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JOURNAL 



OF THE 



Illinois 
State Historical Society 

Volume 13 
April, 1920 to January, 1921 




Entered at Washington, D. C., as Second Class Matter under Act of Congress 
of July 16. 1894. 




11 



JOUENAL 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 



JESSIE PALMER WEBEB, Editor 

Associate Editors: 

Andrew Russel H. W. Clendenin 

Edward C. Page George W. Smith 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETY. 



President 

DR. OTTO L. SCHMIDT Chicago 

Vice Presidents 

GEORGE A. LAWRENCE Galesburg 

L. Y. SHERMAN Springfield 

RICHARD YATES Springfield 

ENSLEY MOORE Jacksonville 

Directors 

EDMUND J. JAMES, President University of Illinois 

Urbana-Champaign 

E. B. GREENE, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

MRS. JESSIE PALMER WEBER Springfield 

CHARLES H. RAMMELKAMP, President Illinois College 

Jacksonville 

GEORGE W. SMITH, Southern Illinois State Normal University 

Carbondale 

ORRIN N. CARTER Evanston 

RICHARD V. CARPENTER Belvidere 

EDWARD C. PAGE, Northern Illinois State Normal School 

DeKalb 

ANDREW RUSSEL Jacksonville 

WALTER COLYER Albion 

JAMES A. JAMES, Northwestern University Evanston 

H. W. CLENDENIN . . Springfield 

COL. D. C. SMITH Normal 

CLINTON L. CONKLING Springfield 

JOHN H. HAUBERG Rock Island 

Secretary and Treasurer 

MRS. JESSIE PALMER WEBER Springfield 

Assistant Secretary 

Miss GEORGIA L. OSBORNE Springfield 

Honorary Vice Presidents 
The Presidents of Local Historical Societies 






Some Pastors and Pastorates 
During the Century 

of 
Presbyterianism in Illinois 



An Address Delivered 

Oct. 19, 1916 

In the State House, Springfield, Illinois 
In Connection with the Celebration by the Synod of Illinois 

of 
A Century of Presbyterianism in Illinois 

by 
The Rev. James G. K. McClure, D. D.. LL. D. 

President of 

McCormick Theological Seminary 
Chicago 



SOME PASTORS AND PASTORATES DURING THE 

CENTURY OF PRESBYTERIANISM IN 

ILLINOIS. 



JAMES GORE KING McClure. 

In the writings of Walter Scott there is a character for- 
ever to be remembered. There actually was a man Robert 
Paterson who from pure love of noble lives spent his years in 
endeavoring to perpetuate their memory. Accompanied by a 
little white horse, he was wont to visit all the church yards in 
the Highlands of Scotland, search among the grass until he 
found the stones that marked the graves of the worthies and 
then with chisel and hammer clean the stones and cut deeper 
into them the names of these worthies men who had lived 
and perhaps suffered in the cause of pure religion. People 
called him "Old Mortality", and it was no infrequent sight 
in traversing a moor to see him, with his pony browsing at 
his side, hard at work, making some deserted grave stone of 
the wilds tell again its story of Christian service. Motives 
of sincere devotion induced him to dedicate many years to 
perform this tribute to the memory of the deceased warriors 
of the church. Sir Walter tells us he considered himself as 
fulfilling a sacred duty while renewing to the eyes of posterity 
the decaying emblems of the zeal and sufferings of their fore- 
fathers, and thereby trimming, as it were, the beacon light 
which was to inspire future generations to defend their relig- 
ion even unto blood. 

In much the same spirit as that of Old Mortality I address 
myself to the task committed to me to make live again the 
men who in the pastorates within the present Synod of Illinois 
during the past century did splendidly, built permanently and 
left us a stimulating example. This task is peculiarly agree- 
able to me. One special utterance of Christ has always been 
at the center of my heart : ' ' Others have labored and ye are 
entered into their labors. ' ' Our debt to the past may be for- 



Pint if it is forgotten we lose out of our lives all ap- 
g '^nn of those who dared and died in our behalf, and we 
^v onrse^s one^f the most elevating and sanctifying m- 
fluences thtrca^ enter into our being. There is nothing that 
I would rather do than meet appropriately the privilege now 



n this privilege I note two interesting facts 

One is that the Presbyterian form of government is such that 
it does not tend to produce super-man personalities. In our 
form of government every pastor is the equal of every other. 
No one can lord it over another either in title or m fact. We 
all stand upon the same level. The man who has a parish of 
twenty souls has a vote that is equal to the vote of the man 
who has a parish of a thousand souls: he has the same rights 
on the floor of Presbytery and Synod, he may speak his senti 
ments with equal frankness and (best of all) he may expect 
that his sentiments if they are wise, will have exactly as much 
influence as the sentiments of any other. The Presbyterian 
Church has meant to be a church of the people, a church in- 
deed with a message high as heaven's King but with a fellow- 
ship low as earth's multitudes. Its purpose has been to avoid 
anything and everything that savored of aristocracy. We 
should accordingly expect, as we survey the annals of the past, 
that while there are thousands of pastors who have blessed 
their day and place, there will be few of outstanding promi- 
nence. In this fact lies our glory. 

The second fact is this. It is utterly impossible to name 
in a few minutes all the men who in the twelve Presbyteries 
of this Synod have been true and noble pastors. I would be 
glad to call the roll of every one who with a loving pastor's 
heart (and to me there is nothing on earth so conducive to the 
world's good as a loving pastor's heart) has prayed and toiled 
and labored for souls, and place a wreath forever upon him 
but that cannot be. All I can do is to select with inadequate 
discrimination a few pastors who have lived and died, and 
through these few give suggestion of the contribution rendered 
to the Church and to the State, to religion and to education, 
to morality and to general welfare, by all. 

First, I introduce Benjamin Franklin Spilman, pastor of 
the oldest Presbyterian Church in Illinois, the Church at 



Sharon organized in the fall of 1816. The church building was 
of hewed logs. It had one window of four small panes of 
glass. This window was at the side of the pulpit. Whatever 
light was denied the people, it was evidently felt that the 
preacher needed help from heaven. A hearth of flat rock laid 
in the floor near the center of the house served for burning 
charcoal in zero weather. It was here in 1829 that Mr. Spil- 
man was ordained and installed. As he knelt for ordination, 
he thriftily took a white silk handkerchief from his pocket and 
spread it on the floor. He was a typical man of the time. 
He was accustomed to say that when he commenced preaching 
his library consisted of three volumes, a Confession of Faith, 
a Bible and a Hymn Book. But they were enough. With them 
he wrought mightily. It is true he remained but a little time 
at Sharon, he served also the church at Shawneetown, which 
at the beginning of his work consisted of one member, called 
in those days "a female ". As yet, in such records, a person 
had not obtained the name of " woman." His saddle was 
his study. The captains of the Lord in those days were largely 
of the cavalry. In that saddle he in a period of six years 
traveled 3,688 miles and in that saddle in the same period he 
prepared 059 sermons. For a time he was the only Presby- 
terian minister connected with the General Assembly residing 
and statedly laboring in this State. His method of conducting 
the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was to hold services for 
four days and to hold such services twice a year. He organ- 
ized some twenty churches. He was given to hospitality. If 
uin-xpi-cti <! mic-ts canic to !iis small frame house which had 
one bed, he would divide the bedding, leaving half on the bed 
where his guests might rest, while the other half was deposited 
on the floor for himself and wil 

This pastor was a thoughtful, scholarly, prayerful man. 
He was a man of education, a graduate of a college, a student 
of theology. His salary was meager. When he was visiting 
all the Presbyterian churches of Illinois and the western part 
of Indiana as agent of the Western Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety at Pittsburgh, his salary for the year was $300 and his 
traveling expenses, $45.18. Wherever he went he brought on- 



largement of vision and understanding of truth. His heart 
was burdened with solicitude for souls, and revivals waited 
on his ministry. 

While this Benjamin F. Spilman, is often spoken of as 
the father of Presbyterianism in his own portion of Illinois, 
Salmon Giddings, is similarly designated for another portion. 
He preached as early as 1816 in Kaskaskia. It is true he never 
became a settled pastor in Illinois, but he organized seven 
churches in Illinois and helped start the influences which 
made ready for pastorates by others. The condition at Ed- 
wardsville when he came there is illuminating. Such a person 
as the widow of the Eev. Dr. John Blair Smith, nt one time 
President of Hampden-Sidney College, Virginia, came to Ed- 
wardsville in 1817, and she was there eighteen months be- 
fore she heard a single sermon preached. But it was of such 
people as herself and of people of Scotch Irish descent that 
Salmon Giddings formed his seven churches. How this man 
became a Presbyterian is illustrative. He was a Congrega- 
tionalist when he started from New England, but without any 
ecclesiastical procedure he became a Presbyterian minister 
simply in traveling from New England to the Mississippi. 

Here I rest your thought a minute while I explain how it 
was that ministers settled in Illinois, what conditions they 
found and what hardships they met. Representatives of mis- 
sionary societies had come all the way from the east on horse- 
back and had penetrated Southern Illinois and then had sent 
back word, or had taken back word, of the number of people 
here, their lack of religious privileges and their immorality. 
: <This country", they said, "is desperately destitute of Bibles. 
In Kaskaskia, a place containing from 80 to 100 families, there 
are, it is thought, not more than four of five Bibles." Eiver 
towns were apt to have many rough characters in them. Sun- 
day was a day of business and money-making. It was no easy 
task for a church to organize and then proclaim standards 
and observances entirely different from those in vogue. Mini- 
sters had dangers to meet from swollen rivers which they 
swam, with their horses and saddle bags, in all seasons, and 
from prairie storms which often blinded the eyes of man and 
fceast alike and in which they became lost. There were perils 



too from Indians in some parts. The log cabin manse in many 
instances was a place of exposure. 

But there was a remnant of people from Virginia, Penn- 
sylvania and Kentucky, who could be depended upon. It 
was indeed largely Scotch-Irish of whom a keen witted Celt 
once said, "When the potato crop and all other crops fail, the 
Scotch-Irish can live on the Shorter Catechism and the Sab- 
bath. ' ' Though they were living on the Shorter Catechism and 
the Sabbath, and were living well, well enough at least to nour- 
ish their backbone, they were ready for other food and they 
welcomed the coming of the preacher and stood by him in his 
work. Perhaps they could not spell any better than Daniel 
Boone when he wrote of his killing a bear, "cilled a bear", but 
though they were without book education they had clear vi- 
sions of duty, and firm convictions of right and determined al- 
legiance to God and they did not fail. In those days when two 
men met and stopped to talk they stood back to back to watch 
both directions for the lurking Indian, and in those same days 
those very men put back to back with the minister and gave 
him a sense of security and power. 

Now we come to a third name John M. Ellis, who was 
installed pastor of the church at Jacksonville in 1830. The 
missionary spirit was in his veins. He had intended to go to 
India, but he heard of this western country with its rapidly 
increasing population and its lack of religious institutions, and 
he reasoned that if America could be made godly, its power 
for affecting the heathen world would be augmented. It was to 
increase America's moral force that he made his way from 
Boston in six weeks (the Ohio being low) to Illinois. He had 
been charged at the East to build up * ' an institution of learn- 
ing which should bless the west for all time." Visiting Jack- 
sonville in 1828 he was charmed with the place and the people 
and finally bought 80 acres of land and set stakes for a build- 
ing. Then he sent out a letter describing the purpose to erect 
a seminary of learning. It reached Yale College. The result 
was that seven young men decided to take up residence in 
Illinois and have part in the building of a college. 

Let us remember that there were no schools for the higher 
education of young women at that time in this state except the 
convents in the old French settlements. It was therefore a 



new move when Mrs. Ellis took pupils into her own home in 
anticipation of the building of a Female Academy, that home 
being a log cabin of one story, eighteen by twenty feet, and 
trained them. A woman of sensitive refinement and of elegant 
accomplishments she made that home a place of refreshment 
to every one who entered it. She had fine poetic taste and 
superior culture. She was the prototype and expression of 
the pastor's wife in the hundreds of churches later to spring 
up in Illinois the pastor's wife to whom this Synod owes as 
much in many ways as to the pastor himself the unpro- 
claimed influence that sustained his faith and courage, gave 
balance to his judgment and won the devotion of his people. 
Mrs. Ellis died at her post, with unflinching courage. Hers 
was a martyrdom indeed. 

The pastorate of Mr. Ellis was brief but it helped start 
a movement characteristic of Presbyterianism in this state as 
in all states the movement of education. Mr. Ellis was an 
outspoken man whose words sometimes cut deep. He issued 
a statement describing the uneducated ministry in Illinois 
which was resented by some ministers but it was probably 
true concerning persons of some communions who possessed 
zeal and noise, but not knowledge. His pastorate started the 
educational development of this Synod, which has advanced 
into so many strong and useful institutions and which is a 
safe guard to our homes and our churches. 

It is right that at this point a new element should be in- 
troduced, the pastorate as it appeared in the Presbyterian 
body which was called by others " Cumberland", as the first 
disciples of Jesus were called by others " Christian "terms 
which each body allowed to remain attached as distinctive, in 
a way. The origin of this body must be traced to the great 
revivals which moved through the Cumberland valleys and 
mountains and affected adjoining portions of the country. 
These revivals were marked by great power. Oftentimes 
audiences of hundreds, gathered in the open country, were 
swayed by an influence that could be accounted for only as 
Iivme. Men and women became conscious of their sinfulness, 
and then accepted God's forgiveness with complete consecra- 
tion of their lives. The warmth of their conviction was 
tervid. In many cases while listening to preaching they were 



seized by a jerking agitation of their bodies and they fell to 
the ground coming to consciousness in due time with an 
abounding faith in Christ and with a determined purpose to 
serve him. So far as I am aware, no careful student of these 
scenes has ever been able to explain them apart from the 
working of God. 

It is an historic coincidence that the man who organized 
the First Presbyterian Church of Illinois at Sharon in 1816, 
the Rev. James McGready, was the main instrument of the 
revival influences out of which grew the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church whom the Kentucky synod suspended from 
the ministry for endorsing the revival measures and sympa- 
thizing with the fathers, doctrines and measures of the Cum- 
berland Presbyterians (Logan, H. of C. Ch. ch. 24). So far 
as I can learn, the first Cumberland pastor was Rev. David 
AVilson McKin who in 1818 settled in this state and organized 
the first regular congregation, the Hopewell, now Enfield 
Church. He was a convert of the revival of 1800. He learned 
the tailor trade and at times during his whole life worked at 
his trade when in need of support for his family. He often 
came home from preaching tired, and sat up all night labor- 
ing to secure subsistence for his family before starting out on 
another missionary tour. He preached at times in a mixed 
jean suit, but a spectator declared he was the neatest man he 
ever saw. He preached with vigor and with beauty. He or- 
ganized many churches. He had appointments far and near, 
in churches, schools and private houses. He had a camp 
meeting ground near his church. In those days people came 
from a hundred miles around. An acre or more was set apart 
for the tents. Everyone expected to be blessed. Preaching on 
the "Pure River and the Tree of Life" he was so brilliant that 
the concourse burst into loud hallelujahs. They seemed to 
see the glory depicted. The preacher sprang from the pulpit, 
conversions followed, multitudes traced their salvation to his 
instrumentality. Among them was Joel Knight, later known 
as Father Knight. No wonder that the name of McKin was 
perpetuated in McKin Presbytery. 

There was another pastor, Rev. John McCutcheon Berry 
who must have a word of reference, settled in Sangamon 
County, the only preacher of the Cumberlands in all the 






'i vr 

to say "The 8th day of January made Andrew Jackson 
President and me a preacher.' And then, as a true ambassa- 
dor of God, he would add, -I would not swap my place for 1 



r Berry was opposed to the liquor traffic. Indeed 
he was its uncompromising foe. Like every other Presbyter- 
ian pastor who has served this state during the last one hun- 
dred years, he recognized the evils connected with intemper- 
ance; and the sorrow and disgrace of intoxicating dm 
weighted his heart. The first temperance society of the sta 
was organized in the First Presbyterian church of Spnngneid, 
known as "The Washingtonian Society.' He spoke i 
labored against the sale of ardent spirits as indeed what 
truly patriotic man will not do ! Abraham Lincoln heard him. 
Abraham Lincoln was impressed by him. The time came 
after Mr. Lincoln had risen to eminence as a lawyer, t 
grog shop was exerting a bad influence upon some husbands. 
The wives of these men united their forces, assailed the shop, 
knocked the heads out of the barrels, broke the bottles and 
smashed things generally. The women were prosecuted. 
Then Mr. Lincoln volunteered to defend them ! In the course 
of a forceful argument upon the evils of the use of ardent 
spirits, and of the traffic in them while many in the crowded 
court room were bathed in tears, Mr. Lincoln turned, and 
pointing with his big hand toward Mr. Berry who was stand- 
ing near said, " There is a man who years ago was instru- 
mental in convincing me of the evils of the sale and use of 
spirituous liquors. I am glad that I ever saw him. I am glad 
I ever heard his testimony on this terrible subject." 

It was said then as it may be said now that Mr. Berry was 
more honored by that testimony than he would have been if 
afterwards Mr. Lincoln had made him Secretary of State. 

The time has now come for me to tell you the story of 
Aratus Kent. And what a story it is ! He was of New Eng- 



land stock, with the best elements of the Puritan flowing in 
his blood. Thoroughly educated, he was sought by several 
eastern churches. But he had heard of the thousands of min- 
ers and merchants living in the Mississippi Valley without 
church or school. Accordingly he appeared before the Ameri- 
can Home Missionary Society and said, "Send me to a place 
in the west so hard that no one else will take it." The society 
sent him to Galena. He landed in Galena April 18th, 1829, 
27 days after leaving New York City. On the river there was 
not another minister above St. Louis. Northern Illinois, Wis- 
consin, Iowa and Minnesota were occupied by Indians. The 
settlement at Chicago had not begun. Chicago was but a 
marsh and the site of Ft. Dearborn. He was the first pio- 
neer missionary of Northern Illinois. When he reached Ga- 
lena there was no church of any denomination, Protestant or 
Catholic, within 200 miles, no Sabbath, no God recognized, and 
there was no communication with the rest of the world while 
the Mississippi was frozen. Profanity and gambling had ob- 
tained an alarming and sickening prevalence. The few who 
had professed religion in their more eastern homes had fallen 
into habits of indifference or wrong. It was a Sabbath morn- 
ing when he landed. He secured a store, brushed the shavings 
out and started services. It took nearly 3 years of toil be- 
fore he could organize a church and even then he had only six 
members, out of a population of some thousands of people 
only two of the six living in Galena itself, the other four living 
out of Galena, from five to forty miles. In 1841 he was in- 
stalled pastor. He was a vigorous personality. In one of his 
early tours, coming to a bluff that commanded an extensive 
view of the valley of the Mississippi, and of the prairies on 
oil her side, he dropped down from his horse, took off his 
hat, and with uplifted hand said aloud, "I take possession of 
this land for Christ!" He went everywhere to do his part 
in securing that possession. He had a record of travel cover- 
ing 20,000 miles and 479 different places of preaching with 
3,000 sermons. As early as 1843 he could say "I have been in 
perils of water six times, perils in the wilderness three nights, 
several times lost, but out of them all the Lord has delivered 
me." On one occasion he started to attend the Synod of 
Indiana which included the State of Illinois, at Vandalia, then 



10 



the capital of Illinois. One day he rode 40 miles without see- 
ing a house; once he swam a river; once he was lost a whole 
day After 19 days of travel he arrived. But the Synod had 
adfourned ! He performed labors, endured hardships and en- 
countered exposures for Christ which he never would have 
attempted for wealth or fame. It is said of him that no man 
has lived in the Northwest who has left behind him such an 
impress of his life and has influenced so many minds, 
aided nine young men to study for the ministry and induced 
many others to be ministers. He was the first President of 
the Board of Trustees of Beloit College and the founder of 
Eockford College. He and Mrs. Kent took into their home, 
reared and educated 12 orphan children all becoming useful 
members of society. On a salary of $600 a year, he and Mrs. 
Kent for 36 years of wedded life, ordering their household 
without employing outside help, gave away $7,000 and laid by 
a decent support for old age ! An unpretentious stone marks 
his grave in the old cemetery at Galena but for grandeur of 
conception and for magnitude of service no man in the whole 
ministry deserves so conspicious a recognition as Aratus 
Kent. 

Still another pastor should now be presented represent- 
ing a different kind of work the long time pastor who quietly 
abides by his flock and is not an itinerant in any respect the 
Eev. Dr. Isaac Amada Cornelison of Washington. When he 
came into Illinois from Pennsylvania he settled at what was 
known as Crow Meadow in Marshall County, where govern- 
ment land could be bought at that time for fifty cents an acre, 
now worth from $250 to $300 per acre. Prairie chicken could 
be shot from a nearby fence in case of unexpected company, 
and a toothsome meal thus be provided in a hurry. After 
serving at Crow Meadow and at Low Point and at Matawan 
he accepted the earnest call of the church at Washington. Here 
he remained, with the exception of one year during which 
he served as pastor of the Logan Square church in 
Philadelphia, forty-six years. About two years before 
his resignation he became afflicted with blindness so 
that he was unable to read the Scriptures. The con- 
gregation would not consider his surrender of the pulpit and 
when in 1910 he did give up his work the congregation made 



11 

him Pastor Emeritus and surrounded him with love and de- 
votion. 

Two facts of his pastorate beside its length and faith- 
fulness give it eminence. One is the fact of his authorship. 
He published two books, one "The Relation of Eeligion to 
Civil Government in the United States," the other. "The 
Natural History of the Religious Feelings.*' In such author- 
ship he was representative of pastors all over the Synod who 
in the past century have written and issued pamphlets and 
books bearing upon all phases of human thought and human 
need. They have studied local history and preserved it in 
print, they have dealt with every feature of educational, moral 
and religious questions, and have given their views in maga- 
zines and in bound volumes. Busy as they have been with 
the preaching of the gospel and with the absorbing duties of 
the pastorate, they have made time to create a literature of 
large value. 

Then there is this eminent fact in Dr. Cornelison's life 
his interest in ecclesiastical procedure. Together with Col. 
James M. Rice of Peoria Presbytery he was instrumental in 
bringing to the front and finally securing the adoption of, what 
is known as the "Peoria Overture" an Overture that simpli- 
fies the workings of the annual General Assembly by providing 
for the designation of all Committees immediately upon the 
convening of the Assembly with truly representative basis 
so that the Assembly starts upon its work with the least pos- 
sible delay. Dr. Cornelison was a dutiful and intelligent Pres- 
byter. He knew Presbyterian usages, and could moderate Sy- 
nod with grace and firmness. He was a man of statesmanlike 
wisdom and he exemplified the possibility inherent in every 
pastorate of influencing the entire denomination. He pre- 
served the bloom of youth into advanced years. 

One single word must here be introduced concerning the 
Rev. William Kirkpatrick Stewart who was pastor at Van- 
dalia while it was still the Capital of Illinois. He it was that 
introduced the first Protestant church bell in the whole Missis- 
sippi Valley, it is claimed. This Bell was presented to the 
Presbyterian congregation, Vandalia, Illinois, by Romulus 



Esq , a merchant of Philadelphia, in the name of his 
t daughter, Miss Illinois Riggs, and bore the mscript 

ILLINOIS RIGGS 

TO THE PRESBYTERIAN CONGREGATION 
VANDALIA 

1830 

See Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. 

Vol. 2, no. 4, Jan. 1910. P. 79. 

There was the Roman Catholic house of worship at Kas- 
kaskia with its bell, but the first Protestant bell in the Mi 
sissippi valley was that of Mr. Stewart. 

I said at the outset that the Presbyterian pastor holds no 
lordship over his fellow ministers. Nor does he. There was 
one pastor in this Synod, however, who in his time exercised 
such commanding influence by the worthiness of his character 
and the wisdom of his counsel that he could truly say, " There 
is not a Presbyterian Church of conspicuous size within 30( 
miles of Chicago that has not consulted me with reference to 
the calling of its pastor." That man was Robert W. Pat- 
terson, pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church of Chicago. 

In a certain sense he was the child of this Synod because 
he was a graduate of the College founded within the Synod 
at Jacksonville. He came to Chicago as a licentiate in 1842. 
Chicago at the time was a low, muddy town of about 6,000 in- 
habitants, having perhaps ten or a dozen brick edifices in it of 
very moderate proportions, stores included. The Second 
Church, a new organization of 26 members, asked him to be its 
pastor. For three months the congregation worshipped in 
what was called "The City Saloon" the name of a popular 
hall, before the word "Saloon" had acquired its unhealthy 
reputation. This very name as then used throws light upon 
the character of Chicago's population at that time: they were 
bright, active, enterprising and generally church goers, not 
habitues of the ordinary drinking place. With a nucleus of 
such material he began his work. 

The slavery issue was in the air. Love joy, a Presbyter- 
ian minister had been shot at Alton. Various views were held 
as to the best method of attacking slavery. Some men be- 
lieved in constant outspokenness and denunciation. Others 



13 

believed in a quieter but none the less earnest devotion to 
the abolition of slavery. Dr. Patterson was of this second 
group. He consequently exposed himself to the charge of 
being a pro-slavery man and was designated ' ' the dough faced 
minister. " But his attitude in this matter as in every other 
was of "the quiet, deep running sort, not fitful nor spas- 
modic. " He was never vociferous, nor was he ever volatile. 
Little by little he gathered about him a band of men and 
women of the highest value to Chicago and to the Northwest. 
Stalwart in person but unobtrusive, he moulded life by his 
considerate wisdom. The strongest minds in Chicago sat be- 
neath his ministry and listened with respect to his convincing 
statements of fundamental Christian truth. He thought 
deeply, he meditated extendedly, he read widely. Every phase 
of philosophy and of theology and of education was familiar 
to him. His mind was penetrating his process was thorough. 
When he had finished a subject, it had been comprehensively 
and completely treated. 

He became the most widely known man as he was the larg- 
est and ablest man in the pastorate of his day. A self-reliant 
and independent man, he looked with fear on any thing that 
seemed to limit freedom of thinking. He believed in giving 
to Presbyteries all possible rights and he disbelieved in deny- 
ing those rights to Presbyteries by centralization of powers 
in the General Assembly. He felt that the Westminster Con- 
fession of Faith, admirably adapted for the age when it was 
constructed, 250 years ago, was cumbrous for this age and 
should be simplified and reduced in size. He looked for more 
and more light to come to Christ's Church through the leader- 
ship of the Holy Spirit, and preserved a sweet, cheery, hope- 
ful spirit until his dying day. Perhaps he never was so loved 
never so much revered, as after he had surrendered all 
public duties and was a man among men. His plea for the at- 
tacked had not always been successful, as when he argued that 
Professor Swing was entitled to more tolerant treatment than 
he received, and argued that condemnation would accentuate 
not correct, the situation but though he saw the unfortunate 
effects on Presbyterianism in Chicago of the Swing trial 
which it took a whole generation of years to outlive he pre- 
served his serenity undimned. ' ' Practically the whole of his 



14 



extraordinary career as pastor, ecclesiastical leader college 
president, theological professor and voluminous writer for 
the press, was passed in this Commonwealth. 

The writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews, having touched 
upon the lives of several of those who in other days had glori- 
fied God and blessed the earth, exclaimed, "And what shall 
say more?" So I repeat, 'What shall I say more.' For the 
time would fail me to tell of Jonathan Edwards and John 
Weston of Peoria Presbytery, of J. G. Bergen and William 
Logan Tarbet of Springfield Presbytery, of Wm. H. Temple- 
ton and Thomas E. Spilman of Ewing Presbytery, of James 
A Piper and Garnett A. Pollock of Ottawa Presbytery, of 
Robert Conover and Charles N. Wilder of Bloomington Pres- 
bytery, of Thomas E. Johnson and Samuel Cleland of Bock 
Eiver Presbytery, of Joseph S. Braddock and I. E. Cary of 
the Presbytery of Freeport, of John M. Eobinson and Ben- 
jamin C. Swan of the Presbytery of Cairo, of A. T. Norton and 
Albert Hale of the Presbytery of Alton, of George C. Noyes 
and John H. Barrows of the Chicago Presbytery and of the 
devoted men of the Eushville and Mattoon Presbyteries. 

"These all had witness borne to them through their faith. 

And were men renowned for their power, 

Giving counsel by their understanding. 

Such as have brought tidings in prophecies. 

Wise were their words in their instruction, 

Men richly furnished with ability, 

Living peaceably in their habitations. 

All these were honored in their generations, 

And were the glory of their times. 

Yea, they were men of mercy, 

Whose righteous deeds have not been forgotten. 

Their bodies are buried in peace, 

But their name liveth for evermore. 

For the memorial of virtue is immortal, 

Because it is known with God and with men." 

Yes, known with God are those whose names have been men- 
tioned, and known with Him also are the hundreds upon hun- 
dreds of names not mentioned, names, dear names, of His 
own godly ministers who in village, town and city have la- 
bored for Him, and have labored with Him, and have 



15 

helped make this earth the earth of Christ's re- 
demption. All honor to them! The were supreme ideal- 
ists. They strove to put the permanent into the in- 
dividual and into society. They builded for eternity. 
Among all the sons of men, statesmen, warriors, inventors, 
there are none whose work is so imperishable as the work 
of those who teach and who live the Gospel of our Lord Jesus 
Christ! 

But not to them alone be the praise. Rather let it be to 
the congregations, the men and women engaged in home, in 
farm, in shop, in store, who were the churches and who in 
the churches and through the churches, upheld,- supported and 
gave power, beauty and prosperity to the work of the pastors. 
It is the people, the thoughtful, self-sacrificing, godly people 
in Presbyterianism who are the source and expression of the 
church of Jesus Christ; and to them, the elders, the deacons 
and the members of the churches be the praise, under God, for 
the past 100 years in the Synod of Illinois. 

And I saw in spirit a great company in white robes, with 
palms in their hands, and with the light of the glory of God 
upon their faces. Then I looked for "Old Mortality" whose 
mission once was so necessary but "Old Mortality" no more 
could be found. Then I beheld an angel among these sanctified 
ones, the angel of Christ's opened sepulchre, the angel of 
eternal youth, and I said, "Who are these and whence came 
they!" And he said, "These are they who in the pulpits and 
in the churches of Illinois were written in the Lamb's Book of 
Life." And as he stood among them their representative 
I said, "What is thy name? Hast thou given them thy name? 
And he said, I have given them My name and My name and 
their name is "New Immortality". 



10 



IN ST. LOUIS DURING THE " CRISIS." 

*BY DR. CYRUS B. PLATTENBURG. 

The lad of fifteen had been working his way to St. Louis 
from Keokuk on the stern-wheeled steamer "Aunt Lettie." 
His father had preceded him, and was in business in that city. 
As he was working to earn his passage on the steamer 
the lad faithfully made berths, waited on table, and 
scrubbed woodwork, but as he leaned over the rail 
along with other cabin boys and watched that great 
levee as the boat made a circle to dome around to 
the wharf boat, he felt amply repaid for his exertions, for 
there never was such a scene anywhere in the world as that 
cotton and sugar covered mile front, with negroes driving 
mules tandem to drays loaded ten feet high ; stevedores haul- 
ing and pulling things in all directions, the odds and ends 
that made up the pile of freight, and above all a rumble that 
was indescribable. As he made his way up into the City after 
landing, his black oil cloth carpet bag in his hand, the size of 
those great buildings, three stories and some even four, over- 
powered him, and the stores all looked most palatial to the 
lad from Keokuk. 

He found his father's store at 6th and Pine St., in one of 
the few business blocks west of 4th St., and his father was 
indeed glad to see one of his own, and the one of his own 
soon got to know the lay of the town and spent his time, when 
not at work, wandering around that old place that was so 
different from any he had ever seen before, for there were old 
aristocrats in bell-crowned hats, with ruffled shirt bosoms, 
brass buttoned coats, and trousers with straps, old colored 
mammies everywhere with bandanna handkerchiefs on their 
heads and market baskets on their arms, or carrying or wheel- 
ing the babies of their white owners, for there were slaves 



17 

there and at least one place where they sold them at auction. 
Young blades that were the real thing were always in evidence. 
Some parts of the city were as French as New Orleans, and the 
lad used to delight to stroll down Carondelet Avenue past the 
French market and the French stores, and finally bring up at 
the Arsenal where he could see through the gate a sentry 
and buildings that housed the garrison and the stores of am- 
munition that were part of the Government. Of a Sunday 
though his favorite trip was to the levee, and on his way down 
Vine Street he always stopped to peep through between two 
great gates in the opening of a large cell-shaped brick building 
at a lot of old wagons that had been used by the Laclede Fur 
Company in early days to bring furs from the great West. 
At the levee there were boats from that same region where 
the fur came from, but they were palatial and a far cry from 
the old exploring days. Some boats like the "Northern Light" 
came from where the Indians were said to gather wild rice 
and great lumber rafts came from far North on the river. 

From the South came still other great vessels, with the 
glamour of Uncle Tom and Little Eva about them; some with 
bananas hanging on the boiler decks, at times with long south- 
ern moss over them, and piles of pineapples things that the 
lad longed for, but which were at that time a little too rich 
for him, as times were hard and they were expensive 
because at that time everything had to be brought up from 
the South by water. Now owing to the fact that railroads 
parallel the river bank on both sides everybody can afford 
them. 

The Planters House was the center of social gatherings, 
and thehe the young Southerners used to stand at the bar em- 
bibing sherry cobblers and mint juleps, talking in that soft 
southern dialect that is so pleasant to the ear, or " making 
Borne howl at times." 

Well, things went along to the taste of the lad. He was 
enjoying himself, for he worked on alternate nights in a job 
printing office and spent the extra quarters he made at the 
St. Louis theatre, seeing Murdock, Booth, Billy Florence, and 
all the stars of that time, and the fact that he sat in the "pit" 
did not interfere with his enjoyment in the least ; and once at 
a little ice cream place near the theatre he was sitting at a 



18 

table eating ice cream when Wilkes Booth came in and seated 
himself opposite him and proceeded to order a plate of ice 
cream too. The lad would have given anything to have been 
able to have spoken to him, as he was his theatrical idol, but 
he lacked the nerve. He was the handsomest man the stage 
ever had on it, and he looked as kind and gentle as any 
man. What a pity, his end ! 

The lad got into society to a certain extent, and was as 
fond of singing "Lorena" Ever of Thee" and " Listen to the 
Mocking Bird" as anyone, especially with his girl acquain- 
tances. At times the man came to collect the rent for the 
store and the lad was there. He was a medium sized, quiet 
man, and rather a poor talker, but used to tell the lad's father 
about the Mexican War, and was quite interesting. He was 
Mr. Grant of the firm of Boggs and Grant, real estate agents. 
His cousin Boggs had taken him into partnership, and Boggs 
tended the office and Grant tended to things on the outside, 
and afterwards became General Grant. But the man who 
most interested the lad was Colonel Bonneville, of the Regu- 
lar Army in command of the Department, and a friend of his 
father's who scouted over the plains in the thirties and was 
as great an explorer as Fremont, and of whom Washington 
Irving wrote a volume describing his travels over the vast 
unexplored west.* 

The election of Abraham Lincoln about this time began 
to stir things up. Men argued politics at first peacefully, but 
after a while wrathfully. Brawls became frequent and finally 
there came a time when an old mansion in the neighborhood 
became head-quarters for the secession element, and a 
nondescript flag floated over it. At the order of the Governor 
who was a southern sympathizer the uniformed militia com- 
panies had marched out and founded Camp Jackson in the 
western suburbs ; the purpose of it all being to force Missouri 
out of the Union ; and as the lad, now a very young man, knew 
some of the boys out there he used to go out to see them in 
camp, and as they stood in line at parade rest, on dress pa- 
rade, and the command was " officers front and center" he 
envied every one of them. And men were being drilled by the 



far 

2 vols. 12 mo. London, 1837. 






19 

lot of southern leaders at a large tobacco ware-house up 
Sixth St., and a friend who took him up to see it wanted him 
to join; but while his father and he were democrats, they 
were not that kind of democrats, but had been for Douglas 
and were going to stand by the old flag. 

One fine morning his friend, Victor Vogel, now living in 
Chicago, got him to go down to the Arsenal to see the troops 
there. Victor was in a company commanded by his brother- 
in-law, Fritz Leser, who was the President of the Turner So- 
ciety, and the loyal German captain in the "Crisis," 
Winston Churchill's famous novel, and who was a friend 
of the lad and his father. Everywhere overseeing things 
was a medium sized red haired man they said was 
Captain Lyon of the Kegulars, and who was later General, 
and killed at Wilson's Creek. Preparation was in the air 
troops training, German home guards being drilled in every 
available space; girls making cartridges as fast as their fin- 
gers could fly, and a seriousness that meant business was- 
evident all over the place. 

And then shortly after a band was heard on Morgan 
Street, near his home, and on going to see what was up, ho 
saw a strong regiment of Home Guards marching west with 
Old Glory flapping in the breeze ; and on a street farther south 
another regiment was moving in the same direction and still 
others, and batteries. They marched out, and following went 
the interested young man. They had surrounded the camp 
captured it, and he saw his friends, the enemy, marched down 
to the Arsenal, prisoners escorted by what everybody in St. 
Louis mostly called the "dam Dutch." 

Things were getting serious, and while some blood had 
been shed at Camp Jackson owing to the Home Guards firing 
into the crowd, the young man had not been in danger out 
there, being safely flattened behind a brick house and out of 
range; but the next day, hearing a band, he went out of the 
store and saw marching along Walnut Street, three blocks 
south, a regiment. He could see the glitter of the sunlight 
on their bayonets over the heads of the people Watching them, 
and, of course, down he started, but a queer thing happened 
about that time, for a white cloud of smoke suddenly envel- 
oped the line of people down there, and instantly the sound 



20 



of firing was heard, and as he stood looking, strange sounds 
filled the air in his immediate neighborhood, and gradually it 
dawned on him that a minie rifle could carry three block 
easily, and that the thing that struck a lamp post near him 
was a dreaded minie ball. He was down the basement steps 
in short order. On raising his head and looking down where 
the firing had come from, he could see a pile of dark forms 
across the street lying prostrate. To make things worse, 
right across the street a man caught up with another carry- 
ing a gun, thinking him a militia man, put a revolver to his 
head and killed him. The young man and his father closed 
the store and started for home, and you may believe they were 
on the alert for it seemed death was in the air. 

Well, things after a while seemed to have become better ; 
business was going on, and everything was quiet, so, of course, 
when the band sounded a block away on 7th Street, the lure 
was too much to be resisted and so away he went again, and 
was soon on the very front of the crowd of spectators, 
was enjoying things immensely, watching the regiment march 
]by Home Guards who had been out of the city on some order- 
guarding bridges or something of that kind and were deco- 
rated with paper flowers as they passed through the German 
part of the city. Happening to look up 7th Street towards 
the rear of the regiment of Home Guards, he saw a puff of 
white smoke. Now he had seen those puffs before, and so 
before the sound reached him, he turned and ran, pushing peo- 
ple right and left and was in Conway's grocery store at the 
corner, and up two flights of stairs in- no time. There he 
found a room, a door open, and two as badly frightened young 
fellows as himself. He rushed in and stayed just long enough 
to take one look out of the open window at the regiment of 
howling, shouting Germans below, each loading, yelling and 
firing like mad men. In the play of the " Crisis" he saw in 
later years, he looked on the same scene again, for one of 
those regiments fired at a room in which the southern villian 
-was firing at them. And even then he about felt his hair raise. 
"Well there must be something done, so out into the hall again 
he ran where, hanging by his hands, he dropped onto the 
roof of a two story building, which was one of four brick 
dwellings on Pine Street that ended against the building he 



21 

was in, then by the same process onto a one story kitchen, and 
then to the ground emerging through a small alley farther 
along, where the first thing he saw was his father coming 
after him in his shirt sleeves, his face white as his shirt, not 
knowing whether he would find him dead or alive. However, 
the firing had ceased, the regiment gone, and sixty dead and 
wounded lay on the ground, and all this had been caused by 
one of the troops down the column letting the hammer of his 
gun slip while trying to full cock his piece. 

Well, one might as well be shot in the ranks as any other 
way so as an American regiment was being raised the 7th en- 
rolled Missouri Militia he was soon a member. Singular to re- 
late each company had a distinctive uniform. Company "A" 
which was supposed to be commanded by the hero of the 
"Crisis" wore blue; "B" was a Zouave Company; and "E", 
his company, had uniforms that evidently had been captured 
from the rebels for the jacket was gray; and so when the 
troops turned out, his Company got the most applause because 
the Southern sympathizers could applaud this color, and they 
did not often get a chance to do that then, for you must know 
by this time if a woman wore a red, white and red flower in 
her bonnet she was liable to be taken to the guard house. But 
no one could find fault with them giving a glad hand to the 
loyal boys with their gray jackets even though -very body 
knew their feelings. While in that regiment it devolved on it 
to gather in all the men in the city, and they were forced into 
an army for its defense. Had the German troops under- 
taken that duty, blood would have been shed like water, for 
the feeling against them was still strong. The reason for 
that was "Pap" Price was near the city. 

Two companies with our young man went up the Mis- 
souri River breaking boats, so Pap. Price couldn't get across 
the river ; and the boat John Warner lay off Lexington, Mo. 
all day long with the two companies, the lad being in one of 
them, behind hay bales guarding the river front of that town, 
while the battle of Lone Jack was fought twelve miles back in 
the country and Price who had been making for the town was 
driven off. 

Some duty was being done daily and one was at the 
Armory almost constantly. Well, one day Mr. Yeatman, 



22 

President of the Western Sanitary Commission and the 
"Brinsmore" of the " Crisis", asked him when he stopped to 
get his father's salary at the sanitary headquarters, if he 
would like to go down and visit his father, the Field Agent 
of the Commission, then at Vicksburg, supplying the Army 
and Navy with stores from a large boat. He told the captain 
he didn't think his mother could spare him, but she thought 
she could get along for awhile, so on the hospital boat, ' ' City 
of Memphis", returning for more sick and wounded, and 
loaded with supplies for his father, he stood on the boiler 
deck and watched the smoke of old St. Louis fade in the dis- 
tance, and he felt as if he were leaving a city he loved, that 
charmed him, and one that, looked at from any side, was full 
of interest, and men and women with red blood in their veins, 
and had been "held tight" through troublesome times for 
Old Glory. 



OLD-TIME CAMPAIGNING AND THE STORY OF A 
LINCOLN CAMPAIGN SONG. 

BY WILLIAM HAWLEY SMITH. 

It was on the 8th of August, in the year 1860, 
that a " grand rally" of the republican party was held at 
Springfield, 111., to ratify the nomination of Abraham Lincoln, 
as the party's candidate for the presidency of the United 
States. Party spirit ran high, and enthusiasm for what the 
party stood for was at a white heat all over the Prairie State. 
The result of all this was that great crowds flocked to the state 
capital, from every county and town in the entire common- 
wealth, not only to show their loyalty to the party they were 
pledged to, but especially to do honor to the man who repre- 
sented all they politically hoped for and believed in. I was 
but a boy of 15 at the time, yet the events of that occasion were 
so emphatic and pronounced that they stamped themselves in- 
delibly upon my memory, many of them in great detail, and it 
is of some of these and one especially, that I write in what 
follows. 

Railroads were few and far between in Illinois in those days, 
and only a minor part of those who wished to attend the great 
in: M 'ting could reach the state capital by such means of trans- 
portation. But horses were plenty, and there were wagons 
galore, especially farm wagons, in all the region between Chi- 
cago and Cairo, and the rural people of the state (and most 
of the people of the state were rural at that time. Chicago 
had less than 100,000 inhabitants, and there was not another 
city in the state that had a population of 10,000 all told) were 
used to traveling in their own conveyances, or on horseback. 
It was in the time of the year when prairie roads were at their 
best, and so it was that the farmers came by the thousands 
to attend the " grand ratification." Many came two, and some 
i' vrii three hundred miles in this way, joyfully, gladly, to show 
their devotion to the cause they represented, the party they 



24 

were a part of, and the man they loved. They rode or drove 
by day, camped by the roadside at night, their faces always 
towards one common point, the state capital, and their hearts 
filled with great expectations as to what they should see and 
hear when they arrived at their destination. These facts show 
something, even at this late day, of the fervor, not to say pas- 
sion that animated the spirits of the rank and file of the Ee- 
publican party more than half a century ago. 

My father was a farmer who owned and cultivated a "sec- 
tion" of land, 640 acres, in the southeast corner of Christian 
county, about sixty miles from Springfield. He was an "orig- 
inal" Lincoln man, was a member of the state convention 
which met at Decatur, 111., early in the summer, where Mr. 
Lincoln was declared as a " favorite son, ' ' and where the plans 
were laid, and the machinery was started, which in a large 
measure resulted in his nomination a few weeks later at Chi- 
cago, and he was also present at the Chicago convention, all 
the time from its call to order to its sine die adjournment. 
He brought back from Decatur a part of a black-walnut rail 
that Mr. Lincoln had split years before, and after his return 
from Chicago he could not speak aloud for more than a week. 
He had a naturally stentorian voice, which he literally wore 
to a frazzle in ' ' rooting, " as it would be called nowadays, for 
his favorite candidate in the "wigwam" where the convention 
was held in the then, as now, "Windy City" on the lake. 

Early fall is the very witching time for sowing 
wheat in Central Illinois, and father had two hundred acres to 
sow that fall. But that could not keep him from attending 
the "grand rally," nor from taking his five hired men with 
him to help swell the throng that was to greet the great party 
leader. And I was greatly delighted when he told me that he 
also wished me to make one of his company that was to attend 
the great event. Young as I was I had joined the "Wide 
Awakes," the marchers and torch-bearers of the campaign, 
and it was as one of these that I went on this pilgrimage to 
the state capital. I was also a member of the * ' Campaign 
Glee Club," but more of that later. 

Father fitted up his largest and strongest farm wagon 
with a broad platform, or sort of flat deck on top, built over 
the frame of a hay rack, a plain surface about eighteen feet 



long and six or seven feet wide, floored with stout oak boards 
but without any railing around the sides. This was for the 
use of the "Glee Club," some dozen or more young men and 
boys, who when not "in action" sat with their feet and legs 
dangling over the edge of the deck, riding "sidewise" as the 
wagon was driven along. When they sang they stood up on 
the deck-platform with their arms around each other to keep 
from falling off as the wagon "joggled" over the uneven- 
roads. Under the platform, and to be got at through a trap 
door that was cut through the dc-ck. there were stored the 
"provisions" of the trip, also blankets, torches, oil-cloth uni- 
forms, etc. Father furnished four of his best horses to pull 
the load, and he drove the outfit most of the time on our four 
days' trip coming and going. We boys of the "Glee Club" 
sat on the uncushioned planks of that oak-floored deck-plat- 
form for those same four days, by day, and most of us slept 
under the wagon during the nights we were out. And that 
was a part of the way we younger fry "did our bit" in that 
memorable campaign. 

No sooner were we started on our journey capitalward 
than we began to be joined at every cross-road by other pil- 
grims bound for the same goal. Indeed we fell into and be 
came a part of such a procession from the very outset. This 
procession grew and grew in length as we progressed until 
before the second night of our encampment it was more than 
seven miles long, and it was made up almost exclusively of 
farm wagons and men on horseback. One would see here and 
there an "express wagon" with springs under its bed, and 
th ore were a very few carriages in all the line. This seven- 
mile procession was only one of several similar ones coming 
in to a common center from all parts of the state. 

The second night out we camped in a tract of timber, 
about three miles south of Springfield. We were all up before- 
day break on the following morning, and the last star had not 
been put to bed for the day when we started on the "last lap" 
of our memorable journey. 

It was "five o'clock in the morning" when our Glee Club, 
wagon and all, arrived at the old state house square, then in 
the very center of the city of Springfield. Just as we came 
up opposite the front entrance of the capitol building who 



should come out of its door but the great hero of the day, 
Abraham Lincoln himself, tall and gaunt, his high plug 
hat" making him look taller than ever. (I have often wond- 
ered how it happened that he was where he was so early in 
the morning of that great day.) His unusual height was spe- 
cially emphasized as he came out onto the sidewalk by the fact 
that ex-Governor Wood, a very short and " stubby" man, was 
walking beside him. The two together made a very striking 
appearance as they walked along. 

My father knew Mr. Lincoln well, and as he was driving 
he was the first of our party to recognize him. He called out 
to him, and when Mr. Lincoln turned and raised his hat in re- 
sponse half a dozen or more of the young men on our wagon 
jumped to the ground, ran to the sidewalk, picked the tall man 
up bodily, and began carrying him along the street on their 
stalwart farmer-boy shoulders! (It was in the month of 
May, five years later, that I stood in front of the same capitol 
building and saw the casket which bore all that was mortal 
of the then martyr president carried out from its front door, 
borne on the shoulders of eight stalwart soldiers along the 
same sidewalk where our boys so triumphantly carried him 
ihat morning of which I am writing.) 

It was several blocks from the state house to Mr. Lincoln's 
home, but once our boys had taken hold they never let up till 
they had set their load down on his own doorstep. I have 
often thought that it must have been a far more honorable 
than it was a comfortable ride for Mr. Lincoln, carried as he 
was like a log of wood on the shoulders of those wildly-shout- 
ing farmer boys. 

A part of our campaign outfit brought all the way with 
us was a small cast-iron cannon, a gun about three feet long, 
with a two-inch bore. It was regularly mounted on a conven- 
tional wheel-carriage, in such cases made and provided, and 
was drawn by a pair of black ponies. The driver of the pon- 
ies and the captain of the cannon gun-squad was an old soldier 
of the Mexican war. The outfit made quite a telling appear- 
ance and the little old gun could make a noise which, as I 
remember it, was many times what might be expected from 
one of its size. 



27 

Our Glee Club wagon kept abreast of our boys who were 
carrying Lincoln, and the cannon and its squad were just be- 
hind us in the procession. We all halted in front of Mr. Lin- 
col's home, the cannon was unlimbered and placed squarely 
before the gate that led up to the steps where he was stand- 
ing, and a salute of thirteen guns was fired in honor of the 
day, the occasion, and, above all, of the man whose ear-drums 
must have been nearly ruptured as he stood leaning against 
the door-jam, smiling and laughing, as he constantly shook 
hands with the crowds that jammed into the yard in spite of 
the cannonade that was going on in front. It was a sight 
to remember. 

As soon as the salute had been fired the captain of the 
squad went up to Mr. Lincoln, and after shaking hands with 
him, and receiving thanks for the honor conferred, asked him 
if he would name the gun. 

Mr. Lincoln laughed most good naturedly, and replied: 
"Oh, I never could name anything. Mary had to name all the 
children." 

The captain was a quick-witted man (or was what he 

suggested an inspiration) and he immediately came back with: 

* ' A\ r hy not call the gun * Mary Lincoln ? ' May we name it so I ' ' 

In reply Mr. Lincoln waved his long right arm, and with 

a hearty laugh said: "Yes. Let it go that way." 

And so it was that our noisy little old gun was christened 
by the man in whose honor it had spoken its loudest and best 
that early morning now so long ago. 

I am glad to add that this same noisy little old gun is 
still in tho rinu;, well-preserved and well-nigh worshipped by 
the second and third generation of those who were present 
at its baptism. It's home is in the little rural town of Rose- 
mond, Illinois, in the southeast corner of Christian county, 
of that state. It bears the name of "Mary Lincoln" engraved 
in letters of brass on its own proper person, and once a year 
it is almost reverently fired, a single time, "For Auld Lang 
ie." 

After the tumult of the firing had ceased, and the source 
of the great noise had been duly named and driven away, our 
Glee Club filed into the front yard and together we sang the 



28 

following song for the tall man who stood in his own door- 
way and listened and laughed and applauded as we sang. 

Our leader was a very good singer, as singers were 
counted in those days. He sang with the spirit and under- 
standing, in a clear, full voice, and he spoke every word so 
that every one within ear-shot could understand everything 
he said. He sang the verses of the song and we all joined 
in on the chorus. 

I never saw the words of this song in print, and I have 
no idea who wrote it, but he was a good song-writer whoever 
he was. I learned the words from hearing our leader sing them 
again and again, as we sang at one campaign meeting and 
another that fall. In this way I "learned by heart" instead of 
merely " committing to memory" the words of this old song. 
Things merely committed to memory very soon get un-com- 
mitted. What is learned by heart is rarely, if ever, forgotten. 
This is how it comes about that I can now, more than half a 
century after I helped sing the chorus of this song in Mr. 
Lincoln's dooryard, write out the words without any effort 
to recall them. I merely note this fact in passing. 

So here is the song : 

AN 1860 CAMPAIGN SONG. 
Tune, "Vilkins and Dinah or ' Tural-li-a. " 

There was one Old Abram lived out in the west, 

Esteemed by his neighbors the wisest and best ; 

And if you will only but follow my ditty, 

I'll tell you how he took a walk down to Washington City.. 

Chorus : 

Sing tural, li ural, li ural, li a, 

Sing tural, li ural, li ural, li a, 

Sing tural, li ural, li ural, li a, 

Sing tural, li ural, li ural, li a, 
His home was in Springfield, out in Illinois, 
Where he'd long been the pride of the men and the boys; 
But he left his brown house without a sigh of regret, 
For he knew that the people had a White one to let. 



29 

Chorus : 

So Old Abe he trudged on to Washington, straight, 
And he entered the White House through the avenue gate ^ 
Old Buck and his cronies, some chaps from the south, 
Sat around the Kast Room rather down in the mouth. 

Chorus : 

Old Abe seized the knocker and gave such a thump, 
Buck thought the state ship had run into a stump, 
He trembled all over, and turned deadly pale, 
"That noise" says he, "must have been done with a rail." 

Chorus : 

"Run Lewis, run jerry*, and open the door," 
And the functionary nearly fell down on the floor; 
"There is but one man who knocks that way, I'm blest, 
And he is that 'Tarnal Old Abe of the West." 

Chorus : 

Old Abe, now impatient, did the knocking repeat, 
Which made Old Buck jump right up onto his feet ; 
"I hope it ain't Abe," said Old Buck, pale and gray, 
"For if it is, boys, there'll be the devil to pay." 

Chorus : 

At last, though reluctant, Buck opened the door, 
And he found a chap waiting, six feet, three or four; 
"I have come, my fine fellows," and Abe spoke to the ring 
i ' To give you fair notice to vacate next spring. ' ' 

Chorus : 

Said Old Buck : ' * Will you please to walk in Mr. Lincoln, 
The remarks you have made are something to think on ; 
I don't care a cuss for the country, that's flat, 
But if you can beat Douglas you can take my old hat." 

Chorus : 

Said Old Abe : "Mr. Buchanan, I've just come here to say 
The democratic dog has had his day; 
Both parties are useless, the country don't need 'em, 
For one goes for slavery, and 'tother 'gainst freedom." 

Chorus : 

*Lewis Cass and Jeremiah Black were prominent members 
of President Buchanan's cabinet. 



30 

Said Old Buck: "Mr. Lincoln, your notions I think 
Are extremely correct, let us all take a drink ; 
We've the best of * J. B. Green Seal' and old sherry, 
And I've no objections, just now, to be merry." 

Chorus : 

Said Old Abe: "As for drinking, please excuse me today, 
And you and your crowd have it all your own way; 
The people have trusted you longer 'n they oughter, 
And all that I ask is a glass of cold water." 

Chorus : 

"Cold water!" said Buck, "We have it, I think, 
Although with our crowd it's not a favorite drink; 
We partake of our tipple on its own native merits, 
And we need something stronger to keep up our sperrits." 

Chorus : 
The cabinet, well frightened, searched the White House with 

a will, 

But they couldn't find water put down on the bill; 
Jerry Black made a report, that without any doubt, 
The whiskey was plenty, but the water played-out. 

Chorus : 

Of course, without whiskey the meeting was bum, 
And they wished, more than ever, that Abe hadn't come; 
So when Old Abe saw they had no more to say, 
He took up his hat and wished them "Good day." 

Chorus : 

So Old Abe he returned to his home in the West, 
Leaving Buck and his cabinet greatly depressed ; 
And if this part of my tale you'll remember, 
I'll tell you the balance next sixth of November, 

Chorus : 

As for the rest of that memorable day its record is a matter 
of history, written in many places. I only add a few words 
just here to make this particular picture a bit more complete 
all by itself. A double procession, many miles in length, and 
largely made up of the sort I have already described, marched 
and counter marched in front of Mr. Lincoln's house from 
early morning till well into the afternoon. Then the ranks dis- 



31 

banded and went into camp, all round the city, to wait for 
the evening performance. Our own party found such a rest- 
ing place in the old fair grounds, just outside the city limits. 

I think it was about 5 o'clock in the afternoon when, as 
we sat or lounged about, resting up for what was yet to come, 
a closed carriage drove into the enclosure, and some one called 
out that Mr. Lincoln was inside it. Instantly there was a 
rush, the horses were unhitched from the vehicle, and every- 
body who could get near enough to lend a hand helped push 
it towards a platform that stood near, which had been built 
for speaking purposes later in the day. 

As soon as the carriage reached the platform the door 
was pulled open and Mr. Lincoln was pulled out and carried 
up on to the stage, There he was stood up on his feet, and the 
crowd yelled for a speech. He started to say a few words 
when the platform on which he was standing began to sway 
and to creak, as if about to fall from the over-burden upon it, 
and which it had never been built to stand up under. The 
situation was critical but Mr. Lincoln was equal to the emer- 
gency. Raising his hand high, he said laughingly, but in a 
loud voice : ' ' Get off, Get off. This must be a democratic plat- 
form to threaten to go to pieces if a crowd tries to stand on 
it ! I won *t try to stand on it, and I don 't want you should 
either ! You get off, and so will I ! ' ' 

And everybody got off so quickly that the platform did 
not fall. In the confusion that followed Mr. Lincoln somehow 
escaped and got out of the crowd. The horses were brought 
back and hitched to the empty carriage, later it was driven 
away. (The fact was that Mr. Lincoln had no intention of 
going into the crowd, but a zealous and highly influential po- 
litical friend wanted him to see the throng, and induced him 
to go out in a closed carriage, with the curtains drawn. But 
the secret of his trip somehow leaked out, with the results I 
have told.) 

That night there was another endless procession, composed 
largely of "Wide Awakes" in uniform, bearing torches and 
firing Roman candles as they marched along. It was long 
after midnight before all was over and the tired thousands 
dispersed and went wherever they could. For ourselves we 
got our Glee Club wagon into the first open field we came to 



3-2 

we left the city, and stretched ourselves under it and 
slept the sleep of the entirely exhausted. 

We were the better part of two days getting home, and 
both father and I spoke only in whispers for several days 
thereafter. Hired men and all, we set to work on the two 
hundred acres of neglected wheat sowing which had waited 
for its just dues while we were doing our political duties, such 
as fall to the lot of all true patriots in a genuine democracy. 
And the acres of wheat we sowed that fall brought forth a 
bountiful harvest the next summer. What the political seed 
that was sowed that fall brought forth is a matter of history 
that all the world knows. 



33 



LIFE SKETCH OF SAMUEL SEANEY. 

BY His GRANDDAUGHTER, MILDRED SEANEY. 

Born in Monroe's administration, October 22, 1824, a 
growing youth when Jackson was elected, voting for William 
Henry Harrison, serving on a schoolboard with Governor 
French, an early governor of Illinois, he remembered when 
Crawford county included Chicago and when the revenue 
officer at Palestine, then our county seat, did not go to Chi- 
cago to collect the insignificant revenue. He heard a Revolu- 
tionary soldier speak in the streets of Palestine, he used to 
take his grain down the Mississippi on the flatboat to Natchez, 
and he could point out most any knoll on a country side and 
say, "I knocked a turkey gobbler out of a big bur-oak on that 
hill about dusk one evening," or "I shot a buck on that p'int 
one morning about day-break." He was a man who saw the 
new order of things replace the old, a man who had taken an 
active interest in civic matters of local and national import, 
a busy man who took time to play. Born on the farm 
where his father settled in 1810, he lived among his third 
and fourth generations like a tall, sentinel oak that rises above 
the younger growth around it. Verily, such men have helped 
to make the history of our beautiful county, our proud state, 
our great nation, nay, they themselves are its history. 

And now, at the age of ninety-three years and three 
months Samuel Seaney has passed into his needed rest. Uncle 
Sam lived to the ripest old age of any member of this long- 
lived family. His father, Samuel Seaney, was eighty-six 
years old when he died and his grandfather, Owen Seaney, 
was about the same age. 

Sometime before the Revolution, the Seaneys came from 
Wales and settled on the Yadkin River in Surrey County, 
North Carolina. We are not able to trace the family farther 
back than the Revolution. We know that Owen Seaney 's 
brother was a Revolutionary soldier. Sometime during the 



34 

first years of the 19th century, Owen Seaney and his son, Sam- 
uel, crossed the mountains and came into the northwest terri- 
tory. This was before Samuel Seaney was married. The family 
did not move, however, until 1810, when the old man, Owen 
Seaney, with his four sons, Brian, Owen, Samuel and Jake, 
and their families, emigrated to a site near Eichmond, Indi- 
ana. Samuel Seaney had a wife and several children. His 
first wife 's maiden name was Catherine Wish-On. The Wish- 
Ons had come from Germany and were gun-makers by trade, 
settled near the Seaneys in Carolina. Catherine Wish-On was 
twelve years old when she came from Germany. The Wish-On 
family emigrated to Eolla, Missouri, at about the same time 
that the Seaney family moved to Indiana. The younger gen- 
erations became wealthy there and, finally, moved to Cali- 
fornia. Samuel Seaney and his wife's brothers were great 
bear hunters in Carolina. 

We do not know why they left Carolina, where Owen 
Seaney owned a large farm and several slaves. All that we 
know about the family, is what " Uncle Sam" remembered 
of what his parents had told him. He thinks that the reasons 
of his people for moving were that times were hard along the 
Atlantic seaboard after the Eevolution and before the War of 
1812, and that white labor could not compete with slave 
labor. Moreover, they were people who had the pioneer 
spirit, and the frontier life called them to the new west. 

They took one slave with them because they could not 
bear to leave him behind. The negro had grown up with the 
boys, and my grandfather remembered that his father said 
that he would as soon have seen one of his brothers sold 
as the slave. The man's wife lived on an adjoining planta- 
tion, and the negro left his wife in order to go to a new coun- 
try with his former master. His wife went a two days' 
journey with him, and then went back. My grandfather's 
mother was very sorry for the wife. The negro married again 
in Indiana, where his wife lived to nearly one hundred years. 
His descendants bear the name of Seaney. 

Owen Seaney bought a large farm near Eichmond, and 
his sons farmed it. The children of Jake Seaney are business 
men in Eichmond to-day. The two sons, Samuel and Brian, 
decided to move to Illinois. They came to Crawford county 



35 



in the summer of 1818, entered government land and put out 
crops. Then early in the fall they brought their families to 
the new location. Samuel Seaney settled near a spring that 
is on the same farm which his son, " Uncle Sam" owned at 
his death. Here they built a cabin, around which the wolves 
howled and the panthers screamed at night. At this place, 
Samuel Seaney was born October 22, 1824. A large family 
of children was reared in this house. ' They married into 
pioneer families of Montgomery township. The family was 
as follows: Polly, Minta, Lucy, Susah, John, Clarissa, Mar- 
garet, Honor, Matilda, Samuel and Nimrod. Polly married 
Alex Barrack and died in Texas ; Minta married Ben Higgins ; 
Lucy married Nimrod Gaines and had no .children; Susah 
married Peter Barrack Grandpa thinks the family is all 
dead; John Seaney 's first wife was an Attaway; he then mar- 
ried a Goodlink. Clarissa married Uncle Billy Fuller, the old- 
est of the Fuller line; Matilda married old Billy Funk Al 
Funk and Perry Brimberry's wife and Line Funk's father. 
Samuel Seaney was the next to the youngest child. Nimrod be- 
ing the youngest. John Seaney, the elder brother, seems to 
have been grandfather's boyish hero. It was he who taught 
his brothers, Sam and Nim, to hunt, trap and fish. John was 
11 ic baby whom his mother held in her arms all the way from 
the Carolinas. A catamount once leaped over the shoulders 
of John Seaney at a deer-lick early in the morning. The 
.in i ma 1 leaped a little too far, else he might have made a good 
meal of the young man. 

Samuel Seaney grew up in this pioneer life a happy, in- 
dependent youngster. He walked to different schools, all of 
which were three or four miles from home. In spite of the fact 
that the Blue-backed Speller was their only text book, and 
that poor teachers were the rule, he was well versed in the 
rudiments of learning. His last teacher was Liberty Murphy 
who later owned together with Mr. Caswell, the "Hutson- 
ville Journal" of which Mr. Ethelbert Callahan was editor. 
His schoolmates have long since passed away, but Bethel 
Martin, Enoch Wesner and Aaron Young lived the longest. 

Grandfather told me many times about his early intention 
of making my grandmother his wife. Cinderilla Camplain 
was a pretty, brown-eyed, auburn -haired neighbor girl and 



36 

school mate. Early in their teens he decided that she was the 
girl who should keep his log cabin for him. Her father was 
Irish by birth and her mother was the daughter of Clinton 
Cobb, one of the earliest settlers in Montgomery township. She 
was the oldest child of a large family and was a capable young 
woman. The Cobbs were a well-read people, and it was 
from them that my grandmother inherited her love for litera- 
ture, a taste which was transmitted into her own family. In 
those days of early marriages, when matrimony was not yet 
a game of chance, it was not strange that they were married 
when she was but eighteen years old. Grandfather was five 
years her senior. Before Grandfather was married he worked 
for Orville Bristol, who owned a store in Palestine. In this 
way, he made some means of setting himself up in housekeep- 
ing supplies, crude as they must have been. 

In a little clearing among the thick woods, on the Law- 
renceville road, a short distance west of her birthplace, Sam- 
uel Seaney built a log cabin which was to be the new home. 

One day when he was hunting a few miles from home, by 
mistake, he shot a doe with a young fawn. When he had cut 
up the deer, thrown the hind quarters over his horse, and 
started home, the little fawn followed him. When he would 
stop and look behind, the fawn would crouch down in a furrow 
in the road, and start again when he rode on. When my 
grandfather reached home, the little spotted fawn followed 
him into the house to the great astonishment and delight of 
my dear grandmother. 

Those were hard-working days for my grandfather. He 
rose early and worked late, mauled rails and cleared off all of 
his own farm. He was a man of great physical strength and 
long endurance. He could cradle more wheat than any man 
in the neighborhood. 

Breadstuffs were hard to get in those days. Cornbread 
and cornpone were eaten largely not because little wheat was 
raised, but because it was a long trip to a flour mill. There 
were plenty of corn horse-mills near, but my grandfather had 
to go to the Shaker mill on the Embarrass River for his flour, 
carrying the wheat on his horse, as horse-back riding was the 
sole method of travel in those days. Wagons were made by 
local blacksmiths and were very expensive. 



37 

Until the advent of the railroad, all the grain my grand- 
father raised was either taken to a flat-boat landing on the 
Wabash River or hauled by wagon to Vincennes. He made 
several trips on the flat-boat as far as Natchez. During the 
Civil War, when wheat was two dollars a bushel,, he and his 
sons hauled a large wheat crop to Vincennes. He once drove 
with a load of sweet potatoes to Chicago. We have always 
insisted that the sweet potatoes were a mere pretext to give 
him some excuse for seeing the country. His memory of Chi- 
cago is that of a small town, the business center of which is 
Water Street today. The swamp south of the town was al- 
most impassable. Very few young people in Crawford county 
are impressed with the fact that Crawford county once ex- 
tended to Chicago. But at the time of my grandfather's trip, 
the revenue officer who lived at Palestine, the county seat, did 
not go to Chicago to collect the revenue, as it was not suffi- 
cient to warrant the long drive. 

Marvelous change in a life-time ! He passed through the 
great city a few years ago ; it seems almost incredible to be- 
lieve that Chicago has grown in one man's lifetime. Grand- 
father remembered when Andrew Jackson was President and 
he was greatly interested in the campaign that elected 
William Henry Harrison; he heard an old Revolutionary 
soldier speak in the streets of Palestine when he was 
a boy and he served on a school board with Governor 
French. Do you, dear reader, wish to know the history of 
your county? Then listen to the stories that these few re- 
maining pioneers can tell you. 

In spite of his busy life, working for his increasing fam- 
ily, he always had time for sport. He and his brothers, Nim 
.UK! John, often took trips into the Dark Bend of the Em- 
barrass, and hunted deer where the tall prairie grass waved 
over the present site of Robinson. Often when I have been 
driving with him, he has said, "See the p'int of that hill over 
there?" or perhaps it was a "holler". "I killed a buck over 
there one morning before daybreak." And then would follow 
the story. When he wanted to hunt, cold or wet made no 
difference to him. Often he lay in wet buck-skin breeches 
all night, with his blanket wrapped about him and awakened 



38 

in the morning to find a warm counterpane of snow over him. 
Looking up into the stars he learned how to live a simple life. 

Naturally, an old hunter, would admire the Indian fight- 
ers When I was a child, he used to tell us Indian stories of 
Lew Wetzel, Kit Carson, and Crawford, and the tears would 
stream down our cheeks when he told of Crawford's being 
burned at the stake. 

When the corn was laid by, he and his sons and friends 
used to fish for a week or more on the Wabash, and he often 
went down on the River De She below Vincennes. It was on 
one of the these fishing parties that Grandpa met Judge Allen, 
who was then prosecuting attorney of Sullivan county, and a 
friendship grew which lasted all their lives. They were often 
together in camping parties, where Judge Allen's stories fur- 
nished rich entertainment for the party. 

Uncle Sam must have his jokes. He has been known to 
go several miles to play a good joke on some one. The neigh- 
bor girls remember how he used to go on Sunday evenings and 
act as * ' ugly-man. ' ' He did this to help the fellow out that 
the girl might see the contrast between her beau's good looks 
and my grandfather's looks. It was his greatest delight to 
get a person in a crowd and tell a joke on him, to the chagrin 
of the victim and the glee of the perpetrator and his audience. 
As long as he lived and until he was old and frail, he retained 
this propensity for teasing. We always knew by his peculiar 
grin and the twinkle of his eyes when he was getting ready to 
tell the joke on us. 

This incident illustrates his jokes. Once in Eobinson, 
Grandfather was on the grand jury as was also L. E. Stephens. 
One morning Mr. Stephens walked past grandfather with 
his pocket book sticking out of his pocket. The men winked 
at grandfather and looked signficantly toward the purse. 
Grandfather slipped it out of Mr. Stephen 's pocket and trans- 
ferred it to his own. At noon the two walked out of the court 
house together. "Uncle Sam" told Mr. Stephens, or ''Lew" 
as he always called him, "that he was a little short of money, 
and would he Mr. Stephens loan him a five until the next 
day. 

; 'Yes, ten if you like," said Mr. Stephens and slapped his 
hand to his pocket, but no purse. Then followed an inter- 



39 

esting hunt through all of his pockets for the pocketbook. 
Failing to find it, he put his hand in his vest pocket and drew 
out a bill. Now that was not what * ' Uncle Sam ' ' wanted. He 
took Lew's pocketbook out and handed it to him. Mr. Step- 
hens vowed retaliation. 

On the next day, the grand jury was about to conclude 
its procedures, and the foreman asked the jurymen if they 
knew of any unfinished business. Then Mr. Stephens arose 
with dignity. " Honorable Foreman, I have a grievance to 
state. I dislike to mention it, as it reflects on the honor of 
this body. Gentlemen, I have been robbed right here in our 
court house and by one of your members. And gentlemen, 
I want justice done!" 

The men looked uneasily at each other. Then Grandfather 
rose, fully equal to the occasion. "I believe I am guilty of the 
charge brought by your fellow juryman. He will not tell you, 
however, that he lost any money, and, when I tell you that 
I found him in a condition unable to take care of his purse, 
you will agree with me that out of regard for his family and 
himself, it was the best thing that I should keep his pocket- 
book until he was able to do so." 

"If you won't hear me, that ends it," said Mr. Stephens, 
and slammed the door on the roar of laughter that followed 
him. 

Samuel Seaney was a member of the Disciple Christian 
Church for more than sixty years. He joined the church with 
his wife at Palestine, when Joe Wolfe was preaching. They 
were members of the East Union church until their deaths. 
He knew the Book thoroughly and was an able expounder of 
the Scriptures. He used to listen to and participate in the 
religious debates that were features of pioneer religious life. 
II- was a firm believer in apostolic Christianity and the re- 
ward of the Saints. He had no fear of death but I think he 
was a little tired of life \vhen he died. Like the phantom crew 
of the "Flying Dutchman," he begged to go home, home. He 
survived his wife sixteen years. He always spoke of her 
afterwards as the sweetheart of his youth. 

My grandfather was a Democrat in principle all his life, 
and was very much interested in politics. A few years ago 
in Salem, Illinois, he told Mr. Bryan that his seven sons had 



40 

each voted three times for him as President. Mr. Bryan said 
that no man had told him such a pleasing thing. 

Grandfather became acquainted with most of the able 
lawyers of his day, as he served on juries almost continu- 
ously for years. He also met nearly all of the old people of 
the county, when he was President of the Crawford County 
Pioneer Association for a number of years. He attended this 
picnic last fall and received the prize for being the oldest man 
born in the county. 

My grandfather was never really old ; his heart was al- 
ways young. Many people have asked him to what he at- 
tributed his long life. He said he had lived long because he 
was always temperate in his habits, that he used tobacco in 
no form, and was not addicted to liquor. He also said that 
his life of camping out was conducive to long life. He had 
one of the most hardy constitutions ; physicians have told him 
in recent years that his lungs would outlast another man. He 
lived to a good old age because he lived well and took time to 
play. 

The two old men, with whom I always associate him, are 
Aaron Young and Oliver Gogin, the friends of his youth and 
old age. That magic artist, Memory, has painted a picture on 
my mind. These three old men sit on the porch with the 
evening sunlight shining on them through the maple trees. 
There they sit telling stories of that past in which they lived. 
I see Uncle Aaron with all of his oddities that made us miss 
the more his white hair and quaint figure ; Uncle Oliver Gogin, 
that courteous, kindly, old gentleman, the gentlest type of an 
old-school courtier that I have ever known, with his careful 
dress and spry walk, and my grandfather, tall and straight 
as an Indian, with his deep voice and interesting conversation. 

My grandfather leaves a family of nine living children, 
forty-six grandchildren and forty-seven great grandchildren. 
His children are Alvin of Lawrence county; Leander of near 
Flat Eock; Patrick Henry of Hamilton county; Mrs. Duane 
Shaw of Eichwoods; Mrs. A. L. Maxwell of Lawrenceville ; 
Herman of Eugene, Oregon; Thomas, deceased; Charles C. 
with whom he had lived for many years ; David Bruce of Okal- 
ona, Miss., and Andrew Jackson of Portland, Oregon. Miss 
him? Ah yes, we shall miss him ! The summer will come with 



41 

its long hot days when the farmers haul produce by the house. 
He will not be there under the shade to hail them and ask the 
prices of their grain. The arm-rocker in which he sat will 
stand empty. No white-haired figure in the shade of the 
maples, no one to whom we carry a drink, or read the paper 
and the new book. 

Miss him! Ah yes, neighbors and friends and relatives 
will miss him, but we are glad for the blessed memories we 
may keep of him and I, who grew up in his companionship, 
and went squirrel hunting with him for he could see to knock 
a squirrel off a limb until he was eighty; I, who as a child, 
sitting on his knee of winter evenings and looking into the 
fire-place, heard his stories of Indians and frontier life; I, 
who, because of love for him, have a greater regard for beau- 
tiful old age, lovingly dedicate these lines to my grandfather 
and all other pioneers like him. 

Nor am I alone in having a pioneer grandparent. All of 
the young people I know have had grandfathers and most 
of them had pioneer grandfathers. We are only one of many 
other counties of our state whose history should be treasured, 
not to provide us a self satisfied feeling of perfection and 
pride, but that we may foster their ideals and keep the best 
they have given us. All around us are Indian trails, remains 
of battle grounds, and spots full of tradition and pioneer lore. 
Let us as one of the oldest counties in the state show that we 
are proud of our heritage ; let us preserve the priceless stories 
of our rich past, that we may build better in the future. Let 
us begin to educate our children to that end, let us attend 
our pioneer meetings, let us above all cultivate the acquaint- 
ance of all beautiful old age. The pioneer dead, let us vener- 
ate him ; the pioneer living, let us learn of him. 



MY RETROSPECTION OF FOUR SCORE YEARS. 

GAIUS PADDOCK. 

In the quiet hours that are a part of the solitude of a rural 
life come thoughts endeared to my remembrance with pass- 
ing of time in the sunset of my life with more of my kin- 
dred, friends and acquaintances at rest, than are now living. 
The recollections of past events which are largely connected 
with personal associations are not very interesting unless 
they are the remembrance of some great events that have 
transpired in Governments, which have shaped the destiny of 
a Nation or the life and history of the men who have been 
prominent in the legislation of the Country's affairs or on 
the battlefields with valor. Interesting too, are stories of 
those who have achieved successful careers or who have 
attained eminence in science with inventions in the varied 
fields of research that have benefited the human race, worthy 
or unworthy, as they might be. While all history of the past 
is largely taken from documents, letters and personal recol- 
lections, I have endeavored, as far as possible, not to bring 
myself into notice as in any way prominent in the events as 
here recorded. 

There are very few now living who have witnessed the 
changes that have taken place or the events that have trans- 
pired in my life-time, having lived in the state near four score 
years and I do not think it is possible that a like period 
in the future can bring with it the changed condition that 
has taken place in the advancement of the country or the 
elevation of the human race as viewed by the light of history, 
with the march of civilization in the world. From a sparsely 
settled wilderness, to a highly developed country, with all 
the greatest advancements of the age that are embraced in 
science, arts and improvements, with the progress that has 
come with the development of its resources and the rise of a 
nation which has been born again, with renewed strength, with 



; 43 

( 

full faith in themselves, after passing through times of great 
peril with grave solicitude as to the results, surmounting them 
all and has come out elevated, cleansed and assumed its 
place among the mightiest nations on the earth, having seen 
the vast uninhabited prairies and trackless forests, changed 
as if by magic, to a country filled with villages and improved 
farms and highways, throughout the entire state. From ox- 
team transportation and stage-coach travel, to railroads 
hauling nearly one hundred cars loaded with the products of 
the land, drawn by powerful locomotives and limited passen- 
ger trains, carrying hundreds of passengers, at a speed of 
sixty miles an hour. From the days of dipped tallow candles, 
to a light that rivals the sun in its brightness. From the 
log and frame houses, sheltering a few persons therein, to 
the steel structures that hold thousands of day and night 
occupants, towering to the heighth of nearly three hundred 
feet, filled with an active, rushing multitude of inhabitants, 
with all the comforts and conveniences, with safety and rapid 
elevation. From traveling on the waters of the earth, in 
sail and steam vessels, over the seas, lakes and rivers, with 
a speed of eight to ten miles an hour, to a more rapid transit 
on the surface, to almost like speed beneath its surface, with 
safety and comfort. From earth, traveling to the flight of 
birds of the air, with a speed of nearly one hundred miles 
an hour above the altitude of the highest mountains, carrying 
men to far distant points, in the ships of the air loaded with 
tons of materials for peace or war. From log school and 
frame village houses of instruction, by switch rule, and cow- 
hide, to the elegant and classic institution of college learning, 
taught by precept, example and honor, with all the appliances 
for the reseach of heavenly bodies and things animate and 
inanimate, on the earth or beneath the sea. From the "Hello" 
to attract attention near by to the invention that speaks to 
us from far distant places, with voices clear and distinct as 
near us, and with music that cheers us with melodious sounds 
with all the vast and wonderful devices and appliances that 
elevate the inhabitants of the earth. To enumerate them 
would weary the mind and body. All these to which I have 
briefly referred, have been made possible by the discovery of 
electricity by Franklin, its application by Morse of the tele- 



44 

graph and a further development by Bell of the telephone, 
by the inventive genius of Edison, who re-echo the words 
"let there be light" and it came with the brilliancy of the 
sun, and all that came with the dawning, as if by magic ; by 
the still further development by the master mind of Marconi 
that speaks through unlimited space by the voices of the air. 
I cannot find words that will express the gratitude and 
a fitting tribute to the skillful surgical and medical science, 
which has been made possible by the use of X-rays and the 
scientific apparatus that has lengthened the days of thou- 
sands, having myself passed through what I thought "was 
the shadow of the valley of death" when I awoke, after un- 
dergoing a serious operation, which would have been con- 
sidered a miracle by many, in times past. And with all this 
progress that has come to the uplifting of the human race 
that has placed them upon a higher plane of civilization, with 
all those achievements that man has wrought, are we any 
nearer the Haven to which our hopes bid us seek at the end 
of life here. What progress has been made towards the up- 
lifting of the mind! Are we living in a more exalted state, 
a more spiritual, that when Christ came upon earth? When 
viewed by the acts of cruelty with the horrors that are con- 
vulsing the world, with the sacrifice of men, women and chil- 
dren, innocent, unoffending God-loving people throughout 
Europe and Far East. Surely, it looks like the proclamation 
that was given to the world nearly two thousand years ago 
"Peace on Earth, good will to men" has failed in its mission, 
and the dawning of His second coming, to redeem the world 
from sin and misery and bring peace throughout the earth, 
looks more distant than ever before in the history of the world. 
To recount or further portray the real conditions as they are, 
only brings thoughts not pleasant to consider or contemplate, 
as the serious things of life fail to interest many of us, who 
are so intent with our daily duties and busy in the mad 
rush for wealth, w^hich requires every effort of strength, with 
strenuous application, to reach the goal. 



BRIEF RECORD OF THE MEXICAN, CIVIL, SPANISH 
WARS AND THE WORLD'S GREAT CONFLICT. 

BY GAIUS PADDOCK. 

I would be unworthy of my heritage of patriotic zeal and 
valor if the record of the three wars which took place dur- 
ing my life time were not mentioned. These wars were suc- 
cessfully fought by the United States forces and do not in- 
clude the World's Great War which was declared against 
Germany on April 2, 1917, and which was fought with all the 
vigor, and determination to win regardless of cost of life, and 
the complex conditions that surfound us and with traitors in 
our midst, and we unprepared to successfully combat the 
armies which had been drilled and prepared for conquest for 
nearly a half century. By God's help we and our allies won the 
War and defeated the world's destroyer of the tranquility of 
Nations. My first remembrance of the Mexican War was when 
the troops gathered at Springfield, Illinois in 1846 and their 
departure was the grandest sight that had taken place in the 
State. How well I recollect this event, as they marched out 
in the open prairies south of Springfield with General Hardin 
on a white horse and Col. Edward D. Baker on a black horse, 
at the head of the troops proceeded by a band of -fifes, kettle 
and bass drums, a most inspiring sight surely it was, as they 
passed for review before the Governor of the State and his 
staff and took up their march by land to Alton it being before 
the days of railroads. A long line of wagons with camp equi- 
page and camp followers brought up the rear. The War was 
over before the close of the second year, a complete defeat 
of the Mexican Army and a vast domain reaching to the Pa- 
cific Coast was given the United States, for which we paid the 
Mexican Government Fifteen Million Dollars. 

The next war was the Civil War, between the North and 
South, which continued for four years with great loss of life 



46 

and suffering, with intense hatred increasing as it continued, 
by both sides. The anxiety, with much doubt, as to the re- 
sults of the conflict, was felt keenly by both sides, vast de- 
struction of property in the Southern States, the returning 
of the dead, sick, and wounded, on both sides, to their homes 
stirred the hearts of almost every household. I will not at- 
tempt to write up this Great Conflict only to state, that the 
results of this bloody strife and sacrifice bore fruits of great 
blessings in after years to both the North and South conse- 
crated with the lives of brave men and cemented with the 
blood of the Great Emancipator, Abraham Lincoln. Surely it 
looked like the righteousness of the conflict was sealed with 
the blood of the combatants and a new nation, was born again 
with better understanding of each other; and those who had 
fought for its dismemberment were again placed in trusted 
positions in the Government and they worked in harmony for 
the general welfare of the nation in after years. 

The Third War, Spanish-American, which commenced 
in April 1898 was of short duration. It was brought about 
by a combination of circumstances first, the blowing up of the 
Warship Maine at Havana at anchor. The oppression and 
cruelities perpetrated upon the people of Cuba, by the Spanish 
Government, aroused the sympathies of this country in the 
interest of humanity. While we were not prepared for this 
conflict, it was not long, however, before the victories of the 
United States forces both on land and sea, with the capture 
of Manila, destruction of the Spanish Navy by Commodore 
Dewey and battles on land at San Juan and other places, with 
complete destruction of the Spanish War fleet brought peace 
with glorious results, and the establishment of an Inde- 
pendent Nation in Cuba. This disinterested action of the 
United States has not its parallel in the history of the world, 
when a conquered country was restored to the oppressed 
liberated nation, with full freedom to govern the people, 
under restrictions for their safety thereafter. 

The Fourth War, the greatest the world has ever known, 
is shaking the foundations of most of the nations of the earth. 
Again our beloved Country is called upon to defend the cause 
of humanity, the Christian religion and the rights of small 
nations to exist. Nothing like the horrors of this war 



47 

is known in the history of the world, in its cruelties, 
total disregard of life, property and respect of treaties, with 
but one aim, to conquer; with one thought, that "might makes 
right". The German Empire, backed with its allies of the 
Pagan Turks with whom they have been closely connected for 
many years and kindred nations which have imbibed the 
habits, thoughts and barbarities of the Asiatic hordes who 
are repeating the inhuman atrocities of the darkest ages of 
the world 's history. Their acts have aroused the entire Chris- 
tian Nations of the earth who are striving to uphold the 
Governments of civilized people, based upon justice, truth, 
and equality. 



48 



IS THE SANGAMON RIVER NAVIGABLE? 

BY GAIUS PADDOCK. 

This question, as to the use of Steamboats on this river, 
disturbed the public mind very much in Springfield and vi- 
cinity in the years 1847 to 1849. The return of the soldiers 
from the Mexican War to their homes in central Illinois, 
many of whom lived in the counties that bordered the Sanga- 
mon, and who were favorably impressed with the idea that it 
was ; as they had had the opportunity with much pleasure, of 
traveling on steamboats. The merchants and traders on the 
river and towns near by, strongly favored the enterprise, as 
they were cut off from obtaining supplies for many months 
during the year and felt the need of transportation facilities. 
Kailroading had proved a failure to a certain extent. 
The one built from Meredosia on the Illinois river via Jack- 
sonville to Springfield, with steam engine power to haul cars 
carrying passengers or freight had been abandoned. Mule 
power was being tried, with but little better success, as the 
road bed with "ties and sleepers" which were of wood pieces 
6" x 8" pinned to the cross ties by wooden pins 15" long by 
~L l /2 f ' thick with strap iron 3" x l />" thick, would often take a 
notion to curl up and come through the car bottoms, disturb- 
ing the passengers, damaging the cars and freight and often 
ditching the train. Transportation was in a much disturbed 
condition and some immediate remedy must be found. Lin- 
coln, who was always foremost in enterprises and who, in 
early years had flat-boated, contended that it was not only 
possible but practicable to develop and successfully have 
steamboat navigation on the Sangamon, to the Illinois Eiver 
and connection with the Mississippi. For quite a number of 
evenings, for several weeks I listened' to the discussions in 
the store of Col. John Williams, in which I was a summer 
clerk at that time. The stores were all opened from six in the 
morning until nine at night, sometimes later, when interest- 



49 

ing subjects were being discussed. Little or no business was' 
transacted in the evenings, the stores being a rendezvous 
for loafers. While there was a wide difference of 
opinion as to the practicability, it nevertheless af- 
forded an opportunity for a "close examination by 
discussion" of the very important matter of water 
communication which would benefit the entire community and 
Springfield especially. There were many wise and good de- 
baters, who ridiculed and opposed the scheme as foolish, as 
a means for any relief or improvement at the present. Lin- 
coln generally had the best of the discussion in the arguments 
but he had some hard headed opponents to combat or con- 
vince. I remember at the close of a rather exciting debate that 
Lincoln said, "Gentlemen: \ve have wasted time and talked 
ourselves hoarse on this subject. I will demonstrate by act- 
ual exhibit, in a few days that it is both possible and practi- 
cable and will show you my model of a steamboat, that will 
navigate the Sangamon in successful operation, in the big 
water trough at the corner opposite my office, having had 
experience as a navigator on the Sangamon many times and 
also on the Illinois and Mississippi." In about a week or ten 
days after this announcement, at the close of one of the ev- 
ening meetings, he said that at two o'clock the next day he 
would make a practical test. And sure enough, he was 
prompt as to the time. Quite a crowd had gathered as the 
won! had been passed around the streets. He appeared with 
his four foot model under his arm and approaching the 
trough, which had been pumped full and announced 'now is 
the time to witness the successful navigation by "model of 
the Sangamon' and other rivers that have bars and shoal 
places." He proceeded to put his model boat afloat in the 
water and placing a few bricks upon it until it sank to the 
first deck, he then applied the air pumps modeled like the old 
fire bellows, four in number, two on each side that were be- 
neath the lower or first deck and in a few moments it slowly 
rose above the water about six inches, Lincoln remarking that 
each inch represented a foot, on a good sized steam boat. This 
novel invention surely demonstrated it was possible to have 
water communication on the Sangamon. There were yet some 
doubters, as to its practicability for actual transportation. 



50 

The crowd listened to Lincoln 's defence of his invention, gave 
three cheers and dispersed, much impressed but not fully con- 
vinced. He retired with his model under his arm, remarking if 
they had any more questions to ask, they could do so and 
answer them or not, as he had no further information to give. 
I am inclined to think he never after attempted to exhibit or 
refer to his device or apply his great genius to inventions 
of any kind, as the master mind of Lincoln was filled with in- 
tense thoughts of more grave importance. [Mr. Lincoln ob- 
tained a United States patent for a device for lifting ves- 
sels over shoals, May 22, 1849.] His political idol had 
been shattered when the great Whig party, of which the 
most noted statesman of the time, Daniel Webster, 
in his speech, at Boston, on his return from Wash- 
ington, said the "Whig party is dead." This announcement 
went deep into the hearts of the people who had supported a 
party based upon justice and equality and were now suffer- 
ing the effects of "Locofoco" government that had come into 
power after the death of William Henry Harrison and the 
Vice-President John Tyler had turned traitor to the party, 
which caused all of the cabinet to resign, except Daniel Web- 
ster, who remained in the cabinet to perfect the Ashburnham 
Treaty, which gave us that vast domain known as the Great 
Northwest. Political conditions were in a chaotic state. Tyler 
and his party, on the resignation of the Harrison Cabinet, had 
appointed all the extreme Southern leaders, such as John C. 
Calhoun, the nullifier, and his associates. The prophetic vi- 
sion of Lincoln gave him much anxiety and when he spoke, 
they all took heed of his statements, although he was then 
unknown in name or fame, but enjoyed the confidence and es- 
teem of all with whom he came in contact within this State. 



51 



"WILDER'S BRIGADE MONUMENT DEDICATION." 

[The Imposing Ceremony Took Place on Chickamauga Battle- 
field, September 20, 1899.] 

[FBOM THE Chattanooga Daily News, SEPTEMBER 20, 1899.] 

Clear and crisp broke the morning and a perfect day fol- 
lowed to bless the ceremonies of the dedication of the Wilder 
Brigade monument and the 113 monuments and markers of 
the state of Indiana, which was formally done today at the 
site of the Wilder monument in Chickamauga Park. 

In round figures it is estimated that 10,000 people at- 
tended the exercises. 

Those from Chattanooga, including the visiting member* 
of the Wilder Brigade and the veterans from Ohio, Indiana 
and Illinois, went to the park principally by way of the Chat- 
tanooga, Rome and Southern railroad, over which a special 
schedule for trains had been arranged; many others went in 
private vehicles, and on bicycles, and it was stated at 10 o 'clock 
that every livery rig in the city was engaged. 

Following the dedication of the Indiana monuments, the 
Wilder Brigade tower was dedicated. This tower represents 
an expenditure of $18,000 by the members of the Wilder Bri- 
gade, and it is the most imposing and massive monument on 
the national battlefield. 

In connection with these exercises it is appropriate to ob- 
serve that the speech of Col. Tomlinson Fort of Chattanooga, 
was the first ever delivered by a Confederate veteran on Chick- 
amauga battlefield at the dedication of a monument to Union 
soldiers of the civil war.* Colonel Fort consented to deliver 
the address at the personal request of General Wilder. 

* Gen. John M. Palmer made an address at the dedication of the monu- 
ment on Snodgrass Hill, Chickamauga Park, on September 19, 1895, repre- 
senting the Union army and Gen. John B. Gordon spoke on the same occa- 
sion representing the confederate army. 



52 

GENERAL WILDER *S SPEECH. 

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen : I have the honor 
to say that these gray-headed men before you were the gallant 
young men of 36 years ago, who on this bloody battlefield bared 
their breasts to the storms of civil war, and on this spot met 
the brave men of Longstreet's Legions, and here broke the 
great charge that had driven the splendid men of Sheridan in 
confusion to the rear. In this place they were so fortunate 
as to break that magnificent line of battle and send the men 
of Longstreet's left back three-quarters of a mile and saved 
the men of McCook's gallant corps from further pursuit. Here 
in the presence of many who wore the gray on that fateful day, 
we can tell the truthful story of how Wilder 's Brigade did 
their whole duty; of how they held Alexander's bridge on the 
18th, and kept Walker's corps from executing their purpose of 
throwing themselves across the LaFayette road in the rear 
of Eosecrans and between his army and Chattanooga. We 
can here tell how these gallant men held the cross roads at 
Hall's all night of the 18th in spite of the brave attempts of 
Bushrod Johnson to seize the LaFayette road at Viniard's. 
But we held them off until Gen. George H. Thomas came with 
his grand old 14th corps on the morning of the 19th and took 
position on the Chattanooga road to defend the move on Chat- 
tanooga. We can here say that the gallant Hood and Bushrod 
Johnson were repulsed by this brigade at Viniard's, when they 
had broken Sheridan's division, and how after they had broken 
the splendid attack of Davis ' division this brigade struck them 
in flank and compelled them to seek refuge in the woods east 
of Viniard's. We can also say that when Van Cleve's division 
crossed the LaFayette road on that direful afternoon and 
were hurled back in confusion, we poured a fire in their flank 
so hot that even the splendid veterans of Hood were forced to 
yield the ground and return in hot haste to the cover .of the 
woods. We can also say that when the gallant men of Mc- 
Law's division came charging at our lines across the Viniard 
field, the men of this brigade met them with such a withering 
fire that they, too, were forced to give way and return to the 
woods from whence they came. 



53 

This command, composed of the 17th Indiana infantry, 
Maj. William T. Jones commanding; the 72d Indiana infantry, 
Col. A. 0. Miller commanding; the 92d Illinois infantry, Col. 
Smith D. Atkins commanding ; the 98th Illinois infantry, Col. 
J. J. Funkhauser commanding ; the 123d Illinois infantry, Col. 
James Monroe commanding; and the 18th Indiana battery, 
Capt. Eli Lilly commanding; all the infantry armed with 
Spencer repeating magazine rifles and aggregating about two 
thousand men in line, proved to the world that they could face 
the splendid veterans of Bragg 's army; that they could suc- 
cessfully withstand Longstreet 's Legions ; that they trembled 
not when attacked by overwhelming force and all supports 
gone. They proved their manhood by driving their attack 
with irresistible power and recovering the ground that even 
Sheridan had yielded to the bravest enemy that had ever 
fought on the bloodiest battlefields of Tennessee and Vir- 
ginia. 

This monument to their steadfast patriotism, their un- 
yielding courage, was built by contributions from the gallant 
men who composed the brigade. It stands on the spot where 
General Rosecrans' headquarters were on the 19th and fore- 
noon of the 20th. It is erected in no vain-glorious mood. It 
marks the line where the bravest of brave Americans met in 
headlong conflict, each determined to win, and where the best 
armament proved successful. On this grand battlefield thou- 
sands died in defense of those principles that they had been 
trained to believe in, and which they thoroughly believed were 
right; where else on God's earth could such a conflict be car- 
ried to a close and find such results! These men were hon- 
orable Americans and when the war was fought to a finish all 
agreed to live in peace, and have honestly kept their compact. 
No other people have done this in good faith. I thank God 
that I have lived to see the sons of these heroes from both 
sides join in the ranks of our country's defenders, and under 
one common flag march to the tunes of "Dixie" and "Star 
Spangled Banner" with the same patriotic, springy step, the 
same patriotic impulse that impelled you men when you be- 
lieved your duty was to follow and fight for the flags that 
waved over the proud hosts which joined battle on this bloody 
field. I am as proud of the memory of those who died under 



one flag as I am of those who fell under the other; both be- 
lieved they were right; both died for the right as they saw it. 
We who fought for the stars and stripes give the hand of 
friendly fellowship to those who fought for the stars and bars. 
The sons of both sides have proved their readiness to march 
shoulder to shoulder to any part of the world where their com- 
mon country calls and prove that their chief pride is in show 
ing how the sons of the men of the great civil war can best imi- 
tate the actions of their fathers. To you, General Boynton, 
I have the honor of turning over the custody of this monument 
as the representative of our great country. May it stand for 
ages to show the coming generations how their ancestors 
fought for their principles. It stands as a monument to the 
valor of those who fought on both sides. May its lessons be 
learned by all our descendants. 

GENEEAIi SMITH D. ATKINS ' SPEECH. 

Comrades of Wilder 's Brigade: This magnificent monu- 
ment erected here on one of the most noted battlefields of 
the great Civil War one of the bloodiest conflicts of ancient 
or modern times is not only a monument to your intrepid 
skill and courage as soldiers, but is especially a monument to 
your beloved Commander, General John T. Wilder, the most 
distinguished volunteer of the American army. I know of 
other distinguished volunteer soldiers, Logan, Oglesby, and 
Palmer, of my own state Miles and others, who reached much 
higher rank than Wilder ; but I know of none who left his mark 
more distinctly upon his country's history, or accomplished 
more. One private volunteer soldier, John C. Lee, of the 96th 
Illinois Volunteers, belonging to the Brigade of Infantry I 
commanded before my regiment was assigned to Wilder 's Bri- 
gade, will rank close to Wilder in inventive genius when the 
truthful history of the great war is written it was John C. 
Lee, a private soldier, detailed for service in the pontoon train, 
who invented the light, easily transported wood frame covered 
with canvas, for a pontoon boat, that we found so serviceable 
in crossing rivers, and that has since been adopted by every 
army in the world. But Wilder invented a new style of fight- 
ing, and revolutionized the cavalry tactics, not only of the 
United States army, but of all the armies of the world. 



55 

He used his horses, as you so well know, to trans- 
port his troops rapidly to the point of engagement, and fought 
his men in single line on foot. That had never been done be- 
fore, and in order to do it he invented his own tactics, and 
drilled his troops by the same commands on foot and on horse- 
back, and every army of every civilized country in the world 
has adopted the tactics that Wilder invented. This is high 
praise, but you know that Wilder deserves it. As brave as 
the bravest, with brains and common sense, he pioneered the 
way that all the cavalry of the world is following. Like pri- 
vate John C. Lee, he saw what it was necessary to do, and he 
invented the way to do it, and all the armies of the world have 
adopted the way that Wilder invented. 

The regiment that I commanded, the 92nd Illinois Infan- 
try Volunteers, was detached from General Gordon Grang- 
er's Reserve Corps by the order of General Rosecrans at my 
request supplemented by the request of General Wilder, and 
joined Wilder 's Brigade at Duck River, Tennessee, and were 
given 140 Spencer Repeating Rifles, all the surplus arms of 
the Brigade. With the Brigade the regiment marched on Sun 
day, August 16th, 1863, in a heavy thunder storm and climbed 
the mountain East of Dechard to University Place, and cross- 
ing the mountains with light skirmishing camped at Poe's 
Tavern in the Tennessee Valley, North of Chattanooga/ on the 
21st of August. 

The main army of the Cumberland had marched to Stev- 
enson, Alabama, and crossing the Tennessee at Bridgeport 
and Caperton's Ferry had swung off through the mountain 
gorges to the West and South of Chattanooga, the Confed- 
erate stronghold. 

Wilder 's Brigade of Mounted Infantry, Minty's Brigade 
of Cavalry, and Wagner's Brigade of Infantry, had crossed 
the Cumberland Range into the Tennessee Valley, north of 
Chattanooga, with orders to demonstrate strongly as if con- 
templating a crossing of the Tennessee north of Chattanooga. 
On August 24th, the 92nd, with two pieces of artillery belong- 
ing to Lilly's battery of Wilder 's Brigade, marched to Har- 
rison's Landing and shelled the enemy on the opposite side 
of the river. Planting the two guns on the bluff the Lieutenant 
was ordered to fire, and when complaint was made that he was 



56 



slow, lie said that lie knew by an instrument that he carried 
just how many feet the Confederate fort was below his posi 
tion and if a man would stand up on the parapet of the Con- 
fede'rate fort he could tell by another instrument pust how 
many yards it was away soon a Confederate soldier stood 
up on the parapet of the fort, and the Lieutenant of artillery 
sighted him through his instrument, and while he was figur- 
ing out the distance, cutting his shells and loading his rifled 
cannon, I took position in front of and below the guns so I 
might watch the effect of the shots with my field glass but 
was enveloped in smoke, and could see nothing. 

A few days afterward we obtained a copy of the Chatta- 
nooga Daily Eebel that contained an article stating that the 
first shot from the Federal artillery at Harrison's Landing 
had dismounted one of the three pieces of artillery in the Con- 
federate fort. Lilly's gunners, when they knew the distance 
and elevation, could hit the mark the first shot two miles away, 
for they were as skilled as the " Americans behind the guns" 
with Dewey in Manila Bay. 

September 4th, the 92nd reported to General Wilder 
north of Chattanooga, and found that it had been ordered to 
report to General Thomas for scouting and courier duty. The 
regiment, with two brass mountain howitzers, immediately re- 
turned over the mountains and crossed the Tennessee at 
Bridgeport, and reported to General Eosecrans in Trenton 
Valley on the 8th at 10 a. m., and at 1 p. m. fifty men from the 
regiment armed with Spencer Eifles, under Lieut. Col. Van 
Buskirk, climbed Lookout Mountain on the West side by an 
unused cattle path, and pushed the Confederate cavalry off 
from Lookout Mountain, in plain sight of Chattanooga, and at 
10 p. m. reported the certain evacuation of Chattanooga by 
Bragg. General Eosecrans gave me written orders that night 
to take the advance into Chattanooga in the morning, and 
marching at 3 a. m., of September 9th, 1863, the regiment 
pushed the Confederate Cavalry off from the Mountain on the 
wagon road above the railroad. When on the Mountain, Lil- 
ly's Battery began shelling the 92nd from Moccasin Point- 
to be fired into by the artillery of our own Brigade was em- 
embarassing, but we soon communicated by signal with Lilly, 
who quit firing, and we pushed the enemy over and down the 



57 

Mountain, and entered Chattanooga, as early as 10 a. in., the 
colors of the 92nd being the first to wave over the evacuated 
city. I gathered such information as I could, and at 11 a. m., 
wrote and sent by courier the following note: 

Head Quarters 92nd 111. Vol. 
Chattanooga, 11 a. m., Sept. 9th, 1863. 
Major: 

We had a little skirmishing on the mountain, but now we 
hold Chattanooga my stand of colors was the first to float 
over the town a complete evacuation columns of dust 
showed them going South two companies of my regiment are 
pressing after them, and I will likely take my command up the 
river to gobble a little squad said to be there. 
Most Respectfully, 

Smith D. Atkins, 
Mtij. Lev-ring Col. !>l!n<l III. 

At 10 a. m., September 10th, 1863, Chattanooga was com- 
pletely evacuated by the rear guard of Bragg 's army, and 
was completely in possession of the Union soldiers. I was 
of the opinion at that time, and I have never changed that 
opinion, that General Rosecrans could have concentrated his 
entire army in Chattanooga before dark of September 10th, 
1863, with the exception of McCook's cavalry and McCook's 
command, without the loss of a man or a wheel, by returning 
West of Lookout Mountain and going down the Trenton Val- 
ley, could have been in Chattanooga on September llth, and 
the battle of Chickamauga have been completely avoided. 
Chattanooga was the object of the entire campaign, and by 
the magnificent maneuvering of his army General Rosecrans 
had compelled Bragg to evacuate the city, and he was in full 
possession of it in the forenoon of September the 9th, and 
could have put his entire army in that city without the loss 
of a man or a gun within 48 hours of that time. Why he did 
not do so I never could understand. He had not yet destroyed 
Bragg's army, but he had completely gained the sole object 
of the campaign without a battle, and the battle of Chicka- 
mauga was a useless sacrifice of life without object or purpose. 
Had he concentrated his army immediately in Chattanooga 
there would have been no battle of Chickamauga, and Rose- 



58 

tjrans would not have lost his command. . Up to that time Eose- 
crans had outgeneraled Bragg, and from that time Bragg out- 
generaled Eosecrans. 

At 1 o'clock p. m., of September 9th, the 92nd Illinois was 
ordered by General Crittenden then in Chattanooga up the 
Tennessee Eiver a few miles to assist Wilder and Minty in 
crossing; but before the regiment reached there, they were 
fording the river and needed no assistance. 

General Wilder ordered the 92nd to join his Brigade, and 
next evening it camped with the Brigade at Greyville, on the 
road to Einggold. During the night I received orders to 
report with the regiment to General Eosecrans at LaFayette, 
and was on the march before daylight, and a mile north of 
Einggold struck Forrests's Cavalry in force sending word to 
General Wilder the regiment dismounted and repulsed an 
assault of Forrest in line of regiments, when Wilder came up 
with a section of Lilly's battery and opened on the enemy- 
instantly our shots were answered with artillery, but no shot 
came near us we afterward learned that it was Van Cleve's 
Division that approached Einggold from the West, while we 
came from the North, and had Van Cleve known our position 
he could have cut off a large part of Forrest's Cavalry be- 
fore it could have passed out through Einggold Gap. Push- 
ing into Einggold a company was sent out toward LaFayette 
that struck the enemy's cavalry in force less than two miles 
from Einggold, and confident that we could not reach LaFay- 
ette by that road, with the consent of General Wilder, the 
regiment started for Eossville. A few miles out on our left 
toward Chickamauga Eiver we saw a column of the enemy 
preparing to charge on a Union wagon train that was going 
into camp ; but a few shots from our mountain howitzers and 
Spencers just as it began the charge turned the enemy's col- 
umn back, and we continued our march to Eossville arriving 
after dark. 

Anticipating that General Eosecrans was at that time in 
Chattanooga instead of LaFayette, two officers were sent 
there before daylight on September 12th, but the officers not 
returning, at 9 a. m., the regiment took the road to LaFayette 
finding no enemy until we reached Gordon's Mill on the Chick- 
amauga, where there were many of the enemy's cavalry that 



59 

made but slight resistance and retreated southward over the 
river ; stopping in a corn field away from the road, the horses 
were fed, and nose-bags filled with corn for another feed, when, 
moving to the LaFayette road to resume the march south- 
ward I received an order from General Rosecrans at Chatta- 
nooga to send my regiment to the foot of Lookout Mountain 
at the Summertown road, and report for orders to him in Chat- 
tanooga, which I did, and was ordered to open communication 
with General Thomas somewhere on Lookout Mountain, and 
marching all night we found Thomas before daylight, and by 
6 a. m., September 13th, had returned word to General Rose- 
crans that his dispatches to General Thomas had been deliv- 
ered on Lookout Mountain at Steven's Gap, and a Courier 
line established from there to Chattanooga. At 9 a. m. the 
regiment moved to the foot of Steven's Gap and went into 
Camp; on the 14th moved to Pond Spring and camped; on 
the 15th went to Crawfish Spring to open communication with 
General Crittenden, finding all roads and paths over the Chick- 
ainauga heavily picketed by the enemy's cavalry, and the 
woods full of spies, pretending to be deserters, that by the 
strange orders of General Rosecrans we were not permitted to 
molest. We remained at Pond Spring on the 16th sending out 
scouting parties in all directions, except south of the Chicka- 
mauga. On the 16th, was engaged with General Turchin's 
Brigade at Catlet's Gap, losing three men. On the 18th re- 
mained at Pond Spring, sending out scouting parties. On the 
19th of September the regiment moved at daylight with the 
infantry columns toward Chattanooga. 

Heavy firing at our right and front was heard soon after 
daylight. At 10 a. m. by command of General Rosecrans went 
into line in the field south of Widow Glen's house, where Gen- 
eral Rosecrans made his headquarters, and sent a dismounted 
skirmish line into the woods toward LaFayette road, and 
captured a Confederate soldier, who said that he belonged to 
Longstreet's corps from the army of Virginia, and the pris- 
oner was taken to General Rosecrans' headquarters. At 11 
a. m. was ordered further on the road to Chattanooga, and be- 
tween 12 and 1 o'clock, dismounted on the west side of and 
near the LaFayette road by order of General Reynolds, and 
the eight companies of the regiment, two being on Courier 



60 

duty, endeavored to stop the enemy who had repulsed King's 
Brigade, which the regiment succeeded in doing in its immed- 
iate 3 front, but the long line of the enemy swept by its right 
flank and the regiment was withdrawn, with a loss of twenty- 
six killed and wounded. 

Being left upon the field without orders, many of our 
troops retreating toward Chattanooga, men were sent to find 
Wilder 's Brigade, which was found near Viniards, west of 
LaFayette road, and moving around the enemy that had 
broken through the Union lines, the regiment joined Wilder 's 
Brigade late in the afternoon, and went into line dismounted 
on his left. 

All night long in the woods in our front the axes of the 
enemy rang out clear and loud. I could not then understand 
why there was so much chopping of timber, but I have since, 
in company with General H. V. Boynton, visited the ground in 
our front occupied by the enemy, where they were building 
breastAvorks of timber, the ground being too rocky to throw 
up earthworks, in evident fear of an assault by Eosecrans in 
the morning. I was then of the opinion, and am now, that 
had Rosecrans possessed at Chickamauga the cool, calculating, 
bulldog courage he exhibited at Stone River, and boldly as- 
saulted the enemy's lines on the morning of September 20th, 
he would have pushed Bragg 's army across the Chickamauga 
and remained victor upon the field. He made the fatal error 
of withdrawing his lines and awaiting the Confederate assault. 
The 92nd Illinois regiment, before daylight on the morning of 
the 20th was spread out mounted to cover the entire line of 
Wilder 's Brigade front, the Brigade having withdrawn to the 
right of McCook corps far in the rear. Not long after sun- 
rise, a heavy column of the enemy in column of regiments 
doubled on the center, moving very slowly, making not a sound, 
no mounted officers with them, was observed passing out left 
flank. It was said to be Longstreet's corps. Word was re- 
peatedly sent to McCook, who testily denied the truthfulness 
of the information sent him, and foolishly refused to send out 
a skirmish line of his own by which he might have learned the 
truth. Hours passed by, and then that quiet, creeping column 
of Confederates sprang upon the left of McCook 's corps with 



61 

a yell, and with irresistible force, and, although McCook had 
been early and often informed of the approach of that column 
of the enemy, it was a complete surprise to him, and in less 
than ten minutes his left was irretrievably lost, and the amazed 
and astonished General looked on helplessly, his magnificent 
corps broken into fragments and floating off from the battle- 
field in detachments and squads like flecks of foam upon a 
river. I have read of a useless and sullen retreat of a por- 
tion of the English army in the Crimean war described by 
Henry J. Kaymond ; I saw, at Shiloh, while serving as Assist- 
ant Adjutant General of the 4th Division of the Army of the 
Tennessee, whole regiments of other divisions marching sul- 
lenly to the rear without firing a shot at the enemy; but I 
never read of, and never saw, so foolish and senseless a re- 
treat as was made by McCook 's corps, not from cowardice, 
but solely from the incompetence of the corps Commander. 
As soon as the Confederates assaulted McCook 's corps the 
enemy in our front advanced in force, and powerless to make 
resistance with a thin line of mounted troops, we withdrew 
and joined Wilder 's Brigade in the rear. There I met General 
Wilder the Brigade Commander, on the ridge deserted by 
McCook, where we could both see the long column of Con- 
federate regiments doubled on the center, and he instantly 
conceived the bold idea of charging with his Brigade through 
the center of the Confederate column, taking their regiments 
in flank, and pushing for Thomas on the left. He did me the 
honor to ask my opinion, and I replied that it was a desperate 
and bold movement, but his Brigade of Spencer Repeating 
Rifles could do it, and with most of his Brigade he could join 
Thomas, and might entirely change the result of the battle. 
He told me that he would form his Brigade in a hollow square, 
two regiments in front line with opening for Lilly's Battery, 
one regiment in column on each flank, and my regiment in line 
in rear of the battery, and I was about to go to my regiment 
just beyond the brow of the hill to bring it up to make that 
formation, when Hon. Charles A. Dana, Assistant Secretary 
of War rode up, saying that all was lost, and when General 
Wilder explained to him what he intended doing, Mr. Dana 
positively ordered General Wilder not to make the attempt, 



62 

but to withdraw with his Command to Chattanooga on the 
Dry Valley road. Wilder lingered on the leld with his Com- 
mand, gathering up McCook's abandoned artillery and prob- 
ably a hundred ambulances of our wounded, and near night- 
fall retired to Chattanooga, the 92nd Illinois regiment cover- 
ing the rear, followed by Forrest's Cavalry, lightly skirmish- 
ing with the rear guard. 

Here was fought one of the most fiercely contested bat- 
tles in history, that ought not to have been fought at all, with- 
out object and without result, save the renewed demonstration 
of the valor of American soldiery, equal here in the Union 
and Confederate armies. They were all Americans. 

That Wilder 's famous Brigade of Mounted Infantry was 
composed of troops as brave and as intelligent as any, I am 
willing to contend ; that they were braver and more intelligent 
than all others, I am not willing to assert. The phenomenal 
victories they achieved I attribute, of course, in an important 
degree, to the skill of their Commander, to their intelligence 
and bravery ; but supplemental to that, they were armed with 
Spencer Repeating Rifles, the most effective and complete 
weapon for actual service ever placed in the hands of soldiers. 
Had the Americans who met them upon so many battlefields 
been armed in precisely the same manner, the losses in Wil- 
der 's Brigade would have been many times multiplied. 

Here we see, what so far as I know, may not be seen upon 
any battlefield outside of the great Eepublic, beautiful monu- 
ments precisely alike erected by the government to commemo- 
rate the soldierly qualities of all general officers, those who 
fought for the government, and those who fought against the 
government. Here Kentucky has erected a beautiful monu- 
ment commemorating jointly the heroism of her sons who 
fought against, and who fought for, the starry banner of the 
Republic. 

' 'Fondly do we hope, earnestly do we pray," that it is 
typical of a people as firmly united as the particles of the 
granite monuments here commemorating the soldierly quali- 
ties of Americans North and South, and that never again will 
any American fire upon the American flag. 

Here this massive monument commemorating the sol- 
dierly qualities of Wilder 's Brigade, shall " greet the morning 



63 

sunlight, and kiss the last rays of the setting sun", while "the 
earth bears a plant, or the sea rolls a wave," and all the world 
shall know that "government of the people, by the people, 
and for the people shall not perish from the earth." 



A MATTOON PIONEER. 

APT. JOSEPH WITHINGTON CIVILIAN, SOLDIER AND STATESMAN. 
BY ADOLF SUMEELIN. 

Without making any pretentious to greatness or claims 
for marked distinction in the affairs of life, yet the story of 
Capt Joseph Wellington's existence among us mortals has 
much out of the ordinary. It is a genuine pleasure when he 
can be induced to unlock the store of memory and relate in- 
teresting events of the distant past. 

Captain Withington, the last of the hardy old pioneers 
who settled along the banks of Whitley creek in Moultrie 
county, was born in Newbury, Mass., his ancestors being Eng- 
lish of the Puritanical stock. After having completed his 
academical course he came west long before Horace Greeley 
had given that advice to young men, and engaged in the mer- 
cantile business in the store of his uncle, Ebenezer Noyes, at 
Essex, a village platted by Mr. Noyes in 1840. In later years 
it was known as the Zion Frost Farm, and is now owned by 
J. Hortenstine & Son. 

It was in 1849 that he made his first appearance on Whit- 
ley Creek and among his friends and customers of some sev- 
enty odd years ago were Thomas T. Townley, Philip Arman- 
trout, William Christie, Grandfather Apple, Eufus Pierce 
and many other noble frontiersmen who have passed away. 

The Village of Nelson situated on the banks of the Okaw 
expected to become the county seat of Moultrie county and so 
firmly was the belief fixed in the minds of the inhabitants of 
Nelson township that the court house was about half com- 
pleted when the vote was taken which resulted in Sullivan 
being chosen, much to the disappointment of the public spir- 
ited citizens of that township. While these events were tak- 
ing place along the banks of the Kaskaskia, Mattoon was not 
even dreamed of and the ground whereon this city rests was 
waving fields of grass used for grazing purposes and inhab- 



65 

ited by wolves, deer and rattlesnakes, and the numerous lakes 
and ponds surrounding the elevated site in the fall and spring 
were covered with the wild fowls of the air when resting from 
their long fights between the north and the south. This sec- 
tion was rendered uninhabitable on account of the chills and 
fever, the mosquito and the giant horsefly, the early settlers 
having located along the banks of creeks, rivers and on ele- 
vated ground were in a measure exempt from these annoy- 
ances. 

Captain Withington continued in business in Essex until 
1853 when he went to St. Louis and accepted a position as 
clerk in a mercantile establishment, where he remained for 
three years. 

In 1855, after it had been definitely settled that the cross- 
ings of the Illinois Central and the old Terre Haute & Alton 
Railroads would be where they are now located, he paid the 
new town site a visit, making a portion of the trip from St. 
Louis by stage, going via Moweaqua and Sullivan. The future 
for Mattoon was attractive and after returning to St. Louis 
and remaining about a year he bade that city farewell and 
opened a paint, oil and glass store in the village of Mattoon 
starting in business where the great Hulman wholesale house 
is now situated. 

Since that time, sixty-four years ago, this city has been 
his home and here he has constantly been with the exception 
of two years in Cincinnati, two years in Charleston, and four 
years as a soldier in the army fighting for the preservation of 
the Union. 

The first number of the Mattoon Gazette was issued in 
March, 1856, as an advertising sheet or rather a boom edition. 
Rufus W. Houghton was the publisher and some four weeks 
wore required in its publication. Captain Withington was one 
of the compositors. Mr. Houghton having taught him the 
boxes and how to assemble the type in a stick. He was an apt 
apprentice and rendered much assistance in getting out the 
first number of the first paper ever printed in Mattoon. 

The idea of becoming a printer was probably influenced 
by his father, Leonard Withington, who learned the art of 
printing in Boston ; he was a graduate of Yale and was a He- 
brew scholar. He was also a writer of considerable note for 



66 

newspapers and magazines, but at a later date became a Con- 
gregational minister and for over fifty years served one con- 
gregation at Newbury, Mass., as its minister. He died at the 
advanced age of ninety-seven, and his maiden sister, Eliza- 
beth Withington, passed away at the ripe old age of 101. 

In 1857 Captain Withington aided the engineers in plat- 
ting Noyes' addition to the city of Mattoon and in 1858 he as- 
sisted Mr. Noyes in setting out a large number of shade trees 
in the southwest portion of the city. 

During his long residence in Mattoon the Captain has 
filled the positions of county surveyor, supervisor, police mag- 
istrate and mayor. Contrary to the usual custom he was 
never an aspirant for any political position and these offices 
came to him unsolicited. His political affiliations have been 
with the Republican party since its organization. 

In February 1883 the Mattoon Building and Loan Asso- 
ciation was chartered and it was the first association of its 
kind in Mattoon. Captain Withington was chosen its first sec- 
retary and filled that position for twenty-three years. He is 
now treasurer of Mattoon Lodge No. 260 A. F. & A. M., Mat- 
toon Chapter No. 85 R. A. M. and Godfrey de Boulion Com- 
mandery No. 44 K. T. and is a charter member of Elect Lady 
Chapter No. 40 0. E. S. 

It was in 1867 when he first commenced keeping the 
weather records, and in 1874, having succeeded William Doz- 
ier, deceased, he made regular reports to the government un- 
til 1913, covering a period of forty years, when he resigned. 
He is well supplied with meteorological instruments which in- 
sure accuracy to his calculations and yet while he makes na 
report to the government his records are as complete up to 
the present as when he did so, and those who desire are at 
liberty to consult them at any time. His barometer foretold 
the great cyclone of May 1917 that laid waste the northern 
portions of Mattoon and Charleston. 

For many years the historic old Essex House was his 
home but during recent years the captain has had his office, 
library and sleeping apartments over 1712^ Broadway, but 
he was forced to move in Nov. 1916, owing to the excavation 
for the Illinois Central subway weakening the foundation of 
the building and he obtained comfortable accommodations 



67 

in the Harris building, over 1408 Broadway. His rooms- 
present cheerful and pleasant surroundings and home like 
comforts. In his library of some seven hundred volumes are 
many ancient, rare and valuable books, among them an illus- 
trated leaflet printed in London over one hundred years ago. 
In his collection are Greek, Latin, Spanish, French, Italian 
and German lexicons, and side by side is a large illustrated 
edition of the Holy Bible and Webster's Unabridged Diction- 
ary, fit companions for one possessing a mind delving .into- 
the deepest researches. He also has a large collection of 
charts, maps, pamphlets, reports and also his account books; 
of 1849-53, which will prove valuable to future historians. 

The walls of his bachelor sitting room are decorated with 
portraits, engravings, silhouettes, mementoes, heirlooms and 
keepsakes which are both interesting and instructive. Among 
them is a steel engraving of his father, made by Sartain in 
the early forties, and was among the last steel plates made 
by that eminent artist ; an oil painting of Dr. Nathan Noyes, 
his maternal grandfather ; two paintings by the late Mrs. Hat- 
tie B. Cunningham; a photogravure, "Mon Ancient Regi- 
ment;" a portrait of Abraham Lincoln; a silhouette of Ad- 
miral Schley, a certificate of the Illinois Masonic Veterans r 
association dated October 29, 1913 ; and many other pictures 
and ornaments of more or less note. In his collection of cur- 
ios are: 

A Chinese sword with a scabbard made of Chinese coins. 

A Turkish shield inlaid with gold and silver. 

A ship barometer over one hundred years old. 

A sextant for taking the altitude of heavenly bodies. 

An aneroid and mercurial barometer for ascertaining 
atmospheric pressure. 

A hand seal used by his grandfather. It is over a cen- 
tury old. 

A Cuban machette used during the Spanish- American 
war. 

A copper warming pan formerly owned by his grand- 
father. 

Two silver plated candle sticks and snuffers that have 
passed the century mark. 

Candlestick, snuffers and dish about 100 years old. 



68 

Brass postal scales in use some fifty-five years ago. 

A Japanese cabinet having seven apartments. 

And among the minor curios are a wax figure of the moon, 
toy pipes, Japanese magic doll, the "Holy Book" which 
proves itself; many small tools and numerous articles which 
are associated with the distant past. 

CAPTAIN WITHHSTGTON 's AKMY KECORD. 

The following record of the army life of Captain Joseph 
Withington was compiled by H. W. Kellog, historian, from 
the official and authentic sources as kept by the Army and 
Navy association of the United States and is dated February 
6, 1902, and is number 41,190 : 

"This certifies that Joseph Withington enlisted from 
Coles County, April 19, 1861, at Camp Douglas, Springfield, 
111., as sergeant in Capt. James Monroe's Company B, Sev- 
enth Eegiment, Illinois, Volunteer Infantry, Colonel John 
Cook, commander. The regiment was chiefly engaged in 
guard duty in the states of Missouri and Illinois. 

"Received an honorable discharge at Mound City, 111., 
July 25, 1861, on account of expiration of service. 

"Re-enlisted at Mattoon, 111., July 30, 1861 to serve for 
three years, or during the war, and was mustered into service 
at Decatur, 111., August 5, 1861, as first sergeant in Captain 
Edmund True's Company D, Forty-first Regiment, Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry. Colonel Isaac C. Pugh commanding. 

"On August 8 regiment moved to St. Louis, Mo.; thence 
to Bird's Point, Mo., and was assigned to the command of 
General U. S. Grant to assist in fortifying Paducah, Ky. It 
was afterward assigned to the Second brigade, Second divi- 
sion of the Sixteenth army corps, Army of the Tennessee; 
later to the Seventeenth Corps, Major General James B. Mc- 
Pherson commanding, and during its service participated in 
the following engagements : 

"Fort Henry, Fort Donelson, Pittsburg Landing, 
Tenn., Shiloh, siege of Corinth, Hatchie River, Matamora, 
Hernando, siege of Vicksburg and Jackson, Miss. ; Red River 
expedition, including Sabine Cross Roads, Pleasant Hills, 
Cane River or Monetis Bluff, Cloutiersville, Marksville and 
Mansura, La.; Gantown, Miss.; Kenesaw Mountain, siege of 



69 

Atlanta, Lovejoy Station, march to the sea, siege of Savan- 
nah, Ga., and a number of minor affairs. For nearly one year 
he was adjutant general of his brigade being the 1st Brig., 
4th Div., 17th Army Corps. 

"On January 4, 1865, the regiment was consolidated with 
the Fifty-third Illinois, and was afterward engaged at Or- 
angeburg and Cheraw, S. C. ; Fayetteville and Bentonville, 
N. C., and also present at the surrender of Johnston's army 
to General Sherman at Bennett House in Raleigh, N. C. 

"The said Joseph Withington was with his command up 
to the Bed River expedition and at all times performed faith- 
ful and meritorious service, for which he was promoted to the 
rank of First Lieutenant, Company D, and captain of his com- 
pany to date from July 12, 1862. 

"He was slightly wounded by a spent ball at the battle 
of Fort Donelson, Tenn. 

"He received an honorable discharge at Springfield, 111., 
September 12, 1864, on expiration of term of service. 

"His brother, Nathan N., served in the Eleventh Regi- 
ment, Massachusetts Infantry, and his brother Richard served 
in the Seventeenth Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry; their 
father's name Leonard Withington; mother's maiden name 
Caroline Noyes, grandfather, Joseph Withington, served in 
the Revolutionary war. 

"The said Joseph Withington was born in Essex county, 
Mass., May 4, 1834. 

"He is a member of Mattoon Post No. 404, Department 
of Illinois, Grand Army of the Republic and has filled most of 
the minor offices." 

The certificate further states : He is a member of the A. 
F. & A. M. and Knights Templar ; he has been presiding offi- 
cer in all the Masonic orders and has held many of the minor 
offices in the Benevolent Order of Elks. 

Although Captain Withington is approaching his eighty- 
sixth birthday he enjoys companionship with the same degree 
of relish that he did when a young man carving his fortune 
in the wilds of the west. In a quiet way he has been a great 
philanthropist and has brought cheer and encouragement to 
many an aching and discouraged heart ; ever warm in his ties 
of friendship and forgiving where he has been unjustly 



70 

wronged. In his daily walks he has about him a halo of cheer 
that is always pleasant and assuring and ever ready to grant 
an accommodation whenever it is possible to do so. He has 
been and still is a great reader and student and his mind is a 
store-house of knowledge, his literary taste having a wide 
range in history, poetry, religion, mathematics and science. 
He takes pardonable delight in relating reminiscences per- 
taining to the early days of this section of Illinois and also 
in giving his experiences as a soldier faithfully following the 
flag of his country. His head is now white, his step a little 
tottery, but his eyes are bright, his mind is clear and he 
stands in Mattoon, "the Queen of the Prairies," like the giant 
oak of the forest that has survived the storms of many win- 
ters. 



71 



PIKE COUNTY SETTLED 1820; 100 YEARS AGO. 

By JESSE M. THOMPSON. 

Doubtless it has occurred to few persons that the present 
year marks an important centennial in the history of Pike 
county. Just one hundred years ago this year the first white' 
settlements were made within the present borders of Pike. 
Just one hundred years ago this summer Christian civilization 
first blazed its way to this then wilderness country. Just a 
century ago the woodman's axe rang for the first time in our 
virgin forests to shape the rude accommodations for the 
log home of a Christian family. Just a century ago came 
Ebenezer Franklin and Daniel Shinn and the sons of Micah 
Boss, seeking homes in the far valley of the Mississippi. 

True, these men of 1820 were not the first white men to 
set foot within what is now Pike county. The first white 
men who came to this region were possibly Father Marquette, 
LaSalle, Joliet, Tonty, Iberville and others who, as history 
records, made frequent trips up and down our border rivers 
in the seventeenth century. French and half-breed traders, 
trappers and coureur-des-bois occasionally crossed our beauti- 
ful prairies and camped in the edge of our woodlands, but 
none lingered long within our borders. At night they pitched 
their tents and surrounded only by the wilderness with its 
denizens and roving red men, they rested their weary bodies 
until day-break and then passed on. The first to pause within 
the present limits of Pike county was a French Canadian trap- 
per and hunter by the name of Jacques Tibault (recorded in 
the early history of the county as J. B. Teboe.) This half-breed 
is known to have occupied a rude hut near the Illinois river on 
what is now section 33, Flint township, as early as 1817. Ti- 
bault however can hardly lay claim to the title of " first set- 
tler" in as much as he had no family, tilled no land and made 
no permanent abode. He was a half -wild creature and lived 
by his rifle and his traps. Tibault was killed at Milton in 1844. 



72 

The first bona-fide white settler in Pike comity was Ebene- 
zer Franklin who came in March, 1820, bringing with him his 
wife, son and three daughters and a man by the name of Israel 
Waters. Franklin stopped first at a point about one-half mile 
east of the present site of Atlas and up Jockey Hollow. Neigh- 
borhoods were counties in those days and so far as known 
Franklin's nearest neighbors who had any white blood in their 
veins were the half-breed, Tibault, on the Illinois river, and a 
man who had been living in what is now Calhoun county since 
about 1801 and who is believed to have been the first man to so- 
journ within the Military Tract. This man lived in a cave dug 
out by himself about a quarter of a mile from the Mississippi 
river and he remained secluded and unknown after the first 
pioneers came. His name and story are shrouded with im- 
penetrable mystery. 

Franklin had neither the tools nor the help to build a cabin 
for himself and family, so he was forced to pitch a tent and 
here his family suffered terribly from the chill winds of early 
spring. The following May, assisted by a new-comer, Daniel 
Shinn, Franklin built himself a log cabin on the southeast 
quarter of section 22, about three quarters of a mile from 
the present Atlas and about 150 yards north of where the road 
has since run. Franklin cut the first tree and with Shinn built 
the first log house in Pike county. Franklin at a later period 
lived for a time a short distance south of Pittsfield and still 
later on what was known as Franklin's Prairie, near Milton. 
He died at Milton in 1878. 

In April, 1820, a month after the coming of Franklin, came 
Daniel Shinn and his wife, Mary, and their seven children. 
They were natives of New Jersey but came here from Ohio. 
They brought with them the first wagon ever seen in Pike 
county. And now for the first time in the Pike county wilder- 
ness is heard the song and laughter of women and in the 
rude clearings the voices of little children at play. Mr. Shinn 
took up from the government 160 acres of wild land on what 
is now section 12, Atlas township, and here, working turn- 
about with his neighbor, Franklin, he built a log house for 
his family. He at once set about improving his wilderness 
home, hewing rails from the forest trees and fencing some 
of his acres, plowing with his oxen and wooden mouldboard 



73 

plow the first field ever broken in the county, and planting" 
the first crop of Indian corn. 

Mr. Shinn became a leader in the early history and de- 
velopment of the county, assisted in building the first log 
courthouse and jail in Atlas, helped lay out the road from 
Pittsfield to Atlas, and raised the first hogs and sheep known 
in the county. Wolves that roamed the wilds in large bands 
and made the nights hideous with their bowlings, devoured 
200 of his pigs before he hit upon the expedient of shutting 
his hogs in a log stable for protection. Mr. Shinn became the 
owner of 700 acres of Pike county land at one time and reared 
a family of thirteen children. This grand old pioneer died 
while visiting a daughter in Pittsfield in March, 1852, his wife 
having passed away about 1846. 

The first community settlement in Pike county was 
founded in the late summer or early fall of 1820 (just about 
100 years ago) when four sons of Micah Ross, of 
Piltsfield, Mass., and a few other families arrived after months- 
of tedious travel and thrilling adventure at what is now the- 
site of Atlas and charmed by the beauty and evident fertility 
of these wide-stretching prairies they here pitched camp and 
began the erection of the first log settlement in the county. 
The little party had set out from Massachusetts in early sum- 
mer and reaching the headwaters of the Allegheny river they 
had procured flatboats and rafts and placing their families, 
horses and wagons thereon, they began to work their way 
down the river which was at such a low stage that the boats 
frequently ran fast aground and the men of the party had to 
wade out and pry them off the mud banks with stout poles. 
After 14 days of terrible exertion they reached Pittsburg 
and there embarked upon the broad Ohio which carried them 
without mishap for nearly 900 miles to Shawneetown, 111., 
where, after a several weeks' journey, they disembarked and 
started overland with teams and wagons in a north-westerly 
direction across Illinois towards their destination near the 
Mississippi river. 

At length, after days of weary travel, our adventurers 
reached Upper Alton. There was at that time but one house 
in what is now the city of Alton and this was occupied by an 
old Indian fighter by the name of Major Hunter. Leaving 



the women and children in the party at Upper Alton, the men 
pressed on into the wilderness, making use of old Indian trails 
and ancient buffalo paths. At the mouth of the Illinois river 
they came upon an Indian camp, where they procured canoes. 
They then crossed the bluff and proceeded to the Mississippi 
Bottom, at the point where Gilead (in Calhoun county) is now 
situated, then continued up the bottom, marking the^trees as 
they went, for there were no roads and nothing to guide them 
save an occasional Indian trail, and after a hard and toilsome 
march they came, "at last" (whence, according to one tradi- 
tion, the name " Atlas"), to that pleasing and inviting location 
that they had so long pictured in their mind's eye. Charmed 
by this favored locality, our pioneers at once set about con- 
structing a camp to shelter them while they prepared quarters 
for their families. No time was lost in building up four 
primitive log cabins as the nucleus for the new settlement and 
all being in readiness the men returned to Upper Alton for 
their families and shortly afterwards took permanent pos- 
session of their wilderness homes. 

Among these first-comers of 1820 were several whose 
names are imperishable in Pike county annals. They were 
Col. William Eoss, Clarendon Eoss, Capt. Leonard E o s s, 
Henry J. Eoss, Samuel Davis, William Sprague and Joseph 
Cogswell, and their families. Davis was a famous bee-hunter 
of early days and built for his large family a cabin on section 
16, Atlas. All except Cogswell and his family (who were from 
Berkshire, Mass.) hailed from Pittsficld, Mass. Leonard Eoss 
had been a captain in the war of 1812. Colonel William Eoss 
gained his title at a later date when he was appointed Colonel 
of Illinois militia. His is perhaps the most noted name in the 
early history of the county. He had much to do with shaping 
the county's policies in early days, both politically and econ- 
omically. He built the first brick house in the county at Atlas 
in 1821. He built the first mill in the county (a two-story affair 
with a capacity of a peck to a half bushel of corn per hour) 
in 1822, and erected the first storebuilding in the county at 
Atlas in 1826, and the first band grist mill at the same place 
in the same year. The first church in the county was organ- 
ized in his home prior to 1830. It was Congregational, long 
since replaced by a more stately edifice. He, with James M. 



75 

Seeley, raised the first wheat in the county, which was also 
the first ground in the county and made into biscuits, the 
flour being bolted through book muslin. The first Masonic 
lodge in the county was held upstairs at his home in Atlas 
between 1830 and 1834. He addressed the first political meet- 
ing known in the county which was held in Montezuma town- 
ship in 1834 (he at the time being a candidate for the state 
legislature), and he was the first State Senator elected from 
the County of Pike. In 1833, when it became evident that the 
county seat must be moved from Atlas to a more central point 
in the county, Colonel Ross advanced the money to the county 
authorities with which to enter the land on which Pittsfield 
now stands, and in consideration thereof he was accorded the 
privilege of naming the new town, which he did, naming it in 
honor of his Massachusetts home, and so indirectly in honor 
of William Pitt, the ''Great Commoner" and friend of Amer- 
ica in the years preceding our national birth. 

Colonel Ross lost his wife, one of his brothers and numer- 
ous others of his company in the great pestilential sickness 
which fell upon the new community at Atlas in the first year. 
He later visited New York, married a Miss Edna Adams and 
returned to his settlement where there had already been es- 
tablished a postoffice called Ross Settlement. Colonel Ross 
changed the name to Atlas, although some in the settlement 
held out for the name "Charlotte", in honor of a woman 
member of the pioneer party. The Colonel participated in 
the famous Black Hawk campaign of 1832, he having had much 
military training in the war of 1812, where, with his brother, 
Captain Leonard, he led a detachment of about 100 men in 
the memorable battle of Sackett's Harbor (in which 500 Amer- 
icans drove back 1,300 British soldiers), one-third of the de- 
tachment commanded by the Rosses being killed or wounded 
in the conflict. Colonel Ross was for many years judge of 
probate for the county of Pike and also served as clerk of 
the circuit court. He was the intimate friend of Abraham 
Lincoln, Gen. John M. Palmer, 0. H. Browning, Richard 
Yates, Wentworth, Lovejoy and Richard J. Oglesby. He spent 
his later years in Pittsfield, where he established the first bank 
in the county about 1854 or 1855, which was known as the 
Banking House of William Ross & Company, the company 



76 

being Marshall Ayers of Jacksonville. The famous pioneer 
died in Pittsfield on May 31, 1873, at the age of 81, and is 
buried in the Pittsfield West Cemetery, on the road leading to 
the first Pike county settlement which he founded in 1820. 

Spare indeed are the authentic records of our earliest set- 
tlers. A few facts however have been preserved by the elder 
chroniclers and here and there in out-of-the-way places still 
linger a few traditions of the early settlement. It is known 
that that first year and the few succeeding ones at Atlas were 
bitter years. As Will Carleton says in his story of the First 
Settler, "It ain't the funniest thing a man can do, existing 
in a country when its new." Nature had moved in a good 
many centuries before our settlers and was running things 
pretty much her own style and she did not propose to sur- 
render without a struggle her ancient,* solitary reign. She 
greeted the new-comers with her miasmas and malarias, her 
swamp fevers and ague thrills, her wolves and catamounts and 
rattlesnakes ; she sent her chill winter winds whistling through 
their rude cabins and then she scorched them with several 
weeks of quiet fire. In a thousand ways she suggested.to her 
unbidden guests that they had best pack up and hustle back 
East. But our settlers were a hardy race. They hadn't 
started on a circular tour. And when at last Dame Nature 
understood that they had come to stay she changed from a 
snarl to a purr, from mother-in-law to mother as it were, and 
took them into full partnership, yielding lavishly of her stores 
and the fruits of her marvelously fertile soils. Thus tri- 
umphed the indomitable spirit of our pioneers. 

Let us for a little while go back a hundred years in our 
history to that first settlement at Atlas. Let us strip our 
fertile fields of their improvements, count the automobile and 
telephone the illusions of a disordered mind, restore our de- 
pleted groves to their ancient wealth of trees, banish all signs 
of a thrifty population, call back the creatures of the wild 
and the roving red men in short, set the wilderness stage of 
that distant day, a century ago, when Pike county was a-born- 
ing. 

The four log houses comprising the original settlement 
are soon surrounded by others. Other settlers arrived in the 
footsteps of the Bosses, among them two more Rosses, John 



77 

and Jeremiah. About this time came James M. Seeley, father 
of Dr. Seeley of the old Pittsfield mercantile firm of Seeley 
& Lloyd. Others arriving soon after were Rufus Brown, who 
established a tavern at Atlas, and Chas. McGiffin and Levi 
Newman, who located opposite Louisiana on a slough once 
known as McGiffin 's slough. James McDonald, wife and four 
daughters arrived at this time from Washington county, New 
York, and settled on an island in the Sni, where he established 
a ferry. He was later found murdered at his ferry. In the 
first year of the settlement came also John Wood (who in 
1822 founded the city of Quincy) and Willard Keyes. These 
two men located on section 16, just below New Canton, and 
kept bachelor's hall on the bank of a creek that was substan- 
tially named Keyes Creek after the name of one of the men. 
Wood and Keyes brought with them a few hogs, two yoke of 
oxen, and a small iron plow, the first in the county. Wood 
became governor of Illinois in 1860-61. Keyes carried water 
from a salt spring in Pleasant Vale township a mile and a 
half to his home, where he boiled it down and made salt for 
the early settlers. 

One day Wood, accompanied by Colonel Ross and Capt. 
Leonard Ross, sheriff of the county, was riding horseback 
through the wilderness that is now Adams county but which 
was then in Pike. Suddenly Wood paused and bidding the 
Rosses to follow him he told them he would lead them to the 
spot where he was going to build a city. They followed him 
through the wild underbrush for about a mile from the beaten 
trail and at last they came out upon the spot where Quincy 
now stands. The three pioneers gazed enraptured at the 
beauty of the scene, at the marvelous handiwork of nature 
yet unmarred by the hand of man, at the mighty Father of 
Waters that rolled below them. With high enthusiasm, young 
Wood pointed out the various merits of the location and told 
them that here he had decided to build this city. Colonel 
Ross believing that a great future awaited his own town of 
Atlas, listened attentively, and finally turning to the young 
man he congratulated him on his choice of location and wished 
him well. "But," said Colonel Ross, addressing himself to 
the future State Governor and founder of the "Gem City", "I 



78 

have little faith in the success of your city because it is too 
close to Atlas." 

Meanwhile, news of the settlers at Atlas reaches the state 
legislators in session at Vandalia, then the capital of the state. 
Late in 1820 the legislature began to consider the question of 
laying out a new county for the benefit of the new-comers. 
Accordingly, an act to form a new county out of the bounty 
lands of the state was framed and passed by the legislature 
and this act was formally approved by the state body on Jan- 
uary 31, 1824. This new county was named Pike county in 
honor of General Zebulon M. Pike, western explorer, soldier of 
the war of 1812, and discoverer of Pike's Peak. The Pike 
county thus formed was not limited to its present borders. 
More than fifty counties have been created from the original 
Pike. The Pike county of a hundred years ago embraced all 
of that part of the state of Illinois between the Mississippi 
and Illinois rivers from their junction 25 miles above St. Louis 
northward to the Wisconsin line and eastward to Lake Mich- 
igan, and included what are now known as the cities of Chi- 
cago, Peoria, Quincy, Eock Island and Galena. At the first 
election held in this vast territory in 1821, there were but 35 
votes polled, including those of the French at Chicago. The 
seat of justice for this far-reaching territory was established 
at Coles' Grove, near the present site of Gilead in Calhoun 
county. A " Gazetteer of Illinois and Wisconsin",* published: 
about 1822, says of the county as it was then. ' ' Pike county 
will no doubt be divided into several counties ; some of which 
will become very wealthy and important. It is probable that 
the section about Fort Clark (now Peoria) will be the most 
thickly settled. Pike county contains between 700 and 800 in- 
habitants. The county seat is Coles' Grove, a post town. Very 
little improvement has yet been made in this place or vicinity. 
The situation is high and healthy and bids fair to become a 
place of some importance." Thus the historian of near a cen- 
tury ago speaks of Pike county as it was in its original magni- 
tude and wildness. The historian as yet had no vision of 
the great metropolis that was destined to arise in the north- 
east section of the county on Lake Michigan. In this same 

1823* Gazetteer of Illinoi s and Missouri. By Lewis C. Beck, published Albany 



79 

Gazetteer of 1822, Chicago is spoken of as "a village of Pike 
county, containing 12 or 15 houses and about 60 or 70 in- 
habitants." Fort Dearborn (the present site of Chicago) had 
been founded in 1804 but it was so far in the wilderness that 
news of the Indian massacre of the garrison in 1812 was sev- 
eral weeks reaching the nearest white settlements. 

That first year at Atlas was marked by a terrible sickness 
that swept away half of the early community. Up from the 
decaying vegetation of the newly-plowed prairies and the 
rotting fish in the dried-up ponds, came the fatal miasmatic 
plague. Day after day the death angel flapped his wing over 
the new settlement. At last, barely a home remained that 
death had not entered. The nearest doctor was at Louisiana 
and the trail was a bitter one. In puncheons of basswood, 
hollowed out, the bodies of the dead were placed and thus 
rudely encoffined they were consigned to the ground in a bury- 
ing-spot near Franklin's first location and about 400 yards 
from Shinn's. No stone or head-board marks the spot nor is 
there any outward sign that the dead are there, yet there for 
a century has reposed the dust of 80 men, women and children 
of the first settlement who were carried away by the memor- 
able plague. 

Our settlers seldom wanted for meat. The streams 
teemed with myriads of fish of many species and on the 
prairies and in the woodlands were prairie chicken, grouse, 
partridge, snipe, wild pigeons, plover, and wild turkeys and 
in the migratory seasons the ponds and streams swarmed with 
countless water-fowl, many of them with names no longer 
known to hunters, among them the Great Northern Diver or 
loon, the rough-billed pelican, the wood duck, the big black- 
headed duck, the ring-necked duck, the red-head, the canvas- 
back, the dipper, the shell-drake or goosander, the fish duck, 
the red-breasted and the hooded merganser, the mallard and 
the pin-tail, the green-winged and the blue-winged teal, the 
spoonbill and the gadwall, the baldpate, the American swan, 
the trumpeter swan and the white-fronted goose. What a 
paradise for the hunter was the Pike county of those days ! 

While our settlers usually had meat in abundance, there 
was oftentimes a lack of other provisions such as salt, flour 
and coffee. Once, when larders were running low, Franklin 



80 

and Shinn, the first settlers, started to Louisiana for provi- 
sions. Beaching the river they signalled the ferryman on the 
other side. A fog hung over the river and the wind was oft 
the Missouri shore. The ferryman could neither see nor hear 
their signals. The need was imperative, so the two men 
plunged in boldly with their clothes on and started to swim 
for the Louisiana side. All went well until Shinn was seized 
with a cramp. Franklin succeeded in pounding him out of 
his cramp but both men were so exhausted that they had to 
doff their clothes in mid-stream. They finally reached the 
Missouri shore a short distance below the town, but minus 
their clothes. They made their wants known however and 
were soon provided with clothing from the home of a settler 
and went on into the town and got their much-needed provi- 
sions. 

The virgin soil yielded bountiful crops of wheat and 
corn but our settlers were often put to it to get their grain 
transformed into flour or meal. The nearest horse-mill was 
at the present site of Gilead in Calhoun county and thither our 
settlers carried their grain on horse-back to have it ground. 
This mill was run by one John Shaw, known in the early polit- 
ical history of Pike county as the "Black Prince." He was 
the most powerful and dominating figure in Pike county in 
the days when Chicago was a Pike county village. He was 
County Commissioner and sat in the State Legislature at 
Vandalia. He cast the deciding vote at the session of 1824 for 
calling a convention to amend the state constitution and make 
Illinois a slave state. The convention measure was defeated 
at the polls by 1800 majority and the state was thus kept anti- 
slave. Thus it will be seen how near Pike county in 1824 
came to involving the great state of Illinois in the evils of 
slavery. Shaw was influential among the French and half- 
breeds and controlled their votes. For years in the early 
history of the county he controlled the election. He is said 
to have forged deeds and other public documents by the quire 
and to have forged and padded poll books for his own pur- 
poses. It was years before the home-builders in this new re- 
gion became strong enough to band together and overthrow 
the political regime of the Black Prince. 



81 

Justice was swift and sure in the early community. The 
first crime on record in the county was the theft of a gun from 
a settler named Hume by a man named Franklin (not Ebenez- 
er). Franklin in making his escape had the misfortune to 
lose the gun while swimming McGee creek in the north part 
of the county. He was captured, was taken before Colonel 
Ross at Atlas, given a summary trial, convicted and sentenced 
to 25 lashes on the bare back. He took his punishment, endur- 
ing it with noble fortitude as we are told by the early his- 
torian, and was then released. He soon committed another 
crime, was caught and locked up but escaped from his rude 
jail and took king's leave of the county. The pioneers how- 
ever were relentless. They trailed him to Fort Edwards 
(now Warsaw), Illinois, took him into custody and brought 
him back to Atlas. The jail at Atlas however was no place to 
confine so clever a criminal, so Colonel Ross decided to send 
him to jail at Edwardsville for safe-keeping. Accordingly, 
the prisoner was placed in charge of Constable Farr and John 
Wood (before mentioned) and the journey to Edwards- 
ville began. The prisoner was lashed to the back of a mule, 
his feet being tied together beneath the mule's body. En- 
route they came to a swollen stream. Franklin saw his oppor- 
tunity. Jabbing his heels into the mule's flanks, he plunged 
into the raging stream, ignoring the commands of his escort 
and shouting back to them as the water surged over his head. 
With gibes upon his lips he and the mule went to their death 
beneath the foaming current. Franklin's body was recovered 
and buried on the bank of the stream and years later his bones 
were disinterred and the skeleton wired together by Doctor 
Vandeventer and turned over to his family at Versailles. 

Great prairie fires that swept the Mississippi bottoms in 
the fall of the year often menaced the habitations of our set- 
tlers. The vast prairies were covered with grass that grew to 
an enormous height, often to the top 6f a man 's head on horse- 
back, and was so heavy and thick that when the settlers 
wanted to reach some point off the used trail they hitched a 
team to a large bush or tree and dragged it through the grass 
to mash it down, to make a road to pass over. In the fall of 
the year this luxuriant growth of grass would be set on fire 
by the Indians or hunters, and especially when the wind was 



82 

high, would sweep resistlessly over the prairies, the flames 
leaping to a prodigious height and advancing 50 and 100 feet 
at a bound, forming a spectacle, especially at night, that was 
at once magnificent and terrifying. Our settlers early learned 
to guard against these destructive conflagrations by plowing 
"fire guards" around their homes and whenever an alarm 
of fire was given, each settler would immediately begin to 
"back fire", which was done by setting on fire the prairie 
grass immediately outside the plowed strip, which would 
burn slowly and meet the advancing flames that came rolling 
on in majestic grandeur. 

Indians sometimes visited the early settlement but they 
were seldom troublesome. The tribes at this time were peace- 
ful. For weeks at a time the first settlers, Franklin and Shinn,. 
saw no one outside their own families save an occasional rov- 
ing Indian. Chief Keokuk and 500 of his warriors once held 
a war-dance on the Sni but they sent word to our settlers 
that they meant no harm. Chief Keokuk was described by 
the settlers as an imposing chieftain, a noble type of sav- 
age warrior. Chief Black Hawk, who also occasionally visited 
the settlement, was described as a little man with one eye. 

Meantime, our settlement at Atlas continues to grow 
apace. Other settlers have come and more log cabins have 
been erected. School is begun (the first school in the county) 
with John Jay Boss, son of Captain Boss as teacher. The 
first school roster of 1822 contains the names of Orlando, 
Charlotte, Schuyler, Mary Emily and Elizabeth Ross, Benja- 
min, John, Eliza and Phoebe Shinn, Jeremiah and William 
Tungate, James, Laura and Nancy Sprague. James W. 
Whitney (My Lord Coke), an eccentric character of the early 
day, taught the second school at Atlas. 

Settlers are now penetrating to other sections of the 
county. Locations are made in what are now Pleasant Vale, 
Pleasant Hill and Montezuma townships and over in what 
is now Flint township. Garrett Van Deusen is operating the 
first Illinois river ferry, carrying footmen in a canoe and 
swimming horses alongside. New industries are having a be- 
ginning, rude at first, it is true, but serving well the purposes 
of the early community. Colonel Benjamin Barney erects the 
first blacksmith shop in the county at Atlas in 1826 and the 






83 

first whisky distilled in the county is manufactured by a Mr. 
Milhizer in the same year. James Ross brings and uses the 
first grain cradle in 1828 and also equips and runs the first 
turner's lathe and cabinet shop the same year. Fielding 
Hanks becomes the first tanner and Colonel Ross the first 
miller. 

And now the little settlement at Atlas begins to take on 
administrative airs. It has been named the county seat of 
Pike county. Our settlers get together and decide that they 
must have a courthouse. Plans are drawn and Daniel Shinn 
takes the contract to cut and haul the logs for $6 and for $26 
he gets out the puncheons and completes the edifice without 
using a nail or bit of iron of any description. This first Pike 
county courthouse was erected in 1824 on ground deeded to 
the County Commissioners by Colonel Ross and Rufus 
Brown. It stood 16x18 feet, had one door and two windows, 
an outside chimney, and a clapboard roof, the clapboards be- 
ing held on with weight poles and knees. The first court had 
been held at Atlas on May 1, 1823. 

Next in order after the courthouse is a jail, which is 
builded the same year (1824). Shinn also assists in building 
the jail which is a primitive log affair without hot and cold 
water and private baths. Hog stealing became prevalent 
along the Sni, said to be induced by drinking Sni water, and 
the new jaiFVas designed principally as a place of confine- 
ment for such of these gentry as were caught possessing a 
hog's head and ears bearing some settler's recorded mark. 
Prisoners were ushered into this bastile through an opening 
in the roof. 

And now, through the land-hungry east, spread like 
wildfire the news of the western settlements. As the follow- 
ers of Roderick Dhu sprang to their feet among the heather 
and peopled the mountain side at his shrill whistle, so those 
of Bedouin spirits in the crowded East turned their faces to 
this land of promise and soon throughout the eastern states 
could be heard that steady westward tread of the Anglo 
Saxon which began in the first quarter of the nineteenth cen- 
tury. Now we see this wild region emerging from its wilder- 
ness state, the red man, the panther and the rattlesnake being 
pushed back by an on-rushing tide of emigrants from Mass- 



84 

achusetts and the Hudson valley, from Kentucky and finally, 
on their "prairie schooners", the early settlers from Ohio and 
Indiana, who, coming westward over the great National High- 
way, crossed the fertile plains of Central Illinois to settle in 
the well-watered timberlands of Pike and other western Illi- 
nois counties. 

Pike county has seen many comings and goings since that 
first settlement in 1820. From these rude beginnings have 
sprung a mighty commonwealth and a mighty race. Could 
the men and women of 1820 come back from the hither shore, 
what a sight would greet their eyes. The old order has 
changed. Prosperity is on every hand. Forgotten are the 
loom and the spinning wheel, the hominy block and the 
cradle. The log cabins are no more. Like the "chambered 
nautilus" we have moved into more stately mansions. The 
people of today are of another kind. Those others, with 
their rugged strength, their simple ways, their undying 
youth, are of the past. Yet well may we bow in reverence 
above their perished forms. They were the pathfinders. They 
blazed the way for those who were to follow them. They 
braved all, endured all, suffered all. To them be the praise. 

' ' Life with them is o 'er, their labors all are done ; 

And others reap the harvest that they won." 
(Note For the historical data of the fore-going Centen- 
nial article the writer is indebted to Chapman's and Massie's 
histories, to records of the Shinn, Boss, Burlend and other 
early day families, to transcripts of the proceedings of the 
first Old Settlers' meetings, and to anecdotes of pioneer ad- 
venture handed down by word of mouth from the first set- 
tlers to their descendants.) 



85 



PIONEER LOG CHURCH, COLES COUNTY, ILLINOIS. 

BY ALFRED B. BALCH, MAECH 5, 1920. 

Formoso, Kan. [To the Editor:] In searching among 
some old records I find that the first church built on Indian 
creek was in 1832. Two years before, August 30, 1830, the 
Presbyterian church was organized by Rev. B. F. Spil 
man with the following fourteen members: 

Thomas Myers, Agnes Myers, Theron Balch, Ann Boyd, 
Thos. McCracken, Nancy McCracken, James Ashmore, Cas- 
sandra Ashmore, Rachel Ashmore, Win. Waynes, James 
Logan and Elizabeth Logan. They met at the cabin of Ther- 
on Balch for organization and it was the First Presbyterian 
church established in Coles county. 

The next summer, June 1st, 1831, the members met and 
agreed to donate so many days of work each, in building a 
church of logs 24x30 feet in size. Wm. Barnett subscribed 26 
spikes and Wm. Wayne, 30 bushels of lime. That fall the 
church was raised and covered. The flooring was sawed out 
by a whip saw, the studding and roof were made of slabs split 
out with a maul and wedge and dressed with an adz. The 
seats consisted of long slabs placed on trestles, and the 
church remained in its unfinished condition for about two 
years. 

The member who had subscribed lime having failed to 
make good his donation, Rev. John McDonald, the pastor who 
possessed energy in worldly matters as well as spiritual, with 
the aid of Patrick Nicholson proposed to remedy the defi- 
ciency. 

Lime rock was found on Indian creek, logs were hauled 
and placed on and around it, set afire and the rock reduced to 
lime. Reverend McDonald with the aid of his parishioners 
made the plaster and with his own hands the worthy Minister 
plastered the church. It being cold weather the floor 
was partially taken up and on a bed of sand a fire was built 



86 

which was kept burning until the plaster was thoroughly dry. 
In 1834 the congregation secured the services of Eev. 
James H. Shields of Indiana to preach one-half time but this 
arrangement did not last long and he sent word resigning 
his pastorate. The Eev. Isaac Bennett was then called to fill 
the vacancy and he remained for several years. Finally Rev- 
erend McDonald became the permanent pastor. 

Passing events unless made a matter of record soon glide 
away on cold oblivion's swift tide and become shrouded in 
the mist of years. 




MRS. ABBIE A. NEWMAN 



87 



MRS. ABBIE FAY NEWMAN. 

MEMORIAL. 

At the Presbyterian Church in the City of Delavan on 
Sunday afternoo'n, Nov. 28, occurred a joint meeting of the 
Historical Society of Tazewell County and the Woman's Club 
of Delavan, for the purpose of memorializing a former resi- 
dent and teacher of Delavan, Mrs. Abbie F. Newman. There 
was present a large audience consisting of her former neigh- 
bors, co-church workers and pupils. The opening remarks 
were made by W. R. Curran, President of the Historical So- 
ciety of Tazewell County. 

The musical numbers were arranged under the direction 
of the Delavan Woman's Club and consisted of music that 
Mrs. Newman was partial to in her lifetime. 

The music was furnished by a quartette, Mrs. Lauren B. 
Jenkins, Mrs. C. K. Million, Mr. Charles Duncan and Mr. Leo 
Stumbaugh; the Abbie Newman Mission Circle. Mrs. New- 
man's favorite scripture was read from memory by Rev. 
Hugh S. Jackson. Prayer was made by Rev. J. Rodger Sil- 
lars. The Benediction was pronounced by Rev. Louis P. 
Jansen. 

The remarks of the President and various papers of the 
program were substantially as follows 

Taking up now the consideration of the purpose of our 
meeting and the program to be presented, Judge Curran said : 
"This golden autumn afternoon in the presence of this audi- 
ence, in this place, on this ninetieth anniversary day of our 
friend's birth, is a fitting occasion and propitious for our pur- 
pose among neighbors, friends and former pupils of the de- 
parted to pay a gracious tribute to her memory. What I have 
to say by way of introduction to this program, cluster about 
two words, "History" and "Teacher!" When we consult our 
own innermost consciousness and the pages of literature, we 
know that : 

"In a certain sense all men are historians." 

"History is the essence of innumerable Biographies." 



88 

" History, as it lies at the root of all science, is also the 
first distinct product of man's spiritual nature; his earliest 
expression of what can be called Thought." 

" Truth comes to us from the past, 'as gold is washed down 
from the mountains of Sierra Nevada, in minute but precious 
particles, and intermixed with infinite alloy, the debris of 
centuries. ' ' 

"History makes haste to record great deeds, but often 
neglects good ones." 

I came to this community in June 1876. I commenced to 
learn portions of its history within an hour after my arrival. 
I came a callow youth, licensed to practice my profession as 
a lawyer, looking for a place to locate. I had been here but 
a few days when I commenced to become conscious of the in- 
fluence of Mrs. Abbie Newman. I had been a teacher in a 
Country School for three years. Since my teaching days, I 
had always been conscious of the fact that if life turned out 
to be a failure in my profession and I was driven to it, I could 
always find employment in the district I had left. Among my 
most intimate friends and associates, all of my life have been 
teachers. In my school days, my teachers were the ones who 
most profoundly impressed my ideals and formed them. 

My wife, the mother of my children, was a teacher. My 
most intimate life long associates have been teachers. I am 
impressed with the fact that the leading men and minds of 
this nation, at the present time, have been teachers. The 
President of the United States was a teacher. The criticisms 
of his administration have been that he had the limitations 
of a teacher. I am led to say what in my heart I believe, God 
Bless his limitations. I do not expect to become popular or to 
be canonized on account of this opinion ; when I consider the 
recent discussion at the ballot box, I know it is unpopular ; but 
our President can wait, I have an abiding faith that a great- 
ful America will yet enshrine his memory among her great 
Presidents. 

James H. Cartwright, Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court, of Illinois, as well as the majority of the members of 
the court who sit with him, were in their youth, teachers. 



89 

I am moved: to use on this occasion, the language that I 
have used before concerning the common schools and the 
teachers thereof. 

The growth of the common school ideal has kept pace with 
the growth of the nation since the Revolution; its greatest 
development has been in the last fifty years ; as new territory 
has opened up to settlement, as wealth and material prosperity 
has developed, the like of which the world, never saw 
before; the teacher has 'gone into every corner of our 
dominion and has followed the flag to alien peoples 
and the Islands of the Sea; until the common school is 
a fortress to American institutions, more efficient and far 
reaching in influence than battleships, fortified coast lines, 
or standing armies. While the teachers in the little school 
house in the country district and in the more pretentious high 
schools are faithful to their trust, this government of ours 
will still live and the tri-color float in the sky. 

We honor ourselves when we honor the teachers of 
America; we honor ourselves when we memorialize teachers 
like Mrs. Newman. A bare glance at this program reveals 
the fact that she was not an idle or trivial person. I venture 
the statement which may not be concurred in by all, that this 
teacher measured by the scope, power and effect of her per- 
sonal influence in this community for the last fifty years, out- 
weighs all the professional men, all the business men 
and all the leaders of this community. She did not 
occupy so much space in the public mind as some of 
them, but at this Newman Memorial, I am quite certain that 
she occupies more space in the public heart than all of them 
put together." -W. R. Curran. 

MBS. NEWMAN, TEACHER. 

A woman of refined literary tastes, a talented musician, 
a zealous patriot, a good citizen, a great teacher and an earn- 
est church worker, this can truthfully be said of Mrs. Abbie A. 
Fay Newman. 

The name Fay is of English origin. It claims distinction 
in science, art and war. When duty called or patriotism de- 
manded, the Fays responded. We find one, a warrior under 
Charlemagne, and one a general under Napoleon, still another, 



90 

a general with Lafayette and his companion in prison 
and so on down to the times of our own Eevolutionary "War. 
Especial tribute is paid to Capt. Stephen Fay and his patriot 
sons. The name is mentioned in the Indian Wars, in the War 
of 1812 and in the Civil War. The names of 150 soldiers are 
enrolled in the War Department. Mrs. Newman, too, was a 
patriot. 

That the religious element, which was strong in 
her, has always predominated in the family is shown by the 
large number of ministers, and by the hundreds, who have 
been faithful church members. The family claims musicians, 
writers, college graduates and teachers. One of the teachers 
was Eli Whitney, the inventor of the cotton gin. 

Abbie A. Newman was born at Westboro, Mass., Nov. 
28, 1830. She was the third of eleven children. One brother 
and one sister are still living. When young she had but a 
limited chance for an education. Eight weeks in winter and 
not more than six in summer. Later she was educated in 
the schools of Westboro and in the Academies of Leicester 
and Amherst. She taught in the public schools of Westboro 
and Amherst and in the Misses Kellog's Female Seminary at 
Great Barrington, Mass. 

On April 7th, 1850, she was married to Mr. Burt New- 
man. To them were born five children, namely: Henry D. 
deceased in 1884, Annie S. (of Chicago), Samuel C. (of 
Brooklyn), Emma, (Mrs. Elmer Giles of Delavan, 111.,) and 
Fred, deceased in 1920. 

After her marriage, she and her husband went to Shaka- 
pee, Minn. She had many experiences with the Sioux In- 
dians. The tribe at that time often came into the town. One 
day the big chief came into her home and flourished a toma- 
hawk over her baby's head. She had enough tact and pres- 
ence^of mind to get the chief out of the house and thus save 
the little one. 

In 1857 the family went to Lower Alton, 111., to reside. 
Mrs. Newman taught in the Alton primary and high schools. 

In 1862, the family came to Delavan. Mrs. Newman 
taught in the Delavan schools until her husband enlisted in 
the Civil War, then she returned to the East and remained a 
short time. Upon her return, she taught in schools in this 



91 

community and in the primary department of the Delavan 
public schools for a third of a century. 

Hundreds of men and women in this vicinity are proud 
to say that Mrs. Newman was their teacher, but how much 
prouder must those of her children and of her grandchildren 
be who can say, " Mother or grandmother was our teacher." 

In 1880, Mr. and Mrs. Newman celebrated their silver 
anniversary and on April 7th, 1905 all their friends were in- 
vited to their home for their golden anniversary. 

If Mrs. Newman were living today, she would be ninety 
years old. Those of us, who were associated with her, know 
she was a great teacher. Her brother Frank, who is now 
eighty years old, in a letter written to Mrs. Giles a short time 
ago, says: "At the time I wanted to get into the High school, 
father bought a black board, put it up in the shoe maker's 
shop and Abbie tutored us brother Parker and me. We 
boys had to make all but the uppers of two pairs of boots each 
day, earning $40 a month that way, while we went to school. 
She helped us out. Before, we learned the rules of gram- 
mar during school but did not put it into practice she would 
say, * A noun is the name of some thing. Read this page. See 
how many you can find or, a proper noun is a particular name 
like John or James and in that way all the parts of speech. 
It was then not the dry meaningless study.' We soon took to 
it and so with all our studies. I soon went to be examined 
for High School. 

The committee said, * ' No, you come from No. 2 school dis- 
trict, no use.' I said, 'Give me a trial, will you?' They did 
and we both passed easily. In High school we were soon 
rattling off Latin with the rest." 

This letter shows that even at an early age, she possessed 
the unusual qualifications of a teacher ; that by example, illus- 
tration and the study of nature, she made things seem nat- 
ural. She was a teacher ahead of her times. She was a 
teacher, not only by nature, but also, by choice. She loved her 
fellow teachers and pupils and they loved her. She never 
wasted time. 

She was the means of leading many a young person to 
spend his spare time in study. It was a pleasure and a profit 



92 

to know Mrs. Newman and the influence of her life can be 
expressed in no better words than in those of Owen Meredith : 
"No life 

Can be pure in its purpose and strong in its strife, 
And all life not be purer and stronger thereby. ' ' 

Eosa A. Tomm, 

Delavan, 111. 

MBS. NEWMAN'S MUSICAL ACTIVITIES. 

This gifted, energetic enthusiastic woman belonged to a 
musical family and she always loved to sing. I heard one of 
her sisters play the pipe organ beautifully and one of her 
brothers had a fine voice. Mrs. Newman had a musical so- 
prano voice that carried well and she pronounced her words 
very distinctly, of course she was a leader always. 

Mrs. Theodore Thomas, wife of the distinguished Chi- 
cago Orchestra leader, belonged to a branch of the Fay fam- 

iiy. 

Mrs. Newman took music lessons of a distinguished Pro- 
fessor in Great Barrington, Mass. 

Her father gave her a Chickering piano which she 
brought west with her. 

After her marriage to Mr. Newman they moved to Min- 
nesota, where there were very few whites, but many Indians. 
One day they surrounded the house and looked in the win- 
dows. Mrs. Newman although much frightened flew to the 
piano and played with all her might for said she ' * I thought 
if music hath charms to soothe the savage breast" I would 
try the charm. 

All the time they lived in Alton she was a member of a 
quartette choir. 

After moving to Delavan she conducted singing schools 
in Delavan, Green Valley, Boynton, Cream Eidge and Holmes 
school houses. She frequently walked to the school houses 
and when she lived in the country she walked to town to meet 
her appointments. 

She rode horseback to Green Valley carrying a young 
baby and leaving it with a friend while teaching the class in 
singing and giving private lessons on the piano. 



93 

The first singing school that I know of her conducting 
in Delavan was in the winter of '62 and '63 during the Civil 
War. I have found three that remember attending that 
school; Mrs. Mason, Mrs. Gertrude Wilson and Mr. James 
Jones. It was held in a hall over the dining room in the old 
Upham Hotel that stood on the grounds later occupied by 
the fair association and where soon the Community High 
School will be built. 

There were no walks, it was a rainy muddy winter and no 
one could walk there without having wet feet. 

She taught us to sing by note using the Italian syllables, 
she used the black board and we learned to read music up to 
4 flats and 4 sharps. 

There was always a concert at the end of every term of 
lessons which was very thrilling and delightful to one young 
person at least. 

During the Civil war before Mr. Newman enlisted in the 
army and before she went back east she was very busy with en- 
tertainments to raise money for the soldiers. And for one of 
them she wrote a very patriotic poem composed some music 
for it and her wee little daughter sung it, her voice and the 
words reaching every part of the hall. Part of the words 
are as follows : 

"Hurrah for the Union 

Columbia looks sad 

She weeps for her children 

In factions gone mad 

She trembles at sickness 

But never looks blue 

Her good constitution 

Will carry her through." 

She gave the Oratorio of Esther in Delavan and once it 
was given in costume and she was Queen Esther. 

I think every girl of my age and the older set took piano 
lessons of her in those early years. Sometimes duties con- 
flicted and she had to do two things at once. Occasionally the 
baby had to be held and loved during the lesson. One time 
when I was taking a lesson he brought his little foot down 
with a bang on the keys, the foot was hastely removed and 
the lesson went on without interruption. 



94 

She used to walk out to Mr. McCollister's, Mr. Walter 
Sliurtz farm now, and give three lessons, 2 in the afternoon 
to the girls and one in the evening to one of the boys, then 
some one of the family took her home in the buggy. 

She was organist of the Presbyterian church for 17 
years, played the organ in the Baptist church one year, and 
the organ in the Methodist church for 6 years. She would 
take the baby and I remember one time the baby got tired, 
laid down beside the organ and went to sleep. At another 
time during a concert a small child went to sleep and was laid 
under the piano for safe keeping. They were such convenient 
babies. 

Of course she taught music in the Public school and 
in the Sunday school; she got up so many nice entertainments 
for the School getting her material together from wherever 
she could. One time she wanted to use the 4th verse of the 27th 
Psalm she composed some very pretty music for it and had 
Frank Hatten, then a little boy, sing it. The words are "One 
thing have I desired of the Lord that will I seek after ; that I 
may dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to 
behold the beauty of the Lord and to enquire in his temple." 

Her mind worked like a flash and she was always equal 
to emergencies. As for instance if an awkward pause oc- 
curred in a religious meeting when no one was ready to take 
part she would strike up some well known hymn and have 
every one singing. 

One time the lights went out during the service but she 
commenced playing and singing and thus filled up the pause. 

She was the organist in the prayer meeting up to the 
time of her last illness. 

She always said she would rather wear out than rust 
and she had her wish. Mrs. Birdie Haddon. 

HER WORK AS A PATRIOT. 

Among the many who meet today in memory of Mrs. 
Newman I am asked to record some facts of her Patriotism, 
which by some may be considered simple ; yet to me, were the 
most potent qualifications of her character, and were the 
strong factors in her most useful life. 



95 

Patriotism does not consist wholly in honoring the flag 
of our country as much as we cherish its sacred colors; but 
obedience to all things that build and perpetuate our nation. 

Loyalty begins in the cradle and ends not at the grave; 
for true Patriotism builds character for immortality. 

It was my fortune and pleasure to be an intimate friend 
of Mrs. Newman for a quarter of a century, our acquaintance 
began when we were asked to sing "The Star Spangled Ban- 
ner," at a concert given at the close of a musical convention 
held in the Methodist church by P. P. Bliss and his wife, who 
were my guests, in the year 1869. 

Now after fifty years it seems strange that I am asked to 
write of her Patriotism especially as our acquaintance be- 
gan under the American Flag. 

When my children were old enough to go to school Mrs. 
Newman was their first teacher and from childhood they never 
ceased to love her and in the devotion of my own children to 
Mrs. Newman I feel confident that I am voicing the sentiment 
of every child who commenced its education under her kind 
and motherly care. 

I am reminded of the lessons of Patriotism which she ex- 
emplified as she led the school children ; a child on either side ; 
with a quick and firm step she marched on Decoration Day 
in the procession to the Park, there to honor the memory of 
the Boys in Blue with a loving tribute of flowers, and leading 
in the Patriotic songs which she had taught the children to 
sing. 

Mrs. Newman was indeed qualified to participate in the 
observance of the Day having contributed her part in service 
and sacrifice to the cause of the Union. 

When Mr. Newman enlisted in the s-ervice in Sept. 1864 
Mrs. Newman with their three children went to her father's 
home in Massachusetts, and stayed until Mr. Newman was 
mustered out in 1865. 

On the two evenings of Aug. 25 and 26, 1864, Mrs. New- 
man gave a concert of Patriotic songs in the Baptist church, 
with 100 children taking part. 

The proceeds were u&ed to buy lumber for the construc- 
tion of a building known as the Wigwam, later as Plank- 
walk Hall. 



96 

In this hall centered all the Patriotic activities of Dela- 
van. 

After the war was over the lumber in this hall was used 
to build a side walk laid from the Post Office down to the Up- 
ham Hotel, which stood on the site of the Fair Grounds. 

The women did most of the work in sawing and nailing 
the boards to build this first side walk in D-elavan. 

Among the many acts of Loyalty which Mrs. Newman 
rendered was a, Temperance meeting arranged for the chil- 
dren of Delavan on Saturday afternoon April 18, 1882. 

The spirit of enthusiasm aroused as they sang the tem- 
perance songs and the readiness with which they answered 
the questions on alcohol and its effects; filled the parents 
hearts with joy, and a hope that this meeting might prove to 
be a help and blessing to the little ones, and forever remain 
in their memory. 

A song composed by Mrs. E. E. Orendorff, called: The 
Boys and Girls Temperance Song was sung, to music com- 
posed by Mrs. Newman. 

"Our pledge is a promise that we will abstain, 
From drink that will injure the heart and the brain 
And we'll sing with glad hearts and glad voices the strain 
We '11 ne 'er belong to King Alcohol 's train. 
Then bravely step forward and all sign the pledge, 
When temptations assail 'tis a wall and a hedge, 
A promise we'll try to keep and not break, 
For country and home and dear mother's sake." 

As a result of this meeting 98 boys and girls signed the 
pledge which was sealed and put in the bank there to re- 
main 10 years. 

A committee was appointed of the boys and girls whose 
duty it was to keep acquainted with the location of the 
signers and at the expiration of the time call a meeting, break 
the seal and read the names. 

March 18, 1892 under the auspices of the W. C. T. U. 
and the supervision of Mrs. Newman the pledge was opened 
and most all of the signers responded; and the pledges had 
been kept. 

May we appreciate this, Mrs. Newman's loyal service to 
childhood and her country. 



97 

In 1892 the G. A. R. and W. R. C. of which Mr. and Mrs. 
Newman were members, respectively, held their national 
gathering in the far west. 

Mrs. Newman was my travelling companion and was al- 
ways agreeable and entertaining. 

To know ber best was to study her sunny nature, over- 
flowing with kindness and good will. 

Many tourists accompanied us on our journey and many 
beautiful and wonderful places were visited. 

On certain excursions the trips were made most pleasant 
and enjoyable by the singing of the songs of "61" and "65." 

Mrs. Newman became Leader of the Patriotic choir which 
was received with enthusiasm every where. 

The first place of interest visited was Pike's Peak. 

After wandering amidst the wonderful scenery of vast di- 
mensions in height and depth Mrs. Newman looked still 
higher than the Peak and exclaimed "Great and wonderful 
are they works Oh ! Lord God Almighty. ' ' 

We visited Great Salt Lake and went bathing in its briny 
water. Mrs. Newman happened to go a little beyond the 
safety line and the guard called out "Hang to the rope or 
you'll sink." 

Mrs. Newman turned quietly and said "We are just as 
near Heaven here as anywhere else." 

One morning quite early I missed her; thinking something 
might have happened, I went in search of her and looking 
toward the Granite Rocks piled here, there and everywhere, I 
saw Mrs. Newman sitting on the highest rock to which she 
could climb, waiting to see the sun rise. 

As I sat beside her the same old sun that rises each 
morning over the Illinois prairies, quietly announced the day. 

At the first glimpse of the sun my companion began to 
sing: 

; 'When o'er earth is waking, 
Rosy bright and fair 
Morn aloud, proclaimeth 
Surely God is there." 

We stood under the mist of Yosemite Falls until we were 
damp with its moisture and Mrs. Newman remarked she had 
been blessed with the mists of heaven. 



98 

In crossing the mountains and places of danger of any 
kind she had no fear. 

At one time when riding over the mountains the driver 
called our attention to a mirage across the valley on the face 
of the mountain and said "This phenomenon has never been 
explained. ' ' 

We wondered what Mrs. Newman would reply. And she 
turned and said, "I have at last seen the Shepherds, of the 
hills and their flocks." 

After a few days journey in mountain stages we reached 
Inspiration Point where we could take our first look into 
Yosemite Valley. 

Mrs. Newman caught the first glimpse and standing up 
on the seat she said: "I thank God and the people of Dela- 
van for making it possible for me to realize the desire of my 
life, to see the Yosemite Valley." 

With other tourists we stood on the shores of Mirror 
Lake, in close touch of many canons. Our attention was 
called to the numerous echoes which were found. After a 
moments silence our choir leader commenced to sing " Nearer 
My God to Thee" all joining in the sacred song and back 
came the heavenly echoes : ' ' Nearer to Thee. ' ' 

A minister in the party was called on by Mrs. Newman 
to offer prayer and such a prayer, one which could not have 
been inspired elsewhere. 

While roaming the forests of the Mariposa Valley we saw 
trees which towered 300 feet in height, with 25 other tourists 
we gathered in a hollow log, and gazed heavenward at the 
queen of the forest. Mrs. Newman remarked "0 Woodman 
how long thou hast spared the ax ! " 

One night I found Mrs. Newman's pocket book contain- 
ing her money and ticket and fearing she might lose them 
again I took them and said nothing except to Mrs. Carrie 
Briggs one of our party. We took the train for Los An- 
geles and when Mrs. Newman discovered her loss she came 
straight to me and said: "Sue have you got my ticket. I 
said, Mrs. Newman this is one of the times the Lord didn't 
take care of you" and her reply. was "The Lord raised you 
up to take care of me." 



99 

As I gave her the lost article she began to sing. 
' 'Bring the good old bugle Boys we'll sing another song." 
A most patriotic, timely and appropriate acknowledge- 
ment of her complete trust in God. 

SUE A. SANDERS. 

MRS. NEWMAN'S CLUB WORK. 

I do not know that Mrs. Newman ever belonged to a 
purely social club; but whatever tended to intellectual or 
moral uplift she heartily supported with time, thought, work 
and money. Consequently she was a leading member of sev- 
eral organizations. 

She was one of the first in Delavan to join the ''Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union." Although school duties pre- 
vented her from attending the meetings, she was of great 
assistance in helping to plan the entertainments, in teaching 
the children temperance songs and in composing those songs. 

She was a leading member of the "Conversational Club," 
which was composed of a group of ladies who met frequently 
to discuss scientific or other topics of general interest. 

She belonged to the "Shakespeare Club" from its be- 
ginning until her death. She delighted in the beautiful pas- 
sages of the great poet and could repeat many of them. 

It was in the Beta Circle that her wonderful versatility 
found an opportunity for free action. This was a branch of 
the Chautauqua movement devoted to a four year course of 
study in science, literature and history as planned by Bishop 
Vincent and his associates. The Beta Circle was organized 
in Delavan in 1886 and barely existed a year or so when 
Mrs. Newman became its prasident. Then all was changed 
for she brought into it some of her abundant life. Under her 
direction it filled a need, and during the nine years of its ex- 
istence many of the prominent women of Delavan and vi- 
cinity were enrolled in its membership took the course of 
study and became Chautauqua graduates. 

The Circle held all day meetings once a month at the 
homes of its members. At first the hostess provided the noon- 
day meal but during most of the time it was a picnic dinner 
a veritable feast of reason and flow of soul," always pre- 
sided over by Mrs. Newman. 



100 

Do not suppose these meetings dull and heavy even if the 
studies were scientific, as geology, zoology, botany or po- 
litical economy; together with the history and literature of 
Greece and Rome, both mediaeval and modern, they were not 
heavy because Mrs. Newman prepared the programs, and had 
the happy faculty of judiciously mingling with the heavier 
studies anagrams, rebuses, charades and contests, illustrative 
of these studies, with athletics, bible cards and whatever else 
her fertile mind suggested. There was nothing dull or prosy 
about Mrs. Newman. 

The scientific studies were her delight, especially geol- 
ogy. In it she traced the long, loving preparation of the 
Father for his coming myriads of children. She purchased 
many and sometimes costly geological specimens to be 
shown in the circle. 

In astronomy she was impressed with the infinity of God. 
In history she traced the evolutions of man to higher stand- 
ards. 

I wish that my description might give you all the glow of 
pleasure that the members experienced when they gathered 
together, knowing that the day would hold so much for them. 
It was never too hot, too cold or too stormy for those meet- 
ings. There were no vacations for no one wanted one. Mrs. 
Newman never missed a meeting. She said that she loved her 
children, and next to them the Beta Circle. Every member 
felt and knew that she had the personal love of Mrs. New- 
man. 

While all the meetings were enjoyable, those at Mrs. New- 
man's were "red letter days." She was a model hostess. 
Have any of the members forgotten the Celebration of the 
Landing of the Pilgrims ; or that Bible meeting when all the 
Sunday School teachers were invited guests? Can any of 
them pass that old, spreading home without memories? 

Times change. At last nearly all of the members had 
completed the course of study and desired something differ- 
ent. The Beta Circle became the Woman's Club with Mrs. 
Newman its first president, and afterwards its honorary pres- 
ident. If the change gave her pain, as it must, she gave no 
sign; but performed every task assigned her cheerfully and 
well. 



101 

I will confide to you what she once confided to me. Pleas- 
ant meetings and storing the mind with thoughts worth while 
were not the only aims she had for the Beta Circle. She 
hoped that by bringing the women together in this pleasant 
way from the different churches, different parts of town, 
different cliques, the town women and the country women, 
that they would become better acquainted and create a 
stronger community spirit. 

We do not know the amount of influence felt today from 
Mrs. Newman's work in these different clubs to which she 
belonged. But we do know that it is all for good. 

LOUISE B. ALLEN. 

"Kind words are little sunbeams, 

That sparkle as they fall, 

And loving smiles are sunbeams 

A light of joy to all. 

In sorrow's eye, they dry the tear, 

And bring the fainting heart good cheer." 

These words were written in an old fashioned autograph 
album by Mrs. Newman for a little girl starting to school. 
Could a better verse be given one by which to live? 

Mrs. Newman began her active public religions life by 
uniting with the Westboro Congregational church when she 
was sixteen years old. 

A younger brother tells of her help in learning the As- 
sembly's Shorter Catechism which he could not memorize 
alone. When she found him crying over it, the sister said, 
"learn it with me," and soon tears were forgotten and he 
knew "The chief end of man is to glorify God and enjoy him 
forever. ' ' The trend of her life was to honor her Savior, the 
same brother writes. 

After her marriage to Mr. Newman they went to Minne- 
sota to live at Shak'apee and here she helped *to found a 
Presbyterian church. 

In 1862 she united with the Presbyterian church in Dela- 
van. The Sabbath school had the privilege of having her as 
Superintendent for twenty-four years. For the same num- 
ber of years, she taught a class in the Sabbath school. 



102 

Is there one who passed through the first grade in the 
Delavan Public school during the many years Mrs. Newman 
taught it who does not remember the morning devotional exer- 
cises? Then we learned such well loved passages as the 
twenty-third Psalm, the first and twenty-fourth Psalms, the 
thirteenth chapter of First Corinthians and the Beatitudes. 
We bowed our heads and repeated the Lord's prayer. 

The day started differently when school children had the 
privilege of the few sober moments of devotion to God and 
there is never a time that these precious verses are heard or 
repeated that we do not recall the smiling, happy face of her 
who taught them. 

That happy -Christian influence that was felt by so many 
children can never be measured. It was so far reaching, ex- 
tending to so many homes and into the building of new homes 
as the years went by. Added to this influence who but re- 
members each Wednesday evening seeing or meeting Mrs. 
Newman's familiar figure going to Prayer Meeting. There 
she played the hymns, offered her prayer and took any other 
part she was called upon to take. Always ready and willing 
to fill any vacancy in any department of church life. 

Early Sabbath morning her work began. The singing 
and scripture lesson in the Sabbath School always had a ring 
of happiness and earnestness as the children naturally fol- 
lowed the same feeling as evidenced by Mrs. Newman. 

Special days in Sabbath School were always observed in 
a special manner, all the preparation and the material fur- 
nished by this untiring, zealous leader. 

Printed programs were not so easily procured but we 
had the programs of Mrs. Newman. I often feel that these 
might have been kept so this generation might know what 
beautiful thoughts and fine precepts were given us to learn. 

Who can forget the class if they were in it and had Mrs. 
Newman for a teacher ? Her Bible was ever present with her 
and as much a part of her as anything she possessed, and 
when she came before her class she had it, and the truths of 
the Bible were presented with the vim of eternal youth and 
carried the conviction to each .one that these same truths had 



103 

been taken into her life and become a part of her through her 
close, walk with her Savior, whom she so faithfully and con- 
stantly upheld to every one with whom she came in contact. 

Was there ever a game of authors played with as much 
real pleasure as was experienced by those who have had Mrs. 
Newman's Bible Cards of the Old and New Testament made 
and printed by her? 

They bring to mind all the familiar Bible heroes and 
events wliich stand out. Also the beautiful life of Christ, the 
acts of His followers, the Missionary Journeys and many 
beautiful things one forgets in the rush of things. 

Where could she find the hours to devote to all these va- 
rious activities? One is tempted to think God made more 
time for her, but not so, she used every minute to His glory 
in all things she did, small or great. Words seem futile when 
one tries to bring this full, lovely Christian life before her 
friends for each of us has a garden of beautiful flowers which 
were planted by this kind friend. 

Her influence is surely felt in a marked degree by new 
comers to Delavan as they often speak of Mrs. Newman whom 
they seem to know as a living influence as felt by them in their 
contact with us who were her friends. 

It seems to me we are granted a great privilege to have 
a small part in this memorial to Mrs. Newman. It isn't what 
we say so much as what we feel and live that is our real living 
memorial to her. 

If one tries even in a small measure to live up to and to 
put into practice the truths she lived and taught, this memor- 
ial will live on in the minds and hearts of all of us and into the 
future life of Delavan. 

When our Praise Meeting was held in January 1908, Mrs. 
Newman had a part as always and I will read what she gave of 
her own that day. 

EDNA H. CRABB. 

The late Mrs. Newman was the author of the following, 
read by her at the last annual prayer and praise meeting of 
the Presbyterian Missionary Society, in January. It is here- 



104 

with printed in full, in response to a request by a member of 
the society. 

We are known as the Presbyterian Missionary Society, 

And we think with great propriety 

That we must have a Praise Meeting each year, 

And the exercises, to our hearts, are dear. 

0, Time, Time, how fleeting, fleeting, 

Since our 1907 Praise Meeting ! 

Now again in 1908, the same old story, 

We'll all give God the glory. 

Let our heartfelt praises rise 

Like sacred incense to the skies. 

Praise should dwell on every tongue, 

Loving praise in every song; 

Praise to God, our Father above, 

Who looks down in infinite love; 

The touch of love here, the touch of love there- 
Let us praise God everywhere 

Praise God the Father, God and Son, 

God the Spirit, three in One; 

Then strive daily that his will be done. 

"Glorious are all his works and ways." 

Why should we have a Missionary 

Society? For the reason, " Union is strength." 

We know that no Christian woman doth live 

But to the dear Lord's cause some good can give, 

Some are called to leave their homes so dear, 

That they the heathen's heart may cheer. 

Christ died for all, both great and small, 

And before he ascended to heaven above. 

He said in strongest words of love, 

' ' Go ye into all the world ' ' 

With the gospel flag unfurled, 

Study the women and children of all climes, 

Send your dollars, send your dimes, 

Send them on for Missionary work ; 

Don't let one of us dare to shirk. 

But do God's will, and do it in love; 

Help people to learn of God above. 

' ' He sees with equal eye, as God of all ' ' 



105 

The poor heathen babes and the mothers tall. 

Love for souls creates a noble flame 

It's next to angels' love, if not the same. 

1 ' Giving empties the hand, but fills the heart ; ' ' 

We surely want to do our part. 

God's truth is precious and divine; 

Shall not we send it to every clime ? 

That all may know the way of the best, 

And darkened hearts learn on whom to rest 

Give to the world God's truth; 

Give it to father, mother, youth. 

0, Light of God's love, the purity of grace, 

Who would not bless all the human race ? 

Try to help others to make Jesus their choice 

And listen, and love his heavenly voice, 

Then shall we reach his court above. 

''Our present life is scarce the twinkle of a star," 

But God will help us, He is not far. 

The Savior will bless, in God 's eternal day ; 

He is our present help; shall we not all work and pray? 

That souls may be won 

And his kingdom come? 

Then we'll praise, praise, praise, 

Forever, Amen and Amen. 

After the last number of the literary program, Mr. Leo 
Stumbaugh, leader of the Presbyterian choir, sang with tell- 
ing effect, "The City Four Square." 

The original manuscripts of the foregoing addresses will 
be preserved in the archives of the Tazewell Couunty His- 
torical Society, where they can be inspected at any time by 
any of the friends of Mrs. Newman who care to do so. 

The occasion is one long to be remembered by the friends, 
neighbors, and former pupils of Mrs. Abbie A. F. Newman. 



106 



EARLY METHODISM IN MOUNT CARMEL, ILLINOIS. 

BY THEODORE G. RISLEY. 

The pioneer Methodists came into the wilderness with 
the first groups of settlers that filed out on the frontier lines 
of civilization. They encountered and endured all vicissitudes 
and perils of the wild frontier, and never wavered in their 
efforts to promulgate the gospel, organize religious societies 
and build houses of worship. They constantly pushed their 
itinerant efforts farther westward, ever keeping pace with the 
wide sweep of advancing civilization. They traveled vast cir- 
cuits on horseback and were often exposed to the murderous 
attacks of savages, the fatigue of long and toilsome journeys, 
and were commonly provided with only crude and meager ac- 
commodations. 

Methodism founded Mount Carmel and their history is co- 
existent. Two Methodist ministers, the Rev. Thomas Hinde 
and the Rev. William McDowell, who had conceived the pur- 
pose of founding a city on moral principles, that would enable 
them to carry out, in practical results what they believed to 
be the true ideals of the Methodist faith and teachings, came 
from Chillicothe, Ohio, in 1816, and located the present site 
of the city of Mount Carmel and in the spring of 1817 laid the 
foundations of the city. Soon after their arrival they were 
joined by the Rev. William Beauchamp. He was a surveyor 
as well as a preacher. He surveyed the town site and laid it 
off into lots. These devout founders of the new town pre- 
scribed a code of municipal laws by which it should be gov- 
erned. They were rigidly puritanical and were largely molded 
after the old "blue laws" of Connecticut, which ultimately be- 
came so odious, but at that time were believed to be piously 
wholesome and beneficent enactments for the regulation of 
civil and moral conduct. 

These hardy and self-sacrificing pioneers were intelli- 
gent, resolute and energetic enthusiasts and were inspired 



with a zealous ambition to serve humanity. The father of 
Thomas Hinde \vas at one time a surgeon in the British army 
and in that capacity was attached to the vessel which General 
Wolfe left to go ashore and fight the French army under the 
renowned General Montcalm, on the plains of Abraham, and 
dressed the wounds of that heroic commander when he fell, 
gloriously, in the immortal struggle which forever made North 
America a land of Protestanism instead of becoming a French 
Catholic province. 

These devout founders were actuated by pious zeal and 
intended that their city should be characterized by its moral 
purity. Brother Beauchamp had already served faithfully 
and successfully as a minister and as an editor of a pioneer 
journal. He embarked on the new enterprise with unwearied 
zeal and unfaltering faith. While engaged in the ministry in 
Mount Carmel he announced his meetings by the blowing of a 
trumpet. In those far off days the oppressive silence and 
weird solitude of the wilderness were unbroken by the melodi- 
ous tones and rythmic cadence of church bells. He soon be- 
came famed far and near, as a camp meeting revivalist, and 
multitudes came from great distances to hear him proclaim 
gospel truths. While conducting one of his greatest meetings, 
in the state of Indiana, he was stricken with a fatal malady 
and soon passed to the undiscovered realms of eternity. The 
present splendid Methodist church was named in memory of 
this consecrated and massive evangel of Methodism. 

In 1819 Rev. Charles Slocumb was appointed to the pas- 
torate of the Mount Carmel circuit, which was the first regu- 
larly established circuit of the Methodist church in Illinois. 
It then embraced all the territory from Terre Haute to the 
mouth of the Wabash river. In 1824 the Methodists of Mount 
Carmel erected the first brick church in the state, and in it, 
in 1827, was held the first annual Methodist conference. This 
conference was presided over by Bishop Robert A. Roberts, 
the sixth Methodist bishop. The bishop was one of the truest 
types of pioneer preachers our country has produced. He 
died March 27, 1843. 

At the conference of 1827 there assembled a number of 
men who afterwards became famous in the church. Rev. 



108 

Adam Wood and Eev. Charles Holliday were the last of its 
notable survivors. 

It was at this conference that the celebrated Peter Cart- 
wright offered the suggestion, which was embodied in a reso- 
lution and adopted by the conference, for the establishment 
of a Methodist institution of learning and which ultimately re- 
sulted in the founding of the McKendree college.* This popu- 
lar institution, in the order of its formation, is the oldest col- 
lege in Illinois. The citizens of Lebanon subscribed its first 
fund amounting to the munificent sum of $1,385. Its first in- 
structions were given November 24, 1828, under Eev. Edward 
Ames, the devout personal friend of President Lincoln and 
upon whom the great war president often leaned heavily for 
support and comfort amid the perils of the Civil war. Bishop 
Ames was the statesman of Methodism. In 1830 Bishop Mc- 
Kendree made a donation of land to the infant school and 
for that reason it was appropriately named in his honor. It 
actually became a college in 1836 and graduated its first class 
in 1841. 

Among the bishops who have presided at conferences 
held in Mount Carmel are to be found the names of Roberts, 
Scott, Baker, Bowman, Andrews, McCabe and Quayle. 

* An Act of the Legislature approved Feb. 9, 1835, authorized in one Act 
the incorporation of four colleges in Illinois, namely: The Alton College, 
[Shurtleff,] Illinois College, the McKendreean College, and Jonesborough 
College." 



109 



A LOST STARK COUNTY TOWN. 

BY WILLIAM R. SANDHAM, WYOMING, ILLINOIS. 

During the years between 1830 and 1840 there was a great 
mania in land speculation in the state of Illinois. One line of 
this speculation was the platting of town sites, and by exten- 
sive advertising selling lots at the highest possible profiteer- 
ing prices. A great many of those towns proved to be in good 
locations and they are now prosperous villages and cities. 
A still greater number of those speculative paper towns have 
fallen by the wayside, and they have left scarcely a tradi- 
tional remembrance. Several of such towns were laid out 
in Stark county. Among them we mention LaFayette, Wyom- 
ing, Slackwater, Massillon, Moulton and Osceola. Of them 
only LaFayette and Wyoming have become prosperous busi- 
ness centers. All the others have gone or are fast going 
out of the memory of nearly everybody. There is a tradi- 
tion that some of the promoters and speculators in the Wyom- 
ing and Osceola town lots sent circulars broadcast through 
the eastern states, proclaiming the desirability of owning lots 
in those towns as they were bound to grow into large and pros- 
perous cities. The tradition is that those circulars described 
both of those towns as being located at the head of navigation 
on Spoon river and that they already were growing commer- 
cial towns. The purpose of this article is to tell something 
about the lost town of Osceola and its founder, Major Robert 
Moore. 

It is well known that in 1817 the United States govern- 
ment had the lands between the Illinois and Mississippi riv- 
ers surveyed as far north as the north boundary of what is 
now Mercer county, with the object of donating one hundred 
and sixty acres of land to each of the soldiers of the War of 
1812. This piece of land was designated as the ''Military 
Tract" by which name it is still known. 



110 

The United States by patent, February 9, 1818, conveyed 
to Daniel Crottnell, as a partial recompense for his services as 
a private in Ramsey's First Eifle Corps in the War of 1812, 
the southwest quarter of section twelve of what is now El- 
mira township, Stark county, Illinois. On June 22, 1819, Dan- 
iel Crottnell, then of Warren county, Ohio, conveyed the same 
quarter section to William Frye for sixty dollars-. On April 
22, 1822, William Frye then of Pike county, Illinois, conveyed 
the same quarter section to Elias Kent Kane of Kaskaskia, 
Illinois, for one hundred dollars. Elias Kent Kane, for whom 
Kane county, Illinois was named, was a cousin of Elisha 
Kent Kane of Arctic exploration fame, and was United States 
senator from Illinois from 1825 to 1835. On February 16, 
1824, Elias Kent Kane conveyed the above described quarter 
section to Major Eobert Moore of St. Genevieve, Missouri, for 
one hundred dollars. The same piece of land was sold for 
taxes, for $2.69, in 1834, to Thomas Ford who was governor 
of Illinois, from 1842 to 1846. The tract was redeemed by 
Major Moore and reconveyed to him February 10, 1836. 

Some time in the early part of 1835 Major Eobert Moore 
came to this part of Illinois to view his land and to become 
the operator of a ferry on the Illinois river at Peoria. As 
operator of the ferry he became acquainted with the Bus- 
wells, the Spencers and others who had come from Vermont, 
and the Halls who had come from England, to purchase and 
settle on lands in Illinois. Major Moore had a map which 
showed the unentered government lands in the north eastern 
part of what is now Elmira township in Stark county. He 
gave the land seekers such a glowing description of those 
lands that they then and there concluded to settle there or in 
that vicinity. As all who are versed in the history of Stark 
county well know, those people whom Major Moore induced 
to settle in what is now Stark county, came to be among the 
most prosperous and the most highly respected residents of 
the county, and their highly prized characteristics have come 
down to their descendants who are now living in the county. 

Major Eobert Moore with the assistance of the county 
surveyor of Putnam county, of which the land that is now El- 
mira township was then a part, surveyed and platted a town 
site on the foregoing described quarter-section. He named it 



Ill 

Osceola after the Seminole warrior Osceola, the Indian leader 
in the Florida Indian war. There were four others, James C. 
Armstrong, Thomas J. Hurd, D. C. Enos and Edward Dick- 
enson, who were associated with Major Moore in the promo- 
tion and sale of lots in the new town. The new town as 
platted consisted of forty-eight blocks of ten lots each, with 
a large " Washington Square" in the center. The plat was 
dated July 7, 1836, and was recorded on page 278 in book D, 
in the recorder's office in Hennepin, the County seat of Put- 
nam county. 

The exalted hopes of Major Moore and his associates 
ended in disappointment, for the reason that the people who 
came to settle in this part of Illinois, preferred to make their 
homes in and near the groves a short distance west of the 
new town. Some time during the latter part of 1837 a post 
office was established about a mile west of the Osceola town 
site, and named Elmira after Elmira, New York, the former 
home of Oliver Whitaker the first post master. In 1845 that 
post office was moved to the west side of Spoon river and the 
name was moved with it. Some years later another post- 
office was established on the first site of the Elmira office and 
named Osceola. A village grew up around the post office, 
which has since been known as Osceola. The large grove in 
the vicinity naturally took upon itself the name of Osceola 
grove. 

Major Moore sold all his interest in the Osceola town site 
and in the quarter section on which it was located May 2, 
1839, just two months after the county of Stark was created. 
His son, James Madison Moore, owned a one-half interest in 
the quarter section from February 25, 1841, to April 21, 1842. 
The record books in the recorder's office in Toulon show that 
the Osceola town site was vacated by the owners, Isaac Spen- 
cer, Timothy Carter and Oliver Whitaker. The vacating 
deed was filed for record July 16, 1845. The vacation of the 
Osceola town site was legalized by the Illinois General As- 
sembly in February, 1855. The quarter section on which was 
located the lost town of Osceola is now productive farm land. 

Major Robert Moore, the founder of the lost town of Os- 
ceola, was born in Franklin county, Pennsylvania, October 
2, 1781. He was married to Miss Margaret Clark, who was 



112 

also a native of Franklin county, Pennsylvania, April 18, 
1805. He served as a soldier in the War of 1812, and later as 
a major of militia in Pennsylvania. In 1822 he and his fam- 
ily moved to St. Genevieve county, Missouri. He was a Jus- 
tice of the Peace in that state for several years, and a member 
of the Missouri legislature in 1831 and 1832. In 1835 he moved 
to Illinois and became the operator of a ferry at Peoria, and 
the founder of the lost town of Osceola as heretofore stated. 
From all the information obtainable it is evident that Major 
Moore and his family lived for a time in Stark county. 

Some time during the year 1839 Major Robert Moore 
moved to Oregon, leaving his wife at the home of a son in 
St. Louis, Missouri, while he prepared a new home in that 
far distant territory. It has been authoritatively stated that 
Major Moore was with one of the first parties that went to 
Oregon by crossing the mountains which are between the 
Mississippi river and the Pacific ocean. He bought govern- 
ment land near the Willamette river, about fifty miles south 
of Portland. Mrs. Moore died at the home of her son in St. 
Louis before the new home in Oregon was ready for occu- 
pancy. Major Moore died in Linn county, Oregon, Septem- 
ber 1, 1857. In her history of "Stark County and Its Pio- 
neers" Mrs. Eliza Hall Shallenberger said this: "Major 
Moore was an intelligent and active business man, ever ready 
to take advantage of circumstances, and fond of adventure. ' ' 

Major Eobert Moore's son, James Madison Moore, lived 
in Stark county for several years. He moved to Oregon about 
1842. Eobert Morrison Moore, Major Robert Moore's young- 
est son, was born in Chester county, Pennsylvania, August 26, 
1820. He came to what is now Stark county, Illinois, with 
his father about 1837. He was married October 14, 1844, to 
Miss Maria White, daughter of Hewes White who was the 
pioneer blacksmith of Elmira township. Mr. White moved 
to Toulon in 1847. Mr. and Mrs. Robert Morrison Moore 
lived in Elmira township until the death of Mrs. Moore, 
March 9, 1874. A short time after the death of his wife Mr. 
Moore moved to Toulon, where he lived until the time of his 
death, January 29, 1890. His youngest son, James Corydon 
Moore, who is well known in Stark county, now lives in San 
Diego, California. 



113 



A SHORT COURTSHIP AND A HAPPY MARRIED LIFE. 

A Reminiscence of the Early History of Stark County, 

Illinois. 

BY WILLIAM R. SANDHAM, WYOMING, ILLINOIS. 
Among the first settlers of what is now LaSalle county, 
Illinois, were Louis Bayley and his wife, Betsey Butler Bay- 
ley. To them a son was born July 17, 1828, whom they named 
Augustus, and who was the first white child born in what is 
now LaSalle county. Louis Bayley was a soldier in the War 
of 1812. His father, Timothy Bayley, was a soldier in the 
Revolutionary War. Mrs Betsey Butler Bayley died in the 
year 1840, leaving to be cared for by her husband, Louis Bay- 
ley, their two living children, Augustus and Timothy, the 
latter being three years old. 

During the time between 1835 and 1855 there was among 
the itinerant preachers of Illinois, who were generally known 
as circuit riders, one named Rev. William S. Bates whose 
circuit included Stark and LaSalle counties. Mr. Bates and 
Mr. Bayley were warm personal friends, and when he was in 
LaSalle county Mr. Bates always made his headquarters at 
Mr. Bayley 's home. On one of his visits to Mr. Bayley *s 
home, the traveling preacher found Mr. Bayley to be a very 
busy man. Besides his work as a farmer and as the operator 
of a sawmill, he was doing his house work with the assistance 
of his eldest son. "Well, Mr. Bayley," said the preacher 
after the usual greetings, "you need a wife to do your cook- 
ing, to care for your house work and to look after the welfare 
of your two boys." I assure you that I know that what you 
are telling me is true" said Mr. Bayley. "I do not know 
where I can find such a woman, one who is willing to marry 
me and assume the responsibility of doing the things that are 
needed to be done in my home." "Well," said Mr. Bates, 
"perhaps in my work as an itinerant preacher, I can find such 
a woman. If I do I will let you know." 



114 



In the early part of the year 1843 the itineracy of the Rev. 
Mr. Bates brought him into LaSalle county, and as usual he 
stopped to stay over night with his friend, Louis Bayley. 
After supper, which had been prepared by Mr. Bayley and 
his son August, Mr. Bates told Mr. Bayley that he had found 
a woman he was satisfied would make him a good wife and 
one who would be a kind mother to his two boys. ' Tell me 
about her, ' ' said Mr. Bayley. " " The woman 's name is Mary 
Lake" said the preacher, "and she lives with a brother-in- 
law named Sewell Smith, who lives just south of Spoon river 
on section 14 in Essex township in Stark county. I have seen 
her and I have told her about you and your home and your 
two boys. I advise you to go to see her." 

A few days after the circuit rider went on his way, Mr. 
Bayley hitched a team of his best horses to a light wagon and 
started for Spoon river. On the evening of March 19th he ar- 
rived at the farm now owned by Sol and Jesse Cox, two miles 
south of Wyoming and just north of Spoon river, where he 
stayed that night. The next day he forded Spoon river a few 
rods below what is now known as the Bailey bridge. In- a 
very short time he knocked on the door of the Sewell Smith 
home, and a woman opened the door. "I am Louis Bayley 
of LaSalle county," said the visitor, "and I am looking for a 
woman named Mary Lake." The woman quickly extended 
her right hand and said "I am Mary Lake. Come right in. 
I know what you have come for." It is enough to say here 
that Louis Bayley and Mary Lake were married before the 
setting of the sun on that day, March 20, 1843. The following 
day Mr. and Mrs. Louis Bayley left Stark county for their 
home in LaSalle county. All the reports which have come down 
through the sons and grandsons of Louis Bayley and the 
neighbors who knew them intimately, tell the same story, 
that Mr. and Mrs. Bayley had a very happy married life. 

Louis Bayley sold his property in LaSalle county in the 
year 1849 and moved to Stark county. He bought the eighty 
acre farm where he found Mary Lake March 20, 1843. That 
eighty acre tract is now owned by Louis Bayley 's grandson, 
Orpheos Bailey, son of Augustus Bailey, who as stated was 
the first white child born in what is now LaSalle county. Mrs. 
Mary Lake Bayley died March 3, 1861, and Mr. Bayley had in- 



115 

scribed on her tombstone, "A GOOD WIFE AND A KIND 
STEPMOTHER." Louis Bayley died at Forest Grove, 
Washington County, Oregon, in 1876, aged 92 years. His son 
Augustus died in Stark county, Illinois, August 26, 1905. The 
son Timothy lives in Pacific county, Washington. 

The circuit rider and pioneer preacher, Kev. William S. 
Bates, after he retired from active service as a preacher, 
owned and lived on the southeast quarter of the north quarter 
of section 28 in Essex township, Stark county, Illinois, from 
1857 to 1864. 

The spelling of the name Louis Bayley, as here given, is 
the way Louis Bayley spelled the name. The other members 
of the Bailey family spell the name Bailey. The marriage 
record in the office of the County Clerk in Toulon has the 
spelling Lewis Bayley. 



EDITORIAL 



119 



JOURNAL OF 

THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Published Quarterly by the Society at Springfield, Illinois. 
JESSIE PALMER WEBER, EDITOR. 

Associate Editors: 

George W. Smith Andrew Russel H. W. Clendenin 
Edward C. Page 

Applications for membership in the Society may be sent to the Secretary of 
the Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Illinois. 

Membership Fee, One Dollar Paid Annually. Life Membership, $25.00 

VOL. Xni. APRIL, 1920. No. L 

ANNUAL MEETING OF THE ILLINOIS 
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The twenty-first annual meeting of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society will be held in the Senate Chamber in the 
Capitol building at Springfield, on Friday, May 14, 1920. 

The annual address will be delivered by Hon. 0. A. 
Harker of the University of Illinois. The subject of Judge 
Barker's address is " Fifty years with the Bench and Bar of 
Southern Illinois." 

The State of Illinois has supplied to the cause of equal 
suffrage some of its most prominent and influential workers. 
This state was also the first to ratify the Nineteenth Amend- 
ment to the Constitution of the United States which gave to 
women full rights as citizens. 

Mrs. Grace Wilbur Trout who has borne a great part in 
the work which achieved this result, will tell the Society the 
story of the suffrage movement and its final victory as it re- 
lates to Illinois. Her address is entitled "Some Sidelights 
on Illinois Suffrage History." 



120 

Miss Mary E. McDowell, noted settlement worker and 
author will give an account of her "Twenty-five years in an 
Industrial Community." 

Prof. Arthur C. Cole, one of the authors of the Centennial 
history, will speak to the Society on " Illinois Women of the 
Middle Period." 

The addresses of Mrs. Trout, Miss McDowell, and Pro- 
fessor Cole, taken together with the splendid address of Mrs. 
Joseph C. Bowen, given before the Society last year on the 
part taken by the women of Illinois in the World War, will 
present a vivid picture of the work and influence of the 
women of Illinois in the philanthropic and economic develop- 
ment of the State, from the beginning of the Civil War to the 
present time. 

The transactions of the Society for this year will be of 
great interest to those interested especially in the work of 
women. 

Mr. Charles Bradshaw of Carrollton, Illinois, editor of 
the Patriot, of that city, will relate the interesting history of 
Greene County, which is this year one hundred years old. 

Another address will be given by Mrs. Edna Armstrong 
Tucker of Eock Island, who will speak on the life and work of 
Benjamin Walsh, the first state Entomologist of Illinois. 

One of the pleasant features of the annual meeting of the 
Society will be the usual luncheon. 



DR. EDMUND J. JAMES RESIGNS AS PRESIDENT OF 
UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS ON ACCOUNT OF 

ILL HEALTH. 

Dr. Edmund J. James tendered his resignation as presi- 
dent of the university of Illinois at the annual meeting of the 
board of trustees at Urbana, Tuesday, March 9, 1920. No 
action was taken because of the lack of a quorum. The resig- 
nation will be accepted at the next meeting of the board. 

Dr. James will probably be made president emeritus of 
the University dating from September 1, 1920, with such re- 
tiring allowance as the board may decide. It is understood 
that Dr. David Kinley who has. been acting president since 
president James temporarily was relieved of his duties last 
July, will succeed Dr. James as president. Dr. James peti- 



tioned the trustees last July for a leave of absence of one 
year and one month, giving ill health as the reason. The leave 
was granted as his physicians had ordered absolute rest from 
all responsibilities, and for a time he went to Florida. 

His letter of resignation which was received last month 
by Robert F. Carr, president of the board of trustees reads in 
part as follows : "I have wept useless tears at having to give 
up, but it is of no use. I cannot go on and do justice to the 
institution. I had been hoping against hope that my health 
would improve, so I could again undertake the work from 
which I was relieved last July. 

"As the months have passed, the conviction that I should 
not return to active service has deepened, mainly because I 
feel that I have reached the age where I should retire from 
active duty. 

"I look forward with confidence to an even greater future 
for the University. It has grown into the hearts of the people 
of the State, and it will do so in a larger way in the years to 
come. I know its affairs are in a critical condition because of 
the inadequate income. 

"Passing as I do from the active administration of the 
institution, I can say, without fear that any one will think me 
personally interested, that the next legislature ought to 
double its current income and provide a fund adequate for its 
physical expansion." 

Dr. James who has been up to the present time the only 
native Illint)isan to head the institution, has been president of 
the University of Illinois for fourteen years. He was the 
fourth to hold the office and succeeded Dr. Andrew S. Draper. 

During his period of service he has seen the annual en- 
rollment increase from 3,000 to approximately 9,000. 

Dr. James was born in Jacksonville, Illinois, on May 21, 
1855. During his educational career, he held positions at Ev- 
anston High School, Model High School, Normal, Illinois, 
Wheaton School of Finance and Economics, University of 
Pennsylvania, University of Chicago and Northwestern Uni- 
versity, Evanston, Illinois. 

He was president of Northwestern University from 1902 
to 1904, and was appointed head of the University of Illinois 
in 1905. 



m 

When the United States entered the war in 1917, he offered 
the facilities of the University to the government. He di- 
rected the establishment of schools for the manufacture of 
warfare chemicals and military aeronautics and supervised 
the organization of the University's S. A. T. C., which had an 
enrollment of 3,033. President James was a member of the 
Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library, 
1897-1907. He is one of the founders of the Illinois State His- 
. torical Society, and has been a director of the Society since its 
organization. 

ILLINOIS WOMEN VOTE IN THE PREFERENTIAL 

PRIMARY FOR PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED 

STATES, APRIL 13, 1920. 

Illinois women who chose to do so voted at the presi- 
dential preference primaries on April 13. Whether their vote 
will be counted in with those cast by the men depends entirely 
upon whether the full suffrage federal constitutional amend- 
ment is ratified and promulgated by the Secretary of State 
at Washington before primary day. The women's votes were 
cast in separate ballot boxes and the count will be kept 
apart from the tally of the male votes. It doesn't make any 
real difference, at that, whether the suffrage amendment is 
ratified. The Illinois primary vote is purely advisory, the 
women's ballots were cast and the result will be known, re- 
gardless of what happens to the amendment, and the rival 
presidential camps will be able to form their own conclusions 
and make their claims when the totals are computed. 

This was determined officially by Attorney-General 
Brundage and formally announced in an opinion given to 
Governor Frank 0. Lowden. Governor Lowden, in a letter to 
Mr. Brundage, had suggested that such steps might be legally 
taken and requested the attorney general to investigate the 
proposition. Governor Lowden 's letter to Attorney General 
Brundage said: "In view of the deep interest that is being 
manifested in the suffrage movement and its far reaching ef- 
fects, to say nothing of the rights of the thousands of women 
in the State of Illinois, who ought to be entitled to express 
their preference, I am addressing you on the subject of the 
presidential preference primaries." He refers to the an- 



123 

nounced determination of the election commission in Chicago 
to permit Chicago women to vote and continued: 

"I would be very glad indeed if the women of the State 
outside of Cook county can be accorded the same privilege 
that is to be given to the women of Cook county, and there- 
fore would respectfully ask that you consider . the question 
whether or not ballots can be printed for the use of the women 
in the 101 counties in the approaching primaries, without in- 
validating the election. These ballots will be separate and 
may be counted separately so that should there be any ques- 
tion or should any contest develop, the legal results can be 
easily obtained." 

Attorney General Brundage's reply to Governor Lowden 
follows: "In reply to your communication I beg to state 
that, although I have previously rendered an opinion that 
under the law of the State of Illinois women are not legally to 
vote for delegates to the coming national party nominating 
conventions, assuming of course that the amendment to the 
federal constitution giving universal suffrage to women shall 
not have been ratified and a proclamation issued announcing 
such ratification shall not have been made, I am of the opinion 
that, under the conditions set forth in your letter, the casting 
of ballots by women at the coming preferential presidential 
primaries would not invalidate such primaries, it being un- 
derstood that the ballots will be separate, counted separately, 
and sealed and reported separately." 

Edward J. Brundage. 

Tolegraphic notice went out to the 101 county clerks from 
the office of Secretary of State Ernmerson, directing them to 
prepare the women's ballots as indicated in the attorney gen- 
eral's opinion. 



HOMAGE PAID TO THE MEMORY OF ABRAHAM 

LINCOLN BY THE TRADE UNIONISTS 

OF INDIA. 

Twenty thousand trade unionists in India paid tribute 
to the memory of Abraham Lincoln, Thursday, April 29, 
when their leader Bahman Pestonji Wadia, laid a wreath at 
the foot of the Statue of the great emancipator in Lincoln 
Park, Chicago. 



124 

"What wonderful words are those: 'Of the people, for 
the people, and by the people', exclaimed Wadia as he de- 
posited the floral tribute. 

" Lincoln was one of the greatest men the world will ever 
know. Lincoln is greatly admired in India by all of our peo- 
ple. It was he who inspired me at the age of 22 to take up the 
work for my people." 

Mr. Wadia was the first man to organize trade unions 
in India and is the leader in the home rule movement there. 
He is a former member of the National Council of India. He 
is now 38 years old. He came to the United States last Oc- 
tober to represent the working people of India at the labor 
conference in Washington. Since then he has been touring 
the United States. 

He arrived in Chicago on Sunday April 25. J. F. Cor- 
nelius, Secretary of the city club was his guide and host. 

"We have 20,000 trade unionists in India" he said. "This 
body is not a fighting group such as the unions are in this coun- 
try, but is made up of clubs and organizations pledged to aid 
in settling all difficulties which may arise throughout the 
country. I was sent to England by Edwin Samuel Montague, 
commissioner to India, to appear before the house of lords 
and the house of commons to report on conditions in India 
and plead the cause of home rule." 

Mr. Wadia has made such an effective impression on 
parliament that India has been guaranteed she will be given 
the same rights and privileges enjoyed by Canada, within the 
next fifteen years, should her development progress as swiftly 
as it has in the past. "As a result there is a great wave of 
satisfaction and contentment spreading all over India" ex- 
plained Mr. Wadia. "We are working as we have never 
worked before." 

Mr. Wadia expects to sail for India on May 25. 



GREAT STOEM AT CHICAGO AND OTHER PLACES 

IN NORTHERN ILLINOIS. 

On Sunday, March 28, 1920, a wind storm of unusual 
severity passed over the north part of the State spreading 
destruction in its path. About one hundred persons were 
killed and much damage was done to property. Ohio, Indiana 



125 

and Michigan also suffered from the storm. Parts of Elgin, 
Melrose Park, Maywood and Dunning were severely injured 
by the storm. 

The storm hit Elgin at 12:10 o'clock noon. Many per- 
sons were in church at the time. The roofs of two churches 
caved in and several persons were killed, and many injured. 
These were the First Congregational church and the First 
Baptist church of Elgin. Other churches and congregations 
suffered. The Chicago Health Department acted promptly in 
immediately sending nurses and other forms of relief to the 
stricken communities. Public funerals were held in some com- 
munities for the victims of the storm. The Chicago Tribune 
started a relief fund and other organizations gave aid. It is 
estimated that two hundred and twenty-five homes were de- 
molished. 



J. J. ZMRHAL, OF CHICAGO, TO REORGANIZE 
CZECH SCHOOLS. 

J. J. Zmrhal, principal of the Herzl School, has been 
granted a leave of absence by the Chicago Board of Educa- 
tion to help reorganize the educational system of Czecho- 
slovakia. He will go to the new republic as a representative 
of the National Educational Association. 

The minister of education of Czecho-Slovakia requested 
the government at Washington to lend Mr. Zmrhal 's services. 
He expects to be gone about seven months, and will take ex- 
hibits of the work of Chicago school children, as models for 
the children of Czecho-Slovakia. 

Dr. Adolph Mach, who has accepted the chair of dentistry 
in the University of Ratislow, will accompany Mr. Zmrhal. 



JULIA LATHROP TO AID CZECHS IN CHILD 
WELFARE. 

At the formal request of the Czecho-Slovakian govern- 
ment, Miss Julia Lathrop of Chicago, head of the National 
Child bureau, sailed for Prague, March 6, to aid the New 
European republic in matters pertaining to child welfare 
work. Miss Lathrop was accompanied by her sister, Mrs. 
Almon G. Case of Rockford, Illinois. They will return July 



126 

1st. The formal invitation was brought by Jan Masaryk, 
counsellor of legation and charge d'affaires of Czecho-Slova- 
kia. It was approved by both the department of labor and 
the State department. Dr. Masaryk went to the University of 
Chicago as exchange professor about ten years ago at the 
request of Charles E. Crane. 



CHICAGO SCULPTOE DEDICATES STATUETTE 
TO WAE MOTHEE OF SOLDIEES AND 

SAILOES. 

Sigvald Asbjornsen, Chicago sculptor, designer of the 
statue "The Gold Star Mother," in honor of the mothers 
whose sons were killed in the war, recently completed a 
statuette called, "The Kiss" which he has dedicated to Mrs. 
Mary Belle Spencer, public guardian of Cook County. 

The Statuette, according to its designer, represents the 
" Mother love of the world" and was dedicated to Mrs. 
Spencer because during the war she acted as guardian of sev- 
eral hundred soldiers and sailors. Mrs. Spencer posed for 
"The Gold Star Mother." 



ILLINOIS WOMAN APPOINTED AMEEICAN EED 
CEOSS LEADEE ON CONTINENT. 

Miss Helen Scott Hay of Savannah, Illinois, formerly 
chief nurse of the Eed Cross Commission to the Balkans, has 
been appointed Chief Nurse of the American Eed Cross Com- 
mission to Europe, according to a cablegram received at Eed 
Cross National headquarters in Washington. 

Miss Hay, a graduate, and later superintendent of nurses 
of the Illinois training school for nurses, Chicago, began her 
Eed Cross service in September, 1914, when she was placed 
in charge of 126 Eed Cross nurses who sailed on the relief 
ship, ' * Eed Cross ' ' for active duty in Europe. 

Miss Hay was decorated in 1915 by the Eussian govern- 
ment with the gold cross of Saint Anne. The King of Bul- 
garia bestowed upon her the Bulgarian royal red cross. As 
chief nurse of the Eed Cross commission to Europe, Miss Hay 
will have charge of all Eed Cross nursing activities in Poland, 
the Balkans, Czecho-Slovakia and France. 



127 

MRS. MARY ANN POTTER CELEBRATES 
HER 106TH BIRTHDAY. 

Illinois' oldest woman and perhaps the eldest in the mid- 
dle west, whose age can be substantiated, Mrs. Mary Ann 
Potter of Dwight, Illinois, celebrated her one hundred and 
sixth birthday anniversary Monday, February 23, 1920. She 
was born in Essex, N. Y., February 23, 1814, and has lived 
in Illinois since a small child. It is the unique distinction of 
Mrs. Potter to have lived in Illinois since it was first admitted 
to the union. 

It is true of Mrs. Potter and perhaps of no other per- 
son, that she has a personal knowledge of the five great wars 
in which the United States was involved. Her grandfather 
was a soldier of the Revolution, and was fond of telling his 
granddaughter of his experiences with Washington and the 
great military leaders of 1776. Her father was a soldier of 
the War of 1812, and he, too, told his daughter of his duties 
in that conflict. Her husband was a soldier in the war with 
Mexico. While during the Civil war, the Spanish- American 
war, and also during the World war, she knit socks and made 
bandages for the soldiers. Despite her advanced age Mrs. 
Potter keeps in touch with public affairs and has voted at 
every election since her sex was given the right of suffrage. 



JUDGE JACOB R. CREIGHTON DIES IN 

FAIRFIELD, ILLINOIS. 

Judge Jacob R. Creighton died at his home in Fairfield, 
Illinois, April 14, 1920. He was twice elected circuit judge in 
the Second Judicial district and was on the appellate bench at 
Springfield, Illinois, for one term. He was twice State's At- 
torney of Wayne county, Illinois. Was a member of the 
Wayne county draft exemption board. He was 72 years old 
and leaves a widow, two sons and a daughter. 



INVENTOR OF WONDERFUL CLOCK DIES 

IN AURORA, ILLINOIS. 

William Blanford, an inventor, who worked a lifetime on 
a clock which tells simultaneously the time in all parts of 
the world and records atmospheric changes and astronomical 



128 



conditions, died at Aurora, Illinois, February 18, 1919, aged 
82 years. The great timepiece automatically lights up at 
night. It is driven by fifty pound weights. It has been in- 
spected by scientists from all parts of the world. Aurora 
women are raising $5,000 to buy the clock for the city. 



ARCHITECT OF WORLD'S FAIR, CHICAGO, DIES. 

John Charles Olmsted, famous landscape architect, who 
made the preliminary plans for the grounds of the World's 
Fair and designed Chicago's south park system, died Tues- 
day night, February 24th in Brookline, Mass. Mr. Olmsted 
was born in Switzerland in 1852, the son of American parents. 
He was also the designer of the expositions at Seattle, Port- 
land, Oregon, San Diego, Cal., and Winnepeg, Man. He 
planned the landscape features for West Point Military Acad- 
emy and hundreds of private homes, the park systems of Bos- 
ton, Buffalo, Rochester, New York, Milwaukee and other 
cities. 



CHARLES FRANCIS BROWNE NOTED ARTIST 
DIES IN EAST. 

Charles Francis Browne, landscape painter and instruc- 
tor in the Art Institute of Chicago and one of the best known 
artists in the country, died March 30, 1920, at his mother's 
home in Waltham, Massachusetts, where he was born in 1859. 

Mr. Browne went abroad to study art when he was little 
more than a boy, and returned in 1890, coming to Chicago. 
He was the founder of " Brush and Pencil" and its editor, 
president of the Chicago Society of Artists, member and di- 
rector of the western Society of Artists, the Little Room, the 
American Federation of Arts, and various National organiza- 
tions. 

Mr. Browne was stricken with paralysis last summer 
while at the artists colony on Rock River. He spent the 
autumn near Chicago, recovering somewhat, and went east 
hopeful of full recovery. 

Mr. Browne married the sister of Lorado Taft. 

A sale of his paintings last winter conducted by friends, 
headed by Ralph Clarkson, brought to Mr. Browne a fund of 



139 

$12,000. Funeral services were held in Waltham, Massa- 
chusetts, April 1st. 



MAEJOEIE BENTON COOKE WRITER AND PLAY- 
WRIGHT. DIES IN MANILA. 

A cablegram from Manila, April 26, announced the death 
of Miss Marjorie Benton Cooke, author and playwright. She 
had arrived in Manila only a few days before on a trip around 
the world. The cablegram was received by her brother, Edson 
Benton Cooke of 5324 Kimbark Avenue, Chicago. 

Miss Cooke was well known in Chicago. She was born 
there. For the last three years she had lived in New York. 
Her most successful books of fiction were "Bambi" and "The 
Dual Alliance. " 



130 



Gifts of Books, Letters, Photographs and Manuscripts to the 
Illinois State Historical Library and Society. 

American Political Classics. By George Clark Sargent. Gift of the Lux 

School of Industrial Training, San Francisco, Cal. 
Army Signal School. Last course. The Langres Lingerer. France, No. 4, 

1918 to Jan. 31, 1919. Gift of Lieut. Kaywin Kennedy, 1201 Broadway, 

Normal Illinois. 
Avery, Fairchild and Park Families of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and 

Rhode Island. Pub. Hartford, Conn. 1919. Gift of Samuel Putnam Avery, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Brearley, Harry C. Time Telling through the Ages. By Harry C. Brearley, 

N. Y. 1919. Gift of Robert H. Ingersoll & Bro., N. Y. City. 
Catholic Beginnings in Kansas City, Missouri. Gift of Rev. Gilbert Garra- 

han, S. J., Loyola University Press, Chicago. 
Chicago Since 1837. By Gordon Best. Pub. by S. D. Childs & Co., 1917. 

Gift of the Publisher. 

Democratic Text Book, 1920. Gift of Mrs. Howard T. Willson, Virden, 111. 
Eastman Zebina. Eight Years in a British Consulate. By Zebina Eastman. 

Pub. Chicago, 1919. Gift of Mr. Sidney Corning Eastman, Chicago, 111. 
Der Freiheitsbote for Illinois. I. May 6, 1840. Gift of Miss B. E. Rom- 

bauer, 4311 W. Pine St., St. Louis, Mo. 
Illinois State, Bureau County. Honor Roll Bureau County, Illinois World 

War, 1917-1919. Gift of Mr. Clifford R. Trimble, Princeton, Illinois. 
Illinois State. Mason County. Honor Book and Record, World War. Jones 

Brothers, Publishers. 712 Federal St., Chicago. Gift of the Publishers. 
Illinois State. Pike County, 111. Atlas Map of, by Andreas Lyter & Co., 

Davenport, Iowa, 1872. 
Illinois State, Pike Co., 111. History of Pike County, Illinois, 1880. Chas. C. 

Chapman & Co., Publishers, Chicago. 

Illinois State, Pike Co., 111. Revised ordinances of the President and Trus- 
tees of the Town of Griggsville, Illinois, 1878. Above three Pike County 

items. Gifts of Mr. James A. Farrand of Griggsville, Illinois. 
Illinois State, Sangamon County. Land warrant. Amos Lock. Sangamon 

County. Dated 16th day of May, 1831. Signed by President Andrew 

Jackson. 

Land Warrant. Josiah Francis of Sangamon Co., dated 1st Day of Novem- 
ber, 1839, signed by President Martin Van Buren. 

Deed John Huston and wife to D. Newsom, Sangamon Co. Filed April 28, 
1831. 

Deed John Huston and wife to David Newsom and Samuel Huston, Sanga- 
mon Co. Dated Feb. 28th, 1833. 

Deed N. A. Ware to D. Newsom, Filed for Record, Sangamon Co., June 11, 
1838. 

Deed Samuel Huston and wife to David Newsom, Sangamon Co. Dated 
April 21, 1840. 



131 

James Higby Jun. and Martha Higby. To Mortgage. Francis Sanford, 

Sept. 3, 1842. 
Deed James L. Lamb and wife to Isaiah Francis. Sangamon Co. 24 May, 

1848. 
Deed Nathaniel A. Ware to David Newsom. Dated Sangamon Co., Nov. 10. 

1849. 
Deed Henry P. Cone and wife to Josiah Francis. Sangamon Co. Dated 

Aug. 16, 1851. 
Deed William S. Curry and wife to Josiah Francis. Sangamon Co., dated 

Jan. 5, 1856. Above Sangamon County items. Gift of Hon. Clinton L. 

Conkling, Springfield, 111. 

Illinois State. Whiteside Co. Sketches of Cottonwood District No. 102. 
Ustick Township Whiteside County. Illinois History. Record. Memories. 
42 p. Morrisonville, 111. The Sentinel Press, 1902. Gift of Mr. A. N. Abbott, 

Morrisonville, 111. 
Illinois State. Woman's Press Association Year Book. 1919-1920. Gift of 

Mrs. Maude S. Evans, 5468 Ellis Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 
Langres Lingerer (The) Army Signal School last Course. France, No. 4, 

1918 to Jan. 31, 1919. Edited by Lt. Kaywin Kennedy, Signal Corps, A. 

E. F. Gift of Lieut. Kaywin Kennedy, 1201 Broadway, Normal, Ills. 
Minor, Manasseh. The Diary of Manasseh Minor of Stonington, Connecticut, 

1697-1720. Published by Frank Denison Miner with the assistance of 

Miss Hannah Miner, 1915. Privately printed, No. 104. Gift of Mrs-- 

Lewis H. Miner, Springfield, Illinois. 
Morgan Family. Francis Morgan, an early Virginia Burgess, and some of" 

his descendants. By Annie Noble Sims, from the notes of Mr. William,: 

Owen Nixon Scott. Savannah, Ga. 1920. Gift of Mrs. William Irvini 

Sims. 

New York. Columbia University, Sexennial catalogue of Columbia Uni- 
versity, N. Y. 1916. Gift of the University. 
New York. Moravian Journals relating to Central New York, 1745-66. Bjr 

Rev. William M. Beauchamp. 
New York. Onondaga Historical Association. Revolutionary soldiers of 

Onondaga County, New York. By Rev. William M. Beauchamp. Gift of 

the Onondaga Historical Association, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Roosevelt, Theodore. Theodore Roosevelt's visit to Cheyenne, Wyoming, 

1910. Gift of Wm. C. Deming, Tribune Co. Cheyenne, Wyoming. 
Stead, William H. "The Trail of the Yankee." Manuscript copy of lecture 

delivered by William H. Stead, 1901. Gift of Hon. Charles E. Woodward, 

Ottawa, Illinois. 
Stillwell, Leander. The Story of a common soldier or Army Life in the Civil 

War. 1861-1865. Gift of Leander Stillwell, Erie, Kansas. 
Wheeler, (Capt.) Erastus. Manuscript Record Book of Captain Erastus 

Wheeler, 1846. Gift of Mrs. Charles H. Burton, Edwardsville, Illinois 

A grand-daughter of Captain Wheeler. 



NECROLOGY 



135 



MISS NELLE SNYDER. 

The funeral services of Miss Nelle Snyder were held at 
the home of her father, Dr. J. F. Snyder, Tuesday afternoon, 
Jan. 6, 1920, at 3 o'clock, Rev. C. E. French of the Church of 
Christ was in charge. The services were opened by the read- 
ing of the 23rd Psalm, followed by a prayer. Mrs. Matt Ya- 
ple sang very beautifully and tenderly ' ' Perfect Day. ' ' 

The minister presented the following: 

In the passing of our friend and neighbor we are re- 
minded of the words of another which may fitly describe the 
going out of this life: 

"So fades a summer cloud away; 
So sink the gale when storms are o'er 
So gently shuts the eye of day ; 
So dies a wave along the shore." 

A. L. Barpauld. 

Nelle, the second daughter of Dr. John F. and Annie 
Snyder, was born in Bolivar, Mo. She came with her parents 
to this city where the most of her life has been spent. She at- 
tended the public school and her life has been lived quietly 
among the people she loved and who loved her. The depart- 
ure was not unexpected. It came at 3 :45 a. m., Monday, Janu- 
ary 5, 1920. She is survived by her father, a brother Fred 
and two sisters, Adelle and Isabell at home. 

"By a grave one learns what life really is that it is not 
here, but elsewhere that this is the exile, there is the home. 
As we grow older the train of life goes faster and faster; 
those with whom we travel step out from station to station, 
and our own station too soon will be marked. Death is like the 
stereotyping process of a book in the hands of a printer when 
the plates are made. It is like the fixing solution of a photo- 
grapher. No changes, corrections or alterations can be made 
in life's record. We must then say, as did Pilate, "What I 
have written, I have written. ' ' John 19 :22. 



136 

It is true that we make our own records. We write them 
and no one can change them. Those who love us may be dis- 
posed to place greater value before them than they contain, 
those who do not care for us may be inclined to under estimate 
these records of ours. It is a fine thing to know that He who 
doeth all things well will give your record and my record a 
true and just estimate. 

Miss Nelle Snyder has lived her life in this community. 
She loved her friends and was loved by them. She lived a 
quiet life. She will be missed from her circle of friends and 
in the home. She made several requests concerning her fun- 
eral services and among them was that Dr. A. E. Lyles, in 
whom she had the greatest confidence as a physician, man and 
gentleman, be requested to speak at this service. 

Dr. Lyles spoke in part as follows : 

Because it was one of her last requests and because I 
would not refuse to grant a last request of a friend, if it was 
anything in the bounds of reason that I could do, is why I am 
here. 

What is death? is a question that has many times been 
asked and many answers given. And what is life has as often 
been asked, yet both remain a mystery. There are indeed very 
few things we know with absolute certainty. We do know 
however, that when death visits the home, there is always a 
feeling of resentment and sometimes a very bitter feeling by 
the friends and loved ones of the one to whom death pays his 
respects. Because of home ties it is hard for us to look at 
death from a philosophical point of view. Yet to my way of 
thinking, I feel that when the body is broken down with physi- 
cal infirmities and when there can be no pleasure or satisfac- 
tion in living, then death should be welcomed as an angel of 
mercy. 

The beautiful life is what you and I admire, and that Miss 
Nelle Snyder lived the beautiful life no one will deny. I have 
known her for the last twenty years, and for the last few years 
have known her intimately because of her affliction. Never 
have I heard her complain or murmur because of her affliction, 
and never did I attend any one in sickness who seemed to ap- 
preciate what I tried to do for her so much as Miss Snyder. 
Many people who are long sick become impatient and petu- 



137 

lant. Not so with her. So far as I could observe she seemed 
to appreciate what her family did and everyone who waited on 
her to the greatest extent. While she could not do many 
things she would liked to have done on account of her affliction, 
and while her life was a very quiet one, yet she dispensed sun- 
shine to those with whom she came in contact. And how far 
reaching that influence may be. 

Yesterday she was a playful school girl. Today she lies 
cold in death's embrace. Tomorrow you and I will join her 
with that innumerable throng, in the undiscovered country 
from which no traveler returns. If you and I wield an influ- 
ence it must be done today, for time is only today. Yesterday 
and tomorrow belong to eternity. 

"Our life is but a winter day, 
It seems so quickly passed, 
But if 'tis spent in wisdom's way, 
"We meet the end without dismay, 
And death is sweet at last." 

The floral offerings were beautiful. The pall bearers were 
0. A. Gridley, Henry McDonald, Frank Eeding, William 
Emerich, Matt Yaple and Henry Monroe. The interment was 
in Walnut Eidge Cemetery. 



138 



WILLIAM A. MEESE. 
18561920. 

BY JOHN H. HATJBEEG. 

William August Meese was born at Sheboygan, Wis., Feb. 
1, 1856. His parents Mr. and Mrs. Henry B. Meese had come 
to this country from Hanover, Germany. Two years after 
the birth of William the family moved to Moline. 

After completing the Moline Public school course Mr. 
Meese attended Griswold college in Davenport, la., for a 
year and then enrolled in Bock River seminary, now Mount 
Morris college, from which he graduated in 1876. He then 
took up the study of law at the University of Iowa, and was 
admitted to the bar of Rock Island County in 1878. 

Mr. Meese was a leading citizen of his community and of 
the State of Illinois. He was a man of wide interests, but 
the subjects in which his activities were best known were in 
the fields of history, politics and law. He enjoyed an exten- 
sive practice at law, and in addition to his general practice, 
was attorney for the local Manufacturers Association; for 
the Peoples Savings Bank & Trust Co. of Moline; of Deere 
& Co., the C. M. & St. P. Railway; and for the Illinois & Mich, 
igan Canal Board. He took unusual interest in young attor 
neys, and a number of the prominent and successful lawyers 
of Rock Island County received their first coaching in the 
practice of their profession in Mr. Meese 's office. He had 
great compassion for the boy inclined to be delinquent, and, 
In the day when "law was law, and crime was crime, whether 
it was taking a banana from someone's stand or wagon", and 
there were no probation laws, he defended scores of boys 
when they were up for trial, never charging a cent for his ser- 
vices. He was very successful in clearing the boys and re- 
storing them to the "straight and narrow path". Parents 
of incorrigible boys often brought their young recreants to 
Mr. Meese 's office, where the summons to the boy to come into 



139 

his private office, to receive a reprimand as only Mr. Meese 
could give, was something which could not be lightly treated, 
and often made lasting impressions for good. 

Mr. Meese was widely recognized as a political factor. 
His positive, dominant personality, coupled with unusual 
ability; his judgment of human nature by which he picked 
the coming leading men of his day, and his consistent 
training with these leaders, brought to him an influence 
enjoyed by but few politicians. He was not an office 
seeker for himself but was content to aid in building the ca- 
reers of some of Illinois' greatest statesmen. 

The offices of public trust held by Mr. Meese were the 
following: City attorney for Moline for six years; member 
of the Moline Public Library Board ; Member of Moline Ceme- 
tery Board, and member of the Board of Trustees of the 
Northern Illinois Normal School for four years. 

Construction of the Moline lock, giving Moline a harbor 
on the Mississippi, was one of his great achievements in be- 
half of his home city. As an officer of the Upper Mississippi 
Improvement Association, Mr. Meese was in touch with af- 
fairs pretaining to river navigation, and he gave much time 
and energy to the encouragement of traffic on the Mississippi. 
The appropriation for the Moline Lock came from congress 
as a result of the untiring efforts of Mr. Meese. He spent 
much time in Washington in promoting this improvement. 

Mr. Meese 's hobby was history. He possessed one of the 
best private libraries on Illinois history to be found, as also 
a collection of historic relics which were donated to the Rock 
Island County Historical Society of which he was the founder. 
He was the author of " Early Eock Island" which is an author- 
ity on the early history of Bock Island County. At the time 
of his death he had nearly completed a history of old Fort 
Chartres. It is generally conceded that it was Mr. Meese 's 
political influence which Saved for posterity as a State park, 
the old French fortification of Fort Chartres, and it was he 
who, practically unaided, secured the appropriation of 
$5,000.00 for the monument marking the site of Lieut. Camp- 
bell's battle in 1814, with Black Hawk, at Campbell's Island. 
He was a member of the Board of Directors of the Illinois 
State Historical Society; an associate editor of the "Journal" 



140 

of the Society, and a member of the Advisory Commission of 
the Illinois State Historical Library. 

Mr. Meese passed from this life Feb. 9, 1920. He left sur- 
viving him, his widow, who as Miss Kittie Buxton, of Ma- 
rengo, Ills., married the young attorney the first year of his 
practice, in 1878, and was his faithful helpmeet throughout 
his eventful career; also four daughters, Mrs. Frank Mauk 
of Sterling, Ills. Mrs. Theodore Kolb of Chicago, Mrs. Benja- 
min S. Bell and Mrs. Maud Newton of Moline, also nine grand- 
children. 



141 



CHARLES F. GUNTHER. 
18371920. 

Charles Frederick Gunther, 83 years of age, pioneer ot 
Chicago and noted collector of historical material, died Feb. 
10, at his home, 3601 South Michigan avenue, Chicago, of 
pneumonia. 

Mr. Gunther was identified with the business and artistic 
development of the city for many years. Coming here as a 
traveling salesman in 1868, he opened a candy store at 125 
South Clark street. When the Chicago fire destroyed his busi- 
ness, he rebuilt larger quarters in what is now the McVicker 
Theater building. He was the organizer of the Coliseum com- 
pany and its first president. 

Mr. Gunther was a Democrat and was active in politics. 
He was alderman for the Second ward from 1897 to 1901. 
From 1901 to 1905 he was city treasurer. He once was a 
candidate for governor. 

As an art connoisseur Mr. Gunther was nationally known. 
Several years ago he donated many of his paintings and his- 
torical relics to the Chicago Historical society, of which he 
was a director for twenty years. He gave many paintings to 
the Y. M. C. A. hotel, and some of his finest works adorn the 
walls of the South Shore Country club, to which they have 
been loaned. 

Mr. Gunther offered his entire art and historical collec- 
tion to the city of Chicago, providing a fire-proof building was 
erected for it. The city made no appropriation and in his will 
he left it to his widow and son. 

Mr. Gunther brought the famous Libby prison to Chicago. 
It stood near the site of the present Coliseum, in South Wa- 
bash avenue. 

Mr. Gunther was a thirty-third degree Mason, a member 
of Medinah Temple shrine. Other affiliations were the Acad- 
emy of Sciences, of which he was a trustee ; the Art institute, 



142 

Geographical association, Chicago Association of Commerce, 
and Illinois Manufacturers association. His clubs were the 
Iroquois, Union League, Illinois Athletic, Aero, Germania, 
and Press club. Mr. Gunther was also a member of the Illi- 
nois State Historical Society. 

Mr. Gunther is survived by his widow, who was Miss 
Jennie Burnell of Lima, Ind., and one son, Burnell. The fun- 
eral was held Friday, Feb. 13, at 2 p. m. from the late home. 
The services were conducted by Chevalier Bayard command- 
ery. Interment was made in the family mausoleum at Bose- 
hill cemetery, where a son, Whitman, is buried. 

The honorary pall bearers were Orva G. Williams, Gen. 
George M. Moulton, George W. Warvelle, D. L. Streeter, 
Amos J. Pettibone, William L. Sharp, Samuel H. Smith, Le 
Boy D. Goddard, Henry C. Hackney, Robert M. Johnson, S. 
0. Spring, George B. W. Clifford, Hon. Charles J. Vopicka, 
Thomas M. Hoyne, Adlai T. Ewing, Carl T. Latham, Judge 
John P. McGoorty, Clayton E. Crafts, Allen Streeter, and 
George Beaumont. 



143 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY 
AND SOCIETY. 

No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 18M. 
Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., and M'ilo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1899. 

No. 2. Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed from 
1809 to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 15 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 
1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, 
Ph. D., 170 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 
1900. Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., 55 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. 'Alphabetical Catalogue of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and 
Curios of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. 
Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 6 to 24. "Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the 
years 1901-1918. (Nos. 6 to 18 out of Print.) 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, President 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1903. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series Vol. I. The Cahokia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. CLVI and 663 pp. 8 
vo. Springfield, 1907. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858, 
Lincoln Series, Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 627 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1908. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series. Vol. I. The 
Governors' Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and 
Clarence Walworth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series, Vol. II, Kaskaskla 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Newspapers and Periodicals of Illi- 
nois. 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited by Franklin William 
Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1910. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII. Executive Series, Vol. II. Gov- 
ernors' Letter Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles 
Manfred Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by James 
Alton James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1912. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. 
Travel and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1914. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, Vol. I, The Critical 
Period, 1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth 
Alvord and Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XI. British Series, II. The New Regime, 
1765-1767. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord and 
Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp, 8 vo. Springfield, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. 
The County Archives of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. CXLI 
and 730 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, September, 
1905. Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord, 38 pp. 
8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, 1906. 
Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Walworth Al- 
vord. 34 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I. No. 1. November, 1901. 



144 

An Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by Jessie Palmer 
Weber and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State His- 
torical Library. Compiled by Georgia L. Osborne, 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

Publication No. 25. Supplement to Publication No. 18. A list of genealog- 
ical works in the Illinois State Historical Library. Compiled by Georgia L. 
Osborne. 8 vo.. Springfield. 1919. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. I, No. 1. April, 1908 to 
Vol. XIII, No. I. April, 1920. 

Journals out of print, Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, No. 1 of Vol IX, 
No. 2 of Vol. X out of print. 

Out of print. 



SIDE LIGHTS ON ILLINOIS SUFFRAGE 
HISTORY. 

BY GRACE WILBUR TROUT. 



When we look back to the early fifties of the last century 
and contemplate the beginning of equal suffrage work in 
Illinois, we realize the marvelous change in public sentiment 
that has taken place since that time. A married woman in 
those days had no jurisdiction over her own children, she 
could not lay claim to her own wardrobe about all that she 
could call her own in those days was her soul, and some man 
usually had a claim on that, although it had been solemnly 
declared during a previous century by a learned council of 
men that women really did possess souls. 

The first local suffrage club in Illinois was organized 
over a half century ago in Earlville in the early sixties, and a 
few years later the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association was 
founded in Chicago (in 1869). It was founded the same year 
that the National American Woman Suffrage Association was 
organized, and with which it has always been affiliated. 

The Illinois Equal Suffrage Association was organized 
by men as well as women. One of the early founders of the 
Association was Judge Charles B. Waite, who was appointed 
Associate Justice of Utah Territory by Abraham Lincoln. 
His wife, Mrs. Catherine Van Valkenberg- Waite, was also one 
of that first group that started the state suffrage movement in 
Illinois, and associated with them were a number of other 
eminent men and women. The work during those early years 
was slow, educational work, the Association patiently and 
persistently plodding forward toward its ultimate goal full 
political freedom for the women of Illinois. 

My first active participation in suffrage work was as 
President of the Chicago Political Equality League, to which 
office I was elected in May, 1910. 



145 



146 

The first active work undertaken under my administra- 
tion as League President was to secure permission to have a 
Suffrage Float in the Sane Fourth Parade to be held in Chi- 
cago. There was some hesitation on the part of the men's 
committee having this in charge as to whether an innovation 
of this kind would be proper. Finally however, permission 
was granted, with the understanding that we were to pay the 
committee $250.00 for the construction of the float. We had 
no funds in the treasury for this purpose, so money had to be 
raised mostly by soliciting contributions from our friends 
and neighbors in Oak Park. It was difficult also to secure 
young ladies whose mothers would permit them to ride on a 
Suffrage Float. All obstacles were finally overcome and the 
Suffrage Float received more cheering in the procession than 
any other feature of the parade, with the single exception of 
the G. A. R. Veterans, with whom it shared equal honors. 
The Suffrage Float aroused interest in suffrage among people 
who had never before considered the question seriously. 

While planning for the Suffrage Float, preparations were 
also being made for the first organized Suffrage Automobile 
Tour ever undertaken in Illinois. As League President I was 
asked by the State Board of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Asso- 
ciation, to take charge of this experimental tour, which re- 
quired about six weeks of preparatory work to insure its 
success. 

I visited the newspaper offices and was fortunate in 
securing the co-operation of the press. The tour started on 
Monday, July llth, and the Sunday edition of the Chicago 
Tribune the day before contained a full colo A page of the 
women in the autos, and nearly a half page more of reading 
material about the tour. The Tribune sent two reporters 
along on the trip, who rode with us in our auto, one to report 
for the daily paper and one to report for the Sunday edition. 
Other Chicago newspapers, the Examiner, Record Herald, 
Post, and Journal, sent reporters by railroad and trolley, who 
joined us at our various stopping places. 

Through the kindness of one of our Oak Park neighbors, 
Mr. Charles W. Stiger, the Winton Motor Company donated 



147 

the use of one of their finest seven passenger autos to carry us 
as far as Woodstock, furnishing also an expert chauffeur. 
There we were met by an equally fine Stoddard Dayton car 
which carried us to Naperville where Mr. Stiger's own car 
was waiting to take us back to Chicago. At the meetings dur- 
ing this week's tour, contributions were taken and enough 
money was raised to pay all expenses of the trip and a balance 
of over $100.00 was turned into the state treasury. 

We spoke usually from the automobile, driving up into 
some square or stopping on a prominent street corner which 
had previously been advertised in the local papers and ar- 
ranged for by the local committees in the various towns 
visited. It had been difficult, however, in many towns to secure 
women who were willing to serve on these local committees, 
the excuse usually given was that the people in their respec- 
tive towns were not interested and did not care to hear about 
suffrage. 

I selected as speakers for the tour, Mrs. Catharine Waugh 
McCulloch, who spoke on suffrage from the legal standpoint, 
Miss S. Grace Nicholes, a settlement worker, who spoke from 
the laboring woman's standpoint, and Ella S. Stewart, State 
President, who treated the subject from an international 
aspect. I made the opening address at each meeting, covering 
the subject in a general way, and introduced the speakers. 
I, in turn, was presented to the various crowds by some 
prominent local woman or man, and on several occasions by 
the mayor of the town. 

The towns visited were: Evanston, Highland Park, 
Lake Forest, Waukegan, Grays Lake, McHenry, Woodstock, 
Marengo, Belvidere, Sycamore, DeKalb, Geneva, Elgin, 
Aurora, Naperville and Wheaton. In every one of these 
towns the local newspapers gave front page stories about the 
Suffrage Automobile Tour, which helped greatly in arousing 
interest. The following comments of the Chicago Tribune 
show the success of the trip : ' ' Suffragists ' tour ends in tri- 
umph . . . With mud-bespattered 'Votes for Women' 
still flying, Mrs. Grace Wilbur Trout, leader of the Suffrage 
automobile crusade, and her party of orators, returned late 



148 

yesterday afternoon. . . . Men and women cheered the 
suffragists all the way in from their last stop at Wheaton to 
the Fine Arts Building headquarters." The success of this 
tour encouraged the Illinois Suffrage Association to go on 
with this new phase of suffrage work, and similar tours were 
conducted in other parts of the state. 

The Chicago Political Equality League had been organ- 
ized by the Chicago Woman's Club in 1894, and in May, 1910, 
had only 143 members. We realized that for sixteen years 
work this was too slow a growth in membership to bring 
speedy success to the suffrage movement. As a consequence 
in the summer of 1910 a strenuous campaign for new mem- 
bers was instituted, and in the League Year Book published 
in the fall, we had added 245 new names, nearly trebling our 
membership. 

The League had previously held its meetings in the rooms 
of the Chicago Woman's Club, but in 1911 it had grown to 
such proportions that more spacious quarters were needed, 
and the Music Hall of the Fine Arts Building was secured as 
a meeting place. On account of the League 's increased activi- 
ties it was voted at the annual meeting on May 6, 1911, to 
organize the Legislative, Propaganda, and Study Sections for 
the purpose of carrying on different phases of the work, and 
it was decided also to hold meetings four times a month in- 
stead of once as heretofore. 

My term of office as League President expired in May, 
1912, and through the splendid co-operr 'on of the League 
members we had succeeded in raising our membership to over 
1,000 members. 

On October 2, 1912, at the State Convention held at Gales- 
burg, Illinois, I was elected State President of the Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association. In addition to my League work 
I had been serving as a member of the State Board of this 
Association since October, 1910. Thus having had several 
years of strenuous experience in suffrage work I desired 
above all things to retire to private life, and in spite of the 
urging of many^suffragists, would not have accepted the state 
presidency had it not been for the arguments advanced by one 



149 

of my sons. This son had been out in California during the 
1911 suffrage campaign when the California women won their 
liberty. He had seen every vicious interest lined up against 
the women and had become convinced of the righteousness of 
the cause. He said to me: "Mother, you ought to be willing 
to do this work to make any sacrifice if necessary. This is 
not a work simply for women, but for humanity," and he 
added, "you can do a work that no one else can do." He had 
that blind faith that sons always have in their mothers and 
I listened to his advice. 

This son, who had just reached his majority, had met 
with a severe accident some years before, from which we 
thought he had completely recovered, but just three weeks 
after my election an unexpected summons came to him and he 
passed on into that far country where the principles of equal- 
ity and justice are forever established. So our work some- 
times comes toward us out of the sunshine of life, sometimes 
it comes toward us out of life's shadows, and all that we do 
is not only for those who are here, and those who are coming 
after us, but is in memory of those who have gone on before. 

Immediately after my election to the presidency we real- 
ized the necessity of strengthening the organization work, for 
in spite of all of the previous organization work, there were 
many Senatorial districts in which there was no suffrage 
organization of any kind, and as the time was short, compe- 
tent women were immediately appointed in such districts to 
see that their respective legislators were properly interviewed, 
and to be ready to have letters and telegrams sent to Spring- 
field when called for. 

All of this work was difficult to accomplish without funds. 
Our Board found the Association about $100.00 in debt, and 
immediate solicitation of the friends of suffrage was begun 
for the purpose of raising funds. After legislative work 
began, however, this work was of paramount importance 
and I had to call often upon Mr. Trout for funds with which 
to finance the Springfield campaign. 

During the previous session of the Springfield Legisla- 
ture (in 1911) I had accompanied Mrs. McCulloch, who had 



150 

been in charge there of the suffrage legislative work for over 
twenty years. At that time I was indignant at the way the 
suffrage committee was treated. Some men who had always 
believed in suffrage, were exceedingly kind, but no one re- 
garded the matter as a serious legislative question which had 
the slightest possibility of becoming a law. Mr. Homer Tice 
had charge of the suffrage bill in 1911 in the House, and he 
said that in consequence he became so unpopular that every 
other bill he introduced in the Legislature during that session, 
was also killed. It certainly required moral courage for an 
Illinois Legislator to be an active suffragist at that time. 

Having had this experience, as soon as I was elected to 
the presidency of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association I 
sent for Mrs. Elizabeth K. Booth of Glencoe, the newly elected 
Legislative Chairman, and we agreed upon a legislative 
policy. This included a campaign without special trains, spe- 
cial hearings, or spectacular activities of any kind at Spring- 
field, as too much publicity during a legislative year is liable 
to arouse also the activity of every opponent. It was decided 
to initiate a quiet, educational campaign, and not to attack or 
criticise those opposed to suffrage, because the only possible 
way to succeed and secure sufficient votes to pass the measure 
was to convert some of these so-called "opponents" into 
friends. We agreed also that a card index, giving informa- 
tion about every member of t) ^Legislature, should be com- 
piled. This plan of procedure was submitted to the State 
Board at its regular meeting on November 8, 1912, and the 
plan of campaign as outlined was approved and adopted by 
the Board. The following women served on the State Board 
at this time : 

OFFICEBS : 

President Grace Wilbur Trout 

First Vice-President Miss Jane Addams 

Second Vice-President Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen 

Recording Secretary Miss Virginia Brooks 

Corresponding Secretary. . .Mrs. Bertram W. Sippy 

Treasurer Miss Jennie F. W. Johnson 

Auditor . Mrs. J. W. McGraw 



151 

HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS : 

Organization Mrs. Mary R. Plummer 

Press Miss Margaret Dobyne 

Literature Dr. Anna E. Blount 

Publicity Mrs. George S. Welles 

Legislative Mrs. Sherman M. Booth 

Church Mrs. H. M. Brown 

Lecture Miss S. Grace Nicholes 

Industrial Miss Mary McDowell 

Woman's Journal Mrs. Lillian N. Brown 

DIRECTORS : 
Officers, Heads of Departments 

Mrs. Elvira Downey Mrs. Charles A. Webster 

Mrs. Ella S. Stewart 

On December 19th a suffrage mass meeting was held in 
Orchestra Hall in honor of the Board of Managers of the 
National American Woman Suffrage Association which at 
that time was holding a Board meeting in Chicago. The mass 
meeting was given especially in honor of Miss Jane Addams 
and Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen, who had both been elected to the 
National Board at the National Convention held in November. 
Miss Addams and Mrs. Bowen were also respectively First 
and Second Vice-Presidents of the Illinois Equal Suffrage 
Association. As State President I presided over this meet- 
ing, and Dr. Anna Howard Shaw and other members of the 
National Board addressed the audience. 

As soon as the Legislature convened in January, 1913, an 
immediate struggle developed over the speakership in the 
House. There was a long and bitter deadlock before William 
McKinley, a young Democrat from Chicago, was finally 
elected Speaker. Then another struggle ensued over who 
should represent Illinois in the United States Senate. During 
these weeks of turmoil little could be accomplished in the way 
of securing votes for the suffrage bill. 

Before the Legislature had convened the Progressive 
party had made plans to introduce as a party measure a care- 



152 

fully drafted woman's suffrage bill. Hearing about this Mrs. 
Booth and I at once consulted with the Progressive leaders 
and suggested that it would be far better to let the Illinois 
Equal Suffrage Association introduce this measure than to 
have it presented by any political party. The Progressives 
realized the force of this suggestion and finally very kindly 
agreed to let the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association take 
their carefully drafted bill and have it introduced as an ab- 
solutely non-partisan measure. 

In the meantime, on February 10th, Mrs. Booth as Legis- 
lative Chairman, was sent to Springfield to study the plats 
and learn to recognize and call by name each member of the 
Legislature. Mrs. Catherine Waugh McCulloch who had de- 
clined to serve as Legislative Chairman this year on account 
of family duties volunteered on this occasion to accompany 
Mrs. Booth to Springfield. As this was Mrs. Booth's first 
trip no action had as yet been taken to introduce the Presi- 
dential and Municipal Suffrage Bill which had been drafted 
by the Progressives and which we were to introduce. Mrs. 
McCulloch, however, took with her a suffrage bill which she 
had drafted and which she insisted upon having introduced 
without one word being changed, which was done. It con- 
tained however, in its second section, no blanket clause, but 
specifically named the officers for whom women should be 
allowed to vote, instead of being worded like the Progressive 
draft which said: "Women shall be allowed to vote at such 
elections for all offices and upon all questions and proposi- 
tions submitted to a vote of the electors, except where the 
Constitution provides as a qualification that the elector shall 
be a male citizen of the United States." Mrs. Booth being 
inexperienced in legislative work, and as Mrs. McCulloch was 
a lawyer, she believed this bill to be regular in form and to 
cover the subject fully. When Mrs. Booth returned and re- 
ported what had been done we were all very much distressed 
that the plan agreed upon with the Progressives had not been 
carried out and their bill introduced. In the interests of 
harmony, and out of deference to Mrs. McCulloch 's long years 
of service as Legislative Chairman, and some of us not being 



153 

so well versed in constitutional law then as we became later, 
the matter was allowed to stand. 

We having failed to introduce the form of bill agreed 
upon with the Progressives, they proceeded to introduce their 
bill in both the House and Senate. This complicated matters 
and made confusion but finally the Progressives in order to 
help the suffrage cause, very graciously withdrew their bill. 
Medill McCormick, one of the leading Progressives in the 
Legislature, helped greatly in straightening out this tangle. 
He was our faithful ally and rendered invaluable service dur- 
ing the entire session. Other Progressives in the House who 
also rendered important service were : John M. Curran and 
Emil N,. Zolla, both of Chicago, J. H. Jayne of Monmouth, 
Charles H. Cannon of Forrest and Fayette S. Munro of 
Highland Park. 

While the State Legislative work was being taken care of 
at Springfield we did everything possible to co-operate with 
the National American Woman Suffrage Association in its 
national work. On March 3rd, the day preceding President 
Wilson's first inauguration at Washington, suffragists of the 
various states were called to come to the National Capital 
and take part in a suffrage parade. I was very proud to con- 
duct 83 Illinois women to Washington. We left Chicago by 
special train on March 1, 1913, and were extended every 
courtesy by the Baltimore & Ohio Eailroad. An elaborate 
banquet was served on the train including fresh strawberries, 
and every other delicacy, at only $1.00 a plate, and special 
maids were provided to wait upon the suffragists. 

This Washington parade and the brutal treatment ac- 
corded the women along the line of march aroused the in- 
dignation of the whole nation and converted many men to the 
suffrage cause. It was openly asserted that if law-abiding 
women, who had been given an official permit to have the 
parade, could be so ill treated on the streets of the National 
Capital, it was time that the legal status of women was 
changed and women accorded the respect to which every loyal 
American citizen is entitled. The police claimed they could 
not control the jeering mob, who spat upon the women and 



154 

roughly handled many of them, but the next day the Inaugura- 
tion Parade down the same streets was a manifestation of 
perfect law and order and was in marked contrast to the dis- 
graceful procedure of the day before. The Illinois women 
wore a uniform regalia of cap and baldric and were headed by 
a large band led by Mrs. George S. Welles as Drum Major. 
We had a woman outrider, a young Mrs. Stewart recently 
converted to the cause, who on a spirited horse helped keep 
back the mob from our group. I led, carrying an American 
flag, and our Illinois banner, too heavy for a woman, was 
carried by Mr. Eoyal N. Allen, an ardent suffragist and one of 
the railroad officials, who had our special suffrage train in 
charge. Our women had been drilled to march and keep time, 
and the discipline manifested seemed to affect the hoodlums 
and our women were treated with more respect than the 
majority of the marchers. In fact, the newspapers particu- 
larly commended the order and system manifested by the 
Illinois Division. 

On March 10th I went to Springfield to consult with Gov- 
ernor Edward F. Dunne, and secure if possible, his support 
of the Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill. He agreed 
to support this statutory suffrage bill if we would promise not 
to introduce a suffrage measure which provided for a con- 
stitutional amendment, as but one constitutional amendment 
(according to Illinois law) could be introduced during a legis- 
lative session, and this if introduced, would interfere with the 
Initiative and Referendum Constitutional Amendment upon 
which the Administration was concentrating its efforts. We 
assured the Governor that we would not introduce a resolu- 
tion for a constitutional suffrage amendment because we knew 
we had no chance to pass such a resolution and we also wished 
not to interfere with the Administration's legislative plans. 
I remained in Springfield during the rest of the week to size 
up the legislative situation. 

The next week I went again to Springfield to attend the 
meeting of the Senate Committee to which our suffrage bill 
had been referred. Senator W. Duff Piercy was Chairman 
and had offered to arrange a suffrage hearing if we wished it. 



155 

As we ascertained that a majority on this Committee were 
friendly it seemed wiser not to arouse antagonism by having 
public discussion on the suffrage question at this time, so 
there was no hearing. 

During the next two weeks I spent my time in visiting the 
districts having Legislators not as yet converted to the suf- 
frage cause. Mass meetings were held in some towns and 
arranged for in many others. 

The first week of April the Mississippi Valley Conference 
of Suffragists was held at St. Louis and it seemed imperative 
for me to attend. This large gathering of suffragists would 
have been helpful to our legislative work in Springfield if 
a prominent Illinois suffragist in her speech at the Confer- 
ence, had not attacked the lawyers in the Illinois Legislature, 
saying they were either crooks or failures in their profession, 
or words to that effect. As there were many lawyers in both 
the House and Senate whose votes we had to secure in order 
to pass the suffrage measure, such attacks were most unfor- 
tunate and made the work exceedingly difficult. 

Another shock was in store for us, for on April 2nd, at 
the request of a well known suffragist, a resolution providing 
for a constitutional amendment was introduced. It had been 
thoroughly explained to her that this was against the wishes 
of the Governor and would be construed as a breach of faith 
on our part, especially as she had been identified for 
so many years with the suffrage legislative work. It was 
hard for the Legislators and for the Governor to realize that 
any suffragist, not a member of the lobby, nor a member of 
the State Board, would proceed entirely on her own judgment. 
At our State Board meeting held on April 8th Mrs. Joseph T. 
Bowen, our First Vice-President, introduced a resolution 
which was afterwards sent to Mrs. Catharine Waugh McCul- 
loch, asking her, in the interest of the equal suffrage move- 
ment in Illinois, to have this resolution withdrawn. It was 
not withdrawn, however, but was afterwards killed in Com- 
mittee. 

The work at Sprinfigeld became more and more difficult 
and at times it seemed hopeless. No politician believed that 



156 

we had the slightest chance to pass the suffrage measure. 
On April 7th I began attending the sessions of the Legislature 
regularly. 

During all of our work at Springfield we had splendid 
co-operation from the press. Nearly every week end when we 
returned to Chicago I made it a point to see one or more 
managers of the newspapers and explain to them the difficul- 
ties we were encountering, and asked them to publish an edi- 
torial that would be helpful to the situation. By not appealing 
too often to any one newspaper helpful articles were kept 
coming along in some newspaper nearly every week. We had 
these various newspapers containing suffrage propaganda 
folded so that the editorial (blue penciled) came on the out- 
side. They were then placed on each Legislator's desk by a 
boy engaged for that purpose. These editorials were a sur- 
prise to the representatives of these various Chicago news- 
papers who were at Springfield, for it seemed best to make it 
appear that these editorials were spontaneous expressions of 
sentiment. I remember one of the Legislators, unfriendly to 
suffrage, who had tried a little parliamentary trick which was 
indirectly referred to in an editorial, growling about those 
Chicago newspapers that attend to everybody's business but 
their own. He even complained to the Springfield representa- 
tive of the newspaper, who of course declared his innocence, 
because he knew nothing about it. 

The Springfield papers also became exceedingly friendly 
and published suffrage articles and editorials when we asked 
for them. 

Among the Chicago newspaper men whom I remember 
with special gratitude at this time were : Mr. Keeley and Mr. 
Beck of the Tribune, Mr. Chamberlain of the Record Herald, 
Mr. Eastman and Mr. Finnegan of the Journal, Mr. Andrew 
Lawrence and Mr. Victor Polachek of the Examiner, Mr. 
Curley of the American, Mr. Shafer and Mr. Mason of the 
Post and Mr. Frank Armstrong of the Daily News. 

We were deeply indebted at this time for the help given 
us by Mr. Andrew J. Eedmond, a Chicago lawyer and Grand 
Commander of the Knights Templar. I remember one in- 



157 

stance in particular when much pressure was being brought 
to bear on Governor Dunne to prejudice him against the suf- 
frage bill I wished Mr. Eedmond, who was a personal friend 
of the Governor, to go down to Springfield and help counter- 
act this harmful influence. Mr. Redmond was a next door 
neighbor of ours in Oak Park, and he had an important law 
suit on that week, and in talking the matter over with Mr. 
Trout we both decided it would be imposing upon the kindness 
of a friend to ask him to leave his business and go at that 
time. Mrs. Redmond, however, called me up by phone to ask 
how things were going. She and her husband were both 
deeply interested in having us win the fight. I told her the 
facts but told her I was not going to ask Mr. Redmond, much 
as we needed him, to go down the coming week on account of 
his business. When Mr. Trout took me to the Springfield 
train, where I met Mrs. Booth, there on the platform with 
his grip in hand, stood Mr. Redmond. My husband said at 
once "why, I thought you were not going to ask him to go 
this week." I explained that I hadn't, but told about my 
conversation with Mrs. Redmond, and of course if his wife 
wished to interfere with his business and send him to Spring- 
field, I was not responsible. Mr. Redmond not only called 
upon the Governor, but saw several down state Legislators 
whom he knew well, and through his influence several very 
important votes were secured. 

I discovered at Springfield that we had just four classes 
of Legislators "wets" and "drys" and "dry-wets" and 
"wet-drys." The "dry-wets" were men who voted for the 
wet measures but never drank, themselves. The "wet-drys" 
were those who voted for dry measures but imbibed freely 
themselves. The "drys" warned us not to trust a single 
"wet" and the "wets" on the other hand counseled us to take 
no stock in those hypocritical 1 ' drys. ' ' As the measure could 
not be passed without "wet" votes, our. scheme of education 
necessarily had to include "wets" as well as "drys." 

I well remember of asking a certain "wet" Legislator 
from a foreign section in Chicago if he would vote for the 
suffrage bill. He looked surprised and said, "Don't you think 
the women would vote out all of the saloons?" I answered 



158 

that I hoped so. He seemed dumfounded by such frankness 
and sort of gasped, "yet you ask me, a 'wet,' to -rote /or the 
bill?'* I then explained as best I could, that I supposed all 
honest "wets" as well as "drys" felt the same way about the 
saloons, that while we might differ on how to settle the tem- 
perance question, still we all really hoped that those places 
where men wasted their money and where boys and girls were 
frequently lured to destruction, were done away with. He 
looked a little dazed and said nothing. I of course thought 
we had lost his vote, and was happily surprised the next 
morning when this same man came to me with a very sober 
face and said: "I thought and thought about what you said 
all night, and I guess you are right you can count my vote," 
and he kept his word. 

The Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill was intro- 
duced in the House by Representative Charles L. Scott (Dem.) 
and in the Senate by Senator Hugh S. Magill (Rep.). It was 
decided however, to let the suffrage bill lie quiescent in the 
House and secure its passage first through the Senate. 

After nearly three months of strenuous effort the bill 
finally passed the Senate on May 7th by a vote of 29 yeas 
(3 more than the required majority) to 15 nays. 

It is doubtful whether we could have secured this favor- 
able action had it not been for the good judgment and diplo- 
macy of Senator Hugh S. Magill, who had charge of the bill 
in the Senate. We also had the assistance on each and every 
occasion of the Democratic Lieutenant Governor, Barratt 
O'Hara, and among other Senators who helped and who de- 
serve mention were: Martin B. Bailey, Albert C. Clark, 
Michael H. Cleary, William A. Compton, Edward 0. Curtis, 
Samuel A. Ettelson, Logan Hay, George W. Harris, Walter 
Clyde Jones, Kent E. Keller, Walter I. Manny and W. Duff 
Piercy. 

The day the bill passed the Senate I left Springfield im- 
mediately to address a suffrage meeting to be held in Gales- 
burg that evening, and the next day went to Monmouth where 
another meeting was held. In both of these towns there was 
a member of the House who was marked on the card index as 



159 

"doubtful." Both of these Legislators however, afterwards 
through the influence of their respective constituents voted 
for the suffrage measure. We soon discovered that there was 
no class of people for whom a politician had so tender and 
respectful a regard as for his voting constituents. 

After I left Springfield that week Mrs. Booth remained to 
see that the Suffrage Measure got safely over to the House. 
In the meantime there was a mix-up and the suffrage bill was 
taken by mistake directly to the Committee on Elections with- 
out first being recommended to that Committee by the Speaker 
of the House. There was an immediate outcry on the part of 
the opponents of the measure at such irregular procedure. 
It was very amusing to find that other Senate bills had been 
put through in this way and no objections had been raised, 
but it aroused fierce indignation with the suffrage bill, for the 
men at Springfield said there had never been such opposition 
to any other bill. 

When I returned to Springfield the following week after 
this mistake had been made, I learned a lesson about the in- 
advisability of talking on elevators. I was on an elevator at 
the Capitol when some of our legislative opponents, who were 
in a facetious mood, got on, and one of them remarked, with 
a sidelong glance at me, "How surprised some folks will be 
later on, ' ' and laughed so jubilantly as I got off the elevator 
that it made me thoughtful. After some meditation I decided 
that there was an intention to put the suffrage bill into the 
wrong Committee, and this surmise was afterwards proven 
correct. We wished it to go into the Elections Committee, 
where we had already ascertained we had sufficient votes to 
get it out with a favorable recommendation, however, if it 
was ordered into the Judiciary Committee, it would fall into 
the hands of the enemy and be killed forever. We worked 
into the small hours of the night carefully making our plans 
for the next day. In the meantime James A. Watson, one 
of our faithful friends and Chairman of the Elections Com- 
mittee, had returned the suffrage bill to Speaker McKinley, 
and arrangements were made so that the Speaker could prop- 
erly turn it over to the Elections Committee. When the morn- 



160 

ing session opened the bill was ordered to the Elections Com- 
mittee before our opponents realized their little plot had been 
frustrated. We were not surprised, but they were. 

It is doubtful whether we could have secured this favor- 
able action without the powerful assistance of David E. Shan- 
ahan. The latter on account of being from a foreign district 
in Chicago, felt he could not vote for the suffrage bill, but he 
gave us the benefit of his wise counsel. In fact to overcome 
the pitfalls, which surround the passage of every bill upon 
which there is a violent difference of opinion, I appealed to 
the enemies of the measure to give the women of Illinois a 
square deal. On account of his great influence with other 
members I especially appealed to Mr. Lee O'Neil Browne, a 
powerful Democratic leader and one of the best parliament- 
arians in the House. Mr. Browne had always opposed suf- 
frage legislation but he finally consented to let the bill, so far 
as he was concerned, come up to Third Eeading, so that it 
could come out in the open and be voted up or down on its 
merits, stating frankly that he would try to defeat the bill on 
the floor of the House. It was this spirit of fair play among 
the opponents of the measure as well as the loyalty of its 
friends, that afterwards made possible the great victory of 
1913. 

During this time Mrs. Booth and I worked alone at 
Springfield, but now we sent for Mrs. Antoinette Funk of 
Chicago, who had been an active worker in the Progressive 
Party, to come to Springfield and she arrived on May 13th. 
Mrs. Funk was a lawyer, and her legal experience made her 
services at this time very valuable. A week later, on May 
20th, Mrs. Medill McCormick, with her new baby girl, moved 
from Chicago to Springfield and we immediately enlisted her 
services. Mrs. McCormick, as the daughter of the late Mark 
Hanna, had inherited much of her father's keen interest in 
politics and she was a welcome and most valuable addition to 
our forces. 

The suffrage bill was called up for Second Reading on 
June 3rd. There was a most desperate attempt at this time 
to amend, and if possible kill the measure, but it finally passed 



161 

on to Third Beading without any changes just as it had come 
over from the Senate. During this period we found that we 
were being shadowed by detectives, and we were on our guard 
constantly and never talked over any plans when we were in 
any public place. 

The hope of the opposition now was to influence Speaker 
McKinley and prevent the bill from coming up, and let it die, 
as so many bills do die, on Third Beading. Sometimes bills 
come up that many Legislators do not favor but to preserve 
their good records they feel obliged to vote for, then after- 
wards these Legislators appeal to the Speaker of the House 
and ask him to save them by preventing it from ever coming 
to a final vote. If he is adroit, this can be done without the 
people as a whole knowing what has happened to some of their 
favorite measures. Mr. Edward D. Shurtleff said this was 
done session after session when he was Speaker of the House 
by the men who had promised to vote for the suffrage bill but 
never wanted it under any circumstances to pass. The young 
Speaker of the House looked worn and haggard during these 
trying days he told me he had not been allowed to sleep for 
many nights that hundreds of men from Chicago and from 
other parts of Illinois had come down and begged him to 
never let the suffrage bill come up for the final vote, and 
threatened him with political oblivion if he did. He implored 
me to let him know if there was any suffrage sentiment in 
Illinois. 

I immediately telephoned to Chicago to Margaret Dobyne, 
our faithful Press Chairman, to send the call out for help all 
over the State, asking for telegrams and letters to be sent at 
once to Speaker McKinley asking him to bring up the suffrage 
measure and have it voted upon. She called in Jennie F. W. 
Johnson, the State Treasurer, Mrs. J. W. McGraw, and other 
members of the Board and secured the assistance of Mrs. 
Judith W. Loewenthal, Mrs. Charles L. Nagely, Mrs. L. Brac- 
kett Bishop and other active suffragists to help in this work, 
and wherever possible they reached nearby towns by tele- 
phone. 



162 

In the meantime I also phoned Mrs. Harriette Taylor 
Treadwell, President of the Chicago Political Equality 
League, to have Speaker McKinley called up by phone and 
interviewed when he returned to Chicago that week, and to 
also have letters and telegrams waiting for him when he re- 
turned to Springfield. She organized the ^ novel, and now 
famous, telephone brigade, by means of which Speaker Mc- 
Kinley was called up every 15 minutes by leading men as well 
as women, both at his home and at his office from early Satur- 
day morning until Monday evening, the days he spent in 
Chicago. His mother, whom we entertained at a luncheon 
after the bill had passed, said that it was simply one con- 
tinuous ring at their house and that someone had to sit light 
by the phone to answer the calls. Mrs. Treadwell was ably 
assisted in this work by Mrs. James W. Morrison, President 
of the Chicago Equal Suffrage Association, Mrs. Jeane Wal- 
lace Butler, a well known manufacturer and exporter, who ap- 
pealed to business women, Mrs. Edward L. Stillman, an active 
suffragist in the Eogers Park Woman's Club, Miss Florence 
King, President of the Woman's Association of Commerce, 
Miss Mary Miller, President of Chicago Human Eights Asso- 
ciation, Mrs. Charlotte Ehodus, President of the Woman's 
Party of Cook County, Miss Belle Squire, President of the 
No-Vote No-Tax League, and others. 

When the Speaker reached Springfield Tuesday morning 
there were thousands of letters and telegrams waiting for him 
from every section of Illinois. He needed no further proof 
that there was suffrage sentiment in Illinois, and acted ac- 
cordingly. He announced that the suffrage bill would be 
brought up for the final vote on June llth. We immediately 
got busy. We divided up our friends among the Legislators 
and each man was personally interviewed by either Mrs. 
Booth, Mrs. Funk, Mrs. McCormick, or myself. 

As soon as the bill had passed the Senate we had realized 
that with 153 members in the House, we would need help in 
rounding up the "votes," so we immediately selected sixteen 
House members whom we appointed as Captains, each Cap- 
tain was given so many men to look after and see that these 
men were in their seats whenever the suffrage bill came up 



163 

for consideration. The following Representatives served as 
Captains, and rendered efficient service : William F. Burres, 
John P. Devine, Norman C. Flagg, Frank Gillespie, William 
A. Hubbard, Roy D. Hunt, J. H. Jayne, W. C. Kane, Medill 
McCormick, Charles E. Scott, Edward D. Shurtleff, Seymour 
Stedman, Homer J. Tice, Francis E. Williamson, George H. 
Wilson and Emil N. Zolla. 

The latter part of the week before the bill was to be voted 
upon I sent telegrams to every man who had promised to vote 
for the bill in the House, asking him to be present if possible 
on Tuesday morning as the suffrage bill was to be voted upon 
Wednesday, June llth, and we would feel safer to have our 
friends on hand early. 

When the morning of June llth came there was sup- 
pressed excitement at the Capitol. The Captains previously 
requested to be on hand were there rounding up their men and 
reporting if any were missing. We immediately called up 
those who were not there, and if necessary, sent a cab after 
them, which we had engaged for the day to be ready for any 
emergency. There was one young man who was especially 
efficient in the telephone booth so we engaged him to stay at 
his post all day, so that we could secure quick telephone serv- 
ice when needed. 

We all wanted to be in the gallery where we could see 
that last dramatic struggle, but it seemed to me wiser to have 
the entrance of the House guarded to prevent any friendly 
Legislators from leaving during roll call, and to prevent any 
of our opponents from violating the law and entering the 
House during the session. The husky door-keeper, who was 
opposed to suffrage, could not be counted upon to keep out 
anti-suffrage lobbyists if they desired to enter, consequently 
I took up my post near the House door, which was the only 
entrance left open that day, and was furnished a chair by the 
man who conducted a cigar stand near the entrance. Mrs. 
Booth and Mrs. McCormick sat in the gallery and checked off 
the votes, and Mrs. Funk carried messages and instructions 
and kept me advised of the developments in the House. 
Shortly after the session opened the before mentioned door- 



164 

keeper came and very brusquely ordered me to go to the gal- 
lery. Around the rotunda rail lounged a number of our op- 
ponents, so I said I preferred to remain where I was. He 
scowled his disapproval, and presently returned and said 
that one of the House members who was an active 
opponent of our measure, said if I did not go to the gal- 
lery at once he would introduce and pass a resolution forc- 
ing me to do so. I answered politely saying that^of course 
the member was privileged to introduce any resolution he 
desired, but in the meantime I would remain where I was. 
The men around the rotunda rail were watching the whole 
procedure and when I still remained in spite of this warning 
they regarded me with unfriendly eyes. There was a lawyer 
among them who longed to get inside that day, but he did not 
like, even with the backing of a friendly door-keeper, to 
violate the law that forbade any lobbyist to enter the House 
after the session had convened in my presence. The door- 
keeper in reporting the incident afterwards said "I did not 
dare touch her and march her up into the gallery where she 
belonged." As a matter of fact any citizen of Illinois had a 
legal right to be where I was, if he so desired. In the mean- 
time several friends becoming tired with the long discussions 
and frequent roll calls, started to leave, but I persuaded them 
in the interest of a great cause, to return. So while I could 
only hear the sound of voices and from Mrs. Funk's reports 
get some idea of the fight that was raging inside, I was glad 
that I had remained as guardian of the door, for the main 
all-important object after all was to pass the bill. 

During this time a House member came rushing out and 
said "We have lost." I immediately sent the boy, whom we 
had engaged for this purpose, for Mrs. Funk and told her 
I knew there was a mistake for we had the votes and no men 
had left the House. Shortly afterwards there was a deafen- 
ing roar and several men rushed out and exclaimed "We 
have won. The bill has passed. ' ' I remember of turning my 
face to the wall and shedding a few quiet tears and when I 
looked around there were about ten men who were all surrepti- 
tiously wiping their eyes. The Presidential and Municipal 



165 

Suffrage Bill passed the House by the following vote : Yeas 
83 (6 more than the required majority) to Nays 58. 

It was a great victory. It was claimed there was plenty 
of money at Springfield a million dollars or more ready 
to be used to defeat the law, but not one Illinois Legislator 
could be influenced to break his word. The bill was passed 
through the co-operation and voting together of men from all 
political parties, men of different religious faiths, and it was 
dramatic on the floor of the House to have the fight for our 
bill led by Edward D. Shurtleff, at that time leader of the 
"wets" and George H. Wilson, leader of the "drys." It was 
clearly demonstrated that we may as a people, differ on ques- 
tions of creed, and honestly differ on questions of policy 
these differences of opinion are after all, purely matters of 
birth and environment but there are great fundamental prin- 
ciples of right which touch human happiness and human life 
upon which we all stand together. 

In fact the men who voted for the suffrage bill at Spring- 
field had become convinced that the suffrage bill was basic in 
its nature and stood back of, and took precedence over all 
other measures for philanthropy and reform. They realized 
also that no state would even be approaching permanent 
better conditions with a fundamental wrong at the core of its 
Government, and that "in a Government of the people, by the 
people, and for the people" "people" could be interpreted 
only as meaning women as well as men. 

The Illinois Legislators in voting for the suffrage meas- 
ure made themselves forever great they gave Illinois a place 
in history no other State can ever fill, for Illinois was the first 
State east of the Mississippi and the first State even border- 
ing the great father of waters, to break down the conservatism 
of the great Middle West and give suffrage to its women. It 
was claimed that there had been no event since the Civil War 
of such far reaching national significance as the passage of 
the suffrage bill in Illinois. This seemed like a prophecy, for 
since that time Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, President of the 
National American Woman Suffrage Association, said that 
New York women never could have won their great suffrage 



166 

victory in 1917 if Illinois had not first opened the door in 
1913, and the winning of suffrage in New York so added to 
the political strength of the suffrage movement in Congress 
that it made possible the passage of the Federal Suffrage 
Amendment in 1919, so the work in Illinois was fundamental 
and as vitally important to the women of the whole nation as 
it was to the women of Illinois. 

We were especially grateful when we had secured the 
vote of Mr. Edward D. Shurtleff, always before opposed to 
suffrage. He had been for years Speaker of the House, and 
was acknowledged to be one of the most astute and ablest men 
in Springfield. We went to him frequently for counsel, and 
his practical knowledge of legislative procedure tided us over 
many difficulties. 

Charles L. Scott, who introduced the bill in the House, 
deserves especial mention. Mr. Scott was liked by all of the 
Legislators and he refused to introduce any other bills during 
this session so that he could be free to devote all of his time 
and energy in working for the passage of the suffrage bill. 
Other men who helped, and some of whom stood out against 
strong pressure of our opponents, were: John A. Atwood, 
Joseph C. Blaha, Randolph Boyd, Lucas I. Butts, Thomas 
Campbell, Franklin S. Catlin, John M. Curran, Israel Dud- 
geon, Thomas H. Hollister, John Houston, F. E. J. Lloyd, 
Thomas E. Lyon, William R. McCabe, Frank J. Ryan, James 
A. Watson, and others. 

Immediately after the passage of the suffrage bill terrific 
pressure was brought to bear on Governor Dunne to get him 
if possible to veto the measure. Our opponents tried to get 
Attorney General Patrick J. Lucey, to declare the law uncon- 
stitutional. We were given great assistance at this time by 
Hiram Gilbert, a constitutional lawyer a prominent Demo- 
crat and powerful with the Administration, who declared the 
suffrage law was constitutional. 

We gave a banquet in the name of the Illinois Equal Suf- 
frage Association, to the Illinois Legislators and their wives, 
at the Leland Hotel on June 13th, and I remember at that 



167 

time some of the lobby objected to inviting those who had 
voted against the measure, but this would have been bad 
policy and it was finally decided that all must be invited, op- 
ponents as well as friends, and telegrams were sent to suf- 
fragists throughout the State, urging them to be present, and 
many came. I asked Mrs. McCormick to take charge of this 
banquet, which was a brilliant success. She had printed a roll 
of honor which we asked all of the men who had voted for the 
suffrage bill to sign. Governor Dunne was given an ovation 
when he entered the banquet hall and he also signed the roll 
of honor. 

Immediately after the banquet Mrs. McCormick was sent 
to Chicago to secure favorable opinions from able lawyers on 
the constitutionality of the suffrage bill. These opinions she 
forwarded to me and I delivered them personally to the Gov- 
ernor. Mr. William L. O'Connell, a personal friend of Gov- 
ernor Dunne, and a prominent Chicago Democrat was in 
Springfield at this time and helped to counteract the work 
being done by the enemies of suffrage. Margaret Haley was 
also in Springfield and made many calls upon the Governor at 
this time, urging him to sign the suffrage bill. The Governor 
stood out against all opposition and signed the suffrage bill 
on June 26th, and by so doing earned the everlasting grati- 
tude of every man and woman in Illinois who stands for 
human liberty. After the bill was signed the good news was 
telegraphed all over the State and by previous arrangement 
flags were raised simultaneously all over Illinois. 

As there had been no time during this strenuous period 
to raise funds, when we returned to Chicago we found the 
State Treasury empty although the entire cost of the Spring- 
field campaign, which lasted for over six months and included 
railroad fare for the lobbyists to and from Springfield, in- 
numerable telegrams, and long distance telephone calls, post- 
age, stationery, printing, stenographic help, hotel bills and 
incidentals, was only $1,567.26. We therefore very gratefully 
accepted the offer of the Chicago Examiner to publish a suf- 
frage edition of that paper, and netted as a result, about $15,- 
000, for the suffrage cause, which included over $4,000 which 



168 

we paid out to local organizations that had secured adver- 
tisements for the paper on a commission basis, as well as 
several thousand dollars worth of furniture with which we 
beautifully furnished the new suffrage headquarters which 
were rented that fall in the Tower Building, Chicago. 

I was again elected President of the Illinois Equal Suf- 
frage Association at the Convention held in Peoria in October, 
1913. 

The enemies of suffrage were beginning to attack the con- 
stitutionality of the bill simultaneously in different towns 
throughout the State, and finally suit was brought against the 
Election Commissioners of Chicago which involved the con- 
stitutionality of the suffrage law. We secured as our counsel 
John J. Herrick, a recognized authority on constitutional law, 
and Judge Charles S. Cutting. These two men by agreement 
with the Election Commissioners took charge of the fight. 
They consulted, however, with Mr. Charles H. Mitchell, their 
regular counsel as well as with Judge Willard McEwen whom 
the Commissioners engaged as special counsel on the case. 
They also entered into counsel with Judge Isaiah T. Green- 
acre, regular counsel for the Teachers' Federation and Joel 
F. Longnecker, a young lawyer active in the Progressive 
Party, both of whom donated their services. There was a hot 
fight in the Supreme Court which lasted for many months, 
the case being carried over from one term of the Supreme 
Court to the next without being decided. 

During this time it was vitally necessary to demonstrate 
public sentiment by getting as many women as possible to 
vote at the municipal elections in April, so Civic Leagues were 
organized in every city ward. Splendid work was done by 
Mrs. Ida Darling Engelke, Ward Chairman for the Chicago 
Political Equality League, and all of the city work was di- 
rected by Mrs. Edward L. Stewart, Chairman of organization 
work for the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association. They called 
upon all other organizations to help, and as a result over 
200,000 women registered in Chicago alone, and thousands 
more down state. 



169 

On May 2nd of this year (1914) we held the first large 
suffrage parade ever given in Chicago. Governor Edward 
F. Dunne with Carter H. Harrison, Mayor of Chicago, re- 
viewed the procession and over 15,000 women marched down 
Michigan Boulevard with hundreds of thousands of people 
lining both sides of the way for over a mile and a half. 

The General Federation was also going to hold its Bien- 
ial Convention in Chicago in June and we realized, with our 
suffrage bill hanging in the balance in the Supreme Court, 
that it was most important to secure the passage of a suf- 
frage resolution by the Federation. 

I was appointed by the State Board to look after this 
work, and through the help of local suffragists as well as 
through the co-operation of the General Federation Board we 
succeeded in securing the adoption of a suffrage resolution on 
June 13th, and by an extraordinary coincidence on this same 
day the Supreme Court of Illinois pronounced the suffrage 
law constitutional. A banquet had already been planned by 
the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association for that evening to be 
held in the Gold Eoom of the Congress Hotel in honor of the 
General Federation. All of these events came at an opportune 
moment and this great banquet became historic in its signif- 
icance and was transformed into a banquet of thanksgiving 
where over a thousand women gave expression to their joy 
over these two great victories. This banquet was ably man- 
aged by Mrs. George A. Soden, assisted by Mrs. Edward L. 
Stewart, Mrs. J. W. McGraw, Mrs. Charles A. Nagely, Mrs. 
Judith W. Loewenthal, Mrs. Albert H. Schweizer, as well as 
many others. 

It was demonstrated that all of these events had changed 
public sentiment in regard to the suffrage question. Congress 
was in session this summer and Congressmen were unable to 
fill their Chautauqua dates and I was asked to make suffrage 
speeches at fifty Chautauquas covering nine states, filling 
dates for a Democrat, the Honorable Champ Clark and for a 
Republican, Senator Robert LaFollette, and afterwards filled 
dates for William Jennings Bryan. 



170 

The State Equal Suffrage Convention was held in Chi- 
cago in 1914 and I was again re-elected President. 

When the Legislature convened in January, Mrs. J. W. 
McGraw, the newly elected Legislative Chairman, and I went 
to Springfield and attended every session of the Legislature 
from January until it closed in June. A resolution was intro- 
duced to repeal the suffrage law and several measures were 
introduced to amend the law to give the women the right to 
vote for some minor offices. We were advised by our lawyers 
to never amend the law, because to do so would involve the 
whole question and bring on a fresh fight in the Supreme 
Court in regard to the constitutionality of the law. We em- 
ployed all the tactics used in 1913 and finally succeeded in 
killing the repeal resolution in Committee and the other bills 
during various stages of their progress. The Illinois suffrag- 
ists fully realized the importance of preserving intact the 
Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill passed by the Illi- 
nois Legislature in 1913, because it was the first bill of the 
kind ever passed in the United States, and established the 
precedent which enabled many other states afterwards to pass 
similar bills and the Presidential and Municipal Suffrage Bill 
is called in other states "The Illinois Law." We were as- 
sisted greatly during this session by Mr. Randolph Boyd in 
the House and Senators Eichard Barr and Edward Curtis in 
the Senate, and by Harriet Stokes Thompson, President of 
the Chicago Political Equality League, who rendered invalu- 
able assistance by helping to counteract the wrong kind of 
propaganda that was being carried on at this time and which 
was most detrimental to our work at Springfield. It was hard 
for some women, even suffragists, who did not understand the 
political situation and the dangers that threatened the suf- 
frage law, to comprehend why the suffrage law could not be 
amended any time, if by so doing, they could secure the right 
to vote for even one more minor office. They did not realize 
that in grasping for more we would be imperiling all. 

In the fall of 1915 I positively declined the presidency 
and Mrs. Harrison Monroe Brown of Peoria was elected 
President of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association, and I 
went to our home in Florida for a much needed rest. 



171 

I returned the following spring in time to raise some 
money for the depleted treasury of the Illinois Equal Suf- 
frage Association, and to help a little in what is now known 
as the famous "rainy day suffrage parade" which was held 
while the National Republican Convention was in session in 
Chicago in June, 1916. On this memorable occasion 5,000 
women marched through the pouring rain over a mile down 
Michigan Boulevard and from there to the Coliseum where 
the National Republican Convention was being held. I was 
one of a committee of four representing every section of the 
country whom Mrs. Catt selected to address the Platform 
Committee of which Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massa- 
chusetts was Chairman, and request that an equal suffrage 
plank be incorporated into the National Platform of the Re- 
publican Party. Just as we finished our plea the rain drenched 
marchers made a dramatic climax by marching into the Coli- 
seum where the hearing was being held, and in spite of the 
opposition of Senator Lodge, a full suffrage plank was put in 
the National Platform of the Republican Party. Among the 
women who assisted in organizing this parade were: Mrs. 
James Morrison, Mrs. Kellogg Fairbank, Mrs. Harriette 
Taylor Treadwell, Miss Dora Earle, Mrs. J. W. McGraw, Mrs. 
Edward L. Stewart, Mrs. Charles E. Nagely, Mrs. Judith 
Weil Loewenthal, Mrs. George A. Soden and other members 
of the State Board. 

As there was much important legislative work to be done 
at the next session of the Legislature I was persuaded to 
again accept the presidency of the Illinois Equal Suffrage 
Association. There were delegates present at this Conven- 
tion from every section of Illinois, and after a thorough dis- 
cussion the suffrage policy of the Illinois Equal Suffrage 
Association for the ensuing year was adopted. The consensus 
of opinion was that owing to the iron bound Constitution of 
Illinois next to impossible to amend, the only practical way to 
secure full suffrage for Illinois women by state action was 
through the medium of a new Constitution. 

The Citizens' Association, composed of some of the lead- 
ing men of Chicago and of the State, had been working to 



172 

secure a new Constitution for over thirty years. They sent 
Mr. Shelby M. Singleton, Secretary of the Association, to con- 
sult with us about the work to be done at Springfield, and 
asked us to take charge of the legislative work, as they said 
our Association was the only Association in the State power- 
ful enough and which all men trusted, to secure its adoption. 

Mrs. McGraw and I went to Springfield at the beginning 
of the 1916 session, and after a struggle that lasted over 10 
weeks the Constitutional Convention Resolution was finally 
passed. It would have been impossible to have passed the 
resolution without the powerful support of Governor Lowden, 
Lieutenant Governor Oglesby, Attorney General Brundage, 
and other State officers as well as Senator Edward Curtis in 
the Senate and Randolph Boyd in the House who rendered 
especially efficient service, and at the last moment Roger 
Sullivan of Chicago threw his powerful influence in favo of 
the resolution. 

While this work was going on Mrs. Catharine Waugh 
McCulloch, who disagreed with the policy of the Illinois Equal 
Suffrage Association, organized what she called the "Suf- 
frage Amendment Alliance" and sent lobbyists to Springfield 
to work for a direct suffrage amendment to the Constitution. 
She had such an amendment introduced and it was defeated 
in the Senate where it received only 6 votes and in the House 
it was defeated by a vote of 100 Nays to 18 Yeas. This action 
showed moral courage on the part of the Legislators because 
many of those who voted against the measure had been the 
loyal, valiant friends of suffrage for years. They believed 
as we all believed that a suffrage amendment, under the 
difficult-to-be-amended Constitution of Illinois, would be 
doomed to certain defeat if submitted to the men voters of the 
State, and furthermore that a resolution calling for a Con- 
stitutional Convention had already passed and would ade- 
quately take care of the suffrage question. In urging Mrs. 
McCulloch to withdraw this amendment, Governor Lowden 
and other prominent suffragists pointed out to her that the 
defeat of the suffrage amendment at the polls would mean 
that a suffrage article would not be incorporated in a new 



173 

Constitution, for the members of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion would feel dubious about incorporating an article in a 
new Constitution that had just been defeated at the polls. 

After the close of the Legislature the Illinois Equal Suf- 
frage Association realized that a state wide campaign of 
education would have to be instituted at once to insure a 
favorable vote at the polls, so the Woman's Emergency 
League was formed to raise a fund sufficient to establish 
educational centers in every one of the 102 counties in Illinois. 
Just as all plans were laid for this campaign the United States 
entered the great world war, and immediately we women were 
thrust into the rush of war work. I was appointed a member 
of the Executive Committee of the Woman's Committee of 
the State Council of National Defense, and every member of 
our Board was immediately busy with Liberty Loan, Red 
Cross and other war work. 

While doing our war work we went on with the work of 
the Woman's Emergency League. Held over a thousand 
meetings that summer, arousing the people to a realization 
that they must manifest not only national patriotism but State 
patriotism by voting for a new Constitution in Illinois. On 
account of the numerous Liberty Loan and Red Cross drives 
we raised only about $15,000 but the educational work carried 
on this summer was an important factor in later on winning 
success at the polls. The money raised helped us to publish 
large quantities of literature and to send many speakers out 
into the State. 

Among the women who rendered valuable service in the 
Woman's Emergency League were: Mrs. George A. Soden, 
First Vice-President of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Associa- 
tion, who rendered most efficient service as its Treasurer; 
Mrs. Stella S. Jannotta, President of the Chicago Political 
Equality League; Mrs. Albert Schweizer, Mrs. George S. 
Haskell, Mrs. Julius Loeb, Mrs. Lyman A. Walton, Mrs. J. W. 
McGraw, Mrs. Charles E. Nagely, Mrs. Judith W. Loewenthal, 
Mrs. Mable Gilmore Reinecke, Mrs. Harriet Stokes Thomp- 
son, Mrs. Anna Wallace Hunt, Mrs. Jeane Wallace Butler, 
Miss Nellie Carlin, Mrs. Thomas McClelland, Mrs. Edward L. 



174 

Stewart, Mrs. Samuel Slade of Highland Park, Mrs. Charles 
Wilmot and Mrs. Louis E. Yager, both of Oak Park, Miss 
Catherine K. Porter of Freeport, Mrs. Blanche B. West of 
Bushnell, Mrs. Mary E. Sykes of Monmouth, Mrs. E. B. Cool- 
ley of Danville, Mrs. 0. P. Bourland of Pontiac, Mrs. William 
Aleshire of Plymouth, Dr. Lucy Waite of Parkridge, Mrs. 
Mary B. Busey of Urbana, Mrs. E. B. Griffin of Grant Park, 
Dr. M. D. Brown of DeKalb, Mrs. George Thomas Palmer of 
Springfield and Mrs. Elizabeth Murray Shepherd of Elgin. 

During this period of strenuous activity another attack 
was made by the liquor interests on the constitutionality of 
the suffrage law, and the case brought before the Supreme 
Court. We engaged Mr. James G. Skinner, an able lawyer 
who had acted as Assistant Corporation Counsel under a pre- 
vious city administration. He prepared an elaborate brief 
covering all disputed points and won the case, and the wom- 
an's suffrage law was again pronounced constitutional in 
December, 1917. 

At the State Convention held in Danville I was again re- 
elected President. The Illinois Equal Suffrage Association 
now had organizations in every Senatorial and Congressional 
district with an affiliated membership of over 200,000 women. 

After this election I was soon called to Washington by 
Mrs. Catt to work for the passage of the Federal Suffrage 
Amendment, and spent many months in Washington during 
this year. I w r as very fortunate while there to have a per- 
sonal interview with President Wilson which lasted for fifty- 
five minutes and added my plea to all of the other pleas that 
had been made, urging him to personally address the Senate 
on the question of the Federal Suffrage Amendment. 

In the meantime Mrs. J. W. McGraw ably directed the 
educational and organization work of the Association. We 
were working to secure the adoption of the Constitutional 
Convention Eesolution at the polls and Mrs. McGraw secured 
the co-operation of Mrs. Reed, Legislative Chairman of the 
Illinois Federation of Women's Clubs, and they together ap- 



175 

pointed two women in each Congressional district to organize 
the educational work in their respective districts. 

During this time Mrs. McGraw and I prepared and pub- 
lished a leaflet entitled "Why Illinois Needs a New Consti- 
tution" which was \xdely circulated among men's as well 
as women's organizations. 

In the spring of 1918 Governor Lowden appointed Judge 
Orrin N. Carter of the Supreme Court as Chairman of a state 
wide committee that worked in co-operation with the state 
wide committee of women we had already appointed. 

In 1918 the State Equal Suffrage Convention was held in 
the latter part of October in Chicago and I was re-elected 
President. This Convention was planned as a climax to the 
10 day whirlwind campaign for the Constitutional Conven- 
tion Resolution that was being held throughout the State. A 
feature of this campaign was the Constitutional Convention 
Tag Day. This tag day did not include the payment of any 
money for the privilege of being tagged, and consequently 
was a pleasant surprise to the people. Each man was given 
a tag who promised to vote for the Constitutional Convention 
Eesolution. Mrs. Albert H. Schweizer was in charge of the 
Tag Day in Chicago, as well as the rest of the city campaign. 

As a result of all of this labor the Constitutional Conven- 
tion Resolution was passed at the general election on Novem- 
ber 4th. Total vote cast 975,545. In favor of Constitution 
562,012. Majority of all votes cast at the election for a new 
Constitution 74,239. 

In 1919 the delegates to the Constitutional Convention 
were elected and it convened at Springfield in January, 1920. 
One of its first acts was to adopt an article giving full suf- 
frage to Illinois women to be incorporated in the new Con- 
stitution. 

I was again called to Washington in the early part of 
1919 to help round up votes for the Federal Suffrage Amend- 
ment. When it finally passed the Senate in June, 1919, word 



176 

was telegraphed to me while I was in Peoria where I had gone 
to address the State Convention of the Illinois Federation of 
Women's Clubs. Wild enthusiasm prevailed among the 
women when they learned the news. I was literally showered 
with peonies from the banquet tables and the women acted as 
though it was a suffrage jubilee convention. 

Mrs. McGraw and I now immediately hurried to Spring- 
field where we had already made arrangements for the rati- 
fication of the Federal Suffrage Amendment, and the Illinois 
Legislature ratified the Federal Suffrage Amendment on June 
10th. The vote in the Senate was as follows : Ayes 46, and 
no votes against the measure. The vote in the House was 
ayes 135, nays 3. 

A minor mistake was made in the first certified resolu- 
tion sent from the Secretary of State 's office at Washington 
to the Governor of Illinois. To prevent the possibility of any 
legal quibbling, Governor Lowden telegraphed the Secretary 
of State at Washington to send on at once a corrected certi- 
fied copy of the resolution. This was done and the ratification 
was reaffirmed by the Illinois Legislature on June 17th, the 
vote in the Senate then being: Ayes 49, nays none, and the 
vote in the House was ayes 134, nays 4. 

Owing to a misunderstanding of the facts in the case for 
a short time there was some controversy as to whether Illinois 
was entitled to first place as being the first state to ratify the 
Federal amendment. An exhaustive study of the case was 
made by Attorney General Brundage and a brief prepared 
showing that the mistake in the first certified papers did not 
affect the legality of the ratification on June 10th, as the mis- 
take was made in copying the introductory resolution, and not 
in the law itself. The opinion of the Attorney General was 
afterwards accepted by the Secretary of State's office at 
Washington. So Illinois, the first State east of the Missis- 
sippi to grant suffrage to its women, was also the first State 
to ratify the Federal Suffrage Amendment. 

In celebration of this great Illinois victory a Jubilee Ban- 
quet was held on June 24th at the Hotel LaSalle. I presided 



177 

over the banquet and the guests of honor were Governor and 
Mrs. Lowden. Among the speakers were the leading suffrag- 
ists of the State as well as the Governor, Lieutenant Governor 
Oglesby, and prominent members of the State Legislature. 

In October, 1919, the State Equal Suffrage Convention 
was held in Chicago and I was re-elected President for the 
seventh time. Women were present from every section of 
Illinois. It was voted at this Convention to continue the 
work for the speedy ratification of the Federal Suffrage 
Amendment, and if this failed to succeed in 1920, to work for 
a full suffrage article in the new Illinois Constitution when 
it was submitted to the men voters of the State. 

At the National Convention held in St. Louis the early 
part of 1919 I had invited, in the name of the Illinois Equal 
Suffrage Association, the National American Woman Suf- 
frage Association to hold its next Annual Convention in Chi- 
cago. This invitation was accepted and the National Conven- 
tion was to convene in February, 1920. Immediately after the 
State Convention, plans were formulated by our State Board 
to take care of this Convention. We called together represent- 
atives of the Chicago Political Equality League, Chicago 
Equal Suffrage Association, Seventh Ward Auxiliary of the 
State Association, The Evanston Political Equality League, 
The Federation of Chicago Women's Clubs, The North End 
Woman's Club, Chicago Woman's Club, The Oak Park Suf- 
frage Club and other local organizations. I was elected 
Chairman and Mrs. McGraw Vice-Chairman of the Committee 
having this Convention in charge. Different organizations 
were appointed to take charge of different days of the Con- 
vention and different phases of the work. In addition to the 
work necessary for the preparation of the Convention proper, 
there were also five Conferences to be held of the different 
departments of the League of Woman Voters which had been 
tentatively organized at St. Louis the year before. We en- 
gaged the Gold Room of the Congress Hotel for the General 
Convention Hall and the Elizabethan Room was engaged also 
for the entire Convention, as well as many other rooms to be 
used for committee meetings, press and conference rooms. 



178 

Mrs. McGraw watched every detail and rendered especially 
valuable service. The Chairman of the Finance Committee, 
Mrs. Samuel Slade, also deserves especial mention, for she, 
with the help of her Committee raised the funds with which 
to defray all expenses of the Convention. 

The ratification by the States of the Federal Suffrage 
Amendment was progressing so rapidly that this Convention 
was called the "Jubilee Convention" and the National Ameri- 
can Woman Suffrage Association having practically com- 
pleted its work the full enfranchisement of the women of 
the United States disbanded, and its members united with 
the League of Woman Voters formerly organized at this Con- 
vention. In the meantime it was voted that the Board of 
Directors of the National American Woman Suffrage Asso- 
ciation remain intact until the thirty-sixth state should ratify. 

The Convention was said to be the most brilliant Conven- 
tion ever held in the history of the national association. 
Prominent women from every section of the United States 
were present and I was gratified to have the hotel manage- 
ment of the Congress Hotel, which is made the headquarters 
for so many conventions, tell me it was the best managed and 
most orderly convention ever held in their hotel. 

The Convention was held in February and Mrs. Catt 
hoped we would secure the thirty-sixth state within a month, 
but anti-suffrage forces were active and the ratification was 
delayed. In April she telegraphed me that a campaign was to 
be launched in Connecticut where every state was to be repre- 
sented, and she wished me to represent Illinois; the object 
of this campaign being to persuade if possible, the Connecticut 
Governor to call a special session for the purpose of ratifying 
the suffrage amendment, which in spite of this demonstration 
of national sentiment, he refused to do. 

As it was being used as an anti-suffrage argument that 
the women in many suffrage states failed to exercise their full 
franchise rights it seemed best on my return from Connecticut 
to call a Board meeting at once and make preparations for a 
state wide campaign among Illinois women and get as many 



179 

of them as possible to go to the polls in November and par- 
ticipate in the Presidential election. An " Every woman at 
the polls Committee " was organized for the purpose and 
women were appointed in the down state towns and cities *<> 
take care of the work in their various localities and a large 
committee was organized in Chicago. I was elected Chairman 
of the state wide committee, Mrs. J. W. McGraw, State Vice- 
Chairman, and Mrs. Albert H. Schweizer, a member of the 
State Board was appointed Chicago Chairman. The Chicago 
Political Equality League and the Woman's City Club took 
an active part in this campaign and the club rooms of the 
latter were selected as the headquarters of the Chicago Com- 
mittee and the State headquarters of the Illinois Equal Suf- 
frage Association for the Executive Committee rooms. This 
work was all preparatory to a final drive which was to im- 
mediately precede the fall election. 

In the midst of the summer, on August 18th, the joyful 
news came that Tennessee was the thirty-sixth state to ratify 
the Federal Suffrage Amendment. The Illinois Equal Suf- 
frage Association immediately sent out a call for its State 
Convention to be held in September in Chicago. At this Con- 
vention the Illinois Equal Suffrage Association, its work 
finished and Illinois women now free, disbanded, and its mem- 
bers formed the Illinois League of Women Voters, affiliated 
with the National League of Women Voters and prepared to 
go on with the great patriotic work of arousing women to a 
realization that it is as vitally important to vote for one's 
country as it is to fight for one's country.* 



*The records of the Illinois Equal Suffrage League have been deposited in the 
State Historical Library at Springfield. 



LEWIS AND CLARK AT THE MOUTH OF WOOD 
RIVER AN HISTORIC SPOT. 

CHARLES GILMER GRAY. 



A certain spot becomes famous by reason of its having 
been the birthplace or home of some great man, or the scene 
of some noted accomplishment. Thus, the world holds in 
honor the birthplace or home of a Gladstone, a Grant, a 
Lincoln ; it makes its pilgrimages to a Bunker Hill, a Gettys- 
burg, a Chickamauga ; all celebrated battle-fields for freedom. 

With this fact in view it may be truthfully said that there 
is a spot on Illinois soil, heretofore too much neglected, which 
should have public recognition as the place at which centered 
and from which started out an exploring expedition which 
opened up to civilization a territory of boundless extent and 
inconceivable riches. 

This site is at the mouth of Wood river on the Illinois 
side opposite the mouth of the Missouri at its entrance into 
the Mississippi river. 

In the Lewis and Clark journals it is related that the 
expeditionary party under Lewis and Clark, to explore the 
then unknown country between the Mississippi river and the 
Pacific coast, gathered together in the fall and early winter of 
1803 and spent the winter at the mouth of Wood river in 
preparation for the expedition which actually made the start 
May 14, 1804. 

At this point then, on Illinois soil in early November, 
1803, were gathered most of the men comprising the expedi- 
tionary party. The main body with Lieutenant Clark in com- 
mand had come by boat from Pittsburg bringing with them 
the necessary stores. Captain Lewis having been necessarily 
detained, had come later by boat as far as the falls of the 
Ohio the present Louisville, Ky., and thence by land, across 
southern Illinois via Kaskaskia and Cahokia, arriving in 



180 



181 

December. It may be well here to show as briefly as possible 
what led to the sending out of the expedition. 

Thomas Jefferson was now President of the United 
States, his administration having come into rule, March* 4, 
1801. For years he had been much interested in this unknown 
western country. In fact, once or twice he had joined in a 
private way, in plans to gain further knowledge concerning 
it, but nothing of value had come of either venture. But now, 
since he was president there were added reasons why a fuller 
knowledge of this country should be had, and his position the 
better enabled him to carry them into execution. 

In a message to Congress with date January 18, 1803, 
Jefferson proposed, that a party of ten or twelve chosen men 
under an intelligent officer be sent into this country, even as 
far as the western ocean, with view to the establishment of 
trading posts for opening up commerce with this country. 
At his request, Congress made a small appropriation towards 
carrying out the plan. So, it came about the appropriation 
having been made, that the expedition the most important 
in its results of any in American history, was really to be 
made. 

Later, as the idea grew in the public mind, and its im- 
portance became more evident, the expedition was planned on 
a larger scale with broadened objects and a larger number of 
men to assist in their attainment, the added expense being 
covered by a larger appropriation. 

And right here, it may be well to take a glance at some 
things that were happening in Europe since these happenings 
were to have so much to do with the forwarding of President 
Jefferson's plans both for gaining an outlet via the Missis- 
sippi to the sea and the starting forward of the exploring 
party to the ocean. 

Napoleon Bonaparte with his victorious armies had at 
this time overrun almost the whole of Europe, and was look- 
ing for a wider field for his ambitious designs ; so, for a time 
he had dreams of further conquests in America. From the 
time of La Salle to 1763, France had been the predominant 



182 

figure in America, but with the fall of Quebec in that year, 
the sceptre had fallen into other hands. Napoleon's ambition 
was to regain America for France. He conceived that he 
could easily gain a foothold at the mouth of the Mississippi 
from the Spanish, either by purchase or force of arms, then, 
could make conquest of further Spanish territory at his pleas- 
ure. This accomplished, he could by force if necessary, gain 
more territory from the United States up the river and into 
the interior. 

Such were his dreams, and he was making considerable 
headway in turning his dreams into realities. History records 
that in 1801 by secret treaty he actually did make purchase 
from Spain of the Louisiana province, thus gaining much 
more than a foothold at the mouth of the Mississippi, and 
was making further plans to carry out his schemes ; but, his 
plans were brought to a sudden halt, as will appear a little 
later. 

About this time there was much unrest among the set- 
tlers of the Kentucky and Tennessee regions caused by the 
purchase of the Louisiana province by France and the outlet 
to the sea by way of the Mississippi passing into their hands. 

With a view to gain for this southwestern country this 
outlet to the sea, Congress had placed the sum of two million 
dollars at the disposal of President Jefferson, for the pur- 
chase from France of New Orleans and lands lying along the 
Mississippi river to its mouth, and our envoy at Paris, Robert 
Livingston, had for months been trying but with scant success, 
to close the deal. Seeing how difficult it was, President Jeffer- 
son had sent James Monroe as a special envoy to assist in the 
negotiations. He arrived in Paris just at the time when 
Napoleon's plans had been brought to a sudden halt. 

Just at this point, much to the surprise of our envoys, 
Livingston and Monroe, the astonishing proposition was put 
up to them by the French envoy, Marbois, not only to pur- 
chase New Orleans and close lying lands for two million 
dollars as had been proposed; but the entire province of 
Louisiana for fifteen millions; and the proposition was for 
prompt acceptance. 



183 

There was no ocean cable in those days, and travel by 
sea was slow. Without authority of either the President or 
Congress, or without any means of advising with either, it 
was up to our envoys to accept or reject. They like brave 
men and true patriots, accepted. 

This sudden change in policy on the part of the French 
was made plain sometime later, and was this at this time a 
war between France and England became a certainty. Na- 
poleon realized he must centralize all his forces on European 
soil; also he must have money to carry on the wars with 
England and other enemies. These considerations brought 
him to a quick decision to sell to the United States, not only 
New Orleans and the small strip of land reaching to the gulf, 
but all the Louisiana province which he had recently acquired 
from Spain. Having reached this conclusion he gave specific 
instructions to his minister of finance, Marbois, to negotiate 
the affair with the envoys of the United States closing with 
the remark, "I require a great deal of money for the war." 
Not only had Marbois advised against this, but his two 
brothers, Joseph and Lucien as well, all without avail. 

Of the importance of these two events, the exploring ex- 
pedition and the purchase of the Louisiana province, Henry 
Adams, a very conservative historian says, "Jefferson is 
chiefly remembered as the author of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence ; but he was also a leading figure in two later affairs, 
which as the years pass seem destined to contribute almost 
equally to his fame. These were the purchase of Louisiana 
province and its later exploration by Lewis and Clark; the 
one consummated, the other initiated in 1803. ' ' 

The importance of these two deeds is shown more in 
detail when it is borne in mind that by the one, the United 
States doubled its extent as to land adding what later was 
made into fifteen states, and by the other gained a fuller 
knowledge of these possessions. These two acts of Jefferson 
were so truly his as to conception and execution, and so 
closely related, that it is difficult to consider them separately. 
It seems truer to fact to consider each as part of a well 
rounded whole. 



184 

When word of the Louisiana purchase came to Jefferson 
he was overwhelmed with fear in the first place as to its 
constitutionality, for he was a strict constructionist, and in 
the second place, what would the people generally think of 
spending so much money in the purchase of such a vast terri- 
tory of which so little was known. 

This brought it about that the President became more 
and more convinced of the necessity of the proposed explora- 
tion and arranged that it should be organized on a larger 
scale with enlarged facilities for gaming all available in- 
formation; and thus it came about that instead of ten or 
twelve under a competent leader, the expedition consisted of 
forty-three men, with two competent leaders Captain Meri- 
wether Lewis and William Clark; and at this time, early in 
December, 1803, all were gathered together here on Illinois 
soil at the mouth of Wood river to spend the winter prepara- 
tory to starting on the expedition early in the Spring. 

There is very little written to tell how the winter was 
spent. The Lewis and Clark journals say, "That on account 
of the objections of the Spanish Governor, to their passing 
the winter at LaChaurette the highest settlement on the Mis- 
souri river as had been intended they had encamped at the 
mouth of Wood river, on the eastern side of the Mississippi 
out of his jurisdiction where they passed the winter in dis- 
ciplining the men, and making necessary preparations for 
setting out early in the spring. ' ' 

But, though so little is written as to details of the army 
life there, interest attaches to everything connected with the 
coming together of these men ready to carry forward this 
undertaking of so much importance in the country's history, 
the boats they came in and were to use in the trip up the 
Missouri, the stores they brought with them, for their own 
use and to gain favor of the Indians through whose country 
they were to pass, and the men themselves, all these are of 
interest and of these something has been written. 

The boats, three in number, had been made at Pittsburg 
and had been used to bring the men down the Ohio and up the 



185 

Mississippi, striking many a sand bar and having to be pulled 
off more than once by a friendly ox team along the shore. 
One was a keel boat or bateau, fifty -five feet long, twelve feet 
wide, and drawing three feet of water. It had a square sail, 
twenty oars, and for protection in case of attack had steel 
sheets at the sides which could be raised or lowered as de- 
sired. The other two were of the periogue class, about twenty 
to twenty-five feet long, one with six oars, the other with 
seven. These boats were now all safely moored along the 
river's bank. 

Then the stores they had brought along, well, they had 
flour, pork, meal, and such things for their subsistence, and it 
is stated they had whiskey, whether for their own use or other 
purposes is not told. There were seven bales of necessary 
stores. In these were quantities of clothing, working utensils, 
guns made under the supervision of Lewis at Lancaster, Pa., 
locks, flints, powder, ball and other such things. Then there 
were fourteen bales made up largely with merchandise for 
traffic with the Indians, and one box especially filled with an 
assortment of things intended as presents for Indian chiefs, 
such as richly laced coats, medals, knives, tomahawks, flags, 
fish hooks, awls, etc., for the men, and beads, looking-glasses, 
handkerchiefs, paints for the face, etc., for the women, all to- 
gether making quite a variety to be carried on such a journey. 
In packing the bales a proportion of each set of articles was 
placed in each to guard against entire loss of any one article. 

Of the medals mentioned above there were three grades : 
Number one was a medal 2y 8 inches in diameter with impres- 
sion of President Jefferson on face side and on reverse 
clasped hands covering crossed pipe of peace and battle-axe, 
with legend " peace and friendship." These were to be used 
to gain favor with the chiefs. Number two represented some 
domestic animal ; number three a farmer sowing grain. 

But of most interest are the men themselves encamped 
there during this winter of 1803-4. From Jefferson's papers 
we find that great care was taken in the composition of the ex- 
peditionary force. Men were chosen with fair intelligence and 
common sense, strong, healthy men, courageous, disposed to 



186 

get along together, willing to suffer hardship if needs be ; men 
with such qualifications were the only ones considered for 
such an undertaking. Some were soldiers selected from the 
various posts, others from the frontiers selected for their pe- 
culiar fitness. It is said as many as one hundred were rejected 
in getting the required number of men. None were married. 
All those accepted were enlisted as soldiers in the army. 

The company as now constituted and in camp, consisted 
of forty-three men besides the two officers, Lewis and Clark. 
Nine of these men were from Kentucky; fourteen had been 
taken from the regular army; two were French watermen; 
one was interpreter and hunter and a black servant of Lieu- 
tenant Clark. Of these forty-three men, sixteen were to go 
only as far as Mandan Nation to help with the stores and to 
aid in repelling attacks from the Indians in the early stages 
of the journey. 

And now as to the men themselves in camp there these 
winter months. The most prominent was, of course, Captain 
Meriwether Lewis, commanding the expedition, a Virginian 
of one of the best families of the state, both on his father's 
and mother's side; spent a few years in school, joined the mi- 
litia and was soon transferred to the regular army ; at twenty- 
three became captain and in 1801 at twenty-seven years of 
age, he became private secretary to President Jefferson. When 
the dreams of the exploring expedition was to become a re- 
ality, Lewis made a request of President Jefferson that he be 
appointed to lead, and the request was granted. In Jefferson's 
Memoirs, he himself writes of Lewis : "I now had opportunity 
of knowing him intimately ; of courage undaunted, possessing 
a firmness and perseverance of purpose which nothing but im- 
possibilities could divert from its direction ; careful as a fa- 
ther of those committed to his charge, yet steady in mainten- 
ance of order and discipline, honest, disinterested, liberal, of 
sound understanding and a fidelity to truth so scrupulous that 
whatever he should report would be as certain as if seen by 
ourselves with all these qualifications I could have no hesi- 
tation in confiding the enterprise to him. ' ' No higher praise 
could be given to anyone. Afterwards when the territory of 



187 

Louisiana was set up he was appointed first governor. Cap- 
tain Lewis was in command at the encampment on Wood riv- 
er during this winter of 1803-4. 

It was concluded that there should be an associate leader 
to take command in case of death or disability of Captain 
Lewis, so William Clark, also a Virginian, a younger brother 
of General George Rogers Clark was selected. He was the 
ninth of a family of ten children. In early years he had re- 
moved with his family to the falls of the Ohio, the present 
Louisville, Ky. He was named as second in command and in- 
deed only held the rank of first lieutenant in the army, though 
Captain Lewis always treated him as of equal rank with him- 
self. He proved himself very efficient in all the affairs of the 
expedition, and showed special tact in his dealings with the 
Indians. He was later appointed Superintendent of Indian 
affairs in the western country with headquarters in St. Louis, 
Mo. Lieutenant Clark was in camp at Wood river during 
that winter. 

Of the non-commissioned officers who passed the winter 
there, Sergeant Charles Floyd may be named first as being 
one of the nine young men from Kentucky. His was the only 
death which occurred during the entire course of the expedi- 
tion. All efforts to relieve him were ineffectual and he was 
buried on top of a cliff with honors due to a brave soldier. A 
cedar post marked the site of the grave located near the pres- 
ent Sioux City, la. A traveler passing the spot in 1855 writes 
that the post had been cut away within a few inches of the 
ground by relic hunters. A monument now marks the spot 
erected jointly by Government, State, County and individual 
subscriptions, costing $20,000 and rising 100 feet high. 

Another one there was, George Drewer, a half-breed 
Indian, an interpreter, and famous during the whole journey 
as a mighty hunter as is shown by reciting some of his 
feats; sent in search of a deer, killed five, ran up against a 
very large bear, had to climb a tree to escape his talons, from 
which safe place he shot the brute. At another place was at- 
tacked by a savage bear, but at twenty paces shot him through 



188 

the heart. Here are several items copied from the Lewis and 
Clark Journals : * ' Drewer came back about noon with the 
skins of three deer and the flesh of one of the best of them." 
''Brought in three deer." "Had before evening killed seven 
elk. ' ' He was leader in several buffalo hunts in which many 
animals were killed. Also had adventures with Indians who 
snatched his rifle only getting it back after a ten mile chase. ' ' 

The Lewis and Clark journals say of him "we should 
scarcely be able to subsist were it not for the expertness of 
this most excellent hunter," and Captain Lewis says of him 
"a man of much merit particularly for his knowledge." 

John Coulter too was there. He was with the expedition 
in all its perils and hardships going and until reaching Man- 
dan Village on the return, when he at his own request received 
his discharge with a testimonial of always performing his 
duty. 

Then engaging with two trappers he went back into the 
wilds, where in the course of a couple of years he became a 
conspicuous figure in two important events one, the discov- 
ery of what later became the Yellowstone National Park, with 
all its wonders ; the other, a personal adventure with a party 
of the Crow Indians where he, his companion having been 
killed, after being riddled with arrows, was captured; and 
made a marvelous escape, after having been stripped to the 
skin for torture, by outrunning the savage pursuers and hid- 
ing under a raft in the river. 

Then Alex Willard was there; noted in a different way 
from some others mentioned. He served through the entire 
expedition, married in 1807. Was in several later wars 
against Tecumseh in 1811. Also Black Hawk war. Was the 
father of seven sons and five daughters; one son named for 
Lewis, another for Clark. The father of twelve children, fifty 
grandchildren and thirty great grandchildren, was a skilled 
gunsmith and blacksmith. Kept a journal of the expedition 
which was accidentally destroyed. 

George Shannon too was there. During the expedition he 
was the subject of many adventures. Once lost for sixteen 



189 

days, after the fourth day having nothing to eat but roots and 
berries, and a rabbit killed by a piece of stick shot out of his 
gun, the balls having been exhausted long before. Was ent 
on various missions of importance by Captain Lewis. He was 
of a good protestant family oldest of family. Wilson Shan- 
non, later Governor of Ohio was Ihe youngest. 

George Shannon, when seventeen, ran away from home 
and meeting Captain Lewis on his way to St. Louis enlisted 
for the expedition. He is described as a fine looking young- 
man, very graceful and a fine conversationalist. Afterwards 
graduated from Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky. 
Studied law graduating in same class as Sam Houston, was 
Judge of Circuit court for many years, dying in Palmyra, 
Mo., in 1836, where he was at that time holding court. 

Peter Cruzette was there, an experienced waterman on 
the Missouri; was also noted as the fiddler of the party, and 
time and again was called on to entertain the visiting Indians 
of evenings when they called at the camp. 

It seems probable too, it was he who shot Captain Lewis 
through the thigh when they were both out hunting elk, mis- 
taking him, partly hidden in the bushes, for an elk. 

So, too, was Richard Windsor there, who in passing along 
the edge of a precipice lost his foothold, and but for the cool- 
ness of Captain Lewis who heard his outcry, would have lost 
his life. 

Then William Bratton was there, a gunsmith in early life 
and expert in the use of tools in the expedition probably 
one of the blacksmiths so useful at Fort Mandan in making 
tomahawks and battle axes. 

John Shields was there, another one of the nine Ken- 
tuckians, an artist in repairing guns and accoutrements; at 
Fort Mandan repairer of weapons and maker of battle axes. 
Was taken several times by Captain Lewis on special mis- 
sions; once attacked by three white bears and only escaped 
by running down a steep precipice, injuring his knee in the act. 



190 

Then York was there, the body servant of Lieutenant 
Clark, an object of continual merriment, wonder and some- 
times fear, among the Indians. They could not be made to 
believe black was his natural color. The grand chief of the 
Minnetarees inquired about York's being black, and on his be- 
ing brought into his presence examined him closely, spit on 
his finger and rubbed his skin to wash off the paint. Not un- 
til the negro showed him his short kinky hair would he be per- 
suaded he was not a white man painted. Another time they 
flocked around to see the monster. To amuse them he told 
them he had once been a wild animal and had been bought and 
tamed by his master, and then showed them feats of strength 
which made him appear still more terrible. On the return of 
the expedition to St. Louis, in appreciation of his services his 
master gave him his freedom. 

In these few pages the thought has been to present as 
briefly as possible something of the reasons for the bringing 
together of this body of men, encamped at the mouth of Wood 
river on the Illinois side, something of the men themselves in 
Camp there, and something of the immense gain to our coun- 
try by reason of the successful accomplishment of the aims of 
the expedition. 

What has been written has to do with two very important 
events, closely associated, which taken together, Henry Adams 
claims, did as much to add to the fame of Thomas Jefferson 
as did the writing of the Declaration of Independence. 

A monument a broken shaft was erected in Lewis coun- 
ty, Tenn., to the memory of Meriwether Lewis whose life came 
to an untimely end at the age of thirty-five while traveling 
from Natchez to Washington, D. C., on government business. 

Also a monument was erected to Charles Floyd, the only 
member of the expedition who died during the entire two and 
one-half years. It would seem a most fitting thing to have 
a shaft erected at the mouth of Wood river by the State of 
Illinois or a suitable marker placed there by some of the patri- 
otic organizations. 



191 

Such recognition would bestow as much honor upon the 
donors as upon the recipients. 

This matter is commended to the attention of the Illinois 
State Historical Society or other patriotic societies of the 
state. 

The Wood River neighborhood was a few years later the 
scene of an Indian massacre noted in the annals of early Illi- 
nois. On July 10, 1814, on what is now the southwest quarter 
of Section 5 in Wood River township, Madison county, in the 
forks of Wood Eiver, Mrs. Rachael Reagan and her two chil- 
dren, two children of Captain Abel Moore and two children 
of William Moore were killed by a party of roving Indians. 

The story of this dastardly murder of a woman and six 
children forms a sad but thrilling chapter in the history of 
border warfare. 



THE VISIT TO SPRINGFIELD OF RICHARD M. 
JOHNSON, MAY 18-20, 1843. 

In the presidential election of 1840 the Democratic party 
secured the electoral vote of Illinois by a small majority, 
though the Whig candidate, William Henry Harrison, was 
elected president of the United States. 

During the campaign great Whig meetings were held in 
all parts of the State. Galena, in the extreme northwestern 
part of the state held a significant meeting, as did the little 
town of Carlinville forty miles south of Springfield, and the 
capital city, Springfield,* held a great rally with 15,000 peo- 
ple in attendance, at which the rude pageantry of border pol- 
itics played a great part. It was the "Log Cabin and Hard 
Cider" campaign. 

This Whig victory produced a confusion in party lines 
and the Whig and Democratic newspapers of the times, alike, 
in Illinois, show many changes of front in their attempts to 
explain the political policies of their respective candidates 
and parties. 

John Tyler, who was elected vice-president on the ticket 
which elected William Henry Harrison president, had suc- 
ceeded to the presidency upon the death of General Harrison 
within a few weeks after the inauguration, and was by 1843 
laying his plans to secure his own re-election as a WTiig. 

The Democrats had of course plenty of candidates, among 
whom the most prominent were James Buchanan, Lewis Cass, 
and Thomas H. Benton. There also appeared in the Demo- 
cratic party, especially in the West, a sentiment favoring the 
nomination of Eichard M. Johnson, former vice-president, and 
military hero. 



*Por an account of this Springfield meeting, see "The Young Men's Convention 
and Old Soldiers' Meeting at Springfield, June 3-4, 1840," by Isabel Jamison in Trans- 
actions Illinois State Historical Society, 1914, page 160. 

192 



193 

Old John Reynolds, former Governor of Illinois, who was 
always an active politician was strongly in favor of Johnson. 
The Belleville Advocate, Governor Reynolds ' paper, came out 
for Johnson in 1841 and proclaimed him "the friend of -the 
West and the Advocate of the reduction of the price of public 
lands, "f 

Reynolds also claimed that in St. Glair county, the 
friends of General James Shields, Lyman Trumbull, and Gus- 
tavus Koerner packed the convention against resolutions fav- 
oring the candidacy of Johnson. However the Illinois friends 
of Johnson stood by him and in the Spring of 1843 he made a 
visit to Illinois where he was well received. 

On May 8, 1843, he visited Belleville where a great meet- 
ing was held with Governor Reynolds as the presiding officer. 
Meetings in honor of Colonel Johnson were held in other 
towns including Jacksonville and Springfield. 

Elaborate preparations were made for the Springfield 
meeting. A committee consisting of the most prominent Dem- 
ocrats in the city was appointed to arrange for the great 
man's reception. The Illinois State Register printed a full ac- 
count of the personnel and membership of the committee, and 
later an account of the distinguished guest and the details of 
the manner in which he was entertained. Colonel Johnson 
arrived in Springfield on the afternoon of Friday, May 18, 
1843, and remained in the city until late Sunday evening, 
May 20. 

Springfield was in 1843 a city of less than 5,000 people, 
and" it must have taxed its hospitality and resources to enter- 
tain such large crowds. The chairman of the reception com- 
mittee was W. L. D. Ewing. 

In 1833 the Lieutenant-Governor of the State, Zacloc 
Casey, resigned, as he had become a member of Congress, and 
W. L. D. Ewing, who was president of the State Sen;:' to, be- 
came by virtue of his office lieutenant-governor, and upon the 
resignation of the Governor, John Reynolds, Dec. 17, 1834, 



t Illinois Centennial History, Vol. 2, Pease, "The Frontier State," pages 275-276. 



194 

who also had been elected to the United States Congress, 
Ewing became governor of the state and served fifteen days, 
until the inauguration of Governor Joseph Duncan, which oc- 
curred December 3, 1834. 

On December 29, 1835, Mr. Ewing was elected United 
States Senator to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Elias 
Kent Kane, and served until the close of Mr. Kane's term in 
1837. Ewing was then again elected to the Illinois Legisla- 
ture, and became the speaker of the House, defeating the 
young Abraham Lincoln for that high position. In March, 
1843, Mr. Ewing was elected Auditor of Public Accounts by 
the Illinois General Assembly, and he served in this capacity 
until his death, March 25, 1846. He was for many years a 
prominent figure in Illinois politics. He was State Auditor 
at the visit of Colonel Johnson, when he served as chairman 
of the reception committee. 

George E. Weber, the secretary of the committee, was one 
of the editors of the State Eegister, the firm being Walters 
and Weber. The account of the meeting of the reception com- 
mittee as printed in the State Register in its issue of May 19, 
1843, is here given in full, as is the account of the meeting and 
the reception to the hero and the addresses on that occasion 
as published in the Register of May 26, of the same year. 



MEETING OF THE COMMITTEE FOB THE RECEPTION OF 
COLONEL JOHNSON. 

(From the Illinois State Register, May 19, 1843.) 

At a meeting of democratic citizens of Springfield, as- 
sembled in Jackson Hall, for the purpose of adopting meas- 
ures for the suitable reception of Colonel R. M. Johnson, on 
his contemplated visit to this city. 

On motion, General Ewing was called to the chair, and 
George R. Weber appointed secretary. 

The object of the meeting having been explained, on 
motion of John Calhoun, Esq., it was 



195 

Resolved, That a committee of arrangements be 
appointed to make the necessary arrangements for 
the reception of Colonel B. M. Johnson. 

Resolved further, That a committee be appointed 
to meet Colonel Johnson at Jacksonville, and escort 
him to this city. 
In pursuance of the first resolution the chair appointed 

Messrs. James W. Keys, George B. Weber, E. Cook, T. Lewis, 
Beuben F. Buth, Isaac B. Curran, Michael Doyle, John M. 
Burkhardt, M. Glenn, Charles Hurst, C. Webster, William 
Fondy, William Carpenter, Morris Lindsay, J. Wickersham, 
G. G. Grubb, A. Elliott, J. Parkinson, J. Barrett, P. Foster, 
J. Drennan, A. Trumbo, T. Long, J. W. Taylor, J. Taylor and 
Doctor Holbert. 

In pursuance of the second resolution the chair appointed 
Messrs. John Calhoun, M. Brayman, Thompson Campbell, D. 
B. Campbell, William Walters, Edward Jones, James W. Bar- 
rett, Edmund Boberts, Jesse B. Thomas, Milton Carpenter 
and E. B. Wiley. 

On motion of Mr. Boberts it was 

Resolved, That the Committee of Arrangements 
be instructed to invite the citizens of the city and 
county, without distinction of party, and also the mil- 
itary, to participate with us in welcoming Colonel 
Johnson to the city. On motion the meeting ad- 
journed. 

W. L. D. Ewing, Chairman. 
George B. Weber, Secretary. 



RECEPTION OF COL. R. M. JOHNSON AT SPRINGFIELD, 
MAY 19, 1843. 1 

(Prom the Illinois State Register, May 26, 1843.) 

The reception of the Hero of the Thames at the seat of 
government last week, was an event which will occur but once 
in a life time. The enthusiasm the joyful recognition of old 
friends and old soldiers the immense multitude of anxious 
and admiring spectators the splendid appearance of our 
companies of ' ' citizen soldiers ' ' - the waving of handker- 
chiefs from the crowded windows the firing of cannon and 
musquetry at short intervals the venerable appearance of 
the scar-covered Hero the eloquence and deep feeling with 
which he was addressed and the candid, modest, impartial but 
soul-stirring reply of the Hero all combined to render the 
scenes of the day so vivid and striking as to rivet them on the 
memory forever. Who could look on the Hero and patriot, as 
he recited over the battles of the Thames, without feeling 

i Richard Mentor Johnson, vice-president of the United States, 1836-1340, was 
born at Bryant's Station, Ky., October 17, 1781. His early education was limited. He 
had four years at grammar school and finished his education at Transylvania Uni- 
versity. He began to practice lav/ when he was only nineteen years of age. At 
twenty-two he entered into public life. He was elected to the state legislature in 
1804, and after serving two years in that position was elected to a seat in the 
United States house of representatives as a Republican. He was re-elected to 
congress, and, with the exception of a few months, served from 1807 until 1819. 
Immediately after the adjournment of congress in 1812 he returned home, where he 
organized three companies of volunteers, which being combined with another, he was 
placed in command of the whole, and took part in the battle of the Maumee, where 
he killed an Indian chief, supposed to be Tecumseh. Afterward the question, "Who 
killed Tecumseh?" passed into a saying, and the fact has never been positively settled. 
After the fall of Tecumseh the Indians continued a brisk fire while retiring, but a 
regiment brought up by Gov. Shelby soon silenced them, while, a part of Col. Johnson's 
men having flanked them, the rout became general. At the moment when Johnson's 
regiment made its charge, Gen. Proctor with about fifty dragoons fled from the field. 
His carriage and papers were taken. It is said that his flight was so rapid that in 
twenty-four hours he found himself sixty-five miles distant from the battlefield. CoL 
Johnson was carried from the field almost lifeless. He passed through incredible 
fatigue, severities and privations during his passage from Detroit to Sandusky and 
from thence to Kentucky, being carried over a distance of 300 miles, through the 
wilderness, in the winter, suspended between two horses. He remained about two 
months in Kentucky, when he had so far recovered from his wounds that he was 
able to repair to Washington and resume his seat m congress. The fame of his 
exploits had preceded him, and at the capital he was received with distinguished 
testimonials of respect and admiration. On his way to the house he was cheered 
by the populace, and congress passed a joint resolution ordering that he should be 
presented with a suitable testimonial for his eminent services. In 1819, at the close 
of his congressional term, Col. Johnson was elected to the United States senate in 
place of John J. Crittendcn, who had resigned. At the end of his first senatorial 
term he was re-elected and served until March 3, 1829. Prom this time until 1837 
he was continuously elected a member of the ho:ise of representatives. At the 
election of Martin Van Buren to the presidency, Col. Johnson was the candidate for 
vice-president, and was chosen by the senate to that position, no choice having been 
made by the electoral college. At the end of his term of service he returned home, 
but was afterward again senfe to congress, and was a member of that body at the 
time of his death. In 1814 Col. Johnson was appointed Indian commissioner. He died 
in Frankfort, Ky., November 19, 1850. 

196 



197 

proud of his country proud that he was an American citizen? 
Who could listen to the recital of the "forlorn hope" headed 
by Col. Johnson, called for by one of the audience an act of 
bravery performed by twenty men, unparalleled in history 
for its self-devotion and courage without feeling the sure 
conviction, that while America possessed such noble and 
brave spirits, she never can be conquered by a foreign foe? 
But we are anticipating the events of the day. 

In the largest part of our edition last week, we announced 
the expected arrival of Col. Johnson on Monday last. While 
we were writing the paragraph, however, the veteran was 
within fifty miles of Springfield and coming on at a rapid 
pace. The Committee of reception left this place to meet Col. 
Johnson on Friday morning last ; and met him at Berlin, six- 
teen miles from Springfield, about 2 o 'clock P. M. ; to which 
place he had been accompanied by a Committee of the public- 
spirited citizens of Jacksonville. At Berlin, Col. Johnson 
enjoyed the hospitality of his old friend Mr. Yates 2 who pre- 
pared one of the best dinners we have ever partaken of for 
this many a day. 

After taking leave of the Committee from Jacksonville, 
and the people of Berlin, Col. Johnson set out for Spring- 
field about 4 o'clock on Friday, accompanied by the Commit- 
tee of Reception. He reached Springfield just before sunset 
and amidst an immense crowd of people retired to his lodg- 
ings at the American Hotel. 

On the next day (Saturday) about 10 o'clock A. M. a pro- 
cession was formed opposite the American under the direc- 
tion of Col. R. Allen, 8 Chief Marshal, which moved through 
the city about an hour afterwards in the following order : 

2 Henry Tates, son of Abner Yates and Polly Anne Hawes, born In Fayette 
County, Kentucky, October 29, 1786 ; died at New Berlin, Illinois, October 10 1865. 
Father of war governor, Richard Yates. 

a Robert Allen was born In the year 1800, In Greensburg, Green County, Ky. 
He was married there to a Miss Anderson, and came to Springfield, 111., in 1831. Col. 
Allen engaged in the mercantile business as a member of the firm of Allen & Blanken- 
ship, soon after coming to Springfield. He also became a mail contractor on a very 
extensive scale, and brought a large number of fine stage coaches from Nashville, 
Tenn., being the first ever Introduced into the State. He made Springfield his head- 
quarters, and on some occasions had as many as five hundred horses on hand at one 
time. Colonel Allen was one of the directors of the old State Bank. He was con- 
nected with the army in the Mormon war in 1845, and in the Mexican war of 1846-47. 
Not long after coming to Springfield, Mrs. Allen died, and Mr. Allen was married in 
April, 1833, to Jane Eliza Bergen. They had two children. 



198 



Chief Marshal 
The Artillery Commanded by Capt. Barker. 

Marshal The Cadets Marshal 

Commanded by Capt. Johnson 

The Springfield Band 

The Sangamon Guards 
Marshal Commanded by Capt. Baker. 4 Marshal 

Col. R. M. Johnson 

In a carriage drawn by four horses and accompanied by 
the Committee of Reception. Committee of Arrangements. 

Marshal The Governor 5 Marshal 

The Orator of the Day 

Officers of State 

Citizens and strangers in carriages, on horseback and on 
foot. 

In this order the procession moved through all the prin- 
cipal streets of the city and the Hero was greeted from the 
windows and housetops, with the waving of handerchief s from 
the ladies, the huzzas of the people to which the Colonel re- 
sponded in his usual frank and courteous manner. 

The procession then halted before the State House, when 
the military and citizens filled the Hall of the House of Rep- 
resentatives and the ladies occupied the gallery. Col. Johnson 
accompanied by the Committee of Reception then entered the 
Hall where he was greeted with three deafening cheers by the 
people. Approaching the chair of the speaker, Thompson 
Campbell, 6 Esq., Secretary of State, arose from the chair and 
addressed the hero as follows : 



4 Edward Dickinson Baker. 

5 Governor Thomas Ford. 

6 Thompson Campbell, Secretary of State and Congressman, was born in Chester 
County, Pa., in 1811 ; removed in childhood to the western part of the State and was 
educated at Jefferson College, afterward reading law at Pittsburgh. Soon after being 
admitted to the bar he removed to Galena, III, where he had acquired some mining 
interests, and, in 1843, was appointed Secretary of State by Governor Ford, but 
resigned in 1846, and became a delegate to the constitutional convention of 1847 ; 
in 1850 was elected as a Democrat to Congress from the Galena District, but 
defeated for re-election in 1852 by B. B. Washburne. He was then appointed by 
President Pierce commissioner to look after certain land grants by the Mexican 
Government in Calif o*-ia, removing to that State in 1853, but resigned this position 



199 

"Col. Bichard M. Johnson 

Sir : In the name and in behalf of the Democratic citizens 
of Sangamon County I bid you a sincere and grateful wel- 
come. The joyousness which brightens every countenance in 
this vast assembly speaks in a language more eloquent than 
words the honest sentiments of gratitude and love which your 
appearance in our midst has waked in every heart. It is un- 
necessary for me on the present occasion to refer to the past 
events of your most eventful life ; they have become a part of 
the history of our county and are written in letters of unfad- 
ing brilliancy on the hearts of your countrymen. 

This beloved Union which your wisdom as a stateman has 
strengthened and your blood shed in its defense has ce- 
mented, may justly, as it has done claim you for its own ; but 
while the West acknowledges the justice of the claim it can- 
not yield the loftiest pride of its young hope, the pride of be- 
ing the Sire of so worthy and noble a son. Devoted as you 
have ever been to Western interest, and Western prosperity 
watching with keen anxiety and more than parental feeling, 
the western settler since that day when you exchanged the se- 
cure and peaceful halls of Congress for the field of battle of 
danger and of blood * * trusting as you did then to the liberal- 
ity of Congress for indemnification, ' ' it would be base ingrati- 
tude in those to whom your mighty arm gave protection, and 
your more than Roman patriotism, and courage, peace and 
security not to present to you their highest, purest, holiest 
gift, the free will offering of a free people, the right hand of 
friendship and the heart of gratitude. 

Happy, happy indeed are they that to them has been re- 
served the opportunity of hearing that voice which at the ever 

about 1855 to engage in general practice. In 1859 he made an extended visit to 
Europe with his family, and, on his return, located in Chicago, the following year 
becoming a candidate for presidential elector-at-large on the Brecklnridge ticket ; 
in 1861 returned to California, and, on the breaking out of the Civil War, became a 
zealous champion of the Union cause, by his speeches exerting a powerful influence 
upon the destiny of the State. He also served in the California Legislature during 
the war, and, 1864, was a member of the Baltimore convention which nominated Mr. 
Lincoln for the Presidency a second time, assisting most ably in the subsequent 
campaign to carry the State for the Republican ticket. Died in San Francisco, 
December 6, 1868. 



200 

memorable battle of the Thames amidst the din of war, the 
horrid clash of steel meeting steel, and louder and more ter- 
rible than all, the savage yell of the savage foe was heard far 
above the storm, exhorting your brave followers on to the con- 
flict animating them by your example, "To deeds of noble 
daring"; and if it should be the will of heaven, to die for their 
country. That was a proud day for the American flag and on 
that day the American eagle, ' ' soaring in its pride of place ' ' 
took a loftier flight. Could the crowned monarchs of the old 
world have beheld you when you rose from your seat in Con- 
gress, from amidst the assembled wisdom and guardian fa- 
thers of the republic to meet her enemies on the field of battle 
and had their vision extended to that field, from which vic- 
torious you were carried faint and bleeding and again looked 
upon you when you returned to that seat, pale, emaciated and 
covered with scars, they would have exclaimed in trembling 
accents: "how vain, inconceivably vain is the attempt to sub- 
jugate, to conquer, a people with such Spartan spirit to fight 
their battles and such mighty minds to direct their councils. ' ' 
However great the debt of gratitude we owe as a people for 
your services in the field, your unwavering support and able 
exposition of the great conservative principles of democracy, 
claim for you no less our high regard and lasting gratitude. 
They have given you a name which will be remembered in 
whatever country or in whatever clime the friends of civil, re- 
ligious and political liberty shall find a home. Of all this your 
country has not been unmindful or forgetful. You have once 
been called to the second office within her gift and your name 
will doubtless together with others highly distinguished in the 
annals of American democracy be presented before the Na- 
tional Democratic Convention of 1844 and will pre-eminently 
claim its high and solemn consideration. If in its wisdom and 
patriotism it should present to the Democracy of the Union 
the name of Colonel Eichard M. Johnson, I may here assert 
that there is no state in the Union where the Democracy 
will hail the nomination with louder and more sincere ac- 
clamations of joy than they will in the State of Illinois ; they 
will rally around your standard, unfurl their banner to the 
breeze "not soiled and worn," with the principles un- 



201 

changed and unchangeable written in letters of living light 
upon its broad and ample folds and a victory worthy of the 
hero of the Thames will be the rich reward. 






Permit me, sir, again in the name of this people for I 
perceive many present who are opposed to you politically 
anxious to catch a glimpse of, and take by the hand the soldier 
of our common country here too, are the young, the beau- 
tiful, the lovely and the matronly of the land, always the first 
to welcome the soldier to his peaceful home the scattered 
flowers in life's path for whom and in the name of our com- 
mon country I bid you a most heartfelt welcome." 

The eloquent address of Mr. Campbell being concluded 
the large hall resounded with a spontaneous shout of applause 
so deafening as to ring in our ears for an hour afterwards. 

Col. Johnson then ascended the platform occupied by the 
chair of the speaker and addressed the assembly in a reply 
of about two hours in length a reply which did not seem to 
us to occupy more than half an hour, so deeply interesting 
were his remarks. The old hero did not attempt to make any 
display of oratory or eloquence. He was eloquent eloquent 
in his language, in the daring deeds he described, in the justice 
he rendered to his brave commander and his brother soldiers ; 
and his very appearance spoke to the heart of every beholder 
in terms of patriotic eloquence which no language can de- 
scribe. 

We cannot undertake to follow Col. Johnson through his 
speech. We took no notes of it and the speaker himself did not 
make the slightest preparation. He began by returning his 
most sincere and heartfelt thanks to the persons present for 
the honor they had conferred upon him, and to the orator of 
the day for the eloquent and flattering speech to which we had 
all listened. He said he had left his home in Kentucky about 
forty-five days previous without the least expectation or wish 
of making any parade through the country. In fact he had ap- 
proached every place he visited without notice he was actual- 
ly in St. Louis he said before the people there knew of his 
presence. He could not but feel the deeper gratitude and the 



202 

higher gratification in having become the object of such high 
distinction and honor wherever he went. 

During the course of his speech Col. Johnson would often 
refer to many well known persons in the crowd from "Old 
Kentuck ' ' who had left a good country for a better, as he was 
compelled to say since he had passed over the rich and beauti- 
ful prairies of Illinois. 

In the scenes which he described during the last war, he 
would often refer to Col. Craig and several other brave and 
meritorious soldiers in that war who confirmed every state- 
ment made by Col. Johnson. The old hero said that while he 
was a member of Congress in 1812 news of the massacre at the 
river Eaisin by Proctor and his murdering bands had thrown 
all Kentucky into mourning. He applied to President Monroe 
who gave him a commission to raise 1,000 mounted volunteers 
to join the army under Gen. Harrison. "We performed the 
duty. The regiment was raised. Every man in it was made of 
the right stuff. ' ' The massacre of 300 of their countrymen at 
the river Raisin where they were enclosed in a bullock pen 
and shot down in cold blood, one by one, under the eye of Proc- 
tor 7 , the British general, had created a spirit in his troop 
which caused them all to make their wills before they left Ken- 
tucky resolving never again to return unless they came back 
conquerors over the butcherly murderers of their country- 
man. Each man was mounted and was armed with a rifle and 
pistols, a good sword and a sharp knife similar to the Indians. 
In fact these men knew what they had to contend with. They 
did not go out to fight by the day but by the job. When they 
arrived at the American camp in Canada Harrison was on the 
watch for Proctor. * * 0, how I did want to catch that fellow, ' ' 
said Col. Johnson. "I never thirsted for man's blood but 
Proctor was a monster. Even Tecumseh, an Indian warrior 
whose nature is savage and whose education taught him that 
a scalp was honorable no matter how obtained, was shocked at 
the conduct of the cowardly assassin. While Proctor was si- 

7 Col. Henry A. Proctor, born in Wales, 1765 ; died at Liverpool, England, 1859. 
A British general He was colonel of a regiment In Canada in 1812 ; defeated the 
Americans under James Winchester at Frenchtown in 1813 ; was repulsed by Harrison 
at Fort Meigs, by Croghan at Fort Stephenson, and by Harrison at the battle of the 
Thames (October 5. 1813). 



203 

lently looking on at the massacre of our men in the bullock 
pen, Tecumseh came up and put a stop to the cold blooded 
murders telling Proctor "you could have prevented this but 
did not. " 

We all wanted to catch Proctor, said Col. Johnson. I 
asked permission of Gen. Harrison to go in search of him. I 
shall never forget the fire in his eye as he replied: "Go, 
Colonel, but remember discipline. The rashness of your brave 
Kentuckians has heretofore destroyed themselves. Be cau- 
tious, sir, as well as brave and active, as I know you all are. ' ' 
We were near that beautiful river of Canada, the Thames. I 
departed with my regiment in search of Proctor. In a short 
time we caught a spy who begged hard for his life. I told him 
if he did not tell us where Proctor was, I would instantly shoot 
him. I talked big, said Johnson, to scare him. I don't know 
whether I should have killed him or not. However, he said he 
was an American and had been compelled by Proctor to come 
out as a spy. He said that the British army was only within 
a few miles of us. I instantly sent word to Gen. Harrison of 
what this spy had developed and afterwards in marching to 
the spot designated sure enough there was Proctor and his 
soldiers drawn up in beautiful order on a rising ground about 
700 strong. I again sent word to Gen. Harrison that "we had 
treed Proctor" and in a very short time Gen. Harrison came 
up with the main body of the army on foot. I again asked per- 
mission of Gen. Harrison to begin the battle. He granted that 
permission ; and here let me say that Gen. Harrison behaved 
throughout this engagement like a brave officer. He was where 
he ought to have been in the place where duty called him. As 
to my regiment, it was a pious regiment. That is, we had many 
religious men in it. Preacher Sucket was an uncommon man. 
I do believe he loved fighting better than anything else except 
praying that is fighting the enemies of his country. Well, I 
divided my regiment into two bodies. My brother, James, 
commanded the 500 of them who were opposed to the British. 
Upon the first onset of brother James with a few of his men 
the British line fired entire. Upward of 350 of them all fired 
together, and what do you think was the damage T Why, fellow 
citizens, they killed one horse ! Those falling back, the remain- 



204 

ing portion of the British also advanced and fired; but this 
time not a soul was hurt ; they did not even touch a horse. Our 
men then advanced at full speed on the British who threw 
down their weapons calling out, "We surrender; we surren- 
der ! ' ' Proctor the coward, had fled long before ; like the cap- 
tain I once heard of who told his men that they might fight or 
retreat as they deemed most advisable but as ' * retreat ' ' might 
be the word and as he (the captain) was a little lame, he would 
set out now so that he might not be behind too far ! So it was 
with Proctor. He had run away some time before. Such was 
the battle of the Thames, said Col. Johnson. The British were 
defeated by my brother James and his brave men without los- 
ing scarcely a man. (Here Col. Johnson concluded, but was 
called upon to give an account of that part of the regiment en- 
gaged with the Indians.) 

Col. Johnson said that at his age it was wrong to put on 
any false modesty and as he had been called upon to relate 
that portion of the fight which took place with the Indians he 
would endeavor to do so. The Indians were 1,400 strong com- 
manded by Tecumseh, one of the bravest warriors who ever 
drew breath. He was a sort of Washington among the In- 
dians. That is they looked upon him as we looked upon Wash- 
ington. The Indians were in ambush on the other side of what 
we were informed was an impassable swamp ; but just before 
the battle came on a narrow passage over the swamp was dis- 
covered. Knowing well the Indian character I determined to 
push forward with about twenty men in order to draw forth 
the entire Indian fire, so that the remainder of the regiment 
might rush forward upon them while their rifles were empty. 
Having promised the wives, mothers and sisters of my men 
before we left Kentucky that I would place their husbands, 
sons and brothers in no hazard which I was unwilling to share 
myself, I put myself at the head of these twenty men and we 
advanced upon the covert in which I knew the Indians were 
concealed. The moment we came in view we received the 
whole Indian fire. Nineteen out of my twenty men dropped 
on the field. I felt that I was myself severely wounded. The 
mare I rode staggered and fell to her knees ; she had fifteen 
balls in her as was afterwards ascertained but the noble ani- 



205 

mal recovered her feet by a touch from the rein. I waited but 
a few moments when the remainder of the troop came up and 
we pushed forward on the Indians who instantly retreated. I 
noticed an Indian chief among them who succeeded in rallying 
them three different times. This I thought I would endeavor 
to prevent because it was by this time known to the Indians 
that their allies, the British, had surrendered. I advanced 
singly upon him, keeping my right arm close to my side, and 
covered by the swamp he took to a tree and from thence de- 
liberately fired upon me. Although I previously had four balls 
in me this last wound was more acutely painful than all of 
them. His ball struck me on the knuckle of my left hand, passed 
through my hand, and came out just above the wrist. I ran my 
left arm through the bridle rein, for my hand instantly swelled 
and became useless. The Indian supposed he had mortally 
wounded me ; he came out from behind the tree and advanced 
upon me with uplifted tomahawk. When he had come within 
my mare 's length of me I drew my pistol and instantly fired, 
having a dead aim upon him. He fell and the Indians shortly 
after either surrendered or had fled. My pistol had one ball 
and three buckshot in it, and the body of the Indian was found 
to have a ball through his body and three buckshot in differ- 
ent parts of his breast and head. (Thus fell Tecumseh, cried 
out someone of the audience.) Col. Johnson said he did not 
know that it was Tecumseh at that time. (Circumstances have 
rendered this a matter of certainty. No intelligent man, we be- 
lieve, now pretends to doubt the fact.) 

As Col. Johnson described these thrilling incidents, the 
vast hall was so still as to render the fluttering of one of the 
window curtains distinctly heard all over the room. Some one 
cried out ' ' Huzza for the Hero ' ' ; and the simultaneous shout 
which instantly arose from a thousand voices might have 
waked the dead. We have given a very imperfect sketch of 
the remarks of Col. Johnson; they are taken entirely from 
memory. His speech was interspersed with lively anecdotes 
such as he knows how to tell, and which we should only spoil 
by attempting a repetition. He concluded by saying that the 
noble animal upon which he fought that day survived only till 



206 

she had borne him out of the press of the battle, when she fell 
dead, and I myself was unable to rise. I felt that dreamy feel- 
ing coming over me consequent upon the loss of blood and 
after the excitement of deadly strife has passed away. I was 
reported as dead to Gen. Harrison who instantly rode up to 
the spot when it was found that I was not dead but only pos- 
suming. 

I cannot conclude, said Col. Johnson, without doing justice 
to the memory of my brave commander, Gen. Harrison 8 . He 
was a brave and experienced general. He was just where he 
ought to have been throughout the battle ; he was ready with 
the remainder of the army to push forward to our support if 
it had been necessary ; but Proctor was an arrant coward and 
ran away at the commencement of the battle; the foot sol- 
diers of Harrison's forces were also drawn up in a hollow 
square, just in the position where they could do the greatest 
service to either division of my mounted regiment. Braver 
men never trod the earth than those foot soldiers. Col. John- 
son concluded by again returning his sincere thanks to all 
present for the unmerited honors they had conferred upon 
him. 

Col. Johnson was then conducted to his lodgings at the 
American, where a dinner was prepared upon the Democratic 
plan to which all had access if they chose to pay their six bits. 
Many excellent toasts were drank full of patriotic fervor. 

In the evening, the Democratic Association of Sangamon 
county assembled in the hall of the House of Eepresentatives, 
for the purpose of presenting a hickory cane to the Hero of 
the Thames. The large hall was filled to overflowing. Many 
ladies graced the occasion by their presence. Col. Johnson was 
introduced to the association, when Mr. Peck, 9 on behalf of the 

8 Gen. William Henry Harrison. 

Ebenezer Peck, early lawyer, was born in Portland, Maine, May 22, 1805 ; 
received an academical education, studied law and was admitted to the bar in Canada 
in 1827. He was twice elected to the provincial parliament and made king's counsel 
in 1833; came to Illinois in 1835, settling in Chicago; served in the State Senate 
(1838-40), and in the House (1840-42 and 1858-60) ; was also clerk of the Supreme 
Court (1841-45). reporter of Suoreme Court, decisions (1849-63). and member of 
the constitutional convention of 1869-70. Mr. Peck was an intimate personal friend 
of Abraham Lincoln, by whom he was appointed a member of the Court of Claims, 
at Washington, serving until 1875. Died, May 25, 1881. 



207 

Association addressed Col. Johnson in a few brief and appro- 
priate remarks to which Col. Johnson replied in a very inter- 
esting speech of about an hour in length. He did ample jus- 
tice on this occasion, as well as in the morning, to Gov. Shel- 
by, 10 whom he described as foremost in council as well as in 
the field. In regard to the Oregon question which is now agi- 
tating the public mind, Col. Johnson declared himself in favor 
of the immediate occupation of the territory by the United 
States and of extending our laws over it. He said he was for 
taking possession, England to the contrary notwithstanding. 
My motto is, said the old hero, "take possession of Oregon, 
peaceably, if we can; forcibly, if we must." This sentiment 
was responded to by deafening shouts of approbation. The 
hickory cane presented to Col. Johnson was cut from the 
grave of the Sage of Monticello, and bore the following in- 
scription: "Presented to Col. Richard M. Johnson by the 
Sangamon Democratic Association." 

In the afternoon, the youth of the town formed a proces- 
sion and waited on Col. Johnson at the American, where the 
old veteran received them like a father, encouraged them to 
fight for their country, when the lapse of time brought them 
on the stage as men and citizen soldiers. He addressed them 
in a speech filled with anecdotes and striking incidents, to 
which the boys listened with breathless and earnest attention. 
The colonel told them, that he could see by their flashing eyes 
that they were made of the stuff to stand by their country in 
after times against all foreign tyrants and despots. 

On the next day (Sunday) Col. Johnson attended the 
Methodist church in the morning where he heard an interest- 
ing and eloquent sermon delivered by the Rev. Mr. Stamper, 11 
and in the afternoon he visited the Baptist church where the 
Rev. Mr. Dodge 12 delivered a most impressive and excellent 
sermon. At dinner he partook of the hospitality of Col. Wil- 
liam Prentiss accompanied by a few friends ; and in the even- 



10 Governor Isaac Shelby of Kentucky, born In Maryland, December 11, 1750 ; 
Governor of Kentucky, 1792-96 and 1812-16; died to Kentucky, July 18, 1826. 

11 Rev. Jonathan Stamper, minister Methodist. Church, 1841. 

12 Rev. Henry W. Dodge, minister Baptist Church, 1841-43. 



208 

ing he took tea with Mr. Walters 14 where several ladies and 
gentlemen had the pleasure of conversing with him. He is a 
most intelligent and sagacious man in private conversation; 
evidently showing that he understands perfectly the condition 
and wants of his country. 

He departed in the Eastern stage for Terre Haute, about 
10 o 'clock, accompanied by Mr. Grubb, one of the Committee 
of Arrangements, and Mr. Brayman, 15 one of the Committee 
of Reception. He appeared greatly to have enjoyed his visit 
to the Sucker state ; while we can assure him that a recipro- 
cal pleasure was felt by all our citizens, in entertaining a guest 
so patriotic, so distinguished, and so thoroughly honest. 



EDITORIAL. COMMENT ON THE SPEECH OF COLONEL RICHARD M. 

JOHNSON. 

(From the Illinois State Register, June 2, 1843.) 

Several of our friends have informed us that we have made 
a material misstatement of that part of Colonel Johnson's re- 
marks, at this place, wherein he spoke of his personal conflict 
with the Indian chief at the battle of the Thames. We have 
made Colonel Johnson reply to the remark made by one of the 
audience, "thus fell Tecumseh," that "he did not know that 
it was Tecumseh at the time." Colonel Johnson did not say 
this. In fact we are satisfied from the unanimous opinion of 

14 William Walters, editor of the "Illinois State Register," of the firm of Walters 
& Weber. 

is Mason Brayman, lawyer and soldier, was born in Buffalo, N. Y., May 23, 1813 ; 
brought up as a farmer, became a printer and edited "The Buffalo Bulletin," 1834-35 ; 
studied law and was admitted to the bar In 1836 ; removed west in 1837, was city 
attorney of Monroe, Mich., in 1838, and became editor of "The Louisville Advertiser" 
in 1841. In 1842 he opened a law office in Springfield, 111., and the following year 
was appointed by Governor Ford a commissioner to adjust the Mormon troubles, in 
which capacity he rendered valuable service. In 1844-45 he was appointed to revise 
the statutes of the State. Later he devoted much attention to railroad enterprises, 
being attorney of the Illinois Central Railroad, 1851-55 ; then projected the con- 
struction of a railroad from Bird's Point, opposite Cairo, into Arkansas, which was 
partially completed before the war, and almost wholly destroyed during that period. 
In 1861 he entered the service as major of the Twenty-ninth Illinois Volunteers, 
taking oart. In a number of the early battles, including Fort Donelson and Shiloh ; 
was promoted to a colonelcy for meritorious conduct at the latter, and for a time 
served as adjutant-general on the staff of General McClernand ; was promoted to 
brigadier -general in September, 1862, at the close of the war receiving the brevet 
rank of major-general After the close of the war he devoted considerable attention 
to reviving his railroad enterprises in the South ; edited "The Illinois State Journal," 
1872-73 ; removed to Wisconsin and was appointed Governor of Idaho in 1876, serving 
four years, after which he returned to Ripon, Wls. Died in Kansas City, February 
27, 1895. 



209 

many persons present with whom we have conversed, that he 
made no reply to the remark. 

From the nature of the conflict between Johnson and this 
Indian chief, they must both have known each other. Colonel 
Johnson saw the chief rallying the Indians a third time. The 
chief was behind the stump of a tree, the body of which was 
lying towards Colonel Johnson. The Colonel approached 
the Indian on one side of the prostrate tree; and his mare 
stumbled across the dry branches of the tree. The noise at- 
tracted the Indian, who instantly advanced on Johnson, on 
the other side of the tree. Colonel Johnson said that he knew 
by the eye of the chief that there was no back out in him. He 
knew that he would fight; and he accordingly held down his 
right arm so as to protect it. It was covered by the swamp. 
The Indian then fired, as we before stated, and the ball was 
only prevented from passing through Johnson's body by 
striking him on the knuckle of the left hand, which was in 
front of him. As we before seated, Johnson held his fire until 
sure of his enemy, when he drew his pistol and shot him. It 
was a brave and glorious act ; which has very few to equal it in 
the annals of chivalry in any age or country. 



GREENE COUNTY: BORN 100 YEARS AGO. 

BY CHAELES BKADSHAW 

Illinois is a domain comprising 102 counties. Each of 
these counties has within its borders towns, villages and com- 
munities, and these in turn are made up of homes the homes 
of the people, the seven or eight million people who really con- 
stitute the State of Illinois. 

We think of a wheel as revolving around its center, and 
forget that the friction or the motive power that causes it to 
move forward is applied to its outer rim, its circumference. 

Historians sometimes forget that this principle of me- 
chanics applies also to history. 

The history of Illinois, as of all states and nations, has 
had its beginnings, not at Kaskaskia, and Vandalia, and 
Springfield, but back in the homes the pioneer homes and the 
modern homes out on the rim of the wheel that moves the 
chariot of state ever forward. Whatsoever of stamina and 
rugged character have been stamped into our customs and 
into our laws was first developed in and around the log 
cabins that once stood in loneliness at the edge of forest 
clearings or out on the broad expanse of unfenced prairie. 

The early history of Illinois is a composite photograph 
of life in these scattered communities and isolated cabins 
that made the pioneer counties of the State. There were 
fifteen of these counties in 1818, when Illinois became a State. 
Four more came into existence the following year, and at 
the session of the General Assembly during January and 
February, 1821, there was increased activity in this line, and 
seven new counties were formed. The centennial anniver- 
sary of these counties occurs next winter. The seven coun- 
ties in the order in which they were formed, are Lawrence, 
Greene, Sangamon, Pike, Hamilton, Montgomery and Fay- 
ette. 

This paper is to deal with the early history of one of the 
seven Greene county. 

210 



211 

During the spring of the year 1820, several house and 
barn raisings took place between Apple and Macoupin creeks, 
a region that, two years before, had been the uttermost fron- 
tier of civilization in the then newly-born State of Illinois. 
During the summer of that same year there was an occasional 
"hoss race" within that same territory. In the fall there 
were husking bees and hunting frolics. These house and 
barn raisings, these horse races, these husking bees and 
hunting parties provided the only means by which the pio- 
neers of that region could exercise their natural bent as 
social beings. It was 35 or 40 miles to Edwardsville, the 
nearest town and their county seat. Not a church nor a 
school house between the Apple and the Macoupin, nor for 
many miles in either direction beyond those streams. 

Hence the typical social gatherings of a pioneer settle- 
ment the house raisings and husking bees were well at- 
tended functions. Always there was one topic for talk wher- 
ever a few of these hardy pioneers foregathered. It was 
of the growth and future development of their sparse set- 
tlement into a political unit of the sovereign State of Illinois, 
with a capital of its own a county, with a county seat 
located somewhere between Apple and Macoupin creeks. 

The spring and summer of 1820 brought many acces- 
sions to the scattered settlements of that region, and the 
rapid growth gave weight to the agitation for forming a 
new county. The second General Assembly of the State of 
Illinois assembled at Vandalia, December 4, 1820. The future 
county, of course, had no representation in that body, and 
whether it sent any lobbyists over the bridle paths to the 
new state capital or not, can only be conjectured. Probably 
that was unnecessary. At any rate, a bill to create the new 
county was introduced early in the session, was passed Jan- 
uary 18, and approved January 20, 1821. 

The act creating the county bestowed upon it the name 
"Greene," in honor of Gen. Nathaniel Greene of Eevolu- 
tionary fame. The boundaries, as then defined, included all 
of the present counties of Greene and Jersey, and to this 
territory was added that of the present counties of Macoupin, 



212 

Morgan and Scott. Thus the county became "Mother 
Greene" to a bevy of buxom daughters. Miss Morgan was 
first to set up housekeeping for herself in 1823; Macoupin 
followed in 1829, and Miss Jersey became a matron in 1839. 
Little Miss Scott remained in the Morgan household until 
'39 and then followed the example of her sisters. 

The forming of Greene county brought on a contest 
for the location of the county capital. The contest was short, 
sharp and decisive. On February 20, 1821 just a month 
after the county was created by enactment the five com- 
missioners who had been named in the act met at a lone 
cabin on the prairie and proceeded to consider the eligible 
sites. 

There were several of these. One was a beautiful mound 
about three miles southwest of the present town of Car- 
rollton. Fifty years afterward a somewhat florid descrip- 
tion was written by a man who remembered it as it then was, 
untouched by the hand of man, and he declared that "the 
sun in all his wanderings had seldom shone upon a lovelier 
spot of earth since the day on which the flaming sword was 
placed at the gates of Eden." The owner of that spot, 
Thos. Hobson, confident that no other proposed site could 
compete with his, had laid out a town on that mound and had 
named it Mt. Pleasant. 

But Hobson was an Englishman who had come out from 
his native country only a short time before. The War of 
1812 had ended, but it left more or less bitterness rankling in 
the breasts of these pioneers whose lives and homes had been 
menaced by the Indian allies of the British. This probably 
had something to do with the result of that contest. But 
perhaps a greater factor in it was the personality and popu- 
larity of the man who won. 

The official report of the commissioners, as it appears in 
the records of the county, states that "after examining the 
most eligible situation in said county, giving due weight and 
attention to the considerations set forth as to present and 
future population, etc." they had concluded that the most 



213 

suitable place for said seat of justice was a point 88 poles 
south of the northeast corner of section 22, township 10 north, 
range 12 west of the Third principal meridian. 

The land thus described and selected was owned by one 
of the commissioners, but it is said that he refused to vote on 
fixing the site. The other four were unanimous. The man 
who did not vote and whose land became the site of Greene 
county's capital, was Thomas Carlin, afterward sixth gov- 
ernor of Illinois. 

Local historians have been content to add that, after the 
decision had been made, one of the commissioners paced fifty 
yards to the west and said, "Here let the court house be 
built"; that the town was immediately laid out and named 
Carrollton. 

Many have since wondered why the town was not named 
in honor of its founder, and why, a few years later, the county 
seat of Macoupin was apparently so named. Several years 
ago a descendant of Governor Carlin a man who had never 
been in the west came out to visit the scene of his grand- 
father's pioneering. Quite logically he steered his course to 
Carlinville, and was puzzled to find there no trace of ancestral 
records. I do not know why Carlinville was so named; why 
Carrollton was not is partly at least a matter of tradition 
only. 

We can imagine those four other commissioners suggest- 
ing that the town be named for Mr. Carlin, and we can imagine 
him declining the honor with the modesty of real greatness. 
"Suggest a name, then," they no doubt said to him. And it 
is fairly well established that he did suggest the name. Him- 
self a pioneer, he greatly admired those earlier pioneers who 
laid the foundations of a nation in the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, and he especially loved the name of that signer of 
the document who, in order that no British high executioner 
would be put to the trouble of inquiring, wrote down his name 
"Charles Carroll of Carrollton." 

And so he gave to the town a name, beautiful in itself, 
honored in history, and significant of courage and fidelity to 
principle. 



214 

Perhaps it would be well at this point to pause a bit in the 
story itself, and introduce the cast of characters in this little 
drama, "The Birth" not of a Nation but "of a County." 

Enter first a man on horseback, broad-shouldered, rough 
and rugged, a rifle slung across the pommel of his saddle, a 
hand shading his eyes, which gaze across an expanse of 
prairie that ends at the horizon. What Canada's famous 
mounted police have been to the lonely vastness of British 
Columbia and Hudson's Bay country, the Rangers were to 
Illinois one hundred years and more ago. When the Federal 
government was unable to send troops to protect the settlers 
in Illinois from Indian atrocities, encouraged by the British 
during the War of 1812, the settlers themselves organized as 
Bangers. One of the camps was at Edwardsville, and was in 
command of Capt. Judy. 

"For several years," says Clement L. Clapp in his his- 
tory of Greene County, "these brave, determined men rode 
over the bare and silent prairies for hundreds of miles, now 
chasing a band of fleeing savages, now hurrying to the defense 
of a threatened settlement. They were almost constantly in 
the saddle, rarely slept under a roof, were independent of 
civilization for food or comforts, and exercised almost super- 
human vigilance in keeping the red men at bay. They were 
familiar with every feature of Indian warfare and their deeds 
of daring and endurance have been made the theme of many 
a thrilling poem or romantic tale. 

In these expeditions against the Indians the Eangers 
became probably the first white men to pass over the territory 
that is now Greene county. They saw what splendid oppor- 
tunities it offered for settlement or would offer when the 
Indians were finally driven out. To a pioneer, the ideal spot 
for staking his claim was one that afforded, first of all, good 
water ; second, timber for building his cabin, and third a situ- 
ation at the edge of a prairie, to avoid unnecessary clearing 
for putting in crops. Proceeding northward from the Wood 
river settlement, the hardy adventurers found no such com- 
bination until they reached Macoupin creek. No less than a 
dozen or fifteen of these Rangers from Fort Russell came to, 



215 

or crossed, the Macoupin to build their cabins on the very 
frontier of civilization. 

Three men stand out conspicuously in this band. They 
were Samuel Thomas, Thomas Carlin and Thomas Rattan. 

Samuel Thomas was the grandfather of Congressman 
H. T. Rainey, who now represents the Twentieth congres- 
sional district at Washington. Born in South Carolina in 
1794, he began a race with civilization when he was eight 
years old by going to Kentucky. In 1813, at the age of 19, he 
set out on horseback for Illinois. After he and his two com- 
panions crossed the Ohio river, they found that the settlers 
had deserted their cabins and fled from the Indians. They 
were not deterred from their purpose, however, and pushed 
on to Wood river. When they arrived there Mr. Thomas 
purchased a rifle on credit, in order to join the Rangers. 

A few months later, while he was serving in Capt. Judy 's 
company, the Wood river massacre occurred, and one of his 
sisters and her six children were slain by the Indians. In 
1816 Mr. Thomas visited what is now Greene county, picked 
out the land on which he afterward settled, cut and stacked 
some hay and made other improvements. Then he returned 
to Wood river and the Indians burned his haystacks and 
destroyed his improvements. For two years more he re- 
mained at Wood river, and then in August, 1818, his desire to 
be on the extreme edge of things led him northward again. 
He was accompanied by Thomas Carlin and John W. Huitt, a 
brother-in-law of Carlin. When they reached Macoupin creek, 
Huitt was unwilling to put that barrier between himself and 
civilization, and he stopped on the south side, while the other 
two crossed the creek and went on. Three miles north of the 
creek Thomas arrived at the spot he had selected two years 
before. A beautiful grove and a clear spring of water had 
figured in his choice. It is recorded that ' ' Here Mr. Thomas 
killed a deer, cut a bee tree and engraved his name on the 
bark of a monarch of the forest, to indicate that the land was 
claimed." Then he built a cabin, and returned for his wife 
and household goods. With these loaded on an ox cart, he 



216 

arrived at his new home November 9, 1818, and thus became 
the first settler in Greene county north of the Macoupin. 

Thomas Carlin was born near Shelbyville, Kentucky, in 
1786. From earliest boyhood, he had a natural love of ad- 
venture and was trained to endure the hardships of back- 
woods life. In the vanguard of pioneering, he went first to 
Missouri, then to Illinois, coming here in time to serve through 
the War of 1812 in the Bangers. After the war he operated 
a ferry across the Mississippi some miles above St. Louis, 
and while there he married Miss Rebecca Huitt. As previ- 
ously stated, he came to Greene county with Samuel Thomas 
in August, 1818, and when the latter paused to shoot a deer 
and cut a bee tree at the spot where he was to build his cabin, 
Carlin proceeded about three miles farther to the northeast. 
It may be remarked here that those big, outdoor men of early 
days liked to have neighbors, but they didn't want to be too 
crowded to breathe. Late that fall or early in the spring of 
1819, Carlin brought his wife, mother and stepfather to this 
spot and there built his cabin, the first dwelling place of white 
people within the present limits of Carrollton. The frame 
house he afterward built on that spot was torn down several 
years ago, and there is nothing now to mark the place. 

Carlin is described as a man of medium height, not 
heavily built, but having a pair of powerful shoulders ; a man 
of iron nerve and much natural shrewdness and skill in deal- 
ing with his fellowmen. His honesty and fair dealing was 
beyond question, and he knew no fear. While he was register 
of lands at Quincy, it is said he frequently drove over the 
lonely road between Quincy and Carrollton, conveying a 
wagon load of gold and silver the proceeds of land sales 
and that these trips were sometimes made at night and alone. 

After Greene county was organized Carlin was elected 
its first sheriff. He was elected the first state senator from 
the district comprising Pike and Greene counties, in. 1824, and 
served as senator in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh Gen- 
eral Assemblies. In 1838 he was elected sixth governor of 
Illinois, at one of the most trying and critical periods in the 
history of the State, and he acquitted himself with perhaps 




STATUE OF GOV. CARLIN 
(GREENE COUNTY) 



217 

as much credit and as little criticism as any man could have 
done in that crisis. After retiring from public life he re- 
turned to his home in Carrollton, and died there February 
14, 1852. More than 100 years ago he built his cabin under a 
great spreading tree ; and under another tree in our silent city 
of the dead, a few rods from the site of the cabin, beneath 
one of the plainest, least pretentious of marble shafts, now 
rests his mortal remains. Within our court house square, 
probably very near the spot where those five commissioners 
made their decision, now stands a monument surmounted by 
an imposing, full-length bronze statue of Governor Carlin, 
erected by the State of Illinois in recognition of his service, 
and dedicated by Governor Lowden on July 4, 1917. 

Thomas Rattan, third in this trio of Rangers, also took 
active part in the beginning of things in Greene county. It 
may be remarked in passing, that Samuel Thomas, adventur- 
ous youth, settled down to become a prosperous farmer and 
the patriarch of a large and prominent family; that Carlin, 
also adventurous youth, became the successful politician. 
Rattan, possibly as much imbued with the spirit of adventure 
as the others, became the energetic builder and business man, 
and had time also to enter politics. The three were types of 
the men who made and developed, not only Greene, but every 
county of the State. 

Rattan built and kept the first log cabin hotel in Carroll- 
ton ; built the court house that stood on the square for sixty 
years; built and operated mills; bridged the Macoupin with 
one of those old-fashioned wooden, boxed-up structures, that 
remained even longer than the old court house. With all these 
activities and a bit of farming on the side, he was drawn into 
political life, and reached a seat in the General Assembly at 
Vandalia two years ahead of Carlin, being elected representa- 
tive at the first general election in 1822. As the county and 
the people became more settled life became too monotonous 
here for Thomas Rattan, and he moved to the great south- 
west. In Texas he again became a pioneer, and died there 
in 1854. I find it stated in a Texas volume of biography that 
Rattan was a direct descendant of Gen. Nathaniel Greene, 



218 

for whom Greene county was named. Rattan's daughter, 
Annie Rattan, born in Carrollton in 1828, married James W. 
Throckmorton, one of the early governors of Texas. 

Gen. Jacob Fry, one of the early settlers, became a resi- 
dent in 1821, accepted Thomas Carlin's offer of a free lot if 
he would build upon it, and began the first house in Carrollton 
a frame house, mind you, for he cut the timber and split it 
into boards. But Rattan's log tavern has the credit of being 
the first building completed, for Fry stopped his own work to 
help Rattan. Fry was sheriff of the county for ten years, and 
near the close of that period officiated as executioner at the 
first public hanging in the county. Immediately after his un- 
pleasant duty was performed, he mounted his horse and rode 
away to join the company he had raised for the Black Hawk 
war. In that war he became a colonel, and at its close was 
made major general of the State militia. In 1827 he was ap- 
pointed one of the Illinois and Michigan canal commissioners, 
and in 1856, collector of customs at Chicago. In the Civil 
war he commanded a regiment that did valiant service at 
Shiloh. 

The very last one of those earliest settlers passed over 
into a New Country some twenty-odd years ago. Rowell 
Hunnicutt was of a type different from the others I have de- 
scribed. A year or two before he died, Mary Hartwell Cath- 
erwood, author of "Old Kaskaskia," "The Romance of Bol- 
lard," etc., visited Greene county and met and talked with the 
old man. He came as a boy to help Samuel Thomas in cross- 
ing the Macoupin, and his father settled in the bluffs over- 
looking the Illinois river. To Mrs. Catherwood, in 1895, he 
said: 

"Yes, I am a wild man myself yet. I wish I could go to 
a new country as this was in 1820. My father first moved his 
family into a cave in the bluff, near a spring. The time of 
the year was May. It was pretty living. We built our fire 
against the back of the cave, and the smoke rolled along the 
roof and went out at the cave door without any damage. This 
land was a paradise when I could stand on the bluff and look 
down in the river bottom and count fifty deer in sight. White 




GEN. JACOB FRY 
(GREENE COUNTY) 




COL. E. D. BAKER 
(GREENE COUNTY) 



219 

men hadn't spoiled the country and turned everything to 
dollars. Neighbors thought of what they could do for one 
another, not of how they might take advantage, and the In- 
dians were always honest." "Uncle Rowell" Hunnicutt, 'at 
83, longed to hunt up the Indian tribes he had lived with and 
near, back in the early '20s. Nothing would have pleased him 
better than to slip back 10,000 years and be a cave man again. 

About 1825 or '26 there arrived in Carrollton a family, 
cultured but poverty-stricken, Baker by name. There were 
several boys, and one of them, a lad of perhaps 12 or 14 years, 
was destined to have his name writ large in the nation's his- 
tory. Volumes have been printed about Edward Dickinson 
Baker, and the Illinois State Historical Society has listened 
to sketches of his life on more than one occasion, if I am not 
mistaken. It would be impossible for me to add to his fame 
or to pronounce a fitting eulogy at this time. 

But Carrollton has not been given credit for its share in 
his early life, and there have been conflicting statements about 
his boyhood. Several writers have sent him from Belleville 
to St. Louis in his young manhood and set him to driving a 
dray there. It has been established by the testimony of old 
residents of Carrollton that he was a mere boy when the fam- 
ily came there, and that he attended school at a log school 
house near the town. The family lived in a small log house 
near the public square. Moses 0. Bledsoe, then county clerk, 
afterward clerk of the supreme court, took an interest in the 
boy, loaned him books, assisted him with his studies and 
finally suggested that he study law. Young Baker entered the 
office of A. W. Cavarly, Carrollton 's first attorney, and was 
admitted to practice law when he was about 19 years old. In 
1831, when Baker was less than 21, he married the widow of 
Samuel Lee, the first county clerk and recorder. The home 
they occupied built by Samuel Lee in 1829 still stands as a 
part of the Hodges office building on the north side of the 
public square. 

The year following his marriage, Baker went to the Black 
Hawk war, and when it was over, he chose a novel and ad- 
venturous way of returning home floating down the Missis- 



220 

sippi 300 miles in a canoe, with an Indian for his only com- 
panion. 

It is said that Baker's father was one of the thirty-three 
victims of the cholera epidemic in Carrollton in 1833. It has 
been repeatedly stated that his mother died before the family 
came to Illinois. A citizen of Carrollton, still living, has told 
me that he distinctly remembers Mrs. Baker, as well as the 
rest of the family. 

The story often told of Baker's boyhood of how he was 
once found in tears because he had discovered that, being of 
English birth, he could never be president of the United 
States, has been handed down in Carrollton as having actually 
occurred there. Possibly it never occurred at all. 

You already know how he came to Springfield and out- 
shone the brightest intellects at the State capital; how he 
went to the Pacific coast and made history there ; how he went 
to the United States senate and met and put to shame the 
eloquence of the secessionists ; and finally how he buckled on 
the sword to meet secession in the field of battle, and fell at 
Ball's Bluff. 

While I am about the self-imposed and presumptuous 
task of correcting history, let me say that the credit for pre- 
venting bloodshed in the historic Lincoln-Shields duel belongs 
to a Carrollton pioneer, according to the recollection of old 
settlers. When James Shields challenged Abraham Lincoln 
in September, 1842, on account of the publication of some 
verses which Lincoln did not write, but assumed responsi- 
bility for it was agreed that the duel be fought on an island 
near Alton, broadswords to be the weapons. The local story 
is that Lincoln and his second, Merryman, riding in a rickety 
old buggy, behind a rather dilapidated horse, reached the 
village, on the way to Alton, the evening before the fateful 
day, and stopped for the night at a hotel. A detail of the 
story is that during the evening Lincoln took a broadsword, 
walked out to the edge of town, where a luxuriant patch of 
tall ' 'jimpsons" were growing, and practiced sword exercise 
for a half hour or so, to the almost utter destruction of the 
"jimpson" patch. 




JOHN RUSSELL 

(GREENE COUNTY) 



221 

Lincoln j i attended Greene county circuit court on sev- 
eral occasions, and had a few quite intimate friends in the 
town. One of these was R. W. English, who afterward moved 
to Springfield. English and one or two others, perhaps, fol- 
lowed Lincoln next morning to the "field of honor," and 
persuaded the combatants to call the affair off. None of 
Lincoln 'a biographers seem to have heard the Carrollton end 
of the story. 

Any account of the pioneers who helped in the making of 
Greene county would be incomplete without some reference to 
John Russell, the sage of Bluffdale, whose home, remote from 
the haunts of men, was sought by savants and scientists, 
even from the Old World. Eussell was born in Vermont in 
1793, and came to Greene county in 1828. The old home he 
built under the Illinois bluffs still stands. He was a writer 
of note, an educator of wide experience, and became editor 
of the first Greene county newspaper, the Backwoodsman, 
which was started in 1838 at Graf ton (then in Greene county) 
afterward published for a short time at Jerseyville, and 
moved to Carrollton in 1841, where Mr. Russell's son-in-law, 
A. S. Tilden, was its publisher. The publication came to an 
untimely end late in the latter year, when, after it had pre- 
sumed to rejoice over President Tyler's veto of the Bank bill, 
somebody entered the office at night and dumped the forms 
and type upon the floor. Russell died at Bluffdale in 1863. 

Brigadier General William P. Carlin was one of the dis- 
tinguished native sons of Greene county. He was a nephew 
of Governor Carlin, and was born on a farm a few miles from 
Carrollton in 1829. In 1846 he was admitted to West Point 
Military Academy, on recommendation of Senator Stephen A. 
Douglas, graduated in 1850, gained much experience in Indian 
warfare and had become a captain before the beginning of 
the Civil war. He was appointed colonel of the Thirty-eighth 
volunteer infantry in the summer of 1861 ; for gallantry at the 
battle of Stone River was promoted to brigadier general, and 
in 1863, for his distinguished services at Chickamauga, Chat- 
tanooga and Atlanta, was brevetted major general. After the 
war he was in command at several forts on the western fron- 



222 

tier, and retired from the service in 1893. He then bnilt a 
home in Carrollton, and died ten years later while returning 
from a western trip. His military funeral on October 11, 
1903, with the governor, other state officials and an escort of 
militia in attendance, was an event in the more recent history 
of Carrollton. The late General John M. Palmer, upon whose 
staff General Carlin served in the Civil war, frequently re- 
ferred to him as one of the bravest men he ever knew. 

Others there were who came while Greene county was 
still young whose names should be mentioned in this paper. 
Charles Drury Hodges, a young lawyer from Annapolis, 
Maryland, stepped from the stage coach one bleak day in 
November, 1833, and his dapper appearance made quite a 
sensation in the quiet, homespun village. He hung out his 
" shingle" in Carrollton; a few years later became county 
judge; was elected to congress; served six years as circuit 
judge, and was treasurer of the Alton, Jacksonville & Chicago 
railroad, the first steamroad built through Greene county. 

David Meade Woodson came also in the fall of 1833, from 
Kentucky, became the law partner of Judge Hodges, went to 
the legislature, was defeated for congress by Stephen A. 
Douglas, was a member of the constitutional convention of 
1847, and served nearly twenty years on the circuit bench. 

The name of Samuel Willard is familiar to the Illinois 
Historical Society. He came out from Boston in 1831, as a 
boy ten years old, and his father taught school in Carrollton. 
He lived in the town only during his boyhood, but with a boy's 
investigating turn of mind, he became familiar with the modes 
of living and the primitive ways of doing things that were in 
vogue in a pioneer community, and seventy-five years after- 
ward in 1906 he contributed to this society one of the most 
interesting papers it has ever listened to. 

All through the preparation of this paper there has con- 
stantly come into my mind a bit of quotation from ancient 
history from the Old Testament I believe it is 

" There were giants in those days." 





D. M. WOODSON 

GREENE CO.) 



C. D. HODGES 

(GREENE CO.) 




GOV. CARLIN'S OLD HOUSE 

(GREENE CO.) 



223 

Those giants who carved Egyptian temples out of solid 
rock 3,000 or 4,000 years ago were not more remarkable in 
achievement than the giants of intellect, and character, and 
energy who carved counties, and states and a nation out of tae 
virgin soil of a new continent. 

Think of the changes that have been wrought in a cen- 
tury! Where Samuel Thomas drove his oxcart across the 
untracked prairie, farmers now drive their big touring cars 
along well kept roads. Within a mile or two of Rowell Hun- 
nicutt's cave dwelling are now elegant farm houses, equipped 
with all the modern improvements of lighting, heating, sani- 
tation and luxury. Where Edward D. Baker trudged to a log 
school house are now being established community high 
schools with the best equipment and most efficient faculty that 
can be secured. 

There were giants in those days. And miracles have been 
wrought in a century. But let us not forget the giants in 
contemplation and enjoyment of the miracles. 



PARK COLLEGE AND ITS ILLINOIS FOUNDER 

BY PAULINE ASTON HAWLEY. 

The traveler who finds his way up the road, and at the 
very entrance of Park College Campus at Parkville, Missouri, 
(quite within a suburban limit of Kansas City) discovers an 
elm tree of such stately build, such symmetry of form, such 
thickness of branch and twig (sequestered cloister for the 
timid ones of the feathered family!) that he stands in com- 
pellent admiration. Its richness and thickness of foliage give 
it the hush of a cathedral; its hidden branches undisturbed 
by the common wind. Calm and poised it stands, a sentinel, 
its boughs reaching protectingly over a certain gray little 
house on a bluff overlooking the Missouri river. Together the 
house and the tree share secrets of the past, some of which 
are written in the history of Missouri, and are transactions 
important in the annals of the State yea, in the "history of 
the world. 

The little house, not always as gray nor so quiet, was the 
scene of large hospitality in the days of 1855 when Colonel 
George S. Park brought his New York bride to this pioneer 
home. For her he planted gardens of roses and other rare 
flowers. For her he set out orchards and then with careful 
thought for the years to come, he selected a straight young 
elm and planted it close to the house where it would be pro- 
tected from the south wind. A little daughter, the only child, 
came to complete the happiness in this bit of Eden, and under 
the ever widening branches she played with her dolls. But 
my story has not to do with the tree, but with the man who 
planted it and in vision saw it in its splendor of today. 
Colonel Park was a man of many visions, but it is of his great 
vision I would tell. 

In a quaint hand-fashioned book with chipped wooden 
covers, written on pages that are yellowed with the years, in 
Colonel Park's own hand writing I quote from his prayer of 
May 15, 1834: 

224 



225 

"Great and everlasting God . . . Graciously smile 
upon our efforts to quicken the intellect." 

Again on another page in an address to "The Youth of 
Jackson County ' ' in 1839 : 

"Dear to me the cause of Liberty and virtue which alone 
can be sustained by the promotion of knowledge." 

Again "Man is born to be educated. The very soil on 
which he treads is endowed with a thousand capabilities for 
production when excited by man's intelligence." 

Like Lincoln, he studied and stored in his mind by the 
fire-logs ' glow or flickering candle filling his hungering mind 
with knowledge of things about him, reaching out into history 
and poetry, philosophy and ancient languages. His college 
education was interrupted, but his longing for knowledge 
never ceased until life itself had done so. For fifty years he 
longed to found a college for the young men and women of 
the Missouri Valley who, because of lack of means, could not 
afford a college education elsewhere. In 1875 his ambition 
became a realization, and through his longings, his prayers, 
his unrelenting efforts, his generous gifts, Park College came 
into being. But even his great vision was short-sighted in 
the realization of what must have been once as a nebulous 
dream. For today, crowning the hills about the home of its 
founder, Park College stands with doors open not only to 
those of the Missouri Valley, but to the whole world. 

Park College is different from any other college a dif- 
ference that explains the applications that come from every- 
where, and which also explains the fact that annually hun- 
dreds are turned away for lack of room. For here no one 
is denied entrance for lack of funds. Ambition, character, 
and a willingness to work at least three hours a day at any 
task designated, are the qualifications. The dormitory accom- 
modations take care of only three hundred fifty students 
hence the student body is a "selected" one. Scholarship 
standards are high (Park is a member of the North Central 
Association of American Colleges), and only those whose re- 
ports show high grading are accepted. Park does not have a 



226 

restless, fluctuating faculty. Believing in the high Christian 
ideals, the sterling worth of the place, these men have tied 
themselves to the College, and having devoted their young 
lives, now at prime are giving rich experience in their teach- 
ing. 

There is no time for Inter-Collegiate Athletics at Park 
so the healthy, spontaneous enthusiasm that accompanies 
victories in the athletic field, finds its outlet over continued 
victories at Inter-Collegiate Debate and Oratory. For Park 
has been so in the habit of winning on the platform, that an 
eagerness and tenseness permeates the whole College family 
preceding a contest. And Park has its own time honored 
fashion of celebrating a victory which is not lacking in finesse 
of detail. The citizenship of Parkville long ago reconciled 
itself to * * sitting up ' ' and celebrating also when the Pajama 
Parade starts out on its program of announcement. 

The "Family Life" at Park is its distinct feature, of 
course. There are eight dormitories for men and women, 
each presided over by not a matron but a housemother 
there '& all the difference in the world ! These women are by 
education, broad and cultured, of gentle breeding, and Chris- 
tian character, well fitted to preside over the students. A 
home atmosphere is maintained and the most careful delicate 
thought given to the many problems which come up as in any 
co-ed school. The girls do all the cooking, serving, and house- 
work. And they are taught the better way of doing these 
things. The boys, besides doing the daily chores (itself a 
considerable feature for such a large family) have done much 
toward the building projects of the Campus under capable 
superintendents, and many students have found their lead to 
a life work. Quoting a freshman's views of family work: 
"Besides creating a better feeling of fellowship, it provides 
physical exercise for most of the students, and I think the 
good health record we have is partly due to the daily exercise 
at Family Work. " 

The devotional life at Park is emphasized. Recently a 
student said to a new arrival, "I believe there are more good 
people at Park than in any one place I know." In all the life 



227 

of the Campus, the teachings of Christ are the governing 
principles. Park College believes in a broad culture the 
kind one absorbs without conscious effort. The importance of 
social grace and courtesy are not lost sight of. The semin- 
aries are glad to enroll Park men, finding them the sterling 
type. The foreign mission boards look to Park for men and 
women volunteers, and as they go to far off countries, they 
tell of their beloved Alma Mater, and send native students to 
her from their various stations. So Park is almost as cosmo- 
politan as the world itself. Twelve countries and thirty states 
are represented in the present enrollment. The average cash 
payment by the students is small; an endowment commensu- 
rate with the annual expense and upkeep of the College, is 
still a far off thing even to the most optimistic trustee. But 
while the endowment is slowly climbing, friends of Park scat- 
tered over the country supply its needs with generous, prayer- 
ful gifts, and have done so faithfully through all these years 
of its fruitful history. Its Alumni, loyal and loving as mem- 
bers of a family, seem never to drift from the home feeling 
the College has given them. 

During his life time, Colonel Park fostered and gave to 
the College not only time and money, and buildings and land, 
but wise judgment and prayerful thought. Modest; it was 
not his wish that the College be named for him. He wrote 
the charter, a document that shows marvelous safeguarding 
of the interests of the College, and also chose the first Board 
of Trustees. As an illustration of his thoroughgoing ideas 
I quote from Section four of the Charter: 

4 'It is the earnest desire of the friends of this institution 
that it be established and built up by wisdom, and stand for- 
ever and go on improving like the older institutions of Europe 
and America. To accomplish this purpose it is suggested that 
the Board of Trustees look most critically into the way things 
are going and make wise provisions for future contingencies ; 
if any trustee neglects such care and caution request him to 
resign and appoint another. It is a positive wrong to be in- 
dulgent to incapacity or inefficiency, to idleness, wastefulness 
or any other unfitness. Let the eyes of these guardians pierce 



228 

every nook and corner and thereby insure wise and skillful 
management of the institution. Let them provide the best 
instructors and make the best provisions for the institution 
their funds will permit, going no further, remembering that 
the Lord's work must be done better than our own." 

Although the last years of his life were spent in Magnolia, 
Illinois, where he was a large land owner in that rich country, 
his interest in the College grew unceasingly. The little girl 
who played with her dolls under the tender shade of the young 
elm tree is now a leader in the womanhood of Illinois, Mrs. 
George A. Lawrence of Galesburg. Like her father she has 
stood for the finest in patriotism, the fostering of everything 
that is worth while. She is widely known for what she has 
been to state and country, and friend. She has taken up her 
father's work. Both she and her husband are life members 
of the Board of Trustees. They have given generously in 
buildings and land, and to current expenses, and their large 
giving has not kept them from constantly doing many things 
that add to the pleasure and comfort of the Campus and to 
individuals the things that tell of her love and heart interest 
in the work and workers. 

Today the old elm stands a splendid living monument to 
the man who planted it and methinks its gently moving 
branches whisper softly of his good deeds . . . * * a cease- 
less requiem." In antiphonal array the College buildings 
thronged with eager young life, speak imperishably of his 
thought and generosity, and his willingness to serve God by 
serving mankind; that was the impulse of Coloned Park's 
being that through him others might live. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF LINCOLN AND DOUGLAS 

IN HILLSBORO, ILLINOIS. 

* 

BY JOHN M. WHITEHEAD 

In the Lincoln-Douglas campaign both men made speeches 
in Hillsboro. As I remember, Mr. Lincoln spoke first earlier 
in the summer. There was a circus in town that day and the 
committee having charge of the Lincoln meeting chartered 
the "big top" and Mr. Lincoln delivered his speech in the 
afternoon from one of the circus wagons. The reason for 
this was the rain. It poured during the speech and beat upon 
"the top" so heavily at times that it was difficult to make 
himself heard. I do not remember that he told many stories 
and created much merriment. I remember him standing in 
the wagon in the circus ring. I was a small boy and my father 
had taken me with him in the forenoon to the place, the old 
"Lyceum," where other citizens had congregated to meet 
Mr. Lincoln and so I had a very distinct impression of him 
which has remained with me all my life. Relatives and 
friends of our family came from the farms of the vicinity to 
attend the meeting and took dinner at our house. The occa- 
sion was one of unusual interest to the community. The 
fame of the great debater had spread abroad. My father 
used to tell of the first speech he heard Mr. Lincoln make in 
the old log court house at Hillsboro. A part of the building 
remains covered with clapboards and occupied as a dwelling. 
My father came into town from his farm and seeing a crowd 
around the court house he concluded to find out what was 
going on. A political meeting was being held and one of the 
well known men of the day was talking. At the conclusion 
of his speech a call for "Lincoln" came from the crowd. 
Presently a tall, awkward, homespun sort of a young man 
began to make his way to the front. He finally reached the 
desired position and proceeded to make a speech. The time 
was "away back yonder," perhaps in one of the exciting cam- 
paigns of the '40s. I do not recall anything that my father 
said about the speech except that he said "Lincoln caught the 



229 



230 

crowd." All the circumstances were calculated ineffaceably 
to impress upon a child's memory the principal occurrences 
of the day. Up to the campaign of 1860 my father had been 
an ardent democrat but from that time on he had no patience 
with the democratic party. 

There were a number of the old citizens of Hillsboro who 
were life long acquaintances of Mr. Lincoln. Joseph T. Ec- 
cles was a Kentuckian of the fine old type who had known 
Mr. Lincoln from his youth up and was one of his trusted 
advisers in that part of the country. I remember one cold 
Sunday morning at the Presbyterian church I went with my 
father to the Sunday school, which preceded the church 
service, and there were gathered around the stove Mr. Eccles 
and others who were interested in what he had to say about 
his visit to Washington from which he had returned. By the 
way, my father and Mr. Eccles were great chums. I remem- 
ber my father asked Mr. Eccles if "Old Abe" knew him. 
Mr. Eccles had a very heavy voice and a prolonged chuckle 
when he laughed. He laughed and said, "Know me? I guess 
he did! He took care of me at the White House in the old 
fashioned way." Of course it wasn't my father's idea that 
Mr. Lincoln could have forgotten his old friend Eccles but he 
wanted to know if the old time cordiality continued. I do not 
recall the details of the conversation except that Mr. Eccles 
was extremely pleased with his visit to Washington and with 
the President. He repeated his visits to Washington during 
the administration and always came home full of interesting 
things to tell his Hillsboro acquaintances. 

The judge of the Circuit Court in that circuit was E. Y. 
Rice, a Kentuckian of the old school, who had been long 
acquainted with Mr. Lincoln and associated with him in pro- 
fessional activities, though opposed in politics. 

The village tavern stood two blocks from my father's 
home where all the lawyers of the circuit were wont to "put 
up" when they came to Hillsboro to the term of court. I 
remember distinctly many times seeing the members of the 
bar sitting out on the porch or in the street with their feet 
propped up against posts swapping stories and Lincoln was 



231 

often of that number. Among these lawyers were General 
John M. Palmer, U. F. Linder, Anthony Thornton and many 
others who obtained greater or less renown at the bar of 
Illinois. 

By the way, Mr. Douglas when he spoke in Hillsboro, 
spoke briefly in the evening from the roof of the tavern porch 
and he could be distinctly heard at my father's home. He had 
a marvelous voice. His principal speech was made in the 
afternoon at the fair ground. When I was in Yale College 
in the early seventies I remember hearing Blind Tom imper- 
sonate Mr. Douglas. Not so many years had elapsed then 
and the memories of Douglas were then fresher with me than 
now. I could remember well his noble voice and was greatly 
interested in Blind Tom's imitation of it. The older citizens 
of that community were nearly all acquaintances of Mr. Lin- 
coln, some were friends and others were very hostile, and so 
I heard a great amount of discussion of the President and his 
administration and of the conduct of the war among the 
people. 

On the morning that the news came of Mr. Lincoln's 
death, I was going with my father and the rest of the family 
from our farm west of town in a farm wagon to Hillsboro to 
attend the funeral of a relative whose body was coming on the 
morning train f r,om the southwest. One of our neighbors was 
on his way home wearing the blue swallow-tail coat with brass 
buttons, buff vest and silk hat of the style then worn by the 
old fashioned gentleman. He stopped us and told us the news 
of the President's death. His name was Mr. Cory. He had 
been a lifelong democrat and politically opposed to Lincoln, 
but his voice was thick and his whole frame shook with emo- 
tion. My father whipped up his horses and hurried on to 
town hoping against hope that later news would not bear out 
the earlier reports of the morning that the President was 
dead ; but alas ! the daily papers came in from St. Louis about 
the middle of the day and we had to know that the President's 
great earthly career was ended. 

There was a meeting at the Presbyterian church the fol- 
lowing Sunday evening to commemorate the life and public 



232 

services of Mr. Lincoln. The old-fashioned church was packed 
to the doors. There was some formality in the opening of the 
meeting but presently the opportunity was given to any to 
speak from where they sat in the congregation. No experi- 
ence in my childhood stands out more distinctly in my memory 
than my recollection of that wonderful meeting. One after an- 
other of the old men arose, some with the tears streaming 
down their faces, and with trembling voices expressed their 
love and admiration for the dead president and more particu- 
larly for the man whom they had known so familiarly for so 
many years. I particularly remember the remarks of one Mr. 
Stickel, one of the guests of our home on the day when Mr. 
Lincoln spoke in the circus tent. 

On the day of Mr. Lincoln's funeral in Springfield busi- 
ness was generally suspended in Hillsboro. Public services 
were held in one of the churches and the people came from far 
and near to show their respect for their great dead. It has 
always been a matter of deep regret to me that I was not re- 
quired by my parents to accompany them to these memorial 
services. Some childish whim beset my mind and I did not 
care to go and was not required to go, and so all my life I have 
felt a sense of loss on this account. 

There was very bitter partisanship in our part of the 
state. Many bitter things were said after Mr. Lincoln 's death 
which resulted in the severances of lifelong friendships and 
business relations, but there is no part of the country with 
which I am familiar where the memory of Abraham Lincoln 
is today more tenderly cherished than in good old Montgom- 
ery County. 

In 1872 I went to New England for my education. I was 
an object of special interest to many people there because I 
was able to talk about Mr. Lincoln. I remember once talking 
with Prof. Thomas A. Thatcher, professor of Latin in Yale, 
and the manner of my early life and acquaintances came up 
and among other things I made some reference to Mr. Lincoln. 
The professor at once began to tell me of Mr. Lincoln's visit 
to New Haven, of the speech he made in Old Music Hall, of 
the reception given to him by the citizens and of his own con- 



233 

versation with him. He spoke of Mr. Lincoln's friendly way 
and when he was introduced to him he said, ''Thatcher? Do 
you happen to be a relative of Congressman Thatcher of Kan- 
sas who was in Congress when I was?" (referring to his 
early one-term experience in Congress). Professor Thatcher 
narrated a great many other things that passed between him 
and Mr. Lincoln and his admiration and love for the man were 
unbounded. This was typical of the estimation in which Mr. 
Lincoln was everywhere held in New England. 



THE NORTHERN BOUNDARY LINE OF ILLINOIS 
SURVEYED BY HIRAM ROUNTREE 

The question is asked among Illinois historians: "Who 
surveyed the northern boundary of Illinois'?" In the recent 
history of Montgomery county, written by A. T. Strange of 
Hillsboro, the question is answered in a way that is of more 
than ordinary interest to the people of Montgomery county, 
for Mr. Strange insists that Hiram Rountree, one of the most 
prominent pioneers of Montgomery county, and for many 
years a resident of Hillsboro, was actually the man who did 
most of the work which proved of so great importance in la- 
ter years. 

In the history, Mr. Strange says: "Who surveyed the 
Northern Boundary of Illinois? This question is asked, be- 
cause apparently, an injustice has been done our most deserv- 
ing pioneer, in not accrediting to him the part he performed in 
a most important and difficult state work. Hiram Rountree 
certainly was one of three commissioners (and possibly the 
most active of the three) appointed to survey and mark the 
boundary line between Illinois and Wisconsin. But in the 
reports as submitted to the Department at Washington, no 
mention seems to be made of his participation in the work. 
From a mass of correspondence, conducted in the main by 
Hon. I. S. Blackwelder (now of Chicago), in relation to this 
matter, we have tried to prepare a summary of the facts and 
venture some deductions therefrom.' 

"Mr. Blackwelder in a letter to Mr. Strange under date 
of October 31, 1914, said: 'The subject (of this survey) 
was referred to several times in my conversations with Mr. 
Rountree and my recollection is as clear as noonday that 
he stated to me that he was the commissioner appointed 
by the state of Illinois to establish this boundary line, 
and that in doing so he crossed the state five times, ending 
finally at a point on the Mississippi River where a great stone 
was placed to mark the western end of the line. His descrip- 

234 



235 

tions of the hardships encountered, of marching through the 
tall grass and heavy underbrush, and swimming rivers, were 
so graphic that it made a deep impression on my mind and 
those who knew Judge Bountree, knew him as a most trutn- 
ful and conscientious man, who would make no statement of 
this kind which was not true.' 

"In an obituary notice published in a Hillsboro paper 
after his death in 1873, we find the following: 'In 1830-1831, 
he with others was appointed under the administration of 
General Jackson, commissioner to view and mark out the 
northern boundary line of Illinois, which service he fully per- 
formed. ' 

"In Reynolds' pioneer history of Illinois, we find these 
words : ' Messinger was appointed with a gentleman of Hills- 
boro to survey on the part of the state of Illinois, the northern 
limits of the state, Lucius Lyons on the part of the United 
States. ' 

"The report of Mr. Messinger was dated January 29, 
1833. It shows that Mr. Daniel R. Davis, upon the part of the 
United States, and Mr. Andrew Brailey, on the part of the 
United States, were assistants ; Mr. Brailey, it will be remem- 
bered, was a son-in-law of Jesse Townsend, the first Presby- 
terian minister in Montgomery county and was evidently 
appointed on the recommendation of Mr. Rountree, who knew 
him well. From the report as given, it was stated that the 
work was not completed in 1831, on account of cold weather 
setting in on them. In May, 1832, Judge Rountree went into 
the Black Hawk war at the head of a company of volunteers, 
but was mustered out in August of the same year. From all 
available evidence, he resumed the work on the boundary line 
after his return from the Black Hawk war, as it would have 
been physically impossible to have run a line five times on 
foot and horseback across the state in 1831, after the October 
meeting at Galena and the closing of the winter. The report 
states that the stone which was set to mark the end of the 
survey was several feet long and estimated to weigh five tons. 
This corresponds with Mr. Rountree 's statement to Mr. 
Blackwelder, and shows that Mr. Rountree was present when 



236 

the work was completed else he could not have said the west- 
ern and concluding end of the survey 'was marked by a great 
stone.' 

"Now from the above quotations it is perfectly clear that 
Mr. Eountree was appointed as one of the commissioners. 
While the act of Congress hereafter referred to, seems to 
provide for one of the commissioners to be from Wisconsin, 
there is no mention of such a commissioner ever participating 
in this work, in the report or correspondence consulted. Mr. 
Blackwelder states that Judge Eountree told him they waited 
for the Wisconsin commissioner to arrive but not getting 
there, he proceeded without him. The inference is that Mes- 
singer, Eountree and Lyons constituted the whole commission. 

"The next question is who did the work. The act of 
Congress under which this survey was to be made was passed 
by Congress April 18, 1831, and included boundaries in Ala- 
bama, Illinois and other controverted lines. Mr. Lucius Lyons, 
the United States commissioner, was a resident of Detroit, 
Mich., and his control apparently was general, rather than lo- 
cal, and he died before the completion of the work. Mr. Black- 
welder says 'he died about the time the party was to begin the 
work.' It is therefore apparent that he never signed the re- 
port personally and that his signature was merely attached 
to credit him with the position he held for the United States. 
In the report of the commission as signed by Messinger with 
Lyons' name attached, they say: 'They (the commissioners) 
met at Galena in the latter part of October 1831, preparatory 
to commencing the survey which is just now completed. ' 

"Another statement made by Mr. Eountree to Mr. Black- 
welder was that while 'awaiting the coming of the Wisconsin 
commissioner they spent several weeks in making astronomi- 
cal observations. ' In the report as made by Mr. Messinger, he 
used almost the same words, when he says, 'more than a 
month had elapsed before a survey could be made to the entire 
satisfaction of the board.' As showing the accuracy of Mr. 
Eountree 's statement, he relates that the survey extended 
from the Mississippi river to Lake Michigan, while the report 
of Mr. Messinger is less definite as to the lake end of the work. 



237 

It seems apparent that Mr. Rountree was present and partici- 
pated in all of the work unless it might have been a series of 
lines run on the western end and before leaving there, it, is 
stated, that only one surveyor was retained, he being the Illi- 
nois surveyor, who might have been either Messinger, Roun- 
tree or Brailey, as all were surveyors. It is the opinion of 
Mr. Strange and Mr. Blackwelder that when the time came for 
making the report in January, 1833, Mr. Lyons being dead, 
his name was attached as a matter of form, and, Mr. Rountree 
not being present, Mr. Messinger did not assume the privilege 
of signing his name and the treasury department accepted 
and filed the report as submitted without requiring the sig- 
nature of Mr. Rountree.* While an injustice was done Mr. 
Rountree in omitting his approval of the report, and his sig- 
nature thereto, we do not assert that such was an intentional 
wrong; on the other hand we think the report was a hastily 
prepared statement made with respect to the requirements of 
the statute and merely to comply with the requirements of 
the United States authorities/' 

Mr. Strange and Mr. Blackwelder are to be commended 
for ferreting out these facts which are so valuable to Mont- 
gomery county history. It is well known in this community 
that Mr. Strange, the author of the history, has spent several 
years in gathering facts and correspondence relating to 
county history. 

Mr. Blackwelder was county clerk of Montgomery county 
from December 3, 1861, to December 3, 1865. He was consid- 
erably less than 22 years old when he was sworn into office and 
the Secretary of State told him he was the youngest man who 
ever held the position in the state. Later he went to Chicago 
and became president of the Western Insurance Union in 1903 
and 1904. He has been prominent in community and insurance 
work in Chicago for many years. 

The Hon. Elam L. Clarke of Waukegan, III, who has made an intensive study of 
the matter of the northern boundary line of Illinois thinks that Mr. Rountree resigned 
on account of illness and that Mr. Messinger was appointed in his place. 



EDITORIALS 



JOURNAL OF 

THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

f 

Published Quarterly by the Society at Springfield, Illinois. 
JESSIE PALMER WEBER, EDITOR. 

Associate Editors: 

George W. Smith Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. Page 

Applications for membership in the Society may be sent to the Secretary of the 
Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Illinois. 

Membership Fee, One Dollar Paid Annually. Life Membership, $25.00 

VOL. XIII JULY, 1920 No. 2 

ANNUAL MEETING ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY 

The twenty-first annual meeting of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society was held in the Senate Chamber, in the Cap- 
itol Building on Friday, May 14, 1920. Dr. 0. L. Schmidt, 
the president of the Society, presided over all sessions of the 
meeting. 

The program as announced in the April number of the 
Journal was carried out with some additions. At the annual 
luncheon at the St. Nicholas Hotel the Honorable Eufus C. 
Dawes, a member of the Historical Society and now serving 
as a member of the State Constitutional Convention, talked 
to the Society about what a State Constitution should be. 
The address of Mr. Dawes was a notable one in the histoiy 
of the Society. It was brief, but it covered the subject 
clearly, and was delivered in a most pleasant and forceful 
manner in simple and graceful English. Mr. Dawes explained 
the difference between organic law and statute law in so clear 
and plain a manner as to make the difference clearly under- 
stood by all who had the pleasure of listening to the address. 

The annual address was presented at the evening ses- 
sion by the Honorable Oliver A. Harker, of the University 
of Illinois. 

241 



242 

The subject of the address was, "Fifty Years with the 
Bench and Bar of Southern Illinois." 

Judge Harker, though only seventeen years of age in 
1863, enlisted as a private in the 67th Illinois Volunteer Regi- 
ment in the Civil War. After the close of the war he at- 
tended college, and began the practice of law in Vienna, 111., 
in 1870, and from that time until 1897 was actively engaged 
in his profession either as a practicing attorney or a judge 
on the bench of Southern Illinois. 

Since 1897 he has been connected with the Law Depart- 
ment of the University of Illinois. Judge Harker is well 
versed in the history of the State and his fifty years ' service 
as a lawyer and judge has furnished him with a most interest- 
ing fund of anecdotes and reminiscences. He gave the His- 
torical Society the benefit of this rich store of knowledge in 
his address, which was an interesting account of lawyers, 
judges, and cases at law in Illinois during the past half 
century. 

Other addresses were presented by Mrs. Edna Arm- 
strong Tucker of Rock Island ; Mr. Charles Bradshaw of Car- 
rollton; Miss Mary E. McDowell of Chicago; Prof. Arthur 
C. Cole of the University of Illinois and Mrs. Grace Wilbur 
Trout. All of these papers were prepared with great care 
and delivered in an excellent manner. 

Members of the Society are urged to attend the Annual 
meetings and special meetings. 

Springfield is a favorite town for conventions of state 
associations, and the month of May is a favorite month in 
which to hold such conventions. Under its constitution the 
State Historical Society must hold its annual meeting in May, 
of each year. The directors of the Society are empowered 
by the constitution to select the exact date in May for the 
meeting. The program committee in recommending to the 
directors a date for the meeting tries to avoid conflicting with 



243 

conventions, but it happened this year that the Illinois State 
Music Teachers' Association was in session at this time, as 
was a convention of the Disciples or Christian Church. 

On the day of the Annual meeting of the Society, the 
Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra was in the city as a part 
of the exercises of the Music Teachers ' Convention, and pop- 
ular concerts were given both afternoon and evening. The 
citizens of Springfield very liberally subscribed for tickets 
to these fine concerts, both on account of the high quality of 
the entertainments and their desire to encourage in every 
way the music teachers of the State. 

The concerts given at the State Arsenal at popular prices, 
of course drew large crowds, and the people attending 
them were the ones who usually attend the sessions of the 
Historical Society. In spite of these unusual attractions, 
the members of the Historical Society were in the main, faith- 
ful in their attendance upon the Society's annual meeting. 
This is especially true of members residing away from 
Springfield. 

The music at the luncheon was furnished by John L. 
Taylor's orchestra, which played selections of old time and 
popular music. Mrs. Gary Westenberger sang the Illinois 
Centennial songs at the luncheon. She also sang at the after- 
noon session and was, as usual, received with pleasure. Mrs. 
Westenberger is a favorite with the Historical Society, on 
account of her fine voice, her pleasing and appropriate selec- 
tions of songs for the meetings, and especially for her un- 
failing interest in the Society and her readiness at all times 
to favor it with her charming singing. 

The music at the evening session consisted of two groups 
of songs by Miss Rebecca Scheibel. Miss Scheibel has a so- 
prano voice of unusual beauty and power, and her singing 
was greatly enjoyed by the Historical Society. 



ILLINOIS IN THE WORLD WAR 



The state of Illinois is using its best efforts to collect and 
preserve the history of its participation in the great World 
War. 

An appropriation was made by the Fifty-first General 
Assembly to the Illinois State Historical Library which au- 
thorized and enabled the Library to organize a War Record 
section. Mr. Wayne E. Stevens, a member of the Historical 
Society, who has frequently contributed to the Journal was 
made secretary of this department of the work of the Histori- 
cal Library. Mr. Stevens served during the war in the depart- 
ment of Historical Service in Washington and is well fitted 
and equipped for the work. He began his work for the Library 
about a year ago. He is assisted by Miss Marguerite E. 
Jenison, who was also employed in the war history service. 
It is hoped to collect and classify the work done in each county 
with special reference to the work of auxiliary organizations 
such as the Red Cross, Liberty Loans, War Savings, food 
and fuel conservation, war gardens, children's gardens and 
other such important agencies. 

The records of the Illinois State Council of Defense will 
also be turned over to the Historical Library for permanent 
preservation. 

The work throughout the state is well under way and the 
Journal urges the members of the Historical Society to give 
to it hearty co-operation and every possible assistance. Sug- 
gestions will be welcomed. 

The United States departments at Washington are to be 
carefully searched for the record of the part taken by Illinois 
commercial concerns in the war work. A list of the war con- 
tracts filled by Illinois firms and individuals will be secured, 
with a brief history of the service and its use and magnitude. 

This is, of course, in addition to the purely military his- 
tory in which the Library will co-operate with the Adjutant 
General of the State. The plan of the Library is to publish at 
least two volumes. One to contain the statistical material just 
mentioned; the other to contain copies of letters and diaries 
written while in the service by our soldiers, with such other ma- 
terial as will properly accompany these personal documents. 



244 



DR. DAVID KINLEY 

ELECTED TO THE PRESIDENCY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



Dr. David Kinley, acting president of the University 01 
Illinois, was elected to the presidency at a meeting of the 
Board of Trustees at the Blackstone Hotel, Chicago, June 2, 
1920. 

Dr. Kinley has been acting as president since last July, 
when Dr. James took a leave of absence because of illness. 
The formal inauguration of Dr. Kinley will probably take 
place in September, when Dr. James will be made president 
emeritus. 

Dr. Kinley was born in Scotland in 1861, and came to the 
United States eleven years later with his parents. They 
settled in Andover, Mass., where Dr. Kinley attended school. 
He graduated from Yale University in 1884, and was made 
principal of the North Andover, Mass., high school, where 
he remained until 1890. In 1891 and 1892 he was a teacher 
of history in the Johns Hopkins University and instructor 
in economics and logic in the Baltimore Woman's College. He 
taught economics in the University of Wisconsin in 1893, after 
which he joined the faculty of the University of Illinois as an 
assistant professor in economics. He was made a full pro- 
fessor a year later and also dean of the college of Literature 
and Arts. 

Still retaining the chair of economics, he organized 
courses in business training in 1902, and it was principally 
through his efforts that the college of Commerce came into 
being. It was his idea and his energy and administrative 
ability principally which shaped the curriculum. 

Dr. Kinley is an authority on finance and is the author of 
several books on the subject. 

In 1910 Dr. Kinley was appointed one of the delegates 
to the Fourth International Conference of American States 
at Buenos Aires, and after that was for a brief time, United 
States minister on special mission to Chile. He is a member 
of the committee on research in economics and history of the 



245 



246 

Carnegie endowment for International Peace. He is also an 
honorary member of the faculty of the University of Santiago, 
Chile, and of economic societies in various parts of the world. 

With the election of a president the trustees will complete 
plans to obtain at the next session of the legislature, legisla- 
tion increasing the University's special tax one-third. The 
trustees also want a special appropriation of $10,000,000 for 
buildings, laboratories, shops and equipment, to be spent at 
the rate of $1,000,000 annually. 

The special tax for the university was one mill on each 
dollar of the taxable property of the state. This was reduced 
to two-thirds of a mill last July after the valuations were in- 
creased one-third. "That action gives us approximately the 
same amount of money," said Robert F. Carr, president of 
the board of trustees. "Our income is about $2,500,000 an- 
nually. But unless we are able to increase it by a considerable 
amount, we shall be badly crippled." 

There are about 10,000 students registered this year. The 
faculty numbers between 700 and 800. 



Alumni associations in every city in Illinois as well as the 
commercial organizations and club women will be enlisted in 
the campaign to obtain legislation. 

Doctor Kinley has been acting president of the Univers- 
ity of Illinois since President Edmund J. James resigned. He 
has been appointed president of the university and formally 
accepted the appointment June 15, 1920. 



MEMORIAL DAY PROCLAMATION 
OF GOVEBNOB FRANK 0. LOWDEN, MAY 12, 1920 



"Again, with hearts united, we approach our National 
Memorial Day. It has become the great occasion among our 
people for the expression of patriotic sentiment. The glowing 
pages of glorious history are again read. Over the grave of 
every American veteran flies the flag. The appearance in uni- 
form of soldiers of three wars of the republic stirs the youth 
to increased love of country and stimulates their imagination 
to deeds of heroism and valor. The tender recollections of the 
honored dead inspire renewed devotion to the high ideals for 
which, in the sunny south, in the islands of the sea or on 
Flanders field they gave their all. 

"In many homes there are lonely hearts because of costly 
sacrifices made in the great war from which we have only re- 
cently emerged. In that war our people were united as never 
before in our history. Everything which tended to separate 
them into groups on account of race, religion, residence, or 
rank, was forgotten in the common desire to serve best the 
interest of country. Now again we find ourselves distracted 
by conflicting motives. The great wave of war-bred pa- 
triotism seems to have broken up on the rocks of selfishness. 
But this clash of opinions and interest must and will give 
way. The clear note of national spirit will soon be heard 
again above the present discordant sounds. 

"Memorial day brings to the mind and heart of the 
people renewed recognition of a common heritage and a com- 
mon obligation. Respect for its dead exalts a nation above 
selfish ambition and strife. Memorial day of 1920 might well 
be notable in our annals if it were possible to recapture that 
spirit of united loyalty and patriotism which characterized 
the world war. 

"I urge that on the coming Memorial day the citizens of 
Illinois, with gratitude for the past and with faith in the 
future, renew their devotion to Americans ideals as with 
fragrant flowers they remember our patriotic dead. : 



ELIHU EOOT 

PRESENTS LINCOLN STATUE TO THE BRITISH PEOPLE 



Elihu Root, who recently took part in the work of the 
commission of jurists at The Hague for the establishment of a 
permanent international Court of Justice, on July 28, formally 
presented to the British people the St. Gaudens Statue of 
Lincoln in Canning Square, as a gift from America, and later 
the statue was unveiled. 

Premier Lloyd George delivered the speech of acceptance. 
The presentation was made in the presence of a distinguished 
audience in the central hall of Westminster, with Viscount 
Bryce, former British ambassador to the United States pre- 
siding. The event was widely heralded in the British press as 
further cementing Anglo-American friendship. 



DR. JAMES W. GARNER OF UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
To DELIVER SERIES OF LECTURES IN PARIS 



Dr. James W. Garner, head of the department of political 
science in the University of Illinois, and a recognized author- 
ity on international law, has been chosen to deliver a series of 
lectures in Paris and the French provinces under the James 
Hazen Hyde foundation. 

Dr. Garner will sail in September to begin his new work. 



MISS NELLIE WALKER 
APPOINTED ON THE STATE ART COMMISSION 



Miss Nellie V. Walker, the Chicago sculptor, was ap- 
pointed by Governor Lowden, as a member of the State Board 
of Art Advisers, succeeding Albin Polasek of the Art 
Institute. 

Miss Walker came to Chicago from Moulton, Iowa, in 
1900 to study at the Institute as a pupil of Lorado Taft and 
C. J. Mulligan. Later she became a teacher and her work 
began to win wide recognition and prizes. 

248 



249 

One of her earlier works was a bust of Senator A. B. 
Cummins, the governor of Iowa. 

Miss Walker is the sculptor of the bronze relief placque 
representing an Illinois ranger or soldier of the Territorial 
Period, 1809-1818. This tablet was erected by the state of 
Illinois to the memory of the Illinois Eangers in the war of 
1812. The legislature appropriated twelve hundred dollars 
($1,200) for this tablet. It was dedicated January 12, 1915. 
The Illinois Daughters of 1812 had charge of the dedicatory 
exercises. The tablet is placed on the north wall of the State 
Library in the Capitol Building. 



CHICAGO HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
RAISES FIBST $50,000 FOE GUNTHER COIXECTION 

At a meeting of the women's committee of the C. F. 
Gunther collection at the Chicago Historical Society, Mrs. 
George A. Carpenter, chairman, announced the completion of 
the first $50,000 of the fund for the purchase of the collection 
by the society. July 1st was set as the date by which the 
money must be raised. 

The collection which contains relics and heirlooms of the 
Lincoln and Washington families, and many valuable manu- 
scripts, is being bought by the Society for $150,000. 

Among those at the meeting who will aid in the collection 
of the balance of the purchase price, are Mrs. Hamilton Mc- 
Cormick, Mrs. Samuel Insull, Mrs. William Burley, Mrs. 
Bronson Peck, Miss Agnes Foreman, Miss Estelle Ward, and 
Miss Caroline M. Mcllvaine. 



MISS HARRIET MONROE AND OTHERS 
GIVEN DEGREE AT BAYLOR UNIVERSITY, TEXAS. 

Miss Harriet Monroe, editor of Poetry Magazine, re- 
ceived the degree of Litt. D., at the Diamond Jubilee of Bay- 
lor University, Waco, Texas, June 16. Edwin Markham and 
Vachel Lindsay were other poets who received similar de- 
grees. 



SEYMOUB M. STONE, ARTIST 



Seymour M. Stone, the Chicago artist, who began his 
painting career along Canal Street, using wagons for his 
initial efforts, has just completed portraits of the Secretary 
of War and Mrs. Newton D. Baker. He is now at work on a 
portrait of Secretary of State, Colby. 

The first exhibition of his work is being held at the 
Corcoran Art Gallery in Washington and includes portraits 
of members of the diplomatic corps and their wives and a 
number of the members of European royalty. 

Mr. Stone is forty years old. In England he was hailed 
as "the new genius," his painting " Parsifal" attracting wide 
attention. 



MEETING OF ART EXTENSION COMMITTEE 
OF THE BETTER COMMUNITY MOVEMENT 



Art patrons from all over the state gathered at the Art 
Institute in Chicago, July 22, 1920, for a three days ' meeting 
of the newly organized Art Extension committee of the better 
community movement fostered by the University of Illinois. 
Lorado Taft, chairman of the committee, delivered a lecture 
in Mandel Hall at the University of Chicago on the afternoon 
of the twenty-second. 

The committee proposes to provide lectures on com- 
munity improvement and art, promote landscape gardening, 
and foster the establishment of beautification of town squares 
and school yards. 

Prof. R. E. Hieronymus is co-operator and Charles A. 
Bennett of Peoria is executive secretary of the committee. 
Other members are: Miss Katherine Dickinson, Alton, 111., 
James M. Cowan, Aurora, 111., E. M. Evans, Bloomington, 
111., Miss Mary M. Wetmore, Champaign, 111., Mrs. Julia 
Hegeler, Danville, 111., George Ludwig, Danville, 111., Robert 
W. Lahr, Decatur, 111., Miss Carmen A. Trimmer, East St. 
Louis, 111., Mrs. Leah C. Pearsall, Elgin, 111., Mrs. Florence 



250 



251 

Wilkens Furst, Freeport, 111., Miss Ella Trabue, Jacksonville, 
111., Mrs. Adele Fay Williams, Joliet, 111., Mrs. Bessie F. Dun- 
lap, Kankakee, 111., Miss Effie Doan, LaSalle, 111., Mrs. Julia 
Proctor White, Peoria, 111., Mrs. Howard H. Priestley, Prince- 
ton, 111., Mrs. Mary E. Beatty, Quincy, 111., Mrs. Myra H. Will- 
son, Virden, 111., Mrs. Thurlow G. Essington, Streator, 111. 



SOME INTERESTING FACTS 

SUGGESTED BY THE ARTICLE ON "THE RISE OF THE METHODIST 



EPISCOPAL, CHURCH/' BY JOHN D. BARNHART, JR. 

Springfield, Mass. 
Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, 
Secretary Illinois Historical Society. 
Springfield, 111. 
Dear Madam : 

In the July, 1919, issue of the Journal appears an article 
by John D. Barnhart, entitled "The Rise of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church," etc. On page 151, the last paragraph 
reads, "In 1788 Bishop Asbury first crossed the mountains 
in his travels. During his lifetime he crossed them sixty 
times. The first conference beyond the mountains was held 
in May at Half Acres and Key woods. ' ' 

The footnote at this point reads : ' ' The location of these 
places is disputed. All are agreed that they are beyond the 
mountains either in Virginia or Tennessee." 

I have recently been reading "Holston Methodism," by 
R. N. Price. Volume 1, page 113, gives the following infor- 
mation: "In the history of the first conference, Keywood's 
and Huffaker's have been intimately associated and some- 
times confounded. The second conference certainly known to 
have been held in the Holston country was held at Huff aker 's 
in 1792. It was held in the residence of Michael Huffaker, 
grandfather of the late Rev. J. N. S. Huffaker, of the Holston 
Conference, South * * * * The Huffaker place has for 
many years been known as the Greenfield place, and in 1888 



252 

was the property of James L. White of Abingdon, Va. At 
that time this house was still standing and in a tolerably good 
state of preservation. The writer had the honor of occupying 
a room in it during the three days of the Centennial Anni- 
versary. The locomotive thunders over the soil of the Huf- 
f aker farm in its daily trips between Saltville and other points 
on the Norfolk and Western railway. ***** Bishop 
Asbury writing in his journal of the Key wood Conference 
says 'Came to Half acre's and Keywoods, where we held con- 
ference three days.' The bishop commits the not unusual 
blunder of spelling Huff aker ' Half acre. ' ' ' 

On page 156 of this same volume Bishop Asbury says, 
" Friday, May 12, rode to Half acres, about forty miles, and 
came in about 11 o'clock. Saturday, Sunday and Monday, 
13th, 14th, 15th (1792), we were engaged in the business of 
Holstein Conference." 

Volume V, page 368, is the following, " Those who are 
familiar with the Holston Methodist history know that the 
first Methodist Conference west of the Alleghenies was held 
by Bishop Asbury at the residence of Stephen Keywood, in 
Washington county, Va., May 13, 14 and 15, 1788. The Key- 
wood place was some two miles south of Saltville. On May 
13 and 14, 1888, the one-hundredth anniversary of this con- 
ference was celebrated at Mahanaim church, which stood near 
the place of the holding of the Huffaker Conference in 1792. 
* * * * Mahanaim church is a mile and a half from the 
old Keywood residence and a half mile from the Huffaker 
home. The lot on which this church stands was deeded to the 
Methodist church by Michael Huffaker 'to the end of time.' " 

There is little doubt that the name of Halfacre and Huf- 
faker are the same. It has been written in church records 
since, misspelled similarly. The grandson of this Michael 
Huffaker, the Rev. J. N. S. Huffaker, was a well known man in 
the Methodist church and colleges of the South. His family 
identify the second conference as having been held at Huf- 
faker's. 

This bit of historical matter is the more interesting when 
it is known that two brothers of this same Michael Huffaker 



253 

were early Illinois pioneers. One, named Jacob Huffaker, fol- 
lowed his son, Michael, to Morgan county in 1826. The other 
one settled in Bureau county. Strange to say, neither of 
these, so far as known, was a member of the Methodist church. 

My personal interest in the pioneering Huffakers lies in 
the fact that the Michael who settled in Morgan county near 
Jacksonville was my grandfather. 

Very truly, M. H. GBASSLY. 
M. H. Grassly, 
4 Virginia Street, 
Springfield, Mass. 



KNOX COLLEGE, GALESBUEG, ILLINOIS, 
CONFERS HONORARY DEGREES UPON ILLINOIS WOMEN 

Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen of Chicago, was given the honor- 
ary degree of Master of Arts, at Knox college, for her service 
for public welfare, and as a leader of the 700,000 women she 
registered for war service in Illinois. Another woman, Dr. 
Delia Bice Matheny of Galesburg, was similarly honored for 
her service for child welfare in Knox county during the war 
and for her past service in public health in her community. 



EOCKFOED COLLEGE, EOCKFOED, ILL., 
EECEIVES GIFT OF $10,000 

Among the gifts announced at Eockford College, June 3, 
was one of $10,000 from Mrs. Catherine Waugh McCulloch, 
of Evanston, Illinois. 



ILLINOIS COLLEGES EECEIVE GIFTS 

Dr. Wallace Buttrick of the general education board of 
New York announced on June 4, the gift to Illinois College, 
Jacksonville, of $125,000, and to the Illinois Women's College 
of Jacksonville, $133,000 for increases in teachers ' salaries. 



CHICAGO WOMAN EEPEESENTS CHICAGO CHAP- 

TEE OF THE AMEEICAN ASSOCIATION OF 

ENGINEEES AT SCIENTIFIC CONGEESS 

IN HONOLULU 

Miss Florence King, consulting engineer and patent at- 
torney, will represent Chicago Chapter of the American As- 
sociation of Engineers at the Pan-Pacific Congress to be held 
in Honolulu, Hawaii, Aug. 2 to 20. Miss King is the only certi- 
fied woman member of the association. For twenty-five years 
she has been engaged in Chicago as a consulting engineer of 
mechanic design and construction, as attorney and solicitor of 
patents. 

COLONIAL DAMES CONTEIBUTE $1,215.00 
TOWARD PURCHASE OF GUNTHER COLLECTION 

Miss Caroline M. Mcllvaine, secretary of the Chicago 
Historical Society, has received a check for $1,215 from the 
Illinois Society of Colonial Dames of America through its 
president, Mrs. Paul Blatchford, of Oak Park. The amount 
will apply on the first payment of $50,000 toward the purchase 
price of $150,000 for the Gunther collection of historical docu- 
ments and relics. 

Mrs. Blatchford wrote that the Colonial Dames consider 
the Historical Society the most vital of any aid to be had in 
Chicago for the teaching of Americanism. 

The teas which are being held in the society rooms on 
alternate Wednesdays will be continued through the summer, 
and plans will be discussed for raising the remainder of the 
purchase price. 

MES. LOUISE GEEGOEY 
WIFE OF THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, 



Mrs. Louise Gregory, wife of the first president of the 
University of Illinois died at LaFayette, Ind., May 1st, 1920. 
Mrs. Gregory was the first woman of the faculty of the Uni- 
versity of Illinois. In 1873 she came to the University as pro- 
fessor of home economics. Mrs. Gregory was buried in Ur- 
bana, Illinois. 



254 



DR. ACHILLES DAVIS OF WESLEY HOSPITAL, DIES 

Dr. Achilles Davis, one of the most widely known phy- 
sicians and surgeons in the country, and a former member 
of the faculty of Northwestern University, died at his home 
in Chicago, May 3. Dr. Davis was born at Lowell, Ind., in 
1874. He served during the war as a member of the staff of 
the "Wesley Memorial Hospital. His widow, who was Miss 
Ella Barker of Rochester, Minn., survives. 



JUDGE WILLIAM P. SLOAN 

Judge William P. Sloan, a well known financier and 
attorney, died at Golconda, 111., June 29, 1920. He was at 
one time law partner of Hon. James A. Rose, who was secre- 
tary of state of Illinois, 1897-1912. 



DEATH OF ELLIOT FLOWER 

Elliot Flower, author of books and magazine stories, and 
at one time reporter and editor in the employ of the Chicago 
Tribune, died at his home in Coronado Beach, Cal., July 4th. 
He was 57 years old. He is survived by his mother, Mrs. Lucy 
L. Flower, for whom the Lucy Flower Technical School in 
Chicago was named. 



MRS. AMANDA E. POORMAN 
COUSIN OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN, DEES IN CHICAGO. 

Mrs. Amanda E. Poorman, a cousin of Abraham Lincoln, 
died on Tuesday, July 20, at the home of her daughter, Mrs. 
William F. Huge, 4700 West End Avenue. Mrs. Poorman was 
87 years of age. She was a daughter of Dennis Hanks. She 
was born in Charleston, 111., March 1, 1834. Two children 
survive : Mrs. William F. Huge, and Mrs. C. P. Cummings of 
Decatur, 111. 

255 



256 

MRS. JENNIE S. CARPENTER 

TEACHER FOR FORTY-TWO YEARS, DIES IN CHICAGO. 

Mrs. Jennie Strickland Carpenter, senior teacher in the 
Chicago public schools in point of service, died Tuesday, July 
6, at her home, 2622 West Adams St., Chicago. She was 65 
years old. She began teaching in 1873 at the Clarke school 
and taught continuously for forty-two years and eight months. 
Her last charge was at the Seward school, directing the educa- 
tion of subnormal children. 



GIFT OF BOOKS, LETTERS AND MANUSCRIPTS TO 

THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL 

LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 

Army and Navy Roster of Oak Park and River Forest, Vol. I. Gift of Mr. Vincent 
Starrett, 5611 W. Lake St., Chicago, III 

Genealogy. Devon Carys, 2 Vols. Gift of Mr. Fairfax Harrison of Belvoir, Far- 
quier Co., Virginia. 

Genealogy. Wood Family of Shelf Halifax Parish, Yorkshire, England, in Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, Long Island, N. Y., and Canada. By Col. Casey A. Wood, 
M. D. Gift of Dr. Casey Wood, 7 W. Madison St., Chicago, 111. 

History of Congregation Adath Israel, Louisville, Kentucky, and the addresses 
delivered. Gift of the Congregation, Louisville, Kentucky. 

Illinois Official Reporter, June 2, 1920. Gift of Mr. Samuel P. Irwin, Bloomington, 
Illinois. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Abraham Lincoln by an Oxford M. A. Gift of H. P. Stokes, 
M. A., Rector and author, Bedhampton Rectory, Havant, Hampshire, England. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Sears (Rev.), Hiram. The People's Keepsake or funeral ad- 
dress on the death of Abraham Lincoln with the principal incidents of his life. 
Delivered by Rev. Hiram Sears, A. M., April 23, 1865. Gift of Mrs. Rose 
Rinehart, Berea, Ohio. 

Michigan State. The Color Line in Ohio. By Frank U. Quillion, Ph. D., Vol. II. 
University of Michigan Studies. Gift of the University. 

Michigan State. A History of the President's Cabinet. By Miss Mary L. Hinsdale. 
Vol. I. University of Michigan Studies. Gift of the University. 

Newspapers. Chicago Inter Ocean, June 9, 1877. Miniature issue. Gift of Miss 
Lillian I. Davis, 6043 Barton Ave., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Newspapers. Crawford Co., Illinois. The Robinson Constitution, 1917-1918. Gift 
of the Editor, F. W. Lewis, Robinson, Illinois. 

Republican Campaign Text-Book, 1920. Gift of Mr. Ralph Tallitt, 19 W. 44th St., 
New York City. 

Virginia Colonial Dames of America, in the State of Virginia. Address at the Three 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Settlement of Jamestown. By Hon. Thomas 
Nelson Page. 28 pp. 8 vo. Richmond, Va., Muttel & Shepperson, Printers, 1919. 
Gift of the Virginia Colonial Dames. 

World War. The Sick and Disabled Men of Illinois. By Myron E. Adams, with 
an introduction by Gen. Leonard Wood. 45 pp. 8 vo. Chicago-Fort Sheridan As- 
sociation. Gift of Mr. Myron E. Adams. 



257 



NECROLOGY 



JULIA CUSTIN LORD 

Julia Marie Custin was born in Unionville, Ohio, Oct. 1, 
1854. She was the daughter of Gurdon Custin and Marie 
Hickok. At the age of two years she was left motherless and 
was placed in the care of an aunt, where she remained until 
the remarriage of her father. When eleven years of age she 
was brought west to Piano by an aunt, Mrs. D. S. Jenks, where 
she made her home until her marriage. Mrs. Lord completed 
her course in the Piano schools and later from Jennings Sem- 
inary, Aurora, graduating from this school with honors. On 
June 25, 1879, she was united in marriage to Dr. Frank H. 
Lord, at Piano. To them were born three children, two sons 
and one daughter, Major Dr. Arthur Evarts Lord, of Piano, 
who did splendid service over seas; Prof. Robert Lord, 
teacher of history at Harvard University and who was an im- 
portant factor as an aid to President Wilson in the Paris 
Peace conference and Frances, now the wife of Captain Dr. 
Gerald Allaben, of Buhl, Minn., all of whom were present at 
the funeral. 

Besides the husband and three children, she leaves a 
grandson, Gerald Allaben, Jr., one sister, Mrs. Emma Evarts, 
of Plainfield, 111. ; four brothers, William, Milton, Albert and 
Edwin Custin are living. William Custin, of Morris, 111., was 
present at the funeral. 

Perhaps no woman's death in Piano or vicinity has 
caused so much genuine sorrow and grief in every household, 
no matter how humble, as was the tragic and untimely taking 
away of Mrs. Lord, who was so severely burned Sunday morn- 
ing, January 4th, from the bursting of the hot water heating 
plant of her home, that she died at 8.10 P. M. on that day. 

Before Mrs. Lord's marriage she was popular and active 
in all that made up the life of the younger people of Piano. 

261 



262 

She early became a member of the Methodist church, where 
she for many years took a most important and useful part. 
None of these activities ceased after her marriage to Dr. 
Lord, but rather broadened out and increased, making her 
home her first thought as she did up to the very time of her 
death, but never was she too busy or too tired to extend a 
loving, kindly, helping hand to others by word or deed. 

Mrs. Lord practiced and exemplified in her quiet, modest, 
earnest, loving way, a true, practical Christianity that made 
itself felt upon others and especially among those nearest to 
her. While she was devoted to her home, husband and chil- 
dren, she was also devoted to public affairs in her city, county, 
state and nation and there were few better posted, her inter- 
est always being a useful and uplifting one. She was a charter 
member of Piano's first woman's organization, The Art Club, 
later she helped organize the Piano Woman's Club and up to 
the time of her death was one of the club's most active, use- 
ful and influential members, serving most acceptably as presi- 
dent, 1909 to 1911 and again called to this position 1916 to 
1918. Mrs. Lord was an early member of the Illinois State 
Historical Society and aided the Society by her interest and 
influence. 

In 1917 Mrs. Lord was unanimously selected by the Ken- 
dall County Federation of Woman's Clubs as its president, 
serving two years with dignity and honor to the organization 
and herself. She was one of the foremost women in all activi- 
ties in this community. During the war period she did splendid 
work in Red Cross, acting as president of the Plato Woman's 
Council of National Defense, and was at the time of her death 
one of a committee of three to record the war activities of 
Little Rock township. Socially, she was a noted hostess, her 
hospitality was generous and sincere. 

Her life was well lived; she leaves behind a rich heritage 
of loving memory to her family and friends, that will grow 
richer and richer with the years to come. She lived to see her 
children grow up and accomplish the things for which she 
had worked and for which she was most ambitious. 



263 

Funeral services were held at the home Wednesday after- 
noon, January 7th, at 1:30 and at the Piano M. E. Church 
at 2 P. M. Rev. Mark J. Field, Pastor of the church in charge, 
assisted by Rev. Dr. J. M. Lewis of Sandwich; with Rev. 
J. W. Gillespie, of the Baptist Church, Elder McDowell, of 
the Latter Day Saints church and Rev. Nl R. Hinds, retired 
pastor of the Methodist church occupying a place on the plat- 
form. 

Rev. Mr. Field offered prayer at the home. At the church 
the officers and members of the Piano Eastern Star chapter 
of which Mrs. Lord was a charter member, stood just out- 
side of the church door and acted as a guard of honor. The 
casket which was covered with a beautiful blanket of flowers 
was deposited at the church altar in a profusion and bed of 
cut flowers and wreaths of roses, loving remembrances from 
kind friends. 

Miss Hazel Olson sang a beautiful solo ; Rev. Mr. Field 
offered prayer and read a very appropriate poem, "Mother 
Mine" sent to Mrs. Lord by her son Major Lord while in the 
trenches over in France. Dr. Lewis then spoke of the life 
and achievements of Mrs. Lord, which was a splendid tribute 
and exposition of the life of this beloved wife, mother and 
citizen. He spoke from his heart as of a dear friend, closing 
his remarks with prayer. Mr. Blake Wilson, a very dear 
friend of Major Lord and the family, of La Grange, sang a 
beautiful solo. Rev. Mr. Field offered prayer. Mrs. Rose 
Underhill closed the services with another beautiful solo, "In 
the Hush of the Twilight Hour, ' ' a tribute to her dear friend. 
Mrs. Alice Schaefer acted as accompanist for the soloists. 

One most pronounced evidence of the deep respect and 
love felt towards Mrs. Lord by our citizens was the closing 
during the hours of the funeral, of every business place in 
the city as well as the public schools. 

The remains were laid away in a beautiful lot in the 
Piano cemetery. 



264 

A great many old friends and neighbors of Mrs. Lord 
and the family, from out of town were present at the funeral 
from Sandwich, Hinckley, Aurora, Big Rock, Yorkville and 
La Salle. 



JAMES K. BLISH 1843-1920. 

James K. Blish, President of the First National Bank, 
former member of the legislature from that district, and 
long one of Kewanee 's best known citizens, passed away 
peacefully at his home, corner of Tremont street and Cen- 
tral boulevard, Kewanee, at 1 o'clock Sunday morning. Feb- 
ruary 22, 1920. Death was due to pernicious anemia, of 
which he had been a victim since a year ago last November. 

Mr. Blish was in his 77th year, his birth having been 
May 2, 1843. His parents were Charles C. and Elizabeth P. 
Blish. The genealogy of the family, in which Mr. Blish was 
greatly interested, and which he helped to complete, shows 
that all of the name of Blish are descendants of Abraham 
Blish, who was in Duxbury, a part of the Plymouth colony. 

Mr. Blish 's grandfather, Col. Sylvester Blish, came to 
Wethersfield in 1837. Col. Sylvester Blish was the father 
of Chas. C. Blish and Wm. H. Blish, two men whose names 
are familiar to older residents of Kewanee. 

James K. Blish acquired his early education in the Union 
school of Wethersfield and Kewanee and afterward became a 
student at Ann Arbor, and in 1862 he entered the University 
of Michigan, from which he was graduated with the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts in 1866. His college days being ended, 
he returned to his home in this county and was identified with 
farming interests in Wethersfield township for three years. 
His alma mater conferred upon him the Master of Arts degree 
in 1876. After devoting three years to farming he went to 
Council Bluffs, Iowa, where he entered the firm of Kiter, 
Bonar & Blish, manufacturers of blank books, his identifica- 
tion with the house continuing two years, after which he dis- 
posed of his interest there and went to Chicago, where he 
entered the employ of J. W. Middleton, engaged in the same 
line of business, until the disastrous fire of 1871. 



265 

He then returned to Kewanee, and became a law student 
in the office of Howe & North, the senior partner being Judge 
John H. Howe, who a year later was appointed by President 
Grant as chief justice of the territory of Wyoming. Mr. Blien 
then continued his law practice under the direction of Levi 
North, and while pursuing his law course was elected justice 
of the peace, being the youngest man who had ever filled that 
position in Kewanee. 

In 1873 Mr. Blish passed the required examination before 
the judges of the supreme court at Springfield, among whom 
was the venerable Sidney Breese, and being thus admitted 
to the bar, opened a law office in Kewanee, where he followed 
his profession for many years. At the time of his death he 
was one of the oldest representatives of the bar in the county 
in years of continuous practice. He won for himself very 
favorable criticism for the careful and systematic methods 
which he followed. He had remarkable power of concentra- 
tion and application, and his retentive mind often excited the 
surprise of his professional colleagues. As an orator he stood 
high, especially in the discussion of legal matters before the 
court, where his comprehensive knowledge of law was mani- 
fest and his application of legal principles demonstrated the 
wide range of his professional acquirements. The utmost 
care and precision characterized his preparation of a case and 
made him one of the successful attorneys in Henry County. 

Mr. Blish had also become known in business circles and 
since 1894 he had been the honored president of the First 
National Bank, which was organized in 1870, at which time his 
father was elected president and so continued for about 
twenty years. Various other corporate interests had bene- 
fited by his wise counsel and sagacious judgment in business 
affairs. He took a leading part in the organization of the 
Kewanee Building and Loan Association and was chosen its 
first secretary. He also assisted in organizing the Kewanee 
Electric Light Company, now the Consolidated Light & Power 
Company and was prominently identified with a number of 
other business enterprises that have promoted the welfare 
of the city. 



266 

While the life work of Mr. Blish was pre-eminently that 
of a successful practitioner of law he was ever mindful of his 
duties and obligations of citizenship and he labored earn- 
estly and effectively for the benefit of the city along many 
lines. He was one of the organizers of the Kewanee public 
library and served for twelve years on its board of directors. 
For thirteen years he was president of the Kewanee Fair 
Association, which he had aided in organizing, and for four 
years he was a member of the board of county supervisors, 
during which time he served on the building committee for 
the erection of the Henry county courthouse. His service as 
a member of the school board covered eighteen years, during 
which period he acted for a part of the time as its secretary 
and at all times was a stalwart champion of the cause of 
public education, promoting its interests through the employ- 
ment of competent teachers and the adoption of improved 
methods of instruction. Called to the city council, he served 
as alderman for several years and exercised his prerogatives 
in support of every measure which he deemed of municipal 
benefit. In politics he was a Democrat. He had been a dele- 
gate to nearly all the state conventions of his party and in 
1888 was one of the presidential electors. His highest po- 
litical honors were conferred upon him in 1902, when he was 
elected minority representative to the general assembly of 
Illinois for the thirty-seventh district composed of Bureau, 
Henry and Stark counties. 

Mr. Blish was married twice. On December 25, 1867, in 
Chicago, he married Miss Mary E. McManus. There were 
three children of that marriage, Carrie Elizabeth, who died 
at Council Bluffs ; James Louis, now living in Fond du Lac, 
Wis., where he is practicing dentistry; and Bertha Belle now 
Mrs. J. E. Shepardson, Belhaven, N. C. Mr. Blish 's first wife 
died in 1883. He again married October 5, 1886, in Cam- 
bridge, his bride being Miss Amy Mason Rhodes. To them 
were born three children, Elizabeth, now Mrs. A. D. Brook- 
field, of Kansas City, Mo., Matthew R., of New York City and 
Asa R., of New York City. 

Mr. Blish was numbered among the pioneer residents of 



267 

Henry county, where he spent his entire life and served for 
several terms as president of the Old Settlers Association. 
Mr. Blish was a member of the Illinois State Historical 
Society and by his interest and counsel greatly aided the 
Association. The funeral of Mr. Blish occurred on Tuesday, 
February 24, 1920, at his late residence. Rev. Thomas E. 
Nugent, pastor of the First Congregational Church of Ke- 
wanee, officiated. 



OTTO C. BUTZ, 1857-1920. 

Otto C. Butz died suddenly at his home in Winnetka, 
Sunday, May 2, 1920. Mr. Butz was born in Chicago, a son 
of Casper Butz. After graduating from the University of 
Michigan, he entered the practice of law in Chicago. He was 
associated with Francis Lackner, Amos C. Miller and F. E. 
Von Ammon. Mr. Butz was a close friend of the late Theodore 
Roosevelt. During the war a pamphlet which he wrote de- 
nouncing the Hohenzollern dynasty and setting forth the war 
aims of the United States, was circulated widely in America 
by the government and was dropped inside the German lines 
by American aviators. He was a member of the University 
and Hamilton clubs and the Chicago Bar Association, the 
Illinois State Historical Society, and a director of the Chicago 
Title & Trust Company. 

Many an American boy of German descent died under the 
flag to defeat a Germany betrayed by Potsdam, and at home 
older men of the same breed gave of their substance and their 
moral influence to support them. Of these one of the leaders 
was Otto Butz, an American of the lineage of revolutionary 
'48, a citizen saturated in American ideals, as stanch and 
whole-souled a lover of our common country as any descend- 
ant of the Mayflower company. Like Carl Schurz, Mr. Butz 
was American because to him America meant certain princi- 
ples of human liberty and democracy. Therefore he had no 
doubt about this duty either before we entered the war or 
after. He saw with clear eyes what was wrong in modern 
Germany and used his ;fine intelligence and moral weight in 
an attempt which did not fail of effect, both to serve this coun- 



268 

try, which had given him birth, and the people from whom his 
ancestry sprung. 

Otto Butz represented not only 100 per cent American- 
ism, but the character and culture which America has drawn 
from the German race. The community loses by his death, 
but his influence will not pass. He set an example of loyal 
citizenship which will not be forgotten by Americans who 
passed through the ordeal of the war and know what his 
service was. 



MEMOEIAL OF COLOSTIN D. MYERS, 1847-1920. 
BY CHARLES L. CAPEN. 



Colostin D. Myers was born at Eacine, Meigs County, 
Ohio, May 7, 1847, in a small five room cottage standing well 
back from the Ohio river, in the outer limits of a town, or 
village of not more than 500 inhabitants. He was descended 
from a family of early immigrants, his grandfather, Jacob 
Myers, having been born in eastern Pennsylvania, of Dutch 
stock. His father, Benjamin Myers, was born in Mononga- 
hela, Virginia, now West Virginia, on the 16th day of April, 
1813, and died in Pomeroy, Meigs County, Ohio, August 4th, 
1851. His father was a skilled mechanic and an ingenious 
woodworker, having served an apprenticeship as a millwright 
under his elder brother, John Myers, and at the time of his 
death was a pattern cutter in a foundry in Pomeroy, Ohio. 
Judge Myers' mother was born in Meigs County, Ohio, on 
August 5th, 1820, and died near Palatine, Virginia, October 
20, 1894. Her maiden name was Selena Elliott. She was a 
daughter of Fuller Elliott, a pioneer emigrant from Massa- 
chusetts to the Ohio Valley region, who attained local promi- 
nence, being at one time judge of a county or inferior court 
and probably a member of the legislature, as it seems he had 
something to do with the naming of the county. 

The subject of our sketch was four years old at the time 
of his father's death. His mother remarried a man by the 
name of William Swearengen, and after the marriage the 



269 

family, including Colostin D. Myers, removed to a farm near 
Palatine, Va., to the home of the stepfather, where the sub- 
ject of our sketch worked for a number of years upon the 
farm and in the tan yard, which was a side enterprise of his 
stepfather. Opportunity for schooling was limited as it was 
by private subscription that the schools were maintained and 
that for most part only in the winter season. 

In the winter of 1861 or 1862, he attended a term of four 
months at a private school five or six miles from his home, 
boarding with a family nearby, from Monday until Friday 
evening. In the fall of 1863 he attended an academy at Fair- 
mont, the county seat, where he remained for about three 
months. In the early spring of 1863, being then a lad of six- 
teen years, he left the home of his stepfather, with a view 
of returning to Eacine, his native home, working for a time 
for a Mr. Hamilton in order to obtain means for the con- 
templated journey. It was in March, 1864, that he finally 
arrived at Racine and, through the influence of friends, 
secured a position as clerk in a general store in Pomeroy, 
Ohio, the county seat of Meigs County. 

In May, 1864, being then seventeen years of age, he en- 
listed as a private, in Company K., 140th Ohio National 
Guard, known as the "One Hundred Day Service," and 
served for three months, being discharged in September, 1864. 
He again enlisted in the army in February, 1865, at Cincinnati 
and was assigned to Co. B., 32nd Ohio Regiment, though he 
never served with that regiment, which was then with Sher- 
man on his march to the sea and inaccessible at the time of 
his enlistment. In May, 1865, under general orders from 
Secretary of War, he, together with 120 others of the de- 
tached service at Todds Barracks, was discharged and he re- 
turned to the home of his mother in West Virginia. 

At broken intervals from 1865 to 1871 Judge Myers at- 
tended school at Lebanon, Ohio, replenishing his funds with 
which to pay his expenses by teaching school and working on 
the farm, from time to time, finally graduating from the nor- 
mal school of Lebanon in June, 1872. In September of the 



270 

same year he was married to Dora Yeager, who during the 
previous school year had been in the faculty of the Normal 
School. Together they undertook the task of making a place 
for themselves in the world, and establishing a home, and for 
almost forty-eight years this bride of his early manhood 
walked by his side, a constant, helpful, faithful and admiring 
companion. The home life of these splendid people was an 
ideal of love and confidence and happiness. They parted 
calmly and confidently when the final summons came, Mrs. 
Myers remaining behind to cherish the memory of that long 
and happy union, he going before to explore the unknown 
country from which no traveler returns, both confident of the 
hereafter. 

Shortly after their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Myers re- 
moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan, where he had entered the 
law school, which at that time covered a two years' course of 
six months each. During the vacation between the first and 
second years he made an extended trip into Kansas, Nebraska* 
Iowa and Illinois, in search of a favorable location where he 
might enter the practice of his chosen profession. It was 
upon this trip that he visited Bloomington, Illinois, preferring 
this city with which he was favorably impressed as being 
most inviting for a home and for a start in his life work. 
This choice he never regretted. He always maintained a 
pride in and a loyalty to his chosen home as is amply demon- 
strated by the beneficent provisions of his last will and 
testament. After his visit to Bloomington he returned to 
Ann Arbor and finished his law course, graduating from that 
school with the degree of LL. B., in March, 1874. He then re- 
moved to Bloomington in April of 1874, where he continued 
to live until the time of his death. He was admitted to the 
practice of law in the Michigan courts, in the city of Detroit, 
and upon this license was admitted, without examination, to 
practice law in the State of Illinois. In 1875 he formed a 
partnership with Albert Bushnell, under the firm name of 
Myers & Bushnell, which continued a few years until Mr. 
Bushnell removed to Kansas City. Sometime after that he 
formed a partnership with Isaac W. Stroud, under the firm 



271 

name of Myers & Stroud, which partnership continued until 
the failing health of Mr. Stroud in 1881 caused his retirement. 
In 1886 Judge Myers was nominated by acclamation anu 
elected County Judge of McLean County, in which capacity 
he served until 1897, when he was nominated and elected as 
Judge of this Honorable Court, the Circuit Court of the 
Eleventh Judicial District, being then as now, composed of the 
counties of McLean, Ford, Logan, Livingston and Woodford. 
This position he retained for three successive terms of six 
years each, and voluntarily retired therefrom in June, 1915. 
From 1903 to 1909 he was by appointment of the Supreme 
Court a member of the Appellate Court of the Fourth Judicial 
District, from which position he likewise voluntarily retired. 

Upon his retirement from the Circuit Bench in 1915 it 
was his hope that he would be enabled to spend much time in 
travel and to regain in some measure his physical vitality 
which had been sorely drawn upon by the many years of 
active service upon the Bench ; but it was not long after that 
in the crisis of the great World War he was called upon by 
the Governor of his State to serve as a member of the Exemp- 
tion Board of McLean County. This position he accepted 
purely from a sense of duty and threw himself so earnestly 
into the work that there can be no question that his health 
was undermined and his life shortened thereby, but notwith- 
standing his failing health he adhered steadfastly to the task 
assigned to him until he was discharged at the end of the war. 

Judge Myers was a man whose traits of heart and mind 
endeared him to all those who were fortunate enough to come 
in intimate touch with that splendid spirit. 

He was gentle and kind and lovable. He was patient 
almost beyond measure. No young or inexperienced lawyer 
practiced before him, but felt the kindly sympathy and re- 
ceived the helpful suggestions of Judge Myers. 

He was an able Judge. His eminent fairness and impar- 
tiality were matters of common knowledge and comment. 

Retiring, not given to parade or ostentation, he lived a 
simple, quiet, life. He kept himself aloof from business or 



272 

social enterprises which he thought might in any way tend 
to affect his judicial duties. 

He kept his own counsel. Friendly to all, he talked con- 
fidentially to t'e\v. Fortunate indeed was that individual who 
was permitted to hear from this just man his estimate of 
liuiuan life and the hopes and ambitions that had directed and 
controlled his course with his fellow men. 

He was a Denial companion, his conversations were al- 
ways interesting and instructive, with a thread of good humor 
running through it all. lie was a wise and safe counselor, an 
upright Judge, an honest man. He was worthy of the trusts 
committed to n\m. He was an ornament to the Bench and bar 
of his State. Ho contributed richly to the generation in which 
lie lived. The Illinois State Historical Society of which he 
wns an early member will miss his wise counsel and encour- 
agement as well as his friendly words of appreciation of its 
work. 

His going is a distinct loss to this community and to the 
State. Judge Myers died January 13, 1920. 

RESOLUTIONS OF THE McLEAN COUNTY BAB, IN 
MEMORY OF THE LIFE AND SERVICES OF 

COLOSTIN D. MYERS. 

BE rr RRSOIA-KD. That the McLean County Bar Associa- 
tion, in recognition of the eminent services of our departed 
member and in appreciation of his sterling character and lov- 
ing companionship, express to the members of his family and 
the community at large the sorrow and sense of loss that we 

feel at his going, and that this short sketch and simple tribute 

be presented by the president of this Association to the Pre- 
siding Judge of the Circuit Court of McLean County, where 
the deceased so long and so faithfully presided, with the 
request that it be spread at large upon the records of this 
Court; and further, that the Secretary of this Association 
send a copy of these resolutions to his widow. 

SAIN WBL.TY, 
JESSE E. HOFFMAN, 
HAL M. STONE, 

Committee on Resolutions. 



273 



JOHN W. BUNN.* 

John W. Bunn, pioneer Springfield banker and business 
man, close friend of Abraham Lincoln, died at the family 
residence, 435 South Sixth Street, Monday afternoon, June 
7th, 1920. 

John W. Bunn was the son of Henry and Mary Bunn. 
He was born in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, June 21, 1831, 
and at the time he left his native state to come to Springfield 
he was living on a farm near Milford. On arriving here he 
entered the employ of his brother Jacob Bunn, who had come 
to Springfield ten years previous, as a clerk in the latter 's 
wholesale grocery house. In 1858 he became a partner in the 
firm organized as the "J. and J. W. Bunn Company" which 
was later succeeded by " John W. Bunn and Company." 

Jacob Bunn had returned to Milford on a visit, and took 
with him wonderful stories of the rolling prairies and fruitful 
fields of Illinois of the great new western State, and of the 
very fine place it was in which to live. John, with all of a 
young boy's adventurous longing to see something of the 
world himself, and not just through another's eyes, heard 
these stories with secret hopes of some day striking the west- 
ward trail and feasting his own eyes on the wonders it un- 
folded. One day during his brother's visit John was out in a 
field near his farm home busy at the necessary but uninterest- 
ing task of picking up stones from the field and loading them 
into a wheelbarrow. This was done in order to clear the 
ground for cultivation and also to get the stones for fence 
making. Every one who has ever been in the East knows the 
rock-piled fences of that section, vine woven, charming, pic- 
turesque, inviting one to climb over and explore the other 
side, to wander away from their confines and down grassy 
glades grassy, that is between the boulders and outcropping 

The above sketch of John W. Bunn Is taken largely from the articles publlHhed 
by the Illinois State Register and the Illinois State Journal, Springfield, at the time of 
Mr. Bunn's death, and from personal remembrances of friends. 



274 

stones or up little mountains that have strayed away from 
the greater ranges. It is certain that John Bunn had no eye 
however for the picturesque qualities of the fence those stones 
he was picking up should build. He had only a young boy's 
dislike of the irksome, tedious, uninviting task. What boy 
wants to pick up stones when there are fields and hills to 
wander through, or streams in which to fish? "What would 
you think," Jacob suddenly said to his brother, "if I should 
tell you that out where I live we have field after field, with 
acres upon acres where you couldn't get enough stones to fill 
a wheel barrow?" John looked at his older brother for a 
moment, then replied, "I would say that I'd like to go out 
there to live. I'd like to get out of doing work like this. I'd 
like to see a different country." 

His brother promised then to bring him out west to live. 
He did not make the return trip with Jacob at that time, but 
some months latter when three men from Springfield who had 
come from the same section of New Jersey went back there to 
visit, Jacob Bunn sent for his brother to come out with them. 

That journey was possibly the most eventful John Bunn 
ever took in his life. He liked to recall the wonder of it, and 
often told of it most interestingly. The details were always 
fresh in his mind, for the novelty and strangeness of the trip 
was never lost to him. The journey was made by water and 
stage coach. The first step of the journey to Buffalo, was 
made by way of the Erie canal. From there on to Chicago the 
trip lay over both land and water. Sometimes they traveled 
by stage coaches, sometimes by boat. But from Chicago to 
Springfield, the trip was made entirely by stage coach. Mr. 
Bunn was in a constant state of amazement at the wonderful 
expanse of prairie land through which he passed after he had 
reached Illinois. Being spring time, the fields were at the 
height of fresh green beauty. Woodlands, great trees rearing 
against the sky, softly rolling prairies and gentle dales, then 
miles and miles of free sweeping distance. , 

The three men with whom he travelled had a great deal 
of fun with Mr. Bunn, and these instances have often formed 



275 

the ground for humorous anecdotes with which he used to 
regale his companions. 

For one thing they told him stories of the savage Indians 
they would find all along the way. The young lad had pro- 
vided himself with a huge pistol which he had ready for any 
emergency, and was on the lookout for occasion to use it. He 
wasn't scared, but he was ready. And nothing happened. 
The Indians they did meet were friendly and helpful. And 
the boy realized that he had been the victim of a good joke. 
But then he had never travelled west before. So he hadn't 
known what he might expect as they told him. 

Mr. Bunn in speaking of the early days in Springfield 
said, "I came here in 1847 just after Mr. Lincoln had been 
elected to Congress. " (He was elected in 1846.) Mr. Bunn 's 
acquaintance with Lincoln began almost immediately. Lin- 
coln was Jacob Bunn's lawyer for both his bank and grocery 
business, and as John Bunn grew to handle the accounts for 
the grocery business, he dealt with Lincoln in business 
matters. 

The first occasion on which Lincoln was of assistance to 
Mr. Bunn, in any contest came several years later. Being 
then about twenty-one years of age, he decided to run for city 
treasurer. He came out of a restaurant one day and met 
Lincoln with another man. Bunn stopped to talk to the other 
man, explaining that he was running for the office and would 
like some support. Lincoln spoke up with "Well, you've got 
two votes right here, his and mine." 

From that time on their acquaintance and association 
grew, the association ripening to a degree of intimacy which 
resulted in John W. Bunn being probably one of the closest 
friends Lincoln ever had. 

In time John W. Bunn became a partner in his brother's 
grocery business, the firm name changing from "J. Bunn" 
to J. and J. W. Bunn. They were clients of Lincoln's whose 
office was then near what is the south entrance to Myers 
Brothers ' clothing store or the elevator entrance to the Myers 



276 

Building. A bronze tablet will mark this location placed 
by the Myers Brothers. 

The Lincoln and Bunn families were friends. Mrs. Jacob 
Bunn was a very handsome woman with a stately presence. 
She has been described as ' * queenly. ' ' She was an admirable 
hostess and often entertained Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln. John 
Bunn was a frequent guest at the Lincoln home. 

When Lincoln was nominated for president, a group of 
ten men, of whom Judge Stephen T. Logan, James C. Con- 
kling (father of Ch'nton L. Conkling), Jacob Bunn, Robert 
Irwin, and John Bunn were a part, contributed five hundred 
dollars each to the expenses of the campaign. This consti- 
tuted a fund out of which the expenses of the campaign should 
be paid. Some people are of the opinion that the men raised 
more money as it was needed. This fund was used for many 
things in connection with the campaign of Lincoln for presi- 
dent. There were many visiting delegations of people from 
different parts of the country who came to see him up to the 
time he went to Washington. These people had to be enter- 
tained in some fashion while in the city, and it would have 
been impossible to do so altogether at the Lincoln home or 
by the Lincoln family. Through Mr. Bunn and his group of 
friends this was made possible. Lincoln had not been told 
who made up this group of men or how the money was raised. 
Mr. Bunn acted as spokesman for the group and as disbursing 
agent. Before going to Washington, Lincoln asked Mr. Bunn 
for the amount of his "debt." Mr. Bunn is said to have re- 
plied, "Nothing." Lincoln insisted upon knowing who had 
assisted him v and to what extent, and was then told. Up to 
that time he had never known. 

During Lincoln's campaign for president he was given 
headquarters in the Court House, then the State House. Lin- 
coln at that time had no money to hire a secretary or office 
manager. John Hay, a brother of the late Charles E. Hay of 
Springfield, afterwards Secretary of State and widely known 
in later years as a writer had come to Springfield as a mere 
lad to study law in the office of his uncle, Milton Hay. This 



277 

uncle, in talking things over with Lincoln and his friends, 
said: "Well, I've got a nephew who will never be a lawyer. 
He may be a poet some day, and he can at least write good 
English. He can be your secretary." 

So John Hay became Lincoln's secretary. Later Mr. 
Lincoln took young Hay to Washington with him, which prob- 
ably gave him his start, and from this humble beginning a 
statesman and author was made. This is just one of the many 
inside stories of things connected with the life of Lincoln 
which Mr. Bunn has handed down to history. 

Mr. Bunn himself held some public offices, although he 
never was an out and out politician. He was more a man 
interested in the future of his city and state, an interest which 
he always retained. He was elected city treasurer for the 
years 1857, 1858, 1859. From 1859 to 1898 he served as 
treasurer of the State Board of Agriculture; from 1861 
until 1865 he was pension agent for the State of Illinois, hav- 
ing been appointed by President Lincoln. He also served as 
treasurer of the University of Illinois from the time of its 
organization in 1868 until 1893, and was a member of the 
Republican State Committee from 1872 to 1876, and from 
1900 to 1902. In 1871 he became a partner in the wholesale 
boot and shoe business of "M. Selz & Company" of Chicago, 
which later was incorporated under the name of "Selz- 
Schwab & Company," holding the office of vice-president for 
a number of years prior to his death. He became president 
of the Marine Bank of Springfield in May, 1903. 

Mr. Bunn was a member of the Chicago and Union 
League Clubs of Chicago, and the Sangamo and Illini Clubs 
of Springfield. He was appointed by Governor Dunne on the 
Illinois Centennial commission. Because of his varied busi- 
ness experiences and his knowledge of banking, Mr. Bunn was 
naturally given positions of trust where the benefit of his 
knowledge and experience was needed. And having worked 
up from the ranks in the business world, he was well qualified 
to exercise shrewd and accurate judgment of men and affairs, 
a quality which Mr. Bunn possessed to a remarkable degree 



278 

in recent times, in spite of his advanced age and his increas- 
ing retirement from the business world. 

Accumulating a considerable share of the world's goods 
early in life, Mr. Bunn was always generous in the extreme 
where any call was made upon his charity or kindness of 
heart, and where the affairs of his community were con- 
cerned. The full story of his good deeds will never be told. 
Many a successful business man owes his rise in fortune to 
Mr. Bunn's assistance in the early hard days. Many a young 
lad was given an education which would never have been his 
but for the generosity and kindness of nature of John W. 
Bunn, and many a woman left with children on her hands 
to educate and support has appealed to Mr. Bunn with re- 
sults which are to his everlasting credit. 

In the matter of civic' affairs, John W. Bunn was easily 
Springfield's leading philanthropist. There is scarcely a 
public building in the city but that bears some mark of his 
contribution. The Lincoln Library is one excellent example 
of this. Mr. Bunn was always interested in the public library. 
Years before the Lincoln Library was built, Mr. Bunn assisted 
in establishing a subscription library which was open to the 
public. He was one of the leading contributors to this, and 
took an active interest in its management and care. This 
library was maintained in the front half of the building over 
Coe's book store. Mrs. Hannah Lamb Kimball, later Mrs. 
John M. Palmer, wife of the fifteenth governor of Illinois, 
was the librarian. History has it that a romance begun in 
this library resulted in the marriage of Hannah Lamb Kim- 
ball and Governor Palmer. 

When the Lincoln Library was founded and built, grow- 
ing out of the public library idea of which Mr. Bunn was the 
sponsor, Mr. Bunn was made the president of the Board of 
Directors, and served in this capacity, and as a member sub- 
sequently for many years. It was only in the latter part of 
1917, that he began to miss the meetings. His presence was 
also a source of interest to every other member of the Board. 

Mr. H. C. Remann, the librarian, said that in the old 
days, when the business of the board had been transacted, 



279 

every member looked forward with eagerness to the remi- 
niscent period which followed when Mr. Bunn, with rare 
humor and 'great accuracy, would relate occurrences in the 
early life of Lincoln and his association with him. Anecdotes 
which have never found their way into print were recounted 
at the meetings, and those privileged to hear them from Mr. 
Bunn's lips, never forgot the relish and delight he took in 
telling them. 



JOHN W. BUNN. 

In the death of John W. Bunn, Springfield has lost one 
of its most valuable citizens. For seventy-three years, more 
than the allotted lifetime of man, he has been connected with 
the business affairs of the community, and his influence all 
that time has been constructive and in the interest of the 
public welfare. 

John W. Bunn shunned the glare of publicity and showed 
a modesty rare in these days among successful men of busi- 
ness, and yet he took not only an abiding interest but an 
honorable part in public affairs. He helped in the upbuild- 
ing of many public institutions and to him the Illinois State 
Fair and the University of Illinois owe much for the efforts 
he expended in their behalf while officially connected with 
them. A loyal member of the republican party he was for 
many years active in State politics and for many years was a 
member of the State Central Committee. As a member of the 
Lincoln Library Board during the past four years and as an 
active participant in many local activities to which he not only 
lent his personal aid, but gave liberally of his substance, he 
proved his value as a citizen of Springfield. There are few 
charitable and humane movements of the past years to which 
he has not contributed willingly and liberally. 

As a banker, manufacturer and merchant, his name is 
widely known, and the news of his death will be received with 
deep regret in many parts of the country. In Springfield his 
passing will be mourned as that of almost the last of the 
pioneer business men who gave the best of their lives to build- 



280 

ing up the city and whose faith and works were the foundation 
upon which it now stands. 

His long life of eighty-eight years covered the whole span 
of the real development of the middle west. Here at its very 
center he learned the lessons that enabled him to meet the 
rapidly changing conditions as they came and pluck from 
them success. He was the friend and contemporary of 
Abraham Lincoln and the galaxy of great men who made 
Illinois conspicuous in the past. Out of the experiences of 
his youth and the achievements of his manhood have grown 
the things that made his life a real and living factor in the 
growth of the community that he has served so well for so 
many years. 



JUDGE MERRITT W. PINCKNEY. 

Judge Merritt Willis Pinckney, friend of Chicago chil- 
dren, died at his home, 5758 Kenwood Avenue, Chicago, June 
7, 1920. 

Death was not unexpected. The judge has been seriously 
ill for some time. He was forced to leave the bench about 
two weeks ago when a cold developed into tonsilitis. An in- 
fection of the mouth caused a fresh attack of kidney trouble, 
from which he had suffered intermittently during twenty 
years. 

Merritt W. Pinckney was born at Mt. Morris, Ogle 
County, Illinois, on December 12, 1859, and received his edu- 
cation at the Rock River seminary of which his father, Daniel 
J. Pinckney, was president. His mother was Margaret C. 
Hitt. In 1881 he was graduated from Knox College at Gales- 
burg, 111., and in 1883 graduated from the Union College of 
Law with the degree of LL. B., being valedictorian of his 
class. 

On July 24, 1885, he married Miss Mary Van Vechten of 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, after having been admitted to the Illinois 
bar. 



281 

He later came to Chicago and became a partner in the 
firm of Pinckney & Tatge. In March, 1905, he was appointed 
state inheritance tax attorney. In June of the same year he 
was nominated to succeed Edward F. Dunne, afterward gov- 
ernor of Illinois, was later elected on the Circuit bench, and 
remained on the bench until his recent illness forced him to 
absent himself. 

FBIEND OF CHILDREN. 

For eight years, 1908 to 1916, he presided over the 
juvenile courts and his work there, his unflagging zeal in be- 
half of Chicago childhood made him a national figure. His 
theory of conducting the juvenile court was "aid and not 

punishment" for the child delinquent. 



He was a member of the Chicago Athletic Club, the 
Chicago Bar, the Illinois Bar and the American Bar Associa- 
tions, of the Hamilton Club, and of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society. 

As the head of the juvenile court, Judge Pinckney be- 
came a world-wide figure. Approximately 50,000 delinquent 
and dependent children came before him. Ever he was the 
counselor and the friend of the boys and the girls who had 
been wayward. 

LAID BLAME ON FATHERS. 

' ' Blame for the delinquency of children lies chiefly at the 
door of the fathers," he said on one occasion, when his court 
had been under criticism. He once advocated whippings for 
fathers whose children came into his court as a result of some 
juvenile crime. On another occasion Judge Pinckney asserted 
that 82 per cent of delinquent cases resulted from parental 
neglect or incompetency. 

Early in his career as judge he eliminated as far as pos- 
sible the outward semblance of justice as being synonymous 
with solemnity. When a child was brought before him, he 
was not the imperious judge. He came down from his bench 
and talked to the child as a friend. He consistently stood for 
private hearings, believing that the court atmosphere was 



282 

destructive to a real understanding resulting between the 
child and himself. 

URGED FARM FOR BOYS. 

Judge Pinckney always was in the vanguard of corrective 
measures for delinquent children. He was active in his efforts 
to secure legislation looking toward the betterment of the 
wards of his court. He advocated the purchase of a large 
farm where delinquent boys could be sent. 

"Buy a large farm the bigger the better and let the 
boys plant potatoes, corn, cabbage, anything. Just keep their 
little minds busy, ' ' he said. 



TRIBUTE TO JUDGE PINCKNEY 
THE CHICAGO EVENING POST, JUNE 10, 1920. 

BY MlSS McCAULEY. 



Today Judge Merritt W. Pickney, a son of Illinois and a 
friend of struggling humanity, was laid to rest in the country 
cemetery at Mount Morris, in Ogle county. Near by sleep his 
father and mother, grandparents and great-grandparents, 
who came to the prairie lands in the early days to redeem 
them from the wilderness. Above his grave the ancient trees 
of the grove wave their branches and play with shifting lights 
and shadows, and beyond the hedge lie the broad corn fields 
of Illinois that he loved when a farmer lad. 

Every good man treasures the inheritance of his parent- 
age, and looking back on that boyhood it is possible to trace 
the influences which fostered the honesty and breadth of 
character that faced the world without fear ; the rugged man- 
hood kindred to that of Abraham Lincoln, the love of the open 
country, and the hunger for good books and friends by the 
family fireside, and a passionate sympathy for the misguided, 
the neglected and the oppressed. 

His father, Prof. Daniel J. Pinckney, a scholar of the fine 
old school of classical and liberal learning, came from New 



283 

York state to teach at the Methodist Eock River seminary, of 
which later he became president. In those early days Mount 
Morris was a center of culture in Illinois. In the early '5Cs 
the migration from Maryland brought the family of Samuel 
Merritt Hitt, Methodists, who could no longer tolerate the in- 
justice of slave holding. They left the fertile hills of Mary- 
land near the Antietam, long before the civil war, to become 
citizens of the hopeful free state of Illinois. They came in 
their carriages, driving herds of cattle before them, with a 
wealth of possessions in their covered wagons, some of their 
colored people following, rejoicing in their new-found free- 
dom. And, inspired by the best that Maryland had given 
them, the pioneers built homes in Ogle county, laying the 
corner-stones of agricultural prosperity in the farms they 
tilled for their own and seeking an education for their sons 
and daughters at Eock Eiver seminary, Mount Morris, and 
wherever the red schoolhouse had an open book. 

Young Margaret Hitt was the favored pupil of Prof. 
Daniel J. Pinckney. Her father died and her brothers had 
gone to war to fight at Shiloh and to win honors in the army 
of the west. So it was well that Prof. Pinckney had won his 
young wife and went to live on a farm near Mount Morris, 
where with his aging mother-in-law and her venerable mother, 
remarkable women of the pioneer days, there was hospitality 
that is yet remembered in tales that are told. 

It was here that Merritt W. Pinckney was born. And by 
the open fire place he read Latin at his father's knee and 
poetry with his mother and learned garden lore from his 
grandparents and farming in the holidays away from school. 

The colored women and men who had been freed from 
slavery by Samuel Hitt reared their families and served many 
years with the pioneers. And in this broad household of gen- 
erous aims, with no distinction between rich and poor, with 
the leaders of the state, of all classes and creeds, coming and 
going, the young citizen grew to manhood and prepared for 
that nobler work among the children of the city streets, the 
forgotten and neglected. 



284 

Judge Merritt W. Pinckney brought an open mind re- 
garding the rights of childhood to his bench in the Juvenile 
court. He comprehended the child mind, he understood the 
shattered family under city conditions, he saw the influences 
sending the child to the temptations of city streets, and his 
heart was stirred at the futility of laws to protect the weak 
and the vast waste of life in the tide of the change from old 
traditions to the new stress of industrial demands. 

Keeping unsullied his ideals of womanhood, Judge Pinck- 
ney upheld laws for the protection of women and girls. He 
was severe in demanding duty from careless parents, punish- 
ing a father as responsible for an erring daughter or a son. 
He was tender in turning the wayward back to the straight 
path. He was intimate with the work of his assistants, who 
were inspired by the lofty purposes which dominated the 
service he gave to his profession. His methods, closely ob- 
served by Juvenile protective associations and juvenile 
courts, revolutionized the law and have brought a sense of 
guardianship and aid in the care of child life and the educa- 
tion of parental responsibility. His early associations with 
the children of black men in slavery bred a deep interest in 
the future of the race and their rights as American citizens. 

To grasp in its entirety the life work of Judge Pinckney, 
one must follow the records of his times. But who can count 
the many unremembered little deeds of kindness he scattered 
day by day? 

He lived for citizenship and not for himself alone. He 
loved his home and family life and wholesome sports out of 
doors. He kept unsullied the heart of the boy who had aspired 
to emulate the eagle's flight toward the clouds above the 
temple of the white pine forest which he haunted near his 
home. 

His companionship lives after him in the memory of his 
friends, and his earnest endeavor for children and the 
neglected bears rich fruit in better laws and the clearer under- 
standing of what is right among those who follow in his steps. 



PHILIP S. POST 

1869-1920. 

^ 

Philip Sidney Post, vice-president of the International 
Harvester company, died at his home in Winnetka, June 27, 
1920. Mr. Post was the son of Gen. Philip Post, a distin- 
guished officer in the Union army, who was wounded in the 
battle of Nashville. After the war he was appointed consul- 
general at Vienna, and there Philip Sidney II was born in 
1869. After thirteen years General Post returned to his 
home in Galesburg, 111., and was soon elected to Congress. 

Philip II after graduating from Knox college in 1887, 
studied law at Washington, and worked as a newspaper cor- 
respondent and as a private secretary to his father and 
several other members of congress. He began his law prac- 
tice at Galesburg in 1895. He was county judge of Knox 
county and later master-in-chancery of the circuit court. He 
was married August 27, 1902, to Miss Janet Greig of Oneida, 
Illinois. He moved to Chicago in 1907. In 1910 he was ap- 
pointed general attorney for the Harvester company, and 
after eleven years was elected to a vice-presidency. 

Judge Post was a member of the Loyal Legion, the 
American and Illinois Bar Associations, the Union League, 
the University, Hamilton, City and law clubs of Chicago ; also 
of the Illinois State Historical Society in which organization 
he took a great interest. He is survived by his widow, a sis- 
ter, Mrs. James C. Simpson of Galesburg, and a brother, 
Major W. S. Post of Los Angeles. Burial was at Galesburg, 
111., his old home. 



285 



DUDLEY CHASE SMITH, 1833-1920. 
BY GEORGE D. CHAFES. 

The story of the life of DUDLEY CHASE SMITH is the story 
of an idea imparted to a wide-awake boy at a juncture in his 
young life when his blood was fresh, when his mind was 
seeking the channel that opened into the enchanted ocean of 
experience. 

His ancestors on his father's side had the Pilgrim blood, 
and his mother's ancestors were those who, seeking room, 
freedom and adventure, settled in the wilderness of Kentucky. 
His father, Addison Smith, was a nephew of Dudley Chase, 
twice United States Senator and Judge of the Supreme Court 
of Vermont, and of Bishop Philander Chase, the great Epis- 
copalian missionary and college builder. Lincoln's great 
greenback Secretary of the Treasury of the United States and 
father of our National Bank, Salmon P. Chase, was a cousin 
of Dudley Smith's father. 

Addison Smith started a newspaper in Dayton, Ohio, 
which city this year, 1920, gave us a candidate for president. 
Mr. Smith aided in locating the State University of Indiana 
at Bloomington. Mr. Smith afterwards, losing nearly all of 
his property in a venture in salt wells, in 1832 took his little 
family in a wagon and traveled through the wilderness to 
Shelbyville, Illinois, and bought the land upon which the 
northern part of the city now stands. Here, in December, 
1833, Dudley Chase Smith was born. 

Addison Smith, father of Dudley, taught school, practiced 
law, and farmed a little. The family grew until there were 
six girls and one boy. All worked, and the father taught them 
the beauties of nature, the riches of the Bible and such liter- 
ature as was then available, Young's Night Thoughts, some of 
"Walter Scott's historical novels and poems, the English 
Reader, imparted to these children rich food for mind and 
imagination and established a taste for first class literature. 

286 




COL. D. C. SMITH 



287 

When Dudley was 12 years of age his father died leaving 
the mother and seven children. 

A short time before this, a man named Joshua L. Dexte* 
came to Shelbyville from the State of Maine and started a 
store, which now would be called a department store, where 
everything wanted could be had except alcohol. At that 
period whisky was retailed at 15 cents a gallon and no license 
was required to sell it. It was sold the same as sugar and 
salt, and a majority of the people seemed to think it was 
necessary. But Mr. Dexter was from the state of Maine and 
believed as did his successors Eoundy, Lufkin and Smith, that 
it was a dangerous poison that stole away the brains and 
ruined those who drank it. A dwelling house with sheds and 
a lean-to, housed the merchandise. 

General William Fitzhugh Thornton, afterwards the first 
President of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, had a similar 
store across the street. 

These merchants bought all the produce the settlers had 
to sell and hauled by wagon or drove the stock on foot 85 
miles to Alton or St. Louis, as no railroads were built until 
1855. Nearly all the business was done on a Christmas credit, 
real money, even to pay taxes, was hard to get. 

Mr. Dexter later married Sarah Smith, next to the oldest 
of Addison Smith's children, and took a fatherly interest in 
the boy Dudley. 

The Mexican War was over, the soldiers were selling 
their land warrants at from $25 to $150 or taking the govern- 
ment 's gift of 160 acres of land and settling the prairie state 
rapidly. Business was lively and profits great. 

In 1849 gold was discovered in Calif ornia in such quanti- 
ties as to inflame the heart of every boy and man to dare the 
unknown dangers across the Indian infested and pathless 
wilderness to and beyond the Eocky Mountains. Young Smith 
was wild to go, but his wise and loved brother-in-law had a 
heart-to-heart talk with him; called his attention to the fact 
that he was the only man of the family, with a widowed 



288 

mother and sisters, and that his duty was to stay with them 
and aid in their support. He promised the boy that, if he 
would push the farm that year, he should be taken into the 
store. Then it was that the idea, the compelling idea of duty 
and care of his mother and sisters was burned into the boy's 
heart, and it was the master thought of his after life. 

When he was 17 (Mr. Dexter having died) Dudley bor- 
rowed $5,000, his character being his only security, and 
formed a partnership of Roundy, Lufkin & Smith, each a 
brother-in-law of Mr. Dexter. Smith became the credit man 
and collector and got his knowledge of the legal part of it 
from Samuel W. Moulton, a very accurate lawyer whose office 
was in the next building to this store. Moulton as member 
of the Legislature became the father of our common school 
Law of Illinois in 1855, and in 1857 he introduced a bill found- 
ing the State Normal School at Normal. It was in this store 
that young Smith learned the art of selling goods, for Joshua 
L. Dexter and Charles D. Lufkin were experts. He also 
learned the technic of making notes, mortgages and deeds and 
securing the payment of store debts, which often ran from 
one to ten years, before being paid. There was no limit to 
interest which ranged from 10 to 25%, and he learned that 
compounded it grew like a wet snowball rolling down a hill. 
All goods were sold at an enormous profit. 

In Dudley's lifetime he witnessed the values of farm land 
jumping from $1.25 to two, three and even $500 an acre. 
About thirty years ago he saw that God was not making any 
more land and the human race rapidly multiplying, he turned 
his attention and capital into the purchase of land. By these 
methods he laid the foundation of the wealth he accumulated. 

In 1920 the world was in a state of upheaval; chaos 
seemed to struggle for control; sane men rendered insane by 
the lure of ambition were trying and are still trying to re-map 
the world, trying to move the landmarks of the earth, trying 
to wipe out and annul all the fundamental rules that wise 
men have for generations prepared from the experience of 



289 

time. Holy writ was declared frivolous, the Lord's Prayer 
ignored or forgotten, the Declaration of Independence re- 
garded as flamboyant rhetoric, the Constitution of the United 
States no longer regarded as the Palladium of our civil liber- 
ties but declared to be outgrown and obsolete. 

In a juncture like this it seems wise to review the life of 
one of Illinois' best citizens, who has passed into everlasting 
silence, and try to acquire such lessons from it as may solace 
our memory of him and encourage those who remain. Such 
a review may tend to aid the young now with us and those 
who come after us in some of the arts of right living. A few 
minutes story of such a life of earnest steady, persistent, 
economical effort, may teach others that success in life does 
not come by accident nor to profligate spendthrifts and 
slackers. 

Chance and accident, luck and pluck, as well as reason, 
judgment and careful forethought, are forces that must not 
be overlooked in shaping the destiny of a man. 

Nature recognizes a great divide, not only in great things 
but in small. The rain that falls on the mountain tops may go 
east or west, north or south seeking the great ocean level. 

Except for General Braddock's fool-headed persistency 
in the method of making war upon the French and Indians 
and refusing to take the advice of a young native lieutenant 
who afterwards became General George Washington, he might 
not have been defeated in the battle known as Braddock's 
defeat, and General Washington might not afterwards have 
been known as a great warrior and the greatest of statesmen. 
Except for a small Jew learning of the defeat of Napoleon at 
Waterloo, having a horse at his command by which he made 
a race from Brussels to the seashore, reaching England be- 
fore the knowledge of the victory was known to the financiers 
of London, the Rothschilds might not have become the finan- 
cial monarchs of Europe. 

Mark Twain in his humorous way tells a story of an im- 



290 

possible accident of a shark swallowing a man in the harbor 
of Liverpool in 1870. This man had a copy of the London 
Times in his pocket, and the shark being caught in the harbor 
of Sidney three days later, resulting in Cecil Ehodes becom- 
ing one of the greatest and richest men of all times. 

In every man's life events occur, over which, at the time 
he had no control, yet, when looked at from the heights of 
following years, it can be seen that that little thing really 
shaped his life. 

Taxes are not usually supposed to be an interesting sub- 
ject. They are reputed to be as certain as death and most 
people have some experience along that line. 

About 1868 or 1869 Colonel D. C. Smith, then a prosper- 
ous merchant of Shelbyville, concluded to make a tour of 
Europe. While he was gone, the assessor of the town in which 
he lived, probably intending to do his duty, made an assess- 
ment of Smith's property. The Colonel's politics, and his 
activities in the Civil War, were not in harmony with the 
politics of the assessor and officers of his county, and probably 
the assessment was made much higher against the Colonel 
than it was against other citizens supposed to be much more 
wealthy than he. 

When he returned from his trip and learned what had 
been done, failing to get the matter adjusted along the lines 
of equality and justice as' he believed, he paid the tax and 
then and there determined that he would never pay another 
personal tax in Shelby county ; shortly after that he removed 
himself, his personal property and his sister's family to the 
County of McLean. By this means Shelby county lost the 
revenue which otherwise would have stayed within its 
borders; and when fifty years is considered, the aggregate 
is very large. 

Shelby county also lost the enterprise and push of a man 
whose brain and brawn were ever active along the lines of 
business. 

As an afterclap, thirty years after, at a time when 



291 

Colonel Smith was disabled by an accident for several mouthy 
the Board of Review of Shelby county, which under the law 
at that time clothed three officers with some remarkable 
powers, overriding the law of the State, which provides that 
in assessing intangible property it should be assessed in the 
township in which the taxpayer lives, again made a wrongful 
assessment on him. After making an investigation such as 
they thought justified them in doing so, they undertook and 
carried out an assessment upon his property, of nearly 
$30,000. The matter was explained to the Board of Review 
and facts shown them proving the assessment unjust and 
illegal. Notwithstanding the facts, a record was made and 
the revenue officers .ordered to assess and collect the unjust 
tax. 

His attorney at the time, after explaining the situation 
to Mr. Smith, enjoined the officers from further action, and 
the matter was threshed out in the courts. The Board of 
Review learned the elementary principle that personal prop- 
erty follows the person of the tax payer. 

As an incident and a result connected with this subject 
the records of McLean county show that no citizen of that 
county was ever more conscientious than Mr. Smith in return- 
ing his property for taxation. 

During the last ten years Colonel Smith has paid into the 
treasury of McLean county in the town of Normal where he 
resided $147,994.62, aggregating nearly one-half of personal 
tax for each year. This does not include taxes on real estate 
or bank stock. 

It is a noteworthy fact that Normal township has 36 
square miles of fine land, a beautiful city and presumably 
many wealthy citizens. One of the county officers has stated, 
over his signature as County Treasurer, a very complimen- 
tary fact, saying : 

"Col. D. C. Smith was a great and good man, living 
honest and true to his convictions. He was loved by all 
McLean county people that knew him. He had his heart in 



292 

his town, county, state and nation. If there was a hundred 
per cent American in our nation it was Colonel D. C. Smith 
of Normal. ' ' 

Notwithstanding the fact that this sketch of Col. Smith's 
life must be brief, we must not omit to mention his military 
experience. 

He heard Abraham Lincoln discuss the question of 
slavery and the extension of it into the territories with Judge 
Anthony Thornton at Shelbyville in 1856, and in his after life 
the Colonel thought that he could quote almost accurately 
what Mr. Lincoln then said. 

The country in 1860 was very much excited concerning 
the election of a president of the United States. The Demo- 
crats nominated three candidates, Stephen A. Douglas of 
Illinois, John Bell of Tennessee and John C. Breckenridge of 
Kentucky, and two other candidates were running on inde- 
pendent separate tickets. Abraham Lincoln was the choice 
of the Eepublican party. 

Col. Smith, though not a politician, was very much in- 
terested in the result and did all he could in bringing the 
success of the Eepublican party. In March, 1861, he attended 
the inauguration of the President at Washington, heard the 
famous inaugural address ; saw Stephen A. Douglas, the little 
giant as he was called, one of Lincoln's life long rivals volun- 
teer to hold Mr. Lincoln's hat on that occasion. 

In March and April several of the southern states 
seceded; a provisional confederate government was started 
at Montgomery, Alabama, and on the 13th of April, 1861, the 
Confederates at Charleston commenced the bombardment of 
Fort Sumpter which commanded the harbor at Charleston. 
Mr. Lincoln then issued his first proclamation and called for 
75,000 volunteers to enforce the laws and protect the property 
of the United States, 

Col. Smith at once volunteered and subsequently wa,s 
elected Lieutenant of Company B of the 14th Illinois Volun- 
teers, and was commissioned by Governor Yates on April 



293 

26th, 1861. On August 15 thereafter he was promoted to 
First Lieutenant, and in February, 1862, was made Captain 
of his home company. 

To portray a little of the conditions at his home town, 
there was a general rumor that the anti-war Democrats and 
Copperheads would not permit Company B to leave Shelby- 
ville ; but, on the day of their departure all of the friends of 
the government, and there were many war Democrats, came 
to the depot to see their sons, friends, lovers and others go to 
war. Company B was a part of the 14th Regiment. Col. John 
M. Palmer, afterwards United States Senator and Governor 
of Illinois was the first commander. Palmer was succeeded 
in his office of Colonel by Cyrus Hall of Shelbyville. After- 
wards Hall became a Brigadier General. 

In Smith's service in the 14th Illinois he associated with 
General Vetch and General Stephen A. Hurlbut, and General 
Walter Q. Gresham, also the Methodist Episcopal Preacher 
Chaplain Rutledge, all of them now historical characters. 
Dr. Stevenson, who organized the first Grand Army of the 
Republic, was surgeon of the 14th Illinois Volunteers, and 
Dr. N. F. Chafee was assistant surgeon. 

Smith was severely wounded in the battle of Shiloh. In 
those days the pistols used by the officers had to be loaded 
with powder, and Capt. Smith carried a copper powder flask 
in the pocket of his blouse. The ball that wounded him first 
struck this flask and was, by the emblem of the American 
eagle, deflected in such a way as to save his life. His regi- 
ment was also engaged in the siege of Vicksburg and several 
other battles, one known as Hell on the Hatchie, and in several 
attacks on Corinth and in other battles in northern Missis- 
sippi. His brother-in-law C. D. Lufkin, who stayed at home 
and attended the firm business, died in May, 1863, and Gen. 
Grant, by T. S. Bowen, accepted Captain Smith's resignation. 
After he came home and arranged his business so that it could 
be left, he raised a regiment numbered as the 143rd Illinois 
Infantry, and Richard Yates, Governor, and 0. M. Hatch, 
Secretary of State, issued him a commission as Colonel. The 



294 

regiment was discharged at Mattoon on December 26, 1864. 
Among the Colonel's papers is a certificate of thanks from 
Abraham Lincoln, President, and Edward M. Stanton, Sec- 
retary of War, and this certificate contains among other 
things these complimentary words : 

"On all occasions and in every service to which they 
were assigned their duty as patriotic volunteers was per- 
formed with alacrity and courage, for which they are entitled 
to and hereby are tendered the National thanks through the 
Governor of their State." 

In the Colonel's service in the 143rd regiment, he was 
assisted by Lieutenant Colonel John P. St. John, who after- 
wards became Governor of Kansas, and was a candidate on 
the Prohibition ticket for President of the United States. 

Col. Smith and Gov. St. John were bosom friends to the 
time of the death of the Governor, and were companions in 
extensive travels over the States of Kansas, Texas, and 
Colorado ; Col. Smith being a good judge of real estate made 
numerous investments in the State of Kansas and employed 
Gov. St. John to manage these investments. 

As commander of his company and regiment he was a 
strict disciplinarian, not only for the good of the soldiers, but 
for their general health. It may not be out of place to men- 
tion an amusing incident that occurred near Memphis. 

One of his soldiers was very fond of liquor and drank 
whenever he could get it. He was put in the guard-house 
for 24 hours to cure him of his weakness and to sober 
him up. He was a wag and stuttered. This occurred about 
the time Gen. Grant was trying to open up a new channel 
through the Yazoo Eiver to Vicksburg which was then being 
besieged. The morning after the soldier was put in the guard- 
house the Captain was riding into the country and met the 
soldier with one or two chickens and a small pig, which he 
had foraged. He saluted the Captain as best he could, then 
the Captain said to him "Chris, I thought I put you in the 
guard-house. How did you get out!" 



295 

His reply was a stuttering answer : ' ' Cap, you did put 
me in the guard-house but I got out through the Yazoo pass. ' ' 

His wit saved him further punishment. 

Col. Smith did not have the advantage of much schooling, 
and a few months only he attended Juhilee College near Peo- 
ria, but he matriculated in the school of hard knocks and 
obtained the degree of F. E. (Fully Equipped) in the great 
School of Experience. 

Like Lincoln and Oglesby and Horace Greeley and Grover 
Cleveland and thousands of others, he got a thorough educa- 
tion as he could and when he could. Colleges and universities 
do not make scholars, but they may be great helps. 

Col. Smith rarely misspelled a word, never made gram- 
matical errors, was always logical, like Lincoln he knew a 
chestnut horse from a horse chestnut. 

He had a fine library of the best books, 1,500 volumes. 
He was daily a close student of the best encyclopedias, with 
an open dictionary close at hand. 

Like Frank Crane he was partial to biography, as well 
as history, and in his last few years took great interest in 
Morganthau's "OWN STORY," and Rothschild's "Lincoln, 
Master of Men." He was a member of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society and during the last several years of his life 
one of its directors. 

For a busy man he traveled much. He, with his sister, 
Rie, were with Cyrus Field at Hearts Content when the first 
telegraph cable was laid across the Atlantic. In 1867 he 
visited the copper mines of Lake Superior, and afterwards, 
Alaska, Cuba, Mexico and Europe. He naturally turned to 
men of reputation and affairs, and was a close friend of 
Senator Grimes of Iowa, Joshua R. Giddings of Ohio, and Col. 
John'W. Foster of Indiana, who was Benj. Harrison's Secre- 
tary of State. He also knew Presidents McKinley and Taft, 
Secretary Wickersham, and among great merchants he was 
intimate with the first Marshall Field and the members of 



296 

the firm of Sprague, Warner & Co. In his late years his in- 
timate home associates were Vice President Stevenson, Hon. 
James Ewing, Dr. John Cook, Dr. David Felmley, Dr. Theo- 
dore Kemp, and judges, lawyers, editors, ministers and phy- 
sicians. 

He verified sacred writ "Seest thou a man diligent in 
business, he shall stand before Kings and not before mean 
men. ' ' He knew that putting the clock ahead an hour did not 
add one minute to daylight. 

He never had a walking delegate of any union tell him 
not to work over eight hours a day, and he did not believe that 
a slovenly shirk should be paid the same wages as a con- 
scientious workman. He knew that no man who was limited 
by such rules ever become other than a hewer of wood and 
drawer of water. With him the time to work was limited by 
the amount of work to do, and that anything worth doing at 
all was worth doing well. He was a hard task master, par- 
ticularly to himself, never at any time shirking or dodging. 
This characteristic followed him to the end and he believed 
the philosophy of Miles Standish, "If you want anything 
done, do it yourself. ' ' This was one of the maxims of success. 

It was wonderful in his later years how much he could 
do, and how little he let it interfere with his many social 
duties. 

Ordinarily a man whose wealth had climbed to $100,000 
or half a million, would surround himself with bookkeepers, 
agents and assistants of all kinds, but Col. Smith had evolved 
his own system of bookkeeping and kept close tab on money 
loaned, farms, stores, banks, church, charities, partnerships, 
each child, the household and other things, so that when Uncle 
Sam wanted an income tax, or the assessor a schedule, he was 
ready to make it right, keeping accurate lists of stocks, bonds, 
notes, certificates, the serial numbers, price paid, interests, 
sales, cost of farms, amount and price of crops, taxes and' 
improvements. Few men are capable of handling large for- 
tunes ; they lack the mental and moral poise. Great fortunes 



297 

as a rule only accumulate by long, hard, careful efforts, the 
effect is to cause a habit to grow and solidify along these lines, 
until the force of the fortune becomes paramount and domi- 
nates the owner, instead of the owner dominating the fortune. 

The Midas touch is not an unalloyed blessing, and carries 
its punishment with it. 

The vice of it is, that when firmly grasped, the hold cannot 
voluntarily be released. 

This habit is not so observable where fortunes are in 
companies and corporations operated by agents and officers. 

Col. Smith was not entirely exempt from this compelling 
influence. 

On an occasion like this where we are reviewing the life of 
one of our citizens and friends, the small details are of more 
interest frequently than large results. There may be a ques- 
tion of taste in the matter which is presented or the privacy 
of home or the privacy of a person may be invaded. Yet little 
things are indicators of those more important. 

My idea of a memoir is to give a portrait with all the side 
lights so that the man shall appear as we knew him. The 
Colonel's intimate friends and kin were all interested in the 
annual dinners he and Mrs. Smith gave in honor of his sister, 
Mrs. Lufkin on her birthday. 

She was the oldest of the family and all her life had given 
her young brother a wealth of care and devotion. She was 
one of the women more priceless than rubies. One in ten 
thousand, without fear and without reproach. All loved her. 
Her only brother delighted in surrounding her with her loved 
ones and friends and praising her and thanking her for all 
the past. 

They were enjoyable occasions and once every year he 
read her a poem of his own composing. Critics might find 



298 

fault with the meter but they were rich and worthy in fact 
and devotion, and a credit to the author. I attach one sample 
which breathes the spirit of all of them : 

To SISTEE LUCIA. 
On the Eighty-first Anniversary of Her Birth. 

Eighty-one, and still as young 

As sixty years ago, 

And so you've friends and lovers, too 

No matter where you go. 

Eighty-one, and nimble yet, 
No stiffness anywhere, 
And graceful as when twenty-one 
And just as debonaire. 

Eighty-one, and busy still 
As when your years were few 
And everybody wonders how 
You keep yourself so new. 

Eighty-one, and children cling 
To you as long ago 
They cannot think of you as old, 
You frolic with them so. 

V 

Eighty-one, and all goes well, 
And friends from near and far 
Today send messages of love 
To tell how dear you are. 

Eighty-one, arid still you grow 
In loveliness and grace 
And all the Kith and Kin exclaim, 
"How sweet is Lucia's face!" 



299 

Eighty-one, and life serene, 
And on your brow no frown 
For simple faith assures you that 
God holds for you a crown. 

Eighty-one, how sweet to feel 
Your hallowed presence near! 
May God in goodness spare us all 
To meet another year. 

It is not enough to say that Col. Smith was a Presbyterian 
or that he was a generous man, or that he was kind and courte- 
ous, or, that he was a clean sober man he was all that and 
more. He was ever fair and cordial, showing real interest in 
all with whom he came in contact, and he had a good memory 
for faces and past events. He was a man both men and 
women loved to meet. He was at home with scholars and men 
of affairs, and was equally urbane with persons of less for- 
tunate station in life. 

He liked to joke as well as anybody, and enjoyed the 
reputation in early life and in manhood of being the life of the 
company. His cheerful and good spirits stayed with him to 
the end. He never brooded over failures or accidents. If the 
matters in which he was interested were not successful he 
never advertised it, nor expressed regret. He was prob- 
ably careful that the same thing should not occur again. In 
his younger days, when relatives or friends made some mis- 
take or failure he used the common expression of Josh. Bill- 
ings, "Never cry over spilled milk"; and, would occasionally 
say, " Never mind it, when it gets dry it will rub off." He 
enjoyed games of skill and memory, such as lagometry, check- 
ers, and crokinole, and true to his spirit, he enjoyed them 
most when he was winner. He liked a joke as well as a child, 
but a joke was vastly more agreeable when the other fellow 
got the hot end. 

He was a student, a Bible student, and daily during all 
his married life he asked God's blessing on all the food he ate. 



300 

Daily he read his Bible with his family, and, with the con- 
fidence of a little child, thanked his maker for blessings re- 
ceived and asked for care and protection for each of his loved 
ones ; then wife and each child sealed the service with a kiss. 
A day so begun naturally ran smoothly. 

Before his marriage, in his sister's family he learned the 
children's little grace and often used it at his own table, and 
in fact it prevails with most of the family connection ; and at 
reunions 30 or 40 voices join in saying: 

"Thou art great, God, and good, 
And we thank thee for our food, 
From thy hand must all be fed, 
Give us, Lord, our daily bread." 

This custom of praying and reading his Bible daily went 
with him to hotels and on excursions for recreation. He never 
became too old to be a scholar or teacher in Sunday school. 
He was a constant attendant and active in all church work. 
No instrument or device has yet been discovered to weigh or 
measure the result or effect of such devotion. 

He was not dogmatic or disagreeable in trying to force 
his ideas or practice on any one else. His habits were simple 
and methodical. He was regular about going to bed and 
getting up and in shaving and bathing, and was a good 
dresser. He was abstemious in eating, and good digestion 
waited on a good appetite. He never drank alcohol of any 
kind, or tea or coffee ; never chewed or smoked tobacco or took 
snuff. He was not a reformed man he did not quit those 
things he simply never began them. 

Notwithstanding his devotion to business, he always was 
alive to social matters and took a lively interest in art, music, 
literature and kindred subjects. He organized an Art Associ- 
ation among the thriving cities of Illinois. 

With a few choice spirits in Springfield, Jacksonville, 
Lincoln, Decatur, Bloomington and Champaign for many 



301 

years this association met annually or oftener to study their 
favorite topics and developed a commendable taste for civic 
improvement and a far reaching love for the true, the beauti- 
ful and the good. 

These meetings introduced and secured for central Illi- 
nois a higher plane of thought and entertainment. They were 
a source of great pleasure and lasting improvement to the 
members and will be remembered as long as life lasts. Mr. 
Charles Eidgely of Springfield was the first president. 

Colonel Smith was rarely ill, except from accidental in- 
juries ; his mind was clear and strong ; his body vigorous. He 
really expected to live to a hundred years, and, except for the 
shock he suffered, it is probable that he would have reached 
the goal. 

He was generous, not ostentatious. It has been ascer- 
tained that in fifty years he gave over $300,000 to charity and 
benevolence. He made no toast of it ; rarely spoke of any of 
his gifts. Doubtless much was given that only the recipients 
know about. In fact he was modest and objected to having 
anything said about it, and, in speaking of it now, it is a 
question as to whether or not it would be with his ap- 
proval. The occasion fo* concealing these things is past. 
If it had been known in his lifetime that he was as generous 
as it now appears that he was, the mail would have been bur- 
dened with letters begging for donations to every conceivable 
thing. This may have been one object in not letting the mat- 
ter be known; the other probably was the old maxim "Let not 
the right hand know what the left hand doeth. ' * 

I deem it right and proper that the men and women who 
were interested in his life receive the benefit of a knowledge of 
these gifts. We are more or less imitative, and many wealthy 
people hesitate when deciding where to bestow their money. 

Personally I am acquainted now with a man worth several 
millions of dollars, who has no children, and no relatives that 



302 

need help. His wealth represents the savings of two genera- 
tions, and I know from his statements to me that he is very 
uncomfortable about deciding what to do with his property. 

The kind of gifts Col. Smith made are an index to his 
mind and heart. He felt keenly from experience the need of 
a chance for education to poor boys and girls. His idea was, 
that the boy or girl who really wanted to learn would work 
to get an education. 

^His gift of $75,000 to Blackburn College at Carlinville, 
Illinois, is a good sample of what he thought. 

His gift to Berea College in the mountains of Kentucky 
was to aid the bright children of that region to overcome the 
many handicaps that cripple and dwarf them in their infancy 
and youth. His efforts along this line seem to be a reincarna- 
tion of the spirit of his father and his Bishop great-uncle. 

His numerous and large gifts to the Y. M. C. A. and 
Y. W. C. A., McCormick Seminary and Illinois College, Jack- 
sonville, and the churches in Normal, Bloomington, Shelby- 
ville and elsewhere, show clearly that he believed strongly 
in Christian ideas of help. 

His large endowment to the Shelby County Hospital in 
the name of his father and mother, and to other hospitals with 
a condition of a free bed for the care of patients not able to 
pay, is surely worthy of commendation and an example that 
can well be followed. 

Col. Smith on January 2, 1885, was married to Miss 
Bernadine Orme, second daughter of Gen. William Orme, a 
lawyer of Bloomington, a brave soldier in the Civil War. 

He duplicated his father's family of six girls and one boy. 
These children are : Marion, married to Dr. Marshall Wallis ; 
Helen P., married to Gresham Griggs ; Alice 0., a nurse over- 
seas; Lucia L. Charlott, Florence, and Dudley Chase, Jr. 
Five of these children honored Smith College, Mass., by going 
there and graduated with honor from that institution. 



303 

In 1917 Col. Smith deeded about a section of good land 
to each of his children and lived long enough to teach them 
his methods of handling property. These gifts to his children 
were large and represent seventy years of care, economy and 
judgment of the highest order, but the legacy which he left 
them of a spotless life, the master spirit and devoted love of 
their father remain, and is of more value than all the acres 
and will grow in value to them as the years roll on. 

One of the Bloomington daily papers on the evening fol- 
lowing the Colonel's death in an editorial, well expressed the 
feeling of the people of that beautiful city toward him and 
will aid in giving to his honored name a permanent place in 
the history of McLean county: 

"Whenever any fund was needed for charitable action or 
civic welfare the first and best spirit that came to the mind of 
the committee was Col. Smith. This was his outstanding 
merit, but not his paramount virtue. His best praise is the 
resolute character that prospered his life and made his great 
philanthropies possible. 

As a youth he worked long into the night in that Shelby- 
ville store and made those overmeasures to duty which after 
all are not sacrifice, but only the sure sign of that in an in- 
dividual which marks him as better than the common clay. 

In the springtime of life he had too little of university 
life, but this all the more whetted his appetite for mental 
foods. And his extensive travel abroad and his habitual read- 
ing all had an educational object, until Col. Smith throughout 
his maturer years was usually one of the most refreshingly 
informed in any group. Had his start been different, how- 
ever, he would likely have gravitated to those pursuits for 
which his splendid personality, broad views, and aptness of 
statement fitted him, and Illinois would have been credited 
with another worth while statesman. 

He was a public servant none the less, for his inclinations 
were patriotic as they were generous. Loyalty to his country 



304 

was a part of the atmosphere which he breathed. He invited 
it in his happy nuptial alliance, in his Civil War record, in his 
Spanish War devotion, in his supreme zeal throughout the 
world war ; and his glory was that he saw this reflected in his 
younger kin. 

The warmth of his altruism will be missed. The influence 
of his life will remain. ' ' 

Eev. W. B. Hindman, his pastor, standing beside his 
casket, among other things said : 

' ' The memory of the Just is Blessed ! 

There is but one place to go at such a time as this. It 
is to the word of God. Anything that man might say would 
be out of place. We want comfort and strength that is sure 
and abiding. To him death has simply been an incident in 
that larger life which he found in the fellowship of the master 
whom he loved. We cannot mourn for him who has gone. 
But we sorrow because his gain has been our loss. We shall 
miss his kindly face, his gentle smile, his helpful words. He 
lived the complete life and its completeness must be a source 
of strength to each one of us. 

We mark the lapse of time by the vanishing faces of the 
dead and the hushing of familiar voices, but our sad abstrac- 
tion is happily broken by the reflection that the day, of which 
the prophet spoke, has dawned for our fellow laborer 'that 
day when the Lord of Hosts shall be for a crown of glory and 
for a diadem of beauty unto His faithful servants. ' 

He obtained without seeking it, an impressive weight 
among his fellowmen because of the strength of an unusual 
and forcible character ; a character which never coveted ease, 
but deliberately chose the steep and rugged path where duty 
led the way and useless luxury dare not invade. The efforts 
thus involved were essential to the fibre of his being and 
through incessant devotion to the daily round he came to his 
proper upward motion to the higher life where he could not 



305 

be swerved from the kingly road that 'way of the just which 
shineth brighter and brighter unto the dawning of the day.' 

Constant ministry shone and was reflected in unmounted 
grace and thoughtful care. 

It was fidelity. In things great and small with exactitude 
and scrupulous honor, he kept the faith. His profession as a 
Christian gentlemen did not dissolve into mere rhapsodies ; he 
did not escape the present world and its burdens by postpon- 
ing essential things to the eternal state beyond. He chose the 
better part and was diligent in business, fervent in spirit, 
serving the Lord. 

Conscience and intellect united in him upon one object, 
the truth as he understood the truth.. This attribute was 
rooted in him and he would not suffer it to be removed what- 
ever else was shaken. His life has been a benediction to all 
who knew him." 

At a memorial meeting of the University Club of Bloom- 
ington, President Felmley of the State, Normal University of 
Normal, Col. Smith having been for years an honorary but 
active member of the club, in a most interesting paper read 
by Mr. Felmley, voiced the sentiments of the club. 

I am impelled here to make a few quotations from that 
paper : 

"In the death of Colonel Dudley Chase Smith which oc- 
curred on May 22, 1920, this community lost a man who for 
more than half a century had been one of its most prominent 
and highly respected citizens. Although he had not held 
public office, or been engaged in active business during this 
period he was widely known throughout the state and beyond 
its border because of his uprightness of character, his exten- 
sive knowledge of men and affairs, his interest in the public 
welfare, and his liberal contributions to causes for promoting 
human betterment. His story is the story so frequently found 
in America, the land of opportunity, the story of a youth of 



306 

slender resources rising to affluence and a commanding posi- 
tion by virtue of his pluck, his strength of purpose, and ster- 
ling character. 

It is of the highest importance to young men and women 
to know this story and to realize that success in life does not 
come by accident, and is not achieved by the unworthy. * * 

He was the seventh child and only son of a family of ten. 
The family lived in a log house in a frontier settlement 80 
miles from Alton, the nearest market. The simple home was 
a hive of industry where every member under the leadership 
of the mother did his or her part toward the support of the 
family. The house was a model of cleanliness and order, the 
children always neatly dressed and well cared for. Some 
books had been brought from Indiana which were shared with 
the neighbors, and Addison Smith was unwearied in his 
efforts to give to his children and to everyone else of his 
acquaintance the best literature obtainable. * * * 

In his private life Col. Smith was simple and unostenta- 
tious. Most men of his means with no investments holding 
them in so modest a community as Normal would have built a 
residence on some Lake Shore Drive where he might have men 
and women of equal wealth and social experience for neigh- 
bors and associates. Not so was Col. Smith. He was most 
democratic, fair-minded, and considerate of the opinions of 
others. I think I have not known any one who valued men 
more justly according to their worth and with less considera- 
tion for the adventitious circumstances of family or wealth 
or social position. * * * 

In what may be called his private and personal life Col. 
Smith seems early to have settled upon those rules of action 
that conduce to the great ends of life, temporal existence, and 
the surest means of happiness, health, fulness of life, length 
of days, abundance, honor, love, obedience, troops of friends. 
No intoxicants or narcotics, no tobacco, tea or coffee, through 
which we pay for the exhilaration of today by cutting off our 



307 

tomorrow ever touched his lips. He knew no illness except 
from his wound at Shiloh and some physical injuries. * * * " 

At the church of Col. Smith's mother in Shelbyville, 
John D. Miller, in a service held in memory of Col. Smith, 
among other things said: 

1 1 It was my happy privilege to assist him in his business 
over the long period of thirty-one years. Few young men had 
such expert business training as I enjoyed under him. Dur- 
ing all these years, with business perplexities, opportunities 
for friction and misunderstanding, he ever maintained that 
even temper and manifested a spirit of kindness, patience and 
charity. 

This was a most remarkable exhibition of a strong and 
broad mind, and I often thought he would have made a most 
efficient treasurer for our state or Federal Government. 

In all transactions he desired only his dtfes, but was very 
accurate in his accounts and affairs. 

In addition to his financial ability and business acumen 
I could but admire him on account of his faith in the verities 
of Christianity. He told me he believed in the inspiration of 
the Bible and the Deity of Jesus as the Son of God and Savior 
of men. * * *" 

There is one other phase of Col. Smith's life that should 
be mentioned. 

He was a Republican; he never had an office, never 
wanted one, but he was deeply interested in township, county, 
state and national politics and never shirked the duty of 
voting. It goes without saying that in private conversation 
and in political speeches he never resorted to vulgar person- 
alities or made specious charges against his opponents or 
their party. He freely accorded to others what he claimed 
for himself, freedom of thought and speech on all questions 
within the law. 



308 

.,.,,, 

Mr. Felmley said of him : "He was one of the little hand- 
ful of Bepublicans to stand by Lincoln in his memorable 
debate with Anthony Thornton at Shelbyville, June 15th, 
1856." 

He had witnessed the growing effrontery of the slave 
power during the administration of Buchanan. 

Had seen the inevitable conflict coming, and when the 
hour struck he was ready. 

"He took a deep interest in public affairs, like most 
young men of his day, he was drawn into the Eepublican 
party in its early history, unquestionably the party of human 
rights, and national progress. 

In riper years he clung to its best traditions. ' ' 

He had had experience in war, his blood stained the soil 
of Shiloh, he had risked his life on the battle field, and the 
wearing strain of camp and march. 

He had seen his comrades fall : He knew of the orphans 
and widows in the devastated south and all over northern 
states. 

He knew of untold waste and destruction of property and 
in the great world war that for nearly five years had made 
the earth one great charnel-house, leaving debt that will take 
the next ten generations to pay and he naturally used the 
words of our great Gen. Grant "Let us have peace." 

He was a personal friend of Ex-President Taft and he 
ardently hoped a scheme might be devised that would for- 
ever banish war from the world. He cherished the hope that 
when Mr. Wilson promulgated his fourteen points and de- 
clared he was for open covenants openly arrived at, that a 
solution might be reached. He did not permit himself to 
criticise the President for personally abandoning the White 
House and sailing away to Europe, though in talking with me 



309 

he said in substance it would have been better to have sent a 
commission as other Presidents had done. In saying this he 
voiced the sentiment of a great majority of the people of the 
United States. 

After a long delay of six months, with absolutely no in- 
formation of what was being done at Paris, when the Presi- 
dent for some unexplained and inscrutable reason after reach- 
ing home refused to let the United States Senate and the 
people whose servant he was, see the League, and claimed he 
alone was responsible for it, Col. Smith wrote me he was all 
in the dark and could see no dawn. 

When after weary weeks of waiting the Senate got a 
copy and a majority of the Senate, a majority of the Demo- 
cratic Senators even, refused to adopt it without reservations, 
the Colonel expressed his idea that the reservations were for 
the safety and welfare of the United States and he hoped 
they would be adopted. 

Knowing him as I have for 60 years, I am fully satisfied 
that he would never have risked his home and native land, to 
that untried, unamended, so-called League of Peace. 

In the passing of Colonel Smith the State of Illinois has 
lost a noble citizen a man of the pioneer type loyal to his 
country, his church and his family. 

New occasions call for new men and new ideas. It will 
be well with the nation if those who succeed him follow the 
example set them by Dudley Chase Smith. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL LIBEAEY AND SOCIETY. 

No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 1860. Pre- 
pared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1899. 

No. 2. information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed from 1809 
to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 15 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. *The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 
170 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. ""Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1900. 
Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D., 55 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. *Alphabetical Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and Curios 
of the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. Compiled by 
Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6 to 24. ""Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the years 
1901-1918. (Nos. 6 to 18 out of Print.) 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, President 
of the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1903. 

""Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol. I. The Cahokia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. CLVI and 663 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1907. . 

""Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln-Douglas Debates of 1858. 
Lincoln Series, Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph. D. 627 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1908. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The Gover- 
nor's Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series. Vol. II, Kaskaskia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L. and 681 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1909. 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I, News- 
papers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited 
by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1910. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII, Executive Series, Vol. II. Governors' 
Letter Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles Manfred 
Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

""Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers dark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by James Alton 
James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1912. 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. Travel 
and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

310 



311 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, VoL I. The Critical Period, 
1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord and 
Clarence Edwin Carter. LVI1 and 597 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XI. British Series, Vol. II. The New Re- 
gime, 1765-1767. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord 
and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, VoL XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. The 
County Archives of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. CXLJ and 730 
pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIII. Constitutional Series, Vol. I. Illi- 
nois Constitutions. Edited by EmU Joseph Verlie. 231 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIV. Constitutional Series, Vol. II. The 
Constitutional Debates of 1847. Edited with introduction and notes by Arthur 
Charles Cole, XV and 1018 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1919. 

* Bulletin of the Dlinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, September, 1905. 
Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord. 38 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield. 

* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, 1906. 
Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. 
34 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

* Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. 1, No. 1. November, 1905. An 
Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber 
and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

*Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State Historical 
Library. Compiled by Georgia L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

* Publication No. 25. Last of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State Historical 
Library. Supplement to Publication No. 18. Compiled by George L. Osborne. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1918. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. Vol. I, No. 1. April, 1908, to 
Vol. XIII, No. 2, July, 1920. 

Journals out of print, Vols. I, II, HI, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, No. 1 of VoL IX, No. 
2 of Vol. X. 



ILLINOIS WOMEN OF THE MIDDLE PERIOD 

BY ARTHUR CHARLES COLE 

The American West has traditionally been pictured in 
the figure of the sturdy pioneer whose trusty rifle warned 
off the hostile red-skin, whose powerful axe challenged the 
wilderness and fashioned his rude cabin, and whose hoe and 
plow broke the soil for the rudimentary agriculture" that 
meant life to the first generation of frontiersmen. It remains 
to be shown that the conquest of the western wilds was con- 
ditioned upon the domestic partnership in which the pioneer 
woman played no minor role. The heroine of the frontier 
was not merely, as some one has said, that " gaunt and aad- 
faced woman sitting on the front seat of the wagon, follow- 
ing her lord where he might lead, her face hidden in the same 
ragged sunbonnet which had crossed the Appalachians." 
Hers was more than the role of housewife of feeding a lord 
and master and his progeny and administering to their 
physical comforts. She kept the house, to be sure ; she did 
the quilting, the washing, the preserving of beef and pork; 
she made the candles and the family clothes. But the frontier 
.woman had other occupations, the nature and significance of 
which have found little understanding in later generations. 

The "women folks" of the frontier "could allus find 
something to du" around the barns and sheds, and, more, in 
the fields themselves. 1 The realm of woman's work did not 
end at the threshold of her lord's domain. She was his 
partner and together they labored toward the goal of success. 
She must share his burdens, but she did so as his equal. It 
was not, then, commands to an inferior that secured her co- 
operation; it was a tribute to a sex equality which had its 
place in that pure democratic atmosphere of the frontier. 

The very hardships of the frontier tore down old customs 
and established new values. But, just as the frontier was a 

'See Tillson, Christiana Holme*, A Woman'* Story of Pioneer Illinoii. 

312 



313 

moving and changing force, so conditions altered themselves 
with the steady flow of the westward movement. The second 
generation was better able to respond to the appeals of 
eastern customs and traditions, even to transplant them to 
western soil. One very suggestive index of the passing of 
the frontier can be found in the new status of women and 
their new reaction to life about them. The frontier departed 
before the forces that made for specialization and for a divi- 
sion of labor, and woman 's sphere was redefined by the same 
forces. 

As the frontier lingeringly bade its adieu, leisure mo- 
ments came to the wives and mothers of the West; and, 
simultaneously, a blind groping for pursuits to take the 
place of frontier occupations. The result was a larger part 
by women in organizations for social and educational pur- 
poses. They became active along religious lines ; they formed 
sewing societies, reading circles, women's clubs; they came, 
particularly in Indiana, to take a leading part in library asso- 
ciations. The women began also to bear the burden of the 
responsibility of the work of organizing the anti-slavery cru- 
sade; the men were often quite " content with the humbler 
task of co-operation by supplying the sinews of war." The 
West still showed less consciousness than the East "of any 
conflict between the peculiar duties of men and those of women 
in their relations to common objects." 2 

In the late forties, the frontier passed slowly from the 
prairies of Illinois to the trans-Mississippi West. Simul- 
taneously the pioneer woman began to disappear. Her suc- 
cessor not only had less taste for heavy physical tasks but 
even aspired to the eastern role of "lady." This required 
domestic service from servants engaged to take the place of 
the mistress. The resident population furnished few young 
women who failed to share the western spirit of optimism 
and opportunity to the extent of accepting the lot of an in- 
ferior group. Attention was drawn therefore to the surplus 
female population of the eastern cities; by co-operation 
with the Women's Protective Immigration Societies of New 
York and Philadelphia, the women of the prairie towns of 
Illinois were supplied with a quota of domestic helpers who 

2 Macy, the Anti-Slavery Crusade, 46. "There was complete equality between husband and wife 
because their aims were identical and each rendered the service most convenient and most needed. . . 
Women did what men could not do." Ibid., 47. 



314 

relieved still further the labor pressure upon the western 
wife and mother. 8 

This relief left opportunity for other types of feminine 
enterprise. The sewing society, with all its ramifications, was 
the obvious stopgap; but it alone did not suffice. At times 
of stress it enlarged its scope still farther, as when the women 
of Chicago were aroused by bleeding Kansas to organize a 
" Kansas Women's Aid and Liberty Association," with 
active auxiliaries in the towns and villages of northern Illi- 
nois. Even the less courageous sewing societies took a part 
in the work for the relief of the distressed sisters in Kansas. 4 

A new crusading spirit drew the women into the ranks 
of the temperance movement. In 1850 " Ladies' Temperance 
Unions" or societies appeared in the chief cities and towns 
to aid in the organized attack upon liquor. County organi- 
zations followed, and in 1856 a call was sent out by women 
of Chicago and vicinity for a state convention to organize a 
Women's State Temperance Society. All of these organi- 
zations demanded literary activity from their members in the 
preparation of addresses; they also gave to the women of 
the state some of their first experience in speechmaking. 
In 1885, Mrs. Fonda, an agent of the New York Ladies' 
Temperance Society, made an extensive lecture tour through 
Illinois. One of her first addresses was in Springfield, where 
she spoke before an audience of citizens and members of the 
legislature. She even penetrated into "darkest Egypt" 
where, according to one of its spokesmen, * ' the use of intoxi- 
cating drinks seems more natural than the use of water." 
At every point she was met with a cordial welcome, with 
good audiences, and with generous collections. 5 Many of her 
audiences were strongly impressed by their first experience 
in listening to the eloquence of a woman lecturer. 

But there was emotion as well as intelligence in the 
women's part in the temperance movement. The time called 
for a St. George to slay the "Demon Bum" and the women 
entered the field. Enraged feminine victims of the liquor 
traffic enlisted under the banners of local prototypes of Carrie 
Nation and were led in destructive assaults against the of- 

*See Cole, Era of the Civil War, 15. 

'Chicago Weekly Democrat, June 21, 28, 1856. 

'Mrs. Fonda at the close of her tour congratulated herself on the "very large, (till and respectful 
audiences," and "generous contributions made by them." See her letter of April 23, 1855, to the Cairo 
City Time* in the issue of May 2, 1855. 



315 

fending groggeries ; armed with hatchets, rolling pins, broom- 
sticks, kitchen knives and fire shovels, they routed the enemy, 
leaving empty barrels and broken glasses and decanters to 
decorate the streets. One of the first of such raids occurred 
in Milford, Iroquois county, in 1854; Lincoln had a similar 
party in 1855 ; in the following year twenty or thirty women 
of Farmington, " backed up and protected by a crowd of 300 
men and boys," cleaned out every grogshop in the commu- 
nity and secured so much applause from the newspaper of 
the neighboring town of Canton that the temperance women 
of the community came to the rescue of the city's prohibitory 
ordinance by raiding the shop of an offender and resolved 
that as often as the practice was resumed in the community, 
they would rid themselves of its curse, ' ' peaceably if we can, 
forcibly if we must. ' ' Women in the town of Winnebago not 
only emptied the casks of a local liquor dealer but treated 
him to a ride out of town on a rail (Eock Eiver Democrat, 
August 31, 1858). All these served as precedents for later 
raids until it became a question as to whether city officers 
could wipe out the liquor traffic by law enforcement or 
whether it would be left to the women. As the Aurora Beac- 
on, May 13, 1858, facetiously and ungrammatically put it: 
"We wait to see who to throw up our hat for the Women, 
or the City Officers. ' ' Many of the local newspapers accorded 
these militant tactics a silent approval; the editor of the 
Ottawa Free Trader, however, called such measures "high- 
handed, lawless, and not to be approved" and the Joliet 
Signal held that the husbands of the women should be com- 
pelled to pay damages since "such outrages upon the prop- 
erty and rights of others are becoming too frequent." 6 At 
one time it was rumored that one of the married women of 
Aurora had been arrested at the suit of a local whiskey seller, 
although no raiding party had been staged, with the result 
that the women held an indignation meeting and adopted a 
set of stirring resolutions. 7 

These aggressive movements of the women doubtless at- 
tracted more attention than their active efforts in the regu- 
larly organized temperance movement. In the main they 
worked quietly and in good temper, "in a spirit of kindness," 
read a flattering account in the Rockford Register, December 

"Ottawa Free Trader, April 10, 1854; Joliet Signal, June 8, 1858 
''Rockford Register, March 13, 1858. 



25, 1858. "We believe," wrote the editor, that "the move- 
ment which the ladies have initiated for the attempted sup- 
pression of the liquor traffic, to be justifiable, and a legitimate 
sphere for her labors for the suppression of a vice in which 
she is so largely the sufferer." Temperance reform was 
materially furthered by the women who confined their activi- 
ties to writing and delivering addresses and sending them to 
the newspapers for publication. 8 

In time signs began to appear that women would demand 
admission into the professional field. Pioneer women editors, 
preachers, and physicians in the East began to attract con- 
siderable attention. Mrs. Jane Gray Swisshen's venture as 
editor of the Pittsburg Visitor received wide notice ; her views 
on the rights of women were extensively clipped and her edi- 
torial efforts together with those of Mrs. Anne E. McDowell 
in her Philadelphia Women's Advocate were variously ap- 
plauded and condemned by the editorial fraternity of Illinois. 
In March, 1855, the Belleville Advocate announced that it 
expected shortly "to have the pleasure of introducing to the 
notice of our readers another new paper, published nearer 
home, and edited by a lady friend of ours. We masculines 
had better look to our time-honored 'rights.' When women 
invade the sanctum and mount the tripod, it is time that a 
voice were raised in remonstrance; else, we may find like 
Othello, when too late to apply a remedy, that our 'occupa- 
tion's gone.' " 9 

For the time few complained against the traditional 
monopoly of the male sex in professional occupations. Mar- 
riage or hopes of marriage held the interest of most women, 
for as yet the male demand for domesticity was insatiable in 
a section where woman was in a marked minority. The first 
women in Illinois to demonstrate publicly their ability to 
compete with men in the professions were emissaries carry- 
ing the gospel of "woman's rights" from the East. Such in 
a sense was the case even with Mary A. Livermore, who for 
a time concealed her activities behind the name of her hus- 
band, an eastern Universalist minister who located first at 
Quincy and then in Chicago. Mrs. Livermore was a frequent 
contributor to denominational papers and was probably the 

"See Rockford Register, December 25, 1858; Aurora Beacon February 4, 1858. 
* Belleville Advocate, March 14, 1855; cf. IU. State Journal, July 23, 1850. 



317 

"real editor" of The New Covenant, the Universalist organ 
at Chicago which carried her husband's name on the editorial 
page. In this way she laid the foundation for her later role 
of leadership in the woman's movement. 

The early woman preachers naturally aroused consider- 
able excitement. In 1853 the Reverend R. F. Ellis, Baptist 
minister at Alton, rejoiced that he was at length able to scotch 
the rumor that Miss Antoinette L. Brown had been ordained 
as Baptist pastor of South Butler, Wayne county, New York ; 
he felt relieved that her denominational connection was with 
another sect, the Congregationalist ; but regretted that the 
act of ordination had taken place in a Baptist house of wor- 
ship. He could only hope that the Baptists had repented of 
having allowed the use of their building for this purpose, 
' ' so repugnant to Baptist usages. ' no 

Within four years his Baptist flock experienced almost 
directly the invasion of a woman preacher. About 1857 a 
Mrs. Hubbard came to Madison county and requested the 
privilege of speaking in the old Mount Olive meeting house 
outside Alton; a storm of protest arose from the male mem- 
bers of the Baptist congregation but when the objections 
were broken down, a crowded house greeted the innovator. 
Thenceforth she was received with a hearty welcome in all 
her appearances before that congregation. 11 Another early 
itinerant woman preacher of the late fifties was Mrs. Lily 
Henry, who later made her home at Bunker Hill, Illinois. The 
precedent established in the cases of Mrs. Hubbard and Mrs. 
Henry seems to have cleared the atmosphere of much of the 
opposition to woman preachers, so that those who followed in 
their footsteps encountered fewer obstacles. 

The woman teachers of early Illinois were largely eastern 
emigrants. In the period after 1847 the Illinois Education 
Society and the National Educational Society, through its 
agent, Ex-Governor Slade of Vermont, cooperated to transfer 
systematically to the West classes of young women as mis- 
sionaries in the cause of education. Illinois received a large 
share of these importations which were enthusiastically wel- 
comed. Western advocates of education only complained that 
they were not brought on fast enough to make up for constant 



485. 



l Alton Courier, October 13, 1853. 

"Stahl, "Early Women Preachers in Illinois, "in Illinois State Historical Society, Journal IX, 484- 



318 

desertions. The demand for wives was often greater than 
that for teachers, so that two-thirds of them abandoned the 
professional field and settled down to domestic life before 
a period of five years had elapsed. " Instead of teaching 
other folks ' children, ' ' remarked a contemporary, they ' ' soon 
find employment in teaching their own." 12 

Meanwhile provision was made for training a local 
supply of teachers at the new state normal school and young 
women began to be attracted to this opportunity to secure 
economic independence. Thus constantly did the professional 
horizon for the female sex widen; by 1859 there graduated 
from Sloan's Central Commercial College of Chicago "the 
first class of ladies who have received a thorough commercial 
education in the West, if not in the United States. ' m 

By this time the much talked of woman's rights move- 
ment had borne down upon Illinois from the East. There 
was a good deal of confusion as to just what this movement 
covered. Liberal-minded editors, like John Wentworth of the 
Chicago Democrat, admitted that the laws were "oppressive 
toward women in many respects;" "Let woman plead earn- 
estly, boldly," he urged, "with brothers, sons, and husbands, 
. . . for justice and her rights, and she uses a power that 
will prove effective." "But," he warned, "let her not aspire 
to become equal with man. ' m William H. Sterrett was known 
as a strong woman's rights advocate in the general assembly 
where he sponsored such legislation as giving the wife 
separate and independent fee in her own property. Other 
men who represented radical movements of the day found 
courage to present the new woman's propaganda before the 
public ; the versatile H. Van Amringe of Chicago pleaded for 
woman's rights and listed the cause with land reform and 
abolition in his lecture repertoire. 

Neither such advocates nor the woman champions who 
entered the lists advocated the widening of the suffrage 
franchise or the eligibility of women to office-holding. Ad- 
mitting a distinct sphere for womankind, the woman's rights 
forces insisted upon the**- injustice of contemporary legal 
discriminations as to property-holding, and in addition 

^-Illinois State Journal, November 28, December 1, 1848; Illinois State Register, December 2, 1851, 
August 4, 1853. 

"Chicago Press and Tribune May 19. 1859. 
"CAicafo Weekly Democrat, September 17, 1853. 



319 

claimed those rights, the denial of which would defraud wom- 
an 's very nature. Confined to the narrow training of the 
contemporary female seminary or college, shut out of the high 
schools and colleges, many women labored to secure for their 
sex equality in education. "Let women be educated," urged 
one champion, " "Pis her right, not the fashionable education 
of the boarding school, an education too often, of the head, 
at the expense of the heart! There are five kinds of educa- 
tion which every woman has a right to: intellectual, moral, 
social, physical, and industrial." 15 

Soon woman propagandists were busy on the platform, 
though at first limiting themselves to discourses to members 
of their sex on anatomy and physiology. In 1852 Mrs. J. 
Elizabeth Jones made an eminently successful lecture tour 
through the state followed, in the spring of the following 
year, by Mrs. Ann S. Bane. At the same time Miss Olive 
Starr Wait, niece of William S. Wait, the Illinois reformer, 
actively entered the field. Mrs. Bane had added the topic 
"woman's rights," to the subjest matter of her lectures, while 
Miss Wait came to give her entire attention to that subject. 
For several years Miss Wait addressed large audiences made 
up of members of both sexes in all the important towns of 
southwestern Illinois, in the region about her native Madison 
county. She was a woman of unusual charm. "Her char- 
acter, life and attainments stamp her as an ornament to her 
country, to her sex, to her race," declared the Belleville Ad- 
vocate, after she had delivered a series of three lectures 
before an audience which unanimously requested her to pro- 
long her stay and her work of education. Men and women 
applauded her efforts and advocated letting her give "the 
full length of the reins to her abilities under the guide of her 
angeli c benevolence. ' n8 In 1855 her lecture tour included the 
state capital. Miss Wait had a happy faculty of presenting 
her subject in a manner that offended few and attracted many. 
"For chaste elocution, happy illustration, beauty of diction 
and depth of pathos, these lectures have been but seldom 
equaled," wrote a discriminating patron. 17 At the end of 
1853 Lucy Stone visited Chicago and then started on a tour 

"Alton Courier, January 27, 1854. 

"Belleville Advocate, April 27, 1853. An occasional critic cited the bible position of woman: "Man 
was first formed, and placed at the head of all the works of the six days, and afterwards woman was 
taken from his side." 

"N. M. McCurdy to Joseph Cillespie, December 15, 1858, Cillespie manuscripts, Chicago Historical 
Society. Miss Wait later became the wife of the Honorable Jehu Baker. 



320 

of the state on a feminist mission. Her womanly earnestness 
combined with a manly energy could not but command respect. 
"How differently appeared the cause of woman's rights as 
set forth by Miss Stone, ' ' commented a critic instinctively in- 
clined to sympathize with the movement. 18 Another active 
propagandist of the same period was Mrs. Frances D. Gage 
of St. Louis who lectured extensively in the central portion 
of the state. 19 In 1858 Horace Mann, the Massachusetts edu- 
cator, visited the state and delivered a lecture at Ottawa on 
the subject of "Woman." 

A good deal of discussion was aroused by these stimuli. 
The removal of legal restrictions on woman found an increas- 
ing number of supporters, even in the legislative halls at 
Springfield. A letter even went the rounds of the newspapers 
purporting to have been written by Stephen A. Douglas to 
Lucy Stone, giving an endorsement of her cause; it proved, 
however, to be a hoax which Miss Stone indignantly repu- 
diated: "It is not to such men that the Woman's Eights 
cause appeals for help." 20 Men were found, like the editor 
of the Aurora Beacon, who openly professed no objections to 
the extension of the rights of suffrage to women: "It will 
not make them less lovely nor injure their dispositions. Their 
sense of right and justice is as clear, if not clearer, than ours ; 
and their innate humanity, in which they greatly exceed us, 
will prove no invaluable aid in many cases where those great 
principles are involved. If they wish to vote, why should they 
not?" 21 

Not all the devotees were able to appreciate the full scope 
of the woman question in its legal, political, and philosophical 
implications. Sex emancipation for many women came to 
mean the elimination of the inequality that grew out of the 
traditions of a garb which by ancient custom make "our 
women feeble when they might be strong," "stooping when 
they might be straight," and "helpless when they might be 
efficient." Feminine dress would not permit the vigorous 
physical exercise which develops superior intellect, and man, 
thus deprived of the society of women in many of his avoca- 

"Free West, January 5, 1854. 

"Illinois State Journal, January 14, 1854; Alton Dotty Courier, January 16, 1854; Alton IPeekly 
Courier, October 5, 1854. 

M Rockjord Register, September 24, November 5, 1859. 

21 Aurora Beacon, March 14, 1857. There was a tendency for the Republicans to show greater 
favor to the woman's movement than the Democrats, so that some of the latter complained of mixing 
up sex emancipation with negro emancipation. 

See Belleville Advocate, August 17, 1853; Joliet Signal, June 17, 1856. 



321 

tions and diversions, regarded her as his inferior. This was 
the argument of the dress reformers, whose adherents demon- 
strated their seriousness in 1851 and again in 1858, when 
wearers of the bloomer costume, designed by Mrs. Bloomer 
of New York, made their appearance on the streets of various 
Illinois cities. In June, 1851, a correspondent signing herself 
as "Elizabeth" appealed to the Illinois State Register 22 to 
come out in favor of short skirts; women, she said, decline 
longer to be " street-sweepers ' ' they wished to drop the long 
dangling mops that constituted the female dress : they wanted 
freedom of limbs and the opportunity of making the best of 
such charms as a pretty foot and ankle. The editor indulged 
in facetious equivocation, but already by that time several 
young ladies had taken matters in hand in Bloomington by 
appearing in the new bloomer costume and had secured the 
endorsement of the local editor. "They attracted the uni- 
versal attention and admiration of all who saw them. We 
trust now that the ice is broken, the dress will be adopted by 
all," concluded the note on this new development in the 
Bloomington Bulletin. 23 Several prominent women of Joliet 
promptly adopted the costume and heroically adhered to it 
for street dress. The editor of the Signal noted a number 
whose garb "did not extend below their 'courtesy benders.' 
Well, whose business is it?" he asked. The editor of the 
Aurora Beacon applauded when certain young matrons made 
their appearance, "decked out in short dresses and pants, to 
the great discomfiture of fastidious husbands and a certain 
class of maidens, and to the unrestrained delight of young 
men and boys." "So far as our notions of this reform are 
concerned, we are free to say that with some slight improve- 
ments in the style adopted by the ladies referred to, we are 
decidedly in for it. The dresses are too long, the trousers 
should have been gathered and tied just above the ankles, and 
the head hear should consist of a hat or turban, a la Turk. 
. . . Go on, ladies, as you have begun. The enemies of 
this desirable reform may for a time turn up their noses at 
you, but rest assured that the more reasonable portion of the 
community are with you." 24 When the New Harmony plank 
road opening was celebrated by a dance at New Harmony in 



"Illinois State Register, June 26, 1851. 
^Bloomington Bulletin, in ibid. 
"Aurora Beacon, June 26, 1851. 



322 

November, 1851, the bloomer costume was worn by "many 
fair dancers." 26 Bloomer parties were held to keep up the 
courage of the innovators who braved the gaze of the curious 
and the sharp tongues of the town gossips. Many women, 
safe from the public eye, enjoyed the comfort and convenience 
which the new dress afforded for the performance of house- 
work. The revival of 1857-8 was quite extensive. The dress 
reform forces organized themselves carefully in several com- 
munities. In Aurora the friends of dress reform of both 
sexes adopted a strong indictment of the prevailing style of 
dress, endorsed the " reform dress," and resolved "that we 
will, by precept and example, by word and deed, to the best 
of our ability, encourage a change in woman's apparel, that 
shall be in keeping with physiological laws : allow free motion 
to every part of the body, protect and cover, in a proper 
manner, the wearer and materially aid her in attaining that 
position side by side with man, neither above him nor beneath 
him, but his co-worker in life and its duties, equally capable 
of enjoying its pleasures, for which nature designed her, and 
give a more correct idea of the natural proportions of the 
human form." 28 A committee of two men and three women 
was then appointed to frame a constitution for the new 
"Dress Reform Association." Soon, however, the number 
of practicing converts declined and the unterrified became 
less zealous over their public appearances ; the traditions of 
centuries triumphed over the would-be reformers. Other 
less dramatic features of the woman's movement absorbed 
the interest of those who were motivated by a bona fide femin- 
ist philosophy. 

The Illinois woman 's movement of the fifties feeble and 
groping in all its efforts was the infancy of the powerful 
force that emerged triumphant in the twentieth century. The 
Civil War made new demands and presented new opportuni- 
ties to womankind. The scope of every activity was enlarged 
and intensified. Women found a broader field of service out- 
side of as well as within the home. Their visions were en- 
larged as they listened to or participated in appeals for the 
negro freedom and his rights ; they perceived the logic of the 
demand that members of their sex be accorded the same poli- 
tical privileges to which the former victims of chattel slavery 

28 Graysoille Advertiser, in Illinois State Register, November 27, 1851. 
M Aurora Beacon, April 8, 1858. 



323 

were admitted. The woman's movement became articulate 
and redefined itself in terms broader than those of the pre- 
vious decade. In the middle period of Illinois history, there- 
fore, the woman's movement was important mainly because 
it was a beginning and because this beginning was one of a 
number of pieces of testimony to the fact that the frontier 
was about to pass from the Illinois prairies. 



THE BUILDING OF A STATE THE STORY 
OF ILLINOIS 

A LECTURE BY A. MILO BENNETT, DELIVERED BEFORE THE 
PRESS CLTJB OF CHICAGO, AUGUST 7, 1918. 



EARLY VOYAGERS IN ILLINOIS 

Surprising as it may seem to many of us, hunters and 
priests in the parties of Marquette, Joliet, LaSalle, Tonti and 
Hennepin had explored, and made maps of the vicinity of 
Illinois, before Vermont, Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee were 
settled or even heard of. 

While James II was on the throne of England, and 
Louis XIV was King of France; while the New England 
settlements were threatened with extermination by the In- 
dians, these intrepid and daring explorers traversed the 
valleys of the Illinois, Fox, Des Plaines and Wisconsin rivers. 
They mapped out the Mississippi and its tributaries. Fran- 
quelin's map of 1684 shows how little was known of this 
great country. No settlements are shown, for there were 
none west of Green Bay at this time. 

Settlements and villages were established at Cahokia in 
1699 and Kaskaskia, Illinois, in 1700, respectively. This was 
years before the birth of Pittsburgh, New Orleans or St. Louis. 
This was fifty years before the settlement of Cincinnati, and 
one hundred and thirty years before Chicago was laid out as 
a town. Kaskaskia was first settled by French Creoles from 
the West Indies, and couriers du bois from the settlements 
along the St. Lawrence river in Canada. 

Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Prairie Du Bocher nearby, had 
a population of sixteen hundred white people, and several 
hundred slaves and Indians in 1756, before there was any 
settlement of any kind in the northern part of Illinois. Kas- 
kaskia was located in Randolph County, about 65 miles below 
St. Louis, near the junction of the Kaskaskia and Mississippi 
rivers. Cahokia was located six miles below the mouth of 
the Missouri. It has lost its individuality, but would be a 

324 



325 

suburb of East St. Louis. Both towns have now disappeared 
from the maps. Kaskaskia was the largest town in the West 
for many years. It was the capital of the territory for sev- 
enty-eight years and the capital of the State for two years. 
These early settlements were under French dominion for 
sixty-five years, were governed by the English thirteen 
years, and by the State of Virginia six years, before coming 
under the jurisdiction of the United States. 

General Lafayette visited Kaskaskia in 1825. Nearly 
100 years have elapsed and we, through our soldiers, have 
but recently returned his call, and with interest. Lafayette 
found a very prosperous and thriving community. A recep- 
tion was given in his honor by Governor Edward Coles. He 
was entertained by ladies of fashion, back woodsmen and 
hunters alike. The costumes of the drawing rooms of France 
were worn in those early days, and a high degree of social 
culture was maintained. In the rooms of the Chicago His- 
torical Society may be seen the long-wristed white kid gloves, 
wonderful gowns, slippers, and high-priced ornamental fans 
used by the ladies of that day, in the back-woods where 
elaborate dress would seem foreign, but we are getting ahead 
of our story. It may be well to retrace our steps to the dis- 
coveries and exploitations of our first great travelers. Pic- 
ture to yourself the wonderful flower-filled valleys which met 
the eyes of the pioneer and about which such glowing tales 
were told throughout the old world. 

THE MOUND BUILDERS 

Many years before modern white men touched the soil of 
Illinois, there must have been two or three other distinct 
civilizations. Geologists have found in the underlying glacial 
drift flint implements of the real paleozoic age, dating back 
thousands of years. 

The mound builders of more recent years, have left un- 
mistakable evidence of a civilization superior to that known 
to the Indians. A mound at Cahokia was 75 feet high, 790 
feet at its base and 500 feet wide. The Trappist monks built 
and occupied a monastery on its top for years. Many bronze 
implements and other paraphernalia discovered in the ancient 
mounds at Mound City, Albany, Turtle Mound, Rockf ord, and 
other parts of the state, proved that cities have risen, fallen 



326 

and vanished so completely that little evidence remains. 
These mounds are scattered from the Atlantic to the Rocky 
Mountains and prove there must have been a large population. 

When the early French explorers visited this section, 
they found fourteen thousand to twenty thousand Indians 
within the confines of what is now Illinois. They were prin- 
cipally of the Algonquin race. But under this classification 
were the Ottawas, Iroquois, Chippewas, Pottawatomies, Win- 
nebagoes, Cahokias, Peorias, Sacs or Sauks, Foxes and Illini. 
The Illini were the original dwellers here, many of whom had 
established villages. They were driven back by the Pottawa- 
tomies and the Iroquois after numerous skirmishes. From 
the Illini the state and river Illinois derived their names. 
They were friendly to the first explorers and always remained 
friendly, which permitted the early settlements. Old Che-cau- 
gua was their most famous chief. He was sent to France and 
accorded the honors of a prince Chicago is said to be named 
from him. 

The French early learned the value of this vast territory, 
Jean Nicollet was sent to explore the Great Lakes, and jour- 
neyed down the west shore of Lake Michigan in 1634. He 
was the first European to explore Lake Michigan. Louis 
Joliet was an intrepid hunter and fur trader who had before 
explored the lake regions. He had been as far as Mackinac 
where he met and made a friend of Father Marquette. The 
Indians had talked much about the "Big River" beyond, and 
the two friends made up their minds to find and' explore it. 

Joliet 's report about this region induced the Governor 
of Montreal, Canada, to send him in charge of an expedition 
for this purpose. With Marquette and a party of five other 
hunters and Indians, they set out in two canoes early in 1673. 
They paddled the west shore of Lake Michigan, entered the 
Fox river, carried their canoes across the portage for several 
miles, then down the Wisconsin to the Mississippi, which 
they reached June 17. This was a hundred and thirty years 
after DeSoto 's first discovery of the lower Mississippi. * ' They 
got sails for their canoes, and started down the Father of 
Waters with great joy," as Father Marquette states: "We 
found the broad plains of Illinois garlanded with majestic 
forests, and checkered with wondrous prairies and inland 
groves." This most picturesque scene shows the meeting of 



327 

Marquette and Joliet with the Indians. The Indians informed 
them that they were the "Illini." Marquette said to the Chiefs : 
"Joliet is an envoy of the Great King in France, sent to dis- 
cover new countries, and I am an ambassador of God to en- 
lighten them with the Gospel. ' ' But he adds, ' ' They scarcely 
understood me. ' ' 

The Illini gave them a wonderful Calumet, or Pipe of 
Peace, a sign of friendship. It proved to be a useful talisman, 
and gained the immediate respect and friendship of the other 
Indian tribes, wherever they went. Joliet and Marquette 
journeyed as far as the mouth of the Arkansas river. They 
retraced their steps to the mouth of the Illinois, they ascended 
this to Chicago. They had not found the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, but they became convinced that it emptied into the 
"Bay of Mexico," instead of the Pacific Ocean. 

Joliet returned to his home in Canada, and was rewarded 
by a gift of the Island of Anticosti, near the mouth of the 
St. Lawrence river. When the British won that country, he 
lost his property. He died in his home in Canada in 1700. 
His work was of inestimable value to the future settlement 
of Illinois. 

Marquette made another trip as far as the site of Peoria 
in 1674. He was taken sick and obliged to return. His party 
built a log cabin and spent the winter of 1674 on the banks 
of the Chicago river. Their cabin was located at a spot now 
marked with a cross and an inscription in his honor. This 
is about four miles from the mouth of the river at Eobey 
Street and the south branch. The Historical Society of 
Chicago erected this memento and marker. Father Marquette 
was born in Leon, France, in 1637. He founded the mission at 
Sault Ste. Marie and afterward missions at Mackinac and 
St. Ignace. He also founded the first Kaskaskia mission. 
His Journal gives us most of our information and the details 
regarding their adventures, because Joliet lost his maps and 
data by the overturning of his canoe just before he reached 
home. The death of the beloved Marquette occurred in Michi- 
gan near the mouth of the Marquette river, May 18, 1675. 
His only attendants were the faithful Indians who buried him. 
A beautiful monument and tribute to his memory is located 
at Marquette, Michigan. 



328 



BOBEBT DE LA SALLE 

In 1780 Sieur Eobert De LaSalle, under commission from 
De Frontenac, Governor of Canada, set out to find the mouth 
of the Mississippi, so widely heralded by Joliet and his party. 
Also to claim this country for the French Government. 
LaSalle started with a party of thirty-three men, including 
Fathers Hennepin and Membre. Henry Tonti, his life-long 
friend, came to Canada with LaSalle, and was lieutenant in 
command. Tonti and Father Membre were with him when 
he discovered the mouth of the Mississippi river. LaSalle 
built a fort at St. Joseph, Michigan, called Fort Miamis. 
Passing through Chicago, he found the Indians of the village 
away on a hunt. He proceeded down the Kankakee and 
Illinois to a point below Peoria. Here he built Fort Creve 
Coeur, which means "Fort Broken-heart." He gathered 
many tribes around him, promising them protection from the 
Iroquois. He then returned to Canada for aid, leaving Tonti 
in charge. But during his absence, the fort was destroyed, 
through the treachery of some of his own men. LaSalle and 
Tonti afterward built Fort St. Louis, just below Ottawa, on 
Starved Rock. The party then proceeded down the Illinois 
to the Mississippi, and discovered its mouth. He named this 
region Louisiana, after Louis XIV. Here he erected a large 
cross and the arms of France, inscribed "Louis the Great 
King of France, and Na Varre, reigns this 13th day of March, 
1682." 

Being anxious about Fort St. Louis, LaSalle sent Tonti 
back to strengthen the fort. Tonti found disaster. The 
peaceful Illini were pounced upon by the war-like Iroquois, 
defeated and driven south. Tonti and his party were forced 
to return to Mackinac, and it was many months before LaSalle 
could find him, although he left the southern territory, sacri- 
ficing his ambition, to make the search. And you can imagine 
his great joy at finding him. He immediately returned to 
France to organize a large expedition to settle the territory 
near the mouth of the Mississippi. In this party were 400 
people. They sailed in four ships from Rochelle, France. 
On the way one ship was lost, another was captured by the 
Spaniards, and the party by a very great mistake passed the 
mouth of the river and were lost in Texas. His followers 
mutinied and deserted. LaSalle set out for help, but was 



329 

murdered by members of his party March 19, 1687 near the 
mouth of the Trinity river. Thus ended the career of the 
famous fort builder. He was so called because he built six 
different forts, including the first Fort Chartres, near Kas- 
kaskia. 

Early histories relate that LaSalle was killed by Tonti, 
but this cannot be true. LaSalle had the greatest affection 
for Tonti, and great regard for his prowess and good judg- 
ment. After the loss of one of the forts he had built, and 
which was left in Tonti 'a charge, he said, "Alas, if I only 
could have you in command of every fort I build." This, 
and his affectionate letters, would seem to disprove the early 
statements. There is more evidence that LaSalle 's lieutenant 
in command of his Texas expedition was the guilty man. 

Nothing finer is told in history than LaSalle 's heroic 
efforts to claim and settle a kingdom for his prince. The 
dangers he encountered, the hardships he experienced, and 
the progress he made paved the way for future settlements 
of this vast empire. No more undaunted soldier ever lived, 
and his glory and fame are everlasting. A beautiful statue 
in honor of LaSalle stands in Lincoln Park, Chicago. It was 
the gift of Judge Lambert Tree and cost $12,000. Other 
cities of the northwest have honored themselves, and LaSalle, 
by similar monuments. 

Henry Tonti was born at Gaeta, Italy, about 1650. He 
lost one of his hands in an European war and was called the 
"Man with the Iron Hand." It was his custom to wear a 
glove, and the story is told that the Indians regarded him 
with superstitious veneration, owing to the powerful blows 
he could strike with his hand of iron. He was LaSalle 's true 
friend and comrade to the last. As LaSalle had previously 
given up his trip to search for Tonti, so Tonti gave up all of 
his possessions to search for LaSalle. He organized two suc- 
cessive searching parties and proceeded to the mouth of the 
Mississippi and into Texas, in vain endeavors to find him, 
and this at a time when the physical effort was almost super- 
human. It is said that Tonti died in Biloxi, Mississippi, in 
1704. The encyclopedia states that he died at Mobile, 
Alabama. The exact location seems somewhat in doubt. 
There is a legend that Tonti, as a very old man, returned to 
Starved Eock, where he died, and his bones were found at 



330 

the spot he loved so well. But this story is not given much 
credence. There is, however, something of a myth as to the 
exact place of his death. 

Father Hennepin was a member of LaSalle's party. 
After Fort Creve Coeur was built, LaSalle commanded Hen- 
nepin and two others to go up the Mississippi to report their 
discoveries, and to map the country. Hennepin went as far 
as the falls of St. Anthony where he and his companions were 
taken prisoners by the Indians. After many months, they 
escaped and returned to Green Bay. Father Hennepin has 
left valuable records, and when he returned to Europe the 
next year, he published two books of his travels and dis- 
coveries containing invaluable maps which were new to the 
world. He was born in Ath, Flanders, about the year 1640. 
He died at Utrecht, Holland, about 1706. 

Starved Rock, on top of which LaSalle and Tonti built 
Fort St. Louis in 1682, derived its name from the tragic in- 
cident, that a party of Indians driven to the last extremity, 
perishing of thirst and hunger, sought refuge there. They 
fought until the last man, supposedly about 1807. When the 
first settlers arrived, they found the bones of many of the 
Indians on top of the rock lying as they had fallen. Starved 
Rock rises to a height of 155 feet above the Illinois river and 
lies between Ottawa and LaSalle. It was only accessible 
from the rear by a steep and winding climb. Here a heavy 
barred gate was built on the landward side. The Fort was 
impregnable against any force the Indians could bring to 
bear. There were 14,000 Indians in camp just beyond and 
below this Fort, where the town of Utica now lies and they 
for many years lived in peace. 

The only happenings of importance throughout the dif- 
ferent sections of the state during the next few years were 
the many skirmishes and battles with the savages. Reports 
of the Indian barbarities therefore left little effect. The 
Meramech boulder, near Piano, commemorates a great battle 
between the French and Indians in 1730, and the Indians were 
defeated. 

Pontiac's conspiracy, at the time of the French and In- 
dian War 1760-1763, aroused all the Indian tribes of Michigan, 
Indiana and Illinois to a frenzy. Depredations on the lives 
and property of the settlers were incessant. The settlers 



331 

were scalped right and left, and every species of cruelty and 
terrorism was practiced. The tales of heroism of the pioneers 
filled many books. For mutual protection several families 
came together from the East and formed a settlement near 
some stream where timber and water were plentiful. The 
forests were filled with deer which might be killed for food. 
Thus through the help of divine providence they had venison 
and game to eat and thus kept the wolf from the door. The 
women and children helped work in the " clearing, " or did 
anything there was to do. This is the " start" these brave 
and good people had when they came into a region filled with 
wild animals and merciless Indian savages. Their clothing 
was made of buckskin and they wore coonskin caps. These 
were their everyday and Sunday clothes. The neighbors went 
into the forests and built the rude log church. On one side 
they put the seats for the men and boys, and on the other 
side they put seats for the girls and their mothers. 

The preacher was one of their number, who worked 
through the week, studied his bible at night and preached for 
two or three hours on Sunday. But all this adds nothing of 
permanent value to history, except that repeated and many 
victories finally made the country comparatively safe for new 
settlers. Pontiac finally lost the support of the Indians and 
eighteen tribes of his confederation deserted him. He was 
forced to flee southward and was killed in Cahokia by an 
Indian, supposed to be of the Illini tribe, in 1769. 

We often find the greatest flights of oratory in some of 
the Indian sayings. Pontiac, Tecumseh, and Blackhawk were 
as keen as white men. Pontiac used force and threats. He 
said to the Illini, "If you do not join us, I will consume your 
tribes, as fire consumes the dry grass of the prairie." He 
was an implacable foe of the English. On one occasion he 
said to an English officer, "The conduct of the French never 
gave cause for suspicion, the conduct of the English never 
gave rest to it." 

Tecumseh said to General Harrison when he was trying 
to pacify the Indians, ' ' Then the Great Spirit must decide the 
matter. It is true the President is so far off that he will not 
be injured by the war. He may sit still in his town, and 
drink his wine, while you and I will have to fight it out." 
They did, and Tecumseh was beaten in the battle of Tippe- 



332 

canoe, and later, on the Thames, on October the 5th, 1813, in 
which battle he was killed. Tecumseh was a Brigadier-Gen- 
eral in the English army, and shared the command at the 
siege of Fort Meigs. In this fight he protected the American 
soldiers from massacre. 

When Blackhawk was turned over by the Winnebagoes 
to the United States authorities, he said, "Blackhawk is an 
Indian; he has done nothing of which an Indian need to be 
ashamed. He has fought the battles of his countrymen 
against the white men, who came year after year to cheat 
them and take away their lands. You know the cause of our 
making war it is known to all white men they ought to be 
ashamed of it. The white men despise the Indians and drive 
them from their homes, but the Indians are not deceitful. 
The white men speak bad of the Indian and speak at him 
spitefully, but the Indian does not tell lies. Indians do not 
steal. Blackhawk is satisfied. He will go to the world of 
spirits contented. He has done his duty. His Father will 
meet him and reward him. ' ' 

The one man more responsible than any other for the 
rescue of the Northwest was George Rogers Clark. Clark 
was rightfully called, "The Man of Iron." He was stalwart 
in build, of wonderful physique and strength, and of un- 
daunted perseverance and courage. He was just the man for 
such an undertaking. He was given a commission by Patrick 
Henri/, then Governor of Virginia, to raise troops and set 
out on the campaign which resulted in the capture of Fort 
Gage or Kaskaskia, Vincennes and the Illinois country, 
and to capture the country from the English, still in their pos- 
session. This is the immortal Patrick Henry, who made the 
famous speech, "Give me Liberty or give me Death/' and this 
is the picture of St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia, 
where this history-making speech was delivered. 

Clark raised about 170 volunteers and with this small 
force passed by Fort Massac, on the Ohio River, about 
where Metropolis, Illinois, now stands. He then proceeded to 
Kaskaskia, where Commander Rocheblave was acting gov- 
ernor. By a forced march, under extreme difficulties, and 
tradition says, he surprised the people of Kaskaskia in the 
midst of a dance. He captured some settlers and outlying 
houses and learned that his soldiers were not expected. He 



333 

posted his men around the dance-hall, he then stepped to the 
door-way, and watched the dancing for a few minutes. An 
Indian noticing that he was a stranger gave the alarm. Clark 
promptly drew his sword and holding up his hand, com- 
manded, "Go on with your dancing, but remember you are 
now dancing under the flag of Virginia." He held them as 
prisoners all night, then after some preliminary conversations 
with Father Gibeault and other prominent residents the flag 
of Virginia was raised. Rocheblave surrendered Fort Gage 
and the settlement of Kaskaskia to the control of Virginia, 
in July, 1778. 

There is no picture of the first Fort Chartres in existence. 
We herewith show what is left of the second or great Fort 
Chartres, built in 1756 by Commander DeBoisbriant and his 
soldiers. The British troops had removed to Fort Gage in 
the village of Kaskaskia before Clark's campaign. Before 
Clark succeeded in pacifying the Indians and perfecting his 
plans, it was the dead of the winter and impossible to go on, 
Clark made friends with Father Gibeault, a Catholic priest, 
and the French people. The priest asked Clark if they could 
worship in their own way, something which was prohibited 
under English rule. Clark answered, in these words: "An 
American commander has nothing to do with any church, 
except to save it from insult. By the laws of the Republic, his 
religion has as great privileges as any other. " The priest and 
most of the French families from that time became devoted 
champions of the American cause. 

Clark used great diplomacy in dealing with the Indians 
and they immediately became his friends. The following 
dramatic speech tells how he did it, "I am a man and a war- 
rior, not a councilor, I carry war in my right hand, peace in 
my left. I am sent by the great council of Long Knives to 
take possession of all towns occupied by the English in this 
country, to watch the red people, to bloody the paths of those 
who attempt to stop the course of the rivers, and to clear the 
road for those who desire to be in peace. Here is a bloody 
belt, and a peace belt, take which you please, behave like men, 
but do not let your being surrounded by Long-Knives cause 
you to take up one belt with your hands, while your hearts 
take up the other. If you take the bloody path, you can go 
in safety and join your friends the English. We will try 



334 

then like warriors to see who can stain our clothes with blood 
the longest. ' ' They took the peace belt. 

Clark sent Father Gibeault and other emissaries to Fort 
Vincennes. Reports of Clark's successful government of 
Cahokia and Kaskaskia had reached the populace and coupled 
with the eloquence of Father Gibeault, it prompted the entire 
population of Vincennes to take the oath of allegiance, and 
the American flag floated over the fort. 

Governor Henry Hamilton, located at Detroit, learning 
of this, sent an expedition to capture Clark and his forces, 
and these forts. This expedition recaptured Vincennes. Cap- 
tain Helm was in charge, with one private, the garrison being 
away. Captain Helm posted a cannon in the gate-way, fired 
the gun a few times to make it appear that the place was well 
defended, and held the entire British force at bay. The Eng- 
lish sent an officer to demand surrender. "On what terms?" 
demanded Helm. ' * The treatment of officers and brave men, 
and the retaining of your swords," replied Hamilton, and so 
Captain Helm surrendered himself and one private as his total 
army, much to the surprise of the British. 

Clark daily expected an attack on Kaskaskia, but winter 
had already set in, and Hamilton decided to delay the attack 
until spring. Clark hearing of this immediately prepared to 
march on Vincennes. Overcoming almost insurmountable 
difficulties, fording streams, in the dead of the winter and for 
days at the point of starvation, Clark's soldiers finally 
reached Vincennes. He captured several citizens and learned 
that the garrison was not expecting an attack. He also cap- 
tured a few Indians returning to the fort with the scalps of 
Americans. He executed them forthwith, as a warning to the 
inhabitants of the town. He then demanded the surrender 
of the fort. This was refused and a fierce battle was pre- 
cipitated. The English soldiers were no match as marksmen 
against the hardy and experienced pioneers. After many 
were killed, Fort Vincennes surrendered and in 1779 the flag 
of the new Republic flew from the ramparts. Vincennes and 
the western country were saved to us and became American 
territory. Years after, Clark felt that he had not been fairly 
treated. When Congress presented him with a wonderful 
sword, it is related that he broke it across his knee, and told 
the messengers to take it back. "That he asked for recom- 



335 

pense and they sent him a present." Sometime after this, 
he and his soldiers were rewarded with the gift of one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand acres of land in Louisiana. 

The greatest reverence has been shown to his memory, 
Indiana has honored him with a heroic monument, which 
stands in the City of Indianapolis, and Quincy, Illinois, is 
justly proud of an imposing statue in his honor. Clark's 
patriotism, endurance and pertinacity in overcoming over- 
whelming odds has gained him enduring fame and respect. 
He died in his home near Louisville, Ky., February 18th, 1818. 
Tecumseh was a crafty villain. He enlisted nearly all 
the Indians of the northwest and many of the tribes of the 
south on the side of the British in the war of 1812. Generals 
St. Clair and Harrison defeated them repeatedly in many im- 
portant battles. Finally the entire western country was 
wrested from the English forever and security was granted 
to the settlements. This resulted in a great influx of people 
from all parts of the East, the country began to grow and 
prosper and new villages were created everywhere. During 
all this time, while settlements in the southwest were prosper- 
ing, no attempts seem to have been made to colonize the 
northern part of the state, or Chicago. This section was in 
oblivion until the arrival of Jean Baptist Point AuSable, a 
blackman, in 1779. He was the first actual settler. AuSable 
lived on the site of Chicago for 16 years and then disappeared. 
It is said that he died at Peoria near Fort Clark. 

In 1803 Captain John Whistler was commanded to pro- 
ceed to Chicago to select a site and build a fort. He carried 
out these orders and before the winter of 1804 had completed 
Fort Dearborn, named for General Dearborn, major general 
in the revolution and a secretary of war. This fort was de- 
stroyed by Indians, August 15th, 1812, during the war of 1812 
and was not rebuilt until 1816. The first residence was built 
by AuSable, it was afterward occupied by Joseph LeMai, 
who sold it to John Kinzie, who lived in it at this time. Kinzie 
was the first permanent settler of Chicago. The old Kinzie 
home stood until about 1827. 

War had been declared between the United States and 
England in June, 1812, Captain Nathan Heald, then in com- 
mand of Fort Dearborn, received orders to evacuate, as Mack- 
inac and other fortresses had fallen. Heald divided most of 



336 

the provisions with the Indians, but secretly in the night 
poured all the whisky in the river. The Indians learned of 
this and, becoming enraged, they had joined Tecumseh's fol- 
lowers to aid the English. Captain Heald had reached a 
point that is now Prairie Avenue and 18th Street. Here the 
Indians who had been following overtook the garrison. A 
terrible massacre occurred. The seventy soldiers in the party 
fought off hundreds of Indians for hours, but finally on the 
promise of safe conduct for the whites, laid down their arms. 
No sooner had they surrendered than the Indians murdered 
twelve children, and began scalping the women and wounded 
soldiers. Terrible vengeance was taken, and the toll of life 
was great. 

Little Turtle was the Indian Chief under whom this fear- 
ful massacre took place. The whites had some friends among 
the Indians, and many were saved through the interference 
and personal bravery of Black Partridge, another chief who 
tried to prevent the occurrence. Captain Heald escaped to 
the East, but Captain Wells, a brave soldier, a son-in-law of 
Little Turtle, and many soldiers and civilians were killed. 

A beautiful monument now stands on the spot where this 
massacre occurred. It is known as "Massacre Monument." 
It was erected by George M. Pullman. Black Partridge is 
depicted in the act of saving Mrs. Heald, who was dangerously 
wounded, but who survived. 

For four years after this event, Chicago was practically 
a wilderness, though the Kinzies and a few families remained. 
When the new Fort Dearborn was built in 1816, settlers began 
to come. It was not until 1830, however, that Chicago was 
platted and laid out. It was incorporated as a village in 1833, 
and as a city in 1837. 

In 1832 General Winfield Scott came to Chicago by the 
way of the Lakes, in command of the regulars against Black- 
hawk. While Chicago was struggling for existence, the set- 
tlements in the southwest part of the state and elsewhere were 
progressing splendidly. Congress had given Illinois a terri- 
torial form of Government in 1809, and had given it a name. 

The law of 1809 defined its boundaries and created a land 
office so that land titles could be perfected. Ninian Edwards 
was made the first Governor of Illinois territory. He was 
later governor of the state from 1826-1830. 



337 

Illinois was admitted as a state, being the 21st state 
of the Union, in the act of April 18th, 1818. On September 
3rd, 1818, President Monroe signed the papers making the 
enactment a law. Honorable Shadrack Bond, a pioneer in 
the town of New Design, one of the first permanent settle- 
ments, was elected as the first Governor, and the state began 
a prosperous era. By this time there was a population of 
40,000 people in Illinois, pretty well scattered throughout 
its territory. 

We now come to the famous Blackhawk War. Fort 
Dixon so prominently associated with this war had been built 
within the city limits of Dixon, by Lieutenant Colonel Zachary 
Taylor, afterwards President of the United States. Fort 
Armstrong was built on the present site of Rock Island in 
1816, by General John Armstrong. Forts were established 
by the Government at Fort Madison, Fort Crawford at 
Prairie Du Chien, and farther north were Forts Winnebago, 
Snelling and Green Bay. Under the protection of these 
numerous forts, the settlers felt secure, but they were doomed 
to disappointment. Indian murmurings were in the air. 
Settlers were constantly harassed and killed by followers of 
Blackhawk. In a treaty with the Sac and Fox Indians made 
in 1804 by General Wm. Henry Harrison, the Indians gave 
the Americans a tract of land near the Rock river. The Red- 
men were to have the use of the land until it was sold to in- 
dividuals. The treaty was confirmed in several subsequent 
treaties. But Blackhawk, for his tribe, said that the treaty 
was made without the consent of his people, and was not 
binding, adding, "The whites squatted on our lands while 
we were away on a winter's hunt, used our fields, burned our 
lodges and plowed up our graveyards." The Indians drove 
the forty squatters off, which resulted in the great Black- 
hawk War. 

Blackhawk tried to form a coalition of many tribes 
against the whites. Shabbona of the Illini, always a friend of 
the white man, and Keokuk of the lowas, refused to join him. 
He secured help from the Winnebagoes, Sioux and other 
tribes, however, and made raids on all the frontier settle- 
ments. Governor John Reynolds and the Governors of Mis- 
souri and Wisconsin, under instructions from the war depart- 
ment, raised a volunteer army of 8,000 men. General Henry 
Atkinson in command of the local regulars was ordered to 



338 

co-operate with the state troops and to put down the uprising. 
It took 8,000 volunteers, 1,800 regulars and cost $2,000,000 
to put 400 Indians with their starving families off the land of 
which they claimed they had been robbed. Blackhawk was 
finally captured and the Indians dispersed and driven into 
western Iowa. They were afterward removed to the Indian 
territory and placed on a reservation. Blackhawk was a 
man of great courage, strength of character, brains and 
energy. He first defeated a large force under Stillman at the 
battle of Stillman 's Bun. The Indians drew them into an 
ambush and killed many. The rest made a running retreat 
back to the Fort. In fact some of them kept on running way 
past the Fort and back to their homes, hence the name of the 
battle, " Stillman 's Run." Within three weeks after Still- 
man's defeat several thousand troops were on the border. 
One party under Colonel Henry was sent reconnoitering to- 
ward Fort Winnebago. He encountered a heavy force of 
Indians, and sent to General Atkinson for reinforcements. 
The troops of General Atkinson and Colonel Henry pursued 
the Indians so fiercely that forty of their horses dropped 
dead from exertion under the terrific pace set by these daring 
soldiers. The savages were inflamed with rage and made the 
first charge, but were repulsed after nearly an hour of terrific 
fighting, darkness finally preventing the soldiers from killing 
the last of the Indians and those of the Indians who had not 
been wounded, escaped. 

This fight is known as "The Battle of Wisconsin 
Heights" and occurred July 21st, 1832. 

Several days after the battle of Wisconsin Heights, 
Colonel Henry's command came upon a force of Indians and 
the battle of Bad Axe was fought near Prairie Du Sac. 
The result of this struggle was that the Indians were forever 
driven out of Illinois. On August 27th, a Winnebago Indian 
named Chaeter and another Indian named One-Eyed Decorah 
betrayed Blackhawk and his two sons into the hands of 
Mr. Street, the Indian agent at Prairie Du Chien. On Sep- 
tember 21st Blackhawk and the Prophet, Neopope, signed 
a treaty ending the war. 

After Blackhawk had made the treaty terminating the 
war, he was taken to Washington on his way to prison at 
Fortress Monroe, by Lieutenant Jefferson Davis, afterwards 



339 

President of the Confederacy. In an interview with Presi- 
dent Johnson, Blackhawk said, "I am a man, and you are 
another.'* He acknowledged no superior. He continued, "I 
did not expect to conquer the whites, they had too many 
horses, too many men. I took up the hatchet to revenge in- 
juries which my people could no longer endure. Had I borne 
them without striking, my braves would have said, 'Black- 
hawk is a woman he is too old to be a chief ! ' ' This caused 
me to raise the war whoop. I say no more. ' ' 

Later when he was granted his freedom, he returned to 
his people on the Des Moines river reservation. When he 
was seventy he made a speech in which he sums up his life's 
efforts as follows, "I like my town, my corn-fields, and the 
home of my people, I fought for them." This is a brief and 
characteristic statement which has immortalized him. What 
more can man do, if he thinks he is in the right. He died 
October 3, 1838. 

A most wondrous statue of Blackhawk by Lorado Taft, 
the famous sculptor, is erected at Oregon, Illinois, the home 
of ex-Governor Lowden. 

The Indians planted their corn in separate hills or 
mounds instead of rows. A field planted by the Indians 
themselves, 85 years ago, can still be seen within what is 
now the city limits of Bock Island. This field has never been 
disturbed. Large trees have grown since that time among 
the corn hills. Blackhawk 's great-great-grandson was still 
living in 1918. 

THE MORMONS 

Shortly after the Blackhawk War, some new settlers 
came from the East. These were the latter-day-saints or 
mormons, who reached the city of Nauvoo in 1839, after being 
driven out of Missouri. Joseph Smith was their prophet and 
leader. He was the boss of everything. His political power 
was great and his influence over the legislature of our state 
was such that it gave him a most ridiculous town charter, 
which in many respects was entirely contrary to the laws 
of the United States. This law permitted him to maintain 
one government within another. It legalized polygamy, one 
of the tenets of his church, contrary to the Constitution of 
the United States. He became arrogant and finally state 
troops had to arrest him. He was taken to jail at Carthage, 



340 

the county seat of Hancock County, and while a prisoner, a 
mob, consisting of some of the soldiers who had arrested him, 
broke into the prison and killed Smith and his brother, not- 
withstanding they were permitted the use of their pistols to 
defend themselves. Both were killed. 

Brigham Towig was made the new prophet and leader. 
Under him the community thrived and increased rapidly. The 
Mormons were warned that they must obey the laws or move. 
For several years peace reigned, then lawlessness became 
rampant and a state bordering on anarchy prevailed. The 
people of the entire surrounding territory were disgusted 
with their conduct, and frequent fights and quarrels were the 
result. At one disastrous raid in 1844 many of the Mormons ' 
houses and buildings were burned and quite a number of their 
community killed. Brigham Young, their leader, saw that 
they could not remain, and he wisely decided to move to the 
extreme west. Mr. Young had to give up his beautiful home 
and with all his followers numbering over 16,000 moved in 
prairie wagons, on foot, and in every class of vehicle over 
the golden plains until they reached the site of Salt Lake City. 
Here they built up a fine and prosperous city. By acts of 
Congress and laws of the state of Utah, they have been 
compelled to give up their polygamous doctrine, which was 
the only thing of great consequence against them, and they 
now live in peace with all religious societies. The city of 
Niauvoo was the most populous city in the state during the 
years 1841-42. There were over 2,000 houses and many pre- 
tentious buildings, including a great tabernacle, which cost 
over $1,000,000. 

In 1820 the state capital was moved from Kaskaskia to 
Vandalia, which was the seat of the state government until 
1836, then it was removed to Springfield. The people of 
Springfield contributed the ground for the new building. 

The Blackhawk War brought many men into contact 
who afterward became famous in the Mexican and Civil Wars 
as well as in private life. First, Captain Abraham Lincoln, 
who enlisted as a private, but was speedily commissioned a 
captain. The officer who gave him his commission was Lieu- 
tenant Robert Anderson, afterward Major Anderson in com- 
mand of Fort Sumpter, when the Union soldiers made their 
gallant defense against the confederates. 



341 

Mr. Lincoln told this story about himself, "One day I 
was drilling my men. We were marching across the fields 
twenty abreast. There was a fence ahead. I could not for 
the life of me, remember the command, for getting my com- 
pany endwise, so I could get them through the gate, which was 
very narrow. As we came near, I shouted, ' ' Halt. This com- 
pany is dismissed for two minutes, and will fall in again on 
the other side of the fence. Break ranks." Mr. Lincoln re- 
ferred to this command, as "A success which gave me more 
pleasure than any I have had since. ' ' 

In this connection, there is an interesting military order 
in the files of the war department, from General Atkinson to 
Colonel Taylor, and countersigned by Albert Sidney Johns- 
ton, the famous southern general, as aid-de-camp. 

THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE 

In 1821 what is known as "The Missouri Compromise 
Law" was passed by Congress. This threw the people of Illi- 
nois into a perfect maelstrom of debate and political jangle. 
Many people of the south end of the state, had owned slaves 
before Illinois was admitted into the Union, and they were 
still in the possession of them. But under the law no new 
slaves could be brought in. Missouri had grown rich because 
of slavery. The southern portion of our state wanted slavery. 
The north did not. Politics was at fever heat all during the 
election of 1824, But finally, Governor Edward Coles, the 
anti-slavery candidate, was elected. Governor Coles had pre- 
viously owned slaves, but freed them. This election deter- 
mined the further status of the state on this question, and 
saved Illinois for the Union, when secession's evil head arose. 

Later, as an outcome of many bitter controversies, Elijah 
P. Lovejoy, who published an anti-slavery paper in Alton, Il- 
linois, was murdered by a mob. Lovejoy had previously pub- 
lished his paper in St. Louis. But owing to his boldness in 
advocating the freedom of the black people in 1836, his presses 
were destroyed and his office set on fire. It was then he moved 
to Alton. Here he continued his fight, and his presses were 
again destroyed. In a talk to the people, he said, "Now that I 
am removed from the seat of slavery, I can publish a news- 
paper without discussing its policy, but it looks like cowardice 



342 

to flee from the place where slavery existed and come to a 
place where it does not, to make the fight against it. ' ' 

On the Fourth of July, he published this paragraph : ' ' This 
day reproaches us for our sloth and inactivity; it is the day 
of our nation's birth; even as we write, crowds are hurrying 
past our windows in eager anticipation, to listen to the decla- 
ration that all men are created equal. The eloquent orator 
denounced in manly indignation the attempt of England to 
lay a yoke on the shoulders of our fathers. Alas, what bitter 
mockery is this ? We assemble to thank God for our own lib- 
erty, while our feet are on the necks of nearly 3,000,000 of our 
fellow men. Not all the shouts of self-congratulations, can 
drown their groans." This paragraph created great excite- 
ment. The slavery advocates, being augmented by sympathiz- 
ers from St. Louis, took his new press and type and threw 
them in the Mississippi. Lovejoy declared, "I will start an- 
other paper, regardless of the consequences. ' ' The people of 
the north stood solidly behind him. They seemed to think the 
freedom of the black race depended upon his continuing to 
publish his paper. The mob spirit was engendered and the 
mob triumphed. Because as all mobs do, they worked secretly 
and in the dark. Again new presses and type were bought. A 
group of his friends were always on guard over the new 
presses. A mob attacked the warehouse and one of the Love- 
joy party in self -protection fired and killed a member of the 
mob. This inflamed the crowds who rushed for powder to blow 
up the building. Ladders were raised to the roof for the pur- 
pose of setting it on fire. The bells of the city were rung, and 
a vast crowd assembled. A man mounted a ladder with a torch 
to set fire to the building. Lovejoy stepped out to dislodge him 
and was hit with five bullets fired from the guns of murderous 
men concealed behind a lumber pile. Many were indicted for 
leading this riot, but none were found guilty. Sixty years 
after, an unusally fine monument was erected in Alton. The 
state paid for half and half was raised by public subscrip- 
tion. It was dedicated ' ' In gratitude to God and love of liber- 
ty. ' ' The entire nation did honor to his memory. The pre- 
ceding recital shows what bitter feeling was engendered by 
the slavery agitation. 

Through the work of friends of the slaves, hundreds of 
blacks were rescued and gained freedom in the North, through 



343 

the Liberty Line, or underground railway nothing more 
than hiding places for the Blacks. 

THE LINCOLN-DOUGLAS DEBATES 

Congress, led by Stephen A. Douglas, had passed a law 
which compelled all citizens to aid in the capture and return 
of all run-away slaves. The North rebelled against this law. 
They would not accept a law, which in itself was unconstitu- 
tional. Lincoln was outspoken in denouncing this act of con- 
gress, but Douglas kept up the fight in its favor, on the ground 
of state right. He wanted the whole problem left to each 
state to deal with as each state deemed advisable. The famous 
Lincoln-Douglas Debates were no doubt the result of the great 
publicity given the slavery issue by Love joy. Mr. Lincoln 
and Mr. Douglas were both candidates for the Senate. Mr. 
Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates to be held 
in various cities throughout the State. The arguments of 
both sides were printed in daily newspapers all over the 
United States. Douglas was nominated, but these debates 
afterward made Mr. Lincoln president, and resulted in the 
freeing of the slaves. Markers and monuments where these 
famous debates took place have been erected in most of the 
cities where they occurred. 

Abraham Lincoln, our greatest President, was born 
near Hodginsville, Ky., February 12, 1809. He was associated 
with Illinois nearly all his life, and we claim him as our most 
illustrious citizen. His parents were Thomas and Nancy 
Hanks Lincoln, and he was a grand-nephew of the famous 
pioneer, Daniel Boone. Most of his boyhood was spent in In- 
diana where he was famous as an athlete and stump speaker, 
in the little town of Gentryville. He removed to New Salem, 
Illinois, where he studied law, clerked, surveyed, was the town 
grocer and post-master. He later removed to Springfield and 
through many celebrated law cases, his anti-slavery doctrine, 
and wonderful personality, became famous. He was twice 
elected President. The history of this wondrous man is too 
well known to enter into details. We feel, however, it is in 
keeping to present at this time one or two of his character- 
istic sayings. Reasons which gave him the entire confidence, 
reverence, and love of his countrymen. When General Shields 
challenged him to fight a duel, he wrote: "I am wholly op- 



344 

posed to dueling, and will do anything to avoid it, that will 
not degrade me in the estimation of myself and friends, but 
if degradation is the alternative, I shall fight." The duel 
never took place. Before making a speech in the State con- 
vention, he submitted this paragraph to friends: "A house 
divided against its self cannot stand. I believe that this gov- 
ernment cannot endure permanently, half slave and half free. 
I do not expect that it will cease to be divided. Either the op- 
ponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it, or its 
advocates will push it forward till it shall become lawful in 
all the States, old as well as new, North as well as South. ' ' 

One of his best friends said: ''Why, Mr. Lincoln, it 
will never do to make that speech. It is true, but the time has 
not come to say it. It will defeat you, it will ruin your party. " 

Lincoln replied: "The time has come when these senti- 
ments should be uttered. If it is decreed that I should go 
down because of this speech, then let me go down linked to 
the truth let me die in advocacy of what is just and right." 
He afterward said: "If I had to draw my pen across my 
record and erase my whole life if I had one choice as to what 
I should save from the wreck, it would be that speech. ' ' At 
another time he made the following declaration: "I am not 
bound to win, but I am bound to be true. I am not bound to 
succeed, but I am bound to live up to what light I have. I 
must stand with anybody who stands right, stand with him 
while he is right and part with him when he goes wrong." 
Lincoln's residence in Springfield is now owned by the State 
and contains a splendid collection of Lincoln mementos. 

We can scarcely look through all history and find a man 
who has attained true greatness a man who by his virtues 
has moved the world but you will find, as with Lincoln, the 
great secret of his success lies in the fact that the vast majority 
of people think right, and that they instantly respond to the 
teachings of the man who is right. It must be remembered 
that Judge Douglas was earnestly loyal to the Union. In a 
speech at Springfield, copied all over the Country, he called 
upon all his Democratic supporters to come out boldly and 
fight in defense of the Union. Because of the above declara- 
tion and his great character, Illinois, in the centennial year, 
unveiled a new statue at Springfield of the little Giant, 
one of the greatest men among many great men, in Illinois, 



345 

whose luster has shed effulgence upon the State that made 
them great. Mr. Douglas was born April 23, 1813, at Bran- 
don, Vermont; he removed to Jacksonville, Illinois. He 
quickly gained a reputation and was sent to Congress, was 
later elected- to the United States Senate for four terms. He 
was mentioned for the Presidency in 1850 and 1854, and ran 
against Mr. Lincoln in 1860, but was defeated. He died in 
Chicago, June 3, 1861, at the age of 43, shortly after Mr. 
Lincoln's inauguration. It is remarkable that most of his 
accomplishments and fame were gained before he was 37 
years old. At that time he was perhaps the best known public 
man in the country. 

In 1820 the State Capital was moved from Kakaskia to 
Vandalia which was the seat of the government until 1836, 
then it was removed to Springfield. The people of Spring- 
field contributed the ground for a new building. In a short time 
agitation for a larger and more commodious building resulted 
in a great contest for the capital from other cities, Peoria 
making tremendous efforts to secure the prize. Springfield, 
however, donated ten acres of land for a new building site and 
paid $200,000 for the old capitol, and finally won the contest. 
The present capitol building is one of the finest in the entire 
country. Here the remains of President Lincoln lay in state 
before his burial. 

THE CIVIL WAE, 

Following the trend of events in succession comes the 
great Civil War, which nearly disrupted the Union. Mr. Lin- 
coln was elected President by the new Republican party, and 
took the oath of office on March 4th, 1861. In April, Fort 
Sumpter, commanded by Major Anderson, the man who gave 
Lincoln his commission as captain, was fired upon and finally 
surrendered. But these shots rang around the world. The 
people of the North rallied as one, and Illinois was no lag- 
gard. Illinois furnished a greater number of volunteers in 
proportion to her population, than any other State, and more 
than her quota called for. The famous war Governor Eichard 
Yates was untiring in his zeal and patriotism. 

Illinois undoubtedly presented the greatest soldier of the 
War, General U. S. Grant. General Grant, also twice Presi- 
dent of the U. S., is one of the supreme men of Illinois, al- 
though born at Mt. Pleasant, Ohio. His father early moved to 



346 

this State. Grant secured his appointment to West Point from 
Illinois. He lived in Galena both before and after the war. 
He was a resident of Galena when he was elected President. 
His war history is too well known to require extended com- 
ment. After the War he was the most popular and powerful 
man in the country. President Johnson appointed Grant 
secretary of war and in 1868 he was elected President. Grant 
died at McGregor, near Saratoga, N. Y., July 23, 1885. 

THE CHICAGO FIRE 

The next event of importance was the great Chicago fire, 
October 8th and 9th, 1871. A tablet marks the place where 
Mother O'Leary's cow is said to have kicked over the lamp, 
and started this tremendous fire disaster. The fiercely sweep- 
ing and onrushing flames leaped over the south branch of 
the river and across a large district previously burned. It 
was thought that this would check the fire, but it swept on and 
on through the business district like a tornado, jumped the 
north branch of the river, and swept everything before it, un- 
til it burned itself out in a cemetery which is now Lincoln Park. 
The old Ogden residence protected by Washington Square, 
was the only house left standing in the entire burned area. 
Never in history were so many houses burned or so large an 
area devastated; 20,000 buildings were destroyed and their 
value was two hundred million dollars. One hundred thou- 
sand people were without homes and funds, but supplies, food, 
clothing, money and sympathy from nearly every town and 
city in the United States were showered upon the stricken 
people. With that undaunted courage and perseverance that 
made Chicago what it is today, the people set about to build 
a bigger and better city upon the grounds which were formerly 
Indian plains. 

THE WORLD'S FAIR 

A few years later, in 1893, we have the marvelous ' ' Dream 
City" on the shores of the Lake. The whole world met in 
honest and friendly rivalry at the World 's Fair. It would be 
fitting indeed if the famous statue of the "Bepublic" by 
Daniel Chester French which graced the Court of Honor on 
the Fair Ground should be reproduced in enduring form on 
the Centennial Building, Springfield, built to commemorate 



347 

the admission of the state. A replica of it also now stands 
in Jackson Park, Chicago. 

' ' Though rich Chicago was in buildings grand, 
No eyes had e 'er beheld before the Fair, 
Such wondrous marvels of architecture planned, 
As pleased the sight, and lulled the senses there. 
From marshy timbered lands, a city grew, 
As if by magic, at a siren 's touch, 
To rival in its transcendental view 
The fairy homes of elf s and sprites and such. ' ' 

From "Dream Windows ' ' By A. M. B. 

But these were ephemeral, and Chicago and Illinois still 
exist, both happy abodes of the thrifty, and mirroring pros- 
perity all around. 

THE DEAINAGE CANAL 

The next great enterprise of interest to the entire state 
and the nation, was the building of the Drainage Canal. While, 
primarily a Chicago project, it is destined as a water route 
connecting the great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico. The Legis- 
lature has recently passed a measure authorizing the begin- 
ning of work. Before many years, great steamers will be 
transporting goods from Eastern cities and Atlantic ports 
direct to the Gulf. The practicability of such a route was men- 
tioned by Father Marquette and by LaSalle over two centuries 
ago. Their dreams of a canal across the portage over which 
they struggled with so much difficulty, is at last about to be 
realized. At no distant day, big freighters will be carrying 
goods from Buffalo and Cleveland, to St. Louis and New Or- 
leans. The Panama canal will come into its own, and the people 
of the whole country will receive a new impetus in trade and 
prosperity. 

CHANGES AND STATISTICS 

The years from 1825 to 1860 saw wonderful changes and 
growth in Illinois. The opening of the old Illinois and Michigan 
Canal in 1848, the building of the Chicago and Galena Union 
Railroad, first opened in 1848, and of the Illinois Central Rail- 
way, finished in 1856, attracted thousands of settlers. From 
40,000 population in 1818, the census figures showed over 
425,000 in 1860. The first settlements were along the river 
banks. In 1830 a sod plow was perfected by Oramel Clark, a 



348 

i 

Connecticut blacksmith living in this state. After this in- 
vention the richer Illinois valleys were occupied, and the in- 
terior portions of the state rapidly built up. This plow has 
resulted in making Illinois one of the richest farming states 
in the Union, and it has contributed as much as the railroads 
to its prosperity and wealth. 

CHICAGO 
FIRST SCHOOL, IN CHICAGO 

The first school in Chicago, stood on the present site of 
the Tribune building, corner of Madison and Dearborn. It 
would hardly be adequate for the city's present needs. At the 
present time, Chicago, the metropolis of the State, and the 
fourth city of the world in population, has over 2,800,000 in- 
habitants. The entire state had 6,234,995, according to the 
census of 1917, and it ranks as the third state in the Union. 
The original town of Chicago occupied two and one-half miles. 
The total area of Chicago at present is 199 square miles. It 
has a frontage of twenty-six and one-half miles along the lake, 
and it extends westward about twelve miles in its widest part. 
Where LaSalle and early travelers could purchase whole 
states for a few glass beads and trinkets, land in Chicago has 
increased in value to fabulous sums. 

Chicago has 2660 miles of streets and over 1600 miles are 
paved. There are 6000 miles of sidewalks, and over 1500 miles 
of sewers, and about 46,000 street lamps. The best park and 
boulevard system probably to be found in the entire world 
gives Chicago 2605 acres, which is being added to continually. 
A fifty-mile drive over boulevards all the way and built up 
and lined with expensive buildings, nearly surrounds the city. 
There were in 1918, 1150 churches and missions ; 70 charitable 
institutions, and many semi-charitable ; 88 hospitals, 30 large 
libraries, 308 schools; about 171 state, national and private 
banks, and several hundred theatres, large and small. There 
are at least five theatres in Chicago housed in buildings which 
represent an investment of more than $1,000,000 each, and, 
with ground values, some of them represent several million. 
The rental paid for one theatre is $75,000 a year, under a ten 
years ' lease or $750,000 for the period. The lowest rental for 
any large theatre in the loop district is $25,000 a year, and 
others run to $60,000. There are 116 theatres devoted to 



349 

drama, musical comedy, vaudeville, burlesque or stock. There 
are now 831 theatres in Chicago. 

In the matter of hotels, Chicago is not behind any city in 
the world except New York, and many are equal to the finest 
in that city. We hold in great esteem the "Sauganash Hotel," 
the first in Chicago, at the southeast corner of Lake and Mar- 
ket streets, which was the center of Chicago 's business life at 
that time. The first dramatic performance in Chicago was 
presented here. 

Chicago's marvelous growth, educational and otherwise, 
is coincident with that of all parts of the state. They are all 
endowed with educational institutions of high rank; with 
libraries, fine public and private buildings, and monuments 
and landmarks to the glory of the state and the honor of those 
who have made the state illustrious. 

LANDMARKS AND MONUMENTS 

We now turn aside, or back as it were, to speak of some of 
the earlier landmarks and forts and houses, most of which 
have passed from existence, but some few of which are still 
standing. There is still standing in Jackson Park, Chicago, 
the oldest Court House in the Mississippi Valley, built in 1716 
in Cahokia. It was removed to Chicago for the World 's Fair. 

Frink and Walker's Stage line at Lake and Dearborn 
streets is reproduced in a picture herein. 

Old settlers remember well the first draw-bridge built 
across the Chicago River, in 1834, at Dearborn st. Many pic- 
tures of this will be found in the early histories of the city 
and State. Events of extreme importance to the entire State 
were the opening of the old Illinois and Michigan Canal in 
1848. And the Chicago and Galena railroad was also first 
opened in the same year. The first depot built in Chicago was 
located at Wells street and the river. These arteries of trade 
and the completion of the Illinois Central railroad in 1856 at- 
tracted thousands of settlers to Illinois. 

The wigwam where President Lincoln was nominated in 
1860, stood on the site of the old Sauganash Tavern, another 
landmark, at the corner of Market and Lake streets. There are 
many pictures of this extant. In 1849 occurred the great Chi- 
cago Flood. Great damage was done and it is truly remarkable 
that no such flood has been known in Chicago before or since 



350 

that time. It destroyed the bridges at Randolph and Clark 
streets; some 40 vessels, and much other property. It also 
resulted in changing the course of the River, from Van Buren 
street to its present mouth. The first capitol at Kaskaskia 
was occupied from 1809 to 1818. The bricks were brought 
from Pittsburgh by boat down the Ohio, and overland from 
Shawneetown. It was known as the Pape House for nearly 
sixty years after. 

The same capitol afterward was partially undermined by 
the rise of the Mississippi in 1881, but still stood as a ruin 
for many years thereafter. 

The house of Col. John Edgar, Kaskaskia, built in 1795, 
was a famous historical old place. It was a splendid example 
of the early architecture of Illinois, but has long since de- 
cayed. 

The first executive mansion of Illinois, occupied by 
Governor Bond, first Governor of the State, is preserved in 
many pictures. This also was long since destroyed. 

A picture of the land office of Kaskaskia, as it was before 
its destruction, has been preserved. 

The Chicago Historical Society has a picture of an old 
trunk known as the "Land Office Trunk." It was used for 
transporting the records and valuable papers and deeds to 
and from Washington. 

There is also a picture of the ruins of Riley's Stone Mill, 
built in 1795, the first in the west. It still stands where it was 
erected very nearly two hundred years ago. Modern boilers 
and machinery were installed, and it was in use until 1870. 

The remains of the Parish House, Kaskaskia, built in the 
early part of last century, stood for sometime after the flood 
of 1881. This parish church was the third building erected on 
these grounds, and contained the famous bell, exhibited at the 
World's Fair, Chicago, where it rivaled the Liberty Bell. One 
authority says it was the second bell cast in this country, the 
Liberty Bell being the first. Another authority states it was 
brought from New Eochelle, France, in 1742. It is ancient 
enough, in either event, to claim our respect. 

The Church of the Holy Family, which formerly stood at 
Cahokia, St. Clair County. It was supposed to be erected in 
1700, and early documents seem to prove this statement, and 



351 

it stood until 1904. Ruins of the old court house at Kaskas- 
kia, abandoned because of the changing of the channel of the 
Mississippi Eiver. The bricks were taken from an old convent 
which had fallen into decay. It was used as a school until 
Kaskaskia was no more. 

THE TRAGEDY OF A RUINED CITY 

Kaskaskia in 1895 contained but three houses. It is 
very strange but true that the first capitol of our great state 
has been entirely washed away, and this tragedy of a ruined 
city was scarcely mentioned in the press of that day. 

The powder magazine of the great Fort Chartres, which 
cost over $1,000,000, is now all that is left of what was the 
most powerful fort in America, at the time it was built, in 
1756. The remainder, as well as the most of the town of Kas- 
kaskia, was swallowed up by the encroachments of the Mis- 
sissippi. 

The present site of Kaskaskia shows the river flowing east 
of the island, where was formerly a town. 

The house of Pierre Menard, the first lieutenant gov- 
ernor of the state, was built in 1791, and still stands at Fort 
Gage, 111., opposite Kaskaskia. Pierre Menard 's great grand- 
son still lives in Fort Gage. The Menard house was restored 
and rebuilt a few years ago by Mr. Charles Lynn. It is oc- 
cupied as a residence, and as the post office of Fort Gage. 

An imposing monument for the early settlers of Kas- 
kaskia and Fort Gage, partly paid for by the state and 
partly by public subscription, now stands on the hill above 
Fort Gage, 111. The remains of the early pioneer settlers were 
removed here. It was erected in 1892. 

John Marshall's House, Shawneetown, built about 1800, 
another famous landmark. Here in 1813, was established the 
first bank of Illinois. Shawneetown was the only other place 
in the State honored by a visit of General La Fayette. Ex- 
traordinary entertainment and courtesy were shown him. In 
this town Eobert Ingersoll studied law, and here General 
Logan was married. 

Governor Chartres' Old Cabin, Dixon, one of the first 
in the north part of the state, and Dixon 's Ferry, Dixon, 
where old John Dixon kept a tavern for many years, are rev- 
erently remembered by the old Pioneers. 



352 

Dixon afterwards built the Nachusa House, the oldest 
hotel in Illinois, still occupied. It is also a well conducted and 
very comfortable hotel. 

The stone abutments are all that is left of the first rail- 
road bridge across the Mississippi, at Rock Island. The first 
train crossed in 1856. Galena has the honor of publishing the 
oldest paper in Illinois. It was called the Galena Gazette and 
it is still published. 

John Kelly's home, Springfield, erected in 1819, was the 
first house in Springfield. 

The Historical Society of Chicago has aided in marking 
the exact site of old Fort Dearborn, Chicago, with a tablet in 
the wall of the building for years occupied by the Hoyt Whole- 
sale Grocery, corner Michigan Ave. and South Water St., 
Chicago. This tablet is temporarily in the rooms of the His- 
torical Society, but will be replaced on its original site as 
soon as improvements now under way are finished. 

Nearly all of the places of historical interest in Chicago 
and throughout the state have been marked in some appro- 
priate manner, through the interest of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution, or various historical associations, de- 
termined to foster patriotism, educate the young, and suitably 
reward those early heroes, who have not lived in vain. It is 
fitting that they should be so honored. 

There is no more interesting reading to be found than the 
details of the early voyages of the explorers, and the glories 
of the pioneers. They thrill with romance, poetry, heroism and 
perseverance. They fill many books. The student or individual 
who cares to delve, will find that time is not considered when 
he picks up the wonderful story. In this brief talk, we have 
barely touched upon the hardships and heroism of La Salle, 
Tonti, and the great explorers. In later years, illustrious great 
men of Illinois have thrilled the nation. We have only briefly 
time to mention the courage of General Sheridan ; the zeal of 
Peter Cartwright, the great pioneer preacher; the genius of 
the great Robert Ingersoll. And we have but mentioned Gen- 
eral Logan, another great Illinoisan, distinguished for his 
brilliant record in the war, who was a native of this state. He 
was born in Jackson County, 111., Feb. 9th, 1824. He fought 
in the Mexican War ; served in Congress, and three terms in 
the Senate, and was nominated for Vice President. He was 



353 

accorded great honor by the people of his state and country. 
He died in Washington, D. C., Dec. 26th, 1886. A splendid 
monument in his honor stands in the Lake Front Park, at the 
foot of Eldredge Court, Chicago. 

We must not forget the early pioneers. Men like John 
Kinzie, Alexander Beaubien, Guerdon Hubbard, Dr. Alex- 
ander Wolcott, John Wentworth, Archibald Clybourn, Judge 
Dean Caton and Fernando Jones. Nor must we overlook 
George Flower and Morris Birkbeck, and their English colony 
who settled Edwards County ; the German Pioneers who aided 
in settling St. Clair County, and the Swiss emigrants who set- 
tled Madison County; the Irish emigrants of Gallatin and 
Hardin Counties, and the French Lead-Miners at Galena. 

All these are worth more consideration than a brief arti- 
cle of this nature can give. All have helped to make the state 
and the nation great. 

DANIEL POPE COOK 

To Daniel Pope Cook for whom Cook County was named, 
Chicago and Cook County owe their legal existence. It was 
Cook who fathered the bill for the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal. One of its provisions set aside every other township 
in a strip across the state thirty miles wide, as state property, 
to be used in paying for the canal. This caused Chicago to be 
platted and laid out. He secured the passage of the bill in 
the Legislature, and his fight for the new town at the head of 
the. Lake endears him to us. 

Illinois has a golden heritage, in more ways than one. Her 
citizens have much to be proud of. In the recent World's 
War crisis, caused by a maniacal kaiser, the Centennial Flag 
of peace is waving side by side with the Eed, White and Blue, 
which typify the achievements of Democracy. 

As the Centennial Flag stands for the triumph of thrift 
and energy, let us see to it that the flag of our country shall 
be the signal of Liberty to the oppressed of Europe, and to 
our own people. Let it not be lowered in Europe until the 
German idea that ' ' Might makes Eight ' ' has been banished 
forever, and the beacon light of Liberty floods all the world. 



354 



THE WAB GOVERNORS 

We here briefly present some of the illustrious War Gov- 
ernors of Illinois. First mention may be made of Hon. Au- 
gustus C. French, Governor of Illinois during the Mexican 
War, who promptly responded to the call of the President, 
James K. Polk, and, like his successors, raised more than the 
State's quota of troops. Governor Richard Yates, the Civil 
War Governor, personally chartered a steamer to succor 
wounded Illinois soldiers and brought many of them back 
to home and fireside, which made him exceedingly popular. 
He was untiring in working for the Union. 

History cannot forget Hon. John R. Tanner, Governor of 
Illinois during the Spanish-American war, who did all that 
could be done for the glory and honor of the state. 

Illinois has gone over the top in subscriptions to all Lib- 
erty Loans and Red Cross Subscriptions, and she has gone 
over the top in furnishing her quota of loyal men to fight the 
battle of Democracy, under the leadership of our recent 
splendid and patriotic war Governor, Frank 0. Lowden, and 
she did her full share to maintain, in the words of the im- 
mortal Lincoln, that "A government of the people, for the 
people and by the people, shall not perish from the earth. That 
the thirteen stripes and forty-eight stars of our flag shall 
forever be an emblem of Liberty to the oppressed of the 
World. " 



*LIFE IN THE ARMY 

BY CYNTHIA J. CAPRON 

My wedding tour was typical of the life of an army of- 
ficer 's wife which I became Thursday, June 27, 1867. 

We were married at my father's in the morning, and a 
few hours later said goodbye. 

We expected to go to California when my husband Thad- 
deus H. Capron, should receive orders to go with recruits 
from Newport Barracks, Kentucky, to New York City. 

He had failed to get leave of absence in May, to attend 
his own wedding, but had taken advantage of a sick leave 
which he really needed to be married in time to take his wife 
with him to the Pacific Coast. . 

On 1867 there was an overland stage patronized by min- 
ers and other people who felt able to endure anything, even 
an Indian attack. 

The letters were seldom, until a few months later, sent 
overland; they were generally marked "By steamer" for 
though in some cases they might make better time by stage, 
people generally preferred the more slow but sure way. 

This Thursday afternoon we arrived in Chicago and stop- 
ped at the Revere House, which was later swept away with 
the rest of North Chicago in the great fire of 1871. The next 
morning at seven o'clock we started eastward. After three 
hours ride, my husband left me at Michigan City to go to 
Newport, Ky. I remained in the same car, arriving in Detroit 
at six o 'clock. Went to the Russell House, and in the evening 
took a sleeping car for Syracuse, N. Y., where I expected to 
stay with an aunt until there were more definite plans. Satur- 
day morning was clear and beautiful, and I had a magnificent 
view of Niagara Falls. 

My husband writes home, "About 10 :30 A. M., Thursday, 
the llth inst., I escorted my little lady on board the Henry 
Chauncey, and left her in the ladies' saloon until I had made 

*The Civil War Diary of Thaddeni H. Capron, 1861-1865, is published in Journal 111. State Hiit. 
Society. Vol. 12, No. 3. Oct 1919. 



355 




MRS. C. J. CAPRON 



356 

the necessary arrangements for a good stateroom, which was 
to be our home for the voyage to Aspinwall. 

Other duties with the men called me away, and Sis had 
to content herself until the steamer sailed at twelve o'clock, 
when I was assigned a very pleasant room in the upper cabin, 
and we removed to it, and settled down with all the comforts 
possible for the voyage. 

Many of the passengers had friends at the wharf to bid 
them adieu, and handkerchiefs were waved. Sis and I had no 
friends there, but we thought of those at home, and looked 
forward to some future day when we should again see them. 
Jennie was seasick soon after we left New York. I have 
made some very pleasant acquaintances." 

From me to my sister, July 16th: "Yes, here I am on the 
Carribbean Sea ! The water is smooth and it would be delight- 
ful if it were not so warm. 

We passed Cuba this forenoon ; were in sight of it several 
hours. I did not see any buildings except a light-house. There 
are high hills or mountains all along the shore, covered with 
trees. 

This is a very nice ship for the ocean, though there are 
finer ones on the Hudson River. The one I was on was called 
a floating palace. 

I am just becoming acquainted with the officers on duty 
with the troops. I find them very pleasant. Capt. Brownlow 
is a son of Parson Brownlow. There is an Irish lieutenant 
who is droll enough, and good company. ' ' 

The fare from New York City to San Francisco was $300. 
Of course an officer has his fare paid by the government, but 
it does not pay any expense of families I believe. In change 
of station, there was an allowance for baggage that did very 
well for a bachelor. The officers paid for extra weight if the 
transportation companies required it. They often gave passes 
to the families, and although we had one of the best state- 
rooms, there was nothing to pay for my three weeks voyage. 

There were 500 soldiers on board, and five or six officers. 
Maj. Capron was quartermaster and commissary officer. That 
means that he issued rations to the soldiers and looked after 
their comfort generally. This took most of the time during 
the day, I thought. 



357 

We arrived at Aspinwall at six o'clock Friday morning. 
When I looked out and saw the little bay, half encircled by the 
shore, the buildings and foliage, different from anything I 
had ever seen, it seemed like a fairy land. The natives soon 
came in canoes around the steamer to sell cakes, fruits, and 
liquors. I remained in the ship until a train was ready, a 
soldier being on guard in front of my state-room. 

From one of my letters : "I can easily imagine the un- 
healthfulness of the climate which caused the death of so 
many of the laborers who constructed the railroad. There 
were stagnant pools and ponds all along the route, except a 
short distance where it is mountainous. The streams are all 
sluggish and muddy. There are many beautiful flowers, and 
the vegetation is luxuriant. I saw coconut, and many tropical 
plants, shrubs, and trees. ' ' 

The railroad had been finished not very long before, for 
a lady I became acquainted with in California had crossed on 
a mule, as all passengers did, and she had a severe illness, 
known as Panama fever, after reaching San Francisco. We 
heard it said that there were as many deaths of those who 
made the railroad, as there were ties in the road. 

I remember my surprise upon finding that the natives 
who came into the cars to sell fruit, could not understand. 
They looked so much like the negroes of our country that I 
expected them to speak English. I bought an orange, prob- 
ably the largest I ever saw. 

From a letter of Major Capron: "Immediately upon 
landing, guards were stationed, so that none of our men could 
go ashore until the train was ready to transport us across the 
isthmus, which was not until ten A. M. I was very busily en- 
gaged in issuing rations of coffee, meat, etc., to last the men 
until we should reach the other steamer, and have an oppor- 
tunity to cook again. 

Aspinwall is much smaller than I had expected to find it. 
It did not present a very interesting appearance. 

At ten we commenced transferring the men to the cars, 
and soon were ready to start. I did not take Jennie from the 
steamer until the train was nearly ready, as I did not want to 
run the risk of her taking the Panama fever any more than 
was necessary. 



358 

A little before eleven we left Aspinwall in a special train for 
Panama. The trip was a delightful one. We passed several 
villages. The houses are made of slabs and poles, roofs of 
sugar cane, leaves, etc. About three o'clock we arrived at 
Panama. There we found a small steamer awaiting us, ready 
to transfer the troops to the Montana, which was lying out at 
anchor in the bay. In a short time we had the troops on board 
with the exception of a few men who were on duty with the 
baggage, and some who had succeeeded in getting away into 
the town." 

After the troops were attended to, Maj. Capron had 
orders to wait for the next train which brought the baggage 
and the passengers ; so we went to the Hotel de Grande, about 
half a mile away. 

From a letter of mine: " Panama is an old city, and has 
many ruins, and ancient buildings. The hotel is opposite an 
old cathedral which is said to contain many old relics and 
curiosities. The older buildings are spotted with mold. Seeds 
have lodged in the dust in the niches and have grown. The 
streets are very narrow and mostly paved, I believe. The hotel 
was a nice one, though there were no carpets on the floors. 
There was a large court in the center with a piazza around 
each story. I do not think it was more than two or three stories 
in height. Our room opened in the court. Here and in the 
cars anything that could harbor vermin was dispensed with. 
Nothing was upholstered. 

We went to the wharf when the little steamer was taking 
the passengers to the Montana; and waited there under the 
large shed, or covered wharf, till it should be our turn. A 
squad of native soldiers paraded around with guns held so 
carelessly that I was afraid of them." 

The Montana was the counterpart of the Henry Chaun- 
cey, but there was another captain, and this was his last trip 
on the " Pacific Mail Steamship Line." There was an ac- 
cident which I will tell about later. A steamer company can- 
not afford to let the least carelessness go unnoticed, and 
though this captain had served for many years, and had al- 
ways been considered careful so far as I know he lost his 
position. 

I remember seeing a very large steamer in the bay that 
had come around Cape Horn. The president of the Pacific 



359 

Mail had come on the Henry Chauncey with his wife, child, 
and servants, and he went on this boat which was awaiting 
him, to China, to establish a new line from that country to 
ours. 

We left Panama in the night, while sleeping, and our next 
stopping place was Acapulco, Mexico. We arrived there 
the morning of the 25th, and many of us went in small boats 
to the town. Here the natives were dressed in brilliant colors, 
and rowed out to us in boats, dotting the waters of the bay, 
and making another picturesque scene, in combination with 
the Mexican city, amid a variety of tropical growths, among 
which were the sword plants. I do not know the proper name, 
but it resembles the century plant except that the leaves are 
sharp pointed, and stand up to a great height. I heard it 
said that a horse might be impaled on one of these. An old 
Spanish fort was the first object to attract us. It was not gar- 
risoned, and was said to be one hundred years old. I was very 
curious to know whether it had been occupied by the French 
who had recently left Mexico, or part of it, but did not find 
any one who spoke English, who could inform me. The town 
seemed not very large. The streets were narrow, and the ar- 
ticles for sale were in front of the stores where the salesmen 
sat on the walk I believe. 

A large part of the population had turned out to sell us 
shells and other things they found market for when a steamer 
came. I believe several ladies bought silk dresses, which were 
much cheaper than in the United States. 

The low sensitive plant was as plenty as grass here, near 
the stream where we saw the women washing their clothes in 
the running water. 

We left about three o'clock on our northward journey. We 
were often in sight of the mountainous coast, and sometimes 
saw objects of interest in the ocean. Until a few days before 
arriving at San Francisco the weather was very warm. The 
captain said one evening that in the morning at a certain time 
we would need shawls, and it was as he said. The weather was 
cool after this, and the captain said it was an exceptionally 
pleasant voyage. On account of the good weather the steamer 
came near San Francisco, one day earlier than the shortest 
time allowed for a trip, and the captain tried to keep the boat 
out through the night so that he could go into the harbor the 



360 

next day, August 2. The fog was so dense that he lost his 
bearings and went about nine miles beyond his destination. 

I was awakened in the night by the shock of the vessel 
running aground. I felt sure that this was the case, but 
thought it best to wait before calling my husband who was 
in the berth above. When I heard men talking outside, about 
taking the small boats out of the davits, I thought it was time 
to do so. He had heard so many times about my surmises 
that he did not expect to find anything wrong. At one time 
the ship had been higher on one side than the other for at 
least twenty-four hours. I was very anxious about it but no 
one else seemed to be. After awhile I succeeded in persuad- 
ing my husband to go out and see what the trouble was. 

When he came back he said the ship was aground, and 
he thought I was pretty brave after seeing some of the women 
so frightened. The pumps were kept going the rest of the 
night, and when daylight came we could not see much better 
than before. Finally the fog lifted and we saw that we were 
very near the shore, and also that there were several fishing 
sail boats near us. The captain had a man go on horseback 
to San Francisco to have a steamer sent to us. When the 
tide was higher, about ten o'clock, we got off after making 
considerable effort. 

The water not having come in faster than it could be 
pumped out, we were carried safely to the Golden Gate and 
arrived at the wharf about noon. 

I shall never forget the Bay of San Francisco as we came 
through the Golden Gate. The passengers were asked to 
stand on the deck at the stern, so that the bow would rise 
above the sand bars as we came through. It was the dry 
season, and the ground in San Francisco was the color of 
sand. The live oaks and other evergreen trees made a pleas- 
ing contrast. The city was then scattered somewhat over the 
hills and mountains. The city, the island of Alcatraz, Angel 
Island, Goat Island, the straits, and bay made a most beauti- 
ful scene. 

I drove to the Occidental Hotel with a gentleman my 
husband asked to be my escort while he remained with the 
troops. He went with the recruits to Angel Island, the re- 
cruiting depot, but was allowed to spend part of the time 
with me at the hotel, where I remained ten days. There were 



361 

several army officers and other steamer acquaintances stop- 
ping at the Occidental, so that I was not very lonely. 

Woodward's Gardens were something like Lincoln Park 
of Chicago, but there was an art gallery, besides several 
green-houses, etc. An admittance fee of twenty-five cents was 
asked at the gate. 

My next move was to Alcatraz Island. This island is 
the most picturesque feature of San Francisco Bay. It rises 
up almost perpendicularly on all sides from the water. The 
wagon road up from the wharf has a very steep ascent, al- 
though it has been cut so that it can be climbed by the few 
animals kept here. A small steamer made access to the city 
comparatively easy for those who were allowed to go and 
come, but as this was a prison for offenders of the army, a 
small garrison was needed on account of the isolation. 

The officers occupied the citadel, a large brick building 
with openings in the thick walls, perhaps ten inches wide, 
but as long as any window. These windows were so narrow, 
and the walls so thick that only a little could be seen from 
them. The commanding officer with his wife "kept house " 
in a suite of rooms, and all the other officers messed together. 
There was a billiard hall in the second or third story. 

I was the only lady in the mess but I did not mind it. 
This was an artillery post and the officers were all artillery 
officers. Their uniform was blue with red trimmings. The 
commanding officer, Major Darling, married a Spanish lady 
from Chile. She was very fond of flowers, and had room for 
a very small flower garden which she had watered, and every- 
thing grew luxuriantly, although it was so cold all the month 
of August that people wore furs, and they did any time in the 
summer. When my fire was not burning well in our fireplace, 
I was uncomfortable in my room. 

Outside in the garden the fuchsias climbed over the top 
of a high fence. The scarlet geraniums almost as tall as one's 
head were loaded with blossoms. The pinks were the finest 
I had ever seen. Alcatraz is in an exposed place where the 
winds swept through from the Golden Gate. It was not so 
cold in the city on one side, or at Angel Island on the other. 

No money but coin was used on the Pacific coast, and 
prices were very high after the war. We bought furniture 



362 

for two rooms which was very plain, but " incidentals" had 
by this time amounted to a considerable sum, and the green- 
backs the army was paid with only brought seventy-two cents 
on a dollar. This was our first "home." 

I never saw the prison, but I went up to the top of the 
lighthouse where the lamp was kept burning at night. There 
was a fog bell and it was often necessary to warn vessels of 
the danger they were in when the fogs shut us in, and when 
things could be seen at all at these times, it was through a 
mist which sometimes made our surroundings seem unreal, as 
a ship and a lighthouse without sky or water or land. 

Major Capron was sent up the coast with recruits while 
I was here, and I was invited to take my meals at Major 
Darling's while he was away. They were very kind to me, 
and the time finally came when the one who had been sadly 
missed returned. The eleven days of his absence had been 
spent in embroidering some slippers for him, and thinking 
about shipwrecks principally. 

Our letters we did not expect to come from Illinois in 
less than eighteen days. Of course that was overland. I 
do not think the railroad was begun at this time, although 
two years from that summer we went east, two weeks after 
the first train had gone through, over the Central and Union 
Pacific railroads. 

About the first of September our quarters at Angel 
Island were ready for us, and we went to the headquarters 
of our own regiment, the 9th Infantry. The colonel had been 
a general of volunteers, and was now called General King. 
Later, congress authorized officers of the regular army to 
retain the titles given them in civil war times. General King 
and Mrs. King and a little daughter occupied the commanding 
officer's quarters. There was a double set of quarters be- 
sides, for officers. There were barracks for men, a sutler's 
store and residence, and a few storehouses for government 
supplies. There never was a post without a guardhouse, I 
presume, so there must have been one there. The hospital 
and surgeon's quarters were over the hill and out of sight of 
the post. Point Blunt is the name of the part of the island 
farthest from Camp Reynolds, about two miles and a half 
distant. The highest point of the island is in the center, and 
ridges and valleys extend in all directions from that to the 



363 

sea. Without roads being cut, there was scarcely a place 
where a wagon could move without danger, except on the 
parade ground. There was a road around the side of the 
hill to Point Blunt on the south side, and one about half way 
there to the hospital on the north side. Camp Reynolds 
was in a valley running down to the western beach where 
there was a wharf, and near that a flagstaff from which 
floated the stars and stripes from reveille to retreat. There 
were pyramids of cannon balls around the flag. The cannon 
were on the heights just north and south of the little strip 
of beach. The cemetery was up on the hill to the south of 
our valley which hid the city of San Francisco from us. 

Soon after my arrival the first military funeral I had 
ever seen passed slowly to this cemetery, the regimental band 
playing a funeral march. I had lost a brother in the war 
three years before, and I thought of him, dying away from 
home and friends, as this soldier had, and of his burial by 
comrades. 

The adjutant of the regiment was the only officer per- 
manently located here besides the colonel. There was not a 
company of the regiment at headquarters. They were in 
various parts of California and Arizona, and one at Sitka. 
Lieutenant Leonard Hay, the adjutant, was a brother of 
Colonel John Hay, our minister to England. He being the 
only bachelor officer, kept a mess that all officers temporarily 
stationed here joined, paying their share of the expense. I 
was the only lady in the mess. Sometimes there were only 
one or two extra officers, and at other times there were more. 

Troops were sent up and down the coast by steamer. All 
those going to Arizona went part way by steamer, and when 
awaiting the sailing of a steamer, officers generally came to 
Angel Island. The private soldiers also were here to await 
transportation, or were recruits to be drilled. The buglers 
practiced over the hills back of us, and the sound came back 
from "over the hills and far away," and does in memory 
still. 

"We were very cordially welcomed by General and Mrs. 
King. We were asked there to tea the day they made their 
first call, and as they entertained many people from the city, 
it was not a lonely place. General McDowell and Mrs. Mc- 
Dowell came there, and Admiral Thacher, whose battleship, 



364 

the Pensacola, was in the harbor. The admiral took some of 
us out in his row boat, in one end of which at least a dozen 
sailors pulled the oars. They were in the naval uniform. 
It was a very fine boat, richly carpeted, and an awning over- 
head. 

An officer of the regiment, Lieutenant Griffith, was mar- 
ried in San Francisco in church. We were invited, but we 
could not afford the expense of staying at a hotel over night 
as we should be obliged to do if we went. Our mess bill was 
$60 a month in coin. I think the pay was about $113 a month 
in greenbacks, and when it was turned to coin leaving $71.36, 
there was not much for pleasure trips or clothing. I con- 
sidered myself fortunate to get our washing done for $10 a 
month in greenbacks, so after mess bill and washing bill were 
paid, it left $14.16, to say nothing about the strikers five 
dollars. Butter was 80 cents a pound, eggs 80 cents a dozen. 
Milk was 10 cents a quart. We could not hire a girl for less 
than $25 a month all this in coin. 

We rowed out in a small boat several times, and once 
discovered a school of porpoises close to us, and started for 
the shore immediately. Once we got around a point where 
the current was too strong to get back, and we had to land on 
the other side of the island and walk home. 

One day when the bay was so rough it seemed as though 
a small steamer would not be able to cross it, a new one built 
by the government was to make its trial trip from Angel 
Island to the city. The swell was so great that the little 
steamer could not come near enough to put a plank on the 
wharf. Major Capron thought it would suit his mood to take 
the trip with the captain. He jumped on the boat when it 
came near enough, and left me standing on the wharf. After 
awhile, as the distance increased, the waves ran so high as 
to hide the steamer from my view. General King came down 
and when I told him that my husband had gone he said, ' * He 
is foolhardy, foolhardy." He came back all right before 
night. The captain was very much pleased with the new 
steamer which after this made regular trips twice a day to 
the posts in the bay and to the city. 

The next winter it was nearly wrecked. It was on its 
way to the city, and it was the first trip of a new captain. 
He was talking with an army officer, and did not notice that 



365 

a British ship they were nearing was connected by a hawser 
to a tug, and was being towed by it. They came in contact 
with the rope and also the vessel. The hawser carried away 
the pilot house, which the captain was in, and threw him back 
seriously injuring him. The smoke stack and steam pipe 
were carried away and there was great fear that the boiler 
would explode before the passengers, thirty-five in number, 
could be taken on board the ship. Lieutenant Rockefeller of 
the 9th had his thigh broken, and Dr. Kinsman had his ankle 
sprained. 

One day I had gone to the city on the morning boat, and 
returning was a little too late, and missed the last one home. 
When I was hurrying to the wharf, there was a Chinaman 
with an immense bundle on his back walking ahead of me, 
and as I came nearer a man standing in an open front store, 
gave him a push that sent him off of the walk into the street. 
After I passed, I saw him meekly returning, and going on as 
if nothing unusual had occurred. I took the Oakland or some 
other ferry boat for San Leandro where a young lady with 
whom I became acquainted on the voyage from the east re- 
sided. When I returned home the next morning I was sur- 
prised to find that there was no perceptible excitement over 
my being left among strangers in a large city. 

We went horseback riding, and sometimes went out in the 
ambulance. We hunted up some people we had brought a 
letter of introduction to, and they visited us, and I went in 
the city to visit them. We drove out to the Cliff House, and 
down the beach to the south. 

I took much pleasure in going to the little beach on the 
south side of the island to gather seaweed. The hill cut me 
off from everything but the view of the ocean, and beyond, 
Alcatraz, San Francisco, and the mountains. There were 
hundreds of sea gulls near the shore, and once I saw a flock 
of pelicans flying northward. My husband was not assigned 
to a company, and it was uncertain whether he would be soon, 
or remain at headquarters. We intended to go to house- 
keeping soon if we were to stay. 

I wrote home October 10th : ' l If we are going anywhere 
this winter, I wish we could be sent before the rainy season 
sets in. The most interesting events of the day are the ar- 
rivals of the steamer mornings and afternoons. Those are 



366 

the times to see who go and who come, and how they dress 
that is all. I am just going to keep house and have something 
to do as soon as we can bring it about. Major Capron re- 
ceived orders to join his company (A) at Round Valley, 
Mendocino Co., Cal., November 18. He went into the city to 
purchase supplies to take to the isolated post we expected to 
go to. There were some articles in the depot for commissary 
stores in the city that were not sent out to small posts. These 
goods, consisting mostly of eatables that would keep a long 
time canned goods, codfish, bacon, ham, blacking for shoes 
and stoves, spices, sugar, etc., we could pay for in green- 
backs, at the original price paid by the government, with no 
additional charge, for transportation was all we had to pay. 
Major Capron purchased crockery, carpets, and everything 
to begin housekeeping. 

We left Angel Island after having been there nearly 
three months. We went by steamer to Petaluma north of the 
bay ; from there to Sonoma by stage, to Santa Rosa, Healds- 
burg, Cloverdale, and Cahto. We went in a regular old 
California stage with four horses and a professional driver. 
He told us that just over the mountain to the east, there were 
hot springs, but my husband being under orders to proceed 
without delay to his station, we did not visit Calistoga 
Springs; neither did we visit Yosemite Valley as some of 
the steamer acquaintances did. Those days we heard more of 
the Yosemite, but nothing of the Yellowstone Park. 

We crossed the Russian River, noted for its fine scenery. 
The driver told us of a place where it would seem that there 
was an end to the road, with nothing but the sky ahead. When 
we reached it the road turned and was like many another 
hard place in life the way opened when we arrived there 
but not before. 

From Cahto to Camp Wright we were obliged to go on 
muleback. The distance was twenty-five miles. We went 
over two mountain ridges where the weather seemed very 
chilly this December day. In the valley between, it was un- 
comfortably warm. Eel river, which was on three sides of 
Round Valley, ran through this deep valley. It was a moun- 
tain stream and very rapid. There was a detachment of 
soldiers there to attend the ferry boat. It was a flat boat, and 
was guided by a paddle. The saddles and bridles were taken 



367 

off of the mules and put in the boat, and then the animals 
were driven into the water. They swam across, but it seemed 
a hard struggle. Then we got into the boat and shot out into 
the middle of the stream going down somewhat, and here the 
man with the paddle began work in earnest to make a landing 
before it was too late. If we were taken too far down, the 
banks were too steep to make a landing, and there were 
dangerous rapids not far away. 

We were told bear stories as we went down the eastern 
side of the last mountain, and finally we had a glimpse of the 
flag miles away at Camp Wright. 

It was dark when we arrived, but we met a hospitable 
welcome from Lieutenant and Mrs. Griffith, with whom we 
lived until our goods arrived three months later from Fort 
Bragg on the coast seventy miles away, to which point they 
had been sent by water. 

Major Jordan, the captain of company A was in San 
Francisco on recruiting service. 

My husband writes December 24 : ' * It is midwinter and 
it seems here in the valley like a spring morning ; birds sing- 
ing, grass growing, and all nature joyous after the long rain. 
Soon after my arrival at the post I was appointed quarter- 
master, commissary, and adjutant, and it is part of my duty 
to make improvements. I am setting out a strawberry bed, 
and in the spring will set out currant, gooseberry, and rasp- 
berry bushes. J. Ross Brown calls this the most beautiful 
valley in the world. It is about six miles in length, and five 
in width. 

It has a population of about 150 whites, besides those of 
the post, and about 2,000 Indians on the reservation. They 
are very peaceable, however, no trouble having been had 
with them for years. Mrs. Griffith, Jennie, and I took a ride 
the other day in our spring wagon, down to the reservation, 
about one and one-half miles from the camp. They are very 
industrious for Indians. They cultivate a large farm of 
several thousand acres, and very well too. I wish you could 
see them preparing their favorite dish a soup made from 
acorn meal and angleworms. They make the meal by pound- 
ing the acorns until they are as fine as flour. Then the meal 
and angleworms are put in a kettle to cook. Their kettle is 
a hole in the wet sand, made by working a stick around until 





3 



u 

g 

o 

I i 

cu 
O 



368 

they get the sides quite hard. While one is doing this, an- 
other has built a fire with boughs and sticks upon which they 
pile a number of stones. When they become hot, they put 
water in the kettle, throw the stones in and heat it until it is 
the right temperature, when they take them out, and stir in 
the meal, etc. I presume you will think I am telling a good 
story about making soup in kettles made in the sand, and 
may doubt it as I did, but I have seen it done myself." 

The surgeon and his wife lived at the south end of the 
line of officers' quarters. The next was the commanding of- 
ficer's cottage, one story and six rooms. This was built of 
brick made near the post. Next was our log house, one story 
high, and six rooms, one of which was the adjutant's office. 
There was a bath room besides. The surgeon's quarters were 
very much like ours. On the north side of the parade ground 
were the company's barracks and the hospital. There was a 
quartermaster and commissary building, and the guardhouse 
on the west, and in the center the flag. Nothing on the south. 
The highest range of the Coast Mountains was east of us, 
and its highest peak was named Yolo Bolo. Major Jordan 
had sent to this mountain one 4th of July, and had enough 
snow brought to make ice cream, yet during the summer of 
1868, for a long time_ the mercury went up to a hundred or 
more in the shade in the middle of nearly every day, 108 
degrees the highest, and this in our valley below Yolo Bolo. 
There was a wagon road around this mountain out of the 
valley towards Sacramento, but it was hardly ever used by 
the troops. There were high mountains west and south of us 
also. 

It ofte-n rained for a week or ten days the winter of 
1867-1868. The mountain streams would rise suddenly, so 
that they could not be forded, and mails were very irregular. 
One mail was lost. One letter sent February 23 did not reach 
its destination until April 6. 

I write May 31, 1868: "Lieutenant Griffith received a 
note from Major Jordan last night saying that he had just 
heard accidentally, that Major General Halleck and staff were 
to start for Camp Wright in a few days on an inspecting tour. 
Just think of us two families having the senior Major General 
and five or six staff officers to entertain for several days. Of 
course the general will stay with the commanding officer, and 



369 

we cannot possibly accommodate more than two. They never 
give any notice of coming on their inspection tours, and we 
are very fortunate to have heard about it." 

July 27 I wrote to my mother about our little boy just a 
month old. 

August 3 I write : ' ' Since General Halleck was here we 
have heard from three different persons that he was much 
pleased with things at this post. The doctor's son in San 
Francisco writes to his father that the General told him that 
he never visited a camp where everything was done that could 
be done, more than it is here." 

My letters these days were mostly about "the boy." I 
say August 27: "I do not think there ever was another such 
a baby, or expect there ever will be one." I write October 5 
of the Griffith 's boy a week and a half old. 

Captain Fairfield was the Indian agent. I bought a 
basket made by an Indian for one dollar. It would hold 
water. They used such baskets for dishes. They kept many 
baskets and other things for their big burning dance that they 
had twice a year. They danced and howled around a fire, 
and as they went threw things into the fire, even the clothes 
they had on. These were the Con-cows. The Ukiahs, Pitt 
Rivers, and Wylachers, did not do so. These tribes were all 
on this reservation, and were called Digger Indians. 

There were two doctors at Camp Wright while we were 
there ; Dr. Kinsman, who left soon after we came, and a con- 
tract surgeon whose name I have forgotten. 

Major Jordan came in November, 1868, with Mrs. Jordan 
and their two little girls. We found them very pleasant peo- 
ple. The Griffiths lived with them. Mrs. Griffith was a sister 
of Major Jordan. 

News came that our regiment, the 9th Infantry, would be 
sent east to take the place of the 12th Infantry. 

I write May 16, 1869: "The company to relieve us 
camped about eight miles from here last night, and we expect 
them this forenoon." 

We left Camp Wright May 25, and reached San Francisco 
June 2. Left the 7th, stayed at Cheyenne June 12. Sunday 
the 13th started for Omaha, arriving there the next morning. 

From Omaha the companies were sent to different posts, 
and Fort Sedgwick, Colorado Territory, was our next station. 



THE DIARY OF SALOME PADDOCK ENOS 

INTRODUCTION BY LOUISA I. ENOS 

In 1812 Gaius Paddock sold his home in Woodstock, 
Vermont, expecting to take his family west to try their for- 
tunes in the new country. But the War of 1812 broke out 
before they got started, and there were rumors of Indian 
uprisings in the West. So it was thought best not to make 
the journey then. There was no vacant house in the little 
village (there was a house shortage even in those days), so 
the family was obliged to rent a vacant store building and 
they lived there until they really made their start for the 
West in September, 1815. 

Salome Paddock, the third daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Gaius Paddock, was married to Pascal P. Enos on the 4th day 
of September and she and her husband started with her 
family on their journey to the West. The Paddock family 
consisted of the father and mother, two sons and six daugh- 
ters. The oldest daughter, Mrs. Jane Richmond, did not come 
with them, but a few years later joined them in Illinois. 

Salome Paddock Enos kept a diary of their route West. 
Unfortunately it is very brief, only the names of the towns 
they passed through, the places they stopped for the night, 
and the distance travelled each day. Probably she was too 
tired to write very much. 

After reaching St. Louis, Mr. and Mrs. Enos went on to 
St. Charles. In 1817 they moved to St. Louis and in 1821 to 
Madison Co., 111., where Mr. Enos had bought land. In 1823 
he was appointed Receiver of Public Moneys in the land office 
then established at what was called the Springfield District; 
Mr. Enos arrived with his family September, 1823. Pascal 
P. Enos died April 29, 1832, and Salome Paddock Enos, 
October 23, 1877. 



370 



371 

ITINERARY DIARY OF SALOME PADDOCK ENOS* 

Wife of Pascal P. Enos and daughter of Gains Paddock, kept 

on the journey of the family from Vermont to 

St. Louis, Mo., 1815-1816. 

Left Woodstock, Vt. Sept. 3, 1815 (Sept. 4 is the correct 
date) commenced our journey toward the west traveled 11 
mils slept at Mr. Hascals Barnard. 

Tusday weather bad took leave of our hospitable friends 
and traveled 18 mils put up at Fullers in Stockbridge Pitts- 
field. 

Wensday weather still rainy crossed the green mountains 
through Parkerstown road very bad slept at Bead in Butland 
13 mis. 

Thursday wether fine crossed Otter creek passed through 
the towns of Castleton Poultney Granville the first town in 
the State of New York put up at Hopkins in Hebron 30 miles. 

Friday weather fair but windy traveled 28 miles through 
Salem slept at Days in Cambridge. 

Saturday crossed the river Hosock (Hoosac) traveled 
the towns of Lansingburge Troy crossed the Hudson by ferry 
Albany put up at Russels in Bethelehem 33 mis. 

Sunday weather very warm traveled through Queman 
(Coeymans) Baltimore Hockhocking Athens put up at Bots- 
fords in Scatskill 31. 

Monday weather insupportably warm crossed Scatskill 
river passed through Sargeetias (Saugerties) put up at Rat- 
cliff in Kingston 24 miles from Scatskill. 

Tusday weather excessively warm traveled through 
Springton Tuttleton crossed the rivers Rosenolle and Wallkill 
put up at Mullens in Shawangunk 26 miles. 

Wensday Sept. 13 weather cooler passed the towns of 
Montgomery (crossed the River Wallkill) Goshen and Florida 
slept at Randolphs in Warwick 28. 

Thursday left Warwick traveled through Vernon (the 
first town in New Jersey) Hamburg slept at Philips in Newton 
28 miles. 



'Pascal P. Enos and Salome Paddock were married on the day the family left for the West. 
The party consisted of Gains Paddock and his family. An article on Mr. Paddock, his journey and 
his settlement in Illinois, by Caius Paddock, a grandson of the pioneer, is published in the Journal 
of the Illinois State Historical Society for April, 1920, Volume XIII. 



372 

Fryday Left Newton passed the towns of Johnsonburge 
Hope and put up at Lomeson in Oxford a wreched inn miser- 
able beyond description 27 miles. 

Saturday weather fine left the bed-bug tavern at an early 
hour took breakfast at Drums in Greenwich crossed the Eiver 
Delaware by bridge of the most beautiful construction I ever 
saw (cost 8500 d) traveled the towns of Easton Bethlehem 
slept at Weitters in Hanover 26. 

Sunday weather rainy passed the day at Weitters till 4 
P M left that friendly family crossed the River Ralah 
(Lehigh) over an elegant bridge (cost 2200 d) into Allenton 
a beautiful village built principally of stone slept at Dorney 's 
had a fury for a land-Lady. 

Monday Sept. 18 left the abode of the infernal traveled 
the town of Kutztown put up at Schwartz in Reading slept in 
a Dutch bed for the first time 32 m. 

Tusday weather fine crossed the River Schuylkill traveled 
the towns of Linkeirie Womolsdorff (Womelsdorf) slept at 
Yong's in Myerstown 24 ms. 

Wensday weather good left Myerstown passed the towns 
of Lebanon Millerstown Palmyra forded Sweetaran River 
(Swatara River) in Hammelstown (Hummelstown) put up at 
Willmots in Harrisburge. 

Thursday weather fine left Harrisburge crossed the Sus- 
quehannah by ferry one mile in width traveled the towns of 
Mechanicksburghs Carlisle slept at a Dutch inn in Wallnut 
Bottom 24 ms. 

Friday weather rainy travel to Shippingburgh (Ship- 
pensburg) put up at Porters 12 miles. 

Saturday weather still bad P M weather fair left Ship- 
pensburghs traveled 4 miles broak a waggon put up at Wun- 
derlich in Southhampton. 

Sunday Sept. 24 weather fine drove 6 miles traveled on 
foot over the three Broters (Brothers?) at the foot of last 
broke one waggon found entertainment after walking two ms 
at Dubbs'in Dublin 18. 

Monday weather verry fine left Dubbs traveled 15 miles 
to the top of Sideling Hill slept at Willsons. 

Tusday weather good left Willsons drove four miles over- 
turned a waggon in desending the mountain and broke it two 



373 

hours to repare crossed the Juniatta River put up at Tots in 
Bloody Run the inn good. 

Wennsday A. M. pleasant P. M. rainy traveled 15 mils 
put up at Mullens at the foot of Dry Ridge and Buf ow Creek. 

Thursday weather pleasant left Mullens traveled 15 ms 
over dry Ridge to the foot of the Allegany mountains crossed 
it put up at Kimbels a cross Dutch Inn 23 ms. 

Fryday weather still pleasant left Kimbles traveled 17 
miles to the foot of Laurel Hill 4 miles to the assended two 
miles put up at 23. 

Saturday weather fine left the Dutch hut traveled two 
miles to the foot of the mountains assended chestnut Ridge 
five miles over passed Mount Pleasant put up at Conrads 
three miles beyond the town 23 miles. 

Sunday Oct. 1 left Conrads traveled 14 miles of the worst 
rode that was ever passed by mortals put up at Crimins an 
excelant inn. 

Monday traveled Northamp, Mechanicksburg and put up 
at McCulloughs in Pittsburg 20 miles. 

Tusday spent the day in Pittsburg visited the Glass fac- 
tory in company with Mr. Taylor, Mrs. Enos and two Gent of 
the town Mr. Deming Mr. Collier and Sisters walked to the 
Hill that overlooked the town thought it dirty and irregular 
built returned read Rookbey (Rokeby) till evening attend 
church. 

Wennesday weather fine left Pittsburg 5 o 'clock P. M. on 
board our boat sailed five miles put up at Sargents in Pine 
Town five miles. 

Thursday morning foggy sailed from Sargents passed 
Middletown slept at a priviat house in Logtown 15 miles. 

Friday weather rainy passed Beavertown and Big Vever 
river which the High Ohio receives at that place put up at 
Forsters in Georgetown 23. 

Saturday still rainy passed the town of Possom slept at 
little Hut on the bank on Virginia side 14 miles. 

Sunday Oct. 8 weather continues rainy sailed 17 mils to 
Charlestown slept at Greathous passed the town of Stubens- 
vill (Steubenville) on the Ohio shore. 



374 

Monday weather pleasant left Charlestown sailed 27 mils 
passed the town of Wheling (Wheeling) Warren slept at 
Purdys on Virginia side. 

Tusday weather faire but windy so much so that we were 
obliged to lye by half of the day sailed 18 miles slept at 
Eussels on Virginia bank. 

Wennesday pleasant sailed 34 miles slept at Greens in 
W. Newport. 

Thursday weather warm sailed sixteen miles to Marietta 
found it to be a small town in the forks of the Ohio and 
Muskingum slept at Cook in Belpre 28. 

Friday very fine left Cooks at an early hour passed that 
celebrated Island of Blanerhasets (Blennerhassett) one mile 
in length slept at a little hut on the bank or rather staid for 
sleep we had none sailed 33 miles. 

Saturday pleasant runn forty miles slept at Harreses 
found them pleasant hospitable people rare qualifications for 
the inhabitants of this country. 

Sunday Oct. 15 weather fair runn 34 miles passed Point 
Pleasant (where the Kenawha empts itself into the Ohio it is 
a river of considerable magnitude 400 yards wide at its 
mouth) Galliopolis a town of considerable note slept at a 
private house. 

Monday weather rainy runn 36 miles passed Great sandy 
river which is the division line between Virginia and Ken- 
tucky slept at . 

Tusday pleasant and warm run 36 ms passed Ports- 
mouth a pleasant town on the Ohio slept at P Timings in 
Elixandria situated in the forks of the Ohio and Scioto a 
miserable town Our friend Noble very sick. 

Wensday weather fair Mr. Noble better runn 30 miles 
passed Louisvill on the Kentucky shore salt works at that 
place slept at Lockhearts in Washington. 

Thursday verry warm run 36 miles passed Georgetown 
stoped a short time at limestone a handsom town on the Ken- 
tucky bank met with our friend Collier here slept at Mitchels 
in Charlestown. 

Friday rainy and wind runn 28 miles passed Augusta a 
beautiful little town on the Kentucky bank slept at Flocks in 



375 

Nevilletown this night our fellow passengers (Mr. Taylor 
and Noble) had their trunks broken open and robed of watch 
and money to a considerable amount the theft supposed to be 
commited by one Anderson a discharged soldier who worked 
his passage down the river on board one boat. 

Saturday Oct. 20th still rainy spent the day in Neville in 
hopes of detecting the theif but to no effect. Slept at the 

house of a merchant by the name of found 

them to be an agreeable friendly family rair qualifications for 
the inhabitants of the bank of the Ohio. 

Sunday 21 morning foggy run 14 miles to Columbia. 
Monday 22 fine run 6 miles to 

Journal continued from Oct. 23d, 1815, to Sept. 14th, 1816. 
embarked on board one boat for Shawneytown, fellow passen- 
gers Dr. Cool Mr. Poland and left the city of 

Cincinnati at 11 o'clock (with little regret after a residence of 
almost a year) passed the Great Miami river the boundary 
line between Ohio State and Indiana territory the town of 
lawrenceburgh on the Indiana bank found much difficulty in 
landing on account of the rapidity of the stream which was at 
last effected by the assistance of the inhabitants a little 
below Grape island 12. 

Sunday 15th weather rainy river still rising runn 12 miles 
put in at Big Lick creek took our friend Nicoll on board at 
this place. 

Monday 16th weather fine put of early runn 11 miles to 
Fredericksburgh stoped their for oars obtained them runn to 
Vevy (Vevay) 12 miles had a visit from esquire Holton and 
left Dr. Cool their. 

Tusday 17 morning foggy day pleasant passed the Swits 
settlement Kentucky river and the town of Fort William at 
its mouth also the town of Madison a flurishing hansom settle- 
ment distance 40. 

Wensday 18th weather fine runn 26 miles to the falls 
passed much fine hansom country on either side of the Ohio 
could not pass the falls for the want of pilots walked in the 
evening to the harbor saw a beautiful steem-boat, and harbor 
filled with barges and keels had a sleepless night. 



376 



Friday 20th (Thursday 19th) weather pleasant procured 
a pilot crossed the falls at ten oclock, run to Salt River 25 
miles night rainy. 

Friday 20th morning rainy runn 9 miles and landed untill 
the return of Father who had gone back in quest of the dog 
while waiting our party went out a sporting and brought in 
two fine turkeys one of which we roasted for dinner 11 oclock 
Father returned put out agane run 29 mils runn into spring 
creek Indiana shore. 

Saturday 21 weath cloudy and unpleasant, passed much 
hilly uneven country, the appearance of the inhabitance, sav- 
age in extrem put in at a small creek, distance 52 miles night 
rainy. 

Sunday 22 morning rainy accompaneyed with thunder, 
afternoon pleasant country more level passed a barge that 
was assending the river saw but few settlements distance 
unknown put in for the night on Indiana shore. 

Monday 23 morning foggy pleasant day winds high in the 
afternoon, passed the hanging rock called Lady Washington 
saw three keels assending the river, cave on the banks of the 
river landed on a willdernes shore Indiana distance 35. 

Tuesday 24th passed much handsome country but few 
settlements Green river on the left a large beautyfull streem, 
landed again in the wilderness on Kentucky shore 50 miles. 

Wensnesday 25th day fine winds high which retarded our 
progress left Mr. Hopkins at Hendersonvill who had accom- 
panyed us from Louisvill, put in at an excellent harbor a new 
town Mount Vernonp 

Thursday 26th fair high winds was passed by a fine large 
Steemboat was surprised to see with what velocity she stemed 
the current passed the Wabash a beautiful river on the right 
P. M. reached the much wisht for port of Shawneetown found 
it to be a wreched sunken place steemboat desending the river 
which surpassed the former in beauty and grandeur. 

Friday 27th weather fair exchanged our boat for a horse 
got our baggage on board our waggons, at 4 oclock commenced 
our land journey for St. Louis traveled 6 miles over a bad 
road put up at a log cabin. 

Saturday 28th weather good, roads intolerably bad passed 
the U. S. Saline salt works and Saline creek put up at Browns 



377 

accomadations bad, cross Landlady and exorbitant price dis- 
tance 15 mi. 

Sunday 29th pleasant broke our waggon put up at Jor- 
dens found them to be kind hospitable people just to reverse 
to our night before entertainment distance 18 miles. 

Monday 30th cloudy roads better traveled over the py- 
raees found pleasant beyond my expectations forded big 
muddy put up at a miserable cabin had an Idiot for landlady 
and a savage for a landlord 17 miles. 

Tuesday October 1 thretened with rain, roads fine, 
crossed little muddy, took breakfast at Jacksons, traveled to 
Flacks distance 26 miles had a dutch landlady with evry ac- 
complishment that is attached to that class of beings. 

Wensday 2 morning rainy left Clarks at an early hour 
traveled 18 miles to breakfast roads very fine traveled two 
miles further left the Cascaska road for the St. Louis which 
proved to be a bad exchange put up at Pattersons distance 
32 miles. 

Thursday 3 left pattersons crossed the Kaskaska river 
traveled ten miles to breakfast crossed a twellve mile pryrarie 
partly on fire put up at Cottens distance 30. 

Thursday 4th weather good, left Cottens traveled to 
French villiage five miles from St. Louis wherry P. M. spent 
in following French directions to no effect put up at Mac- 
Kneels. 

Friday 5th 

Charges paid at warehouse $2.62^ 

Shawneetown Sept. 27th 1816. 

Deposited by Pascal P. Enos with David Appirson Co. 
the following articles to be shipped to Moses Scott of St. Louis 

3 Beadsteads, two large Trunks 

1 Bureau 2 dos Windsor chairs 

1 Rocking chair, two Tables one 

small chest & trunk. 



! 




PETER CARTWRIGHT 



SOME PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS OF PETER 

CARTWRIGHT 

BY WILLIAM EPLEB 

When a child I heard so much of the courage and daring 
of the Rev. Peter Cartwright, I became to have fears of the 
man. This feeling remained with me, in a modified degree, 
as I grew older, until one hot Sunday afternoon in early 
August, 1870, when the mistaken impression was removed, un- 
der the following circumstances : 

The doctor came to hold a quarterly conference at old Zion 
Church, near Little Indian, Gass County, Illinois, he being the 
Presiding Elder of the district. The business of the Confer- 
ence was attended to on Saturday, as was the custom. On the 
Sunday following, services were held at 11 o 'clock a. m. and in 
the afternoon also. At both services sermons by the Presiding 
Elder were expected. The day, as stated above, was hot. The 
good doctor preached a sermon, at the eleven o'clock hour. 
Went to my father's (John Epler) for dinner. When the time 
came to go back to the church for the afternoon service, he re- 
marked to my father, * * The weather is so warm, I do not think 
I should be required to go down to the church to preach 
another sermon this afternoon. I must return home this eve- 
ning (18 miles). There will be a good preacher there, he can 
talk to the people. I shall lie here on the grass, in the shade of 
one of these trees, until the sun further declines, then return 
home. ' ' I heard this decision and I determined at once to be 
one of the party to lie under the tree on the grass, as it will 
be a good chance to hear the doctor talk and learn something 
of his career from first hands. 

Everyone left the premises for the afternoon service, ex- 
cept the doctor, my father and myself. The place of rest chosen 
was on the bluegrass in the inviting shade of a hard maple. 
The conversation, as might have been expected, was con- 
cerning the early settlement of the county, early times, gen- 
erally, the deep snow, etc. The doctor was in his 80 's, 
my father 75. I, who was a silent listener, soon began to have 
a real liking for the old pioneer. I noticed his bland manner, 

378 



379 

his kin'dly expressions and absence of harsh criticism. My 
childish distrust vanished, felt free to put in a word, occasion- 
ally, and did. I remarked to him, " Doctor, in books I have 
read of experiences you had with Gen. Andrew Jackson at the 
Hermitage in Tennessee. The story ran about as follows: 
You had an appointment in the neighborhood of the Hermit- 
age, where you regularly preached. On one occasion, you were 
preaching, the General for the first time attended service that 
day, coming in a little late, when a brother, seated behind, 
twitched the skirt of your coat, exclaiming in a whisper, 'be 
careful, Gen. Jackson has just stepped in.' You announced, 
in a voice so that all could hear, 'Who cares for Gen. Jackson, 
he will go to hell, like any other man, if he does not repent 
of his sins. ' This produced consternation, all thought, at the 
first opportunity the General would surely cane you, if not 
worse, but it did not turn out in that way. The first oppor- 
tunity the General had, he cordially greeted you, took you by 
the hand, commended your manner of presenting Bible truths, 
adding, 'if I had ten thousand men like you, I could drive the 
British off this continent,' and invited you to the Hermitage 
for dinner." The doctor replied: "There is no truth in the 
story, as found in print. It is true, I had a preaching place in 
the neighborhood of the Hermitage. The General, occasionally, 
came to our meetings, and I had been invited to the Hermit- 
age, we were always on friendly terms." "Doctor, here is 
another. Tradition, says Mike Fink, was the terror and fistic 
autocrat in an early day from the falls of the Ohio to New Or- 
leans, among flatboat men. His custom was, before forming 
new acquaintances with strangers, to challenge them for a 
combat, a real combat, no pretentious affair. His object was to 
ascertain how worthy they would be as companions. On first 
meeting you, the usual challenge followed. You promptly ac- 
cepted, sailed into him, giving a good thrashing. Ever after 
you were good friends. ' ' At this he laughed. I think his reply 
was, he never saw Mr. Fink, but had often heard of him. My 
father who had been on the rivers as flatboat man, corro- 
borated that part of the story, as to Mike's personality and 
to his domineering tendencies. 

The doctor listened to these book stories, in the most pa- 
tient good humor, convincing me further of his mild disposi- 
tion. But don't think for a moment, the doctor was wholly 
made up of mildness and amiability, as the following incident 



380 

would seem to contradict: In early August, 1860, the writer 
attended a camp meeting at Black Oak Grove, near Ebenezer 
Church, three or four miles northwest from Jacksonville, on 
the Sabbath day. Dr. Cartwright preached the morning ser- 
mon, to be followed in the afternoon by the Rev. Peter Akers. 
Dr. Akers was a profound and deeply learned man. When 
he was to preach in the afternoon, it was necessary for him to 
begin early, so he could finish before a late hour. 

The horn to assemble the people was promptly blown. As 
this camp meeting was near Jacksonville, it was to be ex- 
pected many of the town's people would be present, especially 
of the younger class, and so it was. At the blowing of the horn 
many of these young people gathered around the outside row 
of seats in standing positions, quiet and respectful enough, 
excepting many of the young gentlemen did not remove their 
hats, and not a few were smoking cigars, never thinking they 
were violating camp meeting propriety. Dr. Cartwright arose, 
looked around. He began his remarks by stating the want of 
reverence of many when attending Divine service, especially 
at camp meetings. With a sweep of his arm, and an eye of no 
mild type, he exclaimed : l ' I mean those young people, stand- 
ing around with hats on, smoking cigars ; if their hearts were 
as soft as their heads, such irreverence and such impudent 
conduct would be foreign to their sense of propriety. ' ' Need- 
less to say, in an instant every hat was doffed and every cigar 
under foot, and soon the standing circle had vanished. 

This camp meeting incident was ten years previous to the 
hot Sunday afternoon under the maple tree. The ten inter- 
vening years may have had a mellowing effect, doubtless had. 
The facts are, Peter Cartwright was equal to any emergency 
during the active period of his life, and he knew how to deal 
with it. He resisted wrong wherever he found it, sometimes 
with a mailed fist (so tradition says), sometimes with a soft 
glove, as the case might have been. The following bits of early 
history were inherited from my parents : It about 1825, as 
they relate, the Sangamo country, out in Illinois, was attract- 
ing much attention in Clark county, Indiana. The praise of 
that country was without limit by those who had " spied out 
the land," its beautiful groves, its expansive fertile prairies, 
its wild fruits, in fact every feature and charm required to 
make a new country attractive, belonged to it. Here let me 



381 

add, I am a native of the Sangamo country, born and raised 
in it, and can, without prejudice, indorse every praise it 
received. 

My parents related this. About the year 1826 the an- 
nual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church was held 
in Charlestown, Clark Co., Ind. The Conference District was 
vast in extent, embracing, as it did, Indiana, Illinois, parts of 
Kentucky and Ohio. Peter Cartwright represented the San- 
gamo country. After the business of the conference was trans- 
acted, he was requested by the people to address them. Taking 
for his theme, "The Sangamo Country," he obligingly con- 
sented. In his address he gave an account of its advantages 
and its disadvantages, its landscape beauties, its fertile prai- 
ries, its wild animals and wild fruits, all in all, a truthful and 
charming description of the country. Among other things, he 
said: "Brick houses do not grow on trees in that country, 
but there were two nice large brick houses within a mile of his 
log cabin home." Two brothers, by the name of Broadwell, 
came into the country, made a settlement, laid out a town site, 
and built the two houses. They doubtless came from Ken- 
tucky, as they named their embryo city ' ' Claysville. ' ' 

One of these houses was intended for a public inn, two 
stories high, double galleries on north and south sides. For 
years it was the wonder of the Sangamo country. This pioneer 
inn is still standing, though in a neglected and ruined condi- 
tion, galleries long since gone, and decay everywhere visible. 
The writer remembers, when a boy, in the 40 's and early 50 's, 
this inn was headquarters for the Ohio and Pennsylvania cat- 
tle buyers. These cattle buyers were there most of each winter, 
buying up the fatted cattle of the country, of which there were 
many, driving them, the next spring and summer, to the far 
eastern markets, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York City and 
Boston. The other brick house was a nice dwelling, was so con- 
sidered then, and would be now. It was removed some years 
ago by the B. & 0. Eailroad Company, being in the way when 
the company was making betterments along its line. * * Clays- 
ville" is, or was, located one mile east of the beautiful little 
city of Pleasant Plains. 

This address of Eev. Cartwright resulted in a number of 
good families removing from Clark Co., Indiana, to the San- 
gamo country. All came just before the deep snow, or one year 
afterwards. Among the number may be found the names of 



382 

Crum, Beggs, Epler, Hopkins, Eobinson of Sugar Grove, 
Eobinson of Hebron, Morgan Co., Garner and the Cosner 
brothers, perhaps others, all settling west of and within a few 
miles of the Cartwright home. All became permanent and 
successful farmers, all raised large and respectable families. 
Their coming aided greatly in bringing prosperity to this 
sparsely settled land, and that prosperity continues, for where 
can be found a better citizenship of more prosperous com- 
munities than can be found within few hours' horseback ride 
from the old Cartwright home I 

Of all the people in this Cartwright hegira, the writer 
knows of but one now living, that one is my cousin, Mrs. Sarah 
Cunningham, of Cass County, now nearly 96 years old, born, 
Hopkins. 

Before proceeding further, I will state Dr. Cartwright 
erected for himself, before or soon after the deep snow, a very 
comfortable two story brick house, located about one mile 
northwest of Pleasant Plains, in which he passed the evening 
of his life. 

The activities of the Doctor in the interest of the old fash- 
ioned camp meetings were ceaseless and effective. He early 
saw their value to the pioneer settlers and to the country's 
development. First settlements were ' ' few and far between, ' ' 
making the church worship of a later day quite impossible. 
At these camp meetings the pioneers assembled, bringing 
their households, with camp equipage, ''for man and beast," 
usually for a week's stay, frequently longer, coming long dis- 
tances, frequently as much as a day's travel. 

No argument is necessary to establish the helpfulness of 
these meetings during pioneer days. Not only were ethical 
questions considered, but business of an everyday character, 
the various phases of agriculture, as to the best methods, all 
being new and untried, doubtless shared equal attention (on 
the side of course), each profiting by experiences of others. 

" Black Oak Grove," at Ebenezer, about four miles north- 
west of Jacksonville, was one of the prominent camp grounds, 
in the Doctor's district and, it may be said, a favorite of the 
Reverend Akers. "The Eobinson Camp Ground," at Hebron, 
Morgan Co., about seven miles northeast from Jacksonville, 
was another prominent place. ' ' The Garner Camp Ground, ' ' 
located on Little Panther Creek, Cass County, about six miles 



383 

east of Virginia, was a camp in early days. Still another, and 
the most modern, the "Holmes Camp Ground," about four 
miles northeast from Virginia, in Cass County. The Holmes 
succeeded the Garner. A Cumberland Presbyterian church 
camp meeting place, widely known, maintained for many years, 
was located on Eock Creek, Sangamon County. Besides the 
camp meetings above mentioned, the Baptist association con- 
ducted meetings, of much the same character in various parts 
of the country. One was annually held at the head of Indian 
Creek, near the home of the Rev. William Crow. Rev. William 
Crow was a very early settler, coming in the 20 's, before the 
deep snow, a man possessing many sterling qualities and 
highly regarded. 

We had not thought, at the beginning of these recollec- 
tions of elaborating on camp meetings, but we found, to write 
of the work of Peter Cartwright, leaving camp meetings out 
would be like writing up the war record of George Washington 
leaving out "Valley Forge and the Crossing of the Del- 
aware." So, some account of them had to be written. 

It may not be considered amiss, to mention in these recol- 
lections the peaceful, though sensational death of his aged 
consort who survived him. She was attending an experience 
meeting in the nearby Bethel Church. All old fashioned 
Methodists know what an experience meeting is, or was; 
almost obsolete now. She gave her religious experience in a 
very touching manner, concluding by saying, ' * I am just wait- 
ing for the Chariot, ' ' took her seat, leaning her head forward 
on the back of the seat in front. Rev. Harding Wallace was in 
charge of the meeting. When the congregation was dismissed, 
he noticed she did not move, going up to her, he was unable to 
get response. She was dead. He announced to the waiting 
people, "the Chariot has come." 

The camp meetings served their purpose well and have 
long since gone into disuse, being no longer necessary, and 
indications too plainly point to the fact, that with them are 
going the country churches, the auto, the village church, the 
pealing organ are closing their doors. Is this changing condi- 
tion for the best? 

The fame of Peter Cartwright is assured, as the years 
pass he is becoming more widely known. His unselfish work 
in planting the Cross in so many distant wilds, is receiving 



384 

more and more appreciation. Story and song will magnify his 
work, as the muses delight in flattering the great, or nearly 
great at least. He will be long remembered in the Sangamo 
country. 

Of the old John Epler estate, the land part has been kept 
in the highest state of efficiency, but the old house, the house 
built in 1837-38, the first built with saw mill lumber in that 
section, is abandoned to bats and decay. The brood has gone, 
its spacious apartments, once filled with joy and love, are be- 
ing used for the shelter and keep of agricultural implements. 
Tenants and employed help, not particularly interested in its 
upkeep, occupied it for years. Its imposing outside chimneys 
have disappeared. It stands as solidly on its foundation as 
when first erected. 

The yard in which it is located is overgrown by weeds, 
but that maple tree still stands, though with its fading foliage, 
testifying to the surrounding neglect. 

During all the years since, the writer seldom passed that 
tree without calling to mind what was done and said in its 
generous shade during that hot Sunday afternoon in August, 
1870. 



*HISTORY OF THE SELMA METHODIST 
EPISCOPAL CHURCH 

AKTICLE WRITTEN IN 1909, BY A. V. PIEESON. 

It is rumored that the Methodist Episcopal Church at 
Selma is to be closed and that regular preaching services will 
be discontinued indefinitely. It is hoped that these reports 
may prove to be unfounded and that some way may be de- 
vised by which public services may be continued in that 
historic church, for it was at the Patton settlement that the 
first Methodist class and the second Methodist church was 
organized in McLean County. 

John Patton, the first white man to settle in the present 
confines of Lexington township, came to the Mackinaw about 
the first of March, 1829. His arrival with his large family 
at the Kickapoo town, situated about half a mile east of where 
Pleasant Hill now stands, caused quite a commotion among 
the dusky citizens of the village, and after their council it 
was somewhat doubtful whether Patton would be allowed to 
wear his scalp lock where it would do him the most good, or 
be deprived of it altogether. But Patton, by his mechanical 
skill so won their favor that the Indians not only reversed 
their verdict of death, but also gave him two of their pole 
cabins, in which he lived until he could build a house of his 
own. 

John Patton was a devout Methodist, as were several 
members of his family. His son-in-law, Aaron Foster, one 
of the most influential men in the new settlement, was also of 
the same faith; and it was in this first house erected by a 
white man in Lexington township that the first Methodist 
class of eight members was organized with Joseph Brumhead 
as leader. This was in 1830, and was, I believe, the first 
Methodist class organized in our county. 

In this same house in 1838 the first Methodist church out- 
side of Bloomington and the second church of that denomina- 
tion in our county was organized of which Mrs. Mary A. 
Patton, who has but recently passed to her reward was the 
last surviving charter member. The Pattons, Aaron Foster 

*The church building was moved to the cemetery nearby where it is now used as a chapel for 
funeral services. 

385 



386 

and Isaac Smalley were largely instrumental in the organ- 
ization of the church and its upbuilding. This church, planted 
in the wilderness as it were, grew in members and influence, 
and the congregation had so increased in numbers that it 
was difficult to find a house that would accommodate it. 

The meetings for public worship were always held at the 
home of John Patton, not only because it was here the church 
was organized, but also because of the better facilities for 
the accommodation of the congregation, for Patton had added 
to his original log cabin until his home consisted of a house 
of hewn logs twenty by fifty-two feet, one and a half stories 
high, with a covered porch, ten feet wide, running the full 
length of the house on the south. It was the most commodi- 
ous dwelling in all the settlement. 

After the laying out of Pleasant Hill by Mr. Smalley in 
1840 the society determined to build a house of worship in 
the newly laid out town. Everything being ready the house 
and parsonage were built on lots donated for that purpose ; 
this was in 1845, or '46 authorities differ as to which year it 
was. The house was built by Mr. White, of Bloomington, and 
stood on the ground where the present Methodist Episcopal 
Church building now stands, facing east on what then was 
known as Winchester Street. The frame was of hewn tim- 
bers, which were of most generous proportions ; the cross ties 
on which the purlin posts rested were 8 by 10 inches, and for 
fear they would not be strong enough, about four feet from 
the base of the purlin posts, a six by six inch piece was mor- 
tised into these posts, and these pieces were connected with 
the 8 by 10 cross ties by two 4 by 6 braces. Thus did our 
fathers build. 

The siding and shingles were of black walnut, as were 
also the doors and window frames. The siding was sawed at 
the Haner mill on the Mackinaw, which was located west of 
Pleasant Hill on the farm now owned by Mr. Charles Becker. 
The seats were of dressed linn or basswood; underneath the 
seats, and extending almost to the floor was a thin board of 
the same material as the seats. Why it was put there I am 
unable to tell, but I know that it was as resonant as a bass 
drum, and when some luckless youngster's heels would come 
in forcible contact with it, as was frequently the case, the 
effect was quite startling. Not only did everyone in the 
church know of it, but it appeared as though the noise could 



387 

be heard about three blocks outside. The offending youngster 
generally suffered a total collapse. 

Like all Methodist churches this one had a mourner's 
bench. Those were the days of the non-scouring plow, which, 
in my judgment, offered more and greater inducements 
to profanity and general backsliding than any other imple- 
ment ever devised by man. No matter how uncertain a man's 
position might be on the doctrine of total depravity, let him 
wrestle with one of those plows when it was fully possessed 
to do evil, and at the end of the struggle he would be a 
firm believer in the total depravity of all things animate and 
inanimate and then would be willing to add a few things 
extra for good measure. Because of these conditions and the 
fervid and effective preaching of those days, this mourner's 
bench was crowded at every revival meeting. 

The pulpit was of walnut, with steps leading up to it and 
was enclosed by a walnut railing with two gates, having 
wooden hinges, for entrance to the pulpit. This railing with 
its cunning workmanship, was the wonder and admiration of 
all the small boys, until for some fancied or real transgres- 
sion during services some of us youngsters were confined 
within this sacred enclosure to insure our good behavior. 
The cure was very effective. But after that experience we 
always wrote "Ichabod" over that particular handiwork. 

As was the custom of that day the men and women were 
seated separately, and any man who disregarded this rule by 
seating himself on the woman 's side of the house was invari- 
ably asked to explain matters to some of the officers of the 
church. During the Civil war a number of our soldier dead 
were buried from the doors of this old church, Joseph C. 
Parker, Company K, Eighth Illinois Infantry, being the first 
soldier whose funeral was held in the church. The Rev. G. B. 
Snedaker, an able and patriotic minister, was in charge of the 
Selma circuit at that time, and was always in great demand 
on such occasions. 

The old church has witnessed many stirring revivals, the 
altar being crowded with seekers and many were added to the 
church of such as shall be saved. During this period the 
church had some strong men among its laymen. Among them 
were the Pattons, Aaron Foster, Isaac Smalley, John Hous- 
ton, Patrick Hopkins, Andrew Smith and Absalom Enoch. 



-.388 

The old building being too small to accommodate the 
growing congregation, it was determined to build a new house. 
The present structure was built during the war, possibly in 
the year 1863. The new building was much larger in every 
way than the old one, and was built by Mr. Timothy Roberts, 
of Lexington. At this time the church entered an era of 
great prosperity, Selma charge being one of the strongest in 
the conference, and enjoyed the ministrations of some strong 
men. A result of this was, that some of the greatest and 
most notable revivals in the history of the church occurred 
during this period. Those which occurred during the pastor- 
ates of the noted preachers Lowe Day, Frank Smith and 
John Rodgers were especially notable. 

During the pastorate of the Rev. Underwood the church 
was wonderfully agitated over the question of instrumental 
music. This was the first time in the history of the church 
that this matter became serious. Up to this time the only 
instrument allowed was the tuning fork, and the attempt to 
place an organ in the church met with most strenuous opposi- 
tion, and it took time and the most skillful diplomacy before 
the matter was peaceably adjusted and the organ permitted 
to remain. 

Among those who were prominent in the later years of 
the church's life I will name Henry McCracken, David Mc- 
Cracken and George H. McCracken, father, son and grandson, 
three generations, all of them prominent in the work of the 
church ; C. W. Matheny, William Bratton, Thomas E. Scrim- 
ger, David Parkhill, William Berryman, John B. Crumb, Isaac 
Windle, Crawford Bailey, D. T. Douglass, Moses Cochran, 
Thomas Cohagan and William Crumbaker. 

Of the ladies I will mention Mrs. Julia Scrimger, Mrs. 
Amanda McCracken, Mrs. Nancy Bratton and Mrs. Joseph 
Enoch. There have gone from the membership of the church 
into the ministry: George E. Scrimger, Marion V. Crum- 
baker, Frank Forman, Joseph A. Smith and Thomas B. 
Adams and George H. McCracken. 

For more than seventy years this church has been a 
faithful witness and has stood for all that is best, and the 
Lord has blessed it most wonderfully in the years that have 
gone, and it will be a great misfortune to the community to 
have the doors of this historic church closed. 



DEATH OF MISS MARY COLES, 1834-1920, THE 

DAUGHTER OF EDWARD COLES, SECOND 

GOVERNOR OF ILLINOIS. 



BY W. T. NOETON 
A Link With the Past Severed. 

Miss Mary Coles, daughter of Edward Coles, second Gov- 
ernor of Illinois, died at her home in Philadelphia on the 27th 
of October, at the venerable age of 86 years. It may seem 
strange to some that a daughter of a man who was Governor 
of our State nearly a hundred years ago should have lived 
almost to the present day. It is accounted for in this way: 
Edward Coles during the thirteen years of his residence in 
Illinois was a bachelor. He left the State in 1832 or 1833, 
permanently, and made his home in Philadelphia, where he 
married Miss Sally Logan Roberts. He was then 47 years of 
age. Three children were born of this union, one daughter 
and two sons. The younger son was visiting his kinsmen in 
Virginia in 1861, at the time the Civil War broke out and in 
the mistaken enthusiasm of youth joined the Confederate 
army, to the great grief of his father, and was killed at the 
battle of Eoanoke. The older son, Edward Coles, Jr., while a 
summer visitor at Bar Harbor, Maine, a few years ago, was 
killed in a runaway accident. He left two daughters who are 
residents of Philadelphia. After his removal from Illinois, 
Governor Coles made his home in Philadelphia during the re- 
mainder of his life. He died there in 1868 at the advanced age 
of 82. He lived to see the principles of liberty, for which he sac- 
rificed so much, triumphant over the land. He is famous in our 
State history as the man who saved Illinois during his admini- 
stration from becoming a slave State. The late Hon. E. B. 
Washburne, in his " Sketch of Edward Coles," relates the 
events of his remarkable career, in detail, and as this volume 
is found in the State Historical Library, and, in fact, in almost 
every public library in the State, I will not repeat the story of 
his chivalric and philanthropic career. The son of a Virginia 
planter, of distinguished Eevolutionary ancestry, he inherited 
from his father's estate a retinue of 25 slaves and a thousand 
acres of land. He was early in life impressed with the sin and 

389 



390 

curse of slavery and determined never to own or traffic in 
human beings. Under the laws of his State he could not free 
the slaves he inherited and would not sell them. There only re- 
mained the recourse to move to a free State and give them 
their liberty. He made a prospecting tour in the West and 
decided to locate in Madison County, 111. Returning to Vir- 
ginia, he made his arrangements for the migration. After vex- 
atious delays he bade farewell to his kindred and friends, and 
started on his long journey. On the way down the Ohio with his 
slaves in flatboats he gave them all their liberty. But they 
refused to leave him and followed his fortunes to Illinois. 
Locating in Madison county, he purchased lands in what is 
now Pin Oak township and gave each head of family 160 acres 
of land and provided, otherwise, for the remainder. In 1822 
he was elected Governor and at once aroused the hostility of 
the pro-slavery element by advocating in his inaugural ad- 
dress to the Legislature the repeal of the infamous "Black 
Laws ' * of the State. The members of the Legislature retali- 
ated by passing a resolution submitting to the people the 
question of calling a convention to revise the constitution to 
admit slavery. The campaign which followed was the bitterest 
in the annals of the State, but through the heroic and unremit- 
ting labors of the Governor and his associates resulted in the 
triumph of the anti-slavery party and a guarantee that Illinois 
would always, remain a free State. The fame of Edward Coles 
centers in the fact that he consecrated Illinois to freedom. 

Miss Mary Coles, the subject of this sketch, was born in 
Philadelphia in 1834 and that city remained her home during 
her long useful life. She resembled her father in her strong 
convictions and fearlessness in holding them. Her devotion 
to her Master, to her church, and her love for souls was con- 
spicuous. She was wonderfully alive to new methods and 
the needs of the new era. Her life was devoted to religion 
and philanthropy. During the later years of her life she 
was afflicted with blindness, but she rose above the handicaps 
of this affliction and never ceased her efforts for the good of 
others to which she had consecrated her life. 

She did much more than deaconess work in the diocese 
of Pennsylvania. She founded two boarding houses for work- 
ing girls in Philadelphia in addition to her many other bene- 
volent works. In her devotion to others she emulated and 



391 

duplicated the life-work of her father. Her good works live 
after her. For instance, in her will she left the generous sum 
of $145,000 for missionary work among Indians and Negroes. 
A relative writes: "No one could enumerate all her deeds 
of kindness and of love or speak too highly of her generosity." 
She passed away very peacefully, on the date named above, 
and is at rest in Woodlands cemetery, Philadelphia, beside 
her illustrious father. From the ' ' Church News of the Diocese 
of Pennsylvania" I take this tribute, written by Miss Florence 
F. Caldwell, a member of her Bible class : 

"At a special meeting of the Tuesday Missionary Bible 
class the following minute was passed: 

Miss Coles passed from death into life and from darkness 
into light, on the morning of Oct. 27, 1920, in the 86th year of 
her life. Of her devoted family life, of her many warm friend- 
ships, of her boundless hospitality, it is not ours to speak, nor 
of that inner consecrated life known only to herself and her 
God. But the Tuesday Missionary class wishes to express its 
deep gratitude for her influence upon its members during the 
47 years that she was its teacher and devoted friend. 

Miss Coles' distinguishing characteristics were single- 
ness of purpose, absolute sincerity, and a passionate love for 
the souls of men. Her greatest desire for her class was that 
they shall have their hearts filled with ' * a personal love for a 
personal Christ." 

She strove to give her pupils not only a deeper knowledge 
of the Bible, which she knew so well, but also by faithful, 
constant repetition to so regulate their daily lives by prayer, 
by reading of the Bible and by the practice of the homely vir- 
tues of punctuality, faithfulness and responsibility, that they 
should influence the lives of those around them. How rich 
a harvest has been reaped from her precepts and her example ! 

And she opened before her class the wide world of mis- 
sions, in which her own interest was so unfailing and so in- 
tense. Her knowledge was no superficial thing, but entered 
into every detail of the field at home and abroad. Not only 
by her generous benefactions but for her personal kindness, 
she was known to the missionaries far and wide. Hospitals, 
schools, missions, all the organized life of the church, claimed 
her interest, and her burning desire was that her class should 
feel the same devotion and sympathy. She used every means 



392 

in her power to accomplish this end, with what success is 
known to many a mission station at home and abroad. In 
teaching missions her precept was : 'Every man has a right to 
know that Christ has come. ' 

But beyond all this was the influence of her consistent 
life, her personal interest in the members of her class, and 
her wise and tender sympathy for each and every one, and also 
her 'rejoicing with those who did rejoice. ' These are the mem- 
ories that will last to the end of life. 

In darkness and in silence the later years of her life were 
spent. With what fortitude, faith and courage she bore these 
trials all who knew her can bear witness. She loved to choose 
a text for her class may we not choose one for her: "The 
path of the just is as the shining light which shineth more 
and more unto the perfect day. ' ' 



SOME THINGS I DID IN MY 88TH YEAR. 

BY CHAHLES E. Cox* 

Started in November on a trip from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific a 4,000 mile journey. 

Spent the winter on the F. A. Vanderlip 16,000 acre Palos 
Verdas Ranch. With me were my daughter, Mrs. Waldo P. 
Adams, my grandson, John Mann Vanderlip, his nurse and a 
maid. 

We lived in the middle of three thousand acres of peas, 
beans, tomatoes and cucumbers. You could drive seven miles 
through this field of vegetables. They begin to plant in Decem- 
ber, beginning with peas, then beans, tomatoes and cucumbers. 

Besides 3,000 acres of vegetables, there are 8,000 acres 
of barley. 

The ranch has fourteen miles of ocean front; it lies be- 
tween San Pedro and Redondo, and is opposite the Catalina 
Islands. 

We had a very completely equipped bungalow, surrounded 
with all kinds of flowers and flowering shrubs. It is on a 
high elevation, giving a magnificent view of the ocean and the 
Catalina Islands. 

About a mile from the house is Portuguese Bend, where 
there had been a whaling station, now a very popular place 
for picnics, where we had many with Los Angeles people. 

I, with my little grandson, planted a little garden, bord- 
ered with flowers. We planted peas, beans, lettuce, potatoes 
carrots and corn; all were ready for use by the middle of 
April, except the corn, which was in silk when we left in 
May for our return trip from the Pacific to the Atlantic, mak- 
ing eight thousand miles travel. 

The most interesting and exciting event was to witness a 
sham battle by the Pacific Naval Fleet stationed at San Pedro. 
Admiral Rodman had planned the most extensive battle ever 

Charles Epperson Cox, born in Montgomery County, Indiana, Sept. 28, 1833, came with parents to 
Illinois, 1837. Colonel Cox wag prominent in business and political circles in Illinois for many yean. 
In 1861 he was auditor in the Provost Marshal's office in Springfield, later was active and influential in 
securing congressional action for improvement of Mississippi valley rivers and harbors. 

393 



394 

held on the Pacific. His fleet comprised 7 large warships and 
numerous destroyers, submarines, transports, aeroplanes, and 
hydroplanes. 

The fleet started at 9 A. M. A fleet of destroyers pre- 
ceded the battleships, towing targets quite a distance behind 
to represent the enemy, a few camouflage ships making a 
smoke screen to conceal the movements of the battle ships. 
When 20 miles out to sea the enemy was sighted six miles 
away. When the battle began, each ship had captive balloons 
some five hundred feet high. Aeroplanes circling over the 
enemy would wigwag the position to the man in the balloon, 
and he would telephone to the gunners. There were seven bat- 
tleships, all mounted with large guns. When the battle started, 
all fired at once, the large guns and then smaller ones; the 
firing kept up eight minutes. In that time $180,000 worth of 
ammunition was fired. It was a most thrilling sight to wit- 
ness the wonderful display of fireworks. 

It was my good fortune to be a guest of Captain Willard, 
commanding the "New Mexico," Admiral Rodman's flag 
ship. This is the largest ship in the navy. 

Manned with 1700 seamen, armed with six 14-inch guns 
3 forward and 3 aft with 12 five inch guns 6 at each end. 
The large guns firing 1,400 pound shells, are mounted on steel- 
turrets 14 inches thick. I stood by these turrets while they 
fired. The concussion was terrific; we all had our ears filled 
with cotton. It was a wonderful experience to me. As I said, 
the "New Mexico" is the largest ship in the navy and is run 
by electricity. I believe it takes 50 barrels of oil a day to gen- 
erate sufficient power to run the ship and operate the guns. 

During our stay at the ranch, we motored over 1,000 
miles. 

In June I went with the whole Vanderlip family with 
two cars on a motor trip of about 500 miles, up through the 
Berkshire Hills. We touched Connecticut, Massachusetts and 
Vermont. 

After the Vanderlips sailed for Europe, my daughter, 
Mrs. Clover Henry, her daughter, the younger two of the 
Vanderlip children and their nurse, in the big Pierce- Arrow 
touring car, motored up into New Hampshire where Frank A., 
Jr., was in camp. We stayed there a few days and then went 
to Scarborough, Maine, where we left the children and nurse. 



395 

Clover and I then motored up to Augusta, Maine, and 
spent a couple of days with my nephew, Dr. A. 0. Thomas, 
who is state superintendent of schools. 

We then started home down the coast, all the way from 
Augusta to New York, stopping at Boston and Providence. 
In all we motored 1,300 miles. We had delightful weather 
most of the time. It was a great pleasure to go through the 
historic places in all of the New England States. My daughter 
was a delightful companion, on account of her knowledge of 
the country. 

I am now in my 89th year, and am as well physically as 
I was at 80 when I passed examination for insurance. I have 
an assessment policy. Being in California, I did not receive 
my assessment notice. When I got back I asked for re-exami- 
nation. After a good deal of parley, they sent their doctor, 
who, after a thorough examination, said that I had passed as 
good an examination as a man of 30. Upon receiving his re- 
port, they wrote me that my condition was Al, and I was re- 
instated. 



EARLY JUVENILE TEMPERANCE SOCIETY, 
SPRINGFIELD, ILLINOIS.* 



Constitution. 

Art. I. This Society shall be called the Sangamon County 
Juvenile Temperance Society. 

Art. II. Any person may become a member by signing the 
pledge of total abstinence from ardent spirit. 

Art. III. The Officers' of the Society shall consist of a 
President, Vice President and Secretary. 

Art. IV. It shall be the duty of the President to preside 
at its meetings to maintain order and he may call a meeting 
whenever he thinks best. 

Art. V. The Vice President shall perform these duties 
whenever the President is absent. 

Art. VI. The Secretary shall keep a list of the names of 
the Society, record its transactions in a book for the purpose. 

Art. VII. The Officers shall be chosen by the members by 
ballot. 

Art. VIII. Any member of the Soc. capable may be ap- 
pointed to deliver and address at some meeting of the Society. 

Pledge. 

I, believing that the drink of ardent spirits is unnecessary 
and injurious and that the evils of Intemperance can never be 
prevented while its use is continued, do promise that I will 
not, except as a medicine, use ardent spirits in any way. 



M. Clark 
E. G. Phelps 
S. Loyd 
Bobert Latham 
Isaac A. Hawley 



Members. 



John P. McKibbon 
G. H. Bergen 
F. E. Smith 
W. H. Bennet 
W. B. Bennet 



Original copy presented to Illinois State Historical Library by Miss Louise I Enos. Date not 
given. It must have been between 1835 and 1845. Many of the persons mentioned became prominent 
citizens of Springfield, 111. 

396 



397 



James H. Matheny W. W. Taylor 

F. Dicas A. G. Herndon 
J. Meeker P. P. Enos 

T. H. Bergen W. L. Todd 

W. Jayne Elliot Herndon 

G. I. Bergen Charles Webster 
John Moore C. W. Matheny 
William Dicky Julia M. Jayne 
J. W. Smith * Elizabeth Todd 
Z. A. Enos Martha Enos* 

I. B. Phelps Jane A. Stone 

V. P. Richmond Susan A. Phelps 

C. P. Slater Mary Ann Elkin 

J. S. Stafford Adaline Elkin 

John C. Lamb Lucy E. Clark 



*Died at age of thirteen years. 



EDITORIALS 



JOURNAL OF 
THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Published Quarterly by the Society at Springfield, Illinois. 
JESSIE PALMER WEBER, EDITOR. 

Associate Editors: 

George W. Smith Andrew Russel 

H. W. Clendenin Edward C. Page 

Applications for membership in the Society may be sent to the Secretary of the 
Society, Mrs. Jessie Palmer Weber, Springfield, Illinois. 

Membership Fee, One Dollar Paid Annually. Life Membership, $25.00 

VOL. XIII OCTOBER, 1920 No. 3 



CHAELES F. GUNTHEE COLLECTION. 

The important collection of historical material of the 
late Charles F. Gunther of Chicago has been acquired by the 
Chicago Historical Society. 

Mr. Gunther spent a great deal of money and devoted 
much time to building up this collection. He was a shrewd 
business man, and he bought his collection through business 
methods. He began in a small way, and of course his knowl- 
edge increased as he became familiar with the objects offered 
him by dealers and private individuals. As time passed his 
reputation as a dealer became well known, and he purchased 
manuscripts, pictures of all kinds, oil and water color por- 
traits, engravings, prints and photographs, various articles 
connected with the lives of historical personages, and some 
books and pamphlets. The great value of the collection lies 
in its manuscripts and pictures. The Chicago Historical 
Society will probably dispose of some items of the collection 
not within the scope of its work. 

Committees have been formed to raise the money neces- 
sary for the purchase of the collection. A committee of ladies 
has been instrumental in raising the fifty thousand dollars 
required as a first payment. The purchase price is one hun- 
dred and fifty thousand dollars, but a reasonable time will be 
allowed the Society by the Gunther family in which to raise 
the money. 

401 



402 

Mr. Gunther at one time offered the collection to the city 
of Chicago as a gift on the condition that a fire-proof build- 
ing be erected in which to care for it and make it accessible 
to the public. The city not having accepted the gift on these 
conditions, it became on the death of Mr. Gunther the prop- 
erty of his wife and son. The collection contains some rare 
Lincoln material and some very valuable early Chicago his- 
torical material. It also includes Shakespeare material, and 
material relating to the life of Napoleon Bonaparte. It will 
require years to arrange and classify the collection. 

Many of the most prominent men and women of Chicago 
formed the committees for its purchase and in doing so ex- 
pressed the opinion that the Chicago Historical Society is 
one of the most valuable and potent forces for good in the 
city of Chicago. Its influence extends to all educational or 
cultural movements. Its officials are called upon for advice 
and aid in all observances, exhibitions and pageants, and the 
Society welcomes to its rooms all ages and classes of citizens. 
Nearly all distinguished visitors to the city are entertained 
by the Society. They are taken to see the collection in order 
that they may visualize and in some measure acquire an idea 
of the development of Chicago and the northwest. 

Nearly all private collections, like that of Mr. Gunther, 
upon the death of their owners are sold and scattered. It is 
indeed fortunate that this great collection has been purchased 
by an institution where it will be preserved. Of course some 
items are to be sold but these may be called collections in 
themselves. 

Major William H. Lambert of Philadelphia who died a 
few years ago owned what was then the greatest collection 
of Lincolniana in existence. When he died no one of his 
family felt able to keep the collection intact and so it was sold 
at auction, item by item, and the collection is now widely 
scattered. Dealers prefer to sell historical material to in- 
dividual collectors for it is then almost sure at some time to 
come again on the market and it usually commands a higher 
price. 

When State Societies or strong institutions purchase 
material, it is not likely to again be offered for sale. It is 
permanently placed. In all sales some rare articles become 
lost to the knowledge of the dealers. A private collector in 



403 

a small way may purchase them or an individual may for 
some personal reason acquire some item. It is sometimes 
years before they are traced. 

Historical Societies are much more than custodians of 
interesting material. They serve many practical uses. Files 
of newspapers are used daily in practical business affairs. 
Unless people know of some agency willing to receive and 
care for it much valuable and interesting historical material 
is actually thrown away or destroyed. Old letters, diaries, 
plats of towns or of subdivisions of towns are greatly prized 
by historical societies. 

The Illinois State Historical Society from time to time 
issues a circular describing the kind of material wanted. 
Members of the Society should be its field workers, its special 
agents in securing it. The Historical Society urges its mem- 
bers to do this work as their individual service and contribu- 
tion to the Society and to the extension of its work and in- 
fluence. 



AMERICAN INDIAN DAY. 
SEPTEMBER 24. 

American Indian Day was celebrated throughout Illinois 
on September 24. The day has been set aside by the Legisla- 
ture for "appropriate exercises in commemoration of the 
American Indians. ' ' Programs were given in public schools. 
The exercises in the Chicago district were under the auspices 
of the Indian Fellowship league, organized last March. Gov- 
ernor Lowden is an honorary member of the league. Milford 
Chandler is president. 

One of the features of the celebration was a real Indian 
camp in the forest preserve at Palatine on the Wisconsin 
division of the Chicago and Northwestern railroad. Indian 
chiefs from surrounding states representing all the tribes 
which formerly roamed Illinois, pitched their tepees near 
Camp Beinberg in Palatine and held their various ceremonies 
and dances for three days. 



404 

ILLINOIS WOMEN MAY VOTE AS SOON AS SECRE- 
TARY OF STATE COLBY ISSUES THE 
OFFICIAL PROCLAMATION. 

Illinois women excepting those residing in cities that 
have election commissioners, will be enfranchised the minute 
Secretary Colby issues the proclamation of suffrage ratifica- 
tion. In all cities, towns, villages, townships and counties, 
except where the election commission has been adopted, no 
registration is required, and the women may vote on election 
day. In the ten or eleven cities having election commissioners 
a registration before August 25 is necessary as this is the 
last day to register before the September primaries. 



DEATH OF CAPTAIN L. R. LONG 

Captain Lother Raymond Long, a marine officer on duty 
in France, met a mysterious death, according to advices re- 
ceived by the navy department, September 7, 1920. Captain 
Long was a native of Illinois. His body was found at Bayron- 
ville, France. His death was the result of a gunshot wound. 



ILLINOIS COAL COMPANY BUYS $1,000,000 WORTH OF 
COAL PROPERTIES 

Transfer of the properties of the Pittsburgh Coal Com- 
pany in Sangamon, Macoupin, Montgomery, and Bond coun- 
ties, which are among the best workings in the central part 
of the State, to the Illinois Coal and Coke Company, was an- 
nounced September 6, 1920. The consideration was said to 
be $1,000,000. The Montour mines north of Springfield, and 
those at Virden and Girard together with all equipments and 
25,000 acres of coal lands adjoining, are included in the 
transfer. 

The present output of about 30,000 tons a month will be 
increased by the new company, and the shaft at Auburn, 
which has been sealed for several years, will be reopened. 



405 

"THE FOUNTAIN OF TIME/' 
LOBADO TAFT'S MASTERPIECE. 

The plaster model of "The Fountain of Time," Lorado 
Taft's heroic sculptured group, was completed Tuesday, 
August 24, after years of work by Mr. Taft. It stands at 
the head of the Midway on the west side of Cottage Grove 
Avenue. On September 1, 1920, the water for the first time 
was turned on in the great fountain. The allegorical group 
comprises scores of figures, arising from mystery, moving 
through life, and vanishing in mystery. Some are danc- 
ing, some proceed sorrowfully, some are Galahads, some are 
satyrs. Towering over all is Mr. Taft 'a conception of Father 
Time. The huge, weird figure dominates the movement of 
the pushing throng it faces. 

Lorado Taft is a professor in the Art Institute, and an 
associate professor of the University of Illinois. During the 
war he taught art in several of the American Expeditionary 
Forces Universities in France. He ranks among the greatest 
of American sculptors. 



JULIET L. BANE APPOINTED STATE LEADER OF 
HOME ECONOMIC EXTENSION SERVICE. 

Juliet L. Bane has been appointed state leader of home 
economic extension service in Illinois and associate professor 
of home economics at the University of Illinois. She received 
her A. B. degree at the University and her A. M. degree at 
Chicago. She did emergency work in the food conservation 
program during the war with the central west as her territory. 



DR. W. N. C. CARLTON, LIBRARIAN OF THE NEW- 
BERRY LIBRARY, CHICAGO, APPOINTED 
LIBRARIAN OF THE AMERICAN 
LIBRARY IN PARIS 

Dr. W. N. C. Carlton, for the last ten years librarian of 
the Newberry library in Chicago, has been appointed librarian 
of the American library in Paris, and European representa- 
tive of the American Library Association in all library activi- 
ties in Europe. Dr. Carlton will also have under his 
immediate direction the A. L. A. library at Coblenz. 



406 

RAIL COMPANIES DISSOLVE. 

Notices of dissolution of the Alton & Southern Railroad 
Company and of the Alton & Southern Railway, both of East 
St. Louis, were filed August 11, with the Secretary of State. 



ILLINOIS TOWN LEADS IN PROPORTIONATE IN- 
CREASE IN POPULATION IN CENSUS REPORTS 
OF THE UNITED STATES 

Georgia's 1920 population, with the exception of one 
enumeration district not returned by the supervisor, is 
2,893,601, the Census Bureau announced August 2. Ten years 
ago the population was 2,609,121. The rate of growth for the 
ten years was 10.9 per cent, the smallest in the history of the 
State. 

Wood River, in Madison county, Illinois, is given a popu- 
lation of 3,476, an increase of 4,038.1 per cent. That is the 
highest rate of growth shown by any place in the United 
States thus far in the fourteenth census. Wood River's 1910 
population was 84. Part of the town's large increase was 
due to the annexation of Benbow City, which had a population 
of 205, and East Wood River which had 400 people ten years 
ago. 



ISHAM RANDOLPH, DRAINAGE CANAL BUILDER, 

DEAD. 

Isham Randolph, widely known Chicago civil engineer, 
who as chief engineer of the sanitary district directed the 
building of the drainage canal, died August 2, at his home, 
1365 East Forty-eighth Street, Chicago, of bronchial pneu- 
monia. He was 72 years old. 

Mr. Randolph, at one time considered for leadership in 
the completion of the Panama Canal, was a self made engi- 
neer. To use his own terms he "broke into the engineering 
ranks with an ax nearly fifty years ago." 

Born in Virginia on March 25, 1848, the outbreak of the 
Civil War in his boyhood and the subsequent blasting of his 
family fortunes in the strife, forced him to forego a technical 
education. 



His first position was with the old Winchester and Stras- 
burg railway, doing the humblest and hardest of work with the 
engineers and surveyors. There he remained until 1872, when 
he entered the service of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, 
making surveys up the Chicago extension of the line. In 1880 
he came to Chicago as chief engineer of the Chicago and 
Western Indiana railroad. After other important railway 
work he established himself in Chicago in 1888 as a civil engi- 
neer in general practice. When the decision was reached to 
construct the drainage canal, he was the fifth man chosen as 
chief engineer. When he entered upon this work, June 7, 
1893, only about 5 per cent of the work had been done. It was 
he who, on the night of January 17th, 1900, led a party to the 
gates at Lockport and let the water through from the lake for 
the first time to head off an injunction which he had learned 
was to be asked of the Supreme court at Washington by 
St. Louis next day. In 1903, as the canal was nearing com- 
pletion, Mr. Eandolph became involved with Lyman E. Cooley, 
its first engineer, regarding mechanical problems presented. 
The controversy attracted nation-wide attention, but Mr. 
Eandolph was able to demonstrate the correctness of his 
theories and the canal was completed successfully. 

In 1907 Mr. Randolph resigned as chief engineer of the 
district and accepted the position of consulting engineer. 
From 1905 to 1906 he was a member of many civic and engi- 
neering bodies and was active in his profession in many na- 
tional and civic engineering projects. 

Among his important works, aside from the canal, was 
the obelisk dam above the Horseshoe Falls at Niagara. His 
own design, it revolutionized dam construction in this country, 
being built upright and later tipped over into the stream. 

Mr. Randolph is survived by his wife, Mrs. Mary Henry 
Taylor Randolph, whom he married at Chicago in 1882 and a 
son, Robert Isham Randolph. 



408 

C. H. MACDOWELL MADE KNIGHT OF CROWN BY 
ITALIAN GOVERNMENT. 

Charles H. MacDowell, president of the Armour Fertil- 
izer Works, who served the government as a " dollar a year 
man" during the war, was officially notified August 2, by the 
Italian government commission that he has been made a 
Knight of the Crown of Italy. Mr. MacDowell worked with 
the Italians, both in Washington and in Paris, assisting them 
in economic problems. In addition to the Italian decoration, 
Mr. MacDowell has also received the Order of Commander, 
Crown of Belgium, from King Albert and the French Cross 
of the Legion of Honor. He was a member of the United 
States Peace Commission. 



EDWARD BURGESS BUTLER GIVES PASADENA, 
CALIFORNIA, SITE FOR ART MUSEUM. 

Edward Burgess Butler, art connoisseur, who retired 
from the presidency of Butler Brothers, wholesale merchants 
of Chicago, six years ago, has donated the site for a new Art 
Museum for the city of Pasadena, California. Mr. Butler, 
whose home is in Winnetka, is at present in Pasadena. Mr. 
Butler was 60 years old when he gave up the presidency of 
his firm to Homer A. Stillwell. At the time he said he wanted 
to "play." He was 16 years old when he began his career 
with the firm of Butler, Rogers & Co., in Boston as bundle boy. 
When he retired he immediately took up the study of art. 

Mr. Butler is a director of the Chicago Art Institute, and 
donor of the George Inness room of paintings. He has 
achieved some fame as a painter of California landscapes. 



ILLINOIS TO PAY $60,000 FOR OLD CAPITOL AT 

VANDALIA. 

Major Joseph C. Burtchi of Vandalia closed a contract 
with the State in Vandalia, August 5, for the sale of the old 
Vandalia Court House, which at one time was the Illinois 
capitol. The State will pay $60,000 for the historic building 
and preserve it as a memorial. 



409 

ILLINOIS WATERWAY. 

Actual construction work on the Illinois Waterway for 
which an expenditure of $20,000,000 was authorized in an 
amendment to the State constitution voted in 1908, will begin 
the middle of October, it was announced on September 9 by 
Director Frank I. Bennett of the State Department of Public 
Works and Buildings. 

The first work will be done at Marseilles and Starved 
Eock. The project, the culmination of over 100 years of agita- 
tion, will extend from Lockport, on the Des Plaines Eiver, a 
distance of sixty-five miles, and will connect approximately 
15,000 miles of improved waterways in the Mississippi Valley 
and make continuous navigation between the Mississippi 
River and the Great Lakes. 



LAKES-TO-GULF LOCK CONTRACT TO BE LET SOON. 

Governor Frank 0. Lowden said Tuesday, August 
31st, in a report received by the federal power commission at 
Washington, that the great lakes to the gulf waterway has 
taken on definite shape, and that the contract for one of the 
locks will be let within a few days. It will be part of the 
Lockport-Utica inland waterway link, which, when completed, 
will give 15,000 miles of inland waterways for barge trans- 
portation between the great lakes and the gulf. 

In his letter, Governor Lowden asked for surplus water 
from the link for the development of power. Because of the 
great expense, plans for detailed power development have not 
been prepared, Governor Lowden said. He said federal ap- 
proval would be asked first. 



LAKES TO GULF CONTRACT. 

Bids for construction of the Marseilles lock, the first step 
in the three year $20,000,000 program which will connect 
Chicago and the Great Lakes with the Gulf of Mexico, were 
opened Monday, October 18, 1920, in the offices of the State 
department of public works and buildings. Five firms sub- 
mitted bids. Green & Sons Co., 563 McCormick building, bid 
$1,373,115, the lowest offer and the contract probably will go 
to that company. 



410 

M. G. Barnes, chief engineer of the division of waterways 
said: "According to the terms of the contract, which will 
probably be awarded in a few days, construction must be 
started in thirty days and completed within two years. That 
means Thanksgiving Day will see work on the lock well under 
way. 

"Specifications for the construction of the lock and dam 
at Starved Rock have been prepared and will be advertised, 
and the first of the year should see work on this improvement 
started. Then contracts for the deepening and widening of 
the channel will be let, and the entire improvement will be 
under way. 

"We are working on a three year program and at the 
end of that time, Chicago will be connected with the Missis- 
sippi Valley by thousands of miles of improved waterways, 
and the Great Lakes to the Gulf channel, the result of 100 
years of agitation, will be a reality. ' ' 
Other bids received were : 

Bates & Rogers $1,547,152.50 

Oscar Daniels Company 1,610,588.00 

Grant Smith & Co 1,825,659.20 

Thompson, Black & Co 2,200,513.00 



ST. JOHN'S EVANGELICAL CHURCH, NEW BERLIN, 
ILLINOIS, CELEBRATES 50TH ANNIVERSARY. 

Several hundred people from Springfield, Chatham, 
Jacksonville, Pleasant Plains, Farmington and Edinburg 
joined in the celebration of the Fiftieth Anniversary of St. 
John's Evangelical Lutheran Church at New Berlin, Illinois, 
October 4th. Both dinner and supper were served in the hall 
at the high school, and over six hundred persons were in 
attendance. 

The ministers were, Rev. E. Wegehaupt and wife, Chat- 
ham, Illinois ; Rev. J. Kuppler and wife, Jacksonville, Illinois ; 
Rev. E. Gross, Pleasant Plains; Prof. R. Neitzel and wife, 
Concordia College; Rev. J. Herzer and wife, and Prof. R. 
Schoknect and wife, all of Springfield. 

Divine service in the German language was held at 10 :00 
o'clock in the morning, with a sermon by Rev. Fedderson. 



411 

Eev. Frederick Brand, pastor of Trinity Evangelical Lu- 
theran church preached the sermon in the afternoon and the 
evening speaker was Prof. L. Wessel of Concordia College, 
Springfield. Special music was a feature of the day's pro- 
gram. Miss M. Meyer, accompanied by Prof. Schoknect on 
the organ, sang a beautiful solo. 

Rev. H. Wittrock, who has been pastor of the church since 
1912, has resigned and will serve the Lutheran Church at 
Mt. Pulaski. He will leave in the course of a few weeks. 
Prof. R. Neitzel of Concordia College, Springfield, will serve 
the congregation until Rev. Wittrock 's successor is named. 
A call has been extended to Rev. Claudius Hein of Minnesota. 



MRS. SUSANNA DAVIDSON FRY, PIONEER WORKER 
AMONG WOMEN, DIES. 

Funeral services for Mrs. Susanna Davidson Fry were 
held in Bloomington, Illinois, October 12, 1920. Mrs. Fry was 
a pioneer worker in behalf of women's interests. For many 
years she held the chair of belles-lettres in Illinois Wesleyan 
University, and was one of the judges of the liberal arts de- 
partment of the Chicago World's Fair. She was a prominent 
worker in the Women's Christian Temperance Union, and an 
intimate friend of Frances E. Willard. 



f IMMIGRANTS TO CHICAGO APPROACH 
PRE-WAR TOTAL. 

Miss Grace Abbott, executive secretary of the Illinois 
Immigrants' commission, says the number of foreigners ar- 
riving in Chicago is fast approaching the total who came 
before the war. She says the State is sure to have new prob- 
lems to deal with as a result of the influx. 

The people now arriving come from suffering and devas- 
tated regions of Europe, and will no doubt bear the impress 
of what they have endured during the last six years. 

The Illinois Commission expects to achieve results by 
study of the changing conditions, by keeping in touch with 
immigrant groups, and by making accessible to them official 
and private agencies, which can be of assistance during their 
period of readjustment. 



412 

GOVERNOR LOWDEN NAMES PILGRIM COMMITTEE. 

The 300th anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims was 
celebrated in New York City in September under auspices of 
the Sulgrave Institution. On September 18, a reception of 
guests from England and Holland was held on the arrival of 
the ship Caronia. 

The committee appointed by Governor Lowden for Illinois 
to act with the Sulgrave Institute in promoting the Tercenten- 
ary celebration, was composed of the following named 
persons : 

General Charles Dawes Miss Cornelia Williams 

Rev. William 0. Waters Mrs. Henry Purmot 

Mrs. Seymour Morris, Frank A. Alden 

Paul Blatchford Emmons J. Alden 

John W. Alvord Charles Alden 

Edgar M. Snow Miss Caroline Alden Huling 

Rev. J. J. K. McClure 



CHICAGO TYPOGRAPHICAL UNION UNVEILS TAB- 
LET IN MEMORY OF MEMBERS WHO FELL 
IN THE WORLD WAR. 

A bronze tablet in honor of the members of Chicago Typo- 
graphical Union, No. 16, "who made the supreme sacrifice" 
during the war, was dedicated in Elmwood Cemetery, Sep- 
tember 12, by the Union. 

On the tablet are inscribed the names of Roy J. Broder- 
son, Frank Devaney, Emil Kummer, Francis B. Laramie, 
Gerald D. Martin, Felix W. McGlone, Frank T. McNally, 
George F. Miller, Paul R. Motzny, W. H. Niemann, Robert S. 
Smith, Thomas F. Stanek, Joseph J. Witzel, Frank B. Swift 
and William Zalavak. 

The Rev. F. C. Spalding prayed, there was a roll call, a 
volley of farewell shots, and a solitary bugle blowing taps. 
After the tablet had been unveiled there were addresses by 
Lieut. Col. Gordon Johnston, Barratt O'Hara, and E. M. 
McGuire of the Buck Privates Society, A. E. F. 



413 

HONOR WAR HEROES. 

Mrs. T. M. Farley and Mrs. William Anderson, gold star 
mothers, unveiled a monument October 10, 1920, in Thatcher's 
Woods, River Forest, in memory of the boys who "went 
west" in the World War. 

The tablet was presented by the Gold Star Mother's As- 
sociation, of which Mrs. B. W. Swift is president. Five 
hundred persons witnessed the ceremony. 

The entire forest preserve was dressed in gold and reds 
of autumn. A thick carpet of leaves covered the ground. 
Addresses were made by Bishop Samuel Fallows, Chief 
Forester Ransom E. Kennicott, the Rev. John L. O'Donnell, 
former Captain and Chaplain of the 132d infantry; Judge 
Fisher, Gen. Abel Davis, and Mrs. Swift. Several County 
Commissioners attended the ceremony. 



ROCKFORD, ILLINOIS, MEMORIAL PARK NAMED 
AFTER WAR HERO. 

Mr. and Mrs. Winthrop Ingersoll have presented the 
Rockford Park Commission $50,000. This was announced by 
the Rockford Commission, October 26, 1920. It is a memorial 
to their son, Lieutenant Clayton C. Ingersoll, who lost his life 
in France while in aviation service. The gift will be used to 
complete the purchase of a public park which will bear Lieu- 
tenant Ingersoll 's name. 



STATUES OF FORMER GOVERNORS PALMER AND 

YATES TO BE PLACED ON STATE 

CAPITOL GROUNDS. 

The Illinois department of public works and buildings 
awarded Tuesday, October 19, 1920, contracts for bronze 
monuments to the memory of John M. Palmer, Major General 
of Volunteers in the Civil War, former governor and United 
States Senator, and for the Civil War governor, Richard 
Yates. They are to be placed in positions in the State House 
grounds. The contract for the Palmer statue was awarded to 
Leonard Crunelle of Chicago, and Albin Polacek of Chicago 
will make the Yates statue. 



414 

ILLINOIS WOMEN TO GET SEPARATE 
BALLOT BOXES 

Separate ballot boxes for women and separate tally sheets 
were ordered by Attorney General Brundage and Secretary 
of State Emmerson in telegrams, September 3, 1920, to all 
Illinois county clerks. This step is necessary because of 
the possibility of litigation over suffrage. 



METHODISTS PURCHASE SITE FOR TWENTY-STORY 
TEMPLE IN THE LOOP, CHICAGO. 

Announcement of the appointment of the Rev. John 
Thompson, D. D., Superintendent of City Missions, to be pas- 
tor of the First Methodist Church, Clark and Washington 
Streets, was made October 27, 1920, by Bishop Thomas 
Nicholson. 

Dr. Thompson will have supervision of the planning and 
construction of the great twenty story temple which is to re- 
place the building which has long been a land mark on the 
corner. Provision for a ground space of eighty feet on Wash- 
ington and one hundred and eighty-two feet on Clark Street 
was made through the purchase of the fee and leasehold at 
21-27 North Clark Street, announced October 27, by Senator 
George W. Dixon, chairman of the board of trustees. The pur- 
chase was from the Kohn estate and Harry C. Moir for a con- 
sideration of $580,000. The transaction ends years of negotia- 
tion begun by the late Arthur Dixon. 

Several of the lower stories will be used for housing the 
Sunday School, the Epworth League activities, and social 
and recreational rooms. With the completion of the new 
building, the church, which was established in Chicago in 1833, 
and has been on the present site since 1834, will enlarge its 
scope to include civic, social and educational departments 
aimed to meet the needs of a central church in a great city. 

"I regard the project as one of the most significant enter- 
prises in the history of Methodism in the last quarter of a 
century," Bishop Nicholson said. "It will be a great office 
and business building; but its chief interest will be its re- 
ligious side. There will be a great auditorium seating 3,000 
persons. It is planned to have a commanding pulpit with all 



415 

year round evangelistic and other enterprises. There will be 
a room just off the street for quiet prayer. The rescue work 
of the Juvenile Court, the Americanization program, the 
French Church, and the down town mission work will be pro- 
vided for." 



EQUIPMENT FOE STATE MUSEUM IN CENTENNIAL 
BUILDING SELECTED 

The selection of equipment for the State Museum, which 
will be moved to the Centennial Memorial Building upon its 
completion, was considered by the board of State Museum 
advisers recently. More than $200,000 will be necessary for 
the equipment. 

Members of the board who met were: Charles L. Hut- 
chinson, Chicago; Prof. Henry B. Ward of the University of 
Illinois; Charles F. Owen, and Charles F. Millspaugh of the 
Field Museum, Chicago, and Edward W. Payne of Spring- 
field. 

Two men who still know the art of making glass flowers 
have been located, and a group of flowers peculiar to the State 
may be incorporated in the exhibit. 



CAPTAIN WILLIAM VINCENT, CIVIL WAR VETERAN, 
DIES AT THE AGE OF 97 YEARS. 

Captain William Vincent died at his home in Galena, 
Illinois, October thirteenth, 1920, aged 97 years. He was 
captain of Co. A, 96th Illinois Volunteers in the Civil War, 
and was wounded in the battle of Chickamauga. He is sur- 
vived by two brothers, four children, twenty-five grandchil- 
dren, and fifteen great-grandchildren. 



CLAYTON E. CRAFTS, FORMER SPEAKER OF THE 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 

DIES IN CHICAGO. 

Clayton Edward Crafts, attorney and former speaker of 
the Illinois legislature, died at his residence, 5448 Washington 
Boulevard, Chicago, August 26, 1920. He was 72 years old 
and a Chicago pioneer. 



416 

Mr. Crafts came to Chicago in 1869 to practice law. He 
was elected to the State legislature in 1881, and served con- 
tinuously until 1894. In 1891-92 he was Speaker, the first 
Democrat to hold the position since 1863. He was Chairman 
of the Democratic campaign committee of Cook county in 
1888, when the party carried Cook county for Cleveland and 
Palmer. 

Mr. Crafts is survived by two brothers, P. M. Crafts of 
Mantua, Ohio, and Stanley C. Crafts, and a son and daughter, 
Hawky K. Crafts and Mrs. Frederick W. Job of Chicago. 



EEV. THOMAS DAVENAL BUTLER, CLERGYMAN 
AND CIVIL WAR VETERAN, DIES. 

The Rev. Thomas Davenal Butler, for more than sixty 
years a clergyman of the Christian church, died at his home 
in Batavia, Illinois, October 17, 1920, aged 83 years. He was 
known nationally as church editor of the New York Inde- 
pendent, and associate editor of the Christian Standard of 
Cincinnati, and the Christian Century of Chicago. He was a 
Civil War veteran. 



COL. GEORGE L. PITTENGER, PIONEER OF 
SOUTHERN ILLINOIS, DIES. 

Col. George L. Pittenger, 76 years of age, distinguished 
pioneer citizen of southern Illinois, died at Centralia, October 
27, 1920. He was a former mine owner and Colonel on Gov- 
ernors Tanner and Yates staffs, builder of part of the city of 
Centralia, and the Pittenger Hotel and Opera House, and vet- 
eran of the Civil War. Colonel Pittenger raised a regiment 
for the Spanish- American War. He leaves a widow and one 
son, George. 



JOHN HUSTON, FORMERLY MEMBER OF THE LEGIS- 
LATURE, DIES AT BLANDINVILLE, ILLINOIS. 

John Huston, former member of the Illinois Legislature 
from the Thirty-second district, died September 16, 1920, of 
heart trouble at his home in Blandinville. John Huston was 
born near Blandinville, in 1848; his parents settled there in 



417 

1829. His father, John Huston, was in the Black-Hawk war, 
the first treasurer of McDonough county, member of the legis- 
lature in 1850 and Constitutional Convention of 1848. 

John Huston, second, completed his education at the Old 
South College, Abingdon. In 1870 he married Allie Lovitt, 
He engaged in farming and breeding live stock. In the 80 's 
he was in the front rank as an importer of Percherons. He 
went into the banking business in 1895, the title being the 
Huston Banking Company, of which he was president. He 
was a member of the Illinois Legislature 1908, 1910, 1912, 1914. 
He was a member of the first commission for the observance 
of the Illinois State Centennial. 



MRS. ANNA BURIAN, 104 YEAES OF AGE, 
DIES IN CHICAGO. 

Mrs. Anna Burian, 104 years old, a resident of Chicago 
since 1875 and reputed to be the city's oldest inhabitant, 
realized her wish and died on August 15. 

"I have outlived my span," she had often observed to 
her family. "My husband, my friends, all the old familiar 
faces are gone. I alone am left. ' ' Her husband died in 1880. 
They had six children. All are dead. There are eleven grand- 
children, still living, and forty-six great grandchildren, all of 
whom are alive and residents of Chicago. 

Mrs. Burian made her home with a granddaughter, Mrs. 
James Lhotak, 2313 West Fiftieth Street. She was what the 
world terms an old-fashioned woman. She rounded out each 
day with her knitting, Bible reading and housework. She had 
never been inside of a motion picture theater. She retained 
full possession of her faculties until the last. She had never 
worn spectacles. Death occurred after a brief coughing spell. 

She was an exemplar of the healthful attributes of coun- 
try life. There was no restless age in Bohemia when she lived 
there. For twenty-five years she worked beside her husband 
in the harvest fields performing what would be considered 
men's labor in this country. It was to that period that she 
ascribed her remarkable health and vigor. Mrs. Lhotak re- 
called one of her habitual expressions : ' ' My goodness, I think 
I'll live forever and I have seen so much now that I'm tired 
and want to go. It has been a wonderful 100 years. ' ' 



418 

When she was born May 23, 1816, in the little town of 
Smolci, Bohemia, when that ethnographic waif was the vassal 
of Francis I of Austria. Kings and emperors have since 
become passe. Bohemia is now a part of the Czecho-Slovak 
republic. Mrs. Burian remembered the Civil War, the Franco- 
Prussian War, the Spanish-American War, in each of which 
she had relatives. In her life-time there were perfected the 
steam engine, the telephone, and telegraph, the subsea cable, 
the automobile and the airplane. It was when recalling these 
inventions and the consequent advancement of mankind since 
1816 that she was wont to tell her great-grandchildren: "I 
have lived in the greatest century the world has known." 

Mrs. Burian was buried in St. Adelbert's Cemetery, 
Chicago. 



MRS. MARY HART OF LIBERTYVILLE, OLDEST RESI- 
DENT OF LAKE COUNTY, ILLINOIS, DIES. 

Mrs. Mary Hart of Libertyville who was a resident of 
Lake Bluff when that community was called Rockland, and is 
believed to be the oldest resident of Lake county, died at her 
home, aged 90 years. Up to her ninetieth anniversary in 
March, she was quite active. 



LETTER OF GEORGE WASHINGTON FOUND IN 
DECATUR, ILLINOIS. 

A letter signed by George Washington and a bas-relief 
of Washington in his youth were among the interesting things 
which were put on exhibition by the Decatur Daughters of the 
American Revolution in the Art Institute in Decatur. The 
letter is of more than usual interest because no one in Decatur 
seemed to know of its existence until a few days ago. 

When the attic of the Millikin homestead was being 
cleaned the letter, with other documents which had at one 
time belonged to Capt. William Bartlett, was found among 
papers which had belonged to Mr. and Mrs. James Millikin. 

The letter was written in Cambridge, Mass., November 5, 
1775, by Washington's secretary but signed boldly by "G. 
Washington." It was written to Captain Bartlett and con- 



419 

tains directions for. the transfer of some prisoners. It had 
been folded to form its own envelope and addressed on the 
outside. Because of several other letters also belonging to 
Capt. Bartlett which were with this letter, it is thought that 
the Bevolutionary captain was an ancestor of Mrs. Millikin. 
The Washington bas-relief was presented to the D. A. R. 
by Mrs. Elizabeth Wells on October 7, 1920, who gives it to 
be kept in the D. A. R. exhibit in the Art Institute. It is the 
first gift of the sort. It was made by Giselle Durfee after a 
die made by Lorado Taft. 

SEASON'S FIRST MEETING. 

The meeting of the Stephen Decatur chapter Thursday, 
October 7, 1920, was the first of the season. Because the 
women wished to see the unusually interesting collection of 
relics, all of which antedate the Civil war, no program was 
planned. Mrs. J. K. Stafford is the chairman of the com- 
mittee which collected the relics, most of which belong to 
members of the chapter. In the collection are chairs, old 
willow ware tea sets, quaint old pierced copper lanterns, pew- 
ter plates, brass candle sticks, pressed glass and charming but 
enormous old combs. 

Relics of the Revolutionary war are more in evidence 
than those of the Civil war. Bunglesome old muskets of 
Colonial days, worn powder horns and a sword used by one 
of Napoleon soldiers in the retreat from Moscow are among 
the mute reminders of earlier wars which are in the exhibit. 
Hooked rugs of wonderful colors hand woven bed spreads, 
and candle molds speak for the part women had in the earlier 
life of the country. 

WILL ADD TO LIBBABY. 

In the short business session which preceded the opening 
of the exhibition the members decided to make every effort 
to add to the reference library of the chapter. The chapter 
already owns a number of lineage books and probably a dozen 
copies of histories of counties from which some of the mem- 
bers come. To this collection it is proposed to add books on 
genealogy and all county histories or other similar books 
which can be obtained. 

As these books can not usually be bought, it is the plan of 
the chapter to ask the owners to loan them. They will be 



420 

marked with the owners and the chapter names and will be 
placed in the reference room of the city library where all 
interested may have easy access to them. No one will be 
allowed to remove them from the room. 

The exhibit of relics was open during the month of Octo- 
ber. The articles were well displayed in the two south rooms 
on the second floor of the Art Institute. 



GIFTS OF BOOKS, LETTERS, PICTURES AND MANUSCRIPTS TO 
THE ILLINOIS STATE HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 

Banks Family of Maine. By Charles Edward Banks, M. D., Boston, 1890. 
Gift of Col. Charles E. Banks, 2018 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 

Bonython Family of Maine. By Charles Edward Banks, M. D., Pub. not 
given. Gift of Col. Charles E. Banks, 2018 Prairie Ave., Chicago. 

Conkling Family. History of the Conkling Family. Typewritten copy. 
Gift of Miss Alice Conkling, Springfield, Illinois. 

Connecticut, Litchfield, Conn. Historic Litchfield. Address delivered at 
the Bi-Centennial Celebration of the Town of Litchfield, August 1, 
1920. By Hon. Morris W. Seymour, LL. D. 

Connecticut. Litchfield, Conn. The Bi-Centennial Celebration of the Settle- 
ment of Litchfield, Conn. By Alain C. White, Litchfield, Conn., His- 
torical Society. These two items gift of Mrs. Morris W. Seymour, 
Litchfield, Conn. 

Currency. Five Dollar Bill on Railroad Bank, paid during the Civil War 
to an employee of the Railroad Decatur, Illinois, Bank. Gift of Mrs. 
H. C. Ettinger, Springfield, Illinois. 

DeLang, Marie Charlotte. 1826-1914. Article from The Chicago Inter- 
Ocean, November 30, 1913. Gift of Mr. Frederick C. Delang, No. 555 
Longwood Ave., Glencoe, Illinois. 

Felt, Dorr E. "Is Organized Labor Slipping?" Address delivered before 
the National Association of Employment Managers, Chicago, December 
13, 1919. 

Felt, Dorr E. "Labor's Position in the Economic Structure." An address 
delivered before the Manufacturers and Wholesale Merchants Board. 
The Cleveland Chamber of Commerce, October 15, 1919. These two 
items gift of Mr. Dorr E. Felt, 1713-1735 N. Paulina St., Chicago, 
Illinois. 

Illinois State. Franklin County, Illinois War History, 1832-1919. Gift of 
Mr. Hal Trovillion, Herron, Illinois. 

Illinois State. Goodman, (Mrs.) L. Belle. Illinois Voters' Handbook, 1914. 
Gift of Mrs. L. Belle Goodman, Champaign, Illinois. 

Illinois Land Book, of various Counties and Townships. Belonged to Chas. 
T. Hillyer, President of the Charter Oak National Bank of Hartford, 
Conn., who was interested to a very large extent in loans upon western 
lands. This volume was secured with other books, maps, etc., in the 
attic of the Hillyer homestead in Hartford, Conn., by Mr. George S. 
Godard, State Librarian, Connecticut State Library, and by him pre- 
sented to the Illinois State Historical Library. 

Illinois State. Williamson County, Illinois, in the World War, 1917, 1918. 
Gift of Mr. Hal Trovillion, Herron, Illinois. 

Lincoln, Abraham. Lincoln at Gettysburg. From the original painting by 
Fletcher C. Ransom. Reproduced and published by The Gerlach-Bark- 
low Company, Joliet, Illinois. Gift of The Gerlach-Barklow Company, 
Joliet, Illinois. 

421 



422 

Lincoln, Abraham. Framed wreath of Arbor Vitae. This wreath was on 
the casket of Abraham Lincoln at the time of his funeral in Springfield, 
and one of the members of the committee who cared for the flowers, 
handed it to Doctor Philip Gillett, Superintendent of the School for the 
Deaf in Jacksonville, as a souvenir, and it has been retained by the 
family of Doctor Gillett until this time, and by them presented to the 
Illinois State Historical Library. 

Lytle Family. Chart of, prepared by Leonard Lytle of Detroit, Mich. Gift 
of Mr. Leonard Lytle of Detroit, Mich. 

Maps. Illinois Traveller. H. S. Tanner. Map, 1830. Published in Phila- 
delphia. Gift of Mrs. Clara Kern Bayliss, Kent, Ohio. 

Means, (Rev.) W. E. The First Old Methodist Episcopal Church, Paris, 
Illinois, 1837-1855. By Rev. W. E. Means. Gift of Rev. W. E. Means, 
Paris, Illinois. 

Newspapers. DeKalb County News, March 6, 1867, to December 18, 1867. 
(Except May 8, July 10.) January 8, 1868, to February 26, 1868. De- 
Kalb Printing Association. R. Hopkins, President. 

Newspapers. DeKalb County News. March 4, 1868, to December 23, 1868. 
(Except July 8.) January 6, 1869, to May 26, 1869. DeKalb Printing 
Association. K. Stiles, Ed. Gift of H. W. Fay. Custodian Lincoln 
Monument, Springfield, Illinois. 

Newspapers. Montgomery News, June 8, 1920, containing an account of 
the Silver Anniversary for Rev. Ezra Keller, Pastor of St. Paul's Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church of Hillsboro, Illinois. Gift of Mr. I. S. Black- 
welder, Chicago. 

Park College, Mo., Bulletin. Catalog Number, 1920-1921. Gift of Mrs. 
George A. Lawrence, Galesburg, Illinois. 

Robbins, Edward E. Memorial Address on the Life and Character of 
Edward Everett Robbins, delivered in the House of Representatives of 
the United States, January 27, 1919. Gift of Hon. Richard Yates, 
Member of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

Shabbona. Ottawa Indian Chief. Photograph. Gift of H. W. Fay, Cus- 
todian Lincoln Monument, Springfield, Illinois. 

Venner, Thomas. Thomas Venner, the Boston Wine-Cooper and fifth mon- 
archy man. Reprinted from the New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Register for October, 1893.Gift of Col. Charles E. Banks, 2018 
Prairie Ave., Chicago. 

The Washington Sketch Book. Supplement No. 5 for Illinois. (2 copies.) 
Gift of Mrs. George A. Lawrence, Galesburg, Illinois. 

The Wonder Book of the World War. Gift of Mrs. George A. Lawrence, 
Galesburg, Illinois. 



NECROLOGY 



ALONZO L. KIMBER 

1862-1920 
BY ANNE C. DICKSON 

The Society lost one of its most loyal and enthusiastic 
supporters when Alonzo L. Kimber passed away in Chicago, 
on October 14th, 1920. 

Born in Waverly, Illinois, January 5th, 1862, he was the 
son of Alonzo L. Kimber, formerly of Ohio, and Mary Cecilia 
Evans Kimber, born in Carrollton, Illinois. He attended the 
Waverly public school until the death of his father, in 1880, 
when he went into the Waverly bank, which he left in about a 
year to attend Brown's Business College, in Jacksonville, 
Illinois, from which he graduated. He then accepted a posi- 
tion in the Jacksonville National Bank, staying there for 
eleven years and leaving to take charge of a mercantile 
agency in Chicago. In a short time, he entered the Illinois 
Trust and Savings Bank of Chicago and spent the last twenty- 
four years of his life with that institution, being a trusted 
and valued member of the force. 

On December 14th, 1893, he was married at Jacksonville 
to Margaret Hall of that city, who, with one daughter, Mary 
Cecilia, survives him. Two children died in infancy. 

Mr. Kimber was a man of unusually high ideals, with a 
strong love for the beautiful and the highest expressions of 
art, literature and music. An inveterate reader of the best 
books, he was usually found to be immersed in some classic, 
during his leisure hours, and his collection of works pertain- 
ing to the history of Illinois is perhaps the best one owned by 
an individual. He was well known to the dealers in several 
cities, and enjoyed nothing more than the finding of some 
rare old musty tome telling of early days in the Prairie State. 
Masonry also appealed to him, and he was affiliated with 
Waverly Lodge No. 118. He was Eminent Commander of 
Jacksonville Commandery No. 31 Knights Templar in his 
28th year, and also a member of the Chicago Temple of 
Shriners. The Masons conducted his funeral, held at Wav- 

425 




HON. EDWARD L. MERRITT 



426 

erly on October 16th, and the services in the beautiful, quiet 
cemetery there were impressive in their solemnity. 

The members of the Society, which included many of his 
close friends, will miss his quiet appreciation of the best offer- 
ings, Tor he enjoyed the meetings and attended whenever it 
was possible for him to do so. 



HON. EDWARD LIVINGSTON MERRITT 

1836-1920 
BY HENRY WILSON CLENDENIN 

Few Illinois men of his day and generation lived as long 
and as active a life as a publicist as Hon. Edward L. Merritt, 
the subject of this sketch. He was born in New York City, 
June 25, 1836, and came to Illinois five years later with his 
father, Hon. John W. Merritt, a lawyer and a member of the 
law firm of O'Connor, Brady and Merritt. The Merritt 
family first settled on a farm near Lebanon, St. Clair county, 
and subsequently moved to Salem, Marion county. 

It was during his life in Salem that Mr. Merritt began his 
study of public affairs. He had as tutors, beside his father, 
Judge Silas Bryan, father of William Jennings Bryan; Wil- 
liam R. Morrison and other public men well versed in Illinois 
and national questions, and was well fitted when he came to 
Springfield in 1864 to publish and edit the Illinois State 
Register, to take his place as one of the leading journalists of 
the state. He was then in his twenty-eighth year. He con- 
tinued with the State Register for thirteen years, or until 
1877, when he sold the above newspaper to a company com- 
posed of Governor John M. Palmer and several other citizens 
of Springfield. 

It was while identified with the State Register that Mr. 
Merritt became widely known throughout the state. He 
served as a member of the Democratic state central committee 
from the Springfield congressional district for twelve years, 
the greater part of the time as its secretary. A few years 
after he declined further service on the committee, he served 
as first assistant secretary of the Democratic national con- 
vention which nominated Governor Grover Cleveland of New 
York, for President of the United States, and also held the 



427 

same positions in the national Democratic conventions that 
renominated President Cleveland in 1888 and 1892. 

As an editorial writer Mr. Merritt was forceful, courage- 
ous, accurate. His editorials carried weight and gave him 
large influence in public affairs. Long after he relinquished 
his connection with journalism, and until a short time before 
his death he contributed to a number of papers, and with that 
courage that distinguished him he invariably signed the 
articles with his full name. Among the newspapers in which 
his articles appeared were the St. Louis Republic, the Chicago 
Tribune and the State Register, and they attracted wide at- 
tention. 

Mr. Merritt was an honorary pallbearer at the burial of 
Abraham Lincoln, and his reminiscences of the funeral serv- 
ices in Springfield, which he published in the State Register 
in 1909, were copied and commented upon by newspapers all 
over the country. The Chicago Tribune copied the article in 
full, and paid tribute to Mr. Merritt 's ability as a writer, 
although the Tribune was frequently opposed to Mr. Mer- 
ritt 's political views. 

In 1866, President Andrew Johnson appointed Mr. Mer- 
ritt, United States Pension Agent at Springfield. He was 
appointed a member of the Springfield board of education in 
1875, and was reappointed in 1878 and again in 1881. 

In the campaign of 1874, when the Democrats elected a 
nominee on their state ticket for the second time since 1856, 
the campaign was under his direction, while in 1876 he again 
managed the campaign. 

From 1887 to 1888 he was editor and general manager 
of the Omaha, Nebraska, Herald, one of the largest news- 
papers west of the Mississippi river at that time. It is now 
Senator Hitchcock's World-Herald. William Jennings Bryan 
was editor of this paper within a few years after this time, 
and Mr. Merritt formed a close friendship with the Great 
Commoner that lasted throughout his life. 

He was elected state representative from the Sangamon 
county district in 1890, and served in the Thirty-seventh gen- 
eral assembly. He was reelected to the Thirty-eighth general 
assembly in 1892, and was again reelected in 1894 from this 
district. While serving in the legislature during these three 
terms, he was the author of many important laws. Among 



428 

these was the law increasing the fees for articles of incorpo- 
ration issued by the secretary of state, and this measure has 
brought millions of dollars in revenue to Illinois. In 1914 
he again entered the lower house of the general assembly 
from the Forty-fifth district, serving his fourth term in the 
state legislature. During that period he was the author of 
many good laws, which won for him such commendation. 

Under President Grover Cleveland, Mr. Merritt held the 
position of Appraiser of Abandoned U. S. Military Reserva- 
tions. 

Edward L. Merritt was married three times. His first 
marriage was in 1860, to Miss Rebecca J. Tong. She died in 
1868, leaving him three children: Lyda J., Wesley and Ed- 
ward, the latter dying in infancy. His second marriage took 
place in December, 1870, when he was united with Miss Char- 
lotte C. George. To them five children were born : Frederick, 
Mrs. Caroline Pasfield of Springfield, Illinois ; Mrs. Susan D. 
Loring of Boston, Mass. ; William E. and Mary S. She passed 
away in February, 1897. He was united in marriage for the 
third time on June 29, 1910, with Miss Caroline Shaw of 
Springfield, Illinois, who survives him. 

During Mr. Edward L. Merritt 's public and semi-public 
career of nearly sixty years, most of them spent in Spring- 
field, he gained many close friends, political and social, not 
only in Illinois but also in other states. He was what is 
called ' ' a good mixer, ' ' and found time to cultivate the com- 
panionship of those whose friendship he prized. Those of 
the host of his friends now living remember him with more 
than ordinary feelings of affection and of appreciation of his 
many admirable traits of character. 

In private life Mr. Merritt was a good citizen always 
interested in every good work for the betterment of the city. 
He was a member of St. Paul's Episcopal church and for 
many years served on its official board. He also belonged 
to a number of civic societies and social clubs, among these 
the Illinois State Historical Society, of which he was a very 
early member. 

Mr. Merritt was a patriotic citizen and was active in 
patriotic work during the Civil war. He assisted in raising 
a volunteer regiment for service in the Civil war, but was 
prevented from serving with it from circumstances which 



429 

were not his fault. He felt that he could have attained high 
rank, as his brother, Wesley Merritt did, had he not been 
prevented from serving. 

Mr. Merritt was a kind and devoted husband and father. 
His home was a family sanctuary and he took great pride in 
his children, to all of whom he gave a good education. All 
of his children, except one that died in infancy, are living 
today. One of these, William E., was a graduate of the West 
Point Military Academy. 

Hon. John W. Merritt, the father of the subject of this 
sketch, who was a lawyer and journalist, served in an official 
capacity with the state constitutional convention of 1862. 
Edward L. Merritt 's brother, Thomas E. Merritt, served as 
representative and senator for many years in the general 
assembly of Illinois, and his brother, Wesley Merritt, who 
graduated from West Point Military Academy, entered the 
Civil war as a lieutenant of cavalry at the beginning of the 
war. He won by his bravery and gallantry repeated promo- 
tions, until at the close of the war he was a major general. 
He was present at the surrender of General Robert E. Lee 
at Appomatox. He took part in "Sheridan's Ride," and was 
a close friend of both Generals Grant and Sheridan, who re- 
garded him as one of the best and bravest cavalry com- 
manders in the war for the preservation of the Union. 

In preparing this sketch of the life and activities of Hon. 
Edward Livingston Merritt, the writer of course could touch 
only on the high points of his career, and of these very briefly. 
It is to such men as the subject of this sketch the State of 
Illinois owes much for its growth and greatness. The people 
of the state have not fully appreciated their services, much 
of it unselfish and unremunerated. It is the private citizen, 
after all, that makes the state and builds up its institutions. 
Official life may polish the surface. It may bring into the 
limelight and add brilliancy to the record, but it is to the 
quiet, unobtrusive men and women, some of them perhaps 
plodders, that the solid foundation and the superstructure to 
a very large extent owe their strength and permanence. 

And in these Edward Livingston Merritt performed his 
share if not more. He passed over to his reward full of 
years, September 4, 1920, in his eighty-fifth year. 



LIST OF PUBLICATIONS OF THE ILLINOIS STATE 
HISTORICAL LIBRARY AND SOCIETY. 

No. 1. *A Bibliography of Newspapers published in Illinois prior to 1860. Pre- 
pared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D., and Milo J. Loveless. 94 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1899. 

No. 2. * Information relating to the Territorial Laws of Illinois passed from 1809 
to 1812. Prepared by Edmund J. James, Ph. D. 15 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1899. 

No. 3. "The Territorial Records of Illinois. Edited by Edmund J. James, Ph. D. 
170 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1901. 

No. 4. *Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the year 1900. 
Edited by E. B. Greene, Ph. D. 55 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

No. 5. *Alphabetical Catalog of the Books, Manuscripts, Pictures and Curios of 
the Illinois State Historical Library. Authors, Titles and Subjects. Compiled by 
Jessie Palmer Weber. 363 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1900. 

Nos. 6 to 26. Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for the years 
1901-1919. (Nos. 6 to 18 out of print.) 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. I. Edited by H. W. Beckwith, President of 
the Board of Trustees of the Illinois State Historical Library. 642 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1903. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. II. Virginia Series, Vol. I. The Cahokia 
Records, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. CLVI and 663 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1907. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. III. Lincoln -Douglas Debates of 1858. Lin- 
coln Series, Vol. I. Edited by Edwin Erie Sparks, Ph.D. 627 pp. 8 vo. Spring- 
field, 1908. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IV. Executive Series, Vol. I. The Gover- 
nor's Letter Books, 1818-1834. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Clarence Wal- 
worth Alvord. XXXII and 317 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1909. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. V. Virginia Series. Vol. II, Kaskaskia Rec- 
ords, 1778-1790. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. L and 681 pp. 8vo. Spring- 
field, 1909. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VI. Bibliographical Series, Vol. I, News- 
papers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Revised and enlarged edition. Edited 
by Franklin William Scott. CIV and 610 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1910. 

*Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VII. Executive Series, Vol. II. Governors' 
Letter Books, 1840-1853. Edited by Evarts Boutell Greene and Charles Manfred 
Thompson. CXVIII and 469 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1911. 

* Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. VIII. Virginia Series, Vol. III. George 
Rogers Clark Papers, 1771-1781. Edited with introduction and notes by James Alton 
James. CLXVII and 715 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1912. 

"Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. IX. Bibliographical Series, Vol. II. Travel 
and Description, 1765-1865. By Solon Justus Buck. 514 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

430 



431 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. X. British Series, Vol. I. The Critical Period, 
1763-1765. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord and 
Clarence Edwin Carter. LVII and 597 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, VoL XL British Series, Vol. II. The New Re- 
gime, 1765-1767. Edited with introduction and notes by Clarence Walworth Alvord 
and Clarence Edwin Carter. XXVIII and 700 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1916. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XII. Bibliographical Series, Vol. III. The 
County Archives of the State of Illinois. By Theodore Calvin Pease. CXLI and 730 
pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1915. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIII. Constitutional Series, Vol. I. Illinois 
Constitutions. Edited by Emil Joseph Verlie. 231 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, Vol. XIV. Constitutional Series, Vol. II. The 
Constitutional Debates of 1847. Edited with introduction and notes by Arthur Charles 
Cole, XV and 1018 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1919. 

Illinois Historical Collections, VoL XV. Biographical Series, Vol. I. Life of 
Governor Edward Coles. By E. B. Washburne. Edited with introduction and notes 
by Clarence Walworth Alvord. 435 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 111., 1920. 

* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1, September, 1905. 
Illinois in the Eighteenth Century. By Clarence Walworth Alvord. 38 pp. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1905. 

* Bulletin of the Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 2. June 1, 1906. 
Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811. Edited by Clarence Walworth Alvord. 
34 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1906. 

* Circular Illinois State Historical Library, Vol. I, No. 1. November, 1905. An 
Outline for the Study of Illinois State History. Compiled by Jessie Palmer Weber 
and Georgia L. Osborne. 94 pp. 8 vo. Springfield, 1905. 

*Publication No. 18. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State Historical 
Library. Compiled by Georgia L. Osborne. 8 vo. Springfield, 1914. 

*Publication No. 25. List of Genealogical Works in the Illinois State Historical 
Library. Supplement to Publication No. 18. Compiled by Georgia L. Osborne. 8 vo. 
Springfield, 1918. 

Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. I, No. 1. April, 1908, to 
Vol. XIII, No. 3. October, 1920. 

Journals out of print, Vols. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, No. 1 of Vol. IX, No. 
2 of VoL X. 




DR. DAVID NELSON. 



DR. DAVID NELSON AND HIS TIMES. 

BY WILLIAM A. RICHARDSON, JR. 



Of all the men of mark who have lived and labored among 
us, Dr. David Nelson seems to be the one we have selected 
to first acquaint the newcomer with our notabilities. We 
begin by asking if he or she is familiar with the old hymn 
"Just Before The Shining Shore." If an acquaintance is 
shown, we launch forth with our story of how and when the 
hymn was written by Dr. Nelson. No two of us tell the same 
story, but we all stress the fact that the lights of Quincy, 
as seen by the Doctor, a fugitive, from the Missouri side of 
the Mississippi river, was the "Shining Shore," and inspired 
the hymn. It is getting harder and harder in these degenerate 
days, when the Bible is no longer read, really read, and hymns 
are less familiarly known, to find people who are familiar 
with this old hymn that has been sung around the world. 
How we are to begin introducing our notabilities to the 
stranger in the future I do not know. 

For some reason Dr. Nelson's picturesque character has 
always fascinated me, and I have often thought I would like to 
try to reproduce the man, his personality, his work, his in- 
fluence. To this end, not long ago, I tried to gather data. I 
found some, but in a fragmentary form. I wrote to everyone 
I thought could help me, descendants, relatives of former 
scholars at the old Mission Institute, to one of the scholars, 
a nonagenarian. But I got but little aid. I got letters with 
the information that he wrote "Just Before The Shining 
Shore," with, sometimes, a story of how and where it was 
written. 

Here is a short sketch of the Doctor's life that is taken 
from the Library of Universal Knowledge: "Nelson, David, 
1793-1844; born in Tennessee; graduated at Washington 
college, Tennessee; studied medicine in Danville, Kentucky, 
and in the Philadelphia medical school ; returned to Kentucky 

433 



434 

at the age of nineteen, intending to practice his profession, 
but the War of 1812 having commenced, he joined a Kentucky 
regiment as a surgeon, and went to Canada. He resumed his 
medical practice at Jonesborough, his native town. Relig- 
iously educated, he had early made a profession of religion, 
but while in the army he became an infidel. He soon, how- 
ever, became convinced of the truth of the Bible, and deter- 
mined to enter the ministry. He was licensed to preach in 
April, 1825. He preached three years in Tennessee, and pub- 
lished also at Rogersville the "Calvinistic Magazine." In 
1828 he succeeded his brother Samuel as Pastor of the Presby- 
terian church in Danville, Kentucky. In 1830 he removed to 
Missouri and established Marion college, near Palmyra, of 
which he was the first president. Earnestly advocating the 
cause of emancipation he found it expedient to leave Missouri, 
and in 1836 he removed to Illinois, where he established at 
Oakland, near Quincy, a school for the education of young 
men for the ministry. He exhausted his pecuniary means 
and the institution failed." 

Rev. James Gallaher, in answer to a letter from a friend 
in the East, after first telling that he was born and educated 
in the same neighborhood, graduated at the same college, 
licensed and ordained by the same presbytery and for many 
years associated with him as co-editor of Calvinistic Magazine, 
and fellow-laborer in preaching the gospel in the great and 
growing West, says that the parents of Dr. Nelson settled 
in Washington county, Tennessee, at a very early date in its 
history; that his father, Henry Nelson, was for many years 
of his life a ruling elder in the Presbyterian church ; that his 
mother's maiden name was Kelsey; and that her family stood 
high for intelligence and respectability. Mr. Gallaher says 
that in his and Dr. Nelson's youth, no man left his house 
without his rifle and weapons of defense; that farmers went 
in companies to plant and cultivate the fields, two or three 
standing guard at different points; and that when they met 
for public worship the same precaution was taken to guard 
against being surprised by the Indians. He says: " Although 
the Indians were hostile a number of pious families had asso- 
ciated together and formed .a Christian church." Their 
preacher was Rev. Samuel Dosk, a graduate of Princeton col- 



435 

lege, who founded at an early day a literary institution, known 
at first as Martin Academy, but ultimately as Washington 
college. Mr. Gallagher leaves this dark, unpleasant picture 
as evidence, apparently, of the efficacy of prayer: "The first 
time I remember to have seen Dr. Nelson after his return 
from the army, he was hurrying along the streets of Jones- 
borough with a naked dirk in his hand, the very image of a 
reckless desperado. There had been a street fight in the vil- 
lage and Nelson was in the midst of it, apparently highly 
entertained and ready to act his part. At this period, his 
mother was much engaged in prayer in his behalf. She was 
a woman of deep piety. I saw and conversed with her often 
about this time. She had, in her heart, set aside this son, 
from his childhood, for the service of God in the ministry. 
She lived to receive an answer of peace. Her son regarded 
himself, while he lived as a brand plucked from the burning 
in answer to the prayers of a mother." 

I do not think that Mr. Gallaher intended, with his story, 
to leave the impression that Dr. Nelson was a drink fiend, 
for, later on in his letter, he tells his correspondent that the 
Doctor never drank; that he reproved others for doing so, 
etc. The only other inference is that he was a devil-possessed 
Infidel. It seems to me that the Doctor and those who sketch 
his life play-up the infidel feature more than the facts war- 
rant. Dr. Nelson's infidelity seems to have been more of a 
pose or affectation than a conviction. I am going to let the 
Doctor tell what I mean. I quote from his "Cause and Cure 
of Infidelity V: "I had not been brought to embrace infidelity 
by pursuing the writings of the unbelievers. My 

parents were professors of religion, with a plain education, 
but well informed in holy things. I never remember 

to have heard the truth of inspiration questioned until the 
age of sixteen; when, having passed through the usual col- 
lege course, I went to read medicine in Danville, Kentucky. 
As soon as I mixed with society I entered the company of 
some of the admirers of the French philosophy. They seemed 
to believe that in disregarding inspiration there was some- 
thing peculiarly original and lofty. Their remarks impressed 
me, but not deeply. That their sarcasm and jeers influenced 
me towards infidelity was because men love darkness more 



436 

than light; for their arguments were so destitute of fact, 
ignorant as I was, I could sometimes see that they in reality 
favored the otherside. I had some longing after the character 
of singular intellectual independence and some leaning toward 
the dignified mien; but I did not assume either as yet, for 
my habits of morality remained and my reverence for superior 
age and deeper research. It was necessary that I should re- 
ceive praise from some source before all diffidence or mod- 
esty should be swallowed up in self esteem. And this intoxi- 
cating poison was not wanted. ' ' Then the Doctor tells of his 
service in the army as surgeon, first on the Northern Lakes 
and afterwards at Mobile. He says that at Mobile he became 
acquainted with many officers of the regular army; "whose 
intimacy was not calculated to lead him toward Grod. ' ' Under 
such influences, the Doctor says he advanced rapidly in un- 
belief. He goes on to say that he was a Deist, but moving 
on to Atheism, when he was mercifully arrested. The Doctor 
says that, up to this time, he had not read a volume of the 
unbelievers production; when, casually, Voltaire's Philoso- 
phical Dictionary was loaned him. He found in it not one 
fair argument, one truth unmixed with a lie. He sought 
other books, but they were all mixtures of hatred and untruth. 
I quote the Doctor: " About this time, when passing from 
place to place, it was not an uncommon night's occurrence to 
meet in a circle around the tavern fire and before the evening 
passed to hear remarks on Christianity. I listened and the 
objections were all of the same class as those I had been read- 
ing, or weaker. : They would take some case of crime 
recorded in the Bible, name it, repeat it, and place it in differ- 
ent attitudes with unusual delight. ' Being the son of 
an old praying man, who had compelled me to hear the book 
he loved read twice every day, I do not remember that I ever 
laughed in the midst of our hilarity." Then he goes on to 
say: "Strange to tell, these facts, these discoveries, and even 
these feelings had no further influence upon me than to streng- 
then my resolve to read further and examine my old doubts 
more accurately." Dr. Kose says that Dr. Nelson heard a 
sermon by Dr. Elias Cornelius of the American Board, about 
this time, which "fired his heart with love for the souls of 
men." Mr. Magoun thought it was Eev. Jeremiah Evarts 



437 

who uncovered for him the "first tablet of the law." Any- 
way, he was converted, studied theology, probably under the 
noted Gideon Blackburn, was licensed to preach, and occu- 
pied pulpits in the Presbyterian churches at Jonesborough, 
Tennessee, and Danville, Kentucky. 

Now, camp-meetings began among Presbyterians in Ken- 
tucky at Cane Ridge about the year 1800, and there was a 
great religious revival that swept over Kentucky and Tennes- 
see at the beginning of the 19th Century; so great that the 
demand for an additional number of ministers in that region 
led the Presbytery of Cumberland to license and ordain a 
number of young men, who had not received the required 
classical and theological training for the gospel ministry. 
And yet Dr. Nelson seems to have met only Infidels, self- 
complacent, smartish young free- thinkers, with their un- 
critical criticism of the Bible. 

About the year 1829, Dr. Nelson emigrated from Ken- 
tucky to Marion County, Missouri, and settled in what is now 
Union Township, about thirteen miles northwest of Palmyra. 
The location was on the border of the frontier settlements. 
The land was unentered beyond. Not long after coming, Dr. 
Nelson conceived the idea of establishing a college for the 
education of young men for the ministry. This was to be 
accomplished by the manual labor system, each student work- 
ing so many hours each day to pay for his board and tuition. 
Associated with him were Dr. David Clark and Mr. William 
Muldrow. On January 15, 1831, a charter for Marion College 
was granted them. Dr. Nelson was chosen the first president. 
The friends of the institution, who were chiefly members of 
the Presbyterian church, contributed to the extent of their 
ability to give the college a start. Mr. Muldrow, as agent, 
visited the East in the interest of the institution. He was 
successful, and made other trips with equal success. William 
Muldrow was a remarkable man, he built Marion City and 
the first bit of railroad west of the Mississippi, so it is claimed. 
"In his plausible yet forcible language," Mr. Muldrow 
described the advantages presented by Marion County of 
that day, the vast area of unappropriated lands which were 
to be had for $1.25 per acre. The Eastern gentlemen not 



438 

only gave liberally to the support of Marion College, but they 
invested in the "wild lands" as they were called. 

"In 1836 a large tract of land was entered by the Trus- 
tees of Marion College, with funds raised in the East, on 
which to erect a preparatory department to qualify students 
to enter the college proper. The preparatory or 'Lower Col- 
lege' tract was located about twelve miles southeast of the 
'Upper College,' and six miles southwest of Palmyra. Kev. 
Ezra Stiles Ely, of Philadelphia, was placed in charge of 
the Lower College. The faculties of both schools were chiefly 
divines from the East, induced to emigrate by Mr. Muldrow. 
They were men of learning, of high character, and of rigid 
morality. They were, also, for the most part, men of means 
and not averse to adding to their possessions by legitimate 
speculation and honest investment. Dr. Ely brought with 
him about one hundred thousand dollars, all of which he 
invested. ' ' 

I have culled the above from the E. F. Perkins ' History 
of Marion County. He goes on to say : ' ' Perhaps the college 
would have flourished for an indefinite period, but for the 
opinions of Dr. Nelson and others on the subject of slavery. 
* * * The anti-abolition crusade of 1835-36 brought matters 
to a crisis." 

Dr. Nelson lived at Jonesborough, Tennessee, during the 
years from 1820 to 1824, when Elihu Embree and Benjamin 
Lundy were publishing anti-slavery papers there; and yet he 
took his Negro slaves from Tennessee to Kentucky and 
from Kentucky to Missouri. What had happened in the mean- 
time? And, again, if Lundy was permitted to publish his 
"Genius of Universal Emancipation" at Jonesborough and 
Baltimore and Washington, what had made the slaveholders 
of Missouri so sensitive to anti-slavery opinion and so intol- 
erant? 

In order to try to answer these questions and try to 
understand the epoch it is necessary, in as short a manner 
as I can, to review the slavery question up to 1836. 

The thirties of the 19th Century was a most restless, 
active, progressive decade. It was during this decade that 
railways began to be built, which brought a vast number of 
immigrants to the United States to build them. Steamboats 



439 

greatly increased in number and size to take care of the im- 
mense and increasing traffic upon the Ohio and Mississippi 
rivers. At this time the cultivation of cotton was increasing 
in the Western Gulf States of the South, and slaves, in fear 
of being sold * * down the river, ' ' as they expressed it, followed 
the North Star to Canada in increasing numbers. At this 
time, also, the stream of emigrants from the East into Ohio, 
Indiana, and Illinois increased greatly in size. A telegraph 
line was established in England in 1835. In 1837, Sir Rowland 
Hill published a pamphlet recommending a low and uniform 
rate of postage, and in 1840 his principle was established by 
law. In 1830, France deposed her Bourbon king, Charles X., 
and established a constitutional monarchy. In 1832 the En- 
glish Reform Bill was passed, which gave the middle class 
a right to take part in their Government. Then came the 
repeal of the laws granting special privileges to the upper 
class. At this time the brutal treatment of women and chil- 
dren in the mines, factories and other occupations, the savage 
criminal laws and punishments, and the inhuman treatment 
of lunatics began to shock people. Investigations began, and 
reforms followed. This was the time of organized voluntary 
effort to help the helpless, relieve suffering, and to raise the 
fallen. It was then that the public school system began in 
England, and the heavy tax was taken off of the newspapers. 
In 1833, England emancipated the slaves in all her colonies. 

Some say this was the old Puritan leaven at work. If so 
it was a humanized Puritanism. Some say that it came from 
the stirrings that the French revolution had planted in men 's 
hearts. Wherever it came from and to whatever due it was 
during the much-abused Pre and Early Victorian Age, with 
its excess of sentiment, it may be, that the English found a 
public conscience. 

Did none of this stirring of conscience this ' ' heart inter- 
est," find its way to the United States? Yes, and to almost 
all parts of the Western civilized world. It would seem 
strange, nay, marvelous, if the iniquity of slavery should 
escape all this humane searching of the conscience ! 

Slavery existed in all the original thirteen Colonies, 
though just before the Revolution most of their leading men 
looked upon it as morally wrong, and some of the Quakers in 



440 

Pennsylvania were advocating emancipation. The Declara- 
tion of Independence, with its * ' rights of man, ' ' strengthened 
this sentiment. As new Constitutions were adopted by the 
Northern Colonies the slaves were freed, slavery there 
having been little more than a household institution, and the 
Negro, with his shiftlessness, I suspect, was something of a 
trial to the orderly, neat, trim New England housewife. When 
Virginia ceded the Northwest Territory to all the Colonies she 
devoted it to freedom and it was so dedicated by the Ordi- 
nance of 1787. At the end of the War of Independence there 
was a critical period of American history, and there was 
great need for a strong central Government. When they came 
to build a new Constitution they found that the people of the 
Southern Colonies had had a harder time with their con- 
science; that slavery was more profitable at the South than 
it had been at the North ; and that concessions had to be made. 
So, for the sake of a union, compromises were necessary. 
But the Constitution prohibited the importation of African 
slaves after the year 1808, against the protests of the ship- 
owners of Boston and other New England ports, who found 
it profitable to "deal in wool and ivory," as the grim eupho- 
nism of the day put it. It was thought that this prohibition, 
with a quickened conscience and enlightened public opinion, 
would ultimately cause the decay of slavery. Perhaps it 
might have done so had not Eli Whitney invented his cotton- 
gin in 1793. This machine so cheapened the preparation of 
the cotton for the market that the raising of cotton became 
the dominant industry of the lower South. Within five years 
after Whitney's invention cotton had displaced indigo as the 
great Southern staple, and the slave States had become the 
cotton field of the world. This development of the culture 
of cotton was pregnant with consequences to both sections. 
In the North, manufactures and commerce were developed. 
In the South the price of slaves was constantly increasing. 
Although the North had ceased to own and employ slaves, it 
did not cease to approve of the use of slave labor in the 
South. It participated in the gains of slavery. The cotton- 
planter borrowed money at a high rate of interest from the 
Northern capitalist. He bought his goods in the Northern 
markets. He sent his cotton to the North for sale. The 



441 

Northern merchant made money at his hands, and was in no 
haste to overthrow an institution with which his relations 
were so agreeable. There was a great deal of human nature 
on both sides ; a great many * ' entangling alliances ' ' between 
conscience and self-interest. Notwithstanding all this, in 
1816, "The National Colonization Society" was organized at 
Washington City, with Bushrod Washington as its president, 
and the "African Bepository" as its organ. "Its expressed 
object was to encourage emancipation by procuring a place 
outside of the United States, preferably Africa, to which 
negroes could be aided in emigrating. Its branches spread 
into almost every State, and for fourteen years its organiza- 
tion warmly furthered by every philanthropist in the South 
as well as the North, "Henry Clay, Charles Carroll and James 
Madison, in the South were as heartily colonizationists as 
Bishop Hopkins, Eufus King, William Henry Harrison and 
Dr. Channing, in the North. 

Then came the world movement, the time spirit, that 
wrought so mightily in England. In 1831, William Lloyd 
Garrison established "The Liberator" in Boston, demanding 
immediate emancipation. The New England Anti-Slavery 
Society was founded. Similar organizations sprang up in 
other Northern States. In 1833 a small group of men and 
women met in Philadelphia to establish the American Anti- 
Slavery Society. In a few years hundreds of anti-slavery 
societies sprang up and more than five hundred thousand anti- 
slavery documents had been distributed. Able and earnest 
men, such as Theodore D. Weld and Samuel J. May traversed 
the Northern States as the agants of the national society, 
founding branches and lecturing on Abolition. On one of 
Mr. Weld's trips Dr. Nelson heard him, espoused the cause, 
and freed his slaves. It is said that nearly every person 
noted after 1831 as an Abolitionists was before that year 'a 
Colonizationist. This does not seem to have been the case 
with Dr. Nelson. His conversion seems to have been as sudden 
as that of Saul of Tarsus. 

The result of all this was a storm of indignation from 
the slaveholders. They declared that the Abolition literature 
sent among them was incendiary and intended to excite in- 
surrection among their slaves. The Nat Turner rebellion in 



442 

Virginia was then still fresh in their minds. They made 
demands on the people of the North. They called for the 
suppression of the Abolitionists and their work by public 
opinion and by State action. Public feeling in the North was 
already so bitter against the Abolitionists that it hardly 
needed the impulse of the Southern demand. In nearly every 
Northern State the work of putting down the Abolitionists 
went on. Fifteen hundred influential names were signed to 
a call for an anti-abolition meeting in Faneuil Hall. The 
great orators of Boston addressed an excited multitude. In 
1834, President Jackson, in his annual message, called at- 
tention to "the fearful excitement produced in the South 
by the attempts to circulate through the mails inflammatory 
appeals addressed to the slaves. 



This imperfect review will help, I hope, to show the 
feverish condition of the country in the early thirties of the 
19th Century ; the constant fear under which the slaveholders 
lived of a negro insurrection ; and what happened in Marion 
County, Missouri, in 1836 in fact, an attempt to answer 

our questions. 

# # * 

Mr. Perkins, in his History of Marion County, says : ' ' The 
founding of Marion College, the laying out of Marion City 
and the extraordinary efforts of Willian Muldrow, Dr. Ely, 
and others, induced a large emigration from Pennsylvania, 
Ohio and other Eastern and Northern States to the county, 
and among the emigrants were many Abolitionists. Among 
the emigrants who landed at Hannibal in May, 1836, were two 
men, Williams and Garrett, who were emissaries of the anti- 
slavery society. Among the effects of these men was a box 
filled with tracts and pamphlets. Garrett and Williams had 
settled in the neighborhood of Philadelphia, and here the box 
had been conveyed. There was intense excitement throughout 
the country. A company of armed men was organized at 
Palmyra, marched up to Philadelphia, made Garrett and Will- 
iams prisoners, and carried away the box. ' ' On the way back 
to Palmyra, on the North river, the company halted. A hollow 
square was formed, the prisoners in the center. Captain 



443 

Wright addressed them, giving them the choice of leaving 
the State immediately or of being hung. They left the State. 

Either this same body of men at this time or another 
body under Captain Wright soon after, rode up to Dr Nelson's 
house surrounded it, and demanded the Abolition papers they 
understood were there. Dr. Nelson warned them not to enter 
his yard. Either they were more intent upon getting Garrett 
and Williams, or for some other reason, they rode away with 
a threat that they would come again. 

Soon after this, Sunday, May 22, 1836, Dr. John Bosely 
was stabbed. I am going to let Dr. William Nelson, a son of 
Dr. David Nelson, tell the story: 

"Not long after the mob visited our house, father had an 
appointment to preach on the camp-ground of his church, a 
few miles from the college. It was Sunday and a large crowd 
was there to hear him. After the sermon William Muldrow 
presented him a colonization paper to be read. Father ob- 
jected. He said he feared it would stir up the mob again. 
But Muldrow reassured him, so father read it. Then a Dr. 
Bosely rushed up to the pulpit with his cane raised to strike 
father, but Muldrow rushed up to Bosely and told him that 
he had had the paper read. Then Bosely struck at Muldrow, 
but the cane was knocked to one side by Mr. Ringer. Mul- 
drow taunted Bosely with some of his Kentucky history. 
Bosely drew a spear from his cane and tried to run it through 
Muldrow, but Muldrow grabbed and broke it. Then Bosely 
drew a pistol, pointed it at Muldrow and snapped it twice. 
Then Muldrow drew a knife and stabbed Bosely. A general 
fight followed. Several men tied red handkerchiefs around 
their waists, got on their horses and started to raise a mob. 
Father started for home, but mother, who was frantic, per- 
suaded him to start for Quincy." 

For three days, Dr. Nelson hid in the brush and traveled 
by night, frequently seeing some of these red-handkerchieved 
regulators pass along the road from his concealment. At 
length he came to the river bank and, by some means, got a 
message to friends in Quincy. Mr. Magoun says that during 
his flight "he commenced his famous book, 'Cause and Cure of 
Infidelity.' " "Hiding in the bushes," he says, "with the 
Mississippi at the foot of the bluff, 'gliding swifty by,' and 



444 

'friends passing over' to and from a Free State, a safe land- 
ing in which he could 'almost discover,' he also wrote, on the 
back of letters, the Christian psalm, 'My days are gliding 
swiftly by.' He goes on: "Two Quincy church members 
* at dusk paddled a 'dug-out' across the river and fished 
in the slough. Learning by signs just where Dr. Nelson was 
they let their boat float down toward the Missouri 'strand.' 
With huge strides down came the fugitive evangelist and 
college founder from his concealment. The slave-holder 
scouts were foiled. Well out in the river, Dr. Nelson asked 
if they had brought him anything to eat? His days of tramp- 
ing, hiding, hymn-making, praying, reflecting, when it was 
unsafe to resort to a house, had well-nigh starved him. 
'Something in the bag,' replied one of the brethren, rowing 
with all his might. Diving into the bag, the brave but fam- 
ished Tennessean brought up some dried codfish and crackers. 
Laughing heartily he said: 'Well, I'm dependent on Yank- 
ees, and shall have to be a Yankee after this, and I may as 
well begin on crackers and codfish. ' ' ' 



Dr. Nelson landed safely and went to Eufus Brown's 
old Log Cabin Hotel, where the Newcomb Hotel now stands. 
Most exaggerated news of the affair at the camp-meeting ran 
round the town. It was said that the Doctor had stabbed 
Bosely. On the following day a number of persons from 
Quincy with some from Missouri demanded that Dr. Nelson 
be given up. "A self-constituted committee of citizens of 
Quincy waited upon the Doctor, protesting against his coming 
here, and especially against his alleged purpose to remove 
here with his family." Dr. William Nelson says: "Father 
was sitting at the top of the stairs reading. Two members of 
the mob were sent to take him * * * and when one of them 
put his hand on father's shoulder, he looked up at him and 
asked if he had legal papers. The man replied that they had 
not, but would take him without them. Father was up, with 
his chair raised above his head, and ordered them to go 
down stairs immediately. They did so." "There had been 
no legal claim made for him;" says General Tillson, "he had 
committed no offense and he was protected. After a day or 



445 

two of vaporing the excitement died away." Muldrow was 
placed in custody, afterward tried and acquitted, and Dr. 
Bosely recovered from his wound ; but Dr. Nelson was never 
allowed to come back to Missouri in peace. After Dr. Nelson 
had lived in Illinois for some time some of the members of his 
old church at Philadelphia invited him to preach for them 
on a sacramental occasion. He agreed to do so, with the as- 
surance that no reference should be made to Abolitionism. 
But he was warned not to come. Hearing of the character 
of the opposition he did not go. Connected with Marion 
College from its birth to its death as members of the faculty 
were Dr. Ezra Stiles Ely, Dr. Wm. S. Potts, Dr. Hiram P. 
Goodrich, Prof. Marks, Prof. McKee, Prof. Hays, Prof. Eeach, 
Prof. Blatehford, and Prof. Thompson. All these men were 
Presbyterians at a time when Presbyteriansim and Aboli- 
tionism were synonymous in Marion County; yet they were 
allowed to live peaceful lives and they were respected by 
their neighbors. Why was Dr. Nelson singled out for 
hate? Rev. Asa Turner says "he did not attack slavery 
publicly." He also says that he did not remember the 
least crimination of any one by Dr. Nelson. And this 
makes it all the more inexplicable. 

Soon after Dr. Nelson came to Quincy "a notice appeared 
in the Illinois Bounty Land Register, of June 10, 1836, for a 
'county meeting' in the public square, on the 18th of June, 
of all citizens of Adams County friendly to peace and good 
order, and opposed to the introduction of Abolition Societies 
and opposed to the discussion of the subject in the pulpit," 
according to Captain Asbury. He goes on to say that "the 
Views expressed in this notice called for an article from the 
pen of J. T. Holmes, printed in the Register June 15, 1836, 
whilst declaring no connection with any Abolition Society, he 
asserted the right of discussion." Rev. Asa Turner, after 
saying that he warned his church authorities of the mischief 
intended by this meeting, and of the preparation for meeting 
it by putting loaded guns under the platform of the pulpit 
of his church, the old "Lord's Barn," he says: "I was then 
lecturing on Sabbath afternoons on Acts in course. The mob 
at Ephesus was the subject for the Sabbath after. I felt that 
Dr. Nelson should not bear the wrath of the people alone. 



446 

The house was full to hear what I would say. I told them 
what I thought of mobs and of slavery. * * At that a pro- 
slavery doctor cried out 'Presumptous!' Then the pro-slav- 
ery wrath seemed to turn from Dr. Nelson to me. But they 
concluded to take time and gather an organization strong 
enough to make victory sure. They had not decided 

what to do with me, but said I could not stay in Quincy. * * * 
We were about to hold a two days' meeting, Saturday and 
Sunday. Dr. Nelson was to preach Saturday. That day was 
fixed upon for the deliverance of the town and county from 
two such dangerous men, the hour of public worship the time. 
On Saturday people from all parts of the county flocked into 
Quincy. ' ' Then follows an account of how Mr. J. T. Holmes, 
a justice of the peace, went to the leaders and told them that 
if there was a mob he would read the riot act and command 
them, in the name of the State to disperse; and that if they 
did not that bullets would follow; and that they would aim 
at the leaders, as they knew who they were. Mr. Turner goes 
on to say that "they passed some resolution versus Abolition; 
drank a little too much, fought a little, and went home." 
Saturday night, he said, was as quiet as Sunday. 

Tradition has it that, after bringing his family from 
Missouri, Dr. Nelson lived in a house on the west side of 
Fourth street a little south of where the Public Library now 
stands; and that here he finished his hymn "Just Before 
the Shining Shore," and commenced to work on his "Cause 
and Cure of Infidelity." 

Some authorities say that an Anti-Slavery society was 
established in Quincy in 1836, and some say it was in 1837. 
From all the above, I would judge there was such a society 
here in 1836. Whenever it was established Dr. Nelson was a 
member of it, if not the moving spirit. 



On the 19th day of April, 1838, Edward B. Kimball and 
wife conveyed one hundred and eighty-five acres of land in 
Sections 3 and 4 of Melrose Township to Dr. Nelson. On 
th'e south one hundred and five acres of this land Dr. Nelson 
built him a house, where he lived and where he died. This 



447 

farm home he called ' ' Oakland. ' ' The old house is still stand- 
ing, on the Burton road, about three miles east of 24th street. 

On the 30th day of October, 1838, Dr. Nelson and wife 
conveyed eighty acres off the north end of the above land 
to Asa Turner, Jr., in trust for use and benefit of Mission 
Institute Number First. The declaration of trust reads: 
"Believing that some more efficient and less expensive way 
ought to be adopted to supply the world with an educated 
Ministry of the Gospel than our common colleges and semin- 
aries do at present afford, etc. Mr. Turner interpreted the 
lawyer's phraseology in this deed to mean that, there was to 
be no tuition and that teachers were to support their families 
by labor, the students working for them portions of their time. 

Mrs. Laura E. Cragin, Dr. Nelson's granddaughter, 
thinks that there was a chapel and some twenty small log 
cabins built out there for the students. 

According to Mr. Turner, Dr. Nelson would go to the 
timber with the students, and when tired with work would 
sit down on a log and write his "Cause and Cure." It was 
finished there under the shade of four large oaks. 

"When men are thinking intensely on one ideal others 
grow up around it," says the Centennial History of Illinois. 
"Thus in 1839 a peace society at Mission Institute near 
Quincy adopted a resolution declaring that wars promoted 
for the glory of rulers were paid for by their subjects." 

* * * 

Mrs. Sarah D. (Hall) Herritt, in her book, "A Keep- 
sake," says: "About 1838, Rev. David Nelson had matured 
a plan for a literary institution, located near Quincy, Illinois. 
The school was designed to favor self-reliant persons of both 
sexes, who wished to devote themselves to the work of 
missions. Rev. Moses Hunter, of Alleghany, New York, had 
long been contemplating a project of this kind, and went 
West for a suitable location. Reaching Quincy, Illinois, he 
found Dr. Nelson on the ground, and already at work. After 
comparing notes, they decided to unite their efforts, and har- 
monize on the plan as he found it. A few acres of land were 
obtained two miles east of the river, where Mr. Hunter lo- 
cated, and began to invite students. Dr. Nelson had previ- 



448 

ously made a commencement five miles east of the river and 
had a few students about him. ' ' 

On May, 28, 1840, Eufus Brown and wife conveyed to 
Henry H. Snow, Edward B. Kimball, Eufus Brown, Willard 
Keyes, and Moses Hunter two pieces of ground, one at what 
is now 24th and Maine, containing a little over eleven acres, 
and the other a forty acre tract, out among the sloughs, in 
the southwest corner of Melrose Township good for nothing 
except as a landing place for run-away slaves from Missouri. 
This land was conveyed to said parties in trust for Institute 
No. 4 in another part of the deed called "Mission Institute." 
"Institute Number First" was out somewhere near the Ter- 
wische Woods on Broadway. Where Institutes 2 and 3 were, 
or were to be, I do not know. 

The Institute land was forty rods wide and extended, 
practically, from what is now High street to Madison Park, 
then a cemetery. Dr. Nelson went East and raised funds for 
the new enterprise. The tract was surveyed and platted. 
What is now 25th street was opened through the tract with 
cross lanes opening from it, so that all parts of it were ac- 
cessible. These roads and lanes were given names by some 
one acquainted with the Bible, I am told. The part between 
High street and the cemetery and 24th and 25th streets was 
set apart for college purposes, as was a lot north of High 
and west of 25th, where a chapel was built. The north part 
of the college ground was left as a campus. What college 
buildings there were, were on the south part of this ground. 
Some say there was a two-story brick building, used for re- 
citation purposes only, on this ground. Some say there was 
also a good sized frame building that was used as a boarding 
house for rooms and meals. Some say that the students 
were cared for in "lodges." Most people say the brick build- 
ing was small. Mr. Walter Hubbard, who lived in that neigh- 
borhood when he was a boy, says it was three stories high, 
eight rooms to a story, and had a flat-roof. Mr. Hunter 
bought the land north of the chapel out to Broadway, and 
built him a home at what would now be 25th and Vermont, 
facing the house east. The rest of the Institute land, on the 
east side of 25th street, was divided into small lots, mostly 
acre lots, and sold; and the owners of property in the neigh- 



449 

borhood did the same. If there were student lodges they were 
put up by the owners of these lots, or on what I have called 
the " campus" for all the rest of the land in the neighbor- 
hood was sold to individuals. James E. Burr was the only 
student who bought land. 

' ' The Institute, " as it was called, and this part of Quincy 
is still called in some of the early deeds "The Theo- 
polis Mission Institute" was soon known as a nest of Aboli- 
tionists. Such men as Evan Williams, the man who was run 
out of Missouri in 1836, John K. Vandorn, James E. Furness, 
Edward B. Kimball, Dr. Eichard Eells, Eufus Brown, Orin 
Kendall, Elijah Griswold, William Stoby, Alanson Work, 
James E. Burr, and others, bought property and built them- 
selves homes or houses to rent. 



At this time most men considered themselves insulted if 
they were called Abolitionists. Even Elijah P. Lovejoy, just 
before he was killed at Alton, in 1837, while declaring him- 
self in favor of gradual emancipation, disclaimed the name 
Abolitionist. But these men at the "Institute" gloried in the 
name. And even most avowed Abolitionists, imbued as they 
were with respect for the law, did not care to entice slaves 
from their masters or serve as guides in their first steps of 
escape. Dr. Nelson was not only an avowed Abolitionist, 
but he justified his violation of the law of his State and Nation 
in abducting slaves from their masters by an appeal to the 
"Higher Law." Under the obligations of the Constitution 
the act of harboring and secreting slaves was made illegal. 
Because of the danger of detection the Underground Railway 
developed. Soon after 1835 the process was well established. 
In 1839, the first known fugitive was dispatched from Chicago 
to Canada. Through the efforts of Dr. Nelson, Quincy was 
made a point of entrance for slaves in the years 1839-40. By 
1840, the practice of harboring and secreting slaves was 
widespread. Three great Underground Railway lines, with 
their terminals upon the Mississippi river and Lake Michigan, 
were established across the State of Illinois. One started at 
Chester, another at Alton, and the other at Quincy. The 



450 

Quincy line followed substantially the route of the C. B. 
& Q. Ey. 

From this time on handbills offering large rewards for 
the recovery of slaves, and notices in newspapers that negroes 
were committed to jail as run-away slaves, particularly de- 
scribing them, and requiring the owner to come, prove his 
property, pay his charges, and take the man or woman away, 
were to be seen. 

In 1840, the Liberty party was in the field with a ticket 
headed by Birney and Lamoyne. The State Anti-Slavery 
Society of Illinois, in convention at Princeton, decided on a 
course of neutrality; but the men in favor of a third party 
held a separate meeting, under the leadership of Dr. Nelson, 
and agreed to support the Liberty candidates. The result 
was a vote of one hundred and fifty-seven. The center of the 
agitation was in Adams County, which gave forty-two votes. 

In 1840, Dr. Nelson laid the foundation stone of the 
Presbyterian church here. On March 4th, 1840 the society 
called Rev. J. J. Marks of Marion county, Missouri as its 
first pastor. Mr. Marks was a professor in the Marion Col- 
lege when Dr. Nelson was its president. 

Another professor of Marion College came here about 
this time Professor Blatchford. Mr. Blatchford bought the 
old Whitney place and called it ' ' Hazeldean, " or * ' Hazeldell. ' ' 
General Singleton bought it of Mr. Blatchford and called 
it "Boscobel." 

On the 12th day of July, 1841, Alanson Work, James E. 
Burr, and George Thompson, three young men from the ' ' In- 
stitute," crossed the Mississippi river into Missouri to free 
some slaves. They were apprehended, carried to Palmyra, 
indicted, tried, convicted and sentenced to twelve years im- 
prisonment in the Missouri penitentiary at Jefferson City. 
Writers of Illinois history say that Dr. Nelson instigated these 
young men to attempt this act. Perhaps he did. If not di- 
rectly then by example. However the Mission Institute 
smarted under the charge that it had instigated or had any- 
thing to do with it. It went to some pains to say that Mr. 
Work was not connected with the Institution in any way. 

It is said that in 1841 there was no law in Missouri to 
punish an attempt to entice slaves away from their masters. 



451 

At that day the testimony of a slave was not allowed against 
a white man, and as most of the important testimony against 
the "liberators" was the statements of the slaves made to 
their masters, and by them given in evidence on the trial, 
it was sought by the prisoners counsel, Samuel T. Glover, 
Uriel Wright and Calvin A. Warren, to exclude this testi- 
mony. Mr. Samuel T. Glover was a brother of our Col. John 
M. Glover. Calvin A. Warren was our well-known citizen. 
John M. Clemens, father of "Mark Twain," was one of the 
jurymen. The trial attracted large crowds, that sometimes 
grew excited and threatened to take the prisoners out and 
hang them. These young men were treated with contempt by 
their fellow prisoners while in the Marion county jail. Ac- 
cording to the code of slave States "a nigger thief" was 
worse than a "horse thief." While in jail they were com- 
pelled to hear, so loudly was it spoken on the street, that if 
they were cleared on technicalities of law that "Judge Lynch 
would take care of them. ' ' 

The Perkins History of Marion County says * * Our people 
continued to be greatly troubled by the Abolitionists. During 
1842 numerous raids were made upon the slave cabins by the 
Illinois ' ' Liberators, ' ' and many valuable slaves were induced 
to escape. * ! * In September, Dr. Eells, a prominent Aboli- 
tionist of Quincy, was arrested in the very act of spiriting 
away a negro. * * Anti-abolition meetings were held in 
Marion, Lewis and Balls counties, and strong denunciatory 
resolutions were adopted. Even Quincy held a meeting this 
year and denounced the Abolitionists in the severest terms. 
This meeting was presided over by W. G. Flood. A com- 
mittee on resolutions was composed of Isaac N. Morris, Dr. 
J. N. Ralston, Samuel Holmes, C. K. Bacon and Dr. H. Rogers. 
The meeting was addressed by Hon. 0. H. Browning. ' ' 

Slaveholders had much to annoy and anger them. There 
were many good, kind, humane men who owned slaves; but, 
as Mr. Lincoln said, no one is good enough to own another. 



I have always heard of the "Burning of the Institute," 
and have always thought all the Institute buildings went up 



452 

in the flames. The Quincy Whig, of March 16, 1843, gave 
the following account: 

"Incendiary: At about 3 o'clock, a. m., on the night of 
the 8th instant, the chapel at Mission Institute (Theopolis) 
was discovered to be on fire. Alarm was instantly given, but 
the house was so envolved by the fire that it was impossible 
to save it. * * The exercises of the institution had been 
suspended for the week, to attend a protracted meeting in 
Quincy. No fire had been made for five days past in the 
chapel. A light snow having fallen in the night, the in- 
cendiaries were readily tracked from the scene of their mid- 
night work to the vicinity of the mills in the upper part of 
the city and so on to the river toward the Missouri shore; 
from which the inference is drawn that the incendiaries were 
from the other side of the river. 

"Such acts as described above betray a horrible state 
of society indeed. The abolitionists decoy the slaves from 
their masters in Missouri and run them off, and the Mis- 
sourians retaliate by burning down the property of the aboli- 
tionists. How long will such a state of things continue? As 
long as the practice is continued by the abolitionists of prey- 
ing upon the property of the people of Missouri." 

"There was an intensely hostile feeling on the part of 
the pro-slavery people of this county and of this part of 
Missouri against the Illinois abolitionists," says the Perkins 
History of Marion County. "The latter were continually 
throwing fire-brands into the communities of their Missouri 
neighbors and keeping our people in a state of constant irri- 
tation and apprehension. * : When it was known that 
"Nelson College," as it was called here, was to be built just 
across the river, and that, in all probability, there would 
emanate therefrom not only abolition ideas, but from time to 
time practical abolitionists themselves, certain pro-slavery 
men in this and Lewis county swore that the building should 
never be completed. In the winter the weather was severe 
and in March there was a good ice-bridge across the Missis- 
sippi. One night a band of men set out from Ross 's grocery, 
in Palmyra, for Quincy. In the crowd were some desperate 
men and hard cases, but there were also some respectable and 
prominent citizens. The college was burned without much 



453 

difficulty or resistance, and! the party returned in safety to 
their Missouri homes. No attempt was ever made to arrest 
any of them. The act was generally indorsed by the pro- 
slavery people of the county as only a fair retaliation for the 
acts of the abolitionists in spiriting away the slaves. ' ' 



Doctor Nelson died on the 17th of October, 1844, and, as 
General Tillson says, gradually after this time, ' * the estrange- 
ment over the slavery question between the people on two 
sides of the river became allayed; was less talked of and 
less thought of." 



Eev. Moses Hunter died a few months after Dr. Nelson's 
death. 

On the 26th of February, 1845, by act of the Legislature 
of Illinois, Asa Turner, Jr., Warren Nichols, Adam Nichols, 
Willard Keyes, Junius J. Marks and Orin Kendall, and their 
successors, were constituted a body corporate and politic by 
the name and style of the ' * Trustees of the Adelphia Theolog- 
ical Seminary." 

Under this name, with Professor Leonard in charge, the 
old "Institute" struggled along until 1848. If later than that 
it did not advertise in the Quincy papers. 

January 17, 1855, Henry H. Snow, Edward B. Kimball, 
Eufus Brown and Willard Keyes. after reciting that the deed 
of May 28, 1840, creating them trustees for the use and benefit 
of an Institution of Learning called Mission Institute No. 4, 
provided that in case said Mission Institute ever became ex- 
tinct, the premises or proceeds should go to the American 
Board of Foreign Missions ; that in fact said Mission Institute 
as a place of learning, by whatever name, had long since be- 
come and is now extinct, conveyed the old Mission Institute 
property to Jacob R. Hollowbush for eight hundred dollars, 
who soon after sold it off in parts and parcels. 

The old flat-roof brick building stood until about the 
year 1868, when, after a Negro riot out there, it was torn 



454 

down. Mr. Walter Hubbard gives this account of the dis- 
turbance : 

"This old building was rented to some colored people. 
They were endeavoring to hold a series of prayer meetings, 
when a lot of negroes from town came out to raise a row 
and have a dance. My father, Dr. Hubbard, had always taken 
an interest in the welfare of the Institute, and when the 
negroes from town began to raise a row, some of the resident 
negroes came to father, who lived near, to get him to stop 
the riot. He went and did stop it, and the town negroes 
started away, when some one ran after them and said that Dr. 
Hubbard was not an officer, and to come back and kill him. 
They came back, and came near doing so. He was severely 
cut in many places. - ' 

The large two-story frame building which stood on the 
west side of 25th street, between what is now Maine and 
Hampshire streets, which some say was used as a boarding 
house during the days of the Mission Institute, and which 
some say was built after the Institute ceased to exist, was 
destroyed by fire to the great joy of the neighborhood, in the 
later seventies or early eighties of the last century. 

I have been unable to find a list of the teachers. Here 
and there I have seen a name mentioned as a teacher, and 
from this I make the following list : 

Dr. Moses Hunter, Kev. Wm. P. Apthorp, Professor 
Leonard, Eev. Anson J. Carter, and Miss Sarah D. Hall. I 
cannot find that Dr. Nelson ever had anything to do with the 
faculty out there. 

Captain Asbury says that Eev. Moses Hunter appeared 
an old man when he first came here. He was said to possess 
great knowledge and to be quite a superior man. He 
dressed himself in a sort of seamless robe, in imitation of the 

robe of Christ. 

# * * 

What of Dr. Nelson of the man and his ways f 

He was a large, powerful man. He was over six feet tall, 

with broad shoulders and a thick chest. He had a large head 

that was topped with a wealth of brown hair. Rev. Asa 

Turner, " Father Turner," as he was called, tells of his first 



455 

_/ 

meeting Dr. Nelson in 1831, at one of his camp-meetings, near 
his home in Missouri, and describes the meeting: 

"Around a hollow-square log shanties were built for 
temporary residence; within was a large shed covered with 
split boards, a platform of the same, with a shelf in front 
'the stand.' The people assembled by the blowing of a horn. 
There was an early prayer-meeting and preaching three times 
a day. All was as orderly and quiet as any country congrega- 
tion in New England." He goes on to say that the Doctor 
had a voice of great power and melody, and that it was a 
treat to hear him and Mr. Gallagher "sing the congregation 
back to the stand, after an interval in the worship. ' ' 

"Dr. Nelson delighted much in preaching the gospel," 
says this same Mr. Gallagher. "This he regarded as God's 
appointed instrument for renovating and saving men. * 
He took a peculiar pleasure in preaching the gospel in desti- 
tute places the wayside inn, the mountain top, the field, the 
grove, no place came amiss to him." 

Mr. Gallagher goes on to say: "Some critic has remarked 
that the Iliad of Homer is a picture rather than a poem ; that 
the scenes appear to stand out before the eye. * * * Such 
was the preaching of Nelson. When he addressed an as- 
sembly, you were a spectator rather than a hearer, and this 
characteristic largely entered into his conversation." 

"As a preacher," says Mr. Turner, "I always regarded 
Dr. Nelson as one of the best. I never met a man who re- 
garded the preaching of the gospel such an honor, such a 
privilege. * * I have heard him preach to infidels with 
tears rolling down his cheeks, exhorting them to study the 
evidence of the Christian faith. ' ' 

"He might suggest some choice thought at a prayer- 
meeting," says another, "then say a few words about, it at 
some school-house, then preach about it on the Sabbath sev- 
eral times at different places, and thus brood over it for 
weeks, and finally surprise and thrill a Boston audience with 
eloquence and pathos." 

"Before his conversion," says Mr. Gallagher, "he de- 
lighted to revel amidst the gorgeous beauties of the English 
classics. Shakespeare, Milton, Dryden, Pope, Montgomery, 
Byron, and Scott were his chosen companions ; but after his 



456 

mind and heart were turned to the Lord, Dr. Watts became his 
favorite author. 

"He could think as well sawing logs or shaving shingles," 
says Mr. Turner, "as in the best study in the world, and it 
was just as easy to arrange it on a log as in a rocking-chair." 

Mr. Magoun says "he was a grand man, with a tender 
heart and a gentle disposition, but firm as a rock when princi- 
ples were at stake." He goes on to say that "Dr. Nelson had 
no financial ability, no conception of the requisites of house- 
hold comforts in the free North." 

"I have seen Dr. Nelson," says another, "wearing a 
soiled collar, a seedy coat, with a sleeve torn half-way to the 
elbow." Others have seen him wearing a shoe and a boot. 
Surely this is not in keeping with the conventional minister 
of that day, with his top hat, standing collar, white tie, and 
black broad-cloth suit. 



What about Dr. Nelson's work? 

One of his admirers says that "he had a great turn of 
mind for poetical thought. ' ' He wrote ' ' Just Before the Shin- 
ing Shore," "Best in Heaven," "A Fairer Land," and many 
other hymns. He wrote "The Cause and Cure of Infidelity," 
and "Wealth and Honor." Nothing remains but the "old 
sweet hymn," as Mr. Magoun calls it, and "The Cause and 
Cure of Infidelity." This book went through several editions 
in this country and in England. Dr. Nelson was widely known 
to the religious world of his day. 

This book is divided into seventy chapters, and each 
chapter is nothing more or less than a sermon. To begin 
with, he asks this question: "If one of the causes of Infidelity 
consists in ignorance, then is it hard for us to understand 
the opposite of ignorance must be a promising remedy. We 
mean ignorance of the Bible and of the ancient literature 
connected with the Bible. ' ' His whole book is devoted to en- 
lightenment. Here is a species of some of it: 

"Go to the Universalist, and ask him if he hates God. He 
is indignant at the question. He thinks he loves his kind 
Creator ardently. And this is true that he does love a God 
whose character resembles that of the man before you in 



457 

some prominent traits. But place before him the God of the 
Bible one who will say 'Depart' to the wicked * * *one 
who will see the smoke of their torment ascend up for ever 
and ever; and the Universalist will tell you he hates such 
a God." 

Dr. Nelson was a Presbyterian when Presbyterianism, 
as far as doctrine is concerned, and Calvinism were synony- 
mous. The five distinguishing features of the Calvinistic 
doctrine are : 

The absolute sovereignty of God in creation, providence 
and redemption; the fall of man and his utter inability to 
save himself from the consequences of his transgression ; the 
election from the fallen race by the sovereign grace of God 
of a certain number into eternal life ; the provision made for 
Salvation in Jesus Christ; their effectual calling by the Holy 
Spirit; and their perseverance in divine grace assured by 
the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. 

Edward Eggleston, in one of his stories, makes a Hard 
Shell Baptist preacher put the Calvanistic doctrine in a little 
cruder form, but it comes out at about the same place : 

"Ef you're elected, you'y be saved; ef you a'nt, you'l 
be damned. God will take care of his elect. It's a sin to 
run Sunday-schools, or temp'rince s 'cities, or to send mis- 
sionaries. You let God's business alone. What's to be will 
be, and you can't hender it." 

In the Presbyterian churches one occasionally sees some- 
thing Of this old Calvinistic doctrine in the hymns, but seldom 
hears anything about it from the pulpit. 

Dr. Nelson was a deductive thinker of the old type. He 
followed his logic where it took him. He concealed nothing 
he found revealed in the Bible. He offered no apology for 
their earnest proclamation. But Dr. Nelson could not have 
written and published his book in the 20th Century; or 
if he had he could have gotten but little or no hearing among 
Biblical scholars. 

' 1 There is something almost unfilial in the stolid indif- 
ference with which we pass by old dogmas," says Henry 
Dwight Sedgwick. "Earnest generations thought, prayed, 
yearned over their interpretation of the meaning of life, and 
fashioned dogmas which they believed would light the steps 



458 

of their children and their children's children to endless gen- 
erations, yet we scarcely look to see what these dogmas 

mean. ' ' 

* * * 

Now finally, what about Dr. Nelson's influence! 

"The influence which the ' Mission Institute' exercised 
was not the most fortunate for itself or for the city," says 
General Tillson. "The original design was to establish a 
school to educate and qualify young people for duty as 
Christian missionaries in foreign lands. No purer idea could 
have been generated, and its philanthropic purpose, aided by 
the great prestige of Dr. Nelson's name as its founder and 
patron, gave great promise at its beginning, but it labored 
with limited means, its standard of scholarship was not of 
the highest and many of its students were deficient in rudi- 
mental acquirement. These causes operating upon the sensi- 
tive public sentiment of the times and of the locality, 
prevented it from obtaining the proper hold upon the public 
sympathy, and it finally died out." 

Against this estimate of the Mission Institute by General 
Tillson I give one by Mrs. Sarah D. (Hall) Herritt: 

"The death of these founders (Nelson and Hunter in 
1844) occurred before a basis was formed. But as it was, 
during the few years of its existence, it sent more laborers 
than was ever done before under similar circumstances in 
so short a time. Its representatives were sent to almost 
every clime New Zealand, Madeira, Africa, and to our 
aborigines; besides the numbers who have given their life 
service to our Home Mission work." 

Who these scholars were Mrs. Herritt does not say. 
From letters and books and conversations I find only the 
following students at this old institution: George Thompson, 
James E. Burr, Thomas Garnick, William Herritt, Samuel 
Herritt, John Kendall, Miss Jane Ballard, afterwards Mrs. 
John Kendall, and Miss Anna Ballard. Miss Anna Ballard is 
living in California, wonderfully preserved in mind, body and 
memory. 

Still Dr. Nelson's threefold efforts to establish colleges 
and schools were failures. Over at Philadelphia there are 



459 

some holes in the ground where once stood college buildings, 
with stones and broken bricks in the pits, all overgrown with 
weeds and brambles. Nothing remains of the efforts at "The 
Institute," or at "Oakland," except the old residence. Up 
to about eight years ago the cottage that was built by Alanson 
Work, just north of the college grounds, and that was the 
home of Henry Clay Work, the song writer, in his early youth, 
was still standing. There is one, possibly two small 
houses now standing that were there when Eev. Moses Hunter 
walked the earth in his seamless robe. The Cause and Cure 
of Infidelity is found only in old time collected libraries, 
mostly in and around Quincy. The "one sweet hymn" is 
gradually losing its place as hymnals are revised. Such is 
only another instance of the impermanence of the works of 
man. 

Dr. Nelson was among the first Abolitionists of Illinois, 
before the Lovejoys would admit that they belonged to 
that despised sect. Some writers accord to Dr. Nelson more 
credit for starting the anti-slavery movement here than to 
the Lovejoys. 

The Negro is free, but there is a school of thought that 
deprecates the efforts of the Abolitionists to that end. Per- 
haps the best expression of that thought has been given by 
the late Colonel Roosevelt. I quote from his "Life of Thomas 
H. Benton": 

"The cause of the Abolitionists has had such a halo 
shed around it by the after course of events, which they them- 
selves in reality did very little to shape, that it has been 
usual to speak of them with absurdly exaggerated praise. 
Their courage, and for the most part their sincerity cannot 
be too highly spoken of, but their share in abolishing slavery 
was far less than has commonly been represented; any single 
non-Abolitionist politician like Lincoln or Seward, did more 
than all the professional Abolitionists combined to bring 
about its destruction. The Abolition societies were only in 
a very restricted degree the cause of the growing feeling in 
the North against slavery; they are rather to be regarded as 
themselves manifestations or accompaniments of that feeling. 
The anti-slavery outburst in the Northern States over the 
admission of Missouri took place a dozen years before there 



460 

was an Abolition society in existence; and the influence of 
the professional Abolitionists upon the growth of the anti- 
slavery sentiment as often as not merely warped and twisted 
it out of proper shape, as when at one time they showed a 
strong inclination to adopt disunion views, although it was 
self-evident that by no possibility could slavery be abolished 
unless the Union was preserved. 

"When the Abolitionist movement started it was 
avowedly designed to be cosmopolitan in character, the 
originators looked down upon any merely national or patri- 
otic feeling. This again deservedly took away from their 
influence. In fact, it would have been most unfortunate had 
the majority of the Northerners been from the beginning 
in hearty accord with the Abolitionists ; at best it would have 
resulted at that time in the disruption of the Union and the 
perpetuation of Slavery." 

It is true that there was a sudden blaze of anti-slavery 
sentiment that broke out in 1820 at the time of the admission 
of Missouri as a slave State, but the blaze died out to mere 
embers, if not to ashes, as suddenly as it broke out. The 
North accepted the Missouri Compromise as a settlement of 
the slave question; as confining slavery within restricted 
territory, which meant its ultimate extinction. Says James 
G. Elaine: "The great political parties then dividing the 
country accepted the result and for the next twenty years 
no agitation of the slavery question appeared in any political 
convention, or affected any considerate body of the people." 
From 1820 conscience struggled with policy. Fear for the 
stability of the Union, "which by this time had become of 
general worship," prevailed. What agitation there was 
concerned itself with the violation of the right of petition, 
free speech, and free press. "Conscience, though drugged 
by policy, had never entirely slumbered," says Goldwin 
Smith. Among the Quakers of Pennsylvania it had remained 
awake. In a certain sense, the founder of Abolitionism was 
Benjamin Lundy, a Quaker. His circular was "the germ 
of the entire anti-slavery movement," says Horace Greeley. 
"Genius of Universal Emancipation" was the first Abolition- 
ist paper. "The Abolitionists served to keep alive in the 
Northern mind that secret trouble of Conscience about 



461 

slavery, which later, in a ripe political situation, was to 
break out as a great force," says Carl Schurz. 

You know that the Anti-Slavery society was composed 
of two wings steadily and at last decisively divergent the 
political wing and the Garrisonian wing. The political wing 
wanted the work carried on as other reform measures are. 
The Garrison wing, which refused to vote, hold office or in 
any way recognize a Government which in any way recog- 
nized that there was such a thing as slavery, condemned the 
Constitution and denounced the churches and ministers for 
refusing to join the movement. If Colonel Roosevelt's stric- 
tures had been confined to the Garrisonians I could have 
agreed with him perfectly, for "the violence of this branch, 
and even more the revolutionary and sometimes offensive 
social theories associated with it, made the others anxious 
to part company. ' ' These others took the name of the Liberty 
party. To this branch Dr. Nelson belonged. In 1840 they 
nominated James G. Birney for President and Francis J. 
LaMoyne for Vice President. From this time, for twenty 
years, politics revolved around the slavery question. Parties 
came and went, Presidents were made and unmade by it. 
In 1844, the Liberty party nominated James G. Birney for 
President and Thomas Morris, grandfather of our Thomas 
Lucian Morris, for Vice President, and they were strong 
enough to defeat Henry Clay, because of his equivocal 
position on the annexation of Texas. Then came the annex- 
ation of Texas, the Mexican war, the acquisition of a vast 
territory in the West. Then, in 1848, the Free Soil party, the 
successor of the Liberty party, was strong enough to defeat 
General Cass and elect General Taylor. Then came the Clay 
Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska bill, with its 
repeal of the Missouri Compromise, the formation of the Re- 
publican party, the break of Senator Douglas with President 
Buchanan, the division of the Democrat, party into Northern 
and Southern parts, the Douglas-Lincoln debate, the election 
of Lincoln, the War of the States, the Emancipation Procla- 
mation, and in Amendments to the Constitution. 

The slavery problem is solved; but the race problem is 
still with us almost a harder problem to solve than the 
slavery problem. There is now no fantastic, sentimental fus- 



462 

tian about * ' the new found brother. The brother is very badly 
treated. He is not wanted any where. Values go off when 
he moves into a neighborhood. He is not allowed to learn 
a trade in the North, or follow it there if he has learned one 
in the South. He is not allowed to vote in any State where 
there is danger of his being in the majority, and this sup- 
pression of his Constitutional right is justified in the name 
of civilization. He is mobbed and harried in the North as 
well as the South. And yet there are many refined, educated, 
yes, cultured men and women with black skins. There are 
many black men who could sit for the portrait that James 
Lane Allen has painted in his * ' Two Gentlemen of Kentucky. ' ' 

I have often wondered what would happen if the "wild 
men", the communists and Bolsheviki, ever grow in numbers 
until they are a threatening menace. Will the black people, 
with their wrongs rankling in their hearts, be for the old 
order, or will they go over to the "Reds!" 

We have to solve this problem, and solve it with justice; 
ever remembering, with Montesquieu, that "an injustice to 
one is a menace to all." 

SHINING SHORE. 

1. 

My days are gliding swiftly by 
And I a pilgrim stranger 
Would not detain them as they fly 
Those hours of toil and danger. 

Chorus. 

For oh, we stand on Jordan's strand 
Our friends are passing over. 
And just before, the shining shore 
We may almost discover. 

2. 

We'll gird our loins, my brethren dear, 
Our distant home discerning: 
Our absent Lord has left us word 
Let every lamp be burning. 



463 

Chorus. 
3. 

Should coming days be cold and dark 
We need not cease our singing: 
That perfect rest naught can molest 
Where golden harps are ringing. 

Chorus. 
4. 

Let sorrow's rudest tempest blow 

Each cord on earth to sever; 

Our King says " Come "and there's our home 

For ever oh, for ever! 



ROBERT T. LINCOLN AND JAMES R. DOOLITTLE. 

Interesting Political and Historical Letter from the 
James R. Doolittle Private Correspondence. 

Contributed by DTJANE MOWRY, of Milwaukee, Wis. 

Introductory Note by the Contributor: Perhaps, the 
correspondence which follows is almost self-explanatory. 
And yet the letter in chief by Ex-Senator Doolittle uncovers, 
as it seems to the contributor, a lofty and unselfish patriotism 
which is altogether too rare among partisans of any and all 
shades of political parties. 

It is not so long ago when the distinguished son of the 
great President Lincoln was in the political limelight. Many 
of us still living distinctly remember that. And it was a 
noble and worthy thought of the late Judge Doolittle to call 
to the attention of Eobert T. Lincoln the possibilities of the 
Republican National Convention of 1884. And he felt, as 
the personal and political friend and associate of the martyred 
president, that he had a right, as well as an honest interest, 
in so doing. 

The letter to the son, Robert, may not have disclosed 
great political foresight. Subsequent political events shows 
that it did not. Nevertheless, there is much of real political 
and historical interest in the letter, a letter, which Robert 
is frank to say is "remarkable." 

Some of the political judgments indicated by Judge 
Doolittle may seem a bit harsh. And yet future historical 
judgments have confirmed the correctness of most of them. 
Mr. Doolittle knew men and measures of the civil war period 
as few of us now living knew them. And he was perfectly 
fearless in pronouncing his estimate of them and their place 
in the history of the country. 

He was incontestably right upon this question of re- 
construction following the close of the civil war. And his 
intense hatred of the carpetbag regime in the South was 
both pardonable and eminently just. A truer friend of the 

464 



465 

country, both North and South, did not hold public office 
during this trying period. And it did great honor to his 
unselfish devotion to principle, that he preferred to lose cast 
with his fellow citizens in his home state, Wisconsin, rather 
than do violence to the behests of his conscience. But the 
judgment of history has long since approved his stand on 
the great national questions of that time. 

It seems that Mr. Robert T. Lincoln did not take the 
subject of Mr. Doolittle's letter very seriously. And subse- 
quent events seem to have justified Mr. Lincoln in that view. 
But the fact remains that the letter is worthy of the man 
and the occasion. And aside from that political fact, there 
is historical interest in the letter, which should have the light 
of day. And in that view, Mr. Robert Lincoln joins me. 

(Private and Confidential) Chicago, HI., June 3rd, 1884. 

HON. EGBERT T. LINCOLN. 

My dear Sir: 

My relations to your father were such, that although we 
have only met upon the terms of ordinary friendship, I feel 
authorized to speak in terms of the strictest confidence. You 
may not be aware of the fact that in the National Committee 
of 1860 at New York, I drew the call for the convention which 
nominated him. At that time there was no Republican Party 
in Pennsylvania or in New Jersey. There was a People's 
Party in the former, and a Union Party in the latter. How 
to bring them all together was the question. I drew a call 
addressed to the Republicans of the several states, to the 
members of the People's Party in Pennsylvania, and of the 
Union Party of New Jersey. I presume in that committee, 
of fifty persons nearly, including some wise counsellors with 
the committee, I made twenty speeches, before I could get 
it through their heads that if we did not invite Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey, we might just as well have no convention 
at all. 

"What!" said they, "are we not Republicans? Will 
you lower the flag?" My reply was, let us invite them to our 
feast and present with the invitation the Bill of Fare. All 



466 

who are in favor of five things, naming them, and all who are 
opposed to five other things, are invited to take part. 

After an all night's struggle it was adopted. Eight then 
and there was victory organized. Pardon me if I refer to 
something never published. I do so only to let you know 
better the relations between your father and myself. 

Before the Convention came off in 1860, the Hon. Preston 
King, of New York, occupied rooms adjoining mine in Capitol 
Hill. He was a devoted Seward man. The Blairs favored 
Bates, of St. Louis. The discussions about the nominee were 
frequent and earnest between King and myself. Again and 
again, I pressed him for his second choice after it would 
be found that Seward could not be nominated. While in 
his stubborn and honest loyalty to his friend, Seward, his 
constant reply was, "I have no second choice." I finally 
gave to him my best judgment upon the result in advance. 
Said I, "Mr. King, you will not nominate Seward. He has 
been too much identified with abolitionists who think the 
Constitution, as it stands, authorizes Congress to interfere 
with slavery. The Higher Law doctrine will not be approved 
by the Republican Party. Nor will Mr. Bates be nominated. 
He comes from a state where his education has not been 
enough in harmony with the masses of the Republican Party. ' ' 

"But," I said, "there is Mr. Lincoln, of Illinois. He 
stands half way between the two, and he will, probably, be 
the nominee. As Mr. Lincoln is from the West, the Vice 
President will be from the East. As Mr. Lincoln is of Whig 
antecedents, the Vice President must be of Democratic ante- 
cedents. It would fall on you, Mr. King, if you would take 
it. But I know you would not, for that would seem to make 
you false to your friend, Seward. Therefore, the only man 
who can fill the Bill will be Hamlin, of Maine. Lincoln and 
Hamlin is probably to be our ticket." 

All this talk was some two weeks before Mr. King came 
on to the Convention, here. 

I claim no gift of prophecy. It was simply a move of 
reasoning or guessing, upon the political forces in operation. 
Instinct, perhaps. 

Again, in a very trying hour, when the disasters of the 
war and the heavy drafts of soldiers and the burden of 



467 

taxes were pressing sore upon us, and there was a wide spread 
opposition to your father's re-nomination in 1864, when the 
Wades and Chandlers and Thad. Stevens had called a Bolt- 
ing Convention and nominated Fremont at Cleveland; when 
Governor Yates and Joe Medill and Senator Trumbull were 
determined to throw him overboard, I was invited to speak at 
a mass meeting of 20,000 at Springfield, at your father's 
own home. Yates had a dinner party, and then it was re- 
solved to set him aside, and Yates himself was chosen as the 
orator to lead the movement. 

He first addressed the meeting. In a long speech he 
spoke of the affection and love for your father. "But and 
if," and "if and but," there might be "a painful necessity 
to choose some other standard bearer." I listened to that 
speech for an hour or more, with my soul stirred and roused 
nearer to the State of Inspiration than it ever was in before. 
When he finished they called on me. My voice, though it 
trembled with emotion, was still clear and reached every ear. 
"Fellow citizens: I believe in God. Under Him, and, next 
to Him, I believe in Abraham Lincoln." Those words broke 
the conspiracy in Illinois. Such cheers and shouts you never 
heard. Since the world began, there was never anything 
like it. When I got through Yates arose and said, "The 
people demand the re-election of Lincoln." 

Now, you may ask why I should take the liberty of writ- 
ing to you so long a personal letter. I will tell you frankly. 
It is this: 

After your father was assassinated, the Republican 
Party, under Thad. Stevens and Stanton and others, was 
revolutionized. Stevens had more power than even Robes- 
pierre in the French Convention, with the men who followed 
him, and boldly avowed that we were "outside" the Con- 
stitution in dealing with States south of the Potomac. His 
great genius, iron will, intense hate, inflamed by the destruc- 
tion of his iron works by the rebels, and inflamed by his 
interior life, and the sense of moral degradation which came 
from his living in open shame with the wife of a negro barber, 
whom he had stolen from Harrisburg, and which made him 
wish to drag down to his own disgusting amalgamating con- 
dition the people of the South, made him in that hour of 



468 

madness, when "judgment fled to brutish beasts and men lost 
their reason," a terrible despot and most tyrannical leader 
of the revolution inside the Republican Party. His great 
genius, his great passions, his intensity of hate, all flamed up, 
and blazed and burned like an electric light, and the lesser 
gas lights flickering around him, could hardly be seen, as 
moon and stars go out of sight in the blazing sun of midday. 

As long as Stevens lived, he kept the party outside the 
Constitution. During that period, the crimes of that party 
against the Constitution are too terrible to be recounted. 
They made war on ten States ; Aye ! two years after peace and 
amnesty had been declared, they did what the Rebellion could 
not do, namely: They dissolved the Union by expelling ten 
States. They, "with a steel pen made of a bayonet," (to 
quote Garfield), erased the names of ten States in this Union, 
and wrote in their places "Five Military Provinces." They 
erased from the Constitution the sacred words, "Habeas 
Corpus," "the right of trial by jury;" and wrote in their 
places, Martial Law, Drum Head Courts Martial. They 
abolished all Civil Law from the Potomac to the Rio Grande, 
and subjected 10,000,000 of people to the absolute military 
despotism of five generals of the army. 

You know how I struggled against this revolution in the 
government; this trampling under foot of the Constitution 
which all of them, time and time again, had sworn to support. 

But pass over all this, which I cannot think of without 
stirring my soul to its depths. Come down to Grant's time, 
after there was a pretense by the Republican leaders, that 
they had got once more back inside the Constitution. 

The Southern States then were still held to have no 
rights under the Constitution which the powers at Washing- 
ton were bound to respect; and, during all his terms, both of 
them, the Constitution was so loosely construed as to give 
to Congress and to the executive every power not expressly 
denied; and, during all that time the march towards Central- 
ized Despotism was steady, constant, and with rapid and 
gigantic strides. 

Grant, though a great soldier, was never any more fit 
for the civil duties of President, whose oath requires him to 
support and defend the Constitution, than he has proved him- 



469 

self to be fit for the head of a Banking House in Wall Street. 
He had and has no idea of the limitations imposed by the 
Constitution on federal power. He had and has no idea of 
the rights of the States reserved under the Constitution. 

I believe this revolution now going on in favor of Cen- 
tralism is surely undermining our Constitutional Liberties. 
For eighteen years, I have been in one long, desperate battle 
to resist it, and overcome it, and in trying to turn back the 
administration of the government upon the old idea of the 
fathers, namely: 

That the Union is Sovereign in National affairs, only; 

That the States are Sovereign in State affairs; 

That the Constitution is over all, defining the powers of 
the Union, and reserving the powers and rights of the 
States, and that in all doubtful questions we should lean not 
in favor of, but against Centralization. 

I said, I have struggled hard to resist this revolution. 
I have sought to do it by electing a Democratic President in 
1868, 1872, 1876 and 1880 four times. But that has failed. 
The revolution is going right on, with rapid strides. 

In my heart of hearts, I have sometimes thought no help 
can come from man. That God alone is sufficient for this 
great work. How He may interfere to save our institutions 
is not for human nature to know. But I have sometimes 
thought it possible, in spite of your disinclination to take 
the place, that the Convention now here, in its sore distress, 
not knowing what they can do, will nominate you. 

Should such a thing happen, then, my prayer to God is, 
that you may be chosen leader to bring back this Republican 
Party to the true idea of the Constitution, to the very ideas 
on which that party organized, and won its victory, in the 
election of your father in 1860. 

Enclosed I send you a statement of what in substance 
I would hope to see in your letter of acceptance on three 
great questions, which, I hope, if you are nominated, will ap- 
pear by the first of July, before the meeting of the Democratic 
Convention, of which I am to be a member from Wisconsin. 

We do not know what may happen. But should this 
happen, I think I should see a silver lining on the sky, and 
that my hopes of the future would brighten. To save Re- 



470 

publican and Constitutional Liberty is all I desire for my 
countrymen. I ask nothing for myself. If its salvation can 
come by a Eepublican President, I will rejoice. If it comes 
by a Democratic President, I will rejoice. If it could come 
by a President chosen by a whole people, I would rejoice still 
more. 

This letter is, of course, the confidential letter of a 
friend speaking from his heart to the honored son of his 
friend of many years. 

Sincerely yours, 

J. E. DOOLITTLE. 

Note: The above is a carbon copy of what purports to be a letter written 
to the Hon. Robert T. Lincoln, the son of the Martyred President, Abraham 
Lincoln, by the Hon. James R. Doolittle, for twelve years a United States 
Senator from Wisconsin, from 1857 to 1869. As the "carbon copy," which was 
found by the contributor among the private papers and documents of the late 
Ex-Senator Doolittle, was unsigned, I deemed it proper to ascertain if, In fact, 
such a letter had been received by Mr. Lincoln before offering it for publication. 
Also, if he would have any objection to its publication. The correspondence 
bearing upon the matter follows. Duane Mowry. 

2442 Chestnut Street, 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 

January 29, 1916. 
HON. EOBEET T. LINCOLN, 

Chicago, 111. 

My dear Mr. Lincoln: In a recent examination of the 
letters and documents of the late ex-Senator James E. Doo- 
little, I have found a typewritten copy of what purports to be 
a letter to you from Judge Doolittle. It is dated at Chicago 
as of June 3, 1884, and is marked " private and confidential." 
It deals with political and historical matters, and largely 
concerns your father, and, incidentally, yourself. It is, how- 
ever, of enough general interest to warrant its publication. 

I am writing to you to know if you have any objection 
to its publication? I do not make it a practice to publish 
letters written to the living, or written by the living, unless 
I have their permission to do so. I presume you know of this 
letter, and I need not identify it further or more particularly. 

Awaiting your reply, I am, 

Very sincerely yours, 

DUANE MOWKY. 



471 

Mr. Lincoln 's very prompt reply follows : 

New York, February 4, 1916. 

DUANE Mo WRY, Esquire, 

2442 Chestnut Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

My dear Mr. Mowry: Your favor respecting the letter 
of Senator Doolittle reaches me here via Chicago and Wash- 
ington. 

After thirty years I cannot recall any special letter from 
Senator Doolittle. Many such things have been destroyed. 
But if this one exists, it is now inaccessible, being in my old 
files in my closed-up house in Manchester, Vermont, where 
I cannot be until spring, either to look for the letter or for 
any preserved reply to it. 

It is my guess that I would have no objection to its pub- 
lication. I am to be at the Pullman Building, Chicago, next 
Monday and probably at least until Tuesday noon. If, there- 
fore, you will send me for inspection your typewritten copy, 
I will examine it and return it to you with my reply, which, 
as I have said, will probably be an assent to your wish. 

Very truly yours, 

EOBEBT T. LINCOLN. 

Following is the contributor's note inclosing the copy 
of Judge Doolittle 's letter above mentioned : 

Milwaukee, Wis., Feb. 6, 1916. 

HON. EOBEET T. LINCOLN, 
Pullman Building, 
Chicago, 111. 

My dear Mr. Lincoln : 

In accordance with the letter just received by special 
delivery from New York, I am enclosing the copy of Judge 
Doolittle 's letter for your inspection and direction. It is 
possible, in addition to the permission to publish this letter, 
I may wish to make use of it in connection with a biography 



472 

of Senator Doolittle, which the heirs of Mr. Doolittle desire 
to have me prepare. 

Thanking you in advance for your kindness in this matter, 
I beg to remain, Very truly yours, 

DUANE MOWRY. 

Mr. Lincoln's answer, returning the typewritten copy of 
Senator Doolittle 's letter, is as follows : 

The Pullman Company, 
Office of the Chairman. 

February 8, 1916. 
My dear Mr. Mowry: 

I found your letter of the 6th instant here on my arrival 
yesterday, but I have not been able to give it attention 
until now. 

I return to you the typewritten copy or draft of the letter 
from Senator Doolittle, addressed to me and dated June 3d, 
1884, which I have read with great interest and attention. It 
is so remarkable a letter that I am quite certain I should 
remember it if I had seen it before, but I do not recall it at 
all and I, therefore, have a very strong belief that it is a draft 
of a letter which he never sent to me. I have two possible 
ways of ascertaining my correctness as to this my own file 
of letters received in which I have retained anything that I 
regarded as worth keeping when I went over my files some 
years ago, and I think this letter from Senator Doolittle would 
have been put in my permanent file at that time ; next I have 
my letter press books in perfect order, and it is certain that 
I would have acknowledged to Senator Doolittle any such 
letter as this, and that a copy of my acknowledgment would 
be in its proper place. Unfortunately, all of these papers 
are in a special room of mine at my country place in Man- 
chester, Vermont, which is for the winter entirely closed up, 
no person living in the house, its oversight being entrusted 
to employes living in nearby cottages, and the situation is 
such that I cannot have a search in this matter made by any 
one there. So do not expect to return to Vermont until late 



473 

next April, and therefore a search in this matter cannot be 
made before that time. 

Feeling strongly, as I do, that Senator Doolittle never 
sent this letter to me, I feel, of course, that I have no right 
whatever to express an opinion as to its publication as a part 
of the work upon which you are engaged. 

It occurs to me that the question of the letter having been 
sent might be solved by yourself if you find among the Sena- 
tor 's papers any acknowledgment from me. If you do find 
such a letter and will send it to me I will take pleasure in 
writing you further in this matter. Believe me, 

Very truly yours, 

EOBEET T. LINCOLN. 
Duane Mowry, Esq., 

2442 Chestnut Street, 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

The contributor, not being quite satisfied with Mr. Lin- 
coln's very courteous and full reply, sent him the following: 

Milwaukee, Wis., February 15, 1916. 

My dear Mr. Lincoln : 

I have your favor of the 8th inst., with the Doolittle letter 
inclosed, or, as I believe it to be, the carbon copy of a letter 
directed to you by Judge Doolittle. 

Since receiving your letter I have made a further search 
among the letters and documents of the late Senator Doolittle 
for the purpose of finding some evidence of the acknowledg- 
ment of the letter from you, but without success. I do not 
claim to have all of Judge Doolittle 's private papers and cor- 
respondence. But I have many hundreds of these documents. 
Several hundred have already been presented to historical 
societies by myself. I am sure, however, that one from you 
was not included in the list. 

I agree with you that the letter is important enough to 
have elicited a reply of some kind. I hope, when you return 
to your summer home in Vermont, you will feel inclined to 



474 

make an investigation of your letters and of your letter press 
books, with a view of establishing the existence of both. 

I might add, in passing, that the Doolittle letter sounds 
like the great commoner. He was a strong party man, but 
above and beyond party fealty was his lofty and high-minded 
patriotism. It was his thought that you might have been the 
man of the hour for his country's good. This letter clearly 
foreshadows that idea. Although a Democrat in 1884, he 
would have preferred the success of a Republican presidential 
candidate, if such success would have spelled greater advan- 
tage to his country. 

But I should not inflict this long letter on your attention. 

Trusting to hear from you presently, I beg to remain, 

Very truly yours, 

DUANE MOWEY. 
Hon. Eobert T. Lincoln, 

The Pullman Company, 
Chicago. 

The final letter from Mr. Lincoln incloses a letter press 
copy of Mr. Lincoln's acknowledgment of the receipt of Sena- 
tor Doolittle 's letter, which is as follows : 

Washington, D. C., June 9, 1884. 
My dear Sir : 

I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of June 
3d, which I have read with great interest. 

I have not at any time supposed that the contingency 
would occur upon which your friendly suggestions were based, 
and I am not at all disappointed. Please accept the assur- 
ances of my appreciation of the kind sentiments you express. 

I am, Very truly yours, 

EOBBET T. LINCOLN. 
HON. J. R. DOOLITTLE, 
Chicago, HI. 



475 

A part of Mr. Lincoln's final letter to the contributor, 
under date of May 20, 1916, is as follows : 

I have delayed acknowledging your kindness so that I 
might upon getting here (in his Vermont home) look up my 
files in regard to the letter of Senator Doolittle. I have now 
done so and am not able to find that letter. It was probably 
destroyed with an immense number of old letters and papers 
when I broke up my residence in Chicago about five years 
ago, but I find in one of my letter books a letter to Senator 
Doolittle which acknowledges the receipt of a letter which is 
with little doubt the one of which you sent me a copy. I 
enclose you a copy of my reply from my letter book. Senator 
Doolittle 's letter to me was dated June 3rd, and my acknowl- 
edgment of it June 9th. I find upon examination that the 
Eepublican National Convention in 1884 was held in Chicago 
on June 6th, Mr. Elaine being nominated on the fourth ballot, 
and the reference in my note to my lack of disappointment 
is explained by the fact that the number of votes necessary 
to a choice was something over four hundred, and that the 
highest vote for me was eight, and that six of my ardent sup- 
porters probably went over to Mr. Elaine on the last ballot. 

Believe me, Very truly yours, 

EGBERT T. LINCOLN. 
Duane Mowry, Esq. 



THE INDIAN BORDER WAR OF 1876. 

BY MRS. CYNTHIA J. CAPRON. 

(From letters written by her husband, Lieut. Thaddeus 
H. Capron.) 

On the 7th of April of the centennial year a lieutenant of 
the Ninth Infantry was traveling northward from Cheyenne. 
The road was muddy and the weather cold, yet the family in 
the ambulance was in luxurious circumstances compared with 
the parties of men on their way to the Black Hills, who were 
passed every now and then. Most of them were on foot, with 
their baggage on wagons, some of which had been loaded too 
heavily and had broken down. 

There was but one house the first twenty-five miles, and 
there they changed mules. The road to Chug Water was 
barren of interest, except the view of Chimney Bock. There 
was a small settlement at Chug Water, and the ambulance 
arrived there at 9 o 'clock the first night, and at Fort Laramie 
before dark the second day. Hospitable doors were opened 
for the reception of the lieutenant and family, and old ac- 
quaintances welcomed them. In a few days they were domi- 
ciled in the best set of available quarters and the officers and 
ladies of the garrison called. 

The commanding officer, General Bradley, had been de- 
tailed to assist in representing the army at the Centennial, 
and he with the members of his delightful family soon left, 
leaving Colonel Townsend in command. 

For a little time things go on as usual in time of peace. 
The band comes out to guard mounting in the morning and the 
children play around, enjoying the maneuvers and the music ; 
and again the band plays for an hour before sundown. Then 
the cannon boom announces the hour of "retreat" and 
simultaneously the flag is hauled down, and the sun disap- 
pears from the western horizon. 

If there is no school the children recite their lessons to 
their parents. In mild weather people almost live on their 

476 



477 

porches, and generally, the houses were in those days built 
around a square the parade ground each house being in 
full view of the others. 

There was a sense of nearness and a feeling of sociability 
which must be missed by the veterans now stationed in the 
large posts of the present day. 

Fort Laramie is close to the Laramie Eiver and not far 
from its confluence with the North Platte. There were adobe 
walls, with a corner house having small opening to shoot from, 
built by a fur company before the post was established. This 
was now the "corrall." Aside from this, there was nothing 
like fortifications at Fort Laramie. 

There had been an expedition against the Indians in the 
winter before, which owing to the very cold weather at that 
time (30 degrees below zero), did not accomplish what was 
expected. Colonel Stanton, who had gone as a volunteer, and 
Captain Eagan were the heroes of the expedition. 

April 9th General Crook telegraphed that he should pro- 
tect the road to the Black Hills, which was equal to a notifica- 
tion to the soldiers that they would have a summer in tents. 
Indians had begun to kill people on the road to the Hills, and 
just before, Mr. Brown of the firm of Brown & Gilmore, was 
shot on the stage about seventy-five miles from Fort Laramie. 
He had gone to the Hills to establish a stage line and was on 
his way back. 

The slaughter house and corrall at Bed Cloud had been 
burned by Indians the week before. Preparations were at 
this time being made to send out a large expedition. Sup- 
plies were being sent to Fort Fetterman, eighty-one miles 
northwest of Fort Laramie, where the expedition was to 
start out. 

Scouting parties were constantly going out from Fort 
Laramie and escort duty was often in demand. Finally the 
order came detailing Companies C, G- and H of the Ninth 
Infantry to go on the expedition. Lieutenant Capron moved 
his family from " Bedlam" to a more desirable set of quar- 
ters, which had been vacated, and on May 22d he started 
for Fetterman with the three companies of infantry, com- 
manded by Captains Burt, Burroughs and Munson, and Lieu- 
tenant Robertson and Dr. Albert Hartsuff. 



478 

After marching over a rough country, some of the hills 
being bare of vegetation, and finding sage brush, stunted 
pines and groves of cottonwood trees at intervals, our infantry 
was joined by the cavalry under Colonel Eoyall, May 27th, 
opposite Fort Fetterman. There was no communication by 
mail between Laramie and Fetterman, although there was by 
telegraph. The cavalry left Laramie after the infantry, the 
officers calling on the families of those gone before and offer- 
ing to take letters. 

The command which left Fetterman May 29th consisted 
of ten companies of the Third Cavalry under Major Evans 
and five companies of the Second Cavalry under Major Noyes, 
all commanded by Colonel Eoyall. Three companies of the 
Ninth were under Major Burt, and Captain Luhn's and Cap- 
tain Caine 's companies of the Fourth Infantry, all commanded 
by Colonel Chambers. (This was written a number of years 
ago.) Of the officers mentioned in Lieutenant Capron's diary 
and letters one was Captain J. G. Bourke, aide to General 
Crook. He wrote much upon anthropology and folk lore and 
was president of the American Folk Lore Society of Phila- 
delphia. Some of his works were "The Snake Dance of the 
Moqui," "An Apache Campaign" and "On the Border with 
Crook." He died in June, 1896. 

Another aide of General Crook's was Lieutenant Walter 
S. Schuyler, late colonel of the Forty-sixth Infantry. 

There was Lieutenant Lemly, now a retired captain; 
Lieutenant Emmett Crawford, beloved of his comrades, who 
was slain by Mexican troops in 1886; Lieutenant Charles 
King, adjutant of the Fifth Cavalry, now General King, the 
famous author. 

General Crook died in 1890, regretted by all. Colonel 
Eoyall died a few years ago. Captain Guy V. Henry, who 
was seriously wounded, lived to be a general and governor 
of Porto Eico. He died October 27, 1899. General Merritt 
has been retired, a major general. General S. S. Sunmer, 
now in the Philippines, was in 1876 the captain of a company 
in the Fifth Cavalry, which did good service. Captain Mont- 
gomery, now a major on the retired list, was also a captain 
in that regiment. His company, seated upon their gray 



479 

horses, was universally admired; handsome captain, a fit 
commander. 

The good "Old Munson," as he was affectionately called, 
has joined the majority. The story of how, at the battle of 
Slim Butts, he at the risk of his life, rescued a squaw from 
among the flying bullets, has been told in print more than 
once. 

Other officers mentioned are : Dewees, Andruss, Andrews, 
Furey, Q. M., Stanton, P. M., Foster, Luhn, Noyes, Nickerson, 
Burke, Seton, Sibley, Kingsbury, Caine, Carpenter, Van Vliet, 
Meinhold, Tobey, Vroom, Davis, Bubb and Rockefeller. 

Reporters Strahorn, for the New York Times and Rocky 
Mountain News ; Wasson, of the Alta California ; Davenport, 
New York Herald; McMillan, Inter Ocean, and Finerty, of 
the Chicago Times. 

At this time the Cheyenne papers represented the road 
to the Black Hills as guarded well, and a stream of fortune 
hunters was going through their city. Indians were commit- 
ting depredations on the Sydney and Loup River routes as 
well as this, probably the same who drew rations at the agen- 
cies. Some of the most loyal Indians at Red Cloud agency 
stood guard every night for fear the northern hostiles would 
burn the agency buildings, as they threatened to do if they 
did not go with them. Red Cloud was supposed to remain 
only to get rations, guns and ammunition for the hostile 
Indians. There was no restriction as to ammunition. They 
could have all they could buy. 

It was supposed that General Crook had a very narrow 
escape from a war party after he left Red Cloud agency, 
where he had tried in vain to enlist some Indians as soldiers 
to go with him on the expedition. Lieutenant Griffith and 
family expected to leave Red Cloud with General Crook, but 
were detained till nearly an hour after the general's party 
left, and could not overtake it. They took into the ambulance 
four of the general's escort, left on the way for them, and soon 
after met the mail carrier and asked him how far ahead the 
general was, and he said about a mile. A little farther on 
they met another man on horseback. This was ten or fifteen 
miles from Red Cloud. 



480 

The next morning after they broke camp a courier arrived 
from Red Cloud with dispatches to tell General Crook that 
the mail carrier had been found dead a short distance from 
where Lieutenant Griffith met him. The mail was not dis- 
turbed, but the horse was taken. The other man they had 
met was missing, but his horse was found. It was thought 
a party of Indians was after General Crook, as signal fires 
were sent up when he started in the morning. 

Lieutenant Capron writes home: "Camp on Tongue 
River, June 8, 1876. We are making a halt here for today at 
least, and I avail myself of the first opportunity to write to 
the dear ones at home. I have been in excellent health and 
hope it may continue, and I return to you, ere many weeks, 
sound and hearty, if I am sunburnt and ragged. 

"At Fetterman we were reduced to a wall tent to each 
company (the men in shelter tents), therefore Captain Mun- 
son and I tent together for the trip. During the evening at 
our first camp quite a number called upon us and we enter- 
tained them as well as our circumstances would admit, invit- 
ing them to take seats on the ground in front of our domicile. 
General Crook established his headquarters with our part 
of the command. Our march was over exceedingly poor 
country, there being little but sage brush and alkali upon the 
surface. Burt and Munson took their twenty-mile march on 
foot and were a little tired upon arriving in camp. We reached 
the South Fork of the Cheyenne Eiver at 3 p. m., where we 
found a very good camping ground, with plenty of wood and 
water which was strongly tinctured with alkali. The night 
was cold and Captain and I decided to consolidate our bed- 
ding and sleep together. In the morning it was snowing. We 
left camp at 5 :30, our company leading and I walking. 

* * The first casualty of the trip occurred that day. A man 
of the cavalry accidentally shot himself, receiving a wound of 
which he died the night before reaching our present camp 
and was buried here last evening, the ten companies of the 
Third Cavalry turning out and attending the funeral. 

"At Buffalo Wallow we found good grazing for our ani- 
mals and plenty of alkali water. We have found very little 
game so far an antelope or sage hen now and then. 



481 

''June 1st was a cold and disagreeable day. C. Company 
being with the train, the Captain and I rode our animals and 
the men occasionally rode on the wagons. We reached a high 
divide which the road followed for a long distance. From it 
we could see the Big Horn Mountains on one side covered 
with snow, and on the other Pumpkin Buttes, a succession of 
round hills apparently nearly flat on top. From their peculiar 
formation and their height they can be distinguished a long 
distance away. We could see Laramie Peak at the left. At 
1 :30 we camped on a fork of Powder River at the point known 
as Antelope Springs. Burt, who was out hunting, stated that 
he found a fresh trail of a small party of Indians, about fifteen 
in number. The two companies of the Third returned, not 
having found any practicable route shortening our present 
road. 

"June 2d our road led down the valley of the Dry Powder 
for thirteen miles. This stream or dry run is quite heavily 
timbered with cottonwood and the valley is about one-fourth 
mile in width, while rugged high bluffs in most places form 
its boundaries. Occasionally we found water holes, and in 
one place found coal in the bed of the creek and also in the 
bank. 

"After leaving this valley we crossed over a succession 
of hills for about three miles, coming into the valley of Powder 
River about one mile below Fort Reno, which is located on a 
table land on the opposite side of the river. The location was 
a good one from a military point of view, but it is a bleak, 
barren country, with nothing in natural scenery to attract, 
the water more or less alkali, and in the days of the post and 
garrison it was unsafe to leave without an escort. It must 
have been anything but a desirable place to be stationed. 
Little now remains of the post a few adobe walls and the 
numerous graves of those who died from disease or fell vic- 
tims to the Indians. 

"General Crook rather expected to find 200 Crow Indians 
at this place and had sent two companies of cavalry ahead 
of us to meet them; but we found no Crow Indians, and the 
general sent his guides to their country, distant about 200 
miles. They are expected to meet us on Tongue River. I was 



482 

on duty as "officer of the day" and was awake and watchful 
at night. On the morning of the 3d, the march before us being 
a long one, an early start was taken. The country we passed 
over was a nice rolling prairie, with a fair growth of grass 
and no sage brush. We were nearing the mountains and the 
scenery was grand, reminding me of California. We camped 
at Crazy Woman's Creek, having marched twenty-six miles. 
Captain Munson indulged in the walking exercise and upon 
arriving in camp was pretty well used up, at least for the day. 
I walked about one-half the distance. In the afternoon I was 
taken with sick headache, and till about 2 in the morning did 
not sleep. Upon waking found myself quite weak and mis- 
erable. I kept as quiet as possible during the day, marching 
with the command on the back of my pony. 

"We continued our way to Fort Phil Kearney, the road 
leading but a few miles from the foothills at the base of the 
Big Horn Mountains. Antelope were seen quite often trotting 
over the hills and standing on the highest points watching 
our movements. A few were killed, but more escaped the 
shots of the few hunters we had out. 

"We arrived at Clear Fork Creek at 2 p. m., having 
marched twenty-two miles. During the day it was quite warm 
and often a glance was cast toward the snow clad peaks, with 
a wish for a few moments in closer proximity. Clear Fork 
is a beautiful stream with swift current and rocky bottom. 
It was the first good water since leaving Fetterman. Fish 
were quite plenty. They could not be caught with hook and 
line and the men resorted to other means shooting, seining 
and spearing. 

* ' I sat on the bank of the stream for half an hour, watch- 
ing the water bound its way over the rocky bed. Its music 
cheered me and I went to sleep that night listening to its 
murmur. Was awakened before 4 o'clock by Boyer announc- 
ing that breakfast was ready, and at 4:30 we were again on 
the road. 

"From the heights a beautiful view presented itself. On 
one side the snow-capped mountains and foothills covered 
with bright verdure, and on the other a beautiful sheet of 
water nestling among the hills. At this point we made a halt 



483 

so that all might fully enjoy it. Our road then led us through 
little valleys covered with fine grass, amidst which were a 
profusion of wild flowers ; then high hills, the ascent of which 
was gradual, but of considerable length, which I fully realized 
as I was leading the column and company on foot. 

"At last we rounded a prominent point and in a beautiful 
little valley we saw the remains of Fort Phil Kearney, of 
which very little was left. A portion of the charred stockade 
and a few posts at the corner of an old brick yard, with a huge 
pile of broken brick; the sweeps and boxes for mixing the 
clay; and last the cemetery, which contains all that remains 
of those who met their fate at the Fetterman massacre. They 
lie buried in one large grave eighty-one! The vandals had 
broken down the monument of brick that was erected to mark 
their resting place, but the immense grave had not been 
disturbed. The place was one of the worst that could have 
been selected for a military post, as it was almost surrounded 
by high hills, from which the Indians could fire into the post. 

''After bathing in the cool stream and donning clean 
clothes, we felt like new beings, and Munson and I started off 
on our round to call on the officers of the cavalry camp. 
Returning to our tent at 10 o 'clock, we were soon asleep. The 
announcement that breakfast was ready came at 4 o'clock." 

After a hasty toilet they emerged from their tent and 
partook of broiled buffalo steak, fried potatoes, hot biscuit 
and coffee. At 5 they were on the road and making for Tongue 
Eiver. 

Over the ridge was the rock that marked the spot where 
Fetterman 's command perished; and where it is said Colonel 
Fetterman and another officer shot each other. The position 
was a strong one, but the poor fellows were there with little 
or no ammunition, surrounded by thousands of Indians. 

Lieutenant Capron wrote: "Their fate has taught us a 
lasting lesson, by which all will profit, and the care which we 
now take in having ammunition in abundance will prevent 
such a catastrophe again." This the 8th of June, and the 
Ouster massacre on the 25th by the same Indians. Crook's 
command was pursuing and battled with on the 17th of the 
same month. It will be seen in the account of the battle that 



484 

the cavalry escaped Ouster's fate by being recalled after they 
had started for the village. 

The road followed the direction of Eeno Creek and after- 
wards Prairie Dog Creek. They went into camp on a plateau 
with plenty of fine grazing and wood and water. During the 
day buffalo had been seen and some were killed. Major Noyes 
had left with an escort on a fishing excursion, but not finding 
the command that night he "camped in the country," as one 
of his men expressed it. During his absence he saw several 
elk and four grizzlies. 

They were now in the very heart of the Indian country, 
yet they found no late Indian signs, and up to the time of 
their arrival at Tongue River could not be positive that an 
Indian had been seen. This was explained later when their 
large deserted camp on the Eosebud was found. 

In coming down a hill near Phil Kearney, Sergeant 
O'Leary of Company C, Ninth Infantry, was tipped over in 
an ambulance and had his back hurt and an arm broken. With 
true soldierly pride he had walked every step of the way 
until this unlucky morning, and being quite unwell the sur- 
geon ordered him into the ambulance. Nothing to do but obey 
orders in the army. 

The first night after arriving on the Tongue River an 
Indian appeared on the bluffs across the river from camp 
and went through a harangue, only one question of which 
could be understood whether there were any half -breeds or 
Crows with them. At first they thought he might be one of 
the friendly Crows they were expecting. There were all kinds 
of conjectures, but they finally concluded that he was a Sioux 
brave showing his daring in this way. Some feared the scouts 
had been captured and that he had come to brag of it. Scouts 
had been sent to friendly Indians, and Crows, Snakes and 
Utes were expected. These allies were to find out where the 
villages were and assist in fighting. 

The afternoon of the 9th at six o'clock, just after in- 
spection, the pickets, who were on the bluffs the same side of 
the river, but further down, commenced firing and signaling 
to the command. They had anticipated an attack from this 
direction, if there was one, and at first they were puzzled to 
tell in what direction the Indians were. Then they saw over 



485 

the river on the opposite bluffs several Indians who fired into 
the camp. He says: "The leaden missives came very near, 
but did no damage at first: Companies C, G and H were soon 
formed and counted off by fours, as if for drill or dress 
parade, and marched to the support of the pickets on the hills. 
As they marched along in good style and until they took a 
position in the hills, the Indians kept, up a strong fire upon 
them, but for some reason no one was hit. Four companies 
of Cavalry mounted and crossed the river above camp, then 
dismounting they deployed a skirmish line, and advanced to 
the bluffs driving the enemy from his place in fine style. Two 
Cavalry men were slightly wounded, and two horses in our 
camp ; one mule in the Cavalry camp. ' ' This little affair gave 
those who were inclined to be timid great confidence, and 
they were confirmed in the belief some people had those days, 
that a few white men could whip a large number of Indians. 

Upon the troops leaving Fort Laramie, one captain who 
did not go, said that with his company he could repulse all 
the Indians who might attack him. When General Crook sent 
couriers with dispatches to Fetterman or Laramie, one letter 
from each officer was allowed, and a few from the private 
soldiers. These opportunities were very rare and one time 
the officers mail was forgotten when a messenger was sent. 
They soon raised a purse of $75 with which another courier 
was hired. 

At Fort Laramie reports often came in of Indians going 
from the agencies to join the hostiles. At one time agency 
Indians said there were 2700 lodges with Sitting Bull, that 
Sitting Bull sent his compliments to General Crook and Gen- 
eral Crook would have no trouble finding him; to just follow 
the Indians; that there would be a midnight attack upon the 
troops every night after they left Fetterman. At another 
time Sitting Bull sent word to Red Cloud agency that he had 
plenty of reinforcements to fight Crook, but if they found 
they had not, they would turn back and destroy everything 
north of the Platte river the agencies first. 

Towards the middle of June some officers went down to 
Cheyenne to attend a court martial. They stopped at Philips ' 
ranch one night, and while there, about forty Indians drove 
off a lot of stock from a ranch a mile north of them. 



486 

When General Sheridan came through Fort Laramie he 
was very anxious about Crook. 

The news of the attack of the 9th came after he had left 
for Bed Cloud, and the dispatch was sent to him. He visited 
the military post but. not the agency. Upon this trip he saw 
but one Indian, and this satisfied the General that the Indians 
had gone north. Upon his return to Laramie he ordered the 
companies of the 5th Cavalry, that were there awaiting orders, 
to go nearby to the Black Hills, and then strike off for Powder 
Eiver towards General Crook. It was supposed before this 
that they were going to Eed Cloud. 

General Sheridan left for the east June 20th, and the 
next day another dispatch came from General Crook, and as 
was customary, an orderly carried it to all the officers' quar- 
ters so that the families of those in the field might read it, 
as well as others who were interested. This is an exact copy : 
"Snakes and crows joined General Crook 15th inst. Crook 
left next day for Sioux encampment with four days' rations. 
Infantry all mounted went with him. Gibbon is near Sioux 
encampment. Crook hopes to meet him and Terry there and 
have a grand time. Gruard, Eenshaw, and Big Bat, got 
through 0. K. Came back with 180 Crows. ' ' 

This was the expedition which encountered the Indians 
and fought them on the Eosebud June 17th, and returned to 
their camps the 19th. 

The scouts, Frank Gruard and Louis Eichard (pro- 
nounced Eeshaw) were quite famous, and did good service 
throughout the summer. 

Early in June Spotted Tail went through Laramie on 
his way to Denver. Whatever his chief business was he took 
back a large quantity of ammunition; but this was not known 
till later in the summer. 

The remains of his daughter and those of another member 
of his tribe had reposed for years on two high platforms near 
the hospital. At this time it was not known whether Spotted 
Tail was really friendly to us. 

From a letter I wrote June 23rd: ''Gen. Crook's forces 
camped on the field the night of their fight with the Sioux; 
but owing to short rations, they were obliged to return to 
their camp. This is unfortunate as nothing less than exterm- 



487 

ination will prevent Indians from claiming the victory. A 
decisive battle might have sufficed, but now the soldiers will 
have to be out all summer, hard at work, riding in hot 
weather, enduring hunger and thirst, and fighting warriors 
who number three for every soldier, and every one mounted 
and armed as well as the soldier. 

No one can accuse the government of partiality for the 
white man on the frontier; for through its Indian traders it 
has supplied for years the best arms and ammunition to the 
Indians, so that their camps are perfect magazines. 

The Sioux chief Spotted Tail was at this post a few days 
ago. When he passed through on his way to Cheyenne he 
said he was going to Denver, and told several different stories 
about the object of his journey. On his return, he sent the 
remains of his daughter home to the agency, which some 
consider a sign of future hostility. 

His daughter requested him to be always the white 
man's friend, and that she might be left near the fort, where 
her spirit could hear the martial music. He has been friendly 
and has kept most of his people from the war path. He says 
he told Sitting Bull two years ago, he might live with him, 
but he would not, and he doesn't care now if Gen. Crook does 
whip him. 

Spotted Tail is the best representative of his nation, as 
to sagacity, dignity and good manners. When invited to dine 
with a gentleman he regards all the niceties of etiquette as 
strictly as the gentleman himself. He was dressed in green 
pantaloons trimmed at the side with Indian ornamentation; 
a pair of small moccasins elaborately beaded, a large, dark 
blue blanket tidily disposed, having a white stripe down the 
middle of the back. His hair is smooth and black. One of 
the ladies invited him into her house and although he must 
have understood what was said, he answered only through an 
interpreter. Several ladies went in to see him, and made a 
good deal of him, giving him some polite compliments which 
pleased him. They asked how the ladies at the agency were 
when he left. He said the ladies had never invited him to 
their house, nor had they ever shaken hands with him. That 
seemed to imply that he didn't know how they were. 



488 

I asked if he remembered going out with Lieut. Capron 
after ponies. He said yes, and he hadn't found them yet; 
the white men had taken a good many of his ponies, but he 
didn't care. 

Eight companies of the 5th Cavalry left yesterday for 
the North. Buffalo Bill goes with them as guide. 

I remember his fine figure as he stood by the Sutler store, 
straight and slender, with his scarlet shirt belted in, and his 
long hair distinguishing him as the well known character 
so much more widely known since. 

When Gen. Crook started out June 16th with cavalry 
and mounted infantry, it was to strike into the hills and 
overtake the Indians; so wagons and baggage were left in 
camp. The first day they saw large herds of buffalo. They 
camped about eight o'clock on the Rosebud. 

The next morning they started with the expectation of 
making a fifty mile march but very soon Indian signs were 
discovered in the shape of cloths nailed to trees (which meant 
fight), and in a few minutes their Indians reported that they 
had found some Indians, and went out to skirmish with 
them. 

In the meantime the command was halted, and ready for 
whatever might occur. Lieut. Capron writes : ' * The General 
waited for developments in order to make his disposition of 
troops. The developments soon came in the shape of a 
general attack upon us by the Sioux. They commenced the 
attack upon our front, but in a short time they were in all 
directions. 

About 8 :30 the battle fairly opened ; the troops advancing 
in different directions to hold positions and repulse the attack. 
It was repulsed, our positions held, and assistance was given 
at a point where very strong resistance was made. Nine 
companies of the cavalry were made a party to go and charge 
the village supposed to be located about ten miles distant. 

' * Our command of mounted infantry were at first ordered 
to go with this party, but were afterwards ordered elsewhere. 
Burt and Burrowes were ordered to cover the withdrawal of 
some of the cavalry companies, in order to get them ready 
for the trip to the village. 



489 

' ' They made a nice advance and took the position they 
were ordered to proceed to. Two companies of the 4th In- 
fantry and Co. C were ordered to drive the Indians from a 
position in our front. We deployed, and made an advance, 
driving the Indians for nearly two miles. Gen. Crook's horse 
was shot under him when near our line. The party going 
after the village was ordered back, as the entire force of 
Indians was massing in front of their village, and it was 
thought that they would not be strong enough to maintain 
themselves. We fought nearly six hours. Col. Henry of the 
3rd Cavalry is seriously wounded. Our loss was nine killed 
and twenty-one wounded. Loss of Sioux estimated to be 
one hundred." 

Letter of June 25th Camp on Wind River: "We left 
our camp on Goose Creek the 21st. C. Co. and Luhns of the 
4th are on our way to Fetterman with the supply train (104 
wagons) and have with us the sick and wounded. Col. 
Chambers is in command. We travel with great care, and 
keep a continual lookout. Going back, we are to have six 
more companies five infantry and one cavalry." 

Here was a week's travel in army wagons, for the 
wounded men, and when they reached Fetterman there were 
83 miles more to Rock Creek Station on the Union Pacific. 
When they returned to camp after the battle there were one 
and a half days of being dragged behind horses on small 
trees arranged so that a man could lie upon them. There 
was no alternative, for at any time, the whole command might 
be following after the Indians. Col. Henry, they said, bore 
all this without a murmur, and I have no doubt the others 
also did. 

From diary of June 27th: 

"Capt. Nickerson and I left the train and started ahead. 
When about twenty miles out, Nickerson being quite tired, 
I left him when within four miles of Fetterman and went on 
to see about ferry boat, and get news from home. Crossed 
but once when the cable broke, and no crossing except in a 
small boat. The wounded were all ferried over in this 
manner, and officers had to go to and from camp and post 
in the small boat. DeLaney has given up his leave and joins 
company 40. Expect him tonight." 



490 

That night at 8 o'clock, with three men of his company 
who volunteered to go (Sergeant Butler, Dillon and Gran- 
berry), Lieutenant Caproii left, riding on horseback until 
morning, when they hid themselves and rested three hours. 
They arrived at Fort Laramie at half past 2 in the afternoon, 
having ridden eighty-one miles in eighteen and a half hours 
without a change of horses. Having received the news of the 
death of his two-years-old son, he made this special trip home. 

While Lieutenant Capron was in Fort Laramie a telegram 
came, of which the following is a copy: "Agent telegraphs 
from Eed Cloud that Indians have come in and say that an- 
other fight has taken place between northern Indians and 
some troops, not Crooks, and that during the fight a village 
was entirely destroyed. (For General Crook.) " 

When the news of the Custer fight reached Fort Laramie 
it was surmised that the report the Indians had given out 
of victory for the government troops had been for the pur- 
pose of leading Crook into an attack, for which they would 
be prepared. 

An account of the Custer massacre, giving the statement 
of a trapper who says he was a prisoner in the camp of Sitting 
Bull and saw the fight, I copy from an old paper. Eidgely was 
taken prisoner in the Black Hills, but claimed to come from 
Fort Garry, and on account of being a British subject was 
treated kindly. He escaped just after the battle. Quotation: 

"Eidgely says that Sitting Bull organized his forces to 
drive the miners out of the Black Hills. Mounted couriers 
from Sitting Bull's camp had for eight days watched every 
move of the military previous to Custer 's attack. Eidgely 
says the Indians observed every movement of Custer 's force, 
its division into small detachments being noted with mani- 
festations of extreme delight. Ambuscades were at once pre- 
pared by the Indians, and Eidgely states that while the 
Indians stood ready for the attack, many of them climbed on 
the side hills overlooking Custer 's line of march. 

"The Indian camp was divided by a bluff or ridge, the 
point of which ran towards the Eosebud and in the direction 
of one of the available fords on the river. The Indians had 
crossed the river to camp by this ford, and Custer had fol- 
lowed their trail down to the water's edge. 



491 

1 'Prom this point of observation there were but twenty- 
five tepees visible to Ouster, but there were seventy-five double 
tepees behind the bluffs not to be seen by the soldiers. Ouster 
attacked the smaller village and was immediately met by a 
force of 1,500 or 2,000 Indians in regular order of battle. 

"Ridgely says he stood on the side of a hill where he had 
a complete view of the battle, which was not more than a mile 
and a half distant. Ouster began the fight in a ravine near the 
ford, and fully one-half his command seemed to be unhorsed 
at the first fire. Then the soldiers retreated towards the hill 
in the rear and were shot down on the way with surprising 
rapidity, the commanding officer falling from his horse in the 
middle of the engagement, which commenced at 11 a. m. and 
did not last more than forty-five minutes. 

"After the massacre the Indians returned to camp with 
six prisoners, and delirious with joy over their success. 

"Ridgely says Ouster's command had been slaughtered 
before a shot was fired by Reno's force attacking the lower 
end of camp about 2 p. m. " 

Lieutenant Capron returned from Fort Laramie to Fet- 
terman, making the ride in one day and night. When he re- 
turned to the road after a rest in the hills where he was hiding 
with his men, he found a fresh trail of about twelve Indians 
who had passed since he had left, the road. 

He writes : ' ' Col. Chambers informed me soon after my 
arrival that he wanted me as adjutant of the infantry bat- 
tallion for the expedition and I have this duty to perform 
instead of company duty. In many respects it will be far 
pleasanter and I consider it something of an honor to be 
selected for the position, having as we have a command of 
ten companies." 

There was some delay in getting the stores ferried over 
the river but the train left July 4th. 

July 8th he says: ''Louis Richard joined us today and 
brought us fearful news, that of the death of Ouster and most 
of his command. At first, we could hardly believe that such 
news was true. A few hours after, were received another 
dispatch confirming the first in most particulars. We all 
have confidence in our commanding general, and feel that he 



492 

will be careful in his movements, and look after his 
command. ' ' 

July 9th : * ' The command was quite melancholy, and the 
topic of conversation was the loss of General Ouster and his 
command. Louis Bichard says that, on Monday the 3d, twelve 
Cheyennes made an attack on five men, and without doubt it 
was the party whose trail I came across as I went on the road 
after my rest. ' ' 

"July 11 When near Phil Kearney we saw in the dis- 
tance a column of horsemen, whether Indians or Cavalry we 
could not make out. They proved to be Wells ' and Eawolles ' 
companies of the 2nd Cavalry, which had been ordered out to 
meet the train and assist in guarding it through the camp. 
We learned from them that Sibley and Finerty of the Times, 
had been out with a scouting party of twenty-five soldiers 
and two guides. A number of Indians attacked them, and 
they were obliged to make their escape on foot, taking to the 
timber and rocks, and fortunately getting through to camp." 

They arrived at General Crook's camp on Goose Creek 
July 13th, and many came out to meet them. Here the scenery 
was fine mountains in the background covered with dense 
forests of pine, and nearer, cliffs of granite several hundred 
feet in heighth. On the 24th word was received that the 5th 
Cavalry would not come as soon as expected. Washakie, a 
very fine looking and intelligent Indian, was there with 220 
of his Snake Indians. Communication with General Terry 
was carried on by means of couriers, and cooperation planned. 
All was ready, and they were only waiting for the 5th Cavalry. 

The General became very uneasy. General Crook's reply, 
accepting the offer to send him the 5th Cavalry, did not reach 
Laramie until July 17th. Just about this time, it was at 
Bawhide Creek, twenty miles from Laramie. 

Supposing General Merritt was too far away to know of 
their movements, a party of from six to eight hundred Chey- 
enne Indians left Bed Cloud for the north. General Merritt 
was notified, and he intercepted them, turning them back, 
and following to their agency. After this there was some de- 
lay, General Merritt fearing trouble at Bed Cloud. He finally 
started about the time that General Crook received word of 
their delay. 



493 

A newspaper item tells how the Indians were located. 
"It was in the Sioux campaign, twenty-one years ago. Stan- 
ton (now General Stanton) with General Merritt and his com- 
mand, had travelled twenty-five miles that day. It was mid- 
day at Eawhide Buttes, when a dispatch from Sheridan over- 
took them. He ordered Merritt to discover at once what the 
Indians at Eed Cloud Agency were doing. Sheridan under- 
stood that they were making war medicine, and about to leave 
the agency and join Sitting Bull. Red Cloud Agency was just 
an even hundred miles from Eawhide Buttes as the crow 
flies, without trail or path between. 

Stanton with twenty-five miles already behind him that 
day, took four of his scouts and started. They rode in on the 
Eed Cloud Agency at midnight. They had covered the one 
hundred miles in just twelve hours half of it in the dark." 

The story of the surprise of the war party on their way 
to join Sitting Bull by the 5th Cavalry, as told by General 
King in the Chicago Inter Ocean, March 31, 1889, is the most 
brilliant bit of word painting I ever read. As it appears in 
" Campaigning with Crook" it is toned down and not so 
striking. 

Meanwhile General Crook's command was patiently 
waiting. 

The last of July, clouds of grasshoppers filled the air, 
and crawled on the ground as in the year 1874 in Nebraska. 
They remained only a short time, however. 

" August 2nd, scouts came in with the information that 
the Indians were not far away, below them. The same day 
others came with the news that Gen. Merritt was approach- 
ing, and that all were well at Laramie but very anxious. 
Orders were issued to move the next day, which they did, and 
joined Gen. Merritt 's command at their camp that night. 

The 5th Cavalry and 9th Infantry had served together 
before, and there was a pleasant reunion and talk of Arizona 
campaigns. 

Captains Mason, Montgomery, Price, Hayes, and Wood- 
son, were among the officers who called at the infantry camp 
that evening. 



494 

"One day just before the news came of the Ouster 
tragedy, there were but thirteen men reported for duty at 
Fort Laramie. 

1 'Three companies were stationed there nominally, but 
escort duty, and guarding the road, and going after Indians, 
sometimes left a very small garrison. 

There was a long time after this, that no one knew 
where the main body of Indians was, and it seemed quite 
possible that Sitting Bull might make a raid as he threatened 
to do. As the soldiers were in the North he could capture 
a post full of supplies for his army very easily. He did not 
choose to try this, but before the time Gen. Crook was ready 
to start out and push things, these cunning Indians had 
divided up and were getting supplies in the old way from 
isolated ranches, and poorly guarded wagon trains. 

Beginning about the 1st of August, after General Merritt 
was out of their way ; small bands infested the country around 
Laramie, and further away. 

They would run off stock between Laramie and Fetter- 
man and from near Cheyenne to the Black Hills. They had a 
rendezvous from which it was supposed they sent captured 
horses to their headquarters. They were very rarely pun- 
ished, for before a call for the one cavalry company left 
between Cheyenne and Gen. Crook, could reach them, and the 
cavalry start out, they were gone beyond hope of catching 
them Captain Egan's company was always going on these 
disappointing trips. There was no use saying nothing could 
be done even when every one knew it. 

On August 5th the command again left the wagon train. 
This time the infantry on foot. Pack mules carried a blanket 
and overcoat for each man, and 150 rounds of ammunition. 
They took 15 days rations field rations which means hard 
bread, bacon, coffee and sugar. 

Major Furey was left in charge of the train with 200 
citizen employees. Major Arthur and two surgeons remained 
with him. The command consisted of 25 companies of cavalry 
under Gen. Merritt, ten companies of infantry under Col. 
Chambers, and about 300 Indians and scouts giving a total of 
about 2000 men. 



495 

The second day they marched along the Tongue Eiver. 
The bluffs came down to the waters edge, frequently making 
it necessary to cross the river, which they did thirteen times 
that day. Lieut. Capron says in his diary that once in cross- 
ing, he was obliged to jump from his horse into the water 
above his knees, which seemed to cheer up the men a little 
who had to wade across. There was a chance to wash and 
dry their clothing when they arrived at camp. The next day 
they crossed over to the Eosebud. They continued with the 
hard marches along this river or creek, and on the 8th the 
scouts found large trails about ten miles farther down than 
the place of the fight of the 17th of June. It was very large 
and indicated that all the Indians were moving. At first they 
thought the trail more recent than they afterwards supposed 
it to be. 

A night march was ordered hoping to overtake the hos- 
tiles. Lieut. Capron says: "At 6:30 the entire command 
started for a night march in pursuit, finding the trails easily. 
Before dark we passed the ground occupied by their village. 
At this place the valley was three-fourths of a mile in width, 
and the village had extended over the entire valley for nearly 
two miles. It was judged that at least 12,000 Indians had 
been in camp here. 

There were high cliffs on each side from which ap- 
proaches could be discovered and a strong position taken. 

The moon arose about nine o'clock from behind a high 
bluff, a bank of clouds reflecting its light before it made its 
appearance. 

Every little while we would come upon the deserted 
camps strewn with the bones of game, and with the remains 
of their wickeope. 

Arriving at eleven o'clock near the canon of the Eose- 
bud, the cavalry went into camp, and at 1. a. m. we arrived 
with a portion of the cavalry and the pack train. 

The scouts ascertained that the trail was still down the 
Eosebud. 

The next day couriers from Fetterman arrived, but they 
had left the mail with the train, as Major Furey thought it 
unsafe to send it on. 



496 

Gen. Terry's command joined them on the Eosebud 20 
miles from the Yellowstone the 10th. Gen. Terry's command 
was nearly the same in number as Gen. Crook's, so there 
were about 4,000 when together. Their supplies were re- 
plenished from Gen. Terry's wagon train, and then they fol- 
lowed the trail over the Tongue Eiver. Gen. Terry had two 
steamers on the Yellowstone, and the train with some troops 
left for the Yellowstone, where they would go by steamer to 
either the mouth of Tongue River or Powder River as desired. 
They found the trains scattering, and from this time on indi- 
cations were that the Indians from the agencies had gone 
back, and those remaining with Sitting Bull, had gone North. 

Lieut. Capron was the fortunate possessor of a rubber 
blanket which afforded some shelter from the rain when put 
up on stakes. 

The llth and 12th it rained, and every one was wet in- 
cluding Gen. Crook, who fared no better than others. 

They arrived at the mouth of Powder River on the 
Yellowstone the 17th and waited in the vicinity till the 24th. 
One of the steamers went up to the Rosebud and brought 
more supplies. Some of the officers went along and reported 
that the place selected for the post at the mouth of the 
Tongue River, a very fine location. 

The friendly Indians saw a steamer here for the first time, 
and gazed in wonder. Two boat loads of sutler goods sup- 
plied a few of the most pressing needs, for those who had 
money with them. Onions $.04 a pound. Lieut. Capron 
writes: "For dinner yesterday we had a nice dish of beans, 
some onions, and our usual amount of bacon and hard bread. 
This is what we call luxury. Quite a number shared with 
us, accepting our hospitality, and enjoying the meal as much 
as under ordinary circumstances a meal at Delmonico's would 
be relished. 

It is understood that Gen. Terry's infantry will leave this 
place for their respective posts. His cavalry will probably go 
with us for about 100 miles, then leave for one of their posts 
for supplies. We should do the same go to our posts or the 
train. ' ' The friendly Indians left for their agencies, as they 
thought there was no possibility of a fight, and as their only 
remuneration was to be what was captured from the Sioux, 



497 

they thought it would not pay to use up their ponies, with no 
prospect of replacing them. Hard marching was beginning 
to tell, and Major Burrowes with some others who were un- 
able to keep on, left for home on the steamer. Crook's com- 
mand left the Yellowstone, going in the direction of the Little 
Missouri River, farther east, and in four days they came in 
sight of the bluffs along that river. 

That night there was a dreadful hailstorm. Hailstones 
two-thirds as large as a hen 's egg. Men stood with their backs 
to the storm, with no shelter. Officers were flooded out from 
the shelter they had made with their blankets. Several horses 
were stampeded in the storm and darkness, and three jumped 
over the bank into a creek and were drowned. 

The men were becoming tired of hard bread and bacon 
for a steady diet, and tried fried cactus. Some could eat it. 

September 1st Frank Gruard reported a large trail and 
a smaller one turning off towards the agencies. 

On the 2nd the expedition crossed Stanleys trail of 1873. 
They camped on the Little Missouri the 4th and found a coal 
mine burning which looked as if it might have been burning 
&, long time. It was covered with clay, and through it the 
smoke issued in places. 

September 5th camped on the head waters of the Heart 
Eiver. Here Gen. Crook decided to go to the Black Hills, 
distant about 180 miles. They had but about two days ra- 
tions, and many were opposed to the move. 

September 7th Rainy day; marched 33 miles and no wood. 
The next day, rained nearly all day. Marched twenty-five 
miles and found but little wood. ' ' 

Account of the Battle of Slim Buttes. Letter of Sept. 
10th. "Day before yesterday Col. Mills with four officers 
and one hundred and fifty soldiers, and a portion of the 
pack train was sent ahead to secure rations. On the evening 
of the 8th he discovered an Indian village, bid his command, 
and yesterday morning about 3:30 he charged the village, 
and captured it with about 180 ponies. A few Indians were 
killed, while some escaped to the hills. It was handsomely 
done, and Col. Mills, Lieut. Bubb, Lieut. Crawford, Lieut. 
Von Leutwitz, and Lieut. Schwotka, with others engaged, 



498 

deserve great credit. We were on the march and the rain 
pouring down, when we received the news, and the call for 
reinforcements. About the time we arrived, (at noon) it was 
discovered that Indians had secreted themselves in a ravine 
in the camp that was filled with brush. Some of the men 
crawled up to shoot, and one was killed and one wounded. 

The General then tried through his interpreter to get 
them to come out and surrender. Failing, a party was made 
up and advanced upon the place, losing one man killed, and 
one wounded, but they forced the Indians to come out. 

There were three bucks and six squaws besides four or 
five children. Five were found dead in the ravine. Our loss 
up to this time was Lieut. Von Leutwitz seriously wounded, 
and six men wounded. One soldier and one scout killed. 
Soon after this an alarm was given, and we saw the Sioux 
approaching from different directions, making an attack upon 
us. 

The disposition of troops was soon made, and the In- 
dians repulsed. They retreated into a very rough country, 
only appearing upon high cliffs. The fight continued about 
three hours. Burts' company did splendid service owing to 
the opportunity which Lieut. Rockefeller who was in com- 
mand, improved. 

Maj. Burts' company had one man wounded. I did some 
hard riding in carrying orders. Was not under very severe 
fire. 

Shots came in a few times during the evening after we 
returned to camp. A portion of our command was sent out at 
break of day. About 6:30 our wagons started on the march. 
Quite a number of Indians showed themselves just before we 
left. We pulled out protecting our column by flankers. Sum- 
ner remained back for a time with his company and had a 
fight killing five Indians and wounding several. Our rations 
are not sufficient to follow the Indians, and the first thing to 
do is to get food and clothing. We left our train without a 
change of clothes. When we have an article washed we have 
to go without, until it is dried. It is not comfort but 
enough. I am well and do not complain." 



499 

From Diary. 

"Sept. llth crossed Slim Buttes; Grand scenery. Then 
struck into "bad lands." Marched 23 miles. Eained nearly 
all day. Bear Buttes in view. Sept. 12th it rained nearly all 
day. The trail was in fearful condition. Marched till nine 
o'clock in the evening, arriving at camp at Willow Creek. 
The command nearly all exhausted. About one third of the 
infantry battallion was left by the road side, but came in dur- 
ing the night. Large numbers of cavalry horses gave out, and 
the men were left. Marched 35 miles. ' ' 

Sept. 13th provisions from the Black Hills reached the 
command. The 15th they received the first mail for over 40 
days. 

The 16th Gen. Crook and his aides and Col. Chambers, 
Maj. Burt and Maj. Powell left camp for Fort Laramie. 

Letter from Fort Laramie. 

Sept. 26th, "Gen. Sheridan arrived on Saturday the 16th, 
and as Gen. Crook did not come till Thursday, he had several 
days to wait. Fishing was the principal pastime. Gen. Sheri- 
dan proved himself a No. 1 sportsman in addition to his other 
accomplishments. Gen. Sheridan, Maj. Powell and our Jap- 
anese visitors left in the stage last Saturday. 

Very few orders have been issued, but it is understood 
that the command which is at Custer City, will come in to be 
paid in two or three weeks. Whether the tired ones will be 
allowed to remain, and fresh troops be sent out for the fall 
campaign, is one of the mysteries carefully guarded. 

Gen. Crook's aides Capt. Nickerson, Lieut. Schuyler 
and Lieut. Clark are here. Mr. Strahorn, Mr. Watson, and 
Mr. Finerty, newspaper correspondents are also here. 

The supply train arrived from Fort Fetterman yesterday, 
and will go out tomorrow with the baggage of the troops in the 
field. 

The late march from Heart Eiver to the Black Hills, was 
one of almost unparalleled hardship in summer campaigns. 
They started out with two days rations to march a dis- 
tance of nearly two hundred miles, over a country entirely un- 
known, except as information had been gleaned from Indians ; 



500 

with no road or trail, and nothing but the sagacity of their 
guide and the general direction to guide them; and no know- 
ledge as to where they would find wood and water. 

They traveled on their weary way combating difficulties, 
not the least of which were the heavy storms of cold rain, 
making the prairies almost impassible from the unusual sticki- 
ness of the mud, which loaded down the feet of both men and 
horses; two nights camping without wood, and finally living 
on horse meat. Then the Indian village was captured, and the 
dried beef found there, helped them very much. With all 
these difficulties the infantry made an average of twenty-six 
miles a day one day marching through the rain and mud 
thirty-five miles. They were marching for something to eat, 
and found it thanks to the people of Crook City. The shouts 
of joy that went up at the first approach of succor, in the shape 
of a beef herd were pleasant to hear. 

Soon after, wagons and supplies arrived, and every man 
immediately was engaged in getting something to eat. It 
must have been an amusing sight men mixing flour with 
water winding dough around sticks, and holding them in the 
fire to bake their bread. 

Some few officers who could muster a frying pan, enjoyed 
the luxury of ''slap- jacks"; and it is said that after the cooks 
were tried out, the officers went on with the cooking and eat- 
ing. It took three hours to eat that supper, and they were 
up early in the morning for the purpose of eating breakfast. 
They say that after a rest they can again start out, if it is 
so ordered; but they do not desire to repeat the short ration 
part. Do not these soldiers who have been marching for 
nearly two months, who had only a blanket for a bed and bed- 
ding, the sky for a roof, and who did their very best to over- 
take the Indians, deserve the praise of their country men? 

Some say the troops have been out generated by Sitting 
Bull. Is it by a successful retreat before a smaller force 
than his own?" 

Gen. Crook kept his plans to himself until he wished to 
reveal them. He remained at Fort Laramie until the middle 
of October when he left with lieutenants Bourke and Schuyler. 

People were trying in every way to find out whether the 
troops would come in soon, or go out again. One lady asked 



501 

the General if she should get her husband ready for the win- 
ter campaign. He said "Yes, get him ready." Then her 
husband, who was home for a few days, asked if he should 
send his wife East, as he would do if he was to be away. 
The General said he hadn't better send her home. 

It was not till October 13th that he gave a clue, yet that 
might mean either going out or coming in. 

The commanding officer's wife whose guest he was, said 
in reply to a remark that the telegraph to Custer City would 
be completed by the next Sunday. "That will be convenient 
to communicate with our friends there." The General said 
' ' They will be gone by that time. ' ' The troops had probably 
already started for Eed Cloud. 

Gen. Crook with Capt. Egan's company as escort went 
to "the peak" for a week's hunt, returning October 10th with 
over sixty deer and antelope, besides other game. 

Couriers were left to be sent immediately, if any dis- 
patches came for him while away. 

It was surmised that he had consulted Gen. Sherman 
about the disposal of the troops, and that he did not yet know 
what would be done ; but he told no one, at least, no one but 
his aides. 

He was a hard worker. When poring over a great pile 
of dispatches after he came in, he said he hadn't had time 
to read private mail yet. 

Gen. Crook could endure almost anything himself, conse- 
quently his expeditions were not pleasure trips to any great 
extent. 

Gen. Sheridan was a modest unassuming man. He made 
the acquaintance of all the officers and ladies at the post, call- 
ing soon after his arrival, and again before his departure. 

The following are extracts from letters written while 
waiting in the Black Hills previous to the movement of the 
troops to Red Cloud, and from there to Fort Laramie where 
they arrived October 27th. 

October 15th. "This morning Gen. Merritt left on a 
scout, taking with him the 5th Cav., and about two hundred 
men from the 2nd and 3d Cav. It is expected that they will 
be away ten or twelve days. Col. Eoyall is left in command 



502 

of the forces here. I am still adjutant of the infantry bat- 
talion." 

"Some of the country we have passed over is rich in 
fossils. 

Ouster City is estimated to have five hundred inhabitants. 
The houses are mostly built of logs. There are many vacant 
houses mining has been suspended to a great extent, for 
want of water. 

I wish you could see us tonight as we are seated by our 
camp fires at least a hundred of them in our battalion. I 
am on the ground with a fire on one side, and a flickering 
candle on the other. We are in a narrow valley, and upon 
either side, hills covered with lofty pines, with here and there 
precipitous rocks. 

A small stream of water flows through the center of the 
valley which is marked by the miner's pick and shovel re- 
minders of the recent search for gold." 

" Don't know whether we will start out on another trip 
before going to our posts, or not. We are waiting patiently 
for orders, and can tell nothing as yet of future movements. 
I am trying to write in a store in Ouster City and about 
forty people are buzzing away. 

Will write you a good long letter as soon as we get our 
tents and are somewhat comfortable." 
Another 

' i It is amusing to watch the effect of the hardships upon 
men; some taking to fault finding, and general grumbling, 
others keeping up under adverse circumstances, in many cases 
not approving of the movements and the condition all were 
brought to, but willing to do cheerfully what was inevitable, 
and trusting that all would end well. Since our arrival where 
food is abundant, there has been suffering for want of cloth- 
ing. Our command is virtually in rags, and as to dirt, it is 
disgusting to all of us. There is plenty of wood but it is 
fallen and charred timber, which is dirty to handle, and in 
burning, gives forth a black smoke and soot that enters every 
pore and gives the command a decidedly dark appearance. 

The result of all this hard work and exposure has not 
been the accomplishment of the end in view, but in my opin- 



503 

ion it has not been a failure by any means. We have kept 
the Indians continually moving, have occupied their best coun- 
try for hunting, and have prevented them from accumulating 
any great quantity of stores. Many things might have been 
improved, but we can see now as we look back, much better 
than we could the future, months ago." 



CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, TOULON, ILLINOIS, 

1846-1921. 



The Story of Seventy-Five Years in the Congregational 
Church of Toulon, Illinois. 



BY CLARE 

Our first definite information of Congregationalism in 
Stark County, Illinois, is gained from the Journal of the 
ministerial labors of Rev. S. G. Wright in this County and at 
outlying points. Rev. Wright was sent out by the Home Mis- 
sionary Society, and was evidently in the employ of both the 
Congregational and the Presbyterian Church, with directions 
to found which ever church seemed best adapted to the com- 
munity in which he labored. As early as 1840, there is fre- 
quent mention in this diary of preaching at LaFayette, 
Wethersfield, Walnut Creek and other points. 

His first home among us was in West Jersey Township, 
in those days known as the Webster settlement or "Nigger's 
Point, ' ' near the southern county line. In this vicinity, some- 
where, he seems to have ministered to a Presbyterian church 
of very early date, possibly as early as 1839 and quite prob- 
ably as early as 1841. Leeson's "History of Stark County" 
refers to the founding of a Congregational Church of Roches- 
ter just over the Peoria County line, which he says, was orga- 

* The dates in this little sketch are of two kinds, probable and certain. I 
have found in examining the various histories of Stark County and its organizations 
that they sometimes disagree as to the date on which such and such an event 
occurred. I have, therefore, asserted certainty of the dates I mention here only 
when I could myself trace them back to some authentic written record, made 
in the time in which the events in question occurred and bearing the signature 
of some person who witnessed them, that is, no date is put down here as positive 
which is based on reminiscence only. When I take a date from some historian or 
some reminiscence I mention the source of my information, but make no asser- 
tions of authenticity in such a case. When I refer to a date as possible or prob- 
able I have good reason for thinking it fairly accurate, but here again I do not 
assert certainty ; for such dates I have not been able to prove. 

CLARE MCKBNZIE. 

504 



505 

nized in 1841 in the house of Elias Wycoff and was known as 
the Spoon River Congregational Church ; this may have been 
a Presbyterian Church, however, as it appears from the 
" Journal" that a Presbyterian Church of this West Jersey 
settlement voted on January 28, 1847, to change its constitu- 
tion and become Congregational. If such a Church existed 
as Congregational from the very beginning, it undoubtedly 
had members in both Stark and Peoria Counties. It seems 
likely that the history of two churches of these early settle- 
ments, in what is now West Jersey Township, have been con- 
fused or else the history of one church has become so mixed 
that this one church appears as two. At any rate, whatever 
the explanation, it does not seem likely that Eev. S. Gr. Wright 
would have been connected at the same date with two chur- 
ches so near together and so much alike as Presbyterian and 
Congregational churches are, especially since he seems to 
have been in the employ of both denominations. 

Congregational influence at LaFayette is more certain. 
A Presbyterian Church of LaFayette apparently dates its 
organization as a Presbyterian Church from 1841, with the 
coming of Rev. S. G. Wright, who labored there several years, 
although a Presbyterian body of some sort existed there as 
early perhaps as 1837 or 1839. In February, 1847, this 
Church voted to change its constitution and become Congre- 
gational. Both this LaFayette Church and the Church or 
Churches of the West Jersey settlement have long ago ceased 
to exist. 

It therefore appears that the Toulon Church, dating 
from 1846, and Congregational from the beginning, is the 
oldest Congregational Church which is still in existence in 
Stark County, and it is also very probably, in the light of the 
facts just mentioned, the first one of this denomination 
founded in the County. Among the Churches in Toulon, it is 
either the first or second to be established. The Toulon Meth- 
odist Church is also very early and was probably organized 
in this same year, 1846, but the day and the month of its 
founding seem to be unknown, and the writer of this sketch 
has been unable, so far, to find an official written record of 
the year of its establishment. It seems quite probable that 
the two churches, Methodist and Congregational, were as 



506 

nearly simultaneous in the time of their organization as two 
churches very well could be. 

For some years previous to its organization and some 
years after, its history is very intimately connected with the 
personal history of its founder, Eev. S. G. Wright. Rev. 
Wright was a pioneer in more ways than one and gave many 
of the best years of his life to Stark County as preacher, 
pastor, lecturer, school commissioner and citizen. According 
to Mrs. Shallenberger's "History of Stark County and Its 
Pioneers," he was born in New Hampshire in 1809, and set- 
tled in 1832 in Fulton County, Illinois, where he engaged in 
farming for a while ; he then entered Lane Seminary to pre- 
pare himself for the ministry, graduating in 1840, and a little 
later he was commissioned by the Home Missionary Society 
to labor in this vicinity. 

From his "Journal" we learn that for the first few years 
he had regular appointments at the following named places: 
Walnut Creek (at different points), Victoria, Henderson, 
Wethersfield, LaFayette, Wyoming, Osceola, Wall's School- 
house, Moulton and later at Toulon, and contiguous points, 
many meetings being held at private houses, prominent among 
them, of this vicinity, being Mr. Hugh Rhodes' and Mr. 
Nicholson's. "In 1842," writes Mrs. Shallenberger, "he 
preached one hundred and seventy sermons and travelled 
2,166 miles. In 1843, he preached two hundred sermons and 
rode 2,353 miles, administered the sacrament nine times, re- 
ceived seventeen into fellowship with the Church. In 1844, 
Ihe preached one hundred and eighty-one sermons, and trav- 
elled 3,103 miles. 

"This he characterizes as 'a barren, barren year, fraught 
with many discouragements.' Still he continued to labor 
even more abundantly, and outside of this strictly ministerial 
work, he lectured frequently upon reforms and scientific sub- 
jects, giving temperance and anti-slavery addresses without 
number, also astronomical lectures, broaching among other 
things, the then new l Nebular theory' of creation, hoping 
thus, as he says, 'to open the eyes of the understanding, that 
men might be induced to listen to God's word by a considera- 
tion of his works.' Who can measure the influence of such a 
man in moulding public sentiment in the then new and plastic 



507 

condition of our community? And this work was performed 
at the cost of personal discomfort and self-denial, both to 
himself and family that would appall people nowadays. As 
to salaries, he says: 'The Home Missionary Society helped 
in some cases to raise them to $400 per annum, but this was 
only for a favored few. My salary for the first twelve years 
of my missionary life averaged about $300 per year/ 'No 
wonder,' his wife writes, 'we did not live but only endured 
in those days.' 

"Mr. Wright bore a great deal of what we may now call 
persecution and unmerited obloquy for his devotion to anti- 
slavery principles, being rather the standard bearer of the 
old 'liberty party' in this county. He never shrank from the 
odium incurred, for his own sake, but rather rejoiced that he 
was deemed worthy to suffer for the oppressed; but when it 
interfered with his usefulness as a minister of Christ, and 
thinned his congregations, then came many a painful struggle, 
as to where lay the path of duty, and many a heartfelt prayer 
for Divine direction. Then his interest for the temperance 
reformation and against the prevalent practice of 'timber 
hooking' made him some enemies. Men did not brook re- 
proof then, any better than now and he could not let wrong 
doing go unreproved; so there was a time when many railed 
at him, but he swerved not, remembering probably, 'woe unto 
thee when all men speak well of thee. ' 

*But a series of extracts from his diary will give a better 
idea than anything else of his life of toil and self-sacrifice in 
these pioneer days : 

"December 24th, 1841 Started for Walnut Creek; there 
had been a great rain, the creek was swimming ; Eichard and 
William Dunn were with me ; had much difficulty in crossing 
the branch above Trickle 's mill ; had to break ice for near an 
hour, and to go round by Fraker's grove, in order to get to 
the bridge below Centerville; preached at Mr. Foster's Fri- 
day evening, etc., etc. 



* These quotations are from copies of extracts from the original "Journal," 
some of them copies made by Rev. Alfred C. Wright, son of Rev. S. G. Wright, 
who has the original "Journal" in his possession, and sent by him to the writer 
of this sketch, and some of them are from Mrs. Shallenberger's copy, who seems 
to have had access to the original "Journal" when she wrote her history- 



508 

" January 17th, 1842 Last Tuesday gave another astro- 
nomical lecture at Rochester ; it was very muddy, yet the house 
was well filled, mostly with men, who gave close attention. 
Thursday, went to Princeville ; very few came out to hear the 
temperance lecture, and only four signed the pledge; on my 
way back, found Spoon River over its banks for a quarter of 
a mile or more, and the ice too thick to break ; went back to 
Rochester and there made out to cross the river. Saturday 
evening gave an astronomical lecture to a full house at La- 
Fayette; Sunday morning preached, and in the evening lec- 
tured on temperance; twenty-four signed the pledge, in all 
sixty-two at this place. 

"January 31st, 1842 Find I have attended evening meet- 
ings for ten successive nights; feel the need of rest to keep 
health; can't bear everything, though I should love to hold 
meetings seven times a week, while I live. 

"February 7th Came into collision with Mormons on 
Walnut Creek. 

"April 18th Went to Knoxville to attend the debate 
between Kinney and Frazer, also to obtain a teacher, which I 
effected. 

* ' May 2d Went to LaFayette to hear Mr. Harris expose 
Mormonism ; rehearsed his lecture to my people at Mr. Web- 
ster 's. Last week preached but twice; ploughed the rest of 
my field, and sowed four and a half bushels of oats. 

"May 9th Went for the first time to Osceola, preached 
in the morning to a large and attentive audience; in the 
evening delivered a temperance lecture, following Captain 
Butler. 

"May 23d Preached at James McClennahan's in the 
heart of the Mormon settlement; hope good was done. 

"June 6th Formed a Sabbath school; borrowed forty- 
nine volumes from the Osceola school. 

"August 1st Meeting of the association; circumstances 
rather disheartening; hurry of harvest, heavy rains, etc.; 
cold and damp in the barn where we met, as it was not all 
enclosed. 

"August 22d Worked at getting stone for a well, and 
harvesting my oats ; preached twice on Sabbath. 



509 

" There is a great effort to destroy the influence of this 
church by reporting that we are abolitionists, and have 
formed lines for helping runaways, hence are as bad as horse 
thieves. 

"Many are highly prejudiced against us, and what the 
end will be, the Lord only knows. We are conscientiously en- 
gaged in doing to others as we would that they should do 
unto us ; and if this will injure the cause of Christ in the long 
run, we are deceived. True, it is very unpopular, and many 
that would otherwise attend the preached word and Sabbath 
school stay away. Lord give us the wisdom of serpents and 
the harmlessness of doves. Some of the Church are also 
offended; Lord restore them. 

"September 14th Went to Henderson and Galesburg; 
made arrangements for a meeting at LaFayette; at Knox- 
ville was hindered all the next day endeavoring to get relief 
for five colored persons who were that day imprisoned be- 
cause they could not produce full evidence that they were free. 

"October 3d Went to Walnut Creek; found very many 
sick, bilious fever prevailing ; many also are sick in our neigh- 
borhood with whom I spent much time last week. 

"November 18th Last week I went to Galesburg to at- 
tend the association; no minister present but myself. 
Preached four successive days, and was detained two days 
longer by the severity of the weather. How soon I can re- 
turn I know not, as the snow is badly drifted and the wind 
yet high and cold. 

"November 30th Went to Farmington to attend the 
sitting of presbytery ; detained there two days ; then went to 
Ellisville and preached to a few hearers, twenty-five or thirty, 
from a population of one hundred and fifty. How has the 
gold become dross? Two years ago it was said all Ellisville 
was converted. From Ellisville went to Swan Creek. The 
country is fast filling up ; where six years ago everything was 
in a state of nature as far as the eye could see, now farms 
are seen in all directions, and many little towns are springing 
up. Preached five times at Swan Creek. 

"December 5th Shall endeavor to hold meetings at Tou- 
lon or vicinity every eve of the days I preach at LaFayette. 



510 

"December 24th Attended the first meeting for mutual 
improvement at Knoxville ; also the other association, indeed 
had a prominent part in it, but was compelled to tear myself 
away as my house and family needed my attention, for it is 
very cold and our house has neither doors nor floors. 

"I have spent all the week at hard work, and we have 
just got the lower floor laid, the doors in, and the upper floor 
battened a little. 

"January 4th, 1843 Early on Monday morning a daugh- 
ter was born to us, and as it was the day of fasting and 
prayer for the conversion of the world, in the afternoon I 
preached a sermon. 

"January 23d Preached at Toulon on the Sabbath, in 
the Court House which had just been received from the build- 
ers by the County Commissioners. There was no fire in the 
house and it was a chilly day; still there were perhaps sixty 
in attendance, and I left another appointment in four weeks. 

"February 6th Last week had much severe cold 
weather; had to be at home most of the week; read "Home's 
Introduction, ' ' etc. On Friday another fugitive from slavery 
came along, making twenty-one that have passed through this 
settlement on their way to Canada. Today it is extremely 
cold, the ink freezes in my pen as I try to write beside the 
stove. 

"February 20th Did not go to Toulon, am almost sick 
from cold, my horse is lame, and it is too cold to hold meet- 
ing in the Court House without fire. 

"May 22d, 1843 Last week was at home most of the 
time ; planted potatoes, corn, etc., visited families ; hope some 
good was done. Saturday, went to the Emery settlement, but 
found so strong an antipathy against abolitionists that but 
few would hear me preach, so I went on, and on Sabbath 
morning preached at Toulon to a large congregation; most 
of the seats filled. Report said the Mormons meant to en- 
counter me here and draw me into a debate, but all passed 
off quietly. 

"May 20th The grand jury found a bill against me, and 
my Elder, W. W. Webster, for harboring runaway slaves! 
Some excitement exists, but hope good will result. Many sym- 



511 

pathize with us and with the oppressed, who had seldom 
thought on the subject before; and these wicked laws 'to be 
hated need but to be seen.' Rev. Owen Lovejoy, of Princeton, 
is also indicted. We have not yet been taken by the sheriff, 
but probably shall be soon. 

"August 14th Last week worked three days at harvest- 
ing. Much sickness around. Our election took place, and I 
believe there were eleven liberty votes cast in the county ; last 
year there were but two! 

"September llth Last week went to Wethersfield, Tou- 
lon, LaFayette and Walnut Creek. Find much to be done. 

"September 25th Went to the neighborhood of Toulon 
and preached at Mr. Nicholson's. Sabbath morning preached 
at Toulon to about sixty, p. m. at LaFayette to about fifty, 
and evening to only thirty as it was raining. 

1 ' October 23d, 1843 Sabbath at Toulon ; many Mormons 
came expecting a champion to attack me ; there were a num- 
ber of their elders present; I fully expected an attack, but 
they did not see fit to make one; probably waiting to get a 
big gun for the assault. 

"November 20th, 1843 Last week had the house plast- 
ered; had to attend mason myself, etc., etc. For five weeks 
have been to work almost constantly about home, trying if 
possible to get the house comfortable to winter in. It has 
been almost insupportable, especially for the children. Never 
since I began to labour in the ministry have I had, until now, 
a house with more than one room in it, which has had to 
answer for kitchen, parlor, bedroom, closet, etc. My sermons 
have all been prepared in the midst of the confusion of cook- 
ing, care of children and company! Now by the blessing of 
God, I have a room for retirement and study. 

"December 13th Last week worked at getting wood; 
got a good supply for the winter ; preached five times ; rode 
seventy-five miles; went to Knoxville to give information 
to the committee on home missions ; got horse shod and wagon 
repaired. 

"May 20th, 1844 Heard there was to be an informal 
meeting by Presbytery at Knoxville, and went, returning the 
next day in the rain. Sabbath rainy, but preached twice ; we 



512 

have more rain than ever before ; creeks are all full, bridges 
gone, the earth perfectly saturated with water, sickness be- 
ginning to prevail, lung fever especially. 

"May 24th Last week court sat; no complaint against 
' Nigger stealers ' this time ; court held but one day. Tuesday 
went to Mr. Ehodes ' and to LaFayette to make arrangements 
for a convention and debate on Friday; Friday went to Tou- 
lon to attend the convention; W. J. Frazer and Esq. Kinney 
debated with James H. Dickey and 0. P. Lovejoy, upon the 
principles and practices of liberty party. The debate held 
from 2 p. m. till 5, and from 7 till 3 a. m. No decision was 
taken either by judges or vote; but we think the negative 
established nothing. It rained hard all night and in the morn- 
ing creeks were almost impassable. In crossing a little branch 
between Mr. Silliman's and Hugh Ehodes' the water was so 
deep that my wagon uncoupled and the hind parts floated off, 
and I went out with the fore wheels, well wet. 

"June 10th, 1844 Last week started with wife and two 
daughters for Knoxville, Galesburg, Victoria, etc. Wednes- 
day evening at Knoxville a most dreadful storm of wind, hail, 
rain and lighting broke o