeply-lined face, and his strong sad eyes; Grant, compact, of 
good size, but looking small beside the President, with his broad, 
square head and compressed lips decisive and resolute. This 
was a thrilling moment, for in the hands of these two men was 
the destiny of our country. Their work was in cooperation, 
for the preservation of our great nation, and for the liberty of 
man. They remained talking together for a few moments, 
and then General Grant passed on into the East room, with the 
crowd which surrounded and cheered him wildly, and all present 
were eager to press his hand. The guests present forced him to 
stand upon a sofa, insisting that he could be better seen by all. 
I remember that my father, of whom they wished to make a 
hero, blushed most modestly at these enthusiastic attentions; 
all present joining in expressions of affection and applause. 
Soon a messenger reached my father, calling him back to the 
side of Mrs. Lincoln, and with her he made a tour of the 
reception rooms followed by President Lincoln, whose noble, 
rugged face beamed with pleasure and gratification. 

When an opportunity presented itself for them to speak pri- 
vately, President Lincoln said to my father : "I am to formally 
present you your commission to-morrow morning at 10 o'clock, 
and knowing, General, your dread of speaking, I have written 
out what I have to say, and will read it, and it will only be four 
or five sentences. I would like you to say something in reply 
which will soothe the feeling of jealousy among the officers, and 
be encouraging to the Nation." Thus spoke this great and noble 
peacemaker to the General who so heartily coincided with him in 
sentiments and work for union and peace. 

When the reception was over at the White House, my father 
returned to Willard's hotel, where a great crowd was again 
assembled to greet him, and remained with him until a late hour 
of the night. After the crowd had dispersed, my father sat 



75 

down and wrote what he intended to say the following day, in 
receiving his commission promoting him to the lieutenant- 
generalcy and to the command of the Union armies. 

I brought with me here to-night the original manuscripts of 
these speeches of Lincoln and Grant written by them at that 
time, which I preserve with care, thinking that you, my father's 
old comrades, might like to see them, and I shall be happy to 
show these manuscripts to you after this meeting is over. 

Father proceeded to the White House a few minutes before 
10 o'clock the next morning, permitting me to accompany him. 
Upon arriving there, General Grant and his staff were ushered 
into the President's office, which I remember was the room im- 
mediately above what is known now as the Green room of the 
Executive mansion. There, the President and his Cabinet were 
assembled, and after a short and informal greeting, all standing, 
the President faced General Grant, and from a sheet of paper, 
read the following: 

"General Grant: The Nation's appreciation of what you 
have done, and its reliance upon you for what remains to be done 
in the existing great struggle, are now presented, with this 
commission, constituting you lieutenant-general in the Army of 
the United States. With this high honor devolves upon you, 
also, a corresponding responsibility. As the country herein trusts 
you, so, under God, it will sustain you. I scarcely need to add, 
that with what I here speak, goes my hearty concurrence." 

My father taking from his pocket a sheet of paper contain- 
ing the words that he had written the night before, read quietly 
and modestly to the President and his Cabinet : 

"Mr. President, I accept the commission with gratitude for 
the high honor conferred. With the aid of the noble armies 
that have fought in so many fields for our common country, 
it will be my earnest endeavor not to disappoint your expecta- 
tions. I feel the full weight of the responsibilities now devolv- 
ing upon me, and I know that if they are met, it will be due to 
those armies, and, above all, to the favor of that Providence, 
which leads both nations and men." 

President Lincoln seemed to be profoundly happy, and Gen- 
eral Grant deeply gratified. It was a supreme moment when 
these two patriots shook hands in confirming the compact that 
was to finish our terrible Civil War, and to save our united 
country, and to give us a nation, without master and without 
slave. 



76 

From the time of these meetings, the friendship between the 
President and my father was most close and loyal. President 
Lincoln seemed to have absolute confidence in General Grant, 
and my father always spoke of the President with the deepest 
admiration and affection. This affection and loyal confidence 
was maintained between them until their lives ended. 

I feel deeply grateful to have been present when these two 
patriots met, on the occasion when they loyally promised one 
another to preserve the Union at all costs. 

I preserve, always as a treasure, in my home, a large bronze 
medallion, which was designed by a distinguished artist at the 
request of the loyal citizens of Philadelphia, upon the happy 
termination of our great Civil War, and which is a beautiful 
work of art. Upon this bronze medallion are three faces, in 
relief, with the superscription: "Washington the Father, Lin- 
coln the Savior and Grant the Preserver," emblematic of a 
great and patriotic trinity. 

I remember with utmost interest my life and all of the inci- 
dents when with my father and his comrades during the Civil 
War, and I recall with deepest affection the men whom I met in 
the army. Much of my time was spent among the private 
soldiers, who were never too tired or worn out to comfort and 
pet the boy of thirteen the son of the "Old Man." Young as 
I was then, my camp life was of such nature I saw so much 
of the hardships, the self-denials, the sufferings and labors 
of both privates and officers that my proudest moments are 
when I am associating with the old warriors the Veteran Com- 
rades of my father. 

FREDERICK D. GRANT. 

Read by General F. D. Grant to the Illinois Commandery of 
the Loyal Legion of the U. S. on January 27, 1910. 




JOHN M. ROBINSON 
United States Senator from Illinois. Judge of the Illinois State Supreme Court 



77 



FORGOTTEN STATESMEN OF ILLINOIS. 

HON. JOHN M. ROBINSON. 



BY DANIEL BERRY, M. D. 

John McCracken Robinson, son of Jonathan and Jane (Black) 
Robinson, was born near Lexington, Ky., in 1794. 

He was graduated from Transylvania University at a time 
when that institution was in the height of its renown. 

He graduated with honors at about the age of nineteen years, 
choosing the profession of law. 

When General Robinson was admitted to the bar, at the early 
age of twenty- two, he moved to Illinois. 

He first landed at Shawneetown, and later moved to Carmi, 
which became his permanent home for the remaining twenty- 
five years of his life. 

During that time, he became known as the most prominent 
statesman of Southern Illinois. 

We must not forget that at this time, Southern Illinois was 
about all there was of the thriving youngster that was to grow 
into the husky giant it is now. 

This young man soon became known for his high character as 
a brilliant, thorough-going young lawyer; and at once was 
appointed prosecuting attorney in 1819, and again in 1821; 
and States attorney in 1827. 

Honors and large responsibilities were poured upon him. 

In January, 1832, he was elected by the Legislature as United 
States Senator to fill the unexpired term of John McLean, over 
D. J. Baker, the choice of the Governor. 

He entered on these high duties at the early age of thirty- 
seven. 

In 1836, he was elected for a full term which expired in 1843. 

He was in the Senate about eleven years and won a high rank 
as a statesman. 



78 

He was a Democrat in politics and had the special and personal 
friendship of both President Jackson and President Van Buren. 

Senator Robinson not being a candidate for re-election upon 
his withdrawal from the Senate, President Van Buren appointed 
him Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern 
district of Illinois. 

Two months later, on the 25th of April, 1843, General Robin- 
son died at Ottawa, the seat of the court, after a brief illness. 

Testimonials to his great worth and high standing as a lawyer, 
judge, statesman and citizen were given by the Legislature, the 
Bar and officers of the Supreme Court and various other bodies. 

General Robinson was partial to military displays and rose to 
the grade of Major General of the State Militia, and was com- 
monly known as General Robinson. 

Physically, he was a man six feet, four inches in height, and 
built in proportion to that height. 

His eyes were blue and his hair a rich auburn. 

In personal appearance he could scarcely be excelled. 

He was a man of dignified, courtly manners, who would draw 
the attention of all who met him. 

He was kind-hearted, greatly beloved at home and among 
friends, and honored everywhere. 

January 28th, 1829, General Robinson married Mary B. D. 
Ratcliff, daughter of James Ratcliff, an eminent citizen of 
Southern Illinois. 

She survived her husband until 1864. He left two children, 
James M. and Margaret Robinson. 

James married Miss Harrow. He was a splendid man. A 
successful and brilliant lawyer. He, too, died young, leaving a 
baby girl, now Mrs. Hawkins of Kentucky. Margaret married 
Robert Stuart. These are both dead. They left a daughter, 
Miss Mary Jane Stuart, now living in Carmi. 

Just previous to his retirement from the Senate. General 
Robinson published the following letter to his constituents: 

To the People of Illinois : 

A year hence closes the second term of my service as United 
States Senator. 

That you may be seasonably advised of my intention not 
again to be a candidate for re-election, I have thought it due, 
both to you and myself, to make it publicly known, in advance 
of the next August election, for members to our General Assem- 
bly, who will have the appointment of my successor. 



79 

Since taking my seat in the Senate, early in the first term of 
General Jackson's administration, an unusual number of 
measures of the most deep and exciting interest have been before 
Congress for consideration and action, the character and bearing 
of which are too fresh in the memory of all to require of me their 
recapitulation. 

Upon the measures of the past and present administration, as 
well from a consciousness of your will as my own conviction 
of their wisdom and policy, my votes have mainly been in their 
favor. 

On a very important subject, during the present session, my 
vote was given, not only against my own judgment, but, 
possibly, against the judgment and will of a majority of the 
voters of Illinois it is scarcely necessary to say I mean upon 
the Independent Treasury Bill. 

In giving the vote I did against this bill, it was done under the 
imperative instructions of a majority (not large, to be sure) of 
the members of each House of our State Legislature. 

And if wrong, upon my instructions rest that wrong. 

And whether these instructions were a true exposition of 
your will and wishes upon the subject was not for me, but is for 
you to determine. 

My political tenets lead me to believe that the representative 
is bound by the will of his constituents ; and that so far as relates 
to a Senator in Congress, the Legislature is presumed to be the 
true exponent of that will. 

The official relation I bore to the authors of these instructions 
constrained me to infer that each member who voted for them 
did what he believed was the will and wish of his immediate con- 
stituents; and that it was his duty to give, and mine to obey 
them. For I would not allow myself to believe that any member 
of our Legislature would require of me to do that which he did 
not positively believe his constituents if speaking for them- 
selves, would have required; nor which he, if in my place and 
similarly instructed, would not feel bound to obey. 

Previous to these instructions, I had voted differently, and 
was anxious for the success of the bill; believing, as I then did, 
and yet do, its adoption to be demanded by the good of the 
country. 

I shall proceed briefly and fairly, to state the great principles of 
this bill so much abused and repudiated by its opponents. 

They are: 



80 

The establishment of a Treasury of the United States in fact, 
in which to keep the money of the people; and of secure places 
of deposit in the great commercial towns for the money collected 
and to be paid out at those places. 

The appointment of public officers to take charge of these 
places of deposit and of the money placed within them, while 
the Treasurer of the United States is to have the charge of the 
Treasury and the money placed therein. The requirement of 
secure and sufficient bonds from all these officers for the faith- 
ful discharge of their duties and the safe keeping of the money 
ntrusted to them. 

A prohibition against their -lending or using the money in 
their hands in any way or for any purpose other than in obedi- 
ence to law; and making any such unauthorized use of any 
portion of the public money a felony, and criminally punishable. 

Provision for the gradual collection of the public revenue in the 
legal currency of the United States, by which, at the expiration 
of four years, it will be all so collected ; and similar provisions 
for making all the public payments in the same currency. 

These are the great and all the great and essential principles 
of the Independent Treasury Bill. 

And to carry it into operation, the appointment of but four 
new officers and some eight or ten clerks is proposed or required. 

The simple and sole object is to make public officers, instead 
of banks, the fiscal agents of our Government. 

And when the subject is freed from party feeling, prejudice, 
and the influence of the former mode of depositing the public 
money in banks, I can but believe that every reflecting, candid 
man, in view of the late and present condition of the banks, 
and with an eye to the future welfare of the country, will admit 
the measure, not only to be indispensably necessary, but the 
very best which could be adopted. 

And so well am I convinced of the good policy of the measure, 
that I feel confident if once tried, its practical effects will prove 
so salutary and beneficial as to insure for it the approbation of 
all, and permanency as the settled and fixed law of our country. 

Of the 35,941,902 acres of land in Illinois, there have been 
patented to soldiers as bounty land, 2,831,840 acres; granted 
for schools, canals, seat of Government, saltworks, with private 
claims and small Indian reservations included, 2,713,644 acres. 

And of the balance of the year, 1831, when I first took my 
seat in the Senate, there had been sold but 1,838,601 acres, 



81 

since which, up to the 30th of September last, there have been 
sold 9, 120,947 acres. 

And land offices increased from six to ten. 

The progress making to complete the surveys of all the lands 
within the State, warrants the belief that all which may not 
sooner, will in the course of this and the next year, be prepared 
to be brought into market. 

Since the last of the year, 1830, the Indian title has been ex- 
tinguished to about 2,119,680 acres, and the Indians removed 
beyond our bound, leaving no tribes claiming any portion of 
the public lands in the State, or residing within its limits. 

Since the first of the year, 1831, the aggregate length of post 
routes in Illinois has been increased from 3,276 miles to 6,690 
miles. 

The transportation of the mail from 254,022 miles to 1,387,956 
miles and the mode of transportation from 135,900 miles in 
coaches and stages, to 909,877 miles; from 118,122 miles, on 
horseback, to 326,503 miles; and 69,576 miles of steamboat 
transportation wholly added. 

The number of post offices increased from 141 to 521. 

The Cumberland road has not progressed as fast as, to me, 
its importance seemed so demand. 

For the ninety miles in Illinois, there has been appropriated 
during the last nine years the sum of $706,000. 

Toward building a lighthouse and improving the harbor at 
Chicago, there has been appropriated between $100,000 and 
$200,000. And for the improvement of the navigation of the 
Ohio and Mississippi rivers, about half a million of dollars. 

These are among the principal subjects immediately and di- 
rectly affecting Illinois, upon which the General Government 
has acted thus far during my service as one of your Senators. 
And whether, or not, these measures have been beneficial to 
the State or aided in swelling the number of our population, in 
less than ten years, from one hundred and fifty thousand to over 
a half a million, you can readily judge. 

For having been twice honored with an election to the high 
station, it has been your pleasure I should occupy, my heart is 
filled with gratitude, which it shall never cease to feel and 
cherish until it shall cease to beat. 

Your fellow citizen and obedient servant, 

JOHN M. ROBINSON. 

Washington, March 3, 1840. 



82 



THE PIASA. 



BY FREDERICK E. VOELKER. 

(READ BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF ARCHAE- 
OLOGISTS AT THE CONVENTION IN ST. Louis, SEPTEMBER 27TH, 
1913.)* 

It is no great venture to assert that there are comparatively 
few people living in the Middle West who are cognizant of the 
fact that the greatest specimen of primitive pictorial art in 
America survived on the banks of the Father-of- Waters until 
the year 1847, when after an existence of hundreds of years, 
perhaps, it fell before the hand of Progress. 

This masterpiece of America's aboriginal artists was the 
pictograph known as the "Piasa," which was painted on the 
smooth face of the bluff a short distance above Alton, (111.), 
at that point where Piasa creek empties into the Mississippi. 
A recent writer says the painting was placed at a height of 
eighty feet above the river. 

Since 1673, men have endeavored to solve the mystery sur- 
rounding the Piasa, since it was in the latter part of June, that 
year, that white men first gazed on this remarkable work. 
These men were the Jesuit Jacques Marquette, and his com- 
panion explorer, Louis Joliet, who were descending the mighty 
river in canoes. Marquette's description of the Piasa is by far 
the most elaborate that has come down to us. Translated by 
R. G. Thwaites in "Jesuit Relations" it is as follows: 

"While Skirting some rocks, which by their height and 
Length inspired awe, We saw upon one of them two painted 
Monsters which at first made Us afraid, and upon which the 
boldest savages dare not long rest their eyes. They are as large 
as a calf ; They have Horns on their heads Like those of a deer, 
a horrible look, red eyes, a beard like a tiger's, a face somewhat 
like a man's, body covered with scales, and so long a tail that it 



*The writer wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to the writings of Mrs. 
Clara Kern Bayliss of Macomb, Illinois, in the preparation of this paper. 



83 

winds all around the body, passing above the head and going 
back between the legs, ending in a Fish's tail. Green, red and 
black are the three colors composing the Picture. Moreover, 
these two Monsters are so well painted that we cannot believe 
that any savage is their author ; for good painters in france would 
find it difficult to paint so well and, besides, they are so high 
up on the rock that it is difficult to reach that place conveni- 
ently to paint them. Here is approximately The shape of 
these monsters, as we have faithfully copied it." 

Francis Parkman, in his volume on La Salle, says, referring 
to Marquette's drawing, above mentioned: 

"Marquette made a drawing of these two monsters, but it is 
lost. I have, however, a fac-simile of a map made a few years 
later, by order of the Intendant Duchesneau, which is decorated 
with the portrait of one of them answering to Marquette's 
description, and probably copied from his drawing. 

William McAdams, in "Records of Ancient Races" says: 

"We have received, through the kindness of Mr. Parkman, a 
copy of the portrait of which he speaks ; but we cannot agree with 
the historian in believing that it answers to Marquette's descrip- 
tion, or refers to the well-known figure that once adorned the 
bluff at Alton." 

According to the testimony of Marquette, then, it appears 
that there were representations of two monsters on the bluff 
when white men first explored this country. In later years, 
however, one had disappeared some time prior to the destruc- 
tion of the other. 

Hennepin, in his "Continuation of the New Discovery of a 
vast Country in America" interprets Marquette's language 
substantially as does Thwaites, with but one exception. He 
says the horns were those of a "Wild-Goat." John G. Shea's 
translation of Marquette agrees with Thwaites in all but one 
particular. He says: "The tail (is) so long that it twice 
makes the turn of the body." 

Aligned with Thwaites, also, are Francis Parkman and David- 
son and Stuve, joint authors of a history of Illinois, who say, in 
addition, that the pictographs were objects of Indian worship. 

The next European to actually see the painting of the Piasa 
was the Recollect Louis Hennepin. He came by shortly after 
the 24th of April, 1680, and had the following to relate: 

"I had quite forgot to relate that the Illinois had told us 
that towards the Cape which I have called in my map St. 



84 

Anthony, near the nation of the Messorites, there were some 
Tritons and other Sea Monsters painted which the boldest men 
durst not look upon, there being some Inchantment in their 
face. I thought this was a story, but when we came near the 
place they had mentioned we saw instead of these monsters a 
Horse and some other Beasts painted upon the rock with Red 
Colors by the Savages. The Illinois had told us likewise that the 
rock on which these dreadful Monsters stood was so steep that 
no man could climb up to it, but had we not been afraid of the 
savages more than of the Monsters we had certainly got up to 
them. There is a common Tradition amongst the people that 
a great number of Miamis were drowned in that place, being 
pursued by the Savages of Matsegamie, and since that time the 
Savages going by the rock use to smoak and offer Tobacco to 
these Beasts to appease, as they say, the Manitou, that is, in the 
Language of the Algonquins and Arcadians, an Evil Spirit, which 
the Iroquois call Otkon, but the name is the only thing they 
know of him. While I was at Quebec I undertood M. Joliet 
had been upon the Mississippi and obliged to return without 
going down the River because of the Monsters I have spoke of 
who had frightened him * * * and having an opportunity 
to know the truth of that Storey from M. Jolliet himself, * * * 
I asked him whether he had been as far as the Arkansas. That 
Gentleman answered me that the Outtaouats had often spoke to 
him of these Monsters, but that he had never gone further than 
the Hurons and Outtaouats" who lived in the region to the 
south and east of Georgian Bay, in Ontario. Hennepin's general 
reputation among historians renders it unnecessary for us to 
comment on his refutation of Marquette. 

Along came Anastasius Douay, likewise a Recollect priest, 
some time between August 26 and September 5th, 1687. He 
followed blithely in the footsteps of Hennepin, when commenting 
on Marquette's description he says: 

"It is said that they saw painted monsters that the boldest 
would have difficulty to look at, and that there was something 
supernatural about them. This frightful monster is a horse 
painted on a rock with matachia," an old term for paint, "and 
some other wild beasts made by the Indians. It is said that 
they can not be reached, and yet I touched them without 
difficulty. The truth is that the Miamis, pursued by the 
Matsigamea, having been drowned in the river, the Indians 



85 

ever since that time present tobacco to these grotesque figures 
whenever they pass, in order to appease the manitou." 

The next visitor to the painted bluff was Jean St. Cosme, who 
said: 

"On the 6th of December we embarked on the Micissippi, 
after making about six leagues we found the great river of the 
Missouris, * * * * three or four leagues (further) we 
found on the left a rock having some figures painted on it, for 
which, it is said the Indians have some veneration. They are 
now almost effaced." This passage very evidently refers to 
the paintings of the Piasa, which we would never suspect on 
reading it. Shea's translation, the only one available, and 
which is used above, makes it impossible for St. Cosme to have 
seen the Piasa. That is evident when we consider the follow- 
ing: After mentioning his embarking on the Mississippi, St. 
Cosme says : 

"After making about six leagues we found the great river of 
the Missouris" so far no mention of the pictographs, which 
were located between the mouth of the Illinois, where he em- 
barked on the Mississippi, and the mouth of the Missouri, where 
he now is; continuing, he says: "Three or four leagues (further)" 
the word further being supplied by Shea "we found on the 
left a rock having some figures painted on it;" thereby placing 
the painted rock somewhere, about twelve miles, approximately, 
below the mouth of the Missouri, which would be directly 
opposite St. Louis. Those of us who know the topography of 
the country can testify that there is no such bluff opposite this 
city. The fact of the matter is that the river bluff ends abruptly 
at Alton, eight miles above the mouth of the Missouri, and 
does not again appear for a distance of seventy-five or eighty 
miles below the Missouri. Thus does Shea make it impossible 
for St. Cosme to have seen the Piasa. Nevertheless this slight 
discrepancy does not deter him from saying: "This is the Piesa 
or painted rock first mentioned by Marquette." 

My own interpretation of the words of St. Cosme, done into 
the American language is as follows: 

"On the 6th of December, 1699, we embarked on the Missis- 
sippi. After making about twenty-one miles which is nearly 
the equivalent of six leagues we found the Missouri river. At 
three or four leagues which is about from eleven to fourteen 
miles we found on the left a rock, and etc." As a matter of 



86 

fact, the distance from the Illinois to Piasa creek where the 
pictograph was located is about eleven and a half miles, thus 
making it entirely possible for St. Cosme to have seen it. 

Then, for a period of one hundred and five years, no one who 
has written down his observations, or at least published them in 
permanent form, so far as I am able to discover, came by that 
bluff that held the mystery of the Piasa. The next record we 
have is that of Major Amos Stoddard, U. S. A., who came along 
some time between 1804 and 1812. He said: 

"The * * * journals of Jolliet and Marquette were 
published, and they afford a. pretty accurate description of the 
Country, its rivers, and productions. What they call Painted 
Monsters on the side of a high perpendicular rock, apparently 
inaccessible to man, between the Missouri and Illinois, and 
known to moderns by the name of Piesa, still remain in a good 
degree of preservation." Thwaites says Stoddard saw them in 
the year 1812. 

McAdams says: 

"We have in our possession a spirited pen-and-ink sketch, 
12 by 15 inches in size, and purporting to represent the ancient 
painting described by Marquette. On the picture is inscribed 
the following in ink; 'Made by William Dennis, April 3d, 1825.' ' 
So the said Mr. Dennis was the next to record the existence of 
the Piasa. McAdams does not go into details concerning this 
drawing. 

In March, 1836, Doctor John Russell, at one time professor of 
Greek and Latin at Shurtleff College, in Upper Alton, 111., visited 
the locality of the painted bluff. In July, of that same year, he 
handed down to posterity the following: 

' ' No part of the United States, not even the highlands of the 
Hudson, can vie, in wild and romantic scenery, with the bluffs 
of Illinois on the Mississippi, between the mouths of the Missouri 
and Illinois rivers. On one side of the river, often at the water's 
edge, a perpendicular wall of rock rises to the height of some 
hundred feet. Generally on the opposite shore is a level bottom 
or prairie of several miles in extent, extending to a similar bluff 
that runs parallel with the river. One of these ranges com- 
mences at Alton and extends * * * * for many miles 
along the left bank of the Mississippi. In descending the river 
to Alton, the traveler will observe, between that town and the 
mouth of the Illinois, a narrow ravine through which a small 
stream discharges its waters into the Mississippi. This stream 



87 

is the Piasa. Its name is Indian, and signifies in the Illini, 
'The bird that devours men!' Near the mouth of this stream, on 
the smooth and perpendicular face of the bluff, at an elevation 
which no human art can reach, is cut the figure of an enormous 
bird, with its wings extended. The animal which the figure 
represents was called by the Indians the Piasa. From this is 
derived the name of the stream. 

"The tradition of the Piasa is still current among the tribes of 
the Upper Mississippi, and those who have inhabited the valley 
of the Illinois, and is briefly this : 

"Many thousand moons before the arrival of the palefaces, 
when the great Magalonyx and Mastadon, whose bones are now 
dug up, were still living in the land of green prairies, there existed 
a bird of such dimensions that he could easily carry off in his 
talons a full grown deer. Having obtained a taste for human 
flesh, from that time he would prey on nothing else. He was 
artful as he was powerful, and would dart suddenly and unex- 
pectedly upon an Indian, bear him off into one of the caves of 
the bluff, and devour him. Hundreds of warriors attempted 
for years to destroy him, but without success. Whole villages 
were nearly depopulated, and consternation spread through all 
the tribes of the Illini. 

"Such was the state of affairs when Ouatogo the great chief 
of the Illini, whose fame extended beyond the great lakes, 
separating himself from the rest of his tribe, fasted in solitude 
for the space of a whole moon, and prayed to the Great Spirit, 
The Master of Life, that he would protect his children from the 
Piasa. 

"On the last night of the fast the Great Spirit appeared to 
Ouatogo in a dream, and directed him to select twenty of his 
bravest warriors, each armed with a bow and poisoned arrows, 
and conceal them in a designated spot. Near the place of con- 
cealment another warrior was to stand in open view, as a victim 
for the Piasa, which they must shoot the instant he pounced 
upon his prey. 

' ' When the chief awoke in the morning, he thanked the Great 
Spirit, and returning to his tribe told them his vision. Ouatogo 
offered himself as the victim. He was willing to die for his 
people. Placing himself in open view on the bluffs, he soon 
saw the Piasa perched on the cliff eyeing his prey. The chief 
drew up his manly form to his utmost height, and, planting his 
feet firmly upon the earth, he began to chant the death-song 



88 

of an Indian warrior. The moment after, the Piasa arose into 
the air, and swift as the thunderbolt darted down on his victim. 
Scarcely had the horrid creature reached his prey before every 
bow was sprung and every arrow was sent quivering to the 
feather into his body. The Piasa uttered a fearful scream, that 
sounded far over the opposite side of the river, and expired. 
Ouatogo was unharmed. Not an arrow, not even the talons 
of the bird, had touched him. The Master of Life, in admiration 
of Ouatogo's deed, had held over him an invisible shield. 

"There was the wildest rejoicing among the Illini, and the 
brave chief was carried in triumph to the council house, where it 
was solemnly agreed that, in memory of the great event in their 
nation's history, the image of the Piasa should be engraved on 
the bluff. 

"Such is the Indian tradition. Of course I cannot vouch for 
its truth. This much, however, is certain, that the figure of a 
huge bird, cut in the solid rock, is still there, and at a height 
that is perfectly inaccessible. How, and for what purpose it 
was made, I leave it for others to determine. Even at this 
day an Indian never passes the spot in his canoe without firing 
his gun at the figure of the Piasa. The marks of the balls on 
the rock are almost innumerable. 

"Near the close of March of the present year 1836 I was 
induced to visit the bluffs below the mouth of the Illinois river, 
above that of the Piasa. My curiosity was principally directed 
to the examination of a cave, connected with the above tradi- 
tion as one of those to which the bird had carried his human 
victims. 

' ' Preceded by an intelligent guide, who carried a spade, I set 
out on *ny excursion. The cave was extremely difficult of 
access, and at one point in our progress I stood at an elevation 
of one hundred and fifty feet on the perpendicular face of the 
bluff, with barely room to sustain one foot. The unbroken wall 
towered above me, while below was the river. 

"After a long and perilous climb we reached the cave, which 
was about fifty feet above the surface of the river. By the aid 
of a long pole placed on a projecting rock, and the upper end 
touching the mouth of the cave, we succeeded in entering it. 
Nothing could be more impressive than the view from the 
entrance to the cavern. The Mississippi was rolling in silent 
grandeur beneath us. High over our heads a single cedar tree 
hung its branches over the cliff, and on one of the dead dry 



89 

limbs was seated a bald eagle. No other sign of life was near 
us; a Sabbath stillness rested on the scene. Not a cloud was 
visible on the heavens; not a breath of air was stirring. The 
broad Mississippi was before us, calm and smooth as a lake. 
The landscape presented the same wild aspect it did before it 
had met the eye of the white man. The roof of the cavern was 
vaulted, and at the top was hardly less than twenty feet high. 
The shape of the cavern was irregular, but so far as I could judge, 
the bottom would average twenty by thirty feet. The floor of 
the cavern throughout its whole extent was one mass of human 
bones. Skulls and other bones were mingled in the utmost 
confusion. To what depth they extended I was unable to decide, 
but we dug to the depth of 3 or 4 feet in every part of the cavern, 
and still we found only bones. The remains of thousands must 
have been deposited here. How and by whom, and for what 
purpose, it is impossible to conjecture." 

Several years after the publication of this tradition, Me Adams 
wrote Professor Russell in regard thereto. "He answered that 
there was a somewhat similar tradition among the Indians, but 
he admitted, to use his own words, that the story was 'some- 
what illustrated.' ' 

In June, 1838, A. D. Jones visited the spot and incorporated 
his observations and gleanings in a little book called "Illinois 
and the West." Jones' version of the Illini tradition says that 
the man-destroying bird which took up its home in the lofty 
peaks near Alton, had wings clothed with thunder, making a 
fearful noise in its heavy flight ; its talons, four in number, were 
like the eagle's; its tail was of huge dimensions. "After the 
distribution of firearms among the Indians," he says, "bullets 
were substituted for arrows, and even to this day no savage 
presumes to pass the spot without discharging his rifle and rais- 
ing his shout of triumph. I visited the spot in June (1838) and 
examined the image, and the ten thousand bullet marks on the 
cliff seemed to corroborate the tradition related to me in the 
neighborhood. 

' ' So lately as the passage of the Sac and Fox delegations down 
the river on their way to Washington, there was a general dis- 
charge of their rifles at the Piasau Bird. On arriving at Alton, 
they went ashore in a body and proceeded to the bluffs, where 
they held a solemn war council, concluding the whole with a 
splendid war dance, under the cliff on which was the image 



90 

"Another author" mentioned by McAdams, but whose name 
he fails to give, saw the picture and described it in the year 1844. 

What is, probably, the most satisfactory picture of the 
Piasa is contained in an old German publication entitled "The 
Valley of the Mississippi Illustrated." It contains "eighty illus- 
trations from nature by H. Lewis." It was published in 1839. 
McAdams believed this to have been a faithful sketch of what the 
German artist saw dimly outlined just prior to 1839. The ac- 
count accompanying this sketch tells of the tradition, and says 
the pictograph was growing dim and showed evidence of great 
age. "In the German picture there is shown, just behind the 
rather dim outlines of a second face, a ragged crevice, as though 
of a fracture. Part of the bluff's face might have fallen and 
thus nearly destroyed one of the monsters; for in later years 
writers speak of but one figure." 

Many years later, Mr. W. H. Allen related to McAdams, how, 
on days when the atmosphere was full of moisture, or after a 
very wet period, the figure on the rock could be seen much 
plainer. And this may have been the case when the German 
artist came along in '39, and the reason why he failed to get the 
picture of the second monster in its entirety was because the 
weather was unfavorable. Hon. P. A. Armstrong relates, 
in his monograph on the Piasa, what he claimed was a tradition 
told him by the Miamis in 1827, the substance of which is that the 
Miamis and Metchegamies one day clashing in battle, in the 
heat of the fray two enormous birds swooped down and bore 
away two chieftains of the Miamis, which threw their followers 
into a panic, resulting in their losing the day. From this blow, 
they never recovered. 

#*:(=***#### 

"In the myths of many people a great bird is the agent of 
the chief deity, if not the deity himself," so says the historian 
Bancroft. 

Many myths akin to that of the Piasa can be found by a 
study of the mythology of the American Indians, some bearing 
a striking resemblance to that of the Piasa. There are the 
Passamaquoddy of Maine who think their thunder-bird resem- 
bles a human being, with the exception that it has wings. 

The Kaloo bird of the Canadian Micmacs could catch a man 
in his talons and carry him away. 

The Omahas, Poncas and Sioux have thunder-birds and 
thunder-men. 



91 

The Dakota and Modocs relate myths wherein the thunder- 
birds are watched during the process of eating human beings. 

The Medicine Animal of the Winnebagoes, seen only by the 
medicine-men, closely resembles in form the painting of the 
Piasa. 

There have been numerous attempts to connect the Piasa 
Bird with the early geologic ages in America. Theories have been 
advanced wherein the Piasa assumes the form of a living 
creature, an actual breathing denizen of the plains and forests 
along the Mississippi ; but let us not be deceived, for think what 
a wonderful, intricate creature this must have been with horns on 
its head like a deer, the face of a human being, a beard like a 
tiger's, great red eyes, wings as large as an eagle's, a tail that 
would have been approximately 15 or 20 feet long, a body cov- 
ered with scales, and that very essential asset to navigation a 
rudder like that of a fish on the end of the tail ; the whole crea- 
ture being done into livid hues of green and red by nature. 
Surely in the whole scale of evolution we can find no such 
creature. 



92 



SOLDIERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION BURIED 

IN ILLINOIS. 



BY MRS. EDWIN S. WALKER. 

MORGAN COUNTY 

The Rev. James Caldwell Chapter, D. A. R. of Jacksonville, 
observed a Red-letter day in their history, when on March 10th, 
1914, a bronze tablet was unveiled in memory of nineteen 
soldiers of the American Revolution who lie buried in Morgan 
county. 

The exercises were held in the Circuit Court room and were 
alike impressive and patriotic The tablet was formally pre- 
sented by Miss Effie Epler, chairman of the Tablet committee, 
and was accepted by the Regent of the chapter, Mrs. O. F. 
Buffe, who in turn presented the same to Morgan county. 

In behalf of Morgan county, Judge E. P. Brockhouse accepted 
the tablet. The Hon. Horace Bancroft, a member of the S. A. R. , 
in an address paid an eloquent tribute to the Soldiers of '76. 

Hon. Richard Yates followed with a stirring address, highly 
commending the work of Washington, and in an especial manner 
giving deserved tribute to the women of that period in our his- 
tory. 

Appropriate music was rendered by a concert band and a 
chorus from the high school. The invocation was given by the 
Rev. R. O. Post. 

The tablet, which was placed on the south wall of the court 
house, was unveiled by lineal descendants of some of the soldiers 
commemorated, Miss Anna Clayton and Miss Janette Powell. 

The State committee on Historical Research, earnestly hopes 
that every county in the State, where Revolutionary soldiers 
are buried, will honor their memory in like manner. 

ISHMAIL BOBBITT 

Was a native of North Carolina ; he was in service under Cap- 
tain Farley, and was at the Siege of Yorktown. After the war 
was ended, he removed to Illinois, settling in Morgan county, 
where he died, and is buried on the Paschal farm near Markham. 



93 

MARTIN BURRIS 

Was born in Pennsylvania in 1754, died in 1839. He served 
in the Virginia line of troops. Came to reside in Morgan 
county, Illinois, at an early date and died there in 1839. 

CONSTANTINE CLARKSON 

Was born in Virginia, December 18, 1762. Served in the Vir- 
ginia line of troops and was pensioned for faithful services. He 
came to Illinois and resided in Morgan county, where he died 
and lies buried. 

JOSEPH JACKSON 

Was a private in North Carolina troops; was born in Bucks 
county, Pennsylvania, 1760; removed to Sumner county, 
Tennessee, and from there to Morgan county, Illinois, and died 
there October 11, 1844. 

SAMUEL JACKSON 

Was a private in the South Carolina troops ; served in Blaken- 
ey's Company, Harlee's Battalion. He came to reside in Morgan 
county, Illinois, and died October 11, 1844; is buried in Franklin 
cemetery, Franklin, 111. 

BOURLAND JOLLY 

Died in Morgan county, Illinois, and is buried in the Frank- 
lin cemetery, but no record of service is given. After further 
research is made, we shall hope to add his record to this state- 
ment as given by descendants. 

JAMES JORDAN 

Was born near Carlisle, Pennsylvania, November 15, 1755. 
He was a private in the South Carolina troops, was pensioned. 
He came to Morgan county, Illinois, where he died, and is 
buried on the Massey farm two miles west of Jacksonville. 

SAMUEL JONES 

This name appears upon the tablet, though no record of ser- 
vice is given. He lies buried in the Paschal farm near Mark- 
ham. 

(It has been the plan of the committee on Historical Research 
to accept no name unless accompanied by the military record; 
we earnestly hope that this important addition to history can be 
obtained when such record will be given.) 



94 

LAWRENCE KILLEBRUE 

Was a pensioned soldier of the American Revolution ; was born 
May 10, 1763, at Tarbury Town, Edgecomb county, North 
Carolina. He served from that state. Coming to Illinois he 
settled in Morgan county, where he died April 4, 1835. 

DAVID McPEETERS 

Enlisted with the North Carolina troops ; was born there Jan. 
14, 1756; died in Morgan county, Illinois, March 27, 1846. 

EDMOND MOODY 

Was born in Albemarle county, Virginia, September 18, 1755; 
died in Morgan county, Illinois, September 10, 1839. He re- 
moved to Kentucky after the war, and from there to Morgan 
county, Illinois. He served in the Virginia line of troops. 

JOHN ROBERTSON 

Was born in 1755 ; served with the Delaware troops; was pen- 
sioned, came to reside in Illinois, and died in Morgan county; 
is buried at Orleans on a farm. 

WILLIAM SCOTT 

Was a native of Virginia; born in 1755, and served in the war 
from that state. He came to Morgan county, Illinois, to reside, 
where he died October 4, 1836, and is buried East of Jackson- 
ville at Orleans on a farm. 

JARRETT SEYMOUR 

This name appears on the tablet, but no record of service has 
been sent; he is buried five miles south of Franklin in the 
Providence churchyard. 

ELISHA SMITH 

Was in the New Jersey line of troops ; he died and is buried in 
the Jacksonville cemetery, Morgan county. 

ANDREW TURNER 

Was a native of North Carolina; born April 5, 1762, and served 
from that state during the war; was pensioned for service; he 
died in Morgan county, Illinois, August 8, 1842 ; buried in Rohrer 
cemetery. 



95 

WILLIAM WILLARD 

Was born in Loudoun county, Virginia, in 1755; he enlisted 
from that state in July, 1778, serving under Captain James 
Ratekin, and Colonel Shepherd; later he served under Captain 
William Douglass and Colonel Russel; was discharged after the 
surrender of Cornwallis. 

From record received William Willard's estate was settled in 
Morgan county, Illinois ; but he lies buried in a farm in Emmet 
township, near Colchester, McDonough county, where he died 
November 9, 1846. 

JOHN WOOD 

Served with distinction during the Revolutionary war; he 
was born in Savannah, Georgia, in 1752. He enlisted twice, and 
was granted 250 acres of land for service rendered; he was a 
member of a scouting party and was entrusted with carrying 
private messages from General Marion to General Washington. 
With his two brothers, William and Nathaniel, he served 
throughout the entire war. He also acted as paymaster to the 
First Battalion, Georgia troops, having the rank and pay of a 
captain. 

John Wood came to reside in Morgan county, Illinois at an 
early date; died October 21, 1831, and is buried in Franklin. 

CAPTAIN JAMES WRIGHT 

Served in the 7th Regiment from the state of Virginia, com- 
manded by Colonel John Morgan. He was commissioned 
Second Lieutenant, July 31, 1776, First Lieutenant, July 2, 1779; 
he was a prisoner of war and was pensioned. He died in 1845, 
in Morgan county, Illinois, and is buried in Franklin. 

DEW1TT COUNTY. 

EDWARD DAY 

Was born in Charlotte county, Virginia, in 1760; he enlisted 
from that county in Captain Collier's Company, Colonel 
Morgan's Regiment when only sixteen years of age, serving five 
months; he again served in Captain William Price's Company, 
Colonel Randolph's Regiment, serving three months; re-enlist- 
ing in Captain Collier's Company, Colonel Randolph's Regi- 
ment, he served three months ; again enlisting he was in Captain 
Gideon Spencer's Company, Colonel Randolph's Regiment, 



96 

serving two months, thus making a fine record of service for his 
country. He came to Illinois, settling in DeWitt county where 
he lies buried in De Witt cemetery; died in 1836. 

Edward Day was the grandfather of Hon. W. H. Herndon, 
a law partner of Abraham Lincoln. 

JOHN SCOTT 

Was a native of Pennsylvania, born in York county, May 29. 
1763. He enlisted from Washington county, Virginia in May 
1780, in Captain James Dysart's Company, Colonel William 
Gamble's Regiment, Virginia line of troops, serving one year; 
he was in the battles of King's Mountain and Wetzell's Mills. 
The family came to Sangamon county, Illinois, in 1824; re- 
moved to DeWitt county where he died Nov. 13, 1847, and is 
buried in Rock Creek cemetery, near Waynesville. 

PETER CUTRIGHT 

A native of Virginia, born in Hampshire county, 1759. He 
enlisted September 1, 1780, and served six months with Captains 
Daniel Riteson and Robert Cravens, Colonel Robert Stevens 
commanding. Peter Cutright came to Illinois and resided for 
a time in Macon county, his application for pension being from 
that county in 1833. He lived in Sangamon county until three 
years before his death, when he was a resident of DeWitt county, 
where his last pension was drawn September 4, 1841. The place 
of his burial is not known. 

WILLIAM VINSON OR VINCENT 
Was a native of Virginia, serving in the Virginia line of 

troops. 

He came to Illinois in 1828, settling at Long Point Timber, 

DeWitt county. He applied for a pension in McLean county. 

He died in DeWitt county in 1836, and is buried in Rock Creek 

cemetery. 

EFFINGHAM COUNTY. 

CHARLES MOORE 

Was born in Hanover county, Virginia, January 11, 1763; he 
enlisted from Salisbury district, Rowan county, North Carolina, 
serving for three months, 1779, in Captain James Craig's Com- 
pany, Major Montflorance's Regiment; again for three months 
in Captain Benjamin Smith's company Colonel Matthew Bran- 



97 

don's Regiment; again for six months from 1780 in Captain 
Robert Glasby's Company. He was in the battle of King's 
mountain. 

He came to Illinois, settled in Sangamon county, built a 
cotton gin near Buffalo Hart Grove, in 1823-4. From there he 
removed to McLean county, settling in what is now Woodford 
county. While going to draw a pension the stage upset and 
caused his death. He died September 19, 1839, and is probably 
buried at Ewington, Effingham county. 

MACOUPIN COUNTY. 

HURIAH GILMORE 

Was a soldier of the Revolution, enlisting in the Virginia line 
of troops. He was born in North Carolina in 1749; he 
came to Illinois and resided in Morgan county, but removed to 
Macoupin, where he died. The place of his burial is not known. 

ROBERT BUSBY 

Was born in Hanover county, Virginia, July, 1759; he served 
in the Virginia line of troops, and was pensioned for his services. 
He came to Illinois and was a resident of Morgan county in 1839, 
but removed to Macoupin county, and died there; the place of 
his burial is not yet known. 

THOMAS MOORE 

Was born January 24, 1760, in Rockingham county, Virginia. 
He served in the Virginia line of troops under Captain Peter 
May, Colonel Glenn. After the close of the war he removed to 
Kentucky, and in 1831, came to Illinois, settling in Macoupin 
county, where he died and is buried on the land which he and 
his brother entered, called the Moore Cemetery. 

JOSHUA RICHARDSON 

Was also a native of Virginia, born December 19, 1762, in 
Bedford county. He served in the Virginia line of troops. He 
came to Illinois and settled in Macoupin county, where he 
died March 14, 1844. 

JOHN PEEBLES 

Was born about 1762, he enlisted early in the service. We 
copy an extract from his affidavit made in the year 1847; "I 
entered the service of the United States under the following 



98 

named officers and served as herein stated under Captain Net- 
tles, and immediately joined General Marion's army. I was at 
the battle of Eutaw Springs, and was in North Carolina in what 
was called the 'truce land', and was engaged in scouting 
parties against the tories. I was not discharged from the ser- 
vice until after military operations had ceased." 

After the war, he removed to Kentucky, and later to Illinois, 
in Macoupin county, where he died October 6, 1849. He lies 
buried in the cemetery near Chesterfield. A few years since the 
members of the family erected a monument to the memory of 
this Revolutionary hero. 

WOODFORD COUNTY. 

BASIL MEEK 

Was born in Virginia, March 7, 1763; served as a private in 
Captain Hugh Stevenson's Company from some time in August, 
1775, to October of that year. He came to Illinois, settling in 
what is now Woodford county in 1832. He died near Eureka, 
Illinois, January 12, 1844, and is buried in Olio Township ceme- 
tery near Eureka. A fine monument has been erected to his 
memory. 

EDWARD FITZPATRICK 

Was born in Ireland, in 1760; came to America when a boy. 
He entered the service as a private in Captain Armstrong's 
Company, North Carolina troops. Coming to Illinois after the 
war was over he settled in what is now Woodford county about 
1832. He died there November, 21, 1834, and is buried in the 
Patrick family cemetery near Leon, Woodford county. 

TAZEWELL COUNTY. 

ELLIOT GRAY 

Was a native of Massachusetts, born September 17, 1755 at 
Pelham, where he enlisted under Elijah Dwight, Massachusetts 
Troops. He came to Illinois and settled in Tazewell county, 
where he died and is buried near Armington, that county. 



99 



COTNER'S CRISIS 

ONE OF CARMl's OLD-TIME REMINISCENCES. 



BY DANIEL BERRY, M. D. 

This story has never been told in print. 

As a plain, everyday occurrence, it is almost past belief, from 
this fact : 

The chief incident has been worn threadbare in all sorts of 
novels and romances. 

It has done time-honored and yeoman service as the grand 
sequence, or unveiling of the plot; when in the last grand 
round virtue never fails to come up smiling and get in her work 
on the double-team of vice and villany, by dealing them fatal 
blows, right and left, under the fifth rib. 

It was a fearful tragedy and woefully wrought. 

We, who are accustomed to seeing the accounts of such things 
in the daily papers, can have no adequate idea of the profound 
depth to which the primitive communities of the early settlers 
were stirred by the narration of a deed of murder. 

The horrid particulars of the atrocities flew on lightsome feet 
and nimble tongues from settlement to settlement. 

It was in some such manner that all the counties hereabouts 
were excited by the recital of a murder perpetrated in August, 
1824. 

All the actors in that tragedy are now dead. 

The facts that were once told with bated breath for fear of 
exciting the enmity of a powerful family, that clung together 
with more than an ordinary clannish spirit, can now be blazoned 
to the world. 

As far back as 1815 there came into this country, then the 
Illinois Territory, a family from Kentucky or Carolina, that 
settled in the Wabash bottoms, east of where Concord in White 
county, now is. 



100 

This family consisted of the father, mother and several sons 
and daughters. The sons were gigantic in size and models of 
physical manhood. 

The daughters were perfect specimens of womanhood, hand- 
some and virtuous. They married and became the prolific 
mothers of some of the best families of the region. The father 
and his stalwart sons began to clear up ground around the little 
opening they made in the woods, and soon had a fine farm carved 
out of the massive timber of the Wabash Bottoms. 

The luxuriant crops raised by them on the virgin soil induced 
other settlers to "squat" down by them. 

It must be understood that the Wabash Bottoms, then, were 
not like these lands are now. 

Destructive overflows, such as we have every year or two, 
in these days, were wholly unknown. 

When old Bowman, who gave his name to Bowman's Bend, 
above Williams' Ferry on the Wabash, told the people who had 
been settled there fifteen or twenty years, that he had ' 'seen the 
water so high there that it was shoe-mouth deep on the lands 
they were cultivating" they thought he had a wonderfully vivid 
imagination and was indulging it to its widest extent. 

Old Bowman's shoes would have to be, at least, fifteen feet 
deep to keep out the water of late years on the same ground. 

It never was charged that this family of stalwart sons was 
jealous of their new neighbors, or was covetous of the splendid 
domain they had discovered; or had any designs of making the 
most of its grand possibilities; or even looked with disfavor on 
the encroachment of men as eager and energetic as themselves, 
to carve out plantations anywhere in their immediate neighbor- 
hood. 

But they were generally regarded as well meaning, honest, 
upright citizens; fearless, rough riders, hard hitters, just the 
sort of men to settle and open up a new country. 

One of the younger sons, William, was a fair sample of the 
style of man needed to clear up the country of bears, wolves, 
Indians and rougher white men. His reputation as a "rough- 
and-tumble" fighter, or full hand at a "scrimmage" had 
traveled abroad. 

One day as he came out of the clearing to dinner, shortly after 
he married and settled by himself, he met a stranger riding a 
little blazed-faced sorrel horse. Like William, the man on horse- 



101 

back was of wonderful stature. His legs were so long they 
almost touched the ground. 

As they met, the ordinary salutation of "Howdy" was ex- 
changed; then the stranger asked: "Air you the man that 
whipped Joe Logston, over in the bend at Turner Nelson's 
house raisin' ?" "I 'low it's so narrated, "replied William. "Well, 
then," continued the stranger, "my name's Dennis. I'm reck- 
oned one of the best men in Posey county, Indiana, and I came 
over to see if you could do me as you did Joe Logston." "All 
right, " said William, "anything to oblige." 

By this time they were at the cabin. "Just 'light and look 
at your saddle. Dinner is about ready. Hitch your critter 
to the fence and after dinner we can tend to that job, if 
you are then of the same mind." So in the most amicable 
humor they sat down to dinner, and were waited on by the 
puzzled wife of William. 

After dinner the combat took place. 

Dennis, in describing the affair to his friends some time after- 
wards, said : ' ' The first pass that feller made at me showed me 
I had no call to leave old Posey, an' the thing hadn't more'n 
got to goin' 'fore I wanted to resign; but there war no help for it; 
ther were no balm in gilead, an' I put in my best licks. Arter 
he'd mopped up the ground with me and walloped me 'round a 
sapplin' once or twice, I bleated; yes, sir, I hollered 'calf rope.' 
As he was helpin' me on my critter, he says, sorter careless 
like, 'When you git home if you will gather up the rest of the 
Dennises at Turner's, an' let me know some time arter I've laid 
by, mebbe I'll come over and put in a half a day just for amuse- 
ment like; now mosey.' 

"An' right then Blaze struck a lope, When I go borrerin' 
trouble agin, I 'low to keep on this side the river. Whoop-ee! 
I'm the best man in Posey county, 'cept my friends." 

It was the possession of just such characteristics as William 
displayed, that went far toward the maintenance of law and 
order in the communities of those days. It sometimes happened 
that two families of high-strung individuals of combative temper- 
aments would settle close to each other, and then it took the 
utmost discrimination on the part of each to preserve the peace ; 
and this was not always done. 

This was the case with this stalwart family. 

A few years after their settlement in the county, there came 
into their close vicinity a man by the name of James Wilson, 



102 

who entered the land and opened up a farm. He was as 
genial as any of his neighbors, just as energetic, just as pugna- 
cious and just as willing to try conclusions by the wage of 
battle as was the common custom in those times ; and the early 
recollections of the oldest citizens of Carmi and New Haven are 
full of the terrible fights that took place between Wilson, single 
handed, and any of the stalwart sons, whenever they would 
meet at those places. 

Wilson was not afraid of them in their open-handed way of 

dealing; but this was not always the way in which he was served. 

It sometimes happens that in a family, composed in the main 

of good, honorable members, there may chance to be a "black 

sheep " who brings reproach and shame on all the rest. 

It was so with this family of stalwart sons. In it was one who 
would resort to any means no matter how nefarious to secure 
any temporary advantage for his family. So when Wilson 
began to find his hogs shot, in the woods, and his cattle ham- 
strung , he made up his mind to leave the neighborhood. 

He was naturally peaceable and too high-spirited and noble- 
minded to retaliate in kind, and he soon came to the conclusion 
that life was not worth living in any such way. 

He said he could not afford to be in a "continual furse" with 
his neighbors, so he "sold out" and left the country. 

There was another neighbor named William McKee, who in 
some manner had excited the enmity of this "black sheep" of 
the stalwart sons. 

Tradition has it that the sons of the stalwart family charged 
McKee with making unseemly remarks about their sisters. 
In the light of subsequent events, this charge was believed to be 
only a flimsy defense used in extenuation of what was done; 
there were no fairer characters than those girls possessed; and 
no one dreamed of uttering a word against them; certainly not 
McKee, in the estimation of those who bore witness to his genial 
and peaceful disposition. 

One morning in August, 1824, McKee woke up to find the 
fence near his cabin festooned with the vines from his water- 
melon patch; these had been pulled up during the night and 
hung on the fence to dry. 

The following night, while the full moon was shining, he was 
awakened about midnight by the barking of his dog. He got 
up to go out and see what was the matter; but before reaching 
the door, he heard a gunshot, and at the same time a yelp from 



103 

his dog , showing that the dog had been badly hit then all was 
silent. McKee moved toward the door against the pleadings 
and earnest protestations of his wife, who begged him not to 
open the door or show himself; but contrary to her advice, he 
undid the fastenings, pulled back the clapboard door that was 
hung on its hickory hinges, and stood for a moment in the bright 
glare of the moonlight streaming into the room. 

Polly, his wife, lying in bed in the corner farthest from the 
door, while entreating him to come back and shut the door, saw 
him put his hand over his eyes to shield them from the bright- 
ness of the moon, and at the same time heard him say: "For 
God's sake, Hugh! don't shoot!" 

When at the same instant, she heard a gun crack and saw her 
husband fall in his own doorway, mortally wounded. 

He never spoke again. He lingered two days and died. 

This event aroused the whole county. Hugh, a son of the 
stalwart family, together with a hanger-on of the family, were 
arrested and brought to Carmi and placed under guard. 

This hanger-on was a trifling, easy-going fellow named 
Cotner. He was newly married and was employed as a laborer 
on the stalwart's farm. 

Now follows the Court proceedings. The Court was held in 
the house of John Craw, Wednesday, the 30th day of August, 
1824. 

The Honorable William Wilson, Judge; John M. Robinson, 
Circuit Attorney. 

The trial was held in John Craw's house, adjoining the Public 
Square; for the reason that a terrible tornado, which mowed a 
fearful swath of destruction from one end of the county to the 
other, had demolished the Court House and Jail, about a month 
before. 

The track of that Tornado could be easily traced forty years 
ago, by the young timber growing along the line of the ' ' Harra- 
kin" as it was called. 

At the County Commissioner's Court, held on August 21st, 
1824, the following action was taken: 

The courthouse for this county having been demolished by a 
storm, this court proceeded to hire a room suitable for the 
accommodation of the court. "Whereupon a bargain with 
John Craw, Esq., for his logg house adjoining the public square, 
for the sum of three dollars in paper money, when in use of the 



104 

court, per day, was concluded, which contract is to continue until 
the first day of January next." 

This "logg house" of John Craw was none other than the 
future home of Mr. John M. Robinson. 

At the time spoken of it was a story-and-a-half affair, the 
upper rooms being reached by a flight of stairs built against the 
end of the house and outside. 

General Robinson remodeled the house all over; but the old 
logs are still there ; all inclosed with weather boards and sheath- 
ing. 

From the time of their arrest until the trial, the prisoners, 
Shipley and Cotner, were confined and guarded in the Wayne 
County jail; and after the trial Cotner was so lodged until the 
day of the execution. 

The Commissioner's Court held on September 24, 1824, 
present the Honorable Samuel Hughes, Alexander Truesdale 
and William Nevitt it was "Ordered that John Barnhill, Jailor of 
Wayne County, be paid seventy-seven dollars in the notes of the 
State Bank of Illinois, full compensation for jail fees and guard, 
etc., while Shipley and Cotner were confined in said jail." 
Shipley turned State's evidence, and swore the killing on to 
Cotner. 

But the people were not satisfied with the verdict in the 
Cotner case, and although he was a trifling "ne'er-do-well" he 
excited the sympathy of the whole community, as being the 
victim of wholesale perjury. But we all know how slowly such 
general public sympathy crystallizes into anything like system- 
atic action. 

While everybody thought that something should be done, it 
was near the middle of the month before anything was 
attempted, and the poor wretch was doomed to swing on the 
21st. 

Though the untiring exertions of Elizabeth, Cotner 's wife, 
who managed to enlist the services of several influential men, a 
petition to the Governor for clemency in Cotner 's case, was 
circulated. 

This was signed by the grand jury and the petit jury who 
tried the case. Daniel Hay, the sheriff at that time, put the 
petition in the hands of a trusty man well mounted and sent him 
off with instructions to overtake the Circuit Court then in session 
at Albion, Edwards county, to get on the petition the names 
of Judge William Wilson and the States Attorney, John M. 



105 

Robinson, afterward United States Senator, and then to push 
on to Vandalia, at that time the State capital, present the peti- 
tion to Governor Edward Coles, and if a reprieve or pardon was 
granted to hasten back to Carmi with all possible speed. 

This hard rider was none other than Alexander F. Grant, then 
a law student ; afterward Judge Grant, the uncle of our respected 
citizen, Mr. George Ridgway, and Thomas S. Ridgway, of 
Shawneetown. 

Vandalia was a long distance off. Ninety miles and no roads. 

The way to it was across broad, unsettled prairies, where now 
are miles and miles of neighbors. 

When the White county horseman left Albion, with the God- 
speed of Judge Wilson and General Robinson, he kept the prairie 
along the bottoms of the Little Wabash, following the general 
trend of that stream to the northwest. 

Sometime in the morning of the second day, he crossed the old 
St. Louis and Vincennes trace, about where Flora stands in 
Clay county. Beyond him, in the Northwest, was still the 
limitless prairie, which swallowed up horse and man in its 
immensity. 

Against this stupendous expanse of earth and sky, the im- 
measurable distance of purple and gold of the iron- weed, golden- 
rod and rosin-blossom, and the overhanging September blue, 
was pitted the feeble life of Cotner, depending on this one man's 
direction and the energy and endurance of his horse. 

Meanwhile the tripping time took wings at Carmi. 

The morning of the fatal Friday the 21st, arrived, and with it 
the gathering crowds from the regions round about. 

A hanging in those days was the occasion for a general holiday 
for everybody except for the poor devil who was to be hung 
everybody came to town for good luck. 

The conscientious sheriff, Daniel Hay, had made all needful 
preparations. 

The gallows was built on the crown of the hill, to the left of the 
Fairfield road ; or, about where the Carmi Union depot is now. 

To the east, toward the river, was a thick growth of timber ; 
while to the northwest was a beautiful, parklike forest of mag- 
nificent oaks, through which the road to Fairfield wandered over 
the Big Hill. 

All about the edge of the clearing, where the gallows stood, 
were hitched the horses of the wayfarers who had come to see 
the hanging. 



106 

A crowd of people of that time presented a far different appear- 
ance to what such a gathering would today. 

Nearly all were dressed in homespun, and home-made clothes, 
and shod with home-made shoes. 

Most of the men from the settlement around came to town 
armed with their rifles, so as to be prepared should they chance 
to fall in with game along the road. Nearly everybody rode 
horseback wagons or any vehicles on wheels were things of 
rare occurrence. 

The haze of that September morn was deepened and empha- 
sized by the overhanging clouds of wild pigeons, flying steadily 
westward in search of their daily food, from their immense 
roosts just across the Ohio river in Kentucky. 

These tremendous flights of birds were unvarying features in 
every landscape that showed a glimpse of sky in those days. 

From the hill toward the river, and east of the gallows, one 
had a view of the river and the ford, just below where the wagon 
bridge is now; where the horsemen were pausing to let their 
horses drink, or slowly crossing to the town side. 

In the other direction, up the river, was the saw and grist 
mill and the laboriously constructed dam, built by Lowery Hay 
and Leonard White. The constant noise of the falling water at 
the dam kept up a dreary monotone as an accompaniment to the 
tragedy that was about to be enacted. 

To the south, across "Slasher's Gap," was the little town of 
Carmi if a few little log cabins that appeared to be engaged in 
a mad dance of "hands round" the public square; while a few 
others were "sashaying" with their partners up and down the 
road now called Main street, could be called a town. 

From where the gallows stood a glimpse could be had of the 
ruins of the Court house and jail which had lately been demolish- 
ed by the storm, and which debris had not yet been cleared away. 
These buildings had occupied a large Indian Mound that stood 
just in the intersection of Main and Main-Cross streets. 

The crowd kept increasing; everybody was intent on the 
hanging about to come off. 

About 12 o'clock, John Barnhill and his squad of guards 
arrived with the prisoner, having started from Fairfield jail the 
day before. 

Nothing had been heard of young Grant after he left Albion. 

At half past two o'clock, the Sheriff, with the prisoner and his 
guards took up their line of march to the gallows. 



107 

The procession was accompanied by four men bearing a 
rough coffin on a rudely constructed bier. 

Coffins in those days were not the elaborate articles of 
luxurious ease they have since become. 

Many a rude forefather was laid away in a box made of 
puncheons hewn out of split logs and held together with 
wooden pins. 

Arrived at the scaffold, the Sheriff was the first to mount 
the ladder, then the prisoner, whose hands were manacled 
behind him, was helped up by the guards and deputies; then 
the preacher selected for the occasion. 

Amid the hush of the multitudes, Sheriff Hay read the warrant 
for the execution. Cotner was then asked if he had anything 
to say. 

He made no reply except to protest against the whole pro- 
ceeding, and that he was innocent of the crime charged. 

The anxious, kind-hearted sheriff now put up the preacher 
"to talk ag'in time." 

This preacher was a smooth- voiced, long-winded, persuasive 
brother from down about Concord. 

His name was Charles Slocumb. 

It was he of whom it was said when he was mentioned in 
comparison with brother Wooten : ' ' Wall, praps Wooten can out- 
preach him, but when it comes to steadfast prayer to beseechin' 
the Throne of Grace brother Slocumb can just pray the shirt 
off en him." 

Brother Slocum was to fill up the time until three o'clock, as 
Sheriff Hay was determined that Cotner should not be swung off 
until the very last. 

From what we know of the noble-hearted sheriff the genial 
soul "whose faults all leaned to virtue's side" it is not hard to 
believe that there was some foundation for the rumor that he 
purposely put back a few minutes the hands of his old Liver- 
pool "dead knocker," as they called the Tobias watch of that 
time. 

Next to Cotner he was the most anxious man in all that 
crowd. 

As he stood leaning against the gallows post, he kept turning 
his eyes in the direction of the point in the Fairfield road where 
it disappeared over the hill, hoping for the appearance of Grant. 
His face worked with the agony of his fervent prayer to be 
relieved of the terrible responsibility before him. 



108 

But there was no sign of succor or relief. 

The hurrying minutes fled, and three o'clock was almost upon 
them. 

The preacher had exhorted; a hymn had been sung; the last 
words of the final prayer for the last office to the living had been 
uttered, and the reluctant Sheriff began to prepare the culprit 
for the closing scene. 

In the crowd was a sensitive ten-year-old lad, whose curiosity 
had led him from his home at Walnut Grove, seven miles away 
to the southwest. 

The events of that day made a deep and wonderful impression 
on him, and were seemingly more than he had bargained for 
as a mere show. 

Although we knew him as a white-haired, much loved, faith- 
ful preacher among us, a very old man, his recollections of that 
day were very vivid, indeed. * 

He said that after the minister had concluded his prayer, 
the sheriff and his deputy prepared the prisoner for the last 
agony in the tragedy. 

This was done by making him stand on the trap door of the 
scaffold. 

When in this position, a black cap, or sack, was drawn over 
his head and face. 

Over this and around his neck was adjusted the noose of the 
fatal rope. 

All but the sheriff now moved away, leaving the doomed 
wretch standing alone. 

Near by the gallows post stood Mr. Hay, with the hatchet 
ready to cut the rope that held up the deadly trap. 

This was all the boy could endure to look upon. 

He turned away sick and faint, in anticipation of the next 
moment. 

All at once there was a stir and a hubbub in the crowd and 
the boy turned his eyes to the gallows again, expecting to see 
Cotner dangling in the air; but there he stood as last seen, while 
the attention of the people was directed to a horseman coming 
at full speed down the hill on the Fairfield road. 

This was young Grant. Sheriff Hay had recognized him just 
as he was raising the hatchet to strike the fatal blow that would 
have launched Cotner into eternity. 



* Rev. Jonathan E. Spillman. 



109 

In a moment Grant rode into the crowd, shaking aloft a 
paper, the reprieve and pardon from Governor Coles. 

How wonderfully close and with what nice precision do the 
events in a man's life sometimes fit and adjust themselves to 
each other. 

As some one has pithily remarked: "Man's extremity is 
God's opportunity." 



110 



DEATH OF LEWIS D. ERWIN. 



A MEMORIAL SKETCH BY HOWARD F. DYSON. 

Hon. Lewis D. Erwin, Rushville's oldest and most honored 
citizen, died at his home on North Liberty street in that city, 
Saturday evening, March 7, 1914, at 10:30 o'clock. He was in 
the ninety-ninth year of his age, and his death ends a career 
that is a most illustrious one and spans the development of the 
State of Illinois, where he has been a resident since 1839, and all 
of these years were spent in Schuyler county. 

His life work had long since been finished. He had rounded 
out a noble career as a citizen and representative of the people 
in the Illinois legislature, and was honored as an exemplar of all 
that was highest, noblest and best in a manhood devoted to his 
county 's service. 

Up to within two days of his death he kept in touch with 
public affairs, and asked to have the daily paper read to him. 
The sleep into which he sank Saturday afternoon was unbroken. 
His family realized that the end was rapidly drawing near, and 
his death at 10:30 p. m. was scarcely preceptible. 

In the death of Mr. Erwin, Rushville mourns the loss of one of 
her most distinguished citizens; he had been identified with the 
interests of this city for more than seventy years, and no man 
took a more conspicuous part in the public affairs. He won high 
honor on his merit as a public official in city, county and state, 
and was in the truest sense a high ideal of a model and exemplary 
citizen. 

The ending years of Mr. Erwin's life were beautiful ones. He 
lived in the memory of an historic past. His home life was ideal, 
and the closing years of his life were made happy by the com- 
panionship of his daughters who were ever his constant com- 
panions. 

Lewis D. Erwin became a citizen of Schuyler county in 1839, 
when he drove overland from Ohio to Illinois, and took up his 
home in Littleton township, where his brother George had 




HON. LEWIS D. ERWIN 



Ill 

located the year before. He was a native of the State of New 
York, where he was born July 1, 1815, at Plattsburg. When a 
young man he went to Toledo, Ohio, where he spent several 
years, and during this time was a clerk in the postoffice. In 
those early days, a young man with an education was in demand, 
and Mr. Erwin soon found employment as clerk of the warehouse 
at Erie, the old abandoned river town between Frederick and 
Beardstown. Here he was employed during 1840-41, and after 
making a short stay in Jacksonville, returned to Schuyler 
county. 

At a time when Rushville was the home of such men as 
William A. Richardson, William A. Minshall and Robert Black- 
w T ell, all of whom later won renown in state and national politics, 
Mr. Erwin began a political career that was an illustrious one. 
He was a Democrat of the old school, loyal and true, and be- 
came the intimate and confidential friend of Stephen A. Doug- 
las, and was prominent in the councils of his party. He was 
a supporter of Douglas in his memorable senatorial contest of 
1858 and voted for him for United States Senator. The defeat 
of Douglas, the idol of Illinois Democracy, for the presidency, 
ended what might have been a national career for Mr. Erwin, as 
few men were closer in touch with the "Little Giant" than he. 
But throughout the long years of defeat he was loyal and 
enthusiastic in his support of Democracy, and was overjoyed 
to see the party come into power again with the election of 
President Wilson and the Illinois State ticket. 

Mr. Erwin's first public office in Schuyler county was that of 
deputy sheriff and collector under Enoch Edmonston, and when 
Mr. Edmonston went to the front in the Mexican war his young 
deputy took over the duties of the office. Col. Richardson's 
company of Schuyler volunteers for Mexican service were mus- 
tered in at the old court house in Rushville in 1846, and Mr. 
Erwin wrote the muster roll with his paper spread on a drum 
head. 

Faithful to duty in the trust imposed upon him, mentally 
alert and richly endowed with keen political sagacity, it was 
natural that Mr. Erwin should aspire to higher political honors, 
and in 1846 he was elected a representative in the Illinois General 
Assembly. His service in the Legislature came at a time when 
intelligent, strong-minded men were sorely needed, and his 
record in that early session was a most creditable one. 



112 

The era of railroad building had just begun and the State had 
constructed at a cost of $1,000,000 a railroad from Springfield 
to Meredosia, the first in the State. Mr. Erwin took a position 
against State ownership of railroads and voted to sell the 
Northern Cross Road for $21,100. 

During this first term in the Legislature he served with John 
Logan, father of General John A. Logan, and came in close 
contact with ex-governor John Reynolds, Judge Sidney Breese 
and Governor Ford, all of whom were conspicuous in those 
early days and have enriched Illinois history with historical 
writings. Mr. Erwin knew all these men personally, and his 
mind and memory were a marvelous storehouse of knowledge 
of the romantic history of early days in Illinois. 

During his career in the Legislature which began during the 
administration of Gov. Augustus C. French in 1846, Mr. Erwin 
was brought closely in contact with men of affairs and knew 
personally all the State governors from John Reynolds, who 
served the State as executive from 1830 to 1834. 

A warm friendship existed between Mr. Erwin and John M. 
Palmer, and, when the Democratic party became divided on the 
money issue, Mr. Erwin was a delegate to the Chicago conven- 
tion and voted for his lifelong friend for the presidential nomina- 
tion. At the time General Palmer was preparing his notes for a 
history of the Bench and Bar of Illinois he called upon Mr. 
Erwin to aid him, and he gave interesting historical matter 
concerning the early lawyers in Rushville and those legal giants 
who made the circuit in pioneer days. 

In 1850, Mr. Erwin was elected sheriff and collector of 
Schuyler county, and in 1852 was chosen circuit clerk, which 
was the last county office he held. In 1856 he was returned to 
the Legislature and served until commencement of the Civil 
War, and was one of the noble patriots of the state who stood 
loyally behind President Lincoln when the call for troops was 
made in Illinois and the State was called upon to appropriate 
$2,000,000 to equip her forces then waiting to go to the front. 

During his distinguished services in the Illinois Legislature 
the country was at the threshold of a civil war. Mr. Erwin had 
been elected as a Douglas Democrat in 1858, and he voted for 
Stephen A. Douglas for United States senator. But when two 
years later Lincoln was elected president and civil war threat- 
ened to disrupt the country, Lewis D. Erwin was a loyal Demo- 
cratic patriot and gave aid and support to Richard Yates, the 



113 

war governor of Illinois, and voted the money to send the Illinois 
troops in the field. 

In 1863, Mr. Erwin, who had then retired from the Legisla- 
ture, was appointed one of the Committee of Three to distrib- 
ute $30,000 voted by the Illinois Legislature for the aid of 
soldiers in the field. He left Springfield in February of that 
year and went down the Mississippi river to where the Illinois 
troops had been fighting in the Cumberland campaign. He not 
only was entrusted with the money voted by the State, but he 
took upon himself many private commissions and delivered 
messages and supplies to the soldiers in the field, who joyously 
welcomed his coming, and ever remembered him with thankful 
and grateful hearts. Mr. Erwin was engaged in this work from 
February until September in 1863, and returning home, made a 
report of his disposal of the State money distributed. 

Lewis D. Erwin idolized Stephen A. Douglas to the day of his 
death, and was one of the level-headed Democrats who did his 
utmost to carry out the dying wish of the "Little Giant" as 
expressed in his masterly speech in Chicago, which rallied Illi- 
nois to the Union cause and gave unmeasured support to Presi- 
dent Lincoln. 

The ascendency of the Republican party in Illinois brought to 
an end Mr. Erwin's active political career, but did not dim his 
usefulness as a public spirited citizen in the community where he 
was spared to spend more than seventy-five years of his life. 

In municipal affairs, in the schools and in the churches Mr. 
Erwin exerted a most powerful influence. Unaided and alone 
he maintained Rushville's free public library after he had passed 
the allotted age of three score and ten, and no one was more 
enthusiastic than he in bringing about the re-establishment of a 
public library on a firm and solid basis. 

In every movement for the betterment and uplift of the city 
and its industries he played a conspicuous part, and was fore- 
most in securing for Rushville its railroad and was for many 
years an officer in the first organized company. Nor did the 
weight of years dim his enthusiasm, and he was as enthusiastic 
in his comment on the interurban as he was in the early pioneer 
days when every community was seeking a new railroad. 

Throughout his long life, Mr. Erwin was inspired with high 
motives and his political career was untarnished. He was true 
to his country and his friends, and his life is emblematic of all 



114 

that is noble and good, and may be handed down to the young 
men of the present day as an example worthy of emulation to 
those striving for success, honor and achievement. 

On January 6, 1878, Mr. Erwin became identified with the 
first Presbyterian church of Rushville. October 30, 1881, he was 
elected elder and continued in that office until he rounded out 
his thirty- three years of service. His keen interest and loyal 
devotion to church work never lagged, but was a joy to him 
always. 

November 12, 1843, Mr. Erwin was united in marriage to 
Miss Elvira Wells, daughter of Charles Wells of Rushville. 
There were eleven children born to them, seven of whom are 
living ; thirteen grandchildren, two having passed away ; four 
great grandchildren. Mrs. Erwin died October 16, 1875. The 
children outliving their father are : One son, George L. Erwin of 
Kalamazoo, Mich., and six daughters, Miss Kate Erwin, Miss 
Matilda Erwin, Mrs. Washington Hall, Miss Emma Erwin, 
Mrs. Louis Babcock of Rushville, and Mrs. Edward L. Davis 
of Tacoma, Washington. 

Tuesday morning, March 10, 1914, at 10 o'clock, funeral 
services were held at the family residence, and in harmony with 
his life the ceremonies were simple. In the absence of his regu- 
lar pastor, Rev. D. E. Jackson of Ipava came to Rushville to 
conduct the funeral services, and he is one of the young men who 
have felt the inspiring influence of the life of Rushville's "Grand 
Old Man," and his discourse was an eloquent tribute to his 
memory. 

Mr. Erwin was one of the builders of Rushville. His influence 
was exerted along many different lines, and to good purpose in 
city government and in the schools, where he rendered gratuitous 
service of high degree. 

He was one of ten staunch Democrats who founded THE 
RUSHVILLE TIMES in 1856, and he gave the paper its name. 
Throughout the long years, he ever manifested a keen interest 
in the old home paper, and the editor treasures his friendship 
as a benediction and a blessing. 

A true friend, a progressive and loyal citizen, has closed his 
life career, but his good and worthy deeds will live on and on. 



115 



GIFTS OF BOOKS, LETTERS, PHOTOGRAPHS AND 

MANUSCRIPTS TO THE ILLINOIS STATE 

HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 



The following named books, letters, and manuscripts have 
been presented to the library. The Board of Trustees of the 
Library and the officers of the Society desire to acknowledge the 
receipt of these valuable contributions and to thank the donors 
for them : 

The Probate Records of Lincoln County, Maine, 1760 to 
1800. Compiled and edited by William D. Patterson, 368, 
p. 8, Portland, Me., 1895. Gift of the Maine Genealogical 
Society, Portland, Maine. 

Unveiling of the Marble Bust of Pay son Tucker, November 
21, 1900. Presented to the Eye and Ear Infirmary. By Mrs. 
Tucker, 52 p. 8, Portland, Maine, 1901. Marks Printing 
House. Gift of Mr. A. R. Stubbs, 207 Spring St., Portland, 
Me. 

Abraham Lincoln's Visit to Evanston in 1860. By J. Seymour 
Currey. Evanston, 1914, 16p. 8. Gift City National Bank, 
Evanston, Illinois. 

Chicago Examiner. Women Voters' edition. The Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association, Pubs, and Editors. Monday, 
August 11, 1913. 3 copies. Gift of Mrs. George Clinton Smith, 
Springfield, Illinois. 

Quincy, Illinois. 64 p. 8. Quincy, 111. Chambers of Com- 
merce, Publishers. Gift of Mr. C. F. Perry, Secretary Quincy 
Chamber of Commerce, Quincy, Illinois. 

Illinois Year Book. Churches of Christ, 1907-1913. 7 nos. 
Published at Bloomington, 111. Gift of Mr. W. D. Deweese, 
516 North Main St., Bloomington, 111. 

The Cost of Something for Nothing. By John P. Altgeld. 
132 p. 8, Chicago, 1904. Gift of the John P. Altgeld Memorial 
Association, 1231 Unity Bldg., Chicago, Illinois. 



116 

Der Deutschamerikanische Farmer. Ein Beitrag Zur Ges- 
chichte der Deutschen Auswanderung. Von Dr. Joseph Och, 
Columbus, Ohio. Ohio Waisenfreud, 1913. Gift of Mrs. Con- 
rad Seipp, Chicago, Illinois. 

Territory of Alaska. Session Laws, Resolutions and Me- 
morials. 1913. Passed at the first regular session of the 
Territorial Legislature, Convened at Juneau, the Capital on the 
third Day of March, 1913, and adjourned sine die the first day 
of May, 1913. 463 p. 8, Juneau, Alaska, 1913. Daily Empire 
Print. Gift of W. L. Distin, Sec. of Alaska, Juneau, Alaska. 

McClure's Magazine, March 1896. Gift of Mr. Ensley 
Moore, Jacksonville, Illinois. 

Geography. By Jedidiah Morse, D. D. 8th edition. 432 
p. 12, 1803. Boston. Printed by I. Thomas and E. T. An- 
drews. Gift of Mrs. John M. Palmer, Springfield, Illinois. 

Memorial of Rev. J. G. Bergen, D. D. Formerly pastor of 
the Presbyterian Church at Madison, N. J., and of the 
First Presbyterian Church at Springfield, Ills. Including the 
funeral sermon by Rev. J. A. Reed and a biographical sketch by 
Rev. Fred H. Wines. 36 p. 8. Springfield, 1873, John H. John- 
son, printer. Gift of Mrs. John M. Palmer, Springfield, Ills. 

Reminiscences of Monticello Seminary. By Philena Fobes. 
16 p. 8. Chicago, 1880, Fergus Printing Company. Gift of 
Mrs. John M. Palmer, Springfield, Ills. 

Historical Address delivered at Godfrey, Ills., June 27, 
1855, at the Seventeenth Anniversary of Monticello Female 
Seminary. By Rev. Theron Baldwin. 32 p. 8. New York, 
1855. John F. Thorn, printer. Gift of Mrs. John M. Palmer, 
Springfield, Ills. 

The Echo. Published at Monticello Seminary, Godfrey, 
Ills. No. 19. Mid-summer number, 1903, 69 p. 8. Godfrey, 
Ills. 1903. Pub. Monticello Seminary. Gift of Mrs. John M. 
Palmer, Springfield, Ills. 

Illinois Farmers' Almanac for the year of our Lord, 1833, 
being first after bissextile or Leap Year and (after July 4th) the 
58th of American Independence. Number 11. By Benaiah 
Robinson, n. p. 12. Edwardsville, 1833. Printed by John Y. 
Sawyer. Gift of Mrs. John M. Palmer, Springfield, Ills. 



117 

Vicksburg for the Tourist. 32 p. 8, Chicago, n. d. 111. 
Central R. R. pubs. Gift of Mrs. John M. Palmer, Springfield 
Ills. 

Lincoln Manual Training School, Springfield, Ills. Closing 
exercises of, May 27, 1912. n. p. 8, Springfield, 1912. The 
Hub Print Shop, Masonic Hall. Gift of Mrs. John M. Palmer, 
Springfield, Ills. 

Dolly Madison Breakfast. 1772-1912. Washington, D. C. 
n. p. 8, Washington, D. C. 1912. Gift of Mrs. John M. Pal- 
mer, Springfield, Ills. 

The Silent Evangel. Published in the interest of the Spring- 
field Baptist Church, Springfield, Ills. Vol. 1, No. 2. January, 
1914. 22 p. 8, Springfield, Ills. 1914. Published by the 
Baptist Church, Gift of Mrs. John M. Palmer, Springfield, Ills. 

Tuck's. A Magazine for Animals. Their friends. Edited 
by Alice Katherine Warren with the help of Elizabeth Stebbins 
Brown. Printed by their hands in their home 906 South 6th St., 
Springfield, Ills. Vol. II, No. 10, February, 1913. Gift of 
Mrs. John M. Palmer, Springfield, Ills. 

Copy of the Weekly Inter-Ocean containing speech of Hon. 
John A. Logan of Illinois, in the Senate of the United States, 
January 13 and 14, 1875. Gift of Miss Annie C. Butler, Rock- 
ford, Ills. 

Program Dedicatory Exercises Illinois Monuments. Gift of 
Miss Annie C. Butler, Rockford, Ills. 

Copy Jacksonville Journal, January 11, 1914, containing 
article "Additional Light on the Lincoln Lineage." Gift of 
R. H. Beggs, University Park, Colo. 

Jacksonville Journal, January 30, 1914. Article "Former 
Resident Writes of Earlier Days in Illinois." Gift of Mr. 
Ensley Moore, Jacksonville, Ills. 

Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the Year 1849. 
625 p. 8. Office of Printer to House of Representatives, 1850. 
Gift of W. F. Woolard, Washington, D. C. 

Letters patent issued to Henry Sheffer, private in Reed's 
Corps of Artillery, for tract of land containing 160 acres, in sec- 
tion 30, township 1 north, range 2, west, in tract appropriated 
for Military Bounties in the Territory of Illinois. Issued May 
11, 1818. Gift of Soloman Friday, Camden, Ills. 



118 

Certificate of sale for land in the Northwest quarter of section 
No. 30, in township 1 north of the base line, in range 2 west of 
the fourth principal meridian to I. D. Beers. Dated Rushville, 
Ills., July 31, 1837. Gift of Soloman Friday, Camden, Ills. 

Original letter written by P. A. Sprigman in Cincinnati, in 
1832 in relation to high water in Ohio River. Gift of Mrs. 
John M. Palmer, Springfield, Ills. 



EDITORIAL 



121 



JOURNAL OF 

THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Published Quarterly by the Society at Springfield, Illinois 
JESSIE PALMER WEBER, Editor 

Associate Editors: 

J. H. Burnham Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin William A. Meese 

George W. Smith E. C. Page 

Applications for Membership in the Society may be sent to the Secretary of the 
Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Illinois. 

Membership Fee, One Dollar, Paid Annually. Life Membership, $25.00 

VOL. VII APRIL, 1914 No. 1 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY, SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS, MAY 7 AND 8, 1914. 

MEMBERS AND FRIENDS URGED TO ATTEND. 



The annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society 
will be held in the Capitol building at Springfield on Thursday 
and Friday, May 7-8. The annual address will be presented by 
Judge O. N. Carter of the Illinois State Supreme Court. 

Mr. Henry A. Converse, of Springfield, will deliver an address 
on the life and public services of Shelby M. Cullom, late United 
States Senator from this State and an honorary member of the 
Historical Society. 

Prof. J. A. James of the Northwestern University, one of the 
Directors of the Historical Society and Chairman of the State 
Park Board, will talk to the Society on the Illinois State Park 
System, and will show by means of lantern slides some of the 
beauty spots and historic places in the State. To Professor 
James, more than to any other individual is due the credit for 
securing Starved Rock and vicinity as a State park. He is 
therefore well equipped to make this address interesting and 
valuable. 



122 

In the year 1840, during the Harrison campaign, a great whig 
meeting was held in the little city of Springfield, Ills. It was a 
notable meeting for that early day, delegates from all parts of 
the State and even from cities outside of Illinois being in 
attendance. There were floats and banners, log cabins, coon 
skins and hard cider barrels, and all the much talked of feat- 
ures of the campaign represented. 

A session of the annual meeting will be devoted to the history 
of this meeting. Mrs. F. R. Jamison of Springfield, will talk 
about the actual meeting, and Mrs. Edith P. Kelly of Blooming- 
ton, will tell of the representatives from the north part of the 
State and Mrs. Martha McNiell Davidson, regent of Benjamin 
Mills Chapter of the D. A. R. at Greenville, will tell of Southern 
Illinois' representation. The music of the campaign of 1840, 
will be given. 

Captain J. H. Burnham, a director and one of the founders of 
the Society will tell the Society about the changes in the course 
of the Mississippi and Kaskaskia rivers which resulted in the 
destruction of the old capital of Illinois, historic Kaskaskia. 
Captain Burnham has devoted months of study and research to 
this subject, and his paper, which will be accompanied by maps 
and charts, will be a definite acquisition to Illinois history. 
Other interesting historical addresses will be given by persons 
well qualified to contribute to State history. 

Though details are not entirely completed the following is a 
tentative program for the annual meeting : 

THURSDAY MORNING 
May 7, 1914 

9 :00 o'clock. Directors' Meeting. 
Annual business meeting. 

THURSDAY AFTERNOON 

The Williamson County Vendetta. Judge George E. Young, 
Marion, 111. 

Address Chief Little Turtle, Mrs. Mary Ridpath Mann, Chi- 
cago. 

The Kaskaskia Commons H. W. Roberts, Chester 

Life and Services of Shelby M. Cullom. Henry A. Converse, 
Springfield. 



123 

THURSDAY EVENING 

The Illinois State Park System. Illustrated. Prof. J. A. 
James, Northwestern University, Evanston. 

FRIDAY MORNING 

The Changes in the Courses of the Kaskaskia and Mississippi 
Rivers at Old Kaskaskia. Capt. J. H. Burnham, Blooming- 
ton, Ills. 

The Methodist Church and Reconstruction. Prof. W. W. Sweet, 
De Pauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 

The Yates' Phalanx or The Thirty-ninth Illinois Volunteers in 
the Civil War. W. H. Jenkins, Pontiac. 

Some Indian Remains in Rock Island County, Illinois. John H. 
Hauberg, Rock Island. 

FRIDAY AFTERNOON 

An Account of the Great Whig Meeting held at Springfield, 
June 3-4, 1840. With music of the Campaign. 

Representation at the Convention from Northern Illinois. Mrs. 
Edith P. Kelly, Bloomington. 

The Young Men's Convention and Old Soldiers' Meeting at 
Springfield, June 3-4, 1840. Mrs. Isabel Jamison, Springfield. 

Southern Illinois and Neighboring States at the Convention. 
Mrs. Martha McNiell Davidson, Greenville, Ills. 

FRIDAY EVENING 
Annual Address Early Courts of Chicago and Cook County, 

Judge O. N. Carter. 
Reception in State Library. 

This program is not exact as to titles of addresses or the time 
at which they will be delivered but it gives information as to the 
splendid program prepared for the annual meeting. 

Members of the Society are urgently requested to attend the 
meeting. Each year the program committee issues urgent 
invitations and, while the members receive the addresses in the 
Transactions of the Society, attendance on the meeting will be 
a help to themselves and the officers of the Society, and a com- 
pliment and an evidence of appreciation of the labor and 
research which speakers have devoted to the preparation of 
these addresses for the Society. 

Please make an effort to attend the annual meeting. 



124 



FLAG OF COMPANY C, 77TH REGIMENT, ILLINOIS 

VOLUNTEER INFANTRY FINDS FINAL AND 

HONORED RESTING PLACE IN ILLINOIS 

MEMORIAL HALL. 



The following is an extract from an address delivered before 
the 77th Regiment Reunion association, September 22, 1913, 
by Mrs. John Buckingham : 

"Regiment after regiment was quickly formed in the ranks of 
war in the early sixties. 

The lamented D. P. Grier of Peoria was commissioned 
Colonel of the valiant 77th regiment Illinois volunteers, to 
which was added our own Company C. This regiment was 
ordered to encamp in Peoria awaiting a call to the front where 
war's fierce duties called, and where the lives of a few men 
counted little in the news of the battle. Yet they were our 
brothers and represented the bone and sinew of our community. 

The suggestion of the Company's flag was first made by the 
late Dr. and Mrs. Thomas. The thought was conveyed to our 
neighbors, the Lowpointers, who responded with eagerness. A 
meeting of the citizens of Washburn and Lowpoint was called. 
Hon. James G. Baynewas chairman, and all needed arrangements 
were perfected. A committee was appointed to purchase a flag 
in New York, at a cost of $100, which amount was easily 
obtained by soliciting the friends of the soldiers, many of whom 
have laid their burdens by and crossed the deep, dark valley. 

On motion of Dr. Thomas, Carrie M. Jenkins was appointed 
to accompany a delegation and present the flag to Company 
C. This was effected on a delightful September day, in 1862. 
The flag was received in behalf of the Company by John Buck- 
ingham, with a few appropriate remarks. Captain McCulloch 
responded by singing the glorious Star Spangled Banner, which 
from his well trained voice rang out loud and clear and echoed 
among the trees, as we shall never hear it again. 

They broke camp September 2nd, and were soon in active 
service. For three long years the conflict raged with war's 
usual routine of monotonous camp life, long and wearisome 
marches, the strong fierce battle with its dire results and anon 
many pining in rebel prisons. 



125 

Woman's part in the great struggle was a severe one. To 
multiplied duties and responsibilities were added days of anxiety 
and nights of sadness. 

Our societies were Soldiers' Aid in which we prepared articles 
of clothing for the comfort of sick and wounded soldiers. Sun- 
days we frequently tore bandages with which to dress the 
wounds of the afflicted ones. 

There came a day when unconditional surrender was the 
watchword. When guns were stacked and cannons dumb, our 
cause triumphant, the great battle won. 

A public reception was given August 12th, 1865, in the grove 
south of Lowpoint, to welcome home the brave defenders of 
our country. Nothing was omitted to make the occasion the 
most notable event of a lifetime. 

The day was the fairest. At an early hour the people came, 
from near and far to participate in the grand and universal wel- 
come. Following a call to order the splendid band of the 77th 
discoursed its sweetest music. The reception address was 
delivered by Rev. Herrick, to which Mr. J. Buckingham 
responded. 

The thousands then partook of a bounteous repast, of sub- 
stantials and delicacies, followed by music and speaking. Mr. 
J. M. Avery, of Company C, in an appropriate address returned 
the flag to the ladies who had presented it. This was responded 
to by Mrs. Carrie M. Buckingham: 

Soldiers: Nearly three years since I, in behalf of the ladies of 
Washburn and Lowpoint, tendered a beauteous and glowing 
banner, the ensign of liberty, to a brave band of noble Spartan- 
like heroes who had assumed the proud title of American 
soldiers, and in freedom's sacred name had rushed boldly forth 
on a mission truly wonderful and sublime. 

Hard was the struggle, yet we were proud to send you forth as 
we witnessed in you an earnest devotion of spirit and disinter- 
ested patriotism, these bright characteristics of Columbia's true 
defenders . We gave into your hands the emblem of our country 's 
pride and greatness, bidding you bear it even to the Southern 
blood-stained shore, calling upon the God of battle to crown all 
your efforts with success and lead you on to laureled victory. 

With what intense interest did we follow you through all the 
fearful scenes of carnage. How ardently did we turn our gaze 
Southward to view the waving of our country's banners in the 
Southern breeze. Often did we behold you cluster around it, 



126 

while it seemed to rehearse to you memories of the past. We 
knew the men were true who upheld it ; believed it would never 
be dishonored or suffered to be hurled to the dust by traitorous 
bands. Our hearts, with yours, were deeply imbued in our 
national cause. Today you return to us this precious, price- 
less memento without one single star erased or stripe polluted. 
Its soiled and war-worn marks speak loudly to us of hard service 
and dangers braved. We always loved the stars and stripes, 
but this banner we hold doubly dear, that you have borne it 
through the dread clamor of battle. You have added new 
radiance to the former glories of the blood bought prize, clustered 
around by a resplendent halo, intermingled with the gorgeous 
sunlight and heaven's angelic cherubim gazing smilingly upon it. 
Our gratitude to you cannot be spoken ; but your brave deeds 
of noble valor will illumine the pages of our future history. We 
rejoice that we have now the satisfaction of greeting again our 
nation's redeemers. You come to us victory-crowned, honor- 
laden, a bright enduring wreath encircling your brows and not 
yours only, but also your brothers in death as in their lives who 
poured out their life blood through every throbbing vein. Now 
we can exclaim our land is redeemed, the bayonet sheathed, the 
cannons dumb, our banner unfurled to peaceful breezes and we 
bid you welcome, welcome to your homes and loved ones." 



FLAG OF COMPANY C. 

This letter was published in the Washburn Leader because of 
the historical facts related therein and is self-explanatory : 

Washburn, Nov. 10, 1913. 
Adjutant General, 

Springfield, Illinois 
Dear General: 

I am sending you by Parcel Post the old Flag of Company C, 
77th Regiment, Illinois Volunteers, for deposit in Memorial 
Hall, at the State House. This flag was purchased in New 
York City, for $100 by the ladies of Cazenovia township, 
Woodford Co., and presented to the Company on a September 
day in 1862, and with the Company went to the front, on October 
4, 1862. On May 22, 1863, in the charge on Vicksburg's heights, 
the regimental flag was planted on the Confederate works, where 



127 

it remained until the flag staff was shot off, and the flag fell 
into the hands of the enemy, from whom it was not recovered. 

This Company C Flag then went into use as the regimental 
flag, and was so used until the 4th of October, 1863, when a new 
flag was presented to the regiment by the ladies of the city of 
Peoria, and this Company C Flag was returned to its Company 
duty, where it remained until the close of the war and the re- 
turn of the Company, when it was formally returned, August 12, 
1865, to the ladies who originally presented it to them; they 
gave it into the hands of Capt. J. M. McCulloch, of Company 
C, where it remained until his death, when it fell into the hands 
of his son, Rev. W. E. McCulloch of Pittsburg, Pa., who on 
March 28, 1913, sent it to the undersigned with request, that 
after going on exhibition at the annual reunion of the regiment 
September 22 and 23, 1913, it should be deposited in the state 
house at Springfield, its final resting place. Before doing this, 
it was very neatly repaired and re-inforced by Miss Viola 
Buckingham, whose father was a musician in the Company, 
and a valiant soldier, who marched three years under this once 
beautiful and now glorious banner, participating in all of its 
battles, and since the war, was one of the committee, designated 
by the regiment, to assist in fixing points occupied by the regi- 
ment, during the seige of Vicksburg, where granite markers 
were planted by the general government. This flag was present 
with its Company in thirteen battles besides many skirmishes, 
and in all their marches through nine states of the union, in 
their three years of service. 

Fraternally Yours, 

FRANK N. IRELAND, 

Secretary 77th Regiment Reunion Association. 



AN INTERESTING LETTER FROM AN OLD RESIDENT 

OF ILLINOIS. 

MRS. JESSIE PALMER WEBER: Editor Historical Society 
Journal. 

DEAR MADAM: The enclosed communication might prove 
of sufficient general interest to justify its publication in the 
Journal. 

Mr. William Beckman is still living at Sacramento. He 
lately presented me a most interesting book of travels in Europe, 



128 

Asia Minor, Egypt, Syria, and Palestine. On a flyleaf he had 
written the following: 

"This book was written by Mrs. William Beckman, wife of 
the Illinois stage driver and the California banker. Mrs. 
Beckman was born in Macoupin County, Illinois, and the fact 
that the author is a native Illinoisan will undoubtedly increase 
the interest of the reader." 

The book bears the likeness of a magnificent looking lady. 
And its dedication is as follows : 

"For his patience during my absence, his words of praise and 
kind encouragement, I gratefully dedicate these sketches to 

MY HUSBAND 
And to a memory the memory of one whose wanderings are 

ended 
MY SAINTED MOTHER." 

The Edward Bonney mentioned by Mr. Beckman was mainly 
instrumental in the suppression of a band of criminals that in- 
fested Northern Illinois in the forties. He apprehended those 
guilty of the robbery and murder of Colonel Davenport on the 
4th of July, 1844. Three of them were hanged, John and Aaron 
Long, and Granville Young. Their cases went to the State 
Supreme Court and may be found in Gilman's reports. Their 
execution virtually broke up the band. 

Bonney wrote a book with the fascinating title: "The 
Banditti of the Prairie or the Murderer's Doom." As a young 
boy I read it over and over, and have not yet gotten away from 
its spell ; I still have a copy. 

On the stage line over which Mr. Beckman drove as a boy from 
Chicago to Aurora, was situated just north of Hinsdale, what 
used to be called "Brush Hill." It was an important point on 
the route. Some years ago I visited the old place long since 
dead, and kodaked what there was left of the old hotel of seventy 
years ago. There was, I found, a tradition that Lincoln and 
other famous men of those days the forties and fifties had 
stopped there. Perhaps they did not but "Where doubt is 
disenchantment 'tis wisdom to believe." 

The front of the hotel is not imposing, but it ran back inde- 
finitely, and at times farmers filled the beds and covered the 
floors. 

I send you a picture you may use if you wish, and return to 
me. The light of other days rests on old "Brush Hill," and 



129 

some vain, impious man has changed its name to Fullersburg; 
it was a Fuller probably ; but its old name which signifies some- 
thing, will remain. 

Something concerning Mr. Beckman I think well worth pre- 
serving in the Journal. 

Very respectfully, 

F. M. ANNIS, 
Aurora, Ills. 

Mr. Beckman was known to the older residents of Aurora, as 
having been a stage driver for the old Frink & Walker Stage 
company, and Judge F. M. Annis wrote him and asked for 
further details. In an interesting reply, which is given herewith, 
Mr. Beckman tells of the early days. He writes of Edward 
Bonney and the horse thieves whom he captured. Bonney's 
book, "The Banditti of the Prairie," was reprinted in the serial 
story department of The Aurora Beacon-News a year or so ago 

Mr. Beckman is now in his seventy-ninth year and is wonder- 
fully active. He is president of the People's Saving bank of 
Sacramento and has been for more than twenty years. He went 
to Sacramento in 1852 and has since lived there. The former 
Aurora man is the oldest Odd Fellow in California and has been 
a member of Sacramento lodge for nearly fifty years. 

The letter to Judge F. M. Annis is as follows : 

"Dear Sir: I received your letter of March 27 some time 
ago, but as I have been a busy man I have not taken the time to 
answer it. 

"In your letter you ask me if the stage line that was run from 
Chicago to Aurora was owned by Frink & Walker. I will say 
that Frink & Walker, the great stage company owned nearly 
all of the stages of Illinois, part of Michigan, part of Indiana, 
part of Wisconsin and part of Iowa. In those days they were a 
great deal like your Illinois Central railroad, or some other big 
corporation. They not only did staging work but were also 
politicians, as it was necessary for the members of congress to 
assist them to get mail contracts. 

"You also asked me about the time I used to make from 
Chicago to Aurora. I will say that we left Chicago at 8 o'clock 
in the morning and got to Naperville for dinner. Naperville 
was the county seat of DuPage county and we dined at the old 
Pre-emption house then. We arrived in Aurora between 2 and 
4 o'clock. When the roads were good we got there earlier, and 



130 

when the roads were bad it was sometimes after night before we 
got there. 

"You also ask if I drove west of the Fox river. I will say my 
first driving was from Chicago to St. Charles with two four-horse 
teams. Then I was transferred over to your road and drove 
three four-horse teams from Chicago to Aurora. Then I was 
put on the road from Chicago to Beloit and drove from Chicago 
to Woodstock. 

"The night I got to Woodstock the first time, everybody was 
drunk, and the cause was that they had moved the county seat 
from the town of McHenry to Woodstock, and it seemed to be 
more important to those people than if the capital at Washing- 
ton had been moved there. 

"By this time the Chicago & Galena railroad was started, 
which today is a part of the North- Western system. In regard 
to the railroad will say that they put down strips of wood and 
nailed a piece of strap iron on top of them and that was the con- 
struction of the railroad that was first built out of Chicago. 

"The stage lines met the trains, the first transfer place being 
Des Plaines. We used to call it O'Plain, and it is now called 
Maywood. Here the passengers would get off the cars and the 
stages would meet them and take them to their destination. 

' ' The next place where the stage met the cars was at Cottage 
Hill, now called Elmhurst, and the next one was what we called 
the Junction, which is about ten miles from St. Charles and must 
have been about the same distance from Aurora. As the rail- 
road advanced the stage lines moved farther west. 

' ' I drove for some time from this Junction to Rockf ord by way 
of St. Charles, Genoa and Belvidere. Afterward I was trans- 
ferred to the road from Rockford to Freeport and that was my 
last driving. I also drove for two winters, when the canal was 
frozen up, from Chicago to Joliet which was all night work both 
ways. They used to put us young drivers at the night work as 
our eyesight was better than that of the older men. 

"As you asked how I happened to be a stage driver, I will say 
that it really came about by accident in this way. I lived on a 
farm near Cottage Hill and Cottage Hill was the post-office. I 
was there one day for the mail when the stage came along from 
St. Charles and the driver, who was quite an elderly man, had 
so hard a chill that he could hardly get off the coach. There 
were no passengers that day and the hotel man, who was also 
the stage agent, did not know how to get the stage to Chicago. 



131 

He had seen me driving four-horse teams hauling corn, potatoes 
and stuff of that kind, so he asked me if I could drive that coach 
to Chicago and I told him, 'yes, ' I would be glad to do so. 

"When I got to Chicago old man Frink came out and said, 
'Where is this coach from?' I told him St. Charles. Then he 
asked where the driver was and I told him sick at Cottage Hill, 
not able to move. He then said, 'Wait a minute.' He was a 
large man, and he climbed upon the seat beside me. I asked 
him where the postoffice was and he showed me I unloaded 
the mail and he told me to drive to the barn which I did. 

' ' He then asked me what I had been doing, and I told him I 
had been raised on a farm and knew nothing else except the work 
on a farm. He asked me if I would not like driving stage and 
asked me how old I was, and I told him 16. Well, to end the 
conversation, he said, 'If you want to drive stage, you take 
this team and drive to St. Charles tomorrow. I think you are the 
right kind of stuff to make a good stage-driver.' Hence I fol- 
lowed the business in Illinois for four years. 

"You speak also about Edward Bonney. Edward Bonney 
was one of our neighbors after he captured the bandits, and 
while the railroad was running as far as Cottage Hill. He used 
to come over, and I played checkers with him a great deal and 
I was intimately acquainted with him. 

"His house had wooden shutters at all the windows which 
were all closed as soon as night came, and he would not go out 
of the house after dark. The way I remember it was that when 
he captured these fellows he had to go among them and commit 
some depredations also, and after he exposed them and sent them 
to state's prison, their friends swore vengeance against Bonney. 
The same gang killed Colonel Davenport at Rock Island. I 
remember all the circumstances connected with it. 

"You also ask me if I was ever held up. I will say I was 
always lucky enough to miss it. Although coaches ahead of me 
and coaches behind me were 'stood up,' they always missed me. 

"The hotel in Aurora, that is the stage house, was kept by a 
man named Wilder, quite a character, who took a great liking 
to me. Among other incidents I remember he had a pair of 
colts, young horses that ran away with him a couple of times and 
he was afraid to drive them, so in the afternoon after I got 
through he would hook them into a light buggy and I would 
take the old man in and drive him as far as Elgin and back. 



132 

I soon had the runaway notion out of them and sold them to the 
stage company for him. 

"The stage horses at that time were worth $100 apiece, and 
instead of the farmers raising race horses they would raise stage 
horses, because the stage company always had good horses, good 
harness, good coaches and everything up to date. 

' ' I will say further in connection with this, that I always had 
a good time in my life, but my stage-driving days I enjoyed the 
most. It is an occupation that a young fellow gets naturally 
attached to. 

"Now I have made this long enough, and I will not burden 
you with any more. 

' ' Hoping we may meet some day, if not in this world, we will 
take our chances in the next. 

"Yours very truly, 

"WILLIAM BECKMAN." 



THE STUDLEY FAMILY REUNION, NEPONSET, ILLS., 
AUGUST 30, 1913. 

REUNION OP THE STUDLEY FAMILY. 

At the first reunion of the Studley family, held August 30, 
1913, in Neponset, Illinois, the following historical sketch was 
given by E. F. Norton. The many interesting facts it con- 
tains relative to the family and to the town make it worthy of 
preservation, not only by the family, but by the citizens of 
Neponset, Bureau county and the State at large. 

Dear Kinsmen : We are gathered together here today not to 
celebrate, but to commemorate the lives and deeds of our 
forefather's and especially we wish to do honor to those to 
whom we owe, not only our being, but to whom we are indebted 
for our many blessings and comforts that surround us William 
Studley and Ann Chapman Studley. 

It was not by chance or lot that they builded up their home on 
these fertile prairies but by forethought and good judgment as 
we will find by their actions after leaving England, their native 
land. 

Wm. Studley and Ann Chapman Studley were born in York- 
shire, England and resided there until May 1, 1833. They then 
set sail for America accompanied by their four children William 
Studley, Ann Studley Norton, Robert Studley and Thomas 



133 

Studley. They came by sail boat by way of Quebec, thence to 
Columbus, Ohio, landing in Naples, Illinois, in August of the 
same year. They were fourteen weeks on the trip from England, 
six weeks and three days upon the ocean. 

Not being pleased with the section where they stopped, they 
moved near Lynnville, Morgan County, now Scott County, 
Illinois, where they resided until 1837, when they moved to 
Osceola Grove one mile south of Spoon River bridge, nearly 
six miles due south of Neponset, driving hogs and cattle over- 
land. In the fall of 1837 they moved to Barren Grove, to the 
very spot upon which we are now gathered to do them honor. 
They resided here until the time of his death in 1878. 

To Wm. Studley and Ann Chapman Studley the honor is due 
of being the first settlers in Neponset township, Bureau county, 
Illinois, and to them was born the first white child in the town- 
ship, Mrs. Jane Studley Dunn, now deceased. 

Twenty of the Hall family, and relatives came one year later. 

In the Studley cabin, the first one here, located just south of 
yonder walnut tree, was held the first school and later a school 
house was built on the old trail eighty rods south of the cabin. 

You are all probably well informed of the trials and hardships 
these people underwent. Often have they been related to us by 
our fathers and mothers. 

William Studley was thoroughly an agriculturist and to the 
Studley family is due at least one thing they are almost with- 
out exception an agricultural family, largely a producing family. 
We have no lawyers, no doctors, no preachers to offset these 
facts. We have no criminals nor inmates of penitentiaries nor 
ever have had in the family. 

After the death of William Studley in 1878, Ann Studley 
moved to Neponset where she resided until 1886, the time of her 
death. 

The second generation of the family were William Studley, 
who was the soldier of the family; Ann Studley Norton, Robert 
Studley, Thomas Studley, Christopher Studley, Elizabeth 
Studley Bumphrey, Jane Studley Dunn, Charles Studley, eight 
in all, of whom four are living and able to be with us today. 
There are four generations now and the family records show two 
hundred twenty-eight direct descendants, a comparatively 
small number being deceased. 



134 
PLAN MEMORIAL TO LINCOLN AND DAVIS. 



Historical Societies Would Mark Spot Where Presidents Met. 

Historical societies of Illinois hope to be able to place a big 
boulder memorial to mark the place where Abraham Lincoln 
and Jefferson Davis first met. The site for the proposed mon- 
ument is seventy-five miles west of Chicago on Kishwaukee 
creek, in DeKalb county. 

It is believed that there in 1832, the future president of the 
United States and the future president of the Confederate States 
of America first saw each other. As soldiers they had gone to 
that point to assist in ending the Black Hawk massacres. In- 
cidentally, among those present at the meeting were General 
Zachary Taylor and Major Robert Anderson. 

It was at this place that the first sessions of court in DeKalb 
county were held. 

Kapas, an Indian chief, occupied the historic spot with his 
tribe and he met a tragic death there. His burial mound is 
over the spot where he fell. 



OLD FOLKS HEAR LECTURE ON STATE HISTORY. 

The people of the Odd Fellows' Old Folk's Home at Mattoon, 
were given a treat on January 3, 1914, in the form of a finely 
illustrated lecture on Illinois. The account of the rise of Illi- 
nois from wilderness to a great commonwealth was told in an 
interesting way by picture and story. 

The lecture began with French explorers and presented views 
made famous by LaSalle and Marquette. It lingered about 
Starved Rock and gave one many glimpses of this historic cliff 
and the scenery about it. Fort Dearborn, the Chicago Mas- 
sacre and the part Illinois played in the war of 1812 were not 
forgotten. Lincoln and the Black Hawk war and other events 
in the life of Lincoln were noticed. The development of the 
State, the building of canals and railroads; the progress of 
schools and churches came in for attention also. Their attention 
was turned to the growth of the cities, the development of 
industries, the building and utilization of Chicago drainage 
canal. These and many other things were described in a most 
interesting way until one began to appreciate as never before the 
achievements of the state. 



135 

The lantern slides, of the best quality, were made especially 
for this lecture and are among the most complete sets on Illi- 
nois in existence. 

The lecturer, Rev. R. F. Cressey of the Broadway church is a 
native of Illinois and much interested in its history. The story 
as told by him is full of interest and enters the mind through 
eye-gate as well as through ear-gate. It brings to many the pre- 
viously unknown beautiful scenery of Illinois and thrills with the 
story of pioneer courage and human achievement. The inter- 
est of the audience was carried with the lecturer from the 
beginning to the very last word. 



MEETING OF THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY HISTORICAL 

ASSOCIATION. 

The semi-annual meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical 
Association will be held May 20-23, 1914, at Grand Forks, 
South Dakota. 



A NEW NUMBER OF THE ILLINOIS HISTORICAL 
COLLECTIONS. 

The Illinois State Historical Library is receiving from the 
press, Number 9 of the Illinois Historical Collections. This 
volume is a bibliography of the writings of travelers in the 
Illinois country, edited by Dr. Solon J. Buck of the University 
of Illinois. It contains a large amount of historical and biblio- 
graphical information. 

It contains also a list of Illinois county histories and tells 
where each volume may be found. It will be reviewed at 
length in a later number of the Journal. 

Dr. Buck will edit the first volume of the publications of the 
Illinois Centennial Commission. 



NECROLOGY 



139 



MRS. ADLAI E. STEVENSON. 



Mrs. Letitia Green Stevenson, wife of Adlai E. Stevenson, 
died at her home in Bloomington, Illinois, on Christmas evening 
December 25, 1913. 

Mrs. Stevenson was born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, and 
was the daughter of Dr. Lewis Warner Green and Mary Fry 
Green. Dr. Green was one of the most eminent scholars of the 
South. He was, in the latter part of his life, president of Cen- 
ter College, Danville, Ky. 

When a young girl, Mrs. Stevenson came to Illinois and was 
married from the home of her sister, Mrs. Matthew T. Scott, at 
Chenoa, Illinois, on December 20, 1866, to Mr. Adlai E. Steven- 
son. Shortly after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Stevenson 
moved to Bloomington, where they have since made their home, 
and where four children were born to them, one son and three 
daughters. The eldest daughter, Mary, died just as she was 
approaching womanhood. The surviving children are Lewis 
Green Stevenson, Mrs. Julia Stevenson Hardin, the wife of Rev. 
Martin D. Hardin, a noted Presbyterian clergyman, and Miss 
Letitia Stevenson. Mrs. Stevenson's life was the exemplifica- 
tion of what is most beautiful in womanly characteristics when 
these have been cultivated and allowed to reach their highest 
development. Her home, her husband, her children, her 
sister, her church and her friends were the supreme objects of her 
life and received from her the fullest measure of devotion. 

During the first years of her married life, Mrs. Stevenson 
devoted herself entirely to her husband and her young chil- 
dren. Later, when she went to Washington, first as the wife of 
a congressman, then the Assistant Postmaster General and 
finally as the wife of the vice-president of the United States, she 
gave evidence of those high social talents and qualities of lead- 
ership which were so marked when she became the second 
President General of the National Society of the Daughters of 
the American Revolution, succeeding the wife of President Ben- 
jamin Harrison in this high office. 



140 

Mrs. Stevenson was descended from a long line of distin- 
guished ancestors, and she was interested in the history of the 
country and the State in which her own family and her hus- 
band have borne so conspicuous a part. 

The National Society cl the Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, in which she and her sister Mrs. Matthew T. Scott, were 
leaders, was especially dear to her. 

One of the last labors of her life was writing a history of this 
Society which was published just before her death. This organ- 
ization will long cherish her memory and accord her name an 
honored place in its annals. 

A friend said at the funeral of Mrs. Stevenson : 

"Physically, mentally and spiritually, Mrs. Stevenson was 
like a flower. To her it was as natural to be sympathetically 
tactful and wisely helpful to all with whom she came in contact, 
as it is for a rose to exhale its sweetness. No one who has been 
privileged to know her, be it ever so slightly has failed to feel if 
not to entirely comprehend that here indeed, was one of those 
gifted souls who has pushed up and back the boundaries of our 
poor human nature, and revealed to us some of the rarer, higher 
and more exquisite potentialities of the race." 



DEATH OF SENATOR SHELBY M. CULLOM. 

Senator Shelby Moore Cullom, long a representative of Illi- 
nois in the United States Senate and former Governor of the 
State, died at his home in Washington, D. C., on January 28, 
1914. His remains were brought to Springfield, Illinois, where a 
public funeral was held in the State Capitol building on Sunday, 
February 1, 1914, and he was buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery 
with the members of his family who had all preceded him in 
death. He left a sister-in-law, Miss Victoria Fisher, who had 
long been a member of his household, and two grand-daughters, 
the daughters of a deceased daughter, Mrs. Ella Cullom Ridgely, 
wife of Hon. Wm. Barret Ridgely. 

At the funeral exercises addresses were made by Governor 
Edward F. Dunne, and other prominent speakers. 

Senator Cullom was an honorary member of the Illinois State 
Historical Society, and took much interest in it and its publi- 
cations, especially the Journal. He wrote many kind letters of 
appreciation of it to its editor. 



141 

A memorial address upon the life and work of Senator Cullom 
is being prepared by Mr. Henry A. Converse of Springfield. Mr. 
Converse will deliver this address at the annual meeting of the 
Illinois State Historical Society May 7, 1914. The address will 
be published in the Transactions of the Society. 



JAMES MAGNUS RYRIE. 

BY W. T. NORTON, ALTON, ILL. 

James Magnus Ryrie, a prominent and wealthy citizen of 
Alton, and a member of the Illinois State Historical Society, 
died suddenly of apoplexy on the evening of December 19th, 
1913. The sad event was a great shock to the community as the 
deceased was one of the most widely known and most highly 
esteemed residents of the city. A gentleman of the highest 
character, a successful business man and one interested in every 
movement for the uplift of the community, his loss is widely 
mourned, not only by a large circle of relatives and friends, but 
by all who ever came in contact with his pleasing personality. 
He was modest and unassuming in his daily life, but his unblem- 
ished character and unswerving integrity made his influence a 
power for good. 

Mr. Ryrie was born in Alton, September 5, 1852. His death 
occurred at his beautiful residence on the site of the old home- 
stead of his father and grandfather. In early manhood, he was 
engaged in manufacturing enterprises on a large scale, both in 
Alton and St. Louis, but retired from active business some years 
ago after selling out to the Drummond Tobacco Company, and 
devoted his time to the care of his real estate and financial 
interests. He was a large stockholder in St. Louis banks 
and had extensive holdings in agricultural lands in Iowa. 
He was a leading spirit in the Alton Board of Trade and an active 
promoter of the good roads movement in Madison and adjoin- 
ing counties. 

Mr. Ryrie was a descendant of two of the oldest families in 
Madison county. He was the son of the late Daniel D. Ryrie, 
a prominent banker, who came to Alton from his native Scotland 
in 1837. His maternal grandfather was John Adams, a native 
of Vermont, who came to Madison county in 1818, the year the 
State was admitted to the Union. John Adams was a pioneer 
manufacturer of Madison county. In 1823 he established the 



142 

first carding machine and cloth factory in Edwardsville, and in 
1824, erected the first castor oil mill. 

Mr. Ryrie thus came of an honored ancestry, and by his life- 
work and achievements proved himself worthy thereof, and him- 
self gave the family name additional distinction. He served 
well his day and generation, and leaves an honored name as a 
priceless heritage to his descendants. He leaves a widow, Mrs. 
Annie Nash Ryrie, to whom he was married in 1880, and two 
daughters, Mrs. George S. Milnor and Miss Mary Adams Ryrie. 
The fourth generation of the family now occupy homes on the 
site of the original homestead, a rare occurrence in this rapidly 
changing age. 

The funeral rites of our old friend took place December 22nd, 
at the family residence, a great concourse of citizens attending 
in token of their respect and affection for the departed. Rev. 
Dr. M. W. Twing, pastor of the First Baptist church, and 
Rev. Arthur Goodger, rector of St. Paul's Episcopal church, 
conducted the services, and the former bore fitting testimony to 
the worth and beauty of the life that had passed on to the 
"Land of the Leal." 



HENRY BAILEY HENKEL. 

Henry Bailey Henkel, president of the Springfield Business 
College, died at his home in Springfield, Illinois, on February 
26, 1914. 

He was born in Harrison County, Ohio, November 7, 1852. 
His early boyhood was spent on a farm. When a young man 
he entered Brown's Business College, Jacksonville, 111., from 
which institution he graduated, later becoming a teacher. 

He was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth Conine Freeman 
of Jacksonville, 111., who, with two sons Myron F. Henkel and 
Dr. Herbert B. Henkel survives him. 

Professor Henkel was a thirty-second degree Mason and Past 
Commander of the Elwood Commandery No. 6, Knights 
Templar. He was active in Masonic work, being a prominent 
member of St. Paul's Lodge A. F. and A. M. For twenty years 
Mr. Henkel was a member of the Templar Quartette and was 
prominent in Masonic lodge work. He was an active member 
of the First Christian Church and held the position of deacon 
at the time of his death. 



143 

He was a valued member of the Illinois State Historical 
Society. 

The funeral was held from the First Christian Church at 
Springfield, on Sunday, March 1st, 1914, the Knights Templar 
acting as guard of honor. 



DEATH OF JUDGE CHARLES B. CAMPBELL. 

Charles Bishop Campbell, Judge of the Twelfth Judicial 
District of Illinois, died at his home in Kankakee on Wednesday, 
April 1, 1914, at the age of forty-five years. 

The members of the Historical Society of which Judge 
Campbell was an active and interested member, will be much 
surprised and grieved to learn of his untimely death. 

He was a man of forceful character, of the most attractive 
personality, and he had hosts of friends. He read a valuable 
paper before the Illinois State Historical Society at its annual 
meeting, January 1906. This address is published in the Trans- 
actions for that year under the title of Bourbonnais; or the 
early French settlements in Kankakee County, Illinois. 

A more extended biographical sketch of Judge Campbell 
will be published in a later number of the Journal. 



144 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORI- 
CAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY 

No. 1. *A Bibliography of newspapers Published in Illinois prior to 1860. Pre- 
pared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., assisted by Milo J. Loveless, 94 pages 8vo. , 
Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. "Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois, passed from 1809 
to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 15 pages, 8vo., Springfield, 111., 
1899. 

No. 3. "The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 
170 pages, 8vo., Springfield, 111., 1901. 

No. 4. "Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1900. 
Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., secretary of the Society. 55 pages, 8vo., Spring- 
field, 111., 1900. 

No. 5. Alphabetic Catalogue of the Books, Manuscripts, pictures, and curios 
of the Illinois State Historical Library. Compiled by Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. 
363 pages, 8yo., Springfield, 111., 1900. 

Nos. 6-17 inc. Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the years 
1901-1910 inclusive. 12 volumes. Numbers 6 to 12 inclusive are out of print. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 1, Edited by H. W. Beckwith, President 
Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, 642 pages, 8vo., Spring- 
field, 111., 1903. 

"Illinois Historical Collections Vol. 2. Virginia series Vol. 1. Edited by Clarence 
W. Alyord. 8vo., Springfield, 111., 1907. 

*Illinois Historical Collections Vol. 3. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. Lin- 
coln Series, Vol. 1. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 8vo., Springfield, 111., 1908. 

""Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 4. Executive Series Vol. 1. The Governors' 
Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Clarence Wai- 
worth Alvord. 8vo. Springfield, Ills., 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol 5. Virginia Series, Vol. 2. Kaskaskia Records, 
1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alyord. 8vo., Springfield, Ills., 1909. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical series. Vol. 1. News- 
papers and periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited 
by Franklin William Scott. 8vo., Springfield, 111., 1910. 

""Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII. Executive Series Vol. II. Governors' 
Letter Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles Manfred 
Thompson. 8vo., Springfield, 111., 1911. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers 1771-1781. Edited by James Alton James. 8vo., Spring- 
field, 111., 1912. 

"Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 1 September 1905. 
Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord, University of 
Illinois, 38 pages, 8vo., Springfield, 111., 1905. 

""Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. 1. No. 2. June 1, 1906. 
Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence W. Alvord. 8vo. 
Springfield, 111., 1906. 

"Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. 1. No. 1. Nov. 1905. An 
outline for the study of Illinois State history, compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber, 
assisted by Georgia L. Osborne. 94 p, 8 vo., Springfield, 1905. 

Journals of the Illinois State Historical Society, Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 1, April, 
1908, to Vol. 7, No. 1, April, 1914. 



JOURNALS OUT OF PRINT. 

print. Vc 
Tint. 

*Out of print. 



*Vol. I, out of print. Vol. II, Nos. 3 and 4, out of print. Vol. Ill, out of print. 
Vol. IV, out of print. 



VOL. 7 JULY 1914 NO. 2 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Illinois State Historical Society 



Published Quarterly by the Illinois State Historical Society 
Springfield, Illinois 



Entered at Washington, D. C., as Second Class Matter under Act of Congress 
of July 16, 1894 



The Edw. F. Hartmann Company, Printers, Springfield, 111. 



JOURNAL 



OF THE 



ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



JESSIE PALMER WEBER. Editor. 



Associate Editors: 

J. H. Burnham George W. Smith 

William A. Meese Andrew Rnssel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. Page 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY: 



Honorary President 

Hon. Clark E. Carr Galesburg 

President 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First V ice-President 

W. T. Norton Alton 

Second Vice-President, 

L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third V ice-President 

Richard Yates Springfield 

Fourth V ice-President 

George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Directors 

Edmund J. James Urbana-Champaign 

President University of Illinois. 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

E. B. Greene Urbana-Champaign 

University of Illinois. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp Jacksonville 

President Illinois College. 
J. O. Cunningham Urbana 

George W. Smith Carbondale 

Southern Illinois State Normal University. 

William A. Meese Moline 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page DeKalb 

Northern Illinois State Normal School. 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James Evanston 

Northwestern University. 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Honorary V ice-Presidents 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

I. Orrin N. Carter 

The Early Courts of Chicago and Cook County 7 

II. Edmund J. James 

New Jersey Families in Illinois: 

The Casad and Stites Families 39 

III. Mrs. Kate Brainerd Eogers 

The Name of Lincoln 60 

IV. Mrs. Edwin S. Walker 

Soldiers of the American Revolution Buried in Illinois. . 70 

V. Robert C. Smith 

Some Information in Regard to the Statue of Stephen 
A. Douglas 74 

VI. G. Frank Long 

Summerfield School Pioneer Grafton Road, Madison 
County, Illinois 76 

VII. Department of Reprints 

Bluffdale. From the Illinois Monthly Magazine, Feb- 
ruary, 1832 83 

The Festival at Bluffdale. From the Western Monthly 
Magazine, November, 1834 88 

VIII. Editorial Notes 

Annual Meeting of the Illinois State Historical Society, 
May 7-8, 1914 99 

Secretary's Report, Illinois State Historical Society, 
May, 1913 May, 1914 102 

Illinois Building at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, San 
Francisco, California Ill 

The Cahokia Mound Association 114 

Jersey County Historical Society Seventy-fifth Anni- 
versary Celebration 115 

Gift of Books, Letters, Manuscripts to the Library and 
Society 117 

IX. Necrology 

William H. Thacker 121 

Edgar S. Scott 124 

Adlai E. Stevenson 125 

Judge W. C. Johns 130 

X. Publications of the Library and Society 136 



The Early Courts of Chicago and Cook County 



ANNUAL ADDRESS BEFORE THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 

MAY 8, 1914, BY ORRIN N. CARTER, JUSTICE OF 

THE ILLINOIS STATE SUPREME COURT. 

I have found it somewhat difficult to decide what period of 
time to cover in this address. At first I considered giving 
the history of the courts, not only under the Constitution of 
1818, but that of 1848, as fairly included within the subject, 
but decided that this would make too long an address, and 
therefore have limited it in a general way to the courts under 
the Constitution of 1818. 

No adequate history of the courts of Illinois has ever been 
written. While short sketches have been given of the courts 
of the Territory of Illinois, none are found of Chicago or Cook 
County. No separate history of those courts has ever been 
undertaken. Brief fragmentary sketches can be found in ad- 
dresses and scattered through various histories of Chicago. 
On account of the burning of all the court records in the great 
fire of 1871, it is practically impossible now to get authentic 
information as to many historical questions of interest touch- 
ing the courts, their officials and the cases tried therein. I 
shall sketch briefly some of the questions upon which infor- 
mation can be obtained. 

Most laws creating courts in this country have given them 
jurisdiction with reference to county lines. In the early his- 
tory of the State there was some legislation establishing 
various city courts. Much more frequently there has been 
legislation of this nature in recent years, owing to the great 
increase in urban population. When Col. G. E. Clark took pos- 
session of Illinois in 1778, under the authority of the Governor 



8 

of Virginia, the County of Illinois, as a part of Virginia, was 
formed, including this State and all of the country known as 
the Northwest Territory, and continuing as such County 
until 1782. However, until 1784 there was practically no legal 
authority in Illinois. The people were "a law unto them- 
selves, ' ' but apparently conducted their affairs, although in- 
formally, with harmony and honesty 1 . The Northwest Ter- 
ritory was created by Congress July 13, 1787, including Illi- 
nois. Thereafter in 1790 the counties of Knox and St. Clair 
were formed, including a part of this State. The territory of 
the present Cook County was within the limits of Knox 
County. Indiana Territory was organized May 7, 1800, Knox 
County continuing as before. February 3, 1801, the boun- 
daries of St. Clair County were changed so as to include Cook 
County and practically nine-tenths of the entire State. The 
Territory of Illinois was created Februarj r 3, 1809, but St. 
Clair County, as to the territory now in Cook County, re- 
mained unchanged until 1812. In that year on September 14 
a new county was formed of which the southern boundary was 
the present northern boundary of St. Clair County, and which 
extended across the State to the east, taking in all the rest of 
the State to the north and including all north of that to the 
Canadian line. This new county was called Madison. On 
November 28, 1814, a change was made in the counties so that 
all of the eastern half of the State as theretofore existing was 
included in a new county called Edwards, which had within its 
boundaries the present Cook County. On December 31, 1816, 
the northern limits of Edwards County were moved south near 
to their present location, and all of the territory formerly in 
Edwards County lying north of its new northern boundary 
was formed into a new county called Crawford. This was the 
situation when Illinois was organized as a State. The next 
change that affected Cook County was made on March 22, 
1819, when the. northern boundary of Crawford was made co- 
incident with the present northern boundary of Crawford 
extended west, and all the remaining portion of Crawford 



1 Bross" History of Chicago. 



County as originally designated (including the present Cook) 
was included in a new county called Clark. On January 31, 
1821, Pike County was created, including within its limits all 
of Illinois west of the Illinois River and north of the Illinois 
and Kankakee Eivers. On January 28, 1823, the new county 
of Fulton was created out of a portion of Pike. The western 
boundary of Fulton as then created was the present western 
boundary extended. To the north it took in the southern part 
of present Knox and the southwest portion of Peoria. The 
act provided that "all the rest and residue of the attached 
part of the County of Pike east of the fourth principal meri- 
dian shall be attached to and be a part of said County of 
Fulton until otherwise disposed of by the General Assembly.* 7 
By this wording Cook County was attached to the new County 
of Fulton at least for all governmental purposes. On January 
3 of the same year, however, the new County of Edgar was 
created with its present boundary lines. By that act it was 
provided that all that tract of country north of Edgar County 
to Lake Michigan be attached to Edgar County. By this last 
provision that part of Cook County south of a line extended 
west from the point where the eastern Illinois State line joins 
the shore line of Lake Michigan was included within Edgar 
County. January 13, 1825, the County of Peoria was created, 
with its present county lines. Section 8 of the act creating 
such county, however, provided, "That all that tract of said 
country north of said Peoria County, and of the Illinois and 
Kankakee Rivers, be, and the same is hereby attached to 
said county, for all county purposes." On the same day 
another act was passed by the legislature creating the counties 
of Schuyler, Adams, Hancock, Warren, Mercer, Henry, Put- 
nam and Knox. The boundary lines of Putnam County in- 
cluded all that territory north and east of Peoria County and 
north of the Illinois and Kankakee Rivers. Construing to- 
gether these two acts, it appears that geographically it was 
intended to place Cook County and all that part of the State 
north of the Illinois and Kankakee Rivers and east of the 
western boundary line of Peoria County, extended, within 



10 

Putnam County but that all this territory should remain under 
Peoria County for governmental purposes until Putnam Coun- 
ty had a sufficient number of inhabitants to authorize a judge 
of the circuit court to call an election for county officers in said 
Putnam County. It is sometimes stated that at least a part 
of Cook County was at one time within the boundaries of the 
County of Vermilion and was taxed as of that county-. Ver- 
milion County was created by the Legislature January 18, 
1826. During the year previous, as already stated, all of the 
territory north of the Kankakee River, including the present 
Cook County, had been made a part of Putnam County. We 
are inclined to think some of the early writers made the mis- 
take of including Cook County as a part of Vermilion, be- 
cause Vermilion was created out of Edgar, and Edgar, as we 
have seen, at one time included for governmental purposes 
that part of Cook County south of a line drawn east and west 
from the junction point of the Illinois State line with the shore 
line of Lake Michigan, but as a matter of fact that portion of 
Cook County became a part of Putnam County before Ver- 
milion County was created. There was no other legislation 
affecting the territory now within Cook, until the passage of 
an act of the Legislature January 15, 1831, whereby Cook 
County was created, including within its limits all of the pres- 
ent County of Cook, the northern half of Will, all of Du Page, 
a small part of Kane and McIIenry, and all of Lake. By the 
same act Chicago was made the county seat. Will County was 
created January 12, 1836, including within its boundaries the 
present Will County and that part of Kankakee north of the 
Kankakee River ; Kane and McHenry counties were created on 
January 16th of the same year, Kane County having within 
its boundaries practically all of the present counties of Kane 
and DeKalb and the northern part of the present Kendall; 
McHenry County including within its borders all the present 
County of McHenry and the present County of Lake. Du 

2 Wentworth'g Reminiscences of Early Chicago, 7 & 8 Fergus Historical 
Series. 



11 

Page County was created out of Cook County with its present 
boundary lines on February 9, 1839. Since then the boun- 
daries of Cook County have remained as they are at present. 
The population of Cook County from the beginning of the 
eighteenth century until Illinois was organized as a State was 
so small that no courts of civil or criminal jurisdiction were 
required. On August 3, 1795, Gen. Wayne signed a treaty 
with the Indians by which they granted title to six miles square 
of territory at the mouth of the Chicago River to the United 
States. It is stated in some of the writings that at that 
point there had previously been a fort built by some French 
explorers. 25 The first person, not an Indian, who settled at 
this point was De Saible, a San Domingan Negro who came 
in 1779. He lived here until he sold his cabin in 1796 to one 
Le Mai, a French trader. In the summer of 1803 the United 
States ordered the building of Ft. Dearborn at the mouth of 
the Chicago River. A company of soldiers under Captain 
John Whistler, U. S. A., then stationed at Detroit, were or- 
dered to go to Chicago for that purpose. When the party ar- 
rived there they found three or four cabins occupied by 
Canadian French and their Indian wives ; among the inhabit- 
ants being Le Mai, Ouilmette and Pettell. 2c In 1804 John Kin- 
zie bought the house of Le Mai and moved into it with his 
family. He lived there until his death in 1828, except the 
four years after the Fort Dearborn massacre in 1812. 3 Fort 
Deaborn was rebuilt in 1816. A few white persons came to 
Chicago shortly after this but there was little business there 
of any kind except trading with the Indians or with the 
soldiers at the garrison or any practical settlement for farm- 
ing or other business purposes until a law was passed for the 
building of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. On the south 
branch of the Chicago River one Charles Lee settled at a place 
called Hard Scrabble in 1804. In 1816 this place was used as 
a trading post and so continued until 1826. Major Long of 
the United States government topographical engineers visit- 

2b Qaife, Transactions, 111. State Hist. Soc. 1912, p. 115. 
2c 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, p. 72. 
3 Vol. 1, Currey's History of Chicago, 89. 



12 

ing Chicago in 1823, said it was inhabited by a miserable race 
of people in a few log or bark huts, displaying not the least 
trace of comfort and affording no inducement to the settler. 4 
In 1821 one Ebenezer Childs visited Chicago, and made a 
second visit in 1827, when he wrote the place had not im- 
proved since 1821, that only two families resided there. 5 
When Peoria County was created it had Chicago within 
its governmental jurisdiction, as we have seen, but even 
then it had only a mythical existence, the name sometimes 
applying to the river and sometimes to the cluster of 
inhabitants on its sandy, marshy banks. 6 The Illinois and 
Michigan Canal having obtained its magnificent grant of land 
from the government on August 4, 1830, the original plat of 
the town was made, lying east of the south branch and south 
of the main river. 7 Previous to this time this land had been 
mostly fenced in and used by the garrison of the fort as a 
pasture. 8 At the time of this platting the place contained 
only five or six log houses and the population was less than 
100. 9 In estimating or approximating the population of Chi- 
cago at this time one of the writers gives the following : 1829, 
30; 1831, 60; 1832, GOO; 1833, 350; 1834, 1800. 10 

In 1833 the village of Chicago was incorporated under a 
general act of the State. At an election held August 10, 1833, 
28 voters appeared and the trustees elected met August 12, 
1833, for their first regular meeting. 11 The charter incorpor- 
ating Chicago as a city was passed by the Legislature March 
4, 1837. The first city election was held May 2, 1837. From 
that time dates the existence of Chicago as a city. 12 

Previous to the organization of the County of Cook, January 
15, 1831, naming Chicago as the county seat, there had been 

~4 Directory of Chicago, 1839, Historical Sketch, 2 Fergus Historical Series; 

1 Currey's History of Chicago, 131. 
6 1 Currey's History of Chicago, 135 

6 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 174. 

7 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 174; 2 Kirkland & Moses' History of 

Chicago, 181; 1 Currey's History of Chicago, 227; Part 1, James' Char- 
ters of Chicago, 18. 

8 Annals of Chicago, Balestier, 1 Fergus Historical Series, 23. 

9 Annals of Chicago, Balestier, Fergus Historical Series, 24. 

10 1 Andreas History of Chicago, 159. 

11 Part 1, James' Charters of Chicago, 20. 

12 Part 1, James' Charters of Chicago, 22, 23. 



13 

little need by the few inhabitants of the territory within Cook 
County for the settlement of their disputes by courts of justice. 
Indeed it may well be doubted whether, had there been courts, 
there would have been any business for them. The history 
of this pioneer community in this regard was similar to that 
ef every small community first settling a new country. Any 
disputes between the inhabitants were settled by compromise, 
the advice of other settlers, or by force. As there was a 
United States garrison at this point during most of the years 
from the time the first white inhabitants arrived until the 
county was organized, the officers of the garrison exercised a 
restraining influence over the few inhabitants not connected 
with the fort. This was illustrated at Chicago when John 
Kinzie, who had been having trouble for years with a trader 
named Lalime, finally was attacked by him and as a result of 
the combat Lalime w r as killed. Kinzie, after having his 
wounds dressed by his wife, escaped to Milwaukee, where he 
remained until he was satisfied the officers of the garrison 
were convinced, as he had maintained from the first, that 
he had killed the man in self-defense. He then returned to 
his home in Chicago and nothing was done to try or punish 
him. During the few years immediately preceding the organi- 
zation of Cook County the gradual increase in the number of 
white inhabitants gave cause for occasional requirements for 
the settlement of disputes by civil courts. More often there 
was a desire to have these civil officials perform marriage 
ceremonies, as there were no resident ministers. Until 1826 
justices were appointed under the law by the Legislature on 
the recommendation of the local authorities and held office 
during good behavior. This law was changed in that year so 
that thereafter justices of the peace were elected every four 
years. 13 There seem to have been no justices of the peace 
living within the present territory of Cook County before 1821 
and perhaps not before 1823. On June 5, 1821, the commis- 
sioners court of Pike County (Cook County was then within 
that county) recommended John Kinzie as a suitable person 
13 Historical Sketch of Courts of Illinois, Carter, 11. 



14 

to be appointed as justice of the peace; 14 there is no record 
showing that Kinzie was then appointed. In 1823, Cook Coun- 
ty being set off as under the government of Fulton County, 
John Kinzie on December 2, 1833, was again recommended for 
the office of justice of the peace. 15 This date is sometimes 
given as February 11, 1823, and sometimes as July 5, 1823. 16 
One Amherst C. Ransom, sometimes called Rausam, was rec- 
ommended for justice of the peace on June 17, 1823, and qual- 
ified for the appointment. It is not at all certain, however, 
that he ever resided in Chicago. 17 Some writers on that 
subject may have been misled into thinking he resided here 
because in June, 1823, as assessor he levied a tax on all per- 
sonal property in Chicago under the order of the Fulton Coun- 
ty authorities. 18 On January 13, 1825, one "Kinsey" was 
confirmed by the State Senate as justice of the peace for the 
County of Peoria, just then organized. It is generally sup- 
posed that this name "Kinsey" was intended for John Kinzie. 
John Kinzie, however, was not commissioned until July 25, 
1825. The authorities agree that he was the first resident 
justice of the peace in Chicago, his previous recommenda- 
tions apparently had not been followed by appointment. 19 
Two other justices, Alexander Wolcott and Jean B. Beaubien, 
were appointed September 10, 1825, and they with Kinzie were 
the judges of election in the Chicago precinct of Peoria on 
December 7, 1825. The office of justice of the peace, as al- 
ready stated, was made elective in 1826 and several of them 
were elected between that date and 1831. Among others, Rus- 
sell E. Heacock became justice September 10, 1831. The 
writers state he was probably the first justice in Cook County 
before whom trials were held. 20 He was also the first resident 



14 2 Kirkland & Moses' History of Chicago, 152. 

15 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 426, 2 Kirkland & Moses' History of 

Chicago, 152. 

16 Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, 7 & 8 Fergus Historical 

Series, 50. 

17 John Wentworth's Reminiscences of Chicago, Supplement, 7 & 8 Fergus 

Historical Series, 41. 

18 Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, Supplement, 7 & 8 Fergus' 

Historical Series, p. 42. 

19 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 420. 

20 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 18. 



15 

lawyer in Chicago, 21 unless we except the first Indian agent, 
Charles Jouett, who came here in 1805, and returned in 1816. 
While he was here he did not attempt to follow his profession, 
but simply acted as agent of the government. Later he was 
a judge in Kentucky and Arkansas. 22 

There seem to have been some duties for a constable to 
perform, as September 6, 1825, Archibald Clybourn, then re- 
siding at Chicago, was appointed constable in and for the 
County of Peoria. 23 There is no authentic record that any 
civil suit was tried before any of these justices previous to the 
organization of the county in 1831. Their business, if they 
had any, consisted of performing marriage ceremonies, draw- 
ing and acknowledging legal papers and serving as officials at 
various elections that were held. The first marriage that 
occurred in Chicago was performed by John Hamlin, a justice 
of the peace of Fulton County, on July 20, 1823, between Dr. 
Alexander Wolcott, then Indian agent here, and Eleanor Kin- 
zie, daughter of John Kinzie. Justice Hamlin seems to have 
been passing through Chicago and performed the ceremony 
there, filing on Sept. 4, 1823, the marriage certificate in Fulton 
County. 24 One of the provisions of the act creating Cook 
County was that an election should be held at Chicago on the 
first Monday in March next for ' ' one sheriff, one coroner and 
three county commissioners." There was only one voting 
place for this election. The first commissioners elected were 
Samuel Miller, Gholson Kercheval and James Walker. These 
men, under the laws then in force, formed the first county 
commissioners' court of Cook County. They organized that 
court and took the oath of office on March 8, 1831, before 
Justice of the Peace J. S. C. Hogan. William See was ap- 
pointed clerk. 23 At the first session of the court, grand and 

21 Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, 7 & 8 Fergus' Historical 

Series, 18. 

22 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 419-420. 

23 Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, 7 & 8 Fergus Historical 

Series, 42; 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 103. 

24 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 90; Chapman's History of Fulton County. 

248. 

25 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 116. 



16 

petit jurors were selected. On April 13 of the same year a 
special term of court was held, largely for county business. 
The county commissioners ' court had jurisdiction over public 
roads, turnpikes, canals, toll bridges, and in all things con- 
cerning public revenues, county taxes, licensing ferries, tav- 
erns and all other licenses, but without any original or appel- 
late jurisdiction in civil or criminal suits, except in cases 
where the public concerns of the county were involved and in 
all public business. 26 This court practically did all the busi- 
ness that is now done by the board of supervisors or county 
commissioners of counties and in addition did a considerable 
part of the work that is done now by the county courts of the 
various counties. Commisioners were elected biennially at the 
time Cook County was organized. In March, 1837, the law 
was changed, providing that three commissioners should be 
elected at the next election, one to hold for one year, one for 
two years and one for three years, and every year thereafter 
an election for one commissioner to hold for three years. 

No general election was held until 1832. The first sheriff, 
Stephen Forbes, seems to have been elected in that year. 27 
He taught school for three months in Chicago in 1830 and was 
selected justice of the peace on December 13, 1830. 28 The first 
coroner was John E. Clark. 29 

By an act of February 16, 1831, it was provided that the 
counties of Cook, La Salle, Putnam, Peoria and eleven other 
counties should constitute the Fifth Judicial Circuit. This 
circuit included all of the organized counties then in the State 
north of Pike County and west and north of the Illinois and 
Kankakee rivers. The act further provided that there should 
be two terms of the circuit court held annually in each of the 
counties, in Cook County on the fourth Monday of April, and 
second Monday in September. Judge Richard M. Young was 
named as the judge to preside in the circuit. This court had 



26 Laws of 1819, 175; Historical Sketch of Courts of Illinois, 9. 

27 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 114. 

28 Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early Chicago, 7 & 8 Fergus' Historical 

Series, Supp. 41. 

29 Bross' History of Chicago, 27. 



17 

then practically the same general jurisdiction in civil and 
criminal matters as now. No definite information can be ob- 
tained, the records having been destroyed by the Chicago fire, 
as to the time of holding the first term of the circuit court. 
The late Governor Bross in 1853 in a historical sketch of the 
city of Chicago (p. 26) stated that the public minutes (ap- 
parently the minutes of the county commissioners court) 
provided, September 6, 1831, that "the circuit court be held in 
Ft. Dearborn in the brick house, and in the lower room of said 
house." The same writer states (p. 27) that the count} 7 " com- 
missioners authorized April 4, 1832, the sheriff to procure a 
room or rooms for the April term of the circuit court at the 
house of James Kinzie, "provided it can be done at a cost of 
not more than $10." At the funeral of Col. Hamilton (the 
first clerk of the circuit court) in 1860, Judge Manierre stated 
that the first term was held in September, 1831. It is also 
stated by another authority that Judge Young during this 
year on a trip to Chicago to hold court was accompanied by 
lawyers Mills and Strode, bringing fresh news of the Indian 
troubles which culminated in the Black Hawk War. Charles 
Ballance in his history of Peoria states that Judge Young 
made his appearance in Peoria in May, 1833, and announced 
that he was on his way to Chicago to hold court, and that on 
that occasion he (Ballance) attended court at Chicago. 30 
Thomas Hoyne, who was deputy circuit clerk under Col. Ham- 
ilton in 1837, states in a lecture that he gave on the "Lawyer 
as a Pioneer," that the first term of the court was held in 
Cook County in September, 1833, 31 by Judge Young and that 
Judge Young also held a term in May, 1834, in an unfinished 
wooden building known as the Tremont House ; that Judge Sid- 
ney Breese held a term there in the spring of 1835, exchanging 
with Judge Young, and in the fall of that year Judge Stephen 
T. Logan exchanged with Judge Young and held the next 
term there. John D. Caton, formerly a member of the Su- 
preme Court of the State, came to Chicago in 1833. In his 

30 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 420. 

31 The Lawyer as a Pioneer, Hoyne, 22 & 23 Fergus Historical Series, 77. 



18 

reminiscences published in 1893 he states that the first term 
held there for the trial of cases before a petit jury was the 
May term, 1834. In another place he states that this was the 
first case ever tried in Chicago in a court of record. 32 He be- 
lieved this to be true because he remembered his case was 
number one on the docket of the circuit court of Cook County. 
If this is correct, Judge Young may have come to Chicago 
on any or all of the terms for the years 1831, 1832 and 1833, 
though no regular court was held for the trial of cases until 
the spring term of 1834. Writers on this subject generally 
accept Judge Caton's statement as correct. I am disposed 
to question its accuracy. His statement was made after the 
records were destroyed, when Judge Caton was an old man. 
I have no doubt that he believed he was speaking the absolute 
truth, but it would seem passing strange that Judge Manierre 
who made his statement when the records were still in exis- 
tence and Attorney Hoyne, who was as familiar with the early 
records in the circuit clerk's office as any man in Chicago, 
should have made incorrect statements as to the time when 
the first term of court was held, and that all those statements 
should be published without some one calling attention to the 
error. On the information that I have been able to obtain 
I should hesitate to state positively that the first term of court 
was held either in 1833 or 1834. I am inclined to think, how- 
ever that the data at hand fairly justifies the conclusion that 
a term of the circuit court was held earlier than 1834. 

Judge Thomas Ford, afterwards Governor, was circuit 
judge in this district from January, 1835, until about the first 
of March, 1837. John Pearson succeeded him as judge of 
the circuit court, and presided in Cook County from 1837 
until he resigned in November, 1840. February 10, 1841, the 
circuit judges were all legislated out of office and five new 
judges of the Supreme Court appointed. The Supreme Court 
was then composed of nine members, not only to hear the cases 
appealed to that court, but to try all the cases in the circuit 

32 3 Currey's History of Chicago, 308; 2 Kirkland & Moses' History of 
Chicago, 153. 



19 

courts in the State. To the circuit in which Cook County was 
located, Judge Theophilus W. Smith of the Supreme Court 
was assigned for circuit court work. He held his first term 
in Chicago in April, 1841. In 1842 Stephen A. Douglas, who 
was then on the Supreme bench, held circuit court at Chicago 
in July. 

The first public prosecutor in the circuit in which Cook 
County was placed was Thomas Ford, afterward circuit judge. 
Later James Grant was prosecutor. Grant afterward moved 
to Iowa and served as a judge of the district court of that 
State. 

Col. Eichard J. Hamilton was not only the first clerk of the 
circuit court, but the first probate judge. The first will placed 
on record was that of Alexander Wolcott, for years Indian 
agent at Chicago, filed April 27, 1831, before Judge Hamilton. 

There was when Cook County was organized, a court of 
probate in each county. The judge was selected by the Gen- 
eral Assembly on joint ballot, to hold his office during good be- 
havior. That court had jurisdiction in all matters touching 
the probate of wills, granting letters testamentary, and the 
settlement of estates. The law was amended in 1837 so that 
at the first election, to be held on the first Monday of August, 
1839, and every fourth year thereafter, there should .be elected 
an additional justice of the peace for each county to be styled 
"Probate Justice of the Peace;" to have the jurisdiction in 
civil cases conferred by law upon all other justices of the peace 
and to be vested with all judicial powers theretofore exercised 
by the judges of probate. In 1845 the law was changed so 
that they were elected for two years. Col. Hamilton held the 
office of probate judge until 1835, when he resigned. He re- 
signed as clerk of the circuit court in 1841, at the time Judge 
Theophilus W. Smith came here to hold circuit court. Judge 
Smith appointed one of his sons-in-law, Henry G. Hubbard, as 
circuit clerk to succeed Col. Hamilton. 33 It may be stated in 
this connection that Col. Hamilton, shortly after he arrived 
here, was appointed to fill a vacancy as clerk of the county 

33 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 145. 



20 

commissioners' court and held the office of school commis- 
sioner for years, and was also recorder of Cook County. It 
is apparent that there were then more offices than there were 
men competent to fill them, or at least men who desired to 
fill them. 

The first city charter of Chicago provided, (section 68), 
that the mayor should have the same jurisdiction within its 
limits, and be entitled to the same fees and emoluments as 
were given to justices of the peace, upon his conforming to 
the requirements of the law of the state with reference to that 
office/ 54 I cannot find that any mayor of Chicago exercised 
the functions of justice of the peace until in March, 1849, when 
Mayor Woodworth of Chicago sent a message to the council 
stating that he would co-operate with them in holding such 
court, and in pursuance of that idea a mayor's court was in- 
stituted and notices given to all police constables that vio- 
lators of any city ordinance would be brought before the 
mayor daily at nine o'clock in his office in the north room of 
the market. 35 By section 69 of the first charter it was pro- 
vided that there should be established in the city of Chicago a 
municipal court, to have jurisdiction concurrent with the cir- 
cuit courts, in civil and criminal cases arising within the limits 
of the city, or where either the plaintiff or defendant resided, 
at the commencement of the suit, within the city. By a sup- 
plemental act passed July 31, 1837, 36 it was provided that the 
judge of the municipal court of Chicago should perform all 
the duties pertaining to the office of the judge of the circuit 
court. This court was created because of the great increase 
in business in the circuit court in Cook County. Judge 
Thomas Ford, who had recently resigned as circuit judge, was 
appointed by the Legislature as the first judge of this munici- 
pal court. The terms were held alternate months. 

An attempt was made during the hard times of 1837 to 
prevent the opening of this court. Many of the obligations 
created during the speculative period which was then about 

34 Laws of Illinois, 1836-7, p. 75. 

35 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 448. 

36 Special Session, Laws of Illinois, 1837, p. 15. 



21 

at an end were maturing and the debtors were unable to 
meet them. The dockets were crowded in both the circuit 
and municipal courts and many thought that something must 
be done to prevent the collection of these claims. Some of 
the debtors felt that no court should be held. A public meet- 
ing was called at the New York House, a frame building on 
the north side of Lake Street near Wells. It was held at 
evening in a long, low dining room, lighted only by tallow 
candles. The chair was occupied by the State senator from 
Chicago, one Peter Pruyne. James Curtiss, nominally a law- 
yer, but more of a politician, who had practically abandoned 
his profession, was one of the principal advocates of the sus- 
pension of the courts, as was also a judge of the Supreme 
Court, Theophilus W. Smith. On the other side were Butter- 
field, Ryan, Scammon, Spring, Ogden, Arnold and others. The 
opponents of the courts claimed that if they remained open, 
judgments would be entered against debtors to the amount of 
$2,000,000, or $500 to each man, woman and child in Chicago. 
Curtiss said no one was to be benefited but the lawyers by 
keeping the courts open, and that he had left that profession. 
Ryan, afterward chief justice of the Wisconsin Supreme 
Court, a man of large frame, great intellect and great in de- 
bate, arose and said, pointing to Curtiss, that if the debtors 
expected that kind of a lawyer to save them they would be 
mistaken; that it had long been a question whether Curtiss 
had left the profession of the law, or the profession of the 
law had left him. Butterfield sharply scored Judge Smith 
for descending "from that lofty seat of a sovereign people, 
majestic as the law, to take a seat with an assassin and mur- 
derer of the law like Judge Lynch.' The debate waxed fast 
and furious, but in the end the good sense of the meeting re- 
sulted in the resolution being laid on the table and the courts 
were kept open, as they have ever been since in this State. 37 
Out of the discussion over that question arose an agitation 
which resulted February 15, 1839, in the Legislature abolish- 

37 1 Andreas' History of ClvVopo, 4 <<<!; The Lawyer as a Pioneer, 88; 22 & 
23 Fergus' Historical Series, 88. 



22 

ing the court and transferring its business to the circuit court 
of Cook County. Judge Ford was shortly after commissioned 
as judge of the new circuit created a few days later. 38 Within 
a year after the municipal court was abolished it became evi- 
dent that the increase of business in the circuit court required 
some relief. Special terms of that court were authorized for 
Cook County. February 21, 1845, the Legislature of the State 
established the Cook County Court, the judge to be chosen and 
hold office the same as a circuit judge, and the court to have 
concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit court ; the court to hold 
four terms a year; the clerk of the court to be appointed by 
the judge. Hugh T. Dickey was chosen by the Legislature as 
the first judge of this court, and James Curtiss was appointed 
by him as first clerk. 39 

The first United States Court was opened in Chicago, in 
July, 1848. In the absence of Circuit Judge John McLean, the 
court was held by Judge Nathaniel Pope of the Federal Dis- 
trict Court, with his son William as clerk. 40 

In March, 1845, the Jo Daviess County Court was estab- 
lished with the same jurisdiction as the Cook County Court, 
the Cook County judge being required to hold the Jo Daviess 
County Court. The Constitution of 1848 provided that these 
two courts were to be continued until otherwise provided by 
law. The next year the Jo Daviess County Court was abol- 
ished and the Cook County Court was changed into the Cook 
County Court of Common Pleas, which afterward became the 
Superior Court of Chicago and later the present Superior 
Court of Cook County. 

The first public building of which any mention is made was 
the "estray pen," erected on the southwest corner of the pub- 
lic square. The next public building was the jail, erected in 
the fall of 1833, "of logs well bolted together," on the north- 
west corner of the public square. It stood there until 1852. 41 
Chicago has had four different court houses located on the 

38 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 444. 

39 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 446. 

40 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 448. 

41 Brass' History of Chicago, 27 



23 

public square on which stand the county building and city 
hall. This ground was conveyed by Congress in 1827 to 
the State of Illinois as a part of the canal grant. Twenty- 
four lots were deeded to Cook County January 16, 1831, to 
aid in the erection of public buildings. Of these twenty-four 
lots thus given, sixteen were afterward sold to pay current 
expenses. 42 The remaining eight lots (bounded by Clark, 
Randolph, La Salle and Washington streets) were retained as 
the public square. 43 In 1835 a substantial brick court house 
was erected. This appears to have been located on the north- 
east corner of the block facing Clark Street. The basement was 
for the office of the clerk and the first floor was for for court 
room, which would seat about 200 people. 44 The city authori- 
ties never had any office in this building. In 1850 or 1851 the 
county and city authorities agreed to build jointly a court 
house and city hall on this block. The corner stone was laid 
September 12, 1851. The building was three stories high, the 
main part being 100 feet square and the jail being in the base- 
ment. In 1853 it was ready for occupancy. The Court of 
Common Pleas first occupied the edifice in February of that 
year. 45 This building was soon found too small and another 
story was added, but this became inadequate for the growing 
needs of the county, and in 1870 it was extensively added to 
by wings on the east and west. This work was completed 
shortly before the Chicago fire. 46 After the fire the county 
and city authorities were obliged for several years to find 
quarters in a temporary building hastily erected on the south- 
east corner of Adams and La Salle, which from the rough 
manner of its construction became known as the "Rookery." 
In 1877 the city and county entered into an agreement for the 
construction of a building which was completed in 1885 and 
occupied as a city hall and county building until the present 



42 Prospects of Chicago, Brown, 9 Fergus Historical Series, 16. 

43 3 Currey's History of Chicago, 302. 

44 3 Currey's History of Chicago, 302; Bross' History of Chicago, 119. 

45 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 180. 

46 3 Currey's History of Chicago, 302-303. 



24 

structure was commenced, the building being completed in 
1911. 47 

Thus, in bare outline, I have named the various courts in 
Cook County under the Constitution of 181.8 and some of the 
officials of those courts, but a history of the courts is neces- 
sarily incomplete unless it discusses some of the cases tried 
and gives an account of some of the lawyers who prac- 
ticed therein. Russell E. Heacock, as stated, was the first 
resident lawyer in Chicago, coming in 1827. 48 Col. Hamilton 
had been admitted to the bar and evidently advised people on 
legal matters while he was acting as circuit clerk and probate 
judge. Isaac Harmon was a justice of the peace and advised 
occasionally on legal matters, as did Archibald Clybourn, who 
lived outside of the city. None of these men had at that time 
opened an office or tried to earn a living by law. Heacock 
followed his early trade of carpenter and Harmon worked in a 
tannery. 49 Judge Caton in his reminiscences, states that he 
came here June 19, 1833, and found Giles Spring had preceded 
him by a few days. Caton and Spring therefore seem to have 
been the first men that located here and opened offices to prac- 
tice law. Between that time and the date when Thomas Hoyne 
came in 1837, several lawyers had located in Chicago who be- 
came prominent not only in the courts but in other ways in the 
later history of the city. He states that at that time there 
were tw r enty-seven persons engaged in the practice of law in 
Cook County.-" 10 Among this number were Judge Caton, Giles 
Spring, James Grant, Ebenezer Peck, Grant Goodrich, J. 
Young Scammon, Mark Skinner, Isaac N. Arnold, Alonzo 
Huntington, Hugh T. Dickey, Joseph N. Balestier, James H. 
Collins, A. N. Fullerton, Buckner S. Morris, Henry Moore, Ed- 
ward W. Casey and Justin Butterfield. 

Judge Caton had studied law with James H. Collins in New 
York State. Collins came the next year after Caton and lo- 
cated on a farm in what is now Kendall Countv. 



47 3 Currey's History of Chicago, 303. 

48 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 107. 

49 Caton's Early Bench and Bar of Illinois, 2. 

50 The Lawyer as a Pioneer, Iloyne. 22 & 23 Fergus' Historical Series, 84. 



Caton persuaded him to come to Chicago and the two entered 
into partnership, under the firm name of Collins & Caton. 
Later Collins became a partner of Butterfield. He was chief 
counsel for Owen Love joy when the latter was being tried in 
Bureau County for assisting runaway slaves to escape. This 
trial was held before Judge Caton, then on the Supreme Court, 
but holding circuit court, and resulted in the acquittal of Love- 
joy. Collins was a man of great perseverance and resolution, 
and a hard worker, a strong lawyer, but without great bril- 
liancy. 

Isaac N. Arnold came to Chicago in 1836. He was the first 
city clerk after the incorporation of the city. 51 He was a 
great personal friend of Abraham Lincoln. He was elected 
in 1860 as a member of Congress and served until 1864. He 
wrote a history of Lincoln, which is held in high esteem. He 
tried many important cases ; among others, while a young law- 
yer in Chicago, was one to test the constitutionality of the 
* ' stay law, ' ' so called, which he claimed was a step toward re- 
pudiation. The law provided that no land should be sold under 
a mortgage before being appraised, and unless it should bring 
at least two-thirds of such appraisal. He filed a bill in the 
courts in 1841 to foreclose a mortgage praying for the sale to 
the highest bidder regardless of the redemption and State 
laws. The United States Supreme Court upheld his conten- 
tion and enforced a strict foreclosure. 52 Another case in- 
volvmg the land laws was heard in the State courts, 53 (Brain- 
erd v. Canal Trustees,) in which he and Senator Douglas were 
counsel. This is one of the few cases that Douglas argued be- 
fore the Supreme Court of Illinois, after he resigned his mem- 
bership in that court to become a member of Congress. Hugh 
T. Dickey, as already stated, was the first judge of the Cook 
County Court, being appointed in 1845. He resigned in 1848 on 
his election as a circuit judge under the new Constitution. He 
was succeeded by Giles Spring as judge of the Cook County 



61 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 435, 
52 Bronson v. Kinzie, 1 How. (U. S.) 311. 

5:; !:ra;h*:i"i v. Canal Trustees, 12 111., 448. 



26 

Court. Judge Dickey resigned as circuit judge in 1853 and 
was succeeded by Buckner S. Morris. Morris had been mayor 
and alderman of Chicago before he was a circuit judge. In 
1860 he was a candidate for Governor of Illinois on the Bell- 
Everett ticket. Grant Goodrich was a leading lawyer in Chi- 
cago from the time he came until the time of his death, and 
served for a time on the bench. Lincoln's biographers state 
that Goodrich in the '50s offered Lincoln a partnership if he 
would come to Chicago, but Lincoln declined because he was 
afraid the climate would not agree with him. 54 Ebenezer Peck 
came to Chicago in 1835 and soon took a very active part in 
public affairs. In 1849 he was chosen as reporter of the Su- 
preme Court to succeed Gilman and held that position until 
1863, when he resigned on being appointed by Lincoln one of 
the judges of the Court of Claims of the District of Columbia. 
Among the most remarkable lawyers in the early history of 
the Chicago courts was Justin Butterfield. Arnold and others 
of his associates state that he was the best trial lawyer of his 
day in the city, if not in the State. He served as United States 
prosecuting attorney for the District of Illinois from 1841 to 
1844. He was appointed commissioner of the General Land 
Office by President Taylor, a position which Lincoln was also 
then seeking. It is said that Butterfield was appointed be- 
cause of the warm personal friendship of Daniel Webster. 
Perhaps no other lawyer in the history of the State has had 
so many anecdotes told of him illustrating his power of sar- 
casm and repartee. He was a very forceful speaker, but not 
always a persuasive one before juries. 

Samuel Lyle Smith came to Chicago in 1838 and made his 
headquarters in the office of Butterfield & Collins. In 1839 
he was chosen city attorney. The lawyers of that day speak of 
him as one of the most eloquent men ever at the Chicago bar. 
In 1847, at the River and Harbor convention in Chicago, he 
especially distinguished himself as an orator. Henry Clay 
is said to have stated that he was the greatest orator he ever 



64 Lincoln the Lawyer, Hill, 161. 



27 

heard. 55 He died in 1854 when a little past 40, during the 
cholera epidemic. James H. Collins and several other lawyers 
were among the many who passed away at the same time by 
this dread disease. 

Thomas Hoyne, the father of Thomas M. Hoyne, one of 
the oldest practicing lawyers now in Chicago, and grandfather 
of the present State 's attorney of Cook County, came to this 
city in 1837, studying law after his arrival. He was elected 
city clerk of Chicago in 1840, and elected probate justice of 
the peace in 1845, holding the latter position until the court 
was abolished by the Constitution of 1848. When the first 
University of Chicago was established, he was elected one of 
the board of trustees. He was connected with the law schools 
of Chicago practically from the time the first one was started 
as teacher or trustee. In 1876 he was elected mayor of Chi- 
cago, but served only a few months, as there was a dispute 
about whether the election was properly held and a special 
election was called. 56 He was considered one of the greatest 
ornaments of the bar of Chicago. Edward G. Ryan was for 
several years a practicing lawyer in Chicago, and also edited 
a newspaper. He afterward moved to Wisconsin and became 
one of the great chief justices of the Supreme Court of that 
State. Time will not permit a further discussion of the mem- 
bers of the bar of that period. 

I have already referred to the first term of court held in 
the circuit court of Cook County. Before taking up and dis- 
cussing any of the trials in courts of record, it is proper to 
refer briefly to the first criminal case of which we have any 
account, tried within the limits of Chicago. This was prose- 
cuted by Judge Caton shortly after his arrival, the complaint 
being sworn out before Justice Heacock. The charge was that 
of robbing from one Hatch $34 in eastern currency while 
stopping at the tavern. On a change of venue to Justice Har- 
mon on the north side, the case was prosecuted by Caton and 
defended by Giles Spring and Col. Hamilton, and the man held 



65 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 432. 
56 2 Andreas' History of Chicago, 464. 



28 

to the circuit court for trial. He was let out on bail and dis- 
appeared, so the case was never further prosecuted. Judge 
Caton, in his reminiscences, says this was the first case entered 
of record in the circuit court, and also that he had the first 
civil case, an attachment proceeding filed in the circuit court. 
This last mentioned is the case he claims was the first jury 
case tried in Cook County. 

The first divorce suit was started at the May term, 1834, 
in the circuit court of Cook County, which was then being 
held in an unfinished loft of the old Mansion House, just north 
of where the old Tremont Building stood. 57 The first murder 
trial was at the fall term in 1834, in an unfinished store 20x40 
on Dearborn, between Lake and Water streets. Judge Young 
presided. A laborer in a drunken fit went home in the month 
of June that year, and finding something wrong in his domestic 
affairs apparently his supper not ready, manifested his dis- 
satisfaction by beating his wife. The physicians testified she 
died from the effects of the beating and the coroner's jury 
held him to answer for the murder and he was indicted for 
that crime. He was prosecuted by the district attorney, 
Thomas Ford, and defended by James H. Collins, Judge 
Caton's partner, and acquitted. 58 

So far as I am able to ascertain, the second murder trial 
in Cook County was in 1840, that of John Stone for the killing 
of Mrs. Lucretia Thompson. The evidence against him was 
purely circumstantial. Stone was indicted for murder and 
on the trial convicted and sentenced to be hanged. 59 The 
case was taken to the Supreme Court of the State on a writ 
of error and the judgment affirmed. 00 He was accordingly 
executed on July 10, 1840, the place of execution being about 
three miles south of the court house in Chicago, not far from 
the lake shore. 



67 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 421; Wentworth's Reminiscences of Early 

Chicago, 7 & 8 Fergus' Historical Series, 33. 
58 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 421; Caton's Early Bench and Bar of 

Illinois, 41. 

69 1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 152, 445. 
60 Stone v. People, 2 Scam. 326. 



29 

This case was tried before Judge John Pearson. One of 
the jurors was John Wentworth, who at that time and for 
years afterward was the editor of The Democrat, a paper pub- 
lished in Chicago. A rival newspaper, The Chicago Daily 
American, charged that Wentworth was writing editorials in 
the jury room while the case was being conducted. The case 
was tried at the April term, 1840. Contempt proceedings 
were instituted at the May term, 1840, before Judge Pearson 
and a rule entered against the editor, William Stuart, of The 
American, to show cause why he should not be punished for 
contempt of court. After a hearing the court adjudged Stuart 
guilty and fined him $100 and costs. The case was taken by 
Stuart's attorneys, Justin Butterfield and Isaac N. Arnold, 
to the Supreme Court and reversed. 61 The opinion in the 
Supreme Court was written by Judge Breese, holding that 
while the court had the power to punish for contempt under 
such circumstances if the communications had a tendency to 
obstruct the administration of justice, the writings in ques- 
tion had no such tendency. The opinion said, among other 
things: "An honest, independent and intelligent court will 
win its way to public confidence, in spite of newspaper para- 
graphs, however pointed may be their wit or satire, and its 
dignity will suffer less by passing them by unnoticed, than by 
arraigning the perpetrators, and trying them in a summary 

way Respect to courts cannot be compelled; it is 

the voluntary tribute of the public to worth, virtue and in- 
telligence, and whilst they are found upon the judgment seat, 
so long, and no longer, will they retain the public confidence. 
. In restricting the power to punish for contempts to 
the cases specified, more benefits will result than by enlarging 
it. It is at best an arbitrary power, and should only be exer- 
cised on the preservative, and not on the vindictive principle. 
It is not a jewel of the court, to be admired and prized, but a 
rod rather, and most potent when rarely used." Stephen A. 
Douglas dissented and Judge Caton, not having heard the 
argument, took no part in the decision. I am disposed to 

1 Stuart v. People, 3 Scam. 335. 



30 

agree with the sentiments expressed and the conclusion 
reached by the opinion. 

Judge Pearson had considerable difficulty in Chicago while 
serving as circuit judge. The majority of the lawyers, with- 
out regard to politics, were opposed to his appointment. The 
new circuit, the Seventh, was created February 4, 1837, in- 
cluding the counties of Cook, Will, McHenry, Kane, La Salle 
and Iroquois. 62 Judge Pearson then resided at Danville, out- 
side of this judicial circuit. The lawyers thought he was in- 
competent for the position, not only in learning, but in other 
judicial qualities. His appointment from the first was very 
unpopular with the Chicago bar. Most of the lawyers in Chi- 
cago were Whigs, while Judge Pearson belonged to the Demo- 
cratic party, and the lawyers charged that this new circuit 
was created for his appointment, in the same manner that in 
England sometimes younger children were provided for in a 
new colony. In 1838 writs of mandamus were issued by the Su- 
preme Court in two different cases requiring certain action by 
him in the trial of those cases. 63 At the May special term in 
1839 in the circuit court at Chicago, the case of Bristol vs. Phil- 
lips was tried before him. Bristol's lawyer was J. Young Scam- 
mon, while Isaac N. Arnold was on the other side. A dispute 
arose over the signing of the bill of exceptions by the judge, 
who refused to sign the one Scammon thought should be 
signed. At the July term, 1839, of the Supreme Court, Scam- 
mon as attorney for Bristol, moved for a writ of mandamus 
against Pearson to require him to sign a bill of exceptions 
which had been tendered him. The court allowed the peti- 
tion to be filed and issued an alternative writ. Scammon, the 
attorney in the case, attempted to hand the writ to Judge 
Pearson while in court, but he, fearing that Scammon would 
thus serve the writ, refused to recognize him when he arose to 
make motions, claiming to be engaged in other matters at the 
time. Scammon had previously been fined for contempt in 

62 Laws of Illinois, 1836-37, 113. 

63 People ex rel Teal v. Pearson, 1 Scam. 458; People ex rel Brown T. 

Pearson, 1 Scam. 473. 



31 

another matter by Pearson. Scammon, therefore, when he 
found the court would not recognize him, put the bill of excep- 
tions and writ to be served on Pearson in Justin Butterfield's 
hands. It was in the afternoon, just before the closing of the 
term of court, with practically all of the members of the bar 
present. Mr. Butterfield arose and said he had received a 
communication from Col. Strode who had been called out of 
town in relation to business of the court, requesting him to 
present a motion in the case of People vs. Hudson for the trial 
or discharge of Hudson at this term of court. The judge 
directed the clerk to file the paper and motion which was done. 
Then Mr. Butterfield handed up the papers given him by 
Scammon, saying it was a bill of exceptions in a case tried at 
a former term. The court said that he had not signed the 
bill of exceptions. Mr. Butterfield replied that he knew that 
was true, but, handing him another paper, said, "Here is a 
writ of mandamus from the Supreme Court, directing you to 
sign it." The court said, "What's that, sir?" Mr. Butter- 
field repeated his statement. The court then, holding the 
paper towards Butterfield, said, "Take it away, sir." But- 
terfield said, "I cannot take it away, sir, it is directed to your 
honor, I will leave it with you. I have discharged my duty 
in serving it upon you and cannot take it back." The court 
then told the clerk to enter a fine of $20 against Butterfield 
and threw the papers, bill of exceptions and writ of manda- 
mus, on the floor over the railing in front of the desk between 
the bench and the bar. The court then said, "What do you 
mean, sir?" Butterfield said, "I mean to proceed by attach- 
ment if you don 't obey it ! " The court then commanded, ' ' Sit 
down, sir; sit down, sir," and ordered the clerk to proceed 
with the reading of the record. The judge afterward asked 
the clerk if he had entered the order for the fine of $20, and 
when the clerk told him he had, asked him to read it to him, and 
then told him to enter as a part of the order, "for an inter- 
ruption. ' ' Mr. Butterfield objected to the change in the order, 
saying that the fine was not for an interruption. A somewhat 
complete history of this matter is found in the Illinois Su- 



32 

preme Court report of the case (People vs. Pearson 64 ), and 
also in an address of the Hon. Thomas Hoyne, "The Lawyer 
as a Pioneer." 65 Mr. Hoyne states that when the court ad- 
journed and the judge left the bench, Mr. Butterfield stepped 
up to him and said, * i Sir, you have now disgraced that bench 
long enough; sit down, sir, and let me beg you to attend a 
meeting of this bar instanter in which we are about to try your 
case, and rid ourselves and the people, once for all, of your in- 
competency and ignorance. ' ' The judge left, but the members 
of the bar prepared papers and that winter presented them 
before the House of Representatives at Springfield asking for 
articles of impeachment. The house, which was composed 
largely of the political friends of Judge Pearson, refused to 
order impeachment proceedings. They charged that the at- 
tack was a political prosecution gotten up by the old Federals 
and Whigs, but Mr. Hoyne, who himself was a Democrat, 
states that Edward G. Ryan, a lifelong Democrat, who was 
then running a Chicago paper called the Tribune, and who 
afterwards, as has been stated, became a chief justice of 
the Supreme Court of Wisconsin, was one of Pearson's strong- 
est opponents and critics, and that the charges against Pear- 
son were not based on political differences. The case was 
heard late in 1839. In 1840 a motion was made in the Su- 
preme Court for an attachment against the defendant for con- 
tempt in disobeying the writ of mandamus. The motion was 
allowed and the attachment issued. On a hearing before the 
court, at which Judge Pearson was represented, the jurisdic- 
tion of the court to punish was questioned for several reasons, 
among others, that Judge Pearson was no longer judge of the 
court. Under the advice of his friends, after the Supreme 
Court ordered him to sign the bill of exceptions, he had re- 
signed as judge and had been elected as State senator for the 
district comprising Cook, Will, Du Page and McHenry coun- 
ties. It appears that after his appointment as circuit judge, 

64 2 Scam., 189. 

65 The Lawyer as a Pioneer, Hoyne, 22 & 23 Fergus' Historical Series, 90; 

1 Andreas' History of Chicago, 444. 



33 

he had moved from his home in Danville to Joliet, Will County, 
and lived there while he was circuit judge and when he was 
elected as senator. The Supreme Court after a full hearing, 
decided it had jurisdiction and fined him $100 and costs of the 
proceeding. 66 Stephen A. Douglas was one of the Supreme 
Court judges at the time this fine was entered. He took no 
part in the decision because before his appointment as judge 
he had been counsel for Judge Pearson in the first case. The 
court was otherwise unanimous, except that Judge Breese 
wrote a separate concurring opinion in which he stated that 
possibly Judge Pearson's actions were based on the ground of 
misapprehension of his rights and duties as judge of the court. 
It also appears on a supplemental motion filed in this case by 
J. Young Scammon, that when the writ of attachment was 
issued, Judge Pearson could not be found in Springfield, and 
that he was pursued and overtaken and placed under arrest 
in Clay County, and brought back to Springfield. The court 
on this supplemental motion allowed the costs of this arrest 
to be charged against Pearson. This was at the December 
term, 1841. At the December term, 1842, counsel for Pearson 
made a motion for rehearing but this was denied. 67 It may 
also be noted that in the original case of Bristol vs. Phillips 
the Supreme Court on motion for the attorney for Bristol 
after Judge Pearson had resigned, ordered the bill of excep- 
tions that he had refused to sign, to be filed in the original case 
and taken to be true, the same as if it had been signed by the 
judge. 68 This case was never decided in the Supreme Court. 
It appears by stipulation filed in the clerk's office of that court 
July 8, 1842, that the case was settled by the parties, the judg- 
ment being reversed, each party paying his own costs. It 
may be interesting to note that this lawsuit was brought by 
Phillips against Bristol, the latter being captain of the 
steamboat James Madison, to recover for the loss of two 
trunks. That steamboat ran in 1838 between Detroit and 
Chicago. The wife and son of Phillips took passage on the 

66 People ex rel v. Pearson, 3 Scam. 270. 

67 People v. Pearson, 3 Scam., 406. 
8 Bristol v. Phillips, 3 Scam. 280. 



34 

boat at Detroit for Chicago. The claim was made that they 
took two trunks on the boat with them at Detroit and the 
trunks could not be found afterward. Phillips recovered this 
judgment against Bristol for the value of the trunks and 
contents. I do not think that Judge Pearson was dishonest 
or corrupt in his actions in this regard, but rather a man of 
strong passions, a warm friend and an uncompromising 
enemy. He was not broad-minded and was very impatient 
of criticism. He died at Danville, Illinois, in 1875. 

While we cannot tell with certainty when the first case was 
tried in the circuit court of Cook County, the records of the 
Supreme Court show that the first case that was brought up 
by appeal or error from the Cook County courts to the Su- 
preme Court was Webb vs. Sturtevant at the Decem- 
ber term, 1835, of that court. 69 This case was tried at the 
May term, 1835, of the Cook Circuit Court by Judge Sidney 
Breese. The lawyers were B. S. Morris and James Grant for 
appellant and Giles Spring and Ebenezer Peck for ap- 
pellee. The opinion was written by Justice Lockwood. It 
was a dispute as to the possession of certain real estate to 
which both parties laid claim. The next case from the county 
was at the same term of the Supreme Court. 70 (Lovett vs. 
Noble). This case was also tried before Judge Sidney 
Breese in the circuit court. The lawyers for appellant 
were Judge Caton and Stephen A. Douglas and for 
appellee Ebenezer Peck and Giles Spring. The first people's 
case coming from Cook County reviewed by the Supreme Court 
was heard at the December term, 1836, of that court, 71 (Bald- 
win vs. People). Judge Caton represented the plaintiff in 
orror and James Grant the people. Baldwin was charged 
with stealing a horse, and the proof showed it was a mare. 
The court held that the proof that the defendant had stolen a 
mare or gelding would sustain an indictment for stealing a 
horse and that the indictment charging that the horse was 
stolen and carried away would be sustained by proof that it 

69 1 Scam., 181. 

70 1 Scam., 185. 

71 1 Scam., 303. 



35 

.was ridden, driven or led away. That seems to be a sensible 
decision, but to those who talk about technicalities (as the 
layman understands that term) controlling a case in the courts 
of review, it will be found that the Supreme Court of that 
time now and then reversed cases for reasons that laymen now 
would say were purely technical. As an example, the third 
criminal case reviewed by the Supreme Court of the State 
from Cook County 72 (Bell vs. People) was on an indictment 
found in the municipal court of Chicago. The indictment 
purported to be found "by a grand jury chosen, selected and 
sworn in and for the City of Chicago and County of Cook." 
The court held that the municipal court could only have an 
indictment returned by grand jurors chosen within the City 
of Chicago, and that this indictment on its face showed that 
the jurors might have come from Cook County outside of Chi- 
cago ; that the indictment alone must be taken for evidence of 
that fact, and that such an indictment on its face was bad, 
whereupon the court reversed the case. As the City of Chi- 
cago was within the County of Cook and the indictment could 
fairly be construed as meaning that the grand jurors were 
chosen and selected from the City of Chicago, within the 
County of Cook, I think the indictment might well have been 
sustained. 

In the first Scammon Eeport of Supreme Court decisions 
are found twenty-nine cases brought up from Cook County 
for review by writ of error or appeal. Of the twenty-nine, 
eighteen were reversed, ten were affirmed, and one was par- 
tially affirmed and partially reversed. The critics of today who 
are of the opinion that all or most cases ought to be affirmed 
would here find data justifying an argument that the courts of 
that day were reversing cases unnecessarily. Let me say in 
passing that I do not agree with the argument that most cases 
are improperly reversed by courts of review. If no cases ought 
to be reversed, there would be no necessity of having courts 
of review. While courts of review should give weight to the 
real facts rather than to pleading; to the substance rather 



72 1 Scam., 397. 



36 

than the shadow ; to substantial justice rather than to form, if 
justice is to be fairly and properly administered in this or any 
other state, it is frequently necessary for courts of review to 
reverse some cases. 

The first case appealed from the Municipal Court of Chi- 
cago for review 73 is Peyton & Allen vs. Tappan. This case 
was heard before Judge Ford on the municipal bench. In the 
two cases immediately preceding this one, found in the same 
volume of Supreme Court Reports, it is curious to note that in 
one appealed from McLean County and in the other from 
Cook County, Judge Ford took part. In the Cook County 
case he sat as judge of the circuit court when the summons was 
issued. In the case from McLean he was one of the lawyers. 
Evidently Judge Ford was a very busy man. 

In May, 1835, Gen. John B. Beaubien went to the general 
land office and purchased for $94.61 the entire Fort Dearborn 
reservation. He had derived his military title of general from 
the fact that the State at that time was divided into military 
districts, the people electing a general in each district. He 
had lived upon the reservation for many years, and a law had 
been found which satisfied the land office that he could make 
the purchase. There was great excitement over this pur- 
chase. The newspapers published articles and the people 
discussed it at length. Some asked if he bought the fort or 
the land, and what were the officers to do I Some of the people 
congratulated him on having a fort of his own, and others 
asked if there would not be a conflict between the United 
States troops and the State militia. General Beaubien him- 
self was in command of the militia. Nothing serious, how- 
ever, occurred. A case was agreed upon for the courts and 
submitted in 1836 to Judge Ford in the circuit court of Cook 
County. Judge Ford decided against Beaubien 's claim. On 
appeal to the Supreme Court of the State, that court reversed 
the circuit court, upholding Beaubien. 74 The case was then 
taken to the United States Supreme Court, which reversed 

73 1 Scam., 387. 

74 McConnell v. Wilcox, 1 Scam., 344. 



37 

the decision of the Supreme Court of the State, effectually 
wiping out every pretense of a right to the land as 
claimed by Beaubien. 73 Beaubien was glad to call at the 
United States land office and receive his money back without 
interest. This, however, did not end the agitation over the 
reservation. During the previous years, while the litigation 
was pending, the secretary of war authorized the solicitor 
of the general land office to come to Chicago and sell the land 
in the reservation. It was surveyed and platted as the Fort 
Dearborn Addition to Chicago and contained about fifty-three 
and one-fourth acres. All of this was sold by the government 
except what was needed for the occupancy of the public build- 
ings. Beaubien had lived for years on some of the lots in this 
subdivision. He had many friends and there was a general 
public demand that when these lots were sold no one should 
bid against him ; he was expected to buy his homestead for a 
nominal sum. Attorney James H. Collins was opposed to this 
plan to give the lots to Beaubien. He put in a sealed bid for 
the Beaubien homestead and it was struck off to Collins. His 
action aroused great excitement. His life was threatened and 
he was burned in effigy. 76 

Many other interesting trials and other matters could be 
referred to and much more could be said of the courts and 
the lawyers connected with the early history of Chicago. One 
cannot read the history of these men and their times without 
feeling that in the judicial forum as in other walks of life 
* * there were giants in those days. ' ' There were Davis, Trum- 
bull, Stephen T. Logan, Baker, Breese, Palmer, Douglas, Lin- 
coln, and in Chicago, Butterfield, Arnold, Ryan, Goodrich, 
Spring, Hoyne and many others of great ability, who gave 
their best efforts to the enforcement of the law, so that every 
person, whatever his condition, might obtain justice in the 
courts. 

I can appreciate how Arnold felt, when on a visit to Eng- 
land, he met in Westminster Hall Rev. Edward Porter, then 

75 Wilcox v. Jackson, 38 IT. S., 4. 

78 Address on Ft. Dearborn, Wentworth, 16 Fergus Historical Series, 40, 
<il; Kirkland & Moses' History of Chicago, 191. 



38 

a minister of Chicago, and when they were talking over the 
great trials that had been held there, Dr. Porter said, "This 
is the grandest forum of the world. And yet I have seen 
justice administered on the prairies of Illinois, without pomp 
or high ceremonial, everything simple to rudeness, yet justice 
has been administered before judges as pure, aided by lawyers 
as eloquent, if not as learned, as any who ever plead or gave 
judgment in Westminster Hall." 77 I believe that the same 
may be truly said of the courts and lawyers today in Illinois. 
If they are faithful to the traditions of their great prede- 
cessors, justice will be as fairly administered by judges as 
honest and pure, aided by lawyers as learned and eloquent as 
were those in the early history of the State, or even in West- 
minster ' ' in the great Hall of William Ruf us. ' ' 



77 Recollections of the Early Chicago and Illinois Bar, Arnold, 22 Fergus 
Historical Series, II. 

Note. The original records have been examined in Pike, Fulton, Peoria 
and Putnam counties as to the facts stated herein as shown by the respective 
records of said counties. I am indebted for this examination in Pike County 
to Judge Harry Higbee, in Fulton County to Hon. B. M. Chiperfield, in Peoria 
County to Gerald H. Page, attorney-at-law, and in Putnam County to Judge 
John M. McNabb. 



39 



NEW JERSEY FAMILIES IN ILLINOIS 
The Casad and Stites Families 

EDMUND J. JAMES. 



INTKODUCTIOISr. 

The Revolutionary War was one of the most efficient agen- 
cies in spreading the population of the thirteen colonies over 
larger areas than would otherwise have occurred. The send- 
ing of southern troops into the northern colonies, and of north- 
ern troops into the southern colonies, made men from different 
sections of the country acquainted with one another and with 
different localities. Many northern men who had gone south 
in the Virginia, Carolina and Georgia campaigns went back 
to the north to get their families and moved down into the 
more attractive regions of the southern colonies. The people 
who were living in the places visited by British armies were 
still more disturbed, and in many cases whole families were 
uprooted by the forces of war. Of no section was this truer 
than that of central Jersey, between Philadelphia and New 
York. The colonial armies and the British armies moved 
back and forth over this stretch of territory until some por- 
tions of it were reduced almost to a desert farmhouses 
burned, permanent improvements destroyed, and settlements 
shifted. 

As a direct and indirect result of these campaigns, the Jer- 
sey families were especially widely scattered. And many 
families in Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia and western Penn- 
sylvania, are descended from ancestors who lived in this por- 
tion of Jersey before the Revolutionary War, and were driven 
out by the results of Washington's campaigns. Those who 
were thus displaced and wandered into the new territories, if 
they succeeded in their quest for better lands and larger op- 
portunities, naturally drew after them many of their friends 
and relatives. 



40 

Aside from these forces which have been described, there 
sprang up after the Revolution a great fever of land specula- 
tion throughout the new territories beyond the Alleghenies; 
and every kind of device was worked to interest people in 
shares in these land companies and in buying land from them. 
Jerseymen were especially active in these enterprises. Among 
the people to be interested in a very active way in the purchase 
of Ohio lands were the group of men who, under the leader- 
ship of Dayton, made the Miami purchase, in the midst of 
which the city of Dayton is today located. The Miami lands 
were very largely sold to citizens of New Jersey who, either 
for purposes of speculation, or because they wished to remove 
thither themselves, purchased these lands in large quantities. 

Among the men who purchased a considerable estate was 
Colonel Ephraim Martin of New Brunswick, New Jersey. 
Some of his descendants removed to the region about Fairfield 
near Dayton, and from there were scattered widely over 
Indiana, southern Illinois, and subsequently, like other Ameri- 
can pioneers who had once contracted the fever for pioneering, 
over the states beyond the Mississippi, up the Pacific, and 
later into Alaska and the Philippines.* 

Colonel Martin's granddaughter, Martha, married Samuel 
Stites in Somerset County, New Jersey. They removed about 
1803 to a farm at Fairfield near Dayton, Ohio, and subsequent- 
ly to St. Clair County, Illinois. Their daughter, Anna Stites, 
married Dr. Anthony Wayne Casad at Fairfield, Ohio. They 
removed with Samuel Stites and his wife to St. Clair County, 
where they settled at first just south of the present village of 
Summerfield at Union Grove, north of Shiloh, the first settle- 
ment in that part of the county. They moved, as many of the 
pioneers in that early day did, with their wagons, and arrived 
in the State in the spring preceding its admission to the Union 
in 1818. Samuel Stites and his wife were so disgusted with 
the severe life under pioneer conditions in that locality that, 
according to a tradition in the family, they did not even un- 
pack their goods from the wagon but drove back to Fairfield, 
Ohio, as fast as their ox teams could carry them. But the 

* See footnote at bottom of page 52. 



41 

attractions of Looking Glass Prairie in St. Clair County 
proved, after all, too much and they came back in 1820, and 
settled near Lebanon, subsequently moving to Trenton. Here 
they followed the injunction of the Scriptures and increased 
and multiplied and took possession of the earth, and for nearly 
fifty years the Casads and Stites were among the most num- 
erous and influential families in St. Clair County. Their chil- 
dren and grandchildren and great-grandchildren spread out 
later in every direction over the whole western country. They 
were especially interested in the establishment and develop- 
ment of McKendree College at Lebanon, Anthony Wayne 
Casad having drafted and circulated the first subscription 
paper for the college. 

As Colonel Martin was a common Revolutionary ancestor to 
these families, it has been thought worth while to prepare this 
sketch of his life and work, in which all his descendants in 
Illinois and surrounding states will doubtless be interested. 
Much of this matter has already been printed in the Pennsyl- 
vania Magazine of History and Biography, Nos. 136 and 142 ; 
1910 and 1912. 



Sketch of Ephraim Martin, Esquire, Colonel of the Fourth 
New Jersey Regiment of the Continental Line. 

BY EDMUND J. JAMES. 

Colonel Ephraim Martin was born in central New Jersey, 
probably in Somerset or Middlesex County in the year 1733, 
and died at the home of his son, 'Squire Martin, in New Bruns- 
wick, New Jersey, February 28, 1806. He was buried at Stel- 
ton, New Jersey, in the old Baptist cemetery, where the old 
tombstone is still standing with the date of his death and the 
year of his age inscribed upon it. 

Ephraim Martin was one of the early settlers in Sussex 
County, New Jersey, and was a land holder there in Newton 
Township in the year 1761. He was appointed coroner of 
Sussex County at the council held at Burlington, New Jersey, 
February 21, 1774; he was a member of the Committee of 
Safety of Sussex County, organized at the outbreak of the 



42 

Eevolution, and was appointed leader of a company "to set 
right certain Tories ' ' in that neighborhood. 

At the outbreak of hostilities, he raised a regiment of mili- 
tia in and about Sparta, which was known as the Second Es- 
tablishment of State Militia. 

He was chosen member from Sussex County to the Provin- 
cial Congress at Trenton, October 20, 1775; also of the Con- 
gress which changed the Constitution of New Jersey from that 
of a colony to that of a State. 

In the Historical Register of the Officers of the Continental 
Army, published by F. B. Heitman, Washington, D. C., 1893, 
the statement is made on page 39 that Colonel Ephraim Mar- 
tin, commissioned November 28, 1776, never joined his regi- 
ment. Heitman further says that the rolls of this regiment 
are very incomplete and that it was broken up about July, 
1778. In the alphabetical list in the same book, under Martin, 
page 286, the following statement is found : ' ' Ephraim Mar- 
tin was colonel of a New Jersey regiment on the 14th day of 
July, 1776 ; was wounded at the battle of Long Island August 
27, 1776; appointed colonel of the Fourth New Jersey regi- 
ment November 28, 1776, but never joined the regiment." 

This is a good illustration of the inaccuracy of many of Heit- 
man 's statements. An inaccuracy which, in this case, he 
could easily have corrected if he had taken the trouble to drop 
a note of inquiry to the office of the adjutant general of New 
Jersey, or if he had consulted the roster rolls of the Contin- 
ental Army, by William Bradford, Jr., which show that 
Ephraim Martin was colonel of the Fourth New Jersey regi- 
ment for the months of July and October, 1778, and for Jan- 
uary, 1779, for which months the abstracts have been pre- 
served. 1 

Ephraim Martin was colonel of a battalion of the State 
Militia ordered to reinforce the defences of New York early 
in 1776. Anthony Wayne's Orderly Book, under the date of 
April 6, 1776, headquarters New York, notes that Colonel Mar- 

i These roster rolls are preserved in the library of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, at Philadelphia. 



43 

tin's regiment was assigned to the Brigade of Lord Sterling. 
(See Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography.) 

Ephraim Martin was commissioned by the State of New 
Jersey on June 14, 1776, as colonel of a regiment of New 
Jersey militia in General Nathaniel Heard 's brigade. He 
was described as of Sparta, Sussex County, New Jersey. 

He was wounded August 24, 1776, by a musket ball in the 
breast, at the outposts previous to the battle of Long Island, 
which occurred August 27, 1776. On November 28, 1776, he 
was appointed, by the State of New Jersey, colonel of the 
Fourth Battalion in the Second Establishment of the New 
Jersey Continental Line. This establishment was not entirely 
completed with its full quota of officers in General Maxwell's 
Brigade until February 17, 1777. 

In the meantime, Colonel Martin's regiment continued as 
a part of General Nathaniel Heard 's brigade of New Jersey 
militia. 

As such it took part in the operations around Trenton, 
December 25, 1776, though the brigade failed to get across 
the Delaware in time to take part in the actual fighting, being 
stationed opposite Trenton in order to keep the Hessians 
from crossing the river into Pennsylvania. 

It seems from the record that Martin was in command of 
his regiment with Washington's army during the years of 
1777 and 1778 and part of 1779 at any rate. His regiment 
took part in the Battle of Princeton, January 5, 1777, and 
followed Washington into camp at Morristown; and it took 
part in the skirmish at Elizabethtown Farms, where his son 
Absolam, who was his paymaster, had his arm broken. 

In the Orderly Book of Major William Heth (see Virginia 
Historical Collections, Vol. X. New Series, 1891, page 365), it 
is noted that Colonel Martin was field officer for the day on 
June 21, 1777, at Camp Middlebrook. 

In Maxwell's brigade Colonel Ephraim Martin's regiment 
followed Washington in his march to the Brandywine, where 
it was the first to meet the enemy at Iron Hill in Pencader 
Hundred, Delaware, and he was wounded at the Battle of the 



44 

Brandywine. "He wore a cocked hat and barely escaped 
death, having been struck in the forehead by a passing bullet 
which only grazed it, but stunned him, cutting through the hat 
and making a furrow in his forehead." (See Martin Geneal- 
ogy, p. 315.) 

He was probably at the attack on the Chew House in the 
Battle of Germantown, but he was certainly with Washington 
at Valley Forge during the winter of 1777-1778. In the Valley 
Forge Orderly Book of General George Weedon, it is noted 
that on the 16th of October, 1777, headquarters Worcester 
Township, Colonel Martin, of Jersey, is in the list of field offi- 
cers for the day. A similar mention of Colonel Martin as field 
officer for the day occurs under date of May 14, 1778. 

His regiment took part in all the important movements of 
Washington's army from the middle of 1776 through the years 
1777 and 1778, being stationed in reserve at Princeton on the 
occasion of the battle of Monmouth June 28, 1778, and in 
November and December, 1778. 

The Legislature of the State of New Jersey, in 1778, pe- 
titioned Congress to reduce the quota of New Jersey from four 
regiments to three, with a corresponding reduction in men and 
officers on the ground that four regiments were more than 
New Jersey's share. 

Congress accepted this view, as will be seen by the follow- 
ing report of a committee, to whom was referred the repre- 
sentation of the State of New Jersey, praying a reduction of 
their quota. 

"The committee to whom was referred the representation 
of the State of New Jersey, beg leave to report : 

"That having considered the same, it appears to your com- 
mittee that so much of the representation as relates to the sup- 
porting that State with a body of Continental troops is prop- 
erly cognizable by, and ought to be submitted to, his Excel- 
lency, the Commander-in-Chief. And as to that part of the 
representation praying a reduction of their quota we beg 
leave to submit the following resolutions : 



45 

"Besolved, That the State of New Jersey be requested to 
complete only three regiments of infantry in the manner rec- 
ommended by the resolution of the 26th day of February last 
and that the committee of Congress lately at camp, do arrange 
the officers of the said State accordingly. ' ' 2 

On March 9, 1779, Congress called for eighty battalions of 
infantry, of which New Jersey was to furnish three, to be 
organized in accordance with the action referred to in the 
above report taken by Congress on May 27, 1778. 

It appears that the fourth New Jersey regiment of the Con- 
tinental Line was broken up in February, 1779, or shortly 
afterward 3 and certain officers were declared supernumerary. 

I have not been able to find out who actually undertook this 
re-arrangement, whether a committee of the New Jersey Leg- 
islature, or a committee of Congress. It was presumably the 
latter, for on Monday, April 26, 1779, there was presented and 
read to the Legislature of New Jersey a 

' ' Memorial and Eemonstrance of Sundry Officers of the New 
Jersey Brigade left out as supernumerary in a late arrange- 
ment of said brigade, setting forth that they have been ille- 
gally deprived while new officers have been made, and praying 
redress of such grievances." 

This memorial was read a second time April 27, 1779, and 
referred to a committee of conference. This committee made 
a report on April 29th and it was resolved that a remonstrance 
should be made to Congress upon the practice of appointing 
officers without the participation of the authority of the State. 

Seemingly nothing came of the remonstrance. From this 
time on, all references are to "the three regiments of this 
State in the service of the United States," instead of the four 
as hitherto. Various references are to be found in the acts of 



2 See Papers of the Continental Congress, 20, I, Folio 315, in the Library 
of Congress. 

3 Although the State did not take definite action providing for three regi- 
ments until June 9, 1779, the arrangement of officers in these regiments evi- 
dently continued to make trouble, as Congress appointed a committee in the 
summer of 1780 to make an arrangement for the officers of the first, second, 
and third regiments of the New Jersey Line, which arrangement was ap- 
proved by the New Jersey Legislature September 26, 1780. 



46 

the Legislature of New Jersey to the "late arrangement" by 
which the four regiments were reduced to three. Thus on 
April 30 a resolution was passed that the sum of 200 pounds 
be paid for ' 'cloathing," to each officer, who at the time when 
the "late arrangement" of the brigade in this State in the 
service of the United States was made, did belong, or for one 
year previous thereto, had belonged to the said brigade. 

On September 26, 1780, the Legislature of New Jersey ap- 
proved the arrangement made by Congress for the reduction 
in question and presumably Ephraim Martin was declared 
* l supernumerary ' ' in this ' ' late arrangement ' ' although I have 
not been able to find any definite statement to this effect. He 
may have resigned from the service altogether though the 
adjutant general's office at Trenton wrote me that Ephraim 
Martin was "supernumerary from February 11, 1779, until 
the close of the war. ' ' 

If this is correct, and it is so, presumably, Martin was in 
the Continental army from the time of his commission Novem- 
ber 28, 1776, until February 11, 1779, a little over two years 
and two months. 

He had been in active service, however, for a little more than 
one year and four months before in the State forces. 

In the library of the New Jersey Historical Society at 
Newark, in a volume entitled, "Provincial Congress Papers, 
1776," there is an unpublished paper numbered 126, contain- 
ing the following information : 

"July 26, 1775. The officers chosen in the towns of Upper 
Hardwick, Newtown, Wantage and Hardiston, agreeably to. 
the direction of the Provincial Congress, met by appointment 
at the house of Ephraim Martin to choose field officers." 

Then follows the list of captains, the first and second lieu- 
tenants and ensigns for thirteen companies. 

And the further statement that the following field officers 
were chosen: 

Ephraim Martin, Colonel ; 

Daniel Barker, Lieutenant-Colonel ; 



47 

John B. Scott, Major ; 

Aaron Harkinson, Second Major. 

It will thus be seen that Martin's official connection with 
the Revolutionary Army began July 26, 1775, as colonel of 
the second Sussex County regiment of militia. 

According to another paper, numbered 125, in the same 
volume, the first Sussex regiment had been organized four 
days before, that is, July 22, at the home of Abram McKinney, 
by the election of William Maxwell as colonel. 

That Martin was not idle in his new office is evident from 
the following extract from Holt's Journal of December 28, 
1775: 

11 December 26. This morning about four hundred of the 
militia of Sussex County, New Jersey, under the command of 
Colonel Ephraim Martin and Marsh Thompson, assembled in 
Newton and from thence proceeded in good order and regu- 
larly in quest of tories, a considerable number of whom, in- 
habitants of that county, had entered into a combination and 
agreement not to comply with any congressional measures. 
We hear about forty are taken, most of whom have recanted, 
signed the association, and professed themselves sons of lib- 
erty, being fully convinced of their error. Two or three who 
remained incorrigible are to be presented to the Congress to 
be dealt with." 

When on June 3, 1776, Congress called on New Jersey for 
3,300 troops to reinforce the army in and about New York, 
the State of New Jersey ordered out, June 14, 1776, five bat- 
talions of eight companies each, under Brigadier General 
Heard for this service. Colonel Ephraim Martin was in com- 
mand of one of these battalions, consisting of four companies 
from Morris County and four from Sussex County, and they 
took part in the operations on Long Island, where, as stated 
above, Ephraim Martin was wounded. 

It was when Congress in 1776 called for eighty-eight bat- 
talions of infantry and assigned four battalions to New Jer- 
sey's share, the State decided to recruit three of the battalions 
from the State regiments which had already been sent to the 



48 

north of Albany and to recruit the fourth battalion from 
Heard 's brigade at New York. 

(Compare Notes, etc., of the General Assembly of New Jer- 
sey, September 30, 1776.) 

Colonel Martin was appointed colonel of this fourth bat- 
talion and on November 28, 1776, as above said, he received 
his commission. He resigned .his commission in the State 
troops when he entered the Continental Line. 

Ephraim Martin removed to Somerset County and on Oc- 
tober 12, 1779, entered the Upper House of the New Jersey 
Legislature as representative from that county, where with 
some interruptions he continued to sit until his death in 1806. 
He probably moved to Somerset County while the army was 
encamped about Morristown. Mrs. Colonel Martin seems to 
have bestirred herself also in behalf of the American cause 
as appears from the following extract from the Pennsylvania 
Packet of July 8, 1780: 

"July 4, 1780. The ladies of Trenton are promoting a sub- 
scription for the relief and encouragement of those brave 
men of the Continental army, et. ' ' The committee consisted 
of ladies in the various counties. The following were from 
Somerset County : Lady Stirling, Mrs. General Morris, Mrs. 
Colonel Martin, Mrs. Attorney General Pattison, Mrs. B. 
Stockton. 

Ephraim Martin moved from Somerset County to New 
Brunswick and represented Middlesex County in the Council 
in the years 1795, 1797, and 1800 to 1805, inclusive. He had 
been, it will be remembered, a member of the Provincial Con- 
gress in 1775 and 1776 from Sussex County. He thus had the 
honor of representing three separate counties in the State Leg- 
islature for an aggregate period of more than twenty years, at 
a time when it was an honor to be a member of the Legislature. 

While in Somerset County he lived in Bernardstown and 
was a member of the old Mt. Bethel Baptist church, where he 
was elected deacon June 21, 1786. He joined the Baptist 
church of Piscataway, established in 1689, and located at 
Stelton, two and one-half miles east of New Brunswick, on 



49 

May 27, 1795, by letter from the Mt. Bethel Baptist church. 
This probably indicates very closely the time at which he 
changed his residence from Somerset County to Middlesex 
County. It is noteworthy that if he moved to New Brunswick 
in 1795 he was immediately elected the delegate from Middle- 
sex County in the State Council. 

When Ephraim Martin died, on February 28, 1806, in the 
seventy-third year of his age, the following note appeared in 
the New Jersey Journal, published at Elizabethtown in the 
issue for March 11, 1806 : 

"Died. 

"On Friday morning last, Ephraim Martin, Esquire, a lead- 
ing member of the Legislative Council of this State, after a 
long and painful illness, in the seventy-third year of his age." 

The following is extracted from a sermon on the occasion 
of his death : 

' * For several years he served his country on the tented field 
and in the public councils with faithfulness and to the best of 
his abilities, as none who knew him will doubt, for which his 
memory is deservedly cherished by all. 

"As a citizen and a neighbor he was peaceable, just and 
benevolent, and duly exemplary in his deportment. When 
among his neighbors it was his delight to converse on the 
subject of religion. When at home he trained his family with 
a pious care and conversed much with his Bible and his God. ' ' 

Ephraim Martin left a will dated October 24, 1805, with a 
codicil of November 21, of the same year, disposing of con- 
siderable property. The will is on file in the surrogate's 
office, New Brunswick, New Jersey, Book A, page 146. In 
this he mentions sons: Squire, Absalom, Jeremiah and 
Ephraim ; grandchildren, Ephraim, son of Squire, and * ' seven 
other children of Squire;" Ebenezer and Martin, children of 
Absalom; Abner, Jeremiah and Susannah, children of Jere- 
miah; Ocey, Ephraim and Patty (wife of Samuel Stites), 
Polly, wife of Cutter, and Elizabeth, all children of Ephraim ; 
and Katherine Kennan, niece of his wife, to whom he leaves 



50 

certain property, on account of her care of him and his wife 
during their illness. He does not mention his wife otherwise 
in the will. 

His wife must have died before him, though her headstone 
in the old Piscataway town cemetery connected with the St. 
John's Protestant Episcopal church in Piscataway on the road 
from New Brunswick to Woodbridge, two or three miles from 
the former place, shows her death later. The stone, which 
is still standing, contains the following inscription : 

"In memory of Katherine, wife of Colonel Ephraim Mar- 
tin, who departed this life October 5, 1806, in the seventy-sec- 
ond year of her age. 

Forbear, my friends, your fond complaint, 
You have no cause for to lament; 
For Christ, my saviour, summons me 
At His command I must obey." 

It is somewhat peculiar that she was buried in one cemetery 
and he in another, not far away. His body lies in the Baptist 
cemetery at the old Piscataway Baptist church, located at 
Stelton, two and one-half miles east of the court house in New 
Brunswick. The stone bears the following inscription: 

"In memory of Colonel Ephraim Martin, who departed 
this life the 28th day of February, 1806, in the seventy-third 
year of his age. 

Farewell, vain world, I am going home, 
My saviour smiles and bids me come, 
While angels beckon me away 
To sing God's praise in endless day." 

It is of interest to note that Sussex County was greatly 
stirred on behalf of the cause of the colonists, although it was 
still a new and only partially settled region. It furnished 
more than its quota of men to the militia, State and Contin- 
ental troops, though it was far removed from the scene of 
conflict. This was doubtless owing to the activity of men like 
Maxwell and Martin, who seemed to be indefatigable in re- 
cruiting men. 



51 

A diligent search was made in Sussex County, as in other 
counties of the State, for materials for munitions of war. A 
note is made in one of the newspapers of the time of the dis- 
covery of "a supply of flint exceedingly promising, on a hill 
near Colonel Martin's farm;* and was important enough, as 
a possible source of supply, to lead the New Jersey Legisla- 
ture to exempt the workmen from military duty by law of 
October 10, 1777. 

Martin seems to have had his full share of trouble and dif- 
ficulty in keeping his regiment fully manned. Many men de- 
serted for the sake of enlisting in other regiments in order to 
obtain the bounty, and patriots who disdained to accept bribes 
from the British commanders did not hesitate to desert from 
the northern army and enlist in the southern, or vice versa, for 
the sake of the emolument. 

Martin advertised in the Pennsylvania Journal of February 

19, 1777, for the return of deserters from the fourth New 
Jersey battalion under his command who had left the regiment 
on or about December 15, 1776. Again in the Pennsylvania 
Gazette, for February 19th and March 12th, 1777, for deserters 
who had left his regiment stationed at Morristown about Feb- 
ruary 1, 1777 ; a similar advertisement for deserters at Salem 
May 13, 1777 ; and finally in the New Jersey Gazette for De- 
cember 2, 1778, and in a later issue of 1779, for troops who 
had left his headquarters at Princeton on or about November 

20, 1778. 

Colonel Ephraim Martin was not the only one of his family 
in the Revolutionary War. His son Absalom was paymaster 
in his father's regiment, having been commissioned in the 
Continental Line on the same date as his father, November 28, 
1776. He had his arm broken in a fight at Elizabethtown. 
When the arrangement was made by which the four New 
Jersey regiments of the Continental Line were consolidated 
into three, Absalom entered the first regiment as lieutenant, 

* "See advertisement of" a farm for sale one mile from Sharpsborough 
Iron Works in Sussex County and an equal distance from Colonel Martin's 
estate in Hardiston." Pennsylvania Journal, June 19, 1776. 



52 

and was later promoted to a captaincy. He served until the 
close of the war and had been in the militia before he entered 
the Continental Line.* 

Colonel Ephraim Martin's third son, Ephraim, Jr., served 
almost continuously in the militia in which he became first 
sergeant. In his application for a pension, file No. 31, 840, in 
the pension rolls of the Revolutionary War, in the War De- 
partment at Washington, Ephraim Martin stated that he was 
of Sussex County, New Jersey, aged seventy-two years, his 
application being dated 1832; that he had enlisted Septem- 
ber, 1777, at the age of seventeen under Captain Beckwith; 
then one month under Captain McCoy in the regiment of 
Colonel Freelinghausen and Major Davidson, and was sta- 
tioned at Elizabethtown to guard the stores. He then en- 
listed in the company of Minute Men under Captain McCoy 
and was appointed first sergeant, fought at Connecticut 
Farms, where Mrs. Caldwell was murdered, was in the skir- 
mish with the British at Springfield on their retreat to Staten 
Island about June 1, 1780. Volunteered again in the company 
of Captain Manning, under Colonel Webster, and stationed in 
Middlesex County. Had a brother, Absalom Martin, who 
was wounded at Elizabethtown ; had a brother, Squire Martin, 
living at New Brunswick, New Jersey. He stated further that 
he was born in September, 1760, in Sussex County, was the 
third son of Colonel Ephraim Martin of the New Jersey Line, 
who afterwards removed to Somerset County. That in 1789 
he, Ephraim, Jr., had moved to Mecklinburg County, North 
Carolina, and afterwards to Campbell County, Georgia. 

The name of Squire Martin (another son of Colonel Martin) 
does not appear, so far as I can ascertain, in the list of the 



*Two of Colonel Ephraim Martin's sons, Absalom and Jeremiah, moved to 
the Miami country. In a deed of gift by Colonel Martin and his wife, Cather- 
ine, dated January 20, 1802, of 640 acres of land to these two sons, they are 
mentioned as "of the County of Belmont in the Northwest Territory" (Deed 
Book E, p. 305, Hamilton County Records, Ohio). Absalom must have died 
shortly after, as in a deed of his interest in this land dated April 3, 1802, 
Jeremiah "of Richland Township, Belmont County, Northwest Territory," 
refers to Absalom as "deceased late of Territory." This land is described as 
Sec. 35, Town 4, Military Range 3, granted to Ephraim Martin on May 29, 
1795, by Jonathan Dayton. (Butler County Records.) 



53 

New Jersey militia or line in the adjutant general's office at 
Trenton. But Sergeant John Martin was first lieutenant of 
another company from the same place, i. e., Hardiston. This, 
it will be remembered, was the home of Colonel Ephraim Mar- 
tin also, who was elected colonel of the Second Sussex regi- 
ment at the meeting at his house on July 26, 1775. In Paper 
229, of the same volume, it is stated that Captain Isaac Martin 
was elected major in the Second Sussex regiment. 

What relation these three parties were to Colonel Ephraim 
does not appear from the records of this meeting, but some 
light is thrown upon the fact from another Revolutionary pen- 
sion record. 

Reuben Martin, of Wayne County, Ohio, applied for a pen- 
sion in 1834, at the age of eighty-five years. He speaks of 
serving in Sussex County in the company of his brother, Cap- 
tain John Martin, commanded by another brother, Colonel 
Edmund Martin ; was under this Colonel Martin in the battle 
of the Brandywine, where he was wounded, and at German- 
town, and was at Middle Brook May 10, 1778, under the same 
brother. He states that there were two brothers Martin in 
Washingtons army, both colonels, one was Edmund. 

Reuben's memory had evidently served him a trick here. 
There were indeed two colonel Martins in Washington's army 
during a portion of the Jersey campaign, and at the battle of 
the Brandywine, viz, Ephraim Martin of New Jersey, who 
was wounded, and Alexander Martin of North Carolina, who 
was subsequently tried by court-martial for cowardice at this 
battle, but was acquitted.* He was probably a cousin of 
Ephraim Martin. 

Edmond Martin was later (1780) a member of the Legisla- 
ture from Sussex County, but does not figure in the army rolls 
except as captain of a company of Sussex County militia. 



* This Alexander Martin of North Carolina was lieutenant colonel of the 
Second North Carolina Regiment September 1, 1775; was appointed colonel 
May 7, 1776; was court-martialed October 30, 1777, for cowardice at the battle 
of the Brandywine; although he was acquitted, he resigned from the service 
Nov. 22, and returned to his native state. He later became governor of North 
Carolina and a member from that State in the United States Senate. 



54 

If Reuben's memory as to relationships was otherwise cor- 
rect, it would appear that Ephraim, Edmond, John and Eeuben 
were brothers, and of these the first three were officers in the 
Second Sussex County militia, and the fourth served four 
campaigns, 1777, 1778, 1779 and 1780, much of the time under 
his brother, Colonel Ephraim. He was sixteen years younger 
than the colonel. 

As there were many other Martins in the Revolutionary 
forces, militia, state and line from .Sussex, Somerset and Mid- 
dlesex, it is quite possible that Colonel Ephraim Martin had 
many nephews and cousins in one and another of the New 
Jersey regiments, but the military records, so far as I know, 
do not give further information on this point. A Jacob Mar- 
tin was captain in the Fourth New Jersey Continental Line, 
commissioned November 28, 1776. 

There are a few other references to Colonel Ephraim Martin 
which have come under my eye. 

In Paper No. 128 of the Provincial Congress Papers, above 
referred to, under date of October 28, 1775, Ephraim Martin 
unites with William Maxwell in recommending certain per- 
sons in Sussex County to the Provincial Congress for com- 
missions in the New Jersey militia. 

In the Pennsylvania Journal, of March 19th, is a letter from 
Haddonfield, dated March 17, 1777, concerning an engage- 
ment which had occurred on March 8th, which runs partly 
as follows : 

" March 9. Yesterday the British, supposed to be about 
three thousand strong, came out from Amboy and posted them- 
selves on Punk Hill. They brought artillery and a number 
of wagons. They met near Carman's Hill and Woodbridge. 
Colonel Martin was sent by General Maxwell to the support 
of the Americans. ' ' 

In the first report of the Cincinnati Society of New Jersey, 
with the by-laws and rules of the society, published at Tren- 
ton, New Jersey, 1808, is to be found a list of the field officers, 
captains and staffs of the New Jersey line, as organized in 
November, 1776, and February, 1777, comprising the Jersey 



55 

brigade in command of Brigadier General Maxwell. Ephraim 
Martin is given as commander of the Fourth Regiment, and 
on page 9 of the same book he is mentioned as among those 
who received wounds during the Revolution. 

Colonel Ephraim Martin's name appears in various deeds 
on file in Somerset and Middlesex counties one at Somerville 
(Deed Book B, 471), dated December 17, 1800, of lands to 
''Colonel Ephraim Martin of the County of Middlesex;" a 
second deed of these same lands, dated March 5, 1801, (Deed 
Book B, 593), from Ephraim Martin and Katherine, his wife, 
of Middlesex, to Rune Runyon. Land was surveyed in Sus- 
sex County to Ephraim Martin December 26, 1761, in Hardis- 
ton Township of Sussex County, March 1, 1785, and June 22, 
1785. Lands in the same township of Hardiston were also 
surveyed for Edmond Martin about the same time. Edmond 
Martin of the County of Sussex, deeded on April 3, 1771, to 
David Ne\vman lands situated in Hardiston on both sides of a 
brook called Beaver Run (recorded in the city of Perth Amboy, 
Book A. B. No. 6, page 152). 

Ephraim Martin, Jr., probably the same person as Colonel 
Ephraim Martin, was a member of the grand jury in Sussex 
County in the year 1767. 

Luther Martin of Maryland was probably a relative of 
Colonel Ephraim Martin. 

The ancestry of Colonel Ephraim Martin is, in my opinion, 
not definitely known, but the following is given by one of our 
most careful genealogists as probable. Indeed, he considers 
it as reasonably well established. It will be noted, however, 
that the list does not include any of the brothers named by 
Reuben in the pension application noted above, except 
Ephraim, and it is possible, though improbable, that Colonel 
Ephraim and his brothers were children of Edmond, son of 
James, son of Joseph, son of John, one of the original asso- 
ciates in the Piscataway purchase at Woodbridge; possibly 
some one of the readers of this magazine may possess accurate 
information on this point. 



56 



GENEALOGY OF COLONEL EPHRAIM MARTIN. 



1. JOHN MARTIN. 



Children: 



Born 1620, died June 5, 1687, (was at 
Dover, N. H., 1648), came to N. J. as 
original settler in 1666, taking grants 
with Woodbridge settlers; colonized 
Piscataway Township. Married, 1646, 
Esther Roberts, born 1628, died Dec. 
6, 1687; daughter of Thomas Rob- 
erts, Governor of N. H. 

I. John, will May 25, 1703. 

II. Mary, b. 1649; d. after 1696; m. 

Hopence Hull. 

III. Martha. 

IV. Lydia. 

V. Joseph 2. 

VI. Benjamin. 

VII. Thomas. 

VIII. James. 

Born 1657, died 1723; constable in 
1690. Married Nov. 25, 1697, Sarah 
Trotter, died after 1700, daughter of 
William Trotter, d. 1687, and his wife 
Catherine Gibbs. 

I. James 3. 
II. Joseph. 

III. Abigail. 

IV. David. 
V. Joshua. 

VI. Moses. 

Born Dec. 14, 1680, died after 1721; 
married Sept. 4, 1701, Hannah Smith, 
daughter of John Smith of Wood- 
bridge, N. J. 

I. Edmund, b. March 21, 1701. 
II. William, b. March 21, 1701. 
Twins. 

III. Abigail, b. Jan. 14, 1703. 

IV. James, b. Nov. 8, 1705. 

V. Ephraim, b. Jan. 25, 1708. 4. 

VI. Hannah, b. Jan. 13, 1711. 

VII. Anna, b. Jan. 4, 1714. 

VIII. Grace, b. May 6, 1717. 

X. Rosanna, b. April 29, 1719. 

XI. Rosanna, b. Mar. 22, 1721. 

4. EPHRAIM (James, Joseph, John). Born Jan. 25, 1708, died 1771; married 

about 1730 Keziah Runyon, born 
1713. 

Children: I. Jeremiah, b. 1731, d. 1804; mar- 

ried 1752-3, Elizabeth Person 
Caldwell. 

II. Ephraim (Colonel) 5. 



2. JOSEPH (John). 



Children: 



3. James (Joseph, John). 



Children: 



57 



5. EPHRAIM (Ephraim, James, Jo- 
seph, John). 



6. EPHRAIM, (Ephraim, Ephraim, 
James, Joseph, John.) 



Children: 



7. MARTHA MARTIN (Ephraim, 
Ephraim, Ephraim, James, Jo- 
seph, John). 
Children: 



III. Humphrey, b. 1735, d. 1805; mar- 

ried Experience Piatt, 1756. 

IV. Nathaniel, b. 1736-7; married 

1756-8, Mary Clarkson. 
Born in Middlesex County, 1733, died 
in New Brunswick Feb. 28, 1806; 
married Catherine 

Children: 
I. Squire. 
II. Absalom. 

III. Jeremiah. 

IV. Ephraim 6. 

Born in Sussex County, Sept. 1760, 
died in Campbell County, Ga., 1840. 
Served in the Revolutionary War. 
Married Mercy Alward. 

I. Ocey. 

II. Ephraim. 

III. Martha ("Patty"), b. May 18, 

1779; m. Samuel States Sept. 
14, 1794; d. Dec. 16, 1838. 7. 

IV. Polly. 

V. Elizabeth (Cutler). 
Married Samuel Stites. 



I. Keziah, b. April 2, 1795; d. Jan. 
19, 1829; m. July 4, 1813, John 
Brake. Lived near Trenton, 
Illinois. 

II. Anna, b. Dec. 10, 1796; d. 16th 
of July, 1838; m. 6th of Feb., 
1811, Anthony W. Casad. 8 

III. Mary, b. 5th of Jan., 1799; m. 5th. 

of Jan. 1817, William Lewis. 

IV. Mercy, b. 28th of April, 1801; d. 

Nov., 1808. 
V. Sarah, b. 12th of Feb., 1803; d. 

7th of Mar. 1805. 
VI. Ephraim M., b. Jan. 1805; d. 

Dec., 1805. 
VII. Squire M., m. Abigail Cravens 

23d April, 1826. 
VIII. John, b. 16th of Oct., 1808; d. 

1846, Ridge Prairie, 111.; m. 

1828, Katherine Mace. 
IX. Martin, b. 8th Jan., 1811; m. 

1830, Scott, who was born 

June 6, 1810; d. May 16, 1869; 

lived at Ridge Prairie, 111., 

both died in Minn. 
X. Charlotte, b. July 22, 1813; d. 

Dec. 18, 1813. 

XI. Isaac, b. Dec. 19, 1814; m. Mar- 
tha Thompson; lived in St. 

Clair Co., 111. 



58 

XII. Indiana, b. June 9, 1817; m. 
Reuben Rutherford, Oct. 20, 
1836; lived at Trenton, 111. 

XIII. Emma, b. 15th of April, 1820; m. 

24th Sept. 1840, Ora M. Cur- 
tis, lived near Trenton, 111. 

XIV. Samuel, b. Mar. 23, 1823, d. 1835. 

The daughter of Anna Stites Casad and Anthony Casad was 
Amanda Keziah Casad, born at Lebanon, Illinois, August 18, 
1827. She married Colin D. James November 27, 1850. 

Their living children are as follows : 

1. Edmund Janes James, born Jacksonville, Illinois, May 
21, 1855; for thirteen years professor in the University of 
Pennsylvania; for the past ten years president of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. 

2. Ella Amanda, born Jacksonville, Illinois, April 10, 1857, 
married (1) Edwin J. Bickell, (2) Temple R. Noel. 

3. Benjamin Brown, born July 4, 1860, at Island Grove, 
Illinois, now professor of physics, Millikin University, Deca- 
tur, Illinois. 

4. John Nelson, born April 15, 1865, Normal, Illinois; 
teacher in the Pennsylvania State Normal School, Indiana, 
Pennsylvania. 

5. George Francis, born August 18, 1867, Normal, Illinois ; 
at one time lecturer in the University of Pennsylvania; now 
dean of the College of Education, University of Minnesota. 

6. Clara Belle, born at Normal, Illinois, April 12, 1871, 
married Cheeseman A. Herrick, president of Girard College, 
Philadelphia. 

The Samuel Stites, referred to in the above genealogy as 
the son-in-law of Colonel Ephraim Martin, was born October 
31, 1776, near Mt. Bethel, Somerset Count}^ New Jersey, and 
died August 16, 1839, at Trenton, Illinois. He was the son of 
Anna Butler (born 1752, died January 27, 1824, daughter of 
Amos Butler) and Isaac Stites of Mt. Bethel, Somerset Coun- 
ty, New Jersey (born 1754, died 1830), who was the son of Wil- 
liam Stites of the same place, born 1719, died 1810 ; son of Wil- 
liam Stites of Springfield, New Jersey, born at Hempstead, 
Long Island, 1676, died at Springfield, New Jersey, 1727, re- 



59 

fers to himself in his will as "late of the Long Island Colony" ; 
son of Eichard Stites, born 1640 in England, died 1702 in 
Hempstead, Long Island ; son of John Stites, surgeon, born in 
London, 1595, died in Hempstead, Long Island, 1717. 

The last three items are based on the record in a family 
Bible which belongs to William Stites of Springfield, New Jer- 
sey, great-grandson of William Stites, Sr., (1676-1727). The 
age of John Stites, surgeon, is rather remarkable, to say the 
least, and lends color to the supposition that he may stand for 
two generations. 

I have not been able to trace the Stites family to any locality 
in England. 

In the history of Long Island by Benjamin P. Thompson, 
New York, 1843, Volume II, in the footnote on pages 53 and 
54, there is a statement that "Edmund Titus, born in England 
in 1630, came from Massachusetts to Long Island in 1650 in 
company with one William Stites, then upwards of one hun- 
dred years old, who, it is said, came on foot from Seekonk to 
this place, Hempstead, where he lived to the great age of one 
hundred and sixteen years. 

The records of the town of Hempstead themselves contain 
numerous references to Richard Stites of Westbury, Hemp- 
stead, Long Island. This Eichard Stites, according to state- 
ments made in deeds contained in the town records of Hemp- 
stead, had sons William, John, Benjamin and Henry. Henry 
Stites is mentioned in a deed made February 28, 1700, as of 
Cape May in the bounds of West Jersey. 

This family was prominent in the localities in which it lived 
in New Jersey during the eighteenth century, and many of 
the references in the current genealogical lists to Stiles should 
be to Stites instead. John, who was born 1706, and died 1782, 
son of William Stites (born 1676, in Hempstead, Long Island, 
died 1727, Springfield, New Jersey), was mayor of Elizabeth- 
town. His daughter, Margaret, was the wife of James Man- 
ning, first president of Brown University. John's nephew, 
Benjamin, Jr., was the founder of Columbia, now a part of 
Cincinnati, and the family has played a prominent part in the 
pioneer life of New Jersey, Kentucky, Ohio and Illinois. 



60 



THE NAME OF LINCOLN 



PAPER BEAD BEFORE LOS ANGELES, CAL., CHAPTER, DAUGHTERS OF 
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, FEBRUARY 4, 1914, 

BY MRS. KATE BRAINERD ROGERS. 

It is impossible to obtain data for a complete list of memor- 
ials to the memory of Lincoln. Towns and villages without 
number have a street or school house or both honored with his 
name. For instance, Los Angeles, our own city, has two 
school houses, " Lincoln High" and "Lincoln," one of the 
smaller buildings, and a short street called Lincoln. 

There are in the United States twenty-two counties and thir- 
ty-five cities or towns called Lincoln. Nine states have made 
his birthday a legal holiday and doubtless in time many more 
will do the same. 

It is a well known fact that collectors set a high value upon 
any authentic handwriting of a noted man, and the longer the 
time which elapses, the more valuable the document. At a 
recent public auction in New York 1 the sum of $31,517 was paid 
for some letters and a note book. We quote from the Spring- 
field, (Mass.) Eepublican : "The letter Lincoln wrote in 1836 
to Mrs. O. H. Browning, telling her that Mary Owens had re- 
jected his offer of marriage, sold at auction in New York for 
$1,250. That was a record price for a Lincoln letter until 
the letter that Lincoln, as president, wrote to General Grant 
eight days before he was murdered, was offered to the collec- 
tors. Then some one bid $1,375 and got it. The few people 
here and there who happen to own first editions of Herndon's 
Life of Lincoln are much interested to see the price of it 
bound up. Two or three years ago it was selling for less 
than $50. At New York recently it was sold for $210. A few 

1 Collection of the late Major Wm. H. Lambert of Philadelphia. 



61 

years hence this edition of Herndon may make one comfort- 
ably rich. ' ' 

Five medals have been coined commemorative of some era 
in Lincoln's history. The first one was made for the cam- 
paign of 1860. The obverse side contained a relief bust of 
Lincoln as he looked at that time and the reverse repre- 
sented him in the act of chopping a log of wood. The second 
one was a commemorative token of the Civil War, of which 
few were struck and they have become very scarce. The third 
was the memorial medal which was distributed in limited num- 
ber in the various towns through which the funeral train 
passed on its way to Springfield. In the center of the obverse 
side was shown a funeral urn nearly hidden by a weeping 
willow and around the edge the words, "A sigh the absent 
claim, the dead a tear. ' ' The fourth was cast in 1908 and the 
fifth in 1909 to commemorate the one hundredth anniversary 
of his birth. The design of the last is very pleasing. The 
front is very simple, showing only a relief bust and the dates, 
1809-1865, but the reverse has upon it this high and just esti- 
mate of his character : ' * By his high courage, his statesman- 
ship and his supreme qualities as a leader, and not less by his 
charity, his tenderness and his magnanimity, Abraham Lin- 
coln belongs to the ages, and will ever stand among the world's 
best and greatest men. ' ' 2 

1 find but few higher educational institutions bearing Lin- 
coln's name and none of these prominent. The only one of 
importance and which was evidently named in his honor, is 
Lincoln Memorial University, located at Cumberland Gap, 
Tennessee, which was founded in 1897 and is co-educational 
and non-sectarian. 

At a meeting of the Minnesota Academy of Science early in 
1909 resolutions were passed declaring that there seems to be 
room and opportunity to connect the name of Lincoln in a line 
of science in which he was a prominent actor, as by signing 
and approving the act of Congress in 1861 establishing the 
schools known as Colleges of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, 

2 Roire Centenary Medal. 



62 

.and which have since been called National Schools of Science, 
that it is the opinion of the Minnesota Academy that the name 
Lincoln ought to be applied to these schools by Congress and 
that all literature and all researches from such schools that 
may hereafter be published ought to be known as the products 
of the Lincoln Schools of Science. The resolutions add that 
the honor would be uncostly but more influential and more 
durable in the perpetuation of his memory than the expendi- 
ture of large sums of money in material monuments. 

Raymond Biordon in the Craftsman proposed a national 
Lincoln memorial school to commemorate the centenary of 
Lincoln's birth. His plan contemplated the purchase of 160 
acres of land near Washington and a boy and young man from 
each State sent to obtain his education. He would have the 
pupils build the needed buildings, living in the mean time in 
army tents. The first building should be of logs and each 
succeeding should show the growth of the nation in building 
material. The whole scheme seems to be somewhat visionary 
and as far as I am able to learn neither this nor the suggestion 
of the Academy of Science has been carried into effect. 

The list of Lincoln statues that I present is far from com- 
plete and it would be necessary to have access to the books of 
a library much larger than that of Los Angeles and to have 
much more time at one's command than I have been able to 
devote to the work to make a satisfactory showing, but this 
number will, I fear, tax your patience. I do not mention them 
in strictly chronological order. 

One of the first statues of Lincoln was made by Miss Vinnie 
Ream now Mrs. Hoxie when a very young girl. She re- 
ceived the commission from Congress and the figure stands 
in the rotunda of the capitol, it being completed when the 
sculptor was only twenty-one years of age. Lorado Taft while 
criticising the work severely and calling attention to the ridic- 
ulousness of consigning so important a work to a young girl 
with only one year's study, has to admit that the artist caught 
Mr. Lincoln's habitual pose to a remarkable degree. 



63 

Henry Kirke Brown was the sculptor of the statue of Lin- 
coln that stands in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, and of the one in 
Union Square, New York, both erected by the State. 

I found mention of a statue by W. 0. Partridge, but after 
extensive reading of articles upon Mr. Partridge's work, I 
found a picture of a bust of Lincoln, but no remark in regard 
to it, so that it is evident that his other productions far over- 
shadow this one. 

Leonard Volk exhibited a bust of President Lincoln in Paris 
in 1867 and later placed statues of Lincoln and Douglas in the 
Illinois State House, which were executed from life studies. 3 

Daniel Chester French was the sculptor of a statue made 
for Lincoln, Nebraska. It is a standing figure with head 
bowed and hands clasped before him as if in deep meditation. 

Wm. E. 'Donovan and Thos. Eakins were given commis- 
sions by the State of New York in 1891 to model equestrian 
statues of Lincoln and Grant in bas relief to serve as panels 
in the Brooklyn memorial arch. The artists entered on the 
work with enthusiasm. The results were very satisfactory. 
A writer says Lincoln sits with head bare, holding a queer tall 
hat in one hand as if saluting the regiments of soldiers as they 
pass by. His horse stands restive, champing the bit, with 
head turned as if eager to be off. 

A seated statue of Lincoln by Gutson Borglum stands in 
front of the Essex County Court House at Newark, New Jer- 
sey, which was erected by the Lincoln Post, G. A. E., of 
Newark and through a bequest of Mr. Amos H. Van Horn. 
It is called very good. 

At Hodgenville, Kentucky, the town two miles from Lin- 
coln's birthplace, is a statue designed by Mr. Adolph Wein- 
mann and facing the court house. It is a seated figure and 
has been praised as the best portrait of Lincoln in bronze. 

But the statue that is the pride of the city in which it is 
placed and the delight of every beholder is the statue of Lin- 
coln by St. Gaudens, which stands in Lincoln Park, Chicago. 

3 These statues are plaster, but a marble statue of Stephen A. Douglas by 
Leonard Volk is in the Illinois State Historical Library in the Capitol 
Building. 



64 

Lorado Taft says of it: "When in 1887 Mr. St. Gaudens' 
Lincoln was unveiled it was hailed as the greatest portrait 
statue in the United States. It has remained so. From its 
exalted conception of the man to the last detail of its simple 
accessories it is a masterpiece. The sculptor introduces the 
striking adjunct of an arm chair from which the president is 
supposed to have risen. Before it stands the gaunt figure lost 
in thought or preparing to address a multitude. The left foot 
is well advanced ; the left hand grasps the lapel of his coat in 
a familiar gesture. But it is the expression of that strange al- 
most grotesquely plain yet beautiful face crowned with tum- 
bled locks, which arrests attention and holds the gaze. In it 
is revealed the massive but many-sided personality of Lin- 
coln with a concreteness and a serene adequacy which has dis- 
credited all other attempts. ... It has been St. Gaud- 
ens' rare talent to give life without realism for even the 
gnarled form has a grace all its own the * inward grace', 
"which a profound master has apprehended and made 
visible. ' ' 

He continues : * ' The value of so high an example of monu- 
mental art can hardly be overestimated. Strange, is it not, 
that this quiet figure which lifts not a hand nor even looks at 
you, should have within it power to thrill which is denied 
the most dramatic works planned expressly for emotional 
appeal ! ' 

Passing from statues to monuments, the first one that claims 
our attention is the one erected to mark the birthplace of Lin- 
coln. The place is a sparse old farm two and a half miles 
from Hodgenville, Kentucky, and it was the spring of clear 
water that attracted the attention of Thomas Lincoln and his 
wife, Nancy Hanks Lincoln, who were wandering about in 
search of a home sometime early in 1800. After Lincoln's 
death the farm was sold for taxes and the log cabin made of 
hewed logs, slabs and plank by Thomas Lincoln was sold to 
speculators, who carried it about the country for exhibition. 
Mr. Robert Collier learned these facts and he purchased the 
cabin and bought the farm August 28, 1905, just in time to 



65 

save it from speculators. An association was formed, called 
the Lincoln Farm Association, and branches were established 
in every State. Small subscriptions were solicited from the 
multitude and $383,000 was received from more than 270,000 
persons. President Roosevelt laid the cornerstone February 
12, 1909, on the one hundredth anniversary of Lincoln's birth. 
The statue by Weinmann in the village was unveiled the same 
day, Mrs. Helm, the only surviving sister of Mrs. Lincoln, 
pulling the silken cords that parted the flags. 

The completed building was dedicated on November 9th, 
1911, by President Taft in the presence of 10,000 American 
citizens. Within the building is placed the precious old log 
cabin restored as far as possible to its original form. Here 
it will remain, we trust, for many future generations to see. 
The memorial stands at the head of a long broad flight of 
granite steps that lead up from the old spring. The speakers' 
stand was beside the spring and among the speakers were 
General John C. Black, former commander-in-chief of G. A. E., 
who spoke for the soldiers of the North, and General John B. 
Castleman of Kentucky, who spoke in behalf of the soldiers 
of the South. 

Treasurer Mackay in presenting the memorial to President 
Taft on behalf of the government, said: "It is the gift of 
both the affluent and the lowly. It has come from a gift of 
$25,000 from one and from many thousands like the good 
woman who sent me eighty cents for herself and seven chil- 
dren, and two miners who from their Alaskan diggins sent me 
ten dollars in gold dust. ' ' 4 

In this connection it is interesting to know that the Legisla- 
ture of Illinois passed a bill asking the State Historical So- 
ciety to mark the Lincoln Way, which will be from the birth- 
place in Kentucky to Indiana and to Old Salem, Illinois, and 
then to Springfield. The tracing of the way is nearly com- 
pleted, and the placing of the markers will be commenced in 
the near future. 



4 A statue of Lincoln in the capitol at Frankfort, Kentucky, was dedi- 
cated by President Taft, November 8, 1911. 



66 

The Lincoln monument at Springfield, Illinois, indicates the 
last resting place of his ashes and the concensus of opinion 
seems to be that it is eminently worthy. It was designed by 
Mr. Larkin G. Mead. The total cost was $215,000. The base 
of the monument is 72y 2 feet from east to west and 119 1 / 4 feet 
from north to south. In the north end is the tomb. As you 
enter the door you face six crypts, arranged side by side, where 
the remains of the Lincoln family, with one exception, rest. 

Lincoln's body lies in a lead coffin on the end of which is a 
wreath and in a semi-circle his immortal words, "With malice 
towards none, with charity for all. ' ' In the south end is Mem- 
orial Hall, which contains various relics. Four flights of 
stairs lead from the ground to the terrace and on this as a 
base is constructed a pedestal which supports the monument, 
four groups of war statuary and the statue of Lincoln. As- 
cending the stairs to the terrace one finds a wide walk run- 
ning around the stone tower and the first thing that catches 
the eye is a line of forty ashlars, each in the form of a shield, 
reaching around the second section of the base. It suggests 
the union of States and on each of thirty-seven ashlars is the 
name of a State, beginning with Virginia and the colonies, fol- 
lowed by Vermont, the first state admitted, and the others in 
their order, ending with Nebraska. Three ashlars are vacant, 
but it has been suggested that U. S. A. be placed on them, 
which may be done in time. 

The statue of President Lincoln stands on a pedestal, which 
is thirty-five feet from the ground. The statue itself is 10 
feet 9y 2 inches high. In the left hand he holds the Emancipa- 
tion Proclamation and in the right the pen, the arm resting on 
a table covered with the stars and stripes. On the right is the 
infantry group of statuary and on the left the cavalry. The 
artillery group is in the rear of the infantry, and the naval 
group in the rear of the cavalry. From the center rises a 
plain shaft of marble, one hundred and twenty-five feet from 
the ground. 

The observance of the Lincoln centenary brought to the 
notice of the people of the United States the fact that as a 
nation no memorial had been erected to his memorv. The 



67 

leading newspapers commented on it, saying that sufficient 
time had elapsed for all sections of the country to unite in 
this honor. A bill was introduced into Congress that a com- 
mittee be appointed to consider the matter and to recommend 
some suitable memorial and two millions of dollars was the 
sum spoken of as available for the purpose. Senator Cullom 
of Illinois was made the chairman of the committee and he 
called to his aid artists and architects of world-wide fame. 

To state the facts briefly, there were two plans earnestly 
advocated; the one, that the memorial should take the form 
of a building situated in Washington and thereby adding to 
the beauty and attractiveness of the city. The other that the 
memorial should consist of a beautiful highway to be called 
the Lincoln Highway, extending from Washington to Gettys- 
burg, and that it should rival the famous Roman road built 
by Appius Claudius, 300 B. C., and still in use. The cost of 
such a highway was estimated at $3,000,000. 

Each plan had its firm advocates and in July 1913 Congress 
settled the matter by accepting, by an overwhelming vote, the 
plans for a splendidly simple and massive Greek temple to be 
erected on the Mall. The designer is Mr. Henry Bacon of 
New York, and in his report he says : 

"I propose that the memorial to Lincoln take the form of a 
monument symbolizing the union of the United States of 
America, enclosing in the walls of its sanctuary three mem- 
orials to the man himself one a statue of heroic size express- 
ing his humane personality, the others memorials of his two 
great speeches, one the Gettysburg speech, the other the sec- 
ond inaugural address, each with attendant sculpture and 
painting telling in allegory his splendid qualities evident in 
those speeches. The statue will occupy the place of honor, a 
position facing the entrance which opens towards the capitol." 

It is impossible to go into further details as to this proposed 
beautiful memorial except to say that the thirteen original 
States are to be represented by thirteen steps leading up to 
the Greek colonade of thirty-six columns, symbolizing the 
States at the death of Lincoln, and at the top of the wall is a 



68 

decoration supported at intervals by eagles of forty-eight 
festoons, one for each State of the Union today. 

John Hay has said, ' 'Lincoln of all Americans next to Wash- 
ington, deserves the place of honor. He was of the immortals. 
You must not approach too close to the immortals. His mon- 
ument should stand alone, remote from the common habita- 
tions of man, apart from the business and turmoil of the city,, 
isolated, distinguished and serene," and as if carrying out 
these words, the monument will stand on the banks of the 
Potomac as the site best suited for the purpose. From the 
west front of the capitol one will get a vista of the nation's 
memorials to Grant, Washington and Lincoln, while beyond 
all these will be seen the splendid memorial bridge just author- 
ized by Congress. 

While Congress rejected the Lincoln highway, it is quite 
possible that before the Panama Exposition opens a Lincoln 
highway, extending across the continent from ocean to ocean^ 
will be an accomplished fact. This is the plan of the Lincoln 
Highway Association with headquarters at Detroit, Michigan. 
The association proposes to build a continuous improved high- 
way especially for the use of automobiles, but it will be open to 
all lawful traffic; there will be no toll charges and wherever 
practicable will have a concrete surface. The estimated cost is 
placed at $10,000,000 ; $3,000,000 is already in hand by private 
subscription and it is the purpose of the association to build 
the road by popular subscription, although State roads will be 
made use of wherever possible. New York City is being con- 
sidered as the Atlantic end terminus. The Outlook says, "It 
is greatly to the credit of automobile and allied industries 
that this project has been formed and seems so likely of ac- 
complishment. ' ' 

And lastly from Chicago on January 12, 1914, comes this- 
message : 

Some historical students of Illinois announced today that 
they would place a big boulder memorial to mark the place 
where Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis are said to have 



69 

first met. The site for the monument is seventy-five miles 
west of Chicago, on Kishwaukee Creek, in DeKalb County. 
*There, in 1832, the future president of the United States 
and the future president of the Confederate States of Amer- 
ica, it is claimed, first saw each other. As soldiers they had 
gone to that point to assist in ending the Black Hawk massa- 
cres. Lincoln was a youth of 23 and was captain of a com- 
pany of militia. Davis, one year his senior, was a lieutenant 
just out of West Point. Incidentally, among those present at 
the meeting were Generally Zachary Taylor, later also a 
president of the United States, and Major Robert Anderson, 
who was commander at Fort Sumter at the beginning of the 
Civil War. 

*The place of meeting of Lincoln and Davis is usually given as Dixon's 
Ferry. It has been claimed that Jefferson Davis was the United States army 
officer who administered the oath to Mr. Lincoln, mustering him into the 
service of the United States. This has been denied by Mr. Frank E. Stevens, 
who has made a careful study of the subject. 



70 



Soldiers of The American Revolution Buried 

in Illinois 



LIST COMPILED BY MBS. E. S. WALKEK. 
KNOX COUNTY. 

ASHAEL GILBERT was a native of Connecticut, born in Hebron 
May 6, 1760. He enlisted May 1, 1778, serving as a trumpeter 
in Captain Seymour's company, Second Light Brigade, with 
Colonel Elijah Sheldon. He was discharged in 1780. Ashael 
Gilbert came to Illinois in 1847, and resided in Galesburg, 
where he died November 23, 1852. His grave is marked. 

ABRAHAM HAPTONSTALL was born April 6, 1761, in Orange 
County, New York. He enlisted first under Captain Thomas 
Moffatt for three months in 1775. In 1776 he served under 
Captain Seth Marvin for three months ; he again enlisted for 
nine months under Captain Moffatt, and again served for six 
months under Captain Francis Smith. He applied for a pen- 
sion while residing in Gallia County, Ohio, in 1831 ; removing 
to Illinois, he settled in Knox County, where he died February 
14, 1858. He lies buried near Hermon in a private burying 
ground. 

JOSEPH LATIMER was a member of a most remarkable family. 
His father, Colonel Jonathan Latimer served in the war and 
his twelve sons each served in turn under the father's com- 
mand. This record of service can not be duplicated in the his- 
tory of the American Revolution. Joseph Latimer was born 
in New London, Connecticut. He served as captain, being 
commissioned July 6, 1775, was discharged in December the 
same year. He came to Illinois, settling in Knox County in 
1826, where he died August 18, 1846, in Cherry Grove. 



71 

GEORGE SORNBERGER was a native of New York, where he was 
born in 1759. He served under Colonel Roswell Hopkins in 
the Duchess County Militia. He came to Illinois in 1838, 
settling in Victoria, Knox County, where he died September 
27, 1841. His wife and several children came with him to 
Illinois. 

JOHN STRANGE was born in Westchester County, New York. 
He enlisted in the Westchester County Militia, serving under 
Colonel Pierre Van Courtland. After the war closed he came 
to Illinois to reside, settling in Knox County, where he is 
buried. He received a pension for service in the war. He 
lived to be a very aged man, past 90 years of age. 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 

EZRA BOSTICK or BOSTWICK was born in Queen Anne County, 
Maryland, in 1753. He enlisted under Captain Patrick Began, 
North Carolina troops, October 15, 1780, serving under differ- 
ent officers until the close of the war. He came to Illinois, 
settled in Montgomery County in 1818, in the Bostick settle- 
ment, not far from the present village of Irving. He lies 
buried in the little grave-yard not far from the village of 
Irving. 

HENRY BRIANCE was a native of North Carolina, where he 
entered the service in 1777, serving under Colonel Wade 
Hampton, General Thomas Sumter and General Francis Mar- 
ion. He was engaged in the battles of Eutaw Springs, Fri- 
days Fort, Thompson's Fort, Monk's Corner and Monroe Old 
Field. He came to Illinois and resided in Montgomery Coun- 
ty, where he died August 19, 1833. 

THOMAS BRECKMAN was born in Albemarle County, Virginia. 
He entered the service early in 1776, under Captain John 
Marks, Col. Charles Lewis' Regiment, in General Nathaniel 
Greene 's division of the army, serving for three years ; he also 
served under Captain Archibald Moon, was in the battles of 
Brandywine, Germantown, Stony Point, and other smaller en- 
gagements. He came to Illinois, residing in Montgomery 
County, where he was buried in a little grave-yard which is 
now a pasture owned by Joseph Spinner. He died about 



72 

1838. The grave of Thomas Breckman is one of many un- 
marked almost unknown in the history of our country. 
Truly they lie " Beneath the roots of tangled weeds," in so 
many of our country grave-yards. 

JOHN CEABTREE was born in Randolph County, North Caro- 
lina, May 3, 1763. He entered the service in 1780 under Cap- 
tain Edward Williams ; he again enlisted under Captain John 
Knight. Coming to Illinois, he settled in Montgomery Coun- 
ty in what was known as the "Street Settlement," about four 
miles from Hillsboro. He was among the early settlers, and 
lies buried in the family grave-yard not far from the old home- 
stead. 

THOMAS CKAIG was born in Granville County, North Caro- 
lina, October, 1762. He enlisted in 1781, serving in Captain 
Smith's Company, Colonel McKissick's Regiment. He re-en- 
listed in Lincoln County, in the Indian spy service, serving 
under Captain Brown Stimson and Captain John Sevier. He 
came to Illinois, settling in Montgomery County, East Fork 
township. The place of his burial is not known. 

BENJAMIN GORDON was born in Newberry County, South 
Carolina, August 30, 1763. He enlisted in 1780 under Gen- 
eral Thomas Sumter, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. 
After the battle of Guilford Court House, he was sent as wag- 
oner, with the wounded to General Nathaniel Greene's army. 
Later he served as a mountaineer ranger under General Clark 
of Georgia. He was discharged in 1783. He came to Mont- 
gomery County, Illinois, to reside, living in the Hurricane 
settlement. He received a pension for his services. The 
place of his burial is unknown. 

WOOTEN HARRIS was a native of Virginia, where he enlisted 
in Captain Elliot's Company of Militia, Brunswick County, in 
1777, serving ninety days; he again enlisted under Captain 
William Peterson, Colonel Harrison's Regiment. He served 
till the close of the war. Coming to Illinois, he settled in 
Montgomery County in the Hurricane settlement. He died in 
1837 and was buried in the Scribner burying ground, Fillmore 



73 

township ; but several years ago his remains were removed to 
the Pillmore grave-yard, where they now repose. He was 
pensioned. 

JOHN LIGET was a native of Virginia, but entered the serv- 
ice under Captain John Reese in 1776; was transferred to 
Captain Plunkett's Company, Fourth Regiment, Light Dra- 
goons of Pennsylvania line of troops. He was taken prisoner 
in 1778, but soon escaped and rejoined the army under Wash- 
ington, serving until the close of the war. He was in the 
battles of White Plains, Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Ger- 
mantown and other smaller engagements. Truly a valiant 
soldier! He came to Montgomery County, settling in the 
Bo stick settlement. The place of his burial is not known. 

HARRIS REVIS was born in Northampton County, North Caro- 
lina, in 1750. He enlisted under Sergeant Langham, Salis- 
bury, Rowan County, North Carolina, in 1780. He was sta- 
tioned at the Magazine, where he remained till the close of the 
war. He came to Illinois with his brother Henry, who is bur- 
ied in Madison County. Harris Revis settled in Montgomery 
County, was a commissioner of this county during its early 
history. He died in 1837 near his home and was buried in 
the Wright grave-yard. 

JAMES RICHARDSON was born in Middlesex County, Virginia, 
August 25, 1757. He entered the service under Captain 
Lemuel Smith, Colonel Peter Perkins' Regiment, Virginia 
troops, August, 1780. He also served under Captain Miner 
Smith, General Rutherford's command. He was in the battles 
of Brick House and Georgetown. Coming to Illinois, he set- 
tled in Montgomery County, and died in Hillsboro. 



74 



Some Information in Regard to the Statue of 
Stephen A. Douglas Leonard Volk, Sculptor. 



BY R. C. SMITH, Jacksonville, 111. 

In the year 1858 I was sent to Chicago to learn the marble 
cutter's trade and made my home withMr. A.Melick, one of the 
partners of the firm of Sehuneman & Melick. Mr. Leonard W. 
Volk, the gifted sculptor, was a frequent visitor in the home 
of both the partners and I had many opportunities of meeting 
and studying him. I remember Mr. Volk as a refined gentle- 
man, with a natural dignity in both speech and action. What 
I saw of him impressed me that to be an artist one must be 
cast in a finer mold than that of common humanity. 

Albannus Melick, a friend of my youth, was employed in 
the studio of Mr. Volk, and he invited me to visit it, where I 
saw the clay model of the first piece of sculpture representing 
Mr. Lincoln, and I believe that of the many busts and statues 
I have seen, I have not seen its equal. While in Florence, 
Italy, I visited several times the studio of Larkin G. Mead, 
the sculptor of the work on the Lincoln monument, and I said 
to him that I thought Mr. Volk's bust was the most correct 
likeness of the original that had been made. I saw by the play 
of his features that I had said that which had caused a slight 
"unpleasantness," and to relieve the embarrassment I said 
that I supposed the reason was Mr. Volk had life to work f rom, 
which no other sculptor had. 

In Mr. Volk's studio at the time I visited it was the plaster 
statue of Stephen A. Douglas that was to be cut in marble for 
Governor Mattison. Shortly afterwards a splendid block of 
statuary marble from the Rutland, Vermont, marble quarries,. 



75 

said to have been at that time the best or finest block of 
marble that these great quarries had produced, was placed 
in a shed into which was a window near where I worked, 
and every hour I watched the work which was being done 
by an excellent marble cutter named Joseph Ashford who, 
to gratify my wishes, permitted me to cut on the rough 
parts. After some six months work by Ashford, Mr. 
Volk did the finishing and I shall always remember the 
skilled way he handled the tools, which showed that he 
had spent years as a tomb-stone cutter. The statue took 
on beauty with every blow of his hammer and taught me 
the power of genius. Especially did I admire his work on 
that noble head. 

This statue when finished was indeed a noble work and 
right worthy a place in the nation's art gallery if ever there 
is one. And it is well worthy of a visit of art lovers and 
friends of the great original in the hall of the Illinois Histor- 
ical Society, in the State Capitol Building, where it now is. 



76 



Summerfield School: Pioneer 
Grafton Road, Madison County, Illinois 



G. FRANK LONG. 

School District No. 3, Township 6 N. Range 10 W. in Madi- 
son County, Illinois, originally comprised the two southern 
tiers of sections in what is now known as Godfrey. 

When Major George W. Long located on Section 33 in 1839, 
Ms farm, which he called Summerfield, was about the center 
of the district in either direction. He found a few of the 
settlers in the extreme western part maintaining a school 
when it was convenient in a log cabin, without floor and with 
blocks sawed from trees for desks and seats. Anybody, 
settler or transient, who deemed himself capable of teaching 
reading and arithmetic, could put in his spare time as teacher 
&nd a collection would be taken up in the neighborhood to pay 
for such service. This cabin was on the farm of Mr. Moses 
B. Walker. Immediate steps were taken for local improve- 
ment. Major Long gave a beautiful black oak grove, one 
square acre in area, for the site and it retained the name of 
Ms farm, Summerfield. 

With Mr. D. A. Spaulding, Squire Harry Spaulding 
and Mr. Moses B. Walker, earlier residents of the district, 
Mr. Long contributed and the four paid the construction fund, 
;and a better school building was assured. 

The front half of the building shown by our photograph 
(about 18x22 feet) was considered sufficient and was com- 
pleted about 1844 or '45. The dimension timbers were hewed 
from trees growing on the site, the rafters and weather-board- 
ing also; they were whip-sawed; the lath were split and the 
shingles shaved by Squire Spaulding and Mr. Walker. At this 
time Mr. D. A. Spaulding was employed as a United States 
surveyor at Washington, D. C., but his family resided in this 




SUMMERFIELD SCHOOL, ON GRAPTON ROAD, NEAR ALTON, ILL. 



77 

district. The building was erected by Mr. John Pattison of 
Godfrey, aided by a carpenter named Jackson, said to be a first 
cousin of General Andrew Jackson. The windows and doors 
were of up to date material. The first desks, pine, extended the- 
full length of the room, two on either side of the entrance, with 
pine benches the same length. The space between the front 
desks from door to the back end of the room was occupied by 
the stove and the teacher. 

The first teacher, Mr. Foster, was well educated but out of 
place. He could not satisfy the patrons. The next teacher r 
Miss Virginia Corbett of Jerseyville and Monticello Seminary, 
taught two years satisfactorily and boarded with Mr. D. A.. 
Spaulding's family. Miss Lucy Larcom, the poet of Beverly,. 
Massachusetts, came next, and she was very popular in the 
community. Her last term was in 1849. Then it was found 
that the building could not accommodate all children of 
school age, and immediate addition was made extending the 
room about twenty-two feet, and as it appears in our picture^ 
But the belfry and flag-staff were adopted years later. 

Miss Emeline Young, later Mrs. Johnson, writer and poli- 
tician of Cherry Vale, California, succeeded Miss Larcom; 
then followed Professor Olds, who was a very belligerent in- 
dividual. Miss Sarah L. Colby, a prominent teacher from 
Hopkinton, New Hampshire, Miss Mary Meldrum, Miss Flora 
Copley, Miss Lucy Foote, all of Godfrey or Alton. Amon^ 
the men teachers were Captain John Pettingill, Stephen 
Lowell and Henry Winters, all of Portland, Maine. Captain: 
Samuel Clark (Civil War), New Hampshire, B. F. Webster, an. 
Amherst graduate, Captain John Cook (Civil War), Ohio, 
Mrs. Anna Brittain, superintendent Buffalo Schools, New 
York, and Miss Carolyn McCarthy, late principal of Washing- 
ton School, Granite City, Illinois, and who was undoubtedly 
the most successful of all of Summerfield's teachers. 

The writer, who was carried to school by Miss Larcom when 
he was four years old, was under the instruction of all but the 
first two named until the Civil War, and subsequently was em- 
ployed as teacher in the old school about seven years, being 
the first Normal student employed. 



78 

This grand old school district sent fifty patriotic young men 
to the Civil and Spanish wars, has sent its men and women 
into almost every state and territory of the United States and 
some foreign countries professional and vocational represen- 
tatives. This building supplied the want of a church in the 
community. It represented the place of intense discussion 
pro and anti-slavery, emancipation, Fifteenth Amendment, 
and the Illinois laws for the education of the colored race. 

It has furnished audiences to Lyman Trumbull, William E. 
Morrison, Hon. Joseph Gillespie and Judge Hal Baker, as 
well as a great many aspirants to our Legislature and candi- 
dates for State and county offices. 

The immediate region consists of a series of beautiful minia- 
ture parks, bordered on the south by the Mississippi bluffs 
and on three sides by ridges and rolling highlands. Each one 
of these parks includes numerous farms. Years ago it was 
known as the finest orchard region of Illinois.lt is now given 
chiefly to gardening and small fruits. It is a most delightful 
region. 

General and Mrs. John M. Palmer were the guests of the 
writer's family at their Graf ton road home in 1892. General 
Palmer was thoroughly conversant with the hills and valleys 
over which in the omnipresent past he had participated in 
many a deer hunt. He deplored the disappearance of old 
forests and friends, and rejoiced that the old familiar school 
house was still in use. 

The Summerfield school house was in constant service from 
September 1, 1845, (or possibly the year before) until May 12, 
1912, when its door was closed for the end. 

The first patrons were early settlers and squatters, the 
latter often called the forerunners of civilization. In a very 
few years an intelligent and industrious American community 
developed and lasted until about 1866 when an immigrant 
movement from Europe substituted what had been. Today its 
population is largely of foreign patronage, the children of the 
pioneers having found new homes. We deemed this old build- 
ing historic and a fitting memorial to the pioneers who founded 



79 

it. We suggested a neighborhood library club hall for public 
meetings without avail. Every pupil who had attended the 
school wanted it saved, but the newcomers and transients did 
not "feel that sentiment about it; ""it is a disgrace to the new, 
modern structure which will take its place." And so it was 
sold at auction for $25.00, torn down and removed to be con- 
structed into a corn crib a species of vandalism and an evi- 
dence of public indifference. This is all we can say of it. 
Historic value is not measured in dollars and cents, and it is 
a loss to the old neighborhood and to the many men and women 
who as boys and girls had studied under its roof. 

We have no record of Mr. Moses B. Walker's settlement 
on Grafton road, but it was probably the first in the vicinity. 

D. A. Spaulding, native of Vermont; United States sur- 
veyor ; located in Madison County, 1818. 

Harry Spaulding, brother of above, with his parents, jus- 
tice of the peace ; located on an adjoining farm. 

Major George W. Long, native of Hopkinton, New Hamp- 
shire; son of Moses Long, one of General Washington's sol- 
diers in the Revolution ; graduated at West Point ; located im 
Madison County, 1829; Grafton road, 1839. 

The above are the original builders and founders of Sum- 
merfield school, which became public school property by deed. 
Dr. Benjamin F. Long, the father of the writer of this article, 
brother of G. W. Long, located in Madison County, 1831 ; grad- 
uate of Dartmouth Medical College; moved to Grafton Road 
soon after his brother. He became eminent in State horticul- 
ture ; was a founder and first president of Illinois Fire Insur- 
ance Company, which place he filled twenty-five years. He also 
practiced medicine in Upper Alton until 1846. 

Chas. Howard ; nativity, Virginia ; one of Alton 's first may- 
ors , was an early settler on Grafton road. 

Colonel S. H. Long, United States Infantry engineer, for 
whom Long's Peak was named, attended the school. 

Deacon Enoch Long, Love joy defender, and Ed. Treble 
Long, all brothers of G. W. Long, were early settlers at Upper 
Alton, Illinois. 



REPRINTS 



83 



BLUFFDALE 

FBOM THE ILLINOIS MONTHLY MAGAZINE, FEBRUARY, 1832. 
VOLUME II. NUMBER XVI. PAGES 207-211. 



"Ever charming, ever new, 
When will the prairie tire my view? 
Or craggy bluff so wild and high, 
Rudely rushing on the sky?" 



The settlement of Bluffdale, in Greene County, Illinois, pre- 
sents, more than any other place I have yet seen, a union of all 
that is peculiar and striking in the Western landscape. A de- 
scription of its scenery has appeared in some of our papers, 
but it would not be improper to give, in your interesting work, 
additional sketches of that interesting spot. 

Almost hanging over the houses of this little settlement are 
the bluffs, in many places a solid perpendicular wall of calcar- 
eous rock, rising to the height of two hundred feet. Immediate- 
ly back of this wall, and not infrequently commencing at its 
very edge, rises a chain of hills, in the shape of cones, from one 
to two hundred feet still higher. The bluffs are occasionally 
broken by ravines which afford an easy ascent to the high- 
lands. In the warm season of the year, these beautiful cones 
are covered to their summits with the richest verdure, pre- 
senting a fine relief to the sterile brownness of the cliffs below. 

From the bluffs, but more especially from the hills behind 
them, the prospect is beautiful, beyond the powers of the most 
vivid imagination to picture. Standing at an elevation of three 
or four hundred feet above the surrounding country, the eye 
ranges over an almost boundless prospect. The immense 
prairie on the west, without a single tree, or even shrub, to 
intercept the view level as a floor covered with luxuriant 
grass, intermingled with flowers of every hue; the Illinois 



84 

River winding for miles along its western border, and ap- 
pearing in the distance no wider than a ribbon ; the blue hills 
beyond, almost faded into the haze of distance ; the lakes, upon 
whose transparent bosom thousands of every variety of water 
fowl are sporting in all the happiness of fearless nature ; the 
innumerable cattle sprinkled over this rich pasture, far as the 
eye can see, and generally disposed in groups all this pre- 
sents a tout ensemble which the most careless observer cannot 
see with indifference. 

The plantations of this settlement commence at the very foot 
of the bluffs and skirt the prairie. So small are they in com- 
parison with the wide unreclaimed tract that stretches beyond 
them, that the primeval solitude of nature seems scarcely in- 
terrupted. From the heights, herds of deer are often seen 
peacefully grazing with the domestic cattle that have intruded 
on their domain. Large springs of the purest water gush 
from the rocks and wind along the prairie till they become 
absorbed in the loamy soil. It hardly requires the aid of a 
"poetical temperament" to fancy, while the moon is beaming 
in her brightness on their meandering stream, that some 
gentle Naiad, from the classic vale of Tempe presides over 
these silent fountains. 

In the early settlement of that place, many, who esteemed 
themselves wise in such matters, predicted that Bluffdale 
would soon become the grave-yard of its settlers. Their pre- 
diction was grounded on very sage and very learned theories 
of ' ' Miasmata. ' ' A medical professor of much celebrity, who 
visited the spot, could discover nothing there to generate dis- 
ease, beyond what is found elsewhere. Unfortunately for 
these croakers, experience has fully demonstrated to all whom 
regret and envy do not render insensible to proof, that no part 
of the State is less subject to fatal disorders ; and the enormous 
advance of a thousand percent on the first cost, has been of- 
fered for some lands in Bluffdale. Such is the nature of the 
soil that rains, however copious, are quickly absorbed ; conse- 
quently the roads are always free from mud, and the prairies 
from putrescent waters. Nothing can be more pure and limpid 



85 

than the cold springs that gush from the bluffs. The rank 
vegetation is never suffered to undergo decomposition, and 
load the air with disease. The grass has hardly ceased to 
vegetate, before it is consumed by the devouring flames. Miles 
of prairie are seen on fire at once, and, especially when viewed 
from the heights, forcibly calls to mind the conflagration of 
all things. 

On the highest of the bluffs, and on the cones beyond, which 
resemble the common Indian mounds in every thing but their 
immense size, are the graves of a race who once peopled this 
interesting spot, but whose very name has ages since gone to 
oblivion. The coffins are about three feet in length, com- 
posed of flat stones. Once the human forms that quietly re- 
pose in these rude sepulchres, were animated their hearts 
beat high with joy and hope. How little did they dream while 
dancing by moonlight on the smooth grass, or listening to tales 
of war and love, under the shade of the oaks that spread their 
giant arms over the pebbly springs, that the smoke of their 
wigwams would cease to curl around the craggy bluffs the 
white man occupy their lovely retreat his cattle low on the 
prairie where they were wont to chase the buffalo and the 
deer and their deeds of renown be forgotten forever. 

At the foot of the same bluff is the grave-yard of the present 
inhabitants, where many tears have fallen. What a striking 
contrast, this stupendous wall of rock, coeval with the world, 
and scoffing at the flight of years, presents to the remains of 
man that moulder around it. 

There is a lonely, solitary grandeur, in the view from the 
bluffs that induces contemplation; and during a residence in 
that settlement, I frequently remarked the deep influence 
which the surrounding scenery exerted upon the tone of feel- 
ing of the inhabitants. Isolated by nature from the rest of 
the world, they rarely look for society beyond the walls that 
bound them ; and I found there, as much at least, of that touch- 
ing interest in each other's happiness, enjoined by Christian 
volume, as I have ever seen elsewhere. 



86 

Near the middle of the settlement, built by the joint labors of 
all, is their plain but commodious school house, where every 
child, old enough, is taught. A Sunday school has been taught 
there during the last seven years, and it was the happiness 
of the writer of this article to aid in conducting it the first 
season of its establishment. It was an interesting sight to see 
the groups of rosy little girls and boys, on a bright Sunday 
morning, pouring in from among the hills and from the prairie, 
dressed in their best attire, "clean as silver," their faces 
beaming with joy at the return of that happy day. Their par- 
ents often accompanied them and it was gratifying to observe 
the honest pride that sparkled in the eyes of the mothers on 
hearing the well-recited lessons of their children. The first 
time these scholars were presented with the reward books 
earned by study and good conduct, it was interesting to wit- 
ness the pleasure and thankfulness expressed in every look. 
They could hardly realize that they were so rich that the 
books were their "very own," as they expressed it; and they 
returned home with eager steps to show their treasures. These 
children were the offspring of parents who supported them- 
selves by labor, and to whom the value of a book was not trif- 
ling. Could some of our countrymen who have so liberally 
aided Sunday schools and Bible societies, have listened, as I 
have, while the superintendent was telling these scholars what 
benevolent men have done for them, and seen tears of grati- 
tude glistening in the eyes of sixty scholars, of a remote and 
secluded settlement, they would have felt paid for some share 
of their toils and donations. 

This settlement was commenced in the year 1821, when the 
land was first exposed to sale by the United States. Captain 
Gideon Spencer, an officer in the late war, is considered the 
patriarch and pioneer of that settlement. In 1820, accompan- 
ied by several others, he ascended the Illinois River, from 
Missouri, where he then resided and explored the country on 
both sides to a great distance. The place since called Bluff- 
dale received the preference. A few individuals resided there 
on the unsurveyed land, but the principal inhabitants were In- 



dians. Here was their Paradise ; game and fish were plenty ; 
and here,too, was freedom from care, ignorance of all the ills 
of wealth and ambition. Their houses were of an oval shape, 
covered with mats of tall prairie grass and were placed so as 
to form a half circle. They formed a village of about ninety 
houses. Soon after the sale of the land in 1821, they disap- 
peared, manifesting the deepest regret on leaving the spot on 
which they had been born, which was associated with so many 
tender recollections. 

Among the most beautiful farms of Bluffdale are those of 
Captain Spencer, selected by him before any purchase had 
been made, and of Mr. Rodgers. Infant vineyards and large 
orchards of every variety of fruit congenial with the climate, 
are now seen on those two farms, so recently in a state of na- 
ture. Much attention is paid to improvements in agriculture, 
and the silk worm has been extensively reared by one family 
for the last three years. 

From the richness of the soil, its springs, boundless pas- 
turage, its excellent quarries of building and fencing stone, 
and its proximity to the Illinois River, it must unavoidably 
become a place of wealth. It is distant from St. Louis about 
eighty miles by the river. Steamboats have arrived there al- 
most daily during the past season. A postoffice is established 
there, from which more than fifty newspapers and other per- 
iodicals are distributed weekly to the citizens of that little 
settlement. Among the number are six of your Illinois 
Monthly Magazine. 

I have seen no other place that united so many desirable 
qualities as Bluffdale. 

11 And I said if there's peace to be found in the world, 
The heart that is humble might hope for it here." 

Bluffdale. 



The Festival at Bluffdale 

TAKEN FROM THE WESTERN MONTHLY MAGAZINE, NOVEMBER 1834 
VOLUME II, PAGE 571 TO 577. 

1 ' Did you go to the Fourth of July ? ' ' 

"Why, yes; to be sure I did. Did not you?" 

"No; the description is all I want. So let me know all 
about it." 

' ' In the first place, there was the parade. ' ' 

"Was that grand?" 

"Splendid! Conceive of several thousand troops 'horse, 
foot and dragoons' besides artillery, rifle corps, and what 
not ; arms glittering, plumes waving, uniforms multiform, yet 
all handsome and symmetrical ; and those of each corps seem- 
ingly fabricated like wooden combs and wooden clocks, by 
machinery. And they moved by machinery, too ; first, all the 
left legs, then all the right; just as if a piston rod reached 
from one to the other and acted on each pair of legs, at the 
same time. 0! it was beautiful! And the music cymbals, 
timbrels, clarinets, flutes, hautboys, kettle-drums aye, and 
the very old serpent, roaring like a lion." 

' ' That was rather queer music, I should think. ' ' 

"Anything for a noise, you know, on the Fourth of July." 

"True; I had forgotten that. But, go on." 

"There were Majors A and B and C and D, and so on; and 
Colonels E, F. G. H. I. K, etc. ; and there were two brigadiers 
and the major-general with their aids all dressed in full uni- 
form, and superbly mounted; each trying which could equip 
the most elegantly. And they formed and dressed, and faced 
and marched and wheeled, and at last being all ready, General 
A took command in fine military style; and then they all 
marched off to the open ground on the commons. You can't 



89 

think what an appearance they made; only the dust was so 
thick you couldn't see them. The commons were surrounded 
with booths where all sorts of good things could be had for 
money. And there were roly-poly tables, wheels of fortune, 
and I don't know how many games and devices; men and 
women, and boys and girls were very busy among them, eat- 
ing, drinking and playing. But when the troops came, every- 
body turned to look at them; and there was scrambling, run- 
ning and scuffling and fighting and shouting and screaming 
to get a good place to see the manoeuvring. 0, it was lovely, 
I tell you!" 
" No doubt." 

"And then the troops marched up, and wheeled and faced 
and charged, and fired and then halted and executed the 
manual and all that, in fine style ; and at last after they had 
paraded about until they seemed ready to drop, they all at 
once they stretched out deployed, I think the general called 
it into lines and a long line it was, I assure you. And, when 
all was ready, there was a roaring of cannon and rattling of 
small arms to some purpose. I'll tell you how it was. The 
general ordered them to fire a triple f eu-de-joie ; and they 
began at one end of the line and let off one after another, clear 
to the other end, just as fast as the roll of a drum. It was 
fine!" 

"Very; for delicate ears and nerves." 

"Pretty soon the general made a short speech to them, 
which nobody heard only a few just around him, and then dis- 
missed them; when they marched off in regiments or com- 
panies, as they pleased, to the different places where they were 
to dine." 

"But had you no orations? Was it all marching and 
eating?" 

"0, yes! Orations enough. But they did not gain much 
attention. The people were too busy or tired to listen very 
attentively. But then came the lively time. The tables were 
loaded with dainties 



90 

1 'The soldier tired of war's alarms' 

or,. the fatigues of parade, at least, set to with keen relish; 
having whetted the appetite with divers bracers, and so forth ; 
ate and drank for the good of his country to the manifest in- 
jury of his purse, his health, his reason, and his morals. And 
it was not long before the patriotic fire burst forth in songs 
and jests and oaths, and disputes, and quarrels, and fights 
until most of the gardens or groves, where they happened to 
be enjoying their feast of love and reason, assumed quite the 
air of the battlefield; only each of the belligerents here, like 
the Yankee volunteer during the late war, was 'fighting on his 
own hook.' ' 

"Now this I should call rejoicing with a vengeance. But 
go on." 

"I have not much more to tell. Towards sundown you 
might have seen them gathering together such as were in tol- 
erable marching order the others were got home in carriages 
or carts, as it happened and making their way towards their 
several places of rendezvous. ' ' 

"Did they move like spinning jennies now?" 

"Bather reeling in their motions. The piston rod was 
broke. Too high pressure. ' ' 

************ 

Eeader, this is not a description of the festival at Bluffdale 
but it is what my eyes have seen, my ears heard and my heart 
felt; it is what all have seen. I will proceed to our festival. 

Some of us in C (Carrollton) had an invitation to attend 
the celebration of independence by the Bluffdale Temperance 
Society; and of course, those whose arrangements permitted 
chose to go. Accordingly as soon as the preliminaries were 
settled, the horse borrowed of one, the carriage of another, 
and the harness wherever it could be got, I put my wife and 
the babe (of course) into it ; and away we went. 

My friend B, rode alongside, and a pleasant ride it was, of 
some eight miles. The first half, recently opened prairie, was 
now wholly occupied by farms. The tall open grove which 
shades the last four miles, was only in a few instances dis- 



91 

figured by " improvements"; so that in the main the grassy 
knolls and flowery dells appeared in their primeval beauty r 
while the undergrowth was so sparse and so clustered as 
rather to give the idea of an ornamental grove than a wild 
and untouched forest. 

We descended into the bottom by a gradual slope, behind a 
high and extended peak, that shut out all views on that side ; 
so that we only caught a glimpse of the fields and meadows 
through a kind of half intercepted vista formed by the glen 
down which we passed. As we approached the foot of the hill 
we came in view of the place where the festival was to be held ; 
and truly it was a sweet, charming scene. There were men 
and women and children, sitting, standing, walking or re- 
clining, according to their several inclinations; some in 
groups; some alone but not lonely; some kindling a fire and 
preparing a place to hang tea kettles on ; some carrying water ; 
some ladies laying the table; all occupied, none toiling to 
fatigue. 

I wish I could describe the place. I know you have read 
descriptions of Bluff dale that made you think of Paradise - r 
and what is more, they were true, too. But I mean this par- 
ticular spot where the community of Bluffdale meet as to a 
common centre. It is one of those glens which open from the 
table-land for the passage of some bright little brook, that 
wanders about from side to side as if to catch the various 
views before it emerges to the open plain. Here at the mouth 
of the glen on either hand stands a bold and massy pinnacle 
of solid rock, worn and rounded by the horizontal action of 
water, no doubt, to the appearance of lofty towers, built to 
guard the approach to this sweet little vale between. Looking 
up the glen, you see on its diminutive base a farmhouse a 
little elevated and partly hidden by native trees with its 
offices, and gardens and fields; and on the hillsides, falling 
gracefully back in varied form, the trees stand singly and in 
clusters now opening to the enlivening influences of the sun r 
and now shutting out his beams with their dense foliage. 



92 

But come out more into the open plain. You will have to 
climb this fence and walk through the stubble. There; now 
turn your face to the bluff. What a sight ! Those towers you 
now see stretching out right and left, as far as eye can reach, 
into magnificent embattled castles. They are somewhat in 
ruins to be sure ; the rounded summits ,covered with verdure, 
and the sides ornamented with beautiful bunches of the trum- 
pet creeper ; but there are the walls. See the masonry ! The 
lines as regular as Rogers would have done them. The jutting 
turrets, and aspiring towers, and buttress open from the wall 
it joins nearly to the top, combine to render the illusion per- 
fect. But you are not in old England, but in new Illinois. I 
will prove it. Turn your eye to the glen again. There, on a 
line with the bluffs you see the framed school house just 
where the road empties. Then the log stable not very pic- 
turesque. Then, further down, and on the other side of the 
opening, the company is collected under that beautiful shade. 
Did you ever see a more perfect shade? Not a sunbeam darts 
through those beautiful black walnuts, yet open and airy as 
the prairie itself. Now look behind the group; you see the 
trees rising above one another almost to the top. It looks as 
if you could jump over the whole grove, without touching, and 
as if the trees were trying to hide the rocks behind them. But 
they cannot: They stand out in high relief. 

Now, turn around; come to this higher ground. What do 
you see? The plains of Eden? No, this is Bluffdale. I hope 
the fields stretched out for miles with the yellow wheat, half 
harvested, the waving oats and rustling corn do not disap- 
point you. To me, who have a large family that cannot live 
on beautiful scenery alone, I assure you they enhance the in- 
terest of the prospect, mightily. But look beyond them : there 
is the prairie, as smooth, as green, as flourishing as heart can 
wish, and charming groves not only fringe the whole, but here 
and there interspersed, give a sweet variety to the general 
view. 

But to the festival. It was formed for man as he is partly 
Intellectual, and partly animal. A stage was erected whereon 



93 

chairs and tables were set for the officers of the society and the 
orator ; and the dinner table spread immediatey in front with 
benches for the accommodation of the company. The exer- 
cises were commenced with prayer; the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was, of course, read ; and then an appropriate ora- 
tio-n was delivered. 

' ' An oration ! Was it good ? ' ' 
' ' Good ! It was delivered by John Russell. ' ' 
After all I am not sure that I can give you a full idea of the 
interest of the occasion. Think the orator standing up 
amidst his neighbors, convened for the purpose of a rational 
celebration of his country's glory; without a single fear of 
riot, quarrel disturbance or excess. Before him a profusion 
of refreshments poured out by the warm-hearted matrons of 
the dale, from their various vehicles without a single drop 
of poison and the whole formed into a band for the purpose 
of saving themselves and their children from a thraldom in- 
finitely worse than that which our forefathers had thrown off. 
There he stands. Behind him rises the ambitious grove r 
aspiring to the summit of the lofty bluff, which yet it cannot 
reach. Before him the little valley bounded by the sudden 
rise of the bold cliff that stands the sentinel of time; on the 
right by sloping hills, the noble sweep of their concave forming 
a gigantic amphitheatre; on his left the broad prairie whose 
nearest myriads of acres, covered with rich and flourishing 
crops are thrown by the industry of man into a kind of im- 
mense chequer-board there he stands ; his theme 

11 Looking before and after." 

.first throws a glance at the scenes of by-gone years and then 
peers into futurity, not to inquire curiously of things unknown, 
but to purpose and to do for the benefit of those who shall 
then live. 

The first sentence drew tears. It was a happy illusion to 
the group around him, gathered from various states and re- 
gions to enjoy the blessings of freedom and plenty and peace 
and home, and society, and religion, here, on a spot so beau- 
tiful and so recently wild and tenantless. And when he told 



94 

the children how their grandsires fought and bled and suffered 
to achieve the liberty we now enjoy; when for their benefit he 
set in new forms of beauty the old and precious jewels of 
Eevolutionary story, there were hearts overshadowed by gray 
hairs, which glowed and melted and young hearts that beat 
high with patriotic feeling. And then when the orator came 
to the specific object of the day and pointed to the foe now 
lurking in the dark ravines of the forest and coiled in the su- 
pervenomous worm of the still, there were those who looked 
back with regret and forward with high and noble purpose, 
not merely to keep themselves free henceforth from the foils 
and curse of intemperance, but to throw a shield of determined 
and sympathetic hearts a noble cordon sanitaire round the 
.generations who shall live hereafter. 

The business of the society occupied a few minutes and then 
the company sat down to the plentiful and sumptuous cold col- 
lation accompanied by the refreshing beverage whose steam 
rose to enliven but not inebriate ; for the ladies had taken care 
to provide abundance of excellent tea and coffee for the num- 
erous guests. It was a feast in the true and complex sense of 
the word. It was a feast prepared by the ladies. 

I took a walk after dinner with the orator and our friend 
B, and had a more extended and particular view of the scene 
than I had opportunity to take before ; and what enhanced the 
pleasure, an interesting conversation with the intelligent and 
pious companions of my walk. It was a feast of reason and 
a flow of soul. 

One thing amused us. Casting our eyes over the prairie be- 
yond the fields, we saw some miles off, a large herd of cattle, 
stretched out in continuous space perhaps of a mile. " There," 
said I, "is the cavalry." The illusion was perfect. It re- 
quired not the effort of imagination to form a regiment or two 
of cavalry before our eyes, but the exertion of memory to 
bring us back to the sober fact. 

In due season the company separated, not with aching heads 
and boiling blood to sleep off fumes of poison and wake with 
regrets and remorse ; but to recall with new pleasure the de- 



95 

lightful associations and occurrences of the day, and to put in 
practice the virtuous and noble principles then resolved on. 
I have seen the gorgeous sights and joined the festive boards, 
and listened in stately halls to the eloquent harangues of our 
national anniversary, while yet the fervor of youth gave zest 
and novelty to it all ; but never before did I mingle in a cele- 
bration so free from fault, so really ennobling as the festival 
at Bluffdale. L. 



EDITORIAL 



99 



JOURNAL OF 

THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Published Quarterly by the Society at Springfield, Illinois. 

JESSIE PALMER WEBER, Editor-in-Chief. 

Associate Editors 

J. H. Burnham George W. Smith 

William A. Meese Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. Page 

Applications for membership in the Society may be sent to the Secretary 
of the Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Illinois. 

Membership Fee, One Dollar, Paid Annually. Life Membership, $25.00 

VOL. VII. JULY 1914 Ko. 2. 

THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The fifteenth annual meeting of the Illinois State Historical 
Society was held in the Senate chamber in the State Capitol 
Building at Springfield, Thursday and Friday, May 7 and 8, 
1914. Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, the president of the Society, pre- 
sided over all sessions. 

The members of the Society also rejoiced in the presence of 
their honorary president, Colonel Clark E. Carr, who made 
the journey from Washington to attend the meeting, and who 
is in much better health than he was a year ago at the 1913 
annual meeting. 

There were no changes in the officers of the Society. The 
entire Board of Directors and other officers were re-elected. 

The program as printed was carried out with but few 
changes in its arrangement. 

Captain J. H. Burnham read his most excellent and care- 
fully prepared address on the destruction of Kaskaskia by 
the Mississippi River. To the preparation of this paper Cap- 
tain Burnham has devoted months of labor and research. He 



100 

lias furnished the Society a definite contribution in this ac- 
count of this most interesting and curious page of Illinois his- 
tory, and it is to be congratulated that Captain Burnham was 
able to give the time and labor necessary for its accomplish- 
ment. The paper was accompanied by fine maps which will be 
published in the Transactions of the Society as a part of the 
address. 

On the morning of Thursday a telegram was received from 
Mrs. J. A. James, announcing the fact of the sickness of Pro- 
fessor James and his consequent inability to present his lec- 
ture on the Illinois State park system. Happily Professor 
A. E. Crook of the State Museum of Natural History gave the 
Society a most interesting address on Indians and archaeology 
with some fine illustrations. The address of Professor W. W. 
Sweet on the Methodist Church and Reconstruction was given 
on Thursday evening instead of in the morning of that day. 

The address on the Williamson County Vendetta by Judge 
George W. Young of Marion was in the absence of Judge 
Young read by Miss Lottie E. Jones of Danville. 

The other addresses were presented as given in the printed 
program. 

On Friday evening the annual address was delivered by 
Judge 0. N. Carter of the Illinois State Supreme Court. 

The subject of Judge Carter's address was the Early Courts 
of Chicago and Cook County. 

Judge Carter added in the most entertaining manner to this 
valuable and exhaustive paper, anecdotes of famous judges 
and lawyers. The address is published in full in this number 
of the Journal. 

The reception which followed Judge Carter's address was 
held in the State Library, and the handsome Library rooms 
were beautifully decorated and refreshments were served to 
the Society and its friends. The reception was one of the 
most enjoyable and beautiful affairs ever given by the Society. 

Mrs. C. C. Brown and Mrs. B. H. Ferguson had full charge 
of this part of the annual meeting. They were assisted by 



101 

Mrs. Logan Hay, Mrs. Victor E. Bender and a number of the 
young ladies of Springfield. Mrs. I. G. Miller had charge of 
the decorations of the Senate chamber and the Library. 

Music was furnished by several Springfield musicians in- 
cluding Mrs. Mary Tiffany Hudson, Miss Edith Wright, Miss 
Louise Helmle and Mr. Elmer J. Kneale. Many prominent 
citizens attended the sessions of the annual meeting. Natur- 
ally many members of the legal profession came to hear Judge 
Carter's address. Most of these lawyers are members of the 
Historical Society, and so were not guests but hosts on this 
occasion. Governor E. F. Dunne also honored the Society 
with his presence. 

The program in full is as follows : 

ORDER OF EXERCISES. 
Thursday Morning, May 7, 1914, 10 o'clock. 

Senate Chamber. 
Address: The Methodist Church and Reconstruction, 

W. W. Sweet, De Pauw University, Greencastle, Indiana. 
Address: Destruction of Kaskaskia by the Mississippi River, 

J. H. Burnham, Bloomington, Illinois. 
Part I. The Work of the Rivers, 

J. H. Burnham. 

Part II. Old and New Kaskaskia, 
H. W. Roberts, Chester. 

Thursday Afternoon, 2 : 30 o'clock. 
Address: In Black Hawk's Home, 

John H. Hauberg, Rock Island, Illinois. 
Songs: Miss Louise Helmle. 
Address: Chief Little Turtle. 

Mrs. Mary Ridpath Mann, Chicago, 111. 
Address: The Life and Services of Shelby M. Cullpm, 
Henry A. Converse, Springfield, Illinois. 

Thursday Evening, 8:00 o'clock. 
The Illinois State Park System. Illustrated. 

J. A. James, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. 
Songs: Miss Edith Wright. 

Friday Morning, 9:00 o'clock. 
Director's Meeting in the office of the Secretary. 

10:00 o'clock, in Senate Chamber. 
Business Meeting of Society. 

Reports of Officers. 
Reports of Committees. 
Miscellaneous Business. 

Election of Officers. { 

Address: The Williamson County Vendetta, 

Hon. Geo. W. Young, Marion, Illinois. 
Address: The Yates Phalanx. The 39th Illinois Volunteer Infantry. 

W. II. Jenkins, Pcntiac, Illinois. jj 



102 

Friday Afternoon. 
General Topic: An Account of the Great Whig Meeting held at Springfield, 

June 3-4, 1840. With Music of the Campaign. 
Address: Representation at the Convention from Northern Illinois. 

Mrs. Edith P. Kelly, Bloomington, Illinois. 
Address: Southern Illinois and Neighboring States at the Convention, 

Mrs. Martha McNeil Davidson, Greenville, Illinois. 

Address: The Young Men's Convention and Old Soldiers' Meeting at Spring- 
field, June 3-4, 1840. 

Mrs. Isabel Jamison, Springfield, Illinois. 

Friday Evening, 8:00 o'clock. 
Quartet: Illinois. 
Annual Address: Early Courts of Chicago and Cook County. 

Judge O. N. Carter, Chicago, Illinois. 
Songs: Mrs. Mary Tiffany Hudson. 
Reception in the State Library. 



REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE SOCIETY. 

May, 1913 May, 1914. 

May 7, 1914. 

To the Board of Directors of the Illinois State Historical 
Society : 

GENTLEMEN : The Illinois State Historical Society is now 
fifteen years old, this being its fifteenth annual meeting. The 
Society was organized June 30, 1899, as the result of the pre- 
liminary meeting held at the University of Illinois May 19, 
1899. The first annual meeting was held at Peoria the fol- 
lowing January (January 5-6, 1900), the second annual meet- 
ing was held at Springfield, January 30-31, 1901. At this 
meeting the secretary reported that there were about sixty 
members. 

An able address was delivered before the Society by Reuben 
Gold Thwaites, secretary and director of the Wisconsin His- 
torical Society, in which he stated that that day, (January 
30, 1901,) was the fifty-second birthday of the Wisconsin His- 
torical Society. In the report of the secretary at the sixth 
annual meeting held in Springfield, January 25-26, 1905, two 
hundred and fifty-one members were reported. This included 
twenty-eight editorial or newspaper members. 

At the tenth annual meeting eight hundred members were 
reported and today the Society numbers : 



/ 103 

I Honorary members ^ 17 

Life members 12 

Active 1,583 

Newspaper editors 47 

Total 1,659 

and is the largest State society in the United States in point of 
numbers. We have lost by death since our last annual meet- 
ing sixteen of our members. They are : 

Mr. H. L. Sayler, Chicago, Illinois, May 31, 1913. 

Miss M. Frances Chenery, Springfield, Illinois, June 7, 1913. 

Mr. Albert Atherton, Pleasant Plains, Illinois, June 11, 1913. 

Mr. Eeuben Gold Thwaites, Madison, Wisconsin, October 22, 
1913, (an honorary member). 

Mrs. Katherine Goss Wheeler, Springfield, Illinois, Novem- 
ber 19, 1913. 

Mr. C. S. N. Hallberg, Chicago, Illinois, November 5, 1913. 

Mr. Thornton G. Capps, Greenfield, Illinois, December 11, 
1913. 

Mr. Louis Waltersdorf, Chicago, Illinois, December 12, 1913. 

Mr. John H. Drawyer, Bradford, Illinois, 1913. 

Mr. J. M. Eyrie, Alton, Illinois, 1914. 

Professor Henry B. Henkel, Springfield, Illinois, February 
26 ,1914. 

Hon. Shelby M. Cullom, January 28, 1914, (an honorary 
member of the Society). 

Mr. Edgar S. Scott, Springfield, Illinois, March 22, 1914. 

Mr. Charles B. Campbell, Kankakee, Illinois, April 1, 1914. 

Mr. W. H. Thacker, Arlington, Washington, April 1, 1914. 

Brief biographies of these members have appeared in the 
Journal and I will not at this time repeat them. An address 
on the life of Senator Shelby M. Cullom will be a part of the 
proceedings of this annual meeting. 

I again desire to call your attention to the oft repeated re- 
quests of the secretary to be informed in the case of deaths in 
our membership. You are urgently requested to notify the 
secretary if you learn of the death of a member of this Society. 



104 

Members express their interest in the Society and their 
pleasure in its publications by many kind letters. I beg to 
read a brief one from one of our members and I hope the So- 
ciety will see fit to send a word of greeting to the writer of the 
letter. 

"Moro, Illinois, May 4, 1914. 
My Dear Mrs. Weber : 

I am enclosing the $1.00 for dues in the Historical Society 
and would be delighted to attend the meeting in Springfield 
and hear the interesting topics discussed so ably, as I am 
sure they will be, but alas ! I am a hopeless shut-in, not likely 
to enjoy attending anything beyond the walls of my room. 
But with all my limitations I find life worth living because of 
the many love feasts I can have in print and script. My mind 
can travel, yea even wander, in the realms of reason and I can 
have beautiful thoughts all of the time. In all good societies I 
can belong even if I can't throng. 

May the Illinois Historical Society live long and prosper! 

Yours sincerely, 

(MES.) KATHARINE STAHL." 

On November 19, 1913, this Society held a memorial meeting 
in observance of the fiftieth anniversary of the dedication of 
the Gettysburg National Cemetery, at which time Mr. Lin- 
coln delivered his celebrated Gettysburg address. Governor 
Dunne by special proclamation called the attention of the peo- 
ple of the State to this historic anniversary and asked them 
to observe it. The Historical Society gladly acted upon the 
patriotic suggestion of our Governor and on the evening of 
November 19, 1913, the meeting was held. It was an occasion 
that will long be remembered by those who attended it. 

Governor Dunne, after being introduced by Dr. 0. L. 
Schmidt, president of the society, presided over the meeting 
and addresses were made by Judge J. 0. Cunningham, a per- 
sonal friend of Mr. Lincoln; State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction F. G. Blair; and Hon. Everett Jennings. These 
were noteworthy addresses. Stephenson Post, G. A. B., at- 
tended in a body and the soldiers who had been participants at 



105 

the Battle of Gettysburg were asked to come to the speakers' 
stand and there an eloquent address was made to them, es- 
pecially, by Hon. Everett Jennings. The meeting was suc- 
cessful in every detail. 

Since the last meeting of this Society the commission created 
by the last General Assembly to arrange for the celebration 
of the State 's centennial anniversary has been organized. 

The president and secretary of the State Historical So- 
ciety are members of the Centennial Commission, as are Sen- 
ator Hearn, Senator Hay, Senator Johnson, President James, 
Professor Greene, Professor Garner, all members of the His- 
torical Society. 

The commission met and organized by making Senator 
Hearn chairman and Jessie Palmer Weber secretary of the 
commission. Committees have been appointed and work has 
been laid out for them. The plan contemplates a significant 
celebration of the centennial year by a great historical 
publication; celebrations in every community in the State by 
schools, clubs, fraternal organizations, historical societies and 
a great celebration at Springfield and it is hoped that there 
will be as an enduring memorial by the State to its hundred 
years of progress, a Centennial Memorial Building, the dedica- 
tion of which will be a part of the centennial celebration. Sena- 
tor Logan Hay is the chairman for the Centennial Memorial 
Building; Dr. Schmidt for the Centennial Memorial Publica- 
tions ; President James of the celebration at Springfield ; Sen- 
ator Kent E. Keller of the State Wide Celebration ; Professor 
Greene on Monuments and Memorials ; Jessie Palmer Weber 
on the Historical Pageant. There are other important commit- 
tees, but the above mentioned are of special interest to the 
Historical Society. 

The members of the Historical Society are expected to bear 
an important part in this great work and the Centennial Com- 
mission asks your aid and co-operation. 

Your secretary attended the State Conference of Daughters 
of the American Revolution at Qnincy last October and made 
a report of the working of the Fort Massac Park Trustees. 



106 

A member of this Society, Mrs. E. S. Walker, made at that 
same conference an admirable report as State chairman of the 
Illinois D. A. R. committee on historic research. You are all 
familiar with the splendid work that Mrs. Walker is doing in 
compiling the names and records of military services and the 
places of burial of Eevolutionary soldiers buried in Illinois. 
Mrs. Walker is doing this work by counties of Illinois. She 
is carefully verifying these. I suggest that the Society ex- 
press in some manner its appreciation of her labors. 

Miss Georgia L. Osborne, chairman of the genealogical com- 
mittee will report to you that the list which she has compiled 
of the Historical Library's various works on genealogy, is 
nearly ready for distribution. She will not, however, tell you 
of how much labor she has bestowed upon it and how valuable 
it will be to genealogists and genealogical students. 

The secretary of the Society has been asked by Mr. Scott 
Matthews, pure food commissioner of this State, to assist him 
in the preparation of a text-book for schools. This book is to 
contain historical information in regard to pure food legisla- 
tion and of the resources and history of the State. It is 
planned to have it in the hands of the school children of the 
State by the opening of the school year in the autumn. 

The secretary has also been invited by the Illinois Commis- 
sion to the Panama-Pacific Exposition to place an exhibit in 
the Lincoln memorial room in the Illinois Building at San 
Francisco at the Panama-Pacific Exposition. This it is hoped 
will be a truly significant exhibit. The secretary begs the as- 
sistance of the Society in the collection of Lincoln material 
that will be worthy of the State of Illinois. The Panama- 
Pacific Exposition Commission, of which the governor is a 
commissioner, with twenty deputy or associate commissioners 
is building for Illinois a splendid building and the members of 
the commission desire that the people of this State who visit 
the Exposition will avail themselves of the comforts and con- 
veniences of the Illinois Building as a resting place and meet- 
ing place, and the commission hopes that it will be the head- 
quarters of Illinoisans at the Exposition. 



107 

The secretary and several other members of the Society at- 
tended the ceremonies at Starved Eock, attendant upon the 
presentation to the State of Illinois on September 6, 1913, by 
the D. A. E. of the State of a splendid flag-pole and D. A. E. 
pennant. This was a notable gathering. Addresses were made 
by the State regent of the D. A. E., Mrs. George A. Lawrence, 
Mrs. Matthew T. Scott, Mrs. John C. Ames, vice-president 
general for Illinois of the D. A. E. ; Hon. Samuel Alschuler, 
Hon. Charles Clyne and Mr. W. E. Osman, all of whom are 
members of the Historical Society. Other persons distin- 
guished in historical and patriotic work made addresses. I 
mention those who are members of the Society to show you the 
part taken by our members in the historical work in this 
State. 

The secretary visited the Eock Island County Historical 
Society on April 14, 1914, and had the pleasure of addressing 
the Society. The Eock Island County Society which has such 
"an interesting history to report has in its membership some of 
the best workers of the State Historical Society. The meeting 
was an interesting and successful one and your secretary de- 
rived much pleasure from her visit. 

Next year is the fiftieth anniversary of the termination of 
the great Civil War of America. It seems to me that if there 
is any historical event which should be commemorated by 
jubilee, it is this anniversary of the cessation of the hostilities 
between our own people. Four years ago we observed the 
fiftieth anniversary of the beginning of that great war. This 
was a solemn memorial observance, but fifty years of peace 
and progress should be observed in a different way. If it 
were not for the fact that the old soldiers who remain with us 
today are growing feeble and are few in number it would be 
indeed, an anniversary of rejoicing, but it gives us an oppor- 
tunity of doing special honor to the veterans who remain with 
us and of showing them that their bravery and sacrifices are 
not forgotten by us who are heirs of the prosperity which they 
made possible. I suggest that the meeting of 1915 especially 
observe this semi-centennial. 



108 

Circular letters have been issued from time to time by the 
Library and Society asking the assistance of members of the 
Historical Society and of the citizens of this State in the col- 
lection of historical material of all kinds. I again make an 
appeal for such material. 

Mr. Sidney S. Breese of Springfield, grandson of Judge 
Sidney Breese, distinguished in the annals of this State, has 
presented the Library with a large number of the letters and 
papers of his grandfather. These comprise letters to Judge 
Breese from most of his eminent contemporaries. Among 
them are letters from Stephen A. Douglas, James Semple, 
Gustavus Koerner, William H. Bissell, John Wentworth and 
many others. The collection is most valuable and it is a 
splendid and generous gift. Lists of gifts and names of 
donors are acknowledged in the Journal. Your assistance is 
earnestly solicited. 

This Society has passed the experimental stage and it has a 
great work to do. It is too much to expect that each one of 
the members of the Society be an active worker, but it is not 
too much to expect each one to be interested enough to help by 
suggestion and interest. 

It will be remembered that an appropriation for the pur- 
chase of the site of old Fort Chartres was made by the last 
session (Forty-eighth) of the General Assembly. The land 
has been purchased by the State and this truly historic relic 
is now a part of the State park system. Mr. William A. Meese, 
one of the directors of this Society, was largely instrumental 
in securing this appropriation. Residents of the county and 
locality have formed an association for the purpose of stimu- 
lating interest in and preserving local history. Surely the 
locality which this Society represents has a history which is as 
fascinating and thrilling as any pictured by writers of ro- 
mance. We welcome this new Society to the field of State 
historical work. 

The research work grows rapidly and all of the employes 
of the Library and the Society are kept busy. The publica- 
tions, the Journal and the Transactions, and indexing them, 



109 

the cataloguing and copying are all arduous labor. You have 
received copies of Illinois Historical Collection, Vol. IX, a 
bibliography of Travel and Description in Illinois, 1765-1865, 
by Dr. Solon J. Buck. 

This is an excellent and exhaustive piece of work, although 
the casual student can form no idea of the amount of work, of 
laborious painstaking research which Dr. Buck devoted to the 
compilation of it. Dr. Buck has also been secured by the Cen- 
tennial Commission to edit its first publication, " Illinois in 
1818." The fact that he is to have supervision of this 
work insures its character and high value. 

The work of the Society and Library progresses steadily. 
Membership in the Society continues to grow, but the members 
of the Society do not personally attend the meetings as they 
should do. This gentle scolding applies particularly to 
Springfield members. I know that members are interested, 
but so many things come up these busy days that one cannot 
do everything, and then you receive the papers in the Trans- 
actions of the Society; so the meetings are neglected. It is 
not very inspiring to speakers, however, to have such small 
audiences. Please do some missionary work with the mem- 
bers of the Society in regard to this matter. 

The committees of the Society, too, with notable exceptions, 
take their duties too lightly. There is, however, good excuse 
for this, as it is impossible to hold frequent committee meet- 
ings, owing to the fact that members reside in all sections of 
the State. It might be well to arrange committee meetings 
for the time of the annual meeting of the Society, at which 
time plans for work of committees could be outlined, and sub- 
committees appointed. Please think this matter over and 
offer suggestions to the secretary of the Society. 

As I have said, we are steadily progressing. We meet with 
disappointments along the way, but does not every one the 
farmer, the teacher, the merchant, the housekeeper, workers 
in all lines of human endeavor all have difficulties with which 
to contend? 



We have every reason for encouragement and none for dis- 
couragement. These are some of the activities and some of 
the problems of the Illinois State Historical Society. But 
when all is said the principal difficulty is the fact that we are 
so crowded in every line of our work that the congestion is 
getting most uncomfortable and even a semblance of order 
and tidiness is impossible. 

We must have more room. We hope for a new building as 
a centennial memorial, but even if we secure it, we will be 
very crowded during the intervening years, but if we have a 
prospect of better things we will bear present inconveniences 
with such patience and fortitude as we can muster. In closing 
I beg to thank the directors and members of the Society for 
continued kindness and helpfulness to me. 

To mention what has been done by Miss Georgia L. Osborne 
would be telling you the work of my right hand. She is my 
co-worker in everything and she is never too tired to devote 
her energies to the service of the Society and the Library. I 
also desire to express my appreciation of the highly intelligent 
and unremitting assistance of my other assistant in the Li- 
brary, Miss Anna C. Flaherty. Permit me also to say that the 
Society owes its thanks to Professor A. B. Crook, president of 
the State Academy of Sciences, for assistance. The secretary 
of state, Hon. Harry Woods, is most kind and thoughtful in 
extending services to the Historical Society, as is Captain 
F. E. McComb, superintendent of the Capitol Building. I de- 
sire to ask the thanks of the Society for the three last named 
gentlemen. 

These, I believe, are the principal matters of interest which 
I wish to call to your attention. 

Very respectfully, 

JESSIE PALMER WEBER, 
Secretary Illinois State Historical Society. 
Approved May 8, 1914. 



Ill 



Illinois Building at The Panama-Pacific Exposi- 
tion, San Francisco, California 



On June 30, 1914, ground was broken for the Illinois Build- 
ing at the Panama-Pacific Exposition. 

Exercises were held in honor of the event in which former 
residents of Illinois took a leading part. 

Citizens of California in large numbers attended the cere- 
monies. 

There were pioneers of both States present, and they pro- 
claimed their loyalty to the State of their birth and the State 
of their choice. The crowd was the largest which has attended 
any State exposition event, with the exception of the dedica- 
tion of the California counties building, and it was the most 
enthusiastic. 

Uncle Ezra Cummings, a bronzed old argonaut of the prai- 
ries, who fought chinch bugs in Illinois and Indians in Cali- 
fornia, came all the way from Tracy to attend the ceremonies. 

"I heard Lincoln and Douglas debate in the old Nachusah 
House in Geneva," said Uncle Ezra. "I've always been 
proud of Illinois history, and now California is making some 
history which we '11 all be proud of. ' ' 

Then he became meditative. "I got here about two hours 
early," he said, "and I've been figuring out that steel tower 
over there," pointing to the framework of the Tower of 
Jewels. "They could put a 90-foot windmill on that, and it 
would pump water enough for five thousand head of stock." 

While Uncle Ezra was speculating about the windmill, Jus- 
tice Henry A. Melvin, chairman of the day, began his address 
of welcome. Justice Melvin dwelt eloquently on Illinois his- 
tory which links the State to all the rest of the Union. 

The speakers ' stand was connected by a direct wire with the 
office of Governor Edward F. Dunne in Springfield, Illinois, 



112 

and Justice Melvin read the following telegram from the 
Governor : 

I deeply regret my inability to be personally present with 
you at the ground breaking ceremonies at the Panama-Pacific 
International Exposition. However, I take this means to ex- 
tend to all assembled there my greetings and hearty congratu- 
lations on the fact that active work on the Illinois State Build- 
ing is now about to begin, and that the building will fittingly 
represent one of the largest and grandest, one of the richest 
and most fertile States in the Union, and will serve to com- 
memorate some of her illustrious citizens, such as Lincoln and 
Douglas, Grant, Logan and Altgeld. 

The Illinois commission has a wonderful opportunity to 
demonstrate to the world the pre-eminence of Illinois as an 
agricultural State. Illinois ranks first in valuation of all farm 
crops, second in mining, third in oil and is the most important 
manufacturing State west of the Alleghenies. It is peculiarly 
fitting that these facts be brought to the attention of the thou- 
sands who will visit the Panama-Pacific International Exposi- 
tion. 

I stand ready at all times to do what I can to promote the 
success of the Illinois representation at the great Panama- 
Pacific International Exposition." 

Judge Melvin then read telegrams of congratulation and 
good wishes from Mayor Carter Harrison of Chicago, Adolph 
Karpen, chairman of the Illinois Exposition Commission; 
Samuel Woolner, Jr., chairman of the building committee of 
the commission; Senators James Hamilton Lewis and Law- 
rence Y. Sherman ; William McKinley, speaker of the Illinois 
House of Representatives, and Congressmen Thomas Galla- 
gher, James M. Graham, Claude U. Stone and Henry T. 
Rainey. 

Arthur Arlett represented Governor Johnson of California 
on the program. He dwelt upon the significance of the expo- 
sition as a symbol of a new world brotherhood. Supervisor 
J. Emmet Hayden extended the cordial good wishes of the 
city in behalf of Mayor Rolph, and Thornwell Mullally spoke 
for the exposition directorate. 



113 

"When Illinois decided to participate, it meant success for 
the exposition," said Mullally, "for as Illinois goes, so goes 
the country." 

Mrs. Olive Timmons of Berkeley led the audience in singing 
"Illinois," and Mrs. Sadie Stiles Thompson, president of the 
Oakland District of the Illinois Society of California, deliv- 
ered a brief address. Dr. Frederick A. Bliss spoke for the 
San Francisco District of the Society. 

Guy Cramer, resident representative of the Illinois Com- 
mission, spoke in behalf of the commission and the citizens of 
Illinois. 

"I believe as a patriotic citizen of Illinois," said Cramer, 
"that a wholesale charge of kidnaping should lie against 
you of California. To me, it seems that a monster percentage 
of the 'Sucker' State which has been lured here, under the 
hypnotizing effect of your whole-hearted and great-hearted 
cordiality, has been retained." 

Not only in attendance did Illinois claim pre-eminence over 
other States. It was with a gold spade that ground was 
broken, whereas other commonwealths have had to be content 
with silver. 

The Governor's flag, a pennant sent to Mr. Cramer from 
Springfield, was raised above the site by Mrs. L. E. Eockwell, 
of Quincy, Illinois, who is visiting in Oakland. Mrs. Eock- 
well is in her eighty-fourth year and has lived in Illinois sixty 
years. 



Illinois will have two elaborate special celebrations at the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco if plans being 
worked out by the Illinois Commission to the Exposition ma- 
terialize. 

Adolph Karpen, chairman of the commission, has arranged 
with Hollis E. Cooley, chief of special events at the Exposi- 
tion, for two important days for Illinois. 

One will be known as ' * Chicago Day, ' ' and will be October 
9, and the other "Illinois Day," July 24. Governor Dunne 
and his staff will attend on "Illinois Day." The chief exec- 



114 

utive will be escorted to the Exposition by the entire First 
Regiment, State Guard, in full uniform and with Regimental 
bands, on special trains. 



For several months the members of the First Regiment have 
been making contributions weekly to a fund in charge of Major 
Abel Davis, which they hope. will be large enough by "Illinois 
Day" to pay all expenses of the Regiment to the Exposition 
and back. 

Adjutant General Dickson has signified his desire that some 
representation of the Illinois State militia visit San Fran- 
cisco and take part in the exercises of Illinois Day, and Chi- 
cago Day. 



As the Illinois State Building is on government ground, 
being located on the Presidio barracks, the First Regiment 
will receive attention from the Presidio troops. 

Another plan in connection with either ' ' Chicago " or " Illi- 
nois ' ' day is to take the Chicago Symphony Orchestra to the 
Exposition, if a Way can be found to raise the money needed 
for the trip. 

Mayor Harrison will be master of ceremonies on ' ' Chicago 
Day." 



THE CAHOKIA MOUND ASSOCIATION FORMED. 

) 

So many attempts have been made without success to secure 
the great Cahokia Mound and other mounds near it for the 
State of Illinois that our readers will not be surprised to learn 
that an attempt is being made to have it preserved by the aid 
of a federal appropriation. 

The Illinois State Historical Society feels that this won- 
derful archaeological relic ought to be the property of the 
State of Illinois, but it will be glad to aid in the work planned 
by this new agency, as the important matter is that the mound 
be preserved. 



115 

On March 13, 1914, at St. Louis, the Cahokia Mound Asso- 
ciation was formed. It is hoped that at least seventy acres 
can be secured which will include the great Cahokia or Monk's 
Mound, and a number of small mounds of the group. 

The officers of the association are : Dr. H. M. Whelpley of 
St. Louis, president, and Dr. E. J. Terry of Washington Uni- 
versity, St. Louis, secretary-treasurer. Officers of several 
historical societies are honorary vice-presidents. The asso- 
ciation hopes to secure an appropriation from the Congress of 
the United States for the purchase of the necessary land. This 
is a most important work and deserves the assistance of every 
person who feels an interest in the history of the Mississippi 
Valley. 



JERSEY COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



SEVENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION OF THE ORGANIZA- 
TION OF THE COUNTY, AUGUST 5, 1914. 



Jerseyville, Illinois, July 14, 1914. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 

Secretary Illinois State Historical Society : 

On August 5th of this year "Little Jersey" will have be- 
come a perfect jewel among the counties comprising the State 
of Illinois. 

She will then have arrived at her "Diamond Jubilee" 
period, or seventy-fifth anniversary. 

Our home people, generally, express a desire that the date 
named be observed and appropriately celebrated, under the 
auspices of the Jersey County Historical Society. Complying 
with the wishes of our citizens, said society has various com- 
mittees at work preparing a program of exercises for cele- 
brating said anniversary day. 

In part, the program will include a street parade in the fore- 
noon, composed of the Sabbath schools of the county, our 
county officers, past and present, our citizens and visiting 



116 

friends who were here in 1839, and other divisions of our citi- 
zens, led by our city band. 

The hour from 11 :00 a. m. to 12 :00 m. will be devoted to a 
social time, including short addresses by the older visiting 
friends, and those who reside here. 

From 12 :00 m. to 1 :30 p. m. the Court House Yard will be 
at the disposal of those present for basket and picnic dinners. 

The newly completed and furnished rest room in the base- 
ment of the Court House, will be in charge of a committee of 
ladies, and open during the day and evening for the use of 
ladies. 

In the afternoon the principal address of the day will be de- 
livered by the Hon. T. J. Selby, of Hardin, Illinois. Mr. Selby 
was for many years a prominent citizen here, during which 
time he satisfactorily occupied various responsible positions, 
being sheriff of the county a half century ago. Besides this 
address, there will be music, flag drills and other features of 
the entertainment. 

The evening entertainment will include a reproduction of 
what is known in history as the " Block House Indian Massa- 
cre * ' scene, ending in dispersing the band of Indians and send- 
ing their wigwams up in smoke and flames. 

You are cordially and earnestly invited to be here, and to 
take part in the celebration on this Diamond Jubilee and home 
coming occasion; also to invite others to come and enjoy the 
day with your Jersey County friends, and to help make this 
occasion one to be long and pleasantly remembered by all 
present. 

JOHN W. VINSON, 
CORNELIA J. SHEPHAKD, 
FANNY H. ENGLISH, 
MAY V. CUTTING, 
GEO. H. VAN HORNE, 

Invitation Committee. 

This circular letter explains very well the plans of the Jer- 
sey County Historical Society for its annual meeting. These 
anniversary celebrations are much enjoyed by the citizens of 



117 

Jersey County, past and present, and aid greatly in the col- 
lection of historical material, as many persons bring to these 
meetings letters, pictures and other material bearing upon the 
history of the county. The committees and officers are un- 
tiring and deserve great credit. 



GIFTS OF BOOKS, LETTERS, PHOTOGRAPHS AND 

MANUSCRIPTS TO THE ILLINOIS STATE 

HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 

The following named books, letters, photographs and manu- 
scripts have been presented to the Library. The Board of 
Trustees of the Library and the officers of the Society desire 
to acknowledge the receipt of these valuable contributions 
and to thank the donors for them. 

Stephen A. Douglas. A Memorial. 121 p. 8 vo., Brandon, Vt., 1914. Pri- 
vately printed. Gift of the editor, Mr. E. S. Marsh. 

An Inside View of the Rebellion and American Citizen's Text Book. By 
Henry Conkling, M. D., Chicago, 1864. Tribune Book and Job Printing Es- 
tablishment. Paper. 22 p. 8 vo. Chicago, 1864. Gift of E. G. Conkling, 
Seymour, Illinois. 

File of the Weekly Washington Union, Dec. 12, 1847, to Dec. 4, 1848. Wash- 
ington, D. C. Gift of Dr. Otto L. Schmidt, Chicago, Illinois. 

Natural History Survey of Illinois. Ornithology I, II, by S. A. Forbes. 
2 vols. 8 vo. Springfield, Illinois, 1889 and 1913. Gift of Professor S. A. 
Forbes, Urbana, Illinois. 

Illinois State Regent's Report, 1914, Daughters of the American Revolution, 
24 p. 8 ve. March 10, 1914. Gift of Mrs. George A. Lawrence, Galesburg, 
Illinois. 

"Illustrierte Zeitung." Special issue descriptive of the city of Duesseldorf, 
its commercial activities and civic attractions. Gift of Brentano, New York 
City. 

Masters of the Wilderness. By Charles Bert Reed, M. D. Gift of the 
Chicago Historical Society. Publications of the Chicago Historical Society, 
Fort Dearborn Series. 144 p. 12 mo., Chicago, 1914. University of Chicago 
Press. 

Notable Women of St. Louis. By Anna Andre Johnson. 262 p. 4to. St. 
Louis, 1914. Mrs. Charles P. Johnson, Editor and Publisher. Gift of Mrs. 
Charles P. Johnson, St. Louis, Missouri. 

House and House Life of the American Aborigines. By Lewis H. Morgan, 
Washington, 1881. Government Printing Office. 278 p. 4to. Gift of Mrs. 
William E. Fain, 825 North Fourth Street, Springfield, Illinois. 

The Story of Old St. Louis. By Thomas Ewing Spencer. Prepared for 
information of persons who expect to witness the pageant and masque of 
St. Louis in Forest Park, St. Louis, 1914. St. Louis, Missouri, 1914. 170 p. 
8 vo., paper. Gift of Missouri Historical Society. 



118 

Halley, Pike and McPike Families. By Eugene F. McPike. 8 vo. Gift 
of Mr. Eugene F. McPike, Chicago, Illinois. 

Revised Ordinances City of Farmington, 1911. 316 p. 8 vo., cloth. Gift 
of Mr. Clarence M. Routson, Farmington, Illinois. 

Souvenir of Farmington, Illinois. Compiled by F. G. Hoagland. Published 
by Farmington Bugle, Farmington, Illinois. 40 p. 8 vo. Gift of Mr. Clarence 
M. Routson, Farmington, Illinois. 

A Tube to Ireland. A Remedy for Ireland's Unrest and a Plea for its 
Commercial Betterment by means of a constructive enterprise rather than 
by Fruitless Legislation. By Henry Grattan Tyrrell. Chicago. Gift of 
Mr. Henry Grattan Tyrrell, Evanston, Illinois. 

The Celebration of the Centenary of the Supreme Court of Louisiana. 66 
p. 8 vo. Gift of Centennial Committee, Henry P. Dart, Chairman, New 
Orleans, Louisiana. 

Illinois Valley Wonderland. 24 p. 12mo., pam. Gift of Chicago, Ottawa & 
Peoria Railway, Joliet, Illinois. 

Old Monroe Street. Notes on the Monroe Street of Early Days. 1914. 
Compiled by Edwin P. Mack. Published by the Central Trust Company of 
Illinois, 125 West Monroe Street, Chicago, Illinois. 83 p. 12 mo. 2 copies. 
Gift of Central Trust Company of Illinois, Chicago, Illinois. 

School Directory of Kendall County, Illinois. 1913-1914. 19 p. 12 mo. 
Bristol, Illinois. Publisher not given. Gift of Mr. Amos D. Curran, County 
Superintendent of Schools, Bristol, Illinois. 

The Holy Gospel Protestant and Roman Catholic Versions Compared. By 
Frank J. Firth. 1911. 491 p. 8 vo. New York, Chicago and Toronto. Cloth. 
Gift of the family of Mr. Frank J. Firth. 

Address in Memory of Mrs. Adlai E. Stevenson, President General D. A. R. 
1893-1895. Died December 25, 1913. By Mrs. George A. Lawrence, State 
Regent, D. A. R., Illinois. Gift of Mrs. George A. Lawrence, Galesburg, 
Illinois. 

Year Book of the Swedish Historical Society of America. 1911-1913. 183 
p. 12 mo. Chicago, 1913. Published by the Society. Gift of Mr. C. G. Wal- 
lenius, Secretary Swedish Historical Society of America. 

Government in the United States National, State and Local. By J. W. 
Garner. 416 p. with supplement of 46 p. 12 mo. New York, 1911, 1913. 
American Book Company, Publishers. Gift of Professor J. W. Garner, Uni- 
versity of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. 

Thirteen Pamphlets. Gift of the Chicago Historical Society, Chicago, 
Illinois. 

Picture of Summerfield School House near Alton, Illinois. Framed with 
wood taken from the old School Building. Gift of Mr. G. Frank Long, 506 
West Allen Street, Springfield, Illinois. 

Post Card Pictures of Old Court House, Metamora, Illinois. Old Hotel, 
Metamora, Illinois, where Lincoln stopped when Attending Court. Grave 
of Abraham Lincoln's Father in Coles County, Illinois. Thomas Lincoln's 
Grave in Shiloh Cemetery, Coles County, Illinois. Gift of Rev. R. F. Cressey, 
Mattoon, Illinois. 

Field Glass Used by General William T. Sherman on his March to the Sea. 
Presented by him to Hon. Orville H. Browning of Quincy, Illinois. Gift to 
the Illinois State Historical Society by Mrs. Eliza Price-Miller, of New 
Berlin, niece of Mr. Browning. 

Two Genealogical Charts, Coons Family. Compiled by Percival Coons- 
Wilbur, 311 Alma Street, Palo Alto, California. 

Wedding Announcement of Mr. and Mrs. R. E. Goodell (Mrs. Goodell was 
the daughter of Governor Mattison), addressed to General and Mrs. John 
Cook. Gift of Mrs. John M. Palmer, Springfield, Illinois. 



NECROLOGY 




W. H. TRACKER 



121 



HON. WILLIAM H. THACKER. 

William H. Thacker, a member of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society and valued contributor to this Journal, died 
at his home in Arlington, Washington, on April 1, 1914. 

He was the fourth child of Stephen and Esther (McKinney) 
Thacker, born in Goshen, Ohio, July 15, 1836. When he was 
three years of age, his parents moved to the Des Plaines River, 
west of Chicago, then a frontier wilderness. In subscription 
schools, and finally at Lake Zurich Academy, he obtained his 
education, and was then employed as a teacher. In that voca- 
tion he migrated to Bath, in Mason County, where, in 1862, he 
enlisted in the Seventy-first Illinois Infantry Regiment, and 
re-enlisting, served to the close of the Civil War. There also, 
on the 21st of September, 1865, he was united in marriage 
with Miss Melinda Smith. Removing to Virginia, Cass Coun- 
ty, he continued teaching country schools, in the meantime 
studying law in the office of Hon. J. N. Gridley. Admitted to 
the bar, he there commenced the practice of his profession, 
and was elected city attorney and justice of the peace. In 
1877 he was part owner and editor of the Virginia Gazette. 

With the hope of benefiting the failing health of Ms wife and 
daughter, he left Virginia in 1890 to locate in western Kan- 
sas; but finding climatic conditions there no better than in 
Illinois, he went on to Idaho. After a year's residence in 
that bleak region, he continued his westward course to Friday 
Island, the largest of a group of islands in Puget Sound, com- 
bined in San Juan County, in the extreme northwest corner 
of the State of Washington. There he resumed the practice 
of law, was elected state's attorney, for three terms repre- 
sented the county in the State Legislature, and for several 
years served his people as probate judge. A republican in 
politics, firm in his principles, but never an "offensive parti- 



122 

Ean" in his successful career there Judge Thacker gained 
enviable prominence throughout the State as a statesman, 
jurist, and campaign orator. 

He was an' inveterate student and a scholar of wide range, 
making frequent contributions of value to various societies 
and publications in the lines of literature, history and science. 
His observations and writings added much to public knowl- 
edge of the archaeology, geology and natural history of his 
ocean-bound location. And his mind was so endowed with 
fine imagery and ideality as to give him more than ordinary 
standing among poets. He was a model father and husband, 
a highly respected and cultured citizen, and in all the walks 
of life a refined and honorable gentleman. 

At length the chilly fogs and capricious weather changes of 
his island home so impaired the health of himself and family 
that he was compelled to seek inland more genial atmospheric 
surroundings. In the Arlington Valley he took up his abode 
some years ago where, retired from all active business, he 
passed his remaining days in the quiet enjoyment of his home 
and literary pursuits, amidst him family, his friends, and his 
well-assorted library. Mrs. Thacker died there on the 17th 
of May, 1911, survived by the Judge, two sons and three daugh- 
ters. For several months he was in declining health, termi- 
nating in partial paralysis, from which he was mercifully 
released by death, conscious and with mental faculties un- 
impaired, to the last. The last poem he wrote, which well il- 
lustrates his faith in life immortal, may very appropriately 
be here appended. It is entitled ' ' The Bed of Death. ' ' 

No longer paint the bed of death, 

A horrid scene that we should fear ; 
But rather draw a spirit band 

Of friends and loved ones gathering near 

To bear the unchained soul away 

To broader realms and higher spheres, 
^ . ! To make its onward, upward way 

Forever, through the endless years. 



123 

What we call death is but a change 
From earthly care and pain and strife, 

Into a world of fairer fields, 
Of purer thought and truer life. 

We should not shed the bitter tear, 
And mourn as if for one that's lost, 

When one we love is freed from pain, 
And the "Dark River" safely crossed. 

Then paint no more the bed of death, 
A scene of terror one should dread ; 

All who have left this vale of tears, 
Are living still they are not dead ! 



L 



124 



EDGAR S. SCOTT. 

Edgar S. Scott was born in Jacksonville in 1866. He was 
the son of Rev. and Mrs. E..S. Scott. In 1881 he came to 
Springfield with Mr. and Mrs. J Otis Humphrey, where he 
first secured employment as a clerk in a grocery store. Later 
Mr. Scott became interested in the insurance business and 
located in the Ferguson building. He then accepted a posi- 
tion in the First National Bank, and when the Illinois Na- 
tional Bank was organized, became teller in that institution, 
which position he resigned to engage in business as a stock 
and bond broker. In 1901 he became president of the Frank- 
lin Life Insurance Company. 

In 1891 Mr. Scott was married to Miss Cordelia Brown of 
Divernon, Illinois, who with one daughter, Dorothy Scott, 
survives him. 

Mr. Scott was prominently identified with the Masons and 
Odd Fellows and was a member of the Central Baptist Church. 
He was also an active member of the Illini Country Club, the 
Sangamo Club and the Springfield Commercial Association. 
He had been for several years a member of the Illinois State 
Historical Society. 

He was a director of the Sangamon Loan & Trust Company 
and of the Illinois National Bank. 

His death occurred in Dallas, Texas, March 23, 1914. The 
funeral took place in Springfield, Illinois, March 26, 1914, 
from the Central Baptist Church, Rev. S. H. Bowyer, pastor 
of the church, officiating, assisted by Rev. Donald MacLeod 
and Rev. E. B. Rogers. The body was forwarded to St. Louis 
for cremation, and the ashes returned to Springfield and 
buried in Oak Ridge cemetery. 



125 



ADLAI EWING STEVENSON. 

General Adlai Ewing Stevenson died June 14, 1914, at a 
hospital in Chicago, where he had been taken for medical 
treatment from his home in Bloomington, Illinois. Thus 
passed from the stage of American public life a man who had 
honorably filled a great part in the history of his country. 

Adlai Ewing Stevenson, like many distinguished Illinoisans, 
was born in Kentucky. He was born in Christian County, 
Kentucky, October 23, 1835, the son of John T. and Eliza 
(Ewing) Stevenson. The older Stevenson in 1852 removed 
with his family to Bloomington, McLean County, Illinois. In 
his new home Mr. Stevenson found friends and relatives who 
had preceded him to Illinois. The youth, Adlai, attended the 
public schools of Bloomington and the Wesleyan University, 
and later he attended Center College at Danville, Kentucky. 

In 1857 he was admitted to the bar and began the practice of 
law at Metamora, Woodford County, Illinois. As was the 
case of all young lawyers in those days he had a natural in- 
terest in public affairs. His first public office was that of 
master-in-chancery, which position he filled from 1861 to 1865. 
In 1865 he was elected state's attorney of Woodford County 
and he served the people in that capacity until 1869. In 1864 
he was nominated for presidential elector on the democratic 
ticket, but was with the rest of his ticket defeated at the polls. 
In 1869 he decided to return to Bloomington, where he formed 
a partnership with James S. Ewing in the practice of 
law. He was married on December 20, 1866, to Miss Letitia 
Green, the younger daughter of Rev. Lewis W. Green, presi- 
dent of Center College, Danville, Kentucky. The marriage 
took place at the residence of Matthew T. Scott, at Chenoa, 
Illinois, Mrs. Scott being the sister of Mrs. Stevenson. 



126 

When he returned to Bloomington in 1869 he was, of course, 
accompanied by his young wife. They there founded a home 
within whose walls for more than forty years they dis- 
pensed a simple and dignified though hearty hospitality. 

In 1874 he was first elected to a seat in Congress. He was 
defeated for re-election in 1876 by Judge Thomas F. Tipton, 
but was again elected in 1878. In 1877 he was appointed by 
President Hayes a member of the Board of Visitors to the 
West Point Military Academy. 

He was appointed by Mr. Cleveland during his first term 
first assistant postmaster-general, and served from 1885 to 
1889. While serving in this capacity he made for himself a 
national reputation, and became a favorite with the members 
of his party throughout the United States. He was appointed 
by President McKinley a member of the Bimetallic Congress 
held in Belgium in 1897. 

He was a member of the National Democratic Conventions 
of 1884 and 1892 and in the latter convention he was chairman 
of the Illinois delegation. 

At this convention, which was held at Chicago, he was nomi- 
nated for vice-president of the United States on the ticket of 
which Grover Cleveland was the head. This ticket was 
elected, and he became by virtue of his office presiding officer 
of the United States Senate. 

In this office his peculiar qualities of mind and heart served 
him in good stead. He had a charming manner and was most 
courteous and affable and he greatly endeared himself to the 
members of the distinguished body over which he presided. 
His was a judicial temperament, and he was not easily ruf- 
fled, and seldom lost his temper. 

His association with Mr. Cleveland during their respective 
terms of office was a close and delightful one. 

In the book of reminiscences published by General Steven- 
son in 1909, he pays a high tribute to Mr. Cleveland, the man, 
the president and the patriot, in a sketch entitled, ' * Cleveland 
as I Knew Him. ' ' 



127 

At the close of his term as vice-president, March 4, 1897, he 
returned to his home in Bloomington and resumed the practice 
of law and the management of his personal affairs, but he 
did not long remain in retirement, for in 1900 he was again 
nominated for vice-president of the United States. This con- 
vention was held at Kansas City and William Jennings Bryan 
was nominated for president. Mr. Bryan and General Steven- 
son were defeated by their republican opponents, William 
McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt. 

In 1908 General Stevenson was the nominee of the demo- 
cratic party for the office of governor of the State of Illinois. 
He was defeated by Charles S. Deneeii by a very small ma- 
jority. 

General Stevenson was devoted to his home and family and 
to his friends, and he was most fortunate in his domestic rela- 
tions. To Mr. and Mrs. Stevenson were born four children, 
one son and three daughters. 

Of these children, Lewis Green Stevenson, Mrs. Julia Stev- 
enson Hardin, the wife of Rev. M. N. Hardin, a distinguished 
Presbyterian clergyman of Chicago, and Miss Letitia Steven- 
son, survive their parents. The eldest daughter, Mary, died 
when just entering womanhood, December, 1892, and just be- 
fore General Stevenson's inauguration as vice-president of the 
United States. Mrs. Stevenson died December 25, 1913, and 
was survived by her husband less than six months. 

General Stevenson was a student of American history and 
he was particularly interested in the history of Kentucky and 
Illinois his native State and the State of his adoption. As a 
lawyer and a statesman he made a study of legal and consti- 
tutional questions. 

General Stevenson was an honorary member of the Illinois 
State Historical Society and took much interest in the activ- 
ities of the Society and twice delivered addresses before it. 
He also took part in 1908 in the celebration of the semi-cen- 
tennial of the Lincoln-Douglas debates. He delivered ad- 
dresses at Galesburg and at Alton. In 1903 General 
Stevenson delivered the annual address before the Illinois 



128 

State Historical Society. His subject was, "The Constitu- 
tions and Constitutional Conventions of Illinois." This able 
address was an account of Illinois from the beginning of Euro- 
pean exploration, with special reference to its government 
and law. This paper has been widely read and quoted and 
is today practically a text-book for students of the constitu- 
tional history of the State. 

January, 1908, Mr. Horace White and General Stevenson 
were the chief orators of the Society's annual meeting. Mr. 
White gave a brilliant address entitled "Abraham Lincoln in 
1854," and General Stevenson gave an eloquent address on 
Stephen A. Douglas. 

This annual meeting will long be remembered on account of 
the fact that these distinguished men were the guests of the 
Society and by the profound and remarkable addresses which 
were delivered by them. 

General Stevenson's book, already mentioned, was pub- 
lished by A. C. McClurg & Company, Chicago, 1909, under the 
title "Something of Men I Have Known." This title well 
describes the volume, but it does not give an idea of the charm 
of the book, the fund of reminiscences, and of delightful anec- 
dotes of persons noted in the annals of the United States and 
particularly of Illinois and Kentucky. 

General Stevenson was a gentleman of the old school, a type 
now all too rare. He was an ideal citizen. His domestic life 
was most happy. He lived with his wife for forty-seven years, 
from their marriage December 20, 1866, until the death of Mrs. 
Stevenson December 25, 1913. Around them clustered all that 
makes life beautiful children, grandchildren, a beautiful 
home of peace and plenty, the friendship and respect of their 
neighbors. 

Mr. Stevenson's public life was free from taint of scandal. 
His ideals were high and pure and he attempted to live up to 
them. 

In closing this brief sketch of the life of Adlai E. Stevenson 
and summing up his career, no better estimate of his character 



129 

can be given than the words which he himself used in closing; 
his sketch of Grover Cleveland : 

* * In victory or defeat, in office or out, he was true to his own 
self and to his ideals. His early struggles, his firmness of 
purpose, his determination that knew no shadow of wavering, 
his exalted aims, and the success that ultimately crowned his 
efforts, have given him high place among statesmen, and will 
be a continuing inspiration to the oncoming generations of 
his countrymen." 



130 



JUDGE W. C. JOHNS. 

Judge W. C. Johns came to Illinois in 1849 with his parents, 
Dr. and Mrs. H. C. Johns. . In 1853 the family located in De- 
catur. They came to Illinois from Circleville, Ohio, where 
Judge Johns was born December 7, 1846. They lived in Piatt 
County for five years before coming to Decatur. 

He received part of his education in the Decatur public 
schools, then went to the model department of the Normal 
School. He was under the tutelage of Mr. Childs there until 
he went into the army in 1864. He was a private in Company 
E, One Hundred and Forty-fifth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, 
one hundred day regiment. After he was mustered out he 
attended Lombard University for six months and then entered 
the University of Michigan, from which he graduated in 
June, 1869. 

The following summer Judge Johns studied law in the office 
of Crea & Ewing in Decatur. In the fall of 1869 he entered 
the Albany Law School and graduated from there in Septem- 
ber, 1870. He studied for six months longer in the office of 
Crea & Ewing and then commenced the practice of law in 
Decatur. He continued to practice law until his election to 
the bench. One of his important cases was that of the famous 
Chicago drainage canal case in which he represented the at- 
torney-general in taking testimony for the Supreme Court. 

In 1880 he was elected state's attorney and from 1887 until 
1891 he served in the State Senate. 

In 1903 he was elected circuit judge of the Sixth Judicial 
District. He was again elected to the circuit bench in 1909, 
leading the field by about six hundred votes. In politics he 
was a staunch republican. 

The age of Judge Johns was 67 years, 6 months and 17 days. 
He was but seven years old when the family moved to De- 



131 

catur. They first occupied the Dr. May house on East North 
Street, opposite the old high school. That was then one of 
the finest homes in Decatur. A few years later Dr. Johns 
erected the mansion on Johns hill. 

In 1882 Judge Johns and Miss Nellie Harper, daughter of a 
Philadelphia minister, were married. Judge Johns erected a 
handsome residence on East Eldorado Street, the first door 
east of where St. Patrick's Church now stands. Mrs. Johns 
lived only a few years and then Judge Johns returned to the 
family home on the hill and lived there ever after. He is 
survived by his mother, Mrs. Jane M. Johns, now 88 years old, 
a brother, S. W. Johns of Decatur, and one sister, Mrs. C. B. T. 
Moore of Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Judge Johns had no children of his own, yet he understood 
the small boy and was always deeply touched when it was 
necessary to send a boy to the reform school. Often he would 
return to his private office with tears rolling down his cheeks 
after he had sentenced some boys to the reform school, gen- 
erally for stealing junk. "I don't like to do it. I would 
rather sentence a dozen guilty men than one little boy, but 
the law says I must, ".he said one day after sending six boys 
to the reform school. "I wish there was some way of punish- 
ing the men who buy this stuff from the boys, but we have no 
law covering them. They are the real offenders. We are 
born thieves. The baby sees something it thinks it wants and 
reaches for it. If it is not taught otherwise it will keep on 
taking what it wants all through life, regardless of who owns 
the property. A child must be educated to be honest. ' ' 

It was then that he told a newspaper reporter to get a law- 
yer to draft a bill prohibiting the purchase of junk or other 
property from minors. John Hogan drafted the bill and 
Senator Henson put it through the Legislature and it is the 
first law Illinois ever had on the subject. Since then Judge 
Johns had no occasion to send boys to the reform school for 
stealing junk. He often spoke of the fact with satisfaction. 

"Why, I could easily have been sent to the reform school 
when I was a boy," he said. "My father bought the first 



132 

reaper ever brought to this part of the country. It was an 
immense affair, very heavy and cumbersome, and the castings 
were all of brass. It was a regular horse killer, and finally 
father put it in the shed and didn't use it any more. About 
that time I learned that brass was worth money, and there was 
a circus coming to town. I took a few pieces of brass from 
that old reaper and went to the circus. There was enough 
brass on it to keep me in circus money for a long time. When- 
ever a boy is brought before me for stealing brass, I am filled 
with sympathy for him." 

Judge Johns served eleven years and nine days as circuit 
judge. He was elected in 1903, and again in 1909. His first 
race was against Judge E. P. Vail for the republican nomina- 
tion. In September, 1902, he and Judge Vail joined in a letter 
to the county central committee, proposing that the republican 
primaries should decide which of the two should have the 
Macon County delegates in the judicial convention. Judge 
Johns won. A little more than fourteen years before they 
had joined in a similar letter. That time Judge Vail secured 
the delegation from Macon County. 

The Sixth Judicial District is composed of the counties of 
Macon, Moultrie, DeWitt, Piatt, Douglas and Champaign. 
Judge Johns' term would have expired June 15, 1915. 

1 'Judge Johns held court in Decatur almost continuously for 
the past eleven years, ' ' said John Allen, circuit clerk. Three 
years ago he was ill most of the winter and Judge Cochran 
served for him. That was the longest time he was off the 
bench. Judge Johns had about twice as much work as the 
other two judges in this district. At least two-fifths of the 
court in the district is held in Decatur. 

"In addition to holding court here, he has frequently pre- 
sided for other judges in the district. About six years ago he 
was a candidate for the nomination for judge of the Supreme 
Court. The convention was held in Decatur. He was a factor 
in that convention, though he was defeated by Judge Dunn 
of Charleston. ' ' 



133 

Judge Johns left for California, expecting to sail for Hono- 
lulu, Hawaii, to spend the summer with his sister, wife of 
Admiral C. B. T. Moore. Before he left he told his friends 
at the court house good-bye. He said it would take him three 
days and a half to reach San Francisco, and that he expected 
to rest there for a few days and would probably sail Friday 
of that week. He had been in poor health for some time. 
During last winter, between terms of court, he made a trip to 
Summerville, South Carolina, in the hope of improving his 
health, but he was really in worse condition than before he left. 
He died in San Francisco June 25, 1914, and his remains were 
brought to Decatur, Illinois, for burial. 

During the May term of the circuit court it was diffcult for 
him to talk above a whisper, and instead of sitting on the 
bench he would occupy a chair among the lawyers and close 
to the witness stand so that it would not be so much of an 
effort to make himself heard. John Allen, clerk of the court, 
had to read the court's instructions to the juries. 

Before he left Decatur Judge Johns told Mr. Allen that he 
would never return to the bench again. He said he intended 
to resign on his return home from Honolulu. 

While he did not talk much of his physical condition, it was 
plain to all who knew him well that his strength was failing 
rapidly during the past few months. He probably realized 
that his days were numbered, and a few weeks ago he thought 
it possible to close up the business of the May term of court on 
a certain day, he notified all the lawyers who had cases in 
which he had given decisions to have the decrees signed up by 
him by that date. 

Those who knew Judge Johns closely knew that he had 
worked very hard the past few months. Besides his duties as 
judge he worked hard on the briefs to be sent to the Supreme 
Court regarding the Johns land case, in which it was sought 
to reform the trust by which the estate of his father was held 
intact. The land having been voted into the city, the burden 
of taxation and special assessments would sacrifice some of it 



134 

unless it could be platted into city lots and sold, a condition im- 
possible under the terms of the trust. 

One of his last acts in this connection was the reading of the 
proofs of the brief he had prepared. He sent for the printer 
before he had finished writing the brief, and told him that he 
must have it all ready to send away by the next evening. It 
was then late in the afternoon. The work was done and in 
commenting on it later he declared it the most wonderful 
evidence of the advancement in the printing business in De- 
catur that he could recall. 

"By 6:00 o'clock yesterday evening," he said, "that brief 
was finished. It was set up, the proofs corrected, printed and 
the copies bound and ready to send away by 6 :00 o 'clock. A 
few years ago that would have been absolutely impossible. I 
feel more relieved in getting that brief sent away than any- 
thing I have experienced in a long time. ' ' 

Before he was judge and the dignity of his position de- 
terred many from addressing him with undue familiarity, he 
was known to everybody as Corry Johns. He was christened 
Corwin Johns and that was the only name he had until he was 
16 years old. His schoolmates and friends as he grew up 
called him Corry and the name stuck. When he was 16 years 
old his grandfather, William Martin, asked him to add Wil- 
liam to his name, which he did, and his official signature has 
since been W. C. Johns, though his more intimate friends al- 
ways called him Corry. 

He was named after Tom Corwin, an intimate friend of Dr. 
Johns. Tom Corwin visited Decatur in 1861, and on that 
occasion Corwin Johns made his first speech. "Mother wrote 
that speech for me, ' ' he said when telling about it a few years 
ago, "and it was a corking good effort." 

Judge Johns preserved more strict decorum in his court 
room than any judge ever on the bench in Macon County. He 
drew a close line between his social and judicial duties, and 
never allowed the former to interfere in the latter. A close 
friend stood no better chance of escaping jury duty than the 
utmost stranger, and the lawyers at the bar were required to- 



135 

observe the rules of practice and conduct themselves with 
dignity. 

No levity was ever permitted and several times he threat- 
ened to clear the court room when people in the audience 
would laugh at some remark of lawyer or witness, or show an 
inclination to make a demonstration. 

Off the bench Judge Johns was the soul of good humor. 
He was a delightful conversationalist, a remarkably good 
story-teller and one of the best of listeners. He was kind, 
companionable, lovable, with a heart as tender as a school 
girl's. He could talk well on any subject and he was always 
worth listening to. Before he ascended to the bench he was in 
great demand as a public speaker, but in late years he had no 
time for that. Only once or twice has he consented in recent 
years to make a public address. At the founders' day exer- 
cises at the James Millikin University in 1910 he delivered 
the commemorative oration for the late James Millikin, and 
it was a most eloquent tribute. 

He never knowingly did any one an injustice. His deci- 
sions were seldom reversed by the higher courts. He has 
been known to reverse his own decisions on one or two occa- 
sions. He wanted to be right, and if he was wrong he was 
glad to admit it. 

His devotion to his aged mother was beautiful. He never 
wanted anything to worry her, and kept a tender watch over 
her, and he was more than ever careful of her after the death 
of his sister, Mrs. Fannie Johns Sedgwick, a few years ago. 

He was a member of the University Club and whenever pres- 
ent took an active part in the discussions and his opinions 
always carried weight. 

He was an active member of the Illinois State Historical 
Society and his death is a great loss to the Society. 



136 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTOR- 
ICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 

No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 1860. 
Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., and Milo J. Loveless, graduate stu- 
dent in the University of Chicago. 94 p. 8vo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. *Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed 
from 1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D. 15 p. 8vo. 
Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, 
Ph. D., professor in the University of Chicago. 170 p. 8vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 
1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., secretary of the Society. 55 p. 8vo. 
Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. * Alphabetic Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and 
Curios of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. 
Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 p. 8vo. Springfield, 1900. 

i. No. 6 to 17. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 

years 1901 to 1912. (Nos. 6 to 12 out of print.) 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, Presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, 642 
p, 8vo. Springfield, 1903. 

-"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol. I. Edited 
by Clarence W. Alvord. CLVI and 663 p. 8vo. Springfield, Illinois, 1907. 
^^^Jtillinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. 
"Lincoln Series. Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparke, Ph. D. 627 p. 8vo. 
Springfield, Illinois, 1908. 

-"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The 
Governors' Letter-Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 p. 8vo. Springfield, Illinois, 1909. 
. -Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. 31. Kaskaskia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 p. 8vo. 
Springfield, Illinois, 1909. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I. 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged 
edition. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 p. 8vo. Spring- 
field, 1910. 

.^Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII. Executive Series, Vol. II, Gover- 
"n'rs' Letter-Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles 
Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 p. 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 
.^"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with Introduction and Notes by 
James Alton James. CLXVII and 715 p. 8vo. Springfield, 1912. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II, 
Travel and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck, 514 p. 8vo. Spring- 
field, 1914. 



137 

*Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I. No. 1, September, 

1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord, 
University of Illinois. 38 p. 8vo. Springfield, 1905. 

^- ^Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 2, June 1, 

1906. Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence W. 
Alvord, University of Illinois. 34 p. 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

-*ircular Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 1, November, 1905. 
An Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by Jessie 
Palmer Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 p. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 
^Publication No. 18. List of the Genealogical Works in the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Georgia L. Osborne, Compiler. 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. I, April, 1909, to Vol. 
VII, No. 2, July, 1914. 

Journals out of print: Vols. I, II, III, IV. 



*Out of Print. 



VOL. 7. 



OCTOBER, 1914 



NO. 3 



JOURNAL 



OF 



Illinois State Historical Society 




Published Quarterly by the Illinois State Historical Society 
Springfield, Illinois 



Entered at Washington, D. C., as Second Class Matter under Act of Coarress 
of July 16, 1894 



THE Bow. F. HARTMANN Co., PHINTEBS, SPBINGFIILD, ILL. 



JOURNAL 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



JESSIE PALMEB WEBEE, Editor. 

Associate Editors: 

J. H. Burnham George W. Smith 

William A. Meese Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. Page 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY: 



Honorary President 

Hon. Clark E. Carr Oalesburg 

President 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First V ice-President 

W. T. Norton Alton 

Second V ice-President 

L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third V ice-President 

Richard Yates Springfield 

Fourth V ice-President 

George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Directors 
Edmund J. James Urbana-Champaign 

President University of Illinois. 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

E. B. Greene Urbana-Champaign 

University of Illinois. 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp Jacksonville 

President Illinois College. 

J. 0. Cunningham Urbana 

George W. Smith Carbondale 

Southern Illinois State Normal University. 

William A. Meese Moline 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Edward C. Page DeKalb 

Northern Illinois State Normal School. 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James Evanston 

Northwestern University. 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Secretary and Treasurer 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Honorary V ice-Presidents 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies. 



CONTENTS. 



I. Officers of the Illinois State Historical Society. 
II. William W. Sweet. The Methodist Episcopal 

Church and Eeconstruction 147 

m. J. N. Gridley. The County Seat Battles of Cass 

County, Illinois 166 

IV. Mrs. E. S. Walker. Soldiers of the American 

Eevolution Buried in Illinois 195 

V. Felicie Cottet Snider. Sketch of the Life of Jules 
Leon Cottet, a Former Member of the Icarian 

Community 200 

VI. Original Letters Presented to the Illinois State 

Historical Society by Mr. Clinton L. Conkling. . 218 
Letter of Abraham Lincoln to Charles E. Welles 219 
Letter of Stephen A. Douglas to Gen. James 

Shields 222 

VII. Letter of President Andrew Jackson to Governor 

John Eeynolds of Illinois 224 

VIII. Clifford D. Chamberlin. The Life and Labors of 

of M. H. Chamberlin, LL.D 225 

IK. William H. Gay. Eeminiscences of Abraham 

Lincoln, Quincy and the Civil War 248 

X. W. T. Norton. The Hero of the "Wreck of the 

Independence," Colonel A. F. Eodgers 262 

XI. Most Eev. John Ireland. Address on the Serv- 

ices of General James Shields 271 

Statue of General Shields Dedicated at Carroll- 
ton, Mo 281 

XII. G. Frank Long. A Eevolutionary Soldier and 
His Family. Moses Long and Some of His 
Descendants , . 282 



XIII. John H. Hauberg. Account of the Celebration 

of the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Bat- 
tles of Campbell's Island and Credit Island, by 
the Bock Island County Historical Society 287 

XIV. Editorial. 

Birthday Anniversary of Capt. J. H. Burnham . . 293 
Visit to Indian Battle Ground, Kendall County, 

Illinois 295 

Macomb and McDonough County Celebrate 

Anniversary of the Battle of Plattsburg 297 

Fort Edwards Monument, Warsaw, Illinois 298 

Indiana Sons of the American Revolution Unveil 

Portrait of George Rogers Clark 299 

Lincoln and Douglas Statues. The Competition. 300 

Illinois State Centennial Commission 301 

St. Clair County Centennial Celebration 302 

List of Gifts to the Illinois State Historical 

Society and Library 303 

Minor Notices 306 

Book Reviews. The Methodist Episcopal Church 
and the Civil War. By W. W. Sweet. Re- 
viewed by James Alton James 308 

XV. Necrology. 

Campbell S. Hearn 311 

Albert 0. Marshall 314 

Thomas Kendall Means 315 

McKendree Hypes Chamberlin 317 

XVI. List of Publications of the Illinois State Histor- 
ical Library and Society 319 



The Methodist Episcopal Church 
and Reconstruction 



BY WILLIAM W. SWEET, DE PAUW UNIVERSITY. 

In a paper as brief, as this one must necessarily be, I can 
barely hope to touch upon the possibilities of this subject and 
to suggest the general lines along which such an investiga- 
tion might be expected to follow. One of the neglected fields 
of historical investigation in America is that of church his- 
tory, especially in its relation to social and political move- 
ments, but there are indications at present, however, that 
would point to a growing interest in this particular field. 
Among the indications pointing to an increased interest in 
this field is the fact, that at the last meeting of the American 
Historical Association, at Charleston, South Carolina, a con- 
ference was conducted on "American Religious History" and 
it is hoped that such a conference will be made a permanent 
feature of not only the annual meeting of the American His- 
torical Association, but of other historical societies as well. 

The general outline I propose to follow in this discussion of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and Reconstruction is : 

First. The Status of the Methodist Church at the close of 
the war, and its relation to the Church South. 

2. The Methodist Episcopal Church and the Freedmen. 

3. The position of the Church on the question of political 
reconstruction. 

4. Some observations in regard to the influence of the 
Church on parties and individuals during the period of re- 
construction. 

I. 

During the progress of the war the Methodist Episcopal 
Church had given the Government of the United States a most 



148 

loyal support. Its 127 conferences in their annual sessions 
had passed strong, loyal resolutions; 1 the eighteen official 
periodicals of the Church had supported the cause of the 
Union by vigorous editorials, urging enlistments, by printing 
patriotic sermons and addresses, and by calling upon the peo- 
ple for supplies for the Christian and Sanitary Commissions, 
and by devoting a large share of their space in every issue to 
the giving of war news. 2 This Church furnished over five 
hundred chaplains to the armies and navies of the Union, 3 
besides over four hundred Methodist ministers who served 
as delegates under the Christian Commission, all of whom 
gave some of their time free of charge, to the work of the 
Commission, many of them going to the front. 4 It is im- 
possible to tell how many Methodist soldiers served in the 
Union Army, but the number has been variously estimated 
from 100,000 to 300,000, and Mr. Lincoln's statement in his 
address to a Methodist delegation representing the General 
Conference of 1864, of which Methodists are so proud, is no 
doubt strictly true: "That the Methodist Episcopal Church 
sent more soldiers to the field, more nurses to the hospitals, 
and more prayers to heaven than any." 5 And lastly when 
the body of the martyred president was laid to rest here in 
Springfield, at the close of the war, a Methodist bishop, Mat- 
thew Simpson, was chosen to speak the last words at the tomb. 

Before the close of the war the Methodist Episcopal Church 
had already entered the South with a two-fold mission, first 
to carry on the work of their Church in those localities in the 
South, from which the ministers of the Methodist Church 
South had fled, on the approach of the Union Armies, leaving 
their churches vacant. Such churches were, by the order of 
the War Department at Washington, to be turned over by 
the various military commanders, to the loyal bishops of the 
North, who were to appoint loyal ministers to go down and 



1. "The Methodist Episcopal Church and the Civil War." Sweet, pp. 47-95. 

2. Ibid. Chapter VI, pp. 111-132. 

3. Ibid. Chapter VII, pp. 133-141. 

4. Ibid., p. 164. 

5. McPherson's Rebellion, p. 499. 



149 

take possession. And, second, the Methodist Episcopal 
Church had gone into the South to look after the freedmen, 
whose helpless condition appealed strongly to Christian peo- 
ple of every denomination. 

Naturally when the war was over and the Methodist Church 
South began to lay plans for the reorganization of their so- 
cieties throughout the South, they came in contact and conflict 
with these representatives of the Church from the North. 
There was considerable protest on the part of the Church 
South against the Southern policy of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, for in many instances, when they came to take pos- 
session of their churches, they found them occupied by their 
Northern brethren. "There was much trouble," writes a 
minister of the Church South, "especially in the Tennessee 
part of our territory, where our houses of worship had been 
taken from us by force and our preachers threatened with 
all sorts of violence if they should dare come into the country 
to preach." 6 The Southern bishops in their first meeting 
after the close of the war, drew up a pastoral letter, which was 
sent out over the South, in which they state that "the conduct 
of certain Northern Methodist bishops and preachers in tak- 
ing advantage of the confusion incident to a state of war, to 
intrude themselves into several of our houses of worship, 
and in continuing to hold these places against the wishes and 
protests of the congregations and rightful owners." Which 
they say, causes them pain, "not only as working an injury to 
us, but as presenting to the world a spectacle ill calculated to 
make an impression favorable to Christianity." 7 

The Church papers of both branches of Methodism, at the 
close of the war were filled with discussions relating to the re- 
construction of Methodism in the South. There seemed to be 
a widespread feeling on the part of the leaders in the North 
that these two largest branches of Methodism should reunite, 
now that the cause of the split slavery was forever re- 
moved. Dr. J. P. Newman, who had been placed in charge of 



6. Recollections of an Old Man Seventy Years in Dixie. By D. Sullens, 

p. 307. 

7. Annual Cyclopaedia 1865, p. 620. 



150 

the activities of the Methodist Episcopal Church at New 
Orleans and vicinity, in 1864, and who was familiar with the 
situation through first-hand knowledge, says in a communica- 
tion to one of the Church papers : ' * The authorities of our 
Church should make overtures for a reunion to the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church South, on two general conditions : Un- 
qualified loyalty to the general government, and the accept- 
ance of the anti-slavery doctrine of the Church," and he fur- 
ther advises that if this proposal be rejected," then let the 
Methodist Episcopal Church plant a loyal, living Church in 
every city and hamlet of the South. ' ' 8 Another" writer some 
weeks later, however, looks upon the prospect of reunion as 
very doubtful, owing to the fact that the leaders in the Church 
South " realize that their only hope of influence, or even re- 
spectability, is in holding together, as an independent body, 
the Church they have ruled so long." And further on the 
same writer says, "They hate the Union, the North, and es- 
pecially the Methodist Church." 9 There were some leaders 
in the Southern Church who seemed very receptive of the idea 
of restoration of fraternal relations between the Churches. 
A correspondent of one of the influential Southern Methodist 
papers has this to say on the question: "We will, the whole 
Southern Church, will entertain any proposition coming from 
the North for fraternal relations, when that proposition comes 
from a proper source, and with reasonable and Christian con- 
ditions and suggestions. But no proposition has yet been 
offered, no official communication has yet been made to us as 
a Church, and perhaps none ever will be." 10 Still another 
leader in the Southern Church says, concerning Church con- 
ciliation: "The South is ready for conciliation," and infers 
that his Church is ready to hear and consider, in a Christian 
spirit, whatever proposition the Methodist Episcopal Church 
sees fit to make. 11 

1C Christian Adv. and Journal (New York), May 25, 1865. 
9. Ibid. June 28, 1865. Article on Methodist Reconstruction by Rev. Geo. 
L. Taylor. 

10. Southern Christian Advocate, Sept. 21, 1865, quoted in article on "The 

Spirit of the Southern Press," Methodist Quarterly Review, Jan. 
1866, p. 128. 

11. "Episcopal Methodist," quoted as above. 



151 

A correspondence was held during the spring of 1869 be- 
tween a committee of the bishops of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church and a committee of the bishops of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church South, in reference to the reunion of the 
two branches of the Church. The Northern bishops said in 
part : ' ' It seems to us that, as the division of those Churches 
of our country which are of like faith and order has been pro- 
ductive of evil, so the reunion of them would be productive of 
good. As the main cause of the separation has been removed 
so the chief obstacle of the restoration. It is fitting that the 
Methodist Church, which began the disunion, should not be the 
last to achieve the reunion. ' n2 The Southern bishops replied 
that they regretted the controversies and expressed a disposi- 
tion to co-operate to bring about a better state of things. They 
suggested, however, that the establishment of fraternal feel- 
ings and relations between the Churches would be a necessary 
precedent to reunion, and called attention to the fact of the 
rejection by the General Conference of 1848 of Rev. Dr. Pierce 
as fraternal delegate of the Southern Church. In their reply 
they also make complaint of the Northern missionaries and 
other agents who have been sent South and have attempted 
to disintegrate and absorb their societies and have taken pos- 
session of their houses of worship. The address ended by 
stating that "We have no authority to determine any thing 
as to the propriety, practicability and methods" of reunion 
"of the Churches represented by you and ourselves." 

In 1866, and for several years thereafter there was con- 
siderable fear expressed by the Southern Church leaders of 
their Church being "swallowed" by their more powerful 
rivals of the North, 13 and in order to prevent such an un- 
welcome assimilation, it was proposed to change the name of 
the Southern Church, to ' ' Episcopal Methodist Church. ' ' The 
General Conference of the Methodist Church South meeting 
in 1866 passed a resolution to that effect but the annual Con- 



12. Annual Cyclopaedia, 1869, pp. 432-433. 

13. "The Two Methodisms, North and South," Methodist Quarterly Review, 

April, 1866. 



152 

ferences failed to concur, as the proposition could not com- 
mand a three-fourths majority of the members. 14 The activity 
of their Northern brethren in the South urged the Southern 
Church on to an increased effort to rehabilitate their disor- 
ganized and depleted societies, 15 and there was even an at- 
tempt made as early as 1866 to invade the North. In the fall 
of 1866, Bishop Doggett of the Southern Church, met with 
the council of the Christian Union Church, an organization 
made up largely of Southern sympathizers, who had separated 
from the Methodist Episcopal Church during the war. This 
Church was very small, most of its membership being found 
in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. Their general council met in 
1866 at Clinton, Illinois, and was made up of about one hun- 
dred delegates. Bishop Doggett, however, on looking the 
situation over, decided that it was not best to attempt affilia- 
tion with the Church South at that time. A Northern editor 
of a Methodist journal, commenting on this meeting and the 
suggested affiliation, says: "We invite the Church South to 
any field in the North it can occupy. The people they propose 
to serve in Illinois, as God knows, need all possible moral in- 
fluences. Their preachers may be compelled to go on short 
rations, but we will not duck them, or hang them. We will 
stand by them against all violence. We give them a free 
North, and demand for ourselves a free South." 16 

The aggressiveness of the Northern Church in the South, 
immediately after the war, resulted in the organization by 
1869 of ten new annual conferences as follows : 

Holston Conference, organized at Athens, Tennessee, June 
1, 1865. 

Mississippi Conference, organized at New Orleans, Louis- 
iana, December 25-27, 1865. 

South Carolina Conference, organized at Charleston, April 
23, 1866. 



14. Annual Cyclopaedia, 1867, pp. 494-495. 

15. For an able discussion of the future of Southern Methodism, with quo- 

tations from the "Southern Christian Advocate," see "The Christian 
Adv. (New York), Feb. 22, 1866. 

16. "The Church South in Illinois," Western, Oct. 10, 1866. 



153 

Tennessee Conference, organized at Murfreesborough, Ten- 
nessee, October 11-14, 1866. 

Texas Conference, organized at Houston, Texas, January 
3-5, 1867. 

Virginia Conference, organized at Portsmouth, Virginia, 
January 3-7, 1867. 

Georgia Conference, organized at Atlanta, Georgia, October 
10-14, 1867. 

Alabama Conference, organized at Talledega, Alabama, 
October 17-20, 1867. 

Louisiana Conference, organized at New Orleans, January 
13-18, 1869. 

North Carolina Conference, organized at Union Chapel, 
North Carolina, January 14-18, 1869. 17 

Numbering ten in all. 

In 1867 there were 66,040 full members reported, and 16,447 
probationers and 220 charges. 18 Some of these churches had 
been founded by army chaplains, as for instance, the church 
at Baton Rouge, where a chaplain had been appointed pastor 
of the Northern Methodist Church by Bishop Ames, in 1864, 
while he was still serving in the army. 19 By 1871, the mem- 
bership of these churches had grown to 135,424, and the num- 
ber of preachers had become 630. Of the preachers, 260 were 
white and 370 were colored, while of the membership 47,000 
were white people and 88,425 were colored. 20 The most con- 
spicuous leader of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the 
South at the close of the war was Dr. J. P. Newman, who had 
been sent to New Orleans in 1864 to superintend the work 
in that vicinity. Later Dr. Newman became the pastor of the 
Grant family and a close personal friend of President Grant. 

As a matter of course the ministry and membership of these 
Northern Methodist Churches, planted in the South, were Re- 



17. "The Methodist Episcopal Church in the Southern States." By L. C. 

Matlack, in Methodist Quarterly Review, Jan., 1872, pp. 103-126. 

18. General Minutes of the Methodist Episcopal Church for 1867. 

19. Western Christian Adv., April 26, 1865. Letter by Chaplain N. L. Brake- 

man. 

20. Quarterly Review, Jan., 1872. 



154 

publicans, and were supporters of the radical reconstruction 
policies. It is also true that their membership included some 
carpet-baggers, employees of the Freedman's Bureau, and 
scalawags. A conspicuous example of the former is Eev. B. 
F. Whittemore, 21 who was a member of the South Carolina 
Conference, and in 1867 was superintendent of schools in 
South Carolina, and later under the carpet-bagger Scott's 
administration represented the First Congressional District 
of South Carolina in Congress. He was accused of the un- 
blushing sale of cadetships at West Point and Annapolis, and 
these charges were investigated by a committee, of which 
General Logan of Illinois was chairman, and he would have 
been expelled had he not resigned. 22 I think it may be stated 
without any hesitancy, that the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in the South was one of the strong factors in organizing the 
Eepublican party there, and is therefore partly responsible 
for perpetrating carpet-bag government and Negro rule upon 
the prostrate South. The missionaries of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, working in the South, realized that the success 
and perpetuity of their work there depended largely upon 
the triumph of the radicals in Congress. One missionary writ- 
ing from the South, states that if President Johnson's policy 
succeeds, " Union men, missionaries and teachers of f reed- 
men" will be in danger, and " every church and schoolhouse we 
have established will be destroyed, ' ' and further along he says, 
"If Congress fail we fail; if Congress succeeds we succeed." 23 
And it is undoubtedly true that Greeley's definition of a car- 
pet-bagger would apply to some of these Northern Methodists 
in the South. Some of them were "long faced, and with eyes 
rolled up, were greatly concerned for the education of the 
blacks, and for the salvation of their souls. 'Let us pray, ' they 



21. General Minutes, 1867. 

22. Rhodes, Vol. VIL, pp. 149-150. 

23. Christian Advocate (New York), Sept. 13, 1866, p. 292. Ann. Cyclo. 1866, 

p. 489. "The progress of the M. E. Church in the late slave-holding 
States continues to be more rapid than that of any other of the 
Northern anti-slavery churches and to augur important results, eccle- 
siastical as well as political." 



155 

said, but they spelled pray with an *e* and thus spelled, they 
obeyed the apostolic injunction to 'prey without ceasing.' " 24 
To infer, however, that the motives of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church in sending Northern missionaries into the South, 
and establishing their churches there, was purely a political 
one or was primarily selfish, is inferring too much. Many of 
the Church's leaders were sincere and unselfish, though per- 
haps many were overzealous, in their feeling that their Church 
was needed in the South to perform a work, which could not 
be performed by the Church South because of its poverty and 
disorganized condition. 25 And also many felt that the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church was needed in the South as a center 
about which loyal people might congregate, in order to offset 
the reputed disloyalty of the Methodist Church South. Con- 
cerning, however, the position of the Church South in respect 
to loyalty to the United States Government, at the close of 
the war, there is much conflicting opinion. The Church South 
had been practically a unit in the support of the Confederacy, 
as there is much testimony to prove, but there is also much 
evidence that at the close of the war the Southern Church 
accepted the verdict and were sincere in their attempt to 
become once more loyal supporters of the Government at 
Washington. The pastoral address of the Southern bishops, 
issued in the summer of 1865, advises their people to adjust 
themselves "as citizens of the United States promptly, cheer- 
fully, and in good faith, to all your duties and responsibili- 
ties," and this course they feel is called for "both by a sound 
judgment and an enlightened conscience." 26 Bishop Paine 
advises the Southern Methodists "to resume in good faith 
their former positions as law-abiding and useful citizens," and 
he urged the ministers "to use their influence both publicly 
and privately, for the promotion of peace and quietness among 
all classes." 27 Bishop Pierce likewise advises the people to 
accept "the issues of the war as the will of God," and tells 



24. Reports of Com. House of Rep., 2 S. 42. Cong. Vol. II, p. 477. 

25. Christian Adv., Feb., 22, 1866. 

26. Annual Cyclo., 1865, p. 620. 

27. Methodist Quarterly Review, Jan., 1866, p. 125. 



156 

them not to leave their loyalty in doubt by unmanly repin- 
ings, "or by refusing the terms of offered amnesty." 28 In- 
deed a Southern Methodist paper went so far as to claim that 
the "Southern Methodist Church today is more thoroughly 
loyal to the Government, more to be trusted, than the North- 
ern Methodist Church. * * Our oaths have been taken 
in good faith and we intend to keep them." 29 While still 
another Southern writer asserts, "We take our position under 
the Government to promote peace," and the South "may rest 
assured that Providence has restored us to the Union, and 
the Union to us, for purposes and ends wise and beneficent, 
and reaching far into the future. ' >3 

On the other hand, there is much Northern opinion to the 
contrary, and there was a very strong feeling in the North 
that the Southern Church was still far from loyal And it is 
not at all strange that there should have been such diversity 
of opinion as to the loyalty of the Southern Church, since 
Generals Grant and Schurz disagreed on the same general 
question in regard to the whole South. One Northern editor 
says, ' ' The loyalty of the Southern Methodist Church is prob- 
ably much the same kind and degree with that of the mass of 
'reconstructed rebels,' " 31 and again the same editor sus- 
pects that "Much of the loyalty of the South, (meaning the 
Southern Church) is only from the lips outward and that only 
where Union bayonets compel it." 32 Still another writer as- 
serts that the Southern Methodists "hate the Union and the 
North," 33 while Dr. J. P. Newman felt the need of a "loyal, 
living" Methodist Episcopal Church "in every city and ham- 
let of the South. " 34 

II. 

A second reason which called the Methodist Episcopal 
Church into the South at the close of the war, was the great 

28. Methodist Quarterly Review, Jan., 1866, p. 125, from an article on "The 

Spirit of the Southern Methodist Press." 

29. "The Episcopal Methodist" (Richmond), Oct. 11, 1865. 

30. "The Southern Christian Advocate," Oct. 5, 1865. 

31. Christian Adv. and Journal, Jan. 25, 1866. 

32. Ibid., Aug. 3, 1865. 

33. Ibid., June 8, 1865. 

34. Ibid., May 25, 1865. 



157 

mass of ignorant and needy freedmen. The Church in the 
North had already begun work among the freedmen, before 
the close of the war, and missions for colored people had been 
established as early as 1862, 35 and by the end of the war, the 
Church was giving general support to a number of Freed- 
men 's associations. 36 During the years 1864 and 1865 the Meth- 
odist Church had sent out several missionaries to Negroes in 
the South, and the Missionary Society had appropriated a 
considerable sum of money for their support, and for the es- 
tablishment of churches, Sunday schools and day schools. 
The Church papers and the various conferences had urged 
upon the Government the necessity of establishing a Freed- 
man's Bureau, and among the resolutions passed by the Gen- 
eral Conference of 1864 was one stating "that the best in- 
terests of the freedmen, and of the country demand legislation 
that shall foster and protect this people," and they urge upon 
Congress to establish a bureau of freedmen 's affairs. 37 And 
after the organization of the Freedmen 's Bureau the Metho- 
dist Church became a staunch defender of its work, and a num- 
ber of Methodist ministers and laymen found employment in 
it. The best known Methodist layman engaged in the work of 
the bureau was General Clinton B. Fisk, who was assistant 
commissioner for Kentucky, and his work was given extrava- 
gant praise in the Church press. 38 

When the war was over the Methodist Church greatly in- 
creased their work among the freedmen, and by 1871 there 
were 88,425 colored members of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in the South, and a number of schools had been es- 
tablished for them, in various sections. In 1866 the Freed- 
man's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church was 
organized in Cincinnati, by a convention of ministers and 
laymen, called for that purpose and in 1868 the organization 



35. Christian Advocate and Journal, Feb. 27, 1862. 

36. Sweet, pp. 171-172. 

37. General Conference Journal, 1864, p. 130. 

38. Western Christian Adv., Oct. 18, 1865. An editorial on the "Freedmen's 

Bureau" in which General Fisk receives hieh Draise. 



158 

was given official recognition by the Church and, has remained 
one of its principal benevolent organizations ever since. 39 

The Colored Methodist Episcopal Church at Baton Rouge, 
which was organized in the spring of 1864, is a typical example 
of the better class of colored churches of this period. This 
Church, according to the report of the Union chaplain at that 
post, had nearly three hundred members in 1865, and was in a 
flourishing condition generally. The congregation worshipped 
in the basement of the white Methodist Church, and often 
Union chaplains or ministers from the ranks preached for 
them. The colored churches were, as a rule, well supplied 
with local preachers, exhorters and class leaders, and in the 
church above referred to there were two local preachers, six 
exhorters and eight class leaders, an excellent training for 
future political leaders among the colored race. 40 

The attitude of the Southern Church toward the Negro 
seemed most commendable. At least the editors of their 
Church papers professed a humane and Christian interest in 
them, and they further profess that they will meet in the spirit 
of Christ, the Northern missionary who comes among them to 
do good and they also state that they do not intend to be out- 
done in deeds of kindness towards the Negro race. One editor 
says : "As the father would tenderly nurture the child, and 
stimulate, encourage and direct his labor to bring it to the 
productive point, so a wise political economy would impel 
Southern people to do the same by the Negro." 41 Again the 
same editor says some months later, "The duty is no less ours, 
(to bring the gospel to the Negro) now than it was before the 
slaves were emancipated. It is as much our duty to look after 
their spiritual interests as it is to send missionaries to the 
Indians or to China." 42 Still another Southern editor says 
they will rejoice if the "Northern Christians" do half as much 

39. Report of the Freedman's Aid Society, 1868, pp. 5-8. The first officers of 

the new society were: President, Bishop D. W. Clark; vice-presidents, 
Gen. C. B. Fisk, Hon. Grant Goodrich, Rev. J. W. Wiley; correspond- 
ing secretary, Rev. J. M. Walden; field secretary, Rev. R. S. Rust; 
recording secretary, Rev. J. M. Reed; treasurer, Rev. Adam Poe. 

40. Western, April 26, 1865. 

41. Southern Christian Adv., Sept. 21, 1865. 

42. Ibid., Sept. 21, 1865. 



159 

as they declare they intend to do, and as to their own work he 
says " While we boast of no great wealth, and a very humble 
share of piety is all we claim, yet, when the genuineness of 
our regard for the colored race is brought fairly to the test the 
logic of facts will vindicate us." 43 The Southern ministers as 
well as the editors were also kindly disposed to the Negro, 
though in many instances they advised them to leave the 
Methodist Church South, and enter the Negro churches, such 
as Zion's Methodist Church or the African Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. One minister states that he told the colored 
members of his church about Zion's Methodist Church, and 
"We got the colored people together and after a little talk 
they agreed to go in a body to that Church, so I took the church 
register and transferred them." 44 

The attitude of the Methodist leaders in the North toward 
the Negro, was, as we now look at it, foolishly sentimental. 
They advocated, from the beginning of the war, not only 
emancipation, but the enfranchisement of the Negro as well. 
They exalted and exaggerated his virtues, and were more or 
less blind to his ignorance and glaring weaknesses and faults. 
Eesolutions were passed by the conferences recognizing the 
freedmen as " native born citizens entitled to all the privileges, 
immunities and responsibilities of citizenship, including * * * 
the protection of law and the right of suffrage, ' ' and they fur- 
ther declared that they would not slacken their efforts until 
these rights are obtained for the Negro. 45 Editors wrote 
stirring editorials on the subject of Negro enfranchisement, 
and glowing reports from the missionaries in the South were 
printed from time to time, telling of the great progress of the 
Negro, and of his fitness for citizenship. 

Nothing, perhaps, could have been better fitted for the or- 
ganization of the Negroes into groups for the purpose of their 
political control by white leaders than their organization into 
congregations under the guidance of a white missionary. But 
just how much of a political role such congregations played 



43. Richmond Christian Adv., Oct. 26, 1865. 

44. Recollections of an Old Man. D. Sullens, p. 327. 

45. New York East Conference Minutes, 1865, pp. 41-42. 



160 

during the period of Negro rule, I am not prepared, because 
of the lack of evidence, to state, but that they did play a con- 
siderable political role, I think may be maintained without 
doubt. As I have already suggested, the Methodist Church 
particularly, is a good school, for the training of speakers, for 
it gives the layman, as well as the minister, plenty of oppor- 
tunity in that direction and statistics show that the Negro 
churches were well supplied with local preachers, exhorters 
and class leaders. We also know that a number of Negro 
preachers became prominent and occupied important political 
positions during the years of Negro supremacy. For instance, 
in the constitutional convention of South Carolina, at the be- 
ginning of carpet-bag rule, there were seven colored preach- 
ers out of fifty-seven colored delegates, 46 and a colored 
preacher by the name of Cain was one of South Carolina's 
congressmen at this time. 47 And also one of the only two col- 
ored men who ever became members of the United States 
senate was a colored preacher, one Eev. Hiram E. Bevels, 
from Mississippi. 48 The other colored United States senator 
was Blanche K. Bruce, also of Mississippi. 

HI. 

There remains yet for us to discuss the position of the 
Church on the question of political reconstruction. 

It would be natural to expect that the Methodist Church, 
having been an extremely loyal church during the war, should 
at the close of the war take an extremely radical position on 
the question of reconstruction. And this is exactly what hap- 
pened. In fact, nowhere have I found a more bitter denun- 
ciation of the South, or a more extreme vindictiveness toward 
those lately in rebellion than that expressed by the leaders in 
the Church and by the Church press. Especially was this 
spirit manifest after the assassination of Mr. Lincoln. Even 



46. "Voice from South Carolina." Leland. 

47. Proceedings of South Carolina Constitutional Convention, pp. 522-525. 

48. Schouler, Vol. VII., p. 170 (foot-note). 



161 

Bishop Simpson, in his funeral oration 49 over the body of the 
martyred president, delivered here in Springfield, is not en- 
tirely free from this spirit and says, toward its close, "Let 
every man who was a senator or representative in Congress 
and who aided in beginning this rebellion and thus led to the 
slaughter of our sons and daughters, be brought to speedy and 
certain punishment. Let every officer educated at public ex- 
pense, who having been advanced to position, has perjured 
himself and turned his sword against the vitals of his country 
be doomed to this. * * * Men may attempt to compro- 
mise and to restore these traitors and murderers in society 
again, but the American people will arise in their majesty and 
sweep all such compromises and compromisers away, and will 
declare that there shall be no peace to rebels." The resolu- 
tions passed by the Boston Methodist preachers' meeting, at 
their first meeting following the death of Lincoln, are equally 
vindictive. "Never," they declare, "will the nation feel its 
sense of honor and justice vindicated until the leaders of this 
unprovoked and wicked rebellion shall have suffered condign 
punishment, the penalty of death. ' ' And they further resolve 
that "we hold the national authority bound by the most 
solemn obligation to God and to man, to bring all the civil 
and military leaders of the rebellion to trial by due course of 
law, and when they are clearly convicted, to execute them. ' >5 

The Methodist press generally supported the early acts of 
President Johnson's administration, 51 but no journals were 
quicker to question his later acts and motives than the Church 
papers, and Congressional reconstruction found no more loyal 
supporters than the Methodist editors, and other Church lead- 
ers. The editor of the Western Christian Advocate of Cin- 
cinnati has this to say of President Johnson's reconstruction 
policy in an editorial at the time of the convening of Congress 
in December, 1865: "The experience of the president in the 



49. Christian Advocate (New York), May 11, 1865. Gives the funeral ora- 

tion of Bishop Simpson in full. 

50. Minutes of the Boston Methodist Preachers' Meeting (Mss.), April 24, 

1865. 

51. Western Christian Adv., June 14, 1865. 



162 

exercise of a broad and even excessive magnanimity, seems 
not to have been more satisfactory to him in the end, than it 
was to many of us in the beginning." 52 And the editor of the 
New York Advocate, at the time of the New Orleans riot, 
begins a long editorial with, ''Among the severest chastise- 
ments that Divine Providence inflicts upon sinning nations, is 
giving them incompetent, obstinate and violent rulers. ' ' 53 And 
then the editorial proceeds to lay the blame for the riot and 
the bloodshed at the president's door. In the next issue of 
this same journal, the president again comes in for a scathing 
rebuke, in an editorial entitled, "The Nation's Peril." 54 

As the contest between the president and Congress became 
more and more bitter, the Methodist papers became more and 
more open in their hostility to President Johnson. Comment- 
ing, in January, 1868, on the removal of two Union generals 
from commands in the South, one Methodist editor remarks : 
" Unless reasons more plausible than any that have hitherto 
been adduced, shall be furnished for this act, it will add a still 
darker hue to the reputation of the chief magistrate of this 
nation. ' ' 55 And when the news came that President Johnson 
was impeached, this editor exultingly announces at the begin- 
ning of an editorial entitled "Impeachment": "Andrew 
Johnson is impeached before the Senate of the United States 
for high crimes and misdemeanors. * He has at last 

* boldly set at defiance the laws of the land. * * * 
Our readers will remember how the beastly drunkenness of 
Mr. Johnson, three years ago at Louisville and Cincinnati and 
Washington on the day of inauguration, was denounced in our 
columns, and how we begged the people forthwith to demand 
his resignation. His moral corruption has ever made him a 
disgrace to the nation." 56 How much of this righteous in- 
dignation is due to Mr. Johnson's supposed habits, or to dis- 
gust at his reconstruction policy, would be hard to determine. 

62. Western Christian Advocate, Dec. 6, 1865. 

63. Christian Adv. (New York), Aug. 30, 1866. 

64. Ibid., Sept. 6, 1866. See still another editorial in the issue of Oct. 4, 

1866, on "The Issues Before the Country." 

65. Western Christian Adv., Jan. 8, 1865. 

66. Ibid., March 4, 1868. 



163 

On one occasion, when Bishop Ames was presiding at the 
Indiana conference in the fall of 1867, meeting in Indianapolis, 
a retired Methodist preacher was making a fervent speech, 
bearing upon his long experience in the ministry, and in the 
course of his remarks said, "I would rather be a Methodist 
preacher than to be president of the United States." Just 
at that juncture Bishop Ames, who had been a strenuous sup- 
porter of the Union during the war, said in his piping voice, 
"Most anybody else would, than the kind of president we've 
got now." This remark brought out the most boisterous 
laughter, and so long did it continue that the old brother could 
not finish his speech. 57 

Such bold statements of political opinion, as we have no- 
ticed, both in the Methodist press and on the platform, is evi- 
dence in itself, that the Methodist Church in the North was 
practically a unit on the question of political reconstruction, 
and in their opposition to President Johnson. If there had 
been a divided opinion in the Church on this issue, such bold 
statements as I have given, would not have been reiterated 
again and again, and there would have appeared some protest. 
But nowhere have I been able to find even a breath of protest. 

IV. 

In conclusion I wish first of all to draw some rather general 
conclusions in regard to the influence of the Church on the 
politics of the period, and then to observe in a couple of in- 
stances the influence of the Church over important individuals 
during the reconstruction period. 

After the evidence which we have just read, I think I am 
safe in observing that at the close of the war the Methodist 
Episcopal Church was practically a unit in favor of the radical 
or Congressional reconstruction policies. They favored such 
policies because they had felt strongly on the question of 
slavery and the war, and a feeling of vindictiveness toward 
the South was the natural result. Second, the Methodist 
Church exerted political influence of no small power in the 



57. This incident occurred Sept. 14, 1867. Recollections of Dr. H. A. Gobin. 



164 

South, as we have already pointed out, through its missionary 
operations among the Negroes especially, and thirdly the 
political influence of the Methodist Church in the North was 
perhaps stronger at this period than it had ever been before 
or since, and it is a rather significant fact that both General 
Grant and President Hayes were Methodists. 

And now in closing I wish to call brief attention to some 
interesting personal relations which seem to me significant. 
One of the most interesting of such relationships was that 
existing between President Grant and Eev. Dr. J. P. Newman. 
As already noted, Dr. Newman was the most influential man 
sent into the South by the Methodist Episcopal Church at 
the close of the war, and his positions on Southern questions 
were as might be expected, extremely radical, and he was not 
at all reluctant in letting his opinions be known. During Pres- 
ident Grant's administrations, Dr. Newman became pastor of 
the church in Washington attended by the Grant family, and 
with them and especially with the president, he became very 
intimate. Dr. George F. Shrady, who was one of the consult- 
ing surgeons during the last illness of Grant, and who had 
opportunity of seeing these two men often together, observes 
that " There could be no doubt of a great bond of sympathy 
between these two men, who from long association, under- 
stood each other perfectly," 58 and while General Grant was 
at Mt. McGregor, Dr. Newman was in more or less constant 
attendance, and it was there that he on one occasion, when 
they thought the general was dying, administered to him the 
sacrament of baptism 59 and received him into membership of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Knowing the susceptibility of General Grant to be influenced 
by men for whom he had a personal liking, and knowing Dr. 
Newman's position and strong feeling on the question of 
Southern reconstruction, and knowing that the success of his 
Church in the South depended more or less upon the triumph 
of radical reconstruction, I can hardly escape the conclusion, 



68. "General Grant's Last Days," by Geo. F. Shrady, M.D., Century, June, 

1908, p. 276. 
59. Ibid. 



165 

that Dr. Newman had something to do with determining Gen- 
eral Grant's personal attitude. 

Another interesting personal relationship was that between 
Dr. Newman and the Logans. Mrs. Logan especially was a 
staunch Methodist and was a great admirer of Dr. Newman. 
Speaking of him in her Eeminiscences, recently published, she 
says : "His sermons were, without exception, full of inspired 
language. * * * He was a large man with a big head 
full of brains. * * * He was intensely patriotic and cour- 
ageous, and there was never any doubt as to the meaning of 
his utterances. He was devoted to General Grant, and losing 
all patience with General Grant's detractors, he was ever 
ready to defend him valiantly. ' ' Mrs. Logan says that when 
President Hayes, himself a Methodist, became president, he 
refused to attend the Metropolitan Church, where Dr. New- 
man was the pastor, because General Grant attended that 
church, and Dr. Newman was always defending Grant and 
all the "skulduggery" of his administration. 60 It was Dr. 
Newman, also, who was at the death-bed of General Logan, 61 
as he had been in constant attendance at the deathbed of his 
chief, General Grant. 

It is very interesting, if not significant, that this minister, 
Dr. Newman, afterwards Bishop Newman, should have had 
such close personal relationships with these two public men, 
both of whom played such an important role in the reconstruc- 
tion of the Southern States. 

As suggested at the outstart, this paper is simply meant to 
be suggestive, rather than conclusive, though I am convinced 
that the lines of investigation here indicated so imperfectly, 
would yield, if followed, direct clarification to the period under 
consideration, as well as illuminating and interesting side- 
lights. 



60. "Reminiscences of a Soldier's Wife." By Mrs. John A. Logan, pp. 369-370. 

61. Ibid., p. 430. 



166 



The County Seat Battles of Cass County, Illinois. 

BY J. N. GRIDLEY. 



Cass County lies in the central portion of the State of Illi- 
nois, immediately south of the Sangamon River, and imme- 
diately east of the Illinois River. It is bounded on the north 
by the County of Mason; on the east, by the Counties of 
Menard and Sangamon ; on the south, by the County of Mor- 
gan; on the west, by the Counties of Brown and Schuyler. 
Its east line is sixteen miles in length, and its south line is 
thirty-one miles long ; ^its area is three hundred and seventy 
five square miles. The State of Illinois contains one hundred 
and two counties ; if all were equal in size, each would contain 
five hundred and fifty-five square miles; therefore, Cass is 
but two-thirds of the area of the average Illinois county. In 
1910, the population of Cass County was 17,372; the popula- 
tion of its towns was as follows: Beardstown, 6,107; Vir- 
ginia, 1,501; Chandlerville, 884; Ashland, 1,096; Arenzville, 
518. 

Morgan County, Illinois, was organized by Act of the Illi- 
nois General Assembly, on January 31, 1823, from the north- 
ern part of Greene County, and comprised all the territory 
between the present Greene County on the south, and the 
Sangamon River on the north, being bounded on the west by 
the Illinois River, and on the east by Sangamon County, (of 
which Springfield is the county seat), which included the 
present Scott and Cass Counties. The county seat of Mor- 
gan County is Jacksonville, which was platted in the year 
1825. 

During the winter of 1836 and '37, petitions were circu- 
lated in the northern part of Morgan County for a new county. 
The proposed county was to be made from the northern part 
of Morgan, which laid north of the line dividing townships 




CASS COUNTY COURT HOUSE, VIRGINIA, ILLINOIS 



167 

16 and 17, running from the Illinois Eiver east, to the San- 
gamon County line. These petitions were signed by some 
five hundred voters in Morgan County, which then contained, 
and at the previous August election had polled, about 3,600 
votes. Acting on these petitions, the Legislature passed a 
law conditionally creating the County of Cass, making the 
line not where the petition called for viz: the line dividing 
the township 16 from the township 17, but locating it through 
the center of the township 17, thus cutting off a strip from the 
entire south end of the proposed territory three miles in width, 
and more than thirty miles in length. The condition of this 
law was, that, at the time appointed in the law, an election 
should be held in Morgan County, which then included the 
present Counties of Scott and Cass, for the purpose of accept- 
ing or rejecting the proposed county. At that time Morgan 
County was represented by Wm. O'Rear, Wm. Thomas and 
Wm. Weatherford in the Senate, and Newton Cloud, Stephen 
A. Douglas, Wm. W. Happy, John J. Hardin, Joseph Morton 
and Richard Walker in the lower house. Of these, only one, 
Richard Walker, lived within the territory sought to be 
erected into the new county. This three-mile strip was com- 
posed of very choice land, which these gentlemen did not 
care to see cut off from their county ; another reason for their 
act was, that the town of Virginia had been laid out by its 
proprietor, Dr. Henry H. Hall, in May, 1836, in the geograph- 
ical center of the proposed new county, and he and his friends, 
Archibald Job, William Holmes and others, were urging, not 
only that the new county be created, but that Virginia be des- 
ignated as its permanent county seat. But Virginia was but 
fifteen miles directly north from Jacksonville, and this in- 
fluential Morgan County delegation did not care to see a coun- 
ty seat so near ; Beardstown laid out on the bank of the Illinois 
River in 1826 by E. C. March and Thomas Beard, was twelve 
miles west and four miles north of Virginia, or thirteen miles 
distant therefrom by following the Beardstown and Spring- 
field State road that connected the two ; and these gentlemen 
decided, that if a new county seat was to come into existence, 



168 

the farther from Jacksonville, the better, and they resolved 
to leave the selection of the site to the voters, believing, that 
as Virginia was then a mere hamlet, and Beardstown quite a 
growing place of ten years in advance, that the latter town 
would be chosen; in this they were right, as the sequel will 
show. 

The act for the formation of Cass County was enacted on 
March 3, 1837. The first section described the boundary of 
the proposed county, which description eliminated the three- 
mile strip mentioned. The second section provided for an 
election to be held on the third Monday of April, 1837, by the 
people of Morgan County for or against the formation of the 
new county. The act further provided that if the returns 
should show that a majority of the votes cast were in favor 
of the creation of the proposed county, then the clerk of the 
County Commissioners Court should transmit a certificate of 
that fact to the secretary of state of the State of Illinois to 
be filed by him as the evidence that the new county had been 
created, and in that event that an election should be held in 
the new county on the first Monday of May, 1837, to choose 
the county seat for the County of Cass ; that if the owner of 
lands where said county seat should be located, shall donate 
and convey to the County of Cass at least fifteen acres of land, 
where said seat should be located, to be disposed of by the 
County Court and the proceeds used in erecting a court house 
and jail; but if Beardstown should be chosen, then that town, 
within a year should donate not less than $10,000 for the erec- 
tion of such buildings; that the seat of justice should be lo- 
cated at Beardstown, until the public buildings were erected; 
that in case Beardstown failed to make the payment of $10,000 
within the year, then the County Court should locate the coun- 
ty seat at the point where the fifteen acres should be provided. 

At the appointed time an election was held under this act; 
many of the voters within the proposed new county were so 
enraged because the three-mile strip was omitted that they 
refused to go to the polls ; others did vote for the new county 
for the reason they believed a subsequent Legislature would 



169 



add this strip. Of the 3,600 votes that were polled the pre- 
vious fall, only one thousand were cast at this special election 
in April ; and of the voters within the boundaries of the pro- 
posed new county there was an actual majority of 48 against 
the proposition, but by rejecting the returns from Lucas Pre- 
cinct which was within the proposed new county and Mere- 
dosia Precinct, in what is now and then was Morgan County, 
it was declared that the election had resulted in favor of the 
formation of Cass County; the returns from Meredosia Pre- 
cinct were thrown out because they were returned by a citizen 
who was neither a clerk nor a judge of the election ; and the re- 
turns from Lucas Precinct were rejected for the reason that 
they were sent in by mail, instead of having been delivered by 
one of the election officials. The election held the following 
month, to choose the seat of justice of Cass County, resulted 
in a majority in favor of Beardstown. 

On July 21, 1837, the Legislature passed an act in relation 
to Cass County, Illinois, in which it was recited that under 
elections held under the former act that a majority of the 
votes were cast in favor of the creation of the new county, and 
that Beardstown had been chosen as the county seat; that 
some doubts had been expressed as to the legality of the pro- 
ceedings, and therefore this act declared that Cass County 
was one of the counties of the State of Illinois ; that the county 
seat shall be located in Beardstown, provided said town paid 
the sum of $10,000 for the erection of the public buildings; 
that said sum might be made in three equal annual pay- 
ments, etc. 

Beardstown having failed to pay any portion of the $10,000 
for the erection of the court house and jail within the time 
mentioned in the foregoing act of July 21, 1837, the County 
Commissioners proceeded to locate the county seat of Cass 
County at the town of Virginia, as Dr. Henry H. Hall, the pro- 
prietor of the said town had conveyed to the county a tract of 
fifteen acres, immediately west of and adjoining the plat of 
the addition to the town. The County Commissioners then ap- 
pointed Dr. Hall as a special commissioner to lay off the said 



170 

tract of fifteen acres into a block for the new court house and 
lots, streets and alleys, and sell and convey the same in behalf 
of the county; acting under this power, Dr. Hall platted a 
three-acre tract three hundred feet wide and four hundred 
and fifty feet long for the " Court House Square," and the 
remainder of the donated tract was platted as ordered. Dr. 
Hall had no sooner begun the sale of lots in this addition which 
was called "The Public Grounds of Cass County," than the 
County Commissioners proposed a new contract, which the 
Doctor accepted, under which Hall agreed to erect the court 
house and jail according to plans agreed upon, and in consid- 
eration thereof the County Commissioners reconveyed to Hall 
all the lots aside from the three-acre tract aforesaid, and re- 
paid to him the moneys he had received from the sale of the 
lots. The building of a very respectable two-story building 
for a court house was begun in the fall of 1838, and rapidly 
finished; a sufficient jail was built nearby, both buildings of 
brick. 

On the 2nd day of March, 1839, the State Legislature passed 
an act to provide for the location of the county seat of Cass 
County; in the preamble to this act it was recited that the 
corporation of Beardstown had failed to pay the $10,000, and 
had not agreed to comply with the provisions of the former 
act in relation to such payment ; that the County Commission- 
ers of said Cass County had located the county seat at Vir- 
ginia and had contracted for the erection of a court house 
and jail in said county; that doubts were entertained as to the 
authority of the commissioners to so act, therefore it was en- 
acted that the county seat of Cass County be and remain at 
Virginia, and the courts of said county shall hereafter be held 
at that place ; and the several officers of said county who are 
required to keep their offices at the county seat are required 
to remove their respective books and papers, etc., pertaining 
to the same to Virginia, on or before the first Monday of May, 
1839, and any one of them failing to comply to be liable to 
indictment and removal from office. 

It appears that the buildings were not fully completed by 
May, 1839, and therefore the first term of the Circuit Court 



171 

of the county was held at Beardstown, beginning on Novem- 
ber 13, 1837, Judge Jesse B. Thomas presiding, who appointed 
N. B. Thompson clerk of the Circuit Court, Lemon Plaster 
was the sheriff. The next term of said court was held in 
Beardstown May 21, 1838, in October 1839, Hon. Samuel H. 
Treat, presiding as judge ; at Virginia, Judge Samuel D. Lock- 
wood presided at the next term in April, 1840. 

In the meantime steamboat transportation upon the Illinois 
River had greatly increased, to the great benefit of Beards- 
town, which began a rapid growth of population and business 
enterprises ; the people of that town much regretted that they 
had failed to retain the possession of the county seat, and 
resolved to procure its return from Virginia. Accordingly 
they procured the passage of an act by the Legislature, which 
was enacted on March 4, 1843, providing for an election to be 
held for the purpose of selecting a permanent seat of justice 
for Cass County. The act further provided that the citizens 
or proprietors of the place selected by the majority of the 
votes cast at the election, shall, within eighteen months after 
the said election, convey, or procure to be conveyed to the said 
County of Cass a suitable lot or lots of ground for the purpose 
of a public square, with a suitable building thereon erected for 
the purpose of holding courts therein, and a suitable lot or lots 
of ground with a suitable jail thereon erected, the suitability 
of such buildings to be certified by the presiding judge of the 
Circuit Court of said county, by his certificate in writing, to be 
filed in the office of the clerk of the County Commissioners 
Court of said county, and if the provisions of this act be not 
complied with, then the county seat of the County of Cass 
shall forever thereafter be and remain at the town of Virginia, 
in Cass County. Should the town of Beardstown be selected 
as the county seat, the president and trustees of the said town 
are authorized to convey to the said county any lot or lots of 
ground, the title to which to be vested in the inhabitants of 
said town, in order to carry out the provisions of this act. 

Under this law, an election was held in the County of Cass, 
on the first Monday of September, 1843 ; 741 votes were polled 



172 

at that election, of which 426 were cast in the Beardstown pre- 
cinct, and 236 were cast in the Virginia precinct; the result 
was a majority of 165 in favor of removal. Immediately the 
people of Beapdstown proceeded to procure a location for the 
proposed buildings ; a lot was selected at the southeast corner 
of the public park upon which a commodious two-story court 
house of brick was erected, in the rear of which a safe and 
secure jail was built ; these buildings were erected in the year 
1844. 

The records of the Cass County Commissioners Court show 
the following order : 

" February called term of the County Commissioners Court. 
This day, (February 8, 1845,) the court met in pursuance to 
a call made on the 3d instant. 

Present, Henry McHenry, Jesse B. Pearce and George B. 
Thompson. 

This day Henry E. Dummer, Esqr., on the behalf of the 
Corporation of Beardstown, presented to the court a deed 
from Thomas E. Saunders to the County of Cass for Lot 
Number One in Block Number Thirty-one in Beardstown in 
said county. Also a receipt from B. W. Schneider, contractor 
for building the court house on Lot One in Block Thirty-one 
(31) in the town of Beardstown in Cass County, for the pay- 
ment in full for erecting said building ; also a like receipt from 
Thomas Beard, contractor for building the jail on said lot, to 
the trustees of Beardstown ; and also the certificate of the suf- 
ficiency of the court house and jail at Beardstown from the 
Hon. Samuel D. Lockwood, presiding judge of the Circuit 
Court of Cass County which papers were ordered to be duly 
filed. 

Court adjourned to meet at Beardstown on the first Monday 
in March, 1845. 

H. McHenry, 
J. B. Pearce, 
G.B.Thompson," 

Commissioners. 




JOHN W. PRATT 



173 

This loss of the county seat seemed like a death blow to the 
little scattered town of Virginia, only a hamlet of some 200 
population. The center of population for the county then 
being at Bluff Springs, but four miles east of Beardstown; 
the eastern end of the county was very sparsely settled at that 
date. Acting under that belief, a number of the business men 
of Virginia left the place to settle at Bath, twenty miles or 
more to the northeast, located on the Illinois River and then 
a flourishing town and the county seat of Mason County ; but 
a few residents of Virginia, led by N. B. Thompson, refused 
to acquiesce in that view of the matter, and, with the spirit 
that animated the Crusaders to recover the Holy Sepulchre, 
they dedicated their lives to the sacred cause of regaining 
the county seat. They bided their time with patience, await- 
ing the eastward moving of the population's center by access 
of immigrants in the eastern part of the county to favor their 
object. 

In the meantime very strenuous efforts were put forth to 
recover the three-mile strip, which the citizens of Cass be- 
lieved they were entitled to have as their own. The county was 
ably represented in the State Legislature by John W. Pratt, a 
citizen of Virginia, who had held the office of county clerk of 
the county. Mr. Pratt made an able speech in that body as 
early as the 7th day of February, 1843, in favor of his bill to 
extend the limits of Cass County. The members from Morgan 
County, led by the Hon. Newton Cloud, strongly opposed the 
measure. The Legislature adjourned within a month from 
the time Mr. Pratt made his speech in favor of his bill, and 
in that short time he was not able to overcome. the strong 
opposition made by the Morgan County members. His con- 
stituents, recognizing his ability, returned him as their mem- 
ber at the election held on August 5, 1844, by a handsome 
majority, and on the 2nd day of December, 1844, he again took 
his seat as a member of that body. The Morgan delegation 
then consisted of John Henry, senator, and Francis Arenz, 
Samuel S. Matthews, Isaac D. Rawlings and Richard Yates, 
representatives. The last named later became the great war 



174 

governor of Illinois. Newton Cloud was clerk of the House. 
The proposition to extend the limits of Cass County was again 
brought to the attention of the law-makers of the State ; Mr. 
Pratt, with his persistent ability, aided by his former ex- 
perience and more general acquaintance with the public men 
of his day, with right and justice upon his side, was success- 
ful in obtaining the passage of his bill on the 26th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1845, which submitted the question of adding the three- 
mile strip to Cass County by a vote of the residents upon the 
territory in question, which election was held on the first 
Monday in May, 1845, and resulted in favor of the proposition 
by a large majority; 246 voting for annexation to Cass County 
and but 78 voting against it. 

On the llth day of February, the State Legislature passed 
a law entitled an act to re-locate the county seat of Cass 
County, which provided for an election to be held on the first 
Monday in November, 1853, to determine whether the present 
seat of justice of said county shall be removed to Virginia ; in 
case the election shall result in favor of such removal, then 
it shall be the duty of the County Court of said county to pro- 
vide suitable public buildings, etc. Under this act an election 
was held which resulted in the defeat of Virginia by a vote 
of 609 votes for removal, and 886 votes against removal. 

In the spring of 1857, John Mathers, Elmore Crow, James 
L. Beggs, Eichards Yates, Newton Cloud and others, organ- 
ized the Ashland Land Company, and laid out the town of 
Ashland, in the southeast corner of Cass County on the line 
of a recently incorporated railroad, then in course of con- 
struction, from Jacksonville to Tonica, in La Salle County, 
to be called the Tonica and Petersburg Railroad ; a short time 
later the plan was changed and the road switched into Bloom- 
ington; it is now a branch of the Chicago and Alton system. 
The right of way of the Illinois River Railroad had been se- 
cured from Havana in Mason County to Virginia in Cass 
County ; the Cumberland Presbyterian Church had established 
a college in Virginia, and to accommodate the people who 
were moving in to educate their children, the Hall and 



175 

Thomas' addition to the town had been laid out, many of the 
lots purchased by those who were erecting homes thereon. 
The very rich prairies about Virginia were being fast settled, 
and it was thought that the outlook favored another trial to 
remove the county seat from the Illinois Eiver on the extreme 
west to the geographical center of the county, where the town 
of Virginia was then flourishing. 

On the 16th day of February, 1857, the Legislature of the 
State passed another act for the re-location of the county seat 
of Cass County, which provided for an election to be held in 
November, 1857; that it should be lawful for the citizens of 
Virginia, or any other persons, before or after the election, 
to enter into bonds to pay such sums for the purpose of erect- 
ing public buildings, and if a majority of the votes were cast 
for removal, then such bonds should be legal and binding. 
This election was held on the 3rd day of November, 1857, and 
Virginia was again defeated. The interest and excitement 
incident to that election were most intense, and arrayed the 
citizens and partizans of the two towns against each other in 
bitter personal animosity. The people of Beardstown, de- 
termined to overcome the increased vote of the eastern portion 
of the county, resorted to unstinted frauds, even to importing 
the hoop-pole cutters and stave-splitters to vote for them. 
For that purpose a steamboat plied all day to and from points 
in Brown and Schuyler Counties; and all aliens and non- 
residents in reach were brought in to vote for Beardstown, 
and to vote often. By such means, there were polled 1,606 
votes against removal, a larger number, by nearly 200 than 
all the legal voters of the county at that time. In all other 
parts of the county, 986 were cast for removal ; a goodly por- 
tion were obviously also fraudulent. At the same election the 
proposition submitted to the people of Cass County to sub- 
scribe $50,000 to the Keokuk and Warsaw Railroad, (a 
Beardstown project) was rejected by the vote of 636 for, and 
792 against. The Virginians did not appeal to the courts for 
a recount of the ballots and expurgation of frauds, but sul- 



176 

lenly acquiesced in the result as shown by the poll-books, 
determined to try it again at a later day. 

By the end of the next decade, the name of the Illinois Eiver 
Railroad had been changed to the Peoria, Pekin and Jackson- 
ville Eailroad, and was completed between Pekin and Vir- 
ginia, and the Tonica Eoad through Ashland was running as 
far north as Petersburg ; a national bank had been organized 
in Virginia, and the town was in a very healthy condition; 
the numerous railroads through the country had caused the 
river transportation to almost disappear; Beardstown had 
been at a standstill for a long time and was then decreasing in 
business importance, and so the Virginians thought the time 
had come to engage in another battle for the long coveted coun- 
ty seat. They, therefore, procured the passage of another act 
by the Legislature on February 14, 1867, for another election 
which they hoped would bring victory to them at last. By this 
act it was provided that the question should be submitted to 
the voters on the second Tuesday in April, 1867, and in case 
the result was in favor of removal, then it was provided that 
Virginia must pay over to the County Court of the county 
the sum of ten thousand dollars, to be used in constructing 
county buildings; it should have been stated, that in 1845, 
after the seat of justice had been removed to Beardstown, 
the county authorities, without objection, conveyed the ground 
and building which had been built for a court house by Dr. 
Hall in 1838-9, to the school trustees of the Virginia township 
for school purposes, and the ground and building was there- 
after converted to that use. 

Fully expecting that the Beardstown managers would have 
recourse to the same frauds they practised so successfully ten 
years before, the Virginians foolishly determined to "beat 
them at their own game," and did very much so by adopt- 
ing the same wretched tactics. In fact, they largely overdid it r 
the poll-books showing that all the poets and philosophers of 
ancient times, the signers of the Declaration of Independence, 
as well as a host of Union and Confederate heroes of the late 
war, had voted for Virginia. The result was 3,940 votes were 



177 

i 

recorded for removal, of which 2,820 were polled in Virginia 
alone. The votes against removal numbered but 850. The 
entire legal vote of the county was then, approximately, about 
1,600. Beardstown contested the election in the Circuit Court, 
the case was heard by Judge Smith, of Galesburg, who came 
to Beardstown to try the case ; among the lawyers for Virginia 
was Hon. Eobert G. Ingersoll, then of Peoria, Illinois, and 
Samuel L. Richmond, of Lacon, Illinois, a circuit judge; of 
counsel for Beardstown was Hon. U. F. Linder, a noted lawyer 
of southern Illinois. The poll-books kept by the election of- 
ficers at Virginia were rejected, and Beardstown was again 
triumphant. 

Among the delegates chosen by the people of Illinois to pre- 
pare their new constitution of 1870 were two eminent lawyers, 
Hon. Alfred M. Craig, of Knox County, and Hon. John M. 
Scholfield, of Clark County; both these gentlemen later were 
elevated to the bench of the Supreme Court of the State. The 
makers of this new constitution agreed that all special legis- 
lation should be prohibited in the future, which included acts 
for the removal of county seats. The members from Knox 
and Clark had county seat troubles of their own, and united 
in the framing of the following section to be included in the 
article entitled counties : 

"Section 4. No county seat shall be removed until the 
point to which it is proposed to be removed shall be fixed in 
pursuance of law, and three-fifths of the voters of the county, 
to be ascertained in such manner as shall be provided by 
general law, shall have voted in favor of its removal to such 
point ; and no person shall vote on such question who has not 
resided in the county six months, and in the election precinct 
ninety days next preceding such election. The question of 
the removal of a county seat shall not be oftener submitted 
than once in ten years, to a vote of the people. ' ' 

It may be believed that the Virginians were closely watch- 
ing the proceedings of this convention, and when it was 
learned that this Section 4 was practically agreed on, knowing 
it would forever blast their fond hopes of some day seeing the 



178 

court house again in Virginia, they resolved to do all in their 
power to prevent the adoption of this section, as the task of 
getting three-fifths of all the voters of Cass County to agree 
that the county seat be removed to Virginia was a hopeless 
one. The trustees of Virginia sent two citizens to Springfield 
to act as "lobby members" of the convention ; one was Samuel 
H. Petefish, a wealthy farmer and banker, and the other the 
writer of this sketch, who was a young man just beginning 
the practice of the law in Cass County. They first appealed 
to Judges Scholfield and Craig to agree to a change of this 
section, but found them invulnerable; they believed the sec- 
tion was as good as adopted already. They then began to 
interview other members of the convention, whom they hoped 
might be so influential as to be able to defeat the passage of 
this odious section. The writer interviewed Judge Under- 
wood of St. Clair County upon the subject; the judge very 
plainly said that the previous county seat elections had been 
most disgraceful, and he should use all his influence to pre- 
vent any more of them. There had been other contests of this 
sort in Illinois, conducted very much on the plan of the Beards- 
town election of 1857 and the Virginia affair of 1867. Even 
the restrictions that were finally adopted by the makers of the 
constitution of 1870 did not close the door against a repetition 
of those former disgraceful scenes. At an election held in 
Knox County, the home of Judge Craig, in a contest between 
Knoxville, then the county seat, and Galesburg, a city that 
desired its removal, the election was contested and a history 
of it is to be found in the 63d volume of the decisions of the 
Supreme Court of Illinois ; the title of the case is The Board 
of Supervisors of Knox County, and others, against George 
Davis, and others ; in this opinion the court said, that stupen- 
dous frauds were committed at Knoxville ; the election officers 
boarded up the windows so as to be unable to see each person 
who presented his ballot, there only being a small opening 
through which ballots could be passed ; persons were permitted 
to vote many times ; even young boys voted, and a vote for a 
dog was received ; the poll-books showed a vote of over 1,500, 



179 

when there had never been polled there before one-half so 
many; the clerks of the election refused to testify that the 
poll-books had not been changed. 

Although Judge Underwood flatly refused to assist the suf- 
fering Virginians, an appeal to his colleague, Hon. Wm. H. 
Snyder, of St. Clair County, was successfully made. This 
gentleman was a member of great influence in that body, later 
he became a judge of the Circuit Court in his district, to which 
station he was re-elected. Judge Snyder gladly took the lead 
in the attack upon this objectionable section because he saw 
the rank injustice of it, but for the additional reason that his 
brother, Dr. J. F. Snyder, was a resident of Virginia, and, 
of course, much interested in the welfare of his town. 
The Doctor has since served our State Historical Society as 
its honored president, and has made many valuable contri- 
butions to our records. The able and powerful attacks made 
by Judge Snyder against this fourth section appealed very 
strongly to many other members, who joined the Judge in the 
objections to it. Judge Craig became alarmed at the situation 
and approached our Virginia lobby members to ascertain 
whether he could make terms with them. A compromise was 
soon agreed upon by adding to the section as it had been 
framed these words : 

"But when an attempt is made to remove a county seat to a 
point nearer to the center of a county, then a majority vote 
only shall be necessary." 

As Knoxville was nearer the center of Knox County than 
was Galesburg, and as Virginia was within a few rods of the 
geographical center of Cass County, Judge Craig was satisfied 
and Mr. Petefish and the writer went home, and the people 
ratified the constitution with Section 4, Article 10, as above 
set forth. 

The next step on the long and weary road to the removal of 
the Cass County seat, was to watch the Legislature to see that 
a proper law regulating county seat elections should be writ- 
ten into the statute book. Accordingly, Virgina sent up a 
strong force to look after this, to them a most important mat- 



180 

ter. Among those who went was Dr. J. F. Snyder, who took an 
active part in this business. Colonel William E. Morrison, a 
life-long personal friend of the Doctor, often gave this account 
of it. He said the Doctor interviewed Gus Koerner, rep- 
resentative from St. Clair County, and a member of the county 
seat committee, and was very persistent in impressing upon 
him the advisability of a carefully constructed law relating 
to county seat removals. "Rest assured, Doctor," said Gus., 
"that we will make a fair county seat law." "That is what 
we want," replied the Doctor, "but we don't want it so d d 
fair that it will let Beardstown beat us. ' ' 

The general law for the removal of county seats, now in 
force, was passed by the Illinois Legislature on March 15, 
1872, in force July 1, 1872. This law provided that all elec- 
tions for removal of county seats must be held on the second 
Tuesday after the first Monday of November, at the usual 
places of holding elections; and the same persons who were 
judges and clerks at the next preceding general election, in 
their respective election precincts, shall act as judges and 
clerks of such county seat elections. It was by this law made 
necessary to circulate petitions throughout the county for a 
vote upon the removal of the county seat, and it was also 
necessary that as many as two-fifths in number of the votes 
cast at the preceding presidential election should be signed to 
the said petition by legal voters outside of the two contesting 
precincts. It was required that this petition be filed by the 
clerk of the county court of the county, and it was the duty of 
that court to examine the petition and determine whether the 
law had been followed. 

The Virginians entered into this contest with brighter pros- 
pects than ever before. The establishment of the Farmer's 
National Bank in the town in 1865 has been referred to ; the 
managers secured the services of John H. Wood as cashier; 
Mr. Wood had been connected with one of the banks in Jack- 
sonville, Illinois, for a number of years, and was an excellent 
man for the position ; Edward T. Oliver was employed as an 
assistant ; he was a native Virginian, and a young man of ex- 



/TO 





SAMUEL H. PETEFISH 



181 

emplary habits and of very good business ability. A large 
number of wealthy farmers of Cass County had previously 
transacted their banking business in Jacksonville, and, as a 
matter of convenience, had done their trading there. All these 
transferred their accounts to the new bank in Virginia. Bar- 
den and Wood laid off an addition adjoining the plat on the 
southeast, and at once lots were sold and houses began to grow 
upon them. In 1871 Samuel H. Petefish, a wealthy and en- 
terprising farmer, who had recently moved in from his farm 
to Virginia, organized the banking firm of Petefish, Skiles 
and Company, composed of Samuel H. Petefish, Ignatius 
Skiles, William Campbell and Jacob A. Epler, all of whom 
were prosperous farmers; Mr. Epler had retired, and was 
then living in Virginia. They employed Mr. Richard Elliott, 
a son of Edward R. Elliott, one of the most solid and success- 
ful bankers in central Illinois, a member of the firm of Hocken- 
hull, King and Elliott of Jacksonville. Fine brick store build- 
ings were erected around the public square; people who be- 
lieved the county seat would soon be located in Virginia came 
in, and a boom was on. On the other hand, Beardstown was in 
a sad condition. The town was laid out in 1826 ; Thomas Beard 
came to Illinois in the year 1817, when he was but 23 years 
old ; he found General Murray McConnel at Edwardsville, Illi- 
nois. The general was attracted to the young man, who told 
him that his ambition was to locate a ferry on the Illinois 
Eiver. McConnel had previously explored the valley of that 
river and described to the young man the famous Kickapoo 
Mounds a short distance below the mouth of the Sangamon 
Eiver, and offered to go with him to inspect that locality. They 
set out on horseback to travel the distance of 100 miles ; Beard 
was charmed with the prospect and resolved to remain there ; 
he soon made friends with the Indians and established his 
ferry at that point, as the east bank of the river was an eligible 
site for an Illinois city. It was named in his honor; as soon 
as he was able he erected a fine building and established a 
hotel therein. His ferry enterprize prospered ; it was not long 
until his daily receipts were large sometimes $100 per day. 



182 

When settlers began to fill up Iowa, hundreds of them crossed 
the Illinois ferry at Beardstown. The river navigation rap- 
idly increased; for years all the supplies needed in Spring- 
field were shipped by the river to Beardstown, and carted 
across the country to Springfield in wagons, a distance of 
fifty miles. Thousands and thousands of hogs were driven to 
Beardstown, coming for a distance of nearly fifty miles to 
be slaughtered and packed for shipment to New Orleans, St. 
Louis, Cincinnati and other cities. The town grew rapidly; 
flouring mills, saw mills, distilleries, and other business enter- 
prizes were there established and did a thriving business. In 
the '50 's Horace Billings erected the Park House, a three- 
story brick hotel, a palace in those days, and even today 
widely known as one of the best managed hotel properties in 
the middle west. Henry E. Dummer came there in an early 
day from New England, a young lawyer; he became probate 
judge, a State senator, built a fine brick law office on the 
public square and prospered ; Garland Pollard, another bright 
young attorney, came from the east and settled in Beards- 
town in 1860; he also flourished, known as a lawyer of dis- 
tinguished ability. But, alas, for Beardstown, railroads began 
building ; the river traffic began failing, and the city began to 
languish; no railroad, hundreds of fertile acres immediately 
near, still annually overflowed, the days of drainage had not 
yet arrived; Leonard's bank went to smash; Judge Dummer 
became discouraged and went to Jacksonville, where he soon 
built up a fine law practice ; Mr. Pollard quit in disgust and 
went to St. Louis where his ability was soon recognized and 
he was made attorney in chief of the great Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad system; the large and well appointed Park House 
was turned over to Andy Maxwell, furnished for one year rent 
free, the following year he paid as rent the beggarly pittance 
of three hundred dollars. Judge Douglas, of national fame, 
had purchased a large number of lots in Beardstown; he al- 
lowed them to sell for taxes ; the writer of this sketch owned 
a number of lots, now very valuable, for which he was glad 
to get $75 each; no one now visiting the beautiful and pros- 



183 

perous city of Beardstown, one of the very best little cities in 
Illinois, can easily believe this doleful account of her condition 
in those "hard times." The railroad now owned by the Balti- 
more and Ohio system had been extended into Beardstown 
about 1870, but seemed at that time to be of no benefit or ad- 
vantage to her. It was like the razors that were made, not to 
shave, but to sell. That with many other roads was built to 
bond, and then allow the bond-holders to foreclose and lose 
their money; that class of railroads are now owned by the 
great railroad systems of the country, bought for a beggarly 
price and used as feeders. 

And so Virginia thought that to get the county seat would 
now be an easy task ; they reckoned without their host, as the 
sequel will show. 

The first necessary thing to do was to make a city out of the 
little town of Virginia, and to do that it was necessary to find 
at least one thousand people within the corporate limits. For 
that work a census-taker was chosen. A boy was once sent 
out into a farm-yard to count the pigs; he returned and re- 
ported that he had counted all but one, and that one had run 
so fast that he could not count him ; perhaps our census man 
found so many in the outskirts running so fast that he counted 
them more than once ; but, at least, he reported one thousand, 
and who was there to dispute it ? The Bible says that once on 
a time the disciples were all in one place, with one accord, 
and like them, there was no dissension among the Virginians 
in the beginning of this contest. The next move was to employ 
Hon. Cassius G. Whitney of Pekin, Illinois, a talented young 
lawyer who then was the state's attorney for the circuit con- 
taining Tazewell, Mason, Menard and Cass Counties. Later 
he was a partner of Hon. Charles M. Tinney, a well known 
Illinois republican politician, now living in Springfield. Mr. 
Whitney prepared the preliminary notices under the law, and 
the Virginia party was soon made aware of the fact that the 
opposition to their plans was to be strong and bitter. Mr. 
Whitney with some of the more zealous Virginians, among 
them Ignatius Skiles, Morrison Graves, Chas. Crandall and 



184 

others, made a school house campaign all over the central and 
eastern portion of the county, urging the people to remove 
their county seat where justice demanded it should be situated. 
No sooner was the campaign inaugurated than Jacob Dun- 
away unfolded his plan to win the county seat election. This 
man became a resident of Virginia about 1849 ; he came as a 
stage driver; soon he owned the stage lines between Virginia 
and Jacksonville, and Virginia and Beardstown; soon he 
purchased the Virginia hotel ; he was a man of but little edu- 
cation, but of great natural ability; had he been properly 
educated, he might have become a famous lawyer. He had 
been in the thickest of the fight in the various county seat 
elections held after his advent into Cass County ; he knew what 
Beardstown had done, what she could do, and what she would 
be likely to do. He saw that a majority of all the voters in 
the county must be obtained to win; that all the sick, all the 
absentees, all the supremely indifferent would be counted 
against Virginia, and so he declared that the only way to win 
the county seat was for the town of Virginia to build a respect- 
able court house on the public square before the election. His 
plan, at first was ridiculed; the objectors exclaimed, " Vir- 
ginia has no authority to build a court house." To this Dun- 
away replied, ' i Virginia can build a city hall and turn it over 
to the county." The answer to this was, " Virginia already 
has a two-story brick city hall that is still unpaid for, and if 
we begin on your plan an injunction will be issued to stop us." 
But Dunaway persisted; he hammered away, and, at last, it 
was agreed that the building should be erected. If the plan 
of Jacob Dunaway had not been adopted, the county seat 
would never have been removed to Virginia, as the reader will 
see before he finishes this account. If Virginia had derived 
one-half the expected benefit the removal of the seat of justice 
was to bring, then it would be the duty of their citizens to erect 
a monument in the public square to the memory of Jacob Dun- 
away. There could not have been another election before 
1882, and by that date Beardstown was on the high road to 
her present degree of prosperity, and an effort then to take 
the county seat would not have been made. 




JACOB DUNAWAY 



185 

The plans for a neat two-story building of brick with stone 
trimmings, conveniently arranged for a court house, were ar- 
ranged to cost more than twenty thousand dollars ; Jobst and 
Pierce of Peoria, were awarded the contract to build it, and 
immediately the work was begun upon the public square and 
was rapidly pushed forward. The dedicatory services were 
attended by a large concourse of people, but not many came 
from Beardstown. The argument of Jacob Dunaway was 
this : A large number of tax-paying citizens, living half-way 
between the towns, finding that Virginia has paid for a court 
house to be given to the county, will not vote for Beardstown, 
knowing that if Beardstown wins, she will tax us to build a 
set of county buildings that will forever settle this county seat 
question. Virginia will be as convenient to us as Beards- 
town, so we will vote for removal to accept a court house 
ready for use. This argument without doubt was effective 
with not a few of the voters who lived near the * * divide. ' ' 

On the 5th day of November, 1872, the election for county 
officers was held in Cass County, and to show the bitterness 
that then existed between the two contending factions, let me 
here say : Previous to that time for many years, Cass County 
had been a democratic stronghold; the county could be de- 
pended upon to roll up a democratic majority of several hun- 
dred, but, at that election, two candidates upon the republican 
ticket, George Volkmar for sheriff, and Albert W. Arenz, for 
circuit clerk, were elected by good majorities for the reason 
that they were residents of Beardstown, and both active work- 
ers against Virginia. For some years after that election the 
county was divided into two hostile camps, in bitter warfare ; 
the Virginians made up mixed Virginia tickets composed of 
both republicans and democrats, and fought for them and 
elected them until such time as the hatred wore away. 

The 12th day of November was an ideal day, a beautiful 
Indian summer day, and in what land can more entrancing 
weather be enjoyed than that of the Indian summers of the 
middle west? Challengers came up from Beardstown pro- 
vided for by the county seat law to attend the election at 



186 

Virginia, and challengers went to Beardstown to see the elec- 
tion was a fair one. The nooks and corners of the little county 
were carefully explored; the bushes were beaten, and every 
effort was made to get all the voters to the polls. The battle 
was very quietly fought and fairly conducted on both sides. 
The result, as shown by the count, was 1,458 votes for the 
removal, and 1,330 votes against the removal, a majority of 
128 votes in favor of Virginia, and there was great rejoicing 
in the center of the county. But the good people of Beards- 
town did not believe in surrender, and prepared to fight to 
the limit. The service of able lawyers was arranged for; 
Garland Pollard, then of St. Louis, and Isaac J. Ketcham of 
Jacksonville, were at once retained, with Hon. Thomas H. Car- 
ter, an old lawyer of Beardstown, who was selected for local 
counsel. They promptly prepared a bill to contest the elect- 
tion, claiming that many persons had voted for removal with- 
out right; that more than one hundred legal voters had not 
voted either way; and that there was not a majority of all 
the legal voters of the county who had voted for removal. 

Cass County never adopted the township organization plan 
of county government, but retained the old system. The three 
county commissioners were originally called the County Com- 
missioners Court, and later were styled the County Court ; the 
Probate Court had recently been granted common law juris- 
diction, to a limited extent, and that tribunal was also called 
the County Court. In the fifteen sections of the act for the 
removal of county seats, the County Court was named in seven 
of them, and there was some doubt which of these two 
" courts" was meant in these several sections. This defect 
was recognized by the Legislature of 1873, which amended the 
act by providing that the words " county court," or "court," 
as they appear in the original act shall, except in Sections 12 
and 13 be held to mean the County Court for the transaction of 
probate and judicial business; and the word "county court," 
as used in Section 13 of the act, shall be held to mean the 
county court for the transaction for county business. As the 
law was blind on this important point, Mr. Whitney had to 



187 

make a guess at it, and, of course, the attorneys for Beards- 
town, no matter what they really believed, pretended to believe 
that the Virginians got into the wrong court and therefore the 
whole proceedings were void, and no valid election had been 
held. Before November was ended, a large delegation from 
these two contending cities were in Havana, Mason County, 
before Charles Turner, the judge of the Circuit Court, in a 
struggle over this disputed question. The judge held one ses- 
sion in Havana and continued it to a later date to be finished 
at Pekin. Hon. N. W. Green, an excellent lawyer of Pekin, 
was retained by the Virginians to aid Mr. Whitney; Beards- 
town was there, represented by Messrs. Pollard and Ketcham. 
The judge held that Whitney had guessed right, and that 
ended that contention. 

An injunction had been granted in the case for the contest- 
ing of this election, restraining the removal of the county rec- 
ords, until the final disposition of the case, so Beardstown 
was in no hurry to reach the end of the action. After a long 
conference, it was agreed that Mr. James A. Hall, then in the 
employ of Judge Kirby of Jacksonville, in his title abstract 
office, should be chosen as the special commissioner to take 
the testimony in the case. A part of the testimony was taken 
at Virginia, but the greater part at Beardstown, where this 
writer was engaged more than two hundred days. The exami- 
nation of witnesses dragged on for many weary months ; hun- 
dreds of those who had voted were called upon to testify; 
some were sent for several different times, to their discomfort 
and disgust. Under the county seat election law, the residence 
qualification required that the voter should have resided one 
year in the State, six months in the county, and ninety days 
in the election precinct, whereas, in other elections, but ninety 
days* residence in the county and thirty days in the election 
precinct was necessary; the difference was designed to dis- 
courage the colonization of voters for the special purpose. 

At one stage of the battle, the Beardstown attorneys found 
it necessary to amend their pleadings, and a judge was applied 
to for consent so to do. In preparing his order, the writer of 



188 

it neglected to provide for the continuance of the injunction. 
This failure was noticed by Mr. Whitney, and he prepared to 
give the good people of Beardstown a surprise. As before 
stated, the Virginians had combined to nominate a Virginia 
non-partizan ticket for use in the election of county officers; 
this ticket for the election of November, 1874, named James B. 
Black, a republican, for county clerk, and John W. Savage, a 
democratic-greenbacker, for county judge, and William Epler, 
a republican, for sheriff. These three gentlemen, of course, 
were strong partizans on the Virginia side of the battle, and 
they were elected, and at this time were holding their respect- 
ive offices in the court house in Beardstown. The time was in 
the winter of 1874-5. In the darkness of the night, two teams 
and wagons, accompanied by a goodly number of horsemen, all 
armed, left Virginia. About midnight they arrived in the 
suburbs of Beardstown; two of the horsemen rode quietly to 
the court house, and found that Judge Savage and Mr. Black 
had boxed up all the records of the county clerk's office ready 
for removal. The two messengers rode back to their confed- 
erates and reported that ' l all was quiet on the Potomac. ' ' The 
teamster drove through the streets of Beardstown, which were 
then in deep sand, now well paved. The teams were halted 
by the side of the building; the precious boxes soon loaded 
into the wagons, and the procession moved out of the city in 
the darkness, undiscovered. About three the next morning, 
the sleepers in Virginia were aroused by the firing of guns 
and shouting; they could not imagine the occasion. The con- 
tents of the wagons were carried up into the second story of 
the new court house and put under a guard. Early in the 
morning, it was discovered that the office room of the county 
clerk was an empty one. A dispatch was sent to the Beards- 
town lawyers, who at once patched up their pleadings and ob- 
tained an order restraining the runaway officials from trans- 
acting any official business in Virginia until the end of the 
case; consequently, Mr. Black and Judge Savage enjoyed a 
vacation for several months, and important probate matters 
were cared for by the judge of the Circuit Court in vacation. 
At length, the parties announced that they were ready, and 



189 

the cause was heard by Judge Lyman Lacey, one of the judges 
of the judicial circuit. The trial occupied the greater part of 
two weeks, filled with bloodless skirmishes. Judge Lacey 
found the issues for Virginia, and Beardstown promptly ob- 
tained an appeal to the Supreme Court of the State. In that 
court Beardstown was most ably represented by Judge 
Anthony Thornton, for many years one of the judges of the 
Supreme Court of Illinois, and by Garland Pollard of St. 
Louis, and I. J. Ketcham of Jacksonville, Thomas H. Carter 
of Beardstown and the law firm of Hay, Greene and Littler of 
Springfield. Virginia was represented by the Chicago firm of 
Lawrence, Winston, Campbell and Lawrence, the senior mem- 
ber being Hon. Charles B. Lawrence, for many years one of 
the judges of the Illinois Supreme Court ; also by C. G. Whit- 
ney of Pekin, and Isaac L. Morrison of Jacksonville, and the 
writer of this sketch, of Virginia. The case was heard at the 
January term, 1875, twenty-six months after the election. The 
opinion was written by Judge Sheldon and is reported in the 
76th volume of the Illinois Reports at page 34 ; the tile of the 
cause being The City of Beardstown, appellant, vs. The City 
of Virginia, appellee. 

Among other important questions passed upon by the court 
was this one : Were aliens, who were minors on April 1, 1848, 
made voters by the Constitution of Illinois adopted in 1848. 
By the adoption of that instrument, all male aliens above the 
age of 21 years residing in Illinois on April 1, 1848, were made 
legal voters, without the necessity of their taking out naturali- 
zation papers. The question was: Did the minor sons of 
these aliens become voters upon their arriving at the age of 
21 years. The appellants in this case contended that this class 
of the people were entitled to vote for this reason: The 
naturalization law provided that if the alien father became 
naturalized, his minor sons became legal voters at the age of 
21 years by operation of law, and by analogy it should be held 
these ' ' '48 minors, ' ' as they were called, became legal voters 
at their majority. As there were forty-four in this class, ten 
of whom had voted for removal and thirty-four against, it 



190 

was very important that Beardstown should win on this con- 
tention. Judge Thornton, in his argument in this case, used 
nearly half of its printed pages strenuously insisting that 
these " '48 minors" were made voters by the constitution of 
1848. He burst out in these strains of eloquence : 

' ' The noble boy, who witnesseth with a deep interest the an- 
nual return of the day of election, looks forward to the time, 
when he can be a participant, although he can not use it, the 
privilege is secured to him; the constitution has guaranteed 
it, and he only awaits the rapid passage of time, to deposit his 
ballot, as an American freeman. He is in truth, in the broad 
sense of the term, an elector. The enfranchisement of the 
father is the enfranchisement of the child. ' ' 

In replying to this choice bit of eloquence, Judge Lawrence 
first examined the record of the proceedings of the constitu- 
tional convention of 1848, of which Judge Thornton was a dis- 
tinguished member and has this to say : 

"We confess to a great degree of surprise, when we read 
that ' Mr. Anthony Thornton, of Shelby, argued against the 
power of this State to pass any law allowing foreigners the 
right of suffrage. He thought such laws were unconstitu- 
tional, and challenged a precedent in the Union. In Ohio the 
constitution was in the same words as ours, yet they have 
never interpreted it as we have. He would vote against the 
amendment. ' ' 

"It is difficult for us to realize that this was the language 
of the learned counsel for the appellant, who now argues so 
strenuously to convince the court that the article, as originally 
drafted, and as finally adopted with his vote among the 'Yeas', 
was understood by him to invest any unnaturalized foreigner 
with the right to vote, though he had not already exercised 
that right under the constitution of 1818. ' ' 

Judge Lawrence then quotes the passage referred to con- 
cerning the "noble boy," and then adds : 

"We must be permitted to doubt whether 'the noble boy,' 
then present to the sight of 'Mr. Thornton, of Shelby,' bore 



191 

the same aspect as the one now present to the imagination of 
the learned counsel for appellant. ' ' 

" ' "Tis distance lends enchantment to the view.' ' 

The opinion in the case was written by Justice Sheldon. 
The court held with Judge Lacey who heard the case below, 
that these minors of 1848 were not entitled to vote. It was 
found that the majority for removal as found by the returns 
was 128; that the numbers of the illegal votes cast against 
removal was 129; votes illegally excluded by the judges of 
^election but received by the court, 2 ; making an aggregate of 
259 votes. Votes for removal found to be illegal, 102; legal 
voters of Cass County who did not vote, 149, making a total 
of 251 ; which left a majority for the removal of eight votes. 

The court proceeded as follows : 

"We find a number of cases on each side where we would be 
inclined to find differently from the court below; but on a 
balancing the one against the other, we fail to find an excess 
of erroneous rulings against the appellant enough to over- 
come the majority in favor of removal." 

In the case the court found in favor of the right to vote by 
certain persons who were naturalized in the county courts. 

This opinion reached the parties in mid-summer of 1875, 
and therefore the remaining officials came up from Beards- 
town with their records and established themselves in the new 
court house in Virginia, and it was believed that the county 
seat case was at an end. 

In the case of The People ex rel, etc. vs. McGowan, reported 
in the 77th Illinois, page 644, the court reversed their ruling 
upon the right of county courts to naturalize aliens, where- 
upon the attorneys for Beardstown obtained a rehearing of 
the case. It came up again at the term of January, 1876, and 
is reported in Vol. 81 at page 541. By the revision of their 
findings to accord with the McGowan case, they found the 
result was a tie vote between Beardstown and Virginia. The 
court must have found it was in a dilemma, for the county 
business was proceeding in a very satisfactory manner in 
Virginia. There was no other course to pursue, except to 



192 

dig down deep into the case, and wade through the swollen 
record. This the court proceeded to do, overhauling the testi- 
mony at a great rate. Just what they found in the many cases 
would not interest the reader of this sketch; suffice it to say, 
that when the work was ended the court found there was a 
majority in favor of removal of just three votes, and two of 
the judges, Justices Craig and Dickey, dissented to that 
finding. 

So the reader will agree that if the plan of Jacob Dunaway 
had not been adopted and carried out, Virginia would have not 
won this hard-fought battle. 

The Virginians, now victorious but utterly exhausted, sat 
down to wait for the establishment of the county seat to make 
for them a great and populous city. Merchants came from 
Jacksonville, Chandlerville and Beardstown, and Virginia 
found it had more dry goods stores than were in Jacksonville 
a city ten times its size. But the people and the trade did 
not materialize as expected and these newcomers silently 
folded their tents and stole away. The Burlington Railroad 
system acquired the ownership of the valuable line of road 
extending from Rock Island to St. Louis through Beardstown, 
and established their extensive shops in the former county 
seat of Cass County. The trains were made up at Beardstown, 
one set of their trainmen going north and the other south; a 
large sum of money was weekly paid out to the numerous em- 
ployees there and Beardstown began its healthy growth; it 
increased from 4,226 in 1890 to 4,827 in 1900, and to 6,107 in 
1910; while Virginia declined from 1,602 in 1890 to 1,600 in 
1900, to 1,501 in 1910. It would be hard to find 1,600 there 
today. This is a poor showing a gain from 1,000 in 1872 to 
1,600 in 1914 600 in thirty-two years, or but nineteen per 
year. I dare say many other small towns in Illinois can make 
a better showing without a county seat. Virginia expended 
in these numerous battles at least the sum of one hundred 
thousand dollars; half that sum would have provided an 
abundant supply of excellent water from the Sangamon valley, 
and the remainder might have been well expended in the es- 



193 

tablishment of factories which must be had to make a city 
out of a town. And the people of Beardstown must see how 
foolish they were to make such a terrible fight to retain what 
was of so little value. They now have a City Court there, held 
in the solid old court house built in 1844, still in excellent 
condition, which has been reconveyed to them by Cass County. 
They have three daily trains each way to and from Virginia, 
but thirteen miles away. The State road between the cities is 
now being paved by the State, county and city authorities ; a 
trip in a motor car can be made when the roads are dry in 
thirty minutes, and Beardstown would be foolish if they of- 
fered thirty cents for the county seat's return, and why? Be- 
cause Beardstown has paid a large part of the cost of two 
expensive additions to the original court house building in 
Virginia to accommodate the county offices ; it has helped build 
an expensive jail there; it has helped to pave the street in 
front of the jail and the entire court house square ; why should 
they wish to tax themselves to build another set of buildings 
in Beardstown? Why should they care to begin another sea- 
son of turmoil, to cause the sections of that now peaceful little 
county to again begin hating each other as do the Germans 
and French in Europe? 

Very nearly all the active workers in behalf of Virginia 
have passed over into the spirit world. Jacob Dunaway, Igna- 
tius Skiles, Morrison Graves, John H. Tureman, Dr. Good- 
speed, C. A. Crandall, S. H. Petefish, John A. Petefish, Ed- 
ward T. Oliver, John M. Epler, Z. W. Gatton, A. G. Angier, 
W. W. Easley, E. W. Mills, J. H. Wood, Allen Dunaway, E. W. 
Eabourn, all are numbered with the dead, and many others. 
There are very few left, Dr. Snyder, Eobert Hall and Frank 
M. Davis, and perhaps a few others, are yet on the shores of 
time; Wm. Epler, who was elected sheriff in 1874, yet sur- 
vives; of all the attorneys engaged in all those battles only 
the writer is left, except that Judge Henry Phillips of Beards- 
town, who helped to represent his city in the trial before Judge 
Lacey, still lingers. If all those well remembered Virginians 
were permitted to return and look the ground over, see the 



194 

present conditions, count the cost and foot up the results, 
might they not agree that the title to this sketch might well 
be borrowed from the plays of Shakespeare and appropriated, 
"Much Ado About Nothing." 

NOTE: The foregoing sketch was prepared by the writer at his present 
home in Pomona, California. For copies of statutes and records, and valuable 
matter sent out to him from Illinois, he is indebted to Miss Georgia L. Os- 
borne, assistant librarian of the Illinois State Historical Library, and to Dr. 
J. F. Snyder of Virginia, Illinois, ex-president of the Illinois State Historical 
Society, and to Hon. Charles A. Martin, county judge of Cass County, and 
to Mr. Charles Parry, deputy county clerk of Cass County. 



195 



Soldiers of the American Revolution Buried 

in Illinois. 

LIST COMPILED BY MES. E. S. WALKEB. 

SANGAMON COUNTY. 



Three years ago on the 19th of October, through the efforts 
of the Sons and Daughters of the American Revolution of 
Springfield, a tablet was placed on a column of the court house 
in honor of twenty-four soldiers of the Eevolutionary War 
buried in Sangamon County. On the 19th of October, 1914, 
three additional names were placed on a second marker, thus 
making twenty-seven in all. The exercises were informal in 
character, consisting of invocation by Eev. E. S. Combs, brief 
remarks by the president of the Sons, Col. Charles F. Mills, 
and the regent of the Daughters, Mrs. Cornelius J. Doyle. 
The history of the soldiers was given by Mrs. E. S. Walker. 
The tablet was presented to the county by Hon. C. L. Conkling, 
and was accepted by Charles W. Byers, the county clerk, 
representing the chairman of the Board of Supervisors, 
Mr. Jacob Frisch. Inspiring music was rendered by 
the High School Glee Club. It is hoped that every county in 
our State where Revolutionary soldiers are buried will thus 
honor their memory. At least seventy counties are thus hon- 
ored. Six counties have already placed bronze markers in 
memory of the "Roll of Honor" men. 

The additional names are : 

BAZEL CLARK, whose record was given in the Historical 
Journal of April, 1913. 

AQUILLA DAVIS was born in St. Mary's County, Maryland. 
He was early taken by his parents to Fauquier County, Vir- 
ginia. He enlisted March 19, 1781, under Lieutenants Robert 
Craddock and Luke Cannon, with Colonel Thomas Posey, in 
the Virginia line of troops. 



196 

Aquilla Davis and his wife, Isabella Briggs, came to Illinois 
in 1820, settling near Elkhart ; they removed to Fancy Creek 
township, then back to Elkhart, where he died August 15, 
1831. From the family record, it appears that he was buried 
in Wolf Creek cemetery in Sangamon county. 

JOHN STEINGFIELD was born in North Carolina about 1760. 
He served in the North Carolina troops, and was in the battle 
of King's Mountain, October 7, 1780. 

He came to reside in Sangamon County in December, 1821, 
but only lived nine days, dying January 5, 1832. He lies buried 
nine miles northeast of Springfield. 

HANCOCK COUNTY. 

To Hancock County belongs the credit of erecting the first 
tablet in the State in memory of Revolutionary soldiers buried 
in that county. On July 2, 1910, the Shadrach Bond Chapter, 
Daughters of the American Revolution of Carthage, unveiled 
a tablet bearing the name of seven soldiers. The regent, Mrs. 
John Lawton, was chairman of the day. After the invocation, 
the "Star-Spangled Banner" was sung, followed by an ad- 
dress by Hon. Charles S. DeHart ; then ' ' Illinois ' ' was sung. 
The tablet was presented to the county by Mrs. Lawton and 
was accepted by Mr. John MacKelvie, president of the Board 
of Supervisors. A lineal descendant of David Baldwin, Miss 
Phoebe Ferris, unveiled the tablet. The singing of "Hail, 
Columbia, ' ' closed the exercises. 

DAVID BALDWIN was born in Dutchess County, New York, 
May 5, 1761. He enlisted when a mere lad, being but fifteen 
years of age, serving as private in the Third Regiment, under 
Colonel John Field in the New York line of troops. He was 
in the service ten months, from February to December. He 
died April 29, 1847, and is buried at Carthage. 

CHARLES BETTISWOETH was born in Virginia in 1761. He 
enlisted when only eighteen years of age, three years after the 
battle of Lexington, and served until the close of the war in 
the Virginia line of troops. He came to Illinois at an early 
date, settling in Hancock County, where he died June 12, 1842 ; 
is buried in the Bethel cemetery. He was pensioned. 



197 

SAMUEL CALDWELL was a native of Virginia, born near 
Wheeling in 1749. He served in the Virginia line of troops, 
being chief of scouts. He came to Illinois after the close of 
the war, settling in Hancock County, where he died in 1850 
at the advanced age of 101 years. He is buried on the Brenne- 
man farm, between Chili and Stillwell, Hancock County. He 
was pensioned. 

JOHN LIPSIE was born in 1732 and died in Hancock County in 
1835, being 103 years of age. He is buried in the Belknap 
cemetery. No record of service has at present been ascer- 
tained, though his name appears on the tablet. 

BICHAKD ROSE was born in 1754. He was pensioned. He died 
in Hancock County, February 14, 1842, aged 83 years, and is 
buried in Lot 9, Range B. in Pulaski cemetery, near Augusta. 

ALEXANDER K. PATTERSON was born in New York, date not 
known. He served in the Orange County militia in the Fourth 
Eegiment, under Colonel John Hathorn. He died in Hancock 
County, and is buried on the Cozard farm, south of Elvaston, 
Hancock County. Paterson, New Jersey, is named for a son 
of Alexander Patterson. 

ASA WORTH was born in Leicester, Mass., August 25, 1763, 
and died in Hancock County, Illinois, February 15, 1845; is 
buried in Nauvoo. No record of service is yet ascertained, 
though his name is placed on the tablet. 

BOND COUNTY. 

Through the effort of Mrs. C. E. Davidson and the Ben- 
jamin Mills Chapter of Greenville, the following list of Revo- 
lutionary soldiers has been established and several graves 
marked. 

CHARLES JOHNSON was born in North Carolina in 1757. After 
the outbreak of the war, he joined the State militia and partici- 
pated in the battles of Cowpens and Guilford Court House. 
In 1817 he became a resident of Illinois Territory, settling in 
Bond County. He died in 1821 and is buried in the Old Grace 
cemetery, near the village of Pocahontas. His grave is marked 



198 

by a United States tombstone, upon which is engraved his 
military service. 

HEZEKIAH Bow was a native of South Carolina, born June 
17, 1759. He served as a private in the South Carolina troops, 
and was pensioned. He died in Bond County, Illinois, in 1835. 

JOSEPH McAoAMs was born in York County, Pennsylvania, 
in 1759. He enlisted from Hawfield, Orange County, North 
Carolina, serving under Colonels Armstrong, William 'Neale 
and Eobert Melone, also with Captain Carrington and Cap- 
tain Hodge; he was also a pilot under Colonel Lee; was in 
the battles of Stono, Hillsborough and Holts' Eace Paths. 
Joseph McAdams came to Illinois with William McAdams, 
who lived in Madison County, and who was also a Eevolu- 
tionary -soldier. Joseph McAdams lived to be very aged, 
dying in Bond County. 

PETER HUBBARD was a native of South Carolina, born about 
1747. He served three years under Captains Samuel Wise and 
John Carraway Smith, with Colonel William Thompson. He 
served at various times until the close of the war. He was 
made lieutenant, and was in the battle of Sullivan's Island. 
He removed to Tennessee, and from there to Bond County, 
Illinois, where he died. 

THOMAS WHITE was a native of Pennsylvania. He served 
as lieutenant in Colonel Bull's Eegiment, Flying Camp, Penn- 
sylvania troops. He was first lieutenant in Captain William 
Armstrong's company; was taken prisoner on November 16, 
1776 ; was taken to New York where he endured great suffer- 
ing. He escaped from the British, June 27, 1777, and enlisted 
in Colonel William Montgomery's Eegiment. Thomas White 
came to Illinois, settling in Bond County, where he died and 
lies buried near Greenville, Bond County. 

WILLIAMSON PLANT was a native of Virginia; was born in 
the county of Louisa in 1763. He early enlisted in the war in 
the Fifth Eegiment, under Captain Eichard Clough in the 
Virginia line of troops. He again enlisted in the militia, serv- 
ing at various times until the close of the war. He came to 
Illinois, settling in Bond County in the town of Pocahontas, 



199 

where he died in 1830, and is buried in the old grave-yard 
there. 

Bond County will doubtless add names to this honor list of 
soldiers. Their record of service will be given in a future 
issue of the Historical Journal. 

LOGAN COUNTY. 

The Daughters of the American Revolution of Lincoln, 
Logan County, have recently marked the grave of a Revo- 
lutionary soldier: 

HENBY KIMES was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania. 
He served as private in Captain Edward Vernon's company, 
Chester County militia, in 1780, also in Captain James Den- 
ning 's company, in 1781 and 1782. Henry Kimes came to Illi- 
nois, settling in Logan County, where he died and is, buried 
near Lincoln. 

HUMPHREY SCBOGGIN was a soldier from the Carolinas. No 
official record has been obtained, but a grandson makes affi- 
davit that Humphrey Scroggin was in the battles of Cowpens 
and Guilford Court House, and fought to the close of the 
war. The importance of having official records was not con- 
sidered among many of the early families. It is hoped that 
further research may establish his claim officially. He is bur- 
ied near Mt. Pulaski, Logan County. 

WOODFOED COUNTY. 

In a recent issue of the Historical Journal, the record of 
service of Edward Fitz Patrick and Basil Meek, both buried 
in Woodford County, was given. In June last the Peoria 
Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, marked their 
graves by invitation of the Woodford County Historical 
Society. Appropriate exercises were held in the opera house 
in El Paso. Hon. J. V. Graff gave an address on ' * Patriotism 
and Child Welfare. ' ' The regent of the Peoria Chapter talked 
of the work and object of the organization. Sketches of the 
lives of the soldiers were read, concluding with the singing of 
' ' America, " ' ' Illinois ' ' and the * ' Star Spangled Banner. ' ' 

TAZEWELL COUNTY. 

On August 25 a marker was placed on the grave of Elliott 
Gray in Tazewell County. 



200 



A Short Sketch of the Life of Jules Leon Cottet, a 
Former Member of the Icarian Community.* 

BY His DAUGHTER, FELICIE COTTET SNIDER. 



Jules Leon Cottet was born at Troyes, France, May 4, 1835. 
His father, Ambrose Napoleon Cottet, was a prominent 
teacher and scientist, a pupil of Leannier, succeeding him ; and 
vice-president for many years of the Geological Society of 
France, of which Cassimer Perier, father of the late presi- 
dent of the Republic, was president. 

To understand aright the character of Jules Cottet, one 
must know a little of his father, and his early life with this 
teacher. 

The elder Cottet was a deep thinker, so lost in his books and 
calculations that he had little time or inclination for other 
affairs, being peculiarly incapable of handling money. The 
mother was seldom spoken of by Jules, evidently the home life 
was not a happy one. She did indeed desert her family, leav- 
ing a baby, Charles, for the father and Jules to care for. One 
older brother had been killed in infancy by the careless hand- 
ling of the nurse. There was another brother, Pierre, and two 
sisters, Hannah and Felicie. The girls were taken by rela- 
tives and the father kept the baby. The care of this brother 
fell largely upon Jules. The little fellow must have had a very 
eventful babyhood, according to his brother's description of 
his raising. Jules once saved this brother from drowning, 
but a number of years after while in swimming at the very 
same place, Charles was drowned in full view of a number of 
his companions. 

*Por an account of the Icarian Community of which Mr. Cottet was a, mem- 
ber and at one time secretary, written by Mrs. I. G. Miller, see Publication 
No. 11, Illinois State Historical Society, 1906, p. 103. 




JULES LEON COTTET 




AMBROSE NAPOLEON COTTET 



201 

Jules was in every way his father's helper, companion and, 
one might say, business manager. When the father was paid 
for some finished work, he gave the son the money to be used 
for household expenses. That is, if he could arrive home 
safely with it, without having to pass a book-stall. His pas- 
sion was books. If he saw one that he desired and had money 
in his pocket, forgotten were such humdrum things as food 
and clothing. The book became his, and the money slipped 
easily through his fingers. One time he arrived home, bubbling 
with joy and elation over a recent purchase, displaying with 
much pride several bulky volumes. The son eyed him se- 
verely, asking, "Father, where is the money you were to re- 
ceive today?" The father flushed guiltily, displaying the few 
remaining pieces of money. 

"And what do you expect us to buy bread with!" demanded 
the son. "I never thought of that," was the meek rejoinder, 
and so it was always. 

The father was a man with a wonderful scientific mind, a 
big heart, a gentle, simple child-man. Jules fairly worshiped 
him. He went everywhere with him on his expeditions. One 
who often accompanied them was Casimer Perier himself. 
He was a man of wealth, but he would don a blouse, and to- 
gether they would set forth in search of geological specimens. 
The future president of the French Republic was then but a 
little child, and Mr. Cottet often laughingly referred to the 
times when he and his father dined with the elder Perier and 
he rode Casimer upon his foot. For this friendship, Perier 
when president, aided Mr. Cottet to obtain a pension from the 
Republic, and provided a source of income for the one remain- 
ing sister, Felicie. 

The success of the great artesian well at Grenelle, near 
Paris was indirectly due to the efforts of A. N. Cottet. The 
well was started in 1834 and after reaching a depth of 1,254 
feet, the drills broke and fell to the bottom of the hole. Much 
time was lost in recovering them. The French government 
finally decided to give up the work. Dominique Francois 
Arago consulted with Cottet, whose calculations proved con- 



202 

clusively that the location of the bore was correct. Arago, 
a firm friend and believer in the elder Cottet, prevailed upon 
the authorities to continue the work. Mr. Cottet went back 
to his work confident that the water would be found. Drilling 
to a depth of 1,800 feet proved the correctness of the theory. 
In February, 1841, the water suddenly spouted upward at the 
rate of six hundred gallons a minute, with a temperature of 
82 Fahrenheit. 

A messenger was dispatched to Cottet with the news. To 
the man's excited words, "The water has come! The water 
has come !" Cottet quietly answered, "I knew it would." 

For his contribution to science and his splendid work in 
educational advancement, A. N. Cottet was awarded a medal 
by the French Government. Three medals were struck to 
be presented to those three men who had contributed the most 
toward the advancement of science and learning. A. N. Cottet 
was awarded that of silver, which medal is still in the posses- 
sion of his daughter-in-law, Mrs. Jules Cottet. 

Mr. Cottet 's people were naturally all Catholics, except the 
father. They even boasted of two prominent churchmen in 
the family. It was the ambition of one of these, who was a 
bishop, for Jules to devote his life to the church. So Jules 
served his time as altar boy, but his father's scientific instruc- 
tions, together with a very enquiring mind often plunged the 
boy into heated discussions with his uncle. He demanded ex- 
planations of unexplainable religious subjects, his persistence 
earning him many a punishment. Many doubts took form in 
the boy 's mind at this time. Doubt soon turned into disbelief, 
and soon the boy was following his father's footsteps, and 
became a firm agnostic. An incident in connection with the 
Church was responsible for a tragedy in their family that did 
much to turn the boy violently against the Church. A relative 
entered a convent. Soon after taking the veil, Jules ' father re- 
ceived word that she was ill. He immediately went to the con- 
vent to see her, and was denied admission. Soon came the 
news of her death. None of her family were permitted to see 
her, and she was supposedly buried in the convent, as was the 



203 

custom at that time. Naturally that, and other acts of the 
Church, discriminating against his father because of his unbe- 
lief, turned the boy bitterly against the Mother Church, which 
attitude he held throughout his life. 

Jules' grandfather, a veteran of the first Napoleonic wars, 
wanted the boy to become a sailor, but it was of no use, he 
could never find his sea-legs, being constantly sick on board 
any vessel, to the disgust and disappointment of the old gen- 
tleman, who had spent many hours teaching the boy fencing. 
His instructions, however, were not wasted, as it made a splen- 
did swordsman of the boy, giving him grace and suppleness 
and a wonderfully strong and quick wrist. 

At the age of twelve he entered Chalons-Sur-Marne, a school 
that still enjoys much distinction. Here his mechanical genius 
was given splendid training ; it was here he received the foun- 
dation for his skill as a machinist and engineer. While at- 
tending this school he met with his first adventure. 

On September 18, 1848, a revolutionary uprising occurred 
at Frankfort-on-the-Main, the object of which was the estab- 
lishment of a German national assembly and a German repub- 
lic. Mr. Cottet and a number of other boys of the school went 
to Mainz. There they found all in confusion, no head, no 
leader, to the uprising. They wanted to return to France, 
the Prussians were between them and their home land. Also, 
they feared arrest in France. So they made their way down 
the Ehine to Switzerland. There they met Garibaldi's recruit- 
ing officers, and enlisted under his banner. 

By that time the liberal movement in Eome had become too 
strong for the Pope to control. Count Eossi, an avowed antag- 
onist of the liberal movement, was appointed to the head of the 
ministry. The Eoman people were indignant. On November 
15, 1848, Eossi was assassinated on the steps of the assembly 
house. Eepublican volunteers under Garibaldi proceeded to 
the Pope 's palace ; a hand to hand encounter with the papal 
guards ensued. Mr. Cottet and his comrades were engaged in 
this fight. Jules found himself fighting desperately with one of 
the guards. In the struggle, they fell and rolled into the 



204 

trench. Jules found himself on top and proclaimed his cap- 
tive prisoner. After the fight Garibaldi pinned upon his coat 
a medal taken from the breast of the captive. That was the 
only way he could acknowledge service rendered under his flag. 

The Pope fled on November 23. He appealed to the Koman 
Catholic powers for aid. Republican France responded in 
April, 1849, with General Oudinot and four thousand men. 
During the siege of Borne, Garibaldi escaped. Not much choice 
was there for the boy soldiers. If they remained in the city, 
and were taken by French soldiers, it would go hard with 
them ; also it was almost certain death to try to escape. For 
days Mr. Cottet was kept in hiding by a kind family, but finally 
escaped and made his way back to France and home. His 
father and the family doctor swore to the authorities that the 
boy had been ill in bed all the time, and thus the evil results 
of the escapade were avoided. He returned to school, but 
not for long. 

Already the plans for Napoleon's coup d'etat were fast 
nearing completion. On the night preceding the 2nd of De- 
cember, 1851, Napoleon ordered all Republicans to be arrested 
in their beds. Mr. Cottet and father were of this number, also 
the sister Hannah and her husband. Pierre, the older brother, 
then about twenty-one, was killed behind the barricades. 
Felicie was in a convent, so escaped. 

Without trial of any kind, the prisoners were numbered 
and thrown into the casements at Fort Bicetre, to await death. 
The casements were built of stone, resembling large cisterns. 
They had been built to serve as storerooms for ammunition. 
The suffering in these prisons became awful. Soon they be- 
came foul and many men fell sick. 

On the 2nd of December, 1851, in the morning, Napoleon 
proclaimed himself president for ten years; in the evening 
proclaimed himself emperor. The court of commissions, for 
trying the prisoners, consisted of three officers,Espenais being 
one, appointed by Napoleon. Mr. Cottet saw the companion 
who had been chained to his wrist, dragged away, and heard 
the report that killed him. Many years later, in peace and 
prosperity, when Mr. Cottet became ill, his mind would wander 



205 

back to those days of horror and the companion of his misery. 
"Berg" would be the first name on his lips. With delirium 
racking him, he would call "Berg! Berg!" then listen intently 
as if waiting for the sound of guns, and then fall back upon 
his pillow weeping and moaning, "They've killed him! 
They've killed him !" So do such fearful times impress them- 
selves upon the brain ! 

When the authorities found it politic to cease shooting their 
prisoners, the court of commissioners held a trial for the re- 
mainder. The trial consisted of one question, "Are you 
a Republican?" Upon answering "Yes," the prisoner was 
ordered, "deporte to Africa," "deporte to Corsica to 
Cayenne," etc. Mr. Cottet and father were sent to Africa, 
the sister Hannah and husband were deported to Corsica. 

Camp Biercadem, a detention camp near Algiers, received 
the prisoners. Here again the suffering was fearful. The 
food given them was unfit to eat. They drank water from 
stagnant streams. Cholera broke out, and scores succumbed 
to the dread disease. The well were forced to care for the 
sick. The boy Jules, with many others, was put to work sew- 
ing the bodies in sacks for burial. Trenches were dug and the 
bodies tumbled in. Often, many a poor wretch was consigned 
to this common grave before life was quite extinct. Cholera 
passed by the boy Jules, but from drinking the foul water, 
poisoned by the heavy growth of oleanders along the bank, he 
succumbed to and almost died of dysentery. A kindly and 
influential Arab, who had taken a liking to the boy, took him 
to his tent and cared for him, feeding him entirely on Barbary 
figs and purified water until his complete recovery. Mr. Cot- 
tet always spoke with deep feeling and gratitude of this Arab. 
After cholera had desperately thinned the ranks of the pris- 
oners, they were given the town of Algiers for a prison. This 
was an advantage, for they could obtain employment and thus 
buy better food. Every prisoner was marked by having to 
wear a blue coat, on the back of which was a large white circle 
containing the words, "Political Prisoner." 

Despite the fact that he was a prisoner, Jules found much 
enjoyment in his new surroundings. Once he obtained permis- 



206 

Bion to go with his father and others into the Atlas Mountains. 
There he had his first experience of being above a storm. The 
reverberating thunder in the mountains made an impression 
never forgotten. 

He often spoke, too, of the natural race course upon the 
Plain of the Metidja, that vast level situated between the north 
slope of the Lesser Atlas and the Sahel. It varies from three 
to five leagues in breadth, forming a semi-circle of about 
fifteen leagues, touching the sea at the Fort of Maison Carree, 
a little to the east of Algiers and just below Scherschell. Sev- 
eral Eoman roads used to cross it, and it was doubtless one 
of these that was used for the races. Mr. Cottet never en- 
joyed watching a horse race on a modern track. He always 
said there was no sincerity in modern racing, and would add, 
"You should have seen the Arabs race upon the Plain of the 
Metidja. No mile tracks there, but for many miles we could 
see the white robes of the Arabs and the eager, splendid 
horses, each interested on being first. ' ' 

Upon receipt of news of fresh trouble in France, the pris- 
oners were again confined, this time in Fort Bab Azoun, a fort 
built straight up from the sea, and located two-thirds of a 
mile from Algiers. It is a single rectangle of masonry, with 
an elevation of fifty feet. Here again agonies were endured 
from improper feeding and unclean surroundings. It was 
from this place that Mr. Cottet, bidding his father farewell, 
leaped into the sea in company with several others, and was 
picked up by a small smuggling vessel and taken to Spain. He 
never saw his father again. 

Across Spain they needs must walk. Mr. Cottet often told 
of the extreme religious fanaticism that prevailed there at 
that time. On their tramp they passed many shrines, set up at 
street corners. 

Jules, bitter and sarcastic against the Faith, was tempted 
to laugh, as he saw many Spaniards kneel before these shrines. 
One who was with him gave the warning, "Don't laugh, Jules, 
or you will have a knife in your back. They are quick to resent 
any ridicule of their faith." 



207 

The fugitives finally reached San Sebastian. Near there, at 
another small port, they found a sailing vessel flying the stars 
and stripes, just ready to set sail. They went aboard and were 
safe from pursuit. 

Then followed a long voyage, not one day of which passed 
without Mr. Cottet being violently seasick. One day, the cap- 
tain was playing a game of chess on deck. Jules lay on the 
deck near by, deathly sick. He finally managed to crawl over 
close to the players so he could see the board. The captain, 
noticing the lad's interest, asked him if he could play. With 
pencil, Jules answered in writing, that he loved the game. 
This interested the captain in the sick boy, and he did all he 
could to help him. He was surprised that Jules could write 
English but could not speak it. The boy explained that he had 
learned the reading and writing in school, but had not learned 
to converse. At last the long voyage came to an end, and 
after fifty-four days, the ship reached New Orleans, October 
24, 1854. 

Mr. Cottet often told with a grim smile that he had just 
four cents in his pocket with which to start his life in America. 
None of the escaped prisoners had any money, but went into 
a restaurant kept by a Frenchman and explained their plight. 
He gave them a good meal with pleasure. However, he came 
to Jules while he was eating and said, * ' Really, young fellow, 
don't think I don't want you to have the food, but I fear you 
are eating too much after the siege you have just passed 
through." But the famished boy heeded not the warning. He 
ate until his hunger was appeased and luckily no harm came 
of it. 

He stayed in New Orleans only a few days, then made his 
way up the Mississippi River to Nauvoo, Illinois, where 
Etienne Cabet had founded his Icarian Society. He became 
a member of this society, serving for much of the time as secre- 
tary. The Icarians were a communal society. Every one 
worked for the common good, no man having more or less 
than another. According to Cabet 's idea, there could be no 
wealth, but there could also be no poverty. They supported 



208 

trades of all kinds, selling outside of the community all that 
which could not be used. There was a saw-mill, a distillery; 
they raised fruits and vegetables, and had great numbers of 
hogs. They all ate together in a common dining-room, the 
cooking being superintended by a head cook, under whose 
management the women took turns about doing the work. 
There was a large assembly hall where all subjects pertaining 
to the good government of the society were discussed. It is 
noteworthy to add that the women had the right of voting as 
well as the men. On Sundays this assembly hall was the scene 
of much enjoyment, that being the time when all could meet 
together and enjoy music, theatricals, dancing, etc. 

Mr. Cottet's voice was often heard in debate in the assem- 
bly; often he argued with Cabet on the impossibility of the 
society long existing ; his argument being that all men are not 
equal and nothing can make them so. In a society of this kind, 
the laggard may shirk work and responsibility, to shift the 
burdens upon his more ambitious brother. The ambitious one 
will finally become discouraged, as he sees no encouragement 
for greater effort and loses the incentive to do better work. 
His theory proved correct, for the society did disintegrate, 
to Cabet 's great grief and disappointment. 

During his stay at Nauvoo, Mr. Cottet had another exper- 
ience with cholera. The branch of the Icarians still in Texas, 
started by boat to join those in Nauvoo. While on the way 
cholera broke out, and when the boat reached Nauvoo, many 
had already died. They landed at night, and smuggled off the 
sick so the authorities did not know. The dead were buried 
back of the partly dismantled Mormon temple. 

While at Nauvoo, Mr. Cottet married Irma Joureaux. When 
the society disintegrated they went to St. Louis, Missouri. As 
he could not speak English, he found difficulty in obtaining 
employment. He even worked for a time on the levee, carry- 
ing heavy sacks and barrels on his back, up the levee from the 
boat hard, killing work, with little pay. Finally he found 
work in Gaty and McCunes' machine shop. While there he 
almost succumbed to stomach trouble. He wrote to his old 




ETIENNB CABET 



209 

physician in France, and was advised to move to the country. 
So he moved to a farm on the Illinois River. Naturally they 
were very poor. Mr. Cottet hunted and sold his game in St. 
Louis markets. They suffered great hardships while on the 
farm, much arising from the fact that they were in a vicious 
community. His brother-in-law was murdered and doubtless 
they would all have been if they had stayed. 

A cyclone unroofed their log cabin the night that his wife 
gave premature birth to twins. Finally, almost dead of chills 
and ague, they left the Illinois bottoms to come to Springfield, 
Illinois. 

When the Civil War broke out he enlisted in Vaughn's Inde- 
pendent Battery, Illinois Light Artillery, and went south with 
that organization. 

On March 10, 1864, Mr. Cottet was promoted by Major 
General Steele from sergeant of Battery A, Third Illinois 
Light Artillery, to first lieutenant of Company C, Fifty- 
seventh Regiment of United States Colored Infantry Volun- 
teers, commanded by Colonel A. B. Morrison. He was mus- 
tered out July 13, 1864, by virtue of promotion to captain in 
Company K, same regiment. 

Mr. Cottet was a very able soldier. His thorough knowledge 
of military tactics and the use of the sword brought him for- 
ward as a drillmaster. Many a soldier in the ranks, as well 
as officers and superior officers, will remember with respect 
for his ability the " French Yankee," by which name he was 
usually known. Although Mr. Cottet never was sent to the east, 
where the most of the big battles occurred, he saw plenty of 
fighting and had many narrow escapes from death in the Ar- 
kansas and Tennessee region. Once, when commanding a gun, 
a shell exploded so close to him that a piece cut away the ring 
of his scabbard. Another piece killed a comrade, and another 
fragment passed almost through the man at his side. This 
man was considered beyond hope of saving, but did recover, 
and lives yet, I believe. Another time his horse was shot while 
in full gallop. Mr. Cottet was hurled over a fence as his horse 
dropped, and his arm was shattered. He often spoke of the 



210 

misery of the people of the south who had lost everything. He 
was strictly just, and his men knew it and loved him. But 
for the lawless soldier he had no mercy. His men must forage 
for food, but he admitted of no theft of other property. Once 
a soldier brought to him a silver mug he had taken. Mr. Cot- 
tet ordered him to return it. The soldier refused. Thereupon 
he was forced to go back to the house where there were only 
women. They were all weeping bitterly. Nearly everything 
they owned had been taken. Now this cup was an heirloom. 
It was hundreds of years old. Mr. Cottet's anger was aroused 
by this scene. He ordered the man to return the cup and beg 
pardon. He would not do so, but instead, flung it to the floor 
and stamped upon it. 

Mr. Cottet was peculiarly able in handling colored troops. 
They loved and respected him, for the reason that he treated 
them as men and not as animals, as many officers did. He not 
only drilled them in military knowledge, but took all the time 
possible to teach them to read and write. He often said he 
would much rather command colored troops than the lower 
class of white men, ("the poor white trash") ; they were much 
more obedient and braver. 

Mr. Cottet could not admit of the practice prevalent in the 
south during the war of snuff-chewing by women. At one time 
they were quartered at Memphis, Tenn., and the officers were 
invited to a ball. The best people of the city were present. 
Mr. Cottet was presented to a number of ladies with whom he 
was expected to dance. During the conversation he was 
amazed to see a beautiful girl produce a small box, and 
a stick with a rag tied around one end. The snuff sticks 
were moistened, dipped in the snuff and then chewed, 
the stick moving grotesquely up and down as the girl laughed 
and talked and chewed. Mr. Cottet watched this for a short 
time, his amazement quickly turning to disgust, and soon he 
took his departure, unable to conceal his dislike for such a 
habit, and refusing to dance with those indulging in it. 

Mr. Cottet's ability as a soldier is best told in the words 
of his superior officers, in letters written to Governor Yates, 



211 

at the time of the former's resignation. Copies of the letters 
follow : 



Headquarters First Brigade, Second Division. 

Seventh Artillery Corps. 
Department of Arkansas. 

Devall's Bluff, Arkansas, Aug. 28, 1864. 
To His Excellency, Richard Yates, Governor of Illinois: 

Sir : I heg leave to offer my testimony as to the fine abil- 
ities and efficiency as an officer, and the high character and 
standing as a gentleman of Captain Jules Cottet, late of the 
Fifty-seventh United States (Col'd) Infantry. 

During a personal acquaintance of more than a year I have 
ever esteemed Captain Cottet as a high-minded honorable gen- 
tleman and one of the best officers, within my acquaintance in 
the army. 
I am Your Excellency, 

Your most obedient servant, 

William H. Graves, 
Colonel Twelfth Michigan Infantry Volunteers, 

Commanding Brigade. 

Headquarters Battery A, 
(Springfield Light Artillery.) 
Little Eock, Ark., August, 1864. 
Hon. Eichard Yates, 

Governor of State of Illinois : 

Sir Allow me to introduce to your favorable notice the 
bearer, Captain Jules Cottet. 

Captain Cottet enlisted in this battery at the original or- 
ganization in Springfield, Illinois, in August, 1862, and served 
with it faithfully as artificer, corporal and sergeant, until the 
8th of March, 1864, when he was promoted to first lieutenant 
of the Fifty-seventh United States Colored Infantry, and was 
soon after promoted to captain. He has now resigned for 
reasons which he will explain. 



212 

Captain Cottet fully understands the bayonet and sabre 
drill, is well posted in light artillery and would make an ex- 
cellent officer. He is brave and energetic and possesses qual- 
ities which are rarely found in the army. 

Expressing the wish that you may be allowed to raise more 
batteries and that I may soon see him in command, I have the 
honor to be, sir, respectfully your obedient servant, 

T. Vaughn, 
Captain Commanding. 



Headquarters Post of Huntersville. 
Huntersville, Arkansas, August 23, 1864. 

I take pleasure in bearing testimony to the very superior 
soldierly qualities of Captain Jules Cotette, late of the Fifty- 
seventh United States Colored Infantry. 

Captain Cottette was sergeant in Vaughn's Battery until 
last winter, when he was promoted to a lieutenantcy in the 
Fifty-seventh Regiment, afterwards for merit was made Cap- 
tain of Company K. But preferring the artillery service, he 
tendered his resignation, with a view of going into that arm 
of the service. 

I part with Captain Cotette with much regret, and am free 
to say, I have yet to find in the service his superior in military 
knowledge, zeal, soldierly and gentlemanly bearing and con- 
duct, and with pleasure commend him to any military author- 
ity he may call on for assistance in his new enterprise. 

The service ought not to be deprived of the services of such 
an able man. 

Respectfully, 

A. B. Morrison, 
Colonel Fifty-seventh U. S. Colored Infantry, Comdg. Post. 



Mr. Cottet suffered until his death with an affliction con- 
tracted while in the army, namely a form of partial paralysis. 
He had been for many days and nights in the saddle on a 
forced march, and when he finally reached Little Rock he had 



213 

to be lifted from the saddle, his entire right side was para- 
lyzed. In after years he had many of these attacks, some- 
times so severe that his family thought the end had come, 
other times the stroke would last but a short time, soon yield- 
ing to prompt treatment with hot applications and massage. 

After the war Mr. Cottet had for many years a locksmith 
shop on North Fourth street, Springfield, Illinois, just back 
of the old High School. He conducted his business strictly on 
a cash basis. It mattered not to him whether his customer 
was rich or poor ; the money must be produced before the work 
left the shop. In that way he built up a good business, and 
won respect from even those whom he angered by his business 
methods. He was absolutely honest in all things, many times 
having been left alone in the vaults of the banks where he was 
working. He was quick tempered, but a man of his word in 
every particular. An incident connected with his work will 
show this. One of the banks had been endeavoring for many 
days to open a safe. They had had an " expert" who had 
failed to open it, so they called upon Mr. Cottet. He examined 
it and in answer to their question, said he would charge them 
ten dollars to open it. They told him to go ahead. He went to 
work and in ten minutes the door swung open. When he ap- 
plied for his pay, he was told ten dollars was too much for the 
short time he had worked. His answer was, "You paid the 
other man ten dollars and he did not open it ? " " Yes. " ' ' And 
you refuse to pay me what you promised?" "Yes, it is too 
much for such easy work." "Very well," was his rejoinder, 
as he slammed shut the door of the safe, "if it is so easy, open 
it yourself ; you owe me nothing ! ' ' And he walked out. 

The bank officials were frantic. The safe must be opened. 
They finally swallowed their pride and went to Mr. Cottet 's 
shop. They found him calmly engaged on other work. They 
apologized and asked him to come back and open the safe and 
they would pay him the ten dollars. 

"Oh, no," was the quick answer. "You'll pay me the ten 
dollars now for the work I did. Then I'll open it again and 
you'll pay me ten for that," and they did. 



214 

He was impervious to graft or bribery in any form. He 
served the city many years as engineer at No. 2 engine house 
on Jefferson street between Third and Fourth streets. He 
could always get more work out of the Silsby engine than 
any one who handled it after him. As he was an expert me- 
chanic, he did all the repairing, thus saving the city much 
expense, as otherwise the engine would have had to be shipped 
away. He gave his time and his skill for this extra work, but 
as is often the case, the city he served faithfully and honestly, 
never recognized that service. To illustrate how immune he 
was from questionable dealing, when the Silsby engine was 
purchased, the city authorities left the buying of it in his 
hands, knowing he was entirely capable of making the right 
purchase. When the represntative of the firm called upon him 
to fix the price * * they would charge the city, ' ' he found he had 
a very different man to deal with than any other in his exper- 
ience. Mr. Cottet absolutely refused to accept any money for 
the transaction. He told the agent he wanted that engine at the 
lowest figure they could make it, and there was to be no 
"extras" tacked on for the city to pay. The representative 
was disgusted, but he sold the engine on those terms, thus 
saving the city much money. 

This is only one incident of many in Mr. Cottet 's life, but it 
shows the character of the man who had suffered so much. 

As though he had not endured enough trouble, Mr. Cottet 
was doomed to suffer much grief in his domestic life. One 
child died while he was away during the Civil War. His wife 
was an invalid for many years. When she died she left two 
children, Eugene and Leonie. 

Mr. Cottet 's second marriage was with Clara Wolpert of 
Belleville, Illinois. To this union were born two girls, Julie 
and Felicie. 

In 1884, when the youngest child was a year old, Mr. Cottet 
purchased a fruit farm west of. Springfield, Illinois, living 
there until 1904 when, on account of failing health and in- 
ability to longer work the farm, he sold it and moved back to 
town, purchasing a home at 810 Park avenue. 



215 

April 27, 1913, Mr. Cottet, his wife and daughter Julie left 
for Los Angeles, California, hoping the change of climate 
would benefit him. He was in California only three days, just 
long enough to see again the ocean, and revive his memories 
of the dearly loved Mediterranean, when he was stricken with 
cerebral hemorrhages and died, May 24, 1913. 

Mr. Cottet 's life was full of great mental and physical suf- 
fering. It made of him a man of much strength of character. 
To many he appeared hard and unfeeling. That was only the 
outward shell, the mask, that he had schooled himself to wear 
to hide his inner feelings from those who persecuted him on 
account of his religious disbelief, and other reasons. He made 
himself hard, for his was a hard life and many times, no doubt, 
he missed the sweetness and content that might have been his 
had he allowed the tender, inner self of him to be revealed. 

He was a clear, deep thinker; his father had laid a good 
foundation; he was well read and a good conversationalist. 
He was an enthusiastic sportsman, a lover of hunting and fish- 
ing. When on account of physical disabilities, he was denied 
those pleasures, he sought out those who could play with him 
a game of chess. He enjoyed other games for recreation, but 
no one could ever persuade him to play for money. Though 
averse to the theory of total abstinence, he was violently op- 
posed to drunkenness, gambling and all sorts of vice. 

To show his remarkable will power when yet a lad is this 
incident : The boys of his school were discussing the inability 
of anyone to stop using tobacco. Jules was smoking with the 
rest. He spoke quickly, ' ' I can stop any time I want to. ' ' They 
laughed at this. He tossed away his cigar, " That's the last 
time I touch tobacco. ' ' And it was. As he grew older it even 
became most obnoxious to him. It was so with all things, great 
or small. What he said could be done must be done. There 
were never two ways out for him. 

This is a very incomplete sketch of Mr. Cottet 's life. Only 
he himself could have written it completely. Before he went to 
the war, he had written everything connected with his exper- 
iences in France and America up to that time. When he re- 



216 

turned he found the papers destroyed. He always said he 
could never rewrite it. He started several times, but always 
said it brought back so many bitter memories he could not 
do it. 

So his family have tried in this to erect a little memorial by 
gathering together the few facts with which they were famil- 
iar. It is difficult to have a connected account, for Mr. Cottet 
was very reticent about giving details that are so necessary 
to a complete sketch. Mr. Cottet always expressed the wish 
to be cremated. His wish was carried out. 

Mr. Charles T. Sprading, president of the Los Angeles Lib- 
eral Club, conducted the funeral services. He used these words 
of Colonel Robert J. Ingersoll: 

"My friends, I know how vain it is to gild a grief with 
words, and yet I wish to take from every grave its fear. Here 
in this world, where life and death are equal kings, all should 
be brave enough to meet what all the dead have met. The 
future has been filled with fear, stained and polluted by the 
heartless past. From the wondrous tree of life the buds and 
blossoms fall with ripened fruit, and in the common bed of 
earth, patriarchs and babes sleep side by side. 

"Why should we fear that which will come to all that is? 
We cannot tell, we do not know, which is the greater blessing 
life or death. We cannot say that death is not good. We 
do not know whether the grave is the end of this life, or the 
door of another, or whether the night here is not somewhere 
else a dawn. Neither can we tell which is the more fortunate 
the child dying in its mother's arms, before its lips have 
learned to form a word, or he who journeys all the length of 
life's uneven road, painfully taking the last slow steps with 
staff and crutch. 

"Every cradle asks us ' Whence?' and every coffin 'Whith- 
er?' The poor barbarian, weeping above his dead, can answer 
these questions just as well as the robed priest of the most 
authentic creed. The tearful ignorance of the one is as con- 
soling as the learned and unmeaning words of the other. No 
man, standing where the horizon of a life has touched a grave, 



217 

has any right to prophesy a future filled with pain and tears. 

"May be that death gives all there is of worth to life. If 
those we press and strain within our arms could never die, 
perhaps that love would wither from the earth. May be this 
common fate treads from out the paths between our hearts 
the weeds of selfishness and hate. And I had rather live and 
love where Death is king, than have eternal life where Love is 
not. Another life is nought, unless we know and love again 
the ones who love us here. 

"They who stand with breaking hearts around this grave 
need have no fear. The larger and nobler faith in all that is, 
and is to be, tell us that death, even at its worst, is only perfect 
rest. We know that through the common wants of life the 
needs and duties of each hour their grief will lessen day by 
day, until at last this grave will be to them a place of rest and 
peace almost of joy. There is for them this consolation: 
The dead do not suffer. If they live again, their lives will 
surely be as good as ours. We have no fear. We are all chil- 
dren of the same mother, and the same fate awaits us all. We, 
too, have our religion, and it is this : Help for the living ; hope 
for the dead." 



218 



Letter of Abraham Lincoln to Charles R. 
Welles. 



Springfield, Illinois, October 9, 1914. 
Illinois State Historical Society, 

Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Secretary, 

City. 
My Dear Mrs. Weber : 

I herewith, through you, present to the Society a letter dated 
Washington, February 20, 1849, from A. Lincoln to C. E. 
Welles. With this letter I send some explanatory notes with 
reference to the persons named in the letter and some of the 
circumstances referred to in it. 

The whole of the letter is in Mr. Lincoln's own handwriting. 

I also enclose you a note of invitation dated February 21, 
1863, to Mr. James C. Conkling to dine informally with Pres- 
ident Lincoln. You will note the black border upon the en- 
velop and the note. The frank upon the envelop is in Mr. 
Lincoln 's own handwriting. 

My father, Mr. James C. Conkling, had occasion to visit 
Washington in February, 1863, on behalf of the State of Illi- 
nois. It was difficult in those days to secure a hearing before 
the heads of the departments, and especially so with Secretary 
Stanton. Mr. Lincoln desired to facilitate as much as possible 
the business and so gave to Mr. Conkling, among other cards 
of a similar nature, the enclosed directed to the secretary of 
war. The whole of the writing on this card as well as the sig- 
nature is in the handwriting of Mr. Lincoln. 

I also enclose you an original letter in the handwriting of 
Senator Stephen A. Douglas. This is written to General 
James Shields, familiarly known as " Paddy Shields." Judge 
Douglas writes about his first experiences as a judge and the 



219 

letter has some political interest in view of the bitterness of 
those days and of that especial election. With this letter I 
send a memorandum referring to several of the persons men- 
tioned in it. 

The fragment of an order dated July 22, 1846, and signed by 
Colonel E. D. Baker, has no particular interest that I know 
of but I send it to you for what it may be worth. 

All of the above papers were for many years in the posses- 
sion of my father, James C. Conkling, and passed from his 
possession to mine, and I now take great pleasure in present- 
ing them to the Illinois State Historical Society. 

Yours truly, 

Clinton L. Conkling. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN TO C. R. WELLES. 

Washington, Feb. 20, 1849. 
C. R. Welles, Esq. 

Dear Sir : 

This is Tuesday evening, and your letter enclosing the one 
of Young & Brothers to you, saying the money you sent by me 
to them had not been received, came to hand last Saturday 
night The facts, which are perfectly fresh in my recollection, 
are these : You gave me the money in a letter (open I believe) 
directed to Young & Brothers To make it more secure than 
it would be in my hat, where I carry most all my packages, I 
put it in my trunk I had a great many jobs to do in St. Louis ; 
and by the very extra care I had taken of yours overlooked 
it On the Steam Boat near the mouth of the Ohio, I opened 
the trunk, and discovered the letter I then began to cast 
about for some safe hand to send it back by Mr. Yeatman, 
Judge Pope's son-in-law, and step-son of Mr. Bell of Ten- 
nessee, was on board, and was to return immediately to St. 
Louis, from the Mouth of Cumberland At my request, he 
took the letter and promised to deliver it and I heard no 
more about it till I received your letter on Saturday It so 
happens that Mr. Yeatman is now in this City; I called on 
him last night about it; he said he remembered my giving him 
the letter, and he could remember nothing more of it He 



220 

told me he would try and refresh his memory, and see me 
again concerning it to-day which, however, he has not done 
I will try to see him to-morrow and write you again He is a 
young man, as I understand, of unquestioned, and unquestion- 
able character; and this makes me fear some pick-pocket on 
the boat may have seen me give him the letter, and slipped 
it from him In this way, never seeing the letter again, he 
would, naturally enough, never think of it again 
Yours truly, 

A. Lincoln. 



EXPLANATORY NOTES CONCERNING LETTER DATED FEBRUARY 
20TH, 1849, FROM A. LINCOLN TO C. K. WELLES. 

Mr. Charles E. Welles was a lawyer and land agent in 
Springfield, Illinois. He was agent for John Grigg of Phila- 
delphia, a capitalist and western land owner of that day and 
after his, Welles' death, James C. Conkling succeeded to that 
business and was agent for the Griggs for many years. From 
him the letter passed into the hands of his son, Clinton L. 
Conkling. Mr. Welles was one of the best men that ever lived. 
He resided where the Bettie Stuart Institute is now located, 
on the northwest corner of Jackson and Fourth streets. That 
was the old home, and he lived in a little white house back by 
the railroad, where he died in about 1855. There was a little 
stream running through the grounds in front of the house and 
a foot-bridge over it. 

Young Bros, were wholesale clothing merchants in St. Louis 
in 1856, and were a very prominent and responsible firm. 

At that time it was a very common occurrence for travelers 
to take letters for their friends and deliver them in St. Louis. 
Persons going to Philadelphia or St. Louis used frequently to 
carry letters or packages, especially to the ladies, as there was 
no express in those days. This service was a regular nuisance. 

Travelers used to go from Springfield to Washington in the 
early days by railroad to Naples and thence by river to St. 
Louis, then by boat up the Ohio to Wheeling, where they would 
take the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad to Washington. 



221 

Mr. Yeatman, son-in-law of Judge Pope, was named James 
E., and was at one time a director in the Merchants Bank of 
St. Louis, then cashier, and finally president. He was one of 
St. Louis ' most substantial citizens, and was head of the house 
of Yeatman, Robinson & Company, commission and for- 
warding. 

Judge Pope was Judge Nathaniel Pope of the United States 
Court at Springfield, and was succeeded in that office by Judge 
Samuel H. Treat. He was the grandfather of Mrs. Cornelia 
P. Bowen of Springfield. 

Mr. Bell was Senator John Bell of Tennessee, and was on 
the presidential ticket of Bell and Everett in 1860, the same 
year in which Mr. Lincoln was elected president. 
October 9, 1914. C. L. C. 



222 



Letter of Stephen A. Douglas to Gen. James 

Shields. 



The original of the following letter was presented to the 
Illinois State Historical Society by Mr. Clinton L. Conkling, 
who has added an explanatory note to it : 

Lewiston, April 2nd, 1841. 
Dear Sir: 

Inclosed I send you a letter from Mr. Maguire of St. Louis, 
containing a Certificate of Deposit upon one of the New York 
Banks which I hope you will find it convenient to arrange 
according to his letter of instructions. I hope you have found 
no difficulty in obtaining the money on the order I left with you 
for my salary with which to pay Mr. Maguire the ballance 
due him towit $300.00. I have informed Mr. Maguire by letter 
of the arrangement with you to attend to his business and re- 
ferred him to you. 

Business aside, I have a few words to say on the score of 
friendship. I have entirely cleared the Dockett in this county 
the first time for seven years, having disposed of between 300 
and 400 cases. The members of the bar and the people gen- 
erally have received and treated me with great kindness and 
courtesy, and seem to be entirely satisfied with the judicial 
change. In this respect have been agreeably disappointed, 
particularly with the Whigs, from whom I have a right to 
expect some opposition; but have experienced none. I shall 
leave here in the morning for Rushville where I shall expect 
to have the pleasure of receiving a letter from you. You will 
excuse my neglect in writing to you and place it on the ground 
of great pressure of business, which could not be postponed. 
Present my respects our friends Doyle, Eastham, Tyler, Wai- 



223 

ters &c &c, and tell them that absence strengthens the ties of 
friendship. I remain truly your friend, 

S. A. Douglass. 
Col. James Shields, 
Springfield. 



NOTE The person referred to in the letter from Judge 
Douglas as Eastham was "Marvellous Eastham." He was a 
financier and politician here in those days ; was a bachelor and 
died in this county. Antrim Campbell is said to have been 
administrator of his estate. In the signature book of the Old 
State Bank of Illinois, now in the possession of William 
Bidgely, appears the signature of John Duff & Co., a firm con- 
sisting of John Duff, John Taylor and M. Eastham. They are 
said to have been contractors. It is probable that the Taylor 
referred to in Judge Douglas' letter was this John Taylor. 

C. L. Conkling. 



224 



Letter of Andrew Jackson to Governor John 
Reynolds of Illinois 



The following original letter was found in the archives of 
the State of Illinois and was deposited by the secretary of 
state in the Illinois State Historical Library. It was written 
a short time previous to the Black Hawk War and relates 
to the threatened Indian uprising in Illinois. 

Washington, D. C., July 16, 1831. 
Sir, 

Your favor of the 15th ulto (postmarked 22d) has this mo- 
ment come to hand, apprising me of the measures taken by 
you on being "informed that a band of the Sac Indians had 
actually invaded the State near Bock Island, and that the citi- 
zens were in imminent danger. ' * Various rumors on the sub- 
ject have reached here within a day or two past, through the 
papers and other channels ; but this is the first official intelli- 
gence I have received. 

I lose no time in requesting, that you will, at your earliest 
convenience, make a report on this invasion, stating the num- 
ber of Indians, their deportment, pretensions and acts; and 
showing the necessity for calling out the Militia, and the num- 
ber ordered, in addition to the Regular Force on the frontier. 
A copy of your correspondence with Genl. Gaines is also 
desired. 

I am, Sir, very respectfully 
Yr. obt. Servt. 

Andrew Jackson. 

His Excy. John Reynolds, 

Governor of Illinois. 




McKENDREE HYPES CHAMBERLIN 



225 



M. H. Chamberlin, A. M. LL. D. 

BY His SON, CLIFFORD D. CHAMBERLIN. 



McKendree Hypes Chamberlin was born in Lebanon Illi- 
nois, November 17, 1838, in the original building of the Mc- 
Kendree College, over which his father, Eev. David Cham- 
berlin, was then steward, and his mother, Susan E., was 
matron. 

He died July 27, 1914, at the age of 75 years, in comparative 
obscurity, in Los Angeles, California, where he was living with 
his wife, Helen D., his son, Clifford D., and grandson, Vincent. 

At the funeral services, held in Los Angeles, on July 30, 
Prof. Alfred Ewington, of the Los Angeles High School, who 
graduated from McKendree College, when Dr. Chamberlin 
was president, said, in speaking for the students who knew 
him during the fourteen years of his service at the head of that 
college: "President Chamberlin had much in common with 
his students. A sweet, cheering influence was cast in every 
direction from his life an inspiring friendship given not 
alone to the cultured youth, but to the uncouth, the slow, the 
uncultured, the man of but one talent. Such was the con- 
tagiousness of his good qualities that when you went out of 
his presence you too, were l contagious' far-sighted, cou- 
ageous, unwearied; you had some of his rare power to take 
the discordant elements of life and adjust them to the joy of 
men and the glory of God. ' ' 

Dr. J. F. Snyder, of Virginia, Illinois, an old McKendree 
College student, and one of the founders of the State His- 
torical Society of Illinois, with which Dr. Chamberlin and 



226 

himself were together identified for several years, in a private 
letter of condolence upon the death of his friend, said: ''My 
home was in Belleville, Illinois, twelve miles southwest of 
Lebanon, when my two brothers entered McKendree College 
in 1841. They there roomed in the college boarding house, 
conducted by Rev. David Chamberlin and wife, and there I 
frequently visited them until their graduation. I early made 
the acquaintance of ' Mack, ' as the future president of McKen- 
dree College was familiarly known, a robust, alert, and active 
youngster three years of age. In 1845, when I was myself 
enrolled as a student in the college, he was a precocious lad, 
bright and intelligent, with sunny, happy disposition, six and a 
half years old, the pet of all the students, the faculty, and the 
villagers. Through all the years since that time, notwith- 
standing our different environments and the broad variance in 
our convictions concerning many matters of public policy and 
individual judgment, our mutual confidence and affectionate 
friendship never wavered. I esteemed him highly, and his 
death now, as the shadows of life's evening are lowering about 
me, fills me with inexpressible sadness." 

Before the lad "McKendree" had left the public school of 
Lebanon he had become quite a "politician," keeping posted 
on the topics of the day, and when he entered McKendree 
College, in the same town, he was well fitted as a brilliant 
leader among the students. 

While in college he became greatly impressed with the fact 
that his mother and father, long before his birth, as well as 
afterward, had given their lives, their time, means, energy, to 
McKendree College and its students, that it might be tided 
over periods of financial stress. He knew that they had "kept 
themselves impoverished ' ' that the college might thrive. Now 
entering manhood he could appreciate what they had done and 
contemplated with admiration the self-sacrificing devotion of 
other families the Hypes, Deneens, Homers, Rankins, Rig- 
gins, Peeples, and many others. 

Mr. Chamberlin 's conversation and correspondence from 
his college days to his death, showed that at that time he was 



possessed with an ambition unaccountable for a boy of Ms 
age; it was to make McKendree College the greatest educa- 
tional center in this country. His private records tell of his 
determination to make the money to endow the college him- 
self. Another resolution that he seems to have made during 
his college days was to devote his life to the blessing and help- 
ing of every one with whom he should be brought into contact. 
This second resolve proved a sort of hindrance to the first, for 
in always "giving" of both time, sympathy and means, he 
could never hoard the desired fortune to bestow on the college. 

While in college as a student he must have studied into its 
history with diligence, because he was so familiar with it when 
he without means was forced into the presidency many years 
later, when he laughed and said: "Well, maybe Providence 
has thus decreed I shall endow McKendree as a pauper 
rather than as a Croesus." To show how he must have kept 
in touch with old-timers, we quote from a letter which will 
also throw light on the circumstances which formed the basis 
of young Chamber tin's youthful dreams of some day memo- 
rializing McKendree. This letter was from one of the pioneers, 
Thomas Casad, then living at Westport, Missouri, and thus 
read, in part : 

"The chrysalis of what is now McKendree College was first 
started by a subscription of the citizens of Lebanon and vicin- 
ity to be paid in work mostly, in preparing material for the 
building (1828). 

"My father drew up and circulated the instrument, and 
hewed out with his own hands a considerable portion of the 
timbers for the building, and I well recollect that he kept me 
busy for most of a year hauling the materials together. The 
timbers were large, ten and twelve inches square; these of 
course were unnecessarily so, but it was the custom of the 
times. The floors of the building were of oak, and were hauled 
from what was called Pickering's Mill on Canteen Creek as 
I well recollect. This creek must come into the Mississippi 
bottom somewhere between Caseyville and Collinsville. It 
has been near forty years since this timber was sawed and 



228 

hauled; the mill was owned at that time by one Isaac Mc- 
Mahan, a crazy kind of a Methodist, who afterwards, I believe 
joined the Mormons. He was a contributor to the seminary. 
* ' There are but few in Lebanon now who were there at the 
time the seminary was started; Nathan Horner, Joseph 
Hypes, T. W. Gray, T. and A. Williams, John and Charles 
McDonald, are all that are left who were grown men at that 
time, and were living in and about the place. I believe all 
these men contributed to the seminary. The McDonalds, I 
know, assisted in getting out timbers. There lived in Lebanon 
and vicinity at that time Colonel Clemson, Dr. Witter, Adam 
Vineyard and three sons, grown men ; Deacon Crocker with a 
large family of sons, mostly grown men; Wm. Farris, Wiley 
Graves, a man of the name of Mowry, Andrew Christy, now of 
St. Louis ; Thomas Eay, James Riggin, and a few others, who 
have all, or nearly all, paid the debt of nature. Your father 
came to Lebanon about this time, and no man suffered more 
and sacrificed more for the college and the cause of education 
than he. In the vicinity of Lebanon lived Nicholas Horner, 
with two sons and a daughter; the Murray family, a large 
family, mostly grown up men and women ; the Bradsbys, John 
Dew, S. H. Thompson, T. Peeples, the Moores, and many 
others, who felt and took an interest in the seminary. 

"While the institution went under its first name, E. B. Ames 
(now bishop) came to Lebanon from the State of Ohio to take 
charge of the infant seminary, and I believe taught one or two 
years ; he was a professor of religion, and a faithful teacher, 
as I can testify from personal knowledge. 

"I think John Dew then had charge of the seminary for a 
year or two. I do not recollect when the institution took the 
name of McKendree ; it was, perhaps, in 1833 or 1834. 

"I have always felt an interest in the institution, perhaps 
from the fact that I had some hand in and assisted at its com- 
mencement as a seminary near forty years agone. I saw the 
first stick of timber put in. It was on the site before the prim- 
itive forest was taken off the ground. I am conscious that it 
has done good, but am not prepared to say that more good 



229 

might not have been done, in a utilitarian point of view, with 
the means there expended." 

This "fire shut up in his bones," as he often expressed it, 
to make the oldest college in Methodism a broad and liberal 
educational center, was an inspiration to him all his life. As 
some one has lately said, "A proper history of McKendree 
Chamberlin would be a history of McKendree College. ' ' 

While a student in college, he has been heard to tell of how 
his young mind was aroused over the subject of "woman's 
rights." It was then unpopular to advocate equal suffrage 
for both sexes, but he was an ardent believer in the doctrine, 
and prophesied that he would live to see the day when women 
would preach in the pulpits and cast ballots for presidents of 
the United States. Both came true, for, before his death, 
women were admitted as lay delegates to Conferences, and al- 
lowed to preach from Methodist altars as evangelists, and 
during his residence in California, he and Mrs. Chamber- 
lin went to the polls together three times. "Quite a change," 
said he, "from the time that my mother, for protection from 
the mob, had to have a card to admit her to class meetings in 
Lebanon, because it was known that the Methodists were be- 
ginning to allow their women to speak in meeting." 

Young Chamberlin was often urged to prepare for the min- 
istry. His theologically inclined friends noting his zeal and 
familiarity with the Scriptures, annoyed him considerably, 
reminding him of the "woe" pronounced upon those who re- 
fuse to preach when called. But he steadfastly held out against 
such a position in the church, because he believed that "Every 
man and every woman who becomes a Christian should 
preach." They forced an exhorter's license upon him, but 
he went no further than to take active part in both church and 
Sunday School work at home, at law school, in Boston during 
his railroad and political, and subsequent life, when he en- 
deavored to let his light shine not only on Sundays but every 
day in the week. The delightful, impressive, but inoffensive 
manner in which he witnessed to his faith among his business 
associates, called forth their admiration and in some cases, a 



230 

relation of affectionate friendship. These mutual companion- 
ships, based upon a genuine love which true and undefiled re- 
ligion begets, continued up to the time of his death, when the 
minister, Mr. Harrington, who spoke at his funeral, testified 
to the life of Dr. Chamberlin, he said : * * There has been but 
one other death, in all my experience, which has touched my 
heart strings as this one. The association of himself and wife 
has been a honeymoon of forty-five years. ' ' 

While a student in college Mr. Chamberlin joined the Phil- 
osophian Literary Society. His brother John, two years older, 
belonged to the other the Platonian. Both boys were lead- 
ers. John (still living in 1914) was a bright student, loving 
and self-sacrificing, but less active in school because much of 
his energy was given toward help in making a living for the 
widowed mother and family. He was a prosperous merchant 
in Lebanon, many years, and treasurer of McKendree College. 
He wished to be a physician, but as there was not means 
enough to give both boys a technical training, he gladly helped 
McKendree to go to Harvard Law School, after the latter had 
graduated at McKendree with highest honors valedictorian 
of the class of 1859. 

His law course began in 1860 and was finished the next year. 
He did a vast amount of reading. He heard stirring speeches, 
in Boston, against slavery, for the war had begun. He kept 
up correspondence with old students and professors in the 
west, which helped him to develop that delightful, wide-awake 
style which marked everything he wrote. 

After receiving the degree of LL. B., in 1861 from Harvard, 
he returned to Illinois and for five years engaged in various 
activities which contributed to that all-around education 
which made his life so practical, and increased his executive 
capacities. Part of the time he was in commercial lines, and 
for a while he was at home helping to build a house for his 
mother and beautify their Lebanon property. 

In 1865 he opened a law office in Kansas City, and for about 
four years rose in his profession, making a name for himself, 
refusing all cases, however, in which he saw graft and dis- 




McKENDREE HYPES CHAMBERLIN 

Picture taken at the time of his graduation 

from McKendree College 



231 

honest motives. He met Miss Helen Dana there, and on June 
8, 1869, they were married. A month later they moved to 
Beardstown, Illinois, where he had previously been engaged in 
newspaper work in association with an old college chum, Mr. 
J. S. Nicholson, editor of the" Beardstown Illinoisan." 

Chamberlin was in demand in public functions. His grasp 
of Greek and Latin roots, dry and tasteless as they are to most 
students, made it possible for him to use a flow of language 
which comes only from study, and gave him appropriate words 
for extemporaneous speech. This caused many to marvel at 
his readiness to talk without previous preparation. 

He took part in local and national political campaigns, 
stumping for others, but never thought of office for himself, 
until his friends forced him to the front later. 

His only son, Clifford, was born in 1870, and five years later 
a daughter, who 'died in infancy. 

All the years he was away from Lebanon he was not forget- 
ful of his Alma Mater McKendree College. He kept posted 
as to her financial sorrows which seemed to be perennial. One 
year when the college debt had reached $30,000, he determined 
to find some way to abolish it and place the college in the lime- 
light, improve its curricula, and draw a large attendance. He 
devised an i ' educational convention" for its fortieth anni- 
versary in 1868. Fortunately, Dr. Allen, president at that 
time, reduced the debt to $15,000, and Chamberlin laid his 
project before him, promising to do the labor of working up 
an interest. A meeting of resident students was held in Leb- 
anon on December 12, 1867, and a committee of eight ap- 
pointed to plan the celebration for February 20, following. 
The committee were Judge W. H. Snyder, A.M., John M. 
Chamberlin, A.M., E. F. Cunningham, A.M., M.D., W. H. 
Hypes, A.M., Hon. Thos. A. Parker, A.M., M.D., H. H. Homer, 
A.M., Hon. Alonzo Thompson, A.M., and M. H. Chamberlin, 
A.M., LL.B. Chamberlin drafted a circular in which he put 
forth every bright side of the college. It had 150 students, 
the buildings were valued at $65,000 and the endowment was 
$25,000. He called upon all lovers of higher education to meet 



232 

and discuss university education, the co-education of the sexes, 
the importance of the classics and the extent to which mathe- 
matics should be pursued. Enthusiastic replies came from 
all over the country, old professors, students, governors and 
prominent citizens of other places who could not attend. 
Among those who did come to the convention itself much en- 
thusiasm was engendered. While the debt was not paid off, 
an advance step was taken for the institution, and most im- 
portant of all, Mr. Chamberlin was adding to the inspiration 
which he found useful years later. 

After the Civil War the entire country took on new life. Mr. 
Chamberlin began the study of railroads. The Union Pacific 
was opening up the West, and the field of money-raising for 
the construction of roads was inviting. The Rockford, Eock 
Island & St. Louis Company were looking for some one to 
overcome the prejudice which prevailed among small towns, 
and farmers along their proposed extension, especially be- 
tween Monmouth and Galesburg, Illinois. Nicholson, the 
senior member of the Beardstown paper, recommended Mr. 
Chamberlin, and the company, somewhat dubious, thought to 
try him. 

He hatched a plan absolutely new in the field of railroading 
one which afterward was used all over the United States 
to some extent. In brief it was this: First, solicit help, or 
local aid, from the people along the proposed line, issuing to 
them ''transportation" instead of " stock." Second, let the 
subscribers pay for their subscriptions when the cars are run- 
ning. Third, as each person pays, issue "certificates" en- 
titling him to both passenger and freight transportation priv- 
ilege equal to his subscription. Fourth, let these certificates 
be negotiable a first lien on the road. Fifth, the holder of 
certificates to pay one-half his bill in cash, thus creating an 
operating fund till the certificates are exhausted. This helps 
to build the road, and he gets his money back. 

Chamberlin argued thus : "It will be an improvement on the 
old stock basis which is the established custom for agents to 
use while soliciting money for a projected road. They dazzle 



233 

the farmer's mind with the idea of becoming part owner in a 
great corporation and " getting rich" quick. "I will show 
them, ' ' said Chamberlin, * * that they will get their investment 
back in the form of freight or passenger service, a better in- 
ducement than stock." 

The Globe-Democrat of St. Louis, commenting on the 
scheme, said: "It is certainly an improvement over the old 
stock basis. Intelligent subscribers to railroad stock, outside 
the * ring, ' turn their money in as a donation and receive stock 
as a matter of form. The 'ring' always manages a foreclosure 
by which the stock is wiped out and the stock certificates are 
used to embellish the walls of country houses in places where 
an engraving looks better than a hole in the wall. 

"The holder of certificates is to pay, each time he uses his 
certificate, one-half his bill in cash ; the fifty per cent to form 
a fund to operate the road until the transportation certificates 
are exhausted. This is feasible. It encourages the people 
to aid in building railroads and will encourage capital to take 
this method of developing localities where railroad communi- 
cation is needed. ' ' 

On this basis the enthusiastic Chamberlin proceeded with 
horse and buggy and a transit man or two across several coun- 
ties, calling mass meetings of farmers, laying before them his 
certificate plan. There was but one result. They all wanted 
to invest. They wanted the road. 

In Bushnell a monster demonstration was held. Young 
Chamberlin roused the people to white heat. The president 
of the road had sent him orders not to try to solicit money 
there simply deliver his speech. He said they must have 
$25,000 from that town, and a special agent would be sent to 
follow him up. Innocent of his orders which reached him after 
the occasion, he raised $50,000 himself. 

After his remarkable success with this road, his services 
were in demand in other parts of the United States. He re- 
ceived passes from most of the railroads of the country. He 
seldom used them, but remained in his native State Illinois. 

In 1871 he was called to finance the Muscatine Western Rail- 



234 

way. Later the projectors of the Keokuk, Galesburg & Chi- 
cago Railway made him their general manager. The projected 
line included, beside the towns given in the title, Berwick, 
Quincy, Pittsfield and Louisiana, Missouri. 

The beginning of Mr. Chamberlin's political career was 
during the Grant-Greeley campaign in 1872, when he was 
placed on the Republican electoral ticket. He was chosen to 
open the campaign in Springfield at the Wigwam, an immense 
auditorium. Hon. Milton Hay, chairman of the Grant and 
Wilson Club, introduced him. "At first," said the Virginia 
Gazette of August 16, "the speaker started out as though he 
mistrusted his own ability and showed signs of diffidence 
which is a natural weakness of his, but warming with his sub- 
ject he held that immense gathering spell-bound with his elo- 
quence, and at every pause he was greeted with deafening 
bursts of applause. His arguments in defense of the gov- 
ernment and its measures, was a perfect and complete vindi- 
cation of the administration, and his arraignment of liberals, 
such as Sumner, Schurz, Trumbull, Palmer, and others, was a 
just rebuke to those men whom he clearly convicted of con- 
spiring with such men as Frank Blair to turn over both the 
Republican and Democratic parties to a combination formed 
on the basis of mutual greed for office. Several times the 
speaker attempted to close his speech but was as often greeted 
with cries of "go on, go on," from all parts of the house, and 
after two hours of as earnest and eloquent an effort as we 
have ever listened to, he finally closed with a peroration that 
was received with the wildest demonstrations imaginable. The 
stage was immediately crowded with distinguished men warm- 
ly congratulating the speaker on his effort, which was univer- 
sally conceded to be the ablest speech made at the State capital 
during the campaign. ' ' 

Here he made a name as an orator in national politics, and 
the Republicans of the Twelfth District, at a loss to know 
where to turn for a candidate for Congress to oppose Jim 
Robinson, decided that Chamberlin was the man who could 
beat him, and they, with much difficulty, prevailed upon him 



235 

to run, rather they printed his name on the ticket and 
planned his program against his definite protest. 

The district had never been under 5,000 democratic major- 
ity. Chamberlin insisted that a stronger man than he should 
undertake the fight. He was running a Sunday School conven- 
tion in Cass County the day the committee met, and they sent 
an engine and special car from Springfield to get him. They 
had a brass band aboard. The band played and they waited 
for his decision. He turned to his wife and asked her advice. 
She replied : ' * You have done everything you could to prevent 
this; now, having been nominated, there may be something 
providential in it. ' ' 

He took her suggestion and went into the campaign, making 
two speeches a day. Robinson, strong in his security, was 
speaking out of the State. His friends wrote him to come 
home and take care of his fences. But Chamberlin was too 
far ahead when he arrived, and he called a consultation of his 
friends. ''Bill" Springer and Rheuna Lawrence afterwards 
informed Chamberlin that when the Democrats were sure Jim 
Robinson would be beaten by not less than 500 votes, they de- 
cided that it would take $10,000 to save him. "Every Irish- 
man in the district was shouting for * Mike ' Chamberlin. ' ' Mr. 
Chamberlin 's first name being McKendree, he was nick-named 
' ' Mack, ' ' which the Irish changed to ' ' Mike. ' ' When John M. 
Palmer appealed to the Democratic National Committee for 
the $10,000, the reply came back: "If Robinson can't beat a 
new man, with 5,000 majority and his record, he deserves to 
be beaten." 

Some one then went to New York and made a personal ap- 
peal to the committee. The money was secured. When the 
votes were counted Chamberlin was just 829 votes short, and 
was defeated. 

Shortly after this political campaign, Mr. Chamberlin was 
urged by a staunch admirer to go to a southern railway and 
prove to the owners that he could finance their road, which 
was then going behind. He went to investigate. He met with 
the board of trustees in the office of a bank. While waiting in 



236 

the vestibule he overheard the old general manager, who evi- 
dently feared they might let him out of his job, making a plea 
to let him try out the Chamberlin plan himself. There was 
considerable heated discussion. Enough of the talk escaped 
to Chamberlin 's ears to decide him to l ' wash his hands of the 
affair before it should begin. ' ' He was then called in. There 
were no introductions. The little general manager sat rubbing 
his hands nervously. The president, a fleshy distiller, whose 
stomach "rested on the mahogany table" (as Chamber- 
lin expressed it whenever he told this amusing story) said, in 
rather insolent manner : "So you propose to build an exten- 
sion to our road and you have'nt got a cent of your owr, 
money!" The stranger arose, and for probably thirty sec- 
onds looked at every member, square in the eye, began a with- 
ering rebuke against the way he had been treated, and then 
told them something of his success in the north, and that he 
knew he could build their road on the ' * certificate ' ' plan. The 
men were clearly ashamed. Their attitude was changed. They 
asked him to meet them again and go into details. It was late 
in the afternoon. The little general manager was very polite 
and invited Chamberlin to his house for dinner. While there 
he pumped and questioned him till he had gotten the chief 
features of the Chamberlin plan from the author himself, 
whereupon the general official informed his guest that his com- 
pany was going to let him try the new idea if he could prove 
to them that he could. This he felt he could now do since 
getting the help from Mr. Chamberlin himself. The latter 
arose, taking his hat in hand, and thanking the gentleman 
for his supper, told him he knew he had been invited there to 
be robbed of his plans, and gave away his secrets knowingly, 
but that he knew they could not build the road. The company 
tried to carry out the scheme, but failed. 

In somewhat similar manner, during his business career, 
Mr. Chamberlin has been robbed of other plans and ideas, and 
the fruit of his thought and labors either through ambition, 
intrigue or selfishness. This is ever the experience of those 
who work for others and not for self. 



237 

If Mr. Chamberlin had a weakness it was that of not claim- 
ing what was properly his. If he saw others were being in- 
jured he was "up in arms" to defend them. When practising 
law he would not charge unfortunate persons for his services 
even when he won the suits for them. 

Occasionally prominent persons would come to him for help 
in writing up speeches. He never charged for this, even if it 
required some time for research and writing. He did many 
valuable professional services for others, and made the mis- 
take of not charging. A very few, however, made him take 
pay, others thanked him, and others did not think to do either. 

In 1877, Mr. Chamberlin 's reputation for ability in railway 
matters induced Governor Oglesby to call him to the secretary- 
ship of the Illinois State Railway and Warehouse Commis- 
sion, with offices at the State Capitol. He served there three 
years, accomplishing a vast amount of work and introduced 
methods of value to his successors. 

In 1880 the "mining fever" overcame him. He resigned 
his position with the Railway and Warehouse Commission. 
"We will never get rich here," he said to his wife, "and if I 
am to endow McKendree College, I must find a mine. ' ' Using 
one of his passes, he went to Denver. The wife and child soon 
followed. He studied mining and mineralogy, and before long 
became an expert, secured options on mines, wrote up his own 
prospectuses, and made a number of deals in New York and 
other cities. 

At first he operated in Colorado chiefly, but later he went 
from Idaho to New Mexico, in search of larger properties. 
Sometimes he was "grub-staked," and on other occasions he 
went prospecting on his own account. Once, his associates 
in a mining camp, rebuked by his temperance principles, de- 
termined to force him to drink whiskey and get him drunk. 
With that delightful tact and presence of mind he always 
showed under all tests, he talked them out of their scheme and 
made them ashamed. As life progressed, he added to his fund 
of entertaining and instructive anecdotes. His stories were 
largely taken from his own life's experiences. He made his 



238 

listeners laugh or cry at will. And his stories always stood 
out in contrast to the ordinary tales and accounts told in 
groups of men, because his were not embellished with obscene 
or vulgar features. He could mimic the voices and looks of 
prominent people and many of his friends, which greatly 
amused. He would have made a good comedian. As he grew 
older he was mistaken sometimes for Joe Jefferson, at a dis- 
tance, and when still later he was fleshy, he resembled William 
Jennings Bryan slightly. 

In 1883 he struck out for the Black Range country in New 
Mexico, and there found a copper-silver prospect known as 
the " Midnight." He determined, after careful examination, 
that this would give him the desired fortune to endow the col- 
lege. The owner, Mr. Drake, was induced to sell it to him and 
a man named Turner (who afterwards became wealthy). His 
family came from Denver to Chloride, New Mexico. Two 
years were spent in development of the property on a small 
scale. Then going to St. Louis, Missouri, Mr. Chamberlin, in 
order to put the mine on a paying basis, organized a company 
having Judge Leo Bassieur of that city, for president. Exam- 
ination was made, and the claims of Chamberlin as to the 
values in the mine, more than verified. Work had not pro- 
gressed very far, however, when the silver market began to 
slump. The demonetization of silver in 1873 was beginning 
to be felt by silver mining companies, and the Midnight mine 
closed. Silver dropped from over $1.00 to 60 cents. Had it 
remained at $1.00, Mr. Chamberlin would have become rich 
from his share in the mine. 

In 1885 the Apache Indians went on the ''war path" in the 
Black Range, and the Chamberlin family returned to Denver, 
and two years later to St. Louis, which proved to be a more 
favorable location for the reaching of capital, as well as for 
the securing of coal and timber lands in the south, which Mr. 
Chamberlin had added to his promotion business. 

The son Clifford was now of college age, and entered Mc- 
Kendree, but after a year quit to assist his father in business, 
though later he went back and stayed till graduation. 



239 

From 1887 to 1894 Mr. Chamberlin continued to handle 
lands and mines, making a small deal now and then, till he 
had established a good name among some London firms. His 
London agent succeeded, at last, in placing the sale of a large 
tract of railroad lands. The first payment, in fact, was made 
about a million dollars and Chamberlin received a tele- 
gram from the bank in New York that the money had been 
cabled to him from London, and was in the New York bank 
at his disposal. It was night, and he put off the reply till the 
next morning, for some reason, and during the night the 
failure of the Baring Brothers was announced. Both North 
and South America suffered in a panic, and Chamberlin 's 
money was quickly withdrawn by the purchasers and the deal 
lost. The reverse was bravely borne. Mr. Chamberlin went 
ahead with his work, and a few years later saw another big 
deal ruined by a similar calamity. 

Undaunted, his pluck and energy still strong and buoyant, 
and two or three more small deals on the way to successful is- 
sue, when a committee of gentlemen from Lebanon called at 
his office in St. Louis to propose his taking the presidency of 
McKendree College. The persons on the committee were 
Alex. Morriss, Dr. E. L. Waggoner, T. A. Wilson and John M. 
Chamberlin. 

With McKendree College seriously in debt, buildings dilap- 
idated, property going into decay, interest in real college 
work at low ebb, and what little revenues had been taken in 
the year before had, to a considerable percentage, come from 
commercial and common school studies, there was a feeling 
of utter discouragement on the part of the executive com- 
mittee. They had nothing inviting to offer Mr. Chamberlin 
and, to make the situation more gloomy, the one who had been 
last elected, Rev. Dr. Thomas Parker, had been to Lebanon, 
looked over the situation and resigned. With the summer of 
1894 nearly half gone, no catalogue out, no solicitation made 
for students, Mr. Chamberlin pointed out to the gentlemen 
that since it was customary to place some one of the clergy 
in the president's office there might be a prejudice were a 



240 

layman chosen. He therefore refused to take the step. A few 
days later he was called to Lebanon for another conference, 
but again declined, even though it was pointed out that a busi- 
ness man was needed one with energy and ability, together 
with scholarship and dignity; that he was fitted with these 
qualities. Yet, he felt that he was about to make some good 
financial turns which, being foreordained to McKendree, 
would be of more practical help that his moneyless service. A 
few days later, for a third time and in desperation, the com- 
mittee appealed to him, saying that unless he would take the 
almost forlorn hope, the mortgage would be foreclosed and 
the grounds sold within nine days to pay for overdue interest 
on mortgages, and McKendree 's career would come to a close, 
as had been true with Augusta College in Kentucky, also a 
Methodist institution, two years older than McKendree, which 
burned down never to be rebuilt. l ' Elect me ! ' ' exclaimed Mr. 
Chamberlin. "I can almost hear the bones of my mother 
leaping in her coffin, as you hint at such a fate for McKendree 
College." 

He lost no time in taking up the problem. He abandoned 
his mining and land business, moved to Lebanon immediately, 
and with the aid of his wife in various ways, and his son as 
typewriter and advertiser, put his whole soul into the task of 
the resurrection of McKendree. In his funeral oration, Prof. 
Ewington added: "The years devoted to the rehabilitation 
of McKendree were long and weary, fraught with self-denials 
and a succession of shattered hopes and answered prayers. 
Many a night when the lights of the little town of Lebanon had 
been extinguished and the people lay sleeping, there were still 
two lights shining, one in the home where the wife and mother 
kept her vigil, the other across the campus, in the college office, 
where the president and his faithful son were working, pre- 
paring the correspondence to win back the alienated friends 
of McKendree, and gain new ones. 

Those who were in close touch with President Chamberlin 
remember that he had soon formulated a program to cover 
years of labor, and that he followed it out with remarkable 



241 

closeness up to the time of his removal from the office. This 
was his ambition : 

First To effect a large increase in attendance of students, 
his first year. 

Second To then make small repairs, and paint the build- 
ings. 

Third To raise the debt, if possible, in Lebanon. By this 
he thought to agreeably surprise the Methodist Conference of 
Southern Illinois, who had been taking up collections for the 
college for many years. 

Fourth. To make larger repairs, such as removing huge 
dead trees, installing a steam heat plant, re-roofing, etc. 

Fifth Then to strike out for one hundred thousand dollars 
endowment. 

Sixth Next, raise a fund for the erection of buildings to 
house and board students on the grounds to cost say, $100,000. 

Seventh Then, carry out a campaign for $500,000, going 
to the strongholds of fortunes in eastern States, laying before 
the Rockefellers, Goulds, Sages and others, the claims of Mc- 
Kendree as the most sturdy, romantic, and logical center for a 
great and unique university. 

Eighth Following such a victory, he built his hopes on 
the endowment (if not before) of chairs to the various old 
families who had helped save the college and in other ways 
serve its interest in pioneer days, at the same time continuing 
the winning of millions more which would naturally become 
available. 

For him there was no working fund available. He had to 
create one and he did so. The first year about one-half of his 
income (which was $619) was thus used. 

The faculty partook of the spirit of optimism which pos- 
sessed his every speech, letter, and action. The attendance 
that first September was the largest for many years, despite 
the fact that the commercial and elementary studies were sub- 
ordinated or left off the program. 

The small repairs, painting and paper-hanging, were begun 
as students arrived, and there was the appearance of thrifty 



242 

commotion which was stimulating. Mrs. Chamberlin, in a 
buggy, went about town collecting the small sums which had 
been subscribed by the townspeople, who seemed glad to help 
in the plans for the college. 

During that year, the president again struck the Lebanon 
people a little harder this time for money to pay off the 
debt. This was a heroic move, a surprise. Why could not the 
Methodist Conference take care of its own college, as they had 
been doing? President Chamberlin explained that they must 
make it grander, broader, and more hospitable, and not allow 
it to remain with the repute of a narrow, sectarian school. 
"You Lebanon people pay off the debt, and I'll endow the 
college from outside!" He did have to get some help from 
other towns, but the Lebanon people responded nobly to Pres- 
ident Chamberlin 's efforts to solve the debt problem, and 
within a year, for the first time probably in its history, the 
college was entirely free from all encumbrances. There was 
much rejoicing and serenading of persons who had helped 
do "the impossible." 

The president then said: "We are not yet ready to raise 
an endowment. We must dress up a little more, even if it 
takes another year ! ' ' He proceeded to raise several thousand 
dollars from old college sympathizers to modernize the an- 
cient buildings as far as possible, beautify the grounds and 
install a steam heating plant. While the year was spent in 
making visible changes to the property, the chief was at work 
also strengthening the courses of study, "weeding out" as he 
called it, those studies which did not contribute to the dignity 
of a high grade institution. The catalogue was revised and 
brought near to the standard of other universities of the 
country. 

Then was the president ready to "plow the high seas" in 
search of his first $100,000 for endowment. He was thus far 
sticking close to his program. He had some critics. Some 
thought he did unwisely to ask for aid from local persons, 
others thought it unwise to cut out revenue-producing com- 
mercial studies. Dr. Jesse Bowman Young, then editor of 



243 

the Central Christian Advocate, hearing the comment made 
that President Chamberlin was ''visionary," wrote an edi- 
torial in which he said that because President Chamberlin had 
outlined such an ''impracticable" task, he was visionary. "It 
pays to be visionary, to believe and hope and work in antici- 
pation of things which are to be brought to pass. The men 
who dream dreams and who see visions are the builders of new 
eras, the founders of new institutions, the pioneers of a new 
civilization. It is like ozone to be with this young man of 
seventy, and hear his story of what has been and will be. ' ' 

President Chamberlin had learned of Dr. D. K. Pearsons 
and his gifts to small colleges. He determined to see him and 
lay the claims of McKendree before him. We find among Dr. 
Chamberlin 's letters and papers a penciled account of his in- 
terview with Dr. Pearsons. Enough is herewith given to show 
his inimitable and unobtrusive manner of approaching busy 
people of affairs : 

In July, 1895, 1 called on Dr. Pearsons, armed with a letter 
of introduction from Judge Horton of the Appellate Court, 
secured through the instrumentality of Hon. Chas. S. Deneen, 
afterwards Governor. 

On entering his office, I inquired: "Is this, Doctor Pear- 
sons?" 

"Yes, sir," was the prompt reply. "I like your face; I 
think you are an honest man. Draw up that seat. ' ' 

I being seated, he continued: "What do you want?" 

"If you will kindly read that letter it will give you an in- 
timation of what will follow," said I. 

After reading, he commenced: "How many students did 
you have last year?" 

"One hundred and sixty-two." 

"How many professors?" 

"Seven." 

"How much endowment?" 

"Thirty-five thousand dollars." 

Thus Dr. Pearsons proceeded to propound questions about 
the college, asking where Lebanon was and why St. Louis did 



244 

not help, to all of which President Chamberlin seems to have 
given prompt answers. Dr. Pearsons then told of how he was 
besieged constantly by colleges and institutions, some of which 
were already well endowed. 

"For which reason," observed President Chamberlin, "it is 
embarrassing to me to come to you, for I feel as if such calls 
can prove none other than irksome to you." 

"No, no, you go on; I like to hear you talk," was the reply. 

"Ah, but my case does not come within the category of your 
benevolence. We are out of debt, have some endowment. I 
want to thank you in the name of education for the immeasur- 
able good you have done for other colleges in need of help," 
said President Chamberlin. 

' ' Sit down ! ' ' commanded Dr. Pearsons, as the visitor arose 
to leave. "How do you pay your professors?" 

Here President Chamberlin continued to give detailed in- 
formation about the college, and his plans for the future ; how 
he had paid all debts, and remodelled the buildings to some 
extent. He wished to bring the present endowment up to 
$100,000. As he rose to leave the second time, Dr. Pearsons 
proposed : "Well, I'll tell you what I will do. I don't believe 
in odd numbers. You want a clean $100,000. I will give you 
$20,000 and you raise $80,000," whereupon he wrote out a 
simple agreement to pay M. H. Chamberlin, for endowment, 
the sum named when the terms were fulfilled, and he gave him 
a year's time. 

Handing over the paper, he said, ' ' Come in and see me when 
you are in town. See here, I'll make a prediction. If you die 
they'll dissipate all your labors." 

"No, Doctor," he replied, "they will fill my place with a 
better man. ' ' 

With this sum, President Chamberlin began his campaign. 
The first part of the year he took only large contributions, to- 
ward the last many small sums were subscribed. 

The announcement of the raising of the $100,000 was made 
to the students in the chapel service on the morning of May 



245 

17, 1905. A holiday was declared and the town joined in a 
noisy celebration of the victory. 

The indefatigable president then said, "We want $500,000, 
or $1,000,000, but first, we must be patient, and erect dormi- 
tories for the housing of students," and he proceeded to 
start another campaign for this purpose, not failing, however, 
at the same time, to take his bearings for the future endow- 
ment. 

He got Dr. Pearsons again for $10,000, and through his 
friend, Mr. Haines of East St. Louis, gained audience with 
the bankers Clark of Philadelphia, who gave $25,000; and, 
winning audience at the Carnegie estate, secured another 
$25,000. A railroad friend in Illinois promised him $10,000, 
but did not write down his subscription. These sums aggre- 
gated $70,000, $60,000 of which he had on paper. This left only 
$30,000 to be raised at the close of the college year, 1908, when 
he was surprised by being relieved of his task to satisfy the 
convictions of some that the old custom of placing a clergyman 
in charge, should be resumed. 

The last two years, and more particularly, the year of his 
retirement, he had made such successful preparations in the 
east that he felt confident of securing from large benefactors 
the money which would enable him to realize his eighth goal, 
1 ' Millions for McKendree. ' ' 

In 1896 President Chamberlin was honored with the degree 
of LL.D. Doctor of Laws from the Ulysses S. Grant Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, and ten years later, with the same hon- 
orary degree from the University of Illinois. While president 
of McKendree College, he was sent several times to the Gen- 
eral Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church as lay 
delegate, and was delegate-elect to the Ecumenical Confer- 
ence, London, 1901. He served on the Ehodes Scholarship 
Commission, for Illinois from 1904 to 1908. He was also a 
trustee for the Illinois State Historical Library, and a director 
of the State Historical Society. 

Dr. 0. H. Clark, for a long time president of the Board of 
Trustees of McKendree, once remarked: "I never saw any- 



246 

thing like the smooth system with which Dr. Chamberlin pre- 
pares his reports to the Board. We go up each year to the 
college and find everything mapped out, in detail, statistics, 
committee suggestions, etc. His reports and recommenda- 
tions were typewritten in triplicate and cut up in parts to dis- 
tribute among the various committees. He assigned a good 
reason for everything he did and proposed. All we had to do 
was to take up, examine, and recommend. ' ' 

President Chamberlin vowed there should never be a cent 
of debt again on the college while he was in command, and for 
fourteen years he kept his ideal for he was fourteen years 
president. 

He was called upon to give many addresses, both at the dis- 
trict and annual conferences of his church, and at educational 
and other meetings. He said things which were new, and some- 
times radical and startling. 

After raising his first $100,000, he received invitations to go 
to the head of other institutions, State, religious and military, 
with larger and guaranteed salary, but he preferred to "re- 
main with the old ship. ' ' One Indiana tramway corporation 
was so insistent that he finance their extensions that they 
were going to have him be part of the time at McKendree and 
the rest of the time at their work, but he answered to the effect 
that "ye cannot serve God and Mammon." 

For nearly two years after his retirement, President Cham- 
berlin and wife lived in their beautiful home, just opposite 
the college, which had been the gift of townspeople and college 
friends in 1906. 

In April, 1910, Dr. and Mrs. Chamberlin, disposing of their 
Lebanon home, moved to California to be with their son. As 
president emeritus, he received a small annuity from the col- 
lege. 

In an editorial of the Los Angeles Times, July 31, 1914, 
appeared a tribute, from which we quote : 

"McKendree Chamberlin had not resided here long enough 
to have a wide local acquaintance, but his fame as an educator, 
writer and lecturer had reached this city years ago. He was 



247 

one of America 's grand old men of letters. Profound in learn- 
ing and gifted in expression, he brought to the world a flaming 
vision. * * * Hi s message had the background of a truly 
great character and one as simple and sincere as it was great 
and good. He never lost his mental enthusiasm, and the end 
came suddenly, leaving the light undimmed. ' ' 
His death came after a third attack of "cerebral embolism." 



248 



Reminiscences of Abraham Lincoln, Quincy and 

the Civil War. 

BY CAPT. WILLIAM IL GAY, QUINCY, ILLINOIS. 



It was on the 9th day of April, 1865, forty-nine years ago, 
that the military history of the Confederacy was concluded in 
the surrender of Lee and his army ; and four years from 
the date that the rebel commissioners gave formal notice to the 
Federal Government that if any attempt should be made to 
provision Fort Sumter, that it could not be done without the 
effusion of blood. It was on the 12th day of April, 1861, fifty- 
three years ago, that South Carolina opened fire on Fort 
Sumter; and exactly four years later, the army of Northern 
Virginia laid down its arms and vanished as an organized 
menacing force, virtually closing the war. Forty-nine years 
ago, Abraham Lincoln, the beloved of our nation, died from 
a shot fired by the hand of an assassin. 

I never can approach the name of Lincoln without a feeling 
that I am drawing near to divinity. I am not a man worshiper, 
but if there ever was a man that I came near to worshiping, it 
was Abraham Lincoln. For years after his tragic death, I 
could not talk about him without breaking down; the nature 
of the man so appealed to me down to the inner depths of 
my being. 

Every one in this our new-born nation, whether soldier or 
citizen, cannot but feel the moving impulse of the highest and 
noblest patriotism at the mention of that great name. No 
other name is so uniquely linked with the life and destiny of 
our nation. No other name is more profoundly revered by all 
the people of this country. The world has never produced a 
type of man so supremely great in all things. A physical 



249 

giant that was never worsted ; a mental power that was never 
defeated; a composite force, shrewd and alert, ever ready to 
meet any emergency ; a wonderful example of heroic courage 
and unyielding purpose ; just, patient, gentle, loving and ten- 
der, he stands among men without a peer. As an eminent 
judge said of him : ' ' No other man so great ever came into 
the tide of time. ' ' 

It was my great good fortune to see and hear Mr. Lincoln at 
Galesburg in debate with Douglas, and the impression made 
upon my mind will never be effaced. 

There was here revealed to me something new in the mental 
make-up of great men the rare combination of mental and 
moral qualities that we would look for in a man to uphold and 
carry out the loftiest ideals of statesmanship. And how tran- 
scendently this shone out in him when he undertook the guid- 
ance of our nation through the perils of civil war ! 

Right here I am tempted to describe these two giants as I 
viewed them in this great debate. The manner of the men 
was without compare. Physically and mentally, they were ut- 
terly unlike. In their physical make-up, nature went very 
near to the extremes of great and small. In manner, Lincoln 
was pleasant, full of good nature and very friendly; while 
Douglas was haughty, tyrannical and overbearing. In debate, 
Lincoln met his opponent's hard hits with calm and unruffled 
serenity; never manifesting the least ill-temper, and always 
fair; while Douglas would lose his temper, rave and become 
unjust. I have seen him under the galling lash of sarcasm, 
go into a towering rage and browbeat till he frothed at the 
mouth. To cite an instance in point : Not long after the abro- 
gation of the Missouri Compromise, Douglas came into Knox 
County to explain and support his newly found doctrine of 
" squatter sovereignty." As soon as his coming was known, 
the Republicans became anxious to have this question debated 
and made an effort to get Mr. Lincoln to come and meet him. 
But Mr. Lincoln could not come. This was a disappointment 
to the Republicans, for they wanted their side of the question 
presented. In this dilemma, the students of Knox suggested 



250 

Mr. Blanchard, their president, to meet the emergency. This 
was agreed to, and Mr. Blanchard was invited and accepted. 

Now Blanchard, though a brilliant talker with unlimited 
command of language, who could thrill and sway an audience 
as he pleased, was little equipped to meet so powerful and 
wily a political debater as Douglas. But he was a good histori- 
ographer, and kept track of the serpentine political record of 
his antagonist, and did not hesitate to meet him. He had a 
fine clear voice, and was a master in the use of cruel, keen- 
cutting sarcasm, and an adept in the art of ridicule. As 
against this, Douglas was no match. 

The meeting was to be at Knoxville, the county seat of 
Knox, and at the appointed time a great crowd came from all 
parts of the county. When the men met, the arrangements of 
debate were quickly made. Douglas was to open with an hour. 
Blanchard to follow with an hour and a half, and Douglas to 
close with a half hour. Douglas ' opening was satisfactory to 
the democrats, who were very much in the minority, and he 
sat down with complacent satisfaction, as they gave him round 
after round of applause. Blanchard now arose to take his 
coveted opportunity. After a few words explaining how he 
came into the situation, he took up the political record of 
Douglas and brought to light such a mass of incongruities, 
showed up his changing processes for self-aggrandizement, 
pointing out his selfish purposes in words of such torturing 
ridicule and scathing sarcasm, that the great crowd went wild 
with laughter and derision. For a short time, Douglas main- 
tained a seeming composure. But as Blanchard went on with 
his avalanche of merciless lashing, "fierce as ten furies, ter- 
rible as hell," doubling him up so completely in a mesh of 
absurdities, he lost his temper; anger took complete posses- 
sion of the man and he champed his teeth, frothed at the 
mouth, showing in every line of his face how deeply he was 
stirred. It was a castigation I never can forget. 

When he arose to make reply, the whole outer man was dis- 
torted by the storm of passion within. I have never seen such 
an exhibition in any other public speaker before nor since. He 
began by saying, in his big, measured staccato tone of voice : 



251 

"Fellow Citizens You have listened to what the reverend 
gentleman has said, and I will leave it to your judgment 
whether he has honorably met the question and made answer 
to the great principles I have laid down, or has made an in- 
famous attempt to villify me." He then went on a tirade of 
browbeating, unreasonable in asperity, and interpolating the 
phrase, "the reverend gentleman," so frequently that it 
seemed undignified and foolish. In reply to Blanchard's 
charge of his changing political attitude he said, "A wise man 
sometimes changes his mind, but a fool never." 

But to return from my digression. Lincoln and Douglas 
both had far-reaching voices. Lincoln 's was high-keyed, pene- 
trating and very distinct, while that of Douglas was deep and 
bellowing, and sometimes after long speaking, hoarse and in- 
distinct. Lincoln was broad, deep and original. Douglas 
could not be so classed. He had a strong, forceful intellect, 
with great capacity to gather up from others and make use 
of the material in his way, to the greatest advantage. In sup- 
porting a question, he sought to discover all the weak points 
as well as the strong, so that he was rarely ever caught by a 
surprise. Long training and experience had made him one of 
the most formidable debaters of his time. So well did he un- 
derstand every art of plausibility, every mystifying subtlety, 
and so familiar was he with every avenue to obscurity, that 
Lincoln once compared him to a cuttle-fish, which has no way 
of defense when pursued, save by ejecting a dark fluid, which 
so blackens the water that its enemy cannot see and it escapes 
in the darkness. No man in the country was so able to meet 
Lincoln as Douglas ; and no man was better equipped to meet 
Douglas than Lincoln. 

Mr. Douglas cannot be called a great orator, for he had none 
of the requisites in him to make one. But he was a great de- 
bater, a strong forceful man, and a leader of wonderful per- 
suasive power. When rebellion brought into peril our unity, 
Stephen A. Douglas stood steadfastly loyal to his country and 
the last act of his life proved his uncompromising patriotism 
for which history will give him enduring honor. 



252 

Mr. Lincoln's oratory was winning and convincing, and the 
simple style of it unique and effective. It opened to my under- 
standing a new kind of oratory, whose propelling force moved 
on a higher plane of reasoning and eloquence. There was an 
invincible power in its searching order, that cut right through 
the cunning sophistries of his opponent, upsetting every prop 
to his position. It was an overmastering oratory, that de- 
lighted and convinced. 

This power of Mr. Lincoln to convince was accentuated in 
him to an amazing degree. His sure insight led him to see into 
and through every possible condition of every question pre- 
sented to his mind. There was no subtlety or obscurity in the 
argument of his adversary that he could not penetrate. His 
mighty grasp of things and comprehension of them, with his 
divine gift of imagination, enabled him to clearly see the fu- 
ture and courageously point out the aspirations and needs of 
humanity. It was this power which led him to see the coming 
of the irrepressible conflict between freedom and slavery, and 
to forecast the destiny of this nation. 

As time went on it began to appear that this man was the 
pilot who was to steer our nation over the shoals of threaten- 
ing dissolution. The irritating threat of secession had been the 
whip of the South, to drive the North to yield to the demands 
of the slave power ; and the patient North had conceded much. 
But now the time had come to call a halt. 

The great Union leaders of the country met and called the 
convention of 1860 to nominate a man most sure to meet the 
impending crisis. The convention met in Chicago May 16. 
Here came together the most distinguished men in the Re- 
publican party, to deliberate and act in an emergency that 
called for the wisest statesmanship. The life of the nation was 
at stake, and the man who took the helm to guide and direct 
must be great in intellect, full of wisdom, far-seeing, patient, 
firm and of undoubted loyalty and patriotism; a man every 
way best fitted to fulfill this mission. 

It was my great privilege to attend that convention, be pres- 
ent at all of its proceedings and see so many of the great 
Union leaders of the North, and hear them speak upon the 



253 

vital questions of the hour. Here the initial move took root 
to sweep human slavery from the register of the nation. 

At the appointed time, the nominations were made. Lincoln 
and Seward were the leading favorites. It was a tremendous 
moment when the balloting began. Every one in that great 
"Wigwam" came under an oppressive burden of anxiety. All 
was still as a house of death; flesh, blood and muscle were 
writhing under the intensity of the strain. Then a voice call- 
ing the vote of states was heard. The first ballot resulted in 
no choice, and sent dismay into, and brought gloom over the 
Seward forces, for they had felt sure of the nomination of 
their candidate on the first ballot. Hope now manifested itself 
in eager action by the friends of Lincoln. The second ballot 
was called and passed without result, save that Lincoln was 
gaining. When the third ballot began, you could almost dis- 
cern in the loaded air that "the hour had come." The still- 
ness and attention was profound. As the call of states pro- 
ceeded and it became more and more apparent that Lincoln 
was the coming man, ripples of satisfaction could be heard. 
When the last state announced its vote, Lincoln was two short 
of the nomination. Instantly Ohio changed four votes to Lin- 
coln and his nomination was made. Then the pent-up energies 
of that vast assemblage burst forth in a whirlwind of acclaim. 
The scene was without compare indescribable. Strong men 
wept, wrought up by an overpowering tempest of feeling. It 
left an impression never to be forgotten. 

Abraham Lincoln was elected by the anti-slavery vote and 
the loyal Union voters of the North. Anticipating grave trou- 
ble, because of the inflammatory state of the Southern mind, 
the meeting of Congress in December, 1860, became an event of 
extraordinary interest and solicitude. On its assembling, the 
black spirit of secession began to show its disloyal attitude 
and brazenly to assert itself and unblushingly give utterances 
to treasonable designs. This unreasonable attitude of the 
South only served to bind together more closely the loyal 
North. It was deeply stirred, and the secessionists were 
warned that the day of compromises was passed, and that any 



254 

attempt to secede would be opposed by all the power of the 
government ; that secession meant war. But notwithstanding 
this warning, the more violent advocates of secession began 
their leave-taking. 

Soon the disloyal states, one by one, began to secede. It 
was indeed a trying time for all the loyal people of the coun- 
try. Quincy took note of it, and responded, as I find on the 
records of the First Congregational Church the following 
entry in the handwriting of the Rev. S. Hopkins Emery : 

"January 3rd, 1861. This day, appointed by proclamation 
of President Buchanan, as a day to be observed by the nation 
for fasting, humiliation and prayer in view of the secession 
of several of the Southern States from the Union, was re- 
ligiously observed, by this Church in the lecture room, morn- 
ing and evening. A day of solemn interest." 

September 26, 1861, the following is entered upon the rec- 
ords of the church : 

* ' This day was observed as a day of fasting and prayer, in 
accordance with the recommendation of President Lincoln; 
being a time of Civil War. The pastor preached from Isaiah 
58:6, 'Is not this the fast that I have chosen, to loose the 
bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and let the 
oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke?' " 

This was a very appropriate text when the life or death of a 
nation hung in the balance, and the freedom and rights of an 
oppressed race were at stake. This sermon was delivered by 
the Eev. S. Hopkins Emery, then pastor of the church. 

When Abraham Lincoln entered upon his high duties as 
chief executive of the nation, there lay a task before him that 
might well appall the stoutest heart. An empty treasury, a 
scattered navy and our southern forts and defences practically 
made useless by the hand of treason, all this and more, con- 
fronted him. Lincoln at once saw the magnitude of his work. 
While many believed that the struggle would be short and 
even Seward had said that the rebellion would be over in 
ninety days, Lincoln knew better ; and realized the full meas- 
ure of his task and the tremendous responsibilities laid upon 



255 

him, and went courageously and comprehensively to the work. 
Once when the burden bore him near the point of breaking, he 
said to one of his generals : "You have no idea of the terrible 
weight of the care and sense of responsibility of this office of 
mine. If to reign in the lower regions is as hard as what I 
have to undergo here, I could but find it in my heart to pity 
even Satan himself." What disappointment and anguish he 
underwent in the earlier months of the war, because of the fail- 
ures of his commanding generals, is a matter of history. Mc- 
Clellan worried him most of any. Meade won a splendid vic- 
tory at Gettysburg, but his failure to annihilate Lee's army 
before it got across the Potomac, nearly broke his heart. 
Meade 's opportunity was there to destroy the rebel forces and 
make himself one of the greatest generals of the age. Lin- 
coln, in the flood of his disappointment, wrote him the follow- 
ing letter : 

"You fought and beat the enemy. At least, his loss was as 
great as yours. He retreated, and you did not, as it seems to 
me, pressingly pursue him ; but a flood in the river detained 
him till, by slow degrees, you were again upon him. You had 
at least 20,000 veteran troops directly with you and as many 
more raw ones within supporting distance, all in addition to 
those who fought with you at Gettysburg, while it was not pos- 
sible he had received a single recruit, and yet you stood by 
and let the flood run down, bridges be built and the enemy 
move away at his leisure without attacking him. To have 
closed upon him would, in connection with our other late suc- 
cesses, have ended the war. As it is, the war will be prolonged 
indefinitely. ' ' 

But Lincoln, with his great generous nature to plead against 
this severe arraignment, could not, after reflection, find heart 
to send the letter to his general and did not. But when a few 
days later he saw Meade, he did say, after congratulating him 
upon his great victory: "But, Meade, it seems to me, you 
shooed the geese over the river!" 

Among the men of Quincy not in the service behind the 
guns, no one man, I may say, was more conspicuously devoted 



256 

and so actively helpful among the soldiers during the dark 
days of the rebellion, especially the unfortunate ones, than the 
Rev. Samuel Hopkins Emery. As I look through the records 
of his activities in those years of our struggles in that war, I 
am amazed and wonder how flesh and blood could accomplish 
so much without breaking. 

Mr. Emery became pastor of the First Congregational 
Church in 1855, preached his first sermon November 4, and 
was installed on December 12. Mr. Charles H. Bull was clerk 
at the time. In May, 1860, Mr. Bull resigned, "and the pas- 
tor (by his consent)," so the record reads, "was elected to fill 
the place vacated. ' ' Mr. Emery kept the church records from 
this time on through the war. Everything of interest con- 
nected with the church and its work, including its activities 
in the war, were faithfully recorded. It shows that forty 
members of the First Congregational Church and Society gave 
their services to the cause of their country. Every name is 
entered in the record book, in the handwriting of Mr. Emery, 
giving rank, company and regiment, with this notation : ' ' No 
records (of the church) to be inserted (on these pages,) ap- 
propriated to the roll of members of the church and congre- 
gation, enlisted in our country's service to crush an unhal- 
lowed rebellion." In this list are many names of prominent 
men, well known in the early history of Quincy. 

In his annual sermon for the year 1864 Mr. Emery made the 
following statement: 

"I attended seventy-seven funerals, of these thirty-two were 
soldiers, twenty-four outside of my congregation, twenty-one 
my accustomed hearers or belonging to families waiting on 
my ministry. ' ' Added to this was his other church work, and 
the trying labors in the soldiers' hospitals. The death of 
every soldier was recorded, and the conditions and circum- 
stances surrounding this earthly rite were placed on record 
with his own hand. For example, I quote an entry made Feb- 
ruary 21, 1862 : 

"This day, attended the funeral of Mr. William J. Dobson 
of the Twelfth Wisconsin Regiment, from Viola, Richland 



257 

County, Wisconsin, whose parents, brothers and sisters reside 
there. His mother is a professor of religion. A brother, mem- 
ber of the same company, walked with me to the grave. He 
and another military comrade were my only attendants. Sad, 
sad fruits of war. I was summoned a few days before to the 
hospital to attend a funeral, and through the carelessness of 
somebody, after my arrival, the body of the poor soldier, 
Evans by name, a member of the Tenth Illinois Cavalry, was 
hurried off to the grave, the same day he died ; without prayer 
or Christian burial. He was only a private ! and no relation 
near. ' ' 

These words and many others I find, show how deeply and 
tenderly his thoughts were moving him constantly to action to 
ameliorate the condition of the unfortunate soldiers in the 
hospitals. 

During the months of October and November, 1862, while 
the church was undergoing repairs, he was engaged on behalf 
of the Army Commission of St. Louis, in visiting the army in 
the Southwest, and also representing the Christian Commis- 
sion of Philadelphia. At this time, he visited more than one 
hundred regiments; looked through fifteen general, and a 
large number of regimental hospitals and five large camps of 
contrabands at Memphis, Helena, Columbus, Jackson and 
Corinth. To perform all this was no light task. But his active 
mind and body, and his sympathetic heart made him tireless 
in his efforts to secure for the men in the field and hospital 
all good things possible for their comfort. 

From January 10, 1863, to the close of the war, Mr. Emery 
was chaplain of the army hospital at Quincy, and was indeed 
the "good Samaritan" to the unfortunate inmates. 

Quincy was quite a large rendezvous for troops. These 
were coming in and going out almost constantly. Ten regi- 
ments were organized here and sent to the front the Six- 
teenth, Fiftieth, Seventy-eighth, Eighty-fourth, One Hundred 
and Nineteenth, One Hundred and Thirty-seventh, One Hun- 
dred and Thirty-eighth, One Hundred and Forty-eighth, One 
Hundred and Fifty-first, and the Twenty-ninth United States 
Colored all infantry arm of the service. 



258 

Many of the sick, wounded, dying and dead were brought 
here from the armies in the field; some to convalesce, some 
to die and some to be buried. These were indeed years "that 
tried men 's souls. ' ' But the loyal men and women of Quincy 
were equal to the full measure of the task laid before them, 
and never faltered in their courage and devotion. The wealthy 
men gave liberally and freely to the cause, and the women gave 
largely of their time and efforts to meet the needs and make 
comfortable our soldiers in hospital and field. 

Thus it will be seen that Quincy was very prominent in all 
activities of the civil war. Men of national reputation were 
among her citizens ; and these joined hands with the loyal and 
great spirits of the country to maintain the sacred unity of 
the nation. 

But the sacrifice, the awful sacrifice and the burden of it, 
which this monstrous, hateful war laid upon the hearts of 
millions of loyal and once happy people, had put the nation 
into the deepest sorrow and mourning. And now, just at the 
time when the reaction was setting in because of the final 
triumph of right over wrong, and the joy of coming peace was 
filling the hearts of all, the same unruly spirit, wanton and 
brutal, thrust out its loathsome hand, and perpetrated the 
barbaric crime of assassination. And again the nation 
mourned. 

I was at the time of this our crowning disaster, stationed 
with my company at Nashville, Tennessee, where we were 
quartered during the winter and spring of '64- '65. Here 
Thomas had met Hood on the 15th and 16th of December, and 
well nigh annihilated his army. Sherman had marched to the 
sea with little opposition, making clear the weakness of the 
Confederacy; Grant was moving to capture Lee, all of which 
gave hope and promise that the end was near. And now we 
were hourly looking for news of surrender. 

On the morning of April 10, 1865, the anxious waiting was 
brought to rest by the glad news of the surrender. The end 
had come ; and the joy of it brought out wild demonstrations 
of delight and shouts of victory from thousands of Union 



259 

soldiers encamped at Nashville. Immediately an order to fire 
a salute of fifty guns was issued to celebrate this great victory, 
and my battery had the honor of being selected to perform 
this service. My company occupied Fort Negley. This fort 
was situated on the highest point, a short distance south of 
the city, and was mounted with guns of heavy and light caliber, 
which covered all the southern approaches to the city. 

We must celebrate, was the spontaneous sentiment of the 
loyal army and the loyal citizens of Nashville ; and Saturday, 
the 15th of April, was fixed as the day to give expression to 
the exultation of triumph that took possesion of us all ; for it 
seemed that the winter of our discontent had gone, and the 
glorious summer-time of peace was come. 

And so on the appointed day, Nashville put on her brightest 
robes to shine beautiful in this hour of the nation's joy. It 
was a rare spectacle of patriotic splendor ; well fitting the oc- 
casion. The army was to march in grand review, accoutered 
as for war. It was a brilliant inspiring sight to see the differ- 
ent commands marching to take position in the great line of 
march. Bands of music, and fife and drum broke the air with 
soul-stirring music. The infantry and artillery were march- 
ing in separate columns. I was riding at the head of the 
column of artillery. When turning into College Street, to 
take the position assigned to us, I looked down the street and 
saw a horseman riding towards me at a rapid gallop. As he 
drew near, I recognized General Thomas' chief of artillery, 
and I noticed at once that he was moved by some deep and 
powerful emotion. When he reached my side he said, in a 
voice of deep intensity: "Have you heard the dreadful 
news ? " I then realized that something terrible had happened, 
and halting my command, I replied excitedly, "No, what is 
it?" He replied, "President Lincoln and Secretary Seward 
were assassinated last night!" For the moment this appall- 
ing announcement so staggered me and benumbed my senses 
that I was speechless and reeled in my saddle, nearly over- 
come. It was a dreadful moment to meet, and the shock of it 
effected me the remainder of the day. I do not remember that 



260 

I gave utterance to a single word but rode silently down to 
the public square, where I met Governor Brownlow, Mr. Rod- 
gers, president of the State Senate, and the speaker of the 
House of Eepresentatives. ' ' Parson ' ' Brownlow had recently 
been inaugurated Governor of Tennessee. It was a gloomy 
meeting. The Governor was seated in his carriage, looking 
the embodiment of misery. His strong, honest face showed 
the marks of distress he felt within. In a low, faltering voice 
he gave me all the facts then known, and I passed on to learn 
more, if possible, at headquarters. 

The rank and file were now getting hold of the dreadful 
news, and the glad acclaim of the morning soon subsided into 
subdued mutterings of resentful discontent. The beautiful 
flags, which had floated triumphantly in the breezes, were 
dropped to half-mast. Joy was turned to sorrow and hilarity 
to grief. Further proceeding in the program for the day was 
stopped, and the troops were sent back to their quarters. 
Minute guns were ordered to be fired until sundown; and the 
First Iowa and another battery at Fort Johnson were detailed 
to perform this service. 

And now came a rallying from the first shock of this awful 
calamity, and with it a deeper sense of irreparable loss ; and 
it awakened the deepest indignation, increasing as the hours 
passed on, till it reached the flood-gate of such intensity that 
many of the well-known southern citizens sought safety in 
hiding. Some, less cautious in speech, declared their satis- 
faction, and were shot dead on the spot by an outraged 
soldiery. 

I remained in my quarters for most of the day, pondering 
over the possible consequences of this unexpected crisis at 
such a critical moment in the affairs of our nation. 

Abraham Lincoln gone ! This man of the hour ! This man, 
who held in his hands a divine mission to humanity, to solve 
the problem of the unshackled bondsmen, and to finish the 
great task still remaining, to uplift and make a place for a 
ransomed people ! Gone ! 



261 

And this is the man, whose birthday all the people unite to 
honor every year. And for his deeds and for his humanity he 
will forever stand out the grandest figure in American his- 
tory. His is the type of greatness that will endure, for he was 
the incarnation of human rights. 



262 



The Hero of the " Wreck of the Independence. 1 

SOME INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF COLONEL A. F. EODGERS, 

A VETERAN OF THE MEXICAN AND CIVIL WABS. 

BY W. T. NORTON. 



Alton, Illinois, October 14, 1914. 

There is now living in the Upper Alton section of Alton a 
quiet, unassuming gentleman of handsome physique and sol- 
dierly bearing whose history is one of heroic achievement 
and patriotic adventure rarely equaled. Yesterday was the 
eighty-seventh anniversary of his birth and serves to recall 
certain leading events in his notable career. I refer to A. F. 
Eodgers, a veteran of the Mexican War, and late colonel of the 
Eightieth Illinois Volunteers in the Civil War. Of the four 
hundred soldiers who enlisted in Madison County for the 
Mexican War, Colonel Eodgers and Lem. Southard of Wanda, 
are the only survivors. Though on the sunset side of life 
Colonel Eodgers is still hale and strong, but is inconvenienced 
somewhat by impaired eyesight. His life partner of over 
fifty years still abides with him. They occupy a beautiful 
home on the site of the old Eodgers homestead established in 
1834, where they live alone, their children having fared forth 
to homes of their own. 

It seems fitting to recall some of the stirring and inspiring 
events of a career which exemplifies alike the spirit of militant 
manhood and patriotic service. In addition to events within 
my personal knowledge I am indebted to a record of incidents 
in her father's life made by Mrs. H. K. Barnett, Colonel Eod- 
gers' daughter, and to later documents, for many of the facts 
in the following narration. 

Colonel Andrew Fuller Eodgers was born October 13, 1827, 
in Howard County, Missouri. He was the son of Eev. Eben- 



263 

ezer and Permelia Kodgers. The former was a Baptist clergy- 
man, a native of England, who came to America in 1818, and 
settled soon after in Howard County, where he married Per- 
melia Jackson, a native of Tennessee, and a daughter of Cap- 
tain John Jackson, who commanded a company at the battle of 
New Orleans in 1815. After their marriage they located on a 
farm, but the Rev. Eodgers devoted a part of his time to teach- 
ing and preaching. In 1834, when young Rodgers was seven 
years of age, the family removed to Illinois, locating on a 
farm that is now a part of the city of Alton. Here the Rev. 
Rodgers engaged actively in the laborious duties of a pioneer 
preacher and in advancing the cause of education, being one of 
the early trustees of Shurtleff College. In this environment 
young Rodgers grew up, alternately attending school and 
working on the farm. He was a student at Shurtleff where he 
had as classmates Hugh Murray, who became chief justice of 
California, and Lansing Mizner, who, also, became a Cali- 
fornia pioneer and one of its foremost statesmen. 

In June, 1846, Colonel Rodgers, then a youth of 18, enlisted 
in Company E, Second Illinois Volunteers, under Colonel Wil- 
liam H. Bissell, and proceeded with his regiment to Mexico 
where he endured many hardships and privations. He took 
part in the memorable battle of Buena Vista, February 23, 
1847,, but passed through that bloody contest unharmed. In 
this battle Lieutenants Ferguson, Fletcher and Robbins of 
Alton, were killed, and Captain Baker mortally wounded. 
Colonel Rodgers' enlistment was for one year and after 
further service in Mexico he was mustered out in the summer 
of 1847 and returned home, almost a physical wreck from the 
sufferings of the campaign. A feature of the home-coming 
which he recalls with interest was the welcome to the returned 
Mexican soldiers by the citizens, which was a gala occasion, 
including a barbecue, grand banquet with patriotic toasts and 
addresses, where eloquence flowed essentially unconfined. 

The winter after his return from Mexico he again entered 
Shurtleff, but the spirit of adventure remained with him and 
in 1849, in company with his brother John, he joined a party 



264 

of argonauts bound for the gold mines of the Pacific coast. 
After a long and arduous trek across the plains, enlivened by 
many exciting incidents and encounters with Indians, the 
party arrived in California, the trip occupying three months, 
where the Eodgers brothers engaged in mining with varying 
success. Tiring, at length, of mining the colonel went to Sac- 
ramento, intending to return home, but changing his plans, be- 
came a deputy sheriff under Ben. McCulloch. In this capacity 
he passed through many stirring scenes in the continuous bat- 
tle for law and order in a turbulent community where lynch 
law had previously been the method of regulating society, and 
where the colonel's nerve was often put to a severe test but 
never failed him. In the fall of 1851, the brothers decided to 
return home. John had $5,000 to exhibit to his parents as the 
result of his mining operations, but the colonel had not been 
so fortunate, having lost money through generous assistance 
to others. 

After a brief visit home the colonel decided to return to 
California and, accompanied by five Upper Alton friends, 
started again for the land of gold, going by way of the Isth- 
mus. After crossing to the Pacific coast they embarked on 
the ill fated steamer "Independence," which sailed from San 
Juan del Sur, February 16, 1853. A few days later the 
ship struck a rock off the coast of Margarita Island and im- 
mediately began to sink. This occurred early in the morning 
when most of the passengers were asleep. At first the passen- 
gers were assured by the ship 's officers that there was no dan- 
ger, but suddenly fire broke out from the engine room and 
spread rapidly over the doomed vessel. Then ensued a panic 
among the passengers that baffles description. The life-boats 
were few and inadequate. Some that were lowered were 
swamped ; others reached the shore with frenzied seamen and 
passengers clinging to the sides. Many who could find no 
place in the boats jumped overboard and attempted to swim 
ashore. Soon the surface of the sea was dotted with the heads 
of the unfortunates. Some reached the shore and others were 
swept out to sea. The scene was one of unspeakable horror 



265 

and anguish. In less than an hour 150 of the 400 passengers 
of the Independence had found a watery grave. In this dire 
calamity, Colonel Rodgers proved the hero of the wreck and 
many owed their lives to his coolness and courage. Grouped 
on deck at the point farthest removed from the encroaching 
fire, was a company of men, women and children, including 
the families of Judge Tarr of California, and of a Mr. Watson, 
I believe from Pennsylvania, all prominent people. Fifteen 
feet below them, rising and falling on the waves, was the last 
life-boat. To leap into it imperiled not only those therein, but 
the persons jumping, and was a practically impossible feat 
for women and children. Colonel Rodgers solved the diffi- 
culty. Climbing over the ship's side on to the gunwale, he 
held on by thrusting one leg through a hawser hole, thus leav- 
ing his arms free. In that position the captain passed the 
women and children over to him and he lowered them safely 
into the boat. As the overloaded boat pushed away the colonel 
climbed back on deck. One child, almost an infant, was left 
in its father's arms. The colonel seized it and tossed it into 
the receding boat. It fortunately alighted unharmed almost 
in its mother's arms, who was shrieking to have it saved. It 
was little Elsie Watson, the youngest of a family of four 
daughters and a son. The eldest was a beautiful girl of six- 
teen, named Ella, of whom more anon. Both the Tarr and 
Watson families have, of late years, been connected with a 
series of remarkable reunions between the shipwrecked sur- 
vivors. It will be noted that, during this scene, the colonel 
could easily have saved himself, but with the rare unselfish- 
ness that has always characterized his life, his only thought 
was the rescue of others. After this last boat had pushed off 
there remained on deck only Colonel Rodgers, Captain Samp- 
son, Judge Tarr and son, Horace, Mr. Watson and son. The 
flames were all about them and the only refuge was the sea. 
Judge Tarr entreated Colonel Rodgers to save his son, saying 
he, Tarr, could not swim. Mr. Watson made the same request 
for his son. The one asking first had the prior claim. Taking 
the boy on his arm, the colonel slipped down a rope into the 



266 

water and, after a desperate struggle through the breakers, 
reached the shore too exhausted to pull himself and his bur- 
den upon the rocks, but his Upper Alton friends, who had 
landed safely and been watching for him, here came to his aid 
and both were saved. Of the others on deck who followed the 
colonel, Captain Sampson and Mr. Watson reached the shore. 
Judge Tarr and Mr. Watson's son were drowned. Just before 
Eodgers reached the shore some drowning wretch under water 
seized hold of his heel and pulled him under, but he was saved 
by the sock coming off, he having left his shoes on the ship. 

The island on which the shipwrecked mariners were landed 
was a desolate waste, devoid of vegetation and as waterless 
as a desert. The beach was strewn with the bodies of the dead 
cast ashore. The scenes of horror were indescribable. Hus- 
bands and wives suddenly separated by death ; children weep- 
ing for their parents ; parents for their children. The bodies 
of the dead were collected by the survivors and buried on the 
beach, but many of the lost never came ashore, but were 
washed out to sea to become the prey of sharks. For three 
days the half -clad passengers and crew remained on the island 
without food, water or shelter, suffering agonies from hunger, 
thirst and cold until, through the exertions of Colonel Rogders 
and others, relief was obtained. They tramped across the 
rocky island (the colonel with his feet wrapped in rags) a 
distance of several miles, to Magdalena Bay, where they 
hailed some whaling ships. The seamen at once came to the 
rescue. The sufferers were conveyed to the ships and a month 
later were landed in San Francisco. There the passengers 
separated, going to their several destinations. The colonel 
and those he had rescued lost track of each other, the former 
going at once to the mines. Through removals and the failure 
of mails they knew nothing of each other's whereabouts for 
nearly sixty years, until brought together again by a series 
of the strangest coincidences imaginable. 

The colonel remained in California until 1854, when he re- 
ceived news of the death of his father, and returned to Alton. 
The Watsons remained in California for some years and then 



267 

returned east, with the exception of the oldest daughter, Ella, 
who married Hon. Lansing Mizner, and remained there. Mr. 
Mizner was a step-son of General James Semple, United 
States senator from Illinois. Mrs. Judge Tarr and son Hor- 
ace eventually returned to their old home in Missouri, the 
latter being the boy with whom the colonel swam ashore. 

After returning home Colonel Rodgers resumed the quiet 
life of a farmer and in May, 1860, was married to Jane F. 
Delaplain, member of a prominent Godfrey family, who still 
remains the loved companion of his long life. In 1862, re- 
sponding to the call of his country, the colonel raised nearly 
three companies of soldiers in Madison County, and was as- 
signed to the Eightieth Regiment, Illinois Volunteers, of 
which command he was elected lieutenant colonel. A few 
weeks later the regiment was engaged in the battle of Perry- 
ville, the fifty-second anniversary of which has just been cele- 
brated at Sparta by a regimental reunion. Owing to the 
retirement of the colonel in this battle, Lieutenant Colonel 
Rodgers was left in command of the regiment until 
struck in the head by a fragment of shell and thrown from 
his horse. He was picked up unconscious and reported dead. 
However, he proved very much alive. Under the care of his 
brother, the assistant surgeon of the regiment, he soon rallied 
at the hospital and recovered. Then followed a period of 
active service in various fields until the Eightieth was assigned 
to the command of General A. D. Straight, and participated in 
the ill-fated campaign known as ' ' Straight 's raid. ' ' After a 
victorious march through a part of Alabama and Georgia, in- 
flicting much damage on the enemy, the command was finally 
surrounded by a superior force and compelled to surrender. 
The prisoners were conveyed first to Atlanta, and then the 
officers were transferred to Libby prison in Richmond. Here 
they remained for nearly a year and were then taken to Macon, 
thence to Charleston, where Colonel Rogders and other officers 
were placed under the fire of Federal batteries. Hearing of 
this, our government retaliated by putting fifty Confederate 
officers, whom it held, in a similar position. When this was 



268 

done the Confederates had a change of heart and agreed to 
an exchange of prisoners. The Union officers were placed on a 
steamer and conveyed to New York from whence the colonel, 
after reporting, returned home in the fall of 1864. After a 
brief rest, he prepared to rejoin his regiment, but was ordered 
to report to General Eosecrans at St. Louis. By request of 
that officer he recruited the 144th Regiment and was offered 
its command, but declined, preferring to return to his regi- 
ment, to the full colonelcy of which he had been promoted 
while in prison. However, his health had been so impaired 
by the sufferings and privations of prison life that he was at 
length obliged to resign his commission. 

Again taking up the peaceful life of a farmer, after his tem- 
pestuous career, he became active in civil and political life, 
#nd one of the most prominent and popular citizens of the 
Bounty. In 1870 he was elected to the Legislature on the 
Democratic ticket and made an enviable record for ability in 
the discharge of his legislative duties at Springfield. At home 
3ie was active in county fairs and farmers ' institutes and other 
measures for the advancement of agriculture. Much of his 
time, of late years, has been devoted to the upbuilding of the 
Piasa Chautauqua, of which he was a director. He built a 
cottage there and has long made it his summer home. In his 
present hale and honored old age, the retrospect of his mili- 
tary and civic achievements must bring to him much of pleas- 
ure and satisfaction. 

And now I come to the relation of a series of coincidences 
that have a parallel only in the pages of romance. I have 
told briefly of the wreck of the Independence and of the hero- 
ism of Colonel Eodgers in saving many lives, and of the sep- 
aration of the colonel and those he had rescued from a watery 
grave. Separated by time and distance, by our hero's roving 
life after the wreck, and then by the cataclysm of the Civil 
War, they had known nothing of each other for nearly sixty 
years. He had heard, incidentally, that his old friend and 
comrade, Lansing Mizner, had married a Miss Ella Watson, 
but was not certain that she was the young girl he had lowered 



269 

into the life-boat from the burning deck. Nor did he know of 
the subsequent careers of the Watson and Tarr families. And 
here comes in the incident that led to the reunion of the sur- 
vivors of the Independence. A few years ago, the Rev. Henry 
Watson Mizner of St. Louis, son of Lansing Mizner and Ella 
Watson, read in his morning paper of a meeting of survivors 
of the Mexican War in Alton. Visiting our city later on cler- 
ical business, he asked for the address of any old Mexican 
soldiers in Alton to inquire if they remembered his father, 
Lansing Mizner at the battle of Buena Vista. He was di- 
rected to Colonel Rodgers. When the two met and Mr. Mizner 
had introduced himself as the son of Lansing Mizner, the 
Colonel asked if it was true that his visitor 's father had mar- 
ried Ella Watson. He was answered affirmatively, but the 
inquirer could scarcely believe that Mr. Mizner was the son 
of the girl he had last seen during the terrible scenes related 
above. The clerical guest was equally impressed by the un- 
expected outcome of his call. He had known from childhood 
of the wreck of the Independence and heard from his mother's 
lips the story of the heroic young man to whom so many owed 
their lives. It was hard for him to realize that the stalwart 
veteran before him was the "Mr. Rodgers" of whose bravery- 
he had often heard. Needless to say that the interview was 
a most interesting one to both parties. Several months later 
Mrs. Ella Watson Mizner, on a visit to her son in St. Louis, 
stopped at Alton and visited at the home of Colonel Rodgers, 
after letters of mutual congratulation had passed between 
them. 

But there is another strange coincidence connected with the 
lives of Colonel Rodgers and the young lad, Horace Tarr, with 
whom he swam from the wreck of the Independence. He had 
lost all knowledge of the boy and supposed him long since 
dead. But it seems that young Tarr, after the return with 
his mother to the States, had gone to relatives in New Eng- 
land. He, too, had lost all knowledge of both Colonel Rodgers 
and of his friends, the Watsons. At the time the war broke 
out he was a student at Yale University. Although under age 



270 

he had enlisted, and served through the Civil War, coming out 
at the age of twenty with the rank of captain. He engaged in 
manufacturing after the war in New York, Chicago and his 
home city, Philadelphia. He became a man of wealth and 
influence. His business required him to make frequent trips 
to Europe. On a late voyage he became acquainted with an- 
other son of Mrs. Ella Watson Mizner, who was a fellow pas- 
senger. Their conversation drifted one evening to the subject 
of California, and Captain Tarr spoke of his having been ship- 
wrecked on his voyage to that State in his boyhood. "What 
was the name of the ship?" asked Mr. Mizner. "The Inde- 
pendence," was the reply. "Why, my mother was on that 
ship," exclaimed Mr. Mizner. And then came the story of the 
wreck as Captain Tarr knew it from experience and as Mr. 
Mizner knew it from his mother's relation. This revelation 
was as unexpected and startling as was that between Colonel 
Bodgers and the Rev. Mizner. Through his chance acquaint- 
ance, Captain Tarr learned that the "Mr. Eodgers" who had 
saved his life was still living and a resident of Alton. The 
news gave him immense gratification. On his return to Amer- 
ica he immediately called on Mrs. Mizner at her residence on 
Long Island, and the reunion of the shipwrecked companions 
of sixty years previous was a most pleasant one. Captain 
Tarr also at once opened correspondence with Colonel Bod- 
gers, and his letter was a beautiful tribute of gratitude and 
remembrance. The colonel, he said, had always, through his 
subsequent life, been his ideal of a hero. He wrote that he 
would, at the earliest opportunity, visit his rescuer and ex- 
press his gratitude in person. This visit he paid last fall to 
the mutual gratification of the colonel and himself. 

And now at the opening of his eighty-seventh year, the peo- 
ple among whom he dwells, greet Colonel Bodgers with re- 
newed expressions of gratitude for the life he has lived, for 
the heroism it has exemplified, and the honor it has conferred 
upon his country. May the remaining years of his life be 
many and all filled with sweetness and light. 



271 



General James Shields. 



DISCOURSE BY ARCHBISHOP IRELAND, ON THE OCCASION OF THE 

UNVEILING OF THE STATUE OF GENERAL JAMES SHIELDS 

IN THE CAPITOL OF MINNESOTA, OCTOBER 20, 1914. 

To James Shields, the soldier, the statesman, the jurist, 
honor is paid by the citizenship of Minnesota. A monument to 
him is enthroned in the hall of the Capitol of the State, there 
to perpetuate his name and memory, to the intent that coming 
generations may know him, and, knowing him, emulate in the 
service of humanity and of country his deeds of noble and dis- 
interested patriotism and valor. 

No unusual occurrence is it in America that a monument be 
built to pay honor to James Shields. In the Hall of Fame, 
beneath the dome of the Capitol of the nation in Washington, 
there stands his figure, placed there by the State of Illinois, 
when it was summoned to name to America's admiring vision 
two of its most distinguished sons. A statue, also, has been 
erected to him by the State of Missouri in the public square of 
the city of Carrollton. Minnesota may well, without fear or 
peril of blame, do as its sister-states, Illinois and Missouri, 
have done extol the fame of ' ' the Jurist, the Statesman, the 
Soldier," James Shields and do so, with especial joyousness, 
inasmuch as at one period of his career he was a citizen and 
a loyal servant of our commonwealth. 

From 1855 to 1860 James Shields claimed Minnesota as his 
home. While commissioner of the Federal Land Office in 
Washington, he had learned of the fertility of our fields and 
the salubriousness of our climate, and had resolved, that, when 
freed from the toils of public office, he would draw hither col- 
onists from the ranks of his fellow-Irishmen in the Eastern 



272 

States and in Ireland itself, less likely to find elsewhere than 
in Minnesota peace and prosperity. He became one of the 
proprietors and founders of what is now the flourishing city 
of Faribault, and thence sent far and wide invitations to set- 
tlement in the neighboring districts. The fruits of his labors 
as a colonizer are the townships of Shieldsville, Erin, Kil- 
kenny, Montgomery, in our counties of Eice and Le Sueur, 
where reside the hundreds of industrious and wealthy far- 
mers, of whose good American citizenship their Celtic names 
give sure guarantee. When the first legislature of the newly- 
organized State of Minnesota convened in 1858, it chose as its 
representatives in the Senate of the United States Henry M. 
Bice and James Shields the continent-wide fame of the latter 
commending him to the electors in lieu of more immediate 
labors in Minnesota itself. As the result of the drawing of 
lots between the new senators, James Shields took to himself 
the short term of two years. This expired, the majority in the 
State Legislature meanwhile having changed its political col- 
oring, he ceased his service in Washington, and shortly after- 
wards sought a new home in California. 

James Shields was the Irishman and the American the 
Irishman by birth, temper and education, the American by 
loyalty and service the Irishman and the American to a typi- 
cal degree. His whole career is summed up in those words, 
the Irishman and the American. 

I give the outlines of his life. He was born in Ireland in 
1806 of honorable and respected lineage. His direct ancestor, 
with four sons, fought on the losing side in the battle of the 
Boyne one of those sons later joining the army of Spain and 
there rising from one honor to another until finally he was 
commissioned the captain-general of Cuba. An immediate 
uncle of our hero was a soldier in America's Revolutionary 
War and in that of 1812. James decidedly sprung from a 
family in which the fear of the battlefield was unknown. In 
his native isle he received, mainly through the tutorship of 
another uncle, a priest who had been a professor in the College 
of Maynooth, a liberal education. At the age of seventeen, he 



273 

emigrated from Ireland in search of fortune in other lands. 
Arrived in America, he first adopted a sea-faring life, after- 
wards serving as a soldier in the Seminole War, thence push- 
ing westward to Kaskaskia, at the time the principal city 
of Illinois. There he was the school-teacher, the lawyer, and 
quickly the office-holder. He served four years in the State 
Legislature, was elected State auditor, and in 1843 succeeded 
Stephen A. Douglas as justice of the Supreme Court of Illi- 
nois. Two years later he was named by President James K. 
Polk, commissioner of the Land Office in Washington. This 
office he resigned to become the brigadier-general of volun- 
teers, to be soon breveted major-general in the Mexican War. 
The war over, he was named by President Polk governor of 
the newly-organized Territory of Oregon a position, how- 
ever, which he did not accept a higher distinction coming to 
him from the State of Illinois. Illinois chose him as its rep- 
resentative in the Senate of the United States, where he 
served the full term of six years. In 1855 he was in Minne- 
sota, the colonizer and its representative in the Senate of 
the United States. The outbreak of the Civil War found him a 
resident of California. At once he buckled on his warrior 
sword, and was appointed by President Lincoln brigadier- 
general of volunteers. In 1863 he resigned his commission in 
the army, owing to misunderstanding with the secretary of 
war, Mr. Stanton. Missouri now became his home. Here he 
was adjutant-general of the State and later was chosen again 
to membership in the Senate of the United States, occupying 
the seat vacated through the death of Senator Bogy. Later he 
filled two terms in the State Legislature. The last years of his 
life were spent in cultivating a modest farm near Carrollton, 
in Missouri, and giving lectures in different parts of the coun- 
try in aid of charitable and religious works. He died in 1879 
leaving to his wife and children all that he was able to leave 
to them, as the pecuniary result of his many years of civil and 
militant office-holding his few acres of farmland, the dia- 
mond-studded swords given him, one by the State of South 
Carolina, the other by the State of Illinois, and his blessing. 



274 

A wonderful career, that of James Shields, in the pictur- 
esqueness of its varieties, in the confidences reposed in him by 
his fellow- Americans from Illinois to Washington City, from 
Minnesota to Missouri, in the enthusiasms his name every- 
where was wont to evoke; and wonderful, equally so, in the 
talents he displayed wherever the call to office placed him, 
magnificently so, in the martial skill and bravery of which 
his sword was ever the token upon fields of gore and glory. In 
picturesqueness it is seldom equalled, in the fortunes of other 
heroes though so many and so illustrious in the annals of 
America. Only recall the chief headlines in the narrative of 
his career Soldier and Statesman; Jurist and Orator; Leg- 
islator in the chief cities of two states; senator of the United 
States from three of its commonwealths; soldier in three 
American wars. 

Fellow Americans, we announce a noble name, when that of 
James Shields is spoken : we glorify a noble memory when we 
fling out his figure to the gratitude and the admiration of 
Americans of today, of Americans of tomorrow. 

To what do we attribute the manifold honors, bedecking the 
years in the career of James Shields f 

It is plain from the record that James Shields was no in- 
triguer in politics, no shrewd, insidious wire-puller. He was 
ignorant of the arts of combinations and machineries. He was 
the single-minded and the open-tongued citizen. He simply 
showed himself as he was, willing to take what was offered, 
unwilling, unable even, to plan for favor of preferment. He 
was the old-fashioned knight, without fear, but, also, without 
reproach. Nor, as distinction of office came, was he cunning in 
schemes to retain it. He did his duty, regardless of conse- 
quences, regardless of the dictates of the political party that 
had entrusted him with power, bidding friends and foes to 
judge his deeds on their bare desert. At all times, and in all 
stations, he was James Shields to be taken, or to be pushed 
aside, for what he was, for what he was believed to be. 

To what, then, is due his career? To personal character and 
qualifications ; to value of service rendered whatever the posi- 



275 

tion to which he was lifted ; to the willingness of America to 
recognize and reward merit, wherever merit is discernible. 

Shields was the good man. His private life was above re- 
proach. No weakness was his in the use of drink; no moral 
stain ever darkened his escutcheon. In him deep religious 
conviction begot personal and social virtues, and brightened 
their uses and practices. I might, perhaps, blame the impetu- 
osity of a moment which led him to the brink of a duel with a 
famed citizen, Abraham Lincoln. Let the false notions of 
honor prevailing at the time excuse the one and the other. 

Shields was the gentleman, in manner polished and refined ; 
in the maintenance of principle, the soul itself of honor and 
integrity. A base proposal would have at once awakened in 
him indignant ire. To give service, to friend or to foe, was 
the imperious dictate of his code of chivalry. 

We read of the typical Irish gentleman. That was Shields, 
warm Celtic blood ever coursing in his veins, kingly Irish 
traditions ever ruling heart and head. He had the Celtic 
faults he was emotional, maybe now and then too quick in 
decision, too impatient, perhaps, for his own welfare, too much 
of a rover and a seeker of new things. But, at times those 
very faults served him well, as when his sword was brandished 
on the battlefield. And with Celtic faults he had all the Celtic 
virtues. Brave he was and valorous, generous of gift and 
service, the high-tempered knight, whose flashing passage 
across the ranks of fellow-men sheds over our world of dull 
matter and selfish plodding the sunshine of uplifting poetry, 
the sweetness of the supernal life. 

Shields was the scholar. His early liberal education served 
him well, and continuous study through the years increased 
its brilliancy and power. And, of course, he was the orator, 
holding as charmed victims of his fiery phrase and his or- 
phean voice no less the sages of legislative and senatorial halls 
than the ruder and less-thinking multitude of voters of Kas- 
kaskia, Vandalia and Springfield. 

Bushed from one occupation to another, from one political 
office to another, he was at home, whatever the duties assigned 



276 

to him. His talents were most varied in kind. As lawyer and 
as justice of the Supreme Court of Illinois, he had his reward 
in the genial companionship and the esteem of the great men, 
of whom Illinois was at the time the plentiful parent, and all 
America the proud beneficiary Abraham Lincoln, John M. 
Palmer, E. B. Washburne, Stephen T. Logan, to name but the 
few. As auditor of the State of Illinois, he wrested from con- 
fusion and uncertainty its financial budget, and placed it on 
a secure and enviable foundation. In legislative halls he was 
the skilled debater, the magnetic speaker, the promoter of 
whatever was wise and just, himself the author of several use- 
ful and far-reaching measures. He was in Washington in the 
days of Webster, Clay, Calhoun, Sumner, Jefferson Davis, 
Breckinridge. In no way was Shields below the exalted stand- 
ard then set to the law-makers of America. I note but a few 
of the famed issues, amid which he was the consistent cham- 
pion of righteous patriotism that of allotment of free homes 
on the lands of the national domain to soldiers of the Mexican 
War, and to actual settlers ; that of opposition to the extension 
of slavery into newly organized states ; that of the preserva- 
tion of the nation as one and indivisible. His own party was op- 
posed to him on the question of the extension of slavery. The 
admission of California to statehood was the occasion. 
Shields ' greatest speech entered into the debate. I quote a pas- 
sage, showing not only his firmness of resolve with regard to 
the extension of slavery, and also his prophetic view of things 
to come, of things that are today. "Sir, they are laying the 
foundations of a great empire on the shores of the Pacific a 
mighty empire, an empire that at some future day will carry 
your flag, your commerce, your arts and your arms into Asia, 
and through China, Hindustan and Persia into Western Eu- 
rope. Talk about carrying slavery there, of imposing such a 
blight upon that people, of withering their strength, and para- 
lyzing their energies by such an institution ! No, Sir, such a 
thing was never intended by God and will never be permitted 
by man. " As to the perpetuation of the Union, his voice al- 
ways rose loud amid the threats of secession then thundering 



277 

through senate and chamber always proclaiming that seces- 
sion would be the blackest of crimes, the most stupid of follies, 
that never should America permit or endure it. 

Always James Shields was the truest of patriots, the most 
earnest and loyal of Americans. Country was his idol. To 
country he gallantly sacrificed personal interest, dictate of 
party, hope and prospect of popular applause and approval. 
And his patriotism was of purest alloy. It is the undoubted 
and indubitable fact. From every office, of the many held by 
him, at one time or another, under the gift of one state or of 
another, Shields always went back to private life with clean 
hands poor in the possession of all emoluments, save that of 
honor and faithful service. 

But, whatever his other achievements, it is the field of war 
where James Shields is to be seen at his best. There his Celtic 
nature bursts forward in special efflorescence. Above all else 
he is the soldier. As the soldier, especially, we salute him, we 
honor him. All the virtues of the soldier are in him in plenary 
apportionment skill of strategy, firmness of disciplinary 
mastership, magic power of control of troops, undaunted 
courage, a dash in attack that bewilders, an endurance of 
pain and fatigue that secures victory when defeat is most 
threatening. The vanguard is always his coveted place, there 
brandishing wildly his sword, compelling by sheer magnetism 
of example others to follow his lead. Wounded he was 
wounded almost in every engagement he still fights on, so 
long as strength to move remains. Compelled to retire, he 
frets like the caged lion, until again he had leaped into the 
saddle. Warriors of Napoleon, Ney, Murat, McDonald how 
fittingly Shields should have ridden with them! I must not 
tarry in details. Let praise from General Scott suffice. In 
his report of the battle of Cerro Gordo, the commander-in- 
chief writes : ' ' General Shields, a commander of activity, zeal 
and talent, is I fear, if not dead, mortally wounded." Later 
he says: "Shields' brigade bravely assaulting the left, car- 
ried the rear battery (five guns) on the Jalapa road, and 
added materially in the rout of the enemy. ' ' And again : ' ' The 



278 

brigade so gallantly led by General Shields, and after his fall 
by Colonel Baker, deserves commendation for fine behavior 
and success." 

Scarcely convalescent, Shields is again on his charger in the 
march to the city of Mexico always the undaunted soldier. 
In the battle of Contreras, "Shields," says General Scott, "by 
the wise disposition of his brigade and gallant activity, con- 
tributed much to the general results. He held masses of cav- 
alry and infantry, supported by artillery, in check below him, 
and captured hundreds, with one general (Mendoza) of those 
fled from above." "At Churubusco," I still quote General 
Scott, "Shields concentrated the division about a hamlet and 
determined the attack in front. The battle was long, hot and 
varied; but ultimately success crowned the zeal and gallan- 
try of our troops ably directed by their distinguished comman- 
der, General Shields." At Chapultepec, his horse was killed 
under him; Shields fought on foot, bareheaded, in shirt 
sleeves, leading his brigade, sword in hand. Yet another . 
wound, but no cessation of rush and combat. Shields* com- 
mand led the van into the city of Mexico and first planted the 
Stars and Stripes on the walls of the Belen Gate. 

Came the great war the war for the salvation of the Union. 
Shields, a resident of California, rushed across the continent, 
joyous to be again a soldier. He was commissioned brigadier 
and assigned to the Shenandoah Valley. At Winchester he met 
Stonewall Jackson, who was fated there to meet under the 
blow of our own hero his only defeat. Shields again was 
wounded ; much of the engagement he directed from his blood- 
stained cot in the rear of his command ; Colonel Kimball, who 
led the final charge, reported, after the victory, that in all de- 
tails he carried out the plasn and directions of his leader. 
Shields ' division alone had confronted Jackson 's much larger 
army, and had won the victory. If later at Fort Republic, 
Jackson did not receive another severe defeat, it was because 
orders given by General Shields to burn the bridge across 
Aquia Creek, for some unexplained reason, had not been 
obeyed. This the testimony of General Gates, an officer under 



279 

Stonewall Jackson, speaking at the unveiling of Shields' 
statue in the Capitol at Washington: "Had General Shields' 
orders been obeyed, there was no escape for Jackson." The 
orders obeyed, the bridge burnt, one of the most decisive vic- 
tories of the war should have been gained by General Shields. 

General Shields resigned from the army March 28, 1863. I 
take his act to have been a mistake. He and the secretary of 
war, Mr. Stanton, were not in accord. Shields should have 
borne with patience Mr. Stanton 's displeasure and gone for- 
ward in spite of temporary opposition, gone whither his merits 
bade him go, forward to greater victories and higher rewards. 
It was a mistake of his Celtic temperament, to which we must 
grant indulgence, in view of the deeds of glory, of which else- 
where it was the generous prompter. 

General Shields is the soldier of three wars. He barely 
missed being the soldier of four wars. While a resident of 
Minnesota he heard of an Indian outbreak near the southern 
border line of the State. Quickly his appeal echoed through 
Faribault and Shieldsville ; a troup of his Irish colonists ral- 
lied around him, with whatever arms they could gather to- 
gether. Soon General Shields and his braves were on the field 
of strife, but, alas, for his expectation of a fourth war, peace 
had already been proclaimed. 

So, when building a monument to James Shields, we have 
built it to the soldier, General Shields. Have you done well, 
Companions of the Loyal Legion, Comrades of the Grand 
Army of the Eepublic, in setting up before the eyes of the 
present and future generations, in Minnesota's Hall of Fame, 
the man who rushed to war, in defence of country's rights, and 
country's honor? Most decidedly so. Peace is the ideal con- 
dition of human society ; all things, even war itself, must tend 
to peace. But God avert from America the ruin of its com- 
monwealth, the plunder of its territory, the dishonor to its 
flag from which war alone could have wrested it. Rather war, 
a hundred times, than evils such as those. Never do we know 
when menace may be nigh; never, consequently, must Amer- 
ica's sons be void of the martial spirit, which bids America 



280 

ever be free, ever secure, ever honored and respected. The 
names of our military heroes are safeguards of patriotism; 
their memories perennial founts of its life and vigor. 

Another factor in the career of General Shields was Amer- 
ica itself. America gave to him inspiration and blessed his 
labor. America rewarded his merits. 

General Shields was by birth an Irishman, by religion a 
Catholic. By life-long and most loyal service, by the oft- 
offered sacrifice of his blood, he was the American. Never 
did the Star Spangled Banner look down upon more sincere 
and braver patriotism than that which ignited the heart and 
electrified the sword of General James Shields. America put 
faith in the plighted troth and the deeds of General Shields ; 
and accepted him into the fullness of sonship, according to him 
all opportunities, all rights, all privileges within the gift of the 
Star Spangled Banner. General Shields was the citizen of 
America, it was all that he should have desired, all that he 
could have needed. To himself, to fall or to stand. Bight 
nobly did he stand. 

Now and then whispers pass through the air that men like 
to General Shields in birthplace and in religious belief are not 
the truest of Americans. Such whispers are the vilest of 
falsehoods. In contradiction, we evoke into speech the battle- 
fields reddened by the armies of America, the lakes and oceans 
furrowed by its navies; we evoke into speech the monument 
erected this day, within the Capitol of Minnesota, to the name 
and the fame of General James Shields. 

Back again, General Shields, to Minnesota, back with the 
memories of your services to Minnesota itself, with the glories 
in other states of the Union back with the triumphant flags 
of Cerro Gordo and of Winchester back, the true and loyal 
son and servant of the Republic of the United States of Amer- 
ica. Our welcome the welcome of our admiration and of 
love is yours. 



281 



Statue of Gen. James Shields Dedicated at 
Carrollton, Mo. 

The statue erected in the court house yard in Carrollton, 
Missouri, to the memory of General James Shields, the only 
man who ever represented three states Illinois, Minnesota, 
and Missouri in the United States Senate, was unveiled No- 
vember 12, 1914, with elaborate and impressive ceremonies. 

The statue was erected through an appropriation of $10,000 
passed by the last Missouri Legislature, through the efforts 
of State Senator William G. Busby. The governor appointed 
the following named Carrollton citizens as a committee to 
select the statue and superintend its erection : H. C. Brown, 
H. J. Wilcoxson and Edward A. Dickinson. 

The committee selected the model made by Frederick C. 
Hibbard of Chicago, and let the contract to him for $9,000. 
The statue is eight and one-half feet high on a base nine and 
one-half feet high, making a total height of eighteen feet. 
A monument over the grave of General Shields was erected 
in 1913 in St. Mary's cemetery in Carrollton. Special trains 
carried people from several states, including a detachment of 
Federal troops stationed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. 

A statue of General Shields was unveiled October 20, 1914, 
in the new Capitol of Minnesota at St. Paul, it being a dupli- 
cate of the one in Carrollton. 



282 



A Revolutionary Soldier and Some of His 

Family. 

BY G. FRANK LONG. 



Moses Long, of Hopkinton, New Hampshire, soldier, was a 
son of Enoch Long of West Newbury, Massachusetts. He was 
born at West Newbury, October 16, 1760, and died at Hop- 
kinton, New Hampshire, March 3, 1848. He enlisted in the 
Third Massachusetts Infantry, known as the Cape Ann Regi- 
ment, in 1777, served under General Gates until Bur- 
goyne's surrender, and later with General Washington in New 
York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. He endured the hard- 
ships of Valley Forge and was a member of Washington's 
bodyguard at Trenton. In 1780 his term of enlistment expired 
and he returned to his father's family, who during his ab- 
sence had moved to Hopkinton, New Hampshire. On July 17, 
1783, Moses Long was married to Lucy, youngest daughter of 
Captain Stephen Harriman, of that town. 

Of this union thirteen children were born, six of whom be- 
came residents of Illinois, were prominent in her history and 
also in the service of the United States. 

Stephen Harriman Long, the oldest son, and perhaps the 
most noted, was born at Hopkinton, New Hampshire, Decem- 
ber 30, 1784. He was graduated at Dartmouth College in 1809, 
and became a teacher. In December, 1814, he entered the 
corps of engineers of the United States Army as a second 
lieutenant and soon became assistant professor of mathe- 
matics at the United States Military Academy at West Point. 
In 1816 he was transferred to the topographical engineers with 
the brevet rank of Major. 

From 1818 to 1824, he was engaged in the exploration and 
surveying expeditions which made him famous. The first of 




Center, MOSES LONG. 

Upper left . Upper right 

MAJOR GEORGE W. LONG. COLONEL STEPHEN HARRIMAN LONG 

Lower left Lower right 

ABIGAIL LONG COLBY ENOCH LONG 



283 

these were explorations between the Mississippi Eiver and the 
Eocky Mountains. One of the highest summits of these moun- 
tains was named in his honor, Long's Peak. An account of 
this expedition from notes of Stephen H. Long and other mem- 
bers of the party, compiled by Edwin James, was published 
in 1823. In 1823-1824, Major Long was in charge of an expe- 
dition to the sources of the Mississippi River, an account of 
which was published, entitled " Long's Expedition to the 
Source of St. Peter's Eiver, Lake of the Woods, etc.," by 
William H. Keating at Philadelphia in 1824. 

In 1826 Major Long was made brevet colonel of topograph- 
ical engineers. From 1827 to 1830 he was engaged in surveying 
the Baltimore & Ohio Eailroad, and he became, in 1834, en- 
gineer-in-chief of the Western & Atlantic Eailroad in Georgia. 
During this service he introduced a system of curves in the 
location of railroads and a new species of truss bridges, after- 
wards generally adopted throughout the United States, and 
given his name. In 1838 Major Long was 'made a major in 
the organization of topographical engineers of the United 
States Army, and in 1861 he became the chief of that body 
with the rank of colonel. He retired from active service 
June 1, 1863. 

Colonel Long was married in Philadelphia, March 3, 1819, 
to Martha Hotchkiss. Their son, Henry Clay Long, became a 
celebrated civil engineer. A grandson, William L. Breckin- 
ridge, also attained prominence as a civil engineer. In 1829 
Colonel Long published a railroad manual, which was the first 
original treatise of the kind published in America. He was a 
member of the American Philosophical Society and other lit- 
erary and scientific associations, and was the author of var- 
ious historical and scientific articles in their transactipns. 

After his retirement from the army he resided, at Alton, 
Illinois. He was a member and an official of St. Paul's Epis- 
copal Church of Alton. He died in Alton September 4, 1864, 
and is buried in the city cemetery at that place. 

Sarah Long, the oldest daughter of Moses Long, and sister 
of Colonel Stephen H. Long, married Dr. Henry Lyman, a 



284 

celebrated physician of Warner, New Hampshire, whom she 
outlived. She visited Illinois twice, and died in Lawrence, 
Massachusetts. On her first visit to Illinois, about 1846, she 
was accompanied by her father. He was anxious to see the 
State which was the chosen home of so many of his sons. 

Moses Long, Jr., M.D., located at Rochester, N. Y., and was 
eminent in his profession. He visited Illinois and St. Louis, 
and died at his home. 

Enoch Long, Jr., captain in the War of 1812, was the first 
of the Long family to locate at Upper Alton (1819). He es- 
tablished the second Sunday school in the State. His occupa- 
tions varied, being at times contractor, commercial, cooper, 
lumberman and lead mining. He was chosen as captain of the 
Lovejoy Defenders in 1837. His last home was Sabula, Iowa. 

Abigail Long, second daughter, was married to James Colby 
of Warner, New Hampshire, and came to Illinois in 1850, lo- 
cating on a farm adjoining that of her brothers on the Graf ton 
Road, in Madison County, where she died. Her eldest daugh- 
ter, Sarah L. Colby, became an eminent teacher of Illinois and 
St. Louis, Missouri. 

Isaac Long, the fourth son, died in childhood at Hopkinton. 
Major George Washington Long, the fifth son, was gradu- 
ated from West Point Military Academy in 1824. He became 
A resident of Madison County, Illinois, in 1830, and died there 
in 1880. He was a noted engineer, and did much work, es- 
pecially in the south. 

Dr. Benjamin F. Long graduated at Dartmouth College 
Medical Department in 1829. In 1830 he located in Upper 
Alton, where he followed his profession about twenty years, 
after which he retired to his fruit farm in the western part of 
the county. From the beginning he was an earnest horticultur- 
alist and one of the leaders in the State, at one time president 
of the Illinois Horticultural Society. He was an enthusiastic 
supporter of Hon. Newton Bateman when the public school 
laws were revised, and believed them to be the surest method 
of making good citizens. With the deepest reverence for such 
men as Lippincott, Blackburn, Beecher and John M. Peck, 




DR. MOSES LONG 




DR. BENJAMIN F. LONG 



285 

and an intimate acquaintance and associate of the Loomises, 
Edwards, Bakers, Palmers and Gillespies, he, like them, 
proved loyal to his State and Lincoln. At one period of his 
life in Illinois, before the day of railroads, he traversed the 
entire State on horseback, county by county, assisting in es- 
tablishing local agencies for the Illinois Mutual Fire Insur- 
ance Company, of which he was chosen the first president, and 
which position he held for twenty-five years. He was not a 
politician, but always an active man. He was thoroughly de- 
voted to the improvement of the State and its citizens, and 
naturally there was to his mind but one superior to Illinois : 
the whole country, the United States. 

The following is a quotation from a letter written in Hop- 
kinton, New Hampshire, August 2, 1826, by Moses Long to 
his son, Enoch, a resident of Upper Alton, Illinois : 

Hopkinton, New Hampshire, August 2, 1826. 
Dear Enoch : 

I have not given up my plan for visiting you, in your place 
of business, at an early date: Going by water from Albany 
to Buffalo, N. Y., thence by lake to Chicago and I have no 
doubt that there will be some way of going by boat into the 
Illinois River from Chicago and the balance of the journey 
will be very easy, dowp the Illinois and Mississippi. 

Your affectionate father, 

Moses Long. 

MOSES LONG AND HIS DESCENDANTS. 

Years 

Moses Long 1760-1848 88 

Lucy H. Long 1764-1837 73 

(Married 1783) 
Their children 

Sarah 1784-1784 one day 

Colonel Stephen Harriman 1784-1864 80 

Moses Long M.D 1786-1858 72 

Sarah (2) 1788-1859 71 

Enoch 1790-1881 91 

Isaac . ..1792-1795 3 



286 

Abigail 1794-1859 65 

Lucy 1798-1821 23 

Major George Washington 1799-1880 81 

Samuel 1801-1802 1 

Caroline 1803-1902 99 

Benjamin F., M.D 1805-1888 8Sy 2 

Edward Preble 1807-1847 40 

Grand-children bearing the name : Thomas M. Long, eldest 
eon of George W. Long ; civil engineer, Alton, Illinois. George 
F. Long, youngest son of Benjamin F. Long; Civil War volun- 
teer, Springfield, Illinois. 

Great-grandsons bearing family name: Stephen H. Long, 
grandson of G. W. Long, St. Louis, Missouri. Compton Long r 
grandson of G. W. Long, St. Louis, Missouri. William Long, 
grandson of Enoch Long, Savanna, Illinois, or Sabula, Iowa. 

Great-great-grandchildren: Son of William Long, above, 
with whom the name stops. 

There are numerous female descendants in all branches in- 
termarried with five historic names throughout the country. 



287 



The Rock Island County Historical Society 

Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary 

of the Battle of Campbell's Island 



Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Secretary. 
Springfield, 111. 

Dear Mrs. Weber The following is a brief report of two 
celebrations, the one hundredth anniversary of the battle of 
CampbelPs Island, and the one hundredth anniversary of the 
battle of Credit Island, respectively, both taken care of 
through the Eock Island County Historical Society. 

As the CampbelPs Island centennial fell on a Sunday, the 
celebration was held on Monday, the 20th of July, the day fol- 
lowing the anniversary of the battle. The program was ar- 
ranged by William A. Meese, of Moline, and was given under 
the auspices of our society. In the absence of S. W. Searle, 
president of the Eock Island County Historical Society, Mr. 
Meese called the meeting to order and introduced Mr. Phil 
Mitchell of Eock Island as the presiding officer of the after- 
noon. An audience of several hundred was present, and the 
program was given in the shade of the forest trees on the site 
of the battle. The invocation was given by Eev. Joseph Kel- 
ley of Moline ; Eev. Eichard S. Haney of Moline gave the ad- 
dress of the day, and the United Sunday School Fife, Drum 
and Bugle Corps, thirty in number, furnished the music for 
the day. An interesting visitor on this occasion was No-ko- 
wa-tah, a full-blood descendant from the Tama, Iowa, settle- 
ment of the Sac and Fox Indians, who were the victors in the 
battle here of a hundred years ago. He was introduced from 
the platform and though he undertook no address he had a 



288 

handshake and a smile for those who gathered about him 
after the program was over. 

Mr. Haney said in part : 

"The Sac and Fox Indians, under the direction of that 
famous chieftain, Black Hawk, tilled the fields and hunted the 
forest which covered this island. Black Hawk left for us a 
brief but comprehensive record of their struggle here. He 
also left for us a history of the battle which took place upon 
this spot. 

"One hundred years ago yesterday, a bleak, raw day, for 
the wind was blowing a gale, this island was filled with the 
children of the forest. The day before, at the mouth of Eock 
Eiver, Major Campbell and his lieutenants, with his company 
of United States soldiers and rangers, were entertained at the 
Indian village by Chief Black Hawk and his chiefs. They had 
friendly intercourse together and we read that as the breeze 
stiffened toward evening, they left with the best of feeling be- 
tween them. 

1 1 Then during the night, messengers came down Eock Eiver 
bringing the news that the British had taken the fort at Prai- 
rie du Chien, and called upon Black Hawk and his warriors 
to now fulfill their promise and make war upon the Americans. 

' * The boats were seen in the morning passing up the rapids 
which extend from Davenport up the river to LeClaire, and 
the sailing was good until a storm arose which drove Camp- 
bell's boat upon the shore. It was beached near where this 
monument now stands. 

"The boats of Lieutenants Eector and Eiggs were up above 
the island. As soon as the boat reached the shore, Major 
Campbell sent out sentinels and fires were started to get the 
evening meal. Suddenly the war-whoop of the Indians was 
heard and the sentinels fell dead at their posts and the battle 
began. ' ' 

In this battle the killed were as follows: On Campbell's 
boat, ten regulars, one woman and one child. On Lieutenant 
Sector's boat, one ranger, and on Lieutenant Eigg's boat, 
three rangers, making a total dead of sixteen. There were 



289 

also wounded, eighteen rangers, one woman, Major Campbell 
and Doctor Stewart. ' ' 

Upwards of a thousand were in attendance for the evening's 
program, which consisted of moving pictures, showing General 
Jackson and the battle of New Orleans, and other stereopticon 
views illustrating early history in this part of the State, with 
patriotic music of fife, drum and bugle by the Sunday School 
boys. 

Credit Island, now called Suburban Island, lies on the Iowa 
side of the Mississippi, and this centennial anniversary should 
perhaps more properly have been under the direction of some 
patriotic society of that State, but as apparently no effort was 
being made there, the members of the Eock Island County 
Historical Society arranged a fitting observance of this, the 
only battle of the War of 1812 which was fought west of the 
Mississippi, in which thirty British regulars under command 
of Brevet Major Duncan Graham, with three cannon placed 
somewhere on the west bank of the Mississippi, near the upper 
end of Credit Island, together with the Sac and Fox Indians 
from a thousand to fifteen hundred warriors strong, attacked 
Major Zachary Taylor (afterwards president of the United 
States) with his command of three hundred and thirty-four 
men, who in eight keel-boats, were sent to the Upper Missis- 
sippi to build a fort somewhere in this savage Indian country. 
The British cannoneers proved to be excellent marksmen, and 
this together with the overwhelming numbers of Indians, 
caused Major Taylor, after a heroic resistance for some time, 
to drop down the river, out of range of the enemy's guns, 
where a council of war was held and it was decided that it 
would be unwise to return to the battle. Eleven men were 
wounded, of whom three had died at the time of Major Tay- 
lor's report, written the day after the battle. 

The date of the battle, as reported by Major Taylor, is Sep- 
tember 5, which this year fell on Saturday. We had two cele- 
brations. One on Friday evening preceding the anniversary 
and the other on Sund iy following. The Friday evening meet- 
ing consisted of a number of the officers of our historical so- 



290 

ciety, with their families and friends, with the following pro- 
gram: 

Music and drills by thirty members of the Sunday School 
Fife, Drum and Bugle Corps. 

Address The Battle of Credit Island By Orrin S. Holt, 
a member of the board of our society. 

Indian dance By members of the boys* band. The boys 
reproduced quite well the Sac and Fox dance which they had 
witnessed last June at the Tama, Iowa, settlement of Indians. 

Stereopticon Address, illustrated with 160 slides, regard- 
ing the Sac and Fox Indians and their haunts By John H. 
Hauberg. 

Address The part enacted in this locality in the great his- 
torical events of the United States By S. W. Searle, presi- 
dent of our county historical society. 

The program was concluded with a good display of fire- 
works. The entire program was given on the open beach 
where part of the battle was fought, and though not largely 
attended, was an impressive occasion for the visitors, the cam- 
pers on the island and others who witnessed it. 

The Sunday program was presided over by Secretary Nor- 
wood of the Davenport Commercial Club, and was held at the 
Suburban Island Inn. Mr. W. A. Meese, a member of our 
board; read an address which has cost him a great amount of 
painstaking work, and which without doubt is the best account 
ever prepared of that part of the war of 1812, which was car- 
ried on in the Mississippi Valley. Mr. Meese held his audience 
spellbound for an hour, and his address will most likely result 
in some Davenport, or other Iowa society's getting to work 
at properly marking this historic spot. Petersen's Band fur- 
nished the music, and following the address, Company B of 
the Fifty-fourth Iowa National Guards, gave an exhibition 
drill and sham battle. This program was attended by about 
two hundred. 

Yours, 

John H. Hauberg, 
Secretary Rock Island County Historical Society. 



EDITORIAL 



293 



JOURNAL OF 

THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Published Quarterly by the Society at Springfield, Illinois. 

JESSIE PALMER WEBER, EDITOR. 

Associate Editors: 

J. H. Burnham George W. Smith 

William A. Meese Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. Page 

Applications for membership in the Society may be sent to the Secretary of 

the Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Illinois. 
Membership Fee, One Dollar Paid Annually. Life Membership, $25.00 

VOL. Vn. OCTOBEB, 1914. No. 3. 

CAPT. J. H. BURNHAM HONORED BY OLD FRIENDS. 



Captain J. H. Burnham, one of Bloomington's best known 
citizens, was the subject of a pleasant and complimentary sur- 
prise on his birthday Saturday evening, October 31, when 
some thirty of his closest friends in business and professional 
life for many years, tendered him a dinner at the green room 
of the Woman's Exchange at Bloomington. He had been in- 
vited to the place for dinner by his brother-in-law, Mr. Ives, 
and Mr. Burnham had supposed that the two would enjoy the 
meal together. His surprise was unfeigned and sincere when 
he was met by a group of some thirty of his warm personal 
friends, and told that they were assembled to break bread in 
his honor. Captain Burnham was visibly affected by the 
tribute. 

After the enjoyment of the dinner, Mr. Charles L. Capen 
took charge of the post-prandial feature of the occasion, and 
called upon several of the guests for expressions of the feel- 
ings of the company toward their guest of honor. 



294 

President David Felmley, of the Normal University, spoke 
upon the relations of Captain Burnham to that institution, 
how he had entered its classes when they were in old Major's 
Hall ; had gone out from its class rooms to fight in the Union 
Army and ever since that period had been one of the Normal 
School's staunchest supporters and boosters among the 
alumni. Speaking of the general career of Captain Burnham, 
President Felmley referred to his years of labor as a bridge 
contractor, saying that a maker of bridges always adds an 
important and permanent factor to the prosperity, of the peo- 
ple of his State and nation. 

Former Governor Joseph W. Fifer spoke on the army life 
of Captain Burnham, who had gone out as a lieutenant of 
Company A of the famous "Normal Regiment," and had 
served with valor and distinction through many of the cam- 
paigns. 

Prof. Henry McCormick, vice-president emeritus of the 
Normal University, talked of the value of the work performed 
by Captain Burnham in connection with the McLean County 
and the State Historical Societies. But for the work of Cap- 
tain Burnham and the late E. M. Prince, the local historical 
society would have long ago lapsed. 

Mr. E. H. Crihfield, of the Pantagraph, spoke briefly of the 
fact that Captain Burnham had some years ago been editor of 
this paper, and paid a tribute to this influence in journalism, 
which continues to this day. 

Eev. J. N. Elliott, pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
Church, to which Captain Burnham belongs, referred to his 
feeling of honor for the guest of the evening as one of his 
parishioners, whom he characterized as one who had found the 
true secret of life. 

After the completion of the more formal part of the pro- 
gram of after-dinner talks, the toastmaster called for im- 
promptu expressions from the company, and responses were 
made by Judge C. D. Myers, Judge E. M. Benjamin, Colonel 
D. C. Smith, George Knapp and T. B. Kilgore, of the Grand 
Army Post; E. W. Wilson, the oldest man present in point 
of residence in +his county, and others. 



295 

Captain Burnham responded to all these complimentary and 
congratulatory addresses with expressions of deep feelings of 
appreciation and gratitude. Then he recalled in an inter- 
esting way some of the events of his life to which previous 
speakers had referred. 



ME. JOHN F. STEWARD AND A PAETY OP FEIENDS 
MAKE VISIT TO INDIAN BATTLE GEOUND. 

Not far from Piano, Kendall County, Illinois, there is a very 
remarkable Indian antiquity, which is believed by careful his- 
torical investigators to be an ancient Indian fortification. 

Mr. John F. Steward, son of the pioneer Steward, and a 
brother of the Hon. Lewis Steward, who was Democratic 
candidate for governor of Illinois in 1876, when a boy was 
deeply interested in the curious remains of Indian occupa- 
tions, in this particular vicinity. 

After he was over 50 years of age, he commenced to study 
the French language in order to fit himself to investigate 
French documents lying in the archives of Paris. And finally 
he spent much time in that city studying and translating 
French and American history. 

He became convinced that at the place in question, a few 
miles below Piano, there had been a remarkable Indian forti- 
fication at the time when the French, in 1731, conquered the 
Fox Indians, who inhabited much of Wisconsin and Illinois. 

Near this fort was the ancient Indian town called Meramech. 
When LaSalle passed over this region in 1684, he visited the 
site of Meramech, on his way from Starved Eock to Lake 
Michigan. The Indians reported to him and to other French 
explorers, that at some past time when Meramech was a great 
Indian headquarters, that there had been an important battle 
fought there between Indian tribes. 

Mr. Steward furnished a paper for the Illinois Historical 
Society over ten years ago, quoting extracts from the French 
sources and fortifying it by sketches of the location in ques- 



296 

tion. He afterward added greatly to this paper and published 
the whole in a bound volume called "Lost Meramech." 

Historical students have become deeply interested in this 
matter. Mr. Steward is also deeply interested in exhibiting 
the site and explaining its remarkable history. A few days 
ago, on his invitation, the company, composed of Dr. Otto L. 
Schmidt, of Chicago, president of the Illinois Historical So- 
ciety, Miss Caroline M. Mcllvaine, secretary of the Chicago 
Historical Society; Captain J. H. Burnham, of Bloomington, 
director of the State Historical Society, and Mrs. Sarah Ray- 
mond Fitzwilliam, of Chicago, whose early home was in Ken- 
dall County, visited this famous fort. Captain Burnham gave 
an interesting account of the visit. He said : 

"Mrs. Burnham 's birthplace was but a few miles distant 
from this very remarkable locality. 

The site is on top of a rounded hill about 60 or 70 feet above 
the valley of Big Bock Creek and Little Rock Creek, which 
unite at the lower end of the hill, and after a few rods empties 
into the Rock River. There are traces of entrenchments at 
the top and also along one front, which is the side next to the 
ground occupied by the French forces, and across the inter- 
vening ravine at two different points, where were placed the 
two armed forts of the French. 

The Fox River, once called "The River by the Rock" by 
the French, is barely one-quarter of a mile east, and along 
the valley was the ancient frontier town called Meramech. By 
some early settlers it was called Chichgon. 

A single rock bluff on the banks of the Fox River, about a 
French league down the stream, helps identify the location of 
the fort. 

Mr. Steward and his friend kindly entertained the company 
and the day was one of great enjoyment and of thorough in- 
vestigation, which will long be remembered by the fortunate 
guests. 

Some readers will remember that when the McLean County 
Historical Society investigated what is called the Indian bat- 
tlefield at Arrowsmith some years ago, Mr. H. W. Beckwith, 



297 

of Danville, president of the Illinois State Historical Society, 
gave as his opinion that the Indian fortifications consisted of 
holes dug in the ground, which were the favorite method of 
defense of the Fox Indians, and that these were probably occu- 
pied in 1730 to 1731. At the same time the French soldiers 
from Fort Chartres were scouring the region on the hunt for 
Fox Indians. 

The members of the society believe that sooner or later the 
great mystery of this locality will be solved and that some 
certain idea will be obtained as to the occasion of the use of 
the many hundred bullets which have been found in this 
locality. 

Mr. Steward has become interested in the solution of this 
problem and from his extensive and exhaustive study of the 
events of 1730 and 1731 he may yet greatly assist in the un- 
raveling of this great historic mystery. 

He has purchased two acres of the site of the Indian fort 
and has placed thereon an immense boulder properly inscribed 
and has deeded the whole to the school district, with the hope 
that he has permanently marked this remarkable Indian an- 
tiquity. ' ' 



' 'THE MILITARY TRACT" CELEBRATION OF THE 
BATTLE OF PLATTSBURG. 



The military tract bounty lands are situated between the 
Illinois and Mississippi rivers. From the confluence of the 
streams to the northern line of surveys is a distance of 162 
miles. Seventy-two miles north of the place of beginning, the 
fourth principal meridian touches the base line, which runs 
thence west to the Mississippi River. The military bounty 
lands extend ninety miles north of the base line. The northern 
boundary of Mercer County continued east to the Illinois 
River marks the northern boundary of what is popularly 
known as the Military Tract. The territory thus described in- 
cludes Calhoun, Pike, Adams, Brown, Schuyler, Hancock, Me- 



298 

Donough, Fulton, Henderson, Warren, Knox, Peoria, Stark, 
Mercer, and parts of Henry, Bureau, Putnam, and Marshall 
counties. It comprises 5,360,000 acres, more or less ; 3,500,000 
acres of which were appropriated as bounties in quarter sec- 
tion lots to the non-commissioned officers and men who volun- 
teered their services in the War of 1812. 

The city of Macomb and county of McDonough issued invi- 
tations to the Military Tract celebration of the anniversary 
of the battle of Plattsburg. This celebration was held in Ma- 
comb, Illinois, Friday, September 11, 1914, in honor of the 
heroic achievements of General Alexander Macomb and Com- 
modore Thomas Macdonough, for whom the city of Macomb 
and the county of McDonough were respectively named. 

A letter was read from the grandson of General Macomb. 
Addresses were made by United States Senator Lawrence Y. 
Sherman and Mrs. S. W. Earle, Illinois State President of 
the Daughters of 1812. 

A monument erected in the City Park in memory of Macomb 
and Macdonough was unveiled and dedicated. 



FORT EDWAEDS MONUMENT AT WAESAW, 
ILLINOIS, DEDICATED. 



One hundred years ago Fort Edwards was erected at this 
point, Warsaw, as the pioneer western outpost during the sec- 
ond war with Great Britain. Zachary Taylor, then a major in 
the Third United States Infantry, selected Warsaw's high 
bluffs overlooking the Mississippi, and giving a commanding 
view far to the north and west, as the most advantageous point 
on which to build the stockade. 

On the centennial anniversary of the erection of the fort a 
jubilee was planned, at which time the Fort Edwards monu- 
ment, on the site of the old outpost, was dedicated. The cere- 
monies took place September 29 and 30 and October 1, and a 
general home-coming of former Warsawites was a part of the 
celebration. The State of Illinois appropriated $2,500 toward 



299 

the fund for the erection of the monument. There were pres- 
ent at the dedication many prominent citizens who made his- 
torical addresses. Elaborate historic features, echoes of the 
early Indian days, were presented. 

Fort Edwards was abandoned in 1824, after United States 
troops had been stationed there for ten years. In the pioneer 
days hundreds of settlers lodged at the fort until they got 
settled. 

The monument is an obelisk built of Bar re granite. It stands 
fifty feet in height. Bronze tablets bearing pictures of Zach- 
ary Taylor, the fort and Governor Edwards of Illinois, for 
whom it was named, are placed on the sides. A full account of 
the monument and the dedicatory exercises will appear in a 
later number of the Journal. 



PORTRAIT OF GEORGE ROGERS CLARK UNVEILED 

AT BANQUET BY THE INDIANA SOCIETY, 

SONS OF THE REVOLUTION. 



An interesting feature of the eighteenth annual banquet and 
meeting of the Indiana Society, Sons of the Revolution, held 
October 19, in the Florentine room at the Claypool Hotel, In- 
dianapolis, was the unveiling of an oil painting of George 
Rogers Clark, who, when he captured Vincennes in 1788, 
linked Indiana with the Revolutionary War. 

The unveiling of the portrait by Herbert W. McBride was* 
followed by an address by Hiram B. Patten, who told of the- 
life of General Clark. Others participating in the ceremony- 
were John S. Tarkington, Robert W. McBride and William* 
Allen Wood. Otto Stark of Indianapolis, who painted the- 
Clark portrait, was present and he told of his impressions; 
gained from a study of Clark's adventures. 

The Clark portrait, while remaining the property of the 
Sons of the Revolution, will be placed in the State House, and 
it will represent the society's contribution to the State cen- 
tennial celebration in 1916. 



300 

The election of officers was held with the result that James 
T. Layman of Indianapolis was elected president for the en- 
using year. Other officers elected were as follows : Vice-pres- 
idents, Frank L. Bridges, Theodore W. Barhydt, Ovid Butler 
Jameson and Samuel C. Carey; secretary, W. S. Gilbreath; 
treasurer, U. Z. Wiley; registrar, Dr. S. W. Warner; his- 
torian, Hiram B. Patten ; chaplain, the Rev. Lewis Brown. 

The following persons were named as members of the board 
of managers: S. D. Farrabee, John S. Tarkington, Allison 
Maxwell, John T. Barnett, Charles J. Lynn, Charles F. Bemy, 
William Allen Wood, Charles L. Barry and Robert W. Mc- 
Bride. 

Sixteen new members admitted to the society during the 
year are as follows : C. E. King, Ryland A. Wolcott, Clarence 
B. Clark, A. Cornelius Allison, William R. Filbrich, F. W. 
DeHoss, Mark DeHoss, Harvey Adams Moore, John R. Carr, 
William B. Clark, Harry C. Carr, Elvin G. Tarkington, Her- 
vey S. Humphrey, Captain Alexander Scott, Henry James 
Drapier, Jr., New York, and Henry J. Reed, Rockville, 
Indiana. 



AWARDS LINCOLN STATUE PRIZES. 

Members of Illinois State Art Commission Name MacNeil, 

Jaegers, Riswold and 'Connor. 



Prizes awarded in the competition for statues of Abraham 
Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas, to be erected on the Capitol 
grounds at Springfield, and unveiled at the Illinois Centennial 
in 1918, have been announced by the Art Commission of Illi- 
nois. 

In the competition for the Lincoln statue there were fifty- 
two contestants, three especially invited by the commission, 
and forty-nine in the general competition. Each of the spe- 
cially invited sculptors received a prize of $500. They were 
Albert Jaegers of New York, Herman A. MacNeil, New York, 
and Andrew O'Connor, an American sculptor studying in 
Paris. 



301 

The bill provided for prizes of $500 each for the best three 
models submitted in the general competition. The third prize 
in this class was divided between Paul Jennewein of New 
York, and Mrs. Gail Sherman Corbett. The two other prizes 
were awarded to Gilbert Eiswold, Chicago, and Charles Keck, 
New York. 

Under the terms of the competition the commission was 
authorized to select four competitors to receive $500 addi- 
tional for making enlarged models from which the final selec- 
tion will be made. The four selected are Herman A. MacNeil, 
Albert Jaegers, Andrew 'Connor and Gilbert Eiswold. The 
final selection will be made in four months by the commission. 

No prizes were awarded in the Douglas competition, but 
three were selected to submit enlarged models, for which the 
sculptors will receive $300. 

Those selected are C. H. Niehus, New York, George E. 
Ganiere, Chicago, and Gilbert Eiswold, Chicago. 



ILLINOIS STATE CENTENNIAL. 



The Illinois State Centennial Commission will meet in 
Springfield on Thursday, December 3, 1914. This is the ninety- 
sixth anniversary of the admission of the State into the Fed- 
eral Union and the Commercial Association of Springfield, 
Illinois, is to celebrate it by a public dinner to be held at the 
St. Nicholas Hotel. 

The State Centennial Commission which, as stated above, is 
to hold a meeting that day, has been invited to attend the din- 
ner. The officers and directors of the Illinois State Historical 
Society have also been invited. Governor E. F. Dunne will 
address the meeting, and Mr. H. S. Magill, acting chairman 
of the Centennial Commission, and Senator Logan Hay, a 
member of the same commission, and several others, will make 
brief addresses. The Illinois State Historical Society, which 
had expected to hold a meeting in honor of the State 's birth- 
day, will postpone its meeting, as its officers and members 



302 

are all invited to join with the Springfield Commercial Asso- 
ciation and will co-operate in this celebration. 

It is expected, beginning with the next issue of the Journal 
of the Illinois State Historical Society, to include a depart- 
ment devoted to information relating to the approaching State 
Centennial, the work of the commission, its plans and prog- 
ress. The editor will welcome suggestions for this work. 

In the death of Senator Campbell S. Hearn, the Centennial 
Commission has lost its chairman. Senator Hearn was the 
originator of the legislation which resulted in the creation of 
the Centennial Commission. He was greatly interested in the 
plans and worked faithfully to forward them. Senator Hugh 
S. Magill, Jr., has been elected by the commission its tem- 
porary chairman. 



CENTENNIAL CELEBRATION OF ST. CLAIR COUNTY, 
ILLINOIS, SEPTEMBER, 1914. 



The County of St. Clair celebrated the one hundredth anni- 
versary of its organization by a great home-coming and his- 
torical pageant at Belleville, beginning Sunday, September 
13, and continuing throughout the week. Every town in St. 
Clair County was represented in the celebration and took part 
in the trades procession on Thursday, and residents of the 
county, from the oldest to the children, took an active part. 
The St. Clair County Historical Society had a splendid ex- 
hibit in its rooms in the lower floor of the court house. 

This exhibit consisted of the original documents belonging 
to the county, and of a loan exhibit of historic articles and 
relics. This exhibition was visited by hundreds of people. 
At the formal opening of the centennial exercises on Sunday, 
September 13, a sacred concert was given and Hon. J. Nick 
Perrin delivered a masterly address on Music and Art. The 
historical pageant given three evenings portrayed the history 
of St. Clair County and its principal cities from the days of 
the Indians. This was admirably done, and was a remarkable 
production. The city of Belleville was elaborately decorated. 
Many former citizens of the county visited their old home. 



303 

The Historical Society was represented by the secretary, 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Miss Lottie E. Jones of Danville, 
and by Hon. J. Nick Perrin. 

Mr. Perrin, on behalf of the mayor of the city of Belleville, 
delivered an address of welcome to the reunion of the One 
Hundred and Seventeenth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, which 
met on Thursday. An address was also delivered before the 
regiment by Hon. Theodore Tyndale, a former member of the 
regiment and citizen of Belleville, now a resident of Boston, 
Massachusetts. The weather was good and the celebration 
was a success in every particular. 



LIST OF GIFTS TO THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTOR- 
ICAL SOCIETY AND LIBRARY. 



The following named books, letters, photographs and manu- 
scripts have been presented to the Library. The Board of 
Trustees of the Library and the officers of the Society desire 
to acknowledge the receipt of these valuable contributions and 

to thank the donors for them. 

A Plea for More Play, More Pay and More Education for Our Factory 
Girls and Boys. From the writings of Jane Addams. 24 p. 12mo. Chicago. 
Gift of the Chicago Association of Commerce, 10 South LaSalle street, Chi- 
cago, Illinois. Printed for private distribution. 

All About Colorado for Homeseekers, Tourists, Investors, Health- 
seekers. Thomas Tonge, comp. 112 p. 8mo. Denver, 1913. Press of the 
Smith-Brooks Printing Co. Gift of the Denver Chamber of Commerce, Dea- 
ver, Colorado. 

Year-Book of the Benjamin Mills Chapter of Greenville, Illinois, Daughters 
of the American Revolution, 1914-1915. Gift of Mrs. Charles E. Davidson, 
Greenville, Illinois. 

Reuben Gold Thwaites. A Memorial Address, by Frederick Jackson Tur- 
ner. 94 p. 12mo. Madison, Wisconsin, 1914. Pub. Wisconsin State Histor- 
ical Society. Gift of the Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison, Wis- 
consin. 

Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin at its Sixty-first 
Annual Meeting, Held October 22 and December 19, 1913. 238 p. 8vo. Mad- 
ison, Wisconsin, 1914. Pub. by the Society. Gift of the Wisconsin State 
Historical Society, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Genealogy of the Family of Josiah Ward. Sixth Generation from William 
Ward. 15 p. 12mo. Ottawa, Illinois, 1914. (Two copies.) Gift of Mr. Ebin 
J. Ward, Ottawa, Illinois. 

Detroit in Earlier Days. A few notes on some of the old buildings in the 
city. By C. M. Burton. 36 p. Svo., Detroit, 1914. The Burton Abstract & 
Title Company. Gift of the Burton Abstract & Title Company, Free Press 
Building, Detroit, Michigan. 



304 

The Illinois River. Physical relations and the removal of the navigation 
dams. With supplement on the waterway relations of the sanitary and ship 
canal of Chicago by Lyman E. Cooley. 121 p. 8 vo. Chicago, 1914. Clohesey 
& Company, Printers. Gift of the Sanitary District of Chicago. 

Through Routes for Chicago's Steam Railroads. The best means for 
attaining popular and comfortable travel for Chicago and suburbs, by George 
Ellsworth Hooker. 89 p. 4to. Chicago, 1914. Pub. by the City Club of Chi- 
cago. The Ralph Fletcher Seymour Company. Gift of the City Club of 
Chicago, 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago, Illinois. 

The Railway Library 1913 (5th edition). Slason Thompson, comp. 469 
pp. 8vo. Chicago, 1914. R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company. Gift of Mr. 
Slason Thompson, 1529 Railway Exchange Building, Chicago, Illinois. 

First Annual Report of the Montgomery County Historical Society, 1914. 
51 p. 8 vo. Hillsboro, Illinois, 1914. Gift of Mr. A. T. Strange, Hillsboro, 
Illinois. 

Proceedings and Transactions. Vol. VII, Third Series, 1913. Royal Society 
of Canada, Publishers, 199 p. 4to. Ottawa, Canada. The Mortimer Press, 
Gift of the Royal Society of Canada. 

Year Book Old Concord Chapter D. A. R. 1910-1911. 13 p. 12mo. Concord, 
Mass, 1910. Gift of Major J. E. K. Herrick, Springfield, Illinois. 

The White Apron. A compilation of the history of Occidental Lodge No. 
40, A. F. and A. M. Ottawa, Illinois, by W. L. Milligan. 367 p. 8vo. Ottawa, 
Illinois, 1914. Republican-Times, Printers. Gift of W. L. Milligan, Ottawa, 
Illinois. 

A History of the Unity Baptist Church, Muhlenberg County, Kentucky. 
By Otto A. Rothert. 61 p. 12mo. Press of John P. Morton & Company, Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. Gift of the author, Professor Rothert, who is also the 
author of the splendid history of Muhlenberg County, Kentucky, recently 
published. 

Year Book of the Illinois Christian Churches. 1914. 72 p. 12mo. Minier, 
Illinois. 1914. Press of Crihfield Brothers. Gift of Mr. W. B. Deweese, sec- 
retary, Illinois Christian Missionary Society, Bloomington, Illinois. 

Report of the International Commission to Inquire Into the Causes and 
Conduct of the Balkan Wars. 413 p. 8vo. Washington, D. C. 1914. Pub. 
by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Gift of the Carnegie 
Endowment for International Peace, 2 Jackson Place, Washington, D. C. 

Register of the Colonial Dames of the State of New York, 1893-1913. 432 
p. 8vo. New York, 1913. Published by the Society. Gift of the Colonial 
Dames of the State of New York Library, 105 West Fortieth street, New 
York City, N. Y. 

South Dakota Historical Collections. Vols. VI, VII, 1914. Pierre, South 
Dakota. Gift of the South Dakota Department of History. 

Scottish Historical Review. Vol. XII, No. 45, October, 1914. Pub. Glasgow, 
Scotland. Gift of Messrs. James Mac Lehose & Sons, 61 St. Vincent street, 
Glasgow, Scotland. 

Copies of the I. B. A. of A. Bulletins. Vol. 2, Nos. 1-15, Sept. 9, 1913, to 
Aug. 31, 1914 (except No. 2). Vol. 3, No. 1, Sept. 30,, 1914. Also two volumes. 
Vol. I, Report of Organization Meeting of the I. B. A. of A. 1912; Vol. II, Pro- 
ceedings Second Annual Convention, I. B. A. of A. 1913. Gift of the Invest- 
ment Bankers Association, 111 West Monroe street, Chicago, Illinois. 

The Conover Family. Compiled by Charles Hopkins Conover. 77 p. 8vo. 
Frankfort, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1912. Martin & Allardyce, Pubs. 
Gift of Mr. Charles Hopkins Conover, Chicago, Compiler. 

Chart and Short Sketch of the Kitterman Family. By John Kitterman, 
Tiskilwa, Illinois. Gift of Mr. A. Cwanzy, Princeton, Illinois. 



305 

Fifty Years a Paint Man. The personal recollections and reminiscences 
of Gorham B. Coffin, n p. 8vo. Chicago, n. d. Gift of Heath & Milligan 
Manufacturing Company, Chicago. 

The Fra. Vol XIII, No. 6. September, 1914. Published at East Aurora, 
Illinois. Gift of Mrs. M. Q. Heimlich, Springfield, Illinois. 

Year Book of the Rockford Chapter, D. A. R., 1914-1915. Mrs. Daniel Lichty, 
Cor. Sec. Gift of the Rockford, Illinois Chapter, D. A. R. 

Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Vol. XL VII. October 
1913 June, 1914. 555 p. 8vo. Boston, 1914. Published by the Society. 
John Wilson & Sons, Pubs. Gift of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Park Ridge State Bank. (Pamphlet.) n. p. n. d. Gift of M. J. Clay, 226 
West Jackson street, Chicago, Illinois. 

Illinois National Half Century Anniversary of Negro Freedom. First an- 
nual report 1913-1914. 39 p. 8vo. Chicago, 1914. Headquarters, 128 North 
LaSalle street, Chicago. Gift of Mr. Thomas Wallace Swann, Secretary. 

Fourteen volumes of Johns Hopkins University Studies. Gift of the Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Index to the Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society, 
Vol. 22, Nos. 1-20. Pub. by the Society, Baltimore, Maryland. Gift of the 
American Jewish Historical Society. 

Buffalo Historical Society Publications. Vol. VIII, 1905. 578 p. 8vo., Buf- 
falo, N. Y., 1905. Pub. Buffalo Historical Society. Gift of the Society. 

The Lincoln and Douglas Debates. An address before the Chicago His- 
torical Society, February 17, 1914, by Horace White. 32 p. 8vo., Chicago, 
1914. The University of Chicago Press. Gift of the Chicago Historical 
Society. 

Year Book 1914 of the Confederate Memorial Literary Society. 118 p. 8vo. 
Richmond, Virginia, 1914. Whittet & Shepperson, Printers. Gift of the 
Confederate Museum, Richmond, Virginia. 

Monticello Echo, Nos. 3-33, 1895-1913. Three bound volumes. Gift of Miss 
Martina C. Erickson, Principal of Monticello Seminary, Godfrey, Illinois. 

The Scenic Columbia River Route to the Great Northwest. Pub. by the 
Union Pacific Railway. Gift of M. J. Clay, 226 West Jackson street, Chi- 
cago, Illinois. 

Harris Family of Virginia From 1611 to 1914. 31 p. 8vo., Fredericks- 
burg, Virginia, 1914. Gift of Mr. Thomas H. Harris, 908 Main street, Fred- 
ericksburg, Virginia. 

Vol. XII. of the Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, 

1913. Frederick B. Richards, Secretary, Glen Falls, New York. Gift of the 
New York State Historical Association. 

Lincoln Books and Pamphlets. Six bound volumes, seventeen unbound 
pamphlets (twenty-three volumes). Gift of Mr. Judd Stewart, 165 Broad- 
way, New York City. 

Transactions of the Thirty-fifth Annual Reunion of the Oregon Pioneer 
Association, Portland, June 19, 1907. Annual Address by George H. Himes. 
185 p. 8vo., Portland, Oregon, 1908. Chausse-Prudhomme Company. Gift of 
the Oregon Historical Society. 

Roster of the Forty-second Annual Reunion, Portland, Oregon, June 18, 

1914. Gift of the Oregon Historical Society. 

A souvenir of the Seventy-first Anniversary of the Organization of the 
First American Civil Government West of the Rocky Mountains. Celebrated 
at Old Champoeg, Marion County, May 2, 1914. Compiled by George Himes, 
Assistant Secretary of the Society. Gift of the Oregon Historical Society, 
Portland, Oregon. 

Seven silk badges of the Oregon Pioneer Association. Annual Reunions, 
40th, 1912; 41st, 1913; 42nd, 1914. 



306 

Invitation to the Forty-ninth Annual Reunion Old Settlers Association of 
Rock Island County, held jointly with the Rock Island County Historical 
Society, Black Hawk's Watch Tower, Thursday, August 27, 1914. J. H. Cle- 
land, Rock Island, Secretary. Gift of the Rock Island County Old Settlers 
Association. 

Panama Pacific International Exposition Official Post-Card Album. Gift 
of Mrs. John M. Palmer. 

Post-card General U. S. Grant's log cabin built by him in St. Louis, Mis- 
souri, in 1854. Gift of Mrs. John M. Palmer. 

Postals of Public Square of Springfield, Illinois, 1858. Gift of Mrs. John M. 
Palmer, Springfield, Illinois. 

Set of photographs showing the boulder to mark the site of Old Fort St. 
Joseph, Niles, Michigan. Gift of Mr. Lewis H. Beeson. 

Five Lincoln bronze medals, 1809-1865, made by the Springfield Watch 
Company, Springfield, Illinois. Gift of Mr. A. S. Wormwood, 325 South 
Spring street, Springfield, Illinois. 

Cook County Infirmary. Copper box and material in, taken from the cor- 
nerstone of the Cook County Infirmary (cornerstone laid September, 1882), 
containing coins, newspapers, photographs, etc.) Gift of Mr. Fred J. Kern, 
Chairman Illinois State Board of Administration. 

"Tape Loom." Was the property of Rachel Rogers of King and Queen 
County, Virginia. Daughter of John Rogers and Rachel Eastham, and wife 
of Donald Robertson. It descended to her daughter Lucy, wife of John 
Walker Semple of King and Queen County, and to her daughter, Adaline M., 
wife of John S. Bradford of Springfield, Illinois, and to her daughter, Miss 
Susan Bradford, 818 West Edwards street, Springfield, Illinois, who pre- 
sented it to the Society. 



DOUGLAS MEDAL OF 1860 FOUND. 
Mr. W. 0. Ham of Waggoner, Montgomery County, Illinois, 
while working in a corn field early in October, 1914, found a 
campaign medal of 1860. The medal bears a well executed 
relief head of Stephen A. Douglas, and is in a perfect state 
of preservation. It was found near the site of what was known 
in early days as the West Union School House. The school 
house was torn down about 1869. 



A PATRIOTIC FAMILY. 

A father and two sons who served in the Civil War have 
been discovered near Golcondo. They are C. S. Chrisman, 94 
years old, who served in the Sixth Illinois Cavalry, and his 
sons, R. H. Chrisman, 70 and John Chrisman, 68, who were 
members of the Twenty-ninth Illinois Infantry. Such in- 
stances are very rare, and it is doubtful if another father and 
two sons can be found in Southern Illinois who participated in 
the War of the Rebellion. 



307 

MRS. C. C. THOMPSON IS NINETY-TWO YEARS OLD. 

Mrs. C. C. Thompson observed her ninety-second birthday 
October 31 at the home of her daughters, Mrs. Charles Eeed 
and Mrs. James Pyle, 118 and 120 South Walnut street, 
Springfield, Illinois. 

Mrs. Thompson is commonly called ''Grandma" by her 
friends, and was born in Sumner County, Tennessee, October 
31, 1822, coming to Illinois with her parents in August, 1829. 
She has resided in this State ever since. In 1895 she and her 
daughters came to Springfield to reside. While she has been 
in failing health for the past year, she retains her usual 
brightness to a remarkable degree and is a very entertaining 
talker. 

Mrs. Thompson received many callers who congratulated 
her on her ninety-second birthday. 



SAMUEL CARPENTER NINETY YEARS OLD. 

Old Resident, Native of Sangamon County, Celebrated His 

Birthday. 

Samuel Carpenter, 323 South State street, Springfield, Illi- 
nois, was born in Sangamon County, ninety years ago, Novem- 
ber 12, 1824. He was born on a farm north of the city and 
lived there until retirement from active life, about twelve 
years ago. He is probably the oldest living man, born and 
reared in Sangamon County. His parents were pioneers of 
the county. 

A family dinner marked the occasion of Mr. Carpenter's 
birthday anniversary. Dr. George Pasfield and Dr. William 
Jayne, the only two of Mr. Carpenter's schoolmates still liv- 
ing, were present at the dinner. Many friends called at the 
home in the afternoon. 

Mr. Carpenter has led an active life and in spite of his years 
is still hale and hearty. 

Mr. Carpenter has three daughters, one of them, Mrs. 
Charles M. Woods, residing in Springfield at 503 South Wal- 
nut street. Mrs. A. E. Petefish, another daughter, lives in 



308 

the old family homestead, near Carpenter's mill, north of the 
city, the farm on which her father was born and reared. Mrs. 
George N. Council, the third daughter, resides at Batavia, 
Illinois. They were all present at the reunion. 



BOOK EEVIEWS. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church and the Civil War. By 
William Warren Sweet, Ph.D., Professor of History, De Pauw 
University. (Cincinnati: Methodist Book Concern Press, 
(1912). 225 p. $1.00 net.) 

For some time attention has been called to American church 
history as a promising field for investigators. This volume, 
which was completed in partial fulfillment of the requirements 
for the doctor's degree at the University of Pennsylvania, 
well illustrates the prominence of a single denomination in a 
critical period of our history. 

Nine chapters serve to emphasize the influence of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church as an aid to the national cause during 
the Civil War. Headings, such as "The Church on the Bor- 
der, " " The Church in the Central and Northwestern States, ' ' 
"The War Bishops," and "Methodist Co-operation with In- 
ter-denominational Organizations, ' ' state accurately the chap- 
ter contents. The author has used most faithfully the exten- 
sive bibliography cited in chapter nine. A topic of so much 
importance as the influence of the church in the cleavage be- 
tween Eastern and Western Virginia (pp. 54-55) might well 
have been expanded. 

Professor Sweet has done a piece of work that was worth 
the doing and it is gratifying to know that other theses are 
now in preparation which will present in some such form the 
influence of other denominations on this period of our history. 

J. A. James. 



NECROLOGY 



311 



CAMPBELL S. HEARN. 

In the death, of Campbell S. Hearn the State of Illinois, 
Adams County and the city of Quincy have all lost an able, in- 
dustrious and faithful friend and public servant. 

Campbell S. Hearn was born November 20, 1844, in Wood- 
ford County, Kentucky, the son of Jacob and Jane Harrison 
Hearn. When the boy was about seven years of age (1851), his 
father removed with his family to Missouri. There the boy 
Campbell worked with his father on the farm and received 
such educational advantages as the times and the limited 
means of his parents afforded. When the exciting anti-slavery 
agitation aroused the whole country, the young boy naturally 
took the side espoused by his father and neighbors, and when 
less than eighteen years of age, he enlisted in the Confederate 
Army in Missouri in 1862. 

He served throughout the last years of the war, and at its 
close returned with his parents to Kentucky, where they re- 
sided until 1867, when they removed to Adams County, Illi- 
nois, and made a permanent home on a farm in Melrose town- 
ship, which first the father and son cultivated, and after the 
father's death, the son continued to manage and cultivate. 

Campbell S. Hearn was married in September, 1872 to Miss 
Elizabeth Hastings. She lived but a few years and died, leav- 
ing one son, George, who now resides in Carthage, Illinois. 
Mr. Hearn later married Miss Emma Felt, daughter of George 
Felt, Esq. Mrs. Hearn, and two sons and one daughter, with 
the son George mentioned above, survive the husband and 
father. 

Senator Hearn was always interested in public affairs, and 
as he had the confidence of his neighbors, he was frequently 
elected to public office. In 1883 he was elected supervisor and 
held the office twenty-two years, fifteen years of which he was 
chairman of the board. Governor John P. Altgeld honored 



312 

him with the appointment of commissioner of the Southern 
Illinois Penitentiary. He also served one term as member 
of the State Board of Equalization. In 1904 he was elected a 
member of the lower house of the General Assembly of Illinois, 
and was re-elected in 1906. In 1908 he was elected to the State 
Senate and again elected in 1912. 

On July 1, 2, 3, 1913, he attended the reunion of the Union 
and Confederate armies at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and in 
most eloquent words he gave the editor of the Journal an ac- 
count of the reunion. This account appeared in the Journal 
of October, 1913. 

Senator Hearn was an active member of the Illinois State 
Historical Society and he appreciated its work and assisted 
it in every way that lay in his power. He loved Illinois and 
he gloried in its history. He said: "As I once took arms 
against the government of the United States, I must serve my 
country even more zealously than those who have always 
served it." He was of a most ardent and affectionate tem- 
perament and what he did he did with all his might. His 
heart was so tender that his sympathies were always quickly 
aroused and no appeals to his heart or his purse were ever 
denied. The last months of his life were given to the work of 
the Illinois State Centennial Commission. Several years ago 
he began to think and plan for a great celebration of the 
State's centennial in 1918. He introduced into the General 
Assembly the legislation establishing the commission, and 
upon its organization he was elected the chairman of the com- 
mission and worked faithfully in its interest until his death. 

He died at his home in Quincy August 28, 1914, and was 
buried August 31 at Woodland Cemetery. He was a member 
of various social and fraternal orders, among them being the 
Odd Fellows, the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, 
and the Modern Woodmen. His funeral was largely attended 
by the citizens of Adams County and Quincy. Committees 
were also present from the Illinois State Senate and House 
of Eepresentatives, from the Centennial Commission and the 
Illinois State Historical Society. An eloquent address was 



313 

delivered by Rev. N. M. Eigg of the Vermont Street Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church of Quincy. Campbell S. Hearn might 
well be written among the wise of the earth, for he, too, 
was one who ' ' loved his fellow-men. ' ' 



314 



ALBERT 0. MARSHALL. 

A. 0. Marshall, former State senator, dropped dead at his 
residence in Joliet, Tuesday, October 20, 1914. He was 74 
years old and one of the best known lawyers of the old school 
in the State. He was a Civil War veteran, county judge and 
author. Following his recovery from a serious illness last 
year, he married Miss Mabel Highe, who survives him. Judge 
Marshall enlisted in the Civil War, and after three years* 
active service, retired from military service, and entered the 
old Chicago University. After receiving his lawyer's 
degree ,he became attorney for Will County. Following 
his election as State senator in 1874, he wrote an interesting 
sketch entitled "Army Life." He was elected Will county 
judge in 1894, and in 1902 was elected circuit court judge, 
which office he held until 1905. 

He was for years an active member of the Illinois State 
Historical Society and did good work in the field of State his- 
tory, especially in collecting material relating to the history 
of Joliet and Will County. 




MR. AND MRS. THOMAS K. MEANS 



3i5 



THOMAS KENDALL MEANS. 

Thomas Kendall Means was born in Jackson County, Ten- 
nessee, April 4, 1831. Died at his home in Mulkeytown, Illi- 
nois, September 9, 1914, aged 83 years, 5 months and 5 days. 
At the age of three years he came with his parents to Illinois, 
where he lived all the rest of his life, except three years. In 
1875 he left his old home and went with his family to Gadsden, 
Tennessee, where he leased a fruit farm and put all the chil- 
dren into school. In the year 1878 the family went through 
the terrible yellow fever epidemic that devastated and almost 
depopulated so many cities of the South, and in December of 
that year he came back to the old farm home in Illinois. In 
1893, at the age of 62, he traded the old home for a new un- 
improved farm, where he built a beautiful home which he lived 
to enjoy for several years. 

On October 15, 1854, he was married to Talitha, one of the 
daughters of John N. Mulkey, who was one of the pioneer 
preachers of the Christian church in Kentucky and Illinois. 
In 1904 they celebrated their golden wedding, and had he lived 
until October 15 they would have been married sixty years. 
To this union were born six children, five girls and one boy. 
One girl died at the age of six years. The others are all living, 
the immediate family circle not having been broken by death 
for fifty-one years. The daughters are all living in Illinois, 
the son is living in Everest, Kansas. 

He was fairly well educated, besides the common schools of 
his time, having been a student at McKendree College, one of 
the early institutions of the State of Illinois. He taught in the 
common schools for a short time, but his life was spent on 
the farm, working sometimes at the carpenter's trade. He 
was a great reader, loved books and the daily paper, and gave 
his family all the educational advantages in his power. 



316 

He was a member of the Christian Church for about sixty- 
six years. He was never a public speaker, his work was done 
quietly. He was treasurer of the church the last eighteen 
years of his life. He was a man of the very highest ideas of 
honor, and his word was never questioned. The funeral rites 
were conducted by members of the Masonic lodge, of which 
order he had been a member for many years. He leaves be- 
hind him his life-long companion, who is only a little younger 
than himself, the son and daughters above mentioned, twenty- 
one grandchildren and two great grandchildren. 

The children of Mr. Means are : H. M. Means of Everest, 
Kansas ; Mrs. Lily Mulkey, Decatur, Illinois ; Mrs. Mary Good- 
win, Maroa, Illinois; Mrs. Orbin Cook, Mulkeytown, Illinois; 
Mrs. Lough Snyder, Mulkeytown, Illinois. Mr. Means was 
during the last years of his life a member of the Illinois State 
Historical Society. He took great pleasure in the Society's 
publications, especially the Journal, and his kind letters of 
appreciation were a real help and encouragement to the sec- 
retary of the Society. He was a good man and a useful citizen. 



317 



McKENDREE HYPES CHAMBERLIN. 

Dr. M. H. Chamberlin, an honorary member of the Illinois 
State Historical Society and until his removal to California 
a director of the Society, died at his home in Los Angeles, 
California, July 27, 1914, aged 75 years. An extended sketch 
of the life of Dr. Chamberlin, written by his son, Clifford D. 
Chamberlin, is published in this number of the Journal. 

The members of the Historical Society will learn with re- 
gret of Dr. Chamberlin 's death, for he was a man who made 
friends as the magnet attracts the needle. Everyone who 
knew him felt the inspiration which ruled his life. He was a 
learned man, educated in the classics in the good old-fash- 
ioned way, and yet, as Cotton Mather in the Magnalia, says 
of a noted minister, "His chief learning was his goodness." 
McKendree H. Chamberlin was born in Lebanon, Illinois, 
November 17, 1838, and he loved his native State and her in- 
stitutions. His business took him from place to place, but 
Illinois Lebanon McKendree College, these were home to 
him. For the college, of which for fourteen years he was 
president, he gave years of labor and days and nights of pray- 
erful anxiety. It was next to his family his principal earthly 
interest. 

In December, 1904, Dr. Chamberlin was appointed a member 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical 
Library to fill a vacancy caused by the death of Judge H. W. 
Beckwith. Governor Richard Yates, the retiring governor, 
made the appointment, and Governor Charles S. Deneen, who 
was inaugurated governor a few weeks after this appointment 
had been made, said that he congratulated Governor Yates on 
the selection, but that he was sorry he had not himself the 
pleasure of making the appointment. This office Dr. Chamber- 
lin resigned on moving out of the State. Friendly relations 
had existed between the families of Deneen and Chamberlin 



318 

for two generations, and Governor Deneen entertained feel- 
ings of admiration and friendship for Dr. M. H. Chamberlin. 
He had also a deep interest in McKendree College, from which 
he graduated, and he was a great aid and encouragement to 
Dr. Chamberlin in his work for the college. 

After Dr. Chamberlin removed to California he retained a 
lively interest in "home affairs," as he called matters relating 
to Illinois. His courteous and graceful letters of acknowledge- 
ment came regularly in response to any letter sent or small 
services done for him by the officers of the Historical Society. 
The Society is fortunate in being able to present to its mem- 
bers and to the people of Illinois an account of Dr. Chamber- 
lin 's life and services, written by his faithful and affectionate 
son, who had the intimate knowledge necessary to the writing 
of such a paper, and the clear view and impartial judgment 
which enabled him to present it fairly and without comment. 
To Mrs. Chamberlin, the widow of Dr. Chamberlin, and to the 
only child, the son above mentioned, the Illinois State His- 
torical Society, mindful of its own loss, extends its deepest 
sympathy in the loss of this faithful and affectionate husband 
and father. 



319 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTOR- 
ICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 



No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers Published in Illinois Prior to 1860. 
Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph.D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 p. 8vo., Spring- 
field, 1899. 

No. 2. *Information Relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois, Passed 
from 1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph.D. 15 pages, 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, 
Ph.D., 170 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the Year 
1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph.D., secretary of the society. 55 pages, 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. *Alphabetic Catalogue of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and 
Curios of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Sub- 
jects. Compiled by the Librarian, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pages, 
8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the years 1901 to 
1913, 12 vols. Nos. 6 to 12, out of print. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, Pres- 
ident Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, 642 pages, 
8 vo., Springfield, 1903. 

"Illinois Historical Collections Vol. 2. Virginia Series, Vol. 1. Edited by 
Clarence W. Alvord, CLVI and 663 pages, 8 vo., Springfield, 1907. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 3. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. 
Lincoln Series, Vol. 1. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph.D. 627 pages, 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1908. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 4. Executive Series Vol. 1. The 
Governors' Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pages, 8vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. 5. Virginia Series Vol. 2. Kaskaskia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 pages, 
8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series. Vol. 1. 
Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged 
edition. Edited by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pages, 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1910. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII. Executive Series, Vol. II. Gov- 
ernors' Letter Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Charles Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pages, 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by 
James Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pages, 8 vo. Springfield, 1912. 

"Illinois Historical Collections Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series Vol. II. 
Travel and Description 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pages, 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1914. 

"Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 1, September, 
1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord, 
University of Illinois. 38 pages, 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 



320 

'Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library. Vol. I, No. 2. June 1. 1906. 
Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence W. Alvord, 
University of Illinois. 34 pages, 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

Publications No. 18. List of the Genealogical Works in the Illinois State 
Historical Library. Georgia L. Osborne, Comp. 163 pages, 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1914. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. I. April 1908 to 
Vol. 7, No. 3, October, 1914. 

Numbers of the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society out of 
print, Vols. I, II, III, IV. 

* Out of print. 



VOL. 7. 



JANUARY, 1915 



NO. 4 



JOURNAL 



OF 



Illinois State Historical Society 




Published Quarterly by the Illinois State Historical Society 
Springfield, Illinois 



Entered at Washington, D. C., as Second Class Matter under Act of Congress 
of July 16. 1894 



The Edic. F. Hartmann Co., Printers, Springfield, III. 



JOUENAL 



OF THE 



ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



JESSIE PALMER WEBER, Editor 

Associate Editors : 

J. H. Burnham Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. Page 

George W. Smith 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY 
Honorary President 

Hon. Clark E. Carr Galesburg 

President 

Dr. Otto L. Schmidt Chicago 

First V ice-President 

Hon. W. T. Norton Alton 

Second V ice-President 

Hon. L. Y. Sherman Springfield 

Third Vice-President 

Hon. Richard Yates Springfield 

Fourth V r ice-President 

Hon. George A. Lawrence Galesburg 

Board of Directors 
E. J. James Urbana-Champaign 

President University of Illinois 

J. H. Burnham Bloomington 

E. B. Greene Urbana-Champaign 

University of Illinois 

Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Charles H. Rammelkamp Jacksonville 

President Illinois College 

J. 0. Cunningham Urbana 

George W. Smith Carbondale 

Southern Illinois State Normal University 

Wm. A. Meese Moline 

Edward C. Page DeKalb 

Northern Illinois State Normal School 

J. W. Clinton Polo 

Richard V. Carpenter Belvidere 

Andrew Russel Jacksonville 

Walter Colyer Albion 

James A. James Evanston 

Northwestern University 

H. W. Clendenin Springfield 

Secretary and Treasurer 

Jessie Palmer Weber Springfield 

Honorary V ice-Presidents 

The President of Local Historical Societies throughout the 

State of Illinois. 



CONTENTS. 

I. Jesse W. Weik. 

An Unpublished Chapter in the Early History of 
Chicago 329 

II. William A. Meese. 

Credit Island, 1814-1914. Historical Address. 349 

III. Theodore Calvin Pease. 

The County Records of Illinois 374 

IV. Charles M. Thompson. 

Elections and Election Machinery in Illinois, 
1818-1848 379 

V. Wayne E. Stevens. 

The Shaw-Hansen Election Contest 389 

VI. Mrs. Edwin S. Walker. 

Soldiers of the American Revolution Buried 
in Illinois 402 

VII. Anna Margaret Lange James, Wife of Edmund J. 

James, President of the University of Illinois . . 408 

VIII. Gen. John I. Rinaker 417 

IX. Methodist Episcopal Church, Mt. Sterling, Illi- 
nois, Celebrates its Diamond Jubilee 422 

X. List of Gifts of Books, Pamphlets, Letters, Manu- 
scripts, etc., to the Illinois State Historical 
Society and Library 425 

XI. Editorial. 

Annual Meeting Illinois State Historical Society 

to be Held May 13-14, 1915 431 

Banquet by Springfield, Illinois, Chamber of 
Commerce to State Centennial Commission 
Illinois Day, December 3, 1914 432 



XI. Editorial. 

The State Centennial Commission 433 

Lincoln Exhibit at Panama-Pacific Exposition 434 

Plans for Centennial Memorial Building 435 

Tablet to Illinois Soldiers of 1812 Placed in 

State House, January 12, 1915 436 

Eeception to Mrs. George T. Page, State Eegent 
Illinois Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, January 12, 1915 437 

Quathoghe. By J. F. Steward 437 

Louisiana Historical Society Observes One 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Battle of New 

Orleans, January 8-10, 1915 438 

Minor Notes 441 

XII. Necrology. 

Mrs. Mary F. Ashley Deneen 445 

Capt. John Wickliff e Kitchell 447 

James Monroe Benson 451 

Mrs. Catherine Bergen Jones 453 

XIII. List of Publications of the Illinois State Historical 

Library and Illinois State Historical Society. . . 456 




JAMES M.BUCKLIN 
Chief Engineer, Illinois and Michigan Canal. 



An Unpublished Chapter in the Early History 

of Chicago. 

BY JESSE W. WEIK. 



Geologists tell us that the Great Lakes were once a part of 
the sea ; that, as a result of some great prehistoric upheaval, 
they sank to somewhat near their present level and eventually 
their waters were discharged eastwardly through the St. Law- 
rence into the Atlantic. 

Rising above its level and parallel with it there extended 
for many miles on the west side of Lake Michigan a rocky 
ridge in which, at one point, a crevasse opened to a depth of 
about two hundred feet. For a time "the waters of the lake 
were poured into the Gulf of Mexico through this outlet, by 
way of the Mississippi valley, but eventually the waters re- 
ceded and it filled with a deposit of clay, sand, etc., until its 
bottom was six feet above the level of the lake. This trough, 
which is from one to two miles in width, may be said to begin 
at Summit, eleven miles west of Lake Michigan, and to end 
at Lockport, twenty miles further south and west." 

One geological authority contends that a glacier twenty-five 
hundred feet high at the south end and sixteen thousand feet 
at the north end occupied the bed of Lake Michigan; that it 
finally broke from its moorings; moved southwestwardly, 
passed the site of the city of Chicago and ploughed its way 
through the rocky ridge just described, leaving in its wake 
great fissures or scars to mark its gigantic and erosive force. 
Down one of these channels now courses the Des Plaines^ 
river, a stream which rises in southern Wisconsin, parallels 
the west side of Lake Michigan and flows southwestwardly 
till it unites with the Kankakee and thus forms the Illinois. 
The last named stream also makes its way in a southwest- 



330 

ward direction across the State, joining the Mississippi at 
Grafton, about three hundred and twenty-five miles from Chi- 
cago. Between these points there is a fall of one hundred and 
seventy-four feet, but between Chicago and Borneo, a distance 
of twenty-seven miles, the bed of the Des Plaines is six feet 
above the level of Lake Michigan. 

Of these geological and topographical conditions the early 
explorers, who made their way down the lakes from Canada 
in their search for the fabled stream that led to the Gulf of 
California, soon became aware. Convinced that if a connec- 
tion could be made between the Chicago and Des Plaines 
rivers, it would unite the only gap that separated the waters of 
the St. Lawrence from the Gulf of Mexico, the few settlers 
then in northern Illinois soon began to conceive the project 
of building a canal. Chicago lay in the natural pass through 
which the indomitable energy of the hardy voyageurs and 
trappers of the fur companies had forced a passage not only 
for the furs of the north, but for the guns, ammunition, blank- 
ets and the vast amount of supplies that would be needed by 
the Indian tribes in the south and west. The traffic in these 
goods was very extensive but, large as it was in the aggregate, 
half of it, at least, was carried on the backs of the voyageurs, 
after reaching Chicago, across a portage of nine miles. 

From the north the furs came in what were called Mackinaw 
boats and upon reaching the mouth of the Chicago river were 
"cordelled" up that stream to the South Fork and then about 
five miles to the Eegule a narrow outlet of the portage lake. 
At this point, in dry weather, the boats were unloaded and 
the freight " packed" across the portage to the Des Plaines 
river ; but in wet seasons the boats, partially relieved of their 
loads, were dragged through the shallow waters over the same 
route. Rude though this mode of transportation was, the cost 
per ton from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi was much 
less than the cost of transportation by water even at this day. 

Of course the leading industry of the period was the fur 
trade and the profits were so inviting, men were ready for 
any kind of risk or exposure to secure the coveted furs and 



331 

get them through to civilization. The trappers and voyageurs- 
were satisfied with small pay, seldom ever realizing more than 
a hundred dollars in a year. Not much capital was required 
and the business was steadily growing in volume and value. 
It was natural, therefore, to understand that the people of 
Chicago, encouraged by the rapid development of their trade 
and their surroundings, were easily convinced that, in order- 
to secure a suitable route to the great river and the markets 
of the world, nothing was required beyond a slight enlarge- 
ment of the existing water-way which, for a part of the year,, 
slowly made its way across the rim of the basin that enclosed 
Lake Michigan. 

Even before Illinois had been admitted to the Union as a 
State, one practical and important step towards the construc- 
tion of a canal between Lake Michigan and the Illinois river 
had already been taken. That was the execution, at St. Louis, 
August 24, 1816, of a treaty with the Indians by which a strip 
of land twenty miles wide, extending through the Des Plaines 
and Illinois valleys from Chicago to Ottawa was ceded to the 
United States. By this treaty, which was negotiated by 
Ninian Edwards, the governor of the Illinois Territory,, 
and Col. Auguste Chouteau of St. Louis, the Indians ceded 
all the land "which lies south of a due west line from the- 
southern extremity of Lake Michigan to the Mississippi 
river" and certain other tracts not necessary to set out here.. 
For these lands the Indians received ' ' a considerable quantity 
of merchandise" and an agreement that they were to receive- 
annually for twelve years goods to the value of one thousand 
dollars. The grant contained 9,911,411 acres and included the 
present site of the city of Chicago. 

After Illinois became a State, the demand for the canal at 
Chicago became more pronounced and general. Finally, in 
March, 1822, Congress, in answer to a petition to that effect,, 
passed a law authorizing the State of Illinois to "construct 
a canal connecting the waters of Lake Michigan with the- 
Illinois river," later supplementing that action with a gener- 
ous donation of public lands. On February 14, 1823, the Leg- 



332 

islature of Illinois enacted a law providing for the internal 
navigation of the State and naming Emanuel West, Erastus 
Brown, Theophilus W. Smith, Thomas Sloo, Jr., and Samuel 
Alexander, "commissioners to carry into effect the act of 
Congress authorizing the construction of the Illinois and Mich- 
igan canal." The first thing the commissioners did was to 
engage the services of two competent engineers from St. 
Louis, Col. Eene Paul, an accomplished French officer of en- 
gineers, and Mr. Justus Post, to survey and report upon the 
proposed improvement. The report of these gentlemen was 
in full accord with the popular belief. They proposed two 
plans : One was a shallow cut, supplied with water from the 
Des Plaines river, the other to cut through the dividing ridge 
five or six feet below the level of Lake Michigan, making the 
lake a feeder. The estimated cost of the first plan was about 
ten thousand dollars per mile and the second about fifteen 
thousand. 

But here I must halt my narrative long enough to admonish 
the reader that this paper is not intended to portray the his- 
tory of the Illinois and Michigan canal nor of its marvelous 
and gigantic successor, the great drainage canal. That story, 
I am sure, has been admirably told by those better equipped 
for the requirement than the writer; but, though not able to 
faring out in perfect detail the proper historical perspective, 
I hope I may succeed in throwing in a few side-lights not out 
of harmony with the tenor and value of the picture which his- 
tory will ultimately put upon her canvas. I shall, therefore, 
endeavor to perform what, to me, is an unusually delightful 
task : putting on record the story it has been my good fortune 
to gather from the recollections of one of the men and he, 
by far, the ablest and best equipped of all those engaged in 
the enterprise who attempted to solve the first great trans- 
portation problem that confronted the people of Chicago. 

Among the new arrivals, about thirty years ago, in the In- 
diana town where I have always lived was a quaint and inter- 
esting character. Judging from appearances the man had 
about rounded out his career and, as I later learned, had 



333 

settled in our midst to spend the few remaining days of his 
life in the company of certain of his kindred. His hair was 
thin and gray, his face wrinkled and his body bent under the 
weight of advancing years ; but despite these seeming signs of 
decline, there was something about him in bearing, counten- 
ance and manner which, after all, repelled one's first impres- 
sion of decrepitude and decay. His hands and feet were 
shapely, his forehead broad and intellectual and his face cap- 
able of an unusual range of expression, being enlivened by the 
play of two very keen and penetrating eyes. As usually hap- 
pens when an old man is transplanted into a new community, 
he was slow to make acquaintances. I used to see him almost 
every day about nine o 'clock in the morning slowly making his 
way to the postoffice. He was invariably alone and, save for 
a digression now and then into a tobacconist's shop, looked 
neither to the left nor right. The impression made upon me 
that he was averse to conversation or personal contact was 
very effectually dissipated, however, when the tobacconist, 
one day, called me into his shop and introduced me to him. 
It took but a few moments ' conversation to convince me that 
my first deductions were wrong; for the stranger was not 
only not reserved nor taciturn, but, in reality, an animated 
and entertaining talker. His full name, he told me, was James 
M. Bucklin. Being of the absorbent age I was anxiously 
awaiting the recital of his own exploits but, instead of thus 
enlightening me, he seemed bent on diverting the conversa- 
tion into some other channel. By and by, however, and what 
man can resist the artless curiosity of a youth animated by 
an ingenuous desire to learn the truth? he began to disclose 
himself so that in time my anxiety to learn who he was, whence 
he came and what he had done, was substantially gratified. 
Inasmuch as the narrative of his achievements is, in part, 
the story of early Chicago and the adjacent territory, I have 
often wondered if it would not be considered suitable material 
for the archives of the Illinois Historical Society. 

Mr. Bucklin and I became fast friends and had many meet- 
ings together; and at each interview his reminiscences were 



334 

;so entertaining I invariably tried to make copious notes of 
everything he said. These notes I still retain in addition to 
numerous other interesting and valuable items in his own 
handwriting. His memory, for one of his advanced years, was 
remarkably clear and his ability to recall names, dates and 
other early incidents was little short of the marvelous. In the 
narrative which follows, no attempt is made to conform to 
any specified requirement. The material and data are pre- 
sented in the form and order in which they were originally 
communicated by him, and, as faithfully as it can be repro- 
duced, his story is as follows : 

"I am a native of Rhode Island, having first seen the light 
of day in the city of Providence, May 6, 1802. My father had 
been a sea-faring man and at the time of my birth was the 
commander of a ship named Arm and Hope, owned by the 
Browns of Providence, who had extensive shipping interests 
and after whom Brown University was named. My mother 
was Sarah Fenner Smith, a grand-daughter of Governor Fen- 
ner of Rhode Island. In my ninth year the family moved to 
Baltimore where, for a time, we lived in the former mansion 
of Count Vandevol, a French Huguenot. Soon after we 
reached Baltimore the War of 1812 broke out. One of the 
incidents of that historic struggle was the storming of Fort 
McHenry, and I remember well of climbing to the roof of a 
building adjoining our home to view the bombardment and 
note the effect of the shells. At that time my father was in 
the commission business, but ere long the venture proved to 
be unsuccessful. Then he got the western fever and deter- 
mined to cross the Alleghanies, his objective point being 
Louisville, Kentucky. While yet at Providence, where my 
education began, I attended a school which had some sort of 
connection with Brown University, although I was only in 
the primary class; and at Baltimore I was a pupil in the 
school taught by John D. Craig, an educator of acknowledged 
ability and reputation. He was an uncompromising adherent 
of Andrew Jackson, being rewarded for his loyalty by the 
latter, when he became President, with the office of commis- 
sioner of patents. 



335 

11 We reached Louisville in 1822. Six years later the place 
was incorporated as a city and my father was the first mayor ; 
which office he continued to hold, by successive elections, till 
1838. Before we left Baltimore I had begun to study the 
rudiments of surveying, because I had always had an ambi- 
tion to become a civil engineer, and I continued my efforts in 
that direction after we removed to Louisville. Finally I went 
up the river and for a time worked as an assistant with the 
engineers on the Miami canal in Ohio. I was a very enthusi- 
astic and assiduous student and eager to learn. After one 
season there I returned to Louisville and found employment 
on the canal then being built around the falls of the Ohio. In 
time, as the result of my experience and application, I became 
so proficient that there was no part of the engineering work I 
could not do. 

"One day, late in the spring of 1830, Henry Clay dropped 
into my father's office in Louisville with a gentleman whom 
he introduced as Col. Charles Dunn of Illinois. Mr. Clay ex- 
plained that Colonel Dunn was one of the commissioners, ap- 
pointed by the governor of Illinois, to construct a canal con- 
necting Lake Michigan with the Illinois river and was in quest 
of an engineer to take charge of the work. 'Learning that 
you have a son skilled in that line,' observed Mr. Clay to my 
father, *I have brought Colonel Dunn to see you and thus learn 
if he could not engage the young man's services.' At this 
juncture I was sent for and within an hour after reaching my 
father's office had made satisfactory terms with Colonel Dunn 
and was ready to enter upon my new assignment. About the 
middle of July, in accordance with the arrangement between 
us, I reported for duty to Colonel Dunn at Golconda, Illinois, 
accompanied by my brother, John C. Bucklin, whom I had 
chosen as my assistant. ' ' 

An examination of the records of the State of Illinois shows 
that under the act of the Legislature passed in 1829, Governor 
Edwards appointed as canal commissioners Edmund Roberts 
of Kaskaskia, Gershom Jayne of Springfield and Charles 
Dunn of Golconda. In 1831 another act was passed amend- 



336 

ing the original act, authorizing the construction of the canal, 
providing for the appointment by Governor Reynolds of three 
commissioners, but the records seem to indicate that only two 
served : Jonathan Pugh, designated as president, and Charles 
Dunn as acting commissioner. 

"When we reached Golconda," relates Mr. Bucklin, con- 
tinuing his story, "we found Colonel Dunn and Captain Pope, 
the surveyor of the board of commissioners, awaiting us. After 
some time spent in careful preparation, we packed our books, 
instruments, blankets and wall tent in a wagon, turned our 
backs on the Ohio, and set out on horseback for Chicago. At 
Carlyle we were joined by Sidney Breese and Alfred W. Cav- 
arly, who remained with us till we reached Chicago, and at 
Vandalia by William Porter, secretary of the board. Dr. 
Jayne and Mr. Eoberts were added to the party at Springfield. 
Although the Legislature was not in session at Vandalia, the 
State capital, the people there were very deeply interested and 
enthusiastic over the contemplated canals and other public 
works and there was more or less drinking and frolicking in 
consequence. The same was true at Springfield, and while it 
would not be proper to specify who, or what officials, indulged, 
I think I am safe in saying that the drinking was not all done 
by the engineers and surveyors. 

"The journey to Chicago was alike long and memorable. 
North of Springfield the country was very thinly settled no 
houses or improvements except at the points of the timber 
bordering on the streams across the prairies at intervals of 
thirty or forty miles. The streams which we crossed had not 
yet broken through the thickly matted sod upon which they 
flowed but were of wide expanse, the water slowly percolating 
underneath and through the grass. The prairies were in- 
fested with myriads of green-headed flies whose bites were so 
severe on the horses we were compelled frequently to travel 
by night. Upon our arrival at Ottawa the mouth of Fox 
river the home of Major James B. Campbell, treasurer of 
the board of canal commissioners, he and George Walker 
joined us. In due time we reached the Des Plaines river 



337 

where, for the first time, I caught a view of Lake Michigan. 
Away in the distance I espied a little dot on the horizon, which 
proved to be the flag that floated over Fort Dearborn. On the 
banks of the lake with naked eye we could see but little else, 
but with the aid of field glasses, we could discern the palisades 
of the fort surrounded by what looked like a few huts and 
some scattering Indian lodges which then comprised all there 
was of the settlement known as Chicago. Between us and 
the lake the country seemed to be an arid, concave plain, with- 
out a vestige of vegetation of any sort, recent prairie fires 
having entirely consumed the grass, the smoke of which was 
still visible. 

"Upon our arrival at Chicago we put up with John Kinzie 
who kept a public house in a two-story log building situated 
on the west side of the junction of the north and south forks 
north side of the main channel of the Chicago river. 
Fort Dearborn was then under the command of Major John 
Fowle of the Fifth Eegiment and I think he had two companies 
of the regiment in the fort. He presented us to Captain Mar- 
tin B. Scott, the celebrated rifle and pistol shot ; to Mr. Guion 
of the Topographical Corps ; to Dr. C. A. Finley, surgeon of 
the post ; Lieut. James Engle, Lieut. Amos B. Foster and Mr. 
Bailey, the sutler. Sometime after this, Major Fowle was 
blown up at Cincinnati on the steamboat Gazelle, April 25, 
1838, and Lieutenant Foster was shot by a private soldier at 
Green Bay, Wis., February 7, 1832. 

"The population of Chicago at this time was somewhat 
nomadic, dividing its time between the Great Lakes and St. 
Louis, as well as on the upper reaches of the Missouri river 
and the Rocky Mountains. Many of them were officials in 
the service of the fur companies. Dr. Alexander Wolcott, the- 
Indian agent, John H. and Robert Kinzie, the Bailey family 
and Gurdon S. Hubbard, at that time a resident of Chicago, all' 
lived on the north side of the river. The fort was on the 
south side and still further south lived Colonel Beaubien and 
his son Mark; also the Indian traders, the Bourbonnais and 
Le Frambois families, Captains Culbertson, Wentzell and 



338 

Furman, names frequently mentioned by Fremont and other 
narrators of adventures in the Rocky Mountains. West of 
the river lived the Potawatami chiefs, Robinson and Billy 
Caldwell, in log huts. On the opposite side, hundreds of In- 
dians were frequently encamped, for the United States gov- 
ernment at that time only owned in that region a tract of land 
eighteen miles wide, extending from Chicago to the navigable 
waters of the Illinois river. With few exceptions this com- 
posed the whole population of the town, except the soldiers in 
the fort. 

"As already indicated, when we reached Chicago we put up 
at the spacious two-story log house of John Kinzie and there 
too the canal commissioners held their meetings. The little 
settlement was in the throes of what would now be called a 
real estate boom. Convinced that Chicago would one day be 
the metropolis of the west, the inhabitants were wrought up 
to the highest pitch of excitement and exultation over their 
glowing prospects. The canal project was for a time laid 
aside in the scramble for real estate; in fact before I could 
actively enter upon my duties as chief engineer of the canal, 
my brother and I were asked to stake off into lots the greater 
part of the town site, preparatory to a public sale. A St. Louis 
surveyor named James Thompson, some time before my ar- 
rival, had been employed by the canal commissioners to survey 
and lay out the town into lots. He had made a map which was 
lithographed at St. Louis, dated August, 1830, and duly re- 
corded at Peoria, at that time the county seat of the county in 
which Chicago was located, Cook county, which included 
Chicago, not being organized till January 15, 1831. 

" At the sale of lots which followed, James Kinzie, I remem- 
ber, for a consideration only a little over a hundred dollars, 
bought eighty acres of land and, inasmuch as he was the only 
blacksmith in the settlement, no one was allowed to bid against 
him. To that extent the people of that day were beginning to 
realize the need of fostering and protecting home industries. 
The land in question lay near Wolf Point. In a short time 
Kinzie sold it to some one whose name I do not recall and 



339 

the latter, in turn, disposed of it to another. In all these 
transfers no money was used because the people practically 
had none, the purchaser usually giving his note in lieu of 
money. In one transaction, involving the transfer of a num- 
ber of acres which are doubtless worth many millions now 
and in which I was more or less interested, I remember the 
net result of the sale consisted of a saddle and bridle, a pistol 
and a flask of French brandy! 

"As soon as the real estate excitement had subsided, I began 
to arrange for a survey of the canal route. The first thing I 
did was to hire a number of Canadian voyageurs and organize 
an exploring party with a view to locating the mouth of the 
canal and its proper course. Upon triangulating and sounding 
the Chicago river, not less than ten feet of water was found 
from the mouth of that stream to the Eegule and as that was 
the nearest point to the pass entering the immediate valley of 
the Des Plaines, that point was fixed upon as the mouth of 
the canal. A straight line was then run through the pass to 
the Des Plaines, the rocky bed of which was found to be seven 
feet above the surface of the water in Lake Michigan. 

On our way up from the Ohio river we had crossed the Des 
Plaines at what was called Laughton's Ford, so named after 
an Indian trader who lived there and made use of the water 
power to run a small mill, but upon looking for the water 
which was to supply the proposed canal I found the rocky bed 
of that stream nearly dry a fact which entirely dispelled the 
idea of depending upon it for water during a season of extra- 
ordinary drouth like that of 1830. However, I went ahead 
with my survey and investigation of the route for the canal 
generally proposed and reported the result to the commis- 
sioners. I found that, from the mouth of the Chicago river 
to the point conceded to be the proper entrance of the canal, 
a distance of five miles, there was no obstruction to its naviga- 
tion by boats drawing under five feet of water, the river form- 
ing a perfect, natural channel, its banks being low and of uni- 
form height and its water supplied by the lake. From the 
point last mentioned the line of the proposed canal followed 



340 

the margin of the portage lake until it struck the river Des 
Plaines at the ford a distance of nine miles. The excavation 
through this section at an average depth of fifteen feet would 
have been in hard ferruginous clay. From the ford of the 
Des Plaines to the Ausoganashkee, or Keed swamp (often 
abbreviated to the Sauganash or Sag) the excavation was six- 
teen feet deep, the six feet consisting of sand and clay and 
the remaining ten feet of limestone. The swamp did not pre- 
sent any great or insurmountable obstacles to the passage 
through it of the canal, but with the lake as a feeder, the 
canal's construction would have entailed great expense. The 
swamp 's surface was fifteen feet above the bottom of the canal 
and almost ten feet above the level of Lake Michigan. In 
excavating through it I found we would have to cut through 
five feet of mud and ten feet of rock. 

"The section I had surveyed and gone over included a 
stretch of eighteen and one-half miles. When it came to the 
cost I gave the commissioners the following estimate: Con- 
ditioned that its dimensions were to be the same as the canals 
in Ohio, which had a general width at the bottom of twenty-six 
feet and a slope on the banks in earth of one and three-fourths 
base to every foot perpendicular rise, I figured that the ex- 
cavation would total a little over a million and a half dollars. 
To carry the canal entirely through the deep cut which ter- 
minated about six miles below the Sauganash swamp would 
probably increase the cost to two and a half million dollars. 

"But here a difficulty of no inconsiderable proportions in- 
jected itself into the problem. Grave doubts had arisen in my 
mind as to whether the Des Plaines, especially late in the 
summer, would yield the requisite amount of water as a feeder 
for the canal. Therefore I began to cast about for another 
and surer source of supply. Being intent on learning from 
some older resident of the locality, some one familiar with the 
topography of the country, the rainfall and the history of the 
many preceding seasons, I hunted up two Indians who had 
been recommended to me and whose experience and judgment 
I afterwards found to be of the highest possible value. One 



341 

was a half -breed, being the son of an Irish officer in the British 
military service in Canada, and a Potawatamie Indian woman, 
and bore the name Billy Caldwell. In his youth he had been 
educated by the Jesuit fathers at Detroit and spoke with 
fluency the French and English languages, besides being mas- 
ter of several Indian dialects. He had participated in the War 
of 1812, fighting beside his friend and confidant, the famous 
Indian Tecumseh. He was well liked by the people of Chicago 
and lived in a frame house which it was said had been built 
for him by the United States government in return for serv- 
ices rendered. At one time he held a commission as justice 
of the peace. In 1836, when the United States ordered the re- 
moval of the Indians to Council Bluffs, Billy Caldwell mi- 
grated thither with the Chicago contingent and lived there with 
his Indian friends the rest of his days. He died about 1848. 

"The other Indian, whose aid I invoked, was named Sha- 
bonee called Chamblee by the French and he, too, was a 
faithful ally of Tecumseh in his various military enterprises. 
He was the son of an Ottawa Indian chief and told me he was 
born on the Maumee river in Ohio about the time of the Eevo- 
lutionary war. In early manhood he married the daughter of 
a Potawatamie chieftain whose village was on the Illinois 
river, a few miles above the city of Ottawa. He was a leader 
among the Indians, at the same time retaining the confidence 
and respect of the whites. He it was who saved the people of 
Chicago from probable massacre by Black Hawk and the 
Prophet in 1832. With his people he journeyed to their reser- 
vation in western Missouri in 1837, but subsequently returned 
to northern Illinois, where he died about 1859, aged about 
83 years. He was the finest looking Indian I ever saw. Tall, 
straight as an arrow, with large head and face, he was a model 
of physical strength. He was pleasant in manner, agreeable 
in temperament, with apparently more kindness and consis- 
tency as a friend than many white men I have known. 

"Believing these Indians understood the lay of the land 
and the 'play of the seasons' in the territory adjacent to Chi- 
cago better than any white man there, I engaged them to ac- 



342 

company me in my examination of the country and my search 
for the required water supply. As soon as I could make a 
profile of the rock in the Des Plaines, both of them, by the aid 
of diagrams and sketches which they also made use of in de- 
scribing the country, comprehended the object of the survey, 
especially Caldwell, who at once described a river with ' plenty 
of water' and so high that I could easily, by means of a dam, 
bring it into the valley of the Des Plaines through the Sauga- 
nash swamp ; but in doing so I must continue nine miles fur- 
ther down the Des Plaines to the mouth of the swamp and fol- 
low it to the river which he called the Calamic (Calumet). The 
Des Plaines, when low, I learned, afforded a very inconsider- 
able quantity of water, but the Calamic, which emptied into 
Lake Michigan about twelve miles south of Chicago, furnished 
an abundant supply about 320,000 cubic feet per hour and 
was, in every respect, advantageously situated as a feeder. 
The Indians further assured me that in certain seasons of 
high water there had been water connection between the Des 
Plaines and the Calamic through the valleys of the Sauganash 
swamp and Stony creek. The latter being the case, I con- 
cluded that, as the intervening ground was low, a dam could 
easily be erected on the Calamic at a sufficient elevation to 
give the feeder its proper descent. The distance from the Des 
Plaines to the foot of the rapids of the Calamic through the 
valleys of the Sauganash and Stony creek is seventeen miles, 
but I found that the descent of the feeder might be increased 
by locating the dam five miles further up stream. In that case 
the descent would be reduced to four inches to the mile and 
the depth of the cutting on the canal would be reduced to four 
feet fourteen inches. By means of this plan the cost of the 
canal would have been grejatly lessened. Instead of the mil- 
lion and a half dollars at first estimated, I figured that the 
canal and feeder could both be constructed for a little over a 
hundred and sixty thousand dollars. 

"Careful examination, therefore, proved that my Potawat- 
amie friends had formed a singularly correct judgment with 
regard to the practicability of making a feeder of the Calamic 



343 

river ; but they were only mistaken as to the quantity of water 
required to supply the summit level, of which they, of course, 
had no means of forming an adequate conception. Although 
the discharge of the Calamic far exceeded that of the Des 
Plaines, it required very little engineering knowledge to dis- 
cover that after all it would hardly be sufficient, especially in 
dry seasons to supply the evaporation and leakage of the 
feeder alone, much less the summit level of the canal. 

"My Indian friends were very helpful and attentive and I 
enjoyed every moment of their companionship. They were 
above the average of their race in intelligence and in numer- 
ous instances displayed better judgment and keener discrimi- 
nation than many white men. While we were encamped on 
the river we were abundantly supplied with fish which the 
Indians "gigged" by torchlight a very interesting and skill- 
ful process. For a distance of fifteen miles to the lake, the 
Calamic, like the Chicago, has no fall below the foot of the 
rapids. On one occasion, during our protracted stay, about 
two hundred Sac and Fox Indians on horseback passed on a 
trail not more than a hundred yards from our camp without 
turning their faces to the right or left on their way to Fort 
Maiden for arms and ammunition. No doubt they marked us 
for their own, as the Sac or Black Hawk war was then about 
due, but was only postponed for a year by the unexpected ar- 
rival at Fort Edward (Fort Armstrong) Eock Island of 
General Gaines with two or three companies of artillery. 

"It was after my journey of exploration with Shabonee and 
Billy Caldwell that I began to experience some misgivings as 
to the practicability of the canal enterprise; and the more I 
reflected on it, the more doubtful I became. My faith had 
materially weakened due to the fact that I had been overcome 
by the fever for railroads, which was then sweeping over the 
country. As evidence that this rapidly developing sentiment 
was already finding adherents in Illinois, it is only necessary 
to recall a resolution passed by the Legislature at Vandalia 
in the spring of 1831 after I had surveyed the canal route, di- 
recting the chief engineer of the canal, as early in the spring 



344 

as the weather would permit, to ascertain whether the Calamic 
would be a sufficient feeder for that part of the canal between 
the Chicago and Des Plaines river or 'whether the construc- 
tion of a railroad is not preferable or will be of more public 
utility than a canal.' 

1 'As soon, therefore, as I had completed the survey and loca- 
tion of the canal, I turned my attention to the railroad pro- 
ject. The first thing I did was to select the junction of the 
north and south forks of the Chicago river, then called Wolf 
Point, as the point of departure for the contemplated Illinois 
and Michigan railroad. From this location a straight line, 
thirteen miles in length, was run to the rapids of the Des 
Plaines river, called Laughton's Ford. Crossing at the ford, 
the line was then continued down the right bank of the Des 
Plaines to the Illinois river below the mouth of the Kankakee, 
forming a junction with the line of the canal, previously lo- 
cated. No heavy work was required on the whole route ; the 
profile exhibited only a continuous light fill with a maximum 
graduation of twenty feet to the mile, the minimum curvature 
being about two thousand feet. To me, the enterprise from 
every point of view seemed feasible and easy of attainment ; 
but before committing myself unreservedly to it, I determined 
to avail myself of the judgment and experience of others 
whose knowledge of railroad building was more extensive and 
general than mine. 

"I therefore gathered up all my maps, profiles and compu- 
tations and set out for Baltimore for the purpose of consulting 
a friend who, I believed, was capable of giving wholesome ad- 
vice on a branch of engineering with which I was manifestly 
unfamiliar. This man was Mr. Jonathan Knight, chief en- 
gineer of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. I found him and 
Mr. Benjamin H. LaTrobe in Washington, having just com- 
pleted the location of the Washington branch of that road. 
They examined with some interest the profiles of a road one 
hundred and ten miles long with a maximum grade of twenty 
feet per mile, almost coincident with the surface, the long, 
straight lines and large curvatures, especially when contrasted 



345 

with the profile of the Washington branch, the latter with its 
fifty foot cuts and fills, containing ten times the quantities 
required for the graduation of the whole route of the Illinois 
and Michigan railroad, which was yet quite equal to the branch 
in operative power and business capacity, although nearly 
three times as long. Mr. Knight advised the construction of 
ten miles of double track at each terminus ; that the bridges 
and culverts should be double tracked ; to ballast the road well ; 
to make the curves as large as possible and to use T rails 
eighty pounds to the yard in weight. 

"But notwithstanding that in my report to the canal com- 
missioners I demonstrated, as I supposed, that to construct a 
canal and make it a reliable work would cost over a hundred 
thousand dollars per mile, and that the cost of a railroad 
would not exceed twenty-five thousand dollars per mile ; that 
its construction would require but a short time comparative- 
ly ; that it would greatly facilitate the construction and dimin- 
ish the cost of the canal and that the land grant, if reserved, 
would in all probability ultimately pay for both the railroad 
and the canal nothing could be urged by the friends of the 
measure of sufficient force to overcome the popular prejudice 
then existing in favor of transportation by water. If .that 
had been possible, the Illinois and Michigan railroad would 
have been in full operation before work was fairly commenced 
on the canal, and continued down the valleys of the Illinois 
and Mississippi rivers to Alton the object of those who advo- 
cated a railroad with the view of making it one of the most 
powerful, most efficient and economical freight lines in the 
United States the grades not to exceed twenty feet per mile. 
Had this project been consummated, Chicago would in effect 
have been as near the Gulf of Mexico as St. Louis now is. 

"But my advocacy of railroads made but little impression 
on the denizens of the rapidly expanding town of Chicago. 
Nothing I could say in the slightest degree diminished their 
unbounded faith in the efficacy and superiority of water trans- 
portation. Even as late as 1840, the opposition to railroads as 
compared to canals had not abated, as witness the following 



346 

extract from the report of a Legislative committee, to whom 
had been addressed the inquiry: 'Whether it would not be 
the part of wisdom now to abandon the canal and construct 
a railroad along the route. ' 

" 'We are not insensible,' argues the committee, 'to the 
benefits arising to the country from the completion of well- 
planned railroads; but we have no difficulty in coming to a 
conclusion to prefer canals over railroads. Well may we re- 
mark in the language of a clear-minded statesman that 
'time and experience seem to have tested the comparative 
value of two modes of facilitating the commercial outcome of 
the different regions and public judgment has settled down 
in favor of canals in preference to railroads whenever the 
country is peculiarly suited for their construction;' and there 
can be no doubt that nature has pointed out this as the char- 
acter of the country lying between the navigable waters of the 
Illinois and Lake Michigan. The next argument advanced 
by the committee, the most conclusive of all, is of such com- 
pelling force and convincing significance, it cannot, in the light 
of the new thought and the various socialistic experiments of 
the present day, well be omitted : 'Again the committee would 
urge as a preference of canals over railroads that the former 
are not proposed to be used and cannot well be used as monop- 
olies which are so repugnant to the feelings of a large major- 
ity of our citizens. On a canal, a trader or farmer may use his 
own canal boat or craft and in this way become his own car- 
rier and vendor of his own productions and thus save the 
freight and expense of hired labor. From the nature and use 
of canals they admit of competition of all kinds of business 
connected with them. But can the committee say the same of 
railroads? They are necessarily confined to a few or the ex- 
porter has necessarily to be subject to the pleasure of a com- 
pany or their supercillious agents. When constructed a canal 
is steadily improved by wear and time. A railroad, on the 
contrary, is rapidly wearing out and needs constant re- 
pairs.' " 



347 

So much for the attitude of the people of Chicago towards 
the railroads. Fortunately for our old friend, Major Bucklin, 
Providence permitted him to linger on earth long enough to 
realize how thoroughly public sentiment had changed on this 
one-time perplexing question. Among the papers found after 
his death is one which bears this brief and suggestive endorse- 
ment in his own handwriting : * ' It is a singular but unpleas- 
ant fact that soon after I left Chicago and my report favoring 
the construction of a railroad became public, I was actually 
hung in effigy by the intelligent population of that place for 
my unsolicited but honest recommendation and I rejoice that 
I am still living to enjoy the comfort of a wholesome but be- 
lated vindication; so that after the lapse of over half a cen- 
tury I can feel that justice has been done in so far as such 
acknowledgements can go. ' ' 

But now I am sure I have exceeded the limits put upon the 
length of my contribution and must forbear further infliction 
on the patient reader. As to the Illinois and Michigan canal, 
it suffices to say that it had, especially during its construction, 
a mercurial and, at times, uncertain career; but at length, 
after many vicissitudes, it weathered the storm. The month 
of April, 1848, saw it completed and open for navigation. On 
the 24th day of that month the board of commissioners, while 
in session at Chicago, received a report from the chief engi- 
neer stating that navigation was open and that the General 
Fry, the first boat, had passed over the summit level from 
Lockport to Chicago April 10, and that the first boat which 
had passed through the entire length of the canal from LaSalle 
to Chicago was the General Thornton on April 23. As was 
said at the time : "It was a matter of great congratulation 
that sugar from New Orleans brought by the General Thorn- 
ton to Chicago was received at Buffalo by way of Mackinaw 
some two weeks before a like cargo from New Orleans reached 
Buffalo by the Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic and the Erie 
canal. ' ' 

A word as to my old friend, Major Bucklin. After his mar- 
riage to Mary Ann Beckwith at Huntsville, Alabama, in 1835, 



he returned to Louisville and later removed to Terre Haute, 
Ind., where he had charge of a division of the famous Cum- 
berland or National road, then under construction. When his 
work had ended there, he purchased a farm ten miles from St. 
Louis, and took up his residence there. In 1850 he sold the 
farm and resumed his profession. He served as chief engineer 
of the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad and also assisted in 
the construction of the Northern Cross now the Wabash 
railroad, making his home and headquarters at Quincy, Han- 
nibal, St. Joseph and other adjacent places as occasion re- 
quired. His last work was on the Southern Pacific, the route 
of which he assisted in locating. Three places are named after 
him; one in Illinois, and one each in Missouri and Kansas. 
After his service with the Southern Pacific he retired and 
spent the remainder of his days with a son and daughter in 
central Indiana. He died April 12, 1890, and is buried in For- 
est Hill cemetery, Greencastle, Indiana. 

The writer visited him during his last illness and was pres- 
ent at his death. A few hours before the end his mind began 
to wander and his speech became thick and inarticulate; but 
despite his disjointed sentences and irrational mutterings one 
could easily observe, what so often occurs at the passing out 
of an aged person, that he was living his early days over. 
Again he was threading his way through the dense woods, or 
wading in the deep grass across the prairies or signaling his 
rodman as he looked through his transit, anon shouting to his 
Indian guides to " Bring up the canoe!" or, perchance, to 
' 'Look out for the wolves ! " As I stood beside him I too was 
carried past the stirring scenes of the present to the days of 
the forest and the frontier; and as I watched the heaving 
breast and realized that the vital forces were rapidly ebbing 
away I could not repel the solemn thought that he was indeed 
the last of his generation. 



Credit Island, 1814-1914 



HISTORICAL, ADDRESS DELIVERED ON THE ISLAND AT THE CELE- 
BRATION OF THE ONE HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY 
OF THE BATTLE. 

BY WILLIAM A. MEESE. 

The treaty of Paris, made in 1783, in which Great Britain 
acknowledged "the freedom, sovereignty and independence 
of the United States" was virtually a truce, and not a full 
adjustment of the difficulties existing between Great Britain 
and the United States. In that treaty Great Britain, among 
other things, agreed to surrender certain forts in the north- 
west territory, but many of these forts she retained, among 
them Detroit, Michilimackinac, Niagara and the trading post 
at Prairie du Chien on the Mississippi, near the mouth of the 
Wisconsin river, and shortly after the cessation of the hostili- 
ties, the British began inciting the Indians against the Ameri- 
cans. 

President Washington, 1 as early as 1794, in speaking of 
British interference in the Northwest Territory, said : 

"For there does not remain a doubt in the mind of any well 
informed person in this country, not shut against conviction, 
that all the difficulties we encounter with the Indians, their 
hostilities, the murders of helpless women and children along 
our frontiers, result from the conduct of the agents of Great 
Britain in this country. ' > He further said : ' ' Seducing from 
our alliance tribes that have hitherto been kept in peace and 
friendship with us at a heavy expense, they keep in a state of 
irritation the tribes that are hostile to us, and are instigating 
those who know little of us. It is an undeniable fact that they 



1. Writings of Washington, Edited by W. C. Ford. Vol. 12, pages 459-462. 
Letter Washington to John Jay, Phila., Aug. 30, 1794. 



350 

are furnishing the whole with arms, ammunition, clothing and 
even provisions to carry on the war. I might go further, and 
if they are not belied, add men also, in disguise. 
* * * * It will be impossible to keep this country in a state of 
amity with Great Britain as long as these forts are not sur- 
rendered." 

The French traders at Prairie du Chien lost no opportunity 
to incite the Indians against the Americans, partly to monopo- 
lize their trade and partly to secure their friendship in case a 
war should break out between the United States and Eng- 
land. 

In 1811, N. Boilvin, 2 United States Indian agent, at Prairie 
du Chien, wrote the Secretary of War William Eustis, of the 
feeling of the French and British traders toward the Ameri- 
can traders, and urged the government to erect a fort at 
Prairie du Chien, which, owing to its central position, would 
put an end to the intercourse between the Canadian and the 
British traders and the Indians, and which would end the dis- 
crimination against the American trader. 

The British traders continued openly to display their ill will 
toward the Americans and their government and secretly incit- 
ed the Ked men against our people. After the declaration of 
war against Great Britain in 1812, most of the Indians of the 
northwest territory openly sided with the British. 

When on June 18, 1812, the American Congress declared 
war against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 
and their dependencies, it was not alone on account of the 
grievances we had against Great Britain for searching our 
ships and harassing our merchant marine, but also owing to 
the British interference upon our frontier. This declaration 
of war was forced upon our government by the long continued 
acts of injustice suffered by our country. 

In order to justly understand the history of the event we 
are today commemorating, it will be necessary to briefly out- 
line the condition existing and the affairs that happened on the 
uDper Mississippi river prior to Sept. 6, 1814. 

2. Edwards Papers, page 59. 



351 

The Louisiana purchase in 1803 gave the United States con- 
trol of both banks of the Upper Mississippi river. Previous 
to this time little was known of our Upper River by the Ameri- 
cans, and not until Lieut. Zebulon M. Pike, under orders from 
our government in 1805, came up the river from St. Louis, to 
discover its source, and to select locations for future United 
States posts did our Government have any definite knowledge 
concerning this country. 

At the beginning of the year 1814, the war with England was 
still in progress, and though the warfare was carried on mostly 
on the lakes, the Atlantic Ocean, and among the eastern states, 
the west, and especially the Upper Mississippi river, was the 
scene of important events, which, owing to their distance from 
civilization, lack of means and length of time, to transport 
news, were overlooked, and have failed to receive such recogni- 
tion in American history, that events of lesser importance, but 
happening in the east have received. 

St. Louis, the American headquarters for the Upper Miss- 
issippi River, Cap au Gris, a small French hamlet a few miles 
north of the mouth of the Illinois river, the deserted old post at 
Fort Madison, the mines at Dubuque and the small French 
settlement and British Post at Prairie du Chien, were the only 
settlements on our Upper River. 

Robert Dickson, a British trader during the years 1811-13, 
had been active in inciting the Indians of the northwest, his 
object being to secure their aid, in an attack on the American 
settlements at St. Louis, Kaskaskia and Peoria, but these 
forces were more needed in Canada, and the West was thus 
saved a bloody border warfare. 

On March 27th, 1813, Ninian Edwards, 3 Territorial Gover- 
nor of Illinois, wrote the Secretary of war "If the British erect 
a fort at the mouth of the Wisconsin, and should be able to re- 
tain it two years, this, and Missouri Territory will be totally 
deserted in other words, conquered. " 



3. History of Illinois and Life of Ninian Edwards. By Ninian W. Edwards, 
pages 346-347. 



352 

In the beginning of the year 1814, our Government decided 
to build a fort on the Upper River at Prairie du Chien (near 
the mouth of the Wisconsin River), where the British had the 
preceding year, fortified the House of the Mackinac Fur 
Company and stationed there a company of Michigan Fenci- 
bles (militia.) 

On May 1st, 1814, William Clark, Governor of Missouri 
Territory, with a detachment consisting of sixty U. S. Regu- 
lars of the Seventh Infantry, and one hundred and forty Illi- 
nois and Missouri Rangers or Volunteers, left Cap au Gris in 
five fortified keel boats, for the mouth of the Wisconsin River, 
there to erect a United States fort. At the mouth of the Rock 
River they had a slight skirmish with a party of Sauk (Sac) 
braves. 

About the middle of April, Robert Dickson left Prairie du 
Chien, taking with him most of the British forces, together 
with about three hundred Indian allies. Captain Dease was 
left in charge of the Post. His command consisting of a com- 
pany of Michigan Fencibles and a body of Sioux and Fox In- 
dians. When it was learned that an American force was near- 
ing the Prairie, the Indians refused to fight the Americans, 
and Captain Deace and his British soldiers fled. 

Lieut. Joseph Perkins, who was in command of the United 
States Regulars, on his arrival at the Prairie, took possession 
of the place and immediately began the erection of a fort, 
which he named Fort Shelby, in honor of Governor Shelby of 
Kentucky. As soon as the fort was completed Captain John 
Sullivan's Company of Fifty Rangers, thirty-two Rangers 
from Captain Yeizer's Company, together with Governor 
Clark, left Fort Shelby and returned to St. Louis, arriving 
there the last of June. 

When General Howard, Commandant of the American 
forces in the West, learned of the return of the troops from 
Prairie du Chien, he immediately organized another expedi- 
tion to be sent up the river to reinforce Fort Shelby. This 
second expedition was commanded by Lieut. John Campbell, 
of the First United States Infantry, who was acting Brigade 



353 

Major. On July 4th this second expedition set out from Cap 
au Gris in three fortified keel boats. The command consisted 
of thirty-three regulars, sixty-five rangers and thirty-five 
other persons, including sutlers, boatmen, women and children. 
On the evening of July 18th, they landed where the City of 
Rock Island now is, and were visited by Black Hawk and his 
band who professed friendship. The morning of the 19th of 
July, the Americans set sail, and when opposite Campbell's 
Island a hurricane came up, Lieutenant Campbell's boat was 
blown ashore on the Island since known as " Campbell's Is- 
land." While the men were preparing their breakfast they 
were attacked by Black Hawk and his Indians who had follow- 
ed them up the Eiver. The other boats were in advance and 
hearing the firing, turned about, and took part in the battle 
which lasted all day. Campbell's boat was set on fire and 
burned, and his party was taken off in Lieutenant Rector's 
boat. Our loss was sixteen killed, among which were one 
woman and one child. 

On the 17th of July, Fort Shelby at Prairie du Chien was 
attacked by Colonel William McKay in command of one hun- 
dred and fifty British soldiers and four hundred Sioux, Winne- 
bago, Menominee and Chippewa Indians, and on the evening 
of July 19th, the same day Campbell's expedition was defeat- 
ed, Lieutenant Perkins surrendered Port Shelby. The British 
renamed the Fort, calling it Fort McKay. 

After the capture of Fort Shelby by the British, Colonel 
William McKay left for Mackinac and Captain Thomas C. 
Anderson was in command. 

The British had great influence with the northwest Indians 
and it is not to be wondered that they made the Indians believe 
that the Americans would drive out the Indian, while the- 
British wanted the Indian to retain his land. 

The fur trade with the Indians of the Upper Mississippi and' 
the northwest was shared between the British and the French , 
and was of great value. 



354 

In a letter from Michilmakinac, dated July 16th, 1814, 4 
Colonel R. McDouall, writing to Colonel Drummond in charge 
of the British forces in the Northwest, speaks of General 
Clark's taking the post at Prairie du Chien and refers to him 
as a "Ruffian" and calls the Americans "unprincipled invad- 
ers" and "merciless invaders" and discusses the "necessity 
of dislodging the American Gen'l from his new conquest, and 
making him relinquish the immense tract of country he had 
seized upon, and says if the Americans are allowed to settle 
this territory there "would be destroyed the only barrier 
which protects the great trading establishments of the North- 
west and the Hudson's Bay Company." 

5 On July 27th, Lieut. Colonel McKay, writing from the Fort 
McKay, Prairie du Chien to Lieutenant Colonel McDouall 
speaks of the capture of Prairie du Chien and of his taking 
prisoner sixty-six soldiers, two men and one child. To show 
the spirit of the British toward the Americans I quote from 
Colonel McKay's letter: 

' ' My intention was to have kept the prisoners here till I got 
certain information from below, and if the enemy came here 
and fired a single shot, to have sacrificed them to the Indians, 
* * that such a course would have pleased him, we learn from the 
remainder of this paragraph in his letter in which he adds, 
" 'But I am sorry that circumstances oblige me absolutely to 
send them to St. Louis." 

In the same letter he speaks of a " Report, that four hundred 
Cavalry are about this time to leave St. Louis for here ; if so, 
they will give us our hands full," he also says that it is im- 
practicable for the present to go down the Mississippi and 
return by the way of Chicago, and mentions the fact that, he is 
sending to the Indians at the mouth of the Rock River ten kegs 
of gunpowder in addition to four kegs he sent a few days 
previous. 



4. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. XI., pp. 260-263. 
6. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. XI., pp. 263-269. 



355 

On August 12, 1814, Pierre Grignon, Captain Commanding 
a company of British at Prairie du Chien, writes Capt. T. G. 
Anderson Commanding Fort McKay : 6 

"I have tried to raise the Sacs and Foxes, in order to em- 
broil them with the enemy. Such were the intentions of your 
servant and more. ' ' 

The British were kept constantly apprised of the movements 
of the Americans at the lower end of the Upper Mississippi 
by the Sac and Fox Indians. On August 14, Lieutenant Dun- 
can Graham 7 received orders to proceed to the Eock River 
and secure the aid of the Sacs and Foxes and proceed then to a 
short distance above Fort Madison and bring up an American 
gun-boat to the mouth of Eock Eiver, he is instructed that if he 
fail, then he is to "burn her." He is also cautioned to be on 
guard for the approach of the enemy. 

That the British were still anxious to descend the Eiver and 
attack the Americans we learn from a letter written by Capt. 
Thos. G. Anderson in reply to one from Capt. Pierre Grignon, 
in which the former says : 

8 * 'As to your good intentions and wish to go and burn St. 
Louis, I conceive it to be out of the question to harbor any 
such idea." 

Lieutenant Graham had barely reached the Sac Village at 
the mouth of Eock Eiver when Captain Anderson, in a letter, 
apprises him that three Eenards (Fox) arrived at Prairie du 
Chien the evening of the 20th, with the information that the 
Americans had started up the Mississippi Eiver. 9 

British officials lost no opportunity to "stir up" the In- 
dians. On August 21, Lieut. Col. E. McDouall, writing from 
Michilimakinac to Captain Anderson concerning the Eed man, 
says : 10 

"You may assure them that great efforts are made by the 
King in their behalf; and that the ministry are determined to 

6. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. IX.,pages 210-211. 

7. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. IX., pages 222-223. 

8. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. IX., page 211. 

Letter Anderson to Grignon, Aug. 15, 1814. 
9. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. IX., page 223. 
10. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. IX., pages 228-230. 



356 

make no peace, till the lands plundered from the Indians are 
restored. To attain this purpose, great re-inf or cements of 
troops are coming out." 

Lieutenant Graham had returned from the Bock River and 
on the 24th, Lieutenant Colonel McKay ordered Captain And- 
erson to send down ten more kegs of powder to the Sauks. n 

On August 26th, the following order was issued : 

12 Fort McKay, Aug. 26, 1814. 
To Lieut. Graham 

Sir : The expedition for the Rock River, under your com- 
mand, being now in readiness, you will march tomorrow morn- 
ing at eight o 'clock, and proceed with all haste to your place of 
destination. On your arrival there, you will assemble the In- 
dians, and explain to them that the intention of the expedition 
is to support them in defending their lands, and women and 
children, according to promises made to them by their father, 
Robert Dickson, and Lieutenant Colonel McKay, and that in 
case of any attack, tliey must support and defend the guns as 
long as they have a man standing. That they must not amuse 
themselves, during the action, in taking scalps. They must 
destroy the enemy as much as possible, except prisoners. 
Those they will treat well, and not, as is generally the case, use 
them barbarously ; but, on the contrary, if they use them as we 
always do our prisoners, and bring them here, they shall be 
well recompensed for it. You will, in case of being successful, 
and should be fortunate in making prisoners, use every means 
in preventing their being insulted, or ill-used by the Indians ; 
and by all means, act in every way towards them as becomes a 
British officer. You will not proceed below the Rock River 
until you find it necessary to take advantage of a commanding 
situation. If the enemy do not reach Rock River in six days 
after your arrival there, you will decamp and return here, un- 
less you get information of their being at hand. But in case 
you find the enemy's forces to be absolutely too strong to risk 
an engagement, you will retreat here with all possible haste,. 

11. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. IX., page 230. 

12. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. IX., page 219. 



357 

leaving the Indians and a few of your men to follow up the 
enemy, and annoy them as much as possible until they reach 
here. Having full confidence in you, and the troops under 
your command, I trust to your judgment to arrange all neces- 
sary matters as occasion may require, and trusting to a delib- 
erate and prudent conduct in you, I wish you a successful and 
safe return. I am, sir, etc. 

Thos. G. Anderson, Capt. Comd'g. 

The order to Lieutenant Graham does not state what was 
the size of his command or of what his equipment consisted, 
but the following letter sheds light upon this question : : 

Prairie du Chien, Fort McKay, Aug. 29, 1814. 
To Lieut. Col. McDouall : 13 

Sir : The command of this post having been left to me by 
Lieutenant Colonel McKay, I have the honor to communicate 
to you, that on the 27th instant I sent off a small detachment 
under the command of Lieutenant Graham, of the Indian de- 
partment, for the Eock Eiver, consisting of thirty men, one 
brass three-pounder, and two swivels. Having sent Lieu- 
tenant Graham to that place on the 15th inst., in order to get a 
party of Sauks to proceed with him to within two miles of the 
enemy's abandoned Fort Madison, to take possession of, and, 
if possible, bring away a gun-boat that the enemy had got sunk, 
by the fall of a tree, last Spring, on their way up here ; and, 
at the same time, to get information of the enemy. 

But the Sauks, having got repeated information, by scouting 
parties, that the Americans were on the point of leaving St. 
Louis for this place, they were afraid, and would not go. Lieu- 
tenant Graham, therefore, determined to proceed, with his 
small party of volunteers, to burn the gun-boat, in order to 
prevent its falling into the enemy 's hands. As he was on the 
point of embarking for that purpose, two young Sauks arriv- 
ed from the Sauks on the Missouri (where there are still ten 
lodges say one hundred men) express, with news that a 
courier had been sent by some French gentlemen, from St. 
Louis to the Sauks on the Missouri, to notify them that a 



13. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. IX., pages 220-221. 



358 

strong detachment of the enemy was to march from St. Louis 
on or about the 12th inst., to cut off the Indians at Eock Eiver. 

The courier from St. Louis was sent to the Indians on the 
Missouri, that they might immediately give information to 
those on the Rock Eiver to be on their guard. Lieutenant 
Graham, believing this report to be true, returned here on the 
23rd instant ; but previous to his return, exclusive of circulat- 
ing reports, the Indians at the Eock Eiver sent word to me, and 
to the Indians above this, through the medium of a pipe, to in- 
form me of the enemy 's being on their way here, and begged 
that I would send them some ammunition, with one or two 
guns, and a few soldiers, to assist them in defending their 
lands, women and children. 

On Lieutenant Graham's arrival, I called together all the 
officers to have their opinion on the subject, and they univer- 
sally agreed that it was absolutely necessary to send a small 
detachment, not only for the preservation of the post, but to 
retain the Indians in our favor. This small detachment, to- 
gether with the aid they got from the Feuille with forty of his 
young men, will greatly encourage the Indians on the lower 
Mississippi, and prevent their joining the enemy, which neces- 
sity might otherwise compel them to do. 

The Sauks, Eenards, and Kickapoos that were about the 
entrance of Eock Eiver, when Lieutenant Graham was there, 
formed about eight hundred men, though, with the reinforce- 
ments that will join them by the time the detachments from 
this reaches them, I am well persuaded will reach them twelve 
to fifteen hundred men. Upwards of one hundred men, Sioux, 
Puants and Eenards, from above this, passed here yesterday 
on their way to join the detachment. Ammunition, arms and 
tobacco are the principal articles the Indians are really in dis- 
tress for. 

I beg leave to remark that the critical situation of the coun- 
try here at present absolutely requires that Eobert Dickson 
should be here with the reinforcements of troops asked for by 
Lieutenant Colonel McKay. The Volunteer privates from 
MacKinaw and the Bay, though willing to serve their country, 



359 

are becoming weary of garrison duty, and as the time for 
which they volunteered their services having expired, they 
hope to be soon relieved. I send Captain Grignon, of the Bay, 
express, with this communication. I have the honor to be, etc. 

Thos. G. Anderson, Capt. Com'dg. 

Captain Anderson, in the meantime, sent messengers up the 
Mississippi, notifying the Indians to be in readiness should 
the Americans succeed in passing the Rock Island rapids. 

On the 29th, Lieutenant Graham arrived at the Bock River 
and on September 3rd 14 sent a letter to his superior, Captain 
Anderson. He says, "Our coming here has given more satis- 
faction to the Sauks than if all the goods in the King's store in 
Mackinac had been sent them, as they are now firmly convinc- 
ed that their English Father is determined to support them 
against the ambition and unjust conduct of their enemies. 

In a postscript to this letter, written * ' The 4th of September, 
about one o 'clock in the morning, ' ' he mentions his discovering 
party " having arrived and reported having seen" three large 
gun-boats under sail on their way up, about thirty leagues 
from here. ' ' 

AMERICAN EXPEDITION. 

There was nothing to hinder Indian depredations in the Up- 
per Mississippi Valley. St. Louis was the farthest northern 
and western point where an American Army was located. It 
was decided that the Indian Village at Rock River (The Sac 
near its mouth and the Fox on the west side of the Mississippi 
opposite the lower end of Rock Island), should be destroyed. 
Major Zachary Taylor, with a detachment of three hundred 
and thirty-four men in eight large fortified keel boats, left 
Cap Au Gris on the 23rd of August, and on the evening of 
September 5th, reached Rock River. On his arrival Indians in 
large number made their appearance. After they had passed 
the mouth of Rock River, the wind began to blow a hurricane, 
and Taylor's boats were blown toward the small island above 
Credit Island, where about four o'clock a landing was made. 
During the night a corporal, who was on the outside of Captain 



14. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. IX., pages 224-225. 



360 

Whiteside's boat, was mortally wounded by an Indian. At 
daylight the Indians began to gather in the vicinity of the 
boats and Major Taylor disembarked his troops and formed 
them for action, pushing through the willows to the Iowa side 
and began firing. Captain Eector was ordered to drop down 
with his boat to the large island, Credit Island, and attack the 
Indians there with his artillery. The Indians who were rein- 
forced by the company of British soldiers under Lieutenant 
Duncan Graham, began a fierce firing on the Americans. The 
British three pounder and the two swivels doing great damage 
to Taylor's boats and after a spirited contest, Taylor to save 
his fleet, ordered his boats to drop down stream. The Ameri- 
can loss was three men killed and eight badly wounded. 

Major Taylor gives a full account of the Battle as he saw 
it from his boat, he says : 15 

Sir : In obedience to your orders, I left Fort Independence 
on the 2d ult. and reached Eock Eiver, our place of destination, 
on the evening of the 4th, Inst., without meeting a single In- 
dian or any occurrence worthy of relation. 

' ' On my arrival at the mouth of Eock Eiver, the Indians be- 
gan to make their appearance in considerable numbers ; run- 
ning up the Mississippi to the upper village and crossing the 
river below us. After passing Eock Eiver, which is very small 
at the mouth, from an attentive and careful examination, as I 
proceeded up the Mississippi, I was confident it was impossible 
for us to enter its mouth with our large boats. Immedi- 
ately opposite its mouth a large island commences, which, to- 
gether with the western shore of the Mississippi, was covered 
with a considerable number of horses, which were doubtless 
placed in those situations in order to draw small detachments 
on shore ; but in this they were disappointed, and I determin- 
ed to alter the plan which you had suggested, which was to 
pass the different villages as if the object of the expedition was 
Prairie du Chien, for several reasons. First, that I might 
have an opportunity of viewing the situation of the ground to 
enable me to select such a landing as would bring our artillery 

15. Niies Renter Supplement to Vol. 7, pp. 137-138. 
Letter Taylor to Gen. Howard, dated Sept. 6, 1814. 



361 

to bear on the villages with the greatest advantage. I was 
likewise in hopes a party would approach us with a flag, from 
which I expected to learn the situation of affairs, at the 
Prairie, and ascertain in some measure their numbers and per- 
haps bring them to a council, which I should have been able to 
have retaliated on them for their repeated acts of treachery; 
or, if they were determined to attack us, I was in hopes to draw 
them some distance from their towns towards the rapids, run 
down in the night and destroy them before they could return to 
their defense. But in this I was disappointed. The wind, 
which had been in our favor, began to shift about at the time 
we passed the mouth of Rock River, and by the time we reach- 
ed the head of the island, which is about a mile and a half long, 
it blew a perfect hurricane, quarterly down the river, and it 
was with great difficulty we made land on a small island, con- 
taining six or eight acres, covered with willows, near the mid- 
dle of the river, and about sixty yards from the upper end of 
the island. In this situation I determined to remain during 
the night if the storm continued, as I knew the anchors of sev- 
eral of the boats in that event would not hold them, and there 
was a great probability of their being drifted on sandbars, of 
which the river is full in this place, which would have exposed 
the men very much in getting them off, even if they could have 
prevented their filling with water. 

"It was about 4 o'clock in the evening when we were com- 
pelled to land, and large parties of Indians were on each side 
of the river, as well as crossing in different directions in 
canoes; but not a gun was fired from either side. The wind 
continued to blow the whole night with violence, accompanied 
with some rain, which induced me to order the sentinels to be 
brought in and placed in the bow of each boat. About day- 
light, Captain Whiteside's boat was fired on at the distance of 
about fifteen paces, and a corporal, who was on the outside of 
the boat, was mortally wounded. My orders were, if a boat 
was fired on, to return it, but not a man to leave the boat with- 
out positive orders from myself. So soon as it got perfectly 
light, as the enemy continued about the boat, I determined to 



362 

drive them from the island, let their numbers be what they 
might, provided we were able to do so. I then assigned each 
boat a proper guard, formed the troops for action and pushed 
through the willows to the opposite shore; but those fellows 
who had the boldness to fire on the boats cleared themselves 
as soon as the troops were formed by wading from the island 
we were encamped on to the one just below us. Captain 
Whiteside, who was on the left, was able to give them a warm 
fire as they reached the island they had retreated to. They 
returned the fire for a few moments, when they retreated. In 
this affair we had two men badly wounded. When Captain 
Whiteside commenced the fire, I ordered Captain Rector to 
drop down with his boat to ground and to rake the island below 
with artillery, and to fire on every canoe he should discover 
passing from one shore to the other, which should come within 
reach. In this situation he remained about one hour, and no 
Indians making their appearance, he determined to drop down 
the island sixty yards, and destroy several canoes that were 
lying to shore. This he effected, and just on setting his men 
on board, the British commenced a fire on our boats with a six, 
a four and two swivels, from behind a knoll that completely 
covered them. The boats were entirely exposed to the artil- 
lery, which was distant three hundred and fifty paces from us. 
So soon as the first gun fired, I ordered a six-pounder to be 
brought out and placed, but, on recollecting a moment, I found 
the boat would be sunk before any impression could be made on 
them by our cannon, as they were completely under cover, and 
had already brought their guns to bear on our boats, for the 
round shot from their six passed through Lieutenant Hemp- 
stead's boat and shattered her considerably. I then ordered 
the boats to drop down, which was done in order, and conduct- 
ed with the greatest coolness by every officer, although exposed 
to a constant fire from their artillery for more than half a mile. 
"So soon as they commenced firing from their artillery, 
the Indians raised a yell and commenced firing on us from 
every direction, whether they were able to do us any danger or 
not. From each side of the river, Captain Eector, who was 



363 

laying to the shore of the island, was attacked the instant the 
first gun was fired, by a very large party, and in a close and 
well contested action of about fifteen minutes, they drove them, 
after giving three rounds of grape from his three-pounder. 

" Captain Whiteside, who was nearest to Captain Eector, 
dropped down and anchored nigh him, and gave the enemy 
several fires with his swivel; but the wind was so hard down 
stream as to drift his anchor. Captain Rector, at that mo- 
ment, got his boat off, and we were then exposed to the fire of 
the Indians for two miles, which we returned with interest 
from our small arms and small pieces of artillery whenever we 
could get them to bear. I was compelled to drop down about 
three miles before a proper place presented itself for landing, 
as but few of the boats had anchors sufficient to stop them in 
the river. Here I halted for the purpose of having the wound- 
ed attended and some of the boats repaired, as some of them 
had been injured by the enemy's artillery. They followed us 
in their boats until we halted on a small prairie and prepared 
for action, when they returned in as great hurry as they fol- 
lowed us. 

"I then collected the officers together and put the following 
question to them: "Are we able, three hundred and thirty- 
four effective men, officers, non-commissioned officers and 
privates, to fight the enemy with any prospect of success and 
effect, which is to destroy their villages and corn? They were 
of the opinion the enemy was at least three men to one, and 
that it was not practicable to effect either object. I then de- 
termined to drop down the river to the Lemoine without delay, 
as some of the ranging officers informed me their men were 
short of provisions, and execute the principal object of the ex- 
pedition, in erecting a fort to command the river. This shall 
be effected as soon as practicable with the means in my power, 
and should the enemy attempt to descend the river in force 
before the fort can be completed, every foot of the way from 
the fort to the settlement shall be contested. 

"In the affair at Rock River, I had eleven men badly wound- 
ed, three mortally, of whom one has since died. I am much 






364 

indebted to the officers for their prompt obedience to orders, 
nor do I believe a braver set of men could have been collected 
than those who compose this detachment. But, Sir, I conceive 
it would have been madness in me, as well as a direct violation 
of my orders, to have risked the detachment without a prospect 
of success. I believe I should have been fully able to have 
accomplished your views if the enemy had not been supplied 
with artillery and so advantageously posted as to render it im- 
possible for us to have dislodged him without imminent dan- 
ger, of the loss of the whole detachment. 

"I am, Sir, yours, etc. 

"ZA. TAYLOE, BREV. MAJ. 

"CoM. DETACHMENT/' 
THE BRITISH ACCOUNT. 

Lieutenant Graham the day after the battle writes his 
superior giving a full account. He places the date as the 
Sixth, while from Major Taylor's letter we would infer it to 
have been the fifth. From my research I am inclined to be- 
lieve the date as mentioned by Graham is correct and that 
Major Taylor was mistaken as to the date. Graham writes : 

Rock Eiver, Sept. 7, 1814. 
Capt. Thomas G. Anderson 16 

Sir : I mentioned to you in my letter of the 4th inst., by the 
information I had from the Indians, that the enemy were with- 
in thirty leagues of this place on their way up. As soon as I 
found out their strength, I concluded the place of their destina- 
tion must be La Prairie du Chien. The Rapids was the only 
place where we could attack such a force to any advantage. 
On the 5th inst. we moved to the west side of the island, and 
took our position at the narrowest part of the channel, the only 
place where they could pass at that point. We were deter- 
mined to dispute the road with them, inch by inch. 

They appeared in sight at 4 o 'clock p. m. with a strong fair 
wind. There were eight large boats, four of which were equal 
in size to the one that made her escape from the Prairie. The 
largest of them had a white flag flying at her mast head. When 



16. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. IX., pages 226-228. 



365 

they came to the head of Credit Island, about two miles from 
us, a storm of rain, thunder and lightning came on, and the 
wind shifted to the opposite point of the compass, which com- 
pelled them to pass the remainder of the day, and that night 
here. All the women and children were sent to the Island. I 
took all the Sioux with us to cover the guns in case of being 
obliged to retreat, as they promised they would rather be kill- 
ed to the last man than give up the guns. 

I told the Sauks, in case the enemy should attempt to land at 
their village, to retreat to the island, and then we would return 
and attack them. The sixth, at break of day, some of the 
Sauks came to us, and requested that we should attack them 
immediately as the wind was against them, and some of their 
boats were aground. We crossed to the main land at the 
Foxes' Village. There we left our boats, and went as quick 
as possible through the prairie, unperceived by the enemy, 
until we were on the beach opposite to them. Here we had a 
close view of them. I had no idea of the enormous size of 
their boats before. They lay with their broad sides close to 
a low sandy beach. The largest of them had six port-holes 
open on the side next to us. The channel was about six 
hundred yards broad. 

We were on an elevated spot, but no covering. I requested 
the Indians not to waste their ammunition firing at the boats, 
and save it in case the enemy should attempt to land. They 
did so. Finding they could not make up matters with the 
Sauks, as they had killed one of their sentinels in the night, 
they took down the white flag, and put up the bloody in its 
place, which I believe to be a signal of no quarters. It was 
then seven o'clock in the morning. Everything being ready, 
we opened a brisk fire, from the three-pounder, and two swiv- 
els, on their boats. In about three-quarters of an hour the 
largest of their boats, which was ahead of the others, after 
having about fifteen shots through her, began to push off, and 
dropped astern of the rest, and made the best of her way down 
the current. The others soon followed her. We kept firing 



366 

at them along the bank, as far as the ground would permit us 
to drag the guns ; but they soon got out of our reach. 

They went on about a league, and put to shore. I thought 
they might intend to throw up some breast-works, and make a 
stand at that place. I sent immediately for the boats to go 
with all the Indians, to endeavor to dislodge them from there. 
By the time we were ready to embark, some of the Indians that 
followed, returned and informed us, that it appeared to them 
that the Americans had committed the bodies of some of their 
men to a watery grave, well knowing if they buried them on 
shore, they would be torn to pieces. They then got up their 
sails, the wind being fair, and made the best of their way off. 
As the enemy landed at that place, the Indians say they were 
about a thousand men. I think their number to be between 
six and eight hundred. 

If we had had a larger supply of ammunition and provisions, 
we might have harassed them as far as the Eapids of the River 
Des Moines ; but having only a scanty supply of the one, and 
entirely destitute of the other, we were obliged to give up pur- 
suing them any further. Although we have not been able to 
capture any of their boats, they have been completely repulsed, 
and I have every reason to believe with a considerable loss, as 
out of fifty-four shots that we fired at them, there was only 
three or four that did not go through their boats. The action 
lasted about an hour. One of the swivels was served by Lieu- 
tenant Brisbois, and the other by Colin Campbell, which they 
executed with credit to themselves, and all attached to the ex- 
pedition behaved themselves in a manner worthy of veteran 
troops, for they seemed to vie with each other who would be 
the foremost, notwithstanding they were entirely exposed to 
the enemy's shot, and I am happy to say, that not a man was 
hurt. It is to the skill and courage of Serg't. Keating, on 
whom everything depended, that we owe our success, and no 
praise of mine can bestow on him what he deserves. As the 
Indians had no communication with the enemy, I have not 
been able to find out who commanded the American expedition. 

Sir, I am, etc. 



\ 



367 

DUNCAN GBAHAM, Lieut. Indian Dept. 
From a letter dated October llth, written from Prairie du 
Chien by Captain Anderson to Col. R. McDouall 17 we learn, 

"That five of the eight gun-boats, that were driven back 
from the Eock Eiver (the other three are supposed to have 
continued their route to St. Louis, are at the entrance of the 
River Des Moines ; and the Americans have built a fort there, 
on the east side of the Mississippi, about one hundred and 
forty leagues from this, and about half way from this to St. 
Louis, two leagues below the fort of the Rapids. Interpreter 
Guillroy, who headed this party of eight Sauks, reports to 
have been within musket shot of the fort for a whole day, and 
discovered three men, two of which he supposed were looking 
for honey ; and wishing to take them prisoners, prevailed upon 
the Indians not to fire upon them. By this means they unfor- 
tunately made their escape. The third man was walking 
about the boat, all of which they had uncovered, and made use 
of the boards to cover their houses. 

The fort is about fifty yards square, and is picketed in with 
very large oak pickets, about twelve feet high, and is situated 
on a high hill that terminates at the water side, where their 
boats are hauled up. They have cleared all the trees and 
brush from the back part of their fort to the distance of musket 
shot ; but in front to the water side, they have left a thick wood 
standing, I suppose to cover their going for water. At the 
north side of their fort, about seven or eight hundred yards 
distance, is a small hill or elevation, which rather exceed the 
fort in height, and entirely covers the approach of troops till 
the extremity of the hill is attained. The Mississippi at this 
place is about ten or twelve hundred yards wide, and clear 
from islands. ' ' 

Col. John Shaw, who was with Major Taylor's expedition, 
in 1856 dictated his recollections of the battle to Lyman C. 
Draper. He said : 



17. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. DC., pages 243-245. 



3G3 

attack occurred on a very bright morning; the pre- 
ceding night was cloudy, very windy, with some rain. The 
first cannon ball from the British passed through Taylor's 
boat, called the Commodore. Yet Taylor in his report says, 
it was Hempstead's boat, it may be that Hempstead was the 
Captain of the Commodore, while Taylor was commander of 
the expedition. 

"It became necessary for some one to expose himself in 
order to cast a cable from a disabled boat which was drifting 
fast towards the shore where the Indians were, to Captain 
Whiteside's boat, and one Paul Harpole greatly exposed him- 
self in accomplishing the object. But having done this, he 
lingered, and one after another he shot at the enemy fourteen 
guns handed to him, when he was shot in the forehead and 
tumbled forward into the river. The crippled boat was saved, 
but poor Harpole 's exploit in which he lost his life, was the 
wonder and admiration of all. Harpole was a young man of 
some twenty-three years of age, and resided near Wood's Fort 
in Missouri, where he had always been celebrated for his 
strength and activity and was possessed of much backwood's 
wit and humor." 

19 Black Hawk in speaking of this battle says : 

"The British landed a big gun, and gave us three soldiers to 
manage it. They complimented us for our bravery in taking 
the boat, and told us what they had done at Prairie du Chien ; 
gave us a keg of rum, and joined with us in our dancing and 
feasting. We gave them some things which we had taken 
from the boat particularly books and papers. They start- 
ed the next morning, after promising to return in a few days 
with a large body of soldiers. 

We went to work, under the directions of the men left with 
us, and dug up the ground in two places, to put the big gun in, 
that the men might remain in with it, and be safe. We then 
sent spies down the river to reconnoiter, who sent word by a 



18. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. 2, page 221. 

19. Autobiography of Black Hawk. Published by J. B. Patterson, Oquaka, 

111., 1882. p. 49. 



369 

runner, that several boats were coming up, filled with men. I 
marshalled my forces, and was soon ready for their arrival, 
and resolved to fight as we had not yet had a fair fight with 
the Americans during the war. The boats arrived in the 
evening, and stopped at a small willow island, nearly opposite 
to us. During the night we removed our big gun further 
down, and at daylight next morning, commenced firing. Wo 
were pleased to see that almost every fire took effect, striking 
the boats nearly every shot. They pushed off as quick as 
possible ; and I expected would land and give a fight. I was 
prepared to meet them, but was soon sadly disappointed ; the 
boats having all started down the river. A party of braves 
followed to watch where they landed; but they did not stop 
until they got below the Des Moines rapids, when they landed, 
and commenced building a fort." 

It is estimated that some fifteen hundred Indians were in 
this engagement. 

When Captain Nelson Eector drove the Indians back into 
the willows, in this sortie from his boat, he was elegantly 
dressed in his military costuitfe with a towering red feather in 
his cap, and with drawn sword lead his men to the charge. He 
deliberately walked on the open sand beach a short distance 
from the enemy and ordered his company to follow him. In 
this exposed situation with hundreds of the Indians guns fired 
at him, he moved on undaunted as if he were in his messroom 
with his comrades. His escape was miraculous, as he was 
alone in advance of his company. 

Captain Rector was a brother of Lieutenant Stephen Eector 
who led the gallant rescue of Major Campbell and his men at 
the engagement on Campbell's Island. 

The Eector family were Virginians, there were nine broth- 
ers, all of whom were in the war of 1812. Governor Eeynolds; 
in speaking of them said, 20 

"They possessed integrity and honesty of purpose in the 
highest degree, nature had endowed them with strong and 



20. Reynolds' Pioneer History of Illinois. 2nd Edition, page 353. 



370 

active minds, but their passions at times swept over their 
judgments like a tempest. They were the most fearless and 
undaunted people I ever knew. Dangers, perils and even 
death were amusements for them, when they were excited. 
They were impulsive and ungovernable when their passions 
were enlisted. They were the most devoted and true hearted 
friends and the most energetic and impulsive enemies to any 
one they thought deserved their hatred. The family, in their 
persons were generally large and formed with perfect manly 
symmetry. They were noble, commanding and elegant in their 
bearing, and their personal appearance, was for manly beauty 
not surpassed in the territory. They possessed an exquisite 
and high sense of honor and chivalry. An insult was never 
offered to any one of them that went unpunished. The whole 
Hector family were patriotic and were always willing and 
ready on all proper occasions, to shed their blood in the de- 
fense of their country. ' ' 

"While little has been known of this engagement, such reports 
as were published were incorrect. 

21 Peck in his Annals of the West, says : 

"Had Major Taylor known the real strength of the enemy, 
he would not have retreated, as it was soon discovered that 
there were only three individual Britons present, with one 
small field piece. " 

And Davidson and Stuve in their History of Illinois say: 

22 During the night the English planted a battery of six 

pieces down at the water's edge to sink or disable the boats. " 

Governor John Reynolds, in his History of Illinois said : 
23"! saw in the Harbor at St. Louis the boats that were in 
Taylor's battle at Rock Island, and they were riddled with the 
cannon balls. I think the balls were made of lead, at any rate 
they pierced the boats considerably." 



21. Annals of the West. 3rd Edition, page 915. 

22. Davidson & Stuve. 2nd Edition, page 281. 

23. John Reynolds, My Own Times. 2nd Edition, page 102. 



371 

CREDIT ISLAND. 

From Lieutenant Graham's Ietter 24 we learn that one 
hundred years ago, the Island upon which we are commemo- 
rating this event in the history of the Upper Mississippi^ was 
known as CREDIT ISLAND. Earlier records mention the name, 
and it may be interesting to you to know how it got its name. 

It was the custom of the Sac and the Fox Indians in the fall 
after harvesting the crops they had raised on the land along 
the Rock River below the Watch Tower, to start for the North- 
west to hunt the buffalo and fur bearing animals. Just previ- 
ous to the Indians departure the French and British Traders 
would come from Prairie du Chien to this Island, with such 
supplies as the Indians needed on their hunting trip. The 
Indians would be given whatever they needed, without pay, on 
Credit, with a promise to pay in peltries when they returned 
at the end of the Winter. 

Upon the return from the hunt the Traders would again 
come to Credit Island here the Sac from his village on the 
Rock and the Fox from his Village on the West bank of the 
Mississippi, (at about where the West abutment of the Gov- 
ernment Bridge is) would bring his furs, pay his debts and 
barter for such articles as he or his squaw desired. 

This was the third American expedition up the Mississippi 
river in the year 1814. All ending in defeat and disaster. 
The British and Indians had possession of the country until 
December 24th when the peace of Ghent ended the war. 

Lieutenant Graham's letters prove that British soldiers 
fortified Rock Island two years before Fort Armstrong was 
erected, and that a company of British soldiers fought a battle 
on soil now the State of Iowa. 

In June, 1893, Mr. George Pullman presented to the Chicago 
Historical Society, a magnificent monument to mark the site 
of massacre of the Soldiers of Fort Dearborn. 



24. Wisconsin Historical Collections. Vol. IX., pages 226-227. 
Letter Graham to Anderson. 



372 

25 Ex-president Benjamin Harrison delivered the address. 
His remarks are worthy of reproduction. He said in part : 

"I am glad that we are beginning to build monuments. Bunk- 
er Hill, was, not long ago, lonesome, but now every city and 
nearly all counties have built in commemoration of the heroes 
and of the cause. The sculptor has found the universal lang- 
uage. He speaks to the schooled and to the unschooled. This 
history of the conquest of the West is full of incident, calcu- 
lated to kindle the historian and to stir the imagination of the 
novelist, the painter and the sculptor. 

Every community should properly mark the scene of imper- 
ious demands, but the historian serves the future as effectively 
as the projector. We shall value our possession of lands and 
free institutions more highly if we learn that they were bought, 
not with corruptible things, as silver and gold, but with prec- 
ious blood, the blood of the brave and of the innocent. We 
shall, after this lesson, be more willing to preserve by blood, 
if need be, that which was bought by blood. ' ' 

Illinois has taken up the work of marking historic sites. The 
work has been started and carried on by local societies and 
communities, similar to the societies and the people represent- 
ed here today. 

There is no state, no county and no city or village, but has 
some incident or event in its history that is worthy of perpetu- 
ation. 

Iowa teems with historic events and Davenport and Scott 
County have some that are more than local, more than state- 
wide in interest. 

On this ground ; one hundred years ago today was fought a 
battle in the War between Great Britain and America. It 
was the only battle in the War of 1812, fought west of the 
Mississippi river. 

Between the abutment of the old bridge and the western 
terminus of the present Government Bridge was the old Vil- 
lage of the Fox Indians, doubly historic, marking the Eed- 

25Ceremonies at unveiling of the Bronze memorial group of the Chicago 
Massacre of 1812. P. 17. Printed for the Chicago Historical Society 1893. 



373 

men's Village and the spot where the first railway crossed the 
Father of Waters. 

The site where the Treaty with the Indians was signed in 
1832, and the site of Dr. Emerson's home, the home of Dred 
Scott, each and all should be marked. 

I hope that the interest manifested today will not cease un- 
til all of these Historic sites are fittingly marked. 



The County Records of Illinois 



BY THEODORE CALVIN PEASE. 

The last few months have seen the completion of a survey 
of the historical resources of Illinois, begun some three years 
ago. Liberal appropriations by the state legislature have 
made possible the visiting of every county seat in the state, and 
a thorough canvass, both of the records contained in its court 
house and of the material, such as letters or diaries, of his- 
torical interest in private hands. A survey in similar detail 
has hardly been attempted hitherto outside New England ; but 
its progress has aroused interest and inspired queries from 
several other states, which may now perhaps undertake a 
similar task. In this field the enterprise of Illinois has given 
it an enviable position of leadership among its sister states. 

Generous as have been the outlays for the enterprise, com- 
mensurate results have been attained. Possessors of material 
of historical interest, have yielded it to the personal impor- 
tunities of a searcher actually in the field ; and the State Histo- 
rical Library has been enriched by rare files of newspapers 
that for decades have reposed forgotten in court house cellars 
and attics. More than this the whereabouts of other files and 
other manuscript collections of equal value are now definitely 
known. Further the record contents of every court house in the 
state have been minutely listed, and the result will soon be pub- 
lished in a volume of the Illinois Historical Collections, which 
will serve as a complete finding list for the student in search of 
material whether early or recent, and whether of historical, 
sociological, or economic interest. Finally observations made 
in so many court houses of so many different conditions sur- 
rounding old records and so many different methods of mak- 
ing new ones may well be expected to bear fruit in suggestions 
directed toward bringing about a situation that may render 



375 

the records safer, more useful, and more economical for both 
the student and the taxpayer. 

The records of the court houses have yielded some material 
of especial interest. To mention specific facts, some of the 
negro slavery and indenture records throw a clear light on just 
exactly how slavery lingered in Illinois for a generation after 
the constitution of 1818 had forbidden it. For instance a tax 
list of 1820 in Madison county, reveals that Benjamin Stephen- 
son owned eight slaves valued at $1,570; Ninian Edwards 
three, valued at $1,500; James Gray five, worth $850, and 
Thomas Reynolds three, worth $600. All told fifty-five ne- 
groes were owned in the county, held as slaves, as accompany- 
ing records, show by means of 99 year indentures for nominal 
sums, which were no bar to sales of unexpired terms. And 
this is but a single instance. In county after county similar 
records of marked interest and importance have been found. 

However, the fact that the records of local jurisdictions in 
Illinois would be of interest and importance to the historian 
might have been taken for granted long ago. Thus the history 
of local administration in the state is told more vividly than 
anywhere else in the early records of its county commissioners 
courts. So full are the records of material of great local inter- 
est containing as they do, details of early licenses, records 
concerning the establishment of early roads, etc., that it would 
seem as if any local historical society, ambitious to try its hand 
at publication, would not need to look far for material both 
interesting and important. Then there are the wills, inven- 
tories, and records of the probate courts, which with their de- 
tailed and appraised lists of personal property, may serve as 
indexes to the culture of past generations. There are the 
records of law proceedings and criminal trials in circuit and 
county courts, with additional records that may tell the socio- 
logist of the county's treatment of its wayward children and 
mental defectives. There are the records of taxation, and last 
of all, in many cases, detailed election returns, some of them as 
early as the territorial days of Illinois. To discriminate be- 
tween these and determine which might be important for the 



376 

historian, and which unimportant, proved from the outset an 
impossible task. Accordingly all were listed in as much detail 
as was possible. With the publication of such lists, it is hoped 
the searcher of records, however far distant from material he 
may desire, can determine exactly where it exists and what use 
he may hope to make of it. 

As to the methods employed in storing and preserving this 
material there is little ground for extreme optimism. There 
are one hundred and two court houses in Illinois, and almost 
as many gradations of excellence and defect in the methods of 
preserving the records they contain. Sometimes every book 
and paper in an office is carefully disposed in labeled and sort- 
ed boxes and in fireproof vaults. Sometimes older records, not 
in current use, but for the same reason of all the more interest 
to the historian, are left in vaults that are no better than dust 
holes, or simply cast into basements or attics to decay. Some- 
times a clerk or a board of supervisors has made a holocaust 
of the records ; and sometimes Providence has been tempted a 
day too long by fire-trap court houses without vaults and by 
extreme carelessness with lamp and coal stoves, and a whole 
body of records has disappeared in flames. In many court 
houses the stage is all set for a repetition of this tragi-comedy, 
and by the laws of probability we shall hear of its performance 
in some one or other in the next few years. 

Perhaps the degree of safety enjoyed by county records 
can be most sharply indicated by something like a statistical 
summary. Fairly exact notes on ninety-five court houses are 
at hand. Of these court houses, forty-one are apparently fire- 
proof, ten are doubtful, and forty-four, counting the counties 
without court houses, make no pretense of being fireproof. Of 
these last, however, twenty-five have vaults that are clearly 
safe, although in half of these part of the records are stored 
outside the vaults. Of the ten court houses classified as doubt- 
ful, five, and of the thirty-nine that are not fireproof, fourteen 
are without safe vaults. Therefore in nearly one-fifth of the 
counties in Illinois, the records are in immediate danger of 
wholesale destruction bv fire. 



\ 



377 

Startling as the above statement may sound, to anyone 
acquainted with actual conditions in certain court houses it is 
the barest commonplace. It is true that one often finds, in 
small counties as well as large, modern court houses with good 
and adequate vaults, modern filing material, and carefully pre- 
served records and papers. It is also true that in others, con- 
stituting perhaps a bare majority, conditions are merely in- 
different. But in a large minority of instances, there is no 
pretense of preserving the records from fire in the so-called 
" vaults." Kerosene lamps and coal stoves stand among 
wooden furniture on wooden floors, while the books and papers 
are in filing equipment of pasteboard and wood that could only 
furnish fuel to a fire. The county officials who tolerate such 
conditions will not learn, either from the fires that have par- 
tially or completely destroyed the records of twelve counties, 
or even from their own experience. In at least two counties 
whose records have been wiped out by fire within the memory 
of men now in the prime of life, conditions are as bad as can be. 
True, these counties may have laid to their souls the proverb 
that it is useless to lock the stable door after the horse is stol- 
en, for they have little left that the historical student would 
miss. But in at least five of the nineteen counties established 
prior to 1819, bodies of records that are practically intact 
escape from day to day by mere luck, the complete destruction 
that could be wrought by a single misplaced match. 

In the face of such facts and of the neglect visited on records 
of supreme historical interest, we realize that our new solici- 
tude for our county records will bring us grave problems to 
resolve. Shall we meet the question of safety in the simplest 
way, by building a great archive repository at Springfield and 
conveying thither our local records of historical interest? 
Such perhaps is the solution toward which are turning the 
archive workers, who meet yearly in the Public Archives 
Conference of the American Historical Association. Yet 
here too we encounter difficulties. Clearly we must not re- 
move from county seats records that are in current use by the 
people of the district. And if we remove such only as are not 



378 

in current use, we shall afterwards find that we have separated 
to different repositories records of the same transaction that 
merely chanced to be in different books. Moreover, how shall 
we determine definitely what portions of the great masses of 
books and papers that load down our court houses possess po- 
tential interest to the student and are therefore to be centraliz- 
ed! In some cases no doubt exists at all. Early election re- 
turns to the county clerk appear as rubbish, unconnected with 
any matter of record that he uses in his daily task ; but to the 
historical student they are the backbone of political history. 
To classify other records on this basis, however, demands care- 
ful painstaking consideration, open minded to the rights and 
conveniences of the people of the locality as well as to those of 
the historical student. And in no other way can the problem 
of centralization be fairly and rightly adjudicated. 

Meanwhile if very much remains to be done before we have 
brought to a fair conclusion the work we have undertaken re- 
specting county archives, there is much that each one of us in 
his place and station can accomplish. The preservation of the 
records of the state, past and present, whether of current use 
or historical interest, depends on inspiring in their custodians 
many of them a sense of the usage to which their charges 
are properly entitled. It depends also on the provision of 
fireproof places of storage for them, or in preventing waste of 
space through half use, misfit record books in offices that are 
fireproof, but of inadequate size. These are only a few of the 
possible improvements that suggest themselves. In further- 
ing them every citizen of the state who is interested in the past 
of his community, and every citizen whose birth, marriage, or 
title deed is recorded in an Illinois county has, whether he rec- 
ognizes it or not, a vital interest. But while private enterprise 
may do much, our main hope must be that the legislature will 
devise an adequate solution of the record question, both for 
the student and the tax payer. The enterprise with which 
Illinois has already begun officially to devote proper care and 
attention to her county records should inspire her to greater 
exertions in the task that remains before her. 



Elections and Election Machinery in Illinois 

1818-1848. 



BY CHARLES M. THOMPSON, UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS. 

Before the nominating convention system was generally ac- 
cepted in the late thirties by the political leaders of Illinois, 
the press of the state was the strongest single factor in choos- 
ing candidates and in concentrating party strength. 1 These 
results were brought about in several different ways: (1) 
by direct announcement made through the columns of friendly 
newspapers by the candidate himself, (2) by editorials, (3) by 
anonymous communications, (4) by requests purporting to 
come from friends of the candidate and addressed to the 
editor, (5) by requests addressed to the candidate, who for- 
warded them to the editor for publication. 2 . In any case it is 
obvious that the editor held the whip hand, for unless he sup- 
ported a given candidate, or at least remained neutral, he 
seriously handicapped any and all candidates by refusing them 
publicity; and without publicity, such as the press afforded, 
any aspirant for office had slim chances for success. 

Such a situation compelled every prominent politician to 
have the support of one or more papers; and when support 
was not forthcoming from papers already established, new 



1. Between 1824 and 1840 something like 160 newspapers were printed in 
Illinois. Of this number about 50 remained in 1840, and several of these 
were temporary campaign sheets. See Scott, Illinois Newspapers, lii. Ills. 
Hist. Collections Vol. 6. 

2. The newspapers of the period contain hundreds of examples under each 
head enumerated above. See Edwardsville Spectator, October 17, 1820, Octo- 
ber 30, 1821, October 5, 1824; Illinois Gazette, September 25, 1824; Illinois 
Intelligencer, August 27, September 10, 1824; Alton American, April 14, 1834; 
Alton Spectator, March 4, 1841; Alton Telegraph, March 16, 1836; August 14, 
1841; Sangamo Journal, January 26, February 2, 9, March 15, August 11, 
1832. Galena Advertiser, August 3, 10, 1829; J. Reynolds to H. Eddy, 1834, 
passim. (Eddy MSS.) 



380 



ones were started in the most advantageous localities. 3 More 
often, however, politicians gravitated in groups around the 
various papers of the state. In the earlier period the Ed- 
wardsville Spectator, the Illinois Advocate, and the Illinois 
Gazette were each the center of such a group, while in the late 
thirties and early forties the Sangamo Journal, the State Reg- 
ister, the Chicago Democrat, .the Alton Telegraph, and the 
Quincy Whig performed similar functions. 4 This grouping 
of politicians resulted in the formation of factions within par- 
ties, which continued to exist even after the convention system 
had been adopted in its entirety. 5 

The attitude of the typical editor toward his political oppo- 
nent was one of severity. He espoused or opposed issues with 
unreasonable vehemence, and abused and slandered when oc- 
casion required. Such an attitude may have been due to de- 
liberate choice, but it is more likely that it was forced on him 
by the political ideals of the time. Consequently a neutral 
newspaper would have been out of place in such an environ- 
ment ; and had an editor attempted to stand on middle ground, 
or even to temporize with the opposition, his political influ- 
ence would have been at an end. 

The adoption of the convention system in the late thirties 
diminished the influence of the newspapers as a force for con- 
centrating party strength on particular candidates. For a 



3. Good examples of such papers are Republican Advocate, Kaskaskia; 
Illinois Whig, Vandalla; Free Press, Vandalla. Letters of J. Reynolds to H. 
Eddy and to A. P. Grant, written between the years 1830 and 1834, throw light 
on this subject. Also letters of C. W. Clark, editor, Shawneetown Journal 
(this paper is not mentioned In Scott, Illinois Newspapers) to H. Eddy, 1833-4, 
passim. (Eddy MSS.) 

4. H. Eddy to N. Edwards, July 28, 1829; A. F. Grant to J. Reynolds, 
February 2, 1834; A. F. Grant to J. Duncan, February 22, 1834; J. Reynolds to 
H. Eddy, February 17, March 24, July 3, 13, 1834; J. Reynolds to Eddy & 
Clark, July 4, 6, 1834; A. F. Grant to J. Reynolds, February 6, 1834. (Eddy 
MSS.) 

5. A "famous battle" was carried on in the Whig ranks by the Vandalia 
Free Press, supported by the anti-junto Whigs, against the Sangamo Journal, 
which was supported by the "Springfield Junto." The Democrats likewise 
had their differences. The State Register struggled with the Times (Spring- 
field) for supremacy. The former was supported by the state officials, the 
latter by Douglas, Peck, Trumbull, Brooks and Peters. See Alton Telegraph, 
January 27, February 10, 1844. 



381 

time the system was opposed by influential leaders in both 
parties, 6 but there is little reason for believing that any great 
number of them opposed it on the ground of principle. 7 They 
opposed it as a matter of expediency, because it seemed likely 
to be unpopular ; they adopted it when it appeared that the 
mass of the people was friendly toward the system. The Demo- 
crats were the first to use the nominating convention. 8 The 
Whigs, on the other hand, vacillated between a thorough-going 
convention and none at all, but the tide of opinion moved them 
to adopt the former VICAV. As time went on opposition to the 
system became weaker, and the state convention of 1839 may 
be said to mark the beginning of its acceptance by the Whigs. 9 

In Illinois the convention system proper had its beginning in 
county and precinct mass meetings. 10 As early as 1824, a mass 
meeting was held in Gallatin County to select a candidate for 
presidential elector. The practice does not seem, however, to 



6. See Alton Telegraph, May 13, 1843; Illinois Statesman, April 29, 1843. 
For views on the subject see, Thompson, Attitude of the Western Whigs to- 
ward the Convention System, (Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley Histo- 
rical Association, V., 167 ff.) Dr. Fithian of Vermilion County expressed a 
similar feeling regarding the convention system and the growth of parties. 
W. Fithian to A. Williams, December 26, 1834. (Williams-Woodbury MSS.) 

7. See House Journal, 1835-6, p. 27. For arguments for a convention by a 
Whig paper, see Chicago American, July 15, 29, 1835. 

8. The Democrats, particularly those in the northern and central parts of 
the state, seemed to have had no hesitancy in fathering the system. Thus 
a resolution passed in a Cook County mass meeting read: "Resolved: That 
we will not recognize the pretended claims of any aspirant to any office, nor 
any person as a candidate for any office, unless he shall be nominated by a 
convention fairly called, at which every member of the party has an op- 
portunity of being heard either in person or by his delegate. And that we 
will support all nominations made in such convention, and use all fair and 
honorable means to secure the election of individuals so brought before the 
people." Chicago Democrat, July 8, 1835. Among the staunch friends of the 
convention system was E. Peck of Chicago. Peck had formerly held office 
in Canada, and the opponents of the system left nothing undone to convince 
the people that it was a British institution and hence un-American. See 
Sangamo Journal, December 12, 1835; Alton Telegraph, March 25, 1843; R. 
J. Hamilton to H. Eddy, January 30, 1838. (Eddy MSS.) 

9. See Thompson, op. cit; Alton Telegraph, May 13, 1843; Sangamo Jour- 
nal, October 8, 1841. 

10. It is believed that the first county convention ever held in Illinois in 
which nominations were made for county officers by regularly elected dele- 
gates was in Cook County, July 4, 1835. See Chicago Democrat, June and 
July, 1835, passim., October 14, 1835, January 13, 1836. 



382 

have grown to any great extent until the presidential campaign 
of 1832. During that campaign many local mass meetings 
were held, 11 likewise both parties held state conventions. 12 
These state conventions differed materially from the ordinary 
state convention of the period, in that their members were 
regularly chosen in county mass meetings. The other type 
was composed of members of their respective parties. The 
functions of the regularly constituted state conventions in- 
creased with the years, and by 1839 the Whigs organized with 
a full complement of officers and committees. 13 

Of the committees of this convention the state central com- 
mittee was the most important. It was composed of five mem- 
bers who were authorized to have entire control of the party's 
activities. It was empowered to delegate its authority to sub- 
committees whose units of operation should be the counties. 
Each of these sub-committees was expected to follow as far as 
possible the suggestions made by the central committee, which 
were as follows: (1) sub-committee to divide its county into 
small districts and appoint in each district a committee whose 
duty was to make a complete list of all voters in the district 
and to ascertain which candidates each voter expected to sup- 
port; (2) district committees to work for the party ticket by 
personal solicitation and by distributing campaign literature ; 
(3) district committees to report to their respective county 
committees once each month; (4) district committees to make 
first report not later than April 30, 1840; (5) county commit- 
tees to report on the political conditions in their respective 
counties on the first of each month ; (6) state central committee 
to keep county committees informed as to political conditions 
in the state as shown by the reports of the various county 
committees; (7) county committees to solicit subscriptions for 



11. For accounts of typical mass meetings, see Sangamo Journal, August 2, 
18, September 1, 8, 15, 22, 1832. 

12. For a complete report of the state National-Republican convention, held 
at Vandalia in 1832, see Sangamo Journal, September 29, October 20, 1832. 
Reports of a Jackson-Johnson convention may be found in Ibid. April 5, 1832; 
see also Illinois Advocate, May 6, 1835. 

13. Sangamo Journal, October 11, 1839. 



383 

a campaign newspaper to be established; 14 (8) county commit- 
tees to furnish results of all elections held in their respective 
counties; (9) county committees to prevent local differences 
from defeating the party's candidates for the general as- 
sembly; (10) county committees to keep the plan of organiza- 
tion secret from all except true and tried Whigs. This ambi- 
tious campaign organization was the product of Mr. Lincoln's 
efforts as a political leader. It set a standard for subsequent 
campaigns as long as the Whig party was a force in Illinois 
politics. 

Little is known now about the collection and disbursement of 
campaign funds during this period. The usual procedure ap- 
pears to have been for the friends of any particular candidate 
for an important office to advance sums of money with the un- 
derstanding that they were to be repaid only in the event of 
success. 15 In some sections of the state, and there are reasons 
for believing that it was a general practice, it was customary 
to assess the local leaders for funds to carry on state and con- 
gressional campaigns. In presidential campaigns the candi- 
dates chosen for electors were usually men of means, who were 
expected to canvass the state in the interest of the party with- 
out hope of reward other than that which comes with increased 
publicity. The printing and postage bills attached to these 
candidacies were some times met by local leaders, sometimes 
by the candidates themselves. 16 The possession of wealth seems 
to have been neither a help nor a hindrance to political ad- 
vancement. Edwards, Coles and Duncan were men of means, 
and likewise successful office-seekers. On the other hand, Kin- 
ney, Sloo, Hogan and H. C. Webb were comparatively wealthy, 
but unsuccessful in acquiring office. Lincoln's early poverty 
did not bar him from office, and he was but a type of a great 
body of public officials. 

This was the period of the stump speaker and the circuit 
rider, and one of the marked characteristics of early Illinois 



14. Perhaps the Old Soldier. See Scott, Illinois Newspapers, 323; T. C. 
Browne, to H. Eddy, February 25, 1840. (Eddy MSS.) 

15. A. P. Grant to J. Duncan, February 22, 1834. (Eddy MSS.) 

16. Eddy MSS. (Undated) No. 163. 



384 

politics was the relatively large number of lawyers and preach- 
ers occupying position of political leadership. Few, if any of 
the speeches of these men have been preserved in authentic 
form, but if one may judge from their correspondence, it would 
be safe to say that the virtue of their oratorical efforts lay 
more in the manner of their speaking than in what they said. 
Even though the oratory was often-times crude and ungram- 
matical, it was effective ; and certainly a more polished kind, 
without the fire which a western speaker knew how to inject, 
would have fallen flat. 

Inseparable from the stump speech was the debate. Some 
were prearranged, but more were extempore. An outburst 
from a candidate or his friends was sure to be met with a re- 
joinder from the same rostrum or from one near at hand. In 
the midst of important campaigns, court yards, court rooms 
and public halls became the arenas where forensic and even 
fistic battles were fought. There was no dearth of combat- 
ants, for every lawyer, ambitious for political and profession- 
al advancement, was ready to enter the lists. Particularly in 
and about the general assembly was the opportunity taken for 
political debate. What was said and done there was the cue 
for local politicians throughout the state ; and more than one 
political reputation rested on the ability of its possessor to 
influence his fellow lawmakers. On many occasions Mr. Lin- 
coln debated the issues at stake with political opponents, and 
his reputation as a debater began two decades prior to his en- 
counters with Douglas in 1858. 

During the late thirties the ratification meeting and the rally 
came to be a force in determining political issues. The form- 
er, as the name implies, was merely a jollification meeting at 
which formal nominations, particularly those for the presiden- 
cy, were ratified amidst huzzas and enthusiastic speeches. Be- 
cause of the sparseness of the population and the difficulties 
of travel, such meetings in the earlier days were impossible 
except on a small scale. With the increase in population and 
improvements in means of travel, however, these meetings be- 
came increasingly important for creating enthusiasm and 



385 

promoting party solidarity. Before 1840, crowds made up of 
a few hundred were typical, but with the coming of the * ' Tip- 
pecanoe and Tyler too" campaign, came the practice of as- 
sembling large crowds to see fantastical parades and to hear 
inflammatory speeches. Such meetings were effective in that 
the enthusiasm generated was contagious, and after 1840 they 
were integral parts of political campaigns. 

The methods of voting in vogue during this period were even 
more unique than the manner of campaigning. Between 1818 
and 1848, either one of two methods was used. One was by 
ballot, the other by viva voce. Of the two, the latter generally 
prevailed. Even in the use of the latter method the ballot 
often had a place. The voter carried it to the polling place 
and read from it the names of the candidates he desired to sup- 
port. The election clerk wrote the voter's name in the election 
sheet and indicated after it his preference among the candi- 
dates. The usual method employed was as follows. 



02 

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Fayette County 


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Names 





387 

The elections of this period were characterized by their lack 
of uniformity in procedure. First, there was no limit, what- 
ever to the number of candidates that might be voted for at 
any given election. 17 Second, the number of candidates for the 
same office varied from precinct to precinct. 18 Third, it was a 
general practice in some sections of the state to vote directly 
for president and vice-president. 19 Discrepancies which now 
would be considered as serious often crept in with no ill effect 
whatever. Thus in the state election of 1822, of the four can- 
didates for governor the names of three were mis-spelled in 
a single precinct in Payette County; and in the precinct in 
which the state capital was located, the name of the successful 
candidate, Edward Coles, was spelled "Cowles." 20 Such a 
mistake appears the more strange when it is known that one of 
the election officials was a state officer. The great wonder is 
that complications did not arise in the form of contested elec- 
tions. 

Few franchise restrictions were placed on the people. Up 
to the year 1849, practically every male adult who had resided 
in Illinois for six months was entitled to vote. In elections 
for state officers, voters of one county very often voted in an- 
other county. There is no evidence at hand to show what test 
was applied in such cases, and if any formal oath or affirma- 
tion was required the election sheets fail to indicate the fact. 

Although the privileges of franchise were granted liberally, 
the number of officers filled by direct vote of the people was 
limited. The fathers of the first state constitution, and the 
lawmakers that immediately followed them, manifested slight 
confidence in the ability of the people to choose their own 
officers. But two state officers, the governor and lieutenant- 
governor, were chosen directly by the people. The secretary 



17. Compare the Mss. election returns for representative in 1831 in the 
county archives of Coles, Fayette, Shelby, Sangamon, Macoupin counties. 

18. See MSS. election returns for the year 1840 in the archives of Coles 
County. 

19. See MSS. election returns for the year 1836 in the archives of Coles 
and Shelby Counties. 

20. See MSS. election returns for the year 1822 in the archives of Fayette 
County. 



388 

of state was selected by the governor with the consent of the 
senate, while the rest of the state officers were elected by the 
two houses in joint session. The judges and district attorneys 
were appointed by the general assembly, and these officers in 
turn appointed minor court officials in their respective coun- 
ties. The election of state officers by the lawmakers gave rise 
to legislative caucuses. Because the Whigs were everlasting 
in the minority, and hence had little use for such a system, they 
decried it in the most extravagant terms. 21 There was also 
considerable dissatisfaction with the caucus in the Democratic 
ranks, but its general use indicates its acceptance by a major- 
ity of the party. 

Caucuses of a different nature existed among the Whig lead- 
ers, who met not to divide the spoils of victory, but to deter- 
mine issues and to agree on candidates for subsequent elec- 
tions. Even the most bitter opponents of the convention sys- 
tem did not deny that they sometimes participated in such 
meetings. This practice disrupted the Whigs to a certain 
extent. Those members of the party who opposed the caucus 
declared that the party will was thwarted by a small group of 
Whig politicians whom they called the ''Springfield Junto. ' r 
Among the members of this junto were Lincoln, W. H. Hern- 
don, S. T. Logan and Stuart. There seems to have been a jus- 
tification, however, for such an organization. It originated 
among the Whigs rather than among the Democrats for no 
other reason than the refusal of the former party to adopt the 
convention system. Lincoln and his political friends desired 
to win, and only turned to secret meetings when open ones 
were rejected by their followers. The late adoption of the 
convention system by the Whigs did not destroy the power of 
the junto. Its members merely adapted their political tactics 
to suit the new situation ; and up to the very last day of the ex- 
istence of the party as a national organization, this small 
group of men shaped its policies and dominated the choice of 
candidates for the more important offices. 



21. G. Churchill to G. Flagg, December 3, 1844. (Churchill MSS.) 



v 



The Shaw-Hansen Election Contest. 



EPISODE OF THE SLAVERY CONTEST IN ILLINOIS. 
BY WAYNE E. STEVENS. 

A bundle of papers was recently discovered among the 
archives of the Secretary of State at Springfield, which proved 
to contain the original documents bearing upon the Shaw- 
Hansen election contest, one of the most dramatic episodes of 
early Illinois political history. It is extremely probable that 
up to the time of their discovery, these papers had never been 
carefully examined since the contest itself was decided by the 
lower house of the General Assembly in 1823. In spite of all 
that has been written concerning the incident, it is certain that 
they have never before been used as historical material. The 
finding of these documents presents an opportunity to say a 
little that is new concerning an otherwise rather threadbare 
subject. The various accounts which have appeared in his- 
tories and reminiscences of the period are in the main familiar 
accounts, so far as they go ; but certain details concerning the 
legal basis of the dispute have been lacking owing to the ab- 
sence of information concerning this phase of the matter. 
These documents, then, together with newspapers, correspon- 
dence, etc., bearing upon the period, render it possible to give 
a fairly complete account of an incident which occupies a 
prominent place in early Illinois politics. 

The Shaw-Hansen contest derives practically all its interest 
and importance as an episode of Illinois history from its con- 
nection with the early slavery controversy in the state. It re- 
veals, perhaps, more than anything else, the bitterness of the 
struggle which dominated early Illinois politics and above all 
the determination of those who plotted to bring slavery into 
the state. In fact, to one who is accustomed to consider the 



390 

attitude of Illinois with regard to slavery in the light of her 
later history and traditions, the knowledge that the question 
was once a burning local issue with the people of the state, is 
apt to come with a sense of shock. 

A brief consideration of the political situation which existed 
during the first six years of the period of statehood is neces- 
sary in order to understand the significance of the Shaw-Han- 
sen election controversy. 1 The history of Illinois politics be- 
tween the years 1818 and 1824, is exceedingly complex owing 
to the fact that there were no well-defined parties. There 
were, instead, factional divisions, based upon personal differ- 
ences among the leading politicians of the state which date 
back to the territorial period. 2 These factional groupings 
were modified by other issues, both state and national. It is 
safe to say, however, that during the years between 1818 and 
1824, the slavery question was the most important issue which 
came before the voters of Illinois. The question was being 
almost continuously agitated in one form or another, through- 
out the period either in its relation to state or national policy. 

The Ordinance of 1787 prohibited slavery in the Northwest 
Territory, but this enactment was not necessarily considered 
final, particularly in the minds of some of the settlers who en- 
tered the Territory from the southern and border states. 
Slaves were held in Illinois both before and after 1818 as well 
as a large number of indentured servants who were virtually 
slaves. 3 

There were many people in Illinois Territory who disputed 
the validity of the Ordinance of 1787, in so far as it had any 
bearing upon slavery, and some of them doubtless would have 
liked to insert in the constitution of 1818, a provision legaliz- 
ing the institution within the state. To what extent the mat- 
ter was discussed in the convention is uncertain, but any effort 



1. C. M. Thompson's Rise and Development of the Whig Party in Illinois. 
Chap. II., contains a good summary of the political history of Illinois during 
this period. 

2. Reynolds, "My Own Times," 133; Churchill's "Annotations on Rev 
Thomas Lippincott's "Early Days in Madison County," 10th Paper. 

3. Harris, Negro Slavery in Illinois, 6-15. 



391 

which may have been put forth in 1818 to accomplish such an 
end proved abortive, as the slave element was then in no posi- 
tion to undertake a trial of strength with the national govern- 
ment. 4 

The Missouri question was the principal issue in the con- 
gressional election of 1819 in Illinois and there is little doubt 
but that the interest of the people in the outcome of the strug- 
gle was intensified because of the uncertain future of their 
own state with regard to slavery. Daniel P. Cook and John 
McLean were opposing candidates for Congress. The two 
men represented different political factions while they were 
likewise opposed on the slavery question. McLean advocated 
the extension of slavery into Missouri, while Cook demanded 
that its area be restricted so far as possible. Neither can- 
didate attempted to dodge the question which became prac- 
tically the sole issue in the election. The campaign was waged 
with vigor on both sides. Cook and McLean traveled about 
the state making speeches, while the newspapers likewise 
plunged into the controversy. 5 Cook was victorious, and if 
the election returns be accepted as an indication of the views 
of the people, the sentiment of the state in 1819 must be re- 
garded as hostile to the extension of slavery, as a phase of 
national policy. In spite of tfce out-come of the election, anti- 
slavery leaders were extremely suspicious and accused certain 
Illinois politicians of plotting to bring the institution into the 
state. Their accusations were all met with sweeping denial, 
however. In the election campaigns of both 1819 and 1820, 
those who were suspected of favoring the introduction of slav- 
ery denied that they had any intention of altering the constitu- 
tion of 1818 so as to legalize the institution. 6 

The election campaign of 1822 was not fought out squarely 
upon the slavery issue, although the question appears to have 

4. Churchill's Annotations 7th paper; Journal of the Constitutional Con- 
vention of 1818, 111. State Historical Soc., Journa.l Oct. 1913, p. 401; Harris, 
Negro Slavery in Illinois, 16-26. 

5. Illinois Emigrant, May 22, 1819; for a general discussion of the Miss- 
ouri question in Illinois, see files of the Edwardsville Spectator and the Hit- 
nois Emigrant for 1819. 

6. Edwardsville Spectator, May 29, June 5, 1819. 



392 

assumed some prominence. Edward Coles and Joseph Phil- 
lips were the leading candidates for governor, there being four 
in all. Coles was an avowed opponent of slavery and sought 
to bring the issue into the campaign. Phillips was known to 
be personally favorable to the institution though he appears to 
have tried to avoid the question. 7 The views of the two men 
with regard to slavery probably influenced some voters, though 
factional differences and the personal popularity of the candi- 
dates were likewise important factors. Although Coles de- 
feated Phillips for governor, the election of 1822 may only, to 
a limited extent, be regarded as a victory for the anti-slavery 
forces. 

Eumors were floating about during all this time which con- 
cerned deep-laid plots on the part of the slavery men. As 
early as 1820, the following editorial appeared in an anti-slav- 
ery newspaper: "The Old Slave Party have commenced 
operations, and are preparing to make a desperate effort in 
opposition to Mr. Cook. The hopes of this party, and the ob- 
ject to be accomplished by the election of Mr. Kane, will be 
developed in due time. ' ' 8 By and by these vague rumors be- 
came more definite, but even as late as 1822, the slavery ques- 
tion appears to have exerted but little influence in the choice of 
members of the legislature. 9 Both sides were simply marking 
time and the slave faction was awaiting a favorable oppor- 
tunity to begin operations, while at the same time endeavoring 
to disarm the suspicion of its opponents. It was evident that 
before the question of slavery in Illinois could be settled, a 
campaign would have to be waged on that specific issue. The 
opening of the contest was only a matter of time. 

The leader of the anti-slavery forces made the move which 
at last precipitated the inevitable struggle. Governor Coles, 



7. See Hooper Warren in the Free West, May 10, 1855; for a rather non- 
committal statement by Phillips see his letter to Thomas Sloo, Jr., Ohio His- 
torical and Philosophical Society, Quarterly. VI., No. 3, p. 51; Edwardsville 
Spectator, July 10, 1821. 

8. Edwardsville Spectator, July 4, 1820. Kane and Cook were at that 
time opposing candidates for Congress. 

9. Edwardsville Spectator, May 4, 1822; Illinois Gazette, April 6, 1822; 
Lippincott, Madison County, No. 30. 



393 

in his inaugural address before the General Assembly on De- 
cember 5, 1822, made a plea for the enforcement of the clause 
in the Ordinance of 1787 prohibiting slavery, for a general 
revision of the laws relative to negroes, and for the enactment 
of new laws which should prevent the kidnaping of free 
negroes within the state. 10 This speech of Governor Coles 
fell like a bolt from a clear sky upon friends and foes of slav- 
ery alike. The pro-slavery men in the legislature had as yet 
made no move and the governor's message came to them as a 
challenge. Coles was of the opinion that the slavery question 
was bound to come before that session of the General Assem- 
bly and explained his bold action on the ground that he desired 
to unmask the designs of those whom he believed to be secretly 
plotting the introduction of t