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No. I 



1908 



THE JOURNAL 



OF THE 



IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE 



Vol. LXXVI. 



EDITED BY 

BENNETT H. BROUGH 

Secrktary 




LONDON 

E. & F. N. SPON, LIMITED, 57, HAYMARKET 

NEW YORK : SPON & CHAMBERLAIN, 123, LIBERTY STREET 

SOLD ALSO AT THE OFFICES OF THE INSTITUTE 

28, VICTORIA STREET, LONDON, S.W. 

1908 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Printed by Ballaktyne, Hanson &• Co 
At the Bnllantyne Press, Edinburgh 



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PREFACE 

This volume coatains the proceedings of the Annual General 
Meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute, with the exception 
of the Carnegie Research Memoirs, which are published in 
a separate volume, and of the List of Members revised to 
July 1, 1908, which is published in separate pamphlet form. 

The volume also contains a report of the proceedings of the 
Mining and Metallurgical Congress at Saint Etienne, at which 
the Institute was officially represented, and an illustrated 
description of the Institute's new premises. 

Obituary notices of deceased members, library reports, and 
the usual record of progress of the home and foreign iron and 
steel industries during the first half of 1908, occupy the 
remaining portion of the volume. 



28 Victoria Strket, London, 
July 1, 1908. 



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CONTENTS 



SECTION I.— MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS. 



PAGE 

1 
1 

5 
16 
21 
23 



Annual General Meeting ....... 

Election of Members ....... 

Report of Council ....... 

Annual Statement of Accounts ...... 

Votes of Thanks ..... 

Presentation of Bessemer Medal . . ... 

Carnegie Research Scholarships . .26 

IVIiddlesbrough Meeting ........ 29 

*' Improvements in plate rolling-mills." By Andrew Lamberton, Member 

of Council ........ 30 

Discussion on Mr. Lamberton*s paper .39 

Correspondence on Mr. Lamberton's paper .49 

*' A new fatigue test for iron and steel." By T. £. Stanton .54 

Discussion on Dr. Stanton's paper . 63 

Correspondence on Dr. Stanton's paper . . .67 

" Cast iron in the construction of chemical plant." By F. J. R. CaruUa 71 

Discussion on Mr. Carnlla's paper . .76 

Correspondence on Mr. Carulla's paper . .80 

"The metallurgical and chemical laboratories in the National Physical 

Laboratory." By W. Rosenhain . . .87 

Discussion on Mr. Rosenhain's paper ...... 107 

Correspondence on Mr. Rosenhain's paper . lOK 

'*The pyrometric installation in the gun section, Royal Gun and Carriage 

Factories, Woolwich." By J. Wesley Lambert . .109 

Discussion on Mr. Lambert's paper . .132 

Correspondence on Mr. Lambert's paper . . 1 35 

"The utilisation of blast-furnace slag." By C. de Schvarz - 137 

Correspondence on Mr. C. de Schwarz's paper ..... 149 
** Application of coloured photography to metallography." By E. F. Law 151 

Discussion on Mr. Law's paper . . .153 

Correspondence on Mr. Law's paper .153 

'* A new type of electric furnace for the smelting of iron." By B. Igewsky 165 
" The physical qualities of steel in relation to its mechanical treatment" By 

James E. York . . . . . .167 

Correspondence on " Case-hardening." . .179 

The Annual Dinner ........ 183 

The new premises of the Iron and Steel Institute .... 198 

'*The Mining and Metallurgical Congress at Saint Etienne." By Bennett 

H. Brough 203 

Obituary .......... 209 

Additions to the Library ........ 222 



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VI 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION n.— NOTES ON THE PROGRESS OF THE HOME AND 
FOREIGN IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES 



Ibon Oris 



OocurrenGe and oomposition 
Formation of ore deposits 
Nomenclature of ore deposits 
Iron ore in Great Britain 
Iron ore in Austria 
Iron ore in Bosnia 
Iron ore in France 
Iron ore in Germany 
Iron ore in Greece 
Iron ore in Italy 
Iron ore in Norway 
Iron ore in Russia 
Iron ore in Spain 
Iron ore in Sweden 
Iron ore in Turkey 
Iron ore in Canada 
Iron ore in India 
Iron ore in Western Australia 
Iron ore in New Zealand 
Iron ore in Natal 
Iron ore in British East Africa 
Iron ore in Nyassaland . 
Iron ore on Lake Superior 
Iron ore in Minnesota . 
Iron ore in the Adirondack Region 
Iron ore in Rhode Island 
Iron ore in Wyoming 
Iron ore in Cuba 
Iron ore in Mexico 
Iron ore in Pern 
Iron ore in Tunis 
Iron ore in Togo 
Manganese ore in Hungary 
Manganese ore in Russia 
Manganese ore in Spain 
Manganese ore in India 
Manganese ore in Cape Colony . 
Manganese ore in New South Wales 
Manganese ore in the Portuguese Colonies 
Ores of the rare metals . 
Tungsten ore 

Nickel ore in New Caledonia 
Vanadium ore 
Magnetite 
Native iron 



PAGE 

230 
230 
230 
230 
230 
231 
232 
232 
232 
232 
232 
232 
233 
283 
233 
234 
234 
235 
235 
236 
236 
236 
237 
237 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
238 
239 
239 
239 
239 
239 
239 
240 
240 
240 
240 
240 
241 
241 
241 



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CONTENTS. 


Vll 




FAGB 


Native iron-nickel alloy .... 


. 241 


Recent researches on meteorites 


. 241 


H. Iron ore mining ...... 


. 242 


Deep boring ...... 


. 242 


Shaft-sinking ...... 


. 242 


Explosives and blasting ..... 


. 242 


Compressed air in mines .... 


. 243 


Rock-drills .... 


. 243 


Methods of working ..... 


. 244 


Winding ...... 


. 246 


Electricity in iron ore mines .... 


. 245 


Mine drainage ...... 


. 245 


The lighting of mines . . . i . 


. 246 


Mine surveying ...... 


. 246 


Problems in metal-mining .... 


. 247 


Economics of mining ..... 


. 247 


Iron ore transport ..... 


. 247 


Handling iron ore 


. 247 


History of mining ..... 


. 248 


III. Mechanical preparation ..... 


. 248 


Iron ore dressing ..... 


. 248 


Magnetic separators ..... 


. 249 


Briquetting iron ore . 


. 249 


IV. Metallurgical preparation ..... 


. 250 


Calcining kilns . 


. 250 


RnrRAOTOBT Matxbiaijb ...... 


. 251 


Physico-chemical investigation of refractory materials 


. 251 


Fireclays ...... 


. 251 


Silica sand ...... 


. 251 


Manufactiure of firebricks . . . . . 


. 251 


Graphite ... 


. 252 


Magnesite ....... 


. 253 


Dolomite ....... 


. 254 


FuiL ......... 


. 255 


I. Calorific value ...... 


. 255 


Calorimetry ....... 


. 255 


Pyrometry ....... 


. 256 


Fuel value of coal ...... 


. 257 


Steam-boiler heating ...... 


. 257 


Smoke abatement ...... 


. 258 


II. Coal 


. 258 


Chemistry of coal ...... 


. 258 


Coal in the Midlands 


. 259 


Coal in Lancashire ...... 


. 259 


Coal in Ireland ....... 


. 259 


Coal in Austria ....... 


.. 260 


Coal in Belgium ...... 


. 260 


Coal in Bosnia ....... 


. 260 



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VUl 



i 


CONTENTS. 










PAOK 


Coal in Germany ....... 260 


Coal in Hungary 












. 261 


Coal in Italy 












. 261 


Coal in Roumania 












. 261 


Coal in Russia . 












. 261 


Goal in India . 












. 261 


Coal in Canada . 












. 262 


Coal in Cape Colony 












. 263 


Coal in British East Africa 










. 263 


Coal in New South Wales 










. 263 


Coal in Western Australia 










. 264 


Coal in Victoria 










. 264 


Coal in New Zealand . 










. 264 


Coal in the United States 






• 




. 265 


Coal in Alabama 










. 265 


Coal in Arkansas 










. 265 


Coal in California 










. 265 


Coal in Colorado 










. 266 


Coalin Illinois . 










. 266 


Coal in Kentucky 










. 266 


Coal in Michigan 










. 266 


Coal in Montana 










. 266 


Coal In New Mexico 










. 267 


Coal in Pennsylvania 










. 267 


Coal in Utah 










. 267 


Coal in Virginia 










. 267 


Coal in Wyoming 










. 268 


Coal in the Island of Saghalien 










. 268 


Coal in Japan 










. 269 


Coal in Peru 










. 269 


Coal in the Sahara 










. 269 


Peat 










. 269 


Weathering of ooal 










. 270 


Sampling coal . 










. 270 


II. Charcoal . 










, 271 


Charcoal kilns . 










. 271 


Charcoal by-products . 










. 271 


The charcoal industry of Swede 


n 








. 271 


IV. Coke 










. 272 


Beehive coke-ovens 










. 272 


By-product coke-ovens . 










. 273 


Coke-oven gases 










. 276 


Peat coke 










. 276 


V. Liquid fuel 










. 276 


Origin of petroleum 










. 276 


Petroleum in Scotland . 










. 277 


Petroleum in Austria . 










. 277 


Petroleum in Hungary . 










. 277 


Petroleum in Italy 








. 277 


Petroleum in Portugal 












. 278 



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CONTENTS 








IX 


PAOB 


Petroleum in Roumania 278 


Petroleum in Rusnia .... 




. 278 


Petroleum in Canada 








. 279 


Petroleum in Queensland 








. 279 


Petroleum in South Africa 








. 279 


Petroleum in the West Indies . 








. 279 


Petroleum in the United States 








. 280 


Petroleum in California . 








. 281 


Petroleum in Ohio 








. 281 


Petroleum in Pennsylvania 








. 281 


Petroleum in West Virginia 








. 281 


Petroleum in Wyoming 


• 






. 281 


Petroleum in Peru 








. 282 


Petroleum in the Argentine Republic 








. 282 


Petroleum in Borneo 








. 282 


Petroleum in Corea 








. 282 


Petroleum Congress 








. 282 


Asphalt . 








. 282 


Bitumen 








. 283 


Oil shale in New South Wales . 








. 288 


Oil shale in France 








. 283 


Boring for petroleum 








. 284 


Uses of petroleum 








. 284 


VI. Natural gas 








. 284 


Natural gas in Hungary 








. 284 


Natural gas in Russia . 








. 284 


Natural gas in Canada . 








. 284 


Natural gas in the United States 








. 285 


Natural gas in Pennsylvania 








. 285 


Natural gas in Wyoming 








. 285 


VII. Artificial gas . . . 








. 286 


Gas-producers 








. 286 


Producer-gas for power purposes 








. 286 


Water-gas 








. 287 


Oas-engines 








. 287 


^III. Coal-mining 








. 289 


Underground temperature 








. 289 


Search for coal . 








. 290 


Shaft-sinking . 








. 290 


Explosives in collieries . 








. 291 


Coal-wedge 








. 291 


Electricity in collieries . 








. 291 


Compressed air at collieries 








. 292 


Coal-cutting machinery . 








. 292 


Mine supports 








. 292 


Methods of working . . 








. 293 


Underground haulage . 








. 296 


Winding-engines 








. 296 


Winding appliances 








. 297 


Winding-ropes . 








. 298 



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CONTENTS. 



Pit-head frames 
Mine drainage 
Mine ventilation 
Gases in mines . 
Colliery explosions 
The lighting of collieries 
Underground fires 
Life-saving appliances 
Sabsidence 

History of coal-mining 
Economics of mining 
IX. Coal-screening and washing 
Coal-screening . 
Coal- washing 
Coal-handling . 
Briquette manufacture 

Pboddotion of Pig Ibon 
I. Blast-furnace practice 

Improvements in blast-furnace practice 
Scaffolding at blast-furnaces 
The destructive action of graphite on blast-furnace linings 
Phospbatic chalk for blast-furnace use 
Zinc in the blast-furnace 
Clearing tapholes 
Charging arrangements . 
Works machinery 
Purifying boiler feed-water 
Blowing-engines 
Blast-furnace gases 
Gas-cleaning 
The Staveley Ironworks 
Austrian blast-furnaces . 
German blast-furnaces . 
Hungarian blast-furnaces 
Italian blast-furnaces 
Canadian blast-furnaces 
Indian blast-furnaces 
American blast-furnaces 
History of iron . 
II. Chemical composition of pig iron 
Pig iron analyses 
Analyses of German pig iron 
Wiirtemberg pig iron 
Brazilian pig iron 
III. Blast-furnace slags 

Fusibility of lime-alumina-silica mixtures 
Titaniferous slags 
Bricks from blast-furnace slags 
Portland and blast-furnace cement 



PAGE 

298 
298 
299 
299 
299 
302 
302 
303 
304 
304 
304 
305 
305 
305 
306 
806 

308 
308 
308 
310 
311 
312 
312 
313 
313 
813 
313 
313 
314 
318 
318 
318 
319 
319 
319 
319 
319 
319 
320 
322 
322 
322 
323 
328 
823 
323 
323 
324 
324 



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CONTENTS. 


XI 




PAGE 


lY. Foundry prmetioe ...... 


. 324 


GapoU practioe . 


. 324 


Cupola blowers ...... 


. 325 


Foundry appliances ..... 


. 326 


Foundry mixtures ..... 


. 326 


Chemistry in the foundry ..... 


• . 327 


Electric furnaces for foundry work 


. 327 


Machine-cast and sand-cast pig iron for foundry work 


. 327 


Recovery of iron from cupola slag 


. 328 


American foundries ..... 


. 328 


Chinese and Japanese foundries 


. 328 


Moulding sand ...... 


. 328 


Green sand moulding ..... 


. 329 


Machine moulding ..... 


. 329 


Casting iron in metallic moulds 


. 329 


Drying ovens ...... 


. 330 


Large castings ...... 


. 330 


Malleable castings ..... 


. 330 


Semi -steel castings ...... 


. 330 


Cleaning castings ...... 


. 331 


Cast-iron pipes ....... 


. 331 




. 332 


Direct production of wrought iron 


. 832 


Decarburisation of iron ..... 


. 332 


Danks puddling furnace .... 


. 333 


Electric smelting of iron .... 


. 333 


Special processes of electric smelting . 


. 336 


FoBOE AND Mill Maohinbbt ..... 


. 341 


Steam-hammers . ' . 


. 341 


Forging-presses ...... 


. S41 


Electricity in rolling-mills .... 


. .842 


Rolling-mills ...... 


. 344 


. American rolling-mills ..... 


. 344 


Rolling-mill scale ..... 


. 346 


Rolling-mill engines ..... 


. 346 


PaoouonoN oif Stbbl ..... 


. 348 


I. The carburisation of malleable iron 


. 348 


Crucible steel ...... 


. 348 


Crucible tongs ..... 


. 348 


History of steel ...... 


. 348 


II. The open-hearth process ..... 


. 349 


New open-hearth steel plant .... 


. 849 


Steelworks in Austria ..... 


. 350 


Open-hearth steelworks in Germany . 


. 351 


Open-hearth steelworks in Canada 


. 351 


Open-hearth steelworks in the United Stetes . 


. 352 


Steelworks equipment ..... 


. 352 



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Xll 



CONTENTS, 



III. The Bessemer process 
Wills steel converter 

The Flohr addition to Bessemer basic charges 
Small Bessemer plant 

Comparison of Bessemer and open-hearth processes 
Duplex steel-making process 

FURTHKR TrBATMBNT Of IrON AND StBEL 

Case-hardening . 

Annealing furnaces 

Heat treatment of steel . 

Welding 

Workshop treatment of steel 

Steel castings 

High-speed steel 

Steelworks equipment . 

Iron alloys used in the steel industry 

Steel rails 

Sleepers .... 

Steel for motor-cars 

Steel for structural purposes 

Reinforced concrete 

Armour-plates and projectiles . 

Armour-plate vault 

Ordnance 

Tinning .... 

Electrolytic pickling of steel 

Duplex metal 

Needles .... 

Spanish ironwork 

Phtsioal Pbopebtibb 

Specific heat of iron 

Hardness of steel 

Segregation of steel ingots 

Influences of gases on the structure of cast iron and steel 

Crystallisation of steel . 

The cohesion of steel 

Structure of malleable iron 

Microstructure of iron and steel 

Metallography . 

Solidification points and transformation in alloys 

Magnetic properties of iron and steel 

Recalescence curves 

Permanent deformation of metals 

Physical properties of cast iron . 

Theory of case-hardening 

Bending tests 

Impact testing . 

Testing hardened steel . 

Constituents of hardened steel 



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CONTENTS. 


Xlll 




PAGE 


Teats of hollow cylinden . . . . . 


. 388 


Formation of cracks in plates . 


. 388 


Load for railway bridges .... 


. 389 


The causes of damages to gas-pipes by the electric current 


. 389 


Bursting-point of flanged fittings 


. 390 


The action of toothless circular saws 


. 390 


Strength of chain-links ...... 


. 391 


Steel rails 


. 391 


Corrugation of tramway rails . . . . . 


. 392 


Nickel in cast iron ..... 


. 393 


Iron-tungsten alloys ...... 


. 393 


Iron-chromium alloys ...... 


. 393 


Ferro-titanium ...... 


. 394 


Testing-machines ..... 


. 395 


Elastic properties of steel .... 


395 


Reinforced concrete ..... 


. 396 


Specifications ...... 


. 397 


The National Physical Laboratory 


. 397 


Standard notation ..... 


. 397 




. 399 


Passivity of iron ..... 


. 899 


Occluded gases in steel ..... 


. 3S^ 


Direct union of carbon and hydrogen at high temperatures 


. 404 


Colour of ferric oxide ..... 


. 404 


Iron salts ...... 


. 404 


Ftsrro-silicon ...... 


. 404 


Diamond and carborundum crystals in steel 


. 404 


Composition of slag in cast steel 


. 405 


Theory of equilibrium in the iron-carbon system 


. 405 


Solubility of graphite in iron .... 


. 406 


Graphite and graphitic carbon in pig iron 


. 407 


Influence of phosphorus on iron-carbon alloys 


. 408 


Manganese-iron alloys ..... 


. 409 


Iron-molybdenum alloys .... 


. 409 


Copper-iron alloys ..... 


. 409 


Iron-alumiuium alloys ..... 


. 409 


Tantalum steel ...... 


. 409 


The rusting of iron ..... 


. 409 


Corrosion of iron and steel .... 


. 410 


Precipitation of iron from pyrites 


. 411 


Impure nickel plate ..... 


. 411 


The early metallurgy of tungsten 


. 411 


Chemical Analysis ... 


. 412 


I. Analysis of iron and steel .... 


. 412 


Ironworks analysis ..... 


. 412 


Determination of carbon .... 


. 412 


Determination of manganese .... 


. 412 




. 413 



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XIV 



CONTENTS. 



Some Bouroes of error in the determination of phosphorus 

Determination of chromium 

Determination of tungsten 

Determination of nickel 

Determination of titanium 

Determination of nitrogen in iron 

II. Analysis of iron ores and slag 
Determination of iron . 
Determination of phosphoric acid 
Determination of silica . 
Determination of magnesia 

III. Analysis of fuel 
Cual analysis 

Determination of moisture 
Determination of volatile matter 
Petroleum analysis 

IV. Analysis of gas 

Apparatus for gas analysis 
Methods of gas analysis 
Automatic gas analysis . 

Statistics. 

I. United Kingdom . 
Mineral statistics 
Iron trade statistics 
Iron ore . 

Accidents in mines and quarries 
Shipbuilding 
Exhibitions 

Australasia 
Ironmaking in New South Wales 
Mineral statistics of New Zealand 
Mineral statistics of South Australia 



II. 



Ill 



Austria-Hungary . 
Mineral statistics of Austria 
Mineral statistics of Hungary 

IV. Belgium 

Mineral statistics 
Irun trade statistics 

V. Bulgaria . 
Mining law 

VI. Canada 

Mineral statistics 
Iron trade statistics 

VII. China 

Mineral statistics 
Iron industry 



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CONTENTS. 



XV 



VIII. Fraaoe . 

Mineral statistiGS 
Iron trade ttatistioB 
IX. Grermany 

Mineral statiatics 
Iron trade statistios 
Mineral statiatics of Prussia , 
Mineral production of Saxony 
Metallargieal education 
The German Museum at Munich 
Bavarian workmen's museum 
Provident funds 



X. 


Greece . 




Mineral statistics 


XI. India . 




Mineral statistics 




Iron ore in Mysore 


XII. 






Mineral sUtUtics 


XIII. 


Natal : 




Mineral sUtistics 


XIV. 


Norway 




Mineral sUtistics 


XV. 


Orange River Colony . 




Mineral statistics 


XVI. 


Roumania 




Mineral statistics 


XVII. 


Russia 




Iron trade statistics . 




Mineral production of 


XVIIL 


Servia . 




Mineral statistics 


XTX. 


Spain 




Iron trade statistics . 


XX. Sweden 




Mineral statistics 




Iron trade statistics . 


XXI. Transvaal Colony 




Mineral statistics 




Iron and steel 


XXIL Turkey 




Asphalt mining 


XXTIL United States . 




Mineral statistics 




Iron trade statistics . 



the Caucasus 



PAOS 

429 
429 
430 

481 
431 
432 
432 
433 
433 
433 
433 
434 
434 
434 
434 
434 
434 

435 
435 

435 
435 

435 
435 
436 
436 
486 
4bd 

436 
436 
436 

437 
487 

437 
437 

488 
438 
438 

489 
439 
439 

439 
439 

439 
439 
440 



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XVI CONTENTS. 










PAOK 


Ironow ........ 442 


Coal 








443 


Coke 








. 444 


Petroleum .... 








444 


Graphite .... 








. 444 


JameBtown Exhibition 








444 


XXrV. Comparative tables .... 








444 


The world's production of coal and iron 








444 


The world's production of iron ore . 








446 


Comparative mineral statistics 








447 


BiBLIOORAPUT ..... 








448 


Metallurgy .... 








448 


Mining .... 








453 


INDBX ....... 








457 



LIST OF PLATES. 

FroiUispieee, Thb Rkadiko-boom of the Ibon and Stkel Institute. 



T. Drawings illustrating Mr. Lamberton's paper . 
II. to IV. Phutograplis illustrating Mr. Rosenhain's paper 
y. Diagram illustrating Mr. Rusenhain's paper 
VI. Diagram illustrating Mr. Lambert's paper 
VII. to VIII. Photographs of the Institute's new premises 



32 

96 

96 

128 

200 



CORRIGENDA 



Vol. Ixxiii. p. 295, line 9, far * 0-21 ' read * 0*26.* 

Vol. Ixxiv. p. 6, line 13, for * Fig. 8 ' read * Fig. 2.' 

Vol. Ixxv. p. 114, line 16 from bottom, for * scintella ' read * scintilla ' 

Vol. Ixxv. p. 506, last line, /or * vol. cxilii.' read * cxUv.* 



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THE 



IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE. 



SECTION I. 
MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS. 



ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING. 

Thb Annual General Meeting of the Iron and Steel 
Institute was held at the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
Great George Street, Westminster, on Thursday, May 14, 
1908 — Sir Hugh Bell, Bart, President, in the chair. 

The Secretary read the minutes of the previous meeting 
held in Vienna, on September 23 and 24, 1907, which were 
found to be a correct record, and signed. 

Mr. Arthur Horsfield (Wakefield) and Mr. Septimus 
Young (London) were appointed as scrutineers, and on the 
completion of the scrutiny reported that the following can- 
didates had been duly elected as members of the Institute : — 



Kamk. 
Ahles, Robert L. . 

Allison, Archibald . 
Bladen, Thomas. . 
Boecker, Martin 



Bohler, Richard Fried- 
rich 



Address. 



WilliamspoTt, Pennsyl- 
vania, U.S.A. 

204 Ecclesall Road, 
Sheffield 

Barrow Hill, Chester- 
field 

Friedenshiltte, bei 
Station Morgenroth, 
Silesia 

Columbia Universitj*, 
New York, U.S.A. 



Proposers. 



John S. Kennedy, Leonard 
Peckitt, B. F. Fackenthal, 



W. 



B. Hamilton, J. 0. 

Arnold, A. S. Pye-Smith 
Charles Markbam, C. J. 

Stoddart, F. W. Dick. 
Sir Hugh Bell, F. Schuster, 

J. Goujon. 

H. M. Howe, Bradley 
Stoughton, Geo. W. 
Maynard. 



X908,— i. 



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ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 



Namb. 



Brearley, Arthur 

WilliAm 
Christen, Oscar . . . 



Clift, Arthur Stehhins 
CoUoseus, Heinz . . 

CoweI13ichard Ernest 

Cross, William, Assoc. 

R.S.M. 
Dalton, Archibald 

Cecil 

Davies, William Robert 

Deutsch, Kommerzien- 

rat Felix 
Dixon, Cuthbert . . . 

Dorman, Arthur . . . 

Dnrrans, Paul . . . 

Field, George Kenelm 



Fraser, William . . . 

Garson, Stanley 

Treavor 
Gloz, Adolf, Ph. D.. . 



Graham, Robert . 



Gridley, Arnold Babb 

Harriman, Norman F., 
B.Se. 

Harri8on,John William 

Henriqnes, Lieut.-Col. 
Cecil Quixano, R.E., 
M.Inst. C.E., 
M.I.Mech.£. 



Addrksb. 



Salamander Works, 

Riga, Russia 

Witkowitzer Bergbau 
und EisenhUtteu 
Gewerkschaft, Wit- 
kowitz, Austria 

York Mansions, York 
Street, Westminster, 
London, S.W. 

15 Spicherustrasse, Ber- 
lin, Germany 

Royal Exchange, 

Middlesbrough 
46 Lincoln's Inn Fields, 

London, W.C. 
Trent Iron Works, 

Scunthorpe, near 

Doncaster 
Forest Lyn, Heoldon, 

Whitchurch, Glam. 
2 Friedrich Carl Ufer, 
Berlin, Germany 
Springrove, Oughti- 

bridge, Sheffield 
GreyTowers, Nun- 

thorpe, S.O., Yorks. 
Penistone, near Shef- 
field 
c/o Colonel R. E. B. 

Crompton, C.B., 

Thri^lands, South 

Kensington, London, 

S.W. 
Lochriu Iron Works, 

Coatbridge, N.B. 
Ormesbv Iron Works, 

Middlesbrough 
Bad Harzburg, Grer- 
mauy 

The Ebbw Vale Steel, 
Coal and Iron Co., 
Ltd., Ebbw Vale, 
Mon. 

H in ton's Buildings, 
Middlesbrough 

Union Pacific Labora- 
tory, Omaha, Neb., 
U.S. A. 

Vicarage Street, Iron 
Works, Wakefield 

15 Victoria Street, Lon- 
don, S.W. 



Pboposirs. 



Harry Brearley, F. C. Moor- 
wood, W. H. Dyson. 

T. E. Vickei-s, Cosmo Johns, 
Alley ne Reynolds. 



Alex. Siemens, J. Angus, 
Sir Alex. B. W. Kennedy. 

C. Ritter von Schwarz, 

Baron von Jiiptner, A. 

Sonnenschein. 
Artliur W. Richards, Walter 

S. Hill, Jos. Harrison. 
Sir W. Lloyd Wise. Bedford 

McNeill, R. A. Hadfield. 
W. H. Ellis, J. O. Arnold, 

A. Mc William. 

H. S. Thomas, John R. 
Davies, H. Femihough. 

Sir Hugh Bell, W. H. 
Blecklv, D. Selby-Bigge. 

R. A. Hadfield, W. F. Beard- 
shaw, W. W. Wood, jun. 

Sir Hugh Bell, Aithur 
Cooper, J. E. Stead. 

George Hoyland, B. G. 
Wood, W.W.Wood, jun. 

Richard Sharp, Harry Bent- 
ley, Cecil Walton. 



James Kerr, James Hamil- 
ton, C. F. MacLaren. 

F. H. Marshall, T. Greville 
Jones, C. H. Ridsdale. 

C. Ritter von Schwarz, 
Baron von Juptner, A. 
Sonnenschein. 

Fred Mills, E. P. Martin, 
William Evans. 



Sir Hugh Bell, Charles 
Dorman, Maurice L. Bell. 

C. B. Dudley, W. R. Web- 
ster, H. V. Wille. 

W. H. Rhodes, P. S. Cra- 

dock, H. Marsdeu. 
A. Tannett - Walker, E. 

Windsor Richards, E. P. 

Martin. 



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ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 



Namb. 



Herwegh, Camille . 

Home, James William , 

B.Sc 
Hunter, David . . . 

Johnson, Philip Heher, 

Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. 
King, Ernest Gerald . 



Lantsberry, Fred. 
a A. H.. B.Sc 

Law, Edward Fulton, 
Assoc. R.S.M. 

Lemmy , George Kings- 
ford 

Lentz, Arthur . . . 

Le Tall, Sydney Harold 

Lnnt, Reginald Lacy . 
Mennier, L 



Monypenny, John 
Henry Gill 

Mosscrop, Alfred 
Mitton 

Mowbray, Archibald 
John Holme, B.A., 
Assoc. M. I. Mech. E. 

Nani, Elconide . . . 

Needham, Joseph 
George 

Nenman, Viktor von . 

Nisser, Carl Martin 

Nomura, Major I. . . 



Parker, Sidney S. . . 

Peat, James Barclay, 

Assoc M. Inst. C.E. 
Ponti, Alberto delli 



Addrbsb. 



Porapey, Menrthe-et- 
Moselle, France 

Kilgraston, Bexley 
Road, Erith, Kent 

7 Reeinald Terrace, 
Leecis 

Engineer's Office, Mid- 
land Railway, Derby 

33 Bedford Street, 
Strand, London, 
W.C. 

Highfield, Stanley 
^ad, Teddington, 
Middlesex 

28 Victoria Street, 
London, S.W. 

35 and 36 Bedford 
Street, Strand, Lon- 
don, W.C. 

Rath, near DOsseldorf, 
Grcrmany 

22 Springfield Road, 
Millhouses, Sheffield 

112 Northgate, Wake- 
field 

Aciferies de Longwy, 
Mont St Martin, 
Meurthe-et - Moselle, 
France. 

73 Langsett Road, Shef- 
field 

Studley House, Lin- 
thorne. Middles- 
brougn 

SutherSind House, Stir- 
ling 

7 Rue Amilcar, Tunis 

44 Brown Street, Man- 
chester 

Marktl, near Lilienfeld, 

Austria 
Stjemsund, Sweden 

c/o Takata & Co., 88 
Bishopgate Street 
Within, Iiondon, E.C. 

River Don Works, 
Sheffield 

27 Granville Terrace, 
Redcar 

Puzzuoli Steel Works, 
Pozzuoli, Italy 



PKOPOSXRa 



E Poulaine, G. Forster 

Martin, W. 0. Scrivener 
J. S. Balfour, S. L. Dore, 

Cyrus Braby. 
Benjamin Talbot, Walter 

Crooke,jun., James Riley. 
Wm. Richards, Joseph 

Jackman, J. J. Pickford. 
W. H. Butlin, James Duf- 

field, J. E. Swanker. 

Walter Rosenhain, Alex. E. 
Tucker, A. Mc William. 

F. W.Harbord,J.E.Stead, 

Sir Hugh Bell. 
W. H. Maw, A. T. Hollings- 

worth, Clarence Bird. 

E. Schr5dter, Hugo Sack, 

Heinricli Lueg. 
Herbert Hughes, Sydney J. 

Robinson, J. Stanley 

Watson. 
John Little, Walter Crooke, 

jun., G. Cradock. 
A. Dreux, P. Chamfrault, 

L. Pasquier. 



W. J. Armitoge, J. O. 
Arnold, A. Mc William. 

Sir Hugh BeU, W. L. John- 
son, Maurice L. Bell. 

W. H. Luther, Z. W. Onions, 
Herbert Beard. 

H. M. Jenks, A. Tannett- 
Walker, E. T. Agius. 

Sir Alfred Hickman, W. 
Hutchison, C. T. Need- 
ham. 

Hugo von Noot, H. Biihrlen, 
W. Kestranek. 

J. A Brinell, J. A. Don- 
caster, P. Bergeiidal. 

S. J. Robinson, W. H. 
Thomas, J. H. Fisher. 

Cosmo Johns, J. E. Stead, 

R. A. Hadfield. 
Benjamin Talbot, T. Twy- 

nam, Tom Westgarth. 
James Jackson, J. Rossi ter 

Hoyle, Frederick Best. 



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ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 



Name. 



Pratt, Dudley H. . . 

Primrose, John Stewart 
Glen 

Putnam, Arthur. . . 

Rider, James, jun. . . 

Ridge, Harry Mac- 
kenzie 
Schdngut, Joseph . 

Shaw -Scott, Gilbert, 

M.Sc. 
Simmons, Charles . . 

Smith, George Edward 

Stock, Ernst Hugo . . 

Stewart, John . . . 
Storey, John Edward . 

Stottner. Jacob, 

M.I.E.E. 
Szarvasy, Frederic 

Alexander 

Taylor, Knox, 

M.Amer.I.M.E. 



Thornley, Thomas 
William 

Toombs, William . . 

Tyzack, Frederick . . 



Wedekind, Werner 

Claude 
Whigham, Harry 

Thomas 
White, James . . . 



Addbjebb. 



Groyesend Steel Works, 
Gorseinon, South 
Wales 

6 Mount Stuart Street, 
Glasgow 

Darlington Forge Co., 
Ltd., Darlington 

Windsor Road, Salt- 
burn -by -the-Sea 

Owton Manor, Seaton 
Carew, Co. Durham 

7 Briickengasse, Mahr, 
Oustrau, Austria 

Streetly Wood, Sutton 

Coldiield 
127 Rustlings Road, 

Sheffield 
Steam and Electric 

Crane Works, Rodley, 

near Leeds 
21 Mittelstrasse, Berlin, 

N.W., Germany 

Butterley Iron Works, 

Derby 
Larkneld. Lower 

Walton, Warrington 
121/126 Charing Cross, 

Road, London, W.C. 
19 Weymouth Street, 

Portland Place, 

London, W. 
The Taylor Iron and 

Steel Co., High 

Bridge, New Jersey, 

U.S.A. 
Railway Parade, Lith- 

gow, N.S.W.. Aus- 

tralia 
33 Brazenose Street, 

Manchester 
Messrs. Tyzack, Sons & 

Turner, Ltd., Little 

London Works. 

Sheffield. 
Fanners, Wicham, 

Bishops, Essex 
71 King William Street, 

London, E.C. 
Bonlea Foundry, 

Thomaby -on -Tees 



pROPOnRB. 



W. Gowland, W. H. 
Merrett, E. A. Wraight 

W. Rosenhain, Prof. 

Thomas Turner, J. E. 

Stead. 
Geo. Ainsworth,T. Putnam, 

E. J. Smith. 
J. E. Stead, Illtyd Williams, 

J. P. Bedson. 
J. H. Moysey, A. W. 

Richards, E. Crowe. 
O. Goldstein, F. Reitlinger, 

A. Weiskopf. 
Prof. Thomas Turner, W. 

Gowland, F. F. Simmon. 
A. Firth, T. H. Firth, John 

Little. 
Geo. Cradock, H. Marsden, 

W. W. Sagar. 

Frederick Siemens, Alfred 

Harvey, Prof. Thomas 

Turner. 
Andrew Lamberton, Thos. 

Davie, J. S. Trinham. 
F. W. Monks, R. V. 

Wheeler, H. Owen. 
Arthur W. Richards, J. C. 

Jones, R. C.V.Whitfield. 
Sir Hugh Bell, J. E. Stead, 

R. A. Hadheld. 

R. A. Hadfield, A. G. M. 
Jack, Sir Hugh Bell. 



Jos. H. Harrison. R. How- 
son, Penry Williams. 

Myles Cooper, Jos. Adam- 
son, H. Adamson. 

B. G. Wood, S. E. Skelton, 
W. W. Wood, jun. 



H. Wedekind, W. R. Hay, 

Clarence Bird. 
R. A. Hadfield, A. G. M. 
Jack, I. B. Milne. 
Sir Hugh Bell, William 

Whitwell. C. A. Head. 



The Secretary then read the following report of Council 
upon the proceedings of the Institute during the year 1907. 



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BBPORT OP COUNCIL. 



EEPOET OF COUNCIL. 



At this, the thirty-ninth Annual General Meeting of the Iron and 
Steel Institute, the Council present to the members their Report 
on the Proceedings of the Institute during the year 1907, and are 
glad to note that the year has been one of activity and progress. 

The Roll of the Institute. 

During the year 1907 his Imperial and Royal Highness the 
Archduke Frederick of Austria was elected an Honorary Member, 
and there have been added to the register one hundred and sixteen 
names. The number of members on the roll of the Institute on 
December 31, 1907, was : — 

Patron 1 

Honorary Members . . . . . 12 

Life Members ...... 46 

Ordinary Members 2041 

Total 2100 

The growth of the Institute since its inauguration is shown by 
the following statistics : — 





1869 


1877 


1887 
1813 


1897 


1907 


j Patron .... 

Life Members . 
Ordinary Members . 

Totals. 

1 


287 
287 


900 
900 


6 

1488 


1 

12 

46 

2041 


1813 


1500 


2100 



The Council have to congratulate several members of the Institute 
who have had high distinctions conferred upon them. Sir Hugh 
Bell, Bart., President, was appointed a member of the Board of 
Trade Advisory Committee on the Census of Production Act, and 
has been re-elected Chairman of the Tees Conservancy; the Rt. 
Hon. Sir James Kitson, Bart., Past-President, on June 28 was 



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6 REPORT OF COUNCIL. 

created a Peer of the United Kingdom (Lord Airedale of Gledhow) ; 
Mr. A. Carnegie, Past-President, has received the Grand Cross of 
the Legion of Honour and of the Grange-Nassau Grder ; Sir W. T. 
Lewis, Bart., Vice-President, has been created a Knight Commander 
of the Royal Victorian Grder and a Knight of Grace of the Grder 
of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem ; Mr. W. Beardmore, Vice- 
President, has received the Japanese decoration of the Grder of the 
Rising Sun ; Mr. A. Qreiner, Member of Council, has been created a 
Commander of the Grder of St. Glaf of Norway, and has been elected 
President of the Belgian Society of Engineers; Mr. Q. Ainsworth, 
Member of Council, was appointed a member of the Departmental 
Committee on Check-weighing; Mr. G. Canet, Honorary Member, 
has received the decoration of the Grder of the Double Dragon of 
China; Dr. R. W. Raymond, Honorary Member, has been elected 
an honorary member of the Canadian Mining Institute; Dr. H. 
Wedding (Bessemer Gold Medallist), Honorary Member, has received 
the decorations of the Grder of the Red Eagle, second class, with oak 
wreath, and of the Royal Bavarian Grder of St. Michael ; Mr. Joseph 
Adamson has been elected President of the Manchester Association 
of Engineers ; Mr. J. A. F. Aspinall has received the honorary degree 
of Master of Engineering (Liverpool University) ; Mr. Fritz Baare 
has received the title of Geheimer Kommerzienrat ; Mr. H. H. Bed- 
ford has been elected Master Cutler of Sheffield ; Mr. G. T. Beilby 
has been appointed President of the West of Scotland Technical 
College; Mr. G. G. Blackwell has had conferred upon him by the 
King of Greece the Cross of Gfficer of the Grder of the Redeemer ; 
Mr. J. A. Brinell (Bessemer Gold Medallist) has received the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Science (Upsala University) ; Mr. W. J. Crossley, 
M.P., has been appointed a member of the Departmental Committee 
on the National Physical Laboratory ; the Duke of Devonshire was 
appointed Chancellor of the University of Manchester ; Mr. Herbert 
Eccles was appointed a member of the Departmental Committee on 
Check- weigh ing ; Mr. E. Ehrensberger has received the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Engineering (Munich) ; Mr. K. Engel has 
received the French Gold Medal ''recompense pour belles actions," 
in recognition of his services in leading the German rescue corps 
at the Courrieres Colliery ; Mr. G. Gillhausen has received the 
honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering (Aachen) ; General C. F. 
Hadden has been appointed Master-General of the Grdnance ; Sir 
A. B. W. Kennedy has received the honorary degree of Doctor of 



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REPOBT OF COUNCIL. 



Engineering (Liverpool University) ; Mr. W. P. Kirkpatrick has 
been created a Knight of the Order of Leopold; Professor H. Le 
Chatelier has been elected a member of the French Academy of 
Sciences in succession to Moissan; Admiral A. Lindman has 
been appointed Prime Minister of Sweden; Mr. J. T. Milton has 
been awarded ^he Watt Gold Medal of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers; Dr. Ludwig Mond has received the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Science (Oxford University); Dr. T. Peters has received 
the Cross of the Bavarian Order of St. Michael ; Professor H. 
Ponthi^re has been created an Officer of the Order of Leopold ; 
'Mr. T. Hurry Riches has been elected President of the Institution 
of Mechanical Engineers; Mr. A. Serena has been created a Com- 
mander of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus ; Colonel T. E. 
Yickers, C.B., has received the Japanese decoration of the Order of 
the Rising Sun, and has been awarded by the Institution of Civil 
Engineers the Howard Quinquennial Prize ; Dr. F. Wlist has received 
the title of Geheimer Regierungsrat ; and Mr. B. H. Brough, Secre- 
tary, has been elected an honorary member of the Canadian Mining 
Institute. 

During the year 1907 the Institute sujffered heavy losses by the 
death of well-known members, amongst whom were several active 
contributors to its work. The list comprises the following thirty- 
four names : — 

His Majesty Oscar IL, Ejng of Sweden (honorary 

member) December 8. 

Anderson, A. O. (Sweden) February. 

Baker, Sir Benjamin, K.C.B. (London) May 19. 

Bond, Edwin (Birmingham) .... May 8. 

Cleghorn, J. (London) September 24. 

Clements, O. P. (Birmingham) .... January. 

Darrow, C. R. (Newcastle, Pa.) .... April. 

Davies, W. H. (Stoke-on-Trent) .... January 21. 

Dunell, G. R. (London) May 12. 

Fearnehough, W. (Sheffield) December 31. 

Haggie, P. S. (Gateshead-on-Tyne) . . . June 22. 

Harrison, George (Woolwich) .... December 21. 

Hart, John (Middlesbrough) .... December 3. 

Hartley, J. (Sheffield) October 19. 

Jacks, William, LL.D. (Glasgow) .... August 9. 

Koebler, H. (Bochum, Westphalia) January 11. 



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8 REPORT OF COUNCIL. 

Lees, J. Bayley (Handsworth) .... August 17. 

Lees, Samuel (Ashton-under-Lyne) . . . October 5. 

Leveson-Gower, The Hon. E. F. (London) . . May 30. 

Lundvik, C. (Sweden) 

Magery, Jules (Namur, Belgium) . . January 15. 

Millward, G. A. (Birmingham) .... July 21. 

Nursey, P. F. (London) Jhne 20. 

Palmer, Sir 0. M., Bart., M.P. (Newcastle-on-Tyne) June 4. 

Pearce, Sir W. G. (London) .... November 2. 

Post van der Burg, Hendrik (Rotterdam) December 31. 

Bichards, W. H. (Darlaston) .... January. 

Russell, Emil (Berlin) October 22. 

Stephens, D. (Kidwelly) October 19. 

Storey, T. W. P. (Mostyn) March 15. 

Summerson, S. J. (Darlington) .... November 7. 

Willard, E. B., jun. (Wellston, Ohio) . . . May 21. 

Wilson, Sir Alexander, Bart. (Sheffield) . April 27. 

The following death occurred in 1906, but was not noted in the 
Council Report for that year : 

Simpson, R. (Whitehaven) Dec. 20, 1906. 

The King of Sweden, honorary member, honoured the Institute 
by attending the business meeting of the Institute, and by extend- 
ing generous hospitality to members on the occasion of the Stock- 
holm Meeting in 1898, and evinced much interest in the work of the 
Institute. The Institute was represented at the funeral in Stock- 
holm by Director-General R. Akerman, honorary member, and sent a 
wreath as a tribute of reverence and gratitude. Subsequently a card 
signed by H.M. the Dowager-Queen of Sweden was received through 
the Swedish Legation in London, thanking the Institute for the 
homage rendered to the memory of the late King Oscar II. 

Of the deceased members, Sir Benjamin Baker, Bart., in 1885 
contributed a paper on the Forth Bridge to the Proceedings. 
Sir Charles Mark Palmer, Bart., was an original member of the 
Institute, and read a paper at the first Annual General Meeting in 
London in 1870. Sir Alexander Wilson, Bart., was also an original 
member of the Institute, the members of which were hospitably enter- 
tained by him on the occasion of the meeting in Sheffield in 1905. 
Mr. G. R. Dunell, Dr. William Jacks, and Mr. Jules Magery were 
warm supporters of the Institute, and regular in their attendance at 



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REPORT OF COUNCIL. 9 

its meetings, while Mr. P. F. Nursey was similarly closely associated 
with its work for many years. 

Particulars of the careers of the deceased members will be found in 
the obituary notices published in the Journal of the Institute. 

In consequence of non-payment of subscriptions the names of 
thirteen members have been removed from the list, and there have 
been twenty-nine resignations of membership. 

Finance. 

The financial prosperity of the Institute is a matter for congratu- 
lation. The Statement of Accounts for the year 1907, verified by the 
Auditors, is now submitted to the members by the Hon. Treasurer. 
It will be observed that the receipts for the year amounted to £6454, 
and the expenditure to £5536. 

The corresponding figures for recent years were as follows : — 

Receipts. Expenditure. 

£ f. (2. £ s. (Z. 

1906 . . . 6610 4 3 5915 11 8 

1905 . . 6271 11 10 5257 8 2 

1904 . . . 5666 14 10 5727 12 11 

1903 . . . 5424 8 10 5205 6 

Meetings. 

During the year under review two meetings were held as usual. 
The Annual Meeting on May 9th and 10th was held at the Institution 
of Civil Engineers, and the constant courtesy of that distinguished 
body in affording accommodation demands grateful acknowledgment. 

The Autumn Meeting, held, after an interval of twenty-five years, 
for the second time, in Vienna was very largely attended and bril- 
liantly successful. An exceedingly influential Reception Committee 
was formed, and the warm welcome which was accorded the members 
and the excellent arrangements made for their comfort and entertain- 
ment were highly appreciated. The members were honoured by a 
reception at Court ; and generous hospitality was dispensed by the 
Reception Committee, the civic authorities, and the owners of the 
leading works. The excursions in connection with the meeting were 
most interesting and instructive, and have been described at length 
in the Journal of the Institute. 

To Dr. Eugen Herz, who with Mr. Hugo von Noot, jun., acted as 
honorary secretary of the Reception Committee, and by his ability 
and indefatigable energy contributed so greatly to the success of the 



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10 REPORT OF COUNCIL. 

meetings the Council have, on behalf of the members, expressed their 
sense of indebtedness by the presentation of a pearl breast-pin and 
set of studs ; while the valuable services of his colleague, Mr. Hugo 
von Koot, jun., have been similarly recognised by the presentation 
of a gold cigarette-case set with rubies. Illuminated addresses of 
thanks were forwarded to the four Ironworks Companies that had 
entertained the members, to the Austrian Society of Engineers and 
Architects, and to the Scientific Club of Vienna. Specially-bound 
volumes of the Journal containing the Report of the Meeting have 
been presented to Mr. W. Kestranek, the chairman ; Bitter Max von 
Guttman, vice-chairman ; to the other members of the executive com- 
mittee, as well as to Dr. Neumeyer, the Deputy Burgomaster ; and 
to his Imperial and Royal Highness the Archduke Frederick of 
Austria, who took so warm an interest in the meeting, and honoured 
the Institute by allowing his name to be added to the roll of honorary 
members. The travelling arrangements for the meeting were ably 
carried out by the Tourist Agency of the Great Northern Railway, and 
the success of the meeting was enhanced by the assistance rendered 
by the Austrian State Railways, by the Austrian Bureau of Travel, 
and by the civic authorities at Prague, Innsbruck, and Salzburg. 

The annual dinner of the members of the Institute was held at the 
Hotel Cecil on May 10. The chair was occupied by the President, 
and the principal speakers were their Excellencies the Austrian- 
Hungarian Ambassador, and the Swedish Minister ; the Right Hon. 
Lord- Justice Fletcher Moulton ; Admiral Sir Cyprian Bridge, G.C.B. ; 
Colonel Sir Howard Vincent, K.C.M.G.,C.B., A.D.C., M.P. ; the Rt. 
Hon. Sir James Kitson, Bart., M.P. (Lord Airedale of Gledhow), Past- 
President ; Mr. Yves Guyot ; and Mr. Robert Hammond. 

The Institute was also entertained at dinner at the Hall of the 
Musical Society, Vienna, by the Austrian Reception Committee. 
The chair was occupied by the President, and the company numbered 
600 including ladies. Members of the Austrian Government, of the 
Vienna City Council, and representatives of learned and scientific 
associations in Vienna attended, and the principal speakers were 
his Excellency Baron von Bienerth, Minister of the Interior; Dr. 
Neumeyer, the Deputy Mayor of Vienna ; Mr. Kestranek, Chairman 
of the Reception Committee ; the President ; and Mr. A. Greiner. 

In addition to Sir Hugh Bell's Presidential Address, twenty-one 
papers were contributed to the Institute's Proceedings during the 
year. The titles were as follows : — 



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REPORT OF COUNCIL. 11 

1. ** On the Case-hardeniDg of Mild Steel." By C. O. Bannistss (London) 

and W. J. Lambbbt (Woolwich). 

2. " On the Braberg of Kisenerz." By Professor H. Baubbman, Honorary 

Member. 

3. "On Steel and Meteoric Iron." By Professor F. Berwerth (Vienna). 

4. " On the Use of Steam in Gas Producer Practice." By Professor W. A. 

Bone (Leeds) and R V. Whbblbb (Warrington). 

5. ** On Sentinel Pyrometers and their Application to the Heat Treatment of 

Tool Steel." By H. Bbbablby (Riga, Russia) and F. 0. Moobwood 
(Sheffield). 

6. "On Induced Draught with Hot-air Economisers for Steelworks and 

Blast-Fumace Boilers." By A. J. Capbon (Sheffield). 

7. "On a New Blue-Black Paint as a Protective Covering." By F. J. R. 

Cabulla (Derby). 

8. " On the Hardening of Steel." By L. Dbmozat (Unieuz, France). 

9. "On the Total Quantity of Blast-Furnace Gas for a given make and its 

Calorific Value." By Professor J. yon Ehbbnwebth, Honorary 
Member. 

10. " On the Relation between the Process of Manufacture and some of the 

Properties of Steel." By F. W. Habbobd (London). 

11. " On the Distribution of Sulphur in Metal Ingot Moulds." By J. Hen- 

DEB80N (Thornaby Ironworks, Stockton-on-Tees). 

12. ** On the Application of the Laws of Physical Chemistry in the Metallurgy 

of Iron." By Baron H. voN JCptnbb (Vienna). 

13. "On the Austrian Iron Industry during the last Twenty-five Years." By 

W. Kbstbanek (Vienna). 

14. *• On Hardened Steels." By P. Longmuib (Sheffield). 

15. *' On the Manufacture of Steel from High-Silicon Phosphoric Pig Iron by 

the Basic Bessemer Process." By A. W. Richabds (Grangetown). 

16. " On a Method of Producing High-Class Steel from a Pig Iron containing 

Chromium, Nickel, and Cobalt." By A. W. Richabds (Grangetown). 

17. " On the Development of Electricity in the Iron and Steel Industries." 

By D. Sblbt Biooe (Newcastle-upon-Tyne). 

18. *' On Case-hardening." By G. Shaw Soott (Sutton Coldfield). 

19. " On the Ageing of Mild Steel." By C. E. Stbomeyeb (Manchester). 

20. " On the Ageing of Mild Steel." (Further Notes.) By C. E. Stbomeyeb 

(Manchester). 

21. " On Carbon-Tungsten Steels." By T. Swindbn (Sheffield University). 

There was also printed in the Journal a Report on the Nomencla- 
ture of Iron and Steel, by a Committee of the International Associa- 
tion for Testing Materials, and correspondence thereon by members 
of the Institute, and a description by Mr. E. Bian, of the Bian Gas 
Cleaner. 

In order to give improved facilities for discussing the papers 
brought before the Institute it was decided that papers should be 
read in abstract, and that speakers in discussion ^ should be limited to 
five or ten minutes, the manuscript of lengthier contributions being 
handed in for publication in the Journal. 



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12 REPORT OF COUNCIL. 

Library and Offices. 

Numerous presentations to the Library have been made, a list of 
which is given in the Journal of the Institute. Amongst these are a 
copy of the third edition of Harbord's Steel, presented by Mr. W. H. 
Bleckly, Hon. Treasurer ; a set of early volumes of the Swedish Jem- 
hmtorets AnncUer^ presented by Mr. John Crum ; and the minute-book 
of the early meetings relating to the formation of the Iron and Steel 
Institute, presented by Mr. J. R Winpenny. Members who have pub- 
lished works valuable for reference, or pamphlets on subjects relating 
to iron and steel, of which they could present copies, are reminded that 
such contributions to the Library are highly acceptable for permanent 
preservation. While chiefly used for editorial purposes in connection 
with the Institute Journal and for compiling information in response 
to inquiries addressed by members and others to the Secretary, the 
Library continues to be consulted from time to time by the members, 
and the question of improving the accommodation available is receiv- 
ing the careful consideration of the Council. 

To the collection of portraits of Presidents and Bessemer Medallists 
no additions have been made during the year. Messrs. Maull & Fox 
have presented a number of platinotype portraits of members of the 
Institute. Members are invited to favour Messrs. Maull & Fox with 
a sitting, or to present copies of their photographs in cabinet size for 
the Institute album. 

The office correspondence was slightly less than in 1906. Disre- 
garding circulars and printed matter, the number of letters received 
and answered during the year was 7960. 

Publications. 

In place of the usual two volumes, three cloth-bound volumes of the 
Journal of the Institute have been published, containing, together with 
the List of Members, 1683 pages of letterpress, 114 plates, and numer- 
ous illustrations in the text. The five Carnegie research memoirs were 
published in a separate volume. In addition to the papers read 
before the Institute, and the discussions and correspondence relating 
to them, these volumes contain abstracts of 2737 papers relating to 
iron and steel and kindred subjects published in other home and 
foreign journals and transactions during 1907. In the compilation 
of these abstracts 432 periodical publications, written in twelve lan- 
guages and published in twenty-seven countries, were systematically 



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REPORT OF COUNCIL. 



13 



searched ; the aim being to provide members with as complete an 
index as possible to the current literature of iron and steel. Owing 
to the large amount of material to be dealt with^ it has been found 
necessary slightly to modify the arrangement of the type, in order 
to keep the volumes within moderate limits. 

The constant increase in the material dealt with is shown by 
the following statistics : — 



Year. 


Abstracts. 


Year. 


Abstracts, 


1893 . 


. 1130 


1903 . 


. 2314 


1899 . 


. 1337 


1904 . 


. 2309 


1900 . 


. 1507 


1905 . 


. 2627 


1901 . 


. 1647 


1906 . 


. 2465 


1902 . 


. 1884 


1907 . 


. 2737 



In view of the fact that the first copy of the Transactions of the 
Iron and Steel Institute, of which the original edition was a very 
small one, has long been out of print, and is now exceedingly rare, 
the Council, at the suggestion of Sir Hugh Bell, Bart., President, 
decided to have it reprinted. The volume, which was issued in July, 
contains the inaugural Presidential Address delivered by the Duke of 
Devonshire, on June 23, 1869, together with papers by Sir Lowthian 
Bell, Bart., Pafit-President, Mr. J. Palmer Budd, Mr. J. T. Smith, 
Past-President, Mr. Edward Williams, Past-President, Mr. R. Howson, 
Mr. William Menelaus, Past-President, Mr. G. H. Benson, and Mr. 
Thomas Whitwell. All these authors, with one exception, have passed 
away, and of the original members of the Institute only thirty now 
remain on the roll. 

A rare and interesting essay on the effect of air and moisture on 
blast-furnaces, written in 1800 by Mr. Joseph Dawson of Low Moor, 
was, at the suggestion of Mr. James Riley, Vice-President, reprinted 
in vol. xxxiv. of the Journal. 

Medals and Research Scholarships. 

The Bessemer Gold Medal for 1907 was presented to Mr. J. A. 
BrineU in recognition of his conspicuous services in the advance- 
ment of the metallurgy of iron and steel. 

In accordance with the terms of the trust deed, Mr. W. H. Bleckly, 
trustee of the Bessemer Medal Fund, appointed Sir Hugh Bell, Bart., 
President, as his co-trustee in succession to the late Sir David Dale, 
Bart. 



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14 REPORT OF COUNCIL. 

Special Andrew Carnegie Medals were awarded in 1907 to Mr. 
E. F. Law, AS80C.B..S.M. (London), and to Dr. O. Stutzer (Frei- 
berg in Saxony). 

A large number of candidates applied for Carnegie Research 
Scholarships, and, after careful consideration, four scholarships, each 
of the value of £100, tenable for one year, and two scholarships, each 
of the value of £50, were awarded. Details of the awards have been 
published in the Institute Journal. Particulars of the scheme, printed 
in the English, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Russian, Spanish, 
and Swedish languages have been widely distributed. 

Appointment of Reprbsentatives. 

During the year the Institute was represented by the President 
on the General Committee administering the Government grant for 
scientific investigations. Mr. R. A. Hadfield, Past-President, and 
Mr. E. P. Martin, Past-President, represented the Institute on the 
governing body of the National Physical Laboratory. Mr. Arthur 
Cooper, Vice-President, and Mr. George Ainsworth, Member of 
Council, represented the Institute on the Engineering Standards 
Committee. Mr. William Beardmore, Vice-President, and Mr. 
George Ainsworth served as representatives of the Institute on the 
Technical Committee of Lloyd's Register. Mr. W. H. Bleckly, Hon. 
Treasurer, served as representative on the Court of the Liverpool 
University, and Mr. R. A. Hadfield, Past-President, as representative 
on the Court of the University of Sheffield. 

Sir Hugh Bell, Bart., President, was, in accordance with the terms 
of the draft Royal Charter, appointed by the Institute a member 
of the governing body of the Imperial College of Science and 
Technology at South Kensington. 

The Institute was represented by Mr. W. H. Bleckly, Hon. 
Treasurer, on a joint committee of learned, scientific, and technical 
societies issuing publications, for the purpose of endeavouring to 
secure for such publications a reduced postal rate, and the Institute 
Council-room was lent for the inaugural meeting of the Committee. 
The Council-room was also lent for a meeting of the British Science 
Guild. 

Mr. R. A. Hadfield, Past-President, represented the Iron and Steel 
Institute at the dedication of the building given by Mr. Carnegie as 
a home for American engineering societies in New York, and pre- 
sented a congratulatory address from the Institute. 



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REPORT OF COUNCIL. 1 5 

On the occasion of the centenary of the Geological Society, the 
Institute was represented by Professor A. McWilliam« who presented 
an illuminated congratulatory address from the Institute. 

Sir W. T. Lewis, Vice-President, represented the Institute on the 
Board of Trade Advisory Committee for iron and steel of the Census 
of Production Act, of which Committee Sir Hugh Bell, Bart., Mr. 
J. S. Jeans, Mr. W. Wylie, and Mr. B. H. Brough, Secretary, 
were also members. 

Mr. C. J. Bagley, member of Council, and Mr. T. Nash (Sheffield), 
were appointed representatives of the Institute to give evidence 
before the Treasury Committee on the National Physical Laboratory. 

The President consented to serve as chairman of the sectional 
committee on iron and steel in connection with the Franco-British 
Exhibition, 1908^ and a committee of Council was appointed to carry 
on the work of making the necessary arrangements for the iron and 
steel section. 

A diploma of special merit was awarded to the Institute by the 
Superior Jury of the Milan Exhibition, 1906. 

The Institute was represented on the Advisory Committee of the 
Engineering and Machinery Exhibition held in London on September 
19 to October 19, 1907. 

During the year were published the reports of the Departmental 
Committee on International Exhibitions, of which Committee Lord 
Airedale, Past-President, was a member, and of the Departmental 
Committee on check- weighing in the iron and steel trades, of which 
Committee Mr. G. Ainsworth, member of Council, and Mr. Herbert 
Eccles, were members. 

Retiring Mbmbers of Counciij. 

The retiring members of Council, whose names were announced 
at the last meeting, are; — Vice-Presidents: Mr. W. Beardmore, the 
Right Hon. Victor Cavendish, MP., and Sir John G. N. Alleyne, 
Bart. Members of Council : Mr. A. Greiner, Mr. G. Ainsworth, Mr. 
J. M. While, Mr. Illtyd Williams, and Mr. J. M. Gledhill. No other 
members were nominated up to one month previous to this meeting 
in response to the announcement made at the last meeting. The 
retiring members are consequently presented for re-election. 

The vacancy on the Council caused by the election of Sir Hugh 
Bell as President, was filled by the election of Mr. John H. Darby 
(Brymbo) as member of Council. 



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16 



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18 STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS. 

Mr. W. H. Bleckly, Honorary Treasurer, in presenting his 
report, said : The financial statements which it is my duty to 
present to you in the spring of each year, however satisfactory 
they may be, have a certain monotony about them which is 
no doubt tedious to most of the members who are waiting to 
hear something much more interesting ; and, in consequence, 
I will endeavour to make my comments as succinct as possible. 
However, on this occasion I have to put before you the in- 
teresting news that Mr. Carnegie has munificently presented 
this Institute with a further sum of 11,000 dollars, making, 
with his previous donation, a total sum of 100,000 dollars. 
The original funds were provided by Mr. Carnegie for research 
scholarships, but, finding that the printing of the memoirs was 
likely to be a strain upon the income of the Institute, he pre- 
sented the necessary funds for that purpose. This latest 
donation will be used to cover the whole cost of administra- 
tion, and thus free the Institute of all expense in dealing 
with the Research Endowment. 

With regard to the financial position of the Institute, the 
revenue of the year 1907 was £6454, which is slightly less 
than in the previous year, when £273 was presented to the 
Institute by the guarantors of the Aftierican Entertainment 
Fund. A slight increase will be noticed in the annual sub- 
scriptions. The increase in Journal sales was considerable, 
and aifords gratifying evidence of the appreciation of the 
Institute s publications by other than members. On the ex- 
penditure side the item of salaries shows an increase, as also 
does the amount expended on the annual meeting, owing to 
the fact that in 1906 no banquet was held in the spring. 
The autumn meeting expenses compare favourably with those 
incurred at other meetings abroad. Indeed, neglecting the 
cost of souvenir presentations, the eminently successful Vienna 
meeting in 1907 cost the Institute less than the long-remem- 
bered Vienna meeting in 1882, notwithstanding that there 
were three times as many members present at the late meet- 
ing. Journal publishing expenses show a substantial decrease. 
The receipts from the Carnegie Scholarship Fund met the 
expenditure incurred and covered the last year's deficit of 
£31, leaving a small surplus. The investments of the Institute 
remained unchanged during 1907. 



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STATEMENT OF ACCX)UNTS. 19 

The President, in moving the adoption of the Report and 
Statement of Accounts, said he had to refer to one or two 
matters not specifically mentioned in the report. In the first 
place there had heen circulated a small pamphlet describing 
the new premises into which the Institute had quite recently 
moved. He believed they would be found in every respect a 
very great improvement on their late oflSces. They would 
afford facilities of which he hoped the members would make 
every possible use and would find a very great convenience. 
The library was much better installed, and had been entirely 
re-organised, and a room was provided for students who 
desired to consult the works which it contained. In addition 
to that they had provided a reading and smoking-room. The 
latter title seemed an appropriate one, regard being had to 
the avocation of most of the members, and it would, he hoped, 
prove in its other significance a welcome addition to the con- 
veniences offered by the Institute. With reference to the 
Franco-British Exhibition, he hoped when the members went 
to see what had been done there, they would think that 
the Committee of which he was the Chairman had pro- 
perly discharged the duties which they undertook in causing 
the great industry to be represented in somewhat a different 
form from what had ever been attempted before, a form 
which he hoped would be regarded as being of interest, not 
only from the mere popular point of view, but also as an 
educational object. They had attempted to show the cause 
and reason for the location of the pig iron industry through- 
out the United Kingdom in a geographical way, and he 
thought they might claim that they had done so in a way 
which would do honour to the industry which, after all, 
lay at the base of their proceedings. There was also a 
difficulty in making an interesting exhibit of pig iron. He 
thought they had overcome that difficulty by sinking the 
personalities of the makers, and putting in the forefront 
the district in which the pig iron was produced, and by 
endeavouring to show how and why those particular parts of 
England had come to be the location of the trade. With 
regard to the other departments of the iron and steel industry, 
the moment pig iron was passed matters became much more 



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20 STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS. 

personal in their character, and there, with the very hearty 
and active co-operation of those sections of the trade, they 
would, he hoped, show a very excellent exhibit at Shepherd's 
Bush, whenever the Exhibition was ready. The Institute, and 
those who represented them, were not in default, and were 
perfectly ready to put their exhibits in place as soon as the 
place was ready to receive them. The report mentioned the 
success of the Vienna meeting, and he was sure he could use 
no language which would be regarded as hyperbolic by any 
person who was present at that meeting, in praising the recep- 
tion which was accorded to them at the hands of every section 
of society in the Austro-Hungarian capital from the Emperor 
downwards. .The imfortunate pressure on his Imperial and 
Royal Mjgesty's time prevented them from having the honour 
of being received by that most distinguished man. His 
Majesty's place was taken by the Archduke Frederick, and 
of his reception of the members, and of his courtesy, it was 
impossible to speak in too high terms. If he did not mention 
any other names, it was because it would be a mere catalogue 
of hyperbole to say how magnificently every single gentleman, 
every Institution with which they came in contact in the 
Austro-Hungarian Empire, did their very utmost to make 
their visit the extraordinary success, and the most agreeable 
function which it proved to be. 

He had to turn from that agreeable subject to one which 
he was certain would cause much grief to every member of 
the Institute who was acquainted with the distinguished 
man whose name he was about to mention. They had but 
recently received the intimation of the very sudden death 
of an old and trusted friend of the Institute, in the per- 
son of Dr. Hermann Wedding, an Honorary Member. Dr. 
Wedding never omitted an opportunity to do a kind act for 
the Institute; he was always ready with his advice and 
assistance whenever it was possible to do anything in the 
service of the Institute. In him they had lost a very excel- 
lent friend, and those who, like himself, had the honour of 
his acquaintance, had lost a most charming and delightful 
personality. He had had the honour of knowing not only 
Dr. Wedding but also his distinguished father. He looked 



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VOTES OF THANKS. 21 

back over a period longer than he cared to mention, to the 
time of his meeting Dr. Wedding's father, when he was 
Master of the Mint in Berlin, a long way back in the nine- 
teenth century, and the delightful recollection that he had 
of the father was kept alive every time he met the son. 
He hoped the members present would not think he was 
making too large a demand upon them if he invited them, 
in testimony of the regret which all who knew him would feel, 
and in appreciation of the services which those who did not 
know him might have indirectly received at his hands, to 
signify their deep regret at his death by rising. 

The members having resumed their seats, after rising in 
response to the President's invitation. 

The President said that the Council had directed a proper 
intimation to be sent to the farnily, and he had now formally 
to move from the chair that the report be received and 
adopted. 

Mr. Joseph Adamson (Manchester), in seconding the adop- 
tion of the report and accounts for the year 1907, said the pro- 
gress of the Institute was shown by the increase of members 
and by the financial position. The Institution was fulfilling 
the objects its founders had intended it to fulfil ; it was an 
Institution that was started with the intention of benefiting; 
every one connected with iron manufacture, whatever country 
or clime he belonged to. It was perhaps unnecessary for him 
to repeat what he once heard a gentleman in Manchester say 
when seconding a motion of a similar character, to the eflfect 
that ''if any one was dissatisfied with what had been said, 
and would come outside, it could probably be squared in five 
minutes." The report was an extremely satisfactory one, and 
he had great pleasure in seconding the resolution. 

The resolution was passed unanimously. 

Mr. W. F. Beardshaw (Sheffield), in proposing a vote of 
thanks to the President, the Hon. Treasurer, and the Council 
for their services during the past year, said it would require 



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22 VOTES OF THANKS. 

very few words from him to commend the resolution to the 
approval of the meeting. He had been a member of the Iron 
and Steel Institute for nearly twenty years, and had never 
seen the time when the members of the Council had done 
their work more energetically than they had in the last 
year. In addition to the intellectual entertainment provided 
for the members, he was quite sure that no scientific society 
did more for the comfort and convenience of its members, 
and that was evidenced by the additions to the new offices, 
which he hoped many members would take the opportunity 
of visiting during the time they were in London. The 
report had particularly dealt with the very successful ex- 
cursion to Vienna. He was present there, and, with a 
large number of others, they were particularly proud of 
the President, of the Council, and of the Secretary, Mr. 
Brough, not only for the capital arrangements which they 
made in every detail for the comfort of the members, but 
likewise for their linguistic attainments. Such visits were 
laying deeper and broader foundations than mere scientific 
observation. They were laying the foundations for inter- 
national understanding, and when they had members such as 
the President and the Secretary to lead them, he felt sure that 
the visit would be of lasting good in the relations between this 
country and the Austro -Hungarian Empire. 

Professor W. Gowland (London), in seconding the resolu- 
tion, said all present were fully sensible of the work which the 
President and the members of the Council had done in the 
interests of the Institute, and that its success was entirely 
due to those efforts. 

The resolution was carried with acclamation. 

The President said that, on his own behalf and on behalf 
of his colleagues, he had to thank the meeting for their kind 
vote. Mr. Beardshaw was too kind in his reference to the 
polyglot acquirements of the Council. He had to confess that 
when he was invited to respond to an address in Czechish, he 
was a little " checked," and he felt bound to have recourse to 



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PBESENTATION OF THE BESSEMEB MEDAL. 23 

the language which, indifferently though he spoke it, he spoke 
with more fluency than any of the others which he possessed, 
and he answered in English. 



PBESENTATION OF THE BeSSEMEB MeDAL. 

The President said it afforded him peculiar pleasure to 
have the honour of presenting Mr. Benjamin Talbot, whom 
he would venture to describe as a neighbour and friend, with 
the Bessemer Medal on behalf of the Iron and Steel Institute 
and their Council. There was no higher honour that they 
could confer on their members than the presentation of this 
medal. It carried with it the recognition of services rendered 
to the great industry in which they were all engaged ; he 
would venture to assert that on no previous occasion had the 
recipient been worthier than on the present. Mr. Benjamin 
Talbot had brought to the business with which he was con- 
nected all those qualities which went to make successful his 
participation in the very interesting matters which formed the 
subject of their occupation : he had not only that which was 
of immense and indispensable importance, the scientific out- 
look, but he had also what was even, if it were possible, 
more indispensable, practical knowledge and experience. He 
felt sure no one present would deny the importance of the 
first, and one of the objects of the Institute was to implant it 
more strongly, if that were possible, in the minds of those 
engaged in the industry. Their efforts were unremittingly 
put forth to emphasise the necessity of scientific acquirement. 
But while they did that, while they had not omitted from 
time to time, in their choice of recipients of the Bessemer 
medal, to bring that prominently before their members, they 
had ever before them the necessity of that practical experience 
without which even the most complete knowledge of the 
scientific principles of their avocation would be of little avail. 
He ventured to assert that in Mr. Talbot they had combined 
the two. They were presenting him the medal not only 
because he conducted a most interesting series of experiments 
on a somewhat remote scientific aspect of their industry, that 
of segregation, but also because he had shown them the direc- 



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24 PBESENTATION OF THE BESSEMEB MEDAL. 

tion in which they all of them believed the industry ought to 
move in the future. If, speaking generally, one were to be 
asked in what way was any industry to make progress, he 
should say it would be in the substitution of continuous 
for periodic or spasmodic efforts. Speaking to that prac- 
tical meeting, to men fully acquainted with the various 
phases of industry — for there were many present who were 
not only ironmasters, but also knew other branches of the 
industry — he would say that an industry which could suc- 
ceed in realising continuous progress in place of intermit- 
tent progress had made an enormous stride. He might 
draw illustrations from the blast-furnace itself, where one of 
the greatest advances was that of making the operation a 
continuous one. The continuous steel furnace which was 
known by the name of Talbot possessed that peculiarity. He 
need not say he was not going to embark on controver- 
sial subjects: it might well be that between its complete 
realisation and the present some time might elapse, but that 
the direction was the right one, whether Mr. Talbot had 
solved the problem or not, no one, he thought, would deny. 
The Institute therefore presented the Bessemer medal to 
Benjamin Talbot not only as the experimenter, but also as 
the pioneer, and it gave him, as he said in opening, a peculiar 
satisfaction that it should have fallen to his lot to make this 
presentation. He had the honour to hand Mr. Talbot the 
medal, with every wish for his continued success in the career 
which he had chosen, and he hoped that he might have the 
pleasure of congratulating him again and again on the progress 
be was making in the direction indicated. 

Mr. Benjamin Talbot said he had great difficulty in finding 
adequate words in which to thank the Council as he should 
like for the great honour they had conferred upon him by 
giving him the Bessemer medal. He need hardly say, how- 
ever, that it would be most highly treasured, as it was most 
gratifying when one's work was judged by those competent 
to judge in such a manner, and such an award was doubly 
precious when it was presented with such kind and gracious 
words as those which the Chairman had expressed. He had 



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PRESENTATION OF THE BESSEMER MEDAL. 25 

been wondering what caused him to start on the basic open- 
hearth process, considering he was being trained as a Bessemer 
man, and he had to thank a well-known member of the 
Institute for first drawing his attention to the possibility of 
the process. In 1886 he was in the Ebbw Vale Works as a 
learner of the Bessemer process, trying to pick up the practical 
details of that process. Whilst there he received a copy of 
The Ironmonger, containing Mr. Harbord's well-known paper 
read before the Institute in 1886. It was the study of that 
paper which caused him to investigate the basic open-hearth 
process, and it was not long before he had a small furnace 
at work with some liquid metal, and from that day to this 
he had endeavoured to improve the practice of basic open- 
hearth steeL He mentioned that because it showed writers 
of papers that they never knew who benefited by them, and 
it was due to the policy of the trade papers in publishing 
those papers so promptly that their readers, who, of course, 
had a much wider range than the members, got them, and so 
many people studied them who like himself, at the time, were 
not actually members of the Institute. He again thanked 
the Chairman and the Institute for the great honour they 
had done him in giving him the Bessemer medal. 

A paper by Mr. Andrew Lamberton (Member of Council) 
was then read and discussed, after which the President, 
having been obliged to attend the opening of the Franco- 
British Exhibition, apologised to the meeting for not being 
able to remain, and 

Mr. James Riley, Vice-President, thereupon took the chair 
for the remainder of the session. 

A paper by Dr. T. E. Stanton (Teddington) was then read 
and discussed, and a hearty vote of thanks was, on the motion 
of the Chairman, accorded the author. Papers by Mr. James E. 
York (New York) and Professor B. Igewsky (Kiev) were subse- 
quently taken as read, and the meeting adjourned at 1.30 p.m. 
to the following day, May 15, 1908. 



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26 CARNEGIE RESEARCH SCHOLARSHIPS. 

The chair having been taken at 10 30 a.m. by the President, 
the following list of awards of the Carnegie Research Scholar- 
ships was read : — 

Carnegie Research Scholarships. 

Having carefully examined the reports submitted by last 
year's Research Scholars, the Council of the Iron and Steel 
Institute have decided that the Gold Medal should be awarded 
to Dr. Carl Benedicks, of TJpsala, Sweden. 

The reports submitted by the eight holders of Research 
Scholarships are considered to be of sufficient merit to warrant 
their publication in full in the Journal of the Institute. 

Having carefully investigated the numerous applications 
received, the Council have awarded Research Scholarships 
each of the value of £100 to : — 

T. Baker (South Wales), R. F. Bohler (New York), W. Giesen 
(Mexico), E. Preuss (Germany), and L. P. M. R^villon (France). 

The recipient of the Carnegie Gold Medal for Eesearcb, Carl A. F. 
Benedicks, is a doctor of philosophy of the University of Upsala, 
Sweden, where he is lecturer in physical chemistry. He has had con- 
siderable practical experience in metallurgy and in electric smelting. 
He is a member of the Iron and Steel Institute, and the author of 
numerous memoirs on iron carbon alloys. 

The following are brief notes of the careers of the recipients of 
Carnegie Research Scholarships of the Iron and Steel Institute 
for 1908:— 

Thomas Baker, M.Sc., Assoc.I.O. (Llanelly, South Wales), was 
educated at Wolsingham Grammar School and at Durham University. 
He received his metallurgical training in the laboratory of Messrs. 
John Rogerson & Co., and at Sheffield University. He contributed, 
with Professor Arnold, to the Iron and Steel Institute, a paper on 
the influence of silicon in iron. 

Richard F. BOhler (New York) was educated in Vienna and 
Berlin, and received his metallurgical training at the Berlin School 
of Mines and at the Kapfenberg Steelworks. He has contributed 
papers to the Austrian Society of Engineers and Architects and to 
the New York Academy of Sciences. 



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ANDREW CARN£GI£ GOLD MEDAL. 27 

Walter Giesex (Mexico) was educated at Gladbach and Essen in 
Germany, and received his metallurgical training at the works of 
F. Krupp and Thyssen & Co., and at the technical schools of Hild- 
burghausen and Carlsruhe. He is now manager of the rolling-mills 
of the Monterey Steelworks, and has published six papers on metal- 
lurgical subjects. 

Ernst Preuss (Darmstadt) was educated at Berlin, and received 
his technical training at the works of the General Electric Company, 
Berlin, and as assistant to Professor Martens. He is now superin- 
tendent of the laboratory for testing materials at Darmstadt, and has 
published eight papers on metallurgical subjects. 

Louis P. M. K^villon (Paris) was educated at the Paris Ecole 
Centrale, and is now director of the testing laboratories of Dion 
Bouton & Co., Puteaux. He is the author of a treatise on special 
steels (Paris, 1907). 



Andrew Carnegie Gold Medal. 

The President, addressing Dr. Carl Benedicks, said it 
afforded him very great pleasure on behalf of the Institute 
to present him with the Gold Medal of the Carnegie Research 
Fund, and to congratulate him and themselves on having the 
honour of numbering him among those to whom the Carnegie 
medal had been awarded. He had to thank Dr. Benedicks 
for the valuable researches which he had made on the cooling 
power of liquids, on the testing of velocities, and on the con- 
stituents of steel, investigations of a very elaborate character 
and very well worthy of the extremely high traditions of 
metallurgy in Sweden. It was a great satisfaction to them 
again to honour that country which was the classic home of 
the intelligent investigation of the properties of metals, and in 
the person of Dr. Benedicks they were very glad to have the 
opportunity of once again showing how highly they valued the 
contributions of members of his nation to the science with 
which they were concerned. He thought he might congratu- 
late the Institute, and the founder of the Medal and of the 
Research Scholarships, on the extremely satisfactory results of 



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28 ANDREW CARNEGIE GOLD KEDAL. 

that award. They had every reason to be extremely content 
with the persons to whom the awards had been made. In one 
respect especially he would like to dwell upon the fact that 
the cosmopolitanism to which Sir Edward Grey had referred 
at the dinner on the previous evening was well marked in the 
awards that year. They had on the list of awards a gentleman 
from South Wales, a gentleman from New York, a gentleman 
described as from Mexico, but in fact, he believed, a citizen of 
the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, a gentleman from Darmstadt, 
and a gentleman from Paris. Therefore the length and breadth 
of the world had been searched to find people to whom to 
make these awards, a result which could not fail to be very 
satisfactory to all concerned in the foundation. 

The President then handed the Grold Medal to Dr. Carl 
Benedicks. 

Papers by Mr. W. Rosenhain (Teddington), Mr. C. de Schwarz 
(Lifege), Mr. J. Wesley Lambert (Woolwich), Mr. F. J. R. CaruUa 
(Derby), and Mr. E. H. Law (London) were then read and dis- 
cussed, votes of thanks being awarded the respective authors. 

The President moved, " That the best thanks of the Iron 
and Steel Institute be and are hereby tendered to the Presi- 
dent, the Council, and the Secretary of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers for the use of their rooms and for the facilities 
afforded for the present meeting." He said year by year they 
had to record their thanks for the extreme hospitality in 
granting the use of these most convenient rooms for the pur- 
poses of their annual meeting, and it gave him great pleasure 
again to invite the meeting to express their thanks. 

Sir J. G. N. Alleyne, Bart., Vice-President, seconded the 
resolution, which was carried with acclamation. 

Mr. W. R. Webster (Philadelphia) moved, " That the best 
thanks of the Iron and Steel Institute be and are hereby 
tendered to the President for his able conduct in the chair." 



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MIDDLESBBOUGH MEETINQ. 29 

Mr. E.J. LjdNOBERG (Sweden) seconded the resolution, which 
was carried with acclamation. 

The President said his thanks were once again due to the 
members for their very great kindness to him while he had 
been in possession of the presidential chair. He had to look 
back so far to his tenure of the chair with the undivided 
satisfaction of feeling that he had made very few mistakes 
and those only the mistakes of invincible ignorance, and that, 
where he had made mistakes, they had been willing to forgive 
him. He thanked them for having once more recorded their 
appreciation of the small services he had been able to render. 

Middlesbrough Meeting. 

The President said that the indefatigable Honorary Secre- 
tary of the Middlesbrough Reception Committee had caused 
to be placed in his hands a communication reminding him 
that he had forgotten what he regarded as quite the most 
essential part of the meeting, namely, to tell the members that 
Middlesbrough was looking forward to their coming in their 
hundreds in the autumn. They had not been there for twenty- 
five years, and Middlesbrough thought it was due that they 
should come back. They were preparing to oflfer them the 
hearty hospitality for which he thought the north was re- 
nowned. They did not pretend that they could compare with 
the brilliance of Sheffield two years ago, but they did hope 
that they should be able to show them something that was 
interesting, and they welre sure that they would be able to 
give them a most hearty welcome. 



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30 IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE BOLUNG-MILLS. 



IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLLING- 
MILLS. 

By ANDREW LAMBERTON, Member ok Council. 

The manufacture of steel plates, entering into the construction 
of ships, boilers, girders, &c., has of recent years made remark- 
able progress, and now constitutes one of the most important 
branches of the iron and steel industry. The progress has 
been principally in the direction of increasing the output 
capacity of mills, with the result that, compared with those 
of twenty years ago, present-day improvements have resulted 
in doubling, and in some cases even trebling, capacity. This 
result has largely been achieved by improvements effected in 
the details of the accessory machinery throughout the mill 
plant. Electrically-driven live roller-tables, which are now fitted 
at both sides of roughing and finishing mills; electrically- 
driven transfer gears ; and the very efficient drafting arrange- 
ments — also operated by electric motors — have greatly reduced 
the time occupied in the operations of handling and rolling 
plates. Improvements have also been made in slab-heating 
furnaces, which have been increased in capacity and in 
power to heat rapidly, and, served as they now are by 
electric-charging machines, have reduced very considerably 
the time required for charging, heating, and withdrawing slabs 
for rolling-mills. These improvemefits in detail have had the 
effect of increasing the output capacity; but the most im- 
portant improvements have been effected in rolling-mills 
themselves, which have been greatly strengthened in all their 
parts, and their speed accelerated threefold. This great in- 
crease in speed is very beneficial, owing to the larger amount 
of work expended upon the plate in a shorter time, econo- 
mising heat, and enabling plates to be rolled down to thin 
gauge with comparative ease and safety. The thinner the 
plate, the more difficulty there is in rolling it, and, unless 
sufficient speed be given to the rolls, these plates become too 



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IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE BOLLING-MILLS. 31 

cold to roll down to thin gauge. The increase in speed has 
now rendered it possible to produce plates of a size and gauge 
which were impossible with slower-running mills. 

During recent years a large demand has arisen for thin 
plates, and the question as to what type of mill is best 
adapted for rolling such plates is one of very considerable 
interest to steelmakers. The three principal conditions which 
platemakers must fulfil are : — 

1. Quality, represented by the usual tensile and bending 

tests. 

2. First-class surface finish throughout. 

3. Close adherence to gauge thickness. 

It is well known that these conditions are imposed much 
more rigorously in this country than in America or on the 
Continent of Europe. Here surface finish must be first-class, 
and adherence to gauge thickness must be within 2^ per cent, 
over or under. 

In America steel-plate makers are not under such stringent 
conditions, and the writer has seen thin plates being rolled in 
which a margin of 15 per cent, variation in thickness was 
accepted. Were it not for the stringency of the conditions 
to which he has referred, the probability is that plate rolling- 
mills of the American three-high type would have been adopted 
in this country before this time. It is unquestionable that for 
thin plates the three-high mill has some advantages; but, 
unfortunately, it has the great drawback of being unable to 
maintain high-surface finish on plates for more than two or 
three days, when the rolls require to be changed. This defect 
is inherent in the design of the mill where the roughing-down 
of the slab and the finishing of the plate are done in one set 
of rolls, causing rapid deterioration of their surfaces. The 
usual practice is to use a top roll and a bottom roll of equal 
diameter with a mid roll of two-thirds their diameter. At 
every pass of the plate, whether between top and mid, or 
bottom and mid, the mid roll does work, so that twice the 
work is put upon it that the top and bottom rolls are re- 
quired to do, and, as it has only two-thirds of their surface, it 
wears much more rapidly, the surface becomes quickly injured, 



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32 IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLLING-MILLS. 

and necessitates the changing of the rolls every two or three 
days, which is a drawback of a very serious nature. 

The author observed the outputs from three-high mills 
both in America and on the Continent, and, whilst the sur- 
face finish of the plates delivered during the first twenty- 
four hours* working was good, there was a subsequent steady 
deterioration in quality of surface finish, until the rolls had 
to be taken out for re-dressing. To meet this the practice is 
to roll all plates requiring the highest finish during the first 
twenty-four hours* working of the mill, and devote the subse- 
quent one or two days' working to plates which do not require 
such fine surface or close adherence to gauge thickness. There 
can be little doubt that it is largely this difficulty of surface- 
finish and adherence to gauge thickness, together with the 
undoubted complication of the three-high mill, which has 
prevented its adoption in this country, where the conditions 
of finish and thickness are so rigorously enforced. Our steel- 
makers have, with practical unanimity, adopted the two-high 
reversing-mill as the best to meet the conditions obtaining 
here, and there can be no question that the surface finish got 
from two-high reversing-mills is superior to, and can be main- 
tained with greater regularity and for a much longer time 
without changing rolls, than where three-high mills are used. 
The drafting of the rolls is also much simpler in two-high mills, 
and admits of more ready adjustment than when three rolls 
have to be regulated to work together with perfect exactitude. 
The live roller tables in two-high mills are likewise much more 
reliable in that they are fixed, and can be made as heavy and 
strong as desired, whilst in three-high mills these tables have 
to rise and fall at each pass, and therefore their mass and 
inertia have to be reduced to the lowest possible point com- 
mensurate with safety. This cutting down of weight tends to 
reduce the margin of safety, and frequent breakages occur, 
and it is well known that these tables are very costly in 
repairs, and in many cases complete spare tables are kept 
ready to put in when a breakdown occurs, so as to minimise 
the delay to the mill. 

Another very important advantage possessed by the two- 
high reversing-mill is that, when roughing down slabs, duriag 



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IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLUNQ-MILLS. 33 

which the passes are short, the mill can be driven at slow 
speed, so as to minimise the shock when the slab enters the 
rolls, whilst during the long passes the speed can be accelerated 
to any desired extent compatible with safety. The writer has 
taken notes of the speed at which reversing-engines are 
regularly driven, and finds 140 revolutions per minute quite 
common. This is quite twice the speed of three-high mills, 
so that the slowing down during the initial' passes is amply 
compensated for before the finish. This method of working 
is obviously much easier on the mill plant than where the 
slab enters the rolls at full speed, as in the three-high system 
causing violent shock and increased liability to breakage. 

These are some of the practical considerations that have 
influenced steel-plate makers in choosing the type of mill best 
suited at all points to meet the stringent conditions imposed, 
and, so far, the all but unanimous choice of the two-high 
reversing-mill has been fully justified by results. 

It is to be observed, however, that two new installations of 
three-high mills have been made during the last few months, 
one in Scotland and one in England, and the results from 
these will be watched with much interest. 

The author has thought it might prove of interest to 
members of the Institute if he gave a description of a new 
form of plate-mill, having rolls 30 inches diameter by 6 feet 
6 inches long, which he has designed specially for rolling light 
plates, but which is equally suitable for ordinary ship and 
girder plates, now successfully at work at the Glasgow Iron 
and Steel Works, Wishaw. This mill, which is illustrated in 
Plate I., possesses some quite novel features, for which the 
following claims may fairly be made : — 

1. Simplification in the operation of the mill. 

2. Reduction in the amount of machinery required. 

3. Reduction in the work done by finishing rolls, and 

consequent reduction in wear of same. 

4. Acceleration in delivery speed of finishing rolls, and 

equalisation of power used in roughing and finishing 
rolls. 

5. Final delivery of plates, straightened and free from 

wave. 
1908. — I 



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34 IMPBOVEMENTS IN PLATE BOLLING-MILLS. 

6. Reduction in space occupied by the whole plant. 

7. Large output capacity. 

8. Economy in steam consumption of driving engine. 

1. SimplificcUion in the Operation of Mill, and 2. Eedtcction in 
the Amount of Machinery required. — This is accomplished by 
arranging the roughing and finishing rolls in tandem, instead 
of the usual practice of arranging them in the same extended 
line. The slab is first reduced in the roughing rolls, and 
finally in the finishing rolls. During the process of roughing- 
down, the top finishing roll is held up clear by its hydraulic 
balances, and the plate under treatment passes freely through 
the finishing rolls until reduced to the thickness ready for 
finishing, when the upper roughing roll is raised, and the 
upper finishing roll lowered, and the subsequent finishing of 
the plate takes place through the finishing rolls. It will be 
observed that, by this means, two sets of live roller tables, 
which in the ordinary type of reversing-mills would be fitted 
at the front and back of the finishing rolls, are rendered 
unnecessary, one set of two tables serving both roughing and 
finishing mills. Further, by this new arrangement the transfer 
or skid gear, required in the former type of mill to transfer 
the roughed-down plate across to the finishing rolls, is also 
done away with, these constituting a very substantial reduc- 
tion in the machinery employed, and decidedly simplifying the 
operations, as the slab to be rolled never leaves the straight 
line of travel during the whole process of rolling, and passes 
out, a finished plate, in the same line as the original slab is 
received at the commencement of the operation. 

3. Reduction in the Work done by Finishing Rolls and co^ise- 
quent Reduction in Wear, — In the ordinary type of mill, where 
the roughed-down slab has to be transferred sideways to the 
finishing rolls, the practice is to make this transference whilst 
the plate is still of considerable thickness, that it may not 
cool too rapidly during the process, so that, generally speaking, 
as many passes are made in the finishing rolls as in the 
roughing-down rolls. The author considers this bad practice, 
inasmuch as it imposes a great deal more work and entails 
much more wear on the finishing rolls than is necessary. 



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IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE BOLLING-MILLS. 35 

The operation of finishing should be done with the minimum 
number of passes, so as to reduce the wear on the costly 
finishing rolls to the lowest possible point, and maintain their 
surfaces perfect as long as possible. This new form of mill is 
specially designed to effect this, as the roughing-down process 
can be carried on during 80 per cent, of the whole operations 
of rolling a plate, owing to the fact that it never requires to 
leave its direct line of travel, and the finishing process, repre- 
senting some 20 per cent, only of the whole work, is all that 
need be put on the finishing rolls. It is obvious that a very 
considerable saving must be effected in the finishing rolls, 
which have their work so substantially reduced, and their 
surface will be maintained in good condition for a much longer 
time. Further, the expense in changing and dressing rolls 
will be greatly reduced, and stoppage of the mill rendered less 
frequent. 

4. Acceleration in Delivery Speed of Finishing Bolls and 
JEqualisa^ion of Power used in Soiighin>g and Finishing Rolls, — 
From careful observations and diagrams taken from engines 
driving two-high plate rolling-mills it has been found that 
the process of roughing-down requires very considerably greater 
power than that for finally finishing the plate in the hard rolls. 
This means that the engine, which must be of sufficient power 
to give out the maximum demand made upon it, is over power 
when the finishing process is in operation, and the writer has 
utilised this excess power in accelerating the speed of the 
finishing rolls over that of the roughing. This results in the 
double advantage of equalising the load upon the engine 
during the whole of the operations and consequently increasing 
its efficiency, and also of providing a most useful increase in 
speed during the final passes when finishing the plate, which, 
when rolling thin plates, is of very great importance. 

In the ordinary type of two-high reversing-mill the power 
required for driving both roughing and finishing rolls is 
transmitted through the bottom roughing roll, and as it is 
the practice to partially rough down the slab whilst the pre- 
ceding plate is being finished in the hard rolls, this doubles 
the strain on the neck and wobbler of the lower roughing 
roll and greatly increases the wear and tear on them. This 



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36 IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLLING-MILLS. 

system of working is followed in order to increase the output 
capacity of the mill, but it is obviously obtained at greatly 
increased cost, as the driving-engine must be able to develop 
nearly twice the power required where work is only done in 
one set of rolls at a time, and is consequently much more 
costly. At the best, it is only a few of the short initial 
passes that can be done simultaneously with the finishing of 
the preceding plate, so that for quite three-fourths of the 
whole operation only one piece is in the rolls, and the engine 
is then twice as powerful as is necessary and must do the 
work with a substantially lower efficiency than when the load 
on the engine is kept constant during the whole operation. 
Further, this large surplus engine power is a source of danger 
when by accident a stall occurs in the mill, as the shock and 
strain induced in bringing the engine suddenly to rest are 
much intensified by its greater power and mass of moving 
parts. 

5. Fined Delivery of Flat es, Straightened and Free from Wave. 
— In mills driven at high speed there is a tendency for the 
plate to become waved, particularly if it is of thin gauge, and 
the higher the speed the more pronounced is this tendency. 
To correct this, during the final pass in the finishing rolls the 
roughing rolls are also put down in light contact with the 
plate, and the mill then practically forms a four-roller mangle, 
which very effectually flattens out the plate before going to 
the shears. 

6. Redtiction in Space occupied by the whole Plant. — This con- 
sideration may not be of such importance where new works 
are being laid out ; but in carrying out improvements in exist- 
ing works the question of space occupied is almost always one 
of great importance. The total space occupied by a two-high 
reversing-mill of the ordinary type, measured over its extreme 
length and including the driving-engines, amounts to 70 feet. 
A mill of the same size and capacity of this new design occu- 
pies 42 feet, representing a saving of 40 per cent, in the space 
occupied without in any way being more congested in its 
arrangements. This reduction in space is effected by (1) the 
design of the engine, which is of the vertical and horizontal 
type, and occupies only half the floor space of the ordinary 



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IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLLING-MILLS. 37 

side-by-side reversing-engine ; and (2) the design of the mill, in 
which the whole space occupied by the finishing-mill, together 
with its two live-roller tables and transfer gear, is saved. 

7, Large Output Capacity. — This is obtained (1) by the 
simplification of the operation of the mill, in which the trans- 
ference of the plate from roughing to finishing mill is abolished 
and the time taken for this operation saved ; and (2) by the 
acceleration of the speed of the finishing rolls, which are driven 
15 per cent, faster than the speed of the engine. The result 
is that a plate of, for example, 5 feet x 30 feet x f inches can 
be roUed in two minutes, and if this rate of feed could be kept 
up the output of such plates would be 400 tons per day of 
ten hours. In rolling to thin gauge the slab is thinner, and 
the time taken for a plate of, for example, 5 feet x 30 feet 

X ^ inches is two and a half minutes, or at the rate of 
130 tons per day of ten hours. 

8. Economy in Steam Consumption, — The steam eflSciency 
of rolling-mill engines has not in the past been conspicuous 
except for its absence ; but much greater attention has been 
directed towards this subject lately, and substantial improve- 
ment has resulted. The engine driving the mill described is 
of the vertical and horizontal type, compound condensing, and 
has a high-pressure cylinder 42 inches diameter, and a low- 
pressure cylinder 67 inches diameter by 4-foot stroke. The 
steam-pressure is 160 lbs. per square inch, the exhaust is 
connected to a central condensing plant giving a vacuum 
of about 24 inches, and the engine under these conditions 
develops the exact amount of power required. To ensure 
quick reversing, the handling valves of both high-pressure and 
low-pressure cylinders are connected and worked in unison from 
the same starting handle as is now usual in modem compound 
engines. The closing of both these valves simultaneously 
acts as a most efficient brake, stopping the engine quickly, 
and preventing racing at the finish of the passes. The 
resulting increase in pressure in the receiver is then avail- 
able for accelerating 'the speed of starting for the return 
pass, and so the efficiency of the whole operation is sub- 
stantially improved. 

Before closing, the author desires to refer to a matter in 



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38 IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLLING-MILLS. 

regard to which there seems to be some difference of opinion 
in rolling-mill practice. The question as to whether, in 
rolling plates, the rolls should be worked wet or dry is 
practically settled so far as regards the finishing rolls; but 
many makers still work roughing rolls dry. It seems only 
reasonable to believe that, if all rolls could be worked wet, it 
would greatly extend their life, and would prevent necks over- 
heating and cutting into their bushes. The solution is to be 
found in the increased speed of driving, which enables plates 
to be rolled with such rapidity that the cooling effect pro- 
duced by working the rolls wet is discounted by the heat 
generated by the work expended on the plate in reduced 
time. From careful experiments made on a large number 
of plates rolled from the same slabs it has been ascertained 
that the surface quality of plates rolled when both roughing 
and finishing rolls are worked wet, is very distinctly superior 
to those produced when only the finishing rolls are worked 
wet. This clearly points to the advisability of all plate rolls 
being worked wet; and when consideration is given to the 
increased durability of the rolls, necks, and brasses, and the 
reduction of frictional losses, the advantages gained by the 
great increase in the speed of rolling which has made all this 
possible are clearly demonstrated. 

The performance of this new type of plate-mill described in 
the paper has now been proved in actual daily work tOt be of 
the most satisfactory character, all the aims of the designer 
being more than realised, and he ventures to hope that in 
bringing it before the members of the Institute it may have 
proved of some interest. 



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DLSCUSSION MB. JAMES BILET. 39 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. James Riley, Vice-President, said that it was only on com- 
paratively few recent occasions that Mr. Lamberton had addressed their 
meetings, but whenever he had done so he had conveyed the impression 
of being thoroughly conversant with the subjects that he discussed, 
possessed of a wide fund of information, and able to enunciate his 
ideas in vigorous and lucid language. The same characteristics 
were evident in his admirable paper, the first, if the speaker recol- 
lected rightly, he had submitted to the Institute. The members 
would all agree in conveying to Mr. Lamberton the assurance that 
the very modest hope he expressed at the end of the paper had been 
realised, and they would be glad to have further interesting matter 
of the same kind, or some other, from him. He himself had had 
the pleasure of knowing Mr. Lamberton for a great number of years, 
he thought twenty-five, and during that period they had not only dis- 
cussed many branches of subjects similar to those of the paper, but on 
more than one occasion had collaborated a little. It was therefore a 
great pleasure to him to know of Mr. Lamberton's latest achievement. 
Year after year Mr. Lamberton had devoted careful and prolonged 
study to the various parts of the machinery used in the manipulation 
of steel, seeking to discover their weak points, and endeavouring to 
eliminate them, and to remove any obstructions that became apparent 
in the way of increased productive capacity, and he had accomplished 
a great deal in that direction. Mr. Lamberton gave an indication 
of the progress which had been made in the manufacture of plates 
during the past twenty years, and he did not exaggerate when he 
stated that the output had been trebled in that period. Thirty years 
ago, when he (Mr. Eiley) went to Scotland, the output of the plate- 
mill at the Hallside Works of the Steel Company of Scotland was 
80 tons per week for one shift, and when he pressed and insisted 
upon larger outputs than this he was warned by their practical work- 
men at that time that it could not be done ; if they attempted to do 
what he wished, the rolls would, he was told, get red-hot and they would 
burst, and there would be no end of trouble. That was with an output 
of about 80 tons a week. He was not quite sure what they had reached 
now, but it would be about 2000 tons weekly. Instead of the output 
being trebled, it might be said to have been multiplied twenty-fold 
in the thirty years to which his experience extended. He could not 
say that he was prepared to agree entirely with Mr. Lamberton's con- 
clusions with regard to the three-high mill. About fifteen years ago 
be (Mr. Biley) put down the first three-high mill, and until recenUy 
the only one that had been erected in Great Britain. The comparison 
between that mill and the then existing two-high rolling-mill was most 
striking. It was not sufficient to talk of the weight of the plates that 
were turned out by the old mill and the three-high mOl ; it was 
necessary to remember the speed at which that mill ran, and the 
number of plates roUed. It turned out about three times the weight 



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40 IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLLING-MILLS. 

of plates per hour that the old mill alongside it turned out. There 
were complications about that mill; but two gentlemen whom he 
saw present, his assistants at that time, Mr. Cunningham and Mr. 
Duff, carefully thought over the body of the mill, and adapted 
it for a good many more purposes than were at that time, he 
thought, contemplated in America. They worked over the body of 
the mill, as he might call it — that was, the screwing gear and the 
side rolls ; it was a universal type of mill, intended to roll the edges 
of the plates as well as the flat surfaces, and that part they gave 
great consideration to. Some of his friends in America who had sent 
him the drawings of the mill sent very complete drawings of the 
tables. Those he handed over to Mr. Cunningham and Mr. Duff^ and 
requested that they should make them without any alteration whatever. 
Those tables were a source of trouble, as Mr. Lamberton pointed out. 
The complications in them, the weakness in parts, were extremely 
annoying. But he thought it was possible to correct them, and they 
prepared to do so; but circumstances intervened and the investi- 
gation was stopped. So far he disagreed with Mr. Lamberton in his 
comparison of the three-high mill and the old two-high mill ; but he at 
once conceded that if he had to choose between that three-high mill and 
the one which Mr. Lamberton had submitted to the meeting to-day, 
he should agree with him entirely. He thought Mr. Lamberton had 
fully justified all the points he had submitted, except, perhaps, one. 
He did not feel so clear in his mind that Mr. Lamberton had not 
introduced a good many complications into the motor part of the 
plant, which might be troublesome. If that was all right, the other 
portions of the mill, he thought, deserved every word of praise that 
Mr. Lamberton had used. He believed that he could roll thin light 
plates and finish them 80 feet long. Now it was quite evident that 
if that could be done the economy in the proportion of scrap that 
would be made would be very great. He congratulated Mr. 
Lamberton on his latest achievement. He thought he had un- 
doubtedly reached the point he had been aiming at for a long time, 
of being, if not in the forefront of the whole of the trade and manu- 
facture of that class of machinery, at least very nearly so. 

Mr. J. H. Harrison (Middlesbrough) said that he quite agreed 
with the great majority of the proposals that Mr. Lamberton had 
made. He thought that the mill was in every way one that was 
likely to prove satisfactory. But there were some points on which he 
could not quite agree. Mr. Lamberton spoke of one pair of rolls being 
let down in order to form a four-roller mangle. He iid not think the 
mangling of the plates in that way would have a very great effect. 
Not only so, but Mr. Lamberton said that the finishing rolls travelled 
15 per cent, faster than the roughing rolls; and, in that case, 
if the roughing rolls were put down so that they came in contact 
with the plate at all, then the plate, by reason of its high velocity in 
the finishing rolls, would be dragging through the roughing rolls. 
Either the rolls would be down too hard, and there would be excessive 



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DISCUSSION MB. J. M. GLEDHILL. 41 

work to be done because the plates stretched, which was not desirable, 
or the rolls would not be down sufficiently close to do any good at all 
He thought it would be very much better to let the rolling-mill be a 
rolling-mill, and put down mangles quite independently. That raised 
a different question, as to the selling of flat plates. Mr. Lamberton 
spoke very highly of the quality of the finished surface of English- 
made plates as compared with those produced in America and on the 
Ck)ntinent. He thought, although perhaps it might cost more to 
produce a plate with a highly finished surface, it was very desirable 
that one should not sit down to produce a plate finished in the way 
they were accustomed to see coming from American and the Con- 
tinental mills. At the same time they produce a plate which was 
flat. Now if one went to buy a bar or a rail in England, one got a 
straight bar or a straight rail, but one ought to be able to get a flat 
plate as well. It ought to go through a process of mangling so as to 
provide a perfectly flat plate which was ready then for any construc- 
tional engineers to work into any shape they wanted. It was not the 
province of the constructional engineer to begin to straighten plates 
when he got them from the rolling-mills. He ought to receive them 
straight and flat, and he thought this proposal of Mr. Lamberton's 
would be better worked out by making the rolling-mill a rolling-mill 
and putting in the mangle quite independently. Mr. Lamberton 
also said, "The solution is to be found in the increased speed of 
driving, which enables plates to be rolled with such rapidity that the 
cooling effect produced by working the rolls wet is discounted by the 
heat generated by the work expended on the plate in reduced time.'' 
He did not quite know what Mr. Lamberton meant, but it looked 
as if he got heat put into the plate by the work done upon it in the 
rolling-mill. If that were so, the plate was being heated by very ex- 
pensive means, because if one put heat into the plate by the excessive 
work done, that heat had to be obtained by work done in the engine, 
and he thought that was a very expensive way of heating the plate. 

Mr. J. M. Gledhill, Member of Council, wished to compliment 
his colleague, Mr. Lamberton, on his paper on rolling-mill design. 
Personally his experience was that of producing plates on a large 
scale, but more in the direction of heavy plates, than of the ordinary 
commercial plates, and dealing with ingots of anything from 60 
to 80 tons in weight for the production of armour-plates, and this 
design of mill had appealed to him very much as compared with 
a mill he was associated in the design of some seven years ago. 
He thought the arrangement of tandem housings was an excellent 
one, and if he had to reconstruct his mill he should certainly adopt 
this arrangement of having a roughing-mill and then the finish- 
ing rolls parallel. There was one point in the early part of Mr. 
Lamberton's paper in which he referred to the rapidity of rolling 
plates. That was desirable to a certain extent ; but when one got to 
rolling plates beyond a certain thickness, he had found that, owing to 
the surface of the slabs getting worked at a higher rate than the 



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42 IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLLING-MILLS. 

interior of the material, a varying action was obtained, and the 
plate obtained thought to be pez^ectly sound was really in the 
condition that the surface between the rolls had been drawn more 
rapidly than the interior, with the result that that part was hollow 
and not homogeneous. That was a point to watch in the speed over- 
rolling. The arrangement permitted one to use the rolling-mills at a 
slow rate, as Mr. Lamberton described, and then, should the plates 
have got thinner, to go at a much higher speed, and probably that 
would have some effect in overcoming the difficulty, although he 
thought if once this hollow condition was produced, even on thinner 
plates, one might not get as good a result as with slower rolling. 
It might be of interest to mention some of the points that they had 
had to deal with in the design of their mill. Ffobably the most 
important one was immunity from breakdowns. Although they had 
to produce a comparatively small weight per week, 200 to 300 tons 
of armour-plates, still the value ran to anything from £10,000 to 
£20,000, so that the stoppage and breakdown of a mill for two or 
three weeks meant a very great deal. Perhaps one of the most 
interesting things they had to think about was the question of the 
housings, because the breakdown of the housings meant a very con- 
siderable time for replacement. They decided first that their rolls 
should be 4 feet in diameter and 13 feet 6 inches on the face, made 
of nickel steel weighing something like 58 tons each roll. Then they 
thought about the housings, and that to make castings suitable for 
that size of roll was no small order, anyhow for Manchester. Probably 
other towns could make them without blowholes, specks, or blemishes. 
So they decided to have them made of forgings, and he would give 
them a very neat way of making housings from forged steel. First &ey 
cast rectangular ingots each weighing 80 tons. They then forged those 
ingots under a 12,000-ton press. Each of those forgings, finished, 
weighed about 52 tons, and they were bolted together in a special 
manner. The centre was cut out for the reception of the rolls. 
Those had been working now seven years, and they were just as they 
were, and he rather fancied they ever would be. Another point that 
gave them a great deal of food for thought was as to whether they 
should have compound engines or ordinary high-pressure engines, 
the latter being of the vertical marine type, with three cylinders, 
with a type of Joy valve worked hydraulically. Then they thought 
they might have the cylinders of their engine crack, so they made 
the cylinders of forged steel, which were also at the present moment 
just as good as they were put in; in fact they had had no break- 
downs, and the mill had been working practically night and day for 
seven years. He again complimented his friend Mr. Lamberton on 
the excellent designs he had put before them, and he should like 
him, if he could, to give the meeting his views of the percentage of 
steam economy in the adoption of his compound engine for rolling- 
mill practice over ordinary high-pressure engines. 

Mr. P. N. Cunningham, President of the Wes^ of Scotland 



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DISCUSSION ^MR. P. N. CUNNINGHAM. 43 

Iron and Steel Institute, complimented the author on the ability 
which he had shown in the compilation of his paper and the 
facts he had put before the meeting. In regard to the design 
of the mill, he personally thought that this was the manner in 
which plate -work would be done in the future. Whether the 
rolls would be 10 or 15 feet apart or 60 feet apart would be a 
matter of experience, but he was quite sure that twin rolls would 
come to the front. Mr. Lamberton had told them in his paper that 
the arrangement he had made with the hard rolls by increasing 
the speed was a very good one indeed, but he thought that up to 
the present time the reason that less power had been taken from the 
engine had been the question of the strength of the structure. If one 
undertook to work to the hard roll, the power to work the hard roll 
was gauged to suit the strength of the hard roll or the housing. He 
thought it could have been accomplished if they designed the mills 
strong enough to put as much work on the plates in i^e hard roll as 
the engines could develop in the soft roll, and in that way they would 
be improving the quality of the plate by driving the work right to the 
very centre, and in that way improving their extensions. In refer- 
ence to Mr. Biley's remarks, he remembered very well indeed the 
pious horror of the engine-driver if one asked him to see if the 
machinery could be driven a little faster. He remembered also when 
he increased the speed at other works for which he was responsible 
he had the same difficulty to face there ; everything had to be 
fought. In connection with the three-high mill they had a 
tremendous fight to get to what they did. Then they rolled plates 
up to 6 feet wide. When he was in America four years ago he 
came across a mill which had been built in recent years, and the 
designer and builder of that mill told him that he was the first 
to arrange the vertical roll upon the issuing side of the mill. It was 
a three-high mill, and the vertical rolls were in contact with the plate. 
So that in that way the vertical rolls of the mill were assumed to be 
running near the same periphery of the speed as the horizontal rolls. 
In a great many mills previous to that that had been the difficulty, that 
the verti(^l rolls had been kept in contact with the material on both 
sides of the rolls, and accordingly as the draught was greater or 
less so was the variation of the speed of the rolls. With regard to 
the plates that could be rolled in that mill, they were to-day rolling 
plates commercially 45 feet long and fVths thick, and this was in a 
reversing-mill with two sets of rolls and escape-gear. He admitted 
that Mr. Lamberton had overcome the difficulty of time lost by skid- 
ding across ; but he found in his practice that the work done was 
37 per cent, by the hard roll, so that left 63 per cent, of the work 
done by the soft roll. With regard to the question Mr. Lamberton 
had raised as to rolling with both sets of rolls wet, he had carried out 
experiments in a small way, and he found that, generally speaking, 
plates rolled, both sets of rolls flooded with water, when placed in a 
pickling solution did not lose so much as the other by 1^ per cent. 
He was referring to plates ^^j^ths thick and under. They found that 



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44 IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLLING-MILLS. 

by having t];iein rolled by both sets of rolls flooded with water as 
against both sets of rolls perfectly dry, they had a saving in the 
pickling solution of 1^ per cent, in favour of the plates rolled flooded 
with water. That was a point to which perhaps not much attention 
had been given, but it had simply cropped up in the usual course of 
business, and he thought he would try the experiment in a rough way. 
The experiment had been carried out about three or four weeks, and 
while the result was not such as he would base a definite conclusion 
upon, he was satisfied that with plates rolled with both sets of rolls 
flooded with water there was less proportion of oxide than there was 
in plates that were rolled perfectly dry. 

Mr. Henry Crowe (Middlesbrough) said that the author had insisted 
that the finish of the plate of the ordinary three-high mill could not 
be made as good as the two-high. He thought that could be got over 
quite easily by putting up two sets of three-high mills. The three- 
high mills in England generally had two sets of housings, so that the 
roughing down was done in soft rolls and the finishing in hard rolls. 
Therefore, as far as the question of surface was concerned, he did not 
think there was any difficulty in getting it in three-high mills. There 
was no doubt, too, that if the hard roUs and the soft rolls were driven 
by independent engines, the output of the mills would be greater than 
was possible by Mr. Lamberton's mill. It seemed to him that, for 
one engine, and for a given amount of capital expenditure, the greatest 
output would be got from Mr. Lamberton's design, and that certainly 
was a point in favour of it. He did not think that with one engine a 
mill could be designed to make a larger output than the mill Mr. 
Lamberton had installed at Coatbridge. In reading over the paper 
he thought there was some trouble in Mr. Lamberton's mill in the 
plates turning up. Sometimes the plates, when they were being 
rolled, if they were fairly thin, turned up at the end, and if so they 
would not pass through the rolls ; but he found that Mr. Lamberton 
had provided for that difficulty, by making a series of hanging guidea 
Then, on looking at the drawing, the guides of the hard rollers were 
shown there in one piece, and that struck him, too, as being a thing 
to give some trouble. He thought the guides in the hard rolls should 
be made in several pieces so that they might lie very close against the 
rolls. He should like to ask Mr. Lamberton if he had any trouble 
with the guides of the hard rolls being made in one piece, as shown 
on the drawing. Mr. Lamberton also made a point of the time saved 
in skidding the plate from the hard to the soft as usual in two-high 
mills. It seemed that it must take some time, when one changed 
from the roughing roll to the finishing rolls, to screw down the finish- 
ing rolls, so that the time saved by that operation should be put 
against the time saved in skidding. With regard to the output of 
the mill, Mr. Lamberton had said that 130 tons of plates ^ths 
thick could be rolled in a shift in his mill. That was a very good 
output for any mill, he thought, whether for one engine or two, and 
certainly for one. But he also thought that the type of the mill 



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DISCUSSION BfR. E. J. DUFF. 45 

largely depended on the shape and size of the slab put in the mill as 
it came from the cogging-mill. In America they got their very large 
outputs by getting the slab from the oogging-mill in a shape that wotdd 
here be c^led a roughed-down plate, and did not take so long to roll 
down as slabs did in this country. He would be gfad if Mr. Lam- 
berton would teU them the size of the slab he put into the mill to 
produce his 130-ton output. It also struck him that those standards 
would be better if they were farther apart. It was desirable that the 
roller should be able to get between the standards easily, and examine 
the guides. He quite understood if the housings were farther apart 
the gearing would be larger, but he did not know whether that would 
compensate for the advantage of getting between the rolls or not. 
Mr. Lamberton had evidently succeeded in making a reversing-mill 
engine, consisting of one low-pressure cylinder and one high-pressure 
cylinder, and he was to be congratulated on that point. All success- 
ful compound rolling-mill engines on the Continent had been carried 
out with four cylinders, two high and two low. In this case they had 
one high pressure and one low pressure, which was very much simpler. 
Also those members who were interested in electrically driven engines 
would find Mr. Lamberton had brought out a mill which was emi- 
nently suitable for motor driving, because with very large powers it 
was usual to split the motors into two powers, one armature being 
generally too large for the power. Here a very good combination 
indeed for electric driving was provided by two armatures coupled 
respectively to the hard and soft rolls direct. The question of 
straightening the plates had also been discussed. He did not see 
how the plates were mangled very much ; but if the soft rolls were 
run at a slower speed than the hard rolls, there was a slight 
stretching action going on, and that would straighten them very 
effectively. In fact in Germany there was a straightening machine 
which did this by pulling the ends of the plate, and so straightened 
them. 

Mr. E. J. Duff (Liverpool) said that Mr. Biley had been good 
enough to mention his name in connection with a three-high mill 
erected at Blochairn about the year 1890. He had not had the advan- 
tage of reading Mr. Lamberton's paper in advance, so that he would 
confine himself to one or two remarks in regard to the three-high 
milL The plates rolled in the mill at Blochairn measured up to 
5 feet 6 inches wide, and they were successful in getting both a large 
output and a good finish. However, there were defects in the mill, 
as Sir. Riley had acknowledged, due chiefly to their having followed 
too closely the American designs in regard to the tables, &c., and 
these gave trouble, and frequent breakdowns and stoppages of the 
mill occurred. He thought, however, that if Mr. Riley's directors 
had had the nerve to spend the money in eliminating these defects, 
and had gone on with the principle of three-high rolling, they would 
have made a success of it. He, however, quite appreciated the good 
points of Mr. Lamberton's mill. 



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46 IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLLING-MILLS. 

Mr. Lahberton, in reply, said that Mr. Riley referred to the 
engine, and expressed a fear that the type of engine used in this mill 
might have some complications. He could reassure Mr. Riley that 
there were really none. It was an extremely simple engine indeed. 
He had succeeded, as Mr. Crowe had pointed out, in having a com- 
pound two-cylinder reversing-engine to work with as great rapidity in 
reversing as with the double compound tandem type. There was a 
difficulty about it, and, indeed, he did not at first see how he was 
going to manage it, but he thought it could be done, and he did 
manage it. They had only two cylinders as against four, and had 
all the advantages in steam economy that could be had in the double 
compound tandem, with a very great deal less complication. When 
they had to draw a piston it was an easy matter. The double com- 
pound engine was notoriously a difficult engine to overhaul. So that 
in that respect he was glad to say to Mr. Riley that there was no 
complication. If it was the point of the double handling valves, 
that was a very simple matter. They were simply connected by rods 
to one handling lever, and when one shut down the admission valve 
of the high pressure and also the admission valve of the low pressure 
it acted as a very effective brake for bringing the engine to rest. 
Mr. Riley had spoken of plates being rolled 80 feet long, and he 
hoped that in his mill they would roll plates of the ordinary girder 
type 100 feet long. Mr. Harrison spoke of the straightening action. 
They had a little of that ; but he thought it was that the plate was 
prevented from wobbling as it went through, and the straightening 
action was helped in that way. He agreed with Mr. Harrison's re- 
mark that all commercially sold plates should be straight, and that the 
proper way to accomplish that was, whether one used the straighten- 
ing power of a mill like this or not, to have them mangled before 
delivery. That was done in Messrs. Oolville's works in nearly every 
plate they turned out, and by many other makers too. Mr. Harrison 
spoke about the heating of a plate due to the speed of rolling. He 
did not mean that they tried to heat plates by driving at high speed ; 
but they wanted to drive them as fast as they could, and there was 
heat generated that prevented the piece cooling as rapidly as if it 
went through slowly. One could roll down plates to a thin gauge 
with that assistance in a way that could not be obtained otherwise. 
Mr. Gledhill spoke about the speed of rolling, and referred to some- 
thing in the way of a defect being produced in a thick slab if the 
rolling was done too fast. He presumed he was speaking about 
armour-plates. He (Mr. Lamberton) could quite understand if one 
put too much work on the surface of a thick slab it would probably 
open up in the centre. But practically nothing of that kind happened 
in rolling plates. The passes were of light draught, and they were 
taken fast, and the character of the plate all through was excellent. 
He might say that the tests they had got from the plates rolled by that 
mill were excellent in that way. Mr. Gledhill spoke of a way to make 
housings. He (Mr. Lamberton) was afraid that he could not get the price 
for housings if he made them like that. There was a fortune in these 



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DISCUSSION MR. LAMBERTON. 47 

housings, and he had to work for a great deal less money. He thought 
Mr. Gledhill at the finish of his remarks made some statement to the 
effect that he congratulated him on using a compound engine. He 
did not claim that at all. Compound engines had heen used in 
reversing-mills now for quite a number of years, and very success- 
fully. However, he thought he was the first who had used a com- 
pound engine of the single type, one cylinder high pressure and one 
cylinder low pressure, and they had accomplished the reversing, 
which, as he said, was the difficulty, in a first-class way. Mr. Cun- 
ningham spoke about the amount of power relatively used in soft and 
hard rolls. Diagrams were submitted which represented average 
powers taken from an ordinary high- pressure side-by-side reversing- 
engine, when rolling in the soft rolls and in the hard rolls, those were 
average diagrams taken from the number of passes in each. In the 
first roll, according to the diagram, the indicated horse-power was 
B425 in the soft roll, and only 2210 in the hard roll, showing he had 
a very largely increased power at his disposal, and he utilised that 
in increasing the speed of the finishing rolls. He thought he 
was right to equalise the power being used in both sets of rolls, as 
nearly as possible making them identical, because he claimed that 
was the proper way to work plate-rolls. Reference was made by 
Mr. Cunningham to working the rolls wet, and he was glad to 
have his support in that way, because it did seem very clear that 
if rolls were always worked wet their lives would be enormously 
extended and their surfaces preserved for a much longer time. 
Their necks would be prevented from heating and cutting, and there 
would be a saving in lubricants, saving in rolls, saving in every- 
thing ; and when all that was accompanied by a distinct increase in 
the quality of the plate produced, they must really get to working 
rolls wet without any further delay. Mr. Crowe referred to the 
three-high mill, and said that his (Mr. Lamberton's) remarks in 
regard to the difficulty in keeping the surface finished up could be 
met by putting in two sets of three-high mills. But he was not 
designing two mills, he was designing one mill, and it was obvious 
if one could give a man twice the money he would probably produce a 
larger output. But he was face to face with being asked to design a 
mill which would give the largest output for the smallest. expenditure, 
and he tried his best to do that. But even with two sets of three-high 
mills, there would be far more changing of rolls necessary to keep 
the surfaces up than there would be in his mill. Mr. Crowe referred 
to the liability of a plate to turn up at the point. The diagram on the 
wall showed a device he had designed to prevent that, and the little 
hinged guides were weighted behind so that they were always kept in 
touch. They found them very efficient, and they had never had any 
trouble from them. Mr. Crowe spoke of the time saved by this mill in 
skidding across ; that it probably was discounted by the time taken up 
in putting the hard rolls down and easing off the soft rolls. As a matter 
of fact, in the working of the mill the process was going on simul- 
taneously ; when they began with a slab, say, 4 inches thick, from the 



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48 IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLLING-MILLS. 

roughing rolls, as soon as it got reduced to ^ inch the driving of the 
screw gear followed down with the hard rolls, just keeping a little 
bit behind. There was not any time lost there, and the thing worked 
very nicely. Mr. Crowe asked about the size of slabs for an output 
of 130 tons of ^ths plates. They ran about 4 to 4^ inches, 
and weighed 15 cwts. Then he asked whether it would be better 
to have the housings farther apart, and he thought he answered 
himself pretty well there by saying he thought the complication 
would be somewhat great in the gearing, and they did not think 
there would be any great advantage in increasing that. Then he 
spoke of electric driving. He (Mr. Lamberton) thought the design 
might be said to lend itself to electric driving, and there again it 
was a question of price. With regard to the question of output, 
the whole crux of the question was this: Could one feed an ordi- 
nary plate-mill any faster than a slab every two minutes ; had 
they got facilities ; had they got heating power ; had they got hand- 
ling power to keep a mill fed with a slab every two minutes all 
the day through, and take it away when they had rolled it? He 
had not seen the works in this country that could keep up that 
speed of feed. Therefore, if this machine had reached the speed 
of being able to deal with a slab every two minutes, and it could not 
be fed at that pace, he thought they did not want it any faster at 
present; they had reached the limit of their feed. Therefore it 
seemed to him, all these questions of double output were beside the 
mark. What was wanted now was to increase the facilities for 
heating and feeding the slabs to the mill, and then after that, if a 
man said to him he wanted to get 100 tons more per shift, he would 
see what he could do for him. 

The President said that there would be no mere formality in the 
vote of thanks he was going to ask the meeting to accord to Mr. 
Lamberton for his paper. Not only was the paper itself a very con- 
siderable addition to the papers already in the possession of the 
Institute, but the discussion on the paper might almost be taken as a 
model of what the discussion on those papers should be. Members 
had stuck to the period of time that was allotted to them, and, what 
was more, they had stuck so closely to the matter in hand, that he 
had not the heart, when a man transgressed by a minute or two, to 
call him to order. He congratulated the Institute on the discussion 
which had followed upon Mr. Lamberton's paper. He should have 
liked, if time had permitted him, to have said a word or two upon the 
paper himself, but he would add nothing to the discussion beyond 
congratulating Mr. Gledhill upon having demonstrated once again 
from Manchester the existence of that pride which apes humility, and 
recalling to their recollection the modest way in which Mr. Gledhill 
intimated the impossibility of Manchester producing a casting suffi- 
cient for the purpose in question, and then proceeding to say, as 
though he were handling an ounce weight, how he merely made a 
couple of forgings of 80 tons, and proceeded to .do bo and so. He 



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CORRESPONDENCE MR. F. FINLATSON. 49 

asked the meeting to accord by acclamation their thanks to Mr. 
Lamberton for the most excellent paper which he had contributed. 

The resolution was carried by acclamation. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mr. F. FiNLAYSON (Airdrie) wrote that Mr. Lamberton claimed 
that arranging the roughing and finishing rolls tandem about 7^ feet 
apart was an improvement on the general practice. He (Mr. Finlay- 
son) considered that would make it rather dangerous in practical 
working, as it was well known to plate-mill managers that occasion- 
ally a slab or plate had a tendency to run into the neck, and when the 
piece was longer than 7 feet 6 inches it would be apt to strike the 
opposite housing and thereby cause ^lamage. As Mr. Lamberton 
stated, it did away with a set of tables, i,e, if there were fixed tables 
and skid gear, but where travelling tables were used it did away with 
nothing. There were mills working at the present day which had 
been at lArork for the last sixteen or eighteen years with travelling 
tables. The mill at Stockton — made by Miller & Go. to the writer's 
design — ^was still at work so far as he was aware, and the average out- 
put was 1450 tons per week. Mr. Lamberton stated that there was not 
the same reduction required in the finishing rolls of his mill as there 
was when the plate had to be transferred across. He (Mr. Finlayson) 
failed to see how this could be so, any more than in the ordinary 
transfer mill. His own practice in plate-rolling had invariably been 
to Indng the plate down as near the thickness as possible in the grain 
rolls, and to finish with as few passes as possible in the finishing rolls. 
He did not think it was anything new to do 80 per cent, of the work 
in the grain rolls — in fact he would be inclined to pull the plate down 
less than that, as from four to six passes in the finishing rolls were 
ample to put a good finish on the plate. Regarding the hard rolls re- 
maining for a longer time in good condition in the new mill, he failed 
to see how this could be, as he had run a pair of hard rolls for over a 
year without dressing. Of course those rolls were run cool, i,€. there 
was a continuous spray of water playing on them, and they were never 
allowed to get above blood-heat. 

It was well known in plate-rolling that the first two passes in the 
hard rolls took up the full power of the engines, while in the other 
passes the steam was wire-drawn through the top valve, which was 
certainly not economical. The author's idea of equalising the load 
upon the engines might be a success, but he (the writer) was of 
opinion that the present mode of rolling was simpler. He did not 
think there was much to condemn in the ordinary method of trans- 
mitting the power through the bottom roll if the necks and wobblers 
were properly designed. 

1908.-1. D 



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50 IMPROVEMENTS IN PLATE ROLLING-MILLS. 

The author stated that in high-speed mills there was a tendency to 
turn out wavy or buckled plates. That was caused by careless rolling, 
and suggested that during the final pass through finishing rolls the 
roughing rolls were also put down to come into light contact with the 
plate. That was practically making the mill into a double-drafted 
mUl. Seeing that the two pairs of rolls were not running at the same 
speed, the hard rolls would have a tendency to draw the plate. That 
would very likely cause trouble in keeping the pinions in order, and 
might lead to the pinions or the pinion housings being smashed. As 
he (the writer) had had some litUe experience with a double-drafted 
mill in rolling rails, and had plenty of trouble with it, he wondered 
what the result would be when rolling plates ? 

To sum up, if the author wished to introduce a tandem mill, he was 
of opinion that the better way to do so would be to drive the rough- 
ing and finishing rolls separately, placing the former about 100 feet 
in advance, and to drive the mill by two separate engines. He 
thought Mr. Lamberton deserved credit for his boldness in making 
a new departure, but he did not think he had gone far enough. 

Mr. O. C. Morgan (Rotherham) wrote that the waving of plates was 
not caused in any great degree by the actual higher speed of more 
modern mills. Apart from the fact that the roller could not, in cold 
finishing rolls, which were necessary in order to obtain a large output, 
remedy the hoUowness caused by the greater wear of the middle portion 
of the roll, the straightness of the finished plate largely depended on the 
skill with which the roller drafted the plate during the last few passes in 
finishing down to specified thickness ; also to the care he took during 
those last few passes, in keeping the plate in the same sweep or portion 
of the width of the roll. The latter more especially applied, the more 
hollow the rolls become through wear. Undoubtedly the best thing 
was to have a straightening machine apart from the mill, and he 
agreed with Mr. Harrison, that the author would not get any better 
straightening effect than in an ordinary mill, unless there was a slight 
stretching produced by the different speed at which the two sets of 
rolls revolved. With respect to the finish of plates rolled in cold 
roughing as compared with those rolled in hot roughing rolls, the 
writer was desirous of knowing in what particular respect the finish 
of the plates rolled in cold roughing rolls was better, as if the plate 
was properly scaled in the roughing rolls the whole of the finish was 
apparently produced by the finishing rolls. He had not found the 
finish to be any better, and though there might be a little more wear 
on the necks and brasses, it was very little, and not anything like 
commensurate with the fact that water-cooled rolls required much 
more frequent turning, from the effect on the surfaces produced by 
the heat and water combined. 

Mr. F. W. Paul (Harrogate) wrote that reference had been made 
to a three-high plate-mill, and it was claimed that, apart from the 
weak constructional design of the live roller tables, the work 



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CORRESPONDENCE MR. F. W. PAUL. 51 

accomplished by that mill covered in most respects the advantages 
set out by Mr. Lamberton for his new design of tandem plate-mill. 

The three-high plate-mill referred to commenced to work in 1888, 
and was in existence practically for six years. Dunng that period, 
the largest four weeks' output did not exceed a total of 1183 tons, 
and the total for any year was less than 3000 tons per annum. 
He (Mr. Paul) having had experience of that mill in 1 894, desired 
to point out (apart from any considerations as to the merits of three- 
high system as applied to plate-rolling), that the usual method of 
driving large three-high plate-mills in America, and on the Continent, 
was by direct drive with heavy fly-wheel in line, whereas the three- 
high mill referred to, with 8 feet 6 inches rolls and periphery speed 
of about 600 feet per minute, was driven by intervention of gear- 
ing, and counter-shaft, with a fly-wheel on the engine shaft. That 
arrangement, with its objectionable accompaniment of increased 
back lash, resulted in considerable shock when the slab or plate 
entered the rolls, and consequently the mill was finally abandoned 
by reason of the frequent breakages of the gearing. 

Referring to the last paragraph but one of the paper, the author 
said '' the solution of working the soft rolls wet is found in increased 
speed of driving." If the mill were kept fairly busy, with 80 per 
cent, of the work done in the soft roUs^ it would be necessary to have 
a very copious supply of water running on the rolls to insure keeping 
them wet, otherwise any half-way measure of turning the water off 
whilst rolling, and subsequent cooling, resulted in rolls breaking. 
Members were familiar with the halting conditions in reversing-mills, 
which frequently took place in the roughing rolls of rail, section, and 
cogging mills when the draught on the bloom or slab was heavy, but 
such halting in the case of a reversing plate-mill with wet rolls would 
be disastrous. In continuous running plate-mills, either two- or three* 
high, arranged with heavy fly-wheel and direct drive, the full speed 
oould be maintained with minimum of back lash, and the halting 
completely guarded against, whereas, in the case of the author's mill, 
driven with a compound condensing reversing engine, it would be 
necessary the full power of the engine should be on the moment the 
mill bites the slab, otherwise the ends of slab would get chilled, thus 
enormously increasing the strain in a fast-running plate-mill, and 
would be apt to conduce to breakages. Speaking generally, he 
deprecated &e intervention of gearing in the design of a modern 
fast-running plate-mill ; and as the splayed ends of thin plates 
necessitated careful adjustment of the guai-ds, the close juxtaposition 
of the housings of hard and soft rolls was objectionable. Criticism 
was, after all, only a surmise of what might occur, and the performance 
of tiie mill in extended practice should be the best answer ; and he 
(Mr. Paul) desired to express the hope that the apprehensions held 
respecting its performances would be found in actual working to be 
groundless. 

Mr. Andrew Lamberton wrote, in reply to Mr. F. Finlayson, that 

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52 IMPROVEMENTS IK PLATE ROLLING-MILLS. 

no trouble had been experienced in regard to the plate running into 
the neck or colliding with the housing in its passage through, and that 
as to his remark about travelling tables, he considered they were now 
obsolete, and that any one proposing to adopt them at the present in 
a new mill would be regarded as making a very retrograde step. In 
the ordinary type of mill it had been found much better to have four 
fixed tables and skid-across gear, and all modern plate-mills of that 
type had that arrangement. The author's design of mill had now 
rendered more than 50 per cent, of the accessory machinery unneceH- 
sary, and had greatly simplified the operations, with a consequent 
increase in output. With tittvelling tables, as suggested by Mr. 
Finlayson, a plate could not conveniently be transferred which was 
more than 30 or 40 feet long at t^e very utmost, and as there was no 
reason why girder plates should not be rolled up to 100 feet long, it 
was obvious tliat in the old type of mill a much larger proportion of 
the reduction necessarily must be done in the finishing mill, and that 
was where a great improvement was claimed for the new type, as the 
roughing-down could be carried out on such a plate of 80 or 90 feet 
long, and then four passes in the hard rolls would finish it. Mr. Fin- 
layson spoke about the straightening of the plates during the final 
pass, and of the new mill as being equal to a ^' double-drafted mill " 
during that pass. That was not so ; the only rolls in actual contact 
at the time were the hard ones, the soft rolls merely touching the 
plate, and that steadying of the tail of the plate tended to straighten. 
Mr. Finlayson thought that the roughing and finishing mills should 
be set 100 feet apart That suggestion was also made by Mr. Henry 
Crowe, but that would really mean the installation of two mills with 
two engines, whereas the mill as designed by the author was capable 
of giving a very large output for the minimum of initial expenditure, 
and few works in Great Britain required more than 400 tons of such 
plates per turn. 

He quite concurred in Mr. O. C. Morgan's view, and also in that of 
Mr. Harrison, that plates should be finally mangled before leaving 
the works ; but would point out that that method of delivering from 
the rolling-mill enabled straighter plates to be got than from the 
ordinary type of mill, and it was all in the way of progress that such 
plates should be obtained. With regard to the question of the superior 
finish of plates which had been rolled with both sets of rolls drenched, 
the explanation was that the scale was more thoroughly shed when 
water was used freely, and the final finish of the plate was improved 
in quality and surface finish. There was in addition to that the 
advantage in saving the necks and brasses, and extending the life of 
the rolls themselves. 

Judging from what Mr. F. W. Paul had written in regard to 
the three-high plate-mill referred to by Mr. Riley and Mr. Duff, it 
did not seem to have been successful, the total output during its six 
years' existence having been exceedingly small. With regard to 
working all the rolls wet, and the difficulty Mr. Paul anticipated 
owing to the " halting " in reversing- mills, it was difiicult to see where 



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CORRESPONDENCE MR. LAMBERTON. 53 

there coald be any serious trouble in that way, as it was the present 
universal practice to work the hard rolls of reversing-mills drenched, 
and they had the same halting action as he spoke of, and yet no 
trouble had been experienced Mr. Paul concluded by remarking that 
practice was the best test for meeting difficulties that might be appre- 
hended, and he (Mr. Lamberton) had pleasure in saying that, so far, 
none of the anticipated troubles referred to had been experienced in 
practice, nor were there any indications that they would be. 

Mr. James Rilet, Vice-President, having taken the chair, called 
upon Dr. T. E. Stanton to read his paper. 



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54 A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOB IRON AND STEEL. 



A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOR IRON 
AND STEEL. 

By T. E. STANTON. D.Sc.. M.Inst.C.E. 
(Communicated from the National Physical Laboratory.) 

In a recent investigation of the properties of certain samples 
of steel rails made at the National Physical Laboratory (for 
the Great Northern Railway Company), a statement of the 
mechanical tests, to which it was considered advisable that 
specimens cut therefrom should be subjected, was drawn up 
by the author. In this were included, hardness, impact, 
and abrasion tests, the tensile and drop tests having been 
already made. 

Although this seemed all that was possible to be done, yet, 
from a study of Mr. Kirkaldy's paper at the Institution of Civil 
Engineers in 1899,* in which the failure of steel rails was 
traced to the development of cracks in the upper worn surface, 
brought about by repeated bending, the author felt strongly 
that a test which would give a combination of rolling abrasion 
and alternate bending would be invaluable. 

It has since occurred to the author that this combined 
action could be produced and utilised as a laboratory test in 
the manner indicated in Fig. 1. 

R is a hollow ring of rectangular section cut from the steel 
rail to be tested, and placed between three hardened steel 
rollers symmetrically placed as shown. 

If the upper roller is loaded with a weight, W, the ring will 
be in equilibrium under three equal forces, W, at the lines 
of contact, and by rotating the upper roller motion will 
be communicated to the lower ones by the rolling friction 
of the ring. In this way the outer surface of the ring will 
be subject to rolling abrasion, and every radial section of the 
ring will be subject to alternate bending stresses which 
will go through a complete cycle three times in one revolu- 

♦ "The Effect of Wear upon Steel Rails/' Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution 
of Civil EnifineerSf vol. cxxxvi. p. 141. 



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A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOR IRON AND STEEL. 



55 



tion, and the magnitude of which can be calculated from the 
dimensions and the load. 

The advantages of such a test were so obvious that a simple 
machine on these lines was constructed, and was found to work 
satisfactorily, with the exception that the load on the upper 
roller could not be made considerable, owing to the resistance 
of the bearings of the lower rollers, which soon became greater 
than the frictional resistance at the line of contact with the 
specimen. The result was that when this limiting load 



«oocoa wcvtw8*i » 




UiTWATC »T»K>^ fPN» KW »Q IWCM 



was reached, the specimen ceased to rotate, and a flat was 
at once worn on its surface by the upper roller, rendering 
it useless for further testing. 

A new machine was therefore designed and constructed, and 
is shown in Fig. 2. In this the axles of the lower rollers are 
supported on the rims of friction wheels, an arrangement 
which proved quite satisfactory, the specimen rotating uni- 
formly up to the highest loads used until fracture occurred. 

The rollers and their axles are made of tool steel hardened 
and ground to the same diameter. The upper roller revolves 



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56 



A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOB IRON AND STEEL. 





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A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOR IRON AND STEEL. 



57 



in a double brass bearing, which is hinged to the side plates 
of the machine, and motion is communicated to it from a shaft 
parallel to its axis through an Oldham coupling, which allows 
the roller to sink without constraint as the specimen wears 
away. The load is applied by a weighted lever, whose knife- 
edge rests on a saddle supported from the bearings of the 
upper roller by the side rods shown in Fig. 2. 

The behaviour of a specimen under test consists of a wearing 
down, and spreading over the edges, of the outer surface to an 
extent depending upon the hardness of the material. After 
some thousands of rotations the surface begins to slightly dis- 
mtegrate and falls off in thin flakes. As the test proceeds, 





Fig. 5.— Position of Specimen In Rail Head. 

after a time, depending, of course, upon the load, small cracks 
running parallel to the axis begin to appear on the inside or 
outside surfaces or both. These develop until the specimen is 
no longer able to sustain the load, and fracture occurs. A 
photograph of a specimen after fracture is shown in Fig. 6, 
from which will be seen the characteristic zigzag fracture in 
these tests. On examining the surface of a specimen after 
fracture it will be generally found that there are innumerable 
small cracks running across the surface parallel to the axis 
which are, in their initial stages, only visible in the microscope. 
Photomicrographs, Figs. 7 and 8, show the polished and etched 
surfaces of two specimens after testing. Fig. 7 being from No. 8 
rail containing 0*43 per cent, of carbon, and Fig. 8 from No. 1 



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58 



A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOR IRON AND STEEL. 



rail containing 0-39 per cent, of carbon and 3*32 per cent, 
of nickel. 

Materials on which Fatigue Tests have been made. — All the tests 
described in this paper have been made on specimens cut from 
sample rails supplied by the Great Northern Railway Company, 
and the author is indebted to Mr. Alexander Ross, M.Inst.C.E., 




Fig. 6.— Photograph of Ring after Fracture. 

for permission to give the following details of the respective 
rails : — 



No. of Sample. 

1 


Weight per 
Yard. 

85 


Service. 


Date of 
Manufacture. 


18 months. 


1904 


4 


85 


17 months. 


1903 


5 


86 


New 


1906 


8 


100 


New 


1905 


10 




New 




11 
913 


80 


85 years 
New 


gl870 
1907 


13 


96 


5 years 


1902 



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A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOR IRON AND STEEL. 



59 



Chemical Composition, 



No. of 
Sample. 


Carbon. 


Manganese. 


Silicon. 

1 


phoJS;. 'sulphur. 

1 


Nickel. 


Chromium. 


Cobalt. 


i 


Percent 


Per cent. 


1 

Per cent. 


1 
Percent. Percent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


1 


0-39 


0-85 


0075 


0097 


0047 


3-32 






4 


0-39 


0-83 


' 0025 


0-063 


0-044 








5 


0-42 


0-68 


1 0069 


0-062 


0-047 








8 


0-42 


0-79 


i 0-441 


0-062 


0-059 








10 


0-63 


0-70 


1 0-23 


0-04 1 ... 








11 


0-27 


0-36 


, 0-09 


0-106 ! 0085 








913 


0-48 


0-78 


i 0-02 


0021 ; 0-060 


1-45 


0-26 


0-25 


13 


0-46 


074 


0-069 


0-064 0-090 






... 



Results of Mechanical Tests made on Sjieciviens cut from the Samples 
at the National Physical Laboratory, 



No. of 
Sample. 



1 

4 

5 

8 

10 

11 

913 

13 



Ultimate Stress. Tons 
per square inch. 



64-6 
42-6 
39-4 
46-9 
49-3 
36-2 
63-4 
45-2 



Elongation on 
2 inches. 



Per Cent. 
11-0 
26-6 
27-5 
230 
21-0 
26-5 
18-2 
19-2 



Hardness Number 
from Brinell Test. 



351 
240 
2S» 
276 
288 
221 
304 
265 



Results of Experiments. 

Three sets of fatigue tests were made on rings cut from the 
sample rails described above, and from the centre of the rail- 
head as shown in Fig. 5 (p. 5 7) : — 



Sct.» 


Dimensions. 


Load 
in Pounds. 


External 
Diameter. 


Internal -rK;^i,««cc 
Diameter. \ Thickness. 


I. . 

II. . 
III. . 


Inch. 
100 
100 
100 


Inch. 
0-725 
0-725 
0-687 


Inch. 
0-25 
0-25 
0-26 


600 
675 
826 



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60 



A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOR IRON AND STEEL. 




Fig. 7. — Rail No. 8. Photomicrograph of Cracks in Outer Surfaces of 
Specimens. Magnified 76 diameters. 




Fig. 8.— Rail No. 1. Photomicrograph of Cracks in Outer Surfaces of 
Specimens. Magnified 75 diameters. 



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A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOR IRON AND STEEL. 



61 



With reference to the values of the stresses produced oii the 
ring under the action of the load, the author is indebted to his 
colleague. Dr. Chree, F.R.S., for a solution of this particular 
case from the general equations given by Todhunter and 
Pearson.* The general distribution of stress at the outer 
radius of the ring is shown in Fig. 9 (p. 55), in which tensile 
stresses are plotted radially outwards from the circumference 
of the circle and compressive stresses inwards. 

The following table gives the results of the experiments : — 



Na of Sample. 

1 


Number of Reversals of Stress up to Fracture. 


Sell. 


Set II. 


Set III. 


1 

4 

5 

8 

10 

11 

913 

18 


306.000 
86,000 
131,000 
192.000 
142.000 
146.000 
205.500 
38.000 


155.000 
39.000 
66.400 
79.000 
67.000 
69.200 
84.800 
25.600 


372.000 

55.000 

51.000 

150.000 

106,000 

215;()00 
25,000 



The calculated ranges of stress from tension to compression 
at the outer radius were : — 

Range of Stress in Tons 
per Square Inch. 

Sell 35-6 

Set II , 400 

Set III 36-7 

The calculated stresses at the inner radius were about 15 
per cent, greater than the above, but it is noteworthy that the 
cracks which ultimately caused the failure of the ring appeared 
to originate on the outer surface of the ring in the case of the 
hard steels, and on the inner surface in the case of the softer 
steels. This is probably due to the greater spreading of the 
material sideways in the softer rings, due to the rolling 
abrasioa 

The results of the experiments given in the table have also 
been plotted on a base of ultimate stress in Figs. 3 and 4 (p. 55), 
and in Fig. 4 the calculated hardness numbers from the Brinell 
test have been plotted. 

♦ •' History of Elasticity," vol. ii. 



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62 A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOR IRON AND STEEL. 

It will be seen from the plotted results that although, 
broadly, a high value of the hardness number corresponds to 
long endurance to alternating stresses and abrasion, yet in 
several cases an increase in the hardness number is accom- 
panied by a diminution of endurance. Thus in the case of 
rails 8 and 10, to which particular attention has been paid by 
repeating the experiments, in all three sets of conditions of 
test the harder rail No. 10 has distinctly less endurance than 
No. 8. 

Another feature of the tests is the greater endurance of the 
two samples of least tensile resistance and greatest ductility, 
Nos. 1 1 and 5, relatively to the two stronger samples, Nos. 4 
and 13. This is probably also due to the spreading and 
hardening of the material at the outer surface of the soft 
steels. A similar effect to this in practice has been observed, 
in which it was found that the loss of weight for the first 
30,000 trains was 28 per cent, greater for the soft than for 
the hard rails, but that the wear due to the next 65,000 trains 
was 9 per cent, greater for the hard than for the soft rails.* 

Further, the tests demonstrate the marked superiority of 
the two nickel-steel rails both as regards resistance to rolling 
abrasion and resistance to alternate bending. 

Although the tests described above have been made at 
a moderate rate of reversals, 800 per minute, the testing 
machine is particularly suited for the purposes of high-speed 
fatigue testing, and it is hoped to obtain from it alterna- 
tions of stress up to 4000 or 5000 per minute. For con- 
structional materials the abrasion effect will be made small by 
reducing the thickness of the ring until the action is practi- 
cally alternate bending alone. 

* J. W. Post, Organ filr die Forischritie des EUenbahnwesens, 1899, p. 268. 



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DISCUSSION MR. R. A. HADFIELD. 63 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. J. M. Gledhill, Member of Council, said that rails were not 
quite in his line, but it seemed to him to be a very instructive essay, 
especially the part of it that appealed to him very strongly, namely 
that the tests proved so very much the superiority of nickel steel. 
He thought that was an extremely important result of such a test as 
that which had been described, which was a very practical test. It 
would have been rather instructive had Dr. Stanton put the limits of 
elasticity in the mechanical tests, and they would have seen a remark- 
able difference in the elastic limit as compared with the ordinary 
ones. It also struck him that it might be of great interest, if it had 
not already been done, to take rings for tests, in a similar manner, 
for comparison, and transversely. The rings shown were what he 
should call for a longitudinal test, and after all the rail was at a con- 
siderable test transversely. If that had not been done, he thought it 
would be very interesting to know some further details of transverse 
ring tests. Again, he considered that some rings taken from the top 
of the rail and outcdde would give a very interesting comparison. He 
did not think he could add anything further, except that the machine 
seemed very ingenious and a very practical way of getting at good 
results. 

Mr. R. A. Hadfield, Past-President, felt sure the members were 
very much indebted to Dr. Stanton for the new type of test he had 
submitted. He thought an original method of test nowadays be- 
tokened research work of a very high order. They owed their very 
hearty thanks to Dr. Stanton and their admiration for this new way 
of testing steel, especially for rail purposes. He would ask Dr. 
Stanton whether he had any tests from the rails themselves. He 
remembered reading some time ago about tests of nickel steel rails in 
America, but he thought the results were not found to be quite up to 
expectation. He did not remember the particidar analysis, but he 
believed the steel in question contained about 3 per cent, of nickel. 
Of course the durability of such a steel would naturally also depend 
upon its carbon percentage. Many people in the outside world 
imagined that because a steel was nickel steel it was of a very high 
quality, but of course that naturally depended on the accompanying 
percentage of carbon and manganese. In other words, one might 
have a low carbon nickel steel which would not wear well, and that 
would not at all indicate that the nickel steel was not of very high 
quality wifch a proper percentage of carbon. He would ask Dr. 
Stanton, if he had any nickel steel of the type he referred to, whether 
he could give them any information on that point. As regards the 
ingenious way in which the apparatus was arranged, he would like to 
have some idea, if it were possible, of what was the total stress pro- 
duced on these small specimens. He was not sure whether it was not 
already given in the paper. That was rather an interesting point. 



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64 A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOR IRON AND STEEL. 

Again he wished to say how very much indebted he personally felt to 
Dr. Stanton for this paper, because it happened to be quite a new 
matter of research on a very important class of steel that was now 
made — that was rail steel. When he went to America last year there 
was almost consternation over there with the results being obtained 
from certain rails. He did not think that indicated any inferior 
quality in the American product, but they were increasing the speed 
and size of the engines and trains, and therefore any apparatus which 
Dr. Stanton had put before them, which would enable a maker before 
he sent out his rail to know it was a safe rail or not, he was quite 
sure would be very highly welcomed, and that no one would offer 
more thanks to Dr. Stanton for his very interesting paper than 
Americans. 

Mr. A. Windsor Richards (Middlesbrough) said he was glad that 
Dr. Stanton was working in the right direction in trying to design 
a machine which would give a test showing what would actually 
correspond to what occurred on a i*ail under traffic, but he was afraid 
that his paper did not quite give them the information. The results 
could not be comparable, because the hard and soft rails, as was 
pointed out by Dr. Stanton, had been tested in different circum- 
stances. The hard ones had been cracked on the outside edges, and 
the soft ones on the centre of the surfaces. That must of necessity 
give different results. Then raU No. 1 1 was bad from many modern 
points of view. The analysis indicated a very soft rail, with high 
phosphorus. The physical tests confirmed that fact, and it did not 
come out of the reversal of stresses very well. What was the actual 
result ? The rail had stood in the road for thirty-five years ! His 
point, therefore, was, that had that rail been made to-day, and been 
subjected to the combined tests shown by the author, there would 
have been very little chance of any engineer accepting it, or of its 
being put into the road at all. He had made several investigations 
on steel rails which had been in the main line for twenty-five to 
thirty-five years, and he had invariably found them to be high either 
in phosphorus or sulphur, or both, and when taken out of the track 
they had shown very little sign of wear, and had lost only about 5 per 
cent, of their original area. These rails, however, when subjected 
to the reversal of stress, quickly broke down. He very rarely found 
a breakdown in rails which were high in phosphorus and sulphur, 
unless accompanied by a flaw. Time only could tell whether rails of 
modern manufacture, which were very pure as regards those two 
elements, would last as long as the older manufacture, and give a 
greater margin of safety. He thought Dr. Stanton had been unfor- 
tunate in his selection of his test-piece. He had chosen it from that 
part of the rail which was mostly segregated, and the weakest part of 
the rail. It would be very interesting and much more instructive 
if Dr. Stanton could cut a thin layer of steel just underneath the 
running surface, because, after all, it was the head of a raU which 
came into actual use. He thought he recognised one of these rails 



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DISCUSSION ^MR. E. H. SANITER. 



65 



made by a process which he described before the Institute in a paper 
in May 1907. That was No. 913, which contained a mixture of 
nickel, chromium, and cobalt. Those rails, when tested in the Stead- 
Richards vibratory machine, stood three times more reversals than 
ordinary carbon rails. He thought it would be interesting if Dr. 
Stanton would supply samples from the rails he had tested so that 
results could be compared from their machine. 

Mr. E. H. Sakiteb (Rotherham) wrote that he had heard with 
interest of Dr. Stanton's attempt to devise a combined alternating 
and abrasion test for rail steel, and must compliment him on his 
ingenuity. The first point which struck him was the direction in 
which the ring was cut from the rail head, i,e, in the longitudinal 
direction. As a consequence, roughly speaking, two sides of the 
ring would have the sides of the rolling fibres exposed, while the other 
two sides would have the ends of the rolling fibres exposed. The 
weakest part of the ring would be the sides where the ends of the 
fibres were exposed, and the ring would break there and in the 
longitudinal direction along the fibre. 

That irregularity in the structure of the ring might be corrected 
by taking it in a transverse direction, when the sides of the rolling 
fibres would be exposed all round, but on breaking it also would 
break along the fibre in the longitudinal direction of the rail. In 
either of the methods of taking the ring, or any other possible one, 
the ring would break along the fibre in the longitudinal direction of 
the rail, while in practice the rail would break transversely, or at 
right angles to the fibre. It would therefore appear that the test 
was not suitable for the purpose for which it was devised. 

With such a test it would be expected that a high sulphur rail, 
owing to the threads of sulphide of manganese rendering it weak 
along the fibre, would rapidly break down, and that expectation was 
borne out by the tests on rail No. 13, which had the highest sulphur 
and gave the worst alternating tests. 

The number of revolutions obtained before fracture should bear 
some relation to the stress applied, but in the table that did not 
appear to be the case, and indeed in several cases the number of 
reversals of stress up to fracture was greater with the greater stress 
than with the less, as shown in the following instances : — 



No. of 
Sample. 



1 

4 

6 

913 

13 



Ranges of Stress in Tons per Square Inch. 



36-6 Tons. 

306.000 

89.000 

206,'isOO 



36-7 Tons. 
372.000 

si'.boo 

216.000 
25.000 



40 Tons. 

86,000 
66.400 

25;600 



Thoee irregularities might be due to irregular distribution of sulphide 
1908.— L E 



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66 A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOB IRON AND STEEL. 

and silicate of manganese fibres in pieces taken from the same rail, 
and if so they emphasised the objection already raised as to the 
direction of the fracture along the fibres. 

Mr. W. R. Webstsb (Philadelphia) said that Dr. Stanton^s results 
were very interesting, and it was to be hoped that he would continue 
them, as it was only after a large series of tests of this kind that any 
satisfactory conclusions could be arrived at. He might say that they 
would welcome such tests in America. Fig. 5 showed the manner 
of cutting the specimen from the head of the rail, and the action of 
the rolls on the small specimen corresponded with those on the loco- 
motive driving-wheel ; but these specimens should also be cut with the 
axis of the short cylinder parallel with the length of the rail in order 
to bring out any differences in the structure of the metal due to the 
method of rolling. He referred to this matter, as recent experiments 
made by Mr. Howard at the Watertown Arsenal, Massachusetts, from 
thin plates of steel about ^^^^ thick cut from the head of a rail had 
shown very decided transverse weakness. These small strips when 
bent lengthwise would bend 180^ about a diameter of 1^ inch, but 
when bent transversely would only bend about 20° and split length- 
wise. They were all familiar with that in plates of low carbon 
steel, but with the higher carbon steel it was often overlooked. The 
results of the work at Watertown would be given shortly, and he 
would take great pleasure in sending to the Institute photographs 
and specimens bearing on the points he had raised. 

Dr. Stanton, in reply, said that he should be very glad to add in 
the tables the elasticity statistics to which Mr. Gledhill referred. He 
was very much obliged to Mr. Hadfield for the kind way in which he 
had spoken of this work. With reference to the action of the rails 
in practice, the Great Northern Railway Company did not supply 
him with any details as to whether they were satisfactory or not 
satisfactory, except in one particular case, which was the No. 11 rail. 
It was the nature of the test which he wished to illustrate in the 
paper, and not the results of any particular set of rails. He did 
not have the choosing of them ; they came in the ordinary course of 
events to the laboratory to be tested. He simply wanted to call 
attention to this test as a rapid fatigue test which had certain ad- 
vantages which other fatigue tests, he thought, had not. He was 
glad that several speakers had called attention to the position of 
the specimen. He was uncertain about the proper position of the 
specimen to choose, and as a matter of fact they chose that position 
because it was that in which the action of the wheel on the rail was 
most nearly imitated. They could easily cut them in any other direc- 
tion, and he was exceedingly glad to have the opinion of several 
members on that matter. That was really what he was very anxious 
to obtain, and he was very much obliged to Mr. Webster for his sug- 
gestions as to the best position for the specimen. He would easily be 



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CORRESPONDENCE MR. J. H. MIDDLETON. 67 

able to test specimeDS cut from that position, and to find out if there 
was any weakness of the kind Mr. Webster indicated. 

On the motion of the Chairman, Mr. James Riley, Vice-President, 
a cordial vote of thanks was unanimously accorded to Dr. Stanton for 
his paper. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Mr. J. H. MiDDLETON (Sheffield) wrote that Dr. Stanton's method 
formed a very ingenious modification of the Wohler test, and, regarded 
as a scientific demonstration, was of considerable interest It appeared, 
however, to be offered as a practical testing method having special 
application to the study of steel rails under conditions of ordinary 
use. Before such a claim could be admitted, it would be necessary to 
give more conclusive proof with regard to the following important 
points : first, the relation which the stresses in the test piece bore to 
those of the whole rail (i.e. the complete section) when in the track ; 
second, the capacity of the new test to determine factors not given by 
previous methods. On attempting to apply these rotation tests to 
practical problems, such as the comparison of samples of steel of 
identical composition but varied treatment, the following difficulty 
was encountered : either the specimens must be run under a uniform 
load, or the loads must be varied in proportion to their previously 
determined elastic limits. In the first case the results — within the 
limits of experimental error — were in direct relation to elasticity, and 
in the second they were incomparable, because the sample which gave 
high results under the uniform load might not break down under a 
comparatively few rotations, and vice versd. Regarding the method 
under discussion, the results of the three series of tests were very dis- 
cordant, showing the possible experimental error to be very consider- 
able; but the first series, it will be noticed, was in almost perfect 
accord with the maximum tensile stresses given. As to the practical 
application of Dr. Stanton's test, it should be remembered that the 
amount of effective work on a steel rail varied very considerably in 
different parts. The question might be therefore asked whether it was 
fair to take a small sample from the least worked portion and assume 
it to represent the working condition of the entire section of the rail, 
because the usual static tests did not pretend to do that. Again, it 
could scarcely be maintained that the whole rail in the track was sub- 
jected to cyclic stresses such as those to which the rotary test piece 
was submitted. The latter would not be an easy piece to machine 
accurately and uniformly, and there was the further objection — con- 
sidering the thinness of its walls — that a very small slag enclosure or 
mechanical defect would unduly localise the fracture, especially in a 
longitudinal test His (Mr. Middleton's) experience led him to believe 
that the predominant factor in the resistance to shock or fatigue — 



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68 A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOR IRON AND STEEL. 

for a specified carbon content — was the relation which its elongation 
under tensile stress bore to its elastic limit. In other words, when 

= u^ max., the highest shock resisting quality would be 

obtained for that particular carbon content. During recent years the 
number of shock or fatigue tests had greatly, perhaps unnecessarily, 
multiplied, especially considering that they were all comparative in 
the sense that none of them yielded unique information on the modus 
of fracture. Dr. Stanton's method appeared to partake of that general 
character, and until more conclusive proof of its distinctive and repre- 
sentative nature could be adduced, it would be a mistake to introduce 
it as a practical test for steel rails. 

Mr. O. C. Morgan (Rotherham) wrote acknowledging the ingenuit}' 
of the method, but thought, from the results given, there were some 
anomalies which would seem to require farther investigation before 
the method could be used commercially. Not all the specimens tested 
gave similar results compared one with another in the three sets ; thus 
No. 4 rail came seventh in the number of reversals it stood before 
fracture in set I., it was second in set II., and fifth in set III. 
Again, rails numbers 13, 8, 10, 913, and 1 stood more reversals in 
set III. with a heavier load than in set II., the reversals in the case 
of rails 913 and 1 being actually more in number in set III. than 
in set I. with the lightest load of all. It was also to be regretted 
that the ordinary mechanical tests applied to rails had not been made 
on the specimens experimented on, and that full particulars of the 
tensile tests, &c., were not included in the paper. In any new 
method of testing it was important to be able to compare the results, 
at least with the commercial methods already in use, as it might be 
found that the one might be expressed in terms of the other, and even 
if possible mechanically, which was improbable, it was impossible, 
from a commercial point of view, for a manufacturer to have machines 
to reproduce the exact stresses, <kc., that the various steels he made 
have to undergo. Again, in that, as in several other new methods 
of testing lately proposed for different purposes, the area of the 
specimen was very small, and that left a great deal to the absolute 
mechanical perfection both of the machine itself and of the prepara- 
tion of test pieces, and was also detrimental, having regard to the 
fact that any small irregularity, such as local segregation, which in 
the bulk in which the material was used would probably have little 
or no effect on it, would, if it happen to occur in the specimen, occupy 
a large proportion of so small an area, and consequently give results 
which might lead to mistaken conclusions. 

Mr. G. P. Sandberg (London) considered that Dr. Stanton's fatigue 
test was certainly a most interesting one, and it drew attention to a 
question which should be further followed up. The test would, how- 
ever, call for very great care in the preparation of the pieces, and it 
also entailed rather too much time and expense for it to be applied 



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CORRESPONDENCE MR. C. P. SANDBERG. 69 

in everyday testing of rails during manufacture, but it should 
nevertheless be a very interesting and valuable method of comparing 
different qualities of rails, or steel in general, more especially as to 
the liability of a particular quality or composition of steel to fail 
owing to fatigue. 

A considerable number of such tests, and taken from different 
portions of the rail, should be made to study the subject further. 
The nickel steel had, as might have been expected, shown good results 
in that respect, but he feared that, owing to the very great extra 
cost, nickel steel would, as hitherto, only be used for rails in com- 
paratively small quantities for special purposes. 

He was pleased to see that the rails No. 8 and No. 10 of his high 
silicon steel had shown such marked superiority over the other 
ordinary qiiality rails tested, especially No. 8, with the highest 
silicon percentile, viz. 0*441 per cent. Many railway engineers had 
expressed themselves highly pleased with the results of the testing of 
his (Mr. Sandberg's) improved rail steel, and also with regard to the 
safety and wear in the track up to date, in the discussion on his 
paper on ''The Chemical Composition of Steel Rails and Latest 
Developments," at the Engineering Conference of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers in 1907. In Mr. Ross's recent communication on 
rails in the Journal of the Junior Institution of Engineers^ some very 
interesting figures as to the wear and cost of different qualities of 
rails were given, also showing in favour of the silicon steel rail. 
Some engineers had, however, raised the question of its possibly 
failing in time owing to fatigue, and although there was, from a metal - 
lurgi<»I point of view, no reason why that tougher steel should fail in 
that respect, he was very glad to see that independent tests, as carried 
out by Dr. Stanton, had shown its advantages in that respect likewise. 

Dr. Stanton, in reply to the correspondence, wrote that the chief 
criticism with which he had to deal referred to the want of uniformity 
in the results of the tests as given in the table. In the first 
place, taking the results of sets 1 and 2, and correcting the error 
which had unfortunately escaped him in revising the first proof, i,e, 
that the figures for rail No. 4 had been transposed, the correct values 
being 86,000 for set 1 and 39,000 for set 2, he did not think that 
any one who was familiar with fatigue-testing would consider them 
discordant With reference to the discrepancies between sets 1 and 
3, it must be remembered that the accuracy of the elastic theory by 
which the stresses were calculated was not of a high order, and 
would depend on the depth of the metal in the ring. He had come 
to the conclusion that the depth of the metal of the rings used in set 
3 was too great to allow of an accurate determination of the stress, 
and he regretted that he had inserted this approximate value, since it 
had evidently misled some of the contributors to the discussion and 
correspondence. Mr. Middleton's criticism that the tests were of 
little value on the ground that under a uniform load the results ought 
to be " in direct relation to elasticity," apparently indicated that hQ 



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70 A NEW FATIGUE TEST FOR IRON AND STEEL. 

was not aware that the chief object of fatigue-testing was to discover 
the existence or non-existence of a relation between the elastic pro- 
perties of a material and its resistance to fatigue. Mr. Middleton's 
confidence in its existence was certainly not shaj'ed by authorities on 
the subject, as was evident from a recent controversy.* If that rela- 
tion was discovered, it might be predicted that fatigue-tests would no 
longer be made ; but, until the question was settled, the multiplicity 
of fatigue tests which Mr. Middleton deplored appeared likely to con- 
tinue, since it was evident that the existing ones were inadequate 
for the solution of a problem of the highest engineering importance. 
Whether the particular one discussed in the paper would throw any 
further light on the problem of fatigue remained to be seen, but it 
was certain that, as regarded tests on rails, it reproduced the conditions 
of wear in practice in a way that was not even approximated to by 
any other test. 

Mr. F. J. R. Carulla then read his paper on '< Cast Iron in the 
Construction of Chemical Plant.'* 

* Engineering, June 6 and 12, 1908. 



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CAST IRON IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL PLANT. 71 



CAST lEON IN THE CONSTRUCTION 
OF CHEMICAL PLANT. 

By F. J. R. CARULLA (Derby). 

LiEBiG, in one of his classical letters on chemistry, points out 
the important functions that cork, platinum, glass, and caout- 
chouc play in modem chemical investigations ; substances to 
the use of which he ascribes much of the progress that the 
science has made. The worker in the laboratory is soon im- 
pressed with their indispensable character, and more especially 
when he finds how little his pursuits are assisted by such 
common metals as iron and lead. 

One can imagine the bewilderment of the young chemist 
who from the laboratory passes into the works to assist in 
any practical process, and is confronted with apparatus made 
of lead, iron, and wood, whilst, to all intents and purposes,' 
every one of his valued materials have been discarded. Before 
he can be of much use he must become familiar with the 
properties of the new materials, especially in relation to the 
substances that the vessels they constitute have to hold, or 
that have to be produced in them, and altogether a new ex- 
perience that sometimes has startling developments is entered 
upon. 

Interesting as it might be, one cannot follow this line in all 
its details, and must content oneself to consider how iron, 
which so largely enters into the composition of chemical plant 
on the large scale, is calculated to produce surprises not often 
afforded by the materials that Liebig extoLs. 

Wrought iron and its modem substitute, mild steel, do not 
need lengthy attention. The use made of the material for 
gas-holders and similar vesseb need not be dwelt upon, and 
its value for bolts, bands, stays, and beams, when these can be 
painted or tarred to prevent corrosion, cannot be overlooked. 
But here the surprising thing happens, that although so easily 
corroded, tanks can be made of this material that will carry 



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72 CAST IRON IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL PLANT. 

strong sulphuric acid for years without damage being done to 
them. The only care necessary is that no water be admitted 
into the tank after use, when, of course, if left in, a weak acid 
solution would be formed and rapid corrosion ensue. Inatten- 
tion to this requirement will certainly cause the destruction of 
a tank. 

Cast iron, the main object of this communication, furnishes 
a substance that the chemical manufacturer could ill afford to 
be without, but which, in consequence of its varied composition 
and uncertain properties, is most difficult to classify. The 
consequence is that there are firms who possess experience 
and special knowledge of the use of particular brands for 
certain purposes that are unknown to the trade in generaL 
Nevertheless some simple rules can be applied even in this 
case. 

For some purposes, as, for example, ammonia stills, cast iron 
seems everlasting, and there can be no secret as to brands. 
One such apparatus, known to the writer, is as perfect to-day 
as when it was erected eighteen years ago, at any rate the cast- 
4ron part of it. No sign of wear in any of the numerous 
cylinders ; indeed, a remarkable thing was that the lower sec- 
tion of the lime cylinders, and the most important, as it has 
the manhole, leaked at the very start, a considerable blowhole 
making itself evident in the casting. Although the makers, 
with a full sense of justice, sent a new section to replace the 
faulty one, as the still was up, operations were started, making 
good the bad place with rust cement (iron filings and sal- 
ammoniac). Notwithstanding that the work is carried on at 
a pressure of eight to ten pounds per square inch, the place 
has not leaked since. 

In the case of ammonia stills the reactions are entirely 
basic, lime being used to drive away the fixed portion of the 
volatile alkali, but even acid chemicals have sometimes little 
action on cast iron. It is wonderful to see the length of time 
that a nitre- pot made of this material will withstand the action 
of sulphuric and nitrous acids in a glowing furnace, the seeth- 
ing mass taking months and sometimes years to destroy the 
vessel Yet when hydrochloric acid is in question cast iron 
succumbs like any weaker metal. 



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CAST IRON IN THE CONSTBUCTION OF CHEMICAL PLANT. 73 

But whilst this is common knowledge the fact is not realised 
to its full extent. Percy * describes the experiments of Daniell, 
who obtained from a cube of cast iron, immersed in dilute 
hydrochloric acid, a spongy mass, easily cut with a knife, which 
was dark grey, somewhat resembling plumbago. He further 
gives Calvert's analysis of such a residue produced by the un- 
interrupted action of the acid during two years on cubes of 
the metal. Then he goes on to tell us of the similar action 
of sea- water on cast-iron guns got out of an armed vessel that 
fifty years before had sunk near Carlscrona, which were found 
to be changed to the extent of one-third into a grey porous 
graphitic mass. Finally, Percy repeats the well-known in- 
stance of the guns, also of cast iron, raised from the Florida, 
one of the vessels belonging to the Spanish Armada, which 
was sunk off the coast of Mull in Scotland, and which when 
brought up, the graphitic mass into which they had been con- 
verted became so hot that it could not be touched. 

These accounts, spread over such long periods, are little 
calculated to impress one with the violent and rapid manner 
in which the action may take place. The writer found that 
the plug of a cast-iron cock, used to keep back ferrous liquor 
containing a very small percentage of free hydrochloric acid, 
was acted upon to the depth of one-eighth of an inch in a few 
months. This discovery was most opportune, for it caused 
the examination of a cast-iron vessel of considerable size into 
which the liquor in question was admitted, and a similar action 
was found to be going on. It was fortunate that this was per- 



* •' Iron and Steel," pp. 145-147. Calvert's analyses are given as follows : — 









Cast Iron. 


Residue. 

Per Cent. 

11020 
2-590 
6070 

79'960 
096 
0069 
0-205 


Carbon 
Nitrogen . 
Silicon 
Iron . 
Sulphur 
Phosphorus - 
Loss . 






Per Cent. 
2-900 
0-790 
0-478 
95-413 
0179 
0132 
0-108 








100 000 


100-000 



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74 CAST IRON IK THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL PLANT. 

ceived at so early a stage, for as little damage had been done, 
by a variation in the process that is in no way detrimental, the 
action has been arrested, whilst the vessel is still good. Am- 
monia has to be used in the process, and a portion being put 
in at an earlier stage the acidity of the liquor and its injurious 
power are completely destroyed. 

It is evident that this action of hydrochloric acid is one to 
be most carefully guarded against. Both the user and the 
maker of vessels that have to endure it are interested in the 
matter. Here then comes a distinction. 

As you all know, cast iron is divided into two main 
groups, the white and the grey irons. The experiments of 
Professor Daniell, already referred to, showed that grey iron 
is more rapidly attacked than the white — three times as 
fast. Hence, if a cast-iron vessel is required to resist the 
action of hydrochloric acid, it is reasonable to say that white 
iron should be selected. But other conditions may have to 
enter into one's calculation, and if the vessel has to resist 
internal pressure, as is often necessary, the tougher grey iron 
is preferable to the white and brittle. The iron-founder is 
therefore placed between the horns of a dilemma, and the 
natural way to get out of the difficulty is to make a mixture 
of a white and a grey brand, the grey giving the tenacity and 
the white the acid-resisting power. 

This, however, would not be so good as to cast around 
collapsible chills with grey iron, when the interior of the 
casting, assumed to be cylindrical, becoming white iron to a 
certain depth, would offer the required chemical resistance, 
whilst the outer coat of considerable thickness, remaining 
grey, would give the necessary tenacity. Vessels for chemical 
operations could certainly be produced on this plan if it has 
not already been done. 

In connection with the action of hydrochloric acid there are 
operations in which not only the unexpected but the un- 
suspected may happen. Hydrochloric acid in its free state, 
and especially in its weak state, one knows that he must 
guard against, but chlorides seem so innocent that one is 
apt to overlook them. Now, ammonium chloride raised to 
300^ C. becomes dissociated, the hydrochloric acid being thus 



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CAST IRON IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL PLANT. 75 

set free, what wonder then that the iron tar stills * which are 
heated to the melting point of lead (325^ C.) are affected by 
the ammonium chloride that has not been separated from the 
raw tar ? 

Another point which it is important to note, and which 
is frequently overlooked, is that of not using wrought-iron 
chaplets to hold up the cores of pipes, &c., that are to be 
employed for chemical work.t Failures are certain in such 
cases when the chemical has any action on iron, for the 
comparatively pure metal is more readily attacked than the 
cast iron. Even when cast-iron supports are used failures 
may result, as the fusing together with the main casting may 
not be complete. The method of casting pipes vertically 
without the use of chaplets is hence to be recommended for 
chemical work. 

In view of such facts, and the circumstance that the 
chlorides loom so largely in the ammonia-soda process, one 
seems to have a key to the statement of Sir John Brunner 
regarding the early operations of his renowned firm, who said, 
"Between October 1873 and December 1874 everything in 
the works that could explode did explode, and everything that 
could break did break. And at the end of that fatal fifteen 
months we had nothing left but our credit." J Fortunately 
for the future of the ammonia-soda process that was good. 

These questions have been recently brought close home 
to the writer when putting down the plant for the manufac- 
ture of the blue-black iron colour from ferrous liquor by Dr. 
Wiilffing's process,§ much of which had to be designed to 
meet special conditionsi and he has thought the matter may 
have sufficient interest for the members of this Institute to 
lead to an instructive discussion. 

* Davis. **A Handbook of Chemical Engineering," 1901, vol. ii. p. 260. 

t Grossmann does not overlook this. See his " Elements of Chemical Engineering,** 
p. 113. 

X Magtuine of Commerce, 1904, p. 366. 

§ Journal of thi Iron and Steel InsHtuU, 1907, No. III. pp. 204-206. When cold the 
ferroos liquor has to remain a long time in contact with iron scrap to be completely 
neutralised. Hence, in practice, liquor is received that is still active although it has been 
so treated. As it is subjected to operations in which heat is applied, its power to act on 
cast iron is then made evident 



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76 CAST IRON IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL PLANT. 



DISCUSSION. 

Professor Thomas Turnbr (Birmingham University) said the sub- 
ject brought before them was of interest from many points of view. 
He regretted that he had but just had the paper placed in his hands, 
as otherwise he would have been glad to have brought some samples 
which would have illustrated the character of the action which Mr. 
CaruUa mentioned. In connection with cast iron, or in fact with iron 
or steel in any form, it was known that alkalies were protective, and 
that was in accordance with the modern view of the production of 
rust, or what might be called the ionic theory of rust, which had been 
very well brought into public notice by Dr. Cushmann in articles in 
the Iron Age and in other jounials.* It was assumed by that theory — 
and it was found that it occurred in practice — that any hydroxide, 
such as ammonia and soda, would protect iron from rusting. When 
acids were involved it was a different matter. Very weak acids 
would gradually dissolve away the iron. Instances had come under 
his notice several times with regard to acetic acid, which, even 
though dilute, would gradually dissolve away the iron from a cast- 
iron pipe, and there would be a residue precisely of the shape of the 
original casting but extremely lights and sufficiently graphitic to 
write with as one would with a lead pencil, while it could be cut with 
a pocket-knife. In connection with the action of hydrochloric acid 
there was a special difficulty, and he knew at present of no variety of 
iron which would continuously withstand the action of hydrochloric 
acid. Experiments had been made, and he noticed that one or two 
patents had been taken out in the use of a siliceous iron. He had, 
indeed, suggested such a course long before those patents had been 
applied for — not indeed that he claimed any right concerning them. 
A very high silicon iron, with 10 or 20 per cent, of silicon, would 
stand the action of hydrochloric acid remarkably well, and if a frag- 
ment of about the size of a nut were taken and endeavours were 
made to dissolve it in hydrochloric acid, it would be found it was an 
extremely laborious process and that it would take a very long time 
to dissolve out the iron. But in practice, if a hydrochloric acid solu- 
tion were boiled in a vessel made of iron which was fairly rich 
in silicon, it would be found that the hydrochloric acid insidiously 
attacked the siliceous iron, and although it might be better than a 
common iron, it was certainly not a perfect material. There were 
many other applications of cast iron in chemical manufacture in 
addition to those which had been mentioned by the author of the 
paper. One of the commonest was the treatment of nitre by means 
of sulphuric acid for the production of nitric acid. The pans did not 
wear uniformly ; some of the pans lasted for a considerable time, and 
some were attacked in a relatively short period. The writer of the 
paper had pointed out that theoretically white iron would perhaps be 
better than grey. His experience was that a very open-grained iron, 

♦ Journal of the Iron and Steel InstituU, 1907, No. III. p. 620. 



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DISCUSSION MB. J. E, STEAD. 77 

one containing, say, 1^ per cent, of phosphorus or 3 or 3^ per cent, of 
graphite, with the graphite in large plates, was very readily attacked 
by acids. As the metal became closer in the grain and the phos- 
phorus was reduced, it was found that the effect of acids was not so 
marked, and with a dose-grained iron corresponding very nearly to 
the old Staffordshire pig, an iron was obtained which would stand 
acids remarkably well. 

Mr. F. W. Harbord (London) said that the little experience he had 
had showed that white iron gave far better results than grey. There 
were several industries where boiling sulphuric acid had to be used, 
and white iron pans gave very much better results than grey; in 
fact, they were the only pans that could be used. In cases in which 
cast-iron tanks were used for holding molten metal, sometimes the 
cast-iron pot would stand for months, in another case a pot of 
apparently the same material would fail in the first week, and in 
those cases he had not been able to trace any difference between the 
grade of the iron. Certainly so far as acids were concerned, he 
thought there could be no doubt white iron was in every way pre- 
ferable. It was difficult to get a sound casting in the white iron, 
but that had been successfully done in the case of the pans employed 
for gold refining in which boiling sulphuric acid was used. 

Mr. J. E. Stead, F.R.S., Member of Council, said that the paper 
opened out a very large field for discussion. The reason why strong 
sulphuric acid did not continuously act upon iron was that the acid 
produced a protective layer of sulphate of iron (insoluble in strong 
sulphuric acid) on the iron which completely protected the iron under- 
neath the coating from further action. Precisely the opposite thing 
occurred with hydrochloric acid. When hydrochloric acid was put into 
iron vessels a very soluble chloride of iron was formed which escaped 
into solution, leaving the surface of the metal perfectly free to be 
acted upon by the acid. The question of the relative corrosion of 
grey cast iron and white cast iron had been made a special study in 
his laboratory many years ago, and it was proved at that time beyond 
all doubt that white iron was very much more resistant to hydro- 
chloric acid than grey iron. The reason for that was not difficult to 
find. Grey iron was a heterogeneous mass of two entirely different 
substances, consisting of about 3 per cent, graphite which was electro- 
positive, and iron and pearlite which was electro-negative. In dilute 
acid electric action was set up at the exposed surfaces, and this effected 
a very rapid solution of the iron, whereas iron, when combined with 
carbon as in white iron, was a homogeneous substance. The greater 
the mass of carbide of iron present, the more resistant was the 
material to the action of the acid. He did not know whether Mr. 
Carulla had tried the making of chilled large pans and large faces 
in order to obtain that protective surface which he suggested could 
be made, but he (Mr. Stead) believed there would be a great many 
wasted during manufacture. The particular kind of grey residue, 



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78 CAST IRON IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL PLANT. 

shown by Mr. Carulla, found upon the surface of corroded cast iron 
was very well known. He had met with it at different times, but the 
one thing he could not understand was how it was sometimes obtained 
by the action of steam upon grey cast iron. Why steam should 
have that action at one time and not at another had yet to be 
explained. Perhaps Mr. Carulla would give them some information 
upon that point. One remark fell from Professor Turner which bore 
directly upon the paper, and that was with regard to the effect of 
silicon in cast iron. He did not know whether those present that 
morning knew that Mr. Laurence Smith drew attention, many years 
ago, to the wonderfully resistant properties of silicon iron containing 
20 per cent, of silicon. Mr. Smith gave him a piece of that iron. 
He polished it, and kept it in his laboratory exposed to the fumes of 
acids for a great many years, and yet the surface remained as bright 
as a silver mirror during the whole period. Of course it got dimmed 
by the condensation of fumes upon the surface, but a rag passed 
across it took away the condensed fumes and left the polished 
surface below quite as brilliant as it was originally. He did not 
think Professor Turner meant to suggest for a moment that cast-iron 
founders should use iron containing 15 or 20 per cent, of silicon for 
casting, for such material is very brittle. He was glad Mr. Carulla 
had brought that matter before them, and he hoped that ironfounders 
present would add something to the discussion. 

Mr. F. W. Paul (Harrogate) said he would merely refer to an 
incident that Professor Turner had recalled to his mind with regard 
to silicon preventing the attack of hydrochloric acid, and to what 
Mr. Stead had said on the point He might himself cite an instance 
of 1 per cent, of silicon having proved itself most objectionable in 
the case of some Bessemer steel bars for tinplate manufacture. It 
caused so much trouble in the pickling by leaving a deposit that the 
subsequent tinning operations were almost impracticable. 

Professor Turner wished to offer a word of explanation in answer 
to Mr. Stead. He certainly would not suggest the use of silicon pig 
as a general rule ; it was far too brittle, and there was far too much 
contraction. But a vessel could be cast in silicon iron which had 
not to be hammered or turned, and in exceptional cases it might be 
very useful 

Mr. Carulla, in reply, said he anticipated and hoped to get a 
number of opinions and contributions to the paper from chemists and 
others, but he understood it was not the proper practice to read out 
any that he might have already received, but that such contributions 
would be published, with the paper, in the Journal. He might, 
however, mention that he had received a very important communi- 
cation from Mr. Keville Davis. He had already anticipated some of 
the opinions that had been given^ and absolutely confirmed much tha^ 
Professor Turner had said. In the circumstances he (Mr. Carulla 



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DISCUSSION MR. CARULLA. 79 

must let bis reply be simply a temporary one, for be sbould bave to 
include in tbe final report an answer to tbe correspondence wbicb 
would be received. Professor Turner bad referred to tbe question of 
acetic acid. Mr. Haslam, of tbe Haslam Foundry Company, wbo 
bad a great deal of experience in tbat sort of work, bad also favoured 
him witb a reply, and be was told tbat Messrs. Haslam bad in some 
•cases to give up iron, and bad adopted aluminium, wbicb was not 
acted upon in tbe manner tbat iron was. Mr. Harbord bad confirmed 
his experience in connection witb white iron. It was perfectly 
correct to say tbat white iron was less acted upon by acids than grey 
iron was. It seemed to him witb regard to tbe objection tbat bad 
been raised by Mr. Stead to Professor Turner's method of using tbe 
high silicon pig, tbat if high silicon pig really succeeded in witb- 
■tAnding tbe action, there would be methods found for making such 
iron useful for interior linings of castings, or, for tbe matter of tbat, 
applying wrought iron outside to give tbe necessary tension. Such an 
arrangement could be easily obtained if only success could be met 
witb in getting a really resisting iron. The question was : Was tbat 
very high silicon iron sufficiently resistent to pay for such work to be 
done, because if it was only going to last, roughly, double tbe length 
of time that an ordinary iron would last, it was obvious tbat it would 
not pay to construct an expensive vessel in tbe manner that be bad 
just suggested in order to make it strong. When once tbe silicon 
iron was attacked, and tbe acid went through, tbe whole vessel 
would, of course, be destroyed. Tbe point tbat Mr. Stead bad 
mentioned about steam having such an extraordinary action was 
most interesting. He confessed tbat with all his experience tbat 
was quite new to him ; be was much obliged to Mr. Stead for 
bringing it out, and it showed the value of these discussions. He 
would not like to say tbat steam might not be to some extent at tbe 
bottom of tbe difficulty tbat he had experienced ; it might bave some- 
thing to do witb it. That applied to the vessel, but certainly not to 
the cast-iron cock. Steam did not touch the cock at all, it was only 
the ferrous liquor, wbicb was a little acid, and that contact witb tbe 
cast iron in something like three months really made an impression of 
about I of an inch, and as be mentioned in his paper that led him to 
look into the vessel, and be found that the vessel bad undergone 
similar corrosion. He would not like to say tbat steam had not had 
a little to do with it too. He could not explain it, except on the 
ground that extremely pure materials seemed to have a very different 
action from impure ones. Steam, of course, was extremely pure 
water, and it might be tbat extremely pure water had an action on 
cast iron that ordinary hot water would not bave. 

Tbe Pbesidbnt invited tbe members to accord their thanks to Mr. 
Carulla for hb interesting paper, and their gratitude to him for 
having been tbe cause of a discussion which certainly was very 
valuaUe. It seemed to him that tbe observations which fell from 
Mr. Stead went to tbe root of the matter, though Mr. Stead had not 



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80 CAST IRON IN THE CONSTRUCTION OP CHEMICAL PLANT. 

perhaps put it quite in the unphilosophic way he was going to do. 
Physicists were rather apt to lose sight of a peculiarity of matter, 
which he would venture to call its " cussedness.'' That only meant 
that they did not know enough about it. If they were in the full 
possession of that knowledge, for which Mr. Stead disclaimed a large 
part of his share at all events, then no doubt they would be under no 
diflSculty in offering explanations of all these subjects. But, after 
all, if that were so the Institute would cease to have any ground of 
existence, because if they knew everything they should not want 
to tell one another what they had found out. One could only be 
grateful to nature for having been sufficiently complicated to leave 
considerable fields still unexplored. One of those had been indicated 
by Mr. Carulla. Perhaps he might add a contribution of his own to 
the discussion from a somewhat different point of view, not on the 
corrosion of iron, but on the way in which materials with which one 
was dealing with continually behaved in an entirely unexpected 
manner. It was recalled to his recollection from his own ammonia- 
soda experiences, where they were dealing with very large quantities 
of what they regarded as extremely dilute fluids, and yet every pipe 
they had about the place speedily filled up by incrustations. It would 
not have been thought conceivable that crystallisation would have 
taken place out of such dilute liquors, but it did, and the consequence 
was they had to take up every single pipe and replace them by channels, 
of which they could take off the top and chip off the adhesions, which 
would not have been there if nature had been organised in a proper 
way. With these somewhat irrelevant remarks he would ask the 
meeting to record by acclamation their thanks to Mr. Carulla for his 
paper. 

The resolution was carried with acclamation. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Mr. G. Kbville Davis (Davis Brothers, Manchester) wrote : — 
The resistance that cast iron offers to corrosion by sulphuric acid is 
very considerable, provided the strength does not fall below 98° Tw., 
and we have found this property of great use during the last half- 
dozen years in making plant for the de-arsenication of sulphuric acid. 
The form of de-arsenicator somewhat resembles a continuous ammonia 
still, and we have found that the metal is practically unacted upon by 
acid of strengths between 100° and 110° Tw. Some of the plants 
have been in constant work for the last five years, and are still in 
good order. Sulphuric acid at 90° Tw. is very destructive to any 
cast-iron work. 

With regard to the author's remarks on the action of chlorides on 
cast-iron work, the following experiment, which we made a few years 
ago, will show the kind of action that takes place on iron vessels. 



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CORRESPONDENCE ^MR. G. KEVILLE DAVIS. 81 

We boiled a 12 per cent, solution of ammonium chloride in a glass 
retort with some pieces of hoop iron, the superficial area of which 
was 25 square inches ; after about one hour's boUing we found that 
2^ grams of iron had been dissolved, which is a very considerable 
figure. The vapours coming away from the retort were quite alkaline, 
thus showing that the ammonium chloride was being decomposed, and 
there is no doubt that HCl in this condition is very destructive to 
all iron work, both cast and wrought. 

One of the difficulties that is most common with oast-iron apparatus 
is the local action that frequently takes place, resulting in extensive 
pitting of the surface. I know of no reasonable explanation for 
this, but if care is taken to get castings as homogeneous as possible, 
this action is considerably reduced. 

We have found that liquors containing dissolved iron — e.g,, after 
precipitating copperas with strong ammonia liquor — if the carbonic 
acid has not been driven off, are very destructive to cast-iron work, 
and when it is necessary to perform this operation, care should always 
be taken to get rid of as much of the carbonic acid as possible. Re- 
garding the chemical composition of cast iron, it is of course well 
known that a certain amount of combined carbon seems to be 
necessary, and phosphorus and sulphur must be kept within low 
limits if the vessels or apparatus are to have a reasonable life. 

Mr. W. Henry Fryer (Lydbrook, Glos.) wrote: — I was much 
interested in reading the paper on cast iron in the construction of 
chemical plant, although not having the sanxe direct interest in the 
subject I once had, when my patent for drying the blast was in force. 
I certainly tried several alloys for resisting without corrosion the 
action of calcium chloride in cold solutions, with free access of air ; 
but although some of them were scarcely affected, others were very 
much so. I also evaporated a solution of the chloride by boiling it 
until the temperature rose to about 340^ F. I rather expected that 
this would corrode the cast-iron pot containing it, but to my surprise 
the only visible effect was to clean and brighten the inside of the pot, 
without forming any peroxide; and the chloride, when poured out 
and left to solidify, was as white as when put in. 

Dr. J. Grossmann (Manchester) wrote: — I am pleased that the 
attention of such an important and powerful society as the Iron and 
Steel Institute is directed to a subject which, in my opinion, has not 
so far received the attention it deserves. The effect of the chemical 
composition of iron and steel on its mechanical properties has been 
thoroughly investigated, and excellent work has been done in that 
direction by those engaged in the industries as well as at technical 
colleges ; but as far as regards the connection between chemical com- 
position and the resistance to chemical action is concerned, very little 
has been done. It appears to me that this is pre-eminently a field 
of research which should be exploited at our technical colleges, and 
^hich, whilst being instructive to the students as an introduction to 
1908.— L P 



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82 CAST IRON IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL PLANT. 

technical research, would yield data of great usefulness to manu- 
facturers. 

There are many directions in which work on such lines can be 
done^ I have myself for some time been engaged in studying the 
corrosive action of magnesian and other waters and solutions on iron 
and steel under pressures of 100 lbs. to the square inch and more, 
and have read a paper on the subject before the Manchester Section 
of the Society of Chemical Industry on May 1, 1908, which I expect 
will shortly appear in the Journal. The method which I use enables 
me also to determine the relative resistance of different grades of 
iron, steel, copper and other metals, brass, gun-metal and other alloys 
to chemical action in the laboratory to waters and solutions under 
pressiure, and thus to ascertain facts relating to these matters which 
up to the present could only be ascertained by costly experiments on 
a large scale. It has also enabled me to find a means of stopping the 
corrosive action of sea water; but my work only touches a small 
portion of what can be done in that direction, and I hope that Mr. 
Carulla's paper will rouse further interest in this important subject, 
and lead to further research. 

Mr. W. G. Haslam (Haslam Foundry and Engineering Co., Ltd.) 
wrote : — Our experience with acids has compelled us to seek for other 
metals than iron to resist their action in some circumstances. Thus 
we have experimented with aluminium, a piece of which has been 
immersed in a bottle of acetic acid for the past six years without any 
appreciable deterioration of the metal. For many years we have 
been making castings of a special bronze mixture to resist the action 
of hot dilute sulphuric acid, these castings being used in the process 
of converting starch into sugar, and this mixture might possibly also 
resist the action of hydrochloric acid. Though durable, these castings 
are expensive, say from four to five times the cost of iron castings. 

Mr. Henrt Hemingway (Stratford, E.) wrote that, although he has 
done considerable work in chloride of iron, it has not been in any way 
that bears on the construction of plant. He would point out, however, 
that the danger line in all iron constructions is just where the mois- 
ture and air meet, as in iron pillars to a bridge standing in water. The 
greatest care is to watch the three inches or so above the water-line. 

Mr. Edward Jackson (H. M. Inspector under the Alkali Acts, 
Birmingham) wrote : — The subject dealt with in Mr. Carulla's paper 
is of the greatest importance to those carrying on chemical manu- 
facturing operations. One is frequently hearing of difficulties. 
Ammoniacal liquors are shown now to contain chlorides in notable 
quantities. I have recently seen figures where practically the whole 
of the fixed ammonia in the crude liquor is as chloride. As is well 
known, in certain seams of coal chlorides are present in important 
quantity. A case has recently come under my notice where serious 
damage has been observed in ammonia distilling and concentrating 



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CORRESPONDENCE MR. EDWARD JACKSON. 83 

plant, to the steel parts especially ; also the cast-iron portions have 
heen affected. In this case it is found that about two-thirds of the 
fixed ammonia in the crude liquor distilled exists as chloride. Also 
the wearing of tar stills has in some cases been so serious, when 
chlorides are present in quantity, that it has been found impossible 
to conduct the operation of distilling in the iron stills unless the 
tar has been previously washed to extract the harmful chloride of 
ammonium, so great was the destruction of the iron plates. 

Another point where the quality of the iron is of most serious 
import has come to my knowledge recently. In the concentration of 
sulphuric acid in glass retorts, the iron vessels in which they are 
placed over the fire sometimes give considerable trouble. It is quite 
common to see the metal, after being in use for a while, become 
swollen, like blistering ; this is an indication to the workman that he 
must carefully watch this vessel, and it may be so worked for some 
time with safety. But in other cases I have known that, instead of 
the swelling out of the metal referred to, it has suddenly cracked, thus 
breaking the glass retort, losing the vitriol, and, what is worse, vaporis- 
ing the acid which flows over the hot brickwork into the fire, to the 
annoyance of the district and damage to vegetation, in addition to 
the serious loss to the manufacturer. It has been suggested to me 
by persons of experience in this manufacturing operation, that the 
quality of the iron from which the pots are made is the cause of this 
Jifference in behaviour ; and it is difficult, under the circumstances 
where conditions often appear quite similar, to find other satisfactory 
explanation. 

These are three classes of operations where the quality of the iron 
used must be of importance. What does this all point to but the 
necessity for a more correct knowledge of composition and character 
of iron used, and the importance of endeavouring to find out what 
special constituents or method of manufacture are required to give 
the quality of metal desired. I do not think very much is as yet 
known on these points, and I hope Mr. Carulla's paper may stimu- 
late investigation. 

Mr. J. F. Kempson (Kempson & Co., Ltd.) wrote : — We have found 
no appreciable corrosion of cast iron in the sections of the sulphate of 
ammonia still (Coffey's principle). The sections are exposed to the 
action of layers of boiling alkaline liquid and above of steam, 
ammonia, sulphuretted hydrogen, and various other gases. No differ- 
ence is perceptible between the action of the hot gases and liquor. 
We have found corrosion in cast-iron pipes between tar still and 
water level in condensers, which is probably, we should think (as 
Mr. Carulla puts forward), due to dissociation of ammonium chloride. 
In connection with Glaus' kiln, we have found cast iron stand sulphur 
and sulphurous acid vapours. 

Professor Dr. G. Lungb (Zurich) wrote : — I must say all the 
author states on the action of acids on cast iron agrees with my own 



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84 CAST IRON IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL PLANT. 

experience, and would be borne out by the evidence of all other 
technical chemists. I would only add that I, for my part, would 
eschew the use of grey cast iron for any kind of apparatus where it 
must come into contact with hydrochloric acid in the free state, 
whether originally so or produced by hydrolysis or dissociation, as in 
the case of ammonium chloride. Even white cast iron is not to be 
depended upon in this case, although it certainly holds out much 
longer than grey. 

What Mr. Carulla states to be pomble, viz. producing vessels which 
consist of a grey cast-iron shell with a chilled white inner surface, is 
actually done at German factories. 

The author does not mention another and more fundamental way 
of protecting the iron, both cast and wrought, against the action of 
hydrochloric acid, viz. enamelling it. This is also applied in many 
cases with fullest success, but there is a great difference between the 
quality of enamel produced at one place from that turned out at 
another, and great care has to be exercised in selecting the right 
channel. 

Mr. Thomas Tyrer, Past-President of the Society of Chemical 
Industry, wrote: — Mr. CaruUa's paper seems to me to require very 
little, if any, discussion by chemists. The ironmaster wants the facte, 
and his chemist should at least help in solving the difficulties in 
composition. On this point I am not an expert, but / can verify the 
experiences of the author. 

Mr. John Wallace, C.E. (Bombay), wrote : — I can add nothing to 
the lore of cast iron, but I have seen native-made iron forged on a 
stone anvil, and have observed that it does not rust like £nglish iron 
when exposed to the weather. The ironwork of the car on which the 
gods of the Kulu Valley take the air has a fine brown patina and no 
rust flake& It is all charcoal iron. 

Mr. J. T. Wood (Turney Brothers, Ltd.) wrote, in reference to 
tannic acid, that it attacks both wrought and cast iron, though in 
different degrees, and the material is soon eaten through. In practice 
all our iron work, such as shafts, kc, which are likely to come in 
contact with tannin, we cover with gun-metal or brass. Of course^ as 
is well known, the compound of iron and tannin is a black ink, and 
this is often very troublesome in a tannery, so that we avoid iron as 
much as possible. 

Dr. 0. F. WClffing (Hdnningen-on- Rhine) wrote: — There are 
many firms that make it a speciality to cast acid-proof iron vessels 
for the different demands of the chemical industries. These are not 
much dearer than ordinary castings. Of course the way they are 
made is kept secret. The iron used in the vessels for my process 
should be the same as that employed in the manufacture of ingot 
moulds for casting open-hearth steel. But special acid-proof iron 
would be a still better material. 



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CORRESPONDENCE MR. CARULLA. 85 

Mr. Carulla, replying to the discussion, wrote : — It is clear from 
the remarks of Professor Turner and of Mr. Davis that a pure cast 
iron, or at least an iron comparatively free from phosphorus, is a 
better acid-resisting material than one that contains this element 
in large proportion, and it is probable that the difficulties mentioned 
by Mr. Jackson in connection with the vessels for glass retorts are 
so explainable. 

For the special purpose of treating chloride of iron liquors, 
Dr. Wiilffing practically confirms this conclusion, as moulds for 
casting steel ingots, either Bessemer or open - hearth, have to 
be of fairly good material, such as haematite. Having been so 
advised before the vessels for the manufacture of the blue-black 
colour were cast^ some practical tests were made of the brands 
proposed to be used. Pieces were chipped ojff the pigs, and were 
immersed in the liquors, together with a piece of haematite with 
which to compare them. It was found that all were slightly attacked, 
but two of the brands practically only to the same extent as the 
luematite, and as they made a strong mixture there was no hesitation 
in allowing the vessels to be made of it. It is true the tests were 
made on internal surfaces of the materials, whereas the skin of the 
casting is what has to resist the action of the acid. Now, a pure 
metal melts at a higher temperature than one laden with phosphorus, 
and consequently the likelihood of the castings acquiring a siliconised 
skin is greater with the hotter iron, which may be supposed to react 
with the moulding sand, than with one melting at a lower tempera- 
tare. Such a conclusion is quite consistent with the observations 
of Professor Turner, Mr. Stead, Mr. Harbord, and Mr. Paul on the 
subject of the resisting power conferred by silicon. At any rate. 
Dr. Wiilffing appears to have found this protection sufficient. The 
skin of the casting may be supposed to act in some measure as 
an enamel, which, as stated by Dr. Lunge, is successful when of 
good quality in protecting iron from the action of hydrochloric 
acid. Can it be that the stone anvil mentioned by Mr. Wallace 
siliconides the skin of the Indian iron? I am sincerely obliged to 
Dr. Lunge for the information that vessels of grey cast iron with 
a chilled interior are actually produced in Germany. My suggestion 
was made simply from a close study of all the circumstances of the 
problem, and it seemed possible that others engaged in solving the 
same question might have come to a similar conclusion. In the 
circumstances it is reasonable to infer that it is a correct one. 
I sincerely hope that Dr. Grossman's appeal may result in research 
work being instituted in the manner suggested. It is obvious, as 
Mr. Tyrer says, that the primary work must be done by the chemist, 
the ironfounder can only follow. The facts mentioned by Messrs. 
Fryer, Haslam^ Kempson, and Wood show in what great variety the 
problem may present itself. An alloy of cast iron with some other 
element that should resist hydrochloric acid would not necessarily 
be proof against the action of acetic acid. One that resisted weak 
sulphuric acid might still be amenable to tannic acid. The alloy 



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86 CAST IRON IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF CHEMICAL PLANT. 

might be resistant when wholly in the liquid, but not so if only 
partially immersed as pointed out by Mr. Hemingway. 

Although much remains to be done, the discussion shows that a 
great deal has already been accomplished in the direction of pro- 
ducing acid-resisting vessels of cast iron. I personally thank the 
contributors for having thrown so much light on this obscure but 
important subject. 



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THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL LABORATORIES. 87 



THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL 

LABORATORIES IN THE NATIONAL 

PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 

By WALTER ROSENHAIN. B.A., B.C.E. 
(Communicated prom the National Physical Laboratory.) 

The metallurgical and chemical laboratories of the National 
Physical Laboratory have recently undergone considerable 
extension and reorganisation; a short account of the present 
state of the department, with special regard to the work which 
is either in hand or which the department is capable of under- 
taking, may therefore be of interest to metallurgists. 

In its present condition the department is separated into 
two divisions; of these, one — viz. that dealing with purely 
metallurgical research work, including more especially metallo- 
graphic work — is still housed, very inadequately, in a number 
of rooms situated in the basement of old Bushy House. The 
other division, which deals essentially with metallurgical 
chemistry, is, however, housed in a newly erected building 
specially designed and equipped for the purpose, and situated 
b the grounds of Bushy House, a short distance away from 
the main building. 

Dealing first with the former division, we find in the main 
room a series of laboratory furnaces of various types used for 
the production and melting, on a very small scale, of metals 
and alloys as required for research^or investigatory testing. 
These furnaces include various types of gas-heated furnace, 
including Fletcher-Russell's injector furnaces, Griffin's radial 
furnace, and also a rather larger Soger furnace working on 
natural draught and with an approach to regenerative heating 
of the incoming air. A Cunnynghame adiathermal mufile 
attaining temperatures above 1050° C. with the aid of a 
single large Bunsen burner is used for the purpose of anneal- 
ing small specimens of metal, while a large Fletcher-Russell 
muffle is available for the heat-treatment of larger specimens. 
A bosh or tank, mounted on wheels, is provided for quenching 



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88 



THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL LABORATORIES IN 



purposes. In addition to those gas-heated appliances, a 
number of electric resistance furnaces are also in use. These 
are tube-furnaces of various lengths and diameter, some being 
wound with nickel wire in the manner indicated by Dr. 
Carpenter, while platinum-wound Herseus furnaces are also 
used. The supply of current for these appliances is derived 
from the large storage battery of the laboratory capable of 
yielding up to 110 volts and of delivering in this room 




Fig. 1. 

currents up to 150 ampferes. In practice, however, 30 amperes 
are rarely exceeded. For the purpose of driving the gas- 
heated furnaces a mechanical blower is installed in this room, 
being driven by a 3 horse-power electric motor, the air being 
supplied at various points in the room by fixed pipes of large 
diameter. The motor just mentioned also drives a small 
hack-saw and a small drilling-machine. 

The pyrometric appliances of the department are also 
mounted in this room; these include a potentiometer by 
Pitkin, of the type devised for this purpose by Dr. Stansfield. 
The galvanometer of this instrument gives its indications 



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THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 89 

by means of a spot of light on a scale, and a second spot of 
light on the same scale is derived from a second galvano- 
meter connected with the differential thermo-j unctions. The 
methods of taking recalescence curves by this instrument 
have recently been fully described and discussed by the 
author.* so that no further details are required here. For 
the purpose of determining melting and freezing points, as well 
as for taking " inverse-rate " cooling curves, a tapping-key is 
provided at the side of the potentiometer, and this is connected 
to a chronograph made by the Scientific Instrument Company 
of Cambridge ; the seconds indicator of this instrument is con- 
nected electrically with the standard clock of the laboratory. 

A recent addition to the equipment of this room is a novel 

form of quenching apparatus designed by the author, which is 

shown in Fig. 1. In this apparatus the specimen of metal to 

be quenched is heated in a horizontal tube of vitreous silica 

which passes through a short electric tube-furnace; the 

temperature of the specimen is indicated by a thermo-couple, 

which is held in contact with the surface of the metal, or may 

be inserted into a hole made in the specimen for that purpose. 

The one end of this silica tube communicates with a receiver 

and a Fleuss air-pump, by means of which it can be exhausted 

of air ; the other end of the tube is attached to a wide-bore 

glass stop-cock communicating with a wide bent tube. The 

latter tube dips into a vessel of water or other liquid in which 

the specimen is to be quenched. The specimen having been 

mamtained at the desired quenching temperature for the 

requisite time, the heating current is switched off, and the 

large stop- cock is opened. As the silica tube is exhausted 

the water rushes into the hot tube with considerable force, 

and not only chills the specimen but sweeps it down the 

tube, away fi'om the heated part into the cold end. When 

the various parts of this apparatus are properly proportioned, 

there is no serious evolution of steam ; the water rushes in 

very rapidly, and the resulting quenching is very sudden. 

The obvious advantages of this method of quenching are 

that the specimens of metal are not exposed to oxidation 

while being heated, and are not subjected to handling or 

* Paper read before the Physical Society of London, January 24, 1908. 



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90 THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL LABORATORIES IN 

other manipulation tending to disturb their temperature 
prior to the sudden cooling ; the quenching thus occurs at a 
definite temperature which can be ascertained with consider- 
able accuracy. A further advantage is that, for microscopic 
examination, the surface of the specimen can be polished 
before quenching; at the end of the process the polished 
surface will only be covered with a very thin film of oxide or 
tarnish, and this can be removed by a few seconds' rubbing on 
the polishing disc. In this way any heating of the surface of 
the quenched specimen during subsequent polishing can be 
entirely avoided. While primarily devised for the purpose of 
quenching some aluminium-manganese alloys which could not 
be heated in air without becoming completely oxidised, it is 
hoped that this apparatus will yield interesting results when 
applied to the study of the phenomena of hardening in steel. 

The microscopic equipment of the department is placed 
in two rooms in the lowest part of the building, thus securing 
great steadiness and uniformity of temperature. In a small 
room, just large enough to accommodate it, is placed a Zeiss 
projection bench and camera, fitted with a Martens metallo- 
graphic projection microscope. With this apparatus it is 
possible to examine the raicrostructure of metjJs under the 
highest magnifications by means of images projected on a 
white paper screen. While it is obvious that this method ot 
examination is not capable of yielding such perfect images, 
or of allowing such minute and careful scrutiny as direct 
examination through the eye-piece of the microscope, it yet 
offers advantages for the purpose of examining large areas 
with a view to ascertaining the uniformity or otherwise of 
a specimen of metal and of deciding on the choice of a 
typical field for photographic reproduction. Attached to the 
room containing the projection apparatus is a small dark- 
room in which the plates used for photography are changed 
and developed. For printing, enlarging, and other photo- 
graphic manipulations a separate and larger dark-room is 
provided in another part of the building. 

The second room in the basement is devoted to microscopic 
work also. For the detailed examination of metal sections 
under the most favourable conditions, one of the metallurgical 



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THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 91 

microscopes designed by the author "^ is installed on a bench 
specially devoted to this work, where arrangements for critical 
and oblique illumination are available by means of Nemst and 
other electric lamps. A full set of Zeiss apochromatic objectives 
and eye-pieces are kept here in special cases arranged to facilitate 
their rapid interchange. On a large stone bench in the centre 
of this room is installed the Zeiss ultra-violet microscope, with 
some special arrangements for illumination by monochromatic 
light. The whole constitutes a large and somewhat compli- 
cated piece of apparatus which is now giving great promise of 
valuable results. The work itself, however, is of a trying and 
difficult character, so that progress can only be slowly made ; 
as the apparatus is still undergoing modifications, no descrip- 
tion of the arrangement can yet be given. 

On another bench of this room a Zeiss stereoscopic bino- 
cular microscope is installed, for use in the examination of 
fractures under moderate magnifications (up to about 75 
diameters). Stereoscopic views of fractures are proving of 
considerable interest and value, particularly in connection 
with investigatory tests on material that has failed in service, 
and in connection with the experimental study of alloys, since 
the stereoscopic examination furnishes a good means of ascer- 
tainii^ the soundness of experimentally made metal. 

In addition to the rooms already mentioned, as well as a 
small room serving as an office for the staff, two further small 
rooms are provided for the work of preparing the specimens 
of metal for microscopic examination. One of these rooms 
is provided with a pair of carborundum grinding wheels 
driven by a small electric motor; this room is entirely de- 
voted to the work of grinding specimens, all emery rubbing 
being done here. The second room is devoted entirely to 
the last stages of polishing and etching. The polishing is 
done on a horizontal disc about 9 inches in diameter, covered 
with smooth " beaver " cloth and fed with distilled water and 
one or other polishing medium, such as diamantine, levi- 
gated rouge, alumina, or oxide of chromium. These are 
prepared in the laboratory in the manner indicated by Le 
Chatelier. With the last named of these substances it has 

• Journal of the Royal Microscofdcal Society, 1906, pp. 146-165. 



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92 THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL LABORATORIES IN 

been found possible to polish such very soft materials as 
lead-tin alloys. 

The progress of polishing is watched, when necessary, by 
the aid of a small microscope installed in this room for that 
purpose. This microscope is also used to enable the operator 
to judge of the depth and cleanness of etching attained in any 
given case. On a table in this room a series of etching baths 
are provided, and a rack of the necessary reagents is placed 
at hand. The reagent most frequently used for steel is a 
saturated solution of picric acid in alcohol, but nitric acid 
dissolved in amyl alcohol, as suggested by Kourbatoff, is also 
found useful. Means for electrolytic etching are also provided. 

A small outbuilding specially erected for this purpose 
contains a small foundry plant attached to the department. 
The plant includes a Fletcher-Russell oil-fired injector 
furnace capable of melting 50 lbs. of metal and attaining 
heats adequate for melting all varieties of steel. An over- 
head carrying-gear and the usual equipment of moulding 
and casting appliances are provided for dealing with charges 
of metal of the size named. The large series of castings 
described in the Eighth Report of the Alloys Research Com- 
mittee were made by Messrs. Carpenter and Edwards in this 
foundry, while a series of ternary alloys of copper and 
aluminium with other metals is now being prepared. 

From the above brief description of the metallurgical research 
equipment of the laboratory it will be seen that the requisite 
appliances for a large range of metallurgical investigation are 
available. Such matters as the determination of melting and 
freezing points of metals and alloys, the determination of 
critical points, and of entire recalescence curves of steel and 
other metals, and the study of microstructure are undertaken 
regularly, either in the course of one or other of the various 
researches which the department has in hand, or in pursuance 
of investigatory testing of metallic materials. The researches 
at present in hand relate to the study of the properties of 
the ternary alloys of copper, aluminium, and other metals, 
undertaken at the request of the Alloys Research Committee 
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and to the detailed 
investigation of the nature of eutectic alloys. In the latter 



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THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 93 

connection the alloys of lead and tin, and of copper and silver 
have been studied, but the investigation will also embrace the 
detailed study of pearlite and other eutectoid bodies. It is 
hoped that in this connection the added resolving-power of the 
ultra-violet microscope will render good service. 

In addition to these definitely planned investigations, the 
department is frequently called upon to investigate and report 
upon the causes of failure of parts of structures or machines 
that have given way or become defective in service. A con- 
siderable number of interesting and important cases of this 
kind have been, and are being, submitted to the department, 
and there is reason to hope that the systematic study and re- 
cording of such cases will lead to valuable additions to our 
knowledge of the materials of engineering construction. 

It will be observed that the equipment of the department, 
as described above, does not include any appliances for me- 
chanical testing. This is explained by the fact that all such 
appliances are under the charge of the engineering department 
of the laboratory. When it is found desirable, the staff of the 
metallurgical department have access to, and use the me- 
chanical testing appliances of the sister department, while in 
other cases the stafi' of that department co-operates. In the 
case of investigatory tests, the reports of the two departments 
are generally made jointly. 

We turn now to the second division of the metallurgy 
department, which is housed in the new building, concerned 
chiefly with metallurgical chemistry. This division of the 
department differs from the other in one respect, since it is 
occupied — in addition to research and investigatory testing 
— with a considerable amount of routine testing work for 
Government departments. 

A plan of the new building is given in Plate V. It will 
be seen that the building contains two large laboratories and a 
number of smaller rooms and offices. The largest room is 
that marked B on the plan, and this is devoted chiefly to steel 
analysis. For this work the room is provided with three large 
benches, a stone bench at one end, and four fume-cupboards. 
As it was obvious from the outset that the analysis of metals 
would necessarily involve the evolution of large volumes of 



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94 THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL LABORATORIES IN 

acid fumes, special attention was given to the question of 
ventilation. In the two large rooms this is provided for by 
a large trunk of teak wood placed under the ceiling along the 
south wall ; this trunk has a sectional area of 2 feet by 2 feet 
6 inches, and suction is supplied to it by a Blackman fan 
driven by an electric motor of 3^ horse-power. The fume- 
cupboards are ranged along the south wall immediately 
beneath the exhaust trunk just mentioned, and communicate 




Fig. 2. 



with it by means of wide glazed earthenware pipes; similar 
pipes provide inlets to the exhaust trunk from the space im- 
mediately above a set of steam ovens, and also from the top ot 
the hood, which extends over the stone bench placed at the 
west end of the room B, and the east end of the room C. 
(General views of rooms B and C are given in Figs. 2 and 3.) 
In addition to these arrangements, a small fume-chamber is 
provided on the central table or bench, the exhaust from this 
chamber being carried beneath the floor and thence up into 
the large trunk. There are also exhaust inlets, which can be 



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THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 95 

opened or closed at will, for withdrawing air from the highest 
part of the room, just under the apex of the skylight roof. 
Rooms B and C are chiefly lighted by a large north-light sky- 
light running the entire length of the rooms, the light being 
well and evenly diifused by the white ceiling and walls, the 
former being boarded and painted with white " anti-sulphuric 
enamel," while the walls are covered with white glazed bricks. 
There are also large windows in the gable at the eastern end 
of room B, while a window, not shown in the plan, has 
subsequently been introduced at the south-west corner, for the 
purpose of assisting ventilation, and of acting as a means of 
exit in an emergency. 

The general disposition of the rooms is as follows: the 
stone bench at the western end, shown in detail in Fig. 4, is 
devoted to the combustion apparatus for carbon determination, 
muffle furnaces for icinerations, &c., and a hot-plate with 
graduated temperatures, used chiefly for the solution of samples 
in connection with phosphorus determinations. The large 
bench next to this end of the room is used for the filtrations 
and titrations in connection with the volumetric determination 
of phosphorus, while the other side of the same bench is used 
for filtrations, &c., in connection with silicon determinations 
and the gravimetric estimation of phosphorus and sulphur. 
The central table or bench, upon which is situated the fume- 
cupboard already referred to, is used for volumetric sulphur 
and arsenic estimation, the apparatus (four sets of each being 
in simultaneous, use) is shown in Figs. 5 and 6 respectively. 
The third bench is devoted to manganese and chromium de- 
terminations, and to titrations in connection with the arsenic 
and sulphur determinations. Room is also available here for 
the estimation of special alloyed elements such as nickel, 
tungsten, molybdenum, and vanadium. Along the east wall 
of the room is placed a lead- covered wash-up table with drying- 
racks, &c., while the north wall is occupied by shelves for 
reagent bottles and writing-tables for the accommodation of 
the stafl*. 

Since the opening of this laboratory a very considerable 
number of samples of a large variety of steel have been 
analysed, the determinations of carbon, sulphur, phosphorus. 



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96 THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL LABORATORIES IN 

manganese, and arsenic being always carried out in duplicate, 
a check analysis by a second method being always made if 
the results of the duplicates are at all discrepant, or if the 
results found exceed the limits of the specification for the 
material in question. This work, having been carried out 
under the best conditions and with a view to testing the 
reliability of the various methods tried and adopted, consti- 
tutes valuable evidence as to the merits of the various methods 
used. It is therefore proposed to give a description of these 
methods, together with tables of comparative results and such 
critical comments as the experience obtained may justify. 

Carbon. — The determination of carbon in steel by the pro- 
cess of direct combustion of the fine drillings in a current 
of oxygen has, after careful comparison with other processes, 
been adopted as the most reliable and at the same time the 
most expeditious method. The comparison has been made 
chiefly with the method as described by Blair, in which the steel 
is first dissolved in copper- potassium chloride solution and the 
carbon is separated by filtration and finally burnt in oxygen. 
As a rule, in the case of steel, the results of the Blair and the 
direct combustion process are in very perfect agreement, dif- 
ferences of two or three in the third decimal place alone 
being found; when, however, a larger discrepancy is found, 
this always occurs in the Blair method, careful repetitions 
uniformly confirming the accuracy of the direct process. The 
general conclusion arrived at is that while both the Blair 
and the direct combustion method are perfectly capable of 
yielding accurate results, there is a greater liability to acci- 
dental error in the former, while it also requires more com- 
plicated apparatus and occupies more time. These conclusions 
apply subject to the limitation that the drillings must not be 
coarse, and that the combustion apparatus used for the direct 
method is as efficient as that which is now to be described. 
The conclusion also applies only to ordinary steel and not 
to cast iron, pig iron, or other graphitic alloys, while it has yet 
to be tested as regards ferro-manganese, &c. 

The combustion apparatus used for the direct method of 
carbon determination is shown at the right-hand end of the 
stone bench in the photograph. Fig. 4. At the right-hand 



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Plate 1 1 




Fig. 3. 




Fig. 4. 



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Plate III 




Fig. 5. 




Fig. 6. 



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Plate IY 




Fig. 7. 




Fig. 8. 



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3 


3 

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I 

i 

9i 



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THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY, 97 

end of the bench stands a large (60-foot) cylinder of com- 
pressed oxygen, provided with four independent fine-adjust- 
ment valves mounted on a fitting specially arranged for this 
purpose. From each of these valves a stout rubber tube 
carries the oxygen to a drying and purifying system, which 
is placed on a wooden shelf underneath the istone benchi 
The system in question consists of a tower packed with soda- 
lime, followed by a U-tube packed one half with soda-lime, 
the other half with calcium chloride, a separate tower and 
U-tube being provided for each of the four currents of oxygen. 
From the U-tube the oxygen is carried in rubber tubes to 
a set of Dreschel bottles containing sulphuric acid ; these are 
placed in a raised position on the stone bench, so as to be visible 
to an operator manipulating the fine-adjustment valves on the 
oxygen cylinder; this operator thus has a guide as to the 
rate at which oxygen is entering the combustion tubes. The 
combustion tubes themselves, four in number, are tubes of 
vitreous (fused) silica, 28 inches in length and |-inch in 
diameter ; they are heated by a four-tube electric furnace, from 
which they project by 6 inches at each end ; these tubes are 
closed with rubber stoppers at each end, and these remain 
perfectly cool and are not in any way acted upon, the only 
requisite precaution being to protect the inner face of the 
stoppers at the inlet end from direct radiation from the hot 
part of the tube; this is effected by the interposition of a 
short spiral of copper gauze. Originally the farther ends of 
these silica combustion tubes were packed with finely granular 
copper oxide, wrapped in asbestos paper with a view to pre- 
venting the oxide from coming into contact with and acting 
upon the silica tube. This protection was, however, foimd 
inadequate; whenever the temperature of the furnace was 
allowed to rise a. little the copper oxide was very liable to 
fuse and to eat its way first through the asbestos wrapping 
and then through the silica tube^ which it destroyed com- 
pletely in a few minutes. The use of copper oxide has, how- 
ever, been obviated by the employment of platinised silica. 
It was at first sought to obtain from the regular sources a 
supply of platinised quartz wool, but this proved unobtainable^ 
and a trial was then made with fragments obtained by pounds 
1908.— i. G 



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98 THE METALLUBOICAL AND CHEMICAL LABOBATOBIES IN 

ing up parts of broken tubes of vitrified silica — these have a 
more or less rough surface owing to the drawing out of 
enclosed air-bubbles, and when platinised it was found that 
the platinum adhered well to the surface. Careful comparison 
showed that the oxidising action of this platinised silica was 
quite as satisfactory as that of copper oxide. Tubes packed 
with this material, which is readily renewed at suitable inter- 
vals, have now been in use for several months with very 
satisfetctory results, the formerly high mortality of silica com- 
bustion tubes being entirely checked. It is a curious fact 
that while the action of copper oxide on these silica tubes 
is so very rapid, the small quantities of iron oxide which 
sometimes find their way into contact with the tubes owing 
to a fragment of steel being spilled from the boat, do not 
appear to aifect the tube at all. In addition to the platinised 
silica, the tubes contain the usual lead-chromate packing for 
the absorption of oxide of sulphur. 

The furnace in which the combustion tubes are heated is an 
electric resistance furnace having four separately wound heat- 
ing tubes fixed within a single large heat-insulating casing of 
porcelain tube covered with ''magnesia sectional covering." 
These heating tubes were originally made of porcelain and 
wound with fine nickel wire, but the furnaces made in this 
manner were found to require re-winding at intervals of about 
three weeks, thus causing a serious loss of time as well as 
trouble and expense. A winding of platinum foil on the 
principle of Heraeus was therefore adopted, and this platinum 
foil was wound on silica tubes to avoid the risk of destruction 
by cracking, and also to reduce the deterioration of the plati- 
num by electrolytic action as far as possible. The actual 
winding is so proportioned that when the furnace is at its 
proper working temperature (about 1000^ C.) the resistance of 
the tubes coupled up two in series, and the two groups in 
parallel, is about 14 ohms. From a circuit having a pres- 
sure of 100 volts this takes a current of a little over 7 
amperes, which is found just sufficient to maintain the desired 
temperature. For the purpose of starting up when cold, a 
switch is provided whereby the four tubes can be thrown into 
series, thus providing a higher initial resistance. This plati- 



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THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY* 99 

num-wound furnace has now been at work for three months 
without requhing any attention, and shows no signs of any 
change of resistance. 

The steel drillings are introduced into the combustion tubes 
in long, narrow, and very light boats made in the laboratory 
by the aid of a " boatee " or press made by Messrs. Carling to 
the design of Mr. Stead. The boats actually employed are 
made very thin in the wall for the purpose of leaving as large 
a space available for the drilling as possible, since the dimen- 
sions of the combustion tubes which electric heating renders 
desirable are narrower than usual. At first some little trouble 
was experienced in making these boats, but the device of 
coating the moulds of the press with vaseline and interposing 
a piece of thin tissue-paper between the moulds and the clay 
has overcome this entirely, particularly when a specially 
plastic fireclay from Bavaria is used. The boats, when pressed, 
are dried and the paper ist readily removed, but before use 
the boats are strongly calcined in a muffle furnace so as to be 
entirely free from carbon. 

From the combustion tubes the gases are led through glass 
cooling tubes which dip into a large vessel of cold water, and 
thence ipto U-tubes of special construction filled with pumice 
saturated with strong sulphuric acid. These U-tubes are 
provided with glass stoppers at the top, and with a stop-cock 
at the lowest point of the U. Each day these tubes are filled 
up completely with fresh acid, which is allowed to remain in 
them for a short time, and is then drained away as completely 
as possible through the tap at the bottom. This leaves the 
pumice coated with fresh acid every day while removing any 
risk of splashing or bubbling that might arise with any excess 
acid present. From these drying-tubes the gases are led to 
the potash absorption bulbs, which are of the ordinary Geissler 
form. These are carried to the adjoining balance-room and 
weighed in the usual maimer. In using this apparatus it is 
found quite possible for one operator to keep the four com- 
bustion tubes completely occupied, with the result that in a 
working day of from six and a half to seven hours one operator 
can carry out from eight to ten carbon determinations in dupli- 
cate (t.e. sixteen to twenty separate combustions), although at 



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100 THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL LABORATORIES IN 

times of pressure as many as twelve in duplicate have been 
completed in one working day. 

For the purpose of comparison and check analyses, a com- 
plete set of dissolving and filtering apparatus for the wet 
separation of carbon is also available, and is regularly used 
in the case of cast or pig iron. 

Phosphorvs, — When systematic work on steel-analysis was 
first begun, the author was anxious to adopt the very attractive 
method of phosphorus determination described by Blair in a 
previous volume of this Journal,* and that method was care- 
fully tried and compared with the standard gravimetric 
methods. While it was found that, as a rule, the results of 
Blair's method were in excellent agreement with those of the 
gravimetric methods, thus bearing out the results published 
by Blair, yet at times unaccountable discrepancies would occur. 
Sometimes these obviously arose from the fact that a small 
fragment of zinc had been washed down into the titration flask 
from the " reductor," and when this was seen to be the case 
the results were obviously and grossly in error; but less 
obvious errors appeared when no such occurrence could be 
detected, and the only conclusion appears to be that errors of 
this kind are liable to arise from the washing down of particles 
too minute to be observed. The reduction of molybdic to 
molybdous acid, as described by Blair in the method referred 
to, was therefore abandoned, and a modification of the method 
was tried, which has been described in various modifications 
by different writers. In the modification adopted in this 
laboratory, the yellow molybdate precipitate is obtained in the 
manner described by Blair in the paper referred to above; 
but instead of being dissolved from the filter with ammonia, 
the precipitate is washed first with weak nitric acid (2 per 
cent.) and then with a solution (also 2 per cent.) of potassium 
nitrate until the washings are neutral to litmus paper. The 
filter-paper with the yellow precipitate is then thrown into a 
flask and macerated with a little water. A small quantity of 
-}js normal caustic potash (standard) solution is then added, 
m which the yellow precipitate immediately dissolves. The 
excess of alkali is then titrated back with standard sulphuric 

• Journal of the Iron and SUel InstiiuU, 1904, No. IL p. 289. 



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THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 



101 



acid and phenol-pthalem. The somewhat complicated method 
of washing with acid and then with potassium nitrate is 
generally regarded as necessary, as it is supposed that pure 
water either slightly dissolves or modifies the composition of 
the yellow precipitate. A series of comparative tests has, 
however, shown that this supposition is not, perhaps, well 
founded, the results obtained when the yellow precipitate is 
washed with water alone being found to agree closely with 
those obtained by the more elaborate method. The following 
table shows a series of comparative results obtained by the 
volumetric method just described, and by the well-known 
gravimetric molybdate method as developed by Messrs. Stead 
and Harbord: — 













Lab. No. 


1 
Percentage of Phosphorus found by i 


Steel. 


Volumetric 
Method. 


Gravimeiric. 


Joist 
Tube 
Joist 
Tyre 
Spnng 
Spring 
■ Spnng 
Tyre 
Shafting 










1041 
1046 
1054 
1090 
1100 
1146 
1147 
1155 
1170 


0-068 
0-010 
0061 
0-043 
0-040 
0-043 
0-041 
0-041 
0-080 


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The following table shows results obtained on eight typical 
samples by the method of washing with water in place of 
nitric acid followed by potassium nitrate : — 











I^b. No. 


Percentage of Phosphorus washed by 


Steel. 


Acid and Pot. 
Nitrate. 

0-033 
0-028 
0083 
0-034 
0-032 
0-028 
0022 
0031 


Water only. 


Sprmg 

Axle 

Spring 

Axle 

spring 

Spring 
Spnng 








945 
946 
947 
948 
969 
970 
971 
972 


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102 THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL LABORATORIES IN 

From these tabulated results, covering a wide range of 
steels, it will be seen that the volumetric method described 
above gives results only very slightly lower than those 
obtained by the more elaborate and troublesome gravimetric 
method, the results of the two methods rarely diflfering more 
than two duplicate determinations made by either method are 
frequently found to do. On the whole, however, the results 
obtained by omitting the potassium-nitrate washing in the 
volumetric method are found to be very slightly higher than 
those found when that form of washing is employed, and this 
difference tends to bring the results still nearer to those found 
by the gravimetric method. Until, however, the precise 
effect of these two modes of washing has been more fully 
studied, the practice of this laboratory will adhere to the 
potassium-nitrate washing, although good ground for omitting 
this step may be found in the near future. The present 
practice therefore is to carry out the majority of phosphorus 
determinations by the volumetric method described above, but 
in the case of abnormal results, and occasionally in normal 
cases, checking the results by gravimetric determinations. 

StUphur, — ^Here also a volumetric (evolution) and a gravi- 
metric method are used side by side in much the same way as 
indicated above for phosphorus. 

The apparatus used for the evolution method is shown in 
Fig. 5, where four sets of this apparatus are shown in simul- 
taneous use. It is found that one operator can work with 
four such sets without delay or inconvenience. The steel 
drillings are dissolved in the evolution flask of this apparatus 
in hydrochloric acid of I'lO specific gravity, the operation 
being aided by heat, although boiling the acid is avoided. 
The evolution flask and entire apparatus are filled, prior to 
the commencement of the operation, with an atmosphere of 
carbon dioxide, obtained by passing a stream of this gas, 
derived from a cylinder of liquid carbonic acid, through the 
entire apparatus. The evolved gases, aided towards the end 
of the operation by a further stream of carbonic acid, are 
bubbled through an absorption flask containing a solution 
of cadmium acetate strongly acidified with acetic acid 
(25 grammes pure cadmium acetate and 10 per cent. 



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THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY. 



103 



glacial acetic acid per litre); after passing this flask the 
gases pass through a narrow-bore tube of vitreous silica 
heated to redness by a Bunsen burner with a flat flame, the 
gases passing Anally through a second cadmium acetate 
absorption flask and then away to the fume-chamber. When 
the steel has completely dissolved, the contents of the two 
absorption flasks are mixed and the yellow sulphide of 
cadmium is filtered ofl^; this is a rapid operation since the 
flask need not be washed carefully — the operation is merely 
intended to separate the sulphide from the bulk of the 
absorption liquid. As soon as this has been done the 
precipitate is washed from the filter back into the original 
flask and there dissolved in 10 cubic centimetres of standard 
iodine solution, the action being aided by the introduction of 
a small quantity of hydrochloric acid. The excess of iodine 
is then titrated by means of sodium thio-sulphate and starch. 
It is to be observed that while this titration can be carried out 
in the liquid of the absorption flasks without filtration it has 
been found that this leads to occasional discrepancies in the 
results. Apparently, particularly in the case of high-carbon 
steel, the evolved gases carry into the absorption flask 
something which is capable of absorbing iodine, but which 
is not sulphur; this disturbing substance can be eliminated 
by the filtration described above. 







Percentage of Sulphur found by 


Steel. 


Lab. No. 




- - - — 






Evolution. 


Gravimetric. 


Tvre .... 


8U6 


0-042 


0-044 


Tyre . . 






dS6 


0046 


0049 


Tyre . . 






d52 


•^ 0045 


0049 


Shaft » 






■ 


0041 


0043 


Tyre . 






9& 


0014 


0013 


Plate . 






980 


0-048 


0XM5 


Joist 






1018 


0054 


0-052 


Joist 






1054 


0-062 


0-063 



The above table, which again contains typical examples 
from a wide range of steel, shows the closeness of the agree- 
ment observed between the results of this evolution method 



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104 THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL LABORATORIES IN 

and a well-known oxidation method which has been adopted 
for check and comparison purposes, viz. that described by 
Archbutt.* 

It will be seen that the differences are very small and quite 
comparable with the order of variations foimd in either 
method alone. The evolution niethod just described is there- 
fore used by the laboratory for all ordinary steel analyses (not 
cast or pig irons), abnormal results being always checked by 
the gravimetric method referred to above, while occasional 
check determinations are also made on samples giving normal 
results. 

It is not proposed to describe in detail the apparatus and 
methods used for the determination of the remaining con- 
stituents of steel, since these are well known and do not differ 
materially from methods fully described in various papers and 
text-books. Thus arsenic is determined by a well-known 
evolution method in an apparatus shown — again in a set of 
four for simultaneous use — in Fig. 6. For manganese a 
colorimetric method depending on the conversion of man- 
ganese into permanganate is employed, the well-known " bis- 
muthate" method being used as a check, while silicon is 
converted into silica and weighed in the usual manner. 

The second large room (C) of the new metallurgy building 
(shown in Fig. 2) is devoted essentially to research work, such 
chemical research work being, as a rule, directly connected 
with or forming part of other research work in the laboratory. 
Thus all the analytical work on alloys and raw materials re- 
quired in connection with the metallurgical research work is 
carried on here. For this purpose frequent use is made of 
electrolytic methods of analysis, and a special apparatus has 
been installed for the electrolytic deposition of metals. This 
apparatus is shown in Fig. 7. The system of electrodes 
described by Sands t has been adopted and a special arrange- 
ment for obtaining the necessary rapid rotation of the anode 
has been set up, together with facilities for the accurate 
measurement of current and potential. The installation of 
a capillary electrometer is also arranged for, and it will then 

* Journal of the Society of Chemical Industries ^ January 31, 1890. 
t Transactions of the Chemical Society , 1907, vol. xcr. 



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THE NATIONAL PHYSICAL I^BORATORY. 105 

be possible to use this apparatus for the electrolytic separa- 
tion of metals by the method of graded potential. 

In other respects the equipment of this room — i,e, as regards 
fume-cupboards, furnace-bench, drying-ovens, &c. — is very 
similar to that of room B, although not so large. In both 
rooms both, steam and electrically heated drying-ovens are 
installed. The former operate with steam at a pressure of 
10 lbs. per square inch, while the latter work with a voltage 
of 100 and a current varying from \ to 1\ ampfere. With the 
latter current consumption the ovens attain a temperature of 
ftbout 250° C. This remarkable degree of economy is attained 
by the use of thick layers of heat-insulating materials, the 
heated space of these ovens being 6 inches cube, while the 
external size of the ovens is 1 foot 6 inches cube. The 
electric heating coils are, however, attached to a copper box 
which constitutes the inner chamber of the oven, and this can 
be entirely withdrawn for examination or repair without inter- 
fering with the insulating case. These ovens were made by 
Messrs. Brown to designs worked out at this laboratory. A 
group of these ovens in room B is shown in the photograph, 
Fig. 8. 

The remaining rooms of the building are devoted to various 
subsidiary purposes. Room D is the office of the superintendent 
of the department, while E is arranged as his private laboratory. 
Room F is the balance-room in which four analytical balances 
are at present installed. Room G is the office of the assistant 
in charge of steel analysis, but is also furnished with a bench 
and fume-cupboard (with a flue and natural draught) for use 
as a chemical laboratory for special work. Steel samples are 
also received in this room. Room H is provided with a 
smooth cement floor and contains a set of Sodeau gas-analysis 
apparatus. This room is also used for glass-blowing. Room I 
is a store for apparatus and chemicals in frequent use, a 
larger storage space being provided in a loft over the rooms 
D to H. Room A contains a Fletcher-Russell gas-fired boiler 
capable of working the steam ovens and steam evaporating 
baths in rooms B and C if at any time the steam supply from 
the laboratory power-station should be shut off. This room 
also contains one of Messrs. Browns patent stills, which is 



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106 THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL LABORATORIES. 

capable of yielding well over 5 gallons of distilled water per 
hour. The photograph, Fig. 9, shows the arrangement of 
steam appliances in this room. The small room, lying 
between A and B, has been converted into a fume-chamber, 
and to this chamber all work with sulphuretted hydrogen is 
entirely confined. As a result of this precaution, and of the 




Fig. 9. 

ventilating arrangements already described, the atmosphere 
of this laboratory is remarkably pure, even when large quanti- 
ties of metal are undergoing analysis. 

In conclusion the author wishes to express his thanks to 
the members of his staff who have assisted in the arrangement 
and development of much of the apparatus described, as well 
as in carrying out the comparison analyses referred to above, 
the gentlemen principally concerned being Messrs. Murdock, 
Gemmell, Archbutt, Lantsberry, and Withey. 



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DISCUSSION ^MR. ROSENHAIN, 107 



DISCUSSION. 

Mr. RoSENHAiN said that the paper that stood in his name had 
been in the hands of those interested, and there was no occasion for 
him to draw attention to it in any great detail. He would only refer 
to one or two points in it. The first was the quenching apparatus 
which was described in the paper. That apparatus had now been in 
use for some time since the paper was written, and it had been 
slightly modified and improved. He hoped it would be possible 
ultimately to measure the rate of cooling, but so far that had quite 
eluded his efforts. The rate of cooling appeared to be very rapid 
indeed. The actual results were not yet in a sufficiently forward 
state for publication, but they promised to be interesting. With 
regard to the chemical analyses which were outlined in the paper, he 
would merely draw attention to the tables on p. 101, which were 
merely a few examples taken through a great number of check 
analyses, illustrating the accuracy obtainable with those methods, 
and although those methods were found to be accurate in results 
they were constantly being checked by the gravimetric methods. 
Beyond that, he would only say that they should be very pleased to 
see any member of the Institute at the National Physical Laboratory 
that afternoon, if they cared to see those processes at work them- 
selves. 

The PuESiDENT said that Mr. Rosenhain's paper was hardly one 
which would lend itself to discussion, but they would very greatly 
value any written communications and comments upon the paper 
itself, and he was sure the Laboratory would be glad to receive obser- 
vations from the members of the Institute on subjects which pai'ticu- 
larly belonged to their speciality. He would point out that the paper 
was one which they were entitled to expect from the Laboratory or 
somebody representing it. The Institute had largely contributed to 
the funds raised by the National Physical Laboratory, and it was only 
right and proper that some member of the staff should be deputed to 
pat on record what work had been done. That was the rcUson (Tetre 
of the paper, and he thought they would readily accord to Mr. Rosen- 
hain their thanks for having in that admirable way recorded what 
waa being done. He hoped this was not the last they would hear 
of the matter, because, unless he was greatly mistaken in the spirit 
in which the Laboratory was conducted, there was but one thing that 
the stafE would prefer more than to be found fault with, and that 
was to be told that it was impossible to find fault with them. 



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108 THE METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL LABORATORIES. 



CORRESPONDENCE, 

Mr. Walter Macfarlane (Wednesbury) wrote that the excellent 
paper by Mr. Rosenhain would prove most interesting and useful to 
metallurgical chemists, especially in directing towards the most reliable 
methods and modifications. A very important branch appeared, 
however, to be ignored, viz., analyses of fuels. An account of such 
analyses, including gas analyses, would be acceptable. In connection 
with the gravimetnc molybdate method for the estimation of phos- 
phorus, the work of Messrs. Stead and Cook ought not, he thought, to 
be overlooked. 



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THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION, 109 



THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN 

SECTION, ROYAL GUN AND CARRIAGE 

FACTORIES, WOOLWICH. 

By J. WESLEY LAMBERT, F.C.S., 
Chief Metallurgist, Royal Gun Factory, Woolwich. 

The recognition of the excellence of the pyrometric installa- 
tion in the gun section of the Royal Gun and Carriage Fac- 
tories, Woolwich, by those firms manufacturing ordnance, and 
also by the larger steel-making firms throughout the kingdom 
interested in the thermal treatment of ordnance material, as 
expressed upon the numerous visits of their representatives, 
has prompted the author to give a brief description of the 
leading points of the system employed in the department. 

Although of the numerous forms of pyrometers now upon 
the market each may be admirably adapted for temperature 
measurements under the particular conditions best suited to 
the instrument itself, it cannot yet be claimed for any one 
pyrometer that it is a practicable and reliable heat-measuring 
instrument under all the varying conditions met with in the 
arts and industries. 

The introduction of the system about to be described, 
though admittedly only including a single type of pyrometer, 
has for its sole objective the control of the thermal treatment of 
the steel to be subsequently used in the construction of ord- 
nance. Such thermal treatment for the purposes of this de- 
scription is held to comprise the heating of the steel for forging 
operations under the steam hammer or hydraulic press, to- 
gether with the subsequent annealing, oil-hardening, tempering 
and shrinkage operations. 

The temperature control of the whole of these operations in 
the treatment of ordnance steel is admittedly one of great 
importance, and too much care and consideration cannot be 
bestowed upon the selection and installation of a properly 
devised pyrometric system of control. 



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110 THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION, 

Some attempt to control temperatures pyrometrically 
appears to have been considered in the department nearly 
fifty years ago. In the year 1862, Bystrom's patented pyro- 
meter, exhibited and awarded a gold medal at the great 




Fig. 1. 



exhibition, was the instrument chosen for the experiments. 
This pyrometer is still in existence and in an excellent state 
of preservation. It is a prototype of the well-known Siemens 
Avater pyrometer. It consists of a small hexagonal vessel of 
zinc, 4 inches across the flats, neatly lagged with mahogany. 
Upon the top provision is made for the insertion of a thermo- 



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ROYAL GUN AND CARRIAGE FACTORIES, WOOLWICH. Ill 

meter by a bayonet joint. A circular brass cap protects a 
funnel, the prolongation of which ends in the interior of the 
vessel in the shape of a wire cage so placed that it approxi- 
mates the centre of the chamber. Water is introduced, and 
a small metallic ball or cylinder was the medium heated ; the 
modtts operandi being in all respects similar to that in the 
various well-known forms of water calorimeters. 

The first mention in the records of the testing laboratory of 
the systematic use of a pyrometer for the purpose of control- 
ling the thermal treatment of ordnance steel appears in the 
records for the month of November 1882. The entry reads : 
•* Tempered by pyrometer at 1517® F./* by which is to be 
understood the operation of oil quenching. Closely following 
this record is an entry: "Tempered at 1450° F./' a tempera- 
ture used for specimen treatment as a guide to mass treatment 
in the case of heavy forgings to this very day, and one quite 
familiar, to all ordnance contractors to the War Department. 

The pyrometer in those comparatively early days of system- 
atic pyrometry was the older form of Siemens electrical 
resistance pyrometer with galvanometer and resistance box, 
several of which were in use for many years. A battery of 
these last-named pjrrometers with their modifications as intro- 
duced from time to time, including the later pattern direct- 
reading instruments, the Siemens water pyrometer with heavy 
platinum cylinder, Murrie's patent pyrometer, Bailey's patent 
pyrometer (the expansion of a metallic rod), together with 
several patterns of optical pyrometers, constituted the types 
of instruments in use throughout the factory previous to the 
present uniform installation of the thermo-electric couple. 

To Colonel Holden, F.R.S., R.A., the present superintendent 
of the Royal Gun and Carriage Factories, must be accorded 
the credit of introducing to the department the instrument 
now in use. 

The thin edge of the wedge, Avhich in course of time has 
dislodged all the other forms of pyrometers in the department 
in favour of the thermo-couple, was the introduction in 1900 
of the simple instrument of the indicating pattern (Fig. 2), 
suppUed by Messrs. James Pitkin & Co., of Clerkenwell, 
London, E.C. 



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112 THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION. 

The rapidity with which the temperature was '* picked up " 
and any fluctuations in the heat bath indicated, at once 
established its utility and installed it in the favour of those 
oflScials in the department interested in high- temperature 
measurement. 

The complete pyrometer consists of — 

(a) The thermo-junction ; 

(h) An indicating galvanometer. 

The thermo-junction simply consists of a more or less 
lengthy pair of wires of dissimilar metals, one end of each 
wire being twisted together, thus forming a junction which, 




Fig. 2. 

to all intents and purposes, is regarded as a battery, since such 
a junction when heated is the seat of an electro-motive force 
which is a function of the temperature. 

The wires forming the hot-junction must necessarily with- 
stand fairly high temperatures, seeing that the couple has to 
be introduced into furnaces, the heat of which sometimes 
exceeds 2000° F. A suitable couple consists of a pure platinum 
wire together with a wire of 10 per cent, iridio-platinum alloy, 
and thermo-couples of these two metals are used exclusively 
throughout the present installation. The free ends of the 
two wires are available for the copper leads joining up to the 
indicating galvanometer. 

The wires of the couple for furnace work are preferably 
threaded through double-drilled fireclay tubes which serve to 



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ROYAL GUN AND CARRIAGE FACTORIES, WOOLWICH. 113 

keep them apart throughout their length, and the whole 
inserted in a covering sheath of gas or steam barrel, the 
junction end of which is closed by a thin iron disc welded 
securely into the end. To the open end of the sheathing is 
fixed a head which serves to carry two terminals, on the under 
side of which the ends of the wires forming the couple are 
connected, thus ensuring a clean contact. The copper leads 
to the galvanometer being attached to the exposed portion oi 
the terminals, care is necessary to secure a clean contact 
whenever connection is made. A further, detailed description, 
together with a sketch of a couple as in use in the present 
time, is given on page 127. 

The galvanometer is of the reflecting type and of simple 
construction. It is a modification, devised by Colonel Holden 
over twenty years ago, of the D'Arsonval galvanometer, and 
consists of a built-up, laminated horse-shoe magnet, between 
the poles of which an adjustable frame holds a circular iron 
core round which a light silver " former " wound with a coil 
of wire partially revolves. This coil is held suspended between 
the top and bottom of the frame by a fine metallic strip of 
flattened phosphor-bronze wire. Fixed to the upper portion 
of the moving coil is a small, circular, silvered mirror, which 
serves to indicate any movement of the coil, in all respects 
similar to the well-known principle of reflecting galvanometers. 

This form of galvanometer is particularly adapted for this 
class of work, and is practically dead-beat. Its internal resist- 
ance is about 80 ohms. The instrument is enclosed by a 
cylindrical brass cover having a small glazed aperture in the 
front, thus exposing the mirror. Fig. 3 shows the details of 
this galvanometer. 

The great advantage gained by the use of the reflecting 
type of galvanometer for pyrometric work lies in the fact 
that it is possible to employ a much more extended reading 
scale than is practicable with other forms of instruments 
owing to the fact that it is much more sensitive. The electro- 
motive force, it must be remembered, cannot be increased. 
Moreover, the scale being an arbitrary one, and also mov- 
able, any readjustment of the zero of the galvanometer is 
easily accomplished. 

1908.— i. H 



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114 THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION, 

The galvanometer together with a suitable illuminating 
lamp and transparent centimetre scale are erected upon a 
rigid though light frame of cast iron. 

Upon connecting up the couple to the galvanometer 
through the copper leads, any application of heat to the 
junction produces an electro-motive force, which, in its turn, 
causes the suspended coil to partially revolve; the mirror 
at the same time fulfils its function, and the beam of light 
upon the mirror is thereby reflected to a corresponding 
position on the scale. 

This, then, was the first contribution to the present-day 




Fig. 3. 



installation, and was reserved for ascertaining the temperature 
of the lead bath for heating test-specimens. 

A second instrument was ordered for use at the big furnaces 
of the oil-hardening and annealing section. Here, on account 
of the close proximity of the heavy hammers and other pon- 
derous machinery, some diflSculty was experienced on the 
scale of vibration, even though the instrument was placed on 
a solid pedestal of concrete, the footings of which were several 
feet below the ground level. 

Closely following this second instrument, a further addition 
was introduced, an instrument of the recording pattern, also 
made by the same firm (Messrs. James Pitkin & Co.), to the 
specification of the instrument used by the late Sir W. Roberts* 



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ROYAL GUN AND CARRIAGE FACTORIES, WOOL^VICH. 115 

Austen, and designed for his work at the Mint by Colonel 
Holden. This instrument, necessitating some slight know- 
ledge of photography — the record being a photographic one — 
was handed over to the metallurgical laboratory. 

With this instrument also some slight trouble was experi- 
enced through vibration; but this, after a few experiments, 
was successfully overcome by suspending the galvanometer 




Fig. 4, 



from a tripod in such a manner that the vibration was ab- 
sorbed by three small spiral springs so arranged as to be in 
partial compression (see Fig. 4). 

This method of suspension has proved an admirable one, 
and has been adopted throughout the system. 

Several interesting thermo-metallurgical observations having 
been made concurrently Avith the calibration experiments upon 
this instrument, it was finally decided that it should be per- 
manently retained in the metallurgical laboratory as a standard 



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116 THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION, 

instrument available for comparison and for such experimental 
work as might arise, and that the oil-hardening section should 
be wired up to the laboratory in order that photographic re- 
cords of thermal treatment in the mass might be obtained for 
permanent record as occasion might demand. 

These three instruments formed the nucleus of what is 
now regarded by experts as one of the most complete pyro- 
metric installations in the kingdom. 

Fig. 5 conveys an idea of the external appearance of the 
recording pyrometer, and it may be well described as con- 
sisting of two light-tight mahogany cases, the larger of which 




Fig. 5. 



(A) contains a Holden-d'Arsonval dead-beat galvanometer 
similar to that used with the indicating instrument, Avith a 
suitable arrangement of lenses, mirrors, &c. 

The other case (B) contains a drum which is made to 
revolve by contained clockwork. The surface of this drum 
is covered with sensitised photographic paper. A ray of light, 
from either a gas jet or a lamp, is thrown by means of a 
mirror, at an angle of 45°, on to the mirror of the galvano- 
meter, and is projected thence to the surface of the drum, 
and acts photographically on the sensitised paper. The 
galvanometer is then connected by copper leads to a therino- 
j unction inserted in the place, the temperature of which it is 
wished to record. 



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KOTAL GUN AND CARRIAGE FACTORIES, WOOLWICH. 117 

The heating of the thermo-junction causes a very small 
current to pass through the coil of the galvanometer which is 
deflected, and the mirror attached to it projects a spot of 
light on the surface of the drum. 

The amplitude of this deflection indicates the temperature 
and a continuous curve is traced on the photographic paper, 
which at once indicates what temperature had been attained 
at any particular period. A scale is also provided on which 




Fig. 6. 

the temperatures can be read from time to time without 
interfering in any way with the record. 

Two recording instruments of this type are iii constant 
use day and night, and constitute the laboratory end of the 
system. These two recorders are also regarded as the standard 
instruments of the department. They are mounted on simple 
iron pedestals, the galvanometers being suspended inside the 
cameras from their respective tripods. 

Fig. 6 is reproduced from a photograph of the instrument 
room attached to the metallurgical laboratory, and shows the 



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118 THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION, 

recording pyrometers forming the laboratory portion of the 
system. 

The following branches are now wired up to and are under 
pyrometric control from the metallurgical laboratory — the 
heavy forges, the oil-hardening and tempering branches, the 
case-hardening shop, the drop-forging plant, the lead bath 
(specimen treatment plant), and the gas muffles throughout 
the department used by the tool-smiths and other craftsmen 
(Fig. 9). 

The table on next page gives the description and number 
of the furnaces of each class at present included in the entire 
system. 

The various sections of the gun department are also in 
direct telephonic communication with the metallurgical 
laboratory through a small local exchange board. 

Each of the larger sections previously named has an in- 
dependent instrument room fitted with a simple indicating 
instrument as figured on p. 112. 

Fig. 1 is from a photograph of such an office in the forges. 
These cabins also serve as a storage place for the couples. An 
attendant is always present whose duties may be summarised 
as under : — 

1. To connect up the respective furnaces, take observations, 
and communicate temperatures from time to time to the 
furnace-men or other responsible persons, and also to record 
all such temperatures in a book supplied for the purpose. 

2. To test repeatedly the zero of the instrument in his 
charge and confirm the readings by telephonic reference at 
frequent intervals to the standard instruments in the metal- 
lurgical laboratory. 

3. To report periodically the condition of the couples under 
his charge, and to keep clean all terminals, connections, &c. 

4. To annotate and file the photographic records received 
from the metallurgical department in order that the record of 
the thermal treatment of any forging, &c., is at all times 
available for reference. 

The temperature of boiling water is taken as a common 
zero for the temperature scale of the whole of the instruments 
comprising the installation. 



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ROYAL GUN AND CARRIAQE FACTORIES, WOOLWICH. 119 

The testing of the zero of the galvanometer is done almost 
mstanter, the same method being adopted throughout the 



Section. 


Description of 
Furnace. 

Large Furnaces for Gun 
Forgings, &c. 
Circular tube furnaces. 


Number of 
Furnaces. 


Type of 
Furnace. 


Firing. 






Oil-hardening 
and anneal- 


4 


Open furnace. 


Producer gas. 


ing. 


Circular jacket furnace. 
Circular annealing 

furnace. 
Rectangular annealing 

furnace. 
Rectangular heating 

furnaces. 
Rectangular heating 

furnaces. 


2 
5 

1 

3 

3 


Muffle. 
Semi-muffle. 


M 

Coal firing. 




Small Furnaces for Gun 
Fittings, Sfc. 
American rectangular 

furnaces. 
American rectangular 

furnaces. 
Cyanide hardening 

bath. 
Oil heating baths. 


3 

1 
1 
2 


Muffle. 

Exernally 
heated. 


Illuminating 
gas. 


,, 


For Shrinking Heats. 
Cosies. 


4 




Producer gas. 


Heavy forges. 


Large reheating fur- 
naces. 

Smaller reheating 
furnaces. 

Larger heating fur- 
naces. 


7 
3 
3 


Reverberatory. 

M 


Coal firing. 

11 

Producer gas. 


I>rop-forging 
plant. 


Reheating furnaces. 


7 


Open furnace. 


Coke fired. 


Fletcher furnaces. 


2 


Muffle. 


Illuminating 










gas. 


Specimen treat- 
ment plant. 


Lead baths. 

American rectangular 

furnaces. 
Fletcher fuinaccs. 


2 
2 
2 


Externally 

heated. 

Semi-muffle. 

Muffle. 


t* 


. Tool-smiths. 

1 


American rectangular 

furnaces. 
Fletcher furnace. 


2 

1 


Semi-muffle. 
Muffle. 


• I 



system. A vessel of boiling water, maintained in a state 
of ebullition by means of a small gas jet placed underneath, 



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120 THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION, 

into which vessel a naked thermo-junction is placed, serves as 
a simple and ready means of securing a constant reference of 
known temperature. The glass scale upon which the reading 
beam is thrown being adjustable to the left or right, a slight 
movement either way, as may be necessitated, serves to 
re-establish the zero. 

A galvanometer, once installed, may remain for a consider- 
able period without any sensible alteration of the zero. This 
happy condition results from the effects of vibration being so 
minimised by the method adopted for the suspension of the 
galvanometer as a whole, and also in great measure from the 
fact that the moving coil of the instrument is suspended on a 
flat wire, as already described, whereby the tendency to zero 
creep is greatly reduced. Nevertheless, the men are trained 
to make frequent observations throughout the day, especially 
when nearing the finishing temperature at which the forging 
is being treated. 

The leads from the pyrometer cabins to the metallurgical 
laboratory are of Siemens Brothers " T. 5 " flexible twin cable 
carried overhead and supported in similar manner to that 
ordinarily adopted in telephone wiring. 

The instrument room in the metallurgical laboratory is so 
constructed as to be in itself a dark room in which cameras 
may be opened, the sensitised bromide paper changed, de- 
veloped, and fixed. Two recording instruments, a plug board, 
a telephone, a vessel of boiling water, a bare couple, one or two 
dishes, and the necessary chemicals for the development and 
fixing the record constitute the equipment of the office. 

The standard instruments are calibrated by the arrest 
representing the boiling point of water as zero and the 
freezing points of the following substances: — 



Substance. 


1 

i Degrees 


Degrees 


Tin 


1 
. 1 232 


450 


Lead 


. ' 327 


621 


Zinc 


419 • 


786 


Aluminium .... 


667 


1215 


Sodium sulphate 


860 


1580 


Copper 


1084 


1983 1 



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ROYAL GUN AND CARRIAGE FACTORIES, WOOLWICH. l2l 

The metals are ordered from the trade as " especially pure 
for pyrometer calibration," the purity of each parcel being 
ascertained before use by chemical analysis. 

A small crucible charged with about 8 ounces of a metal is 
placed in a Fletcher injector furnace until the contents are 
molten, a thermo-couple protected by a small porcelain tube 
sealed at one end is then placed in the molten metal and the 
gas and blast turned off. Observations are taken of the cool- 
ing of the metal, the temperature of solidification being 
indicated by the arrest in the downward movement of the 
beam of light upon the glass scale. From the points thus 
obtained, an interpolation curve is constructed upon squared 
paper of ample dimensions. Recalibration, though rarely 
necessary, is effected in the same manner. 

In the construction of the recording instrument the glass 
observation scale is fixed, so far as lateral movement is con- 
cerned, as is also the drum ; and the relative position of the 
movable box containing the drum to the body of the camera 
is also assured by taper pins in the base board of the instru- 
ment fitting in the under portion of the base of the movable 
box. As, therefore, no adjustment of the observation scale or 
drum is possible in this pattern of instrument, the adjustment 
of the zero of the instrument is provided for by means of 
a tangent screw actuating a pivoted plate upon which is 
mounted the tripod from which the galvanometer is hung. 
The slightest turn of the screw at any time serves to re- 
establish the zero of the instrument, the thermo-j unction 
actuating the galvanometer being immersed in boiling water 
as previously described. 

The sensitised bromide sheet after a twenty-four hours' run 
on the drum is removed, carefully excluding actinic light, 
placed in a printing-out frame containing a sheet of plate 
glass, the inner side of which is painted black and upon 
which surface longitudinal and vertical lines are scratched, in 
such manner that upon exposing the frame to active light lines 
representing both periods of time and temperature are printed. 
Common flashed ruby-red glass may be substituted for the 
painted glass, the lines being etched upon the ruby surface 
by exposure to the action of hydrofluoric acid. The exposed 



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122 THE PYKOMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THB GUN SECTION, 

paper is then developed, fixed, washed, and dried, dated and 
forwarded to the responsible foreman of the particular section 
for whom the record is intended. Each sheet represents a 
day's record in the form of curves of the temperatures of the 
various forgings treated in the furnaces of the section during 
the preceding twenty-four hours. 

A simple plug board of a double pole pattern is employed, 
to the back of which the respective leads from each furnace 
are conducted. These leads are of standard wire, gauge No. 1 8, 
of high-conductivity tinned-copper wire, insulated with pure 
and vulcanised india-rubber, taped and braided. Each pair 
of leads is enclosed in common gas or steam barrel, which 
is maintained throughout the whole circuit from the furnaces 
to the pyrometric cabin of each branch, thus insuring freedom 
from injury by the corrosive action of any escaping furnace 
gas or damage by abrasion from ladders, scaffolding, &c., 
during furnace repairs. The short flexible portion of the 
leads at each furnace, by which connection is made to the 
pyrometers in the furnaces, is protected by an asbestos cover- 
ing, thus preventing any liability of faulty insulation by the 
scorching of the ordinary coverings. Two plugs suspended 
on short flexible leads serve to connect either (a) the pyro- 
meter cabin, or (b) to transmit the thermo-electric current 
to the recording instrument in the metallurgical laboratory — 
according to whichever of the two plugs is inserted in the 
plug holes of the particular leads of the furnace under 
observation. 

B (Fig. 6, p. 117) shows a plug board of this description in 
the instrument room of the metallurgical laboratory. 

The metallurgical laboratory being situated at some dis- 
tance from the sections previously named, the resistance of 
the conducting leads is carefully measured, and in calibrating 
the respective instruments due allowance is made for this. 
Moreover, with each galvanometer a considerable predeter- 
mined series resistance is used, approximating some 500 to 600 
ohms, and with such a resistance the slight differences in the 
lengths of the leads from one furnace to another is not suffi- 
cient to impair the accuracy of the readings. 

The method of insuring that, as far as possible, the actual 



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ROYAL GUN AND CARRIAGE FACTORIES, WOOLWICH. 123 

temperature of the article heated is ascertained as distinct 
from the temperature of the furnace itself, is by sheathing 
the pyrometer tube in a circular muffle of non-conducting 
material in such a manner that the extreme end of the pyro- 
meter, which is in close proximity to the couple itself, shall be 
in actual contact with the articles. The muffle ensures the 
absence of any false reading due to the temperature of the 
gaseous atmosphere of the furnace being conducted down to 
the thermo-couple. 

The protecting muffles at present in use are of two dis- 
tinct patterns. For use at the forge re-heating furnaces, the 
temperature of which approximates 1100° C. (2000° F.), 
these muffles are built up of hollow refractory fireclay 
cylinders or sleeves, similar to those used to protect the swan- 
neck stopper bar of the ordinary steel casting ladle. These 
cylinders are luted together and the whole heavily coated 
with refractory composition, which is then dried and baked. 
At the furnaces of the oil- hardening section, there being no 
occasion for long-sustained high temperatures, the protecting 
muffle is constructed from mild steel tubing varying accord- 
ing to the size of the furnace from 3 to 6 inch bore, and 
having centering discs placed at regular intervals along the 
interior to admit of the insertion of an inner tube concentric 
with the outer one, and of sufficiently large bore to freely 
admit the insertion of the pyrometer. The annular space 
between the inner and outer tubes is tightly packed with well- 
dried asbestos fibre. These muffles vary in length from 3 to 
8 feet, as demanded by the nature of the work and the size of 
the furnace. 

As many as five and six thermo-couples a;e sometimes 
inserted in the long vertical furnaces of the oil-hardening 
section employed in heating the larger forgings forming the 
inner tubes of the heavier guns. These gun tubes in the 
larger nature of ordnance sometimes exceed 60 feet in 
length. The furnaces are gas heated, and by means of air 
ports combustion may be regulated with great uniformity, 
especiaUy when controlled by a number of thermo-junctions 
placed at regular ascending intervals in the walls of the 
furnace. 



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124 THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION, 

In this type of vertical furnace the muffles protecting the 
pyrometer are inserted horizontally through the walls of the 
furnace, and are of such a length as to extend from the walls 
to the side of the forging being heated. The muffle is sup- 
ported at the furnace end in a hollow boss or sleeve clamped 
on to the forging (Fig. 7) in which the muffle tube fits by a 
rough bayonet joint, the furnace wall forming the support for 
the muffte at the exposed end. The pyrometer is then 



Attach»^cwt to Muxxuc Zt*o or tZ'* Ou*t TuQe . 



_ Ho\\ot* Bog ft o*- SW<^ 



Cos Borre\ *>^^Bo»'e 





Fig. 7. 



inserted in the muffle, care being taken that the extreme end 
is brought into contact with the forging. 

The top stages of the furnaces of the larger description are 
provided with a simple telephone in communication with the 
local pyrometer cabin, thus affording no excuse for the furnace- 
man leaving the stage when nearing the end of the finishing 
temperature. 

Fig. 8 is a reproduction from a photograph of a typical 
furnace of the above type. 

At the forge re-heating furnaces, each of which is fitted 
with independent leads, the sheathing muffle is introduced 
through a hole in the crown of the furnace roof, being 
held up and lowered by means of a small winch connected 
with a wire rope passing over a simple pulley. Such a 



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ROYAL GUN AND CARRIAGE FACTORIES, WOOLWICH. 125 




Fig. 8. 




Fig. 9. 



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126 THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION, 

muffle is shown suspended over a forge re-heating furnace 
mFig. 11. 

The billet or forging having been placed in the furnace, 
the muffle is lowered through the roof, the pjrrometer in- 
serted in the muffle, the head of the instrument being well 
above the crown of the roof and protected from radiated heat 
by a thick sheet of asbestos millboard. 

As far as possible the cold-junction of each couple with 
the pyrometer leads is maintained at an equable temperature 
as nearly as possible approximating the normal atmospheric 




Fig. 10. 



Fig. U. 



temperature ; (a) by having sufficiently long pyrometers, the 
wires of the couple being threaded right through from the 
hot-junction to the head of the instrument, the latter being 
protected by asbestos screens wherever found necessary; 
(6) the further precaution is taken of calibrating the whole 
system with an allowance for the average cold -junction 
temperature of the various p)nrometers in use throughout 
the system as ascertained by thermometric observations. 

The details of the actual construction of the pyrometers in 
use are as follows : — 

The ends of the couples are twisted together for a length 
of -^^fj of an inch ; the twisted junction is then " autogene " 
soldered by holding the ends in the oxyhydrogen flame until 



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ROYAL GUN AND CARRIAGE FACTORIES, WOOLWICH. 127 

they become fused to a small globule (1, Fig. 12). This method 
of securing the ends has proved very eflScient, as merely 
twisting the ends results, after repeated heatings of the same 
couple, in loose contacts, and leads to false readings from 
time to time according as the contact happens to be good 
or indifferent. 

The unsecured ends of the wires of the couple are then 
threaded through the double-drilled porcelain tube of highly 




Fig. 12. 

refractory clay (3, Fig. 12), care being taken that the wires 
at each junction of the short lengths of the insulating tubes 
are not twisted and thereby forming a false contact. This 
refractory covering, together with the couple wires, are main- 
tained throughout the whole length of a pyrometer, even 
should this approximate 15 or 16 feet in length, as is 
actually the case in the longer forms. The wires in the head 
are wound into two spirals, which are insulated from each 
other by short lengths of rubber tubing. This affords a few 
inches of spare wire, use of which is made from time to 
time as necessitated by the re-making of a new junction, &c. 
(4, Fig. 12). 



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128 THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION, 

The double-drilled fireclay tube, immediately at the junc- 
tion end of the couple, is sawn through longitudinally for a 
short distance, just sufiicient to little more than cover the 
end of the junction (2, Fig. 12), and thereby preventing 
liability of any contact between the couple and the welded 
end of the iron sheath. The head is of cast metal, bored 
and tapped to fit the iron sheathing. The cover of the head 
carries the two terminals to which the wires of the couple are 
connected to the galvanometer leads. It is made of ebonite, 
and simply fastened by three screws, as shown in 4, Fig. 1 2. 
Tbe iron sheathing is ordinary |-inch gas barrel. For use 
at the lead bath the sheathing is a solid-ended tube bored 
from mild steel rod, and of such length as to be well above 
the surface of the molten lead, and joined on to a length 
of gas barrel sufliciently long to ensure the head being well 
removed from the source of heat. Welded tubes have not 
proved satisfactory in use at these baths on account of the 
lead finding its way through after being in use but a short 
time (5, Fig. 12). The life of the iron sheathing for ordi- 
nary furnace work is considerably prolonged by the use of 
the mufiies already mentioned, which, of course, must obvi- 
ously protect the pyrometer from the more or less oxidising 
atmosphere in the furnace. 

It is advisable to remove as much scale as possible from the 
bore of the gas or steam barrel before welding up the end, as 
any excessive scale on the inside tends at high temperatures 
to frit with the porcelain insulating tubes, and renders 
stripping of the couples for repair or examination a difficult 
task. 

The more secure the protection of the wires of the couple 
from the influence of the furnace gases, the more immune to 
changes in thermal value is the wire itself. Upon exposure at 
long-sustained high temperatures more or less crystallinity of 
the platinum and iridio-platinum wires takes place. Neither 
the thermo-electric value nor the conductivity is materially 
affected by slight changes of this nature. 

Excessive crystallinity, however, renders the wire brittle, 
and necessitates careful handling and frequent inspection when 
this occurs. The pyrometer should be temporarily withdrawn 



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Plate VI 




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ROYAL GUN AND CABRUGE FACTORY, WOOLWICH. 129 

from use and the couple stripped. The malleability of the 
wire may be restored by momentarily glowing to incan- 
descence. This is best done by passing a heavy current of 
electricity through the wire. If this is not convenient, the 
brittle portion of the wire may be cut off and the wires pulled 
down from the head, for which purpose the spirally coiled 
length at the end of the wire is provided, or failing suflScient 
length to allow of shortening the wire the whole couple may 
be transferred end for end. 

The gauge of the platinum and the iridio-platinum wires 
employed throughout the installation in making up the couples 
is of a uniform size, viz. 25 standard wire gauge, and it was 
found of considerable advantage to secure a suflSciency of the 
wires in single coils for the whole installation, with a consider- 
able reserve for the upkeep of the same and for any additional 
extension of the system that might be necessitated in the 
near future. 

The advantage in securing a single coil of each of the wires 
is evident. It favours the chances of the metals being of the 
same composition throughout and of the same thermo-electric 
value, which is more than one can hope for in buying short 
lengths from time to time. Too much care, however, cannot 
be expended in satisfying oneself that each couple made up is 
practically of the same thermo-electric value, as otherwise the 
calibration of the instruments does not hold good for the whole 
of the pyrometers throughout the system. 

The variableness of the coil of wire may be tested on -its 
receipt by cutting off portions from each end of a coil, twisting 
the ends of the similar metals together, and connecting the 
free ends to the galvanometer. On applying heat to the 
junction no appreciable movement on the galvanometer scale 
should be observable, thus demonstrating the purity or uniform 
composition of the wire. 

There still remains a form of pyrometer which is in daily 
use for ascertaining shrinkage temperatures in the building 
up of ordnance, &c., and also for ascertaining the given tem- 
perature below which it is not deemed desirable to put further 
work upon a forging. This couple is similar in most respects to 
those previously described, but diflfers in one important feature. 

1908. — L I 



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130 THE PYBOMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION, 

The fire end of the couple terminates in a small exposed 
platinum plate made up of two small circular discs, ^ of 
an inch in diameter, of sheet platinum, between which the 
wires of the couple are lead, and the two discs secured by 
riveting each to the other. This small plate or disc standing 
proud of the end of the pyrometer is supported some distance 
from the end of the tube by a small spiral spring, thus 
ensuring a good contact when the couple is pressed to the 
face or side of the heated body. The platinum plate serves 
as a collecting disc, and being very light and small almost 
instantly acquires the temperature of the heated mass, and 
being itself the actual hot-junction proves a most efficient 
thermo-couple. The general construction of this form of 
pyrometer will readily be understood by reference to 6, 
Fig. 12. 

In conclusion, the author, not deeming such a paper com- 
plete without the addition of a typical daily record as furnished 
by the laboratory recording instrument, has solicited special 
permission, which was readily accorded, to include a specimen 
sheet. 

Plate VI. is a reproduction of such a record, and, as will 
be apparent upon close inspection, represents in some cases 
curves of the heating of gun forgings for the oil-quenching 
process, and in others the annealing of gun forgings. These 
records, as previously stated, are forwarded to the responsible 
foreman of the section to be critically examined and anno- 
tated and filed for easy reference. 



APPENDIX. 

In the thermal treatment of steel for ordnance much of 
the latter-day success has been attained by the systematic 
use of the pyrometer as a means of controlling the actual 
temperatures during any part of the process, and also from 
the knowledge obtained by a determination of the critical 
temperatures of any particular steel 



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BOYAL GUN AND CARRIAGE FACTORIES, WOOLWICH. 131 

The method adopted in the Royal Gun Factory for the 
determining of the range of these latter is that of plotting 
differential heating and cooling curves after the manner 
employed by Carpenter and Keeling at the National Physical 
Laboratory,* and only differing from the method described by 
these two investigators in that no potentiometer is used, the 
readings being taken direct from an open scale. 

Fig. 13 is from a photograph of the installation in the 





APPARATUS AS ARRANGED FOR 
"CRITICAL TEMPER ATURE"WOHK._ 

A. CALVAIMOMETtn INDICATING TCMPEBATURC. 

A'. „ FOR DtFFCBtNTIAL THERMO JUNCTION. 

B.O'. COLD 4UltCTIONS. 

C. VESSEL or aOtUNC WATER. 
O. ELECTRIC TUBE ruBNACE . 
E. AMIVIETEB \CONTflOLLING 
r. BCSI9TANCE f HAME J ILECTOlC FURNACE. 


w 


m 


^^^^^^^^^pM 



Fig. 13. 

metallurgical laboratory as arranged for critical temperature 
determinations. These critical range determinations, the 
examination both chemical and microscopical, together with 
the somewhat elaborate mechanical tests of the present day, 
and also the pyrometric control during mass treatment, tend, 
it must be admitted, to raise the thermal treatment of 
ordnance steel to a higher scientific level. 

♦ Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 1904, No. I. p. 224. 



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132 THE PYROMETBIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION. 



DISCUSSION. 

Sir Thomas Wrightson, Bart. (Thornaby-on-Tees), said he had 
had some experience with the pyrometer of Sir William Roberts- 
Austen, as they had made experiments together at the Mint with 
that instrument with regard to the decrease of temperature on 
pressing together two pieces of steel or iron at their welding tempera- 
ture. Their object was to show that iron possessed the same pro- 
perty that ice did, and that upon pressing two surfaces together the 
temperature would be lowered. It was only in that way that he 
came in contact with that particular subject, and he was very much 
interested in the very complete installation which Sir W. Koberts- 
Austen had at the Mint, and which he was allowed to use in the 
experiments, the results of which he had had the honour of com- 
municating to the Transactions of the Royal Society, 

Mr. W. KoSENHAiN (National Physical Laboratory) wished to 
raise one or two points in connection with Mr. Lambert's interesting 
account of the very complete pyrometric installation at Woolwich. 
The first was that apparently all the measurements of tempera- 
ture were made by deflection methods. These methods were very 
valuable and convenient, especially for recording purposes where 
the more accurate potentiometer methods were not available. But 
all deflection methods were liable to serious errors on account of zero- 
creep in the D' Arson val galvanometers. That became particularly 
serious in the apparatus described in the paper. Mr. Le Chatelier 
and Mr. Saladin had devised an ingenious autographic apparatus for 
recording differential cooling curves, but this also suffered seriously 
from zero- creep. For such purposes he (Mr. Rosenhain) suggested the 
use of a delicate bifilar galvanometer, such as Campbell's, which was 
free from this source of error. Where delicate D'Arsonval galvano- 
meters were used, be it with lamp and scale or a direct-reading 
pointer, zero errors must be carefully guarded against. The only 
other point he wished to raise concerned the protection of the thermo- 
couple from furnace gases. Mr. Lambert endeavoured to do that, 
but even with his precautions the wires evidently became brittle in 
time. He (Mr. Rosenhain) doubted whether mere heating to in- 
candescence, electrically or otherwise, would cure this defect once it 
had been set up. When perfectly protected from furnace gases the 
indications of thermo-couples were found to remain remarkably 
constant, but, failing that, great caution was required* 

Mr. J. M. Gi.EDHiLL, Member of Council, said he did not think 
there was any more important subject which had been brought before 
the Institute than that of pyrometry. It was probably now quite as 
impotiiant as anything in connection with the manufacture of steel 
for heavy gun forgings, orilnance, or anything connected with war 
materiel in the way of steel, and he might briefly say why. The 



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DISCUSSION MR. J. M. GLEDHILL. 133 

Government tests for ordnance were very rigid and very severe, and 
practically no latitude was allowed. Manufacturers had to adhere 
strictly to the letter, and in order to do so it was necessary to under- 
stand heat treatment, and obtain the accurate heat treatment accord- 
ing to the chemical composition of any particular steel that was being 
treated, and that could only be done by such an installation as the 
paper treated of. He might say that all who were engaged and 
interested in the manufacture of ordnance were greatly indebted to 
the Royal Gun Factories through the courtesy of Colonel Holden, 
the superintendent, for the permission he had granted them to in- 
spect this experimental scientific installation of pyrometers now at 
Woolwich Arsenal, and which had been carried out by the colonel. 
Having got pyrometers 'of an efficient kind, such as described in the 
paper, there was still another important matter, and that was the 
using of them. They might, and indeed did, know what heat was 
wanted to get, say, in a gun forging of some 50 to 60 feet long for 
a 12-inch gun, and weighing probably 30 tons. They knew what 
temperature they wanted, but the getting of it to an equal degree of 
temperature throughout was another matter. Then again the tensile 
tests, the elastic limit, the ultimate breaking stress, the elongation, 
must be the same in the breech of the tube as at the muzzle, so that 
they had got another difficulty there. The chemical composition of 
the two ends of that forging were not identical. That was owing to 
segregation ; the carbon constituents at the one end of such a forging 
were quite different to the constituents at the opposite end, so that 
quite a different temperature was required. Although he spoke of 
quite a different temperature, he was in reality only referring to 
probably 20** or 30**, because in alloyed steel containing nickel or 
chromium, or elements of that nature, the question of small differ- 
ences of temperature was of the utmost importance. So that they 
had a different chemical composition to deal with ; they again had a 
different mass, the muzzle end of the barrel might be, roughly, say, 2 
inches thick, whereas the breech end was 6 or 7 inches thick. They 
had therefore got different degrees of temperature, and different 
conditions, different thicknesses, different masses, and different 
carbon constituents, all of which require to be watched by the pyro- 
meters so as to get an equal ultimate result from the tests. That 
was a matter that could only be arrived at by constant and daily 
experience. It would be absolutely impossible to work on the old 
lines as they used to do years ago when they judged temperature by 
colour, when they spoke of blood red, or pale stiaw, or similar states. 
Such distinctions were absolutely utterly useless at the present time. 
They required an installation of the kind described, and even then it 
required great skill to meet the Government requirements. He had 
himself found that a very good practical check in the hands of work- 
men over the more scientific instrument was the use of the Siemens 
water pyrometer, where a ball of known weight was put in contact 
with the article to be treated and covered over with sand so as to protect 
it from the action of the flame of the furnace, and after a given time 



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134 THE PYROMETRIC INSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION. 

withdrawn and inserted in a known volume of water. By such means 
a very accurate practical reading could be obtained even by a work- 
man. The system described by Mr. Lambert was an accurate and 
definite result of what was actually going on in the furnace, and was 
recorded as described, so that it was always possible to look at any 
particular forging, and if anything happened to a gun it was possible 
to refer back and see how the treatment of the forging had been 
earned out, what its temperature had been, and what its history was. 
He desired once again to thank Colonel Holden for the permission 
he had given to view the excellent installation at Woolwich. 

Dr. Carl Benedicks (Upsala) asked if there was any arrangement 
made for controlling the temperature of the cold junction. On the 
curves given it was easy to read off the temperatures within a very 
few degrees, and of course the temperature of a cold junction was 
known to have a very great influence in that respect, so he supposed 
that there must be something done, although he had not been able to 
find any mention of it in going through the paper, 

Mr. W. H. Hatfield (Sheffield) drew attention to the diffi- 
culty he thought all workers had experienced with thermo-couple 
pyrometers. In many works in Sheffield a portable pyrometer of this 
type was in use. It was easy, of course, to calibrate the instrument, 
but the trouble arose from the kind of casing used for enclosing the 
wires of the couple. Makers would continually supply couples en- 
closed in silica to work with the same galvanometer as those enclosed 
in iron without advising the user of the differences in the readings 
given. He had found a silica-covered tube to give as much as 50* 
higher reading than an iron-covered one by the same maker. It was 
the conductivity of the iron tube which caused the trouble, and he 
was pleased to see that the author had taken effective measures to 
prevent this inaccuracy. 

Professor Thomas Turner (Birmingham University) said he had 
used a direct reading pyrometer for some years and found it very 
convenient for many piurposes, but there was one difficulty in con- 
nection with the direct reading of pyrometers. There was always a 
variation on puttinjif a new couple in. But practically what they 
had to do was to calibrate the instrument from time to time, and not 
to take the actual readings, but to draw a chart and to take the 
figures read on the instrument on one side, and the figures of the 
observation on another, and draw a curve. That had to be done every 
now and then, so that even direct instruments, unless they actually 
went back to the makers to be checked occasionally, were apt to 
give results that were not quite accurate. If it were required to use 
a couple, sometimes bare, and sometimes covered with one thing and 
sometimes with another, it was necessary to calibrate the couple 
under exactly the same conditions as those under which it was going 
to be used. 



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CORRESPONDENCE MR. LAW. 135 

The Pkbsidekt said he was sorry Mr. Wesley Lambert was not 
prasent so that they might have had the opportunity of hearing him 
on the various points which had been raised in connection with his 
paper. He invited the meeting to pass their thanks to Mr. Wesley 
Lambert for his excellent paper. 

The resolution was carried by acclamation. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mr. E. F. Law (London) wrote that^ while fully appreciating the value 
of Mr. Lambert's paper, he desired to draw attention to a statement 
which was certainly misleading and liable to cause misunderstanding 
in the minds of those who were unacquainted with the facts. He 
referred to the statement that the recording pyrometer introduced 
into the Gun Factory at Woolwich was made " to the specification 
of the instrument used by the late Sir W. Roberts-Austen, and 
designed for his work at the Mint by Colonel Holden." From that 
description any one unacquainted with the history of pyrometry 
might be reasonably excused for supposing that Colonel Holden 
was the originator of the recording pyrometer used by Roberts- 
Austen in his classical researches at the Royal Mint. That, of 
course, was not the case. Briefly the facts were as follows: — In 
1889 Roberts-Austen first used the platinum thermo-electric pyro- 
meter of Le Chatelier, and in the first report to the Alloys Research 
Committee on the 29th of October 1891, he stated: <<Le Chatelier's 
pyrometer, I believe, had not previously been employed in this 
country ; and it may be well to describe it in some detail, as such 
an instrument has long been needed, and can hardly fail to be of 
much use to engineers.'' He then went on to describe his own 
recording arrangement, the actual model of which was made at the 
Mint by Mr. H. C. Jenkins, who was at that time his assistant. In 
the second report to the Alloys Research Committee, Roberts-Austen 
said, with reference to the recording pyrometer : " This instrument 
was described in the first Report to the Committee; but as the 
investigations progressed it soon became evident that the construction 
of many of the details could be greatly improved ; and, in order that 
a more perfect instrument might not be wanting, the appliance, of 
which the following is a description, was made at the Royal Mint by 
artificers from the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, who were permitted 
by Dr. Anderson, Director-General of Ordnance Factories, to under- 
take its construction for use in his department." The pyrometer in 
question was further modified, and the instrument used in the later 
researches and described in the Fifth Report was mainly due to Dr. 
Stansfield, now Professor of Metallurgy at the McGill University. 



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136 THE PYBOMETRlC IKSTALLATION IN THE GUN SECTION. 

Incidentally it might be pointed out that the recording instrument 
described by Mr. Lambert in his paper was that made and sold as 
the " Works Model/* and not one of the forms of " Research " 
pyrometer as used at the Mint. 

Mr. Wbslby Lambert wrote, in reply, that he shared with the 
President his regret at not having been present to reply to the 
various points raised. In reply to the points raised by Mr. W. 
Rosenhain, he wished to confirm that gentleman's assumption that 
all the temperature readings taken throughout the installation were 
by the deflection method. The objection to that method on account 
of zero-creep, though admitted, was not of such serious moment as 
had been suggested. It did not present any practicable difficulty 
in the installation described, and was only an appreciable quantity 
when large deflection, tight wires, and not strip, were us^. The 
occasional checking of the zero was the only precaution necessary. 
The potentiometer method, Mr. Rosenhain would doubtless readily 
admit, was not a practicable workshop method. With reference to 
the second point as to the brittleness of the wires forming the 
couple, he desired to offer the suggestion that the National Physical 
Laboratory might make the protection of thermo-couples for furnace 
work a subject of extended research. The remarks of Mr. Gledhill 
were very gratifying, the more so as he was particularly conversant 
with the actual conditions necessitating such an installation as de- 
scribed in the paper. Excellent results had also been obtained in 
the Royal, Gun Factory, using a platinum cylinder, with the Siemens 
water pyrometer when used in comparison with the therm o- junction. 
He would refer Dr. Benedicks to that part of the paper dealing with 
the arrangements for insuring the cold junctions being protected 
from changes in temperature. For critical work in the laboratory, 
the recognised methods of controlling the temperature of the cold 
junction were resorted to. He (Mr. Lambert) extended his sympathies 
to those workers with pyrometers mentioned by Mr. Hatfield. One 
of the greatest mistakes made by users of pyrometers generally was 
the neglect to make themselves acquainted with the details of the 
construction of the pyrometer they were using, and its limitations 
for accurate work under varying conditions. As regards Professor 
Turner^s remarks, they had had a considerable quantity of the wire 
drawn at one time, and so as far as possible eliminated variations due 
to the slight differences in the metals forming the couples. The 
concluding remark of Professor Turner was fully endorsed by actual 
experience whenever accurate readings were desired. The statement 
to which Mr. Law took exception applied only to the instrument 
described in the paper, and was not intended to apply to any other 
instrument. 



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UTILISATION OF BLAST-FUBNACE SLAG. 137 



UTILISATION OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG. 

By the Chevalier C. de SCHWARZ (Lh^ge). 

Taking the total production at all blast-furnace works in 
the world, according to recent statistics, at about 50,000,000 
tons of blast-furnace slag for the last year, and assuming 
further that 1 ton of ungranulated blast-furnace slag 
measures, when broken up, about 20 cubic feet, the blast- 
furnace slag produced in one year represents a mountain of 
nearly 1,000,000,000 cubic feet. To dispose of such enor- 
mous masses yearly deserves serious consideration, taking 
into account that the production of pig iron, and with it 
also that of slag, is steadily increasing, and that the land 
in the neighbourhood of blast-furnaces is, as a rule, of great 
value. 

John Payne, an Englishman, was the first who succeeded in 
utilising blast-furnace slag for making big solid blocks — up to 
3 tons in weight — which were successfully used for making 
river and canal embankments. 

According to his method of making blocks, patented in 
the year 1728, the liquid slag was first thoroughly worked 
through, by means of a shovel, in order to allow any air 
or gas bubbles to escape, whilst, at the same time, sand or 
crushed slag was added. The doughy mass thus received was 
pressed into cast-iron moulds lined with sand. When hard, 
the blocks were withdrawn from the moulds and allowed to 
cool down slowly in a bed of sand mixed with charcoal dust. 

This method of making blocks could, however, only be 
used for utilising blast-furnace slag high in silica and poor 
in lime, i.e. principally for slag resulting from blast-furnaces 
worked with charcoal, for reasons not necessary to be ex- 
plained. 

Fritz Liirmann, when at Osnabriick, was the first who 
recognised and also utilised the hydraulic properties of granu- 
lated basic blast-furnace slag for making bricks by mixing 



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138 UTILISATION OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG. 

granulated blast-furnace slag with lime-cream and pressing 
this mixture into moulds. The lime thus combining with the 
free silica in the granulated slag served as a cement, and the 
bricks became hard on free exposure to the atmosphere within 
about six to eight weeks. The slag bricks produced at the 
beginning were, however, of inferior quality, and could, on 
account of their insufficient strength, only be used for masonry 
of minor importance. 

It was also found that, during the time of hardening, a good 
many bricks cracked and fell to pieces. 

Considerable improvements were made later on, namely — 

a. An automatic feeding apparatus was provided, having 
for its purpose the maintenance of the proper proportions 
between the granulated slag and the slaked lime, ascertained 
by experiment, instead of leaving these proportions to be 
adjusted, as before, by the workmen employed. In general 
it was found out that an addition of 150 lbs. of dry slaked: 
lime to 850 lbs. of granulated slag, containing on an average 
20 per cent, of water, answered the purpose pretty well. 

h. Appliances were employed, by means of which an intimate 
mixture between the slaked lime and the granulated slag 
was obtained. 

c. A press, especially constructed for making slag bricks, 
was employed. In the first instance the maximum pressure 
was raised to about 3500 lbs. per square inch. Secondly, the 
press was constructed in such a way as to do its work with a 
gradually increasing pressure, instead of, as before, by means 
of a heavy shock. The latter had a double advantage : 
firstly, the high pressure was transmitted up to the very 
interior of the brick, which was not the case when the press 
worked with a shock ; and secondly, all superfluous moisture 
was squeezed out. 

d. In order to avoid, as much as possible, any loss from 
bricks bursting, on account of small particles of unslaked 
lime being entangled and inclosed in the interior of the brick, 
the slaked lime had, before use, to pass through a ball mill, 
where it was reduced to fine powder and intimately mixed, 
whereby a complete conversion of any free lime into hydrate 
of lime was ensured. 



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UTILISATION OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG. 139 

One such press with its accessories, as mentioned before, 
produces about 2000 slag bricks per hour, the whole requir- 
ing about 25 horse-power to drive it. 

One slag brick of ordinary size, manilfactured in the way 
described, weighs on an average 8 lbs., and has a maximum 
crushing strength of 1700 lbs. per square inch. The working 
expenses (lime, wages, repairs, and motive power) are stated to 
be about 8s. per 1000 bricks of ordinary size. 

A brick press, also constructed for making slag bricks, was 
recently invented by Paul Thomann in Germany. The pecu- 
liarity of this press consists of an improved mixing apparatus, 
of special construction, for mixing slaked lime and granulated 
slag, as well as in a peculiar method of pressing the bricks. 
The process is as follows : — 

Slaked lime and granulated slag coming from an automatic 
feeder are led to the mixing apparatus by means of a band 
conveyor. The mixing apparatus consists of a small cylin- 
drical sheet-iron vessel containing a mixer with screw-like 
arms of peculiar shape, in which the materials are, owing to 
quick rotation, intimately mixed within a short time. 

The mixture of sand and slaked lime thus produced falls, 
by means of a hopper, into the brick press. The peculiarity 
of the latter consists in an arrangement by means of which the 
brick is formed in layers, each layer being hammered down 
separately, one above the other, until the brick mould is filled 
up. This arrangement has the advantage of cheaper working 
expenses and less initial outlay. The bricks produced with 
this machine are also less heavy and have a rough surface, 
the latter being preferred by the masons. 

Another method of making slag bricks, still in use, consists 
in mixing one part of Portland cement with from four to five 
parts of granulated slag and pressing this mixture into moulds. 
These bricks must remain in the mould for twenty-four to 
thirty hours after being pressed. As they are not allowed to 
harden in the open they have to remain, after having been 
taken out from the mould, for six to eight weeks in a 
covered shed, well protected against sun and wind, where they 
are moistened from time to time. 

The bricks produced in this way are of very good quality, 



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140 UTILISATION OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG. 

but their cost of manufacture is very high, requiring also a 
considerably high initial outlay ; it can therefore only be 
recommended for making artificial stones of special size, stair- 
case steps, slabs, &c. * 

The best slag bricks, so far as exact shape and dimensions 
as well as great hardness and resistance to crushing are con- 
cerned, are manufactured according to the English method. 

According to this process blast-furnace slag can be made 
into bricks or stones without any addition of cement, slaked 
lime, or any binding medium. It is based on the fact that 
insoluble silica is rendered soluble, ix. ready for combination, 
if exposed to high steam pressure during a certain lapse of 
time. A full description of this method of making slag bricks 
is already given in the Journal of the West of Scotland Iron and 
Steel Institute for 1904. 

The bricks, manufactured according to this process, can be 
transported to their destination and used for masonry as soon 
as they have left the hardening chamber, described in the 
above paper. For this method of manufacturing bricks blast- 
furnace slag from the old slag heaps, even if exposed to free 
air for several years, can be utilised. 

The cost of producing 1000 bricks of ordinary size, accord- 
ing to the English process, described before, is stated to 
be 13s. 

Slag bricks have the following advantages over ordinary 
baked clay bricks : — 

(a) They have a considerably higher resistance against 

crushing. 

(b) Houses built with slag bricks are never damp, and can 

be occupied without danger to health as soon as they 
are built. 

(c) Slag bricks are more accurate in shape and dimensions, 

because they are not baked, and therefore do not 
shrink like clay bricks. 

For certain purposes slag bricks, manufactured according to 
the English process, as described before, are, on account of 
their accurate shape and extreme hardness, preferred even to 
natural stone; for instance, in Brussels such bricks are used 



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UTILISATION OF BLAST-FUBNACE SLAG. 141 

for the facing of walls for houses (Verblendsteine), and paid 
for at the rate of 60 francs (48s.) a thousand. For ordinary 
masonry, slag bricks manufactured according to the other 
methods, already described, are used because they are con- 
siderably cheaper. 

Cement, — Of considerably more importance than the manu- 
facture of slag bricks and stones, with reference to the utilisa- 
tion of slag, is the manufacture of cement. This is principally 
due to the fact that cement, weight for weight, sells at a rate 
which is about four times as high as that of bricks. 

The subject of the utilisation of blast-furnace slag for 
making cement has already been treated in detail in the 
author's previous papers, read before this Institute in 1900 
and 1903, and before the International Congress of Mining 
and Metallurgy at Li^ge in 1905, to which he would refer. 

Since then the same question has been treated by several 
authorities, such as Dr. Passow, Le Chatelier, Wedding, Blount, 
Thwaite, Day, A. Sheperd, Tantzen, Jesser, Baron Jiiptner, Ast, 
Liinge, Hofer, Struthtrs, Zulkowsky, and others, who have 
written about it in different professional papers and pamphlets. 
The author cannot quite agree in some cases with the state- 
ments made. For instance, it has been repeatedly stated that 
no cement can be made from slag resulting from the manu- 
facture of white pig iron. This is incorrect, as may be proved 
by the fact that Portland cement of good quality can be made 
from such slag, containing 42 per cent, of lime and 4 J per cent, 
of oxide of manganese. The cement made from such slag showed 
not the slightest trace of instability of volume even after six 
years' use ; it also stood all the tests required by the standards 
for Portland cement. The manganese oxide in the cement 
gave it a somewhat brownish colour, which, however, was not 
considered a fault by some customers, but on the contrary was 
preferred to the ordinary tint for making artificial stones. 

To a certain extent the presence of metal oxides, such as those 
of iron and manganese, which, as a rule, are higher in slag from 
white pig iron, makes the cement made from it more apt to 
resist the influences of sea water, as already mentioned in 
previous papers. Secondly, the presence of metallic oxides re- 
duces the temperature of fritting, necessary for the formation 



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142 UTILISATION OF BLAST-FtJRNACE SLAG. 

of clinker, thus effecting saving in fuel as a consequence. As 
the majority of blast-furnace slag produced nowadays re- 
sults from white Thomas pig, it may be considered advisable 
to draw attention to this fact, as hitherto the general belief 
was that only slag resulting from grey pig can be used for 
making cement on account of its higher percentage of lime 
and its small percentage of manganese oxide. It has been 
proved that a high percentage of lime in Portland cement is 
not only not necessary, but is to a certain extent even injurious, 
as, being to a certain extent free, it causes the cement to 
" blow/* Therefore such cement, rich in lime, must, as every 
experienced cement maker knows, be kept for some time in 
a cement silo before being ready for use, in order to give it 
time and opportunity to absorb carbonic acid and water from 
the air for the purpose of converting the free lime it contains 
into carbonate of lime and into hydrate of lime respectively. 
Experience has also shown that cement, rich in lime, cannot 
be used advantageously for buildings in sea water. 

A new process of making cement from blast-furnace slag 
has been invented by Professor Mathesius at Charlottenburg. 
This process is based on the principle, already referred to, that 
insoluble combined silica can be turned into the soluble, com- 
binable state by exposure to high steam pressure. The process 
is described as follows : The blast-furnace slag is allowed to 
cool down, when it is put into boilers, where it is exposed to 
steam pressure until it is reduced to powder. Results of 
experiments have proved that slag, thus treated, had acquired 
hydraulic properties, but nothing has been done as yet to start 
works on a commercial scale. 

Mr. Renfert, starting on the same principle, took out a patent 
according to which granulated blast-furnace slag was treated 
with steam, but subsequently mixed with lime. This mixture 
being ground to a very fine powder, yields a cement of very 
superior quality.. Notwithstanding, after experimenting for 
some time, the inventor abandoned his process on account of 
too high working expenses. 

Mr. Canaris invented a process according to which hot 
liquid blast-furnace slag, containing not less than 40 per 
cent, of basic matter, [is-^ cooled down suddenly by mixing it 



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UTILISATION OF BLAST-FURNACK SLAG. 143 

with thin lime-cream. The product thus received is then 
ground into powder, and after that supposed to be cement. 
This process has some resemblance to the Wolff and Lessing 
process, already described in my paper read before this Insti- 
tute in 1903. Neither the Canaris process nor that of Wolff 
and Lessing have found their way into practice, and will 
hardly ever do so. 

Timm, Hayn, and others have invented different arrange- 
ments for granulating slag without water, but, none of them 
having been carried out in practice, no opinion can be given 
about them. 

Of all the processes of making cement from blast-furnace 
slag invented recently, it appears that only one of them has 
as yet been accompanied with success, namely, the CoUoseus 
process, called so after the name of the inventor. 

According to this process, solutions of alkaline salts are in- 
jected into the hot liquid slag and thus intimately mixed with 
the latter, the nature and concentration of the injected solutions 
depending on the chemical composition of the slag, principally on 
its contents of lime. The quantity of the solution to be injected 
should be as high as possible ; however, the slag thus treated 
must be perfectly dry after the operation. The salts used 
for preparing the solutions are principally alum, sulphate of 
magnesia, and nitrate of lime. The concentration, as a rule, 
varies from 2 to 5 per cent, of salt to from 95 to 98 per cent, 
of water. 

On account of the great heat the salts are decomposed, 
most of the sulphur escaping as sulphurous acid and sulphur- 
etted hydrogen. The slag is chemically and physically 
changed, and gets the appearance of a porous clinker easily 
broken up and reduced to powder. 

In case slag with a comparatively high percentage of silica 
and a lower percentage of lime is to be converted into cement, 
the concentration of the alkaline solution is raised to a maxi- 
mum of 10 per cent of the salt to 90 per cent, of water; 
besides this a small addition of common cement-clinker, rich 
in lime, has been found beneficial in such cases. 

At the beginning the CoUoseus process did not prove 
successfuli principally on account of defective construction 



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144 



UTILISATION OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG. 



of the granulating apparatus, which did not allow of an 
intimate mixture between the solutions and the slag. At 
the same time the selection of the blast-furnace where the 
first apparatus was put up was not a very fortunate one, 
as it suffered continually on account of interruptions ; besides 
this there was not sufficient space and other inconveniences. 




Fig. 1. 



Under these circumstances it was impossible to produce cement 
of a satisfactory or regular quality. 

Lately, however, these defects have been overcome by em- 
ploying an improved apparatus, which the following description 
and drawings will serve to explain. 

Fig. 1 represents a longitudinal and JFig. 2 a cross-section 
of the apparatus. The drum b fixed on the shaft a is divided 
into six interior partitions by means of cast-iron ribs c. On 
the outside the drum is provided with a number of other 
radial ribs c> running, like the former, parallel with the shaft a. 



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UTILISATION OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG. 



145 



Between the ribs e a number of longitudinal openings d are 
arranged to provide communication between the interior and 
the outside of the drum, the latter revolving at the rate of about 
650 revolutions per minute. On this drum the hot liquid slag, 
coming from the blast-furnace, is led by means of a channel h, 
the whole apparatus being enclosed by a chamber or casing /, 
made of sheet iron and cooled with water from outside. 

Two funnels g (Fig. 1) fixed on the casing / contain the 
tubes h, the latter leading the alkaline solutions to the revolv- 




Fig. 2. 

ing drums. At the same time through these funnels cool 
air is sucked into the interior of the drum along with the 
alkaline solutions and, the quick revolving drum acting like 
an exhauster, thrown out together through the openings d 
with a certain force. In order to ensure a proper distribution 
for the entrance of the solutions into the interior of the 
tambour, two ring tubes i (Figs. 1 and 2) perforated with 
little holes (shown in Fig. 2) are provided. 

The slag, being thus intimately mixed with the alkaline 
solution, is hurled with great force against the casing /, from 
where it falls by means of an incline into Uttle bogies to be 

1908. — i. K 



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146 UTILISATION OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG. 

transported to the crushing-mills. From this description it 
may be seen that the working expenses for making cement 
from blast-furnace slag according to this process must be 
exceedingly low, and the initial outlay for erecting such 
cement works very moderate, as the drying and grinding of 
raw materials, as well as brick-making and the burning of 
clinker, is avoided. 

As to the quality of this cement, it may be said that, ac- 
cording to information received, it has stood all the tests pre- 
scribed for Portland cement by English, French, and German 
authorities. The cement has been employed for about a year 
in the erection of viaducts, railway embankments, bridges, 
houses, &c., showing, up to date, not the slightest trace of 
damage. 

It had several times been pointed out as a drawback to the 
utilisation of blast-furnace slag that the latter is more diflScult 
to grind than natural raw materials. This reproach is, up to 
a certain extent, justified, although this difficulty is already 
largely overcome by granulating the slag, whereby the latter, 
being cooled down very suddenly, becomes exceedingly brittle. 

In addition to this, crushing-mills have been recently in- 
vented specially well adapted for grinding slag, and have 
proved a great success in practice. The ball-mill with air- 
separator invented by Mumford & Moodie, and made by the 
Brothers Pfeiffer at Kaiserslautem in Germany, affords an 
instance of such a mill. 

The following is a description of this apparatus: Fig. 3 
represents a vertical section through the air-separator, the 
latter representing, as it were, the backbone of the whole 
arrangement ; ^ is an exhauster, fixed, like the two discs h and 
d, on the quickly revolving vertical shaft a. The ground 
material (raw meal or cement) coming from the ball-mill drops 
into the funnel /, and from there on to the disc b, from where, 
by means of centrifugal power, it is hurled against the ring 
c. From there it falls on a second disc d, the latter being of 
greater diameter than the former. From this disc, again, the 
material is hurled towards the ring e. This arrangement has 
for its prime purpose to distribute the material as much as 
possible in the air enclosed by the rings c and e. Through 



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UTILISATION OF BLAST-FUBNACE SLAG. 



147 



the ring e, which is open below, the air is sucked on by the 
exhauster g, and enters the interior of the two rings c and e, 
as shown by arrows, taking the fine, finished material along 
with it, which, after having passed through the exhauster g, 
enters the chamber closed in by the outer casing and drops, 




as shown by arrows, out of the apparatus to be transported to 
its destination, whilst the air, being sucked up by the ex- 
hauster, re-enters the chamber enclosed by the two rings e and 
c. The imfinished material, or grit, drops from the lower disc 
d into the funnel A, and thence into the crushing-mill to be 
ground again. 

This arrangement has been found very convenient and 



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148 



UTILISATION OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG. 



economical, as all the slag which is ground fine enough is 
separated and carried away to its destination instead of being 
unnecessarily ground over again and again, as is done with 




Fig. 4. 



the so-called tube tinishing-mill, the latter thus causing loss of 
time and of driving power. 

Fig. 4 shows the arrangement of a complete set, consisting 
of a ball-mill, air-separator, and elevator. They are manu- 
factured in difiorent sizes for a production of from 1 to 9 



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UTILISATION OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG. 149 

tons of finished material per hour, leaving about 12 per cent, 
of residue on a sieve with 30,000 meshes per square inch. 

Conclusions. 

From what has been said it may be correctly concluded 
that blast-furnace works, especially those producing grey pig, 
have still a large field for improvement by utilising their slag 
in the way described, especially for making cement. 

With reference to the question of getting a market for the 
cement, attention is to be drawn to the fact that it can be 
manufactured at considerably less expense than common 
Portland cement, and that therefore it can undersell the latter 
on the market. 

It may also be mentioned that the consumption of cement 
is steadily increasing in a comparatively high proportion, 
because the employment of reinforced concrete instead of 
brick or stone, or of iron constructions, for buildings of all 
sorts, for bridges, viaducts, &c. &c., extends more and more. 
It may also be mentioned that the value of cement imported 
into countries beyond the sea represents the sum of about 
1\ million pounds a year. 

That Portland cement made from blast-furnace slag has 
been employed for buildings, bridges, fortifications, railway 
embankments, &c., as well as for buildings in sea-water for 
the last fifteen years, without showing the slightest injury 
after so long a period, is proof enough that any prejudices 
against its use are thoroughly unfounded. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

Mr. J. W. Brough, Assoc. M. Inst C.E. (Brussels), wrote that the 
GoUoseus process appeared to be merely the Passow process with the 
addition of a small quantity of solution of alkaline salts. The clinkers, 
whether granulated by the Passow or by the Colloseus process, had 
exactly the same appearance and behaviour. The two slags could not 
be distinguished from one another except by the traces of alkaline 
bases, originating from the decomposition of the alkaline salts, in the 
Colloseus clinker. If the slag were granulated by the Passow process, 



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150 UTILISATION OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG. 

and corresponding proportions of those salts or bases added to the 
clinker in the mill, the same result would be attained. The cement 
in both cases had no real commercial value, and it would be much 
more appropriate to add varying quantities of Portland cement 
clinker before grinding, because otherwise the slag cement would 
be wanting in binding and hardening properties. A second difficulty 
lay in the fact that the slags, if they possessed hydraulic qualities, 
would contain a large proportion of solidified glassy particles, and 
those glassy constituents were very difficult to grind. They were not 
only difficult to gnnd, but needed to be reduced to a far greater 
degree of fineness than ordinary Portland cement if the material 
were to possess properties of the same value as the latter. For that 
reason the combination of a ball- mill with a Mumford and Moodie 
air-separator was the most unfavourable imaginable. It was well 
known that the ground product of mill-stones, Griffin mills, and ball- 
mills combined with air-separators contained the very least quantity 
of fine flour, because the semi-fine particles were withdrawn from 
further grinding by the air-separator. The tube-mill, on the other 
hand, by further grinding those particles, which already passed 
through a sieve of 4900 meshes per square centimetre, produced 
the valuable and — owing to the increased surface — the most active 
constituent of properly ground cement. 

The Author wrote in reply that it was correctly stated by Mr. 
J. W. Brough that the dry granulated slag produced by the Passow 
process (German patent No. 151,228 of 1902) could be rendered of 
commercial value by adding 10 to 50 per cent, of Portland cement 
clinker, according to the more or less basic character of the slag. By 
the Oolloseus process (German patent No. 185,534) hardly any glassy 
slag was produced. The liquid basic slag was intimately mixed with 
the alkaline solutions and suddenly cooled, thus giving a product of 
good hydraulic properties. A mixture of one part of cement (made 
from blast-furnace slag by the Passow process) with three parts of 
sand, after twenty-eight days' hardening, gave a tensile strength of 
12*3 kilogi-ammes per square centimetre ; while a mixture of one part 
of cement (made from the same slag by the Oolloseus process) with 
three parts of sand, after twenty-eight days' hardening, gave a tensile 
strength of 37*2 kilogrammes per square centimetre, showing that 
Mr. J. W. Brough's statements as to the value of the CoUoseus 
cement were unfounded. His views, too, as to the Mumford and 
Moodie air-separator were not in accord with the results of Dr. 
Michaelis' tests {Tonindustne Zeitung, 1906, No. 127). Moreover, 
taking into consideration the fact that the tube-mill was considerably 
more expensive, and that it required more space and motive power 
than a ball-mill with air-separator, the reason was apparent why 
several works manufacturing Portland cement from blast-furnace slag 
had recently adopted the ball-mill with air-separator in place of the 
tube-mill. 



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APPLICATION OF COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY TO METALLOGRAPHY. 151 



APPLICATION OF COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY 
TO METALLOGRAPHY. 

By E. F. law, Assoc. R.S.M. (London). 

In the examination of alloys under the microscope a difficulty 
is frequently met with in selecting an etching agent capable of 
distinguishing the different constituents, and this is especially 
the case when it is required to show the constituents in a 
photograph. A well-known example of this occurs in the case 
of carbide and phosphide of iron occurring together in white 
iron, and although these constituents can be readily dis- 
tinguished by an experienced eye, their appearance is very 
similar, and it is almost impossible to distinguish them in a 
photograph. Other examples are met with in bronzes, and 
particularly in the alloys known as special bronzes. In order 
to overcome the difficulty, and increase the actinic contrast 
between the constituents of an alloy, Professor Martens 
suggested heating the polished specimen until a film of oxide 
formed on the surface. Owing to the different rates at which 
the constituents oxidise, they assume different colours, and can 
be readily distinguished and photographed. The same results, 
but sometimes showing more brilliant colours, may be obtained 
by simply allowing the polished surface to tarnish by exposure 
to the atmosphere, and modifications of the process consist in 
heating the specimen in air containing iodine, bromine, or 
sulphuretted hydrogen. Ordinary photographs, however, of 
surfaces prepared in this way are necessarily unsatisfactory 
and often misleading, and it is important to be able to photo- 
graph the specimen in its natural colours. Hitherto the 
difficulty of the three-colour processes has been a great draw- 
back, and those who have attempted it will agree that the 
difficulty of obtaining three negatives exactly similar and 
capable of being superposed to form a single image when 
working at magnifications of 1000 diameters is by no means 
imaginary. 



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152 APPLICATION OF COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY TO METALLOGRAPHY. 

The introduction of the autochrome plates by Messrs. 
Lumiere of Lyons has removed the difficulty, and it is 
now possible to obtain a photograph in colour on a single 
plate and by a single exposure. The plates have been fully 
described elsewhere, and it is only necessary to remark that 
the process is a modification of the three-colour process. In 
front of the ordinary photographic film (or, to be exact, behind 
it, because the plates are exposed through the glass side) is 
placed a film formed of transparent starch grains of uniform 
size, and coloured respectively red, green, and blue, and mixed 
in the proper proportion to produce white. All the light, 
therefore, which reaches the photographic film has first to 
pass through this screen of coloured particles, and is resolved 
into its components, with the result that on development a 
black image is produced behind every starch grain which has 
transmitted light. The after treatment of the plate is exactly 
the reverse of the ordinary photographic process. Instead of 
fixing the plate by dissolving out the unaltered silver salts, the 
photographic image itself {i.e. the reduced silver) is dissolved 
out by acid permanganate solution, and the unaltered silver 
salts are blackened by exposure to light followed by develop- 
ment. The result, therefore, is not a negative but a positive 
on glass, showing all the colours of the original by transmitted 
light. 

As soon as the plates were placed upon the market the 
writer obtained a supply, and was agreeably surprised at the 
truthfulness of the colour rendering and the suitability of the 
plates for photomicrographic work. A number of results were 
shown at the Royal Microscopical Society on November 20, 
and subsequently at the Quekett Club and the Society of Arts. 

The disadvantage of the process (but probably only a 
temporary one) lies in the difficulty of obtaining prints on 
paper. On the other hand, the time spent in the dark-room 
is about three minutes, most of the operations being carried out 
in full daylight, and a photograph can be taken, developed, 
dried, and bound as a lantern slide in less than one hour. 



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DISCUSSION ^MR. J. E. STEAD. 153 



DISCUSSION. 



Mr. J. B. Stead, F.R.S., Member of the Council, said he was 
sure they were all of one mind in being very thankful to Mr. Law 
for having given them such an interesting exhibition. The photo- 
graphs were excellent, and the work Mr. Law had done was excellent 
likewise. There was one thing he thought they ought to remember! 
that the specimens had been tinted, in the way Mr. Law described, 
and many of them recognised the colours on the slides as those which 
they actually saw under the microscope. They were very much 
indebted to Mr. Law, and hoped he would continue his efforts in this 
direction. He proposed that the best thanks of the meeting be given 
to him. 

The Fbesidbnt said that he was quite sure the Institute would be 
glad to have an opportunity of thanking Mr. Law. Vappetit vient en 
mangeantf as Mr. Stead suggested, and similarly having seen so much^ 
they wanted to see a great deal more. He was even greedier than 
that^ because in his capacity as Chairman of the Metallurgy of Iron 
and Steel Committee for the Franco-British Exhibition he would like 
to have some of those slides to show on the stand at the Exhibition, 
and he hoped Mr. Law would be so grateful at that expression of 
their thanks that he would allow them to be shown. He had much 
pleasure in seconding the resolution. 

The resolution was carried with acclamation, and the proceedings 
terminated. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Mr. J. MiDDLETON (Sheffield) wrote that the application of colour 
photography to metallography was interesting, and for purposes of 
illustration it would doubtless prove useful ; but, apart from that and 
the purely artistic considerations, he failed to recognise its special 
daim over that of monochromatic photography as an instrument of 
research. It should be remembered that with few exceptions, such as 
the sulphide of manganese, the colorations produced by heat-tinting 
were intrinsic qualities ; the tinting was comparative and progressive, 
and thus a certain constituent might successively exhibit every tint in 
the chromatic scale. For that reason the differential tinting effects 
of the metallic section might generally be satisfactorily represented 
in monochrome. The well-known defect of the ordinary photographic 
film rendered it of special value in metallography, in that it exag- 
gerated slight differences of tint and thus was capable of throwing into 
relief faint colour effects which the eye would fail to differentiate. 



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154 APPLICATION OF COLOUR PHOTOGEAPHY TO METALLOGRAPHY. 

In other words, the colour photograph represented more or less 
normally the visual appearance of the tinted section, whilst the 
ordinary photographic film exercised a very useful selective action. 

Mr. Law wrote in reply that Mr. Middleton's views of the utility of 
photography in scientific research were so totally at variance with 
those generally accepted that it was difficult to find a common ground 
for argument. As far as he (Mr. Law) was aware, however, neither 
ordinary nor colour photography had ever been put forward as " an 
instrument of research " in metallography. Most persons, he thought, 
were agreed that the value of photography lay mainly in the fact 
that it enabled a more or less permanent record of things seen to 
be obtained, and the value of such a record was proportional to the 
accuracy and truthfulness of the rendering. But not so Mr. Middle- 
ton. Those considerations he regarded as ** purely artistic," and only 
useful for " purposes of illustration." His argument that because 
colours might be progressive therefore they were satisfactorily rendered 
in black and white was too illogical to require comment. That the 
need for something more satisfactory than a black and white photo- 
graph had long been felt by others besides the author would be evident 
to Mr. Middleton if he would consult No. II., 1898, of the Jownal of 
the Iron and Sted Institute^ in which he would find a paper by Professor 
Arnold illustrated with coloured drawings. Mr. Middleton's ideas 
with regard to photography were equally inaccurate. For example, 
it was hardly necessary to point out to any one possessing the most 
elementary knowledge of photography that his statement that the 
ordinary photographic film exaggerated slight differences of tint 
** which the eye would fail to differentiate" was totally incorrect. 
Whereas in some cases the ordinary plate exaggerated the contrast, 
in an equal number of cases it diminished contrast, and in both cases 
the fault was equally serious and the photograph was of little value as 
a scientific record. So widely was that fact recognised that for some 
years past the efforts of scientific photographers had been unceasingly 
devoted to the problem of overcoming, by means of specially treated 
plates and light-filters, that defect of the ordinary plate. 

The following papers were taken as read : — 



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A NBW TYPE OF ELECTRIC FUBNACE. 155 



A NEW TYPE OF ELECTEIC FUKNACE 
FOR THE SMELTING OF IRON. 

By Professor B. IGEWSKY (Kiefp, Russia). 

It may easily be shown that a supply of electrical energy 
equal to 500 kilowatts is sufficient for the smelting of one 
ton of steel. Electrical engineering of the present day has 
already constructed dynamos capable of developing ten times 
as much energy, and is indeed able to supply such energy at 
a very cheap rate, particularly when a gas-engine is used to 
drive the dynamos. 

With such conditions the electric furnace should be capable 
of producing steel more cheaply than by the open-hearth 
process; the crucible steel process, which is becoming obso- 
lete, may be excluded as a method for the production of steel 
on a commercial scale. 

Many works already employ electric furnaces, such as 
Stassano, Kjellin, and Hc^roult electric furnaces. These 
furnaces work very successfully, but they all employ low 
tension electric current (not exceeding 100 volts), or they 
themselves act as transformers. The author will describe a 
method of working with high-pressure electric current, of 
which he has had seven years' experience. The furnace is 
one of a type employing what may be called second-class 
conductors, such as magnesia, lime, silicates or their colloids, 
such as AljOj, 2SiOj, which, on being greatly heated, become 
conductors. It is absolutely necessary that the current should 
pass in the thinnest possible layer over the lower surface of 
the bricks as shown in Fig. 1. The resistance to the current 
should be very great in such a furnace. The pressure should 
be 1000 volts for each metre space between the electrodes. 
By bringing the electrodes nearer together, or placing them 
further apart, or by providing the furnace with a number of 
electrodes, and only charging those which are immediately 
needed, it is possible to obtain a furnace which will work with 



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156 



A NEW TYPE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE 



all Strengths of current in ordinary use. Such a furnace should 
work as steadily as an incandescent lamp, and should develop 
the highest temperature that the bricks can support. The 
problem is, however, not entirely solved. Difficulties are 




Fig. l.—a, a, Firebricks; i, b, electrodes; r, smelted metal; 
d, working opening. 

presented owing to a phenomenon analogous to that which 
the author has found to occur in the blast-furnace, and to 
which he gave the name of differentiation.* The electric 





Fig. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



current only flows over the surface of the brick during the 
earlier stages (Fig. 2). In a very short space of time it 
concentrates itself along the lines of least resistance. Little 
by little the path selected becomes the only zone affected and 



* Revue de Miiallurgit, vol. ii. p. 842. 



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FOK THE SMELTtNG OF IRON. 



157 



the remaining surface remains quite cool (Fig. 4). DiflTerentia- 
tion can be obviated by dividing each electrode into a number 
of smaller electrodes furnished with regulators. Such a 
system could be employed for the firing, eg,, of porcelain. 





Fig. 4. 



The application of the principle to the manufacture of steel 
and to the fusion of other smelted materials is more easily 
solved by the furnace being made to revolve, and supplied 




Fig. 5. — «, a. Firebricks ; b, 3, electrodes and parts of collector ; 
c, smelted metal ; d^ working opening ; e, e, brushes which 
remain immobile during the rotation of the furnace. 

with a sufficient number of electrodes, so that the current 
does not suffer interruption. In such an arrangement the 
bricks will at one time form the vault and at another the 
bottom of the furnace. By this means the variations in 
temperature can be avoided, and each brick passing beneath 



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158 A NEW TYPE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE 

the metal will have the same conductivity over the whole of 
its surface as any other brick. In addition to this the bricks 



Fig. 6. 



will be automatically moistened with slag, so that theirf surfaces 
become better conductors than their interiors. 

If the principle of a revolving furnace be adopted, it is 
necessary that it should be furnished with a commutator, 
otherwise the current will short circuit through the metal 



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FOR THE SMELTING OF IRON. 



159 



Fig. 5 shows a plan for a rotating furnace using three-phase 
current, while Fig. 6 gives a front view of a furnace installed 
in the Emperor Alexander II. Polytechnic Institute at Kieff.* 




Fig. 7. 

The opening through which the charge is worked, the outlet, 
and the motor which rotates the furnace about twenty times 
per minute are shown in the figure. Fig. 7 is a view of the 

* The author wishes to record his thanks to the designer of the furnace, Mr. A. E 
Tzaref. 



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160 



A NEW TYPE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE 



back of the furnace from the side of the commutator, which 
was made larger than usual in order to give access to the 




••■-?•■•••. 


. 




^ 


■ ; 1 








I ! t 
»...♦ — ^ J 

■ 1 i 








- . ♦ •' 


- 


«* 


i 







Fig. 8. 



furnace from that side. This was for experimental purposes, 
but is not essential. 

It is possible to construct a free commutator connected with 



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Foil THE SMELTING OF IRON. 161 

the furnace by a cable. In the illustration the rollers can be 
seen as well as the pivot which allows of the furnace being 
tilted in order to empty it completely. Fig. 8 shows the form 
and dimensions of the bricks, a being the outside bricks, and 
h the whole arrangement devised for the purpose of cooling 
the furnace, or as an air-chamber for reducing heat losses. 

In practice it was not found necessary to adopt this plan. 
a^ shows the inside bricks which have to be changed more 
frequently, and a, the circular bricks for the front and 
back walls of the furnace with the working opening and the 
opening for the outflow of the metal and slag. CI shows the 
space for the electrodes, while Fig. 9 gives the front and side 
elevation of the furnace. All the plates are of cast iron; 
aa, a^a^ are bricks, lib are electrodes placed between the bricks, 
and c'c' parts of the commutator, ee are the electric brush 
holders. The inside diameter of the furnace is 175 milli- 
metres, and the depth 215 millimetres. The cubic capacity 
is 5*17 litres. The space that can be occupied by metal is, 
however, only about 2 litres, and at the commencement little 
more than 10 kilogrammes can be charged. In the course of 
time the interior bricks wear, and the capacity of the furnace 
becomes greater. 

The author prefers a three-phase electric current, but 
usually employs a continuous current of 250 volts and 
50—60 amperes, i.e, 12-15 kilowatts. When cold the 
furnace is a non-conductor. 

The process of smelting is conducted in the following 
sequence of operations : The flame of a gas or Bunsen burner 
is made to impinge through the working opening, and when 
the furnace has been slightly warmed a little damp potassium 
hydrate is charged and the furnace is rotated. It will now be 
found that the furnace acts as a conductor, and the electric 
current begins to warm it. After a short time sodium hydrate 
is added, and when the interior of the furnace is red hot 
sodium carbonate is charged. The corrosive alkalies which 
evaporate within the furnace do not cause as much harm as 
might be expected. Rapid heating is, however, a danger to 
the bricks, which begin to crack. The best plan is to warm 
the furnace with gas during the night preceding the experi- 

1908.— i. L 



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162 



A NEW TYPE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE 




;e- : [:♦■. : 




t^ 





Scir^L 


J 



Fig. 9. 



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FOR THE SMELTING OF IRON. 163 

ment. When the temperature of the furnace reaches a light 
red heat cast iron may be put in, and then scrap, or the order 
can be reversed. In the first case the author is in the habit 
of adding the new material gradually as the charge melts. In 
the latter case, when the iron becomes, sufiiciently hot, the 
smelting takes place at once on the addition of cast iron. 

If a quantity of cold metal be suddenly introduced at one 
time, it is easy to reduce the temperature to such an extent 
that short circuiting occurs, as shown in Fig. 10 ; a, b, d, and e 
bear the same significance in this figure as they do in the pre- 




Fig. 10.— tf, *, d, and e represent the same as in the preceding 
illustrations ; c, the cooled metal which causes the short 
circuit of the conducting brushes. 

ceding illustrations, c being the cooled metal which causes the 
short circuiting of the conducting brushes. The same thing 
occurs if the furnace becomes cool with the metal inside ; small 
furnaces cool down in an exceedingly short time. In a large 
famace where there is a considerable margin of heat, such an 
accident is hardly likely to occur. Indeed, in order to bring 
them into working condition, it would suffice to charge some 
hot slag from some other furnace and to avoid having recourse 
to soda, which could not be other than injurious to the bricks. 
The outer bricks of the author's furnace are of fireclay, and 
the inner of fireclay or dinas. The fireclay bricks are fairly 



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164 



A NEW TYPE OF ELECTRIC FtJRNACE 



good conductors, but the dinas bricks are exceedingly poor 
conductors. The author has, however, used both for years 
with successful results. With fireclay bricks care should be 
taken that less slag should be used. With dinas bricks it is 
his custom purposely to add fluorspar, cryolite, magnesia, and 
similar substances, in order to increase conductivity. Mag- 
nesite bricks appear to be ill-adapted to the purpose, because 
they conduct too easily, while the ciurrent of 250 volts would, 
with the existing dimensions of the furnace, be too great for 
these bricks. Experiments with dolomite and other bricks 
have not yet been carried out by the author. 

The electrodes in the furnaces illustrated are of iron. At 




Fig. 11. — tf, a, Bricks ; i, b, the ends of iron electrodes ; c, c, slag and drops of 
smelted steel in crevices between the bricks. 

first sight it seems astonishing that they could be made to 
work in a furnace in which steel is being smelted. As a 
matter of fact the electrodes melt and become slightly absorbed 
in the interstices of the bricks. But as the heat is developed 
on the surfaces of the bricks lining the inner side of the fur- 
nace, the crevices around the electrodes remain at a moderate 
temperature, because they retain the slag and even drops of 
metal which act as conductors (Fig. 11). The author at first 
employed electrodes of 3 to 4 millimetres in thickness, so as 
to drive them into the furnace from time to time by means 
of a hammer, but as that appears to be unnecessary he now 
employs thin sheet iron electrodes. There are in the fiirnace 
twenty-four electrodes placed at intervals of 23 millimetres 
from each other. As in the furnace filled with liquid steel 



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FOR THE SMELTING OF IRON. 



168 



only the fourteen upper bricks constitute the working surface, 
a difference in potential of ^^, or nearly 35 volts, is obtained 
between adjoining electrodes. As a result sparks are emitted 
on the collector on replacing each electrode, and frequently 
the spark is transformed into a voltaic arc. As shown in Fig. 
12, the path of the voltaic arc to the collector is shorter than 
that through the conducting brick. On the distance between 
these electrodes being reduced to 1 2 millimetres, the difference 
of potential falls to 17^ volts, and the formation of the arc 
becomes impossible. The author has, however, adopted an 
alternative. Each flat piece of the collector is divided into 
three parts, connected to each other with rheostat wires. By 
these means each electrode becomes gradually shut off when- 




FiG. 12. — a\ 6', Voltaic arc on the collector. 

ever the difference of potential reaches the vicinity of 1 2 volts, 
and the formation of a voltaic arc is impossible. Besides that, 
he has fixed an additional description of brush on the elec- 
trodes, joined to the rheostats. This brush similarly serves 
to lessen sparking. The method employed to obviate spark- 
ing is the only complicated part of the furnace, the remaining 
principles being quite of an elementary nature. The manipu- 
lation of the furnace is likewise exceedingly simple, although 
with its present very small dimensions it requires constant 
attention. As a rule the author smelts a small quantity of cast 
iron and afterwards adds scrap. The softest steel produced 
possesses an ultimate strength of 56*8 kilogrammes per square 
millimetre, with an elongation of 20 per cent. 

On smelting iron turnings with charcoal (1 per cent.) steel 
was produced with an ultimate strength of 85*6 kilogrammes 



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166 A NEW TYPE OF ELECTRIC FURNACE. 

per square millimetre, and an elongation of 3 per cent. Ex- 
periments for the production of steel from cast iron by the 
ore process were also successful, and the fireclay bricks 
suffered less than might have been anticipated. The advan- 
tages of a furnace of the construction indicated above are as 
follows : — 

1. High voltage and low expenditure of current. 

2. The possibility of using any form of current ordinarily 

employed. 

3. Compactness and high eflSciency. 

4. Great homogeneity of the metal produced. 

5. The minimum amount of surface contact with air or 

with the walls of the furnace. 

6. Slag at a high temperaturCi and therefore favourable to 

the reactions needed for the refining of the metal. 

7. A minimum superheating of the furnace. 

8. The avoidance of carbon electrodes. 

9. The possibility of using the furnace for the production 

at a high temperature of any material in a fluid state. 



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THE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OP STEEL. 167 



THE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF STEEL IN 

KELATION TO ITS MECHANICAL 

TKEATMENT. 

By JAMES E. YORK (New York). 

It is my purpose in the present paper to attempt to review 
the existing methods for the mechanical treatment of steel, 
and to suggest some changes which I believe will result in 
the production of more reliable steel rails and other similar 
sections than those now produced by ordinary methods. 

In the United States during the year 1907 there has been 
continual controversy between the railroad officials and the 
steel manufacturers, the former asserting that the rail metal 
was not as good as formerly, and the latter that the cause for 
the frequent rail fracture is poor track construction and the 
much greater axle loads used. There cannot, however, be 
such a divergence of opinion without bringing some light 
into the subject and making for an improved quality of rail 
in the future. 

It is conceded on all sides that the chemical composition 
is now under much better control than formerly, so that, even 
with the comparatively high percentage of phosphorus in use 
in America, it is certain that reliable steel can be produced if 
the mechanical treatment is on correct lines. In this con- 
nection I may quote Mr. Robert W. Hunt, who has been more 
closely connected with rail-making in its various departments 
than any other authority with whom I am acquainted. In 
1904 Mr. Hunt read a paper on rail steel, in which he made 
the following statement: "I have repeatedly said that the 
mechanical treatment of the metal forming the steel rail 
during its manufacture is comparatively of much greater 
importance than its chemical composition, and years of ob- 
servation confirm and emphasise this fact." 

During the last forty years almost all the improvements in 
the mechanical treatment of steel, especially of rails, have 



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168 THE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF STEEL 

been in the direction of increased output. Whereas forty 
years ago 150 tons per shift of twelve hours was considered 
good work for a mill, now 1200 tons are expected in the same 
time. It is stated by some eminent metallurgists that this 
increased output is the chief cause of poor rails, the steel 
being " squirted " through the rolls, as they express it, so that 
a rail of 100 lbs. weight per yard is now produced in fifteen 
to twenty passes, whereas formerly thirty or more were re- 
quired to obtain a 60 lb. to 65 lb. rail. 

Probably Mr. A. L. Holley, of distinguished memory, Mr. 
R. W. Hunt, Mr. John Fritz, and the late Captain Jones have 
done more to add to this increase in modem rail produce 
than any one else. Mr. Holley read before this Institute in 
1874 a paper, under the title of "American RoUing-Mills," 
describing a rail-mill of about that date. 

The blooming-mill was 3 -high, with rolls 30 inches in 
diameter, and it was run at from forty-five to fifty revolutions 
per minute. On this mill a 14-inch square ingot was reduced 
to a 7-inch or 6i-inch billet in sixteen to eighteen passes in 
three and a half to four minutes, the ingots weighing about 
a ton, and they were intended to produce two 30 -feet rails 
of 65 lbs. to the yard. The top third of the ingot is sheared 
off so as to produce only sound rails, thus giving about 150 
tons finished rails per day of twelve hours. The diameter 
of the rolls of the finishing-mills was from 21 inches to 
24 inches, and the number of revolutions seventy to eighty 
per minute. In these mills the billets were reduced into rails 
in from thirteen to fifteen passes, making the total number 
of passes about thirty. 

In England the practice was almost identical, excepting 
that in some cases the ingot was hammered to the proper- 
sized billet for the finishing-mill. Although this was more 
costly, it undoubtedly produced a billet with better physical 
qualities, provided that the heating had been carefully 
attended to. My own personal experience at that time 
entirely confirms these statements. 

The rails referred to by Mr. Robert Job, metallurgist, in a 
paper read by him before the Railroad Club, as lasting in the 
track of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad for thirty-four 



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IN RELATION TO ITS MECHANICAL TREATMENT. 169 

years, were made at Messrs. John Brown & Co.'s works in 
SheflSeld in 1864. These rails were most likely rolled from 
hammered billets. 

It would appear that all steelmakers, when striving for 
export trade, will produce, if possible, an article superior in all 
essential qualities to those for domestic use, and this is natural, 
as he wants to extend his business. This seems to be confirmed 
by the fact that in English rail- making experience there is 
hardly any case of steel rails lasting over twenty-five years, 
whereas, according to Sir Lowthian Bell, iron rails in many 
cases last this time. 

Heating Ingots. 

The chemical composition of steel ingots may be all that 
can be desired, but if they are not properly heated the quality 
of the steel is seriously affected, and no subsequent treatment 
short of cooling and re-heating to the proper temperature can 
eliminate the defects. Burnt steel is not only more or less 
damaged for use, but makes very poor scrap. 

In order to produce reliable steel it is absolutely essential 
that the heating should be carried out and controlled in the 
most careful manner. Although the importance of proper 
heating is generally understood, there is yet no branch of the 
steel industry which is left so much to the " rule-of-thumb " 
method as the heating of rail steel. The men who do this 
work have very little comprehension of the relation between 
the colour of the ingot and its temperature, and, as is well 
known, at the same temperature steel looks much hotter at 
night than in the day. The successful heater is one who can 
guess the hottest temperature at which the steel will roll 
without cracking, as naturally the hotter the metal the softer 
it is, and hence the reduction is easier and more rapid. 
However, this method has two serious defects, as the first, 
overheating, destroys the best structure of the steel, and, in 
addition, the finishing temperature is so high that no proper 
fining of the grain is possible. 

Recent investigations have conclusively shown the de- 
teriorating effects of overheating, and that these can be only 



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170 THE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF STEEL 

restored by cooling to normal temperature. There is no doubt 
that the care employed in heating crucible steel accounts for 
the excellent physical qualities usually found in steel of this 
grade. In the earliest stages of Bessemer steel manufacture 
the heating of rail ingots was governed largely by the practice 
in use for tool steel until the introduction of low-carbon steel 
to take the place of soft iron, and to which a high temperature 
can be given with more impunity than to higher carbon steels. 

The usual method of heating steel rails was as follows: 
The ingots were laid in a horizontal position during heating, 
which allowed of the frequent examination and turning of the 
ingots so that they could get uniformly heated without much 
trouble. At the present time the pit is charged with ingots 
in a vertical position, which undoubtedly is more economical, 
but the steel is usually still fluid in the interior of the ingots 
when they are introduced. In this connection the instructions 
for heat treatment in rail specifications are rather vague, " that 
ingots are not to be drawn until the steel in the interior 
becomes solid, and are not to be heated enough to make the 
cinder run." There is nothing in the instructions to guard 
against overheating the steel, nor do they indicate what degree 
of heat is intended. 

As a conclusion, I would draw attention to the following 
principles : — 

1. That the finishing temperature should be as low as is 
possible to get best results, and that the initial must not be 
above another limit, about 950° C. 

2. That if under these conditions the ingot cannot be 
rolled to 4-rail lengths in one operation, the initial size should 
be reduced. 

Solidity of Steel Ingots. 

The iron and steel business owes more to the rolling-mill 
for its development than to any other element connected with 
it. I am inclined to believe that the inventor of grooved 
rolls, Henry Cort, never saw any other sections rolled than 
rounds, flats, squares, and plates, and for the production of 
these shapes no better machine exists than the ordinary 
roUing-milL However, the evolution of railroads and other 



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IN RELATION TO ITS MECHANICAL TREATMENT. l7l 

large users of steel having demanded the production of more 
complicated sections, the rolling of which is attended by some 
difficulty when steel of the best physical quality is demanded, 
some of these difficulties will now be considered. 

First, the lack of penetrative action in rolling. It is well 
known that in the reduction of a large or even medium- 
sized ingot there is very little fining of the grain until the 
thickness has been very much reduced, and the temperature 
is near the bottom limit. This is particularly noticeable in 
the rolling of ingots into billets and slabs. 

Steel ingots, even when produced with the greatest care, 
suflFer to a great extent from three defects — pipes, segre- 
gation, and blowholes. The last is the cause of No. 2 rails 
generally. In consequence of these defects and the inherent 
weakness of the steel at this juncture, the ingot should be 
reduced slowly at first, with the large end presented to roll. 
This method will facilitate the raising of the segregate, other- 
wise cracks develop, which are liable to remain imclosed, especi- 
ally if there is any oxidation. 

In consequence of the small penetrative action, there is no 
closing of the pipe, which is merely stretched proportionately 
with the billet..; As a result there is an inherent and hidden 
weakness in a more or less large proportion of the billet, which 
if subsequently used for rails can only yield a low quality 
product. As you will know, such defects in rails are one of 
the principal causes of rail fracture, with all the danger atten- 
dant on this. Professor Howe and many other leading metal- 
lurgists and chemists have given much thought as to how 
pipes and segregated matter can best be eliminated from 
ingots. The general consensus of opinion amongst experts is 
that it cannot be done by chemical means, but must be done 
by mechanical if at all. At present the method is to chop 
off" from the end of the billet a certain proportion, which is 
supposed to be sufficient to leave the remainder homogeneous, 
but this way is unreliable. 

As I have stated above, ordinary mills stretch the metal by 
rolling, and therefore lengthen both the pipe and ingot simul- 
taneously. Under these conditions it is impossible to clos^ 
the pipe in the blooming-mill. It has been suggested that by 



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172 THE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF STEEL 

rolling the ingot more slowly the pipe might be closed and 
possibly welded. This, however, is a mistaken idea, as the 
only result of slow rolling is that you can increase the work on 
the section up to the frictional limit, increasing the reduction 
per pass, but it is impossible to do more. 

Several mechanical methods for compressing ingots have 
been tried, and are more or less successful as machines. 
However, they all possess the drawback of being slow in 
operation, and hence have not been seriously applied to rail 
manufacture, as they would greatly interfere with the output 
and increase the cost. It is absolutely essential that the 
ingot should be comparatively free from pipes and blowholes 
before the operation of rolling commences in the blooming- 
mill, otherwise there cannot be produced a billet of proper 
structure from the top of the ingot, and consequently the 
rail with the necessary physical qualities cannot be produced 
unless the ingot is solidified before it is bloomed, or the 
necessary top portion sheared off after. 

Solidifying Ingots by Transverse Rolling. 

The necessity for some cheap, quick, and efficient method 
for solidifying ingots induced me to apply my method of 
transverse rolling to this problem. The mill, with slight 
changes, in which this is carried out was described in a 
paper read at the joint meeting of the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers and the Iron and Steel Institute in 
London in 1906, to which reference may be made for de- 
tails and other applications. Fig. 1 shows an end eleva- 
tion of the mill with six ingots in place for treatment. The 
ingots are arranged alternately reversed so as to save room, 
and the number of ingots may be increased or diminished 
as is found desirable or the dimensions of the mill allow. 
The ingots lie on a comparatively level horizontal table, 
and are first operated on by the plain roll, which closes 
any surface blowholes. The ribbed roll is so constructed 
that the distance between the ribs corresponds to the 
distance between the centres of ingots and the corresponding 
rib on the base ; the ribs are preferably made removable so 



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IN RfiLATlOK TO ITS MECHANICAL TREATMENT. 



173 



that they can be provided of the right length and contour to 
suit any particular series of ingots, but in all cases the rib 
must be longer than the pipe to be eliminated The opera- 
tion of rolling involves the use of comparatively little power, 
since the metal is merely shifted inwards along the line of the 
pipe. It will usually be suflScient, owing to the taper of the 
ingot, to have ribs of the same depth throughout, and in 




Fig. 1. 



consequence the rib will make contact first at the bottom 
of the pipe, and will gradually squeeze out any segregated 
material. However, if desired, the ridge may be tapered, 
or the plain roll may have a collar at any particular point 
for the purpose. 

With this method the ingot will be left with two grooves 
of semi-circular section which, however, will not interfere with 
the subsequent rolling. To avoid this, if desired, the ingot 



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174 



THE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF STEEL 



may be cast with ridges, which when forced in will leave the 
surface comparatively plain. 

The mechanism is so arranged that the ingots are brought 
automatically into the correct position, and the rolls are verti- 
cally adjustable so that the bed may receive its full stroke 
immediately. 

Rail Finishinq-Mill. 

As I have mentioned above, the work done by the rolls 
working with their faces parallel in the manufacture of blooms, 




Fig. 2. 



plates, and flats is satisfactory. It is only when rails and other 
flange sections have to be produced that the more elaborate 
rolls required do not give the same satisfactory results. Fig. 2 
shows the general form of the first shaping pass from a billet 
to a rail, varying with the dimensions required in the finished 



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IN RELATION TO ITS MECHANICAL TREATMENT. 175 

rail. It is clear that the metal in the web and head is the 
only part of the billet which receives any material reduction, 
and as the flanges and head are gradually formed, less and less 
true rolling action is performed upon them. The action which 
can take place in these parts, where the roll surface is at right 
angles to the rail, can only be largely of the nature of wedging 
or drawing. The result of this must be a condition of unequal 
stress in the flanges. Another serious defect in the use of 
these rolls for flange sections is the great difference of surface 
speed at different parts of the section, the diameter of the 
roll forming the wedge being frequently 5 inches larger than 
a portion in contact with the extremity of the flange, and 
sometimes more. As a consequence the web is delivered from 
the roll much faster than the flange, where the metal must 
either slip or stretch to compensate for this (see Fig. 3). 
This is the principal reason why, when the flange breaks, the 
fracture is almost always crescent-shaped, as described by 
J. P. Snow in the Iron Age, January 23, 1908, and by many 
others. The head of the rail is formed in a similar manner 
but of less degree, and does not suffer to the same extent, as, 
having a large mass and hence cooling more slowly, it can 
stretch and accommodate itself more easily. However, the 
higher temperature at which it is finished makes the head 
always softer than the flange or web, the reverse of what is 
necessary in a serviceable rail The T or Vignoles rail, which 
is to be commended on account of its adaptability to quicker 
and cheaper construction in railroad tracks, will always suffer 
to some extent from this defect with the usual method of 
rolling. 

In the case of the bull or double-headed rail used generally 
in England, the quality will in general be better in consequence 
of the similarity in width of the head and base, which permit of 
them being finished at approximately the same surface speed and 
about the same temperature. These rails require more uniform 
sleepers, heavy chairs, and apparently cost per mile for mainten- 
anca As I believe the axle loads in England do not exceed 
60 per cent, of those in use on the first-class lines in the United 
States, the proportion of rail fractures is comparatively small. 
However, out of the total number of 284 rail fractures in the 



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176 THE PHYSICAL QUALITIES OF STEEL 

United Kingdom in 1906, 66 were T rails, which do not 
exceed 5 per cent, of the total rails in use. This confirms my 
statement as to the defects in these rails. 

The T rails referred to by Mr. Job as having given such 
excellent results in service (thirty-five years), were narrow flange 
rails and were much more expensive, costing quite three or four 
times the present price. Both these facts must be taken into 
account in considering their quality. 

The designing of rolls for producing steel sections of all sorts, 
and especially T sections such as rails, requires very consider- 
able experience, and has an exceedingly important bearing on 
the result obtained. Too generally the principles employed in 
the reduction of steel have been influenced by the possibilities 
in iron rolling, although the conditions were largely different. 
The high initial temperature permissible in iron permitted 
greater reduction per pass up to the frictional limit, and also 
a greater amount of guessing as to the possible reduction. 
Usually the first passes were intensified by scarring or roughen- 
ing the roll face without damage to the resulting finished 
section ; but this procedure cannot be used successfully with 
steel sections. 

At various times during many years I have noticed that 
there was no systematic reduction in the passes as designed, 
and that sometimes the roller was in the habit of even skip- 
ping a pass. It therefore seemed to me that it was desirable 
to work out a method for the systematic reduction of metal, 
and I instituted experiments to discover the possible reduction 
in various-sized rolls. From the data obtained I was able to 
work out a method of fractional reduction which enabled me 
to know whether it was possible to produce a steel section in 
a given number of passes. In this way it was possible to 
avoid with certainty any chance of roll fracture or of choking. 

By applying this system I find that the remarkably good 
quality exhibited in rails made forty years ago was obtained 
by rolling at a low initial temperature. Taking a 14-inch 
ingot, the size used in this case, and a factor of 0*9, the lowest 
factor ever used in my practice for steel of that hardness, I 
found that it required thirty-two passes to obtain a 6 5 -lb. 
rail. It is not to be supposed for a moment that the most 



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IN RELATION TO ITS MECHANICAL TREATMENT. 



177 



skilful steel manufacturers in the world at that time were 
working these at a lower capacity for amusement, and if similar 
good qualities are required to-day it is necessary to work 
under relative heating conditions. I am informed that at the 
present time a 22-inch square ingot weighing 2 tons can be 
rolled into four-rail lengths in fifteen to twenty passes, and 
it is clear that a considerably higher initial temperature must 




Fig. 3. 



be employed, with the result that there is less effective work 
on the material, and that the resulting quality is inferior. 

Steel rolling, with the conditions of greater hardness and 
lower temperature, requires a harder and stronger roll than 
was the case with iron. However, the only class of roll which 
keeps its shape under the condition of work now required is 
the hard chilled roll, which cannot be adapted for deeply- 
grooved rolls, as now used in rolling rails at the finishing 



In my paper above referred to I also described my universal 
mill, which can give the finishing passes at the lowest possible 
temperature and with the hardest surface to the rolls. Owing 

1908. — i. M 



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1*78 THfi PfiYSlCAL QUALITIES OF StfiEL. 

to the special construction of this mill, beams of small 
depth with a 12-inch flange can be delivered perfectly straight 
from the roll. Also, owing to the presence of the side roll, 
rails can be produced without the internal strains mentioned 
above, and, in consequence of the possibility of doing more 
work there, with a better wearing quality metal in the head. 

The high speed given to rolls in modern rail-mills is 
repeatedly referred to as one of the chief causes of inferior 
rails. This is in a large degree a mistaken idea. If the metal 
being rolled is comparatively solid and has not been over- 
heated and the rolling action is on proper lines, there will be 
no damage to quality other than incidental to the shape of 
pass (Fig. 3) ; as before described, the speed of delivery of a 
modern rail- mill is about 650 feet per minute. The York 
universal mill is now rolling beams at a speed of about 1600 
feet per minute without deteriorating the physical qualities of 
the finished product. This is made possible by side-rolling 
action, which dispenses with the ditferent speed delivery re- 
ferred to in the ordinary mill, also the wedging and drawing 
action now inherent to the ordinary process when rolling rails 
and other flange sections. 



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CASE-HARDENING. 



179 



CASE-HAKDENING. 

In addition to the discussion on the papers by Mr. G. Shaw 
Scott, Mr. Percy Longmuir, and Mr. L. Demozay, published in 
the Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 1907, No. III., the 
following communication, dealing more especially with the 
subject of Mr. Shaw Scott's paper, has been received from Mr. 
S. M. Schindler (Chester) : — The importance of case-hardened 
machinery parts has been so considerably accentuated by the 
development of the motor-car industry that those directly 
interested are under obligations to the author for the publica- 
tion of the comprehensive experiments in his paper, especially 
in connection with the practical side of the work. 

With reference to the steel employed, it is, however, to be 
regretted that no sample of the special case-hardening steels 
that have been devised has been dealt with, such as chrome- 
vanadium and special nickel steels. These are intended to 
supply materials which, while having a hard surface, and being 
amenable to water-quenching, possess an internal portion in 
the case-hardened pieces much surpassing in static strength 
ordinary mild steel, and at the same time being fully equal 
to it in resisting dynamic stresses. The following results of 
tensile tests on two samples of steel, case-hardened approxi- 
mately to the depth of ^^ of an inch under closely similar 
conditions, may be interesting. The casing after quenching was 
ground away and the cores tested statically. Both samples are 
standard steels manufactured by Messrs. Willans & Robinson, 
Ltd., at Queensferry. 





Yield Point. 

Tons per 

Sq. In. 


Ultimate 
Stress. 

Tons per 
Sq. In. 


Elongation 
on 2 Ins. 


Contraction 
of Area. 


1. MUd steel 

2. Chrome-vanadium steel . 


20-42 
34 13 


32-36 
4575 


Pet Cent. 
34*5 

22-0 


Per Cent. 
54-2 

61-6 



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180 



CASE-HARDENING. 



The figures yielded by the above special steel denote a 
strength generally desirable in machinery parts, subject to 
considerable variations of stress. The illustration below is 
of a piece of chromium- vanadium steel cased and hardened 
along with No. 2, of which the casing was ground away and 

the piece bent double cold, showing 
plainly the toughness possessed by 
such an interior. 

It would seem that, consistent 
with suitable toughness and ease 
in casing and quenching, the ideal 
steel is one that will eventually dis- 
play in quality of core the minimum 
of divergence from the strength of 
the external portion, it being quite 
conceivable that under torsion or 
bending stresses incidental to the 
running of automobiles the dis- 
tortion of a soft core might the 
more readily take place with dis- 
astrous results to the casing. 

The sample used in Mr. Scott's 
experiments is stated as having 
contained 0*08 per cent, of sulphur. 
Viewing the matter from the stand- 
"^ point that the casing is to consist 

of steel saturated with carbon (that 
is, 0*90 per cent.), such a percentage of sulphur is not com- 
patible with a high quality steel suitable for extreme quench- 
ing and resistance to shock, involving as it does the presence 
of numerous isolated spots of manganese, sulphide, and ferrous 
sulphide. 

The question of "case-hardening mixtures" is treated in 
a very interesting manner, and provides a useful means of 
making a selection. It could be desired that makers of such 
material would regulate their methods of preparation to yield 
a product of more uniform composition than is at present the 
case. The writer s attention was recently called to an instance 
in which a material was used for trial under a guarantee by 




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CASE-HABDENING. 181 

sellers to give very rapid casing. Though the usual venting 
was allowed for, the immediate result was the bursting of the 
heavy cast-iron casing pot. The material on examination 
appeared to be largely composed of "brewers' grains" un- 
charred, yielding 10 per cent, of moisture and 25 per cent, of 
volatile matters, when heated to about 200° C, the apparent 
charring point. 

Regarding fineness of material, the writer finds that the 
layer immediately in contact with the piece to be cemented 
should be in pulverised form if regular casing is to be obtained, 
and where slight depths are required. The necessity of this 
condition is made evident by taking longitudinal sections of a 
lightly cased bar where the carbonising material has not been 
in small grains of fairly uniform size. This also applies to 
such articles as ball races, cones, the periphery of toothed 
wheels, &c., where uniform hardness is absolutely necessary. 

The experiments relating to the theory underlying rapid 
case-hardening at a moderate temperature are both ingenious 
and interesting. On comparing the results stated in the first 
table included in the section headed " Influence of Time and 
Cementing Material on Case-Hardening " with those given in 
relation to the last experiments under "Nitrogen and Case- 
Hardening,*' it is, however, to be noted that at identical tem- 
peratures for similar times sugar-charcoal (non-nitrogenous) 
has given a penetration of 1*44 millimetres as against 1*58 
millimetres with burnt leather " A " and 1*07 millimetres with 
wood- charcoal in the earlier experiments, which figures, errors 
excepted, do not emphasise the special importance of nitro- 
genous matter. 

The fact that " once used packing," ie. charred leather, is 
not to be relied on for a second regular casing under usual 
conditions is a simple testimony of the valuable effect of the 
volatile material in the mixture. The process of casing in- 
cludes among its stages what is practically a dry distillation, 
and from a complex substance such as charred leather it is 
of course quite possible that many gaseous carbon compounds 
may be developed in the box favourable to reaction with the 
surface of the steel. However, the question of the compara- 
tive inertness of the medium used is of importance. This is 



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182 CASE-HABDENIKQ. 

exemplified in the authors experiments dealing with the 
relative casing values of sugar-charcoal and coke. Practical 
work generally shows that speed of casing at a standard tem- 
perature of 900° C. is greatly dependent on the "lightness" 
of the material used. 

Fig. 4 in the paper is specially interesting as showing the 
danger of " chipping " induced by lax conditions of case- 
hardening. Though not quite apposite, the writer would 
mention that he was asked recently to diagnose the reason as 
to why an 8-inch case-hardened spur wheel chipped under 
slight shock while not being brittle as a whole. He anticipated 
a supersaturated cemented bar external structure. Micro- 
examination, however, revealed an " airing " evidently due to 
re-heating having taken place under strongly oxidising con- 
ditions, carbonless patches with strongly-marked intercrystal- 
line junctions being found. It is to be hoped that the author 
will extend his experiments, if he has not already done so, to 
dealing, among other things, with those very important sides 
of case-hardening, the re-heating and quenching, the structure 
developed, and the degrees of hardness conferred. 

Mr. G. Shaw Scott wrote in reply that whilst being in com- 
plete agreement with Mr. Schlindler as to the necessity for exact 
investigations into the various questions arising from the case- 
hardening of motor-car parts, he would like to point out that 
his experiments were intended to cover as wide a field as 
possible. Hence a brand of ordinary mild steel, similar to 
that generally used for case-hardening in engineering works, 
was selected for the purposes of this research. It was cer- 
tainly most desirable that a thorough investigation into the 
case-hardening of those special steels used for automobile 
construction should be made, and the author was grateful to 
Mr. Schlinder for his suggestions in that direction. 



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THE ANNUAL DINNER. 



The Annual Dinner of the Institute was held in the Grand Hall of 
the Hotel Cecil on Thursday, May 14, 1908. The President, Sir Hugh 
Bell, Bart., presided over a gathering numbering close on four hun- 
dred persons, and amongst the noblemen and gentlemen present were 
the Right Hon. Sir Edward Grey, Bart., Principal Secretary of State 
for Foreign Affairs ; the Viscount Ridley ; the Lord Leith of Fyvie ; 
the Lord Allerton, P.O. ; the Lord Glantawe of Swansea ; the Lord 
Joicey ; Sir Walter Runciman, Bart. ; the Right Hon. John L. 
Wharton ; Sir William Thomas Lewis, Bart., Vice-President ; Sir 
William White, K.C.B. ; Sir William Matthews, K.C.V.O., President of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers ; Sir Hugh Gilzean Reid ; Sir George 
Gibb; Sir Walter Plummer; Mr. R. A. Hadfield, Past-President; 
Mr. E. P. Martin, Past-President ; Mr. James Riley, Vice-President ; 
Captain H. W. Richmond, R.N. ; the Venerable William Sinclair, D.D., 
Archdeacon of London ; Mr. Charles Trevelyan, M.P. ; Mr. Herbert 
Samuel, M.P., Under Secretary of State for the Home Department; 
Lt.-Gen. R. S. S. Baden-Powell, C.B. ; Colonel R. E. Crompton, C.B., 
President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers; ^Lr. W. H. Bleckly, 
Hon. Treasurer; Mr. P. C. Gilchrist, F.R.S., Vice-President; Mr. 
Arthur W. Fox, C.B. ; Colonel T. G. Poole, V.D., Mayor of Middles- 
brough ; Mr. W. Beardmore, Vice-President ; Mr. James Dixon, Chair- 
man of Lloyd's Register ; Mr. A. Tannett- Walker, Vice-President ; Mr. 
Arthur Cooper, Vice-President ; Mr. Alfred James, President of the 
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy ; the Master Cutler of ShefSeld ; 
Mr. George Ainsworth, Member of Council ; Mr. T. Hurry Riches, 
President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers ; the Master of 
the Worshipful Company of Ironmongers ; Professor H. Bauerman, 
Hon. Member ; Dr. R. T. Glazebrook, Director of the National Physical 
Laboratory; Mr. J. H. Amos; Mr. J. E. Stead, F.R.S., Member of 
Council ; Mr. A. Lamberton, Member of Council ; Mr. lUtyd Williams, 
Member of Council ; the Hon. A. E. Kitson ; Mr. E. tf. Ljungberg 
(Sweden) ; Sir Joseph Leigh ; Sir John Rolle.ston ; Sir Ralph Littler, 
K.C., C.B.; Mr John Gillespie (Calcutta); Mr. W. R. Webster 
(Philadelphia); Mr. Thomas Cantley (Nova Scotia); Mr. Benjamin 
Talbot, Bessemer Gold Medallist ; and the Chevalier C. de Schwarz 
(Li^ge). 

The President gave the toast of "His Majesty the King, the Patron 
of the Iron and Steel Institute.' 



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184 THE ANNUAL DINNER. 

The President then gave the toast of "Her Majesty Queen 
Alexandra, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales (Honorary 
Memher), the Princess of Wales, and the other members of the Royal 
Family." 

Sir William H. White, in proposing the toast of ** Shipping and 
Railways," said the toast was, he thought, a new one on the list of 
toasts given at the dinner of that Institute. These two interests 
were, next to agriculture, the greatest of our national interests, and 
he might also say that two of their best customers, the customers of 
the Iron and Steel Institute, were railways and shipping, so it was 
quite clear that the toast was appropriate, and would be given a very 
hearty reception. There were certain points of resemblance between 
shipping and railways, and there were also points of very marked 
difference. They were both of them engaged in that great work of 
transport and inter-communication, which not merely dealt with the 
development of commerce, but greatly influenced the international 
relations of the world, because, to achieve that intercourse, the easier 
and cheaper the communication, the more readily nations got to 
know one another, the fewer chances there were of prejudices existing 
and of ill-feeling being created. That day, at the Franco-*British 
Exhibition^ there had been a display of international good feeling 
which he was sure they were all of them delighted to have witnessed, 
and His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, in the short but very 
excellent reply to the address presented to him, touched upon the vital 
points of value in that Exhibition as a means of promoting good 
feeling between two great and neighbouring countries. Then those 
two interests had another feature of similarity at the present time. 
They were neither of them in a very flourishing condition, judged 
from the point of view of dividends to shareholders. He did not 
mind telling them, in confidence, that he had no shares in shipping, 
but he would like to add that that was to be explained quite readily 
by the fact that a public servant never had much money to invest 
in anything. The little he had was largely invested in railways, and 
he could only say he looked forward with some anxiety to the future. 
At the same time he felt quite confident that it was only a temporary 
cloud which was overhanging these great industries, and that out of 
the trouble would come even greater successes than had ever yet 
been attained, and that the Iron and Steel Institute would benefit 
thereby. Railways and shipping not merely resembled one another, 
but they were very closely connected with each other, and in some 
of the Colonies there was no disguise as to that intimate connection 
among railway companies who owned great fleets. In other countries 
there was an intimate connection between shipping and railways, 
even where the railways were not owned by private companies 
but by the Government, a connection which was not quite fully 
disclosed, and those railways affected, and seriously affected, British 
traders in competition. But against that and all other forms of com- 
petition. Great Britain was quite equal to holding its own. He did 
not believe Great Britain was as backward in the race or in educa- 



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THE ANNUAL DINNER. 185 

tional appliances, or in manufacturing capability, or in hope for the 
future, as some would have them believe. The English-speaking 
people were too fond of decrying themselves. He thought what 
was wanted was sometimes to turn over a new leaf, and to blow the 
trumpet a little for a change. He had just been to America, where 
they were going through a phase of self-depreciation which was neither 
wholesome nor satisfactory, yet he had felt the cry to be familiar be- 
cause he had been accustomed to hear the same thing at home. It was 
not wise to pose in that fashion. It was not wise to issue in British 
publications statements which would be translated and published 
throughout the world by rivals as trade advertisements. It was 
not wise to enable a competitor to say that such and such was the 
settled opinion of the British public as to its future, or of the British 
manufacturers as to the industrial outlook. It did not affect shipping 
and railways alone, but a great deal more than that. As to the 
differences between shipping and railways, there was one most im- 
portant fact in a ship's movements through the water that perhaps 
they had not always recognised as fully as he did, and that was that 
a ship was always going up hill and never down hill. There might 
be a trifle of tide in its favour, but not enough to count. A railway 
mounted and fell ; it climbed the Shap summit and ran down again 
towards Carlisle. The engine made a great efiPort in mounting but 
got relief in coming down, but the poor ship was always doing collar 
work. He had just come from America, and he had crossed at a speed 
which, for three days on end — until they came where the weather 
would no longer permit of it — reached twenty-eight statute miles 
per hour, which he thought compared favourably with the performance 
of some railways. He had known railway journeys on lines which 
were considered to be first class, which did not average so much as 
that, allowing for up hill and down hill. He remembered when 
the '' Flying Scotsman '' began to make its marvellous runs, and the 
account published in the Times of that period. A few days afterwards 
there came out in the Pall Mall Gazette another article entitled " The 
Fljdng Watkin." He would not enlarge upon the latter perform- 
ance. He would only say he was confident it did not average 
nearly 28^ miles per hour, nor was it kept up continuously for 2000 
miles. Railway men, when they had a straight run of 200 miles, 
considered they had done a wonderful thing, but what must feats 
of 3000 miles to 6000 miles on end without a stop be considered, 
up hill all the way ? They would see that he was blowing his trumpet 
now as a naval architect. Without the iron and steel manufacture, 
however, shipping and railways would not be what they were. When 
he read of the marvellous progress that had been made in Great 
Britain in recent years in railroads, mining engineering, and the 
manufacturing of iron and steel, he could not forget the debt of 
gratitude owed to the latter. It could not be claimed for British 
railways that they had half the mileage of the world in Great Britain. 
That was impossible. But it could be claimed for shipping that more 
than half the tonnage of the world was built at home. There was 



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186 THE ANNUAL DINNER. 

plenty of room in the empire for railways, and the British capitalist 
would do better to devote his wealth in helping forward the develop- 
ment of the British dominions beyond the seas than in helping foreign 
countries to develop. While there was such scope within those 
dominions, there was no need ever to despair that British railways 
and British shipping would continue to flourish. He had to couple 
with the toast the names of two distinguished guests — the Right Hon. 
John Wharton, the Chairman of the North-Eastern Railway Com- 
pany, and that of Sir Walter Runciman. 

The Right Hon. John Lloyd Wharton in reply, said he felt most 
sincerely the honour done him in asking him to return thanks for that 
very important toast. He had only to reply on behalf of the Railways ; 
the other half would be worthily dealt with by Sir Walter Runciman. 
A few months ago, that toast would have been a more difficult toast 
to reply to than it was at present ; as at that period there had been 
a somewhat serious outlook for railway companies in general. He 
was glad to take that opportunity of expressing his thanks to the 
late President of the Board of Trade and present Chancellor of the 
Exchequer for the part he took, which was largely contributory to 
peace between employers and employed. He was not aware whether 
many in that room had seen a pamphlet which had been circulated 
by that very large and influential body, the Amalgamated Society of 
Railway Servants. If they had, they had seen a document which 
gave the railway companies of England as good a character as they 
could possible have, out of the mouths of those they employed. 
When they heard stories about programmes to be put forward and 
carried out, he believed the common-sense of Englishmen would 
prevail, and that the employees of the railway companies, when they 
really looked into the matter and thought for themselves, would see 
that their employment was one which they could not lightly sur- 
render. It was an employment which was continuous, and that could 
not be said of every employment in England. It was said that there 
was only an average wage of 23s. a week among railway employees, 
but that included boys as well, and an average of 23s. a week year in 
year out for the best part of their lives was not a thing the men were 
likely to surrender. He might be an optimist or over sanguine, but 
he would repeat that he believed the common-sense of Englishmen 
would prevail, and what seemed likely some few months ago would 
not again come to the front in the way that it had done before, and 
that there would be peace between employers and employed. With 
regard to a matter which he considered to be a very important matter 
indeed, he wished to say that he did not believe there was the force 
behind the attempt at what was called <* nationalisation " that some 
people imagined. He would nevertheless like to ask every one in that 
room if they could believe that if the nationalisation of the English 
railways was carried out, if the railways ceased to be controlled by 
the Boards of Directors and the ofiicials who now controlled them and 
were to be handed over to State control, that the individual would 
benefit? Did they think that the trader would benefit, or that the 



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THE ANNUAL DINNER. 187 

shareholders of the railway companies would benefit, or that Great 
Britain at large would benefit? He honestly believed that the best 
thing for England was that railways should continue in the hands of 
those who now guided them, and guided them in a way which he 
believed no other nation on earth succeeded in equalling. There 
might be one other person who would be somewhat interested were 
this nationalisation to take place. The labourer was worthy of his 
hire, and whosoever might occupy the position of President of the 
Board of Trade would have a better salary in the future than he had 
had in times past ; but if he was to become general manager of every 
railway in the United Kingdom, he did not know what should be 
paid him. He thought ^10,000 a year would be insufiicient. If 
they sought the welfare of Great Britain the railways should remain 
under their present management, and he believed they would flourish, 
and that they would benefit the trader^ and the iron and steel trades 
especially. They were far better off under the present management 
of railways than they would be were that to be turned into State 
management as some people suggested. Those present were members 
of the great industry of iron and steel, that it was to their interest 
probably more than to that of any other industry in England that 
railways should be well managed. When the time came, if it ever 
did come, when they would approve of any alteration in the manage- 
ment of railways, he hoped they would give a good character to those 
who at present controlled them. 

Sir Walter Kunciman, Bart., M.P., said that a very able naval 
architect had told them that he had no shares in shipping. He would 
recommend him to take a few and he would very quickly get to learn 
how to live upon his losses. They were passing through a phase of 
very severe depression. He dared say they knew as much about it 
as he did in the different trades in which they were engaged. He 
did not think that those depressions were an unmixed blessing. 
Trade was as certain to have depressions as it was to have booms, 
and while they were going through the phase of depression, they 
might depend upon it that it had the useful effect of causing them 
to exercise the resources of their minds and good results would 
ultimately be derived from it. They had travelled far since those 
primitive times which Sir William White referred to when he (Sir 
Walter) was going to sea in a small sailing ship. They had ships 
now of which they could hardly tell one end from the other. He 
did not think that the proposer of that toast had anything to do with 
the designing of them, but at any rate they had that useful purpose 
in that they brought good to the people of Great Britain. They had 
to be very careful that they did not touch that great industry. He 
would remind some of the members of the Government present that 
each successive Government had not been unmindful of this great 
industry — not in subsidies, but in Acts of Parliament. As many as 
twenty-one Acts of Parliament had been passed in twenty-one years, 
and he thought fifty Acts of Parliament had been put into the 1897 
Act. That was not a bad record for twenty-one years. He had said 



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188 THE ANNUAL DINNER. 

they were passing through a period of great depression in shipping, 
dear coal — Lord Joicey knew something about that — dear provisions, 
dear insurance, dear everything, but they were able to compete with 
the other nations of the world independent of subsidies, and it was a 
very remarkable thing that the great bulk of the shipowners of this 
country did not want subsidies. They were able to compete. When 
there was work to do, they were able to pay their dividends irrespec- 
tive of it. Other countries — France, Germany, and Austria — were 
subsidised countries, yet Great Britain kept pace with them. They 
ought to be very proud of that great shipping industry, and he hoped 
that before the autumn — he was not going to predict that they were 
going to have a better time than they had been having — but that 
they would have a better time than had been predicted by a writer 
in the Morning Post, who had occupied a column and a half in 
inveighing against the shipping interests of the country. He had 
replied to that letter as well as he could, and he had told that corres- 
pondent that he knew nothing at all about it. He thanked Sir 
William White for proposing the toast and those present for the 
cheerful way in which they had received it. 

Mr. R. A. Hadfield, in proposing the toast of the guests, said 
they had received from one of their guests. Sir Walter Runciman, 
some exceedingly excellent advice. At a time like the present, when 
some of them were perhaps rather pessimistic, it was very encourag- 
ing to meet an optimistic speaker. He thought the turn of the tide 
would come before long, and he hoped they might look forward 
before long to a change in the conditions of trade. He had the 
pleasure of coupling with the toast two very well-known names, 
those of Viscount Ridley and of Lieutenant-Gen eral Baden-Powell. 
In Lord Ridley they had one who had done good service in the 
past ; while they all remembered the services that General Baden- 
Powell had rendered on the battle-field. They had also present with 
them that evening a very distinguished guest — a guest whose name 
was a household word — Sir Edward Grey, He (the speaker) came 
from SheflSeld, and there was only one fault that city could find 
with Sir Edward Grey, and that was that he had not contrived what 
he might call a little '* shindy.'' If he did so, Sheffield would be 
very thankful to him. He would say at once that such a shindy 
should not be with any mundane country ; but it might be with Mars. 
Sheffield had built up a great industry in order to protect the 
Empire. The Budget revealed an income last year of XI 60,000,000, 
yet the government appeared to grudge building a battleship or two. 
He was sure he would be forgiven for reminding them that the 
Empire could not afford to run any risks, and Sheffield for one did 
not want to see the defences of the Empire run down. He had much 
pleasure in calling upon those present heartily to drink to the toast, 
coupling with it the names of the gentlemen he had named. 

Viscount Ridley said he realised he was one of the guests of a 
distinguished Institute, whose works accompanied them from the 
cradle to the grave, without which they could not live, and one 



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THE ANNUAL DINNER. 189 

which had been responsible in the past century for the creation 
of what he might venture to term the second Iron Age. Though 
the Iron and Steel Institute might enter into the manufacture 
of nearly every article, there was one commodity at least which 
was not made of iron and steel, and that was the human frame. 
They thoroughly appreciated the privilege and the pleasure of dining 
with that distinguished Institute, but when he reflected upon what 
to return the compliment which they did them, he remembered 
the motto that " Speech is silver and silence is golden." As one 
of their guests, he ventured to repay their hosts in the most ex- 
pensive metal at his command, by that silence which was equivalent 
to gold. 

Lieutenant-General R. S. S. Baden- Powell, C.B.^ said it was a 
very difficult task indeed to return thanks for the guests after such 
speeches as they had heard, and indeed he hardly knew who the 
guests were, or why they were there. He was dining some nights 
previously at a dinner of a very old-fashioned institute called '* The 
Set of Odd Volumes," and at that table it was the custom of the 
President to ask each member after dinner who his guests were, 
and when the member had explained, he was asked, '* And why did 
you bring them here?" However, in the present instance he did 
not think the guests cared very much why they had been asked, 
provided they were asked. Speaking for himself, he was very glad 
to be there, and he felt it a great privilege to meet those whom 
he might call the kings of commerce or the great alchemists of the 
age, those who were turning iron into gold — or at least he hoped 
they were doing so. It had very long been his privilege to belong 
to that little steel ring that endeavoured to secure peace for the 
carrying out of those interesting chemical experiments, that ring 
with regard to which a man who was shown much gold said, ** Yes, 
I saw the gold, but I did not see the iron with which to protect it." 
That reminded him of the words of the Scotch ballad — 

* But what is the good of your store* of gold, 
If you have not the steel to guard it and hold." 

At the moment he had the privilege of belonging to the new 
strengthening link of steel that was now being forged to defend 
the Empire, and he wished to take the opportunity of thanking 
those employers of labour who had so loyally taken up that cause, 
and helped them so efficiently in giving it a fair hand and a good 
start. No doubt doing so they were doing themselves a good turn 
also, because it was a form of insurance which could not be without 
its value in the end. But at the same time the military authorities 
felt it a very great help, just at that particular juncture when efforts 
were being made to get officers and men, that the employers should 
come forward to help men to take service in the new Territorial 
Forces. From that point of view, he was personally very glad indeed 
to have the privilege of being there that night. 



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190 THE ANNUAL DINNEB. 

The Right Hon. Sir Edwabd Grey, Bart. (Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs), said : One of the disadvantages, I dbould say the 
only disadvantage, of being placed late on the toast list has alread}^ 
been exemplified this evening in Lord Ridley's speech. It is that 
there is a tendency on the part of previous speakers to abbreviate 
their own remarks under cover of expedition because one of the 
later speakers is going to make a long oration. Well, gentlemen, I 
am in the position of disadvantage that, speaking as I do now, I can 
safely say that we have arrived at that period of the evening when 
you do not desire any more than I do on any occasion, that I should 
realise the expectation of making a long speech. But 1 am grateful 
to your President and to you for having entrusted me with this toast, 
because I would say how much I appreciate the value and the great 
importance of the industry with which this Institute is connected. 
It is an industry so closely connected with all the most essential parts 
of our national life that its prosperity is in some sense a barometer 
of the whole national prosperity. Your Institute does valuable work 
by continually encouraging invention in promoting research, in con- 
tributing to the progress of the industry, and in insuring, by the 
diffusion of information, that the progress of that industry should be 
distributed universally. It is interesting work and it is important 
work, but it is also highly technical work, and as even a politician 
may sometimes feel that it is best to confine himself to learning his 
own business and to be wary of attempting to teach other people 
theirs, I would in proposing this toast not attempt to go too closely 
into matters with which you must be much more intimately acquainted 
than I am, but confine myself to a few of those observations of a 
vague and general character, of which all politicians, and especially 
Foreign Secretaries, keep a large stock in hand, and which, as far as 
I am concerned, are much suited to the comparatively unsubstantial 
metal of concerts and halls with which I have to deal than they are 
to that durable, strong, and solid material which is the object of your 
pai*ticular interest. I am glad to know that in this Institute there 
are many foreign members, and that your objects are so excellent, so 
uncontroversial, so absolutely non-political that you can indulge in 
cosmopolitanism without laying yourself open to any reproach. I 
was glad that Sir William White took the opportunity of referring 
to the opening of the great Exhibition, which is in itself an instance 
that industry does promote rivalry amongst nations, and also in 
better aspects promotes concord and good fellowship. But it is not 
so easy as it was, to speak on industrial matters and yet to avoid 
controversial questions. In industry especially we have to be careful 
how we speak on non-controversial occasions at the present time. 
There are those who are ready to discuss questions involving a 
physical revolution, and there are those who are ready to discuss 
questions involving a social revolution. All controversial matters 
of that kind I would put on one side. But this much I think I may 
safely say, that industries have to-day politics which are peculiarly 
their own and with which they must deal themselves, and with which, 



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Tttfi ANNUAL DINNER. 191 

unless they deal with them satisfactorily, not the best government 
in the world can safeguard the interests of the country. The politics 
of industry to-day are intimately concerned with the relations between 
employers and employed, each of whom are essential to the prosperity 
of the industry in which they are concerned. Their community of 
interest is fundamental. The divergency of their interest is super- 
ficial, but, as it is so often the case in life, the superficial is more obvious 
than the fundamental. What we seek to promote to-day is that the 
feeling of unity of interest between employers and employed should 
be brought home not merely to the intelligence of the country but to 
the feeling of the country. That is by no means the same thing. 
The action of the intelligence in all human affairs is not without 
effort. It is deliberate and it is intermittent. The action of the 
feelings is without effort — it is spontaneous and continuous — and 
that is why argument will never settle these questions, and why good 
relations between those different classes concerned in the industry 
most depend very greatly, not upon argument, but upon the tone 
and the temper in which they are handled by the two interests re- 
spectively. I have, at any rate, had enough connection with business 
to know that even between employers in the different industries 
there is a real community of interest, but the superficial, which is 
divergent, is sometimes more active than the fundamental, which 
is the community of ititerest. I have recognised to-night with 
great pleasure how Sir William White emphasised, apparently with 
your approval, the community of interest between railways, ship- 
ping, and the iron and steel industry, but I think everybody who 
has had connection with railway work must have known occasions 
when, in the inner councils of railway managei'S, regret has been 
expressed that that community of interest between other important 
interests and the railways did not seem so apparent to the industries 
served by the railways as it was to the railway managers themselves. 
So that I trust you will take my remarks as to the necessity of 
emphasising unity of interest as being confined not solely to em- 
ployers and employed but as also being applicable to the different 
industries. With regard to the Government, to which I must briefly 
refer after what one or two of the speakers have said, notably Sir 
Walter Runciman and Mr. Hadfield. I have not noticed to-night 
any great demand for legislation. Sir Walter Runciman, it is true, 
said with great satisfaction that the shipping industry had survived, 
I forget how many Acts of Parliament ; but he did not express, as I 
gathered from his speech, a desire for any more Acts of Parliament. 
I warmly welcomed the tone of Sir Walter Runciman's speech. He 
began by discouraging Sir William White from investing in shipping 
shares, but when it came to the end of his speech, I think Sir William 
White must have felt that if he had never hitherto entertained the 
idea of investing in shipping, now was the time to do it. I would 
not underrate the importance of good legislation to the material 
welfare of the counti^, but I recognise that from the immediate 
point of view of the great industries, what you wish to have from 



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192 THE ANNUAL DINNER. 

a Government is good and sound adminstration. In this country, 
if you take what is the true standard of judging Goyemments, 
the comparative standard, and compare it with the adminstration 
elsewhere, we might safely say that we have on the whole enjoyed 
under successive Governments exceedingly good administration. 
We did not secure it in a logical way, but then we never secure 
anything in a logical way. A man in public life wins his place 
by eloquence, heroics of party politics, by proficiency in the use 
of words ; and having won his place, he finds himself at the head 
of a great Department where his business is not heroics at all, but 
the humdrum details of adminstration, and where, especially, as 
in my Department, on most occasions, the less he makes use 
of words the better. But it is a system which I believe on the 
whole has succeeded, and will continue to succeed, in bringing to the 
top and associating in the government of this country, men of strong 
intelligence, who are well fitted both to cope with the rough and 
tumble of political life, and to turn their hands to good effect in the 
administration of important ofiices. Amongst those offices the Board 
of Trade is one which will become of increasing importance. The 
demands upon the Board of Trade will be more continuous than ever. 
They have been demands — I would not say for interference, because 
interference is often resented, but for intervention, which is often 
exceedingly welcome. I will claim this on behalf of the present 
Government, and I am exceedingly glad that Mr. Wharton has 
justified me, in the generous way in which he has done so, in adding 
to his remarks by saying that under the present Government — while 
Mr. Lloyd George was at the Board of Trade — the Board thoroughly 
maintained its high reputation. I think it has added to its great 
traditions, and that it was administered with a discretion, tact, and 
impartiality with regard to labour disputes which are essential to 
maintaining the position of the Board which, in the long run, must 
depend for its utility upon its possessing the confidence of all classes 
of the community. But if the Board of Trade is in the forefront of 
administration with regard to industries, the Department with which 
I am immediately concerned is also connected with industries, although 
it is in the background. Here I feel I am on delicate ground after 
Mr. Hadfield's speech. I had intended to say that the main business 
of the Department, as far as industry is concerned, is to promote 
peace. Mr. Hadfield dilated on the indirect advantages of war. 
I feel I must still contend that the important business of the Foreign 
Office is to promote peace. It is true that the iron and steel in- 
dustry has two great branches, one of them concerned with making 
the instruments of production, and the other concerned in making 
the instruments of destruction. It is true that in times of war the 
iron and steel industry does have what has been called to-night '* a 
boom.'' But a boom is not the same thing as prosperity, and if a 
shindy can produce a boom, it is peace alone that can produce pros- 
perity. Therefore, as far as wise government is concerned, it will 
do its utmost to produce such a condition of affairs in the iron and 



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THE ANNUAL DINNER. 193 

steel industry as will concentrate itself upon producing the machinery 
for the mercantile marine, the various implements used in industry, 
every one of which in its use helps to reproduce the capital which has 
heen consumed in creating it. If, unfortunately, peace cannot be 
preserved, and if you have that boom which comes from great ex- 
penditure upon armaments, you must in the long run suffer, because 
the instruments which you are producing instead of reproducing 
capital will be used to destroy capital. Peace unfortunately is not 
as cheap now as it once was. The burden of armaments in £urope 
and the world at large is becoming greater and greater. Increased 
taxation diminishes the profits of industry ; borrowing takes away the 
capital, which is one of the springs of industry. Desirable as it be 
that expenditure and armaments should be reduced — desirable for 
every nation — one nation can do nothing in this direction without 
the other; and if Mr. Hadfield is anxious to be assured that the 
importance of maintaining our armaments sufficiently strong to 
protect this country is realised by the Government, I will say this, 
that we do realise, much as we wish to reduce expenditure, that our 
naval expenditure in particular is, and must remain, dependent upon 
the naval expenses of other countries. I wish nations would be 
equcdly ready to recognise their community of interest as employers 
or employed in other industries. But until they do recognise that 
their naval expenditure will be dependent upon that of one another, 
I do not see how you are to make progress in the reduction of 
armaments. We do not recognise that, and we frankly admit that it 
is so, and we are ready to meet other nations in discussion if they will 
equally admit it. But the British Navy is purely a defensive force, 
and for that reason an essential force, and if our naval position falls 
to such a point that it is unable to cope with any other combination 
which can be brought against it, it will not merely be our prosperity 
that will be at stake, but it will be our very independence and 
integrity. 

I will ask leave, in proposing this toast, to join with it the name 
of Sir Hugh Bell, who can speak to us with authority, weight, and 
knowledge on the subject of industry. I do not imagine that you 
could have had a more favoured President than Sir Hugh Bell. His 
own personal connection with the Institute, and the connection of his 
father before him, his connection not only with the Institute but with 
the industry, must be historic and treasured in the traditions of the 
iron and steel industry. For myself I would add this, that it adds to 
my pleasure in proposing this toast that I should be able to couple 
with it the name of a man whom I value as highly as I value Sir 
Hugh Bell. We have been colleagues in business, we have met on 
many occasions, we have discussed many things together, we have 
discussed politics and business, and many branches of worldly affairs, 
and on all these occasions 1 can say with confidence that I have 
gained more than he has gained. That is an observation which I will 
ask him to take not as any reflection upon his business ability. To 
all of us who know him, we know that he brings into everything that 

1908. — L N 



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194 THE ANNUAL DINNER. 

he does an unusual amount of energy and thought, and that he brings 
to all that he does and all that he says an amount of vigour and 
freshness which makes it a pleasure and an advantage to work with 
him. I ask you to drink the toast of the Iron and Steel Institute, 
coupled with the name of Sir Hugh Bell, your President. 

Sir Hugh Bell, Bart., in replying, said: Sir Edward Grey, my 
lords and gentlemen, it is indeed a very great honour to be permitted 
to preside over such an institution as the Iron and Steel Institute, 
but on no occasion does that distinction come more closely home to 
one than on such an evening as the present. I will claim for the 
Institute that never during its existence has its dinner been marked 
by more distinguished speeches than we have heard to-night. If I 
were asked to say what was that particular mark which differentiates 
them from the ordinary after dinner speeches such as one hears 
when one goes to a public dinner, I would say that it was their 
discreet indiscretions. One speaker after another has skated up to 
the very margin of the thinnest ice. No single one has let his iron 
pass into the water beneath him by a hair's-breadth. My friend, Sir 
William White — I trembled at moments during his observations — 
I thought in another second he would be over the edge, and we 
should have to drown him in applause. But no ! He turned away, 
was off in another direction, and the danger was avoided. Again, 
the gentleman who followed him, the Chairman of the North-Eastern 
Railway Company, was as close to danger as it was possible to get 
without actually incurring it, and yet I think no one will deny that 
the words used by Mr. Wharton were of infinite value in the situation 
in which we find ourselves. My friend, Sir Walter Runciman, who, 
with his advice to Sir William not to invest, and his concluding 
remarks that the best thing you could do with your money now was 
to put it into shipping, was characteristic of the indiscretion of 
language which I believe is almost inherent in the captain on the 
bridge of a steamer. Then I come to the next on the list, Mr. Had- 
field, who invites the Foreign Secretary to ^' kick up a little shindy.'' 
If it had been anybody but a man from Sheffield, one would have said 
that that was a blazing indiscretion. Oh, no ! Mr. Hadfield turned 
aside apd took the opportunity of saying some words to which I shall 
advert at a later stage. My friend, Lord Ridley, was, I could see, 
burning to emit opinions which on one hand would have elicited no 
little applause from some gentlemen in this room, but, on the other 
hand, would have called forth signs of dissent which would, I hope, 
have fully overwhelmed those of approval. Then General Baden- 
Powell, who calls us, in delicate language, all the names he can 
lay his tongue to for asking him to dinner, tells us precisely why we 
did it. Perhaps you did not follow exactly what General Baden- 
Powell was saying. I will tell you why he is one of our most honoured 
guests this evening. Among other capacities (so numerous I almost 
feel inclined to imitate Mark Twain, who you will recollect intimated 
that he had enlisted so many times in America that he thought of 
calling himself out and electing himself colonel of the regiment of 



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THE ANNUAL DINNER. 195 

which he was the sole private soldier), I am more or less in 
the position of being responsible for some small section of the 
Territorial Army to which General Baden-Powell in veiled terms was 
referring, and he is my general in command. Is it surprising that I 
should desire to conciliate him ? If I am not successful, the chances 
are ten to one he will have me out in the barrack-yard and shoot me ! 
Then finally, Sir Edward Grey, with the discreet indiscretions of a 
Secretary for Foreign Affairs that were perfectly delightful to listen 
to! The way in which he was able to point out to Mr. Hadfield 
where the true interests of our industry are to be found, must have 
warmed the hearts of all of us. M!y lords and gentlemen, the iron 
industry is the industry of peace, and if it is the means of warfare, if 
it supplies the means of warfare, in this country at all events we 
believe and hope it supplies the means of warfare for the sake of 
peaca 

My lords and gentlemen, on your bill of fare there appears for the 
first time a coat of arms. Up to now we were content to emblazon 
on our o£5cial documents the head of a very distinguished English 
gentleman, a great nobleman, and a personage to whom the In- 
stitute owes much, the seventh Duke of Devonshire. Now, even 
a duke is not necessarily beautiful, and a duke's head is not neces- 
sarily an ornament. The Council have permitted me to put the 
Institute into the position of having the right to wear coat armour : 
to bear arms. If any body of men are entitled to armour, surely 
it is the Iron and Steel Institute. Sir Edward Grey has referred to 
the very many qualifications and to the multitudinous knowledge 
required in the iron and steel industry. I have no doubt there is 
not a single man in this room who cannot blazon the arms printed 
on the back of the bill of fare and who would not at once in chorus 
say after me — 

*' Sable, a Buck's head caboshed, and in chief two Hawks' bells 
Argent on a chief Rayonne Or, the astronomical symbol of Mars 
of the first." 

May I venture to call your attention to the symbolism of the coat 1 
By heraldic convention, black is the sign of your metal, the stag's 
head represents the Duke of Devonshire, your first President ; the 
heralds have been good enough to put on to your shield something 
recalling the fact that my father was connected with the founding 
of your Institute — the Hawks' bells; while the chief Rayonne Or 
indicates the method by which you transmute the base metal into the 
precious commodity, which after all is the end of our ambition, the 
gold of your chief. The chief bears the symbol of Mars, the alchemic 
sign of your metal, iron. So I venture to think the Arms are 
not inappropriate to the Institute, but I will add that the motto 
appears to carry into heraldic parlance that sentiment by which you 
justify your corporate existence, " The smith helps the smith ; " — the 
ironmaster helps the ironmaster. It takes* two of us to do anything 
that we require to do. That, as Sir Edward Grey has well pointed 
out, is the purpose for which the Institute exists. I hope you will 



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196 THE ANNUAL DINNEB. 

think we have been rightly guided in the selection of your Arms. 
Let me say once again that the mark of your industry is not war but 
peace. It is from peace that you will derive that prosperity on which 
the prosperity of the world largely depends, and without which the 
industry cannot be satisfactorily carried on. We may thank Sir 
Edward Grey for having drawn our attention to the fact that the 
industry must be carried on in no selfish spirit. Indeed all industry 
bears the mark of mutual advantage, without which it would not 
continue to exist. I cannot sufficiently thank Sir Edward for the kind 
terms in which he referred to the personal relations which have 
existed between him and myself, but I will take exception to his having 
found it necessary to make any caveat that from that intercourse he 
had gained more than I. It is a sorry interchange even of thought, 
and much more of commodities, where there is not a mutual gain, 
where each party to the bargain does not go away better for the 
interchange. I will assure Sir Edward that if he has gone away 
thinking that he has done better out of the intercourse, I, on my 
side, went away feeling that in so far as there was any getting the 
better of the transaction, I had got the better of him on precisely the 
same terms. I do not know whether you observed some few days 
ago that a distinguished American admiral remarked that what the 
world wanted was more battleships and fewer statesmen. I dare say 
those who design and build battleships would be inclined to agree 
with Admiral Evans in the view which he expressed, but the rest of 
the world think they are well-advised in holding no such opinion 
if we can get the right sort of statesmen. If we could have a good 
many more like Sir Edward Grey, I will venture to assert that we 
should forge the main part of our swords into ploughshares, and use 
the money we spend in defending what we have got in making 
more. That, perhaps, is a counsel of perfection, and I am sure this 
audience will have been glad to hear from one who speaks with 
the authority of Sir Edwai'd Grey, that there is no fear of the 
British sword being forged into a ploughshare until we are quite 
sure that we no longer require it for the purposes of defence. 

I want to go back for one moment to the remarks of my friend Sir 
Walter Runciman, because I writhed under them and could not stand 
the gibe which he directed at my Lord Joicey. I am a coal-owner 
myself, and if I refer to recent proceedings in Parliament I seem rather 
like getting on to thin ice myself. When I found there were two classes 
of persons who were going to be excluded from the old age pension 
scheme, I came to the conclusion that neither Lord Joicey nor I had any 
chance of getting our 5s. a week, because in the estimation of our 
fellow-countrymen the coal-owners belong to one or the other (and 
sometimes to both) of the two excluded classes — they are invariably 
either lunatics or criminals, mostly both. But I will assure you, and 
I think Lord Joicey will confirm the fact I am going to state, that we 
do not differ from the rest of you by one jot or tittle. We carry on 
our industry for the sole purpose of benefiting mankind, and when, 
from time to time, at long intervals, we derive some little benefit from 



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THE ANNUAL DINNER. 197 

it, all we do with the money is to invest it in similar enterprises in 
order that the world may be made still better off. That is a view 
just as well justified as those which attribute to us all sorts of mal- 
feasances when they did not accuse us of criminal folly. 

I said I was afraid I would really get on to thin ice, and therefore 
I had better skate away from it as rapidly as possible, and conclude 
by offering to our guests this evening our very hearty thanks for their 
presence at our table, and for the kind way in which the toast of the 
Institute was proposed by Sir Edward Grey and responded to by the 
rest of the guests. I suppose you did not venture to respond your- 
selves, gentlemen, for you would never think of drinking to your own 
very good health. Now our proceedings are at an end, and I hope 
none of us have transgressed longer on your patience than was fitting, 
regard being had to the importance of the occasion. 

I am reminded by a gentleman in the room that the Autumn meet- 
ing takes place in Middlesbrough. We have nothing to do with 
armaments there. We are purely on the pacific side of the industry, 
and we will offer you — and I, as a Middlesbrough man, offer to the 
Institute — a very hearty welcome to Middlesbrough when the time 
comes. 



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198 THE NBW PREMISES OF THE IRON AND STEEL INSTITTJTE. 



THE NEW PKEMISES OF THE IRON AND 
STEEL INSTITUTE. 



Owing to the steady growth of the membership of the Iron 
and Steel Institute, with the increasing clerical work thereby 
entailed, and to the expansion of the Institute Library, which 
now contains several thousands of volumes, the Council de- 
cided, early in the current year, to secure more commodious 
offices, and to effect certain improvements in the internal 
arrangements with the object of providing additional facilities 
for the members. An opportunity fortunately presented itself 
for obtaining a lease of the spacious offices, in the same build- 
ing, formerly occupied by Sir Douglas Fox & Partners. The 
acquisition of these premises presented numerous advantages, 
amongst which the fact that the address would remain un- 
changed, had much weight with the Council. Negotiations 
were therefore opened with the Westminster Trust, who are 
the landlords of the premises, and a satisfactory arrangement 
having been arrived at, the Council concluded an agreement 
at their meeting in February. 

The new premises consist of a suite of ten rooms, on the 
first floor of No. 28 Victoria Street, having precisely the same 
outlook as the recently vacated offices, and access being 
obtained from the same main entrance and staircase. The 
Council have also obtained the use of a storeroom, con- 
veniently situated in the same building, on the sixth floor. 

A plan of the new offices is shown in the figure on the next 
page. The entrance is immediately opposite that of the old 
premises, and affords access to a spacious hall nearly 70 feet in 
length. The rooms have been decorated throughout in white 
enamel, with distempered walls of pale straw-yellow colour, 
which ensures the maximum radiation of light, and enables 
an effective display to be made of the extensive collection of 
portraits and paintings possessed by the Institute. 

To the left, on entering the hall, is a suite of five rooms 



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THE NEW PREMISES OF THE IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE. 199 

overlooking Victoria Street. The first room is fitted as ibl 
waiting-room, and its most interesting feature is the Isxge 
show-case containing the collection of early specimens of 
Bessemer steel presented to the Institute by Sir Henry 
Bessemer. Amongst other objects of interest on view in this 
case are short pieces of a 100-pounder gun tube made of 
Bessemer steel, a 74-pounder steel projectile formed in a 
hydraulic rolling-mill of novel construction designed and 
worked by Sir Henry Bessemer, part of a Bessemer steel rail 




Plan of New Premises. 

rolled at the works of the London & North- Western Railway 
Company, and a portion of a steel rail twisted into a com- 
plete spiral, from end to end, without producing fracture. 
Two interesting specimens are pieces cut from the two first 
rails of Bessemer metal ever rolled, the metal having been 
made from Blaenavon grey foundry pig at Sir Henry Bessemer's 
experimental works at Baxter House, London, in 1856. A 
sample consisting of the earliest experimental example of 
metal converted by the Bessemer process is also shown, the 
resulting ingot having been rolled at the Royal Arsenal at 
Woolwich into a flat bar. This bar was made in about the 



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200 THE NSW PREMISES OF THE IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE. 

month of June 1856, and was among the samples of Bessemer 
metal exhibited at the meeting of the British Association at 
Cheltenham on the 13th August 1856. With the exception 
of this bar, all the other samples shown on that occasion have 
been lost. There is also a small model g^n forged from one 
of the first Bessemer ingots which were made at the works 
of Messrs. Bessemer & Co. at Sheffield. An analysis of the 
metal of which this g^n is made was conducted by Mr. Edward 
Riley, when it was found that it yielded 99*787 per cent, of 
pure iron, and was therefore equal in quality to some of the 
highest brands of Swedish bar iron. Another show-case con- 
tains a collection of medals and of the badges which have 
been issued at the various meetings of the Institute. 

Suspended around the walls of the waiting-room are por- 
traits of Henry Cort (the inventor of puddling and of grooved 
rolls), George Thomas Clark (one of the trustees of the Insti- 
tute, 1880-1898), Alexander Thielen (Vice-President, 1896), 
and Benjamin Walker (Member of Council, 1889-1890), 
together with diplomas gained by the Institute at various 
exhibitions in which it has participated, including those of 
Paris, St. Louis, and Milan. 

The two adjoining rooms have been thrown into one, and 
form a spacious Council-room. In a prominent position of 
this room stands a life-sized painting in oils, by H. T. Wells, 
R.A., of the seventh Duke of Devonshire, the first President 
of the Institute. At one end of the room is suspended a large 
oil painting, by Rudolph Lehmann, of Sir Henry Bessemer 
(President, 1872), at the period of his invention of the 
Bessemer process. At the other end hangs the portrait, in 
oils, of Edward Williams (President, 1879-81), presented to 
the Institute by William Jenkins of Consett. The Council- 
room also contains the portraits of the Past-Presidents of the 
Iron and Steel Institute, viz. : — 

Sir LowTHiAN Bell, Bart. (1873- , Sir Bernhard Samuelbon, Bart. 

76). I (1883-85). 

William Menelaus (1876-77). John Percy (1885-87). 

Sir C. William Siemens (1877-79). Daniel Adamson (1887-89). 
Edward Williams (1879-81). i Lord Airedale of Gledhow (1889- 

JoBlAH TiHHIs Smith (1881-83). I 91). 



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THE NEW PREMISES OF THE IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE. 201 



Sir Fbrderick Augustus Abel, 

Bart. (1891-93). 
Edward Windsor Richards (1893- 

95). 
Sir David Dale, Bart. (1895-97). 
Edward Pritchard Martin (1897- 

99). 



Sir William Chandler Roberts- 
Austen (1899-1901). 

William Whitwell (1901-1903). 

Andrew Carnegie (1903-1905). 

Robert Abbott Hadfield (1905- 
1907). 



The Council-room also contains a portrait of Mr. W. H. Bleckly, 
Hon. Treasurer, and albums containing a collection of photo- 
graphs of members of the Institute. 

A door of communication from the Council-room affords 
access to the Secretary's room, while the last room on this 
side of the hall is used as an office for the Institute's accounts 
and correspondence. On the western side of the hall is a 
large reading-room and lounge, in which members may con- 
sult current periodicals, conduct correspondence, and meet 
each other for conversation or consultation. Smoking is 
allowed, and comfortable lounge seats have been provided, the 
Council being desirous of encouraging members to use the 
room as a meeting-place. On the walls of the reading-room 
are displayed portraits of the Bessemer medallists of the 
Institute, including — 



Robert Forester Mushet. 
Peter Ritter von Tunner. 
Peter Cooper. 
Sir Joseph Whitworth, Bart. 
Alexander Lyman Holley. 
Georoe Jahbs Snelus. 
Sidney Gilchrist Thomas. 
Richard Akerman. 
James Riley. 
John Devonshire Ellis. 
Henri Schneider. 
William Daniel Allen. 
Hon. Abram S. Hewitt. 



Lord Armstrong, C.B. 

Arthur Cooper. 

John Fritz. 

John Gjers. 

Henry Marion Howe. 

Hermann Wedding. 

Richard Price- Williams. 

Henri db Wendel. 

John Edward Stead. 

Friedrich Alfred Krupp. 

John Oliver Arnold. 

Floris Osmond. 

JoHAN August Brinell. 



In this room also stands a handsome marble pedestal, sur- 
mounted by a marble bust of F. Krupp (hon. member of the 
Institute), bequeathed by Mr. Alfred Longsden, and a bust of 
the late Sidney Gilchrist Thomas. Over the mantelpiece is 
a small bust in cast iron of Professor A. Ledebur (hon. 
member of the Institute). 



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202 THE NEW PREMISES OF THE lEON AND STEEL INSTITUTE. 

The three adjoining rooms on this side are devoted to the 
library of the Institute. In the last of the three provision 
is made for special research for the purpose of enabling mem- 
bers desirous of consulting works of reference, or the files of 
mining and metallurgical periodicals, to do so in quietness 
and privacy. In this room a card catalogue to the library is 
available, and the current files of some hundred and fifty 
technical journals are placed in boxes easy of access. 

The last room of this suite (the first on the right, on 
entering) is the general office for inquiries, &c. In the new 
premises effective ventilating apparatus is provided, and the 
hall and rooms are lighted by Osram electric lights. There 
is telephonic commimication between the various rooms. In 
case of fire there is an iron door to shut off the premises from 
the rest of the building, and fire-extinction apparatus is 
provided. 

It will be seen from the foregoing that the new premises are 
considerably larger than those just vacated, and it is hoped 
that not only will the increased facilities thus provided attract 
the London members of the Institute who may have occasion 
to avail themselves of them, but that the members resident 
in the country and abroad may find them increasingly useful 
when they visit the metropolis, and thus realise the objects 
which the Council have had in view in planning and carrying 
out the necessary alterations. 



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MINING AND HETALLUBOICAL CONGRESS AT ST. KTIKNNE. 203 



THE MINING AND METALLURGICAL 
CONGRESS AT ST. ETIENNE.* 



Ok June 14 to 18, 1908, the Soci^t^ de Tlndustrie Min^ale, the most 
important mining and metallurgical society in France, celebrated the 
jubilee of its foundation by a Congress held at St. Etienne. Founded 
at St. £tienne by the celebrated metallurgist, Gruner, on April 29, 
1855, to further the progress of mining and metallurgy, it was but 
natural that this Society, which now numbers 1400 members, holding 
sectional meetings in the various mining districts, should select the 
coalfield of the Loire for the celebration. The Congress, which should 
properly have been held at an earlier date, was deferred with a view 
to the simultaneous inauguration of the Society's new quarters in the 
Engineering Building at St. Etienne. This magnificent building has 
been erected by the Amicable Society of Old Students of the St. 
Etienne School of Mines. In it accommodation is provided for the 
club-rooms of that Society and also for the offices of the Society de 
rindustrie Min^rale, of the Comity des Houill^res de la Loire, and 
of the Comity des Forges de la Loire. 

The Congress, which was attended by 436 members of the Society, 
was a brilliant success. The attractive programme was briefiy as 
follows : Meetings were held under the presidency of Mr. L. Tauzin 
on the evenings of June 14, 15, and 16, when papers were read by 
Professor J. Siegler on the mining industry of the Loire basin, by 
Professor A. Yicaire on the metallurgical industry of the Loire basin, 
b}' Mr. J. Bureau on the working of deposits subject to outbursts of 
carbonic acid gas, by Mr. J. B. Marsaut on the safety-lamp, by Mr. 
Francis Laur on economic and industrial monopolies, by Mr. H. Fayol 
on the jubilee of the Commentry-Fourchambault Company, by Mr. 
P. H. de Renn^ville on the fiushing system of stowing mine workings, 
and by Mr. L. Lemi^re on theories of the formation of coal. 

Excursions took place daily, the members being divided into a 
mining and a metallurgical group. The former visited on June 15 
the Roche-la-Moli^re collieries and the Firminy mines, on June 16 
the Montmartre pit of the Loire Mining Company, the Beraudi^re 
mines and the Montrambert mines, on June 17 the St. Etienne 
collieries and the mines of the Loire, and on Juno 18 the P^ronni^re 
mines. The metallurgical group visited on June 15 the Unieux steel- 
works and the Firminy steelworks, on Jane 16 the St. Etienne steel- 
works and the engineering works of Crozet-Fourneyron, Trablaine, and 
Palle-Bertrand, on June 17 the engineering works of Leflaive <b Co., 

* Report presented to the Council of the Iron and Steel Institute by Bennett H. 
Brough, Secretary. 



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204 MINING AND METALLURGICAL CONGRESS AT ST. ETIENNE: 

the Montaud electrical central station^ and the French Manufac- 
ture of Arms and Cycles, and on June 18 the steelworks at Saint 
Chamond, and the works of Marrel Brothers and of THonsie. Each 
day the members were hospitably entertained at luncheon by the 
various companies. After the Congress excursions were organised on 
June 19 to the Rochetaill^e dam, and on June 20 to Mount Pilat 
and to Le Puy-en-Velay, the centre for easy excursions in the beauti- 
ful region of the Yelay and the Auvergne. The official banquet was 
held on June 17, and a ball was given on June 18 by the Amicable 
Society of Old Students of the St. Etienne School of Mines. 

From a mining point of view the St. Etienne district is one of 
surpassing interest. Geologically the coalfield is of Stephanian age. 
The base of the St. Etienne sequence is a breccia over 500 feet in 
thickness, which is conformably overlain by a conglomerate varying 
from 600 to 2500 feet thick. This is succeeded by the productive 
coal measures of St. Etienne, consisting of a lower group (St. 
Chamond), 2800 feet thick with twelve seam^ of coal, a middle group 
(B^rard) over 1000 feet thick with nine seams, and an upper group 
(Aveize) from 600 to 700 feet thick with twelve seams. The St 
Etienne coalfield is prolonged beneath the Secondary and Tertiary 
formations towards the Jura. 

The mining of coal in the Loire basin can be traced to the earliest 
times, as even before the twelfth century coal was quarried for use as 
fuel. It was, however, not until the fourteenth century that the in- 
dustry attained importance. At that period relations were established 
between St. Etienne and Lyons, St Etienne receiving crude iron 
from Burgundy and Franche-Comt^, and giving in exchange coal and 
manufactured iron. Transport was effected on mules' backs. In the 
eighteenth century all the hardware received at the Mediterranean 
ports came from St. Etienne. The collieries shared the general pros- 
perity, and in 1786 the mines of the Forez and Rive de Gier yielded 
177,000 tons of coal, a tonnage representing about half the total 
output of France. The railway from St. Etienne to Lyons was opened 
in 1830, and the development of the heavy iron and steel industries 
immediately followed. As the demand for coal increased, mining 
appliances were rapidly improved. The first vertical shafts were sunk 
in 1720. They were of small diameter, and their depths did not 
exceed 20 to 30 yards. Blasting was first adopted in the Loire in 
1799 in completing the sinking of a pit at Rive de Gier. In 1810 
the first winding-engine was installed. The visits paid to the various 
collieries enabled visitors to form an idea of the admirable manner in 
which mining operations are now carried on in the Loire basin. 
Special mention may be made of the collieries of Roche-la-Moli^re 
and Firminy, which are worked by a company formed on June 10, 
1820. The concession covers an area of 5856 hectares. There are 
nine shafts, the deepest being 359 metres. The total output in 1907 
was 844,468 tons. The plant for the mechanical preparation of the 
coal comprises at Roche-la-Moli^re a Copp^e washer treating 80 tons 
an hour, with 72 coke ovens of the old Belgian type, at the Malafolie 



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MINING AND METALLURGICAL CONGRESS AT ST. ETIENNE. 205 

a Humboldt washer treating 30 tons an hour and two agglomerating 
presses, one of the Couffinbal type producing 5 tons of briquettes an 
hour, and the other of the Veillon type producing 7 tons. In 1907 
there was washed 330,575 tons of coal ; and 17,780 tons of briquettes, 
and 26,983 tons of coke were produced. 

From a metallurgical point of view the Loire basin is a region of 
great historical interest. Although iron was made in the St. Etienne 
district before the fifteenth century, the industry really dates from 
1815. At the instance of Chaptal, minister of the First Empire, an 
Englishman named Jackson established at Trablaine, near Chambon, 
the first steelworks in France. A second steelworks was started by 
Beaunier at the B^rardi^re, whilst De Gallois erected near Saint 
Chamond the first forge of the English type. After that progress was 
rapid. In 1837 P^tin and Gaudet put up at Rive de Gier one of the 
first power-hammers in France, forging in 1848 the first iron naval 
gun, and in 1853 the first armour plates. 

The first steelworks visited were those of Unieux, belonging to 
Jacob Holtzer <fe Co. The members were received on June 15 by Mr. 
Marcel Holtzer, member of the Iron and Steel Institute, by Mr. H. A. 
Brustlein, by Mr. Paul Duthu, technical manager, by Mr. L. Demozay 
(author of the valuable paper on the hardening of steel read at the 
Vienna meeting of the Institute), and other officials of the company, 
and were shown the various departments of the works and the different 
stages of the manufacture of armour plates and projectiles. The 
casting of a 4-ton ingot of crucible steel was seen, as well as the 
casting of an 8-ton ingot of steel from the electric furnace. 

The electric iron-smelting plant at Unieux is driven by a power 
plant of 750 kilowatts. A Westinghouse alternator is driven by a 
compound steam-engine of the Dujardin type, with Belleville boilers. 
The electric furnace used is of the Keller type, with movable vertical 
electrodes. Each pole consists of two parallel electrodes. The molten 
steel from the open-hearth furnace is cast into a ladle from which it 
is emptied into the electric furnace. The molten steel is then brought 
into the circuit and the operation of deoxidation carried out. The 
time of the operation depends upon the quality desired for the steel. 
The plant was first tried on April 22, 1908, and has proved eminently 
satisfactory for castings of 10 tons in weight. The works afford 
employment to 1800 workmen. 

In the afternoon of June 15 the Firminy steelworks were visited. 
The members were received by Mr. Adolphe Hugot and Mr. Marcel 
Dumuis. The tapping of the blast-furnace, which has a capacity of 
210 cubic metres, was first seen, and the various processes of the 
manufacture of artillery, projectiles, and railway material were then 
followed. The works afford employment to 2713 workmen, and the 
equipment includes seven open-hearth furnaces of 4 to 20 tons, eleven 
puddling furnaces, three furnaces containing 90 crucibles, three 
cementing furnaces, forty-seven re-heating furnaces, nine rolling- 
mills, one 2500-ton forging press, and thirty-four steam-hammers of 
1 to 40 tona 



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206 MINING AND METALLURGICAL CONGRESS AT ST. ETIENNE. 

On June 16 the visitors were received at the St Etienne steelworks 
by Mr. C. Cholat, by Mr. H. Harmet^ member of the Iron and Steel 
Institute, by Mr. F. Beutter, member of the Iron and Steel Institute, 
and by Mr. Pierre Cholat, who showed the members the manufacture 
of projectiles, the casting of a 32-ton compressed steel ingot, the cutting 
of a case-hardened armour plate 240 millimetres thick, the mechanical 
charging of an open- hearth steel furnace, the rolling of small plates, 
the forging of a 32-ton compressed steel ingot for armour plate, and 
the hardening of an armour plate for the CondorceL The Harmet 
process of fluid compression was followed with great interest. This 
process, which was described by Mr. Harmet at the Diisseldorf 
meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute, differs from others in that 
the pressure is applied from the bottom, the metal being forced up 
into a conical-shaped mould, thus giving an effect similar to that 
produced in wire-drawing. Pressure is applied at the correct moment 
in the most effective manner, and, the solidification taking place under 
conditions favourable to the formation of the best structure, segrega- 
tion is reduced to a minimum. Sections of numerous large ingots cut 
through the longitudinal axis showed that piping had been entirely 
eliminated. The St. Etienne steelworks afford employment to 1600 
workmen, and the equipment includes ten acid or basic open-hearth 
furnaces, five puddling furnaces, fifty-seven heating furnaces, six 
rolling-mills, one forging press, and eighteen steam-hammers. 

On June 17, in the morning, a visit was paid to the works of 
Leflaive & Co., at La Chal(^assi^re, St. Etienne. The works are ad- 
mirably equipped both from the point of view of buildings and 
machinery, as well as from that of arrangements for the health and 
comfort of the workmen. Employment is afforded to 900 workmen. 
The manufactures are of a varied character, and include CoUmann 
steam-engines, Curtis vertical steam-turbines, Buttner multitubular 
boilers, steelworks machinery, mining machinery, and gas-producers. 
There is a 600 horse-power central electric-power station. The pattern- 
making shop covers an area of 600 square metres. The foundry has 
an area of 6500 square metres, and is equipped for casting machine 
parts up to 50 tons. The boiler-making shop, in which 400 workmen 
are employed, covers 7000 square metres, is 12 metres high, and is 
built entirely of iron. 

On June 17 a visit was paid in the afternoon to the central station 
of the Electric Company of the Loire. The company was formed in 
1892 to supply electric energy from an hydraulic power station at 
Saint Victor sur Loire for the ribbon and velvet factories. The Saint 
Victor station was installed in 1893 with three hydraulic turbines con- 
trolling triphase alternators of 80 volts, with transformers to 5500 
volts. These transformers, which are still in operation, are of 
historical interest, in that they were used at Lauffen, Frankfort, for 
the first demonstration of the possibility of long-distance power trans- 
mission. At St. Etienne the company erected central stations at 
Rives in 1896, atTrois Meules in 1899, and lastly, in 1900, the steam- 
power central station at Montand, where the first unit (a 1500 horse- 



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MINING AND METALLURGICAL CONGRESS AT ST. ETIENNE. 207 

power Dujardin engine) was started in 1901 ; the second unit (a 2800 
horse-power Rateau turbo-alternator) in 1906 ; and a third unit (a 
Curtis turbo-alternator) is in course of erection. A fourth unit of the 
same type is to be erected in 1909. In 1900 the company furnished 
1500 horse-power, and in 1908, 6000 horse-power. Light and power 
is supplied to 37 communes of the Loire, and of the Haute-Loire. 
There are more than 8000 subscribers, who receive current for 14,000 
lamps and 6000 horse- power for motors. Current is supplied for the 
St. Etienne steelworks and for the electric tramways. 

At the works of the Manufacture Fran^aise d'Armes et Cycles, which 
were next visited, the members were received by the directors, Mr. 
Mimard and Mr. Blachon. The works cover an area of 40,000 square 
metres, and afford employment to 3000 workpeople. The establish- 
ment is one of the best installed small-arms factories in the world. 
The chemical, metallographical, and mechanical testing laboratories, 
and the pyrometers attached to the various furnaces, afforded evidence 
of the scientific manner in which the manufacture is controlled. 

The visit to the Saint Chamond works, which were described in 
detail in the Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute (vol. Iviii. p. 370), 
proved the most attractive of all the excursions. All the members 
both of the mining and metallurgical groups participated, and all 
were struck with the diversity of the work executed, with the vast 
extent of the establishment, and with the eagerness with which all 
technical and scientific improvements have been adopted by Mr. A. 
de Montgolfier (Hon. Member of the Iron and Steel Institute) in the 
great works that he controls. The company possesses works at Saint 
Chamond, Assailly, Rive de Gier, Givors (Rhone), Le Boucau (Basses 
Pyrenees), Hom^court (Meurthe-et-Moselle), Mauberge, and Hautmont 
(Nord). The equipment comprises nine blast-furnaces, six acid or 
basic converters, fifteen acid or basic open-hearth furnaces, and four 
crucible furnaces. The total annual production is 307,000 tons of pig 
iron and 245,000 tons of steel. 

On June 17 the official banquet was held in the new building. Mr. 
Tauzin, the President of the Society, presided, and he was supported 
by Mr. Murgue, President of the Amicable Society of Old Students of 
the St. Etienne School of Mines, by Mr. Delafond, Inspector-general 
of Mines, and by Messrs. H. Le Chatelier, Reumaux, Marsaut, Couriot, 
Fayol, Rateau, Pourcel, Harmet, Fried el, and about 400 members of 
the Society. The visitors were welcomed by Mr. Murgue, who described 
the steps that had been taken by the old students to erect the 
engineering building. The President then handed the Gold Medals 
of the Society to those members who, during the past fifty years, had 
contributed most to the development of mining and metallurgy. The 
medals were awarded to Louis Aguillon for his work on mining law, to 
Henri Le Chatelier (member of the Iron and Steel Institute) for his 
researches on metallography and explosives, to G. Chesneau for fire- 
damp detection, to Henri Fayol for his work on combating mine-fires, 
to A. Francois for his work in connection with colliery explosions, to 
J. K Marsaut for his safety-lamp, to E. Reumaux for his improve- 



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208 MINING AND METALLURGICAL CONGRESS AT ST. ETIBNNE. 

ments in methods of mining, to A. Pourcel (member of the Iron and 
Steel Institute) for his improvements in the manufacture of steel, and 
to A. Bateau for his applications of machinery to mining and metal- 
lurgy. Congratulatory addresses were then presented by Mr. Bennett 
H. Brough on behalf of the Iron and Steel Institute, and by Mr. A. 
M. Hedley on behalf of the North of England Institute of Mining 
Engineers. Various toasts followed. Mr. Huart, Prefect of the Loire, 
proposed the health of the President of the Republic, Mr. Charpentier, 
member of the Chamber of Deputies, that of the working men of the 
Loire district, and Mr. Brough that of the Soci^te de T Industrie 
Min^rale. Regrets having been expressed by Mr. Gruner and others 
that the rules of the Society precluded the award of medals to Mr. 
Brustlein and Mr. Harmet, members of the Council, the President 
stated that the matter would be dealt with at the next general 
meeting. 

The whole programme had been admirably organised, the arrange- 
ments for special trains and carriages, under the able direction of 
Mr. H. Verney, the Treasurer and Registrar of the Society, worked 
without a hitch, and the Congress proved to be one of the most suc- 
cessful gatherings of the kind on record. Abstracts of the papers 
read will be given in the Journal of the Institute when they have 
been published in the official BMefin of the Society. 



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obituahy. 

Hermakx Wedding, Hon. Member of the Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute, died on May 6, 1908, in Diisseldorf. Born on March 9, 1834, 
he was the son of J. W. Wedding, director of the government print- 
ing-office and eldest son of Johann Friedrich Wedding, the eminent 
Silesian ironmaster, who in 1794 built the £rst coke blast-furnace on 
the continent of Europe. Dr. Wedding was educated at the Berlin 
Gymnasium, and on leaving the school entered the government mining 
service, the advice of Dr. C. J. B. Karsten, author of the well-known 
treatise on the metallurgy of iron, an old friend of the family, having 
guided him in the choice of a career. On October 7, 1853, he was 
received as '^ Beflissener " in the Breslau mining district, and ap- 
pointed to the Royal Ironworks at Malapane. He subsequently 
worked practically at the Friedrichs mine near Tarnowitz, the Friedrich- 
shtLtte and the Rybnik ironworks, the Konigshiitte and KOnigsgrube. 
After two years' experience in Upper Silesia, he proceeded to Berlin 
for his military service, and began there his university studies. He 
subsequently studied at Freiberg, and received the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy at Berlin on April 7, 1859. He then travelled for 
some time in Belgium and South Wales. In March 1861 he passed 
his examination as '* Bergreferendar," and received his first govern- 
ment appointment as official at Eiserfeld in the Siegen district. 
At the International Exhibition in London in 1862, where he acted 
as Commissioner for the German Customs Union, he made the 
acquaintance of Dr. Percy, an acquaintance that developed into 
intimate friendship. The desire he then formed to devote his life to 
the metallurgy of iron was strengthened by a journey that he made 
with the head of the Prussian mining department, Krug von Nidda, 
through England. On December 5, 1863^ he was appointed lecturer 
on metallurgy at the Berlin School of Mines, and he continued until 
his death to be unremittingly active in educating young metallurgists, 
and in their subsequent careers many of his pupils took a large part 
in furthering the remarkable development of the German iron trade. 

Wedding's contributions to metallurgical literature are known all 
over the world. He translated into German Dr. Percy's ** Metallurgy 
of Iron and Steel," a task that occupied twelve years. The second 
edition was quite a new work. The first part was published in 1892, 
and the second part of the fourth and last volume has only recently 
appeared. In 1871 he published his Grundriss der EisenhiUUnkunde^ 
of which five editions have been issued. He also wrote a small 
popular book on the metallurgy of iron for working men (2nd edition, 

1908. — L O 



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210 OBITUARY. 

1904). Besides these he was the author of Aufgahen der Gegentoart 
im Gebiete der Eisenhilttenhmde (Brunswick, 1888) and Die Eisenpro- 
hierhunde (Brunswick, 1894). The numerous papers read by him at 
various Congresses, and those published by him in the Transactions of 
technical societies and in the technical journals, afford evidence of his 
remarkable industry and of the eagerness with which he followed the 
progress of metallurgy. 

iVom 1867 until the close of his life he was a member of the Royal 
Technical Deputation for Trade and Industry. From 1877 to July 1, 
1907, he was a member of the Imperial Patent Office, and devoted a 
large share of his energy to the work. He was a great traveller and 
an excellent linguist, and was always anxious to encourage cordial 
international relations in metallurgy. He was a regular attendant at 
Congresses and meetings of technical societies, and acted either as 
Commissioner or as juror at almost all great technical and Inter- 
national Exhibitions (London, Stockholm, Vienna, Philadelphia, Paris, 
and Chicago). 

In recognition of his great services to the metallurgy of iron. 
Wedding was the recipient of numerous honours. He received the 
title of Qeheimer Bergrat, as well as the decorations of the Order of the 
Red Eagle, the Order of the Crown, the Bavarian Order of St Michael, 
the Order of the Austrian Iron Crown, the Russian St. Stanislas 
Order, and the Swedish Order of the Pole Star. He was an honorary 
member of the Society of German Ironmasters, of the American 
Institute of Mining Engineers, of the United States Association of 
Charcoal Ironworkers, of the " Hiitte," and of the Verein zur Befor- 
derung des Qewerbfleisses. The last-named society also awarded him 
their gold medal. Of the Iron and Steel Institute he was an honorary 
member, and in 1896 received the Bessemer gold medal. He con- 
tributed six papers to the Institute's Journal. The first, on the 
working of blast-furnaces with raw coal, was read in 1872, and was 
followed by papers on the iron industry of Germany (1880), on the 
Royal Prussian Institutes for testing iron and steel at Berlin (1882), 
on the properties of malleable iron deduced from its microscopic 
structure (1885), on the progress of German practice in the metallurgy 
of iron and steel (1890), and on the roasting of iron ores with a view 
to their magnetic concentration (1896). 

His Grace the Duke of Devonshire, K.G. — The Iron and Steel 
Institute has to deplore the decease of its most noble member, the 
eldest son of the Institute's first President, the eighth Duke of 
Devonshire, who died at Cannes on March 24, 1908. His death de- 
prived the Empire of one who will ever rank among the greatest 
and most distinguished of English statesmen. 

Spencer Compton Cavendish, eighth Duke of Devonshire, was born 
on July 23, 1833. To write the history of the distinguished house to 
which he belonged would be to write the history of England from the 
time when Sir John Cavendish was Chief > Justice of the Court of 
King's Bench in 1366. For many generations the Cavendishes have 



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OBITUABY. 211 

been distinguished alike in politics, in diplomacy, in pure and applied 
science, and for their social virtues and accomplishments. 

The main outlines of the Duke's public career will be known to 
most. The eldest son of the seven'di Duke, he began his political 
apprenticeship at the age of twenty-three by taking part in Earl 
Granville's special mission to Russia at the Coronation of Alexander II. 
In March 1857 he was first returned to the House of Commons, and 
thence until 1892, when he succeeded to the Dukedom^ he sat con- 
tinuously in that Chamber, for though at the General Election of 
1868 he lost his seat for North Lancashire, he was immediately 
returned for another constituency. His official Parliamentary life 
began in 1863, when he was appointed a Lord of the Admiralty. 
Less than a month afterwards he was made Under-Secretary for War, 
and on the reconstruction of Lord John Russell's second Administra- 
tion, the Marquis of Hartington^ as he then was, became Secretary for 
War, at the age of thirty-three. Subsequently he was Postmaster- 
General in Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet of 1868^ and then Chief Secretary 
for Ireland. When, in 1875, Mr. Gladstone, then in Opposition, 
thought of retiring, the Marquis of Hartington was appointed his 
successor as leader of the party in the House of Commons. 

On the return of the Liberals to power the Marquis of Hartington 
was sent for by the Queen to form an Administration, but he declined, 
and served under Mr. Gladstone as Secretary for India and afterwards 
as Secretary for War. At the time of the great Home Rule split in 
1886 it was Lord Hartington who became the leader of the Dissen- 
tient Liberals and moved the rejection of the Bill. On Mr. Gladstone's 
resignation. Lord Salisbury proposed that the Marquis of Hartington 
should assume the Premiership ; but, for the second time in six years, 
he declined that honour. Many subsequent efforts were made to 
induce him to join the Government, but he preferred to remain inde- 
pendent. In the House of Lords he again led the attack on the 
second Home Rule Bill. On the Conservatives coming back to power 
in 1895 the Duke of Devonshire definitely severed himself from the 
Liberals and accepted office as Lord President of the Council, a post 
which he occupied from 1895 to 1903, when the Tariff Reform move- 
ment caused him to dissociate himself from his colleagues. 

On the day of his death, in both Houses of Parliament striking 
tribute was paid to his memory. In the Upper Chamber, after the 
Marquis of Ripon and the Marquis of Lansdowne had spoken from 
the two Front Benches, Lord Rosebery, at the close of an eloquent 
speech, moved the adjournment of the House as a mark of respect to 
the late Duke. In the course of his speech Lord Rosebery said : 
*' It is men of that kind that form the glory of our country. We have 
many statesmen who occupy high office, and many other countries have 
these, but few countries have men of high capacity with every temp- 
tation to sloth who devote themselves to the service of their country 
without the slightest ultimate personal object or ambition. That was 
the Duke of Devonshire's proud position, and it was for that reason, I 
think, the country always sought his judgment and opinion on current 



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212 OBITUARY. 

events, and why he will leave after him a memory which even men of 
more conspicuous genius have failed to bequeath. He bore a proud 
name ; there is no prouder name in all this House than the name of 
the Duke of Devonshire. His forefathers have rendered at various 
times inestimable service to the State, but I greatly question in all 
that long, illustrious line if any of the Dukes of Devonshire or the 
Cavendishes will have left a name more trusted and beloved, more 
justly trusted and more justly beloved, than the Duke whom we 
mourn to-day." 

Politics represented only one side of the Duke's career. He was a 
great social figure — friend of kings and princes, a pillar of the turf, 
and, as owner of 186,000 acres, a territorial magnate of almost 
unequalled influence. He was Chancellor of the University of Cam- 
bridge (1892), Lord-Lieutenant of Derbyshire (1892), His Majesty's 
Lieutenant of County Waterford (1892), Lord Rector of Glasgow 
University (1877), Chancellor of the University of Manchester, and 
Provincial Grand-Master of Derbyshire Freemasons since 1858. He 
was Chairman of the Barrow Haematite Steel Company, Limited, and 
of the Furness Railway Company. 

In 1888 the Duke of Devonshire joined the Iron and Steel Institute, 
of which his father, the seventh Duke, was the first President ; his 
brothers, Lord Frederick Cavendish and Lord Edward Cavendish, were 
members of Council, and his heir, the Right Hon. Victor Cavendish, 
M.P., is a Vice-President. On several occasions the Duke attended 
the meetings and banquets of the Institute. At the annual dinner in 
1895 he made an eloquent speech, in which he expressed his belief 
that to the influence of the Iron and Steel Institute was due in no 
small degree that series of scientific and mechanical inventions by 
which the cost of production of iron and steel had been during the 
last quarter of a century so enormously diminished, and by which 
alone it had been possible for those industries to compete with the 
depressing times which had had to be encountered. At the Man- 
chester meeting in 1899, and again at the Sheffield meeting in 1905, 
the Duke was a member of the Reception Committee, and entertained 
the members at luncheon at Chatsworth. At the Barrow meeting in 
1903 he was chairman of the Reception Committee, and at the joint 
meeting with the American Institute of Mining Engineers in London 
in 1906 he again showed his interest in the work of the Institute 
by joining the Reception Committee. 

Reynold Henry Newton Alleynb died at Falmouth on April 6, 
1908, in his fifty-sixth year. He was the sole surviving son of 
Sir John G. N. Aileyne, Bart., senior Vice-President of the Institute, 
and he inherited much of his father's mechanical genius, and after 
leaving Winchester adopted engineering as his profession, but owing 
to indifferent health he was not able to give full scope to his great 
natural abilities. He was at first apprenticed to Messrs. Napier & 
Sons, shipbuilders and engineers, Glasgow ; after that he was for some 
years engaged in a mechanical tool business in Leeds, and latterly 



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OBITUABY. 213 

had been managing director of the Norfolk Estuary Company, which 
was formed for the purpose of resisting encroachments of the sea on 
the Norfolk coast. He was elected a member of the Iron and Steel 
Institute in 1876. 

Alfred Baldwin, M.P., chairman of the Great Western Railway, 
died suddenly on February 14, 1908, at Kensington Palace Mansions. 
The youngest son of the late G. P. Baldwin, he was born in 1841. He 
was educated privately, and early commenced his business career, 
which was prosperous almost from the very first. Besides being 
chairman of the Great Western Railway — a post he succeeded to on 
the retirement of Earl Cawdor in 1905 — he was chairman of Messrs. 
Baldwins, Limited, one of the most powerful amalgamations in the 
country, for it combines the business of E. P. and W. Baldwin, Ltd., 
Wright, Butler, & Co., Ltd., of Birmingham, Alfred Baldwin & Co., 
Ltd. (paper mills), the Bryn Navigation Colliery Company, Ltd., 
and the Blackwall Galvanised Iron Company, Ltd. He was also 
chairman of the Metropolitan Bank (of England and Wales) and 
of the Aldridge Colliery Company, Ltd., in addition to being 
on the board of Messrs. Allen, Everitt & Sons, Ltd., and deputy- 
chairman of the Central Insurance Company. During his career 
he had also been a director of the following companies : Fishguard 
and Rosslare Railways and Harbours Company (chairman). Golden 
River Quesnelle, Limited, Anglo-American Tin Stamping Company 
(chairman), Archibald Kenrick & Sons, and Bentong Straits Tin 
Company. In addition to the strenuous labours these positions 
must have entailed, he also discharged the duties of magistrate 
of Staffordshire, and was a deputy-lieutenant for Worcestershire, for 
which county he acted as high sheriff in 1894. He had represented 
the Bewdley Division of Worcestershire in the Conservative interest 
since 1892, and was a consistent Tariff Reformer. He was a member 
of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. He was an original 
member of the Iron and Steel Institute. 

Charles John Copeland died at Liverpool on January 8, 1908. 
He served his apprenticeship under the late Mr. Bouch, at the 
Sheldon Works of the North-Eastern Railway, after which he was 
for some time with the firms of Geo. Stevenson & Co. and Bairds of 
Stockton. He then went to sea for some years as a marine engineer, 
after which he became manager of Messrs. Westray <k Co. of TJl vers- 
ion, ultimately becoming a partner, when the firm opened a works at 
Barrow under the title of Westray, Copeland & Co., shipbuilders and 
engineers, and for the past eighteen years, up to the time of his 
death, he was practising in Liverpool as a consulting engineer and 
naval architect. He was elected a member of the Iron and Steel 
Institute in 1873. 

Henry Davies died at his residence in Preston on May 9, 1908. 
He was a director of the Ebbw Vale Company, the Tawd Vale 



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214 OBITUARY. 

Colliery, and the Littlewood Brick and Tile Company. He was a 
Justice of the Peace, and served as Mayor of Preston in 1896-1897. 
He was elected a member of the Iron and Steel Institute in 1896. 

John DiCKmsoN of Sunderland died at Harrogate, on July 3, 1908, 
at the age of eighty-three. He was a native of Hebburn, and moved 
to Sunderland when he was about twenty -two years of age to work at 
his trade as a blacksmith. In 1852 he established a business of his 
own, but not until 1892 was that business converted into the limited 
liability form, under the style of John Dickinson & Sons, Limited. 
He became chairman of the company, with his three sons on the 
board. In 1906 the output of the firm, employing about 2000 
men, included 33 sets of marine engines and 3000 tons of boilers. 
Mr. Dickinson was a member of the River Wear Commission, an 
office which he held for about eighteen years. He was a Justice of 
the Peace for the county of Durham, a life governor of the Sunder- 
land Infirmary, and took a deep interest in local affairs. He was 
elected a member of the Iron and Steel Institute in 1884. 

Waltee Fbarnehouoh died at his residence, 3 Claremont Place, 
Sheffield, on December 31, 1907, at the age of fifty-nine. He was 
head of one of the largest machine-knife manufacturing businesses in 
Sheffield, and was well known in the lighter steel industry of that 
city. He was elected a member of the Iron and Steel Institute in 
1886, and was a member of the Reception Committee at Sheffield 
in 1905. 

William Thomas Flatheb died at Sidmouth, South Devon, on 
May 30, 1908. He was managing director of the Standard Steelworks 
at Sheffield. He was elected a member of the Iron and Steel Institute 
in 1881, and was a member of the Executive Reception Committee for 
the Sheffield meeting in 1905. 

Georqb Garrett, one of the leading ironmasters in Scotland, died at 
Coatbridge on May 1 1, 1908, at the age of sixty-two. He was a native 
of Walfes, and brother of the late William Garrett, the well-known 
authority on wire-rod rolling. In early life he was engaged by the 
Russian Government to erect ironworks near St. Petersburg. When 
he went to Coatbridge he, with his partner (Mr. Davie), erected the 
Waverley Iron and Steel Works. He was elected a member of the 
Iron and Steel Institute in 1884^ and was an active member of the 
Reception Committee for the Glasgow meeting in 1901. 

George Harrison died on December 21, 1907, as the result of 
injuries received in an accident at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. 
He was bom in Edinburgh in May 1880, and educated at Yiewpark 
and Merchiston Castle schools. After serving an apprenticeship to 
the firm of James Milne & Sons, Ltd., he entered Peterhouse College, 
Cambridge, and attended the Engineering Laboratory. He graduated 



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OBITUARY. 215 

with Second Class Honours in the Mechanical Science Tripos, and 
in February 1905 received an appointment in the Boyal Carriage 
Department of Woolwich Arsenal as shop manager, a position which 
he held at the time of his death. He was elected a member of the 
Iron and Steel Institute in 1906. 

John Hart died on December 3, 1907, at the age of sizty-five. He 
was in business at Middlesbrough for over thirty years as consulting 
and inspecting engineer, and as an expert on the manufacture of 
rails and constructional steelwork. He acted as arbitrator in many 
cases with regard to rails, and in this capacity went to Japan some 
years ago, and afterwards to Egypt He was elected a member of 
the Iron and Steel Institute in 1877. 

Petronixjs Hodoes died at Sheffield in January 1908. He served 
his apprenticeship in the Locomotive Department of the Great 
Northern Railway Co. at Peterborough and Doncaster, and in 1866 he 
joined the firm of Cammell, Laird & Co., and was appointed manager 
of their Fenistone works. He subsequently became one of the chief 
officials of the firm at the Sheffield works, retiring in 1904. He was 
elected a member of the Iron and Steel Institute in 1884, and was a 
member of the Reception Committee at Sheffield in 1905. 

Tom Cobb Kino, who died at New York on February 27, 1908, was 
born at Marion, Alabama, on June 10, 1861. He graduated from 
Howard College at that place, and later from the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology at Boston. He held office as superintendent, 
manager, or in similar capacity, in charge of the Briar Hill Coal and 
Iron Company's works at Toungstown, Ohio ; the Clifton Iron and Steel 
Company's works at Ironaton, Alabama ; the Crown Point works of 
the American Steel and Iron Company. He was one of the few men 
who made f erro-manganese in America. He built works in various 
places, including a large blast-furnace plant at Sharon, Pennsylvania, 
and a plant at Marietta, Pennsylvania. For some time he had been 
residing in New York city engaged with various professional interests, 
among others, processes invented by him for nodulising and desul- 
phurising all high-grade ores, and a new process for refining nickel. 
He was a member of the American Institute of Mining Engi- 
neers. He was elected a member of the Iron and Steel Institute 
in 1904. 

John Finlay Maclaren died on January 9, 1908, at his residence 
in Glasgow, in his fortieth year. He was an ironfounder, and part 
proprietor of the Eglinton Foundry, Port Eglinton, Glasgow. He 
was elected a member of the Iron and Steel Institute in 1890. 

Henbrik Post van dbr Buro died at Rotterdam on December 31, 
1907. He was for many years connected with the iron trade and 



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216 OBITUARY. 

engineering industries of Holland, and was managing director of the 
Nederlandsche-Indische Industrie, whose works were situated at 
Soerabaia. The firm also acted as importers of machinery and of 
materials connected with the manufacture of iron and steel. Mr. 
Post van der Burg was elected a member of the Iron and Steel 
Institute in 1905, and in the autumn of 1907 took part in the 
Vienna meeting. 

William Radoliffb died at his residence, Clarkegrove Road, 
Sheffield, on March 26, 1908, at the age of sixty -four years. Born at 
Oldham in 1844, he was educated at Owens College, Manchester ; was 
one of the founders of the Phoenix Bessemer Steel Company, Ltd., 
and of the firm of Hampton, Radcliffe & Co. in July 1872, which was 
afterwards acquired by Steel, Peach & Tozer, Ltd. He erected 
a lot of bridgework for the old Manchester Sheffield, and Lincoln- 
shire Railway Co., now the Great Central Railway. He was senior 
partner of Radcliffe, Son & Crockford, London, and a director of 
Gregory, Reddish k Co., Ltd., Sheffield. He was a member of the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers. He was elected a member of 
the Iron and Steel Institute in 1890, and was a member of the 
Sheffield Reception Committee in 1905. 

f 

Sir David Richmond, ex-Lord Provost of the city of Glasgow, and 
chairman of the Clyde Trust, died on January 15, in his sixty-fifth 
year, at his house, Broompark, Pollokshields. He was noted 
less perhaps as the founder of a highly successful tube-making 
business than as an indefatigable worker not only in connection 
with the civic affairs of Glasgow, but in aU matters concerned 
with the development of its industries, and especially of the 
river Clyde, its docks, shipping, and shipbuilding. He was born in 
Deanston, Perthshire, in 1843. His parents, in the year following, 
removed to Glasgow, and he received most of his education in the 
High School of the city. Ill-health overtaking him just as he had 
completed his education, he went to Australia and New Zealand to 
regain his strength, returning with enlarged experience in 1866. 
Two years later he began business on his own account as a manu- 
facturer of iron tubes at the original City Tube Works, removing 
later to the works of the same name in Hutchesontown. Under his 
guidance the business became so successful that the Hutchesontown 
works soon proved insufficiently large to meet the trade, and accord- 
ingly the North British Tube Works, Govan, were acquired, and 
have had to be considerably extended since. From 1879 till his 
retirement in 1899 he served in the Town Council of Glasgow, in that 
time filling all the chief offices, including the Lord Provostship, to 
which position he was elected in 1896. It was largely owing to his 
exertions that the Prince's Dock was constructed. In 1899, the third 
year of his occupancy of the Lord Provostship, he received his knight- 
hood. Although, in virtue of his provostship, he had previously 
occupied the position, the latest public appointment conferred on him 



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OBITUARY. 217 

was that of chairman of the Clyde Trust in November 1907. He was 
elected a member of the Iron and Steel Institute in 1895, and was 
a member of the Reception Committee for the Glasgow meeting in 
1901. 

Richard Suith-Casson died at his residence, Roseville, Paignton, 
South Devon, on December 12, 1907, at the age of sixty-eight. 
For many years he was associated with the Round Oak Ironworks 
at Brierley Hill. He was elected a member of the Iron and 
Steel Institute in 1877, and resigned in 1900. He contributed to the 
Journal a paper in 1884 on gas puddling and heating furnaces, with 
special reference to the Casson-Bicheroux system, and in 1895 one 
on small cast steel ingots. 

Cabl Nicolai Andreas Solbero died in Norway on March 22, 
1908. He was born in Drammen, Norway, and educated at Di*ammen 
Grammar School. He entered the University of Christiania in 1889. 
Afterwards he went to Gains College, Cambridge, where he studied 
science, especially electricity, and graduated as Bachelor of Arts in 
1893. He then returned home and became interested in and after- 
wards managing director of the electrical concern Norsk Elek- 
trisk Aktiebolag from 1898 to 1905. After having effected in this 
year a combine of this firm with the Norway branch of the firm of 
Brown Boveri & Co., of Baden, Switzerland, he went for a time to 
Baden, but having from his stay in Cambridge always had a great 
liking for England, he soon afterwards accepted an offer of the 
management of the new branch of the Electrical Company Ltd. at 
Newcastle. In the autumn of 1907 he was taken ill, and went by 
his physician's advice to Egypt, but becoming worse he returned to 
Norway, where he died. He was elected a member of the Iron and 
Steel Institute in 1907. 

Henry Clifton Sorby, the scientist of world-wide reputation, died 
at his residence in Sheffield on March 9, 1908, in his eighty -second 
year. Ookning of a family which had been associated with Sheffield 
since the time of Henry VIII., he was born on May 10, 1826, his 
father, the late Henry Sorby, of Woodbourne, Attercliffe, being a 
member of the well-known firm of J. & H. Sorby, of Spital Hill, edge 
tool manufacturers. He was educated at the Sheffield Collegiate 
School and by private tutors, and he early evinced an interest in 
chemistry and other sciences. His name began to be known in con- 
nection with scientific work before he had reached the age of twenty- 
one. He published his first paper, the subject being agricultural 
chemistry, in 1847, and since that time he has written no fewer than 
two hundred and forty publications on various topics connected with 
his investigationa As an original investigator his work has been 
keenly appreciated by various learned societies. In 1853 he was 
elected a Fellow of the Geological Society of London, and was in 1869 
presented with the Woollaston Gold Medal for his application of the 



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218 OBITUARY. 

microscope to the study of rocks. He was President of the Society 
from 1878 to 1880. In 1857 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and served on the Council in 1876 and 1877, receiving in 1874 one 
of the two gold medals given by the late Queen. He was one of the 
eighteen foreign members of the Academy of the Sciences in Rome, 
the oldest scientific society in the world. In 1872 he was presented 
with the Medal of the Dutch Society of Science, which is awarded 
once in twenty years to the one who has done most to advance geology 
and mineralogy in that period. He was President of the Royal Micro- 
scopical Society in 1875, and was re-elected in 1876 and 1877. In 
1876 he was appointed the first President of the Mineralogical Society 
of Great Britain and Ireland. The University of Cambridge conferred 
the honorary degree of LL.D. upon him in 1879. For a number of 
years he was one of the secretaries of the Geological Section of the 
British Association, and was President of that section at the Swansea 
meeting in 1880. When the British Association visited Shefiield in 
1879, he was one of the local secretaries, and was subsequently elected 
to the Council. He was also a member of the Imperial Mineralogical 
Society of St. Petersburg, the Dutch Society of Science, and Mineralo- 
gical Society of Brussels, a corresponding member of the Lyceum of 
Natural History, and of the Academy of Natural Science in New 
York, the Academy of Natural Science in Philadelphia, and of many 
British societies. In Sheffield he was President of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society in 1852. He was re-elected to that office several 
times, and on the occasion of his completing his fifty years' connection 
with the society he was again re-elected to the chair and presented 
with his portrait, alike to celebrate the jubilee, and^ in the words of 
the inscription, "to commemorate his world-wide scientific repu- 
tation." 

Dr. Sorby rendered conspicuous service to his native city, not- 
ably in the establishment of the Technical School, which is now a 
Department of Sheffield University. He worked hard to secure the 
success of that institution, and, on its being successfully established, 
was appointed its first chairman. He was also one of the most 
generous contributors to its funds. He was President* of Firth 
College from 1882 to 1897. In the latter year the College became 
the University College of Sheffield^ and he resigned in order that the 
Duke of Norfolk might be elected to the presidency. He remained, 
however, on the governing body of the College, and on the charter for 
a university being granted, he was appointed to the Council, was a 
member of the Committee for the Department of Applied Science, 
and held both these positions up to his death. 

In 1849 he founded the science of petrography, having prepared in 
that year the first rock section ever examined by transmitted light. In 
1856 he enunciated his theory, now generally accepted, that the Cleve- 
land ironstone hills had been originally calcium carbonate, which had 
been gradually replaced by carbonate of iron derived from associated 
strata. The study of rocks led him to that of meteorites, and enabled 
him to show that they have interesting points of relation to volcanic 



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OBITUARY. 219 

rocks and consolidated ashes. In order to throw light on meteoric 
iron he was led to prepare slightly etched sections of artificial irons 
and steels, and it was soon found that by studying these by means of 
illuminators contrived by himself and others, not before applied to 
such a purpose, most important information could be gained, so as to 
put our knowledge of iron and steel on an entirely new footing. He 
read papers on the subject, and exhibited microscopic photographs 
before the British Association at Bath in 1864, and before the Sheffield 
Literary and Philosophical Society, but though the specimens were 
often publicly exhibited and described, the subject attracted little or 
no notice for more than twenty years, when, at the request of Dr. 
Percy in 1886, he contributed to the Iron and Steel Institute a paper on 
the application of very high powers to the study of the microscopical 
structure of steel. This was followed in 1887 by a paper giving the 
complete results of his twenty years' study of the microscopical inves- 
tigation of iron and steel. Referring to this paper Dr. Percy, the 
President, said that he had a strong impression that, from a scientific 
point of view, great results were likely to flow from this line of 
investigation, which might possibly admit of valuable application in 
the manufacture and working of iron and steel. Dr. Percy's predic- 
tion was borne out by results, and in the words of the obituary notice 
in Naiure (voL Ixxvii. p. 466), " Dr. Sorby placed in the hands of 
metallurgists for all time a new and most valuable method of scientific 
investigation." Dr. Sorby was elected a member of the Iron and Steel 
Institute in 1886, and the last time he appeared at its meetings was 
in 1906 at Sheffield, when, as a member of the Reception Committee, 
he was wheeled into the Firth Hall of the new University buildings 
wearing his academic robes, and expressed his pleasure that so much 
interest was now taken in the study of the microscopic structure of 
steel compared with the little interest taken twenty years previously, 
when he contributed his papers on the subject to the Institute. 

Henbt Fbedebick Swan, C.B., the High Sheriff for Nor- 
thumberland, died on March 25, 1908, at his home, Prudhoe 
Hall, Prudhoe. He was born on September 10, 1842, at West 
Farm, Walker-on-Tyne. He was educated privately, and when six- 
teen years of age commenced his apprenticeship with the late firm 
of G. Mitchell <& Co., shipbuilders. In 1862 he went to Russia to 
superintend the construction of vessels for the Russian Navy for 
Messrs. Mitchell & Co., who had received the order. On his return 
to this country he took charge of the Walker shipyard, which he had 
seen grow from a very small yard to one of the best equipped ship- 
building yards in the country. In 1882 Messrs. C. Mitchell & Co. 
amalgamated with Sir W. G. Armstong k Co. of Elswick under the 
style of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Mitchell <fc Co., Limited, and the name 
of the firm was again changed in 1897, when it amalgamated with that 
of Sir Joseph Whitworth k Co. of Manchester. Since that time the 
firm has lien known as Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., 
Limited. Mr. Swan remained one of the managing directors, devot- 



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220 OBITUARY. 

ing most of his time to the development of the shipbuilding business 
at the Walker yard. He was also a director of the Wallsend Blip- 
way and Engineering Oompany, Limited ; the Weardale Steel, Coal, 
and Coke Company, Limited ; and the Cargo Fleet Iron Company, 
Limited. 

In 1884 he made a special study of the question of the carriage of 
petroleum in bulk, and at that time designed and built the s.s. Gluckauf^ 
which was the first vessel specially built to cross the Atlantic with a 
cargo of petroleum. He also paid great attention to the construction 
of ice breakers^ and many of the largest and best vessels of this type 
are the outcome of his experience and ingenuity. He took a keen 
interest in public affairs, and was especially interested in the volun- 
teer movement, with which he was actively connected for forty- two 
years, and in recognition of his services he was created a Companion 
of the Bath on his retirement in 1902, and enrolled as honorary 
colonel of his regiment. He was a member of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, member of the Council of the Institution of Naval Archi- 
tects, past-president of the North-East Coast Institution of Engineers 
and Shipbuilders, and a member of the North of England Institute of 
Mining and Mechanical Engineers. He was elected a member of the 
Iron and Steel Institute in 1874. 

Robert Thompson died on January 1, 1908, at the age of fifty-seven. 
He was the eldest son of the late Joseph L. Thompson, and was edu- 
cated at Gainford School. He was the principal partner and chairman 
of directors of the shipbuilding firm of Joseph L. Thompson k Sons, 
Limited, of Sunderland. He had very varied experience, having been 
actively engaged in the shipbuilding industry since the year 1865. 
His firm have, on a great many occasions, held the record of having 
launched in one year the largest amount of tonnage on the Wear. 
Besides directing the affairs of the shipbuilding and repairing busi- 
ness, Mr. Thompson was an active partner in the Sunderland Forge 
and Engineering Company, Limited ; he was one of the founders of the 
Wearmouth Laundry Company, Limited ; chairman of directors of 
the Skinningrove Iron Company, Limited ; and was connected with 
various other business companies. He was a county Justice of the 
Peace, a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, a 
Governor and Member of Council of the Durham College of Science, 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, and was one of the founders of the North-East 
Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders, of which, during the 
two sessions 1891-92 and 1892-93, he occupied the presidential chair. 
He was also a member of the Council of the Institution of Naval 
Architects, and for a number of years was one of the North-East 
Coasfc representatives on the Committee of Lloyd's Registry of BritLsh 
and Foreign Shipping, and acted as a member of the Technical Sub- 
Committee. He was also a member of the River Wear Commission 
and of the Borough Council. He was elected a member of the Iron 
and Steel Institute in 1886. 



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OBITUABY. 221 

The obituary of the half year also includes the names of Sir Howard 
Vincent, K.O.M.G., C.B,, who was an active member of the Sheffield 
Reception Committee in 1906, and frequently attended meetings of 
the Institute ; of Alfeed Habbts, the eminent professor of mining 
at Li^ge, who took an active part in the reception of the Institute at 
Li^ge in 1873 and at Brussels in 1894 ; and of F. H. Webb, who 
during the twenty years he was secretary of the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers had frequent relations with the Iron and Steel 
Institute. The death is also announced of Benjamin Howard 
Thwaitb, who, although not a member, contributed to the proceed- 
ings papers on the metallurgic department of the Sheffield Technical 
School (1891), on fuel and its efficiency (1892), on the profitable 
utilisation of power from blast-furnace gases (1901), on the effect 
of flue dust upon the thermal efficiency of hot-blast stoves (1903), 
on th« use of steel in American lofty building construction (1904), on 
accidents due to the asphyxiation of blast-furnace workmen (1905), 
and on the economic distribution of electric power from blast-furnaces 
(1907). He was one of the pioneers in the utilisation of blast-furnace 
waste gases as motive power, his patent (No. 8670) having been 
taken out in May 1894. A 30-horse-power gas-engine designed in 
accordance with this patent was started in Scotland by Mr. James 
Riley in February 1895. 



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ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY 

DURING THE FIRST HALF OF 1908. 



Title. 



Transvaal Mines Department. Report of the Geological Survey 
for 1906. 4to, pp. 140. Pretoria. 1907. 

Queensland Department of Mines. Publications of the Queens- 
land Geological Survey. Nos. 207. 208, 209. 210. 211, 212. 
with map. 8vo. Brisbane. 1906-7. 

Mysore Geological Department. Report of the Chief Inspector 
of Mines for the year 1904-1905, with Statistics for the 
Calendar Year 1904. Fcap. folio, pp. 20, with 18 tables. 
Madras. 1907. 

••The Metallurgy of Steel." By F. W. Harbord. Third 
edition, revised. 8vo, pp. 770, with 37 folding plates, over 
282 illustrations in the text, and nearly 100 photomicro- 
graphs of steel sections. London. 1907. 

" Map and Plotted Vertical Sections of Strata of the Northum- 
berland and Durham Coalfield." By John Kirsopp, Jun., 
Newcastle-on-Tync. 

" Gemeinfassliche Darstellung des EisenhQttenwesens." 6 
Auflage. Large 8vo, pp. 254. DUsseldorf. 1907. 

North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical 
Enfi^ineers. Subject-matter Index of Mining. Mechanical, 
and Metallurgical 'Literature for the year 19^. Edited by 
M. Walton Brown. 8vo, pp. 180. Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
1907. 

"The Ironmonger" Metal Market Year Book, 1906. 8vo, 
pp. 73. London. 

Souvenir Pamphlet in connection with the Decorations bestowed 
by the French Republic upon Charles Kirchhoff, T. C. 
Martin, and P. C. Grant. 8vo. 

Memorial of the Celebration of the Carnegie Institute at Pitts- 
burg, 1907. 4to, pp. 466. 

•' Introduction to Metallography." By Paul Goerens. Trans- 
lated by F. Ibbotson. 8vo. pp. 214. London. 1908. 

••The Blast-furnace and the Manufacture of Pig Iron." By 
Robert Forsyth. Demy 8vo, pp. 36a New York. 1908. 

'•British Engineering Standards Coded Lists." (Structural 
Steel for Shipbuilding and Marine Boilers, Steel Castings 
and Forgings for Marine Purposes.) 4to, pp. 409. 
London. 1906. 

•• Inventions and Desi^rns in the Year 1907." Issued by the 
Government of India (Department of Commerce and In- 
dustrv). Demy 8vo, pp. 202. Calcutta. 1908. 

•'The Electric Furnace m Iron and Steel Production." By 
J. B. C. Kershaw. 8vo, pp. 66. London. 1907. 

••Iron and Steel." By J. H. Stansbie. 8vo, pp. 375. Lon- 
don. 1907. 

•• Industrie des M^taux Secondaires et das terres rares." By 
P. Nicolardot. Small 8vo. pp. 846. Paris. 1908. 

** McNeill's Code" (1908 Edition). By Bedford McNeill. 
8vo. pp. 167. London. 1908. 



By whom Presented. 



The Director of the 
Geological Survey. 

The Queensland Ueo- 
logiod Survey. 

Mysore Geological De- 
partment. 



W. H. Bleckly 



R. E. Commans. 

Vcrein deutscber Eisen- 
I hUttenleute. 
The Society. 



A. C. Meyjes. 

The Director of the 
American Museum of 
Safety Devices and 
Industrial Hygiene. 

The Trustees. 

Longmans, Green & Co. 
David Williams Co. 
The Committee. 



H. G. Graves. 

Bennett H. Brough. 
Bennett H. Brough. 
The Author. 
The Author. 



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ADDITIONS TO THE LIBBABT. 



223 



Title. 



" Western Australia." Bulletins Nos. 27, 28, 29, and 80, with 

maps of the Geological Survey. 8vo. Perth. 1907. 
" Nomenclatura Geologica" (Ores e Arenite, Schisto e Fol- 
helho). By Arrojado R. Lisbda. (Extract from the 
Anntus da Escola dt Minus de Ouro Preto, No. 8, 1906.) 
** Bibliographia mineral e geologica do Brazil, 1903-1906." 
By Arrojado R. Lisb6a. (Extract from the Anntus da 
Escola de Minos de Ouro Preto, Nos. 8 and 9, 1906.) 
Department of Mines, Victoria. Memoir No. 6 of the Geo- 
logical Survey. Melbourne. 1906. 
American Iron and Steel Association. " The Directory of the 
Iron and Steel Works of the United States." Seventeenth 
Edition. 8vo, pp. 500. Philadelphia. 1908. 
Statistisches Jahrbuch des k.k. Ackerbau-Ministeriums fOr das 
Jahr 1906. 8vo, pp. 206. Vienna. 1906. 

•• Text- Book of Assaying." Bjf C. and J. J. Beringer, revised 
by J. J. Beringer. Sixth Edition. 8vo, pp. 466. London. 
1900. 

National Association of Colliery Managers. ''Sources of 
Economy in Power Production." A Lecture delivered in 
Nottingham University College on February 29. 1908, by 
W. H. PatchelL (Reprinted from Iron and Coal Trades 
Review, March 6, 1908.) 4to, pp. 9. 

The Mayan and Daiquiri Iron Ore Mines of the Spanish- 
American Iron Company. (From articles published in the 
Iron Age, August 15, 1907, and April 8, 1908.) Fcap. 4to, 
pp. 16. 

" Jahresbericht des Vereins fllr die bergbaulichen Interessen 
im Oberbergamtsbezirk Dortmund fur das Jahr 1907." I. 
(Allgemciner) TeiL 4to. Essen-Ruhr. 1908. 

National Physical Laboratory. " Collected Researches." 
Vol. III., pp. 286. Teddington. 1908. 

National Physical Laboratory. '* Collected Researches." 
Vol. IV.. pp. 262. Teddington. 1908. 

National Physical Laboratory. Report for the Year 1907. 
4to, pp. 97. Teddington. 1906. 

Statistisches Jahrbuch des k.k. Ackerbau Ministeriums fOr 
das Jahr 190L 8vo, pp. 3L Vienna. 1904. 

Statistisches Jahrbuch des k.k. Ackerbau Ministeriums fur 
das Jahr 1903. 8vo, pp. 201. Vienna. 1904. 

Les debuts de la M^tallurgie du Tungst^ne par Paul Nico- 
lardot. (Extrait de la Revue de Metallurgies vol. v., No. 1, 
Jan. 1908.) 4to, pp. 23. 

" Theses pr&ent^cs a la Facuh6 des Sciences de Paris pour 
obtenir le grade de Docteur ^ Sciences Physiques." Par 
Paul Nicolardot 8vo, pp. 64. Paris. 1905. 

"Separation et Dosage du Fer, du Chrome, de 1' Aluminium, 
et du Vanadium. Par Paul Nicolardot. 8vo, pp. 13. 
(M^moire recompense par la Society Industrielle du 
Nord de la France et public dans son Bulletin 1907.) Lille. 
1907. 

"The History of Merthyr Tydfil." By C. Wilkins. 8vo, 
pp. 587. Merthyr Tydfil. 1908. 

National Phjrsical Laboratory. Report of the Observatory 
Department, 1907. 4to, pp. 45. Teddington. 1908. 

" Materialprovningens Udvikling tale ved aarsfesten den 29 
January 1908." By H. I. Hannover. 4to, pp. 24. 
Copenhagen. 1908. 

"Mines and Quarries." General Report and Statistics for 
1907. Part I., "District Statistics." Fcap. folio. Lon- 
don. 1908. 

" Iron Age Directory." 8vo, pp. 341. New York. 1908. 



By whom Presented. 



The Agent-General for 

Western Australia. 
The Author. 



The Author* 



The Secretary for Mines 

and Water Supply. 
J. M. Swank. 



Bennett H. Brough. 
Bennett H. Brough. 

The Author. 



C. F. Rand. 

The Society. 

The Director. 
The Director. 
The Director. 
Bennett H. Brough. 
Bennett H. Brough. 
The Author, 

The Author. 

The Author. 



Sir W. T. Lewis, Bart., 

K.C.V.O. 
The Laboratory. 

The Author. 



The Under Secretary 
of Stale for Home 
Affairs. 

David Williams Co. 



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224 



ADDITIONS TO THK LIBRARY. 



Title. 



By whom Presented. 



** Supplement to the Plotted Vertical Sections of the Northum- 
berland and Durham Coalfields." By John Kirsopp, Jun. 
Fcap. folio, pp. 73. 1908. 

• • The Geology of Coal and Coal-Mining. " By Walter Gibson. 
8vo, pp. 341. London. 1908. 

Mines and Quarries. General Report and Statistics for 1906. 
Part IV., " Colonial and Foreign Statistics." Fcap. folio, 
pp. 460. London. 1908. 

•* Zur Berechnung und Profilierung der Eisenhochofen.'* By 
J. von Ehrenwerth. (Separatabdruck aus der Osterm- 
chischen Zeitschrift fiir Berg- und Huttenwesen, 1908, No. 
19.) 4to, pp.. .4. 

•• Jahrbuch der Osterreichischen Berg- und Huttenwerke, Mas- 
chinen- und Metallwarenfabriken," 1908. Herausgegeben 
von Rudolf Hanel. 8 vo, pp. 2230. Vienna. 1908. 

"La Fabrication ^lectrique des Aciers aux Aci^ries Jacob 
Holtzer k Unieux (Loire)." By A, Keller. (Note pr^ntfe 
par la Compagnie Electro-Thermique, Keller, Leleux & Cie, 
au Congr^s du Cinquantenaire de la Soci^t6 de 1' Industrie 
Min^rale.) 8vo. pp. 14. Paris. 1908. 



The Author. 



Edward Arnold. 

The Under Secretary 
of State for Home 
Affairs. 

The Author. 



Bennett H. Brough. 
The Author. 



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ADDITIONS TO THE LIBKA.RY. 



225 



INSTITUTIONS. 

The Publications of the Institute are exchanged for those of the following Institu- 
tions : — 



LONDON. 



Board of Trade. 

Chemical Society. 

City and Guilds Institute. 

Geological Society. 

il.M. Patent Office. 

Institution of Civil Engineers. 

Institution of Electrical Engineers. 

Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 

Institution of Mining and Metallurgy. 

Institution of Naval Architects. 



Royal Artillery Institution. 

Royal Institute of British Architects. 

Royal Institution. 

Royal Society. 

Royal Statistical Society. 

Royal United Service Institution. 

Society of Arts. 

Society of Chemical Industry. 

Society of Engineers. 

University College. 



PROVINCIAL. 



Birmingham Univeisity. 
Cleveland Institution of Engineers. 
Eng:inepring Society, The University, Leeds. 
Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders 

in Scotland. 
Liverpool Engineering Society. 
Manchester Association of Engineers. 
Manchester Geological and Mining Society. 
Mining Institute of Scotland. 
North-East Coast Institution of Engineers. 



North of England Institute of Mining and 
Mechanical Engineers. 

Royal Dublm Society. 

Sheffield University. 

South Staffordshire Ironmasters' Associa- 
tion. 

South Wales Institute of Engineers. 

Staffordshire Iron and Steel Institute. 

University College of South Wales. 

West of Scotland Iron and Steel Institute. 



COLONIAL AND FOREIGN. 



Colonial. 



Australasian Institute of Mining En- 
gineers. 
Canadian Institute. 
Canadian Mining Institute. 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. 
De[)artnient of Mines, Melbourne. 
Department of Mines, Sydney. 
Geological Survey of Canada. 
Geological Survey of India. 
Geological Survey of New South Wales. 
Mining Society of Nova Scotia. 
Mysore Geological Department. 
Royal Society of New South Wales. 



United States. 

American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. 
American Foundrymen's Association. 
American Institute of Mining Engineers. 
American Iron and Steel Association. 
American Society of Civil Engineers. 

1908.— i. 



American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 

Department of Labour. 

Engineers' Society of Western Pennsyl- 
vania. 

Franklin Institute. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

New York Academy of Sciences. 

Ordnance Office, War Department. 

School of Mines, Columbia College, New 
York. 

Smithsonian Institution. 

United States Geological Survey. 

Austria. 

K. K. geologische Reichsanstalt. 
Oesterr. Ingenieur- und Architelcten> 
Vercin. 

Belgium. 

Association des Ing^nieurs sortis de I'lfcole 

des Mines de Lidge. 
Minist^re de I'lni^rieur. 



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J 



226 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 



COLONIAL AND FOREIGN— ootainturd. 



France. 

Pomit^ des Forges. 

Soci^t^ d' Encouragement pour I'lndustrie 
Nationale. 

Sbci^t^ de I'lndustrie M inhale. 

Soci^l6 des Anciens ^l^ves des ^oles 
Nationales d'Arts et Metiers. 

Soci^t^ des In^^nieurs Civils. 

Soci^t^ Scientifique Industrielle de Mar- 
seille. 



Denmark. 
Tekniske Foreningen. 



Qernnany. 

Deutsches Museum. 
KonigUche Bergakademie in Freiberg. 
Kbniglichen Materialpriifungsamt. 
Verein Deutscher Eisenhattenleute. 

(Journal "Stahl und Eisen.") 
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure. 

Italy. 
Reale Accademia dei Lincei. 

Sweden. 
Geological Institution of the University of 

Upsala. 
Jernkontoret. 



JOURNALS. 

The following periodicals have been presented by their respective Elditors :— 
UNITED KmaDOM. 



"Automobile Club Journal." 
" British Fire Prevention Committee." 
•• Cassier's Magazine." 
*• Coal and Iron." 
'* Colliery Guardian." 
" Concrete and Constructional Engineer- 
ing." 
" Contract Journal." 
" Electrical Engineer." 
*• Electrical Review." 
•• Electrician." 
'• Engineer." 

'• Engineer and Iron Trades Advertiser." 
" Engineering." 
" Engineering Review." 
" Engineering Times." 
" Hardware Trade Journal." 
•' Hardwareman." 
" Horological Journal." 
" International Marine Engineenng." 
•' Iron and Coal Trades Review." 
"Iron and Steel Trades Journal." 



" Iron Trade Circular." 

" Ironmoneer." 

•* Kynoch Journal" 

" Machinery Market." 

•• Marine Engineer." 

' ' Mechanical Engineer. " 

" Navy League Journal." 

•• Page's Weekly." 

•' Petroleum Review." 

•• Phillips' Monthly Register." 

" Plumber and Decorator." 

" Practical Engineer." 

"Quarry." 

" Railway Times." 

" Science and Art of Mining." 

** Shipping World." 

"South African Engineering." 

•• Statist." 

"Syren." 

" Tramway and Railway World.' 

"Vulcan." 



COLONIAL AND FOREIGN. 



Colonial. 



"Canadian Mining Journal." 
" Indian Engineenng." 
" Indian Textile Journal." 
" New Zealand Mines Record." 



United States. 

' American Journal of Science.' 
* American Kfachinist. " 
' Biadstreets." 



and Metallurgical 



" Electrochemical 

Industry." 
" Engineering and Mining Journal.' 
" Engineering Magazine. 
" Engineering News." 
" Industrial World." 
" Iron Age." 
" Iron Trade Review." 
" Machinery." 
" Mines and Minerals." 
" Mining World." 
*• Power." 
" Railroad Gaiette." 



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ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRAKY. 



227 



COLONIAL AND TORElQlX'-corUinued. 



Austria. 

"Oesierr. Zeitschrift fUr Berg- und 
HQttenwesen." 



Belgium. 

" Bulletin de TUnion des Charbonnages de 

Li^ge." 
" Moniteur des Int^rdts Mat^iels." 
•• Revue Universelle des Mines." 
• • Technical Index." 

France. 

" Aimales des Mines." 

•• L'Echo des Mines." 

'* La Revue Min^ralurgique." 

**LeG^ie Civil. »* 

" Le Mois Scieptifique et IndustrieL" 

** PortefeuiUe Economique." 

Germany. 

** Annalen fllr Gewerbe und Bauwesen." 
"Cheniiker Zeitung." 
" Eisen- Zeitung." 
••Gluckauf." 



•' Metallurgie." 

•*Verein Deutscher Eisen- und Stahl- 

Industrieller." 
*• Zeitschrift fUr das Berg-, Htttten- und 

Salinenwesen im preussischen Staate." 
" Zeitschrift nir praktische Geologic." 
'* Zeitschrift fUr Werkzeugmaschinen und 

Wcrkzeuge." 
•• Zentralblatt fiir Eisenhttttcnwesen." 

Italy. 

" L'Industria.'* 

" Rassegna Mineraria." 

Peru. 
** Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas." 

Spain. 

" Gaceta Minera de Espafla." 
** Revista Minera." 



Sweden 



• Teknisk Tidskrift.' 
" Svensk Export." 



Dinner ix) Mr. R. A. Hadfield, Past- President. 

On May. 13 Mr. R. A. Hadfield was entertained to dinner by the 
Council at the Grand Hotel. In addition to the guest of the evening, 
the company consisted of Sir Hugh Bell, Bart., President, in the 
chair ; the Right Hon. Lord Airedale, Past-President ; Mr. E. Windsor 
Richards, Past-President; Mr. E. P. Martin, Past-President; Mr. 
W. H. Bleckly, Hon. Treasurer; Mr. P. C. Gilchrist, Mr. James 
Riley, and Mr. A. T. Tannett- Walker, Vice-Presidents; Mr. G. 
Ainsworth, Mr. D. Colville, Mr. J. H. Darby, Mr. W. Evans, Mr. 
J. M. Gledhill, Mr. W. H. Hewlett, Sir Alfred Hickman, Bart., 
Mr. A. Lamberton, Mr. J. E. Stead, F.R.S., Mr. J. M. While, Members 
of Council, and Mr. Bennett H. Brough, Secretary. The dinner, 
which should have been held in May 1907, was postponed owing to 
Mr. Hadfield's absence in the United States, where he acted as re- 
presentative of the Iron and Steel Institute at the opening of the 
Carnegie Institute. 



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SECTION II. 

NOTES ON THE 

PROGRESS OF THE HOME AND FOREIGN 

IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 





CONTENTS. 




Iron Ores .... 




PACK 

. 230 


Further Treatment of Iron and 


PAQX 


Rbfraotort Materials . 




. 251 


Steel 


357 


Fuel. ..... 




. 255 
. 308 


Physical Properties 
Chemical Properties . . 


874 


Production of Piq Iron 




399 


Production of Malleable Iron 


. 332 


Chemical Analysis. 


412 


Forge and Mill Machinert . 




. 341 


Statistics 


421 


Production of Steel . 




. 348 


Bibliography 


448 



III the preparation of these Notes the Editor has been assisted hy L. P. Sidney 
and by Thomas Twynam. 



1908.— i. 



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( 230 ) 



IRON ORES. 



CONTENT S. 

PAQS 

I. Occurrence and Composition ?30 

II. Iron Ore Mining 242 

III. Mechanical Preparation 248 

IV. Metallurgical Preparation 25 



I.— OCCURRENCE AND COMPOSITION. 
Formation of Ore Deposits. — H. V. Winchell* discusses the 

genesis of ore deposits in the light of modern theory, and considers 
the influence of mass, time, average temperature, climate, topography, 
physical structure, and depth of soil as factors in enrichment. Glacia- 
tion is referred to as an agent in the formation of ore deposits, 
the influence of which has been insufficiently regarded by most 
investigators. 

E. Bodifee f discusses the genesis of the iron and manganese ore 
deposits at Oberrosbach in the Taunus. 

The mode of formation of the iron ores of Central Sweden is dis- 
cussed at considerable length by H. Johansson. { 

Nomenclature of Ore Deposits. — Henry Louis § directs atten- 
tion to a deficiency in the nomenclature of mineral deposits, proposing 
that the word " pitch " should be definitely restricted to the obliquity 
of the axis of an ore shoot or of a lenticular mass. 

Iron Ore in Oreat Britain. — W. G. Fearnsides|| discusses the 
occurrence of the well-known iron ores of Carnarvon and Merioneth, 
and shows that, although they have been taken by various writers as 
marking a well-constituted subdivision of the Tremadoc slates, they 
are really of the nature of fissure phenomena, and may occur at almost 

* Engineering and Mining Journal, vq\, Ixxxiv. pp. 1067-1070. 
t ZettschriftfUrpraktische Geologie, vol. xv. pp. 30»-316. 
X Geologiska Foreningens Forhandlingar^ vol. xxiv. pp. 143-186. 
§ Transactions of tke Institution of Mining Engineers, vol. xxxiv. pp. 236-238. 
II Report of the Seventy-seventh Meeting of the British Association, London, 1908, pp. 
610-611. 



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IBOK OBES. 231 

any horizon. The probable petrological and chemical history of the 
iron ores is also discussed. 

The owners of the Lindal Moor mines, in Fumess, have discovered 
two extensive deposits of iron ore on their royalty. These are likely 
to prove a great advantage to the trade of the district, as in recent 
years some of the important mines have been showing signs of exhaus- 
tion, and it has become necessary to import foreign ores. One of the 
new finds has been proved to contain a deposit over 30 feet deep of 
rich ore, within easy reach of the surface, and the other discovery 
is not less important.**^ 

K. W. Dron f discusses the iron ore resources of Shetland. The 
western part of the side of the island is composed of Archaean Schists 
rising in hills to a height of between 800 and 900 feet, and along the 
eastern coast there is a stretch of flaggy sandstones of Old Bed Sand- 
stone age. The principal metalliferous veins are situated either in the 
Old Eed Sandstone or at the contact between the sandstones and the 
schists. The only serious mining operations that have been carried out 
w^ere made at Sandlodge, on the east coast^ twelve miles from Lerwick. 
The vein appears to be composed principally of chalybite (or siderite). 
At the surface there is the usual alteration to brown hsematite iron 
ore. The west shaft was sunk on the incline of the vein to a depth of 
180 feet. For the first 100 feet it consisted of hsematite with rich 
pockets of copper pyrites. Several thousand tons of this ore, which 
were said to contain 64 per cent, of iron, were shipped. Below the 
100-feet level the ore assumed the form of light brown spathic ore. 
The material shipped contained 35 per cent, of iron, with 15 per cent. 
of lime and magnesia, and it was also accompanied by copper pyrites. 
The ore body, exposed in these lower workings, appears to have con- 
sisted of white chalybite (siderite), with ohalcopyrite. The occurrence 
of siderite as a white ore is rather uncommon. In appearance it is 
very much like calcite, and it might be mistaken for that mineral. 
Analysis of this ore gave 3 to 4 per cent, of copper, and 30 to 40 per 
cent, of iron, with a small percentage of manganese. Following the 
line of the vein to the south, five specimens of chalcopyrite are found 
in the cliffs at No Ness Head. To the north a vein was discovered at 
Setter, about half a mile from Sandlodge. 

Iron Ore in Austria. — K. A. Eedlich l describes the iron ore 
mines in the vicinity of Payerbach-Reichenau, in Lower Austria. He 
gives an account of the history of the mines, with details of produc- 
tion, and describes the geological features of the iron ore deposits at 
Grillenberg, Prigglitz, Hirschwang, Altenberg, and Schendlegg. The 
composition of the ores is stated, and the genesis of the deposits 
discussed. The history of mining operations is traced back to the 
year 1546. 

• Eftgintering, vol. Ixxxr. p. 403. 

t Paper read before the Geological Society of Glasgow ; Iron and Coal Trades Review^ 
"vol. bcxv. p. 1946. 

X Berg- und HUHenmdnnisches Jahrbuch der k.k. mcntanisiischen Hochsckulen, vol Iv. 
pp. 267-294. 



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232 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

T. F. von Hassler * gives particulars of the ore occurrences in the 
Ortler district. Some deposits of very pure iron ore, containing 83*3 
per cent, of ferric oxide, are met with. The deposits were worked at 
the end of the eighteenth century. 

Ahlburg f describes the ore-mining industry of Styria, Carinthia, 
and Carniola. He gives an excellent coloured geographical map of 
the Eastern Alps, and numerous diagrams illustrating the occurrence 
of ore and the method of ore-dressing in vogue. Descriptions are 
given of the iron ore mines of the Eastern Alps (the Styrian ore 
mountain, Hiittenberg in Carinthia, iron ores in the Karawanken), 
the manganese mines at Vignusica, of the chrome iron ore mines of 
Kraubat, and of the graphite mines of Upper Styria. 

Iron Ore in Bosnia, — The mineral resources of Bosnia and Herze- 
govina are exhaustively described by A. Galocsy.J 

Iron Ore in France. — M. Oehlert§ describes the Ordovician iron 
ores of Normandy and Maine. 

Iron Ore in Oermany. — Robert Fluhr|| describes the iron ore 
deposits of Wurttemberg. He gives an account of the geology of 
the various deposits, the brown iron ore veins in the Bunter sand- 
stone at Neuenburg, the oolitic clay ironstones in the Kocher valley, 
and the Tertiary pisolitic iron ores. Numerous analyses are given, 
and the economic importance of the deposits are discussed. 

Willert^f describes the clay ironstone of Ahaus and Koesfeld. 

An account is given** of the extensive deposits of bog iron ore 
recently discovered in Pomerania. 

Iron Ore in Greece. — N. Bonanosff gives a geological description 
of the various deposits (deposits in limestone and contact-deposits) 
of chrome iron ore in Greece. 

A; Habets || discusses the geological age of the Lokris deposits. 

Iron Ore in Italy. — F. Millosevich§§ gives a mineralogical descrip- 
tion of the lamellar haematite occurring at Fadria in Sardinia. 

Iron Ore in Norway. — An account has appeared nil of the South 
Varanger iron deposits, situated on the Pasvik peninsula at Varanger- 
fiord, in the province of Finmark. The deposits cover an area of nearly 

* Montan Zeiiung, vol. xiv. pp. 338-340. 

t Zeitschrift fUr das Berg-, HUtten- und Salinenwesen , vol. Iv. pp. 463^21. 

X Banyaszatt es Kohaszati Lapok, vol. xli. p. 201-288. 

§ Compies Rendus, vol. cxlvi. pp. 616-617. 

II Zeitschrift fur praktische Geologie, vol. xvi. pp. 1-23. 

1 GlUckauf vol. xliv. pp. 304-309. 

** Erzbergbau, vol. iii. p. 406. 

ft Revue Universelle des Mines, vol. xxi. pp. 139-148. 

Xt Ibid.,^\i. 129-138. 

§§ Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Linrei, vcl. xvi., Part I., pp. 884-889. 

||;| Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxvi. p. 427. 



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IRON ORES. 233 

3000 acres, and the ground consists principally of gneiss and granite. 
The iron ore is found in the gneiss mixed with basic eruptives, from 
which the ore probably originates, and also quartzite, and occasionally 
other rocks. The ore strikes N.W.-S.E., and the dip varies from 40 
degrees to 70 degrees in an easterly direction. 

Within the area there are many different deposits, of which the 
Bjornevand is one of the most important. Here the deposits have been 
found to be up to 200 yards wide, with an area of ore of about 400,000 
square yards, and a depth of 100 yards, proved by the borings, the 
quantity of ore available being estimated at 150 million tons. In this 
deposit there is comparatively very little rock, mostly dykes of gabbro, 
and the ore is estimated to represent 90 per cent, of the total mass. 
In other places the ore is found in numerous parallel deposits, where 
the average content of ore, of course, is lower. The total area of ore 
in the deposits is estimated at about 1^ million square yards, and the 
total quantity, to a depth of only 100 yards, at about 400 million tons, 
as a minimum. In consideration of the large area, it ought not to be 
any exaggeration to estimate the total workable quantity of ore at 
about 1000 million tons. 

The deposit consists exclusively of magnetic ore, and the rocks most 
frequently found are quartz and hornblende. In some parts the quartz 
is the most prominent, in others the hornblende minerals, thus divid- 
ing the ore into two different types. The whole mass may be said to 
consist nearly exactly of 50 per cent, magnetite and 50 per cent, 
gangue, the content of metallic iron being about 36 per cent. In 
some parts there is also found ore with an iron content of 50 per cent, 
or more, although this is exceptional. 

Iron Ore in Russia* — The celebrated iron ore deposit of Krivoi 
Rog in South Russia is described by F. Thiess.*^ 

Numerous analyses of Russian iron ores are given by F. Gervais.f 

Iron Ore in Spain. — O. Putz J describes the iron ore deposits of 
the South of Spain. 

Iron Ore in Sweden. — R. Bartling§ gives an exhaustive descrip- 
tion of the iron ore deposits of North Sweden, with special reference 
to the chemical composition of the ores and the reserves available. 

W. Petersson*8 work |{ on the iron ore deposits in the neighbourhood 
of Jukkasjarvi and Gellivare, in the Swedish district of Norrbotten, 
is reviewed. U The information published deals fully with the follow- 
ing ore deposits : — 

A. Kiirtmavaara, — This immense deposit occurs in a range of hills 
about 2*8 kilometres long, the highest point in the range being 748 

♦ OesUrreickischt Zeitschrift fUr Berg- und HiiHenwesen, vol. Iv. pp. 608-609, 
t Gorni Jowmal, 1907, p. 73. X Erzbergbau, vol. iii. pp. 408-410, 

§ Zeitschrift fUrfraktische Geologie, vol. xvi. pp. 89-108. 
II Jemkontorets Annaler, vol. Ixii. pp. 238-308. 
^ StahJ und Eisen voL xxvii. pp. 1671-1576. 



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234 THE IRON AND STEBL INDUSTRIES. 

metres above sea-level. Analyses from various points are given, 
and other minerals found in association with the ore described. 
Exploratory work is still being continued. An approximate estimate 
of the total amount of ore existing in this deposit, both proved and 
that supposed to exist below sea-level, has placed the amount at 480 
million tons of ironstone. Of this amount some 200 million tons exists 
above sea- level. 

A. Luossavaarcu — The ores found in this deposit do not occur in 
such large quantities as in the previous one, nor have they been so 
extensively worked. The deposit is some 1270 metres long, the 
highest point being 229 metres. Analyses and approximate estima- 
tion of quantities are given. 

H. Sjogren * discusses, at some length, the geological relations of 
the iron ores of Scandinavia. He classifies the ores of the peninsula 
into six groups : (1) The ores of the Archaean crystalline schists; (2) 
the ores of the porphyries (keratophyres) ; (3) those of the basic 
eruptive rocks; (4) ores occurring in the metamorphosed Gambro- 
Silurian schists ; (5) contact-formations connected with acid eruptive 
rocks of post-Silurian age ; and (6) lake and bog ores. Each group is 
then dealt with separately, their geological relations and mineralogical 
characters being fully described. The lake and bog ores formed the 
raw material for the oldest iron industry in Scandinavia long before 
blast-furnaces were known, and were called Tophus Tubalcaini by Carl 
LinnsBus, after Tubal Cain, the first blacksmith. The purer lake ores 
generally contain from 50 to 60 per cent, of ferric oxide, 10 to 15 per 
cent, of water, and sometimes a considerable amount of manganese (up 
to 20 per cent.). Both the phosphorus and sulphur are usually high. 

Iron Ore in Tnrkev. — A recent article t on the mineral resources 
of Macedonia shows that, although the country is rich in minerals, 
mining remains in an undeveloped condition. Iron ore is abundant, 
but c(Md is lacking. 

Iron Ore in Canada. — In an illustrated description of the mines 
of Ontario, E. T. Corkill | gives an account of the Helen mine, which 
continues to hold the premier position in the production of iron ore in 
Ontario, of the Moose Mountain iron ore deposit, of the Radnor iron 
ore mine, and of the Mineral Range mines. He also describes the 
nickel mines of the Sudbury district. A. P. Coleman § describes the 
iron ranges east of Lake Nipigon, and E. S. Moore || gives some par- 
ticulars of the ranges around Lake Windegokan. 

In a report on the geology of the counties of Pontiac, Carleton, and 
Renfrew, R. W. Ells 11 states that the only workable deposits of iron 
ore yet found in this area are at the Bristol mines in Pontiac county, 

* Bi-Monthfy Bulletin of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, 1907. pp. 877-946 

t Montan Zeitung, vol. xv. p. 10. 

1 Annual Report of the Bureau of Mines t Toronto, vol. xvi. pp. 55-91. 

§ Ibid,, pp. 105-135. II Ibid., pp. 136-148. 

\ Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin No. 977, pp. 39-4L 



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IRON OBES. 235 

Quebec, where the ore is a magnetite, occurring in lenticular masses^ 
some of which are of considerable extent. The associated rocks 
are micaceous and hornblende schists, cut by reddish granite. The 
ore contains 58*37 per cent, of iron, 1*46 per cent, of sulphur, and 
only traces of phosphorus. Over 10,000 tons of the ore have been 
iron. 

G. 0. Hoffman* gives analyses of fourteen samples of iron ore 
(clay ironstone, bog iron ore, and haematite) from various localities in 
Canada. 

J. E. Woodman f reports on the iron ore deposits of Nova Scotia, 
Western Ontario, and the Ottawa Valley, respectively. The Torbrook 
Nictaux Basin is the most promising iron field in Nova Scotia. The 
country is open, substantial water power at Nictaux Falls awaits utili- 
sation, transportation is easy, and within a few miles an abundance of 
hardwood timber is available. The basin is described as either a 
large syncline or a succession of smaller folds, the axes of which run 
approximately north 55 degrees east to north 60 degrees east. The 
ore is interstratified, having replaced limestone beds. High grade 
haematites and siliceous magnetites are found in large quantities. All 
of the ore is phosphatic, and most of it carries from 2 to 8 per cent, of 
lime. The Arisaig deposits of Antigonisa county run east and west 
for a distance of five and a half miles. The Arisaig bedded haematites 
occur in nearly vertical veins, and, so far as known, are continuous for 
a great length on the strike. Vertical sections of the highest and 
lowest exposures give a depth of 350 feet. No drilling has been done 
to prove the deposits to greater depth. In the western part of the 
field the ore is less siliceous and freer from trap intrusions. All of the 
ore averages under 50 per cent, of iron in waggon -load lots. 

The progress of iron ore mining in the province of Quebec is 
described by H. M. Lamb.| 

Iron Ore in India. — L. L. Fermor§ describes an interesting 
apatite-magnetite rock from the Singhbhum district, Bengal. The 
apatite occurs as spots, up to half -an -inch in diameter, in what would 
otherwise be called magnetite. The rock might prove of value in the 
manufacture of basic iron. 

Iron Ore in Western Australia. — With the object of helping 

prospectors, the Geological Survey of Western Australia has compiled 
a Bulletin (No. 30} giving particulars of the distribution and occurrence 
of the ores of metals other than gold. The Bulletin, which covers 129 
pages, has been written by E. S. Simpson and C. G. Gibson, and in- 
cludes details of the occurrence in Western Australia of ores of iron, 
nickel, cobalt, manganese, tungsten, and molybdenum. 

♦ Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin No. 958, pp. 4^-47. 

t Annual Report of the Department of the Interior. Nova Scotia, 1907. 

X Engineering and Mining Journal t voL Ixxxiv. pp. 1160-1161. 

§ Records of the Geological Survey of India » vol. xxxvi. p. 128* 



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236 THE ntON AND STBEL INDUSTBIES. 

Iron Ore in New Zealand. — J. M. Bell * describes the geology 

of the Parapara Sub-division, Karamea, Nelson. The deposit of iron 
ore situated on the shores of Parapara Inlet is described in detail. 
This great deposit of iron ore has been left practically untouched up 
to the present time, and the author advocates the erection of blast- 
furnaces on the spot and the construction of a wharf to the north of 
Tukurua Point. The iron ore is of high grade, and phosphorus, 
sulphur, and other impurities do not occur in serious quantities. 
Mineralogically, the ore is mainly limonite, though partly gothite and 
possibly turgite. It occurs in three enormous blocks, the amount in 
the Washbourn block being estimated at not less than 22,691,762 
tons. In the thirty-four samples taken from this block the average 
iron content was 5179 per cent. 

A sample of the Parapara ore has been analysed at the Imperial 
Institute. The analysis gave results indicating that the ore is pro- 
bably a mixture of the two minerals gothite and limonite. There 
is no doubt that this ore from Parapara would be suitable for smelt- 
ing locally if supplies of limestone and coal were available in the 
neighbourhood. 

Iron Ore in NataL — According to the official report of the 
mining industry of Natal, arrangements are in progress for opening 
up the deposits of iron ore to the north-east of Hlobane Mountain, and 
for the construction of a railway extension from Vryheid to these 
deposits and the establishment of iron and steel works. It is estimated 
that the iron ore deposits would yield 3,589,000 tons, sufficient for the 
requirements of a small plant making 50,000 tons of pig iron per annum 
for thirty-five years. Analyses indicate that the ore would yield good 
iron. For its conversion into steel, the basic open-hearth process 
would probably be most suitable, the percentage of phosphorus being 
too high for the acid Bessemer or acid open-hearth processes, and 
too low for the basic Bessemer process. 

Iron Ore in British East AfHca.— A sample of iron ore, weigh- 
ing about 1 lb. and consisting of irregularly-shaped brownish lumps of 
magnetite, that was collected near Yoi Station on the Uganda Railway, 
gave on analysis the following results : — f 

Per Cent. 

F^^' : : : : : ^??} =63-2 percent, iron. 

MnO 0-26 

CaO 0-33 

BaO 0-62 

MgO 0-25 

TiOa 8*70 =5-2 per cent, titanium. 

SiOa 142 

P9OB 0*03 =0*013 per cent, phosphorus. 

SO, 0-02 =0-008 per cent, sulphur. 



OKJm 
HgO 



0-55 



♦ New Zealand Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 3, 111 pages, with 14 maps, S sheets 
of sections, and 26 plates. Wellington, 1907. 
t Bulletin of the Jmferial instituU, vol, v. pp. 240*241. 



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IRON ORES. 237 

Iron Ore in Nyassaland. — ^The report on the results of the 
mineral survey in the Nyassaland Pi^tectorate by Wyndham R. 
Dunstan has been published as a Parliamentary White Paper. The 
iron ores found are principally mixtures of hsematite and magnetite. 
The best iron ore received was a sample of magnetite from the Pokon- 
yowa Valley. This contains an equivalent of 71 per cent, of iron, and 
is free from phosphorus and sulphur. A concretionary iron ore from 
the Sumbu district proved to be of medium quality, and the extent of 
the deposit of this is considered important by the assistant surveyor. 
Most of the other iron ores received are titaniferous, and therefore 
of little value. The organisation of a local smelting industry in ordi- 
nary blast-furnaces might be possible if suitable coal were available in 
the neighbourhood. 

Iron Ore on Lake Superior. — ^The bulk of the iron ore smelted 
in American furnaces is obtained from the Mesaba, Menominee, 
Marquette, Vermillion and Gogebic ranges, the quantity mined in 
the Mesaba district being more than that of the others combined. 
Such is the extent of the deposits on the Mesaba range, that the 
recent transfer of a very large area of this range to the United States 
Steel Corporation embraces only a small portion of this territory, 
although it covers 80,000 acres. On the one fourth of this area 
examined about 100,000,000 tons have been measured. This con- 
tains the necessary percentage of iron to give a Bessemer grade, and 
is so accessible that it can be reached by surface excavation. The 
railway and ore transporting arrangements are dealt with in 
detail.* 

G. E. Edwards f describes the ore deposits and changes in methods 
of mining which will necessitate the removal of the village of McKinley 
and other towns in the Mesaba iron ore range built on iron ore 
foundations. 

O. J. Abell:^ describes the development of iron ore mining in the 
Lake Superior district during the year 1907. 

Recent development on some of the old range mines on the 
Menominee are described.§ The Antoine mine has opened up new 
deposits of hard siliceous ore containing about 40 per cent, each of 
iron and silica. 

The limits of the Mesaba iron-bearing belt are being gradually 
extended west of the Mississippi. Merchantable ore has been found 
west of the west bank of Pokegama Lake, about five miles south- 
west of Grand Rapids, and a good deal of drilling is in progress west 
and south from there. This marks an important advance in the 
geological knowlege of the Mesaba formation, for until recently no 
merchantable ore had been found west from Grand Rapids. |{ 

♦ Tinus Engineering Supplement, November 20, 1907, p. 6, 
t Mining World, vol. xxviii. pp. 65-66. 
X Iron Trade Review, vol. xlii. pp. 95-99. 
§ Ibid., vol. xli. pp. 659-662. 
II Engineering, vol. Ixxxv. p. 718. 



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238 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

Iron Ore in Minnesota. — D. E. Woodbridge * discusses the iron 
ore resources of Minnesota. ^Exploration has been carried out around 
Deerwood and in other parts of northern Crow "Wing county, with 
the result that merchantable grades of ore have been located. Samples 
taken from trial borings on Rabbit Lake Shore have yielded on 
analysis 63 to 6604 per cent, of iron and 0*110 to 0-134 per cent, of 
phosphorus. In proximity to the Rabbit Lake deposits, ore has been 
found at depths of about 1 200 feet, but the deposits appear low grade, 
averaging only 40 to 45 per cent, of iron, and high in phosphorus. 
The geological character of the whole district is one of morainic till 
and glacial drift deposition. 

Iron Ore in the Adirondack Region.— B. H. Newl&ndf dis- 

cusses the associations and origin of the non-titanif eroug magnetites 
of the Adirondack region. 

Iron Ore in Rhode Island. — B. L. Johnson % and C. H. Warren 
give some notes on the history and geology of Iron Mine Hill, 
Cumberland, and describe the petrography and mineralogy of the 
deposit. 

Iron Ore in Wyoming. — ^B. W. Vallet§ describes the occurrence 
of hsematite replacing schist at the Sunrise mine, HartviUe range. 

Iron Ore in Cuba. — 0. Catlett|| describes a brown haematite 
deposit in the Pinar del Rio province. The deposit is probably a 
replacement of limestone. Ba^ytes crystals are widely distributed 
throughout the deposit, there being in some cases as much as 10 per 
cent, of barium sulphate in the ore. 

Iron Ore in Mexico. — Discoveries of large bodies of iron ore are 
reported to have been made in the State of Colima, Mexico. The 
deposit is stated to be not only very extensive, but of good quality.f 

Iron Ore in Peru. — E. J. Duefias** describes the occurrence of 
deposits of excellent iron ore in the department of the Cuzco. At 
Livitaca, in the province of Chumbivilcas, red haematite occurs in 
considerable quantity. The Yanaccaca hill is estimated to contain 
450,000 tons of ore yielding 55 per cent, of iron. 

Iron Ore in Tunis. — According to K. Roberty tf there are five 
important deposits of iron ore, all of which occur in the north-west of 

• Rngineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixzxiv. pp. 775-776. 
t Economic Geology, vol. ii. pp. 763-773. 
X Anurican Journal of Science, vol. xxv. pp. 1-38. 
§ Proceedings of the Colorado Scienti/ic Society, vol. viii. pp. 315-322. 
II Bi'Monthly Bulletin of the American Institute of Mining Engineers^ 1907i pp. 
623-624. 

IT American Machinist, vol. xxx. Part II. p. 832. 

** Boletin del Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minos del Peru^ No. 63, pp. 136-137. 

ft V Industrie Extractive en Tunisie, Tunis, 1908. 



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IRON ORES. 239 

Tunis. Those near to Tabbarca are pyritic in depth, but oxidised on 
the surface. The ore occurs in irregular lenticular-shaped masses in 
strata of Eocene age. That of Djebel-Djerissa is estimated to contain 
15,000,000 tons, and is free from sulphur and phosphorus. West of 
this is the deposit of Djebel Slata, containing 6,000,000 tons of similarly 
pure ore, and that of Djebel- Ham eima, which is a phosphoric ore. 
The total annual productive capacity of these mines is probably not 
far short of a million tons. 

Iron Ore in Togo. — The iron ore bed of Bangeli in Togo is 
described by W. Koert.* 

Manganese Ore in Hungary. — H. Druckerf describes the 

extensive beds of manganese ore discovered at Ledecz-Rovny in 
Trencsen county. The ore contains 25 to 32 per cent, of manganese. 

Manganese Ore in Bussia. — B. Grimshaw | gives an account of 
recent discoveries of manganese ore in the Caucasus, near Samtredi, 
on the Trans-Siberian Railway, and at Michailovska, in the district 
of Yelisavetpol. 

Published analyses § of Russian manganese ores show 46'90 to 
51*55 per cent, of manganese, 7*77 to 15-64 per cent, of silica, 0*06 
to 0*23 per cent, of phosphorus, and to 1 per cent, of sulphur. 

Manganese Ore in Spain. — R. Michael || describes the man- 
ganese ore deposits in the vicinity of Ciudad Real. The ore contains 
50 to 54 per cent, of manganese and the deposits are very extensive. 

Manganese Ore in India. — L. L. FermorU deals exhaustively 
with the subject of manganese in India. An account of the minera- 
logj and geology of the ore deposits generally is followed by a detailed 
description of the various deposits classified according to the nature 
and formation of the ores contained in them. A sketch of the his- 
tory of the subject is given, and then a general description of the 
methods of working, especially at Kandri, Balaghat, and Kajlidongri. 
Economic matters concerning labour, transport, prices, and distribution 
also receive consideration. Maps of India showing the distribution 
of the ores are appended. 

Manganese Ore in Oape Colony. — It is stated that ** an impor- 
tant discovery of manganese has recently been made at Caledon, 

• Erzbergbau^ vol. iv. pp. 80-82. 

t Oesterrtichisch'Ungarische Montan- und Meiall- Industrie Zeitung, October 27, 
1907. 

X Engineering and Mining Journal^ vol. Ixxxiv. p. 1158. 

§ Gomi Journal, 1907, pp. 85-86. 

II ZeitschriftfUrpraktische Geologie, vol. xvi. pp. 129-130. 

IF Transactions of the Mining and Geological Institute of India, vol. i. pp. 71-131, 
221-233. 

** Cafe Times, December 18, 1907 ; Board of Trade Journal, vol Ix. p. 138. 



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240 THE IRON A.ND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

Cape Colony. The ore contains as much as 42 per cent, of metal, 
and it is estimated that the amount of the deposit is about 30,000 
tons. It is favourably situated for transport by gravitation to the 
railway line. 

Manganese Ore in New South Wales.— A deposit of manganese 

ore, about eighteen miles from Orange, New South Wales, is described.* 
It is an outcropping deposit, beneath which is a red oxide of 
iron formation, 2 feet 6 inches in width, in the form of fairly fine 
powder. The surface formation is stated to carry about 75 per cent, 
of manganese, 2 dwt. of gold, and 4 to 5 ounces of silver ; the red 
oxide shows traces only of gold and silver. The powdery deposit is 
in two distinct seams of colouration — one purple and the other brown. 
A portion of the deposit is intermixed with small lenticular veins of 
unoxidised red haematite, and, when ground up, it is said to be richest 
in colouration. The Standard Paint Company are experimenting with 
the material with a view to the manufacture of paint. 

Manganese Ore in the Portnguese Oolonies.— R. A. Becherf 

states that the discovery of manganese ore in the colony of Goa has 
led to considerable enterprise in mining this ore, and during the year 
1907 some quantity of ore was exported. The interesting geological 
formations in many parts of the country lead to the belief that mining 
enterprise in Goa should not stop at manganese. 

Ores of the Rare Metals« — A. Haenig l describes the occurrence 
and production of the ores of the rare metals, cobalt, vanadium, 
molybdenum, titanium, uranium, and tungsten, with special reference 
to their employment in the steel industry. 

Tungsten Ore. — ^The tungsten ore deposits of Boulder county, 
Colorado, are described by Waldemar Lindgren.§ The deposits are 
quartz veins containing wolfram. 

They are also described by W. E. Greenawalt,|| who states that the 
ore is a breccia of wolfram and felspar, occurring in connection with 
andesite dykes. 

Nickel Ore in New Caledonia. — G. DieterichU describes the 

economical development of New Caledonia, formerly a French convict 
station. The most important mineral deposits are those of nickel ore, 
and contain on an average about 5 per cent, of nickel. The most 
important mining district is the Bornet mountain plain, where auxi- 
liary wire ropeways feed a main Bleichert ropeway, which carries the 

* Sydney Morning Herald ; Board of Trade, vol. lix. p. 678. 

t Board of Trade Journal, vol. Ix. pp. 292-293. 

X Oesterreickische Zeitschrift fUr Berg- und Hiiiienwesen, vol. Ivi. pp. 177-180 et seq. 

§ Economic Geology ^ vol. ii. pp. 453-463. 

II Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiii. pp. 951-952. 

1[ Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, vol. li. pp. 1805-1816, 1868-1867, 



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IRON ORBS. 241 

ore to bins at the railway terminus. The railway carries the ore to 
storage bins at a central station of a system of ropewJEiys on the coast 
at Thio. The ore is then carried either to storage heaps, where it can 
be reloaded for shipment, or taken direct to the vessels at a landing 
station, 3280 feet from the shore, by a wire ropeway passing over 
the sea. 

Vanadium Ore. — J. J. Bravo* gives details of the extensive 
vanadium ore deposits discovered in Peru. The ore contains 15*36 
per cent, of vanadium. Another authority f gives 16'08 per cent. 

Magnetite. — B. J. Harrington % describes some examples of iso- 
morphism exhibited by magnetite from Quebec, Arkansas, and Nova 
Scotia. 

Native Iron. — Otto Vogel § gives a historical review of reported 
discoveries of native iron. In 1803 J. L. Jordan described a lump of 
native malleable iron, weighing 3 to 4 lbs., from Kirberg, and C. A. 
Gerhard in 1776 noted the occurrence of native iron at Grosskamms- 
dorf, Saxony, and at Steinbach near Eiben stock, and at Tamowitz in 
Upper Silesia. Other discoveries recorded appear to have been 
artificial products. 

Native Iron-Nickel Alloy. — 0. G. Hoffmann |{ describes a native 
iron-nickel alloy occurring in the aurifeious gravels of the Fraser 
river, British Columbia. It contains 76"48 per cent, of nickel, 22*30 
per cent, of iron, and 1-22 per cent, of copper. The author suggests 
that this mineral be named '' souesite," after the gentleman who sent 
the sample for identification, to distinguish it from other naturally 
occurring iron-nickel alloys. 

9 

Becent Besearches on Meteorites. — In his annual report on 

the progress of mineralogical chemistry, A. Hutchinson H refers to 
the Hendersonville meteoritic stone, which was found in 1901. Its 
mineralogical composition is : nickel-iron 2*59, troilite 4*43, schreiber- 
site 0*08, chromite 0*80, olivine 40*48, and pyroxene 51*62 per cent. 

E. Goldsmith ♦♦ describes a meteoric stone which was seen to fall 
on April 30, 1906, on the New Jersey shore. On analysis the stone 
yielded 44*36 per cent, of iron, 42*80 per cent, of silica, 4* 18 per cent, 
of alumina, 2*00 per cent, of nickel oxide, 1*90 per cent, of titanic 
add, and 1*84 per cent, of carbon. 

• Boietin del Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas del Peru ; Oesierreichische Zeitschrift fUr 
Berg' und HUitenwesen, vol. Ivi. pp. 166-16a 
+ Echo des Mines, vol. xxxv. p. 55. 
X Mineralogical Magazine, voL xiv. pp. 373-877. 
§ Chemiker Zeiiung, vol. xxxi. pp. 1181-1182. 
li Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin No. 968, pp. 9-11. 
% Annual Reports of the Prioress of Chemistry , vol. iv. p. 310. 
♦♦ Journal ofthfi Franklin Institute, voL clxiv. pp. 369-373. 



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242 THE IBOK AND STBEL INDUSTRIES. 

Further investigations of the Cafion Diablo meteorites have been 
made by G. P. Merrill ♦and W. Tassin. 

L. L. Fermor f gives detailed particulars of the meteoric shower of 
October 22, 1903, at Dokachi, Bengal. He also I gives an account of 
four previously unrecorded meteorite falls in India. 



II.— IRON ORE MINING. 

Deep Boring. — A translation has been published § of a paper by 
T. Tecklenburg suggesting that endeavours should be made to obtain 
utilisable electric energy from the earth's interior by means of deep 
boreholes. 

W. Eminger || describes the precautions to be taken to protect the 
screw-threads of boring tubes in transport. 

G. Koerner U describes apparatus for measuring the dip of strata in 
a borehole, and for measuring the deviation of boreholes from the 
vertical. 

K. Haussmann ** describes a new apparatus for plumbing bore- 
holes. 

For boring to a depth of 100 yards at the iron ore deposits in the 
Goslar district a 5 horse-power petrol motor has been successfully 
used, with hollow rods for the extraction of cores. The plant can be 
taken down and set up again within two days. The derrick is only 
20 feet high. Four men suffice for attendance, and 7 to 10 yards can 
be bored in fairly hard cretaceous marl in a ten-hour shift. ft 

Shaft-Sinkinff. — G. C. Stoltz|| describes the sinking of the 
Clonan shaft at Mineville, New York. It is situated on the property 
of the Port Henry Iron Ore Company, and gives access to the large 
magnetic ore deposit in mine 21. In order to handle 1500 tons per 
day the shaft is to be sunk 500 feet vertically, cross cuts being driven 
at 80-feet intervals to the ore body. When 50 feet had been sunk a 
flow of water was encountered, and as the ground did not stand well 
concrete was resorted to. The method of applying the concrete, and 
the results, are described. 

Ezplosiyes and Blasting. — ^The preparation of boreholes for 
blasting is described by W. Beckmann.^ 

* Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, voL iv. pp. 203-216. 

t Records of the Geological Survey of India ^ vol xxxv. pp. 68-78. 

% Ibid,, pp. 79-96. 

§ Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, vol zxxiv. pp. 484-49S. 

II Revue du Pitrole, vol. L p. 105. 

if Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiii. pp. 63-64. 

•♦ GlUckauf vol. xliv. p. 231. 

tt ZeitschriftfUr das Berf-, HUtten und Salinenwesen, vol. Ivi. p. 178. 

it Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxv. pp. 111-112. 

§§ ZeitschriftfUr Schiess- und Sprengstoffwesen, 1907. pp. 272, 291. 



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IRON ORES. 243 

K. Scholze * gives the results of tests of various explosives. 
^ J. Grundy f deals with the mantifacture of native blasting powders 
in India, and generally with their application and with the cause and 
prevention of premature explosions. It is suggested that the burning 
temperature of the sulphur in the powder may be insufficient to cause 
its explosion unless it first ignites paper. 

Some modern methods and apparatus for the testing of explosives 
are described by S. Nauckhoff.| 

Oompressed Air in Mines. — P. Bernstein § describes the hydraulic 
air compression plant at the Olausthal mines. 

Rock-drills. — J. T. Glidden|| advocates the employment of air 
hammer drills in all mines where compressed air is available, as they 
are very simple in, construction, and there is no valve mechanism to 
get out of order. 

E. M. Weston f discusses the development of the small pneumatic 
hammer drill. He gives sections of the Leyner Rock Terrier drill, 
the Water Leyner rock-drill, the Murphy drill, and the Gordon drill. 
The first and third of these are valveless with the differential piston 
or hammer itself acting as the valve. The large Leyner machine is 
worked by a piston valve, and the Gordon drill by a valve at right 
angles to the piston. Drawings are also given of the Konomax drill 
and of the Temple-Ingersoll electric air drill. 

T. B. Burnite ** discusses the development of the air-hammer rock- 
drill. 

Drills for stoping are described by A. Del Mar.f f 

Details of the trial of stope-drills at Johannesburg on December 31, 
1907, have been published.} j: 

Experience with hammer rock-drills in Swedish mines is recorded 
by E. Mossberg.§§ 

W. L. Saunders |||| gives an illustrated description of a new form of 
electric air-drill, in which, despite the difficulties hitherto encountered 
in solving the problem of the direct application of electric current in 
rock drilling. 

The Jeffrey electric drill is described and illustrated. IJU It has been 
designed for heavier duties than has so far been found possible with 

• OesUrrriehischt ZeitsckriftfUr Berg- und HUtUnwesen, voL Iv. pp. 622-626. 

t Transactions of the Mining and Geological Institute of India ^ vol. ii. pp. 106-126. 

X Teknisk Tidskrift, vol. xxxviii. pp. 81-34 and 46-46. 

§ GlUckauf, vol. zliv. p. 376. 

II Engineering and Mining Journal^ vol. Ixxziv. p. 818. 

^ Paper read before the Chemical, Metallurgical, and Mining Society of South Africa ; 
Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiii. pp. 70, 103, 12^130. 

** Mining Worlds vol. xxvni. p. 97. 

•ft Mining euid Scientific Press, February 1. 1908. 

ti Engineer, vol. cv. pp. 136-138. 

§§ BladfSr Bergshanteringens Vdnner, vol. xii. pp. 23-81. 

r' Bi'Monthly Bulletin of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, 1907, pp. 991- 
1000. 

fir Jron and Coal Trades Review, vol. IxzvL pp. 47-48. 



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244 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

rotary drills, the design embracing several features of novelty. The 
armature spindle through which the drill feed-screw passes is hollow. 
By this means a well-balanced drill is provided, as hitherto the motor 
has been necessarily above, below, or on one side of the feed-screw. 

An electric furnace for tempering drills after sharpening has recently 
been installed by the Allgemeine Elektrizitats Gesellschaft in the 
mines in South Africa. Should it prove successful, the direct econo- 
mics resulting from its general use will be considerable, as it will 
counteract the difficulties of overheating and burning the steel, and 
obviate the expense, labour, and delay of carrying the drills to the 
surface every time they require sharpening. The introduction of this 
new furnace will admit of the best steels being used, and should cause 
fewer complaints of the rapid blunting of drills.* 

Methods of Working. — Recent progress in the working of the 
iron ore deposits of Lorraine is described, f 

The methods employed in mining iron ore on the Menominee are 
described % and illustrated. Steel is largely substituted for wood in 
the construction of shaft-houses, while the low grade ore is largely 
taken out by the caving method. Under the cave all ore is removed 
except the pillars, sand and surface being taken out for supporting 
the roof of worked out rooms elsewhere. 

R. Richter§ describes American steam-shovels, which are mostly of 
the A-frame type. The output is increased as far as possible by driving 
the different motions by separate steam-engines. Steam-shovels are 
constructed with considerable outputs and weighing up to 100 tons. 
There are two distinct types of steam-shovel : the turntable type, 
which is generally employed for lighter shovels, and the A-frame 
type for large outputs. The steam-shovel is employed for excavating 
forward, backward, and sideways. Sideways excavating is generally 
resorted to. 

A- Frame Shovels. — The 64-ton shovel is generally employed at the 
present time in the United States. A steam-shovel built by the 
Marion Steam Shovel Company, having the following dimensions, is 
described in detail : Contents of bucket, 67 cubic feet ; minimum output 
in heavy ground, two full buckets in a minute ; greatest tensile force 
in the pulley -blocks, 25 tons ; height of stroke of the bucket above 
rails, 14 feet 9 inches ; width of cutting, 55 feet; reach of arm, 200^ ; 
weight of steam-shovel, 64 tons ; highest point of arm above rails, 25 
feet ; highest point of A-frame above rails, 19 feet 4^ inches ; length 
of carriage, 34 feet 9 inches ; width of carriage, 9 feet 10 inches. 

Turntable SlioveU, — These resemble in outward design the travelling 
steam-crana The author describes several types of English and 
American turntable steam-shovels. The steam-shovel can dig into 
any material that can be 'excavated by bucket excavators, and can 

* South African Mines ; Electrician, vol. Ix. p. 168. 

t Times Engineering Supplement, January 22. 1908, p. 6. 

X Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 669-662. 

§ Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscker Jngenieure, voL li. pp. 1686-1695. 



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IBON OBBS. 245 

deal with meafiures such as deposits of shale, limestone, and brown- 
coal. When the ground is deeply frozen a steam-shovel can work 
without difficulty, but a bucket excavator has to cease working. 
Further advantages of the steam-shovel, as compared with the bucket 
excavator, are mentioned. 

Windixiff. — ^The economy of coal in winding in ore mines is dis- 
cussed by Karl Rietkdtter.* The desirability of using double-deck 
cages in the Siegen iron ore mines is strongly urged. 

The dense-air system, or, as it is perhaps known to some engineers, 
the return-flow system of compressed-air power transmission, is pro- 
bably more familiar in South Africa than it is in Great Britain, and 
illustrations have been published t of a powerful engine working on 
this system. 

The relative advantages of long-range and short-range trip gears 
for winding-engines are discussed by R. H. Oollingham. j; 

T. H. Wardf describes a method for the internal examination of 
wire ropes after they have been in use. The rope is held by clamp a 
short distance apart and partly untwisted, so that the condition of 
the internal wires may be inspected for corrosion. Much discussion 
ensued. 

Electricity in Iron Ore Mines.— J. B. van Brussell | describes 

the electrical hoisting equipment at the Grangesberg iron mines, 
Sweden. Many thousands of tons have been mined by surface work- 
ings, but shafts have now been sunk at the foot of the hill to a depth 
of 600 feet, and an ultimate depth of 1800 feet is expected to be 
reached. Winding is only carried out during one shift of eight hours, 
the machinery being capable of raising the whole output of twenty-four 
hours ( 1 200 tons) during this period. The great distance — 1 1 yards — 
between the shaft and the engine-house, and the height of the pit- 
head frame — 130 feet — are noteworthy features of the plant. 

Mine Drainage. — Various types of electrically-driven mine pumps 
are described by John Tuneld.U 

The new electrical pumping installation at the Lindal Moor iron 
mines, near Ulverston, is described ** and illustrated. The mines 
have had to contend with inrushes of water in overwhelming quan- 
tities. At several of the Lindal pits pumping operations ceased in 
December 1903, owing to breakdowns, and owing to the pumping 
plant then existing being insufficient to cope with the inrush of water. 

♦ Gluckauf, vol xliii. p. 1666. 

t Engineering, voL Ixxxv. pp. 334-336. 

X Engineer, vol. civ. pp. 4G(>-461. 

§ Transections of the Mining and Geological Institute of India, voU i. pp. 173-191, 
235-238. 

11 Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 1162-1166. 

if Bladfor Bergshanteringens Fanner, vol. xii. pp. 163-176. 

** Iron and Coal Trades Review^ vol. Ixxv. pp. 1381-1383 ; Engineering, vol. Ixxxiv. 
p. 490. 

1908. — i. R 



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246 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

The four pits so affected are connected together underground either 
artificially or by natural drainage. At the time the pumping opera- 
tions ceased the maximum inrush of water reached nearly 7000 gallons 
per minute, though the normal dry-weather flow only amounted to 4000 
gallons per minute. The total quantity of water with which the whole 
plant will be able to deal is about 15,000 gallons per minute, this being 
reduced to 8000 gallons per minute as the pumps reach the lower levels. 
The motors are of very special design for working under the abnormal 
conditions, and are constructed with particularly narrow dimensions 
to admit of their passing down the narrow pumping ways available. 
The current is generated by three steam turbo-generators of the hori- 
zontal type. Each set is capable of a continuous output of 1140 
electrical horse-power, 3300 volts, 50 cycles per second, when running 
at 3000 revolutions per minute, and supplied with steam having a 
pressure of 200 lbs. per square inch at the stop valve, superheated 
to a temperature of about 600^ F. 

The Lighting of Mines. — ^The various methods of lighting adopted 
in Swedish mines are discussed by N. Hedberg.* The acetylene lamp 
gives the most powerful light, and is by far the cheapest per candle- 
power-hour. 

Mine Survesring. — C. E. Morrison t gives a general account of 
mine surveying, with special reference to shaft surveying. 

G. Plotenyi I gives some notes on mine surveying, and points out 
the advantages of Gurden's traverse tables. 

E. Hammer § describes the measurement of base-line with rods, 
wires, and bands of invar (nickel-steel alloy with 36 per cent, of 
nickel). 

M. Villiers Stuart || describes a method for checking the angular 
work of a traverse by azimuths. 

The instruction in mine surveying at Austrian mining schools is 
discussed by L. Haberer.f 

The application of the camera as an adjunct to topographical map- 
ping began practically with its invention, and it has been employed 
with varying success since that time. An interesting development is 
described by C. W. Wright,** who has successfully employed in the 
field a panoramic camera taking a 5-inch by 12 -inch view, including 
an angle of 140^. The plotting of a map from the views taken by the 
phototheodolite is a tedious process, and the office work is many times 
greater than that required for the same amount of mapping by the 
panoramic camera. 

* Blad for BergshanUrin^ens Vanner, vol. xii. pp. 144-162. 
t School of Mines Quarterly, vol. xxijc pp. 34-45. 
X Banyaszati es KohaszaH Lapok, vol. xl. p. 542. 

§ ZeiUckHftfitr Vermessungswesen, vol. xxxvi. pp. 425-440, 643-646, 905-907. 
II Cairo Scientific Journal^ vol. ii. pp. 27-28. 

IF Oesterreichtscke Zeitschrift fUr Berg- und HUttenwesen, vol. Iv. p. 320. 
** Bi'Monthly Bulletin of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, 1908, pp. 
101-116. 



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IBON OBES. 247 

The advantages which have accrued to the mineral industries of the 
United States from the work of the United States Geological Survey 
were summed up in an address to the American Mining Congress by 
the director of the survey, Q. O. Smith.* 

Problems in Metal-mining. — The sixteenth '< James Forrest" 
lecture was delivered before the members of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers by Henry Louis, t the subject being " Some Unsolved 
Problems in Metal-mining." The whole field of metal-mining was 
reviewed, and the author showed that coal-mining was nowadays less 
dangerous to life than metal-mining, though but a short while ago the 
reverse was the case. He said that the great improvement as regarded 
safety to workers which had taken place in coal-mining within recent 
years was due, to a very large extent, to the Coal Mines Regulation 
Act, which requires a certificate of competency before a man is allowed 
to take charge of a colliery, whilst a man is legally entitled to manage 
a metal-mine whatever his qualifications or lack of qualifications may 
be. He held, he said, that metal-mining should be governed by the 
same law as is coal-mining, and he believed that the solution of the 
problem of how to make metal- mining a safer occupation than it 
is to-day would be found in a sounder and more rational system of 
technical training for the miner. 

Economics of Mining. — B. E. Woodbridge X deals with iron mine 
assessments in the state of Minnesota, in which there have been 
recently made some remarkable changes in the taxable valuation of 
iron mines, the result of ofiicial action which is characterised as 
precipitate and unjust. 

Iron Ore Transport. — A. Pietrkowski§ describes the Oettingen- 
Differdingen wire ropeway of the German Luxemburg Mining and 
Ironworks Company. The line is 12,780 metres long, and the differ- 
ence in level between the two terminal points is 15 metres. The line 
was started on October 5, 1906, and during the first three months the 
working costs were less than 2id. per ton. 

An article has been publisned|| on progress in the construction 
of great wire ropeways, special reference being made to the two rope- 
ways built by Pohlig of Cologne for the Aumetz-Friede and Differ- 
dingen ironworks, and to a ropeway, 3^ kilometres long, at the 
Upulungos mines in the Argentine Republic, as well as to one 87 
kilometres long in Turkestan. 

M. Freyberg H discusses the working of aerial ropeways. 

Handling Iron Ore. — The question of handling materials in 
industrial plants is one continually presenting itself to owners and 

* Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 1019-1020. 

t Engineer, vol, cv. p. 448 ; Mining Journal, voL Ixxxiii. p. 628. 

X Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. p. 967. 

§ GliUkauf, vol xlui. pp. 1671-1677. 

II IHd„ vol. xliv. pp. 271-272. IT Monian Zntung, vol. xy. pp. 122-124, 139-143. 



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248 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

engineers for proper solution, and some striking illustrations, showing 
the remarkable progress recently made in America in economical 
material-handling equipments, are given by Werner Boecklin.* The 
depreciation of such equipments is necessarily high, but in the majority 
of cases an increase in the first cost, which will materially decrease 
this charge, is warranted. T. Kennard Thomson f describes the con- 
struction of hoisting machinery for the handling of materials. He 
shows that here, as elsewhere in the domain of modem enterprise, 
economy in unit costs and maximum of output can be secured only 
where intelligent use is made of the mechanical facilities afforded for 
the handling of material. 

The ore-handling appliances at the plant of the South Bethlehem 
Steel Company, Pennsylvania, are described and illustrated. | At the 
furnaces there are four batteries of Hoover and Mason pockets, each 
battery having a capacity of 1000 tons of ore, 375 tons of limestone, 
and 500 tons of coke. To provide against the freezing of the ore in 
winter, chambers are provided on the ore side, outside the sloping bin 
bottom, and a fan-blower draws hot waste gases from an adjoining 
furnace and forces them through the chambers. 

A description and plans of the new steel ore dock at Two Harbours, 
Minnesota, have appeared. § The new docks will add about 2,000,000 
tons to the annual shipping capacity of Two Harbours. 

History of Mining. — In a paper on the psychology of mining, 
Samuel Rakoczy || gives illustrations of some interesting antiquities 
connected with the Schemnitz mines. 

G. PlotenyilT gives some illustrations of old Boman workings at 
Yerespatak. He shows the style of timbering and of mine ladder 
used. 



III.— MECHANICAL PREPARATION. 

Iron Ore Dressing. — N. V. Hansell** describes the concentration 
of iron ore with special reference to American methods at Port Henry, 
Hibernia, and Lebanon. 

A method of removing broken stems from stamp heads is described, ft 
The pressure of a 140-ton hydraulic press was insufficient to press 
out the stem. The application of a blow-lamp so as to expand the 
metal of the head resulted in allowing the press to squeeze out the 
broken ends with only half the pressure which had at first proved 
unsuccessful. 

* Engineering Magazine, vol. xxxiv. pp. 956-964. f />»rf.i pp. 1005-1028. 

X Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 1871-1376. 
§ Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 865-868. 
II Banyaszati es Kohastati Lapok, vol. xl. pp. 519-638. 
ir nid.,vo\. xli. pp. 173-175. 

*♦ Bihang till Jemkontorets AnnaUr, 1908, pp. 1-18, 43-65. 

+t Journal of the Chemical, Metallurgical, and Mining Society of South Africa: 
Engineer, vol. cv. p. 89. 



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IRON ORES. 249 

Magnetic Separators. — P. McK. Bennie* gives an account of 
progress in magnetic separation by the Grondal process, and discusses 
its possible bearing on the utilisation of certain Canadian iron ores. 

E. Akerman t describes the application of the Grondal briquetting 
process to Spanish iron ores. 

The magnetic concentration and briquetting of iron ores by the 
Grondal process is described by A. S. Lewitinski | and W. A. PetrofF. 

J. Bart8ch§ describes the magnetic concentration plant at the 
Briiderbund iron mine at Eisern. The plant, built by the Humboldt 
Company, treats 60 tons daily, and requires 45 horse-power. The 
cost of concentration is Is. lid. per ton. 

The concentration of magnetic iron ore at the Lyon Mountain 
mines, New York, is described. || 

Briquetting Iron Ore. — Some interesting details of processes 
now employed for the briquetting of ores are given from the report 
of a Commission f appointed to examine into the question. The 
following processes are described : — 

1. Schumacher's method. Fine lime and finely-groimd quartz 
are mixed with the ore, which is then treated with steam which 
hardens the briquette& Flue-dust and all fine ores can be treated 
by this process. Plants are working at Konigshlitte, and at the 
Friedrich - Alfred - Hlitte at Rheinhausen. The cost per ton for 
briquetting purple ore, fine Gellivare ore, and flue-dust are given. 

2. The method in use at the Ilseder Hlitte is of rather local 
interest owing to the works smelting their own ores from the neigh- 
bouring mines of Biilten-Adenstedt and Lengede-Bodenstedt. The 
lumpy ore goes direct to the blast-furnaces, whilst the fine calcareous 
stone is washed and partially dried in a cylindrical drum. The ore 
is pressed warm at a pressure of about 300 kilogrammes; about 
eighteen briquettes are made per minute, falling on a belt which 
carries them direct to the trucks for transport. 

3. The method employed by the German Briquetting Company at 
Altenkirchen-Westerwald is described and illustrated. A binding 
material is added to the fine ore, but the composition of this is not 
given. The bricks are weathered for a few weeks, and are then hard 
enough for use. 

4. The process patented in Germany and abroad by the Scoria 
Company of Dortmund is described. The binding material employed 
is granulated blast-furnace slag, which is mixed with the fine ore or 
flue-dust, and afterwards treated with exhaust steam, which confers 
upon the slag binding properties similar to Portland cement. 

5. The Raduschewitsch process used at Olonetz is shortly described. 
This is a sintering process without previous briquetting. 

• Journal of the Canadian Mining Institute^ voL x. pp. 261-278. 

t Revisia Minera, vol. lix. pp. 16-16. % Gomi Journal, 1907, pp. 337-348. 

§ Gliickauf, vol. xlix. p. 467. 

II Electrochemical and Metallurgical Industry ^ voL v. p. 473. 

\ Stahl und Risen, voL xxviii. pp. 821-326. 



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250 THE IBON AND STSBIi INDUSTRIES. 

A description has been published of the method of briquetting iron 
ore by the Grondal system at the Alquif e mines in Granada, Spain.^ 

The preparation of iron ore briquettes from titaniferous sand is 
described by J. H. L. Vogtf 



lY.— METALLURGICAL PREPARATION. 

Oalcining Kilns. — F. G. Stridsberg | gives drawings of a rotary 
kiln for roasting pulverulent iron ores. It is 63^ feet in length 
and 39 inches in diameter, and is heated with blast-furnace gas. It 
rotates three times a minute, and is driven by an eleven horse-power 
dynamo. It treats 30 to 35 tons a day. 

M. Frodingg gives drawings of a suggested design for a kiln for 
roasting pulverulent ores. 

♦ Revista Minera, voL Iviii. pp. 475-476, 491^93. 
t Teknisk Ugeblad, 1906. pp. 4-6. 

t Blad fdr Bergshanteringens Vdnner, vol. xii. pp. 19-23. 
§ /*«i/.. pp. 113-115. 



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{ 251 ) 



REFRACTOKY MATERIALS. 



Physico-Ohemical Inyestigation of Refractory Materials.— 

T. Holgate * shows how the law of depression of the freezing point, 
to the enunciation of which both Raoult and Yan't Hoff contributed, 
has helped to elucidate the complex question of the nature of 
materials in their refractoriness to heat 

M. Simonisf has investigated the melting point of chrome iron 
ore when mixed with small quantities of pure kaolin, the material 
being compared with Seger cones. 

Fireclays. — ^The utilisation of fireclays is discussed by E. P. Page I 
and W. J. Rees. 

The artificial alteration of the degree of plasticity of clays is de- 
scribed by D. P. Rohland.§ 

F. Freisejl describes the clays of the Westerwald. Fireclay of 
excellent quality is mined. 

R. C. Purdy II and F. W. De Wolf give the results of a preliminary 
investigation of Illinois fireclays. 

Silica Sand« — B. S. Randolph ** gives an account of the quarries 
and washeries of the West Virginia and Pennsylvania Sand Company, 
near Berkeley Springs. The chief sources of the supply of silica sand 
in the United States comes from three geological horizons, the St. 
Peter sandstone in the Mississippi valley, which comes from the 
Cambrian ; the Oriskany in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Mary- 
land, which is Devonian ; and the Cheshire quartzite from the Berk- 
shire hills of Massachusetts, which, like the St. Peter sandstone, is of 
Cambrian origin. The methods employed in preparing the Oriskany 
sandstone, which is quarried at the works mentioned, are described. 
Selected quarry samples average 99 per cent, of silica. 

Mannfactnre of Firebricks. — The Robinson Clay Products Com- 
pany has built a new plant for the manufacture of silica brick for 

♦ Engifuering, vol. Ixxxv. pp. 235-238. 

t Siahl undEisen, vol. zxviii. pp. 334-3S5. 

% Journal of the SoHety of Chemical Industiy, voL xxvii. pp. 99-102. 

§ Die Chemische Industrie, 1907. pp. 637-639. 

II ZeiUchrift fUr fraktische Geologie, vol. xvi. pp. 162-166. 

IT Illinois State Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 4, pp. 129-176. 

** Engineering and Mining Journal t vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 1211-1212. 



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252 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

lining open-hearth and other furnaces. The clay contains 97*2 per 
cent, of silica, 1 '4 per cent, of alumina, 1 per cent, of oxide of iron, 
and a trace of lime. Some lime is added in grinding, to act as a 
binder. The material is first ground in two 9 feet wet grinding pans, 
and then delivered by shoots to the moulding floor or to a belt con- 
veyor, which carries it to the dry floor in an adjacent building, where 
bricks of special shapes are made. In making the regular brick, a 
mould for ten bricks is set on a bottom board and clay shovelled in, 
and rammed with a pneumatic rammer. The mould is then removed, 
and the bottotn boards are placed on steel trucks which are run into 
tunnels under the dry floor. There are twelve timnels, each holding 
fourteen trucks, and each truck carries 480 bricks. The trucks take 
about three days to pass through the tunnel, and are then left in the 
cooling room. When cool enough to be handled, the trucks are run into 
the kilns, where the bricks are stacked and subjected to high tempera- 
ture for about nine days. There are six kilns, 55 feet by 30 feet, each 
holding 100,000 bricks ; each has six double furnaces, which may be 
fired with coal or gas. After the nine days' burning the fires are 
drawn and the kiln cooled ; this is effected by putting up a connection 
to the flue of a 12-foot exhaust fan, which draws air through the kiln. 
The cooling takes about seven days. Bricks of special shape are 
moulded by hand at benches on an upper floor, and laid on the floor 
for the preliminary drying. This plant can produce about 700,000 
bricks per month.* 

The manufacture of firebricks is described by F. Janitz.f 
The heat conductivity of furnace building materials is discussed by 
H. Mehner.t 

H. Steger§ has given an account of the non-conducting materials 
used for covering purposes in the iron industry. The article discusses 
the best material to be used for different purposes, with especial 
reference to porosity. 

Qraphite. — ^The occurrence of graphite in the Dunkelstein forest, 
Austria, is described by H. Tertsch.|| 

H. P. H. Brumell U describes the occurrence of graphite in Canada, 
where an industry in this mineral is being developed that promises, 
in the near future, to be of no small importance. 

H. H. Hayden,** in a description of the geology of Central Thibet, 
describes the graphite used in the local arsenal for the manufacture 
of crucibles. It is said to come from the Kong valley between Yam- 
drok Tso and Shigatse. Rumours of the occurrence of coal in the 
Kyang Chu valley and at Lhasa proved to be groundless. 

♦ Engineer^ vol. civ. p. 602. 
t Tonindusirie Zeitung^ vol. xxxii. pp. 168-170. 
i Chemiker Zeitung, vol. xxxi. p. 1230. 
§ Stahl.und Eisen, vol xxvii. pp. 1697-1699. 
Mitteilungen der mituralogischen Gesellschaft, Vienna, 1907, pp. 59-60. 



IT Journal of the Canadian Mining Institute, vol. x. pp. 85-104. 
** •• The Geology of the Provinces of Tsang and U." Calcutta 



„ Calcutta : Geological Survey of 

India. 



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REFRACTOBT MATERIALS. 253 

H. L. Dejast * deecribes some oxidising and decolourising properties 
of graphite. 

H. Le Chatelier f and S. Wologdine have redetermined the density 
of graphite from eight different sources using a mixture of tetrabro- 
moethane and ethyl ether in which the graphite floated. After 
impurities and air in the pores had been carefully removed, the 
graphite gave a density of 2*255. 

C. H. Benjamin :|: describes a series of experiments with graphite 
lubrication, and gives the results of tests with several lubricanta 

£• G. Acheson§ describes the manufacture of graphite from anthra- 
cite coal, and experiments made with deflocculated graphite suspended 
in oil as a lubricant. 

Magnesite. — B. A. Wendebom || gives an account of the applica- 
tions and value of magnesite. 

In a memoir on the genesis of the Alpine talc deposits, K. A. 
RedlichU and F. Comu describe the magnesite-talc deposit of the 
Hauselberg. The massive magnesite contains 39*17 to 43*84 per 
cent, of magnesia. 

With reference to the recent discovery of a deposit of magnesite of 
considerable extent at Fifield, Kew South Wales, by J. B. Jacquet, E. 
Kilburn Scott,'*'* who is conducting a series of tests with the product, 
states that the Fifield deposit is unique in its remarkable purity, and 
especially in that lime is absent. All other deposits, including those 
of New Caledonia, the United States, and the large deposits at 
Euboea, have much lime present. For many years experts have been 
trying to meet the great call for a magnesite brick to withstand higher 
temperatures than the ordinary silica firebrick. One difficulty in 
the way has apparently been due to impurities — especially lime — in 
the raw material. 

A. L. Hall tt describes the occurrence of magnesite in the Transvaal 
in veins in serpentine. 

It is stated that most of the magnesite in California comes from 
the deposits in Tulare county, near Porterville, where it is mined very 
cheaply by quarrying. Calcining furnaces have been built at that 
point. The consumption of magnesite in California is confined to the 
Pacific coast, as the cost of transport eastwards is prohibitive. There 
are many known deposits of the mineral, but, generally speaking, only 
those are utilised which are near the railway line, where cheap trans- 
portation may be obtained. C. G. Yale^^ describes the magnesite 

* ComfUs Rendus, vol. cxliv. p. 1264. 
t Itid., voL cxlvi. pp. 49-53. 
X American Machinist, toI. zxx. pp. d34-937. 

§ Paper read before the American Electro-chemical Society ; American Machinist , 
vol XXX.. Part II. pp. 788-789. 

y Berg- und HUttenmdnnische Rundschau^ vol. iv. pp. 96-99. 
IT Zntschrift fUr prakHsche Geologic, vol. xvi. pp. 145-162. 
*• Board of Trade Journal, vol. lix. p. 826. 
tt Report tf the Transvaal Geological Survey, pp. 125-182. 
Xt Engineering and Mining Journal^ voL Ixxxv. p. 110. 



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254 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

deposits of California, which are the only deposits commercially 
utilised in the United States. The annual output is about 8000 tons. 

Dolomite. — F. W. Pfaff * gives the results of an investigation of 
the origin of dolomite, citing incidentally a large number of analyses. 
True dolomite is considered by the author to be a lime-magnesia 
carbonate rock containing more than 11 per cent, of magnesium 
carbonate. 

G. 0. HofPmann t gives analyses of nine limestones and dolomites 
from various localities in Canada. 

♦ Nexus JahrhuchfUr Mineralogie ; Beilage, vol xxiii. pp. 629-680. 
t Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin No. 958, pp. 38-42. 



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( 255 ) 



FUEL. 



CONTENTS. 



I. Calorific Value 
II. Coal . 

III. Charcoal . 

IV. Coke . 

V. Liquid Fuel 



PAQB 

. 255 

. 258 

. 271 

. 272 

. 276 



VI. Natural Gas . 

VII. Artificial Gas . 

VIII. Coal-Mining . 

IX. Coal-Washing 



PAOK 

. 2B4 



805 



I.— CALORIFIC VALUE. 

Calorimetry. — W. H. Rawles * describes a calorimeter for liquid 
fuels, a modification of Darling's apparatus. 

H. K. Potter f describes a modified form of the Berthelot-Atwater 
bomb calorimeter. On burning substances which produce solid 
oxides in oxygen under pressure in the ordinary bomb calorimeter, 
the oxide produced forms a coating around the test sample, and the 
inner core remains unbumed. The author has modified the Atwater 
calorimeter by providing a thin inner lining of a chemically inert 
material fitting closely into the outer steel bomb. The lining of the 
cover is made removable, and the electrical contacts and crucible 
holder are attached to this cover. The removable bomb lining and 
its cover are charged with the sample, and then weighed before and 
after the combustion. From the gain in weight, which represents 
the combined oxygen, the weight of substance burned can be cal- 
culated. The calorific value of silicon was found to be 7594*8 calories 
per gramme. 

C. F^ry:( describes a calorimeter for the determination of the 
calorific power of liquid and gaseous fuels. The combustion is efPected 
at the base of a glass chimney, the top of which supports a nickel 
plate pierced with a number of holes. The air necessary for com- 
bustion passes down a similar chimney, which is connected at its 
base with the former. The two junctions of a constantan-copper 
tbermo-circuit are placed at the tops of the chimneys. The electro- 
motive force in the circuit is exactly proportional to the calorific 

» 

* Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, vol. xxvi. pp. 665-667. 

t Transactions of the American Electrochemical Society ^ voL xi. pp. 259-268. 

X Journal de physique, vol. vi. pp. 886-889. . 



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256 THE IRON AND STKEL INDUSTRIES. 

power of the combustible and to the volume of it consumed in unit 
time. 

W. P. White* describes an arrangement by which everything 
within the calorimeter case is either at the temperature of the 
calorimeter water or at that of the jacket water. The difference 
between the two temperatures is measured, and the temperatures 
of lagging of the metal parts are eliminated. Several measure- 
ments are stated to show that the average variation is only two parts 
in 10,000. 

0. 0. Thomas t gives an illustrated description of the Thomas 
steam calorimeter designed for determining the quality of steam at 
the different phases of steam-turbines. It can be used with steam 
of any degree of wetness, and of any temperature and pressure above 
that in the condenser. The instrument is based on the fact that, if 
wet steam be passed through a calorimeter electrically heated, and 
then through a glass tube containing a thermometer, no rise in 
temperature of the latter will be apparent until the steam has been 
thoroughly dried by the electric heat. The quality of steam can be 
calculated from the amount of heat required to dry the steam, from 
the heat of vaporisation of dry steam, and the weight of steam 
passing through the calorimeter during a definite period of time. 

A. Adam X describes a device for the continuous determination of 
the calorific value of gases. 

M. Stoecker § and W. Rothenbach describe a calorimeter for deter- 
mining the calorific value of small quantities of gas. 

E. U. G. Ernst II describes the determination of the calorific value 
of fuels from their elementary composition. 

H. Pleyer IT describes an explosion of a calorimetric bomb for which 
he cannot offer an explanation. 

Recent researches on the calorific power of fuels are summarised 
by W. Bertelsmann.** 

Pyrometry. — ^W. P. White tt discusses the use of a thermo-element 
with a potentiometer as the most accurate measuring apparatus for 
temperatures up to IGOO**. Rapidity is secured by an arrangement of 
the galvanometer, by the use of switches to exchange thermo-elements, 
by the adjustment of zero, and by relying upon the galvanometer for as 
much of the reading as possible. Leakage is reduced by equipotentiai 
shields. A slide-wire potentiometer is unsuited for rapid work. 

1. W. Chubb JJ describes an indicating instrument by which the 
correct hardening temperature for small tools of carbon steel is 
obtained automatically whatever the composition of the steel under 

♦ Physical Review, vol. xxv. pp. 137-138. t Power, vol. xxvii. pp. 790-794. 

X Revue de Mitallurgie, vol. v. pp. 34-37 ; Engineering Magtutine^ vol. xxxv. pp. 111-112. 

§ Journal fUr Gasheleuchtung, vol. li. pp. 121-124. 

jl Ingenioren, Copenhagen, 1908, pp. 23-27. 

^ Chemiker Zeihtng, vol. xxxi. p. 159. 

*♦ Uid., vol xxxiL pp. 613-614. 

tt Physical Review, vol xxv. pp. 334-362. 

it American Machinist, vol. xxx., Part II. pp. 723-726. 



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FUEL. 257 

treatment. The device depends upon the recognition of the facts 
that the temperature at which a carbon steel should be quenched for 
hardening is that at which recalescence occurs, and that at this point 
also the steel ceases to be magnetic. The use of the indicator applied 
to a muffle furnace is also described. 

E. R. Markham * deals with the conditions under which the pyro- 
meter may be used to advantage, and gives explanations of the causes 
of unsatisfactory experiences in the heat treatment of steel. 

A recording pyrometer invented by W. H. Bristol f is described 
and illustrated. It resembles a Weston voltmeter, and automatically 
records the temperature by means of a patented smoked chart. The 
thermo-couple is placed at the point the temperature of which is to 
be measured ; the indicating instrument being placed at any place 
convenient to the operator, and the recorder placed vertically at a 
distance from the source of temperature, a duplex cable connecting 
the indicator or recorder to the fire end and the switch-box. 

W. Woltmann and Wl. Wostowitsch J have made various measure- 
ments of temperature in blast-furnace practice with the aid of the 
Wanner pyrometer. They conclude that only a still glow can be mea- 
sured : temperatures in the interior of a glowing furnace, or glowing 
objects in the solid or fluid state. The various temperatures are, how- 
ever, governed by various properties of the heated bodies (specific heat, 
conductibility, radiation). Thereby the application of the pyrometer 
for exact measurements in blast-furnace practice is limited. Slag, 
metal, and brick flowing in the form of a stream also give in the 
pyrometer a picture of a flowing band, the comparison of which 
with the full semicircle from the electric lamp is difficult and in- 
exact. 

J. Becker § describes a Le Chatelier pyrometer mounted in quartz 



Chauvin|| and Amoux deal generally with thermo-electric pyrometers. 
The Chauvin and Arnoux thermo-electric pyrometer is described 
by M. Aliamet.H 

Fuel Value of Goal. — A. Bement ♦♦ gives a large number of 
analyses of American coals, with details of their calorific value. 

A. Wiede ft gives the results of experiments made to utilise as fuel 
the coal-dust produced in mining operations. 

Steam-boiler Heatinsf. — L. P. Breckenridge J J reviews the 
United States Geological Survey fuel tests under steam-boilers. 

• American Machinist, vol xxx., Part II. pp. 712-713. 

t Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 664-665. 

± Metallurgies voL iv. pp. 799-800. 

§ Journal fUr Gasbeleuchtung, voL 1. p. 896. 

1! Bulletin de la Sociiti d' Encouragement , vol. cix. pp. 1171-1178. 

i[ Electricien, January 25, 1908. 

** Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry^ vol. xxvi. pp. 670-672. 

ft Jahrbuchfiir das Berg- und HUttenwesen im Kdnigreiche Sachsen, 1907i pp. 27-34. 

tt Journal vf the Western Society ofBn^neers, vol. xii. pp. 286-324. 



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258 THE IRON ANH STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

Dealing with steam production from the cheaper grades of anthra- 
cite, W. D. Ennis * discusses the mechanical problems of air supply, 
grate and heating surfaces, (be, which affect the economical use of 
anthracite in the boiler furnace. He also describes the leading 
types of drying, grinding, and conveying devices applicable to the 
economical use of pulverised coal as a boiler fuel. He illustrates 
methods and apparatus for firing, and gives details of the cost of 
installation and operation. It is pointed out that the commercial 
value of pulverised coal is not limited to its use in the boiler furnace, 
but that it is destined to have a widespread application in the 
metallurgical industries, where its cheapness will enable it to replace 
oil and gas for the firing of certain classes of furnaces. In conclusion, 
the efficiency in the burning of bituminous coal under a steam-boiler 
is discussed. 

In a lecture on the sources of economy in power production de- 
livered before the National Association of Colliery Managers, W. H. 
Patchell t dealt with the feed-water, feed-heaters, and other matters 
connected with boilers. 

Smoke Abatement. — L. P. Breckenridge I discusses the burning 
of Illinois coal without smoke. The fundamental principles that apply 
to smokeless furnace construction and working are enumerated, and, 
by means of units in actual operation, several ways are indicated in 
which these principles have been satisfactorily applied. 

Papers on smoke abatement have been written by H. Ost § and by 
J. H. Mehrtens.|| 

As a contribution to the Subject of smoke abatement, J. H. Mehr- 
tens U gives a historical account of the methods of firing adopted from 
1770 to 1870. 



IL~COAL. 

Chemistry of Coal* — P* P* Bedson ** gives a summary of the 
work of various authors on the action of solvents on different classes 
of coals and on the proximate analysis of coal, and a preliminary notice 
of a study of coals from the Busty seam, Boitley, County Durham. 

F. F. Grout ft states that the percentage of hydrogen in pure coal is 
5 '38, with an average error of 0-16 per cent. The estimation of the 
total carbon yields sufficient data for the calculation of the approximate 
analysis. The calorific value can be calculated by aid of Dulong's 

• Engineering AfagoMtne, vol. xxxiv. pp. 294--302, 463-478, 577-589. 
t Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol Ixxvi. 



X University of Illinois , Bulletin No. 15, 

- " ■ ■ rt/iif ' .- — . 



. pp. 918-921. 



§ ZeitschriftfUr AngewandU Chemie, vol. xxi. pp. 1689-1698. 

II Glasers Annalen, vol Ixi. pp. 176-182, 205-210. 

t ZeitschriftfUr Dampfkessel und Maschinenbetrieb, 1907, pp. 537-589. 

*♦ Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, vol. xxvii. pp. 147-150. 

tt Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol xxix. pp. 1497-1499. 



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FUEL. 259 

formula. Recent experiments indicate that Dulong's formula gives 
low results, and before calculating the calorific value 0*17 per cent. 
should be added to the figures obtained for the available hydrogen. 
In cases where no analysis of the coal can be carried out, this esti- 
mated analysis gives the best foundation for calculating the heat 
value. 

W. F. Wheeler * endeavours to establish a means for comparing the 
value of bituminous coal by using pure coal as a basis, taking, as a 
definition of pure coal, a coal that would be ash- and moisture-free. 
The exclusion of these two variables does not, however, justify ash- 
and moisture-free coal being regarded as pure coal when it contains a 
widely varying amount of sulphur, which is no more a part of it than 
the ash and the moisture. An ideal pure coal should include the 
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, and also that part of the 
sulphur that is not combined with the ash. Tables are given showing 
that, when delicate distinctions are to be made, pure coal will furnish 
a better basis for comparison than any basis now in use, provided that 
correction be made for the su]phur and chemically combined water in 
the ash. The calorific value of the sulphur-free coal may prove to be 
one of the most useful factors in classifying coals. 

L. Vignon t gives details of an investigation made to determine the 
relation between the composition of coal and the amounts of carbon 
monoxide and dioxide contained in the gas distilled from it. 

Goal in the Midlands. — P. F. Kendall X discusses the geology of 
South Derbyshire and Leicestershire with special reference to the coal 
measures. The South Derbyshire and Leicestershire coalfield has not 
been properly explored. There are peculiar circumstances connected 
with it which have prevented its exploration, but the neighbouring 
fields of Nottinghamshire and North and South Staffordshire have 
been thoroughly explored — North Staffordshire particularly. The 
two main theories as to the conditions under which the deposits of 
vegetation, which subsequently become coal, were accumulated are 
discussed. These are the Drift theory, and the theory which ascribes 
to the coal deposits the accumulative action of successive forest growths 
which have perished in situ and become coal. 

Goal in Lancashire. — Joseph Dickinson § gives a section of a 
borehole at Moss Land, Whitefield. The section gives valuable 
information regarding the stratigraphy of the Lancashire coalfield. 

Goal in Ireland. — Shafts sunk recently at Eossberg, near Dun- 
gannon. County Tyrone, have resulted in the discovery of four workable 
seams of coal in the vicinity of old workings. The coal is of a 

* Bi' Monthly BulkHn of the American Institute of Mining Engineers^ 1908, pp. 49-60. 
t Bulletin de la Sociiti Chimi^ue, vol. iii. pp. 109-114. 

t Paper read before the National Association of Colliery Managers ; Iron and Coal 
Trades Review, vol. Ixxv. pp. 232S-2329. 
§ Transactions of the Institution of Mining^ Engineers, vol. xziciv. pp. 349-350. 



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260 THE mON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES, 

bituminous nature, and the area of the coalfield has been roughly 
estimated at about 24 acres, at 3000 tons to the acre in a 30-inch 
seam. It is believed that coal will be found all round the district 
outside the faults of the Drumglass, Denaghadone, Congo, and 
Kingariffe workings.* 

Goal in Austria, — Several borings for new colliery shafts are in 
progress in Austria. At Hruschau and Wirbitz borings have been 
put down for coal to a depth of 500 yards ; and at Ober-Suchau, in 
the Karwin district, a borehole has reached a depth of 700 yards. 
New boreholes have also been put down at Rattimau in Austrian 
Silesia, in the Kladno district, at Brod on the Save, and at Protwin 
in Bohemia, f 

F. E. Suess I describes the geology of the Rossitz coalfield. 

Goal in Belffinm, — A. Renier§ describes the palaeontological 
methods of studying the stratigraphy of the coal measures, with special 
reference to the North Belgian coalfield. 

Goal in Bosnia. — F. Katzer|| gives a detailed account of the 
brown-coal deposit at Ugljevik, near Bjelina, in north-east Bosnia. 
The coal is of Miocene age and of good quality. 

Goal in Qermany. — H. Ottermann U gives a geological description 
of the Mausegatt main seam in the Witten coalfield. 

0. Gabert*"* discusses the possibility of opening up new coalfields 
in the Erzgebirge. 

G. Giirichff describes the geological structure of the Silesian coal- 
measures. 

At the meeting of the German Geological Society on January 8, 
R. Michael ]:| described the geology of the Upper Silesian coalfield. 

0. Gaebler^ describes the Orlau fault in the Upper Silesian coal- 
field. 

It is reported that borings for brown-coal on the slopes of the 
Hundsberg and Wattenberg (Ehlen) have given very promising 
results, good beds of lignite, from 15 to 20 feet thick, having been 
tapped at various points over the entire di8trict.{||| 

T. Doring HH gives the results of an elaborate series of tests of the 
brown-coal from Leipnitz, in Saxony. The coal, which has been 

♦ TtPtes Bnj^neering Supplement, November 27, 1907, p. 5. 
t ZeitschriftfUr at^ewandte Chetnie, vol xx. p. 2230. 
X Jahrbuch aer k.k, geologischen Reichsanstalt, vol. Ivii. pp. 79^-^34. 
§ Revue UniverselU des Mines^ vol xxi. pp. 149-202. 

il Berg' und HUttenmdnnisches Jahrbuch der k»k, montanisHschen Hochschulen^ vol Iv. 
pp. 295-334. 
^ GlUckauf, vol. xliv. pp. 84-89. 

♦♦ Zeitsckrift fUr prakttsche GeologU, vol. xvi. pp. 114-119. 
ft Mitteilungen aus dent Afarkscheiderwesen, vol. viii. pp. 6-10. 
Xt GlUckauf, vol xliv. pp. 131-132. §| IHd,, vol. xliii. pp. 1397-1400. 

|"l Colliery Guardian^ vol. xcv. p. 136. 
ITU Jahrbuch fUr das Berg- und HUttenwesen im KSnigreiche Sachsen, 1907, pp. 3-26 



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FUEL. 261 

worked by the Government since 1900, has, on account of its high 
percentage of moisture, a low heating power, but when dried is a 
valuable fuel. 

The occurrence of brown-coal in the province of Brandenburg is 
described by A. Zeese.* 

Goal in Hnng'ary. — J. Andreicsf and A. Blascheck describe the 
coal deposits of the Siu valley. 

Goal in Italy. — The occurrence of mineral fuel in Italy is reviewed 
by K. Stegl.| He gives an account of the occurrence of anthracite, 
brown-coal, lignite, oil shale, and peat, and refers in detail to the 
brown-coal in Tuscany, where the deposits are of considerable im- 
portance. 

A. Zeese § describes the geological occurrence of brown-coal at the 
RiboUa and Casteani mines. 

The coal deposits in the Magra valley are situated at Fiampa- 
ganello, Oaniparola, and Castelnuovo Magra, in the communes of 
Sarzana and Oastelnuovo Magra. Two shafts are at present being 
sunk^ from each of which it is expected to obtain an annual output of 
50,000 tons. The sinking of two other shafts is contemplated, which 
will bring the total production up to 200,000 tons per annum. The 
quality of the lignite obtained is stated to be vastly superior to any 
of the so-called coals hitherto discovered in Italy, and recent tests 
have shown it to possess a heating power of 6435 calories with 2 4 
per cent of ash.|| 

Goal in Roumania. — J. HoniglH describes the Valea Copcea 
lignite deposits in Koumania. The coal contains 40*08 per cent, of 
carbon, 3*87 per cent of hydrogen, 1555 per cent, of oxygen and 
nitrogen, 26*62 per cent, of moisture, and 13 per cent, of ash. 

y. Alimanestiano ** gives details of the occurrence and mining of 
brown-coal in Koumania. 

G. Murgocitt gives an account of the mining industry of Roumania, 
with a map of the coal deposits of the kingdom. 

Goal in Russia.— F. Gervais XX gives a large number of analyses 
of Russian coals made in the Government Laboratory. 

Goal in India. — In a Presidential address at the inauguration of 
the Mining and Geological Institute of India, T. H. Holland ^ dealt 

* Braunkohle, vol. vii. pp. 697-701. 
t Revue du PetroU, vol. i. pp. 80-84, 110-112. 

X OesUrreichischeZeiischrtftfUr Berg- und HUttentuesen, vol. Iv. pp. 509-512, 524-530, 
562-555, 560-563. 
§ BraunkohU, vol. vi. pp. 682-684. || Board of Trade Journal, vol. lix. p. 417. 

IT Montan Zeitung, vol. xiv. pp. 390-392. 
** Revue Universelle des Mines, vol. xx. pp. 48-64. 

tt Revue du PHrole, vol. i. pp. 107-110. t? Gorni Journal, 1907. pp. 243-276. 

§§ Transactions of the Mining and Geological Institute of India, vol. i. pp. 30-5L 

1908. — I s 



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262 THE mON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

with the relation of science generally to mining and geology, and 
gives a table showing the classification of Indian strata, both of 
marine and fresh water formation, and the approximate age of Euro- 
pean and American equivalents. 

T. H. Holland ♦ and T. H. Ward describe the geology of the Giridih 
coalfield, and additional particulars of the collieries are given by the 
latter author.^ 

T. H. Holland I describes a Boulder found in a coal-seam in the 
Raniganj coalfield. 

Coal in Oanada. — G. C. Hoffmann § gives analyses of twenty- 
nine samples of coal and lignite from various localities in Canada. 

A summary of the work done by the Department of Mines, Geolo- 
gical Survey, during the year 1907, has been published. There were 
in the field twenty parties, and the summary reports indicate that a 
large amount of work was carried out, one of the chief results being 
the determination of enormous quantities of available bituminous coal 
in the Yukon region. || 

D. B. Dowlingf describes the Cascade coal basin, Alberta. He 
gives an outline of the geology and topography of the coalfield, and a 
detailed account of the character of the cod, thickness of seams, and 
extent of the measures. The report is accompanied by eight folding 
maps. The area illustrated on the map sheets lies within and to the 
east of the summit of the Rocky Mountains, the formations exposed 
giving a continuous section from the highest remaining beds of the 
Cretaceous down to the bottom of the Carboniferous. The coal is of 
Cretaceous age. In the hills south of the Bow River ten or eleven 
seams, more than 4 feet thick, have been found; while north of 
Bankhead, on the slope of Cascade Mountain, fourteen possibly work- 
able seams occur. At the Bankhead colliery the coal is an anthracite, 
admirably suited for domestic purposes. A screening plant handling 
1000 tons a day has been erected. 

D. D. Cairnes ** gives an account of the geology of the Moose Moun- 
tain area of the disturbed belt of southern Alberta. Coal has been 
found in several places within this district, and natural gas has been 
found to the north, south, and east of this area in the same formations 
as those within it. 

J. J. Bell ft notes the development of the coal resources of Nova 
Scotia, where the Eastern Coal Company is opening a new mine near 
Maccan, Cumberland county. The coal is of excellent quality, the 
main seam measuring 6 feet thick with an additional 5 feet, parted by 
5 feet of fireclay. Another seam, the Lawson coal, is 5 feet 6 inches 
thick, and the seams thicken as they extend eastward, and nossibly 
unite. It is estimated that the three seams contain 90,000,000 tons 
of coal. 

* Transaetions of the Mining and Geoiogical Institute of India^ vol. i. pp. 193-196. 

t Ibid,, pp. 167-172. X IHd, pp. 137-146. 

§ Geohgtcal Survey of Canada, Bulletin No. 958, pp. 18-37. 

II IHd., No. 1017. IT Ibid,, No. 949. ♦♦ Ihid,, No. 968. 

ft Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxzv. p. 106. 



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FUEL. 



263 



A. Lakes * describes the coal deposits at Princeton, British Columbia, 
near the junction of the Similkameen and Tulameen rivers. 

In a description of the economic geology of the Skeena River, 
W. W. Leach -I* gives particulars of the occurrence of coal. Coals of 
Cretaceous age, differing greatly in quality, are widely distributed 
throughout the district. 

The coalfields of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba are described 
by D. B. Dowling.J 

Goal in Oape Colony. — Particulars have been published § of a dis- 
covery of lignite in the Enysna district. Cape of Good Hope. On a 
shaft being sunk to a depth of 30 feet, three seams of the mineral 
were struck, aggregating 17 feet in thickness. Further tests were 
made at different places in the same district, and the area containing 
the lignite was found to be some miles in extent. Trials made with 
this fuel in Cape Town have given apparently satisfactory results, 
although, before the importance of the discovery can be fully esti- 
mated, experiments will have to be conducted on a larger scale. 

Goal in British East Africa. — In a preliminary report on a 
sample of coal from Mwele, it is pointed out that the coal, when freed 
from impurities by crushing, sifting, and washing with water, would 
be quite suitable for conversion into briquettes. A second larger 
example of this coal was received subsequently, and the results of the 
examination are as follows : 11 — 







First Sample 
Washed Coal. 


Second Sample 
Unwashed Coal. 


Fixed carbon 

Volatile matter . 

Ash . . . 

Sulphur 

Phosphorus 

Moisture 

Dirt (in crude coal) 

Calorific value . 








Per Cent 

59-95 

26-17 

3-50 

10-38 

3100 

5814 calorics. 


Per Cent. 

43-08 

27-80 

1607 
0-03 
0-007 

1305 

4419 c^ories. 



Goal in New South Wales. — A memoir by T .W. E. David,1I on 
the geology of the Hunter coalfield in New South Wales, is the out- 
come of many years' field work. The structure of the field is illus- 
trated by two maps, on which are traced the outcrops, and a series of 
twelve sections, in which the relations of the various measures and 

* Mining World, vol. xxvii. pp. 547-548. 

t Journal cf iht Canadian Mining Institute » vol. x. pp. 218-228. 

X Ibid,, pp. 229-241. 

§ Board of Trade Journal, vol. lix. pp. 326. 

II Bulletin of the Imperial Institute, vol. v. pp. 241-243. 

if Geology of the Hunter Coalfield, Sydney : Department of Mines, 1908. 



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264 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

their coal-seams are clearly shown. The author furnishes an estimate 
of the available coal in the Greta measures, placing it at 1,893,000,000 
tons, of which 1,262,000,000 tons are workable. The coal in the 
upper, or Newcastle, measures is estimated at 3,278,000,000 tons. 

Coal in Western Australia. — Notes on plant remains from the 
Collie coalfield are given by R. Etheridge,* on fossils from the same 
coalfield by F. Chapman, and on fossils from the Irwin River coalfield 
by R. Etheridge. These papers throw light upon the vexed question 
of the geological age of the Collie River coal-measures, and are of 
scientific interest in their relation to the important question of the 
distribution of Glossopteris flora. A re- examination of two leaf frag- 
ments, previously thought possibly to belong to the Mesozoic genus 
Sagenopteris, proved them to belong to the Palaeozoic genus 
Glossopteris. 

In a paper on the mineral resources of Western Australia, 
C. H. Rason t notes the occurrence of coal both in the north and the 
south of the South- Western division. The only deposits at present 
worked are those on the Collie River. 

Coal in Victoria. — ^The brown-coal deposits of Victoria are 
described by R. A F. Murray. J 

Goal in New Zealand« — In his monograph on the Parapara 
Subdivision, Karamea, Nelson, J. M. Bell § states that thin seams of 
brown-coal, associated with the lowest beds of the Miocene strata, out- 
crop at several points near the Golden Ridge, at Rangihaieta Head, at 
Motupipi, and elsewhere in the Takaka Valley. The coal is, generally 
speaking, of low grade, being high in ash and sulphur. Coal of better 
quality than that now exposed may occur beneath the surface where 
the uppermost measures of the Oamaru rocks appear in the Takaka 
Valley and in the Aorere Valley. In the Aorere Valley north of 
Rockville, the possibilities of coal beneath the surface, where Oamaru 
rocks outcrop, seem especially hopeful, since on the Wakamarama 
Range, to the north-west, the upf aulted members of the Oamaru rocks 
— the equivalents of those in the Aorere Valley — contain coal-seams. 
Boring operations for coal might be carried out in this locality with a 
reasonable hope of success. 

L. H. Harrison || describes the occurrence of free sulphur and of 
calcium sulphate crystals in a coal from Boby's Creek, Waipara. 

A report on New Zealand coals exhibited at the New Zealand 
International Exhibition at Christchurch has been made by J. 
MacLaurin.1T The semi-anthracites, although not so rich in fixed 

♦ Geological Survey of Western Australia^ Bulletin No. 27. 
t Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, vol. Ivi. pp. 533-544. 
X Australian Mining Standard, January 8, 15, and 22. 1908. 
§ New Zealand Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 3, p. 104. 
II Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, vol. xxxix. pp. 475-476. 
IT Report of the Analyst to the Mines Department, New Zealand; Iron and Coal Trades 
Review, vol. Ixxvi. p. 433 



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FUEL. 265 

carbon as the samples of Welsh anthracite, are equal to those in 
evaporative power, and surpass them in their comparative freedom 
from sulphur. They should prove excellent steaming coals. The 
bituminous coals from Faparoa, Westport, Fort Elizabeth, and Brunner 
are somewhat better than the samples of Canadian and Kew South 
Wales coals given for comparison. They are low in water and low in 
ash, and, though in some cases high in sulphur, are excellent steam 
and gas producing coals. They would make very good coke, and are 
also good for household purposes. The other bituminous coals, though 
not giving so fierce a heat when burned, are also very good steaming 
coals, and better perhaps than the first for household use. They make 
excellent coke — a fact well exemplified in the first-class quality for 
smelting purposes of the sample of coke submitted for analysis from 
the Brunnerton mine. Bituminous coals are confined to the west 
coast of the South Island. Brown-coals are extensively mined, and 
are largely used for household purposes both in the North and South 
Islands. Where the better class of coals are not available they are 
used for steam-raising, and, though somewhat light, give very fair 
results. No hard and fast line can be drawn between the brown-coals 
and the lignites — the next class. They pass by insensible gradations 
into one another. The lignites are worked in Otago and Southland, 
and their use is mainly local, for household purposes, and for steam 
when no other fuel is available. 

Goal in the United States, — G. Baum describes the geological 
structure of the various American coalfields.^ 

The United States Geological Survey has been giving more and 
more attention to the subject of coal, and a synopsis of the results 
accomplished during the past year has been published. A classified 
list of papers dealing with coal in publications of the Survey, compiled 
by W. T. Lee f and J. M. Nickles, is appended. 

Coal in Alabama. — The northern part of the Cahaba coalfield is 
described by Charles Butts, j; The coalfield has a total area of 150 
square miles. The coals are all bituminous, the average composition 
being 2J per cent, of moisture, 59 per cent, of fixed carbon, 32 per 
cent, of volatile matter, 6 per cent, of ash, and 1 per cent, of sulphur. 

Goal in Arkansas. — ^The Arkansas coalfield is described by A. J. 
Collier.§ The deposits are extensive, and the coals, which are of 
excellent quality, range from bituminous to semi- anthracite. 

Coal in Oalifomia« — A new coalfield is being opened up in Cali- 
fornia, near the coast, between San Francisco and Los Angeles, which 
is expected to have an important effect on the fuel supply conditions 

* GlUckauf, pp. 415-421. 

t United StaUs Geological Survey , Bulletin No. 316, pp. 518-532. 

X /«</.. pp. 76-116. 

§ Ibid,, pp. 137-160. 



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266 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

in the district. Unlike most beds in the State, which are lignitic in 
character, this one is said to be a seam of semi-bituminous coal, 18 feet 
thick. About 1 ^ miles of gangways have been opened up, and it is 
expected that the mines will soon be producing several hundred tons 
of coal per day.* 

M. R. Campbell f describes the Lower Miocene coal of Stone Canon, 
Monterey county. It is the best coal on the Pacific coast south of 
Washington. 

Goal in Colorado, — ^The coalfields of Colorado are described by 
A. Lakes. I 

Descriptions have been published of the coalfields of the Danforth 
Hills and Grand Hogback in north-western Colorado by H. S. Gale,§ 
of the Brook ClifiPs coalfield between Grand River and Sunnyside, 
Utah, by G. B. Bichardson,|| and of the Durango coal district by 
J. A. TaflF.H 

Goal in Illinois. — Coal investigations in the Saline-Gallatin field 
are described by F. W. De Wolf.** The area described covers 650 
square miles. 

Goal in Kentncky. — C. H Davis,! f in an account of the Kentenia 
Corporation, describes the coal deposits of Kentenia, giving numerous 
illustrations showing the vast supply available of coal of excellent 
quality. 

The Elkhorn coalfield is described by R. W. Stone.Jf 

Goal in Michigan. — The coal resources of Michigan are described 
by L. Fraser,§§ who describes the geology of the measures, and gives 
analyses of the coal, together with maps of the Bay county coalfield 
and plans of the leading mines. 

Goal in Montana. — F. W. Parsons nil gives an account of the coal 
resources of Montana, and a map showing the coal and lignite areas 
of the State. There are 47,200 square miles of coal lands, and Mon- 
tana at present produces about 18 per cent, of all the coal and lignite 
mined in the Rocky Mountain region, the bulk of the output being 
derived from the ten largest mines. The entire production, is con- 
sumed locally, and is even then insufficient to meet the demand. 

F. W. Parsons HH gives an account of the coal-beds of Montana, and 
of the composition of the principal coals encountered. New fields are 

* Engineer^ vol. cv. p. 89. 

t UniUd States Geoh/pcal Survey, Bulletin No. 316, pp. 435-438. 

X Minintr World, vol. xxviii. pp. 525-626. 

§ United States Geological Survey, BulUtin No. 316, pp. 264-301. 

II Ibid,, pp. 302-320. ^ Ibid,, pp. 321-337. *• Ihid., pp. 116-136. 

ft- Supplement to the Harlan EnUrprise, April 10, 1908. 

$J United States Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 316, pp. 42-54. 

§§ Engineering and Mining Joumaly vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 1024-1027. 

|i;i Ibid,, pp. 978-981. irir Ibid., pp. 1071-1074. 



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FUEL. 267 

being rapidly developed in Carbon County, which contains over 3000 
square miles of coal lands lying in the Laramie and Fort Union 
formations. 

Descriptions have been published of the Great Falls coalfield by 
0. A. Fisher,* of the coals of Carbon County by N. H. Darton,^ and 
of the coalfields of part of Dawson, Rosebud, and Custer counties by 
A. G. Leonard.^ 

Goal in New Mexico. — A reconnaissance survey of the western 
part of the Durango-Gallup coalfield of Colorado and New Mexico is 
described by M. K. 8haler,§ and descriptions have been published of 
the Una del Gato coalfield, Sandoval County, by M. R. Campbell,|| 
and of coal in the vicinity of Fort Stanton Reservation, Lincoln 
County, by the same author .H 

Goal in Pennsylvania. — The United States Geological Survey 
has made very detailed surveys since 1900 of an area of coalfields of 
about 5000 square milea Recent results are given in papers on coal 
in the Clarion quadrangle by E. F. Lines,^* and on the coal resources 
of Johnstown by W. C. Phalen.tt 

Goal in Utah. — The coal district in the region about Pleasant 
Valley, Carbon and Emery counties, is described in detail by J. A. 

TafF.tt 

The coalfields of Iron County, in south-western Utah, were exam- 
ined by W. T. Lees,§§ who has published a brief description. These 
coalfields are the most important of the south-west, and some day 
may furnish fuel to the desert region of the southern part of the 
Great Basin. 

Goal in Virginia. — The coal resources of West Virginia are dis- 
cussed by F. W. Parsons,|||| who points out that the increase in the 
production of coal was greater in this State during 1906 than in any 
other in the United States. There are three important coalfields — 
Kanawha, New River, and the Pocohontas. The first-named contains 
six persistent coal-beds — the Stockton, Coalburg, Winifrede, Cedar 
Grove, Campbell's Creek, and Eagle seams. The coal from the Coal- 
burg and Winifrede seams is splinty. The best coal comes, however, 
from the New River field. Analyses are given showing this coal to 
possess high qualities. 

The Russell Fork coalfield is described by R. W. Stone,1I1I and 
coal-mining at Dante is dealt with by the same author. '^'^''' 

• UniUd States Geolo^cal Sutvey, BulUtin No. 316, pp. 161-178. 

t Ibid,, pp. 174-193. X Ibid,, pp. 194-211. § Ibid,, pp. 376-426. 

II IHd., pp. 427-480. ir Ibid,, pp. 481-484. ♦* Ibid,, pp. 13-19. 
ft Ibid, , pp. 20-41. n I^d„ pp. 338-868. H IHd,, pp. 369-^5. 

III Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 881-886. 
iriT UniUd States Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 316, pp. 66-67. 
♦** /W^.. pp. 68-76. 



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268 THE mON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

Goal in Wyoming, — In a monograph on the geology of the 
Bighorn Basin, C. A. Fisher * gives an account of the occurrence of 
coal, which is the chief product of the sedimentary formations of the 
hasin. It occurs mainly in the so-called Laramie formation, and the 
greatest development is found where the larger streams expose the 
coal-measures. The various districts where the principal development 
of the coal deposits has taken place are separat^y described. 

F. W. Parsons t deals with the coal resources of northern Wyoming. 
Most of the supplies are' of inferior quality and high in moisture. 
They are therefore unfit for long storage or transportation. Although 
some of the coal is cokable, most of the output is used for steam and 
domestic purposes. The seams vary from 6 to 20 feet in thickness, 
but contain numerous partings of slate, which necessitates great care 
in mining in order to obtain a clean product. The oldest field in 
north-east Wyoming is at Cambria, eight miles north of Newcastle. 
This field contains the only bituminous coking coal hitherto discovered 
in the district. The Cambrian Fuel Company, which works the 
deposit, owns 17,000 acres of coal-bearing land. The coal is of unique 
quality, inasmuch as it carries small quantities of gold and silver. 
The Cambria coal is hard, and partakes of the nature of a bituminous 
shale or cannel. In the Sheridan district is another coalfield, 150 
miles west of Newcastle. The coal in this field is a lignite, and far 
inferior in fuel efficiency to the Cambria coal. Altogether there are 
about 20,000 square miles of coal lands in northern Wyoming. 

The coal resources of Wyoming are described, with special reference 
to the Diamond coalfield, by A. T. Shurick.| This coalfield is situated 
on the Oregon Short Line Railroad, 270 miles north-east of Salt Lake. 
Coal was first discovered in 1843, and again in 1848 and 1852, but the 
first important development was in 1894. The coal was found to be 
of excellent quality and high calorific value (7560 calories). The field 
is a good deal faulted. 

The coal-mines of southern Wyoming are described by F. W. 
Parsons.§ 

Descriptions have been published of the coalfields in a portion of 
central Uinta county by A. B. Schultz,|| of the Lander ccxedfield by 
E. G. WoodruflF,1I of the coalfields of east-central Carbon County by A. C. 
Veatch,** and of the coal of Laramie Basin by C. E. Siebenthal.ff 

Coal in the Island of Saghalien.— According to investigations 
made by the Karafuto Administration Office, coal is the most impor- 
tant and richest of the various mineral products of the island of 
Saghalien, the quality being excellent and the depth of the coal-seam 
measuring over 50 feet in some places. The deposits extend over 
almost the whole dimensions of the island from Notoro Point, 

* United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper No. 53, pp. 46-56. 

t Engineering and Mining Joumalt vol. Izxxiv. pp. 980-935. 

X Ibid., vol. Ixxxv. pp. 116-118. § Ibid,, pp. llg-120. 

II United States Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 316, pp. 212-241. 

IF Ibid., pp. 242-243. *^ Ibid,, pp. 244-280. ft Z*"'.. Pp. 361-263. 



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FUEL. 



269 



flouthem extremity, to the boundary line at 50 degrees north latitude. 
Details of the more important deposits are given.'*' 

Goal in Japan. — J. H. C. Mingayef gives analyses of Japanese 
coals. 

Goal in Pern, — E. I. Duenas X describes the occurrence of coal in 
the department of the Cuzco. Tertiary coal is met with at Faruro, 
Levitaca, Chimboya, and adjoining districts, while mesozoic coal occurs 
at Livitaca. 

Goal in the Sahara. — G. B. M. Flamand § has recently contri- 
buted a paper to the Geological Society of France, in which he 
declared that the existence of coal-measures in the extreme south 
of Oran was now established on a scientific basis, although he would 
not go so far as to vouch for the presence of commercially workable 
seams of coal. 

Peat* — In Sweden, II where for many hundred years fuel has been 
obtained in the form of peat from the Swedish moors, a series of experi- 
ments has been carried out by the Swedish Feat Development Com- 
pany with interesting results. From twenty-three experiments of this 
material the average ash in the water-free condition was found to be 
3*71 per cent. An analysis of the dry organic part of the material 
gave as an average, carbon, 57*04 per cent. ; hydrogen, 5*74 per cent. ; 
oxygen, 37*17 per cent. The nitrogen varied between 071 and 316 
per cent, or an average of 2*22 per cent.; the sulphur varied from 
0*4 to 0*6 per cent., being chiefly in organic combination in the peat 
itself, only a small part being found as sulphate in the constituents of 
the ash. The following analyses, the one on the water-free material 
and the other when containing 25 per cent, of water, may be taken 
as the average composition of the material employed in Sweden : — 





Water-Free. 
Per Cent. 


Twenty-five 
per Cent Water. 


Ash 

Carbon 

Hydrogen 

Oxygen 

Nitrogen 

Sulphur 

Total 


870 
64-90 

6-60 
33*25 

212 

0-43 


2-78 
41-17 

4-20 
24-94 

1-59 

0-32 


100-00 


7500 



♦ Journal of the Yokohama Chamber of Commerce^ November 1907 ; Board of Trade 
Journal^ vol. Ix. p. 27. 

t Records of the Geological Survey of New South Wales, vol. viii. pp. 251-257. 

X Boletin del Cuerpo de Ingenieros de Minas del Peru, No. 58. 

§ Colliery Guardian, vol. xcv. p. 40. 

II Oestcrreichische Moorteitschrift, 1907, pp. 106-166. 



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270 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

According to the investigatioDS of G. von Heidenstam, peat has on 
an average 22 per cent, of water with 3*79 per cent, ash in the water- 
free condition, or 2*95 per cent, as existing with 22 per cent, water. 
The calorific value of ti^ie dry peat is 54,005 calories or 3809 effective 
calories with 22 per cent, of water. In comparison with peat from 
other countries the Swedish peat is very low in ash. 

Y. Zailer * and L. Wilk discuss the infiuence of the constitution of 
plants on the physical and chemical properties of peat. 

The production of ammonia from peat by the Woltereok process 
is described by A. Halstead.f The method consists of passing a 
mixture of air and water vapour over peat kept at a low heat in 
specially devised furnaces. 

The peat deposits of Georgia and Florida are described by the 
Acting British Consul at Savannah. I In Southern Georgia and Florida 
there exist great peat bogs in which are stored almost incalculable 
quantities of this fuel. Similar bogs are also said to exist in nearly 
every state and particularly in those that border on the sea. At the 
present time the only peat bog being worked in Florida is a large 
deposit situated near Orlando, where operations are carried on in 
rather a crude manner. 

Peat from the Falkland Islands § yielded on analysis : fixed carbon, 
20*88 to 28-90 per cent. ; volatile constituents, 35*39^ to 57-26 ; mois- 
ture, 1M3 to 37-23; and ash, 271 to lOOO, 

Weathering of Goal. — ^The weathering of coal forms the subject 
of an investigation by S. W. Farr|| and N. D. Hamilton. They 
find that an exudation of combustible gases from coal occurs from 
the time of breaking out of the sample from the seam, and that an 
absorption of oxygen accompanies the exudation. The process of 
deterioration is probably due to oxidation of hydrogen or of hydro- 
carbons. It may also be due to a simple loss of combustible gases 
and their replacement by oxygen. The extent of the deterioration 
varies with different coals, but the deterioration is probably most 
active dinging the first two or three weeks from the taking of the 
sample. 

Experiments made to determine the effect of storing coal under 
water are described by J. Hart. IT The only detrimental result found 
was the absorption of water by the coal. 

Sampling Goal. — The technological work on fuels of the United 
States Geological Survey has consisted largely of the testing of 
waggon-load samples of coal. This work has. been under the charge 

♦ /.eitschrift fUr das landwirthschaftliche Versuchswesen in Oesterrekht 1907. pp. 
787-816. 
t Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. p. 917. 
X Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxvi. p. 62. 
§ Bulletin of the Imperial InstituU, vol. v. pp. 251-252. 
II University of Illinois, Bulletin No, 17. 
^ Chemiker Zeitung, vol. xxxi. p. 1^7. 



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FUEL. 271 

of J. Shober Burrows,^ who has made a detailed study of methods 
of sampling. A brief account of these results is given in a paper on 
the importance of uniform and systematic coal-mine sampling. 



III.— CHARCOAL. 

Cliarcoal Kilns. — It is reported! that two new charcoal kilns 
have been completed near Sundsvall. They are of the Jonsson- 
Harden type, and excellent results have been obtained both as 
regards yield of charcoal and of by-products. 

R. Duchemin % deals with charcoal-burning. 

Charcoal By-products. — ^W. C. Geer§ discusses the products of 
wood distillation . Two processes are employed — destructive distillation 
and steam distillation. The latter, as a rule, effects the sepai^ation 
of the volatile products with little decomposition of the wood fibre. 
Wood is heated or carbonised in three forms of apparatus — in brick 
kilns, in retorts, and in ovens. Four crude products are. obtained — 
(1) charcoal; (2) a non-condensible gas; (3) an aqueous product 
known as pyroligneous acid ; and (4) wood tar. The uses to which 
the various products are put are then dealt with, and the yield stated 
for various descriptions of wood. The charcoal is, of course, largely 
used for blast-furnaces. 

A description has appeared of the by-product plant installed at the 
charcoal ironworks at Marquette, Michigan. || 

The Charcoal Industry in Sweden.— Although the old-fashioned 

method of charring still prevails in most parts of Sweden, and is 
applied to the bulk of the charcoal made in the country, newer and 
more rational systems are by degrees being adopted, and during the 
last year or two several new installations have been completed. The 
American system has been followed in some instances, more especially 
at saw-mills in North Sweden with plate retorts, whilst in some cases 
lower down in the country brick chambers have been chosen in pre- 
ference to the plate retorts. In the brick chambers the heat is con- 
veyed by cast-iron pipes, which receive the gases from the furnace. 
Other modifications have been resorted to in one or two places, and 
the whole question is at present receiving considerable attention. The 
same remark applies to the introduction of improved methods for 
utilising the auxiliary products. Several new installations, based upon 
recently discovered methods, are under contemplation. IT 

♦ United States Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 316, pp. 486-517. 

t Affdrsvdrlden, vol. vii. p. 1284. 

X Gknie Civil, vol. lii. pp. 290, 301-302. 

§ Circular 114, Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture. 

II Engineering Record, October 12, 1907. 

If Engineering, vol. Ixxxv. p. 16. 



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272 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 



IN.—COKR 

Beehive Ooke-OVens. — A description has been published * of the 
plant of the Orient Coke Co., Dunlaps Creek Valley, Pennsylvania. 
There are 480 coke-ovens in operation, arranged in three double rows, 
with 80 ovens to each yard. Covington coke extractors are installed 
in two of these yards, and a third one will be put in shortly. All 
the ovens are of the beehive type, 12 feet 3 inches by 8 feet, and pro- 
duce an unusually good grade of coke. The equipment of the mine 
from which the coal for coking is obtained is also described. 

An illustrated description has appeared f of the new plant of the 
Connellsville Central Coke Company, near New Salem, Pennsylvania. 
It consists of a battery of longitudinal or modified Belgian type of 
coke-ovens, a type which is becoming popular throughout the coke 
districts of Pennsylvania. The completed plant will consist of 400 of 
these ovens, the chief advantages of which are that they can be drawn 
within 15 seconds, and recharged, levelled, closed, and ignited within 
40 minutes, whereas with beehive ovens and hand-forking and bricking- 
up, 3 hours ^and 20 minutes were required for these operations. The 
new ovens are 30 feet long inside, with cast-iron brick-lined doors 
5 feet wide at the front or discharging end, and 4 feet 10 inches wide 
at the back. The new plant is completely equipped with electrically 
operated Wellman-Seaver- Morgan pushing, levelling, and quenching 
machines, the construction of which is described and illustrated. 
Compressed air is used to blow all dust, ashes, and dirt from the 
coke before quenching, and effectively cleans the coke. 

The mechanical appliances for handling coke are described by 
E. Korting J and by F. Kellner.§ 

W. W. Macfarren || gives a detailed description of various types of 
coke-drawing machines. The growth of the coke industry of the United 
States has been so rapid that whereas in 1892 there were but 261 
plants, with a total of 40,000 ovens, it is computed that on April 1, 
1907, there were in the Connellsville district alone 37,000 ovens, with 
over 2000 additional ovens projected. The great bulk of these ovens 
are of the beehive type, and the hand-drawing of such ovens is a 
laborious and difficult piece of work, which it is becoming increasingly 
difficult to get men to perform. Coke-drawing by machinery is thus 
cheaper and more expeditious than the older manual methods, although 
one of the objections hitherto made to their employment is that hand- 
drawn coke is withdrawn in nearly its original size as coked, while 
coke-drawing machines break it up, more or less, during extraction. 
The requirements of a good coke-drawing machine are reliability, 

• Mines and Minerals^ vol. xxviii. p. 177. 
t Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 785-790. 
X Journal fUr GasbeUuchtung, vol. 1. p. 125. 

§ md.,p.2i6. 

II Proceedings of the Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, vol. xxiii. pp. 451- 
516; Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 995-1002, 1035-1039. 



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FUEL. 273 

capacity, economy of operation, the delivery of large clean coke to the 
wagons, a " low " construction of machine or a " high " yard, permitting 
the drawing of the coke by hand when necessary, strong construction, 
not liable to be easily injured by foolish manipulation, and that the 
first cost and the expenses of maintenance should be low« The 
machines described are the Hebb machine, the Alliance machine, 
which resembles it, the Covington machine, the Heyl and Patterson 
machine, and the Marmac coke-drawing and loading machine. The 
Covington machine and the Marmac machine are described at some 
length. The former was the first complete machine to obtain any 
degree of success. It consists of an extractor and a conveyor, and it 
requires two men to handle it. It is chiefly made of cast iron, and 
the construction is cheap. The machine draws about 90 per cent, of 
the coke, the remaining amount being withdrawn by hand. The 
Marmac machine has been designed to rectify some of the defects of 
the Covington machine, which it resembles in many respects. Dia- 
grams and illustrations of the working parts are given. 

J. M'A. Johnston * describes the application of Stirling and other 
water-tube boilers to coking plant. 

By-product Ooke-OVens. — W. H. Coleman -f describes the pro- 
cesses of recovery of by-products from coke-ovens, and discusses the 
possible outlet for the products. He anticipates an increased demand 
for benzol as a motor-car fuel. In 1902 only about 10 per cent, of 
the total output of coke in Great Britain was made in by-product 
recovery-ovens, while figures published by the Board of Trade show 
that the number of recovery-ovens used has increased from 5546 in 
1905 to 6275 in 1906. The processes for the recovery of by-products 
are described in great detail, and the method of their disposal is also 
dealt with. 

£. M. Hann ;( describes a recent plant for the utilisation of small 
coal. The plant, which has been erected at the Bargoed colliery, 
comprises a washery, treating 120 tons per hour, driven entirely by 
three-phase electric motors, and 50 coke-ovens of the Koppers type. 
By the means adopted in the plant the wastes have been reduced to 
about 10 per cent, of the coal used. Eleven folding plates, illustrating 
the plant, accompany the paper. 

An illustrated description has appeared § of the Armstrong verti- 
circular by-product coke-oven. The object to be attained by this form 
of oven is to manufacture high-class coke, under the same conditions 
as in the beehive oven, from any description of coking coal, saving all 
the by-products, and giving a larger daily output per oven, with a 
larger quantity of coke per ton of coal than is possible with the ordi- 
nary horizontal by-product oven. The new oven is vertical, so that 
the full weight of the charge maintains a considerable pressiu-e during 

♦ Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, vol. xxxv. pp. 38-114. 

t Ihid,, vol. XXXIV. pp. 331-348. 

% Proceedings of th€ South Wales Institute of Mining Engineers, yo\» xxv. pp. 469-487. 

\ Colliery Guardian, vol. xcv. pp. 128-124. 



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274 THE mON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

the coking period. Its circular form has been adopted for various 
reasons, amongst which are cheapness of construction, greater stabilitji 
uniformity and quickness of heating, and large output. The oven is 
heated with a portion of the gas from which the by-products have been 
extracted, and is regenerative. The gas is burned with heated air, 
and the regenerators are designed to serve two purposes; firstly, 
to keep the outside walls cool, and, secondly, to heat the air for 
combustion. 

An illustrated description of the Koppers by-product recovery coke- 
oven, with detailed drawings showing the construction, has appeared.* 
There are two forms of Koppers oven — the waste-heat oven and the 
regenerative oven, the latter producing the waste heat wholly in the 
form of combustible gas. Both types are described. In the regenera- 
tive oven automatic reversing has been introduced, the gas and air 
supply being automatically regulated by electrical means every half- 
hour. The condensation apparatus introduces a novel feature, as the 
raw gases are treated with sulphuric acid after the tar has been 
deposited, in order to dispense with the washers for the absorption of 
ammonia. At the same time the resulting sulphate is discharged 
mechanically to secure continuous operation and avoid hand labour. 
A description is given of the Koppers plant installed at the Mont 
Oenis colliery. Similar ovens have recently been adopted in the 
United States, at Joliet, Illinois. 

In the course of an extended account of the new ironworks of the 
Staveley Company, a description is given f of the hundred Simplex 
coke-ovens divided into four batteries. The drawings given show that 
the ovens are of the well-known horizontal flued type, fractional combus- 
tion ensuring a homogeneous temperature throughout The quantity 
carbonised per week is 3500 tons of dry slack, and the yield in 
sulphate of ammonia and tar averages respectively 1*52 per cent, 
and 3*93 per cent.; the average volatile matter contained in the 
dried slack is 35 per cent., and the yield of metallurgical coke reaches 
65 per cent. These results are highly satisfactory, considering that 
the superior yield of the ovens over the laboratory tests completely 
makes up for the usual losses in coke- dust and small breeze. The 
proportion of breeze and dust produced never exceeds 4^ per cent., 
which, considering the natural brittleness of the coke, points to the 
good results obtained in these circumstances by coal-compression. 

E. Korting | compares the Dessau vertical coking retorts with 
inclined retorts. 

New types of coke-ovens are described by F. Fieschi.§ 

S. B. Sheldon describes his type of coke-oven.|| 

Ostwald's process for the prcduction of nitric acid and nitrate of 
ammonia from ammoniacal liquor, as applied to the gas and coke- 

♦ Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 1671-1675. 

t Engineerings vol. Ixxxv. p. 573-676. 

X Journal fUr GasbeUuchtung, vol. 1. pp. 145-151. 

§ Ginie Civil, vol. Hi. pp. 2d9-301. 

II Iron Age, vol. Ixxxi. pp. 197-201. 



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FUEL. 275 

oyen industries, is described and illustrated by F. D. Marshall,* who 
describes earlier attempts to solve the problem. The ammonia daily 
produced in large quantities by the destructive distillation of coal is 
by this process converted directly into pure nitric acid of 53 per cent, 
strength, and the acid in its turn is converted into nitrate of ammonia 
if so desired. When the process is conducted on a large scale exist- 
ing ammonia stills can be utilised, the acid saturators being dispensed 
with in favour of the '^ catalysers," ijnQ only addition being the acid- 
proof brick condensing towers. Should the process be continued, as 
at Bochum, for the manufacture of nitrate of ammonia, the acid is 
conveyed to the nitrate saturators in another building. No purifica- 
tion of the ammonia vapour entering the " catalysers " is necessary, 
and any foreign nitrogen compounds — such as aniline, pyridine, or 
hydrocyanic acid — are burnt to nitric acid, while sulphur compounds 
bum to sulphuric acid, which is easily removed from the nitric acid 
by a single distillation. 

The ammonia employed may be supplied by gas-works, coke-ovens, 
town waste, or fermented urine ; or, in fact, from any source from 
which ammonia in payable quantities is obtainable, while the process 
is clean, noiseless, and demands the minimum of attention and labour. 

Taking the average results from the manufacture of sulphate from 
gas-works and coke-ovens, the net profit is about 2s. on every ton of coal 
carbonised, varying, naturally, according to the facilities for obtaining 
sulphuric acid. 100 tons of coal produce 2 tons of nitric acid of 53 
per cent, and f of a ton of ammonium nitrate. 

A very important and growing application of nitric acid is for 
obtaining nitro-benzene, nitro-naphthalene, &c., from the correspond- 
ing hydrocarbon compounds. As these substances are recovered from 
coke-ovens at the same time as ammonia, it is possible to avoid the 
transportation of the nitric acid altogether, and to produce nitro or 
amido compounds direct instead of hydrocarbons and nitric acid. 
The whole subject has recently been fully dealt with by W. Rabins. -f 

A. Thau i describes the starting of by-product coke-ovens. 

In the United States, the Koppers regenerative by-product coke- 
oven system has been introduced from Germany, and the first plant 
was built at Joliet.§ Two new coke-oven charging machines were also 
introduced. The Ernst machine for rectangular ovens has a steel 
plate box the size of the oven. This is filled with coal and thrust 
into the oven. The rear end is then held by a ram, while the box is 
palled out — the front end being hinged — leaving the mass of coal in 
place. The Marmac machine, for drawing and charging beehive ovens, 
has a cast-steel wedge-shaped shovel, 40 inches by 15 inches, on the 
end of a ram, which is rotated on its axis to discharge coal into the 
oven or coke upon a conveyor. All the apparatus is mounted on a 
travelling platform. 

* Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixzv. pp. 2823-2324. 

t Critical Considerations and the Prospective Solution of the Nitrogen Problem, Jena : 
G. Fischer. 
X GliUkauf, vol. xliv. pp. 265-271. § Engineer, vol. cv. p. 107. 



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276 THE IRON AND STESL INDUSTRIES. 

An illustrated description has appeared * of the Ernst ooal-charging 
machine for by-product coke-ovens and for the so-called rectangular 
Belgian ovens recently introduced in the ^Connellsville region of 
Pennsylvania. The Ernst coal-charging machine introduces the coal 
through the side of the oven, and, as no levelling is necessary, the 
process of coking the new charge can begin again one minute after 
the previous charge has been pushed out of the oven. 

Coloured drawings have been j)ublished f of new Otto regenerative 
coke-ovens, fired from below, experimentally installed at the Deutscher 
Kaiser works. 

Ooke-OVen Oases. — The utilisation of coke-oven gases is discussed 
by L. Greiner.J 

Peat-coke. — The problem of peat utilisation, so often pronounced 
hopeless, is now stated to have been practically solved. The Mond 
Power-Gas Corporation are building a large peat-generator gas-plant 
near Heme, in Westphalia ; Crossley BroUiers are projecting plants 
on the basis of their long-continued experiments at Openshaw ; and 
Martin Ziegler has made peat-coke and obtained the chemical by- 
products, at Oldenburg and at other places, ever since 1897. The 
Ziegler plant at Beuerberg, in Upper Bavaria, which was opened in 
1906, is described .§ The results obtained have been eminently satis- 
factory, and suggest the possibility of manufacturing at a profit peat- 
coke and chemicals in Ireland, where from 16 feet to 40 feet of peat 
can be worked over large areas. 

L. C. Wolff II describes the coking of peat with recovery of by- 
products, as carried out at Beuerberg, in Upper Bavaria. 

H. Bergstrom H describes the manufacture of peat coke in Sweden. 



Y.— LIQUID FUEL. 

Origin of Petroleum. — Hypotheses as to the origin of petroleum 
continue to attract much attention. The subject is discussed by 
N. I. Andrussoff ** from a geological standpoint. 

M. P. de Wilde f f considers that the theory of the formation of 
petroleum from organisms has no scientific basis, and that in view of 
the occurrence of petroleum in eruptive rocks, a purely inorganic 
origin must be accepted. 

♦ Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. p. 1682. 

t Ziitschrift fUr das Berg-, HUtUn- und Salinenwesen, vol. Ivi. pp. 181-182. 

X Cassier's Magazine, voL xxxiii. pp. 68-82. 

§ Engineerings vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 671-676. 

II Zeitschrift fUr Dampfkessel und Masckinenbetrieb, 1907, p. 460. 

IT Bihang till Jemkontoreti AnnaUr, 1908, pp. 19-26. 

*• Revue du PitroU, vol. i. pp. 72-74. (In German, with summary in Roumanian.) 

ft Moniieur Scientifiqite, voL xxi. pp. 301-307 : Petroleum, vol. ii. p. 326. 



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PUKL. 277 

Researches by G. Elramer * lead him to support Engler's theory 
that petroleum has been formed from algSB. 

J. Marcussont shows that the optical activity of petroleum is 
opposed to the theory of inorganic origin. Researches on the optical 
activity of petroleum have also been described by R. Zaloziecki f ^^^^ 
BL Klarfeld, and by M. A. Rakusin.§ 

The synthetic preparation of optically active petroleum from glyce- 
rides is described by J. Lewkowitsch.|| 

M. A. Rakusin H gives the results of an elaborate series of optical 
investigations of petroleum. 

The polarimetry of petroleum has been investigated by M. Rein- 
hard ♦♦ and N. Botez. 

The chemistry and physics of petroleum formation are discussed at 
length by 0. Bngler.f f 

Petroleum in Scotland. — ^W. G. Peasegood %% records the occur- 
rence of petroleum in the BuUhurst coal-seam, Leycett collieries. 

Petroleum in Austria. — J. Noth§§ describes the occurrence of 
petroleum near Banok, in Galicia. 

M. Wielezynski |||| gives the calorific values of various Galician crude 
petroleums. 

In a biography of Balthasar Hacquet (1739-1815), a native of 
Brittany, who practised as mine physician at the Idria mines from 
1766 to 1773, A. Miillner ff enumerates the various memoirs relating 
to mineralQgy written by Hacquet and now forgotten. Amongst them 
is an account of the Styrian ore mountain in 1774. Incidentally it 
is pointed out that Hacquet directed attention to the occurrence of 
petroleum in Galicia, eighty years before the usually accepted date of 
its discovery. 

Petroleum in Hungary. — G. Rez ♦♦♦ describes the occurrence 
of petroleum in Hungary. 

Petroleum in Italy. — J. Markus ff f traces the history of petro- 

♦ Chemiker Zeitung, vol. xxxi. pp. 675-677. 

t MitUilungen aus dent kgL MattrialprufUngsamt, vol. Xxv. pp. 124-135 ; Chemiker 
Zeitung^ vol. xxxi. pp. 419-422. 

X IHd,, pp. 1155-1166, 1170-1172. 

§ Journal of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society, vol. xxxix. pp. 802-814. 

II Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaftt vol. xl. p. 4161. 

if Revue du Pitrole, vol. i. p. 146; Petroleum, vol. ii. p. 439. 

** Paper read before the Society of Sciences of Bucharest ; Revue du Pitrole, vol. I. 
pp. 10-14. 

■H- PetroUum, vol. ii. pp. 849-853, 912-916. 964-967. 1021-1025. 

^ Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, vol. xxxv. pp. 116-120. 

§§ A llgemeine Oesterreichische Chemiker und Techniker Zeitung, voL xxv. pp. 9-10, 
17-18. 

1,11 Petroleum, vol. ii. pp. 507-509. 

ITIT Berg' und Hiittenmdnnisches Jahrhuch der k>k, montanistischen Hochschulen, 
vol.lv. pp. 839-371. 

*** Banyaszati es Kohastati Lapok, vol. xli. pp. 145-150. 

tH* Ckemiker Techniker Zeitung, vol. xvii. pp. 145-147. 

1908. ^i. T 



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278 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

leum discoveries in Italy, and notes the places and depths at which 
petroleum has recently heen found. 

Petroleum in Portugal. — ^E. Ackermann * records the starting of 
systematic horing for petroleum at Torres Yedras in Portugal The 
decided indications of petroleum in some of the districts of Portugal 
are chiefly confined to the upper Jurassic formation. The upper 
Jurassic series in Portugal is composed of heds of limestone, some of 
which exhibit the Oolitic structure characteristic of some calcareous 
rocks of that period. 

It is reported t that the recent discovery of petroleum in the pro- 
vince of Angola may prove to be of importance. Pro^)ecting has been 
carried on in the district of Dande. 

Petroleum in Roumania. — ^T. Ficsinesco % and Y. Dessila give an 
account of the occurrence of petroleum in Roumania. 

L. Schick § traces the development of the Roumanian petroleum 
industry. 

Y. Aradi || describes the petroleum deposits of Roumania, and gives ^ 
an account of the Oampina petroleum fields. 

P. Poni ** has examined four samples of petroleum from different 
wells in the Gampina district of Prahova, in order to determine 
whether the aromatic hydrocarbons, which have been obtained by the 
distillation of Roumanian petroleums, exist naturally in the oils or 
are formed in the process of distillation. The results show that the 
aromatic hydrocarbons pre-exist in the oils. 

D. Hurmuzescu ff discusses the radio-activity of Roumanian 
petroleums. 

On January 8, 1908, the first number appeared of the Eevue du 
Petrohy a fortnightly journal edited by G. M. Murgoci, written in 
French, German, English, and Roumanian, and devoted to the petro- 
leum interests of Roumania. The chief article in the first issue was 
written by S. Athansiu, and described the petroleum deposits of the 
Noamtu district, Moldavia. 

Petroleum in Russia. — New investigations and discoveries of 
petroleum in the Western Gaucasus are described by A. Yermoloff.^t 

K. Gharitchkoff^ describes recent investigations of Russian 
petroleum. 

Experiments on a large scale in the distillation of petroleum resi- 
dues from Boryslaw are described by M. Wielezynski.|||| 

* Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiii. p. 5. 
t Board of Tradt Journal, voL lix. p. 528. 
Rtmu Universelle des Aiines^ vol. xix. pp. 285-^302. 



\ 



BanyasMaH es Kohastati Lapok, vol. xl. pp. 5SS-d42. 
"il, p. 584. , IT Ihil, ^ • •■ 



II Ibid,, p. 584. IT ibid,, vol. xli. pp. 166-170. 369-365. 

** Annales ScienH/iques de tUniversiti de J assy (Roumania), vol. iv. pp. 192-202; 
Journal of the Chemical Society, vol. xcii. pp. 88^884. 
tt Journal du Pitrole, vol. L p. 218. Jt Annales des Afines, voL xiL pp. 511-628. 

)§ Journal du PitroU, voL i. p. 222. |||| Chemiker Zeitung, voL xxxi. p. 499. 



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FUEL, 279 

M. A. Rakusin * gives the results of an investigation of petroleum 
from the Holy Isle, from Berekei,f and from Bibieibat. | The optical 
properties afford indications as to the age of the deposits, and agree 
fairly well with the geological data, but other considerations have 
to be taken into account. The petroleum from Bibieibat is probably 
of Miocene age. It is similar to the Caucasian petroleum previously 
described by the author. 

Petroleum in Canada. — C. W. Knight § gives an illustrated 
description of the new Tilbury and Romney petroleum and natural 
gas fields in Kent county, Ontario. 

E. Ooste II also describes the new Tilbury and Romney oil-fields of 
Kent county, Ontario. 

E. Ooste H discusses the geology and resources of the Tilbury oil- 
field, Ontario. Oil was first struck in 1905, in Kent county, and 
large gas wells have also been encountered in the field. The oil 
contains 0*20 per cent, of sulphuretted hydrogen and a little sulphur, 
is dark green, and has a gravity of about 38'41^ B. The field lies 
under a fiat drift-covered section of the country about 600 feet above 
sea-level. The gas and two upper oil pays occur in the southern 
part of the field, in the lower brown dolomites and gypsum of the 
Onondaga, while the lower oil pay is struck in the upper beds of 
the Guelph and Niagara. 

Petroleum in Queensland. — It is stated ** that crude petroleum, 
a heavy black oil, has been found in a well less than 100 feet in 
depth, within two miles of Boonah. On a farm five miles from 
that town a bore is said to show a volatile oil, probably kerosene, at 
130 feet. The water there is impregnated with oil, which forms a 
heavy film on the surface of water pumped into a reservoir. There 
are said to be other indications of oil in several parts of the district, 
notably at Harrisville. 

Petroleum in South Africa. — C. Sandberg ft discusses the pros- 
pects of finding petroleum in South Africa, and shows that they 
are favourable. He explains the previous failures to find workable 
deposits. 

Petroleum in the West Indies. — In a paper read before the 
Royal Society of Oanada, R. W. EUs ^X gave particulars of the geo. 
logical occurrence of petroleum in Trinidad and Barbados. 

* Journal of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society, vol. xxxix. pp. 566-573. 

t IHd,, pp. 574-578. 

t /^»rf.,pp. 802-814. 

§ Annual Report of the Bureau of Mines, vol. xvi. pp. 92-104. Toronto. 

II Journal of the Canadian Mining Institute, vol. x. pp. 77-84. 

if Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. p. 779. 

*• Queenslanaer : Board ^ Trade Journal, vol. Ix. p. 190. 

tj- South African Mines, vol. v. pp. 281, 258. 

"XX- Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xxiii. pp. 73^79. 



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280 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

Petroleum in the United States. — A. Yicaire* continues his 
description of the petroleum resources of the United States, with 
special reference to those of Texas and Louisiana. The enormous 
plain bordering the north of the Gulf of Mexico contains numerous 
seepages of petroleum of varying age and commercial importance. 
The topography and geology of this plain is described. Of the 
deposits in formations anterior to the Tertiary age, two occur in 
Carboniferous formations, that of Transpecos and the Henrietta 
petroliferous field. Other basins belong to the general geological 
system of the gulf. Of these that of Corsicana is the principal. It 
occurs in the upper Cretaceous formation which traverses Texas from 
the south-west to the north-east of Eagle Pass in a zone thirty-five 
to eighty miles in width. At Corsicana a light oil is extracted and 
refined on the spot. It is of high quality, and the yield now amounts 
to less than it did originally, having fallen from 830,000 barrels in 
1900 to 370,000 barrels in 1904. The various theories which have 
been put forward to account for the origin of petroleum in- these 
regions are discussed, after which the leading fields are described in 
detail, maps and sections of the geological formations in which the 
chief deposits occui* accompanying the descriptions. The oldest poo] 
is that of Spindletop. The indications of the existence of petroleum 
in this region, while not very striking, led, nevertheless, to trial 
borings in 1894. Taken to a depth of about 375 feet, they failed to 
tap the reservoir, which was at a considerably greater depth. Lucas, 
however, continued to bore, notwithstanding difficulties encountered 
with quicksands encountered at about 450 feet from the surface. At 
more than twice this depth oil was met with on January 10, 1901, 
the outburst occurring with sufficient force to project all the metal 
lining of the borehole, weighing about 6 tons, to a considerable 
distance, while for some days the spouter reached a height of about 
50 yards. It was impossible to get it under control until the ninth 
day, when 70,000 barrels were obtained, about 500,000 barrels having 
previously been lost. 

The oil was heavy and contained much sulphur. By July in the 
same year fourteen wells had been sunk, of which ten were producing 
from 10,000 to 70,000 barrels per day each, while several of the wells 
were destroyed by violent outbursts of gases. Before the end of the 
year 138 wells had been sunk at Spindletop, of which fifty-five were 
productive. 1902 saw the zenith of oil production in this region, 
and there has been a steady falling off since. 

The next oil boom in Texas occurred at Sour Lake, Borings had 
been made in 1893, and were continued with greater activity in 1903. 
The first spouters were encountered in 1903, and in August of that 
year there were no less than 220 sinkings in operation, yielding 
100,000 barrels daily. By the end of the year the pool had yielded 
8,000,000 barrels, and 7,000,000 were extracted in the year following. 
The development of subsequent fields is traced. Oil made its appear- 

* BulUUn dela SocUtk de t Industrie MiniraU, vol. vii. pp. 43^-488. 



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FUEL. 281 

ance in the Batson Prairie region very suddenly, and the Paraffin Oil 
Company of Beaumont, which operated the first spouters, paid a 
dividend of 3000 per cent, in respect of the first three months' working 
in 1904, when the total production of the region reached 10,000,000 
barrels. The remaining fields, Saratoga, Humble, and Jennings, are 
described, and the methods employed for the extraction and refining 
of the oil in the various regions are given, together with details as to 
the chemical composition and physical properties of the oils extracted. 

Petrolenm in Oalifomia. — R. Arnold * and R. Anderson have 
drawn up a preliminary report on the Santa Maria oil district, Santa 
Barbara county. The lightness of the oil (27** to 27° Baum^) and 
the great productiveness of the wells (300 to 400 barrels per day) are 
characteristics of the district. 

Petroleum in Ohio. — W. T. Griswoldf and M. J. Munn give 
the results of a study of the geology of the oilfields in Steubenville, 
Burgettstown, and Claysville quadrangles in Ohio, West Virginia, and 
Pennsylvania. Each quadrangle covers 227 square miles, and the 
conditions obtaining may be regarded as typical of the various con- 
ditions in which petroleum occurs in the Appalachian field. 

Petroleum in Pennsylvania. — R. W. Stone]: and F. G. Clapp 

describe the oilfields of Greene county, which have been productive 
continuously since 1886. Over 1300 wells have been drilled within 
its boundaries. In the report all the available information, including 
unpublished data, is summarised. 

Petroleum in West Virginia.— According to F. W. Brady § the 
development of the oilfield in Brooke county. West Virginia, began 
in 1902. The total number of wells drilled in the district is about 
one hundred, and their depth varies from 1500 to 1900 feet. The 
oil is found in the Berea sand, which is from 10 to 20 feet in thickness, 
and is underlaid with 2 feet or more of slate. Accurate data regard- 
ing the total output' of the district is not easily obtainable, but it is 
known in one case that a single well produced over 16,000 dollars' 
worth of oil in less than one year, while in another case the wells on 
one farm are stated to have produced 33,000 barrels of oil in twelve 
months. A detailed description is given of the method and materials 
used in *' shooting " the wells. 

Petroleum in Wyoming. — C. A. Fishery states that several 
attempts have been made to obtain oil from the Cretaceous shales 
throughout the Bighorn basin but generally without success. Oil 

♦ United States Geohgical Survey, Bulletin No. 317. 

t Ibid., No. 318. 

X Ibid,, No. 304. 

§ Mines and Minerals^ vol. xxviii. pp. 187-189. 

II United States Geol<^cal Survey, Professional Paper ^o. 53, p. 59. 



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282 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

was found near Bonanza, but none of the boreholes put down haye 
proved commercially successful. * 

Petrolenm in Pern. — E. L Duefias * describes the occurrence of 
petroleum in the department of the Guzco, at Pallpata and Pusi. 
The oilfields are of considerable extent. 

Petroleum in the Argentine Republic. — In the course of boring 

for water in Gomodoro Rivadavia, in the Chubut Territory, a spring 
of petroleum was found at a depth of 530 metres. This discovery is 
looked upon as most important, and experts have been sent down to 
report fully to the Argentine Government. f 

It is stated that when oil was struck at Gomodoro Rivadavia at 
a depth of 539 metres it came to within 5 metres of the surface. 
A. G. Ross :|: states that it is estimated that the output of the well 
is thirty-three barrels of 159 litres of oil per day. 

Petroleum in Borneo. — H. O. Jones § and H. A. Wootton discuss 
the composition of Borneo petroleum, which differs considerably from 
all other varieties. Two kinds are met with, one containing a definite 
paraffin and the other asphalt. 

Petroleum in Oorea. — It is stated || that a charter has been 
granted to N. Toyosaburo and two other Japanese residents in Seoul 
to work a petroleum deposit in Ghyong-ju, in North Phyong-an Pro- 
vince, Gorea, the area of which extends over 1,757,000 square yarde. 
This is said to be the only petroleum yet discovered in Gorea. 

Petroleum Congress. — D. T. Day H gives an account of the pro- 
ceedings at the Third Petroleum Gongress held in September 1907, 
at Bucharest, and of the excursions made into the Bushtenari oilfield 
after the meeting. 

A report on tibe Third International Petroleum Gongress held at 
Bucharest is also published by L. Gaster.** 

Asphalt. — The occurrence of asphalt in the Yal de Travers, 
Switzerland, is described by G. Schmidt.f f 

G. A. Le Roy |:|: describes the preparation of bitumen and asphalt 
by treating the products of the distillation of crude petroleum with 
sulphur chloride. 

* Boktin del Cuerfo de Ingenitros de Afinas del Peru, No, 68, p. Ii53. 
f Review oftheRtver Plate, Buenos Ayres ; Board of Trade Journal, vol. Ix. p. 194. 
i Board of Trade Journal, vol. Ix. pp. 293-294. 
§ Journal of the Chemical Society, vol. xci. p. 1146. 
II Board of Trade Journal, vol. Ix. p. 241. 
ir Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 781-784. 
♦* Journal of the Society of Arts, vol. Iv. pp. 1132-1133. 

+t Handworterbuch der Schweizerischen Volkwirthschaft, Bern, 1907- (Article: 
" Montanindustrie." 
Xt BulUHn de la SoHiti Industrielle de Mulhouse, 1907, p. 147. 



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FUEL. 283 

Experiments on the dry distillation of Roumanian asphalt are 
described (in Roumanian and in German) by K. Y. Gharitsohkoff.* 

H. W. Wilson f states that the production of asphalt in Mexico is 
at present chiefly confined to the Tuxpam and Tampico districts on 
the Gulf of Mexico. The asphalt exported from Tampico is chiefly 
the residue from the oil produced by the Mexican Petroleum Com- 
pany at Ebano, forty miles west of Tampico. The distillate of this crude 
liquid asphalt is used for fuel oil. There are stated to be hundreds 
of thousands of tons of asphalt in the Tampico and Tuxpam districts, 
that from the latter district being considered the best in the world. 

W. A. T. Allen I gives an account of asphalt mining in Syria. The 
mines are near Tjatakia, the celebrated tobacco region, and form part 
of a hill 900 feet in height called Tebel Kferie. At 216 feet the 
asphalt layers are found over a length of 4500 feet, and a thickness 
of seams of 4200 feet. The seams lie in a single compact mass esti- 
mated at 150,000,000 to 200,000,000 tons. A sample of the asphalt 
mined at Elferie, after being subjected to the simple firing test, 
proved of fairly pure quality, and the quality will doubtless improve 
the farther in depth it is mined. The mine itself is not a new dis- 
covery, having been surveyed a few years ago, but the survey was 
inadequate and failed to disclose the wealth the mine is now said 
to possess. An imperial firman is being sought for the construction 
of a light railway from the mines to Latakia, as well as for harbour 
works at that port for the provision of adequate shipping facilities. 
These works would utilise as far as possible the old Roman harbour 
and quays. 

In a paper to which reference has already been made, R. W. Ells § 
gives an account of the geology and mineral resources of Trinidad and 
Barbados, and describes the celebrated asphalt lake and the manjak 
mines. 

Bitumen. — ^The occurrence of gilsonite in Uinta county, Utah, is 
described. II It exists in vertical fissures in the sandstones and shales 
of the Eocene Tertiary period. 

Oil Shale in New South Wales. — A description has been pub- 
lished 11 of the oil shale deposits of New South Wales. At Gapertee 
the richest portion of the deposit yields 140 gallons of crude oil 
per ton. Gver two miles of deposit have been proved, representing 
resources of some 7,000,000 tons of oil. A railway has been con- 
structed to establish an outlet for the products. 

Oil Shale in France. — The production of oil from bituminous 
shale in I^nce is described by I. Magnin. ** 

♦ Revue du Pitrole, vol. i. pp. 74-76. 

t Board of Trade Journal, vol. Ix. pp. 198-194. 

X Egyptian Gazette; Iron and Coal Trades Revitw, vol. Ixxv. p. 1296. 

§ Ottawa Naturalist, vol. xxiii. pp. 7^79. 

II Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 918-919. 

IT The Times, May 1. 1908. ** Journal du PitroU, vol. viii. No. 1. 



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284 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

Boring for Petroleum. — The development of the Canadian boring 
system in the Galician oilfields is reviewed by Klebert * 

M. Coppelovid f describes a simple eleotro-magnetic apparatus for 
recording the amount of work done in boring. 

Uses of Petroleum* — C. Pietrusky| discusses the methods of 
utilising fuel oil in America. 

P. Weiller § describes the applications of petroleum in metallurgy. 

W. A. Steinhardt || gives an account of forges with oil firing. 

Julius FruchtH discusses the use of crude petroleum as a substitute 
for coal. 

M. Pom ** discusses the advantages of oil fuel. 

A. Guiselin ft gives a retrospect of the petroleum industry in 1865. 



Yl.— NATURAL GAS. 



Natural Oas in Hungary. — The importance of the natural gases 
of Hungary is pointed out by J. Pfeifer.:|:| 

Natural Oas in Russia. — An important discovery of natural gas 
is reported from Russia. The natural-gas district is at Surachan, 
within a comparatively short distance from the Baku oilfield. While 
natural gas was known in Russia more than 1000 years ago, it is a 
remarkable fact that the prolific oil developments never yielded this 
valuable commodity in sufficient quantity to be commercially valuable. 
All the operations in the field, such as drilling and pumping wells, 
have been accomplished with the aid of the crude oil for fuel purposes. 
Now many firms are said to be changing over to natural gas for steam- 
raising. Special pipes are being laid for its conveyance and distri- 
bution.§§ 

Natural Oas in Canada. — There has been considerable discussion 
as to utilising natural-gas fields in St. Maurice county, Canada, for 
lighting and heating purposes at Montreal. Three Rivers is now 
getting gas for manufacturing purposes from this source at lOd. per 
1000 cubic feet, and it is thought that, after allowances have been 
made for the cost of the piping from St. Bamabe to Montreal, it will 
be possible to sell gas in that city at a considerably lower rate than is 
now being paid for it. The chief item of cost would be the laying of 

♦ Naphia, vol. xv. Nos. 21, 22. 

t Revue du Piirole, vol. i. pp. 78-79. 

X Petroleum, vol. ii. pp. 481-503. Berlin, 1908. 

§ /W<f., pp. 610-614. II Ibid., pp. 609-610. 

IT Montan Zeitung, vol. xv. pp. 45-46. 

♦• Revue du PitroU, vol. i. pp. 196-197. 

tt Ibid., pp. 213-218. 254-257. 

^ Chemiker Zeitung, vol. xxxii. p. 9. 

§§ Engineering, vol. Ixxxv. p. 468. 



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FUEL. 285 

pipes ; but as natural gas does not freeze, it will be possible to lay the 
pipes along the surface of the ground throughout the greater portion 
of the distance. The main problem is the permanency of the supply, 
and this the Canadian Coal-Gas Company, which possesses the right 
to tap the country for gas and oil, proposes to assure itself of as 
quickly as possibla The pipe-line to Three Rivers is 13^ miles long, 
and there are some 14 miles of pipes, with 500 connections, in the 
streets of Three Rivers, while the pipe-line to Montreal would have 
to be 90 miles long. The price of lOd. to Is. 3d. per 1000 cubic feet 
at Three Rivers is small compared with the 4s. 2d. and 5s. 3d. per 
1000 cubic feet now being paid at Montreal. ♦ 

Natural Oas in the United States. — The production of natural 

gas in the United States in 1906 amounted to 388,84!2,562,000 cubic 
feet, measured at the atmospheric pressure, or 9,396,963 net tons. The 
value of the output was 46,873,932 dollars — an increase of 5,311,077 
dollars over 1905. The great gain in 1906, amounting in value to 12*8 
per cent., was largely due to continued development in West Virginia, 
where the increase was more than 3,500,000 dollars, and in Ohio, 
which reported a gain of 1,400,000 dollars. Pennsylvania lost ground 
to the extent of 639,091 dollars, or 3'3 per cent., while Indiana suffered 
a decrease of nearly half its product, or 43' 4 per cent The Pennsyl- 
vania industries employing gas as fuel, and notably the iron and steel 
iforks, did not find their supply ciui^ailed as the result of decreased 
production, for a large quantity of gas was piped from West Virginia, 
80 that the actual consumption in Pennsylvania showed an increase 
of fully 10 per cent.t 

Natural Oas in Pennsylvania.— R. W. Stone J and F. C. Clapp 

have drawn up a summary of the available information on the occur- 
rence of gas in Greene county, which since 1890 has yielded a large 
amount of natural gas. 

W. T. Griswold § and M. J. Munn give the results of a study of the 
geological conditions which control the accumulation of natural gas in 
the central part of the Appalachian oilfields. Their report treats of 
conditions in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Ohio. 

Natural Oas in Wyoming. — C A. Fisher || describes the occur- 
rence of natural gas in the Bighorn basin. The gas escapes in con- 
siderable quantity from alluvial sands, and probably is derived from 
the underlying shales of the Pierre formation. 

• Engineerings vol. Ixxxv. p. 13. 

t Ibid., p. 32. 

t United States Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 304. 

S Ibid., No. 318. 

II Ibid., Professional Paper No. 53, p. 59. 



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286 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 



YIL— ARTIFICIAL GAS. 

OftS -producers. — ^The destruction of tar in gas-producers is dealt 
with by H. P. Bell,* who gives sectional drawings of various types of 
producer. 

The utilisation of low-grade fuels in gas-producers is discussed by 
F. E. Junge,t and the conclusions are considered by W. B. Chapman, 
J. A. Holmes, and 0. E. Lucke. 

W. Heym I discusses the construction of modern gas-producers. 

Various types of gas-producer are described by R. Barkow.§ 

The historical development of the suction gas-producer is traced by 
L. B. Homen.|J 

G. M. S. TaitH discusses the composition of producer-gas and its 
influence on the performance of the suction gas-producer. 

F. J. Rowan ♦* deals with suction gas-producers. The principles 
and elements of construction of suction gas plants are discussed, and 
illustrations of designs and results of working are given. 

H. A. Humphrey ft deals with the recovery of sulphate of ammonia 
from the wastes of the gas-producer. Illustrations are given of various 
plants for the recovery of by-products, and a sectional diagram show- 
ing the general arrangement of the Mond by-product recovery gas 
plant. 

An illustrated description has been given Xt of the Atkinson auto- 
matic suction gas-producer. 

O. Nagel,^ discusses the advantages of producer-gas firing, and 
describes gas-producers for firing water-tube boilers, a limekiln, and 
a reverberatory furnace. 

Improvements have been made in the Schild gas reversing valve. 
In this form the gas is automatically and absolutely shut off daring 
operating or reversing, and contact between the gas and the water 
which forms the seal is reduced to a minimum, so that hardly any 
steam is generated to mix with the gas.|||| 

Producer-gas for Power Purposes.— E. A. Harvey H^ deals with 

the use of producer-gas from bituminous coal, and describes, amongst 
others, the Loomis-Pettibone plant, and the plant designed by E. D. 

• Engineering, vol. Ixxxv. pp. 141-144, 171-173. 

t Proceedings of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, vol. xxviii. pp. 771- 
848; Iron Trade /Review, vol. xli. pp. 967-973. 

X Gasmotorentechnih ; Elektroiechnik und Maschinenbau^ vol. xxvi. p. 206. 

§ ZeitschriftfUr Dampfkesselund Maschinenbetrieb, 1907, pp. 483-4S4, 584-535; 1908. 
pp. 61-62, 91-92. 

II Teknisk Forening i Finland Forhandlingar, 1908, pp. 1-7. 

IF Gassier' s Magazine^ vol. xxxiii. pp. 142-146. 

•• Ibid,, pp. 175-198. 

+t Ibid,, pp. 55-67. 

tt Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 1042-1043. 

§§ Cassiet^s Magazine, vol. xxxiii. pp. 462-468. 

It!| Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 240-241. 

iriT Gassier' s Magazine, vol. xxxiii. pp. 199-209. 



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FUEL. 287 

Wood & Company, of Philadelphia. The former was the first appa- 
ratus designed for the purpose of obtaining gas from bituminous 
coal. 

The utilisation of low-grade fuels in gas-producers is dealt with by 
C. T. Wilkinson. * The author has examined the results of the re- 
searches conducted by the United States Geological Survey with the 
object of showing the extent to which low-grade fuels may be employed 
in the generation of power gas, and gives the data of tests upon iye 
low-grade fuels in comparison with high-grade steam coal. 

O. Kagel f gives illustrations of dust collectors, tar extractors, and 
ammonia absorbers. 

Gas-producers for the production of gas for gas-engines are described 
by H. Hirschtaff.J 

M. P. Cleghom § gives the results of experiments with power gas. 

H. Procter Smith || gives factors to enable engineers to obtain, from 
a chemical analysis of producer gas, the heat and power values. 

The successful demonstration at the United States government 
testing-plant that bituminous coals, lignites, and peats can be utilised 
with great economy in gas-producer plants has aroused great interest, 
and unbiassed information on the subject is supplied by R. L. Fernald H 
in a paper on the present status of the producer-gas power plant in 
the United States. 

An illustrated description has appeared ** of the by-product recovery 
plant designed by the Gas Power and By-products Company, Limited, 
Glasgow. Two plants are now at work, each capable of gasifying 
about 250 tons of fuel per day, and three more installations are in 
course of erection. Experiments on a large scale have been actively 
pursued for some time back, and the new plant solves the problem of 
combining the recovery of the by-products with the production of 
producer-gas in every way suitable for furnace work. The ammonia 
recovered is equal in value to the whole of the gas used. 

Water-gas* — Papers on the production of water-gas have been 
written by H. Strache ff and by Blayser.JJ 

Gas-engines. — F. W. Burstall ^ gives the results of his researches 
on the working of gas-engines. The object of the trials was to 
det^mine how the horse-power and efficiency of the engine vary with 
the degree of compression used, and also to test the truth of the 
theoretical law in connection with the standard engine, that the 

♦ Cassier's Magazine, vol. xxxiii. pp. 83-85. 

t Electrochemical and Metallurgical Industry, vol. vi. pp. 102-104. 
X Braunkohlenindustrie, vol. vi. p. 147. 
§ Iowa Engineer, 1907. pp. 203-208. 
Ij Chemical News, vol. xcvi. p. 101. 

^ UniUd States Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 316, pp. 439-459. 
♦* Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxv. p. 1671. 
ft Journal fur Gasheleuchtung, vol. 1. pp. 885-889. 
tX Prometheus, 1907. pp. 137-140. 

§§ Third Report to the Gas-engine Research Committee of the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers. 



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288 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTBIES. 

efficiency is alone proportional to the degree of compression. The 
results obtained show conclusively that at one particular compression 
the best results were obtained. Above that pressure the efficiency fell 
off considerably. This is at variance with the usual belief that economy 
increases with compression, and is due considerably to the cooling action 
of the walls of the cylinder. At high compressions the density and 
temperature of the gas are much increased, and consequently more 
heat is carried away by the cooling water. The report proves that an 
efficiency of 43 per cent, can be obtained with a maximum pressure of 
360 lbs. per square inch, and a temperature of only about 1200^ to 
1400° C, showing that large gas-engines can be constructed much more 
easily than is generally believed, as hitherto large mean pressures have 
been used to keep the size of the engine as small as possible. 

P. R. Allen* deals with the construction and working of large 
gas-engines. 

Recent progress in the design and construction of large gas-engines 
in Germany is discussed by F. E. Junge.f 

Large gas-engines are described by W. H. Booth. { 

J. Zoller § describes the gas-engines at the Bavarian Exhibition at 
Nuremberg in 1906. Karl Bachmann, Ansbach, exhibited a double- 
acting and a single-acting suction gas-engine and five petrol motors. 
The double-acting suction gas-engine develops 115 horse-power at 170 
revolutions, the cylinder 17 inches diameter and 23f inches stroke has 
water-cooled valves and piston by water entering the back crosshead 
through the hollow piston-rod. The bearings are provided with 
lubricating rings. The charge is ignited magnetically. The 27 
horse-power single-acting engine is of very compact design, and the 
petrol motors are very similar. The engines are regulated by closing 
the inlet- valve with the exhaust open. The suction gas-producer is 
provided with an evaporator to which water flows from a heater heated 
by the exhaust gases. The gas is wasted in a coke scrubber and a dry 
purifier. J. W. Engelhardt & Co. , Fiirth, exhibited two Liideritz engines 
of 40 and 25 horse-power. These are vertical A-frame engines, and 
their characteristic feature is the peculiar arrangement of the mixing- 
valve and of the regulation The first gives a constant composition of 
the mixture by* using an annular stream of gas surrounded by a stream 
of air. Brown-coal briquettes, which are charged through a hopper, 
are used as fuel in the Luderitz producer. The gas is drawn off from 
below, and the vapours of tar are decomposed over the incandescent 
fuel. 

The Giildner Motoren Gesellschaft, Munich, exhibited a 150 and 15 
horse-power plant. The former is coupled to a Siemens-Schuckert 
dynamo. The 15 horse-power motor drives a compressor. Both 

* Paper read before the Manchester Association of EngineeiB, January 11, 1906; 
Mechanical Engineer, vol. xxi. pp. 103-106, 147-160. 

t Cassier^s Magazine, vol xxxiii. pp. 86-97. 

X /Hd,,^p, 166-178. 

§ Mitteilungen des k.k, Technologischen Getoerbe- Museums in Wicn, vol. xvii. pp. 
100-129. 



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FUEL 289 

engines are vertical, and the cylinders can expand independently 
from the jacket. The suction gas plant consists of a producer with 
anthracite as fuel and a purifier. The feed water is heated to boiling 
point by the producer- gas, the steam formed is superheated and then 
allowed to enter the evaporator ; in the same manner the air is heated 
and mixed with the tar vapours. 

Scharrer & Gross, Nuremberg, exhibited a 50 horse-power horizontal 
gas-engine. The cylinder and water-jacket form a single casting. 
The cylinder is provided with an interchangeable lining, and the 
piston is very long. The engine is started by compressed air. The 
suction-gas plant is provided with a preliminary and an after 
evaporator. A gas collector separates the suspended water. Before 
starting wood is bxurned on the grate, and then coal is added and the 
doors closed. The fire is blown with a fan until a test flame burns 
with a bronze yellow colour. > 

The Maschinenfabrik Augsburg und Maschinenbau Gesellschaft 
Niimberg, A.G., exhibited a 70 and a 700 horse-power gas-engine, both 
arranged for suction-gas. The 700 horse-power worked with double 
four-cycle, and the design was a model of larger engines. The con- 
sumption of heat per horse-power and per hour amounted to from 
2200 to 2400 calories, the consumption of water 15| gallons. This 
firm builds engines of this type up to 4000 horse-power, and has 
already constructed more than 200,000 horse-power. 150,000 horse- 
power are for ironworks, 28,000 horse-power for coke-ovens, and the 
remainder for electrical central stations. The gas-producer burned 
brown-coal briquettes and supplied gas for 800 horse-power. Differ- 
ing from other plants, the gas is drawn off at half the height of the 
incandescent column of fuel, whereby the so-called inverted combus- 
tion takes place. This producer possesses no evaporator, because the 
briquettes contain sufficient water. When the fuel contains sulphur 
this is removed with limonite. Heating up lasts from one half to a 
whole day, then the engine can stop for a considerable time. On 
starting, a short blowing of the fan suffices. 

F. Kormann ♦ discusses at length the recovery of by-products from 
the producer, and describes the construction and theoretical output of 
the gas-engine at the Mansfeld mine. The ammonia water is treated 
in a Feldmann and Otto Ruppert column apparatus. 

An illustrated description is given of the Rathbun vertical gas- 
engine, t 



YIIL—COAZ-MININa. 

Underground Temperature. — M. Durnerin| gives particulars 
of the temperatures observed in the boreholes put down in Meurthe- 
et-Moselle. 

♦ Bergbau, vol. xx. Nos. 60, 51. 52. f Industrial World, vol. xlL pp. 1494-1496. 

X Comptes Rendus Mensuels de la SocUU de tlnduxtrit Min^ale, 1907, pp. 291-301. 



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290 THE IRON AND STBKL INDUSTRIES. 

Search for OoaL — B. Kirkby * describes the putting down of an 
underground diamond borehole at Prestonlinks colliery on the Firth 
of Forth. The borehole was 601 feet deep, and the work occupied 113 
days. The plant was driven by a petrol engine. 

Shaft-sinking. — On February 18, J. J. Prest read before the 
Institution of Civil Engineers a paper describing an achievement in 
mining engineering, the shaft-sinking at the Horden colliery, south- 
east Durham. The work was of exceptional difficulty owing to the 
large volumes of water encountered in sinking through the magnesian 
limestone and sands of Permian age. In view of possible legislative 
interference with the hours of underground labour, it was decided to 
sink three shafts, two 20 feet and one 17 feet in finished diameter. 
The north shaft was begun on November 6, 1900, and was finished at 
a depth of 419 yards on July 23, 1904. The south shaft was begun 
on February 28, 1901, and was finished at a depth of 302 yards on 
September 1, 1905. The east shaft, 17 feet in diameter, was begun 
on September 3, 1900, and was finished at a depth of 406 yards on 
November 6, 1905. The maximum feeders of water pumped simul- 
taneously at any one period amounted to 9230 gallons per minute, 
from the east and south shafts, from September 23 to November 26, 
1903. The production of coal from this colliery is now averaging a 
million tons per annum. 

Henry Louis f describes a locking hook for sinking purposes. A 
similar device in which a sliding ferrule was used, was described by 
H. W. Hughes4 

The strength of cast-iron tubbing for deep shafts is dealt with from 
a mathematical standpoint by John Morrow.§ 

L. Morin || describes the application of the cement process in sink- 
ing through quicksand at the Li^vin colliery. The cost is 900 to 1100 
francs per metre, as against 2300 francs per metre for the freezing 



A new shaft is being sunk at the Wellesley colliery, Fife8hire.1T It 
will be 270 fathoms deep, and elliptical in shape, 27^ feet by 14 feet 
10 inches. The cages are double-decked, carrying eight trucks, a total 
load of 4 tons of coal per lift. The section is a novelty in Scotland, 
where rectangular shafts are usual. 

S. F. Walker ** deals with the care of the plant in shaft-sinking by 
refrigeration, the causes of interruptions in the operation of the system, 
and the methods of preventing and correcting them. The subjects he 
discusses include the arrangement of the thermometers, condition of 
the brine, faults in the compressing system, the heating of the 
compressor, and troubles caused by deposits. 

* Transactions of the Institution of Mining En^nurs, vol. xzzv. pp. 89-92. 

t Ibid, , vol. xxnv. pp. 66, 58. 

X Ibid., pp. 66-«7. § Ibid,, pp. 100-123. 

II Annates des Mines, vol. xii. pp. 493-608. 

ir Times Enpnuring Supplement, April 8. 1908. 

♦♦ Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 777-779. 



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FUEL. 291 

Explosives in Collieries. — ^W. Walker * gives some notes on two 
instances of charges of Nobel carbonite being ignited instead of 
being detonated at the West Riding collieries 

J. BoUe f discusses the influence of the density of charging in trials 
of explosives. 

A liquid air safety explosive in which aluminium replaces carbon 
and carbon compounds is described.l 

James Ashworth§ opens a discussion whether blasting can be 
continued with safety in a fiery mine. 

Experiments made in Austria show that a vacuum resulting from a 
blown-out shot may amount to as much as ^ inch of mercury, which is 
equivalent to 8 lb. to 9 lb. to the square foot. This reduction of 
pressure creates an increase in the flow of fire-damp in the ratio of 
235 to 100. Under the conditions stated blown-out shots may furnish 
a considerable amount of gas that would not be driven from the coa 
under ordinary conditions. 

Safety explosives are described by K. Selbach.|| Missfires with 
safety explosives are discussed by ]5autriche,1I and the premature 
explosion of charges by G. Zachmann.** 

Coal-wedge. — Results are given ft ^^ trials of a new coal-wedge 
patented by Konig and Giitzlaff. The trials were made at the Reden 
colliery, and the results indicate that a useful means has been found 
for lessening the amount of blasting necessary. 

Electricity in Collieries.— The application of electricity in coal- 
mining is discussed. 1 1 

Recent improvements in the design of electric cables for collieries 
are reviewed by G. G. L. Freece.§§ 

The importance of gas-tight switches in mining work is urged by 
W. B. Shaw.llll 

An illustrated description has appeared of the electrically-operated 
winding plant of the Axwell Park Colliery, Durham.fH The shaft is 
252^ feet deep, and is used mainly for the workmen, most of the coal 
being brought out through a drift. In order to avoid large fluctuations 
in the current taken from the supply, it was decided to adopt the 
Ilgner system. The total maximum weight to be raised is 6700 lbs., 
the cage weighing 3200 lbs., and the men 3500 lbs. A balance weight 
is provided approximately equal to the weight of the cage plus half 

♦ Transactions of tke Institution of Mining Engineers , vol. xxxiv. pp. 216-220. 

t Annates des Mines de Belgique, vol. xiii. pp. 33-61. 

X Revue des Produits CfUmiques, October 15, 1907. 

§ Proceedings of the South Wales Institute of Engineers, vol. xxv. pp. 612-619. 

II Oesterreidiische Zeitschrift fUr Berg- und HUttenwesen, vol. Iv. pp. 622, 687. 
If Annates des Mines ^ vol. xii. pp. 141-165. 

** ZeitschriftfUr Schiess- und Sprengstoffwesen, vol. i. p. 443. 

-H- GliUkauf vol. xliii. pp. 1429-1432. • 

^ Gassier* s Magazine, vol. xxxiii. pp. 356-371. 

§§ Traruactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, vol. xxxiv. pp. 161-168. 

III Electrical Review, vol. Ixii. pp. 196-197. 

irir Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxvi. pp. 619-620. 



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292 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTBIES. 

the weight of the men. The time allowed for a complete cyde is 55 
seconds in round figures, and of this time 12 seconds are taken up for 
acceleration, followed by 23 seconds of full speed run, and 5 seconds 
for retardation, the remaining 15 seconds being sufficient to allow the 
men to enter or leave. The full speed is 8 feet per second. The Ilgner 
converter set consists of a three-phase motor on one side of the fly-wheel, 
and a continuous-current motor mounted on the other side. 

Compressed Air at Oollieries. — An illustrated description has 
appeared* of an air-compressor of 1200 horse-power built for the 
Londonderry Collieries, Limited, for supplying air for the under- 
ground haulage at the Seaham colliery. The compressor has two air 
cylinders each 32 inches in diameter by 72 inches stroke, driven by 
a cross compound-condensing steam-engine having a high-pressure 
cylinder 30 inches in diameter and a low-pressure cylinder 52 inches 
in diameter, each with 72 inches stroke. The compressor is arranged 
to run at sixty-five revolutions per minute, and has a free-air capacity 
of 8600 cubic feet per minute of 70 lbs. pressure. 

J. S. Haldanef describes the peculiar physiological troubles and 
dangers to health associated with work in compressed air. 

Ooal-cntting Machinery. — O. JUngst X gives the results obtained 
with mechanical coal-cutters at the Government collieries at Saar- 
briicken from July 1, 1906, to June 30, 1907. The economy effected 
compared with hand-labour varies from 4'1 to 15-4 per cent, with the 
different machines. 

nine Supports. — P. Hecker§ describes some recent improvements 
in mine supports, iron props with wedges, elastic iron props, and 
sharpened wooden props with wedged lids. 

D. Stens || describes the methods of timber impregnation used at 
the collieries of the MiQheim Mining Company. 

E. M. Weston H describes the timbering used in the shafts of the 
Rand collieries. The timber used is stringybark from Tasmania, and 
an approximate method of framing the timbers is used, because side- 
pressure and rapid winding soon displace them. 

In view of the fact that the life of timber in mines is so short, 
experiments have been made in the deeper mines of the anthracite 
region in the United States in order to find some permanent form of 
installation. Up to the present time it has been found that steel is 
the only class of material which, by its flexibility and convenience of 
use, can replace wooden construction fully and satisfactorily. The 
first use of steel in mines in the United States appears to have been 

• Colliery Guardian, vol. xciv. pp. 1146-1147. 

t Journal of tlu Society of Arts, vol. Ivi. pp. 214-226. 

i GlUckaut, vol. xliv. pp. 42-44. 

§ /Wrf.. pp. 663-662. 

II IHd.,yo\, xUa. pp. 1767-1769; Berghau, voL xx. Nos. 64, 65. 

^ Engineering and Mining Journal t pp. 651-662. 



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FUEL. 293 

made by the Susquehanna Coal Company, and there is in use at the 
present time in the anthracite regions steel supports that have been 
in use from twelve to fifteen years in the deep parts of the mines, 
exposed to constant contact with mine water, without showing signs 
of failure or corrosion. Beyond its long life, other advantages of steel 
supports are that it can be cut to length and fashioned in convenient 
units ready for erection, and its smaller weight lends itself to con- 
venience and economy in erection. It can also be easily removed 
after operations in any particular locality are completed, and repeat- 
edly re-used. Illustrations are given * of recommended forms of con- 
struction. 

Steel struts and beams for lining tunnels have been used for twelve 
to fifteen years by the Susquehanna Coal Company in Pennsylvania. 
The consulting engineer of that company, R. V. Norris, designed a 
form of gangway support, consisting of posts of channels, with an 
I-beam cap. The members are put together with pins and wedges, 
and the posts rest on cast iron bases, which enable the whole con- 
struction to be taken down or to be adjusted very quickly. Some of 
these frames have been exposed to constant contact with mine water, 
but they show little sign of corrosion, although the only protection 
given them has been a good heavy coat of paint from time to time.f 

R. B. Woodworth,! in a report on an investigation of the conditions 
of mine timbering in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania, advocates 
the substitution of steel for timber in mines. 

M. S. Hachita § discusses the use of steel beams for supporting the 
roofs in coal-mines. 

Methods of Working. — W. Charlton || gives a detailed descrip- 
tion of some of the methods of mining the thick coal of South Staf- 
fordshire. 

H. S. Gay H describes a single-room system of mining, an adapta- 
tion of the longwall method to work in thick seams. It is in opera- 
tion in West Virginia. 

O. Dobbelstein ** describes the flushing process of stowing the old 
workings used at the Katharina colliery. 

An account is published ff of the water-flushing method of stowing 
old workings as applied at the Consolidation colliery at Schalke. 

£. Bodif^e |{ discusses the methods used in the Saar coalfield for 
clarifying the water used for the flushing method of stowing old work- 
ings. He finds that the best method is to conduct the water from the 

♦ Industrial World, vol- xli. pp. 1S14-1316. 
f Engineer^ vol. civ. p. 643. 
X Mines and Minerals^ vol. zxviii. pp. 212-215. 
§ Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 1169-1172. 

Il Paper read before the North Staffordshire Institute of Mining and Mechanical 
Engineers. December 9, 1907 ; Colliery Guardian, vol. xciv. pp. 1098-1099. 
IT Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, vol. zxxiii. pp. 558-566. 
♦• GlUckauf, vol. xliv. pp. 145-152. 
ff Ibid,, vol. xliii. pp. 1649-1660. 
U /^iV/., pp. 1763-1765. 

1908.— i. U 



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294 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

workings to a small sump in which the greater portion of the sand is 
deposited. 

A detailed description has been published of the flushing method 
employed at the Deutscher Kaiser colliery at Hambom.* 

A. Heilf gives data concerning the life of cast-iron piping used for 
flushing down material from the surface for packing the mine workings 
at one of the large collieries in Silesia. 

H. Grahn { deals with the work of divers in mining. At the Bochum 
mining school, where he is lecturer, the students are trained in diving 
operations. 

C. Eleinschmidt§ describes a visit to some collieries in Belgium, 
Northern France, and England. The British collieries dealt with are 
the Bargoed colliery, Gb.rth colliery, Hulton colliery. Diamond and 
Silkstone colliery, and Cadeby colliery. 

A. Hochstrate || describes the equipment of the De Wend el colliery 
at Herringen, near Hamm, in Westphalia. The output at the present 
time is 600 tons a day. 

y. Alimanestianu 11 describes the methods of working the Rouma- 
nian lignite deposits. 

J. White ♦♦ deals with the economical working of collieries in 
Bengal, dealing especially with the waste in hewing, handling, coking, 
and transport. 

The Dandot coal-mine of India f\ has a system of timbering that 
compares favourably with any other system used in any country. 
The seam is from 2 feet to 3 feet thick, and is worked by the longwall 
method. Wooden chocks, 2 feet square, are built at a distance of 
4 feet 6 inches apart^ measuring from centre to centre. Props are set 
in advance the same distance apart, and these form centres for the 
chocks as the work progresses. Flanks 1| inches thick and 6 inches 
wide are set above the chocks and props and kept close to the face. 
Thus the miners are always protected by timber when working. The 
timber is set by specially-appointed men. 

H. Louis XX has translated a paper by P. Sainte-Claire-Deville on 
a simple method of water stowage employed at No. 5 pit of the Escar- 
pelle mines. 

A large number of coal-beds are being worked in parts of the United 
States within comparatively few feet of the surface. Such beds exist 
in Pennsylvania, Illinois, <fec., and in many cases the use of the steam- 
shovel is resorted to for stripping the overburden of soil, &c., in order 
to get at the coal, which is then worked in open quarries. The 

♦ GlUckauf, vol. xliii. pp. 1461-1468. 

t Zeitschrift des OherschUsischen Berg- und HutUnmdnniscken VereinSt vol. xlvi. 
p. 809 ; Bergbau, vol. zx. . No. 57. 

X GlUckatrf, vol. xliv. pp. 344-361. 

\lHd., pp. 162-169. II IHd., pp. 37-42. 73-M 

IT Revtte UniverselU des Mines, vol. xx. pp. 48-64. 

** Transactions of the Mining and Geological Institute of India, vol. it pp. 71-81, 
85-96. 

ft Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. p. 1126. 

tt Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, vol xxxv. pp. 79-85. 



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FUEL. 295 

ordinary steam-shovel has no means of disposing of the earth it works 
except by putting it into tipping waggons, but a plant has been put 
into operation at Danville, Illinois, which at once strips the over- 
burden, and disposes of it at such a distance as not to interfere with 
the mining operations. The plant consists of a combined steam-shovel 
and conveyor. The waggon platform is 30 feet wide by 56 feet long, and 
is mounted on four trucks. The shovel is of 2 cubic yards capacity, 
and the soil stripped is dropped from the shovel into a large steel 
hopper at one side, and near the front of the machine. From this 
hopper the material is carried to a smaller hopper 12 feet distant at 
the lower end of a belt-conveyor 105 feet long. This conveyor, which 
delivers out to one side, is supported from a tower rising to a height 
of 48 feet above the deck. The belt is of 40 inches width, and the 
conveyor can be worked with its out-board end at a height sufficient 
to deliver material 60 feet above the tracks. The conveyor-feeder 
and the conveyor are driven by an 8-inch by 10-inch single cylinder 
engine. Steam is provided by a locomotive boiler working at 125 lb. 
pressure. This plant is employed at Danville in stripping overbui-den 
of a depth of 38 feet to 40 feet overlying an 8 feet seam of coal.* 

M. S. Hachita f describes the methods employed in the anthracite 
mines at Aid en, Pennsylvania. 

The progress of development of the coal-mining industry of the 
United States, and the improvement in mining methods effected 
during the year 1907, are described by F. W. Parsons. J 

The methods of mining employed in the Kanawha New River and 
Pocohontas coalfields of West Virginia are described by F. W. 
Parsons.§ 

A. T. Shurick || describes the methods of working employed in the 
Diamondville coalfield, Wyoming, where practically all the coal is 
mined on the rise and the tubs reach the face by self-acting planes. 

The methods of working the coal-measures of Carbon county, Mon- 
tana, and the plant and appliances at the mines of the Northern 
Pacific Raihroad Company at Bed Lodge, Montana, are described and 
illustrated by F. W. Parsons.H 

M. S. Hachita ** describes the methods of mining employed in the 
anthracite mines of the Wyoming valley, and the employment of steel 
beams to support the roof, the advantages of which more than counter- 
balance their greater cost. 

C. Gruhlff describes the successful application of an electrically 
driven excavator in working brown -coal at the Bleibtreu mine. East 
Cologne district. 

♦ Ertgineeringt vol Ixxxv. p. 11. 

t Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Uzxiv. pp. 1216-1219. 

* Ibid. . vol. bcxxv. pp. 70-73. 

§ Ibid., vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 881-885. 
I) md,, vol. Ixxxv. pp. 116-118. 
IT Ibid., Ixxxiv. pp. 1071-1074. 
•♦ Ibid., pp. 1169-1172. 

ft Braunkohle, vol. vi. p. 617 ; Zeitschrift fiir das Berg-, HUtUn- und Salinenwesen, 
vol. IvL pp. 131-136. 



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296 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

The progress of mining and the adoption of scientific methods to 
mining operations are discussed by H. Briggs.* 

Underground Haulage. — T. C. Futers,t in a lengthy series of 
articles on the mechanical engineering of collieries, deals with under- 
ground haulage. 

J. Searston I discusses the advantages to be derived from opening 
out a colliery by three main roads. 

J. I. Thomas § summarises recent progress in methods of haulage, 
with special reference to the employment of mechanical conveyors in 
longwall mining. 

The M*Ginty system of haulage, employed at the collieries of the 
Kemmerer Coal Company, Wyoming, is illustrated and described by 
P. W. Parsons. II 

F. Norman,1I in discussing the advantages of electric haulage, com- 
pares the different methods of haulage in use, and deals with the 
conditions favourable to each. 

According to Joerchel,** miners are transported at the Konigin 
Luise mine, Upper Silesia, by petrol locomotives hauling five passenger 
trucks, each can-ying eight men, along the northern heading, 1500 
yards in length, at the beginning and end of the shift. 

An illustrated description has appeared ft of the Jeffrey electric 
mine locomotive intended for gathering loaded tubs from the working 
faces and distributing empty ones in their place. The distinctive 
feature of the locomotive is that it may be operated over tracks where 
there are neither trolley wires nor steel rails by carrying upon the 
locomotive a reel of flexible, insulated conductor. When it is desired 
to run on tracks where there is no trolley wire the cable is connected 
to the trolley wire, and the locomotive is propelled by current taken 
through the cable. The cable is automatically paid out as the 
locomotive runs away from the connection to the trolley wire, and 
automatically re- wound in even layers and with uniform tension upon 
the reel, when the locomotive returns. 

F. Freise ^t gives &> history of underground haulage up to the middle 
of the nineteenth century. 

Eye-diseases in mine horses are dealt with by Sturm. §§ 

Winding-engines. — Drawings have been published |||| of a pair 
of winding-engines for the Nine-Mile Point colliery, South Wales. 

* Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixzvi. pp. 335-336. 

t Colliery Guardian, vol. xciv. p. 1191 ; vol. xcv. pp. 33, 86, 121, 166, 225, Wdetseg. 

X Paper read before the National Association of Colliery Managers, November 9, 1907 ; 
Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxv. pp. 1861-1862. 

§ Mines and Minerals, vol. xzviii. pp. 200-203. 

II Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxv, pp. 118-120. 

if Mines and Minerals, vol. xxviii. pp. 383-384. 

** Zeitschrift des Oberschlesischen Berg- und Hiittenmdnnischen Vereins, vol. xlvl pp. 
63H»3. 

ft Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxv. p. 1385. 

tt Berg" und Hilitenmdnnische Rundschau, voL iii. pp. 310, 327. 

§§ Kohle und Erz, 1907, pp. 1041-1044. |||1 EngineeHng, vol. Ixxxv. p. 75. 



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FUEL. 297 

They are of the coupled high-pressure type, with cylinders 36 inches 
in diameter and a stroke of 72 inches. 

L. Becker * deals with the mechanical and electrical losses in the 
flywheel motor-generator set in the Ilgner system. These losses 
continue during the whole time the plant is at work and the actual 
winding is intermittent, they therefore represent a considerable per- 
centage of the energy consumed. A further disadvantage of the 
Ilgner system relates to its high capital cost as compared with steam 
winding. The high peripheral speeds of from 80 to 100 metres per 
second are associated with considerable air-friction losses, which are 
considerably greater than the bearing losses. The losses are much 
greater than the bearing losses. The air-friction losses have been 
reduced in certain cases about 30 per cent, by encasing the flywheel. 
A further reduction has been experimentally made by exhausting 
the air from the casing. The total losses in seven different designs 
of Ilgner plant are examined, and the air-friction loss of the flywheel 
and of the machines composing the motor-generator set amounts to 
from 7 to 10 per cent, of the output of the motor. The mechanical 
losses are about one-third and the electrical losses about two- thirds 
of the total losses. In newer designs of Ilgner flywheel motor- 
generator sets the efliciencies vary from 75 to 82 per cent. The 
steam consumption of the electric winding plant ranges from 10 to 
14 kilogrammes per horse-power per hour, which in spite of the 
high capital cost is a striking contrast to the steam consumption of 
from 40 to 50 kilogrammes per horse-power per hour for steam 
winding. 

The new winding-engines installed by the Ruabon Coal and Coke 
Company, Limited, Ruabon, North Wales, are described.! They are 
coupled, horizontal, non-condensing Corliss engines, with cylinders 
36 inches diameter by 6 feet stroke. The soleplates are of massive 
design, of the mammoth and trunk type. The drum is 18 feet 
diameter by 5 feet 8 inches wide, built with cast iron cheeks and 
centre stiffening rings, and covered with steel plate cleading | inch 
thick. 

Illustrated descriptions have appeared { of an electrical winding 
plant at the Axwell Park colliery. County Durham. 

Problems connected with the electric driving of winding-engines 
are discussed by E. Kulka.§ 

Winding* Appliances. — T. H. Ward|| describes a rapid cage 
changing device consisting of a trolley which is run across the mouth 
of the shaft to enable a cage to be changed or to be substituted by a 
water-barrel. He also H describes rope cappings. 

* ElektHsche KraftbetrUb und Bahnen, vol. v. pp. 485-493, 508-613. 528-632 ; GliUkauf^ 
vol. xliv. pp. 189-lTO. 
t Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxv. p. 739. 
X Syren and Shipping, vol. xlvi. pp. 5-7. 
§ Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, vol. xxviii. pp. 1186-1187. 

II TransacHons of the Mining and Geological Institute o^ India, vol t. pp. 209-212. 
ir /bid., pp. 2ia-216. 



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298 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

B. A. S. Redmayne * has reported on the shaft accidents at Foggs 
colliery, October 4, 1907, at Barrow colliery, November 15, 1907, 
and at Bawdon colliery, November 18, 1907. He is of opinion that 
it would be advisable to substitute chains for rigid rods for suspending 
cages, and to have such chains annealed every six months. 

K. Schreber f discusses the change in weight of a cage in descent 
J. S. Barnes ^ discusses the design of pit-bottom arches^ and the 
relative advantages of making pit-bottom mouthings coned, or bell 
mouthed. He also discusses § the arrangement of cage guides for 
modem collieries. 

Winding-ropes. — W. Boutledge || gives the results of some tests 
of winding-ropes and capels. 

Pit-head Frames. — H. Clark IT discusses the recent improvements 
which have been made in the design and construction of pit-head 
frames and gear. Advocates of lattice headgear point out that joist 
headgear, while meeting all practical purposes, is not scientifically 
correct. The most efficient strut is one where the sectional area is 
situated farthest away from its centre of gravity, and it will be seen 
that in the joist type of headgear there is frequently a heavy web in 
the joist on the centre of gravity, whereas, in the lattice type, the 
section is embodied in the four angle irons situated at the extreme 
corners. On the other hand joist headgear is slightly cheaper. 

Mine Drainage. — A. Thimm ** describes some new installations 
of Sulzer high-lift centrifugal pumps in the Buhr coalfield. High- 
lift centrifugal pumps for mine drainage are also described by 

A. Genarttt 

The University of Wisconsin has issued a pamphlet which contains 
the results of a long series of investigations carried out at the Uni- 
versity into the working of centrifugal pumps. This bulletin deals 
with the effect on discharge and efficiency of the number and shape 
of vanes of the impeller. 

An illustrated description has appeared {| of an electrically-driven 
three-throw ram pump. These pumps, a second set of which have been 
installed at the Hebburn colliery. County Durham, are 12^ inches 
in diameter by 18 inches stroke, and are capable of pumping 36,000 
gallons per hour against a head pressure of 1100 feet. An electric 
two-throw pump and motor for operation in one of the mines of the 

♦ Nome Office Report, 1908 [Cd. 3979]. 
t GlUckauf, vol. xliii. pp. 1468-1470. 
X Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxvi. pp. 140-142. 
§ IHd,, vol. Ixxv. pp. 1299-1301. 

II Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, vol. xxxiv. pp. 140-148. 
if Paper read before the National Association of Colliery Managers, January 18, 1906; 
Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxvi. pp. 337-338. 
•• GliUkauf, vol. xliv. pp. 181-189. 
ft Revue Universelle aes Mines, vol. xx. p. 133. 
XX Colliery Guardian, vol, xcv. p. 122< 



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ruKL. 299 

Oompania Minera '' El Salobral," Cadiz, is also described. The pump 
and motor was designed to go down a drift 2 feet, the incline of the 
drift being 45 feet with the horizontal. The pump, the extreme 
width of which over the crank shaft pins is 1 foot llf inches, was 
specially designed with this stipulation in view. The capacity of the 
pump is 91 gallons against a total head pressure of 500 feet. 

Papers on pumping and drainage by Daniel Davies,* and by 
G. J. Fisher,f awarded prizes in the competition instituted by Sir 
W. T. Lewis, Bart., have been published in full. 

Bline Ventilation. — ^The results are given X of tests of a new fan 
at the Friedrich der Qrosse colliery at Heme. The fan is of the 
exhausting type, with vanes 4500 millimetres in diameter, and on 
the axis is a Brown Boveri alternating current motor. The results 
of the test were eminently satisfactory. 

K. Kegel § discusses the influence of the natural ventilating current 
on the mechanical efficiency of fans. The subject is dealt with from 
a mathematical point of view. 

K. Kegel II also deals with the production of ventilating currents 
for deep mines. 

Oases in Blines. — H. E. Gray H discusses the various gases found 
in coal-mines, their methods of identification, and the means to be 
adopted for the prevention of accidents. 

F. Clowes** deals with the chemical composition and characters of 
coal-mine gases. 

R. Jordan f\ gives some notes on the occurrence in coal-mines of 
hidden cavities, containing firedamp, in the strata overlying and under- 
lying the goaf in near proximity to the working face, such cavities 
having been formed by the extraction of the coal. 

Clarence Hall^t describes the apparatus for testing explosive 
mixtures of gas, air, and dust, and siaiety-lamps that is to be in- 
stalled in the testing station of the Technologic Division of the 
United States Geological Survey. An outline of the proposed work 
of this testing station is also given, together with plans of some of the 
apparatus. 

Oolliery Explosions. — The Report of the Commission on the 
means employed for the rescue of miners at the Courri^res mines, 
after the explosion of March 10, 1906, has been issued.§§ The Com- 

* Proeudings of the South Wales Institute of Engineers, vol. xxv. pp. 549-^^. 
t/3fV/..pp.6W-«ll. 
X GliUkauf vol. xliii. pp. 1766-1757. 
§ IHd,, vol. xliv. pp. 118-124. 

II IHd., vol. xliii. pp. 1630-1583; Bergbau, vol. xx., No. 68. 
IT Engineering ana Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 787-789. 

** "LScXMrt before the National Association of CoUiery Managers, Nottingham, October 
26, 1907 ; Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxv. pp. 1756-1757. 
1t Proceedings of the South Wales Institute of Engineers, vol. xxv. pp. 496-504. 
tt Mines and Minerals, vol. xxviii. pp. 196-197. 
§§ Bulletin de la SociiU de t Industrie MiniraU, vol. vil pp. 553-600. 



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300 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

missioners issue the following figures relative to the number of 
workmen involved : 1780 men descended the pits on the morning of 
the 10th. After the explosion 670 were hauled to the surface the 
same day by shafts 10 and 11 ; 13 were rescued on the 30th after 
being imprisoned twenty days, and 1 was rescued on April 4, making 
684 in all. The number of victims was therefore 1096. The Com- 
mission deals with the alleged errors of judgment made by the 
engineers in assuming that all those remaining in the mine had 
perished, but exonerate them of all charges of negligence, and 
confirm the wisdom of the course they pursued. 

A translation has been published * of the official report on the 
Oourriferes disaster of March 10, 1906. 

A report on the circumstances attending an explosion of coal dust 
which occurred at Dinas Main colliery on December 14, 1907, has 
been drawn up by W. N. Atkinson f and J. Dyer Lewis. 

James Ashworth | expresses the opinion that the Oourri^res disaster 
was only to a certain extent a coal-dust explosion, and that many of 
the effects were due to air percussion and not to actual flame. 

J. Ashworth § discusses the advantages of watering the roads in 
mines in order to allay dust and thus obviate danger from explosions, 
but concludes that watering alone is insufficient for the purposes in 
view, 

S. Stassartjl and J. Bolle have published a report on the Beden 
colliery explosion. 

The causes which led to the disastrous explosion at the Monongah 
coal-mines, West Virginia, in December 1907, are discussed by F.W. 
Farsons,1T who believes it to have been due to the breaking of a trolley 
wire at the foot of a slope, owing to a runaway train of tubs coming 
in contact with it. Barometric pressure did not apparently play an 
important part in this explosion. 

H. H. Stoek ** describes an explosion that occurred at the No. 6 
and No. 8 mines of the Fairmont Coal Company at Monongah, West 
Virginia. 

An explosion that occurred at the Darr mine of the Pittsburgh Coal 
Company, situated on the Youghiogheny Biver, Pennsylvania, is 
described. -j-f 

C. Schulz 11 and R, S. Moss deal with the prevention of colliery 
accidents. 

A Blue-book has been issued containing further evidence given 
before the Boyal Commission on Mines. In an appendix are some 
interesting tables relating to fatal accidents in mines during the 
period 1896 to 1905. It appears that in that decade the number of 

* Transactions of iA^ Institution of Mining Engineers, vol. xxxiv. pp. 46&-488. 

t Nome Office Report [Cd. 4049]. 

% Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, voL xxxiv. pp. 270-281. 

§ Cassier's Magazine, vol. xxxii.-pp. 478-486. 

II Annates des Mines de Belgique, vol. xii. pp. 1039-1078. 

IT Enf^nuring and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 1121-1123. 

** Mines and Minerals, vol, xxviii. pp. 277-280. 

tt Ihid., pp. 377-382. Xt Mining World, vol. xxviii. pp. 247. 24a 



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FUEL. 301 

explosions of fire-damp or coal-dust was 183, resulting in 720 deaths. 
In 119 of these cases the explosions were caused by the use of un- 
protected lights, 253 men losing their lives in consequence. During 
the same period the total number of deaths from all classes of accidents 
was 10,202. Of these, 4793 fatalities were due to falls of roof or sides, 
and 1828 to haulage accidents. 

C. O. Hirsch * reviews the colliery accidents that have taken place 
in Saxony during the last forty years, showing the great improvement 
that has been brought about of recent years. 

P. J. Slevin "j* considers the various causes of accidents in mines, 
their relative importance, and tKe best mode of obviating them. 

F. L. Hoffmann I gives a statistical account of fatal accidents in 
coal-mines in North America during 1906, and compares them with 
previous years. During 1906 the number of miners killed in coal- 
mines amounted to 2078, a decrease of 113 on the number of similar 
accidents in 1905, although the number of miners employed was greater 
by over 20,000 than in the previous year. The average death-rate 
was 3*16 per 1000. The rate was greater in Colorado than elsewhere, 
being 7*32, and lowest in Maryland, when it fell to 1-13. The average 
death-rate in 1905 was 3'44 per 1000. The influence of disciplinary 
measures on the number of accidents is discussed, as well as the 
connection between barometric pressure and mine explosions. 

At the winter meeting of the Coal- Mining Institute of America at 
Pittsburg on December 11^ 0. Hall read a paper on '* Statistics 
Relative to Mine Accidents," and F. W. Parsons contributed notes 
on the Monongah mine disaster. 

H. Briggs § deals with the application of science to the reduction of 
accidents in mines. Explosions have attracted the attention of 
engineers and scientists to a greater degree than other catastrophes 
The year 1880 — the date of theSeaham explosion — may be considered 
the commencement of modern inquiry into the cause of explosions, as 
shortly after that date Abel undertook his researches. Since that date 
there have been many working on the subject. A diagram is given 
showing how, from 1880 forward, the percentage death-rate from 
explosions has wonderfully decreased. The names which stand out 
most prominently in this connection are those of Abel, Galloway, 
and the brothers Atkinson. There has also been a steady decrease 
in the number of deaths caused by falls, but the improvement in 
this direction is not so rapid as could be desired. 

J. Neal II describes an ignition of coal-dust at Middleton colliery. 

Experiments illustrative of the inflammability of mixtures of coal- 
dust and air are described by P. Phillips Bedson H and H. Widdas. 

• JahrbuchfUr das Berg- und HiitUnwesen im Konigreiche Sacksen, 1907i pp. 49-73. 

t Mines and Minerals, vol. xxviii. pp. 121-122. 

X Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxv. pp. 84-36. 

§ Inaugural address, delivered on January 7th, on the occasion of the opening of the new 
Department of Mining in the Heriot Watt College, Edinburgh ; Iron and Coal Trades 
Review, vol Ixxvi. pp. 335-336. 

II Transactions of the Institution of Mining Bngineerf, vol. xxxiv. p. pp. 221-231, 

IF /*»Vf.. pp. 91-99. '^ ^ ^ » 



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302 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

As a precaution against coal-dust explosions, William Galloway, in 
the course of his evidence before the Royal Commission on Mines, 
said that if the coal-dust in a roadway in a mine were regularly 
strewn, say daily, with a sufficient amount of salts containing large 
quantities of water of crystallisation, or with much larger proportions 
of the dusts of clay, slate, limestone, chalk, or other substances, it 
would be rendered quite as innocuous as if it were damped with 
water. 

The Lighting of Collieries. — R. Cremer* describes the Wolf- 
Bohres electric safety-lamp, fitted with an Osram lamp made especially 
for the purpose. 

The dangers of safety-lamps with lighting appliances are discussed 
by G. Chesneaat 

Underground Fires. — Jonathan Wroe{ gives some notes on a 
recent underground fire at Wharncliffe Silkstone collieries, and 
describes the application of the Draeger apparatus in dealing with 
the fire. Further particulars are given by A. T. Winborn.g 

Since the catastrophe at Gourrik'es in France there has been no 
mining accident so terrible in its character as the disaster at Ham- 
stead colliery. Fire broke out in the mine on March 4th, and after 
seven days of incessant labour the rescue party found the bodies of 
thirteen of the twenty-five miners entombed in the burning mine. 
The remaining bodies were all found by March 14th. The accident, 
appalling though it was, afforded a favourable opportunity of testing 
the efficacy of rescue appliances. A striking testimony to the value 
of such apparatus was the fact that M. W. Waterhouse, the manager, 
was able, without previous experience, to wear a Draeger helmet 
underground for an hour and a half. W. £. Garforth's Weg apparatus 
also proved efficient. In it the supply of oxygen can be regulated at 
will. The results of the Hamstead experience certainly bear out the 
view expressed by the Royal Commission on Mines that the adoption 
of rescue appliances is ripe for further development in this country 
and demands the serious attention of the coal-mining industryi 
although sufficient advance has not yet been made in this country 
to justify at present making the provision of any of these appliances 
compulsory.|| 

The methods employed in combating a dangerous fire at the Alden 
anthracite mines, Pennsylvania, are described by M. S. Hachita.1T 

Weise ** describes a new form of mine dam for isolating under- 
ground fires. 

* Transactions 0/ Me Institution of Mining Engineers, vol xxxiv. pp. 59-^ 

t Annates des Mines, vol. xii. pp. 111-140. 

% Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, vol. xxxv. pp. 2-6. 

§ IHd„ pp. 7-22. 

II Engineer, vol. cv. p. 341. 

IT Enginuring and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 1217-1211). 

*• GlUckauf, vol. xliii. pp. 1401-1405. 



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FUEL. 303 

Life-saying Appliances. — Leonard Hill * deals with the physio- 
logical effects of foul air and the principles of construction of breath- 
ing apparatus, and gives a detailed description of the improved 
Fleuss-8iebe Gorman apparatus. 

James Bain f directs attention to a report on rescue apparatus by 
a committee of the Fife and Clackmannan Coal-Owners' Association. 

A report has been published X showing the extent to which rescue 
appliances have been adopted in the various German colliery districts. 

O. Stegemann§ describes the arrangements made for organising 
rescue work at the collieries of the Wurm and Inde district, and R. Back- 
winkel || describes the application of rescue apparatus at the Laurahiitte 
collieries in Silesia. A permanent rescue corps has been equipped. 

An account is published H of the installation of a central rescue 
station in the Donetz coalfield. 

T. Schontheil ** describes an improved Tself -contained breathing 
apparatus for rescue work in mines. It is a perfected form of the 
original Fleuss apparatus used twenty-five years ago. 

The opinion of the French Mining Commission appointed to study 
the subject of safety respiratory apparatus in mines is rather against 
them. A report published by this Commission says that it recog- 
nises that when another grave accident takes place in French mines 
public opinion will not understand the purely technical motives which 
might have influenced the Commission at the present time in proposing 
to the department either to withhold any interference or to defer the 
solution until experiments pronounced for or against the apparatus 
already in use or those on trial in other counti-ies.ff 

The Dominion Goal Company of Canada is organising a central 
rescue station for its collieries in Nova Scotia, in addition to forming 
rescue brigades at the various collieries themselves. Twenty sets of 
Draeger apparatus have been purchased — ten of the helmet and ten 
of the mouthpiece type. The rescue station is to consist of a large 
practice-room and store, where apparatus will be kept ready for 
immediate use, and of a lecture-hall and drill-room for the men, who 
assemble for practice and drill. There will also be the necessary 
office accommodation. It is suggested, at some future date, to add a 
practice-gallery, and a corps of men will be trained at each of the 
company's ten mines. Apparatus will also be kept at the mines. 
The central station is in telephonic communication with all the mines, 
and is in close proximity to the tramway system which runs through 
the mining dis^ct.^} 

The Yajen-Bader head protector, for use in mine fires, is illus- 

* Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers^ voL xxxv. pp. 24-i6. 

t IHd,, vol. xxxiv. pp. 72-75. 

X GliUkauf vol. xliii. pp. 1602-1606. 

§ y^></., pp. 1625-1530. 

Il Ibid,, vol. xliv. pp. 44-4a 

t fHd., vol. xliii. pp. 1414-1415. 

♦• Proceedings of the South Waies Institute of Engineers , vol. xxv, pp. 48&-496w 

tt Engineer, voL cv. p. 89. 

tt Engineering and Mining Journal^ vol. Ixxxiv. p. 695. 



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304 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

trated and described by M. S. Hachita.* Fresh air, in sufficient 
quantity for one hour's working with the appliance, is supplied to 
the wearer at natural pressure by a reservoir fastened to the back 
of the reservoir. The apparatus weighs only six pounds, and can be 
recharged with air in two minutes by means of a hand-pump. 

A. Gradenwitz f gives an illustrated description of the Aerdith 
breathing apparatus, invented by Schiimann. The air supply is 
provided by the use of liquid air. 

M. S. Hachita | gives an account of the first-aid corps which have 
been inaugurated at all the collieries of the Lehigh Valley Coal 
Company. 

An early form of safety breathing appliance for use in gaseous 
mines is noticed by E. F. Buffett§ as having been described as far 
back as June 1752 in a British publication entitled the Univtncd 
Magazine, 

Subsidence. — K. Kegel || discusses the connection between the 
drainage of porous strata and the subsidence of the surface. 

History of Ooal-mining. — Some notes on the history of coal- 
mining in Warwickshire are given by Alexander Smith.H 

A detailed report has been published ** of the jubilee celebration of 
the South Wales Institute of Engineers, a society that has done much 
to furthering mining progress in South Wales and Monmouthshire. 
The report is illustrated by portraits of the presidents of the Institute 
since its formation, namely, W. Menelaus, first president ; E. Rogers, 
W. S. Clark, Lionel Brough, W. Adams, T. Evans, A. Bassett, G- 
Martin, R. Bedlington, Sir W. T. Lewis, Bart., T.' Dyne Steel T. 
Forster Brown, J. Brogden, R. Lay bourne, J. McMurtrie, E. Wil- 
liams, J. Colquhoun, A. Hood, E. P. Martin, A. J. Stevens, H. W. 
Martin, H. K. Jordan, T. Evens, T. Hurry Riches, E. M. Hann, and 
T. H. Deakin. 

C. Miiller ft traces the history of the North-West Bohemian brown- 
coal mining. 

Econoinios of Kining. — M. Mowvley %% discusses the economics 
of mining, and criticises adversely a number of expedients at present 
employed with what he claims is false economy, particularly in con- 
nection with coal-cutting. 

A. Burnett §§ discusses the applications to which gas-engines could, 

* Engineering and Mining Journal^ vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 1216-1219. 
t Ibid., vol. Ixxxv. pp. 105-106. 
X Ibid., vol. Ixxxiv. p. 833. 
§ /^iV/.,p. 1168. 
II BraunkohU, vol. vi. p. 406. 

IT Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, vol. xxxiv. pp. 865-369. 
•♦ Proceedings of the South Wales Institute of Engineers, vol. xxv. pp. 387-^08. 
+t KohUninteressent, 1907, p. 108. 

tt Paper read before the National Association of Colliery Managers, December?, 1907 ; 
Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxvi. pp. 145-148. 
§§ Enginuring and Mining Journal, vol Ixxxiv. pp. 914-917. 



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FUEL. 805 

by being slightly modified, be put for the purpose of providing power 
for mining operations. The various requirements are shown to be 
such as could adequately be met by gas-engines, while the removal of 
the burnt gases, the modes of applying the gas drive, and the com- 
parative cost of power production by steam, electricity, and gas are 
discussed in detail. 



IX.— COAL SCREENING AND WASHING. 

Goal Screening. — The Marcus coal screen and conveyor is 
described by H. Clark.* The principle is that of a trough with per- 
forated bottom or otherwise, which is made to run backwards and 
forwards over the top of wheels. Unlike the Zimmer screen, which 
runs at 300 revolutions per minute, it works at 60 to 80 revolutions 
per minute. The propulsion gear is so constructed that by means of 
cranks and a connecting link a variable speed is produced. Beginning 
slowly at the commencement of the stroke, the trough increases in 
velocity up to three-quarters of the stroke, then slows down during 
the last quarter, reverses, and the return stroke is inversely the same 
as the forward. The slow speed at each end of the stroke tends to 
cushion the shock. The material is carried with the trough in its 
forward stroke, and as it increases in speed, it gradually imparts 
sufficient impetus to the material to overcome the frictional contact 
between the material and the trough in its backward stroke. 

T. T. Ohristie t describes a waggon-lowering device for use at colliery 
screens. 

John H. Haertter % describes a temporary expedient employed at a 
time of drought in the southern anthracite coalfield, for an emergency 
water supply for a coal-breaker. 

Goal Washing. — T. C. Futers§ continues the series of articles on 
the mechanical engineering of collieries, in which are described various 
types of plant for coal washing. 

The leading types of machines for washing bituminous coal are 
described by G. R. Delamater.|| 

£. Prost II discusses the possibility of lessening the proportion of ash 
in coal by an electro-magnetic method. 

A bibliography of coal-washing is given by S. S. Wyer.** 

* Paper read before the National Association of Colliery Managers ; Iron and Coal 
Trades Review^ voL Ixxvi. pp. 337-3S8. 

t Transactions of the Institution of Mining Engineers, vol. xzxiv. pp. 266-260. 

X Enginuring and Mining Journal, vol Ixxxiv. pp. 1124-1126. 

§ Colliery Guardian, vol. xciv. pp. 962-953, 1008, 1048-1049, 1098, 1145. 

II Mines and Minerals, vol. xxviii. pp. 62-65. 

IF Revue Universelle des Mines, vol, xix. pp. 270-284. 
* ** Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, vol. xxxvii. pp. 256- 
264. 



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306 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

Ooal-haadling. — ^A description has appeared * of the storage wharf 
and coal-handling apparatus of the Berwind Fuel Company, Superior, 
Wisconsin. The wharf has an approximate storing capacity of 350,000 
tons of coal, and will have an ultimate capacity of about 700,000 tons. 

A description has appeared t of two 30-ton coal hoists recently 
installed at the Town Dock of the Alexandra (Newport and South 
Wales) Docks and Railway Company. 

J. I. Thomas { describes the methods and apparatus employed by 
the Vinton Colliery Company at Yintondale, Pennsylvania, for tran- 
sporting coal from the working face to main haulage roads by means 
of mechanical conveyors. The longwall method of mining is employed, 
and owing to the fact that this system of mining is not carried on to 
a large extent in the United States, the question of conveyors has 
received but little attention. 

At the meeting of the Coal-Mining Institute of America at 
Pittsburg, on December 10 and 11, 1907, W. P. Young read a paper 
on the " Preparation of Coal for the Market," and M. K. Campbell 
read a paper on '* A Practical Classification of Low Grade Coals." 

The coal-handling plants in use at the leading collieries in Pennsyl- 
vania are described and illustrated by F. W. Parsons.§ Many of the 
installations present novel features, the methods of emptying the 
waggons being in a number of instances the outcome of long investi- 
gations as to performing this operation with the minimum of breakage 
and the maximum speed and convenience. 

Illustrations have been published || of an aerial ropeway erected at 
the Middleton colliery, near Leeds. The ropeway is 520 feet long, and 
carries 50 tons of washed slack per hour in 10 cwt. net loads. 

An articled on the cost of conveying coaJ in motor waggons has 
been published in which comparative costs as compared with other 
methods of transport are given. 

Briquette Manufacture. — A. S. Phillips ** states that the im- 
provement in the method of making briquettes in Wales consists in 
forming a pitchy deposit on each particle of coal or other carbon in as 
thin a film as possible, thereby producing a nearly smokeless fuel. 
This is accomplished by mixing a liquid tar with the coal in such 
quantities as to produce sufficient pitch when subjected to pressure 
and heat in a closed vessel. 

F. Bock ff gives an account of coal briquette making, in which he 
gives illustrations of the leading presses employed. With an annual 
production of nearly 4,000,000 tons of briquettes, Germany is the chief 
briquette-producing country in the world. 

* Mines and Minerals, vol. xxviii. pp. 313-314. 
t Colliery Guardian , vol. xciv. p. lOoO. 

X Paper read before the Coal-Mining Institute of America. June 11-] 2, 1907; Mints 
and Minerals, vol xxviii. pp. 200-208. 
§ Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 740-744. 

II Engineer, vol. cv. p. 16& H Stahl und Eisen, vol. xxvii. pp. 1595-1M7. 

** Mines and Minerals, vol. xxviii. p. 368. 
tt GlUckauf, vol xliv. pp. 7-14. 



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FUEL. 307 

£. Treptow * describes the briquetting of coal as carried out in the 
kingdom of Saxony. The Yeadon press, of which illustrations are 
given, is employed. 

The briquetting of fuels in British Columbia is described by 0. J. 
Mashek.f 

The manufacture of brown-coal briquettes is described by A. Zeese. j; 

M. Rosenkranz§ describes the utilisation of coke- dust produced in 
the Riga gasworks by compressing it into briquettes, the binding 
material being a mixture of thick tar and hard pitch. 

The peat briquetting plant of the Commercial Artificial Fuel 
Company, near Lambertville, Michigan, has a capacity of 60 tons 
daily, the product containing 16*7 per cent, moisture, 55*3 volatile 
matter, 20*5 fixed carbon, and 7*5 ash. Its heating value is stated to 
be about 10,600 British thermal units per lb. The peat is obtained 
from a 10-foot bog by a dipper dredge, and taken in scrows to the 
plant. Here it is first passed through a cutter, in which it is 
thoroughly disintegrated, and then through a kneading machine. It 
is next compressed and discharged through a die as 4 inch by 4 inch 
bars, which are cut by knives into briquettes 12 inches long. The 
latter are then dried like soft brick in sheds. || 

A field of investigation which promises to have a distinct bearing 
upon the better utilisation of American coals is that of briquetting, 
and the present condition of the coal briquetting industry in the 
United States is summarised in a paper by E. W. Parker .IF 

F. Bulask** describes the preparation of peat fuel in Michigan. 
When taken from the bog the peat is brown and fibrous, but after 
drying and compression it has a dense coal-like appearance, and burns 
with a log flame. 

JakrbuchfUr das Berg- und HiUtenwesen im Konigreiche Sachsen, 1907, pp. 36-48. 
t Canadian Mining Journal^ vol. xxix. pp. 661-664, 685-687. 
X BraunkohU, vol vi. pp. 37-40, 501. 
S Journal fUr Gasbeleuchtung, vol. 1. pp. 197-199. 
II Engineer^ vol. civ. p. 697. 

IT United States Geological Survey, Bulletin No. 316, pp. 460-485. 
** Power, vol. xxvii. p. 591. 



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( 308 ) 



PRODUCTION OF PIG IROTiT. 



CONTENTS. 

PAOBl PAOK 

[. Blast-Furnace Practice . . 308 III. Blast-Furnace Slags . S23 

II. Chemical Composition of Pig Iron 322 | IV. Foundry Practice ... 324 



\.— BLAST-FURNACE PRACTICE. 

Theory of the Blast-ftirnace. — C. Brisker * contributes a theore- 
tical paper on blast-furnace diagrams and the facts to be deduced 
from them. The paper is accompanied by a number of curves giving 
a graphic representation of the co-ordination of the data discussed. 

Improvements in Blast-ftimace Practice.— F. W. Lurmannt 

gives an account of the changes which have taken place in blast- 
furnace practice since the introduction of the Lurmann cinder notch. 
Originally, the difference between the centre level of tuyeres and 
slag outlet was only 6 inches. The experience gathered by the intro- 
duction of the Liirmann slag outlet, and the advantage of its employ- 
ment, led to an increase of this margin between the centre of the 
tuyeres and slag outlet. This margin has now been increased up to 
5 feet to 6 feet at some blast-furnaces ; that is, the tuyeres lie 9 feet, 
and the slag outlet is 40 inches, above the bottom. The hearth can, 
with a diameter of 160 inches at the height mentioned with 450 cubic 
feet contents up to the slag outlet, take up 80 tons of molten iron 
before it would reach the slag outlet and thereby endanger it. The 
contents of the hearth up to the tuyeres are then 1100 cubic feet; 
therefore, there can be 40 tons of slag collected above the 80 tons 
of molten iron before it reaches up to the tuyeres. The tuyeres can, 
therefore, even when the charges are rapidly put into the furnace, 
be kept free of slag, so that the blast can enter into the hearth with- 
out meeting any obstruction. The bottom of the hearth becomes 
hotter the nearer the tuyeres are; that is, when the difference in 
the height is small and the furnace is in good working order, the 

* Stahlund Eisen, vol. xxviii. pp. 391-397. 

t Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxv, p. 734. 



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PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON. 309 

bottom is melted and the hearth becomes deeper. The increase in 
the working time, and of the volume of blast rendered possible by 
the employment of the Liirmann slag outlet, and the increase in the 
diameter of the hearth, and in the height of the furnace, also render 
it possible to increase the number of charges, and therefore also the 
production of pig iron. 

J. J. Porter* discusses recent progress and present problems in 
blast-furnace practice. The subjects dealt with are increased pro- 
duction, the size of furnaces, rate of driving the blast, the yield, 
the fuel ratio, problems connected with blowing, including the ratio 
of blast to fuel, and the causes of failure in large furnaces. Fuel 
economy is also considered and the calculation of thermal efficiency, 
and the cause of low efficiency. The effect of the introduction of 
Mesabi ores, and the difficulties experienced owing to hanging 
furnaces and serious slips, are also discussed. The most promising 
lines for future work are enumerated as : (I) smaller volume of slag, 
(2) dry air for blast, (3) lower silicon, and (4) lower carbon in the 
iron, (5) increase in temperature of blast, (6) decrease in weight of 
gases, (7) in critical temperature, and (8) in carbon solution, and, 
finally, (9) increased regularity in working. Each of these questions 
is discussed separately. 

C. H. Ridsdale f discusses the application of science in iron and 
steel manufacture, with special reference to blast-furnace practice, 
and shows the evil effects and loss caused by extra silica due to 
shale, &c., in the ironstone, and that the effects of all bad materials 
are cumulative, and the shale and dirt brought to bank are not only 
a loss, but, if traced further, are seen to be a " snowball " of waste, 
and a dead loss to the district and country, placing them in a worse 
position for outside competition. Deterioration of quality of iron- 
stone through less careful working on a works using 200,000 tons per 
year is serious. If it only falls from 28 to 26 per cent, iron, this 
means in round figures that instead of 100 parts normal stone only 
93 parts are received, and 7 parts extra shale, &c., diluting it and 
requiring limestone to flux it. This is a direct loss (through iron 
not received) of 4300 tons of pig, besides extra loss through irregular 
working of blast-furnaces. To get the same output, besides much 
extra limestone needed and slag produced, more coke must be burnt 
and blast blown, and more weight in the proportion of 100 to 93 has 
to be shunted, lifted, calcined, wheeled, &c. 

The need is strongly urged for the adoption of standard qualities 
not only for coal, ironstone, ores, &c., but for minor materials, such 
as lubricants, boiler composition, alloys, &c. The greatest disadvan- 
tage of the industry is irregularity. If everything were bought and 
sold to well-defined standards much of the irregularity would be 
removed, and one could rely in buying on always getting for a given 
grade exactly the same quality of article. Then many of the fluctua- 

♦ Iron Trade Review, vol. xlii. pp. 83-40. 

t Presidential address before the Cleveland Institution of Engineers, November 1, 1907, 
Proceedings, 1907-8, pp. 12-S9 ; Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. bcxv. pp. 1864-1855. 

1908.— i. X 



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310 THE IBON AKD STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

tions in price from competition of varying qualities would vanish 
and markets be steadier. Standardisation of raw materials will have 
to come if progress is to be made with the further products. Then 
the relative responsibility of the different sections of the industries 
would be clearly decided. 

Scaffolding at Blast-famaceS. — R. Catani * describes the causes 
and results of the explosion which occurred on August 3, 1907, at 
blast-furnace No. 2 of the *' Society Elba " at Portoferraio. 

The blast-furnaces of the Society Elba at Portoferraio are installed 
under the best conditions. They are erected on solid ground, the 
highest point of the installation being 27 feet above the sea-level, in 
order to avoid the infiltration of external waters and easily to carry 
away the water used for cooling. 

The treatment of the ore, the quality and quantity of pig iron 
produced, the dimensions and arrangement of the different parts 
composing the blast-furnaces, are all in accordance with the best 
practice of modem installations. 

The blast-furnace No. 2 was started to work on October 20, 1903. 
Several improvements, especially in the lower part, were adopted in 
its construction. The walls of the crucible rest on a cylinder of 
fire-brick masonry of a diameter of 18 feet aoid of a height of 6 feet 
6 inches j the brickwork cylinder is surrounded by a steel armour 
plate 1 *6 inch thick, strengthened by steel rings. The walls and the 
bottom of the crucible are built with first^uality large fireproof 
bricks of British manufacture. Between the cylinder body and the 
well there is a hollow ring 1 foot wide, filled with fireproof clay. 
The whole structure rests on a cement and brick foundation carried 
down to good solid ground. 

The blast-furnace thus built worked regularly up to the morning 
of August 3. Nothing wrong was noticed up to the occurrence of 
the accident. Sometimes an approaching breakout is indicated by 
steam escaping from the crucible or ground, but nothing of the kind 
had appeared in this instance. The automatic indicators remained 
quiet. The pressure of the blast, the temperature of the gas escaping 
from the furnace, and the action of the blowing-engines, registered 
by diagrams, proved the regularity of the work. The blast had been 
maintained for a long time at the constant pressure of 34 centimetres 
of mercury, the temperature of the escaping gases at between 150 
and 175**, and the blowing- engines at a regular number of revolu- 
tions. 

The last cast had been made between half-past six and seven o'clock 
on the morning; the iron was of very good chemical composition, 
fluid and in good quantity ; it had a high content of silicon and the 
furnace worked with basic slag. This rises in the bottom of the 
crucible, even sometimes above ike level of the tap-hole, and generally 
speaking does not give any fear of a probable breakout. 

* Sassegna Minerariat vol. xxvi. pp. 241-244. 



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PRODUCTION OF PIG IBON. 311 

At 9.40 the accident happened ; five heavy detonations followed 
each other at intervals of a few seconds, and a thick black cloud 
surrounded the furnace. To the left-hand side of the tap-hole the 
ground and the paving were torn up over an area of about 3 or 4 
square yards. The explosion certainly took place outside the furnace. 
The molten pig iron passing through the internal fireproof masonry, 
perhaps between the masonry of the crucible and that of the founda- 
tions, had pierced the steel armour plate, and got between the crucible 
and the masonry of the iron columns. This space was closed on the 
top by a layer of bricks. The molten pig iron, in fact, must have 
produced a rapid evaporisation of the underground water, and the 
resulting steam increasing in pressure produced the explosion. 

A great deal was said about the " explosion of the furnace," but 
what really happened was a breakout, which would not have had the 
disastrous consequences it did if the molten iron had not got into 
contact with water in a closed place, setting up the condition of a 
steam boiler. The hypothesis that the explosion occurred inside 
the furnace is inadmissible ; an examination of the diagrams in the 
controlling apparatus showed that no increase took place in the 
pres8iu*e of the blast, and the temperature of the escaping gases was 
raised only from 175 to 240**. 

B. Osann * has given a good description of the various blast-furnace 
bears. The composition of bears obtained from blast-furnaces work- 
ing under different conditions is given. The author then gives his 
views as to the causes which bring about growing of the bottom of 
furnaces and other abnormal conditions of work, which are met with 
from time to time. 

A contribution to the study of accidents in blast-furnace working 
has been published.! 

The Destructive Action of Qraphite on Blast - fbmace 

LinillgfS. — B. Osann | has contributed experimental evidence to prove 
that graphite has a destructive action on blast-furnace linings. It 
has long been known that the decomposition of carbonic oxide gas 
into graphitic carbon and carbonic acid gas takes place in the upper 
zones of the blast-furnace at a temperature of about 500^ C, and is 
brought about in the presence of ferric oxide. The author has set 
himself to prove experimentally the deleterious influence of iron 
oxides in the bricks. The experiments were carried out in a glass 
combustion tube heated to a temperature of about 500** C, the 
materials to be tested being placed in the tube in a porcelain boat. 
Carbonic oxide gas was then slowly passed over the material for peiiods 
varying from seven hours to seventeen days. Keproductions are 
given of the materials after treatment, showing the penetrating 
action of the graphite on the firebricks and oxides. 

* Stahl und Risen, vol. xzvii. pp. 1491-1496 and 1629-1586. 
+ Rassegna Mineraria, vol. xxvii. pp. 241-244. 
X Stahl und Risen, vol. xxvii. pp. 1626-1628. 



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312 



THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 



Phosphatic Ohalk for Bli^st-fdmace Use.— -An interesting 

description of the deposits of phosphatic chalk which occur in Belgium 
and in the north of France in the departments of the Aisne, Somme, 
Pas-de-Calais, and Nord, has appeared.* This material is used to 
a considerable extent in blast-furnace practice, as a source of phos- 
phorus and lime. Details of the extent to which these materials are 
now used in German blast-furnace practice are given, together with 
the cost of tariff rates, &;c. The following typicaJ analysis of these 
materials in the dry state are given : — 

Belgian. 



P. 


SiOa. 


CaO. 


MgO. 
Per Cent. 


Al,03. 


Fe. 


HjO. 


Co^ ' 


Percent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Percent. 


376 


215 


5113 


075 


1-44 


0-92 


12-20 




4-31 


2-20 


38-40 


0-69 


12-20 


075 


12-24 


30-22 


411 


213 


48-32 


0-41) 


6-29 


0-73 


12-68 


30-95 


374 


2-41 


51-27 


0-83 


0-65 


0-64 


14-42 


32-47 



French, 



P. 

Per 


SiOa. 


CaO. 
Per 


MgO. 


Ala03. 


Fe. 


HjO. 


CO^ 


S. 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent 


6-32 


0-30 


53-41 


trace 


1-01 


177 


13-85 


26-02 




5-60 


0-52 


53-46 


0-31 


0-88 


0-47 


13-22 


28-94 


0-26 


6-46 


0-48 


48-34 


0-84 


1-14 


0-82 


13-86 


25-48 


0-28 


6-78 


0-72 


53-86 


0-69 


0-44 


0-66 


1471 


26-25 


0-25 


7-12 


8-34 


5102 


0-42 


2-58 


0-57 


13-21 


24-27 


0-28 



Zinc in the Blast-fiimace. — J. J. Porter f deals with certaiD 
problems arising from the presence of zinc in the ores used in blast- 
furnaces in Virginia. The ores are derived from the Oriskany forma- 
tion, and contain traces up to 1 per cent, of zinc oxide. The course 
of zinc in the blast-furnace is readily traced, and the reactions to 
which it gives rise are described. A small proportion escapes reduc- 
tion and enters the slag as zinc oxide ; the bulk is, however, ultimately 
deposited in hard lumps on the furnace linings as cadmia. The 
presence of zinc gives rise to three classes of disturbances : (1) Mecha- 
nical, (2) physical, and (3) chemical. Under the first head are troubles 
such as choking of the stove checkers and gas flues by zinc oxide duet, 
and obstruction of the down-comers and furnace throat by cadmia 
The physical disturbances include absorption of heat by 



♦ Stahl und Eisen, vol. xxvii. pp. 166&-1669. 

t Bi-Monthfy Bulletin of the American Institute of Mining Engineers^ 1907, PP* 
739-745. 



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PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON. 313 

masses of cadmia which reach the hearth, while the chemical action 
results in the deterioration the linings undergo, due to the presence of 
zinc oxide. The remedy for this would be to ascertain what brands of 
brick best resist the action of zinc vapours. Generally speaking, the 
presence of zinc in the district where it occurs may lead to scaffolding 
and serious slips. 

Olearing Tapholes. — K. Grimshaw* describes the process 
invented by Meune for clearing the tapholes of blast-furnaces by 
means of hydrogen and compressed oxygen. The stream of gas not 
only melts the iron, but also blows it away from the, hole. When 
hydrogen is not available, generator gas or ordinary illuminating gas 
may be used to start the operation. 

Charging Arrangements. — An illustrated description has ap- 
peared f of an automatic electric skip hoist for serving a new blast- 
furnace recently put into operation at McKeesport, Pennsylvania. 

Works Machinery. — M. Buhle J describes a new electrical over- 
head runway for waggons, adapted for use at blast-furnace plants and 
other purposes. 

Purifying Boiler Feed-water. — The use of injurious and spurious 

boiler compositions, and the injury thereby occasioned to the boilers 
themselves, is discussed.§ 

Blowing-engines. — One of the largest, if not the largest, gas 
blowing-engine in Great Britain is described and illustrated. || It 
has recently been completed by the Premier Gas-engine Company, 
Limited, for the works of Sir Alfred Hickman, Limited. The blowing- 
tubs are designed to deliver 40,000 cubic feet of air per minute. 

P. Langer IF deals very fully with turbo-blowers for the supply of 
blast to blast-furnaces, with the aid of several illustrations. All the 
modem forms of turbo-blowers are described, including the Rateau, 
the Brown- Boveri-Rateau, the Parsons, the Jaeger, &c. Diagrams 
and curves of the results obtained, and comparison with steam- 
engines, are given ; also a list of firms who have installed turbo- 
blowers, with tabular details of the plant erected. 

K. Rummel** describes a steam turbine blowing-engine of the 
Brown-Boveri-Rateau type. It has a horse-power of 750. 

A. Gradenwitz ff shows the economies which may be effected by the 
installation of low-pressure turbines, particidarly in steelworks and 
mining plants. 

* Engineering and Mining Journal, vol. Ixxxiv. p. 1206. 

t Industrial World, vol. xli. pp. 1590-1591. 

X Stahl und Risen, vol. xxviii. pp. 299-302. 

§ Lassen and Hjort Gazette, January 1908. 

|. Engineer, vol. cv. p. 140. IF Stahl und Risen, vol. xxviii. pp. 73-82. 

*• Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, vol. li. pp. 1845-1852. 

ft Engineering Magazine, vol. xxxiv. pp. 278-2ii93. 



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314 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

P. J. Mitchell* describes the Bateau apparatus which has been 
installed at Auckland Park colliery, near Bishop Auckland, where it 
had become necessary to increase the amount of electrical energy 
available at the colliery. The system has been adopted for a very 
large installation at the Cleveland Steelworks and blast-furnaces. 
The plant consists of a large accumulator and two Bateau turbo- 
blowers, each of 25,000 cubic feet per minute, running at 2800 revolu- 
tions per minute, and blowing to a maximum of 10 lb& per square 
inch ; also one lOOO-kilowats turbo-alternator, 1800 revolutions per 
minute, 60 periods, 500 volts. 

A summarised translation of a paper on exhaust steam turbines, 
read before the Society of Belgian Engineers, has been published.'l' 

H. Wedding X gives an account of an explosion in the air chamber 
of a blowing-engine at the Hasper Iron and Steel Works. 

A new type of high-pressure rotary-blower for metallurgical use is 
described by B. SjovalL§ 

Bla8t-flimaC6 Gases. — I. Y. Bobinson || gives some comparative 
figures of the cost of power generated by gas and by water. The 
results show that the power generated from blast-furnace gas costs 
about the same as water-power when the capital cost of the genera- 
ting station, with or without transmission lines as may be required, 
is about £IS per horse-power, delivered at the consumer's boundary. 
The cost price of blast-furnace gas-engine power is estimated at 
£1, 14s. id, per horse-power per year for a plant with a life of twenty 
years to £2, Is. lOd. for a plant with a life of ten years. 

F. Limbourg H gives an example of the utilisation of the gases from 
a modem continental blast-furnace plant consisting of five blast- 
furnaces producing 180 tons of pig iron per day each. Blast is 
turned off, for cleaning and repairs, thirty-six hours per month. The 
make of pig iron is therefore 5 x 180 x 28*5, or 25,650 tons per month. 
Each ton of pig iron made is accompanied by the production of 4500 
cubic metres of gas, of a calorific value of 900 calories per cubic metre. 
Of this gas 7 per cent, is lost, and 38 per cent, used for heating the 
blast. This leaves 4,500 x 25,650 x j^^jj x ^V = 2,116,126 cubic metres 
of gas available for power purposes per diem. 

The application of the available gases in various parts of the installa- 
tion is as follows : — 

Gas-engines. — There are six blowing-engines, one of which is held in 
reserve. Their effective horse-power is 5*5 per ton of pig iron, the 
maximum horse-power being 6*25 per ton. They run on an average 
at 5'5 : 6*25, or 88 per cent., and consume 2700 calories, or 3 cubic 
metres of gas per horse-power hour, or, in twenty-four hours, 356,400 

* Proceedings of the Cleveland Institution of Engineers, 1908, pp. 97-176. 
t Engineer, vol. cv. pp. 267-268. 

X Verhandlungen des Vereins zur Befdrderung des Gewerbfleisses, 1907, pp. 496-M2. 
§ Bladfdr Bergshandteringens Fanner, vol. xii. pp. 77-88. 

II Transactions of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland^ January 
21. 1908. 
IF Revue de Metallurgies vol. iv. pp. 945-952. 



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PRODUCTION OF Pid IRON. 315 

cubic metres of gas. For the blowing of the Bessemer converters, of 
which there are four, making three heats of 12 5 tons of pig iron per 
hour, with a yield of 82 per cent., there are two engines provided, one 
of which is held in reserve. The consumption of gas for blowing 
works out at 151,592 cubic metres per twenty-four hours. The 
hydraulic plant involves the use of 29,400 cubic metres per twenty- 
four hours for the compressors, and the open-hearth plant, which 
converts three-fifths of the pig iron not employed in the Bessemer 
works, and consists of three 25-ton furnaces tapping three times each 
per twenty-four hours, does not call for the consumption of gas. 

Steam-engines. — Detoils of the steam-driven mill-engines are given. 
They involve the consumption of 540,970 cubic metres of gas under 
the boilers. 

Turbine-engines. — The mills not driven by steam-engines derive their 
power from a steam-turbine plant generating electricity. Three trains 
of mills require an aggregate of 1955 effective horse-power. The 
accessory machinery for the mills and workshops also derive their 
power from this turbine plant. The total amounts to 4806 horse- 
power, which, for the purposes of calculation, is regarded as equivalent 
to 5000 effective horse-power, in round numbers. This requires for 
its generation 769,860 cubic metres per twenty-four hours. Other 
directions in which the waste gases can be utilised are given, and a 
comparison instituted between a plant such as described, and one in 
which gas-engines would be used throughout. A detailed examination 
of the various amounts of gas employed in different parts of the works 
results in the conclusion that, with the exception of an insignificant 
consumption of 25 tons of coal per day for certain requirements, the 
whole power for such a works could be derived from the coke actually 
consumed in the blast-furnace for the production of pig iron. 

F. E. Junge * gives the results obtained in the application of blast- 
furnace and coke-oven gases. On an annual output of 24 million 
tons the use of the waste gases from these two sources may be roughly 
estimated as equivalent to over half-a-crown per ton. The most im- 
portant set of conditions is when the available gases can not only 
supply the power requirements of the whole of the works, but also 
furnish a surplus for use outside, or for other ptirposes. Of the total 
gases produced in a blast-furnace, about 45 per cent, is employed in 
heating the blast stoves and 15 per cent, for motive purposes, leaving 
40 per cent, available for other requirements. Taking German prac- 
tice, a research made by A. Nagel shows the composition of an average 
blast-furnace to be : — 

Per Cent 

Carbon 29 

Hydrogen 3 

Carbon dioxide 8 

Nitrogen 60 

100 
* Iron Trade KevUw^ vol. xlii. pp. 25-32« 



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316 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES 

At normal atmospheric pressure and temperature such a gas has a 
value of 100 British thermal units per cubic foot, while about 4300 
cubic metres of gas are produced per ton of pig iron made. After 
providing for the blast-stove requirements there is still a surplus of 
about 3000 cubic metres available, and, after allowing for the power 
requirements of the blowing-engines, as much as 2800 cubic metres 
may still remain for other purposes. Looking at the matter from 
another standpoint it may be said that a blast-furnace producing 100 
tons of pig iron daily will yield a continuous surplus of 3000 horse- 
power per hour, after providing for all the requirements contingent 
on the actual smelting of the pig iron produced. The conditions 
obtaining in Belgian practice are then considered with special refer- 
ence to the experiences obtained at Seraing as to the relative advan- 
tages of gas and steam-power, and a detailed statement is given of 
the cost of installing and operating a 3600 horse-power gas-engine 
using blast-furnace gases. The relative merits of various systems of 
gas-cleaning are also discussed, and the leading types of plant for this 
purpose described and illustrated. 

The value of the coke-oven is next considered from the point of 
view of the production of available gases, and L. Greiner's estimate 
that a modern by-product coke oven produces 240 cubic metres of gas 
of about 4000 calories thermal value per metre ton of coal of average 
composition, is taken as a basis. The gas is relatively high in hydro- 
gen, and about 65 per cent, is required for the internal purposes of 
coking ; this leaves 35 per cent, available for power generation out- 
side the coking operations proper, or 135 horse-power per ton of coal. 
This, with a modern coke oven of the by-product type, and having a 
capacity of 7 tons, amounts to a continuous surplus supply equivalent 
to 5*6 horse-power per oven. Taking the efficiency of conversion to 
be 75 to 80 per cent., the production of power is about 7 horse-power 
per ton of coke per day, or, roughly speaking, the available power 
per hour is equal to the number of tons of coke produced per week. 
Taking German practice and the Kuhr district, with an annual pro- 
duction of 600,000 tons of coal, of which one-fourth is coked, the waste 
heat and waste gases would generate a continuous capacity of 3000 
horse-power, while at the largest German collitt^y, " Rheinpreussen," 
where the annual output will shortly reach 3,000,000 tons of coal, of 
which one-third is coked, a conservative estimate shows 17,000 horse- 
power to be continuously generated in gas-engines from the available 
coke-oven gases. The subject of the transmission and distribution of 
power from coke ovens is dealt with, and dimensionised drawings of 
a complete gas-power plant installed at the Hasper Iron and Steel 
Works given. Finally, the economic considerations, the cost of elec- 
trical energy generated by means of surplus gases, and the advantages 
of pooling and central station installations are considered in the light 
of the influence such means are likely to have on the industrial pro- 
gress of the district, and the question is raised as to whether the 
correlation of the power so available should be left to private enter- 
prise, or undertaken by the State. 



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PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON. 317 

H. Allen * concludes his discussion of problems involved in blast- 
furnace practice by dealing with the question of utilising the waste 
gases. The maximum thermal efficiency of these gases can only be 
obtained by preliminary purification, and to achieve this efiEectually 
cooling must be resorted to, notwithstanding that the sensible heat of 
the gases is 9 per cent, of the heating value of the fuel burnt. Gas- 
cleaning plant is then dealt with, illustrated descriptions being given 
of the Thwaite-Qardner plant, the plant at Differdinge, and a Belgian 
plant for dealing with 4600 horse-power blast-furnace gases. 

W. Schmidhammer t contributes some interesting figures on the 
possibility of regenerating blast-furnace gas so as to utilise it for 
steel-melting purposes and otherwise. 

L. Greiner j; deals with the utilisation of blast-furnace gases in 
metallurgy ; illustrations of the plant at the Cockerill Works, Seraing, 
being given. 

B. H. Thwaite§ discusses the blast-furnace as a centre of power 
production. 

F. Limbourg || discusses the use of blast-furnace gas as a source of 
power in a modern ironworks. 

Illustrations have been published^ of a 900 brake horse-power 
blast-furnace gas-engine which has been in operation at the Brymbo 
Steelworks since March 1908. 

H. L. Callendar ** and W. £. DaJby describe the determination of 
temperatures in the cylinders of gas-engines. 

An exhaustive paper on the construction and working of large gas- 
engines was read before the Manchester Association of Engineers by 
P. R. Allen. ff He gave some particulars of large engines which are 
about to be installed. These include engines of 48,000 horse-power 
in units of 2000 horse-power, built by Thyssen & Company, for steel- 
works in Germany ; 36 duplicate units of 4500 horse-power by the 
Allis, Chalmers Company, with cylinders 44 inches diameter by 
54 inches stroke, arranged twin tandem fashion and running at 
83 revolutions per minute, and a single-cylinder Korting engine by 
Siegener & Company, with cylinders 43^ inches by 55^ inches, run- 
ning at 85 revolutions per minute. 

G. Mees H and K. Kutzbach discuss the influence of the gaseous 
mixture on the thermal efficiency of gas-engines. 

H. Baer§§ and H. Bonte give the results of the experience ob- 
tained in the construction and working of gas blowing-engines. 

E. T. Adams |||| deals with the development of the large gas-engine 
in the United States, and gives a description of the plants installed, 
or on order, for steelworks in that counfo'y. 

♦ /rvn Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 58^-590. 

t Stahl und Eisen^ vol. xxviii. pp. 127-128. 

X Casners Magasine, vol. xxxiii. pp. 68-82. § Ibid., pp. 2S-40. 

11 Revue dt la Mitallurgie, vol. iv. pp. 946-962. If Engineer, vol. cv. p. 459-460. 

** Proceedings of the Royal Society, voL Ixxx., Series A, pp. 57-74. 

tt" January 11, 1908. 

XX Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, vol. li. pp. 1686, 1647. 

§§ Ibid., vol. lii. pp. 1-8. Ill Gassier* s Magazine^ vol. xxxiii. pp. 41-54. 



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318 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

Gas-cleaninif* — In a paper on the cost of power production, I. V. 
Robinson * states that gas-cleaning plant for blast-furnace gas varies 
according to the fuel used in the furnace. In Scotland, where bitumi- 
nous coal is the chief fuel, there is a lot of tar remaining in the gas 
after it has passed through the by-product plant. This tar has been 
successfully removed by a cleaner introduced by the Summerlee Iron 
Company. The gas is made to pass through a number of narrow 
orifices and to impinge upon an inclined surface when moving at & 
high velocity. The heavier tar adheres to the surface and runs down 
to an inclined tray from which it is removed at intervals. In the 
Summerlee cleaner, the gas is drawn through the orifices by the 
suction of the gas cylinder when the engine drives a blowing 
cylinder. The gas reaches the cylinder under a vacuum of from 
6 inches to 12 inches water gauge according to the atmospheric 
conditions. For electric power gas-engines, it is advisable to force 
the gas through the cleaner by a centrifugal fan, to avoid any varia- 
tion in the suction pressure and to ensure a more regular speed. 
Where coke is used as the fuel in the blast-furnace, there is no tar 
and the chief trouble is dust. The Theisen gas cleaner has proved 
successful in removing dust, and consists of a motor-driven cylindrical 
drum fitted with projecting vanes. Water and gas enter the annular 
space round the drum at opposite ends and the water rmoves the 
dust. The gas then passes into a vapour-separating chamber and 
is thoroughly dried. During a three months' test with a Theisen 
cleaner the quantity of dust contained by the emerging gas varied 
from 0*0019 to 0*0043 grammes per cubic metre, i.e. 0*0019 to 00043 
ounces per 1000 cubic feet — about half a litre of water was used per 
cubic metre of gas, or about 6^ gallons per 1000 cubic feet. Other 
forms of gas-cleaning apparatus are mentioned. 

The Zschocke gas-cleaner is described by M. Wolf.f 

The Stavelev Ironworks. — Detailed drawings have been pub- 
lished { of the three new blast-furnaces at the Devonshire ironworks 
of the Staveley Coal and Iron Company, Limited, Chesterfield. The 
new plant, for which C. P. Markham is responsible, shows that great 
discrimination has been exercised in weighing the relative merits of 
different systems in order that the many mechanical features in the 
complete equipment should be efficient. The height of the new 
furnaces is 70 feet, the bosh is 18 feet 6 inches, and the hearth II 
feet in diameter. The output averages 850 tons per furnace per 
week. 

Austrian Blast-furnaces. — G. B. Waterhousef gives an account 
of the works and blast-furnaces of the Witkowitz Company, Moravia. 
Illustrations have also been published elsewhere || of the new blast- 
furnaces at Witkowitz. 

* Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, January 21, 1908. 

t Ginie Civil, vol. lii. pp. 33-37. % Engineering, vol. Ixxxv. pp. 391-396 ^/ J»/. 

\ Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 1591-1594, || Engineer^ vol, cv. p. 185. 



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PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON. 319 

Qerman Blast-flimaceB. — DescriptioDS have been published * of 
the Concordia ironworks at Bendorf and of the Basselstein ironworks. f 
J. B. Van Brussel % gives an account of the Krupp works. 

Hungarian Blast-fomaces. — Descriptions have been published 
of the Didsgyor ironworks § and of the Resicza and Anina works.|| 

Italian Blast-fornaces. — The Savona ironworks are described.^ 

Canadian Blast-fomaceB. — G. D. Drummond** describes the 
Midland furnace of the Canada Iron Furnace Company in Ontario. 
It smelts Lake Superior ore with Connellsville coke, and is 65 feet 
high by 13 feet bosh. It has a capacity of 100 to 140 tons per day. 

Indian Blast-flimaces. — W. M'Farlane ff describes the Barakur 
ironworks in India. There are three blast-furnaces, but the steelworks 
have been shut down. 

American Blast-ftumaces. — ^The charcoal blast-fumace plant with 
recovery of by-products at Marquette, Michigan, is described. J 1 

The new Madeline furnace of the Inland Steel Company, Cnicago, 
is described^ and illustrated. The furnace is situated at Indiana 
Harbour, Indiana, immediately adjacent to the steel plant of the 
company. The furnace has a height of 85 feet, while the diameter at 
the bosh is 20 feet 6 inches. It is fitted with a M'Kee distributor, 
and has a capacity of 400 tons of pig iron daily. One unique feature 
of this furnace is that it is supported by six ca.st-iron columns, making 
the distribution of its twelve 6-inch tuyeres uniform and much more 
satisfactory than when eight columns are used, as has been the usual 
practice. The furnace is equipped with four Kennedy central com- 
bustion stoves each 93 feet high and 22 feet in diameter. Two down- 
comers, each 5 feet 9 inches inside diameter, connect with a dust-catcher 
20 feet in diameter. Directly connected to the dust-catcher is a 
Mullen gas washer, from the opposite of which two leads convey gas 
to the boilers and stoves. 

An illustrated description has appeared |||| of the new blast-furnace 
plant of the Shenango Furnace Company at Sharpsville, Pennsylvania. 
The furnace is 80 feet high, the diameter at the bosh 20 feet, and the 
diameter of the hearth 12 feet 6 inches. The capacity is to be about 
300 to 400 tons per day. Hand-charging will be employed, the 

* Zeitschrift des Vereines deuischer Jngenieure^ vol. li. p. 1563. 

+ /«rf.,_pp. 1663-1564. 

X Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 635-544. 

§ Engineer, vol. civ. pp. 280-284. 

II nid., pp. 499-501. 

ir Hassegna Mineraria, vol. xxvi. pp. 177-179. 

*♦ Journal of the Canadian Mining Institute, vol. x. pp. 442-465. 

+t Transactions of the Mining ana Geological Institute of India, vol. i. pp. 147-163, 

■XX Engineering Record, 1907, pp. 41(M11. 

§§ Industrial World, vol. xlii. pp. 72-74, 89. 

'i;| Iron Trade Review^ vol. xlii. pp. 17-24. 



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320 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

furnace being required to run close to analysis, and great care beiDg 
needed in consequence to secure even distribution in the stack. A 
skip hoist may, however, be ultimately employed. Detailed diagrams 
are given of the arrangements in the throat, the down-comers, the 
stoves, construction of the furnace, washers, &c, 

A record of blast-furnace construction during the year 1907 is given 
by B. E. V. Luty.* Fifteen new furnaces with a total capacity of 
2,110,000 tons of pig iron yearly were completed and blown in during 
that period. 

History of Iron. — J. L. Myres f suggests that Herodotus may be 
right in recording the same name, ''Sigyunae," as applied to the 
*' throwing-spear wholly made of iron " which characterised the Iron 
Age culture of Cyprus in early Hellenic times, more particularly as 
Cyprus preserves also a peculiar type of iron sword which only finds 
parallel in the Italo-Hallstatt region. 

In a paper on the history of the compass in Arabia, E. Wiedemann I 
gives some particulars of the history of iron extracted from an ancient 
Arabic work on cosmography written by Al Dimaschqui, who died in 
1327. An Arabic writer, Al Kati, who lived at the beginning of the 
eleventh century, states that iron occurs in two modifications, one male 
and the other female. Steel is the male variety and soft iron the 
female. 

Otto Yogel§ has endeavoured to ascertain where and when the 
first tilting furnace was built. He finds that the first furnace of the 
kind was used for heating cannon balls, and was described by J. G. 
Krunitz in 1 785, the notice cited having been derived from a Leipzig 
journal of 1769. 

F. Cartwright || sketches the history of iron manufacture in Sussex. 

George Turner H traces the history of the Scottish iron industry fi^om 
the fifteenth to the seventeenth century. The later periods from 1700 
to 1760, ♦♦ and from 1760 to 1885, It are dealt with by the same 
author elsewhere. 

A description has appeared | { of an abandoned ironworks at Arigna, 
Roscommon, Ireland. The works were in operation from 1818 to 
1836, and employed about 200 men. Not far from Arigna, at 
Creevelea, in the county of Leitrim, is another abandoned iron- 
works, of which an illustration is given. These latter works were 
erected in 1852. The furnace had a capacity of 30 tons per twenty- 
four hours, and at the time of its erection one of the best in the 
United Kingdom. 

• Iron Trade Review, vol. xlii. pp. 106-108. 

t Report of the Seventy-seventh Meeting of the British Association, p. 664. London, 
1908. 
X BerichU der deutschen physikalischen Gesellschaft, 1907. pp. 364-733. 
§ Stahl und Risen, vol. xxviii. p. 380. 

II Gentleman's Magazine ; Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxv. p. 736. 
if Scotia, vol. i. No. 2. ** Ironmonger, vol. cxx. pp. 630-531. 

■ft Ibid., vol. cxxii. pp. 616-617. 
tX Ibid. , vol. cxviii. pp. 620-621. 



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PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON. 321 

F, Forcher von Ainbach,* in a contribution to the history of the 
Styrian iron industry, traces the trade relations existing in ancient 
times between the forges and sythe works of the Mur valley and 
foreign countries. 

A. Milliner "f traces the history of the iron industry in Carinthia in 
the sixteenth century. 

K. Knapmann| deals exhaustively with the history of the iron 
and steel wire industry of Altena. 

A. Geyer§ gives an account of the ancient and important industry 
in connection with the production of iron in the Harz district. In 
the year 1500 there were in existence thirty-two ironworks pro- 
ducing about 800 tons of malleable iron per annum. In 1600 there 
were thirty-three works with six blast-furnaces, with an output of 
1500 tons of wrought iron and 130 tons of cast metal. In 1700 the 
blast-furnaces numbered fourteen, and the total production amounted 
to 3000 tons of wrought iron and 800 tons of cast iron in 1800 ; with 
twenty-two blast-furnaces, the totals were 4300 tons of wrought iron, 
and 1600 tons of cast iron ; whilst in 1906 there were thirty-two works 
with a yield of 40,000 tons of raw pig iron and 50,000 tons of cast 
iron, with an approximate value of £1,500,000. The iron trade in 
this district employs about 12,000 workpeople. The ironworks are 
specially distinguished for their delicate castings for artistic purposes. 

An account is given of the celebration of the centenary of the 
Royal Iron Foundry at Berlin. || 

P. Martell H traces the history of metallurgy in Russia. In another 
paper ** he gives some notes on the history of Swedish ironworks at 
the end of the eighteenth century. 

The history of iron in New Jersey is traced by E. P. Buffet, ff 

T. D. Morgan | X describes the Tredegar ironworks in Richmond, 
Virginia, founded in 1836. 

Numerous biographies and portraits of leaders in the iron and 
steel industries have been published : in Pagers Weekly (vol. xi.) of 
W. H. Hatfield (p. 789) ; J. Dixon Brunton (p. 932) ; Henry Archi- 
bald (p. 986); C. H. Ridsdale (p. 986); (vol. xii.) William Beard- 
more (pp. 16-17); A. T. Walmisley (p. 268), and F. W. Harbord 
(p. 1120); in the Syren and Shipping (vol. xlvi.). Professor J. J. 
Welch (p. 182) ; A, D. Wedgwood (pp. 313, 315); Sir Alfred Hick- 
man, Bart. (Supplement, February 5, 1908, pp. 1, 2) ; in the Machinery 
Market: W. H. Butlin (November 1, 1907, p. 9); T. Hun-y Riches 
(February 7, 1908, p. 9); H. A. Hoy (April 3, 1908, p. 9); and S. 

• Zeitschrift des Historischen VereinsfUr Steiermark, vol. v. pp. 1-^. 
t Oesterretchiscke Zeitschrift fUr Berg- und HUttenwesen, vol. Ivi. pp. 61-66, 6^-68. 
X Abhandlungen aus dem staatswissensc haft lichen Seminar zu MUnster, 1907, Part II. ; 
Stahl und Risen, vol xxvii. pp. 1865^-1863. 
§ Stahl und Risen, vol. xxvii. pp. 1412-1417. 
l! Giesserei Zeitung, vol. iv. pp. 632-633. 
IT Rigasche Industrie Zeitung, 1907, pp. 213-215. 

•* Oesterreichische Zeitschrift fiir Berg' und HUttenwesen, vol. Ivi. pp. 153-160. 
"H" Rneineering and Mining Journal, 1908, vol. Ixxxv. pp. 309-310. 
1;X Iron Age, 1907, vol. Ixxx. pp. 1067-1059. 



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322 



THE IRON AND STEEL INDT7STBIES. 



Cowper- Coles (May 1, 1908, p. 9). Biographies are published in 
Affdrsvdrlden of J. 0. Kjellberg (vol. vii. p, 1590) and of Axel Johnson 
(p. 1523). 

B. S. Stephenson * contributes an illustrated biographical notice of 
James M. Swank. 



IL—CffUMICAL COMPOSITION OF PIG IRON. 

Pig Iron Analyses. — ^The following analyses f show the quality 
of the foundry No. 3 pig iron and the forge No. 4 iron produced at 
the new blast-furnaces of the Devonshire works of the Staveley Coal 
and Iron Company, Limited : — 



' Foundry 3. 

1 


Forge 3. ' 


Iron . 

Combined carbon 
Graphite 
Manganese . 
Silicon . 
Sulphur 
Phosphorus . 




1 Per Cent. 

' 91-88 
0-30 
3 05 
0-68 
2-52 
002 

1 ^'^ 


Per Cent. 

92-52 

0-56 

2-60 

0-63 , 
205 1 
0-07 
1-57 ' 


Total 




100-00 


100-00 



Analyses of German Pig Iron.— In the sixth edition of the 

popular treatise on metallurgy issued by the Society of German Iron- . 
masters the following typical analyses of pig iron are given : — X 







Total 
Carbon. 


Silicon. 


Man- 
ganese. 


Phos- 
phorus. 


Sulphur. 


Copper. 




Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


I. . . 


S-89 


0-62 


0^ 


0-67 


0-018 


0-004 


II. . 




3-42 


2-92 


0-76 


0-48 


0-042 


OOW 


III. . 




3-62 


2-62 


0-60 


1-60 


0H)18 


OD03 


IV, . 




8-58 


1-17 


0-41 


171 


0.014 


0^015 


V. . 




402 


0-84 


0-29 


0-06 


0-062 


0*082 


VI. . 




3-41 


1-11 


0-39 


078 


Qim 


0-011 


VII. . 




3-4 


1-0-30 


08-0-5 


0-20 


trace 


trace 


VIII. . 




8-76 


2-52 


3-90 


0-07 


0*08 




IX. . 




4-5 


0-3-0-6 


6-30 


006-010 


0-1 


0-2-0-3 


X. . 




5-5-7 


0-5-1-5 


up to 85 


018-0-88 


trace 


0*02^1 


XI. . 


1-0-1 -5 


8-5-15-0 


1-4 


0-08 


0-02 





I. No. 1 foundry pig. Dill. Lahn; II. Upper Silesia; III. No. 3 foundry pig, Lorraine^ 
Luxemburg ; IV. No. 5 foundry pig, T^orraine-Luxemburg ; V. Special Kupferhlitte pig ; 
VI. Grey charcoal pig ; VII. Siegerland charcoal pig ; VIII. Bremer pig; IX. Sicger- 
land spiegcleisen ; A. Ferro-manganese ; XI. Ferro-silicon. 



* Iron Trade Review, vol. xlii. pp. 75-78. 

t Engineering, vol. Ixxxv. p. 393-395. 

X Genteinfassliche Darstellung des Eisenkiiitenwesens, p. 49. 



Diisscldorf, 1907. 



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PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON. 



323 



Wtbrtemberg Pig Iron. — Robert Fluhr* gives the following 
analyses of the cold -blast pig iron produced at Wasseralfingen : — 





1865. 


1887. 


Silicon 

Total carlx)n .... 
Phosphorus .... 
Manganese .... 
Sulphur 


Per Cent. 
3-26 
2-25 
0-46 
0-38 
003 


Per Cent. 
4-01 
2-62 
0-83 
0-34 
009 



1907. 



Per Cent. 
2-4-3-3 
3-2-3-7 
0*62-0 -78 
0-30-0-35 
003-006 



The slag produced contains 39*82 per cent, of silica, 4 2 44 per cent, 
of lime, 1*03 per cent, of magnesia, 13*30 per cent, of alumina and 
2-95 per cent, of ferrous oxide. -^The works now produce 7000 tons 
of castings annually and give employment to 1300 workmen. They 
were founded in 1668. 

Brasiliail Pig Iron. — In a pamphlet describing the Esperanga 
ironworks in Brazil, J. J. de Queiroz f gives the following analyses 
of the pig iron produced : — 

Per Cent. 

Graphite 351 

Combined carbon 0*21 

Silicon 0'40 

Sulphur 0-007 

Phosphorus 013 

Manganese 0*40 

Iron 93-36 

Titanium 0-084 



III,— BLAST-FURNACE SLAGS. 
Fusibility of Lime-Alumina-Silica Mixtures.— R. Rieke % has 

investigated the temperatures at which carefully prepared mixtures 
of these bodies, formed into Soger cones, fuse. Four series of tests 
were made, in each of which the molecular relation of alumina to 
silica was kept constant, namely, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1 : 4, whilst the 
lime added was increased in each series from O'l to 12 molecules of 
lime to 1 molecule of pure aluminium silicate. Tables of the melting 
points of the various mixtures are given. 

The temperatures of the formation of slag are discussed by M. A. 
Pavlov.g 

TitaniferoUB Slags. — C. N. Cox|| and L. C. Lennox have inves- 
tigated the composition and properties of various mono-, sesqui-, 

• Zeitschrift fUr praktische GeologU, vol. xvi. pp. 1-23. 

t Rio de Janeiro, 1907. % Stahl und Bisen, vol. xxviii. pp. 16-17. 

§ Gomi Journal, 1907. pp. 1-22. 

II EUctrochetnical and Metallurgical Industry, vol. iv. p. 490-495. 



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324 ' THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

bi-, and tri-silicate slags containing titanic acid. These slags, whether 
containing alumina, lime, or magnesia in varying ratios, were all lower 
in melting-point than those usually found in the blast-furnace, so 
that there is no reason why the mixtures from which they were made 
should not be employed in practice. 

Bricks from Blast-fiimace Slaga.— J. Butler* deals with the 
utilisation of blast>fumace slags, with special reference to the manu- 
facture therefrom of concrete bricks. The cost of removing slag 
from a blast-furnace to the tipping ground varies from 4d. to 6d. 
per ton, and a furnace producing 800 to 1000 tons per week of pig 
iron would thus entail an annual expense of about £1000 for re- 
moval of the slag alone, exclusive of the rent for the ground upon 
which the slag has to be tipped. By running the molten slag into 
water and thus granulating it, an excellent brick-making matenal 
is available. The results obtained at a small experimental plant at 
the Landore works in the manufacture of concrete bricks from such 
slag are described. The plant laid down in 1904 produced such ex- 
cellent bricks that a much larger plant has since been laid down at 
these works, and the daily production is now from 25,000 to 45,000 
bricks. The bricks are pressed in the machines employed upon their 
9-inch and 3-inch faces, instead of on the 9-inch and 4 1 -inch faces 
usually adopted, the result being a more solid and less porous brick. 
A full description is given of the granulating plant, the lime-grinding 
house, and presses, and of the processes employed, together with tests 
of the finished bricks, and details as to cost of manufacture. 

Portland and Blast-furnace Cement.— H. Wedding t has contri- 
buted an important article dealing with the present position of cements 
made from blast-furnace slags, and compares such products not un- 
favourably with Portland cement. 



lY.— FOUNDRY PRACTICE. 

Onpola Practice. — A. R. Bellamy,^ dealing with the subject of 
foundry managenient, states that the method of charging the cupola, 
which he had found most satisfactory, was 10 cwts. of iron followed by 
J cwt. of coke. For bringing raw material to the cupola, the direct- 
acting air-hoist and overhead tramway, although 1-2 per cent, less 
efficient than the electrical hoist, had been found simple and reliable. 
With gas-fired core stoves the cost per cubic yard per week worked 
out at^2*32d. against a cost by means of coke furnaces of 4'71d. per 

♦ Paper read before the Staffordshire Iron and Steel Institute, January 18, 1908 ; Irw 
and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxxvi. pp. 325-329. 

t Stahl und Risen, vol. xxviii. pp. 219-225. 

X Paper read before the Manchester Association of Engineers, November 9, 1907; 
Times Engineering Supplement, November 13, 1907, p. 6. 



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PBODUCTION OF PIG IRON. 325 

cubic yard per week, while the cores were more uniformly dried and 
the heat better distributed through the stoves. 

The application of science to foundry work is discussed by Eobert 
Buchanan.'*' The influence of carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorus, 
and sulphur on the properties of cast iron is treated in detail. 

J. H. Zemekf discusses the calorific effect of solid, liquid, and 
gaseous fuel, with special reference to the determination of the dimen- 
sions of foundry cupolas. 

W. J. Keep I describes the foundry cupola and the iron charged. 

6. Buzek§ has investigated the various factors which determine the 
amount of coke required for melting pig iron in the cupola. The 
theoretical heat units required are calculated for given cases. The 
author draws attention to the necessity of observing more closely the 
temperature and composition of the escaping gases from the cupola. 
Some tables are given of actual results in practice, with the analyses 
of the gas, temperatures, and fuel consumption. 

F. W. Liirmann || hsusi contributed an article on the arrangement of 
a cupola plant in reference to the work it is to be called upon to 
perform with regard to economy of fuel and proper adjustment of 
blast. Some interesting data in reference to cupolas with and with- 
out fire-hearths is given in a tabular form. 

The use of metal direct from the blast-furnace for foundry pur- 
poses, especially for pipe casting, is discussed in a lengthy paper by 
C. Irresberger.1I 

A handy type of small cupola constructed by George Green & Co. 
of Keighley for melting small quantities of metal in case of emergency 
is described.** 

Otto S. Schmidt ft contributes an article on the use of compressed 
air in foundries. Compressed air was first utilised in foundries in 
America, and later in Germany, where it was equally successful. At 
the present time the majority of the large foundries are furnished 
with the latest appliances driven by compressed air. The author 
describes the following machines, all driven by compressed air, and 
gives calculations showing the economy due to such working : Sand- 
cleaning machines, moulding machines, lifting apparatus, riddling 
machines, removable drying stoves, also stamping and chisel machines. 

The economics of foundry construction and practice are discussed 
by A. R. Bellamy. JJ 

Onpola Blowers. — W. B. Snow ^ deals with foundry blower prac 
tice, and discusses the relative performances of fan and rotary blowera 

* Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, vol. Ivi. pp. 317-328. 

t Giesserei Zeitung, vol. iv. pp. 687-691. 

X Proceedings of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, vol. xxix. p. 367. 

§ Stahl uftd Eisen, vol. xxviii. pp. 146-149. 229-233. 

II Ibid., pp. 302-305. IT Ibid., pp. 122-127. 

** Engineering, vol. Ixxv. p. 418. "H* Stahl und Eisen, vol. xxviii. pp. 8-16. 

Vi- Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxv. pp. 1862-1853. 

§§ Paper read at the New York meeting of the American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers, December 1907 ; Mechanical Engineer, vol. xxi. pp. 50-53, 75-77; Iron Trade 
Rtview, vol. xli. pp. 955-961. 

1908.— i. Y 



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326 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTBIES. 

He gives formulse for the problems involved, and compares the relative 
value of fan and rotary blowers. Notes on the design of fan blowers 
are given, and recent improvements in their design and construc- 
tion recorded. Rotary blowers are similarly discussed, and the 
merits of each type summarised. The question of outlet is cod- 
sidered in relation to fuel economy and the composition of the waste 
gases. Diagrams of the performance of blowers of various types are 
given. 

A new form of centrifugal air-compressor, specially adapted for 
gas and other furnaces, and for foundry cupola service, is described.* 
It is driven electrically, and resembles a positive pressure blower. 

An illustrated description is given f of the new types of electric 
centrifugal air-compressors constructed by the General Electric 
Company, Schenectady, New York, for all purposes for which air 
under pressure is employed, including use in foundry cupolas. The 
compressors can also be used for air furnaces and gas furnaces. 

Fonndrj Appliances.— J. H. Zemek I describes several appliancas 
adapted to furnaces to improve combustion and regulate the supply of 
air. He also describes a drying-chamber for moulds with hollow 
walls, in which the draught is regulated mechanicaUy in order to 
avoid incomplete combustion and to obtain a good circulation of hot 
air, and a fan is provided to exhaust the saturated air. 

The Quincy-Manchester-Sargent Steel Foundry cold saw for cutting 
off risers from any form of castings requiring a flat table is described § 
and illustrated. 

Modem foundry casting-ladles and cranes are described by C. 
Michenfelder.il 

Foundry Mixtures. — W. J. KeepH discusses various questions 
relating to foundry practice and to iron mixtures. 

H. M. Lane ** gives the results of a volumetric study of cast iron, 
and deals with the volume of the so-called impurities present in cast 
iron. A No. 2 foundry iron containing 6*93 per cent, by weight 
of impurities contains 35'73 per cent, by volume. This explains the 
complete change of properties caused by the addition of only 7 per 
cent, of impurities to Swedish iron. 

Eckwaldtft describes experiments made by Neumeier at the Alex- 
androwski ironworks, Ekaterinoslav, on the desulphurisation of a pig 
iron having the following composition. Si = 3*19, Mn = 0'23, S = 0*102, 

* Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 796-798. 

t Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. op.. 1376-1378. 

X Giesserei Zeiiung, vol. iv. pp. 526-529. 

§ Iron Trade Review^ vol. xli. p. 629. 

„ Dinglers Polytechnisches Journal, vol. cccxxii. pp. 663-666, 679-683. 

% Paper read before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Iron Trait 
Review, vol. xli. p. 971. 

** Proceedings of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers ^ vol. xxix. pp. 467- 
475. 

ft Giesserei Zeitung, vol. iv. pp. 513-516. 



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PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON. 327 

in the cupola, coke with 1*4 per cent, sulphur being employed. The 
meltings were made in several series, pig iron from the same cast 
being always used, and variations being made in the addition of 
manganese ore and spiegeleisen. The results of all the experiments 
are given, and they show without any doubt that the desulphurisation 
of an iron very rich in sulphur is possible by a second melting in the 
cupola. 

Chemistry in the Fonndzy. — Max Orthey * advocates accurate 
chemical analyses for the examination of pig iron, instead of judging 
the quality by the intensity of certain defined reactions. Sampling 
requires great care. Taking sample filings requires considerable 
time and labour, and can scarcely be recommended. Planing the 
surface of the fracture is the best method, but many foundries do 
not possess a planing machine, and the preparation of samples in this 
manner is impossible. Drilling is recommended in such cases, but 
owing to the impurities of the iron not being equally distributed in 
the pigs, the skin should be removed. Several pigs in each load 
should be examined. The author gives a table which shows the 
extraordinary differences in the chemical composition of pigs of the 
same cast. The estimation of the silica in pig iron is misleading, 
because a pig iron rich in graphite, and apparently poor in silicon, 
often leaves more insoluble residue than a pig iron rich in silicon and 
poor in graphite. Instead of the testing of sulphur by the black 
coloration of a plate of silver, the introduction of the developed 
gases into a solution of cadmium acetate is recommended. The 
determination of the percentage of manganese by comparing the 
colour of a fusion with soda is quite erroneous. More correct re- 
sults are obtained by the peroxide of lead and nitric acid test. If 
chemical analysis is to be of real value in foundry practice, it must 
be carried out in a more exact and scientific manner. 

Electric Furnaces for Foundry Work.— J. B. 0. Kershaw f 

considers the application of electric furnaces for the melting of iron 
and brass in the foundry. The types suitable for this class of work 
are the Faure, Girod, Heroult, Keller, and Kjellin furnaces, each of 
which is described and illustrated. As a general rule 400 to 500 
kilowatt-hours would suffice to melt 1 ton of iron, and the cost 
would not exceed three shillings and sixpence per ton. The electric 
method may compare favourably with the older cupola methods, but 
preliminary experiments in this direction should be made before 
attempting to supersede the latter. 

Machine-Oast and Sand-Oast Kg Iron for Foundry Work.— 

C. W, Mason % compares the relative merits of pig iron cast in sand 

* Gusserei Zcitun^, vol. iv. pp, 6X3-618. 
t Iron Trade Review^ vol. xlii. pp. 65-69. 

X Paper read before the Pittsburg Foundrymen's Association ; Iran Trade Reinew^ 
vol xli. pp. 626-627. 



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328 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

with pig iron made in casting machines, with special reference to 
their subsequent use in the foundry. The machine-cast pig iron is less 
variable in quality, the iron being collected in a ladle which acts as 
a mixer, and reduces the cast to greater uniformity of composition 
than under the old method, apart from the fact that it does not intro- 
duce sand into the cupola. Sand-cast pig iron, on the other hand, 
introduces about 30 lbs. of sand per ton of pig iron, while it is also 
apt to be lower in carbon than the machine-cast pig. 

Recovery of Iron from Cupola Slag. — B- Grimshaw* describes 

a magnetic process for the recovery of iron from the slag of cupolas. 
The iron should be recovered from comparatively fresh slag, as 
if allowed to rust it would be impossible to employ a magnetic pro- 
cess. The process naturally only applies to iron admixed with the 
slag in the form of metallic particles. This often amounts to 9 or 
12 per cent. 

American Foundries. — H. C. Estep f describes the foundry of the 
Olympic Foundry Company at Seattle, Washington. 

An illustrated description has appeared | of the Browne and Sharpe 
Foundry, Providence, Rhode Island. 

The plant and appliances of the Green Engineering Company, at 
their foundry and works, for the manufacture of mechanical stokers 
at East Chicago, are described and illustrated.} The cupolas are 
respectively 48 and 98 inches in diameter, and the capacity of the 
foundry is about 60 tons of castings per day. 

An illustrated description has appeared || of the gun-foundry of 
the Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia, The shop is of 
historic interest from the fact that the guns and projectiles made 
for the Confederate Government during the civil war were made here. 
The foundry now produces general castings, and is served by two 30- 
ton cranes. 

Chinese and Japanese Foundries. — Foundry practice in China 

and Japan is dealt with by H. Herland.H His paper deals chiefly 
with bronze casting, as cast iron is but little used for art metal-work 
in these countries. 

Moulding Sand. — Moulding sand forms the subject of a paper 
by A. E. Outer bridge.** He considers the effect of simple mechanical 
treatment in securing increased toughness and porosity in moulding 

* Iron Trade Review, vol. xlii. p. 32. 

t Foundry Trade Journal, 1907, pp. 67-60. 

X American Afachinist, vol. xxx. pp. 941-944. 

§ Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 872-876. 

II Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 1057-1069. 

IF Giesserei Zeiiung, vol iv. pp. 164-168, 196-198. 

*• Proceedings of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, vol xxix. p. wl* 



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PRODUCTION OP PIG IRON. 329 

sandy and describes a number of experiments in testing and mixing 
such sand. 

Qreen Sand Moulding. — G. H. Wadsworth * deals with foundry 
cores, core sand, and core-making machinery. 

Bfachine Moulding. — ^The machine moulding of baths is described 
by H. Mamy.t 

Details of moulding machines are given by E. H. Mumford.:^ 

Moulding machines, their patterns and their work, are described 
and illustrated in a lengthy article § dealing with the iron foundry 
of the General Electric Company, Schenectady, New York. The 
equipment of the foundry comprises 216 moulding machines. 

J. F. Hart || describes the moulding of a ship's propeller in loam. 

J. Kraus H has described very fully, with the aid of numerous illus- 
trations, modern moulding machines as used in foundries. 

An illustrated description is given ** of a method of moulding 
curved cast-iron pipe vertically in dry sand. 

E. H. Mumford t j* gives an illustrated description of the methods 
employed in double ramming by the Bonvillain moulding machine. 

Casting Iron in Metallic Moulds. — A new method of obtaining 

unchilled castings from metallic moulds was recently shown in opera- 
tion. {{ It has long been known that by using suitable mixtures it 
was not difficult to get soft castings from iron moulds, the presence 
of a fair proportion of silica being sufficient to prevent the metal 
taking a chill. This fact has been made use of for some considerable 
time past at the works of Alfred Herbert & Co., where the smaller 
sizes of turret are cast in metal moulds. The castings are removed 
as soon as solid, and are notable for their soundness. The distin- 
guishing feature of the new process, which is the invention of Charles 
Sz^kely, will be found in the fact that no special mixture of iron 
is required, his claim being that, taking any ordinary foundry iron, 
he will obtain from an iron mould a casting better in every point 
of view than can be obtained from the same iron cast in sand. A 
feature of the process is the total absence of shrinkage, the castings 
being practically identical in size with the mould from which they 
are taken. They are further remarkable for their sharpness and 
excellent surface, and they require no dressing, being free from scabs 
and fins. 

* American Machinist, vol. xxxi. pp. 74-75. 

+ G/nie Civile vol. lii. pp. 1-3. 

X Proceedings of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers^ vol. xxix. p. 509. 

§ American Machinist, vol. xxx., Part II., pp. 667-671. 

ii Ibid,, vol. xxx. pp. 580-582. 

IF Stahlund Risen, vol. xxvii. pp. 1485-1491, 1536-1541, 1576-1581. 

*♦ American Machinist, vol. xxx., Part II., pp. 619-620. 

+t ^ron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 1006-1008. 

^ Engineering, vol. Ixxxiv. p. 754. 



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I 

330 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

Drying OvdllS. — The arrangements for beating drying ovens aie 
discussed by J. H. Zemek.* 

Ziarge Castings. — An illustrated description of a large casting for 
tbe half section of a flywbeel bas appeared.! Tbe casting, which 
weighs 80,000 pounds, was made at the Payne and Joubert Foundry, 
Birmingham, Alabama. In pouring, it was necessary to take two 
heats from the cupola, the first being kept hot in the ladle by covering 
with charcoal while the second was being melted. The two ladles 
were poured at the same time. 

Malleable Castings. — B. Stoughton discusses malleable castings.! 

W. H. Hatfield § deals with the evolution and present position 
of malleable cast iron, and criticises the definition given by Howe. 
Malleable cast iron is a variety of cast iron having all the advantages 
of a casting with none of the disadvantages, and the early methods 
adopted for the production of malleable iron, and tbe gradual evolu- 
tion of the processes until cast iron came to be produced, are described. 
Br^umur was the first to publish a method of making cast iron malle- 
able by heating the castings in a bed of red oxide of iron. This was 
in 1722, yet, as recently as 1804, Samuel Lucas was allowed to take 
out a patent for the process, notwithstanding that it had been in use 
for so many years previously. Malleable castings are produced either 
by oxidising or eliminating 'the carbon of ordinary castings, or pre- 
cipitating it in such a condition that it does not militate against the 
production of the qualities desired. Elimination is the method usually 
practised in Europe, while in America the black heart castings are 
usually produced by precipitating the carbon. The latter process 
was introduced in the early days of last century by Seth Boyden, in 
Newark, New Jersey. Special malleable iron possesses very high 
maximum stress, while its ductility far surpasses that of any other 
form of malleable iron. 

Semi-Steel Castings. — D. M^Lain || describes the manufacture of 
semi-steel castings made by increasing the amount of steel scrap 
charged in the cupola. A mixture for semi-steel is as follows: 
Selected pig iron containing 035 to 0*45 per cent, phosphorus, 0*025 
to 0-035 per cent, of sulphur, and 1 per cent, of manganese, is used. 
If the silicon reaches as much as 2 per cent., 30 per cent, of steel can 
be carried, or more in proportion, an average composition of 1*65 to 
1*75 per cent, of silicon in the mixture being aimed at. Manganese 
is then added in lumps to bring the percentage up to 2*0 to 2*5 per 
cent., about 1 to 2 per cent, being lost in the cupola. 

• ZeitschriftfUr Dampfktssel und MaschinenbetrUb, 1907, pp. 426-426. 
+ Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. p. 1615. 
X School of Mines Quarterly, vol. xxix. pp. 54-62. 

§ Paper read before the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, March 
17. 1908. 
II Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. p. 991. 



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PRODUCTION OF Pia IRON. 331 

The M'Haffie method of making steel castings, in use at the new 
plant of the Keystone Steel Castings Company, Chester, Pennsylvania, 
is described* and illustrated. The success of the process depends 
on the careful selection, proper mixing and melting of special grades 
of mottled and white iron, and subsequent special annealing, which 
converts the castings into semi-steel. 

Cleaning Castings. — ^An illustrated description has appeared f of 
the Lunkenheimer improved sand-blast nozzle designed to decrease 
the heavy wear usually encountered by the outlet tube. 

Cast-Iron Pipes. — W. B. Kobinson | describes the manufacture of 
cast-iron pipes as carried out at the new works of the United States 
Cast Iron Pipe and Foundry Company at Scottdale, Pennsylvania. 
The pipes are manufactured by a continuous process, and the foundry 
is the largest pipe foundry in the world, having a capacity of 750 tons 
of pipe daily. The main foundry is 700 feet long and 125 feet wide, 
and the cupola house is situated at the middle of the west side of the 
main building. There are four 84-inch cupolas with melting capacities 
of 14 to 18 tons per hour, and four positive pressure blowers each 
connected with a 50 horse-power motor. There are four revolving 
tables each 47 feet in diameter, each table having a capacity of 
ninety-four double flasks for pipe up to 6 inches in diameter, or fifty- 
eight double flasks for 12-inch pipe, and each table weighs, with its 
flicks and pipes, 700 tons. The diameter of the pits in which each 
table revolves is 74 feet. 



Iron Trade Review, vol. xlii. pp. 71-74. 

Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. p. 1465. 

Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 909-916. 



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( 332 ) 



PRODUCTION OF MALLEABLE IRON. 



Direct Production of Wrought Iron.— G. Hof er * gives an 

illustrated description of a shaft-furnace for the production of spongy 
iron from a charge consisting of a mixture of ore dust and fuel (wood 
charcoal, coal, coke, &c.). The spongy iron absorbs gas, when gas is 
used for cooling, and is thereby protected against oxidation. 

Decarburisation of Iron, — F. Wiist f states that, in the conver- 
sion of cast iron into malleable iron by heating in contact with iron 
oxide, the removal of carbon only begins after a decomposition of the 
carbide (cementite) into f errite and carbon (temper-carbon) has taken 
place. By experiments with a cast iron containing 4*15 per cent, of 
carbon, 3*45 per cent, of which was in the form of temper-carbon, it 
was found to be immaterial whether the iron was in contact with the 
ferric oxide or not. By exhausting the apparatus and analysing the 
gases formed from time to time it was found that the oxidising agent 
is oxygen, evolved by the ferric oxide at 1000* and upwards. This 
oxygen diffuses into the iron, forming carbon dioxide, which then 
diffuses further, being converted into carbon monoxide by the temper- 
carbon in the interior. This carbon monoxide is re-oxidised by the 
ferric oxide, ferrous oxide and metallic iron being produced. Should 
the quantity of iron be insufficient, the pressure of carbon dioxide 
may rise to such an extent that the process is reversed, the outer 
layers of iron being carburised by the decomposition of the carbon 
dioxide. This explanation of the process is confirmed by the micro- 
scopic examination of the outer and inner layers of the mass of iron. 

Gustav Hofer I deals with the production of malleable iron from 
pig iron poor in phosphorus and rich in silicon. The successful work- 
ing of the basic steel process requires a pig iron with at least 1*8 
per cent, phosphorus and at the most 1 per cent, silicon. If it be 
desired to treat an iron poor in phosphorus by the basic Bessemer 
process, the place of phosphorus must be filled by silicon, and this 
causes various disadvantages which render the process unprofitable— 
for instance, the increase in the addition of limestone, the low per- 
centage of phosphorus in the slag, and its consequent reduced vahie 
and the increased attack of the basic lining of the converter. 

* Gusserei Zeitung, voL iv. pp. 677-678. 
t Mttallurgie, vol. v. pp. 7-12. 
X*Gi€ss€rei Zeitunf, vol. iv. pp. 481-482. 



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PRODUCTION OF MALLEABLE IKON. 333 

Massenez proposes the following modification of the process when 
making pig iron rich in silicon. At first basic additions, such as lime- 
stone, oxide of iron, manganese oxide, are charged in such quantities 
that they form a sufficiently fluid slag with the silica formed by oxida- 
tion of silicon at the beginning of t^e blast, and also with the man- 
ganous oxide originating from the burning of the manganese present ; 
this slag is tapped as soon as the silicon contained in the pig iron is 
entirely or for the most part burnt, which happens one or two minutes 
after the appearance of the carbon flame. The quantity of the addition 
required for the formation of the first slag depends upon the percentage 
of silicon originally contained in the pig iron ; the resulting slag should, 
however, indicate a sufficient percentage of silica to prevent the slag 
from absorbing larger quantities of phosphoric acid. For this reason 
the slag should not contain less than 30 per cent, silica. The first 
alag is tapped off as rapidly and as completely as possible. After 
tapping this slag the necessary quantity of limestone is added to 
the bath of metal for binding the phosphoric acid formed during the 
continuation of the process and for removing the injurious effect of 
the silica, which forms by the burning of any silicon of the first slag 
remaining in the bath of metal, and of the remaining acids of the 
first slag, which may have remained in the converter. After this 
addition has been made the blast is continued, and the charge after 
the burning of the phosphorus is finished in the usual manner. 

Dankfl Puddling Furnace. — J. G. Banks * comments on the Roe 
puddling process, and gives an historical review of the development 
of mechanical puddling, with special reference to the Danks rotary 
furnace. The construction of the furnace, the methods of working 
the process, and the nature and quality of the product are discussed, 
and the formation of blisters and the question of bleeding are briefly 
referred to. 

Electric Smelting of Iron. — Some problems connected with the 
electro-thermic production of iron and steel are worked out in detail 
by J. W. Richards.t 

The results of an investigation of the effect of high pressure upon 
electric-furnace reactions have been published by R. S. Hutton J and 
J. E. Petavel. 

The electro-metallurgy of the ferro-alloys and of iron and steel is 
discussed by J. B. C. Kershaw,§ who gives illustrations of the leading 
types of furnace in use. 

A. Stansfield|| describes the electrothermic production of steel 
from iron ore. 

♦ Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 1082-1083. 

t Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. clxiv. pp. 443-459; vol. clxv. pp. 47-58. 
X Proceedings of the Royal Society, vol. Ixxix., Series A., pp. 155-167; Engineering, 
vol. Ixxv. pp. 259-262. 
§ Engineering Magazine, vol. xxxiv. pp. 261-277. 
II Journal of the Can^ian Mining Institute, vol. x. pp. 129-138. 



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334 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

J. von Ehrenwertb * discusses the present condition of electric iron 
smelting. 

Some excellent illustrations of electric induction furnaces are 
given, f V. Engelbardt | considers that the fundamental idea of such 
furnaces is due not to Kjellin but to Z. de Ferranti (British patent, 
1887, No. 700). 

A. E. Greene § and F. S. MacGregor describe experiments made in 
the Technological Institute of the Massachusetts University which 
should contribute to the solution of the five following questions : (1) 
Design and construction of an experimental furnace having a capacity 
of 30 kilowatts ; (2) measurement of temperature of the melted charge ; 
(3) determination of the factors from which the temperature depends, 
and methods of regulating the same ; (4) the influence of the tem- 
perature and the mixing of the charge on the quality of the iron 
recovered ; (5) the calculation of the consumption of electric current 
per ton of pig iron. The iron ore used in the experiments had the 
following composition : FOgOj, 70-40 per cent. ; SiOj, 1 -99 per cent. ; 
TiOg, 26*40 per cent. ; small quantities of Al^O^ and MnOj, and no 
phosphorus and sulphur. The total percentage of iron was 52*52. The 
ore was broken to pieces of one quarter of an inch in size. The fuel 
was the best quality Pocahontas coke, and pure, freshly burned lime 
was used as a flux. Alternating current of 1100 volts was employed. 
The temperature of the melted iron was measured by means of 
a Wanner pyrometer, and that of the gases by a thermo-couple. 
The construction of the furnace was the following : A rectangular 
foundation plate f inch thick, and measuring 24 x 28, was connected 
to one of the cables. Five iron screws, which were embedded in a 
carbon mixture, served further to lead the current to the hearth (a 
crucible). Around this were carborundum bricks^ and the interior was 
built up of bricks. The tapping-hole for the melted metal was at one 
side of the furnace, and the tapping-hole for the slag at the opposite 
side, about 2 inches higher. The crucible served as one of the electrodes, 
and the other was formed by a block of graphite, which was adjustable 
vertically. The top of the furnace was fitted with a charging hopper. 
The gases were led away and collected for analysis. When the charge 
is melted the current increases rapidly, because then the current only 
serves for heating, the conductivity increases with the temperature, 
and the amperes increase from 660 to 810 in twelve minutes. During 
another experiment the kilowatts increased from 16*5 to 19*2. The 
temperature rose after one minute from 1204^ to 1222^, and after two 
minutes remained constant at 1234°. This fact teaches the facility of 
regulating the temperature. The efiiciency was on an average 92 
per cent. The experiments consisted of six preliminary experiments 
and six principal experiments. The following table gives the results 
obtained : — 



♦ Oesterreichische ZdUckrift fUr Berg- und HutUnwesen, vol. Ivi. pp. 1-4, 81-! 
t RUktrochemische Zeitschrift, vol. xiv. pp. 211, 266 ; vol. xv. p. 14. 
X EUktrotecknische ZeitschHft, 1907, pp. 1061. 1084, 1104, 1124. 
§ Electrochemical and Metallurgical Industry, vol. v. p. 8(57-871. 



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PRODUCTION OF HALLEIBLS IRON. 



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336 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

The reduction of silica increases with the temperature ; the reduction 
of titanic acid occurred only with very acid slag, and then increased 
with the temperature. The experiments cannot be considered as 
complete. 

Special Processes of Electric Smelting.— In a series of articles ♦ 

on the manufacture and use of ferro-alloys, drawings are given of the 
Girod furnace and the Keller furnace. Illustrations are also given f 
of the electro-metallurgical works at La Prdz, and of the Hi^ult 
furnace. 

A. Gronwall | describes the electric furnaces of Siemens, Ferranti, 
Stassano, H^roult, Girod, Lindblad, Kjellin, Hjort, Rochling, aod 
Dolter. 

New electric furnaces are described by W. von Molo. § 

H. Wedding II describes a modified form of electric induction 
furnace, known as the Roechling-Bodenhauser furnace, which is at 
work at the Boechling Iron and Steel Works at Volklingen. The 
furnace is intended for the refining of molten steel from the basic 
converter so as to obtain from it steel of a quality equal to the best 
Swedish soft iron. The furnace employed differs from the older 
Kjellin design by combining with the ordinary heating by electric 
induction, currents which are introduced through the bath through 
metal electrodes, so that a double effect is brought about. A descrip- 
tion of the furnace with illustrations is given in the paper. In its 
general design the furnace is built much like a tipping open-hearth 
furnace. The capacity of the furnace is from 3 to 3^ tons, but 
about 800 kilogrammes of metal are left in at the end of each 
heat, so that the new charge of steel introduced is about 2^ tons. 
Details of heating up the furnace, which is lined with magnesia, 
are given. When the charge of steel from the basic converter 
is introduced, burnt lime and a little fluorspar are added, and 
the operation is completed when no more bubbles rise up from the 
liquid metal, and when samples give satisfactory tests. The slag, 
which generally contains some 25 per cent, of iron in the form of 
oxide, is then removed, and a pure lime slag is formed by addition of 
more lime and fluorspar. By this means, aided by the addition of 
f erro-silicon, deozidation of the bath is brought about. If it is desired 
to make high carbon steel, powdered coke is added, which quickly 
dissolves in the bath, otherwise spiegeleisen is added as usual. 

The author gives an analysis of the final slag, which is remarkable 
for the high percentage of lime with low silica, viz. 67*82 per cent, of 
lime, and only 0*97 per cent, of silica, the ferrous oxide being 5'32 
per cent. Sulphur can be removed by the aid of manganese and a 

♦ Engineer, vol. cv. pp. 80-81. 
t Ibid., p. 105. 

X Teknisk Tidskrift, Afdelningen for Bergvetenskap, vol. xxxviii. pp. 17-21 ; Bladpr 
Bergshanteringens Vdnner, 1908. pp. 188-207. 
§ OesUrreichische Zeiischrift fUr Berg- und HUitenwesen, vol. Ivi. pp. 515-518. 
11 Stahl und Eisen, vol. xxvii. pp. 1605-1612. 



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PRODUCTION OF MALLEABLE IRON. 



337 



high temperature. When it is desired to lower the phosphorus under 
0*02 per cent, it is necessary to remove the second slag, and form 
still a third one, similar to the seoond. A heat averages from two 
to three hours. Two men work the furnace, whilst a third attends to 
the electric equipment. As an example of the purification which can 
be effected, the author gives an analysis : (a) metal poured in, and (b) 
the metal tipped out : — 

a, b. 

Carbon 0115 0-069 

Manganese 0*519 0*348 

Silicon 0*016 0*036 

Phosphorus 0*079 0*013 

Sulphur 0*081 0*060 

Some examples of the physical quality of the steel produced are 
given : — 



Tensile Strength. 
Tons per Square Inch. 


Elongation. 


Contraction. 


22*8 
25*4 
31*7 
22*8 
20*9 


Per Cent. 
37 
30 
31 
32 
37 


Per Cent. 
71 
57 
50 
62 
65 



As regards the electric energy required, the current is regulated 
as desired. The amount required during a typical heat is given as 
follows : — 



Time. 


Volts. 


Amperes. 


Kilowatts. 


10*50 


2600 


146*0 


330 


1100 


2800 


150 0- 


365 


11*10 


3000 


166-0 


4.30 


11*20 


3000 


1650 


430 


11*30 


8200 


1700 


460 


11-40 


2800 


152 


375 


11*50 


2600 


142*5 


315 


12*00 


2000 


142*0 


330 


1210 


2400 


128*0 


250 


12-20 


2400 


i:30*0 


270 


12 80 


2400 


1310 


210 


12*40 


2400 


131*0 


210 



Tapping was then begun, and after a new charge had been intro- 
duced, the current during charging was at 2600 volts, 40 amperes, 
and 80 kilowatts, and then rose to 130 amperes and 310 kilowatts. 
The figures show the power factor to be satisfactory. The author 
concludes by saying that this process, like all electrical steel pro- 
ceases, serves simply for refining. It enables the last traces of 



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338 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

impurity to be removed from the iron, and to introduce any wished 
for amount of carbon or other element into the metal. It espedally 
serves, however, as a substitute for the crucible process, by removing 
all dissolved gases without the disadvantage of absorbing silicon from 
the crucible walls. 

A. Schmid * contributes an article on the desulphurisation of steel 
in the Kjelin induction furnace, in which he contends that the 
desulphurisation which is known to take place under the high heat 
present in the electric steel furnace is not due so much to the high 
temperature and basic slag present as to the passage through the 
metal of the alternating current itself in presence of oxidising ores. 
He gives full details of several charges to prove his contention. 

O. Thallner t describes the production of steel of high grade quali- 
ties in the electric steel furnace. He deals at some length with 
the ordinary commercial processes for the production of extra pure 
steel, and points out that the ordinary analyses made do not go 
sufficiently far to determine the real quality of the steel. He in- 
stances that when sulphur is estimated, it is not determined whether 
it is dissolved, or exists in combination with iron, or copper, or 
arsenic. Oxygen determinations are also of the utmost importance, 
and although it is generally recognised that dissolved oxides play a 
most important rdle, they are not determined. The author is of 
opinion that dissolved ferrous oxide is the chief carrier of hydrogen, 
and is the cause of this body alloying with iron. The effects of nitro- 
gen are referred to, and the probability that this element is partly 
removed by escaping carbonic oxide gas is discussed. The author 
goes on to refer to the different conditions present in the basic-lined 
electric furnace as compared with the crucible process, in which it is 
possible for silicon to be gradually reduced from the lining and so 
play an important r61e in deoxidising the metal. He contends that 
the electric furnace must be considered as a different purifier to the 
crucible process. He considers the effect of the electric current to 
be due solely to its dean heating effect, and the desulphurisation 
obtained in the electric process to be due to the fresh slag that can he 
repeatedly formed and liquefied. Tungsten and molybdenum are 
capable of removing sulphur from the steel bath, and also when used 
in the crucible, the sulphides being volatilised from the slag. So long 
as the slag is rich in iron, desulphurisation is by no means complete, 
the sulphur passing readily back from the slag to the metal. The 
absolute control of the slag which is possible in the electric furnace is 
the cause of the great purification it is possible to bring about in such 
a furnace. The author describes the H^roult process, dividing it into 
three stages, the first in which the phosphorus is removed under con- 
ditions similar to the open-hearth furnace, carbon is reduced to below 
0*10 per cent., and silicon and manganese are almost completely 
removed ; the bath being at the same time somewhat over-oxidised. 

♦ Stahl und Eisen, pp. 1613-1615. 
t Ibid,, pp. 1677-1686 and 1721-1728. 



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PRODUCTION OF MALLEABLE IRON. 339 

The second period is a deoxidising period, and details are withheld. 
The third stage deoxidises the slag with the formation of calcium and 
silicon carhides, thereby freeing the slag from iron oxide and allowing 
it to retain sulphur. The desulphurisation takes place readily during 
this period, the sulphur being reduced to traces. Some details of 
the practical results obtained from the l*5-ton H^roult furnace first 
erected at the Lindenberg works at Remscheid are given. A trial of 
2337 charges (from four to ten a day) have been made from it, using 
both cold and molten metal indiscriminately. No important repairs 
have been necessitated, and the slag does not attack the furnace. 
Diagrams showing the consumption of energy when starting with cold 
and with molten metal are given, and n^ny diagrams and other 
curves are given. 

G. Gin * describes smelting experiments with titanif erous iron ores 
conducted in 1901 in Norway, and in 1906 in the laboratory of W. 
Borchers in Aix-la-Chapelle. Currents of 500 amperes at 65 volts 
were employed ; the temperature rose to 1900°. Only two-thirds as 
much lime as titanic acid and as much lime as silica present are 
allowed. All the titanium present in the ore passed into the slag. 
Analyses of materials and products are given, and the conclusion 
drawn from the experiments is that the reduction of titaniferous iron 
ores in the electric furnace presents no special difficulties, and that 
from it pure iron can be obtained commercially in regions where the 
ore is situated near to abundant and cheap water-power, t 

A description has appeared | of an electric installation at Turin, 
where two furnaces of the Stassano type, each of 1000 horse-power, 
are in operation. These furnaces^ one of which is rotary and the 
other fixed, are operated by a three-phase current, and have two 
three-phase arcs with six electrodes, the useful effect being, however, 
only 51 percent. 

An account § is given of the results obtained by the use of the 
Stassano electric furnace at Turin. In the works there are in opera- 
tion one revolving 200 horse-power furnace, another of 1000 horse- 
power on the same system, and three fixed furnaces, two 100 
horse-power, and the other 1000 horse-power. The fixed furnaces, 
though lower in cost by a third, are only suitable for simple melting 
operations, such as are usual in the ordinary open-hearth furnace. The 
revolving furnaces cost respectively £800 and £2000, and are capable 
of producing 2 '5 to 3 tons, and 16 to 18 tons per twenty-four hours. 
The fixed 100 horse-power furnace costs about £140, and produces 
about 1 ton every twenty-four hours. For working these furnaces 
three-phase current at 21,500 volts is taken from the public mains, 

• Transactions of the American EUctrochemical Society, vol. xi. pp. 291-293 ; 
Electrician, vol. Ix. p. 296. 

t Transactions of the American Electrochemical Society, vol. xi. ; Electrician, vol. Ix. 
p. 295. 

X Electricien, October 12, 1907 ; Times Engineering Supplement, October 30, 1907, 
p. 6. 

§ Engineer, vol. cv. p. 141. 



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340 THE IRON AND STEBL INDUSTRIES. 

and is transformed down to 80 volts for the 100 horse-power furnace, 
100 volts for the 200 horse-power furnace, and from 100 to 150 volts 
for the 1000 horse-power furnace. The 100 horse-power furnace 
works on the single-phase system, and takes current up to 1000 
amperes. The 200 horse-power furnace is three-phase, while the 
1000 horse-power has six electrodes and takes 1800 amperes on each 
phase. 



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( 341 ) 



FORGE AND MILL MACHINERY. 



Forge-hammers. — Frank Richards'^ states that if hammers are 
only used intermittently, there is a great advantage to drive them 
by compressed air. The loss of heat employed to warm the hammer 
each time it is used is avoided, and with compressed air the hammer 
is always ready for use. It is further recommended to drive hammers 
by compressed air when the boilers are situated a long distance away, 
because the losses of heat and pressure in the long pipe line are 
considerable. The disturbing and often dangerous dropping of con- 
densed water does not exist with compressed air. With compressed 
air lubrication is more simple, and the oil mixed with the air covers 
the walls of the cylinder with a coating of grease, while steam tho- 
roughly removes the oil from the walls of the cylinder. For this 
reason the wear with compressed air is considerably less. The author 
also shows that from an economical point of view the use of com- 
pressed air is advantageous. 

Forging-presses. — Illustrations of forging-presses are given by 
O. Bracke.f 

Recent improvements in the construction of steam-hydraulic presses 
are described by Peter, j; 

H. F. Licl^te§ describes several forging presses. 1. A horizontal 
Ajax forging press principally for nuts, bolts, and rivets. The power 
required varies with the size of the machine from 8 to 30 horse-power. 
2. A special rivet-forging press with automatic feed, capable of pro- 
dudng in ten hours about 5 tons of |-inch rivets 2 inches long. 3. 
A hot press for the manufacture of square or hexagon nuts from flat 
bars. The power required varies with the size of the machine, and 
amounts to 10 horse-power for nuts measuring i inch over the fiats, 
20 horse-power for nuts measuring 1 inch, and 30 horse-power for 
nuts measuring 2 inches. 4. A forging and bending machine, which 
is capable of dealing with forgings which can only be bent with great 
difficulty under the hammer. Such machines can exert a pressure 
of from 3 to 500 tons. 5. A forging and rolling machine which is 

♦ Compressed Air, 1907, p. 4627. 

t Bihang till Jemkontorets Annaler, 1907, pp. 670-681. 

X Glasers Annalen^ vol. Ixi. pp. 153-157. 

§ Giesserti Zeitufig, vol iv. pp. 562-556. 

1908. — i. z 



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342 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

designed for cutting out axles and also for conical and oval forgings. 
The power required is from 15 to 30 horse-power. 

An illustrated description has appeared * of the works of the Leeds 
Forge Company. 

The largest hydraulic press yet made, a bending machine for armour 
plates, has been ordered by the firm of Krupp from the Duisburg 
Engineering Works, f 

Electricity in RoUinSf-miUs. — An illustrated description has 
appeared J of an electric motor used for driving a 30-inch universal 
plate-mill at the works of the Illinois Steel Company, South Chicago. 
The installation is somewhat novel, as a small motor is made to drive 
the rolls during the passes by utilising the stored energy of a heavy 
flywheel, the diameter of which is 13 feet 2 inches, having a total 
weight of 200,000 lbs. 

H. Crowe § describes the equipment of the electrical portion of 
reversing- miUs. The brushes of the reversing-mill motor are directly 
coupled to the brushes of the generator of an Ilgner converter set. 
The armatures of the generator and the mill motor are protected 
against excessive currents by an automatic circuit break inserted in 
the cable connecting these two armatures, and these machines are 
further protected by a no-voltage release in connection with the 
fields of the mill motor, so that if for any reason these motor fields 
are not excited the connection between the armatures of the generator 
and mill motor are opened. The current required for exciting the 
field magnets of the mill generator and the reversing-mill motor is 
obtained from a special exciter set ; the mill is controlled by a single 
lever operating the controller. It is convenient to be able to run the 
mill at a greater number of revolutions than that corresponding to 
the maximum torque, and this is effected by the operator pulling the 
controlling lever still further over. In large rolling mills the power 
required may vary from to 10,000, or even 15,000 horse-power in 
either direction, but these great powers are not required for long periods, 
and to attempt to drive a mill of such powers without the aid of some 
system which would average up the power would be practically impos- 
sible ; such great fluctuating loads would have disturbing effects on 
any power station, and the cost of the power station would be prohibi- 
tive had it to be made large enough to provide for the heaviest loads. 
By the use of heavy flywheels running at high speeds, a great amount 
of energy can be stored up and readily given out again. In order to 
take energy out of a flywheel, the speed must be allowed to fall, and 
therefore a constant speed motor will not share its load with the fly- 
wheel, and some arrangement is necessary whereby, as the motor 
falls in speed and the current taken from the power station shall not 

* Syren and Shippings vol. xlv., Supplement, November 6, 1907, pp. 6-7. 
t Chemiktr Zeitun^^ vol. xxxii. p. 622. 
X American Machinist, vol. xxxi. pp. 51-54. 

§ Proceedings of the Cleveland Institution of Engineers^ April 8, 1908 ; Inm and 
Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxvi. pp. 139B-1899, 



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FORGE AND MILL MACHINISRY. 343 

exceed predetermined limits, the method of slowing down the speed 
of the motor can be done in direct-current motors by suitably com- 
pounding the fields, and in an induction motor by inserting resistance 
in the motor winding. The resistance consists of metal plates sus- 
pended in earthenware tanks containing water, and the position of 
these plates regulates the amount of resistance. The liquid forming 
the resistance is kept cool by means of a series of cooling pipes 
placed in the tank through which a continuous stream of cold water 
is circulated. Special precautions have to be taken to make the 
generator and the mill motor run sparklessly with the brushes in 
one fixed position. 

An advantage of the electrically-driven mill is the small stand-by 
loss. When the mill is shut down there are no losses of any kind 
going on, and in starting up all the time required is, say, ten minutes 
to run the converter up to speed. The disadvantages of the electrical 
reversing-mill are the high capital expenditure, and the. electrical 
losses between the motor driving the flywheel converter and the mill 
motior. There appears to be no inducement to any firm who have 
to produce their electricity by burning coal directly under boilers to 
instal a special power station to drive a mill or even two mills. The 
great advantage of electric rolling, in fact the greatest advantage 
of alif is the generation of all the power required for the whole works 
in one large central station. In a works consisting of several rolling- 
mills these mills must necessarily be situated some distance from 
each other, sometimes so far apart as to necessitate sepairate boiler 
installations, and under these conditions there can be no doubt of the 
great advantage of centralising all the power. The cost of running 
all the auxiliary machinery is much reduced. At Teschen, where the 
first electrical reversing-mill was put to work, the number of boilers 
was reduced from 54 to 17. In Germany electrically-driven mills 
have made more rapid progress than in JSngland, partly owing to 
the fact that coal is dearer and partly because the rolling-mills work 
in conjunction with blast-furnaces which produce large quantities of 
electricity very cheaply with the aid of the gas-engine. 

W. T. Dean * investigates the conditions under which electricity is 
applicable for driving rolling-mills. The first heavy rolling-mill at 
which the electric drive has been adopted in the United States is 
at the Edgar Thompson works of the Carnegie Steel Company. The 
system used (250 volts direct current) is probably the most expensive 
in first cost and in operation that could have been selected. Never- 
theless the installation has been a notable success from the beginning. 
The use of blast-furnace gases for generating electricity is considered, 
and the mathematical aspects of the problem given, while a descrip- 
tion of the 6000 horse-power induction motor for the Indiana Steel 
Company is also given, and illustrations shown. The following con- 
clusions are arrived at : (1) The electric drive is absolutely trustworfchy, 
and (2) alternating current motors and transmission system should 

* Iron Trade Review, vol. xlii. pp. 57-64. 



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344 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

be used ; (3) a frequency of 25 cycles per second is preferable : (4) 
when blast-furnace gas is available a gas-engine plant yields the 
greatest amount of power ; (5) a boiler plant with steam-turbines only 
produces four-fifths of the power generated by the same amount of 
fuel used in a gas-engine plant ; (6) the trustworthiness of a steam- 
turbine plant outweighs this advantage, and (7) the saving in cost of 
a steam-turbine plant is much greater than that of a gas-engine plant ; 
(8) it is more economical to generate electricity at the source of gas 
supply and to transmit it to motor-driven mills than to burn the gas 
under boilers at the mill, and finally (9) the electric drive is the most 
economical system in every case excepting where coal must be burned 
under boilers at the mill, and in this approximately double the power 
can be obtained from a given amount of steam by using low pressure 
turbines in the exhaust from mill engines. 

K. Maleyka * describes the electric equipment of the Rasselstein 
ironworks. 

RoUinSf-xnills. — Illustrations have been published of a cogging- 
mill constructed for the Imperial Japanese steelworks. f 

Illustrations of roUing-mUls for tires are given by O. Bracke.| 

Several new rolling-mill plants in the United States have been 
described. For instance, an illustrated description has appeared of 
the new Saucon plant of the Bethlehem Steel Company, Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania.! It comprises a rail mill, and a Grey structural and 
beam mill. The rail mill is a 28-inch mill, the Grey universal beam 
mill is a 48-inch mill, and the structural mill a 28-inch mill. The 
two 28-inch mills are served by a 40-inch blooming-mill furnished 
with a 800-ton hydraulic up-cut shear. The 28-inch rail mill consists 
of three stands of three-high rolls and two stands of three-high 
pinions. The Grey mill installation consists of a 46-inch blooming- 
mill and two 48-inch Grey beam mills, all three mills being arranged 
tandem for continuous rolling of the ingot without reheating. 

The new rail mill of the Illinois Steel Company at the South Shore 
works, South Chicago, is described || and illustrated. The main build- 
ing is 60 feet wide and 346 feet long, and the finishing department 
45 feet wide and 360 feet long. The heating furnaces are very large, 
two of them being 17^ feet wide and 25 feet long, and one larger 
furnace 17 feet wide and 35 feet long being provid^. Their speoal 
construction is described. The roughing, intermediate, and finishing 
trains of rolls are each of the three-high type with 24-inch roUs. The 
mill can roll rails from small sections up to 85-pound standard section, 
from either re-rolling sections or from 8-inch blooms. The entire 
machinery of the mill, with the exception of a few hydraulic machines, 
is electrically driven. There are four three-phase induction 25-cycle 

* EUktrische Kraftbetriebt und Bahnen, 1907. pp. 665-672. 

t Zeitsckrift des Vereines deutscher In^enieure^ vol. Hi. pp. 37-^. 

X Bihang till Jtmkontortts AnnaUr, 1907, pp. 670-690. 

§ Iron Trade Review^ vol. xli. pp. 736-746. 

II Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 1634^1637. 



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FOBQE AND MILL MACHINEBY. 345 

2200 volt Westinghouse motors, two of 1200, and two of 600 horse- 
power each. When the rail mill is in full working order it will have 
an output of 10,000 tons of rails per month, operating on re-rolling 
sections. 

An illustrated description * has appeared of the Tredegar Iron 
Works, Richmond, Virginia. It was established in 1836, and the 
entire plant is at present driven bj water-power. During the Civil 
War it supplied the Confederate army with war materials. In the 
bar mill, which is an ordinary 18-inch mill, the iron plating for the 
frigate Merrimac was rolled. 

F. E. Abbott f discusses rail-mill practice from several standpoints, 
including that of cambering, the chemical composition of the steel, 
the amount of discard, the application of the drop test, the selection 
of the rail section, shrinkage, cold straightening, the classification 
and causes of rail failures, and the suggested modifications in section 
to be introduced to avoid or remedy such failures. The endeavour is 
to regulate the cambering so that tiie rails will cool as nearly straight 
as possible, but as absolute straightness is almost impossible to attain, 
they are preferable brought when cold to a slight back sweep. The 
reason for this is so that cold straightening work will be done mainly 
on the base, therefore avoiding indentations on the head of the rail, 
and that the internal stresses in the rail after it becomes cold keep 
the joints up, and maintain a better track surface when the rails are 
in use. The chemical composition of steel rails is still a debateable 
point. Users are inclined to increase the carbon requirements some- 
what faster in proportion than the increase in weight of section, in 
order to get more elasticity and better wear. These properties are, 
to a certain extent, obtained by these means, but failures from 
breakage become more frequent. To remedy this, users seek to lower 
the phosphorus, so that it shall not exceed 0*085 per cent., but this is 
not practicable owing to the ore conditions obtaining in the United 
States, and is opposed by the makers, who seek to maintain the phos- 
phorus limit at 0*10 per cent., and to modify the percentage of carbon. 
The phosphorus limit is thus fixed by actual conditions, while the 
corresponding carbon limit must be fixed by experience. A harder 
steel might be used if the section were altered. The infiuence of 
sulphur, silicon, and manganese is briefiy considered, and the amount 
of discard next considered. The question of more discard after enough 
of the ingot has been discarded is a purely economic question involv- 
ing margin of safety, and should be left for settlement between the 
makers and the railways. The use of a drop test applied to a portion 
of the rail from the end towards the top of the ingot is commended 
as a satisfactory means of ascertaining both freedom from pipe and 
goodness of material. The relative advantages of various sections are 
discussed, the advantages of a balanced section with comparatively 
thick base being summarised. 

♦ Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 1067-1059. 
t Ibid.,^^. 1380-1384. 



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346 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

The first Canadian mill * to turn out tinplates started operations 
at the end of December. This plant is situated at Moririsburg, 
Ontario, and its construction was commenced earlj in 1906. 

Suggestions are given t as to the best conditions for rolling nickel 
sheets. The slabs should be rolled hot to about f inch, then scraped 
on an overhauling machine, and finally finished coLd. The best tem- 
perature for rolling is 1350° C. 

Rolling-mill Scale. — ^The Pawling and Hamischfeger two-motor 
bucket grab hoist for rolling-mill scale is described J and illustrated. 
It is in use at the Wisconsin Steel Company's works, South Chicago. 
The scale separated during rolling falls into a sluiceway under the 
rolls, and is washed thence into a concrete pit, where it settles, the 
water flowing away. It is to raise it from this pit that the grab 
bucket is employed. It has a bucket capacity of 15 cubic yards, and 
is operated from a special 3-ton electric travelling hoist. 

Rolling-mill Engines. — F. Luhr§ describes a 1200 horse-power 
compound engine for driving a wire-rod mill. 

G. Hooghwinkel,!! in a paper read before the Sheffield Society of 
Engineers and Metallurgists, discussed the driving of three-high mills 
by steam-engines, by gas-engines, and by electric motors, giving 
details of cost. The advantages to be obtained from electric driving 
are summarised, and the driving of reversing-mills is considered. 

An exhaustive paper dealing in a practical manner with the 
question of steam versus electrical power for reversing-mills has been 
published by W. Schomburg.H The first cost of the two plants are 
compared, the actual cost of the various items being given. In the 
case given the cost of the electric plant works out to two and a 
quarter times as much as the steam plant. The author then deal^ 
in similar detail with the actual rolling cost per ton of steel. Under 
the conditions stated in the paper, and with good clean gas for the 
gas-engines, the electric rolling is somewhat cheaper per ton. 

A notable rolling-mill engine** has recently been built for the 
Carnegie works of the United States Steel Corporation that ranb 
among the largest reciprocating engines ever built. It is a horizontal 
twin tandem engine, with 42-inch and 70-inch by 54-inch cylinders, 
designed for operating condensing with steam at 175 lbs. and for a 
maximum speed of 200 revolutions per minute, at which speed it has 
a maximum capacity of 25,000 horse-power. The engine erected has 
a total weight of 550 tons, and some of the individual parts are very 



* £ngin€erinp, vol. Ixxxv. p. 100. 

t Brass World, New York ; Iron Age, voL Ixxx. p. 1143. 

% Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. £28-629. 

§ Praktiscke Maschinen-Konstructeur, 1908, pp. 17-19. 

li Electrician, vol Ix. pp. 672-74. 

IT Berg' und HUitenmdnnische Rundsckau, vol. iii. p. 83 ei seq, 

*• Engineer, vol cv. p. 219. 



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FORGE AND MILL MACHINERY. 347 

large, two of the frame castings weighing, after machining, 118 tons 
each, and requiring special waggons for their transportation. 

The use of thin steel bands is advocated * for the transmission of 
power in place of the belts or ropes usually employed. These bands 
have been successfully applied by the Eloesser Company of Ohar- 
lottenburg. 

* Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher IngenUure, vol. li. p. 1967. 



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( 348 ) 



PRODUCTION OF STEEL. 



CONTENTS. 

PIQX 

I. The Carburisation of Malleable Iron 348 

II. The Open-Hearth Process 349 

III. The Bessemer Process 353 



I.— THE CARBURISATION OF MALLEABLE IRON. 

Omcible Steel. — A. Solovieff * describes the preparation of cra- 
cibles at the Ischeffski steelworks. 

Oradble Tongs. — A. A. Johnson f points out that the life of a 
crucible is influenced largely by the handling and second only in 
importance to the annealing, and the first heating is the fit of the 
tongs and the kind of tongs used. There are three general styles of 
tongs in use — one-pronged tongs, two-pronged tongs, and spade 
tongs. These three styles may be either of the ring pattern, or of 
the grab pattern which he describes and illustrates. One-pronged 
tongs may be satisfactorily used on small crucibles only, but for sizes 
above No. 40 two-pronged tongs should be universally used. In 
some of the recent designs of oil furnaces tongs of the grab pattern 
are used with the handles above the ring bent over at right angles. 
As there are no ashes or fuel to contend with in the oil furnace, the 
tongs go right to their place without effort, and the bent handles 
allow the operator to stand off to one side. 

History of Steel. — C Benedicks { contributes a note on the 
history of steel. Torbern Bergman of IJpsala was the first to ascribe 
the difference between wrought iron, steel, and cast iron to variations 
in the percentages of carbon present (1781). By oxidising these 
metals he succeeded in isolating " sdric acid " (carbon dioxide), and 
the limits he assigned to the three types of iron were 0*05 to 0*20 

• Gomi Journal, 1907, pp. 149-168. 

t Iron and Coal Trades Review , vol. Ixxvi. p. 4d. 

X Revue de Metallurgies vol. v. pp. 5-* 



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PBODUcrrioN of steel. 349 

per cent, for wrought iron, 0*2 to 0*80 per cent, for steel, and 1*00 
to 3 '00 per cent, for cast iron, and it was not until Bergman's observa- 
tions bad been published that accurate views as to the nature of 
steel became possible. As the result, however, of the editing of a 
hitherto unpublished manuscript by Linnaeus entitled Fluto Svectcus 
(1734), the oldest manuscript written by him, dealing with the 
mineral kingdom, in which steel is defined as being iron devoid of 
sulphur, and the collateral research to which the preparation of this 
manuscript led, an old and forgotten French work was found, bearing 
earlier observations on the subject. At the epoch involved two 
theories of steel were current, one that it contained more " sulphur " 
than iron, and one that it contained less. It should be remembered 
that the term '< sulphur " was, in those days, extended to any com- 
bustible matter, and is used, in the manuscript by Linnaeus alluded 
to, not only for sulphur, but for asphalt and coal likewise. The two 
views given above therefore resolve themselves into^(l) that steel 
is iron containing an inflammable substance, and (2) that steel is 
iron deprived of inflammable substance. The divergence of these 
views is to be accounted for by the opposite points of view from which 
those who were employed in making iron from its ores, and those 
employed in making steel, by cementation, approached the subject. 
It is interesting, therefore, to find very correct views of the ques- 
tion at issue set forth in this old French work. It was published 
anonymously, at Strasbiu-g, in 1737, and is entitled Traitc sur 
Voder d^ Alsace, aa Vart de convertir le fer du fonte en acier. Indica- 
tions point to its having been the work of the elder brother of Gilles 
Bazin, a physician of Strasburg, and the reputed author of several 
works on natural history. Enlightened views of the nature of steel 
are expressed, and a distinction is drawn between " natural steel '' 
made directly from pig iron, and '^ artificial steel " made from wrought 
iron by cementation, the remarks on hardening being worthy of 
attention. The estimation in which the treatise was once held is 
shown by the fact that it was translated into Swedish in 1753. 



II.— THE OPEN-HEARTH PROCESS. 

New Open -hearth Steel Plant. — An illustrated description^ 
has appeared of the new open-hearth plant of Monks, Hall & Com- 
pany. A 25-ton basic furnace has been built adjoining the 10-inch 
mill. The main feature is the adaptation of the plant for either 
Mend gas or ordinary producer gas in the melting operations. The 
furnace itself is of a new type ; while nominally of 25 tons capacity, 
it is so constructed that it can be converted into a 40-ton furnace 
should it be desired. The furnace bath is 25 feet by 10 feet 6 inches, 
lined with magnesite, and is of the ordinary basic type. The re- 
generative chambers are of the outside type, the gas and air chambers 

* Jivn and Coal Trades JReview, vol. Ixxvi. pp. 629-580. 



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350 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

being 8 feet by 25 feet, and 9 feet by 25 feet respectively. Very 
large slag pockets, 8 feet by 9 feet, are provided. The furnace is 
intended for the casting of very small ingots and the ingot moalds 
are of ingenious design, and so far as their use in this country is 
concerned, unique. In the case of the 4-inch ingots, it is possible to 
cast 40 on one plate. The smaller sizes are twin moulds, the 8-inch 
size being single moulds. 

An illustrated descnption has appeared* of the Blair port, first 
installed experimentally in one of the old type furnaces at the 
Lackawanna Steel Company's plant. The whole end block, ports, 
and down takes are built of ground magnesite mixed with 15 per cent, 
of basic slag and enough coal tar to bind it. The gas port is water- 
cooled, and the buckhead is a water-cooled box of 4}-inch brick 
lining, swung on hinges so as to be readily opened like a vault door 
at any time between the heats. The furnace to which it was fitted 
has already run nearly double the number of heats it did on ordinary 
brick ports. 

An illustrated description has appeared t of a movable slag pocket 
designed to avoid the loss of time experienced in removing slag from 
the pockets of an open-hearth furnace in the usual way, daring a 
shut down for repairs. It consists of a truck resting on rails laid 
at the bottom of the air or gas ways, and forms a receptacle for slag 
and dust carried out from the furnace hearth by the waste gases. 

Open-hearth Steelworks in Austria.— A description has been 

published]: of the Skoda works at Pilsen. The new works have 
been put down on a large open space to the south of the city. They 
consist mainly of gun-shops for the construction of all calibres and 
classes of guns, their carriages and mountings, turrets, and for the 
manufacture of projectiles; of an open-hearth steelworks, mostly 
used for the manufacture of steel castings; and of an engineering 
works and cast-iron foundry, with which are connected bridge-build- 
ing and boiler-making yai^s. The various shops cover an area of 
10 hectares (24*7 acres). 

A description of the modern Austrian steelworks has been pub- 
lished by T. Naske.§ A full account of the various departments in 
the Witkowitz works is given, including descriptions of the large 
press, and the special machines for the manufacture of shells. The 
Trzynietz works, which have been completely remodelled, and are at 
present the most important to metallurgists, owing to the installa- 
tion of electrically-driven mills, are fully described. The process 
adopted at these works for the agglomeration of the small powdery 
ore, which is said to remove nearly all the sulphur, is explained, and 
a description is given of the new open-hearth steel plant The 
Kladno works are also described. At these works the ores used are 

♦ Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 1310-1311. 

t Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 795-796. t 

X Engineering, vol Ixxxv. pp. 298-801. 

§ Stahlund Risen, voL xxvii. pp. 1645-1662. 1686-1692, 1728-1736. 



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PRODUCTION OF STEEL. 351 

previously calcined in kilns, waste coal from the coal-washers being 
used for this purpose. The calcined ore is then treated in a very 
interesting manner for the removal of sulphur, by a method resembling 
to some extent the lixiviation method used for copper ores. After 
treatment the ore contains about 0*2 per cent, only of sulphur. In 
the account of the Konigsberg works an interesting description of a 
mechanical puddling furnace is given. 

Open^hearth Steelworks in Gtermany.— A description,* with 

illustrations, of the new steelworks at Bochum (Westphalia steel- 
works) has been published. The new open-hearth department com- 
menced operations in January 1907. There are five open-hearth 
furnaces of from 40 to 50 tons capacity, served by suitable electric 
travelling and charging cranes. The furnaces are 10 metres long by 
3*5 metres wide. The producer plant consists of twelve continuous 
Morgan producers, built in a line, each capable of gasifying from 8 to 
10 tons in twenty-four hours. 

A very full description of the new Friedrich- Alfred works at Rhein- 
hausen has been published, f The description is accompanied by some 
sixty woodcuts showing views of the various parts of the works, 
together with plans and sections. The works were commenced about 
1896, and from 1896 to 1898 three blast-furnaces each of 400 cubic 
metres capacity were erected ; from 1903 to 1905 three more blast- 
furnaces each of 600 cubic metres capacity, together with steelworks 
and rolling-mills, were erected. In the year 1906 a fourth blast- 
furnace of 600 cubic metres capacity was erected. The works at 
present, therefore, comprise seven blast-furnaces with a yearly pro- 
duction of about 700,000 tons, a steelworks with four converters 
each of 25 tons capacity, a rolling-mill with two cogging and six 
finishing trains, with all the necessary appurtenances. The three old 
smaller blast-furnaces produce chiefly Bessemer and haematite pig for 
the use of the Essen works and the other Krupp works (Grusonwerk, 
Germaniawerft, the Annen steelworks and the Sayn works). The 
four new larger furnaces serve to supply the basic steelworks. The 
yearly requirements of iron ore reach about 1,600,000 tons, about 
half of which is water-borne and half conveyed by rail. 

The briquetting plant, the production of which is given at 40,000 
briquettes per twenty-four hours, equal to about 50,000 tons per 
annum, is aJso described. 

H. Groeck X gives an illustrated description of Krupp's Friedrich- 
Alfred steelworks at Bheinhausen. 

Open^hearth Steelworks in Canada.— F. E. Lathe § describes 

the basic open-hearth steel manufacture as carried out by the 
Dominion Iron and Steel Company at Sydney, Cape Breton. The 

* Stahl und Eisen, vol. xxviii. pp. 113-116. 

+ Ibid,, vol. xxvii. pp. 1446-1462. 

X Zeitschrifi dts Vtrtints deutscher Ingtnuure, vol. lit pp. 91-98. 

§ Journal of tk€ Canadian Mining Institute , vol. z. pp. 375-396. 



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352 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

ore used in the blast-furnaces is a siliceous hsBmatite yielding pig iron 
containing 3*75 per cent, of carbon, TIO per cent, of silicon, 1*40 per 
cent, of phosphorus, 0*03 per cent, of sulphur, and 0*30 per cent, of 
manganesa This pig iron is treated in an open-hearth steel plant 
consisting of ten 50-ton furnaces, eight of the Campbell type and 
two stationary, supplied by a 275-ton Campbell mixer, which holds 
molten metal from four blast-furnaces. The process of working a 
regular charge is described in detail. 

Open -hearth Steelworks in the United States.-;-The new 

open-hearth furnaces of the FoUansbee works, in West Yii^nia, are 
described * and illustrated. The old 25-ton furnaces have been pulled 
down and superseded by new furnaces of 35-ton capacity. 

Steelworks Equipment. — Casting ladles and casting cranes far 
steelworks are described by F. Frolich.t 

F. Frdlich | states that the conditions required of casting appliances 
vary with the process. In the Bessemer process the ladle remains 
stationary during pouring ; in the basic Bessemer process the height 
of the ladle, during pouring, must be varied to correspond with the 
sinking of the converter, and in addition the ladle must be moved 
laterally in the direction of the flow of metal. With the Talbot pro- 
cess the variation of the height and lateral position of the ladle while 
the furnace is being tilted have to be considered. The crane has the 
advantage of the more steady motion. With casting waggons the speed 
is limited by the danger of splashing molten metal. With cranes the 
speed can be increased by utilising the advantages of electric driving. 
The crane has the advantage of being able to perform other work. 
For very large furnaces of 50 tons and over, owing to the unwieldy 
proportions of casting waggons, electric travelling cranes are de- 
cidedly advantageous. Several different appliances for lifting plugs 
constructed by various firms are compared. 

Casting waggons are constructed of two different types. In one of 
these types the ladle, in addition to the travelling motion of the waggon, 
has a cross motion, which does not go beyond the width of the waggon ; 
these waggons can only serve a casting-pit situated between the rails of 
the waggon. In the other type of waggon the ladle is on an arm, which 
can pivot around a centre on the waggon, so that the ladle, in addition 
to the space between the rails, can serve a zone on each side of the 
track corresponding to the length of the arm. The waggons of the 
first type are only suitable for small open-hearth furnaces. Waggons 
of the second type are seldom constructed for capacities less than 
20 tons. A description of several different casting waggons, manu- 
factured by the leading German makers, is given. 

C. Michenf elder § reviews the appliances formerly used to transport 

♦ Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 958-954. 

t ZHtschHftdes Vereines deutscher Ingenuure, vol. li. pp. 1936-1941, 9061-2068. 
i Ibid., vol. li. pp. 1727-1736. ^ 

§ Dinglers Poly Ucknisches Journal, vol. cccxxii. pp. 663-666, 679-688, 696, 726, 774, 7» 



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PRODUCTION OP STEEL. 353 

molten steel. With the introduction of the Bessemer process the 
so-called central crane was adopted. It was erected as a fixed 
radial crane in the centre of the circle occupied hy the converter and 
the ingot moulds. The introduction of the basic Bessemer process, 
owing to the increased size and number of converters, and the conse- 
quent arrangement of the converters in a row, occasioned a complete 
change in the system of casting. The former radial motion of the 
ladle was changed to a straight line motion, and owing to the distance 
to be travelled the transport of the fluid metal was efiFected by a ladle 
on a travelling waggon. This has since been known as the casting 
^^ggon, and is an important auxiliary appliance of a modern basic 
steelworks. Economical requirements, extensive experience^ and 
technical progress have brought the same to the present height of 
perfection. The author describes a steam hydraulic casting waggon 
constructed in 1880 for the Harder Bergwerks- und Hiittenverein as 
a typical example of former practice. He then describes the con- 
struction of a modem steam hydraulic casting waggon, and deals 
with the electric casting waggon. 



IIL—TffJE BESSEMER PROCESS. 

Wills Steel Converter. — An illustrated description * has appeared 
of the Wills steel converter in operation at the works of the Dela- 
ware and Lackawanna Steel Company. The steel can either be 
tapped from the bottom of the converter, or the vessel can be tilted 
and the metal poured in the usual way. In this converter the metal 
is given a rotary motion which not only bums out the silicon, carbon, 
&c., but frees it from gases and slag. The capacity is 8000 lbs. of 
steel, and the converter is 60 inches in diameter and 14 feet high. 

The Flohr Addition to Bessemer Basic Oharjgfes.— An inno- 
vation in the carrying out of a Bessemer basic heat is being brought 
forward by J. Flohr, f steelworks manager at Bodingen, Luxemburg ; 
it has been adopted by the Dudelange and the Ougr^e-Marihaye 
Works and by the Bheinische Stahlwerke, Duisburg. The Flohr 
process, it is claimed, does away with the disadvantages attendant 
upon the use of lime or scrap additions. Lime thickens the slag and 
retards its power of absorption of phosphoric acid ; moreover, a 
viscous slag retains iron particles readily, thus leading to a loss of 
metal, and the addition of scrap is conducive to a higher cost for the 
steel. Towards the end of the decarburising period, or later, to the 
bath is added a compound, made preferably in the shape of pressed 
briquettes, and formed of iron oxides, hammer cinder, or rolling-mill 
scale, with slacked lime as a binding medium. The briquettes have 
a rapid and decided effect on the metal bath, and upon their addi- 

• Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 990-991. 
t Engineering, vol. Ixxxv. p. 65 



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354 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

tion an after-blow of only a few seconds suffices to complete the 
operation. An addition of manganese ore to the briquettes proves 
advantageous in certain conditions, as it increases the liquidity of 
the slag, and thereby facilitates dephosphorisation. The analysis of & 
suitable cinder or scale is the following : — 

Per Cent. 

Fine granulated iron 1 

Ferric oxide 40*28 

Ferrous oxide 53*06 

Water 6 

This is sifted and ground with quicklime. The calcium oxide com- 
bines with the water in the scale to form Ca(On)o with development 
of heat. By the addition of slacked lime to the mixture, the required 
percentage of hydrate of lime is obtained. On being stored for a 
short time the compound increases much in temperature and dries. 
After standing for three hours it shows the following analysis :— 

Per Cent. 

Fine granulated iron • . 1*1 

Ferric oxide 30*65 

Ferrous oxide ; . . 47*90 

Water 4*82 

Carbon dioxide 0*6 

After standing still longer — about three days — the compound is 
pulverulent, and the analysis shows : — 

Percent. 

Fine granulated iron 1'06 

Ferric oxide 31 '40 

Ferrous oxide 4470 

Lime 9*89 

Water 4*16 

Carbon dioxide 0*68 

When, after a longer time, the transformation of calcium oxide into 
hydrate of lime is completed, briquettes are made of the compound, & 
press being used for this purpose. The specific weight of the bri- 
quettes depends upon the pressure exerted, but it has to be high 
enough to allow them to sink through the layer of slag in the con- 
verter, and to come in contact with the metal bath. In the Dudelange 
Steelworks, it is stated, a pressure of 80 atmospheres is employed. 
In order to render the briquettes less fragile they are dried in the 
open, or, preferably, in an oven. The analysis of the briquettes thus 
dried shows that the percentage of carbon dioxide — which in the 
compound amounted to about 0*65 per cent. — has risen to 1'3, thus 
tending to prove that in the hardening of the briquettes the occurrence 
is similar to that in the case of ordinary mortar exposed to the action 
of the atmosphere. As compared with the compound in a loose state, 
the proportions of ferric and ferrous oxides do not vary to a great 
extent. The briquettes contain : — 

Per Cent 

Ferric oxide 38*90 

Ferrous oxide 43*06 

The briquettes are thrown into the converter by hand or by a 



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PRODUCTION OF STEEL 355 

mechanical device when, by inspection of the flame^ the charge is 
deemed to be ready for the addition, and the slag liquid enough to 
allow them to reach the metal bath. The quantity added depends 
upon the conditions of working ruling at the time. All steel-makers 
are perfectly aware that very great variations constantly occur in the 
analysis of pig iron used for steel-making, and that the charge fre- 
quently becomes undesirably hot, which circumstances tend to increase 
the cost price of the steel, to increase also the waste by burning, the 
consumption of lime, and to reduce the value of the slag. In some 
cases it is necessary, in order to keep the price for raw material as 
low as possible, to work with a comparatively very low-grade pig iron, 
containing probably a high percentage of silicon, the oxidation of 
which in the converter leads to a greatly increased heat in the charge, 
which is unfavourable to dephosphorisation. In such cases the rapid 
cooling down of the charge by the addition of briquettes is found 
specially advantageous. 

Small Bessemer Plant — 0. W. Oarlsson * describes the prepara- 
tion of steel castings with small Bessemer converters. 

W. E. Koch f notes that the Tropenas converter has been installed 
at El Paso, Texas, and has added a new industry to the city. 

Comparison of Bessemer and Open-hearth Processes.— W. M. 

Carr % compares the advantages of the converter with those of small 
open-hearth furnaces for the manufacture of general steel castings. 
The balance is shown to be in favour of small open-hearth furnaces. 
The advantages of the 2-ton converter are : (1) It can be cheaply 
installed ; (2) it can be started upon short notice and operated at 
irregular intervals ; (3) it is well adapted for light sections ; (4) it 
produces steel at such high temperatures that the metal presents few 
difficulties in handling ; (5) the product is of good quality. On the 
other hand, advantage No. 2 is more apparent than real, as irregular 
operation is costly, and continuous operation is the keynote of any 
steel-casting method. This consideration influences the advantage 
noted under No. 3. The high initial temperature brings into play the 
personal equation in a marked manner, and the practised eye is the 
sole judge. If the blower's judgment is at fault from any cause 
heavy losses may result. The proper casting temperature being 
subject to eye measurement is more variable than that of open- 
hearth steel, and this constitutes a drawback. Finally the product, 
although good, is apt to be uncertain in quality. 

Duplex Steel-making Process.— B. 0. Lauth § gives a descrip- 
tion and drawings of a new duplex steel process and proposed plant. 
The converters are placed at an elevation which permits of their dis- 

♦ Bihang till Jemkontorets Annaler^ 1907, pp. 659-670. 
t El Paso Mining Journal, vol. i. p. 8. 
X Iron Trade Review^ vol. xli. pp. 792-793, 961-952. 
§ Iron Age, vol Ixxx. pp, \^^\^ 



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356 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

charging the blown metal into ladles on waggons at the level of the 
open-hearth charging platform, the arrangement of the rails over 
which these waggons travel being such that each furnace can be 
operated independently and without interfering with any other 
furnace. The same arrangements are also carried out in the casting 
pit, the product of each furnace being handled without regard to the 
work of any other furnace. The open-hearth furnace is specially 
designed to meet the conditions, a large tonnage with all the met&l 
of the charge delivered molten and at a high temperament, free from 
silicon and having sufficient carbon to provide tne necessary boil for 
dephosphorising and removing oxides. The furnace is very long, 
being 60 feet between ports, with a chilled bridge wall dividing it 
into two hearths of 30 feet in length each, so that two 60-ton heats 
can be finished with the same labour and approximately the same fuel 
as is ordinarily required for one 60-ton operation. The dividing of 
the 120-ton hearth is done with the object of reducing the cost of 
handling machinery, and to take advantage of the fuel economy 
derived from the adoption of very long hearths. 

Experimental heats of 50 tons have been made in one hour and a 
half, and, allowing for delays, each furnace will produce about 960 tons 
per twenty-four hours. Assuming they produce only six heats a day, 
or 720 tons per twenty-four hours, the complete plant might be one 
of two 20-ton converters, with a third as a stand-by. With fifteen 
minute cycles this gives eight heats, or 160 tons per hour, or 3840 
tons per day. Four 120-ton open-hearth furnaces, each divided into 
two 60-ton hearths, at six heats per twenty^four hours, give a produc- 
tion of 2880 tons daily. Such a plant would cost less than a third of 
the cost of a plant of the same capacity working on the ordinary open- 
hearth process. The process has been tried with satisfactory results 
at Lackawanna, a Blair indestructible port being used. 



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( 357 ) 



FURTHER TREATMENT OF IRON 
AND STEEL. 



Oase-hardening. — Illustrations are published* of a revolving 
gas-furnace adopted by the American Metal Treatment Company of 
Elizabeth, New Jersey, for case-hardening. 

Annealing Furnaces.— G. Rietkotterf describes the ordinary 
types of annealing furnaces, both coal and gas fired. Sections of the 
various furnaces described are given. 

A new process of annealing is described. | The steel to be annealed 
is heated in a chemically reducing, instead of an oxidising atmosphere. 
By this means the scaling of the surface of the bars to be annealed is 
entirely avoided. A small producer-gas plant is an essential part of 
the annealing installation, and the producer gas is led directiy into 
the furnace, and is there mixed with the quantity of air necessary to 
support combustion. This process is said to give a uniform softness 
to the steel, and is carried out with a consumption of only 4 cwts. of 
coal per ton of steel annealed, as against nearly 1 ton of coal per 
ton of steel annealed in the ordinary fumace& The complete process 
is accomplished in forty-eight hours. 

Heat Treatment of Steel. — E. F. Lake§ describes the electric 
quartz furnace, invented by W. H. Bristol of New York, for the heat 
treatment of steel. The furnace consists of a quartz tube sealed at 
one end or open at both ends, wound with one or more layers of 
platinum or special base-metal alloy wire. The tube is covered to the 
depth of one inch or more with a refractory material, such as asbestos, 
clay, or cement, to retain the heat in the quartz in the centre. 
Quartz is admirably suited for the construction of furnaces of this 
description, as the temperature necessary to treat all steels can be 
readily obtained without affecting the tube either as regards softening 
or cracking. 

* American Machinist, vol. xxxi. pp. 263-267. 
t Stahlund Eisen, vol. xxvii. pp. 1662-1666. 
X American Machinist, vol. xxx.. Part II. p. 766. 
§ Ibid,^ vol. XXX., Part II., pp. 719-723. 

1908.— i. 2 A 



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358 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

Welding. — An illuslrated description is given * of the repair by 
thermite of the stern-frame and rudder-post of the steamship Gorurma, 
of the Canadian Lake Navigation Company. 

A. I. Graham f gives an outline of the alumino-thermic welding 
process, and notes some of its applications. 

E. WissJ describes the operations of welding and cutting steel 
with the oxyhydrogen flame. Steel is cut in the following manner. 
The plate is heated locally by the oxyhydrogen flame to the tem- 
perature of burning, then a fine jet of oxygen under high pressure is 
directed to this point, the plate is bored through, and the burnt 
particles of iron are blown out. The hand-cutting apparatus made 
by the author consists essentially of a tube for hydrogen and one for 
oxygen, a reducing valve for hydrogen, two reducing valves for oxygen 
and the hose, through which the gases pass from the reducing valves 
to the burner, which is directed by hand. The front portion of the 
burner is provided with a small carriage, in order that it can be well 
guided. The blowpipe is between the carriage, and is so arranged 
that only a small portion of the object to be cut is heated, and that 
the oxygen is blown at a definite pressure and with a definite form of 
jet. The blowpipe consists of a central burner for oxygen and an 
annular burner for the heating gas. With the hand-cutting apparatus 
either straight lines or any form of curve can be cut out of the plate. 
The burner can also be moved forward mechanically, and the burner 
is advanced by a spindle. The author describes several applications 
of the process, and gives the cost of cutting plates from { inch to 
5 inches in thickness. 

H. Schulze§ describes the processes of welding with oxyhydrogen 
and with acetylene-oxygen, giving comparative details of cost. 

J. Eeischlejl describes the application of autogenic welding for 
repairing steam-boilers. 

V. A. Wredell deals with recent processes of welding steel and 
iron castings. Two processes have given good results in practice. 
One is the process of welding with thermite, the other consists of the 
application of the electric current. The first process finds practical 
application in the repair of heavy pieces, which are difficult to replace. 
The heating mass is thermite, a mixture of powdered aluminium and 
oxide of iron, which is fused in a suitable crucible by a special fusing 
mixture and match ; in a short time this burns down completely and 
leaves a slag consisting of almost pure iron and oxide of aluminium, 
at the same time developing a temperature of about 3000^ O. The 
iron from thermite has the same composition as cast steel, but it is at 
a much higher temperature than fluid steel in the open-hearth furnace. 
Small and larger quantities of thermite burn down with equal rapidity 
in from half to one minute. The author makes remarks of a general 

* Machinery^ vol. xiv. pp. 228-229. 

t Proceedings of the South Wales Institute of Engineers, vol. xxv. pp. 427'43& 

X AnzeigerfUr Industrie und Technik, 1907, No. 28. 

§ Zeitsckrift des Vereines deutscher Ingemeure, vol. lii. pp. 66-67. 

II Zeitschrtft des Bayerischen Revisions- Vereins, 1908, pp. 23. 40. 

IT Giesserei Zeitung, vol. iv. pp. 622-628. 644-660. 676-^77. 



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FUBTHER TREATMENT OF IRON AND STEEL. 369 

nature on the preparation of the mould, the moulding sand, and 
heating of the piece to be repaired, and describes several large 
repairs. 

Elihu Thomson * gives a summary of the process, by which dis- 
similar metals may be welded. The Thomson system is adapted to 
repetition work, and the applications mentioned include carriage, 
bicycle, automobile, and machine parts, tools, hardware, tramway 
rails, chains, &c. The longitudinal seams of pipes up to 16 inches 
diameter are welded by rolling the sheet so that the edges meet, and 
passing them between the welding rolls. Thin sheets of metal can 
be welded together, and also the wires of netting in reinforced 
concrete. 

O. B. Auel f describes a novel application of the Bernardos process 
of electric welding for the repair of defective steel castings. 

Electric welding is described by F. Bock.j: 

Improvement of Quality of Steel Masses.— J. 0. Arnold § 

concludes his exhaustive paper on factors of safety in marine engi- 
neering, read before the Institution of Naval Architects on April 10, 
1908, with suggestive remarks on the improvement of the quality of 
large masses of steel. 

The necessity of rejecting a sufficient weight of the upper part of a 
large ingot to insure the absence in the steel used for forging of 
liquated regions, pipes, and pockets, is too well known to need any 
remark ; but even in the lower portions of such an ingot, presumably 
of good steel, it is practically impossible with a mean sulphur and 
phosphorus of 0*04 to 05 per cent, each to avoid some segregation 
areas, if the ingot be allowed to cool at atmospheric pressure ; hence 
the production of some ghost-lines is inevitable ; but if, as is some- 
times the case, inferior steels containing up to 0*10 per cent, each of 
sulphur and phosphorus are accepted, the mischief is greatly aggra- 
vated. In the author's opinion in all heavily stressed engine parts 
the maximum phosphorus and sulphur should never exceed 0*05 per 
cent. each. Even with low sulphur and phosphorus it is desirable to 
reduce segregation to a minimum, and, so far as the author's know- 
ledge goes, the only trustworthy and practical way to bring about this 
consummation is to cool the ingot under fluid compression, as long 
carried out by the Whitworth process or by recent developments of 
the original idea devised by Harmet and by Hobinson and Rodgers, of 
Sheffield. But nearly one-third from the top of the Whitworth ingot 
there is a large bright cavity, or pocket, full of mixed gases, consist- 
ing chiefly of hydrogen and nitrogen, and in the vicinity of this pocket 
there is serious segregation, which is, of course, got rid of by cutting 
away the upper part of the ingot well below the pocket. The Whit- 

• IVesiem Electrician, vol. xli. pp. 24&-246. 

t Electric Journal, January 1908 ; Engineering Magazine, vol. xxxiv. pp. 1069-1061. 
X Zeitschrift des Bayerischen Revisions- Vereins, 1W7, pp. 215-218 ; Zeitschrift des 
Oesterreichischen Ingenieur und Architekten Vereins, vol. lix. pp. 841-S44. 
§ Engineering, vol. Ixxxv. pp. 666-566, 59&-601. 



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360 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

worth ingot is exceedingly clean, this fact conducing to sound forging, 
and it is relatively free from segregation compared with a similar 
ingot allowed to cool spontaneously at atmospheric pressure. The 
maximum size of ingot to which the application of Whitworth fluid 
compression is effective is an open question. The Harmet process of 
bottom pressure seems very successful in preventing segregation. The 
waste is much less than with the Whitworth process, although the skin 
is hardly so clean as that of the Whitworth ingot. Unfortunately, 
the view expressed to the author by an experienced and competent 
expert is that a relatively small — say, a 20-ton — ingot must be re- 
garded as the limit to which bottom fluid compression by the Harmet 
method can be effectively applied. 

In the author's view, in the heat treatment of forgings, anything 
like a protracted cooling, especially at a low red heat, is dangerous, 
and likely to lower unduly the elastic limit of the steel under treat- 
ment. Three other methods suggest themselves : 1. When the forg- 
ing operation is over, let the forging cool in air, as far as possible 
out of draughts, and apply no further heat treatment. 2. Re-heat 
the forging to about 900^ C, quench in oil, and finally let down 
by re-heating to a temperature between 300** and AW G. 3. Re- 
crystallise the steel and remove stresses from the forging by heating 
to about SOO"" C, or, at any rate, above Osmond's top critical change- 
point Acg, and then cool as quickly as the circumstances of the case wHil 
permit, in air ; in other words, normalise the material. In the opinion 
of the author, method No. 3 is likely to give the best average results. 

Compression of Steel Ingots. — The production of sound steel 
continues to be one of the most important questions of the present 
time, and the various methods of dealing with the steel after it is 
poured into the moulds are reviewed by N. Lilienberg.'*' Reference 
is made to the use of aluminium, casting continuous ingots, keeping 
the top uniformly hot, casting with the large end upwards, and 
centrifugal machines. Reasons are given why these methods cannot 
come into general use for the largest quantities of heavy ingots, 
especially those which are cast standing on trucks. The only way to 
treat these is by compression of the semi-liquid steel. The principal 
methods of effecting this are compression from the top, com- 
pression from the bottom, compression from the sides in the 
moulds, and compression from the side on the bare ingots stripped 
of the moulds. From the details given, it appears that there is 
no method for making solid ingots which is suitable for the 
largest quantities of medium size, especially for those oast on 
trucks. At the same time, the desire remains as great as ever 
to lessen the waste and crop ends to obtain the proper structure 
of the steel with less rolling and forging than at present, and also 
to lessen the segregation. The question then arises: Is it possible 

♦ Journal of the Franklin InstituU, vol. clxv. pp. 121-140 ; JtmhmiortU Annaitr, 
vol Ixi. p. 572. 



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FURTHER TREATMENT OF IRON AND STEEL. 361 

to accomplish this in a practical and sufficiently economical way? 
The requirements are as follows: 1. The casting should be made 
without changing the ordinary solid tapered moulds but the ingots 
stripped earlier than usual, which can be done. 2. The stripped 
ingots should not be remoyed from their places on the bottom until 
the compression is finished. 3. In order that the pressure may be 
continued according to the solidification, all the ingots will have to 
be pressed simultaneously, but they must be finished at different 
periods, according to the difference in heat between the preceding 
and following ingots. 4. This should arrange itself automatically 
without any special attendance, and the work of hauling, &c., should 
be reduced to a minimum. 5. The installation should be sufficiently 
simple, and not occupy too large a space in a steelworks. To all 
appearance there is only one way to accomplish this, namely, leaving 
the early stripped ingots standing inside of a framework, pressing the 
whole row of them simultaneously by a wall moved forward by driving 
in wedge blocks. Full details of the method are given. 

Workshop Treatment of Steel. — Walter Rosenhain * discusses 
the workshop treatment of steel. While it is essential that steel 
should be capable of being worked into structures or machines with- 
out injury, it is equally desirable that the workshop manipulations 
should be so regulated as to effect a minimum of injury upon the 
material. The injurious effects of punching and shearing and other 
operations, which involve severe local deformation of metal, are fully 
dealt with. The author considers that there is a natural tendency to 
ascribe failures of steel to faulty material, but whilst the possibility 
of faulty material cannot be entirely precluded, careful inquiry into 
the workshop treatment to which the material had been subjected 
would often reveal the true cause of failure. 

Steel OastinjfS. — The manufacture of steel castings in Germany 
is described by G. Drakenberg. f 

Hi|fh-8peed Steel. — Becent progress in the manufacture of high- 
speed steels is reviewed by G. Gherardi.J 

Steelworks Equipment. — A new electric turret-type furnace 
chaining and drawing machine constructed by the Alliance Machine 
Company, Alliance, Ohio, is described and illustrated. § The machine 
has a record of charging 60 cold billets and drawing 60 hot billets 
and delivering them to the finishing-mill tables 75 feet away in 45 
minutes. The boom is arranged with a tilting motion, but the opera- 
tor's platform is stationary in this respect. The tongs are of the 
double-grip type, and open from 12 to 30 inches — a range wide 

* Ttm€s Engineering Supplement, January 29, 1908, p. 3. 

t Bihang tilljernkontorets AnnaUr, 1907 jpp. 487-608. 

X Rassegna Mineraria, vol xxv. pp. 821-3^ ; vol. xxvi. pp. 5-8, 39-41, 67-59, 74-76. 

I Iron Trade jReview, vol. xli. p. 1006. 



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362 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

enough for the average variations of work to be handled. The 
machine has five motions, each of which is driven by an independent 
reversible motor. These are the bridge travel, the trolley travel, the 
revolving of the boom, and the gripping and releasing of the tongs. 
The machine has a rated capacity of 4 tons, but it can be made in any 
size and to suit any particular location or work. 

An illustrated description has appeared * of a new form of electric 
lifting magnet made by the Cleveland Armature Company, Cleveland, 
Ohio. Two types of the machine are made — the interpole beU, and 
the interpole flat magnet — according as the machines are required to 
lift loose material, such as scrap, turnings, <fec., or flat-surfaced pieces, 
ingots, bars, <&c. A zinc tank weighing 9600 pounds can be handled 
by one of these machines, with a diameter of 52 inches. 

Iron Alloys used in the Steel Industry.— W. Venator t has 

contributed a valuable paper on this subject, which focusses much of 
the most recent advances made in the manufacture and use of these 
alloys. He deals succinctly with each of the following materials: (1) 
Spiegeleisen and ferro-manganese ; (2) ferro-silicon ; (3) ferro-man- 
ganese-silicon, silico-spiegel ; (4) aluminium and ferro-aluminiam ; 
(5) f erro-chrome ; (6) nickel, ferro-nickel, f erro-nickel-chrome ; (7) 
ferro-tungsten and metallic-tungsten; (8) f erro-molybdenum ; (9) 
ferro-vanadium ; (10) ferro-titanium ; (11) ferro-phosphorus ; (12) 
carborundum. Each of the above products is discussed in the order 
given, and typical analyses furnished of the actual products to be 
obtained in commerce, and also in most cases approximate prices at 
which the products and raw materials are obtainable. 

1. Ferro-manganese and Spiegel* — The information given is well up 
to date, and historical details of the early attempts are given. It is of 
interest to note that efforts have been made in Russia to establish a 
ferro-manganese industry, so as to export the finished material in place 
of the ore, and in the list of continentel works making ferro-manganese 
the following Russian works are named: Donetz-Jurieffka Works, 
Hughes Works, Russian Belgian Co., and the Dnieprovienne Ca 

2. Ferro-silicon* — As made in the blast-furnace the maximum per- 
centage of silicon is about 20 per cent., but the commercial grades 
usually contain from 10 to 14 per cent. The presence of aluminium 
in the slag facilitates the formation of ferro-silicon. Most of this 
low-grade ferro-silicon used on the Continent is obtained from Great 
Britain. Ferro-silicons containing over 20 per cent, of silicon are 
made in the electric furnace exclusively. Details of charges and cost 
of manufacture are given. Alloys up to 80 to 90 per cent, of silicon 
are made. According to Keller, the output of the Liv^t furnaces is 
at the rate of 16,000 tons per annum, and Hutton stated in 1907 that 
the Girod Works (Savoy) produce 5000 tons of 50 per cent., and 1000 
tons of 30 per cent, ferro-silicon per annum. 

♦ Iron Tradts Rtview, vol. xli. pp. 596-697. 

t Stahl and Eisen, vol xxviii. pp. 41^9. 82-86. 149-166. 266-262. 



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FUBTHEB TBEATMENT OF IRON AND STEEL. 



363 



3. Ferro-manganese-eilicon Alloys, — ^Tbese alloys are somewhat diffi- 
cult to make rich in silicon in the blast-furnace, but high-grade silico- 
Spiegel is now made in the electric furnace. It is probable that the 
nliceous manganese ores, which have hitherto been considered useless, 
will be employed to produce this material in the electric furnace. 
The low carbon contents render this material superior to ordinary 
f erro-manganese, and the author considers that insufficient attention 
has been paid to it. Analyses of three qualities are given : — 





Manganese. 


Silicon. 


Phosphorus. 


Carbon. 


Sulphur. 


No. 1 . 


Per Cent 
50-56 


Per Cent. 
20-26 


Per Cent 
0-06 


Per Cent. 
10 


Per Cent. 
003 


No. 2 . 


68-75 


20-26 


0-052 


0-8 


002 


No. S . 


60-60 


30-36 


004 


0'66 


002 



4. Aluminium and Ferro-aluminium, — Details of the production per 
annum of each of the chief countries is given. The make of the five 
large companies in whose hands the manufacture of aluminium is 
practically confined amounted in 1906 to 19,000 tons. 

6. Ferro-ehrome. — This alloy is chiefly of importance in connection 
with the production of special steels. It has been made in the blast- 
furnace with up to 60 per cent, of chromium, and with about 12 per 
cent, of carbon. Its production requires a very large amount of fuel 
in the furnace, about 3 tons per ton of product being necessary. 
The world's production of chrome-iron ore is estimated at about 
80,000 tons. Analyses of the chief deposits are given in the paper. 
Most of the ferro-chromium is now made in the electric furnace. 
Details and analyses of various makes are given. The estimated 
total make of ferro-chromium is about 5000 tons per annum, of which 
1800 tons are produced in the United States. 

6. Niekel, Ferro-nickd, and FerrO'^ickel^chrame, — The high price of 
nickel has restricted its application to steel-making, in which it is 
well known to have a very favourable influence. A list of the com- 
panies in whose hands the world's supply of nickel practically is, is 
given, and analyses and costs of the ore. Analyses of the ferro-nickei 
and ferro-nickel-chrome met with in commerce are given. Two 
analyses of ferro-nickel-chrome given are : — 

1. 2. 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Chromium 51-62 60-51 

Nickel 17-19 17-19 

Iron 29-30 28-29 

Carbon 0'26-0-76 I'SO-l'SO 

Various elements "10-0 "20 0*10-0 "20 

7. Ferro-tungsten and metallic Tungsten, — Owing to the increasing 
use of high-speed steel, which owes its chief properties to this 



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364 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

element, tungsten ores are now greatly in demand, and the price 
has risen rapidly. The two chief ores are wolfram (FeW04) and 
scheelite (CaWO^). The annual output of 60-70 per cent, ore is 
about 3000 tons, of which in 1906 England produced 251 tons. The 
metal is used in the tool steel industry, in the shape of metallic- 
tungsten and f errO'tungsten, the former being made by the redaction, 
by means of carbon and heat, of the chemically prepared oxide, the 
latter by electric reduction. Typical analyses of English metallic 
tungsten are given as follows : — 

W. Si. C. Al. Fe. Mg. Mn. O. 

97-2 0-72 0'32 0'47 061 032 0-16 0-33 

98*68 0-32 0-12 0-21 059 018 

Typical analyses of f erro-tungsten are given as under : — 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Iron 43-20 13-50 

Tungsten 6174 85-79 

Carbon 287 0*60 

Silicon 0*85 0^ 

Aluminium 0*94 

Manganese 0*47 

Sulphur 0098 003 

Phosphorus 0*051 0*003 

8. Ferro-mclyhdenum, — Steel alloys of this metal are receiving con- 
siderable experimental attention. The raw materials are molybdenum 
glance (MoS^) and wolframite (PbMoO^), both comparatively rare 
minerals. Attempts have been made to use molybdenum in steel- 
making since about 1898. It has properties similar to tungsten, but 
it is said to require only one-third as much to give the same qualities. 
Both metallic-molybdenum and ferro-molybdenum are in use. Typi- 
cal analyses of botii materials are given. The melting-point of ferro- 
molybdenum is given at 1190^ C. The Girod Works turn out about 
50 tons of ferro-molybdenum per year. 

9. Ferro-vanadium, — According to the author, the influence of 
vanadium on steel has not yet been sufficiently investigated and 
explained. The statement has been made that even 0'2 to 0*5 per 
cent, of this element very greatly increases the elongation and break- 
ing strain of steel, and the author points out that Guillet is of opinion 
that, next to carbon, vanadium imparts the greatest improvement 
to the properties of iron. Analyses of the ferro-vanadium on the 
market are given. 

10. FerrO'titanivm. — In France, it is stated, the production of high- 
grade f erro-titanium is an accomplished fact, and analyses are quoted 
showing 52 per cent, of titanium. 

11. FerrO'phosphorus and phospJior-manganeae. — These materials are 
usually made in the blast-furnace, although latterly they have been 
made also in the electric furnace. Analyses of blast-furnace ferro- 
phosphorus are quoted, showing from 15 to 25 per cent, of phosphoraB, 
with carbon usually under 1 per cent. Phosphor-manganese made in 
the blast-furnace contains : Silicon, 1 per cent. ; manganese, 65 per 



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FUBTHEB TREATMENT OF IBON AND STEEL. 365 

cent. ; phosphorus, 25 per cent. ; iron, 7 per cent. ; and carbon, 2 per 
cent. 

12. Carborundum (siliconrcarbide), — Although chiefly made for 
grinding purposes, this material is also used to some extent in steel 
manufacture. Analyses of carborundum, which consists chiefly of 
silicon-carbide, are given : — 

1. 2. 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Silicon 69-19 62*0 

Carbon 2971 860 

Iron and alumina oxides . 0*39 AI. 1'5 

Lime and magnesia . . 0125 Fe. 1*5 

Various other alloys are mentioned, which possess only a scientific 
interest. Amongst these is ferro-boron, of which the following 
analysis is given : — 

Per Cent. 

Carbon 2-865 

Boron 32'10 

Sulphur 0*08 

Phosphorus 0-006 

In the United States f erro-sodium containing 25 per cent, of sodium 
is said to have been recently produced. The paper concludes with an 
account of the products obtained by the alumino-thermic process. 
A full English translation of this paper has appeared.* 

E. F. Lake f gives a general review of the improvements made in 
metals used in the building of all kinds of machinery, and of some of 
the new metals and alloys that have been brought into use. 

Steel Rails. — The manufacture of Bessemer steel rails is discussed 
by F. E. Abbott. J 

S. T. Fiero§ discusses the past and present mechanical treatment 
of steel rails. He considers that the cause of the present day troubles 
with rails is due to the decrease of the number of roll passes. As a 
proof that rails are much stifiFer and of finer granular structure under 
a greater number of passes, results of drop tests of rails made with 
twenty-tHree passes as against the same section with twenty-two 
passes, are given. 

H. E. D. Walker II describes an ingenious apparatus for obtaining 
exact sections of worn rails to the actual size. 

Sleepers. — in connection with the rusting of steel rails, reference 
is made to a report by J. W. Post,1I chief engineer of the Netherlands 
State Railways, relating to iron sleepers that had been bedded in 

• Iron and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxvi. pp. 620-522, 729, 816-817. 1010-1012. 
f American Machinist, vol. xxx. Part II., pp. 709^711. 

% Paper read before the Central Railway Club, Buffalo. New York, November 8, 1907 ; 
Mechanical Engineer, vol. xxi. pp. 86-88. 
§ Industrial World, vol xli. pp. 1376-1379. 

II Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers , vol. clxx. pp. 308-314, 
IT Machinery, vol. xiv. p. 156. 



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366 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

gravel and sand ballast for thirty-five years. The original weight of 
the sleepers was 125 lbs. They decreased in weight from rust and 
wear, on an average, one-quarter of a pound in every year, making a 
total decrease in weight in thirty-five years of 8-75 lbs. 

Details of a new press for the manufacture of sleepers, patented 
by the Hoesch Co. of Dortmund, are described and illustrated.* The 
machine is capable of a very large output, from 14 to 15 sleepers per 
minute being pressed. In practice about 7500 sleepers can be made 
in the single shift. 

A long historical and technical history of steel sleepers has been 
published by A. Haarmann.f The paper is accompanied by forty-five 
woodcuts showing the various forms of sleepers in use from the 
earliest dates, the first showing the cast-iron rails on stone sleepers 
in use at Merthyr Tydfil in 1804. Details are given of the mileage 
of various sleepers in use at different dates. The comparative cost 
of iron sleepers as compared with wooden ones is fully dealt with. 

A full English translation of A. Haarmann's paper has been 
published. :( 

The behaviour of steel sleepers on German railways is discussed by 
A. Haarmann.§ 

Steel for Motor-Oars. — Joseph Schaeffers|| deals with various 
alloy steels employed in the construction of motor-cars. Bessemer 
steel is unsuitable. Alloy steel is preferable, even if the price is 
four times that of Bessemer steel, because it possesses a greater limit 
of elongation. When inferior material is employed the motor-car is 
too heavy and the life of the tires is short. The author considers 
that exceptionally small differences in the chemical composition 
influence the quality of the steel to a considerable degree. From 
this point of view he deals with the influence of elements mixed with 
the steel on the quality of the metal, and describes several com- 
positions, the results of tests of these steels submitted to static and 
dynamic stresses, and their possibilities of application and treatment 
Special reference is made to the vanadium-steel manufactured by the 
American Vanadium Company, Pittsburg. The author determines 
the limits of harmful elements and of those which have a beneficial 
influence. It is found that the power of resistance of steel to 
continued vibrations, if the materials are of good quality, has the 
following values : Machine steel, 0'3 per cent, of carbon, resists 400,000 
vibrations ; nickel-chromium steel resists 6,000,000 vibrations ; vana- 
dium-nickel-chromium steel resists 15,000,000 vibrations. 

L. R^villon U deals with special steels from the point of view of the 
manufacture of motor-car parts, and shows that the present tendency 

* Stahlund Eisen, vol. xxviii. pp. 169-161* 

t/W<f.. pp. 177-197. 

j Engineer, vol. cv. pp. 189-191. 

§ Organ fUr die ForUchritte dts EUenhahnwesen^ 1907, p. 190. 

li Der Motorwagen, 1907. No. 33. 

IT Revue de Metallurgies vol. v. pp. 53-68. 



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FURTBER TREATMENT OF IRON AND STEEL. 367 

is constantly in ^ the direction of requiring greater resistance and 
hardness without duly regarding the increased britUeness thereby 
resulting. Thus, despite the theoretical investigations which have 
revealed the fact that steels, the structure of which' tends to become 
martensitic, are dangerous, attempts are constantly made to approach 
this quality of steel, and steels are freely dealt in which the micro- 
scope shows to be on the boundary line, which a slight variation in 
composition or an error in heat treatment would render dangerous. 
He classifies the various categories of steels commonly required as 
follows: (1) Case-hardening steels; (2) steels employed in motor 
construction either in the raw state or after annealing; (3) steels 
employed after quenching whether tempered or not ; (4) spring steels ; 
(5) steels for bearings; (6) magnet steels. For steels of the first 
category special steel has almost entirely superseded the use of 
ordinary steel. Steel containing about 2 per cent, of nickel was 
first employed, its easy case-hardening qualities and its great safety 
compensating for certain difficulties in the way of working it and 
disadvantages in the way of cost, but, having been found too soft, 
it has been replaced by a nickel steel containing about 1 per 
cent, of chromium. Case-hardening steels of chromium alloys alone 
do not exhibit the extraordinary brittleness encountered in nickel 
steels, but still retain the property of becoming exceedingly hard 
beneath the case-hardened and annealed layer. 

Steels of the second category do not necessitate extreme hardness. 
They are used for the body and chassis of cars, and may contain 
3 per cent, of nickel and 0*25 per cent, of carbon, although special 
parts such as connecting rods may be made one-third stronger, and 
proportionally lighter with steel containing 5 to 6 per cent, of nickel. 
The manufacture of valves from steel containing 36 per cent, of nickel 
has been abandoned since it has been ascertained that an equally 
untamishable steel can be obtained from a mild quality containing 
but 5 per cent, of nickel, except in the case of valves for very hot 
and moist gases in motors. 

Steels of the third category are chiefly used for gears and for 
shafting. The types used are described, and the proportions of 
nickel, chromium, and carbon usually adopted, are noted. Vanadium 
exerts an improving influence on quality despite the small percentages 
of the element employed. Generally speal^ng the nickel chromium 
steels suffice for most purposes, and nickel-chromium-vanadium alloys 
are only required in exceptional cases. These steels are subject, 
however, to two grave disadvantages ; their deformation on quench- 
ing, and their requiring annealing to remove the brittleness which 
supervenes on first quenching. A special steel containing small 
percentages of manganese, nickel, and silicon which obviates these 
disadvantages is described. 

The remaining categories of steel are discussed briefly, and the 
advantages of the electric furnace, and of the Girod process in parti- 
cular, for the manufacture of special steel are noted. 



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368 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

Steel for Structural Purposes:— J. A. L. Waddell * gives the 

results of twelve tests of steel columns made to determine the relative 
strengths of carbon steel and nickel steel. The nickel steel columns 
gave an elastic limit of 41,200 to 52,800 lbs. per square inch, and 
the carbon steel, 21,300 to 28,800 lbs. per square inch. 

Reports by G. K. Qilbert,t R. L. Humphrey, J. S. Sewell, and 
F. Soul6 on itie San Francisco earthquake and fire of April 18, 1906, 
and their effects on structures and structural materials contain much 
information of the effects on steel buildings. 

In a review of engineering in the United States in 1907,:t reference 
is made to the spectacular feature of building as an engineering 
work in the construction of the numerous steel-frame office buildings 
of enormous height in New York. The highest of these is the tower 
of the Manhattan Building, 75 feet by 85 feet, 660 feet high to the 
top of the cupola. This has forty-eight stories^ Next to this is 
the tower of the Singer Building, forty-two stories, with a height of 
612 feet. The main portions of these buildings are respectively 
eleven and fourteen stories high. On the other hand, the City 
Investing Company Building has the main building twenty-five 
stories high, with a tower 70 feet square, having thirty-two stories, 
and rising to a height of 400 feet above the street. In all these 
cases the towers are used as offices, &c., like the main parts of the 
building. This requires very elaborate lift equipment, with high 
speeds. The city now has one building each of forty-eight, forty-two, 
and thirty-two stories; twenty buildings of twenty to twenty-six 
stories ; fifty of fifteen to twenty stories ; and 465 buildings of ten 
to fifteen stories in height. 

J. H. Hecks § gives particulars of tests of steel plates removed from 
old boilers and ships, which afford little evidence of that loss of quality 
so prominent in the specimens tested by C. E. Stromeyer.|| Out of 
twenty-eight specimens cut from plates removed from old boilers, owing 
to damage or corrosion, only five showed an elongation of less than 
20 per cent, in 8 inches, the tenacity in no case being less than 
25^ tons per square inch. These five specimens had suffered much 
from corrosion or wasting. The remainder of the specimens showed 
very fair results, the tenacity averaging 27 to 28 tons per square 
inch, with elongations running from 20 to 27 per cent, in 8 inches. 
Out of the whole twenty-eight but two failed to bend double without 
cracking, though some of tihe specimens were twenty-five years old. 
A similar investigation made with ship-plates, removed mainly owing 
to damage by collision or stranding, also gave satisfactory results, 
though one-quarter failed to stand without cracking a cold bend 
through 180'. 

The use of steel in the construction of lai^e water-service tanks at 

* Engineerings News, voL Hz. pp. (K)-63. 

t (/nifed States Geoh^al Survey, Bulletin No. 324. 

i Engineer, vol. cv. pp. 51-52. 

§ Transactions of the Nortk-East Coast Engineers and Shipbuilders (advance prooO* 

II Journal of the Iron and Stul Institute, vol. Ixv. pp. 86-107. 



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FUBTHER TREATMENT OF IRON AND STEEL. 369 

Sydney is described by 0. W. Smith.* Tensile tests of the steel used 
are given. 

Reinforced Concrete. — In a paper read before the Society of 
Arts, Ernest R. Matthews,f after stating that reinforced concrete 
had been more extensively used in the United States of America than 
in any other country, went on to describe various works that had 
actually been completed in this material. As is well known, re- 
inforced concrete has been adopted by American engineers and 
architects with much greater alacrity than has been the case in 
Great Britain, the cause beings perhaps, partly due to the conserva- 
tive and unyielding laws. There are, however, signs that the future 
will, at no very distant date, bring a marked change in the more 
extended adoption of reinforced concrete to the many purposes for 
which it is so well adapted. The works described included reservoirs, 
aqueducts, conduits, water-mains, dams, sewage works, bridges, rail- 
way sleepers, tunnels, wharfs, jetties, foundations, columns, walls^ 
roofs, floors, and chimneys, and in the descriptions of many of the 
works were given particulars as to the quantity of material used, the 
time occupied in the construction, and, in some cases, the cost. The 
paper also included an appendix giving the regulations of the city of 
Chicago in respect of the use of reinforced concrete construction. 

Examples of construction in ferro-concrete are given by J. S. E. 
de Veaian, ;{ and some new uses for reinforced concrete are described 
by W. Noble Twelvetrees.§ 

M. £ahn || discusses the practical application of reinforced concrete. 
He expresses the opinion that reinforced concrete is the best form of 
construction when properly handled, and the worst when improperly 
handled. Such being the case, it behoves the owner and the archi- 
tect to insure that only the best class of contractor is employed on 
his work. Contractors can only afford to carry out work which will 
ensure them a fair amount of profit, and if, by the adoption of re- 
inforced concrete, the owner is saved 10 per cent, of the cost of con- 
struction, it is advisable to grant the contractor any extra saving, so 
as to ensure his giving a construction which will prove satisfactory in 
every respect. When owners and engineers realise this point, and 
act accordingly, reinforced concrete will reach that position in the 
category of structural materials to which it justly belongs. 

J. S. K De Yesian H deals with the application of reinforced con- 
crete to engineering construction, and points out the importance of 
using steel of suitable quantity for its intended purpose in reinforced 

* Minutes of Proceedings rf the Institution of Civil Engineers, vol. clxx. pp. 36&-376. 

t Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, vol. Ivi. pp. 429-447. 

X Report of the Seventy-seventh Meeting of the British Association^ London, 1906, 
p. 628. 

§ IHd., p. 624. 

II Transaetians of the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland, February 
18. 1906. 

IT Paper read before the Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Society, November 6, 1907 ; 
Times Engineering Supplement, November 13. 1907 • p. 6. 



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370 THE IRON AND STEEL INDX7STRIES. 

concrete work. Mild steel produced by the basic open-hearth pro- 
cess, with a tensile strength of from 28 tons per square inch to 32 
tons per square inch, and an elongation of 20 per cent, in a length of 
8 inches, is the best for general employment. High carbon steel is 
unsuitable, as is also any metal of variable quality. The quality of 
the Portland cement used is of the greatest importance, and the 
author states his preference for cement of the finest grinding, giving 
not more than a 20 per cent, residue on a 180 by 180 mesh sieve. 
The permissible expansion specified by him, under the Le Ghatelier 
process, is only half that allowed by the British standard specification. 
The sand to be used and the proper mixing of the cement are also 
dealt with. 

H. 0. Turner* gives an example of the preservation of steel 
embedded in concrete. Steel bars erected in 1902 were perfectly 
preserved, even in cases where the concrete protection was only three- 
quarters of an inch thick. 

E. Probst t has published an exhaustive report on the influence of 
the reinforcement and of cracks in the concrete as its strength. 

M. Foerster | has given an interesting description of the various 
systems of reinforced. concrete, and also deals with the theory of its 
use. Sketches are given of the sections employed for various pur- 
poses, together with data as to the strength of the sections. 

P. Rohlandf has considered the reason of the non-oxidation of 
iron embedded in reinforced concrete from a theoretical standpoint. 

Armour-plates and Projectiles. — J. W. Warr|| describes the 

manufacture of armour-plates, and comments on the application 
made of electricity for power. 

Improvements in the manufacture of armour-plates are reviewed 
by M. Klralupper.^ 

The development of the manufacture of armour-plates formed the 
subject of a lecture delivered in Rome by Ugo Gregoretti.** 

The Pozzuoli Ordnance Works, near Naples, are described by J. B. 
VanBrussell.tt 

The exhaustive paper read by T. J. Tresidder before the Institu- 
tion of Naval Architects is practically a thesis on the use and action 
of caps. 

C. K. Robinson | { gives details of recent progress in armour and 
ordnance, with information as to the resources of the manufactur- 
ing countries. Detailed reference is made to the employment of 

* Enpneering News, voL lix. p. 75. 

t MttUilungen aus <Um Kbni^lichen MaterialprUfungsamt ; Erganxungskeft I. p. 14i 
with 77 illustrations and 9 plates. 
X Stahl und Eisen, vol. xxvii. pp. 1757-1764. 
§ Ibid., vol. xxviii. pp. 156-158. 
II Electrical Review, vol. 1x1. pp. 1071-1074. 

if Oesterreickische ZeitschriftfUr Berg- und Hilitenwesen^ voL Iv. pp. 617-622. 
*♦ IJIndustria (Milan), vol. xxi. pp. 712-714. 
ft American Machinist ^ vol. xxx. pp. 918-915. 
Xt The Naval Annual, 1908. Edited by T. A. Brassey. Portsmouth. 



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FURTHER TREATMENT OF IRON AND STEEL. 371 

Hadfield's '' Era " steel, which enables hoods for quick-firing guns tx) 
be cast into shape without forfeiting any part of the toughness of 
forged steel. Some results are given of the latest armour manu- 
factured by William Beardmore & Co., Limited, and of results of 
projectile trials. An important question is raised in reference to 
supply of raw material. It is pointed out that nearly all the material 
used in armour in Great Britain is imported, which raises anew the 
question as to whether it would not be worth the while of the Govern- 
ment to make arrangements with certain firms to have bonded stocks 
of the raw material necessary for the manufacture of the highest 
quality of war equipment, as otherwise, in case of foreign complication, 
there might be serious difficulty met with in production. 

Armour-plate Vault. — An illustrated description has appeared * 
of an armour-plate vault constructed by the Bethlehem Steel Com- 
pany, South Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, for the Carnegie Safe Deposit 
Company, New York. The vault is built of 1215 tons of 4-inch 
armour-plate, containing 3*25 per cent, of nickel, the heaviest ingot 
used in making the plates having been 193,000 lbs. in weight, and 
being made up of the combined heats of three open-hearth furnaces. 
The subsequent plate only weighed 58,000 lbs. The main doors 
weigh 40,000 lbs. each. 

Ordnance. — Gustave Canet, honorary member of the Iron and 
Steel Institute, has honoured the Junior Institution of Engineers by 
accepting the presidency, and in his inaugural address, which was 
delivered on November 18, he frankly and critically compared English 
and French practice in connection with the design and manufacture 
of artillery. The conditions under which gunmakers work in the two 
countries are, he pointed out, essentially different. The whole tendency 
of French policy has been adverse to the interests of private manu- 
facturers. In Great Britain, on the other hand, there has never been 
any restriction placed upon manufacturers with regard to the supply, 
during peace time, of war material to foreign Powers. Hence works 
of private manufacturers have developed and have acquired vast ex- 
perience that is a valuable national asset, for they can place all their 
resources at the disposal of the Government in case of need. 

The manufacture of big guns in Sweden at the works of the Bofors- 
GuUspUng Company, visited by the Iron and Steel Institute in 1898, 
is described, t Illustrations are given of an 8*27 capped A.F. shot 
after perforating a 10-inch E.C. plate, the breech end of the new 5*9- 
inch gun, a 6-inch A. P. capped shot and a 7-inch K.C. plate perforated 
by it, the new 5'9-inch gun on naval mounting, the breech mechanism 
for the 9 '45-inch gun, with plates of views of the works and of various 
types of gun manufactured. 

• Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 1214-1217 ; Machinery, vol. xlv. pp. 131-184. 
t Engineer, vol. cv. pp. 446-448. 



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372 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

In the new gun factory at the Farkhead works of William Beard- 
more & Company, Limited,* preparations have been entered upon for 
the construction of the first 1 2 -inch naval gun that has ever been made 
in Scotland. The weapon is to be built for the British Admiralty. 
The 12-inch wire-wound gun fires a projectile weighing 850 lbs. The 
value of such a weapon is set down at about £22,500. 

Tinnill^. — An important blue-book, compiled by Miss A. M. Ander- 
son and T. M. Legge, has been issued on dangerous and injurious 
processes in the coating of metal with lead, or a mixture of lead and 
tin. The report also contains the results of an experimental investi- 
gation into the conditions of operating tinning workshops, which has 
been written by G. E. Duckering, one of His Majesty's inspectors of 
factories, who carried out the investigation. The most important of 
the suggested regulations set forth in the report is that no lead 
should be used in the tinning of metal hollow- ware. 

Electrolytic Pickling of Steel— 0. J. Reedf proposes to 

remove the scale on steel by making the metal the cathode in a 
sulphuric acid bath. 

Duplex Metal.— B. E. Eldred:^ describes the method devised by 
J. F. Monnot for the production of steel wire coated with copper. 

Needles. — £. P. Buffet § traces the history of the manufacture of 
needles. 

The origin of the establishment of the needle industry in Redditcb, 
which town is now famous for its needle production, is uncertain, but 
recent researches seem to show that the art of needle-making was 
probably first taught to the inhabitants by the monks of the Cistercian 
Abbey of Bordesley, which was a large religious house existing on 
the outskirts of the present town of Redd itch, and was dissolved in 
1538. The growth of the trade, however, must have been very slow, 
and it was not until toward the end of the eighteenth century that the 
bulk of the English needle-making industry was concentrated in and 
about Eedditch.jl 

Spanish Ironwork. — For twenty-five years there remained on 
loan at the Archaeological Museum at Madrid a magnificent display 
of Spanish ironwork. Owing to the deatli of the owner, the collection 
of five thousand specimens was brought to London for sale in Decem- 
ber 1907. The majority of the specimens belong to the fifteenth 

* Engineer, vol. cv. p. 453. 

t Transactions of the American EUctrochemical Society, vol. xi. pp. 181-184. 

X Engineering News ^ vol. Iviii. pp. 521-522 ; American Machinist, vol. xxx. pp. 474-475. 

§ American Machinist, vol. xxx. pp. 740-742. 

II Engineer^ vol. cv, p. 219. 



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FUBTHEB TREATMENT OF IRON AND STEEL. 373 

and sixteenth century. Aymer Yallance* considers that the most 
characteristic decorations are the nail-head bosses with which 
wooden doors were ornamented. But whether in nail-heads, hinges, 
locks, door-knockers, grilles, or processional crosses, the suitability of 
purpose and the capacity and limitation of the metal are '« never 
misunderstood. 

* Burlington Magatine, vol. xii. p. 163. 



1908. — ^i. 2 B 

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( 374 ) 



PHYSICAL PEOPEETIES. 



Specific Heat of Iron. — P. Oberhoffer * gives the results of in- 
vestigations on the specific heat of iron, describing the apparatus made 
use of for such determinations. He deals with the great difficulties 
encountered in the exact determination of the specific heat of iron. The 
high point of fusion and the affinity of iron for oxygen at high tempera- 
tures render the determination difficult. The results of former known 
observers extend from - 192° to + 1158°. Most observers employed 
the method of mixtures. Exact data concerning the chemical com- 
position of the material tested are generally not available, and the 
data given by former observers often indicate considerable variations. 
Pionchon was the first to attempt to solve in a complete manner the 
problem of the specific heat, and at the same time was the first to draw 
attention to the relation which exists between the calorimetric 
examination and the allotropic transformations originating in iron 
by the introduction of heat. After Pionchon, Harker and Stiicker 
have contributed extensive researches to this problem. The works 
of these and former workers are collected in a table. The author 
briefly describes the work of Pionchon, Harker, and Stiicker, and 
then deals with his own experiments. 1. Preliminary experiments, 
which comprise the methods employed up to the present time to 
determine the specific heat : (a) Preliminary experiments with the 
water calorimeter (method of mixtures) ; (b) preliminary experiments 
with the Bunsen ice calorimeter. 2. Preliminary experiments in 
order to develop the author's method. Preliminary experiments 
with the Berthelot water calorimeter soon showed that this method 
was unsuitable owing to the formation of aqueous vapour. Pre- 
liminary experiments with the Bunsen ice calorimeter showed that 
only the ice calorimeter could be employed, because only this allowed 
direct evacuation. A complete description of the calorimeter em- 
ployed by the author is given, of the important alterations made by 
him, of the arrangement of insulation of the calorimeter proper, of 
the Heraeus furnace employed, and of the methods of experimenting 
arranged by the author. The chemical composition of tiie material 
employed by the author was : — 



* Sfa/il und Risen, vol. xxvii. pp. 1764-1767 ; Metallurgie, vol. iv. pp. 427-443, 447- 
456, 486-497 ; Zentralblatt fUr EisenhUttmwestn, vol. ii. p. 667-669. 



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PHYSICAL PBOPEBTIES. 



375 



Per Cent. 

Carbon 0*06 

Silicon! 0-005 

Phosphorus 0*005 

Sulphur 0*019 

Manganese 0*05 

The results of the experiments are given in Tables I. and II. 



Table I. 



Temperature. 
Degrees C. 


Weight of the 
Sample. 


Corrected Hg. 
Weight. 


Calories given up 

by 1 Gramme 

of Iron. 




Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


266 


60889 


2-9232 


31-0 


391 


6*0889 


4-7536 


50*4 


440 


5-4352 


4-9167 


68*4 


500 


5*1923 


5*4611 


67*9 


543 


3-9733 


4*6113 


74*9 


652 


3-9733 


4*7191 


76*6 


573 


3-9733 


4-9965 


81*1 


622 


4-1006 


6'6112 


88*3 


638 


5-0792 


7*2933 


927 


640 


27374 


3*9857 


940 


660 


2-7374 


4*1766 


98*5 


700 


2-6943 


4-6655 


111-8 


709 


2-6943 


4-7374 


113-5 


756 


2*6943 


5*3006 


127-0 


766 


2-6943 


5-4124 


1297 


769 


2-6943 


5-4208 


129*9 


790 


2*1964 


4*5619 


1341 


802 


2*1964 


4-6436 


136-5 


834 


2*1964 


4*8204 


1417 


844 


2*1964 


4-8896 


1437 


880 


17577 


4-0596 


149-3 


883 


17577 


40514 


148-8 


915 


17577 


4-3199 


1587 


977 


17577 


4*4184 


162-3 


995 


0-9984 


2-5775 


1667 


1011 


1*7577 


4-5878 


168-5 


1018 


0*9984 


2-5950 


167-8 


1040 


2-0779 


5-5001 


170-9 


1078 


0*9984 


2-7658 


178-8 


1123 


9984 


2-8969 


187*3 


1140 


0*9984 


2-8966 


187-3 


1163 


17381 


• 5*2-117 


1947 


1210 


0*9984 


3*1007 


200-5 


1305 


0-9984 


3-3559 


2170 


1376 


0-9984 


3-5325 


228-4 


1420 


0-9984 


3-6542 


236-3 


1496 


0-9984 


3-8539 


249-2 


1523 


0-9984 


8-9315 


254-2 



The experiments show that each modification corresponds to a definite 
direction of the variation of temperature of the specific heat. The 
direction of the curve of the average specific heats in the vicinity of 



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376 



THE lEON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 



Arg permits with great probability the conclusion that the trangfor- 
mation of P into a iron is completed by a continuous series of mixed 
crystals. The average specific heat of y iron is practically constant. 

Table II. 



Temperature. 


Average 


Temperature. 


Average 


Degrees C. 


Specific Heat. 


Degrees C. 


Specific Heat. 




Per Cent. 




Per Cent 


250 


01221 


900 


01698 


800 


0-1267 


950 


0-1688 


350 


0-1286 


1000 


01678 


400 


01305 


1050 


01670 


450 


01340 


1100 


0-1664 


500 


0-1360 


1160 


0-1667 


550 


01395 


1200 


0-1667 


600 


01417 


1250 


01666 


650 


01463 


1300 


3-1662 


700 


0-1594 


1350 


0-1661 


750 


01675 


1400 


0-1666 


800 


0-1698 


1450 


3-1665 


850 


0-1699 


1500 


01667 



Hardness of Steel. — A. F. Shore * gives an illustrated descrip- 
tion of the scleroscope, an instrument designed for determining the 
relative and quantitative hardness of all metals^ including hardened 
steel. The instrument consists of a ball or plunger, weighing only 
40 grains, which slides loosely in a graduated glass tube. The ball 
is held at the top of the tube by a pin having a piston in a small 
cylinder, and a spring which serves to grip the hammer. The release 
of the ball is effected by means of a small rubber bulb. When hard 
steel is struck the actual concussion is equal to about 30 pounds 
constant pressure, while in softer metals the shock is more readily 
absorbed, the concussion in lead being hardly more than 1 or 2 
pounds. The determination of the hardness of the test-pieces is 
measured by the rebound of the drop weight. In lead the rebound 
is but \\ per cent, of the fall, while in very hard steel it is 73 per 
cent. The author discusses the hardness of steel, and gives a scale 
of hardness for various metals. 

E. Meyer f has made some experiments on the Brinell test for 
hardness, in order to determine what influence the pressure and 
diameter of the bell employed have on the hardness number. The 
theory of the compression method for determining the hardness is 
discussed. 

A. Gessner J describes the method of determining hardness with 
the Ludwik cone test. 

* American Machinist, vol. xrx., Part II., pp. 747-761. 
+ Physikalische Zeitschrift, 1908, p. 66. 

X Zeitschrift dts Oesterreichischen Ingenieur^ und Archiiekten Vereins, vol Kx. PP* 
799-800. 



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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 377 

Segregation in Steel Ingots. — H. M. Howe^ contributes a 

farther study of segregation in steel ingots, and gives a digest and 
analysis of the scattered information collected by other investigators, 
together with certain results he has obtained recently in his own 
researches. He propounds, in a series of questions, the chief pro- 
blems which require elucidation, and deals chiefly with the first two, 
viz., the influence of the size of the ingot, and of the rate of cooling. 
Taking the latter first, it is noted that each layer of steel as it freezes 
splits into two sublayers — a more pure one which freezes, and a less 
pure one which remains molten. If the cooling is very slow the 
impurities in this molten sublayer have good opportunities for pass- 
ing centreward by diffusion and connection, so that when the next 
layer comes to freeze, the enrichment which it has received from the 
freezing of the last preceding layer will be in large part effaced by 
this centreward movement. If, however, the freezing is very rapid, 
then, when the second layer comes to freeze, it will still retain most 
of the impurities expelled into it by the freezing of its predecessor. 
Slow freezing should therefore favour a centreward migration of 
imparities, while rapid freezing should tend to hamper this process 
by locking up the impurities in each successive layer frozen. It 
would also naturally be expected that slow cooling would imply slow 
freezing, and vice versd. An examination of the actual results ob- 
tained in practice follows, together with a discussion of the results of 
surfusion, the nature of which is explained, while the consequences 
arising from this condition are also enumerated in detail. The results 
of the investigations are summed up as follows : — 

Between the limits of 2^ inches square and 16 inches square the 
influence of the size of the ingot on the degree of segregation is of so 
slight a nature as to be almost masked by other variables, although 
in large ingots, e,g., 30 inches or more across^ there are indications which 
suggest that large size in ingots increases segregation. In most cases 
there is more segregation in ingots cooled quickly than in those cooled 
slowly, while the tendency of the latter should be to increase segrega- 
tion. The paradox may be explained in part by the quietness to which 
both large ingot size and slow cooling lead. This quiet should restrain 
segregation by favouring the land-locking type of solidification by 
lessening convection currents and the evolution of gases, and by lead- 
ing to surfusion. 

The most enriched part lies in the axis of the ingot, usually at a 
distance from the top of between 6 and 28 per cent, of the ingot^s 
length. The most impoverished part is probably rarely, if ever, axial. 
The enrichment in phosphorus and sulphur seems to be parallel with 
that in carbon, so that the isophoses and isotheis (lines of equal phos- 
phorus and equal sulphur) are parallel to the isocarbs. On a general 
average of many cases the average maximum enrichment in phos- 
phorus is about twice, and that in sulphur about three times, that 
in carbon, but in individual cases the ratios vary widely. Unusual 

* Engineering and Mining Journal^ vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 1011-1015. 



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378 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

freedom from sulphur and phosphorus does not appear to restrain 
segregation of carbon, but, if anything, rather to increase it. 

Influence of Oases on the Structure of Oast Iron and Steel 

— J. E. Fletcher * points out that gases play an important part in the 
structure of cast iron. Unless sufficiently large feeding heads and 
risers are provided near the heaviest sections of a casting, blow-holes, 
cavities, or ** pipes " are inevitable, and the real object of a feeding 
head is to allow gases to escape and to give liquid iron the oppor- 
tunity to replace the space recently occupied by the gases. The 
effects of gas on segregation in cast iron and in steel are discussed. It 
would not be surprising if the contraction or shrinkage of a metal 
were to be found to be almost entirely due to the driving off of the 
gases set free during solidification. Specific gravity and dilatation 
or expansion under heat are obviously associated with this question. 
The connection between specific gravity, weight, and volume of 
various sorts of iron is discussed, and the suggestion made that the 
non-expansibility and high specific gravity (8*05) of the non- 
expansible nickel-iron alloy (36 per cent, of nickel) are associated 
with freedom from gas inclusion. A series of diagrams and of 
photomicrographs illustrating the subject, and bearing on the ingot 
diagram published by Harmet,f are given. 

Orystallisation of Steel. — Walter Rosenhain I states that micro- 
scopic study has proved beyond doubt that all metals possess, in any 
state, a truly crystalline structure, and that, therefore, ordinary 
materials of construction, particularly iron and steel, cannot be said 
to possess the fibrous structure, as has so often been contended. The 
fact that metals are characteristically crystalline does not in any way 
conflict with the knowledge of their ductility and strength. When 
fibrous fractures appear it is because the crystals have been subjected 
to deformation before the fracture occurs, by the application of 
stresses in a certain manner, while on the other hand, when sudden 
and intensely local forces develop, the crystals will split along their 
natural cleavage before any amount of deformation has taken place. 
The crystalline or fibrous character of the fracture is, therefore, 
dependent not so much upon the character of the metal itself as upon 
the manner in which the fracture has been produced. The author 
concludes that inasmuch as metals, in their normal condition, already 
have a truly crystalline structure, it is evident that exposure to 
vibration cannot produce such a structure, although it might modify 
the character of the crystals already existing. There is no evidence 
at all that any change in the size or arrangement of the crystals of 
a metal can be produced either by vibration or fatigue. 

In a presidential address delivered before the Birmingham Uni- 
versity Sletallurgical Society, T. Turner § described the principles of 

* Paper read before the Staffordshire Iron and Steel Institute, November 23» 1907. 
t Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 1902, No. II. p. 146. 
X Times Engineering Supplement, November 6, 1907, p. 3. 
I Ibid,, December 11, 1907, p. 4. 



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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 379 

ci*jstallisation, and explained the difficulties of determining to which 
system any crystalline form belonged. 

The Cohesion of SteeL— On May 18 a paper on '< The Cohesion 
of Steel, and on the Relation between the Yield-Points in Tension 
and in Compression," was read by G. H. Gulliver * before the Royal 
Society of Edinburgh. The author said that in a homogeneous, 
isotropic solid, the directions of maximum shearing stress are in- 
clined at 45** to the directions of principal stress. If /x = tan <f> be the 
coefficient of internal friction, the surfaces of sliding are inclined 
at a =r (45** + <t>/2) to the directions of principal tension, and at )8 = 
(45** - <^/2) to the directions of principal compression. Experiments 
upon steel bars under simple tensile stress give as=50% c^^lO", 
/x = 0-176. This value of /x corresponds closely with the ordinary co- 
efficient of friction for dry metsdlic surfaces. Assuming that the 
material yields under a tensile stress for the same limiting value of 
frictional resistance as when under a compressive stress, the ratio 
of the yield-point in tension to that in compression is calculated as 
0-705 for steel, but from direct measurements the ratio appears to be 
higher. 

The shearing stress along a surface of sliding is always greater than 
the frictional resistance due to the normal stress upon the same 
surface. The additional frictional resistance required to balance 
the shearing stress is assumed to be due to a cohesive force acting 
normally to the same surface, and the value of this cohesion for steel 
is calculated as equal to a stress 3*384 times that which corresponds with 
the tensile yield-point, or to 2*384 times the compression yield-point 
(2*384/3-384 = 0*705). A bar cannot break in tension until the stress 
is equal to the cohesion in some part of the specimen. The values 
of the cohesion for a number of bars are calculated from their 
yield-points, and these values are found to agree very closely with 
the actual stresses in the bars at rupture. The fracture of a bar 
under tensile stress should begin in a direction normal to the axis. 
Numerous experiments confirm this. 

Structure of Malleable Iron.— E. Heyn f deals with the etch- 
ing of malleable iron for the visual investigation of structure. 

MicrOStructure of Iron and Steel.— In a lecture on the in- 
ternal architecture of metals, J. O. Arnold | gave examples of the 
microstructure of iron and steel. 

F. Kerdykf describes the failure of one of the propeller-shafts of 
the ss. Goentoer, The shaft was 13 inches in diameter. The micro- 
structure in the immediate vicinity of the fracture showed coarse- 

* Engineering, vol. Ixxxv. p. 718. 

t Report presented at the Brussels Congress 6f the International Association for 
Testing Materials; American Machinist, vol. xxx., Part I., pp. 806-807. 
X Ironmonger, vol. cxxii. p. 249. 
f DingUrs Polytechnisches Journal, vol. cccxxii. pp. 683-685. 



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380 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

grained ferrite, surrounded by pearlite. One foot from the fracture 
the structure was normal. The material contained from 0*31 to 0*35 
per^cent. of carbon. The structure clearly showed that the shaft had 
been over-heated considerably at the position of the fracture. From 
the tensile test the defective nature of the material was not apparent: 
Tensile strength, 68,268 pounds per square inch ; elongation, 30 per 
cent. ; contraction, 59*3 per cent. In order to prove with certaint}* 
that the accident was due to defective heat treatment of the shaft, 
alternate bending tests by the Wohler method, with short cylindrical 
test bars sharply turned in the middle to f inch diameter, were 
arranged. One end of the test-pieces was screwed into the end of a 
II inch horizontal shaft supported by two bearings, and the free end 
of the test-pieces was supported by a bearing loaded in such a manner 
that the bending tension at the smallest section was 28,450 pounds 
per square inch. The shaft made 450 revolutions per minute, the 
number of revolutions until fracture was determined. It amounted 
to : (1) For a normal shaft with 04 per cent, of carbon, 54,000 ; (2) 
for the shaft of the Ooentoer (a) in the original condition, 24,750 ; (h) 
after annealing during one hour at 800", 4500 reversals of stress. 
The experiments prove that the fracture was caused by defective 
heat treatment. 

MetallOCTAphy. — ^The practical value of metallography is dis- 
cussed by F. Giolitti* with special reference to experience at the 
Bethlehem works^ United States. His paper forms a continuation 
to a series of articles to which reference has previously been 
made.t 

K. W. Zimmerscheid I describes an inexpensive machine for 
polishing metal sections. 

K. Baumann§ describes the application of metallography as a 
method of testing. 

J. Grone|{ discusses the mechanical properties and microscopic 
structure of iron and steel, and shows how they are influenced by 
thermal treatment. 

Notes on metallography are given by O. Wawrziniok.1I 

P. Goerens** describes the application of colour-photography in 
metallography. Examples of coloured photographs of etched sections 
of iron and steel had previously been exhibited by E. F. Law at a 
meeting of the Royal Microscopical Society on November 20, 1907. 

L. Guillet ft emphasises the importance of having a datum basis for 
observations in metallography, and describes a method devised by 
L. Grix, and employed in the laboratories of the Dion-Bouton works, 

* Rassegna Mineraria, vol. xxvii. pp. 257-259. 

t Journal of the Iron and Steel InstttuU, 1907, No. III. p. 491. 

X Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. xxix. pp. 855-858. 

§ Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, vol. Ivii. p. 149. 

11 Gorni Journal, 1907, pp. 1-21. 

ir Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, vol. li. pp. 1754-1757. 

*♦ Metallurgies vol. v. pp. 19-23. 

tf- Revue de Mitallurgie, vol. iv. pp. 1027-1086. 



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PHYSICAL PROPERTIEa 381 

by which the exact position and occurrence of constituents may 
readily be located. The method, which is very simple and involves 
the use of no new appliances, enables many useful operations to be 
carried out, such as repeated etching in specific areas, and the identi- 
fication of special constituents in photographs, and in the teaching of 
metallography. It consists of a couple of points, at right angles to 
each other, on the stage of the microscope, the sample being scratched 
by a file so that one of its aides shall correspond with the direction of 
one of the impinging points. A series of photomicrographs are given 
bringing out a number of interesting details resulting from the suc- 
cessive treatment of the same sample by different reagents, the effect 
being accurately localised by the method described. 

E. Heyn * and 0. Bauer discuss several points in the metallography 
of pig iron. A series of experiments were made by cooling pig 
iron slowly down to a determined point, cooling out in water by 
estimating the graphite present at such temperature. It was found 
that siliceous iron behaves at first like white iron, and that the 
separation of graphite begins about 30° to 40° C. below the first 
critical point. The various details of the experiments are fully 
described, and the results illustrated by a series of curves. 

F. Hermann t briefly deals with the principal results of modern 
metallurgical and specially of metallographical science concerning iron- 
carbon alloys, and describes the variations which are brought about in 
the iron by tempering. 

W. Gahl J has contributed an able study of the theories in refer- 
ence to the separation of graphite in high carbon iron alloys. He 
criticises various views of other observers. The paper is illustrated 
with curves of the various systems described. 

Solidification Points and Transformation in Alloys— A. 

Fortevin § deals with the phenomena of solidification and the trans- 
formation of alloys, and the applications of the phase-rule to equi- 
librium in a system consisting of two bodies. He recognises the value 
of the contributions made by the Alloys Research Committee to the 
theory of the constitution of alloys, and points out that the results 
achieved are often ignored by those to whom their applications would 
be useful owing to the fact that, in order to understand them properly, 
a wider knowledge of physical chemistry is required than persons 
engaged industrially possess, or than is taught in ordinary technical 
courses of instruction. At the same time, although phase-rule and 
kindred conceptions belong to the domain of pure science, it is im- 
possible to grasp the questions involved in the properties and rational 
treatment of alloys, without understanding the diagrams of equi- 
librium which have been constructed with a view to elucidating the 
problems such alloys present. Another disadvantage which presents 

♦ Stahlund Risen, vol. xxvii. pp. 1565-1571, 1621-1625. 
t Giesserei Zeitung, vol. iv. pp. 641-644. 
X Stahl und Eisen, vol. xxviii. pp. 225-229. 
§ Revue de Metallurgies voL iv. pp. 915-925. 



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382 THE mON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

itself to those who desire to make themselves acquainted with the 
subject is the absence of any summary of the investigations which 
have preceded the formulation of the principles involved. He there- 
fore seeks to condense in a short space an account of the phenomena 
and a statement of the laws which govern the consideration of alloys. 
This is done from the point of view of their ultimate dependence on 
the principles of thermodynamics. The phase-rule, as it obtains in a 
system composed of two bodies, is then defined. The conditions of 
equilibrium of a system composed of two bodies is deduced directly 
from the law of equilibrium in heterogeneous systems or Phase Law, 
the law itself having been derived, by W. Gibbs, from the principles 
of thermodynamics, and its applications confirmed by the investiga- 
tions of numerous observers, such as Van t'Hoff, B. Roozeboom, H. 
Le Chatelier, and Tammann. If a mixture of two bodies in equi- 
librium, under definite conditions of temperature and pressure, be 
considered, it will either form a single homogeneous mass, or it will 
separate into a certain number of solid homogeneous bodies, liquid, 
solid, or gaseous, not miscible with each other, and each characterised 
by its composition, or the proportion of each of the two bodies they 
may severally contain. These homogeneous bodies have received the 
name of phases, and may be distinguished from one another by their 
composition, or one of their physical properties, density, physical 
state, or crystalline system, the distinctive and essential characteristic 
of two phases in equilibrium being always their non-miscibility. Thus 
two non-miscible solids or liquids, or a liquid and an insoluble solid, in 
equilibrium form as many systems composed of two phases. These 
phases may be continuous or discontinuous. A mixture of water and 
oil is a two-phase system, whether the oil and the water form two 
superposed layers, or whether the mixture be emulsified by agitation, 
and the oil disseminated in suspended globules throughout the water. 
The term " variancy " is applied to the number of conditions deter- 
mining the state of a system (the composition of the phases, tem- 
perature, &c.) which can be arbitrarily varied without destroying 
equilibrium. For a two -body system maintained at constant 
pressure the relation between the variancy, Y, and the number of 
phases is expressed by the formula V = 3 - <^. The laws of equi- 
librium depending on the value of V are stated for three conditions : 
(1) V<0 (negative variancy); (2) V = (in variancy) ; and (3) V=l 
(univariancy), after which the results of these laws, so far as they 
affect solidification, are discussed and explained, by the aid of 
diagrams and formulae, and the phrases ^' solid solution'' and 
'* mixed crystals" are explained and defined, together with the trans- 
formation points, and a description of the conditions causing eutec- 
tism, or eutecty. The foregoing considerations are next employed to 
explain transformations taking place in a solid solution, and the 
influence thereon of the rate oi cooling. The state of unstable 
equilibrium in a supersaturated system is facilitated by the addition 
of a few crystals of the unstable constituent. Thus in antimonj- 
cadmium alloys it is possible to observe the solidification and depo- 



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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 383 

sition of Sb-Cd corresponding with stable equilibrium, and the 
solidification and deposition of the compound SbgCdg, corresponding 
with unstable equilibrium. Of these conditions a remarkable 
example is furnished by the iron-carbon alloys, stable equilibrium 
amongst which corresponds with the presence of graphite, while 
unstable equilibrium corresponds with the presence of the carbide 
Fefi. 

Magnetic Properties of Iron and Steel.— Ernest Wilson * gives 

the results of experiments on the effects of induction in an iron 
cylinder when traversed by alternating currents. 

W. H. Walker f gives the results of an elaborate research on the 
influence of electromotive force on the structure of iron. 

P. Weiss X determined the intensity of magnetisation at saturation 
for both soft and Swedish iron at ordinary temperatures as 1731 
gauss. 

J. Sahulka§ describes the measurement of the loss of iron in 
alternating cuirent working. In another paper || he describes a 
method of rapidly determining the relation connecting the core loss 
per cycle with the frequency, and gives a number of results showing 
that this loss increases with the frequency. The effect of wave form 
on the loss per cycle is also investigated. 

W. H. F. Murdoch U describes a simple permeameter for workshop 
testing of iron, which has the advantage that the material tested may 
be in very large pieces. The accuracy aimed at is about 5 per cent., 
and the necessary readings can easily be taken. 

E. Haupt ** describes an apparatus designed for testing cores and 
armatures of relays, &c. The movable part of the instrument consists 
of an astatic system formed by two vertical needles held in a delicately 
pivoted frame. A fine spiral spring forms the controlling couple. 
Two horizontal solenoids are arranged in a vertical plane, and the 
direction of the currents is such that the couples exerted by the 
solenoids on the astatic system balance each other. If the sample 
to be tested is introduced into one of the solenoids the balance is 
distributed, and by gradually increasing and then decreasing the 
ciurent the magnetic behavioiu* of the sample may be studied by 
noting the corresponding angles of torsion. The angle of torsion 
is proportional to the intensity of magnetisation. By means of a 
sample of known magnetic qualities absolute values can be obtained. 

T. M. Barlow '|"|' describes some investigations made on the rate of 
flow of heat in electrical machines built up of iron forgings. The 

• Procetdin^s of the Royal SocUiy, vol. Ixxx. pp. .369-378. 
t Transactions of the American Electrochemical Society, May 8, 1907. 
X Comptes Rendus, vol. cxlv. pp. 1155-1157. 
§ Elektrotechnik und Maschinenbau , vol. xxv. p. 808. 
It Electrician, vol. Ix. pp. 330-331. 

^ Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical En^neers, vol. xl. pp. 137-158 ; 
Electrician, vol. Ix. pp. 245-246. 
•♦ Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, vol. xxviii. pp. 1069-1071. 
•ft Electrician^ vol. Ix. pp. 554-566. 



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384 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

rate of flow both along the forgings and perpendicular to them is 
dealt with, and the importance of the amount of edge surface of the 
stampings exposed to the cooling medium is shown. 

A cylindrical bundle of iron wire, 8 metres long and 50 square 
centimetres in sectional area, is surrounded at one end by a mag- 
netising coil of 400 turns, fed by a three-phase current. L. Donati * 
calculate^ the velocity of the wave of magnetism along the wires 
from the lag of phase at various points along the core, and finds it to 
be of the order of 1000 metres per second. 

Recalescence Ourves. — At the Physical Society, W. Rosenhain f 
described the two principal methods employed for obtaining recalescence 
curves. These are known as the '* inverse rate " and ^* differential " 
methods respectively. In the former method the time occupied by 
successive equal decrements of temperature is observed and plotted 
against the temperature of the cooling body, thus giving a curve 
whose ordinates are temperature (t) and (TT/dt (T = time) respectively. 
In the differential method the difference of temperature between the 
body under observation and a neutral or '^ blank " body cooling under 
approximately the same conditions is observed and plotted against 
the temperature of the body. The physical interpretation, in terms 
of quantity of heat evolved and of rate of evolution of heat of these 
two kinds of curves, are discussed by reference to the fundamental 
curve representing the time-temperature relations of one or two 
cooling bodies. On both types of curve recalescences are indicated 
by peaks, and it is shown that in the case of an inverse-rate curve 
the area of a peak, when taken between proper limits, is roughly pro- 
portional to the quantity of heat evolved divided by the rate of 
cooling. Serious errors affecting this proportionality in practical 
cases are, however, pointed out. The differential curves are first dis- 
cussed for the ideal case in which the neutral body cools at the same 
average rate as the body under observation ; but it is pointed out that 
this case cannot be readily attained in practice. The effect of differ* 
ences in the rates of cooling of the two bodies is shown to be the pro- 
duction of a general slope in the differential curve, upon which peaks 
due to recalescences are superposed. The author suggests the elimina- 
tion of this general slope by plotting a '* derived differential curve " 
in which the movements of the differential galvanometer during the 
process of cooling through successive intervals of temperature are 
plotted against the temperature of the cooling body. The curve re- 
presents the differential coefficient of the ordinary differential curve. 
Peaks representing recalescences on these curves are shown to have 
exactly the same physical meaning as peaks on the inverse-rate 
curves, and the conclusion is arrived at that the two methods lead to 
identical results, the choice between them being thus reduced to a 
question of experimental expediency. The experimental requirements 

♦ EUttricista, vol. vi. pp. 241-243. 
t Engineering, vol. Ixxxv. p. 180. 



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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 385 

of the two methods are then described, and it is shown that to arrive 
at the same degree of accuracy in the curves, the means of measuring 
temperature used for the inverse-rate method must be very much 
more sensitive than those required for the differential method. This 
necessity arises from the fact that, in the inverse-rate method, the 
actual temperature of the cooling body must be determined to the 
same degree of accuracy as the difference of temperature between the 
two bodies in the differential method, and while the latter difference 
rarely exceeds 40° C, the former frequently attains 800° C. The 
fact that accxirate autographic methods appear to be more readily 
attainable with the differential method is also an argument in its 
favour, as is also the fact that it is less subject to accidental error 
from external disturbing causes. 

Permanent Deformation of Metals— G. H. Gulliver* has 

contributed a paper on some phenomena of permanent deformation of 
metals, the object of which is to correct a hypothesis suggested in a 
previous paper in 1905 to explain the origin of the " contractile 
cross.'' It was. then suggested that while the somewhat analogous 
** Liiders' lines " were due to slipping of the elementary crystals within 
the crystalline grains of the metal, the contractile cross was the 
result of the slipping of the irregular crystalline grains themselves 
over each other. It is now established that for aluminium^ and 
probably for other ductile metals, the phenomena of constriction and 
fracture are due to excessive " slip-band " deformation, and that the 
contractile cross passes through the crystalline grains of the metal. 
It is somewhat influenced by the degree of coarseness of the 
crystalline structure, but is independent of the directions of the 
boundaries of the crystalline grains. 

Physical Properties of Oast Iron.— J. Christie t discusses some 

of the physical properties of cast iron. Oast iron offers a high re- 
sistance to compressive stress, and although this resistance varies 
within wide limitations, it maybe assumed as a working basis to be about 
six times that of the tensile strength, or, say, 95,000 lbs. per square 
indi of section. Oast iron is imperfectly elastic, as compared to the 
superior forms of the metal. It presents no definable elastic limit, 
and exhibits marked permanent set, under low loads, either in tension 
or compression. Experiments continued for several years indicate 
that when loads exceeding one-half the ultimate are applied, failure 
eventually ensues. It may, therefore, be assumed to have a practical 
elastic limit in tension of about one-half the breaking load. The 
coefficient of elasticity is likewise variable, in contradistinction to the 
constancy of the elasticity, under ordinary conditions, of wrought 
iron and steel. Recorded experiments indicate that the modulus of 
elasticity varies considerably in extreme cases, and is nearly alike in 

* Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers ^ 1907, pp. 519-624. 
t Paper read before the Engineers' Association, Philadelphia ; Iron and Coal Trades 
Review, vol. Ixxv. do. 1763-1764. 



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386 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

tension and compression. A modulus of 13,000,000 lbs. appears to 
be a fair valuation for direct tension and compression; or, for 
bending loads applied transversely, this modulus appears to average 
16,000,000 lbs. when used in computation with the commonly 
accepted formula for flexure. It is a safe general rule for ordinary 
cast iron in machine structures to limit tensile stress to 4000 lbs. 
per square inch of section, in the most favourable circumstances ; to 
3000 lbs. when loads are suddenly applied ; and to 2000 lbs. when the 
force alternates in direction ; these unit loads to be further limited 
to suit the ratio of length to section, as required for columns or any 
members in alternate extension or compression, or for beams or 
members subjected to alternating transverse stresses. 

H. M. Lane^ discusses the relation between the percentage of 
impurities to the volume of cast iron. 

W. Pineginj-f in a memoir covering sixty-eight pages, gives the 
results of experiments on the relations between the resistance to 
bending and the tensile strength of cast iron. 

Theory of Oase-hardening. — F. Wiist % deals with the theory of 
case-hardening. From metallographic and chemical experiments the 
author comes to the conclusion that the removal of carbon takes place 
in two phases. The first consists in the decomposition of the iron- 
carbide with the formation of temper-carbon, and the second in the 
oxidation of this latter by oxidising gases, which are given off from 
the surrounding iron oxide. 

F. Hermann § discusses the changes in iron on hardening. 

Bending Tests. — H. Biall Sankey II gives the results of tests made 
with a testing machine by means of which the quality of materials 
may be determined by the number of bends required to produce 
rupture and form the effort necessary to effect the bending. Test< 
were made with the eight types of steel experimented upon by the 
Alloys Research Committee. 

E. Meyer U shows that it is possible to determine graphically the 
bending of rods of various sections if the extension curve of the 
material is known. 

T. von Karman ** also deals with bending tests. 

Impact Testing. — E. Ehrensberger ff has made experiments on 
notched bars in three Charpy pendulum-type machines specially made 

* Paper read before the American Society of Mechanical Engineers ; Iron Tradi 
Review, vol. xli. pp. 970-971. 

t Mitteilungen Uber Forsckungsarbeiten aufdem GebUte des Ingenieutwesens^ No. 48. 
Berlin, J. Springer. 

X Metallurgie, voL v. pp. 7-12. § Giesserei Zeitung, vol. iv. pp. 641-64i 

11 Engineering, vol. Ixxxiv. pp. 829-831. 

if Zeitschrift des Vereines aeutscher Ingenieure, vol. lii. pp. 167-173. 

** Physikalische Zeitschrift, 1908. p. 136. 

"H* Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure^ vol. li. pp. 1974-1982 ; Stakl uni 
Eisen, vol. xxvii. pp. 1797, 1883. 



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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 387 

for the work, the maximum energy of blow available being 1808, 542, 
and 72 foot-pounds respectively. The energy absorbed in fracturing 
carbon steels and cast steels showed great variations and apparently 
no connection with elongation. The shock strength in a number of 
nickel and nickel-chromium steels is very high. Notches with sharp 
corners give lower values of resistance to shocks than rounded 
notches. A specification is proposed for adoption for tests of this 
kind. 

Testing Hardened SteeL — B. Stribeck* describes tests which 
were carried out with chromium steel and partly with carbon steel. 
He gives exact data concerning the elastic and permanent elonga- 
tions, and the percentage of elongation. The latter for hardened 
material was about 5 to 7 per cent, greater than for unhardened 
material. Data concerning the compressive strength and of the 
method of carrying out compression tests are given. In several 
experiments oiled brass plates were placed between the compressed 
surfaces of the sample and the ball to counteract the prevention of 
transverse elongation near the compressed surfaces. Bending tests 
were made to find the tensile strength, being recommended as more 
suitable than tensile tests, because the latter with completely hard 
material encounter difiiculties. With the bending tests completely 
hard material gave tensile strengths up to 412,510 lbs. per square 
inch. Further numerous experiments have shown that, with hard- 
ened steel balls of different diameters, or against a similar ball of the 
same diameter, which are pressed against a plane or a concave spheri- 
cal surface, even after permanent deformation the average pressures 
are equal, if the loads selected are proportional to the squares of the 
diameters. The elastic compression of balls gave results which corre- 
spond to the values calculated by the Hertz formula. A hardened 
ball tested between two similar balls was destroyed at the diameter 
of the compressed surface, which would have been attained with a 
slowly increasing load by a strain equal to two-thirds of the breaking 
strain. If the load was released at two- thirds of that strain, which 
with a further increasing load would have occasioned fracture, then 
the fracture of the ball would take place, and in some cases even after 
a few minutes. At a lower strain before fracture cracks appear con- 
centric to the contact surfaces, to which with further increased load 
radial cracks associate. With polished balls, cracks and fracture take 
place at considerably lower strains than with unpolished balls. The 
author concludes that the best method of hardness-testing is by 
pressing together two balls of equal diameter. 

In a lecture given at a meeting of the Sheffield Society of Engi- 
neers, J. O. Amold,t dealing with the question of testing structural 
steels, proposed to abandon the maximum stress as the base for the 
factor of safety, and to take the yield point as a datimi line, deduct 

♦ Zeitsckrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure, vol. li. pp. 1445-1461, 1500-1506, 
1542-1647. 
t Engineer^ vol. civ. p. 597. 



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388 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTBIBS. 

from this 4 tons, and, on the remainder, to use a factor of safety of at 
least 3 to 1. 

Constituents of Hardened Steels.— P. Breuil* replies to the 

criticisms of L. Guillet on his researches on the constituents of 
hardened steels. He cites the opinions of Arnold and of Ledebur, 
which were in opposition to those of Guillet, and contests his state- 
ments as to the conclusions to be drawn from the facts recorded in 
the original paper on the constituents of hardened steels. 

Tests of Hollow Oylinders. — 0. Bach -f describes tests of three 
cast-iron cylinders under internal pressure. The first had no stiffen- 
ing ribs. The second had circumferential and longitudinal ribs 50 
millimetres high, and the ribs of the third were 100 millimetres high. 
All the cylinders were 20 millimetres thick, with an internal diameter 
of 500 millimetres and a length of 1450 millimetres. The bulging of 
cylinders under pressure with longitudinal and circumferential ribs 
is, with regard to the increased quantity of material required, greater 
or very little less than with cylinders without ribs. It is more 
advantageous to use ribs of moderate height and to increase the 
thickness of the cylinders. 

Formation of OrackS in Plates. — According to B. Baumann I 
a tendency to cracks in boiler-plates can, in addition to an unsuit- 
able design of the boiler, be caused by defective quality of material, 
wrong treatment of the plate in the works, or the influences of the 
working conditions. The inferior value of the material seldom consists 
in insufficient tensile strength, but more frequently in insufficient 
toughness. An inadmissible high degree of brittleness can be brought 
about by an excessive percentage of phosphorus, sulphur, arsenic, oxy- 
gen, hydrogen, or nitrogen. A wrong heat-treatment may cause the 
material to be overheated, or burnt, or too rapidly heated, whereby 
strains and cracks originate ; in the same manner by too rapid cool- 
ing stresses can be caused. Such stresses, when no cracks appear 
and with the exception of burnt plates, can be removed by annealing. 
Damage to the plates in the boiler-shop by straightening and bending 
insufficiently heated material, by punching the rivet-holes and similar 
operations, can also be removed by annealing provided that no cracks 
have originated. Damage to the plates in the ordinary course of 
working can, with the present state of knowledge, with difficulty be 
accepted. However, the plates are exposed to considerable stresses, 
which easily lead to cracks on heating and cooling the boiler. 

The formation of cracks in cast-iron pipes is discussed by F. 
Kapaun.g 

♦ Bulletin de la SocUti de t Industrie MiniraU, vol. vii. pp. 545-^1. 
t Zeitschrift des l^ereines deutscher Ingeniture^ voL li. pp. 1700-1704. 
+ Ibid,, vol. li. pp. 1982-1989. 
§ Journal fUr GasbeUuchtung, vol li. pp. 8-9. 



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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 389 

Load for Railway Bridges. — K. Zelovioh * deals with the dimen- 
sions of railway bridges, taking into consideration the new Hun- 
garian standard specification of the year 1907. He gives a short 
summary of the conditions specified for materials, and mentions that 
formerly only the tensile strength of wrought iron was considered. 
It was specified as from 49,780 to 56,890 lbs. per square inch. In 
Hungary, up to the year 1889, wrought iron was employed in all 
bridges without exception. In that year the first bridge was con- 
structed of open-hearth steel, which had the following properties: 
Tensile strength, 48,359 to 62,579 lbs. per square inch ; elongation, 
19 to 35 per cent. ; contraction, 46 to 69 per cent The chemical 
composition was : 

Per Cent 

Carbon 016-0-33 

Silicon 0-01-0-03 

Manganese 0*10-0*31 

Copper 0-0&-014 

Phosphorus 0-02-0*061 

Sulphur 0-01-0-046 

The first bridge of mild steel in Austria was erected in the same 
year. After searching inquiries, a special committee of the Austrian 
Engineers and Architects Society decided, in the year 1891, that 
open-hearth steel was a thoroughly trustworthy material for the con- 
struction of bridges. Five years later (1896) the same committee 
decided that steel manufactured by the Bessemer acid process was 
a suitable material for the purpose, and that it should have a 
specified tensile strength of from 49,780 to 61,157 lbs. per square 
inch. The first bridges of steel manufactured by the Bessemer acid 
process were erected in Germany in 1891 and 1893 respectively, and 
since then this material and open-hearth steel are frequently em- 
ployed together. The specifications of different countries are com- 
pared, and the present standards are compared with the former 
conditions, and the weights of old and modern bridges are given. 
The load allowed in cast-steel bridge bearings is 14,220 lbs. per 
square inch, and is the same in Hungary and in Austria. Open- 
hearth steel castings are specified to support a minimum tensile 
stress of 7395 lbs. per square inch. 

The Causes of Damages to Oas-pipes by the Electric Cur- 
rent. — Isidor Bemauer \ states that the damages caused by the 
electric current to gas-pipes can be either of a thermal or chemical 
nature. The damages of a thermal nature are mostly due to short- 
circuiting, if the electric conductor is in direct contact with the gas- 
pipe, and thereby the electric current is led to earth. In such 
cases the electric current passes suddenly to the gas-pipe, so that 
the electric conductor is generally burned and the gas-pipe is melted 
through at the point of contact. Damages of a chemical nature are 

♦ Magyar m/mdi- is ipithtigylet, vol. xli., Parts V.-VI. 
t Bdnydszati is Koh&szati Lapok, vol. xl. pp. 302-306. 

1908.— L 2 c 



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390 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTBIES. 

caused by the electric current being transmitted to the gas-pipe by 
means of wet earth or masonry. In such cases the conducting 
dampness is decomposed by the electric current. The oxygen at 
the positive pole causes an oxidation of the gas-pipe, or of the 
insulation of the electric conductor. Many injuries take place 
owing to the so-called erratic currents. These currents come from 
the negative conductor of electric railways with conductor above 
ground, if sufficient care is not devoted to the return conductor. 
The author explains several cases, and gives photographs of damaged 
pipes. He explains the causes of the damages and gives his opinion 
how they could be avoided. The greatest care is necessary in 
the neighbourhood of electric power stations. The return cables to 
the central stations should be maintained in good order, and with 
electric tramways the rail-joints should be properly connected. The 
cable employed for the return to the station should be well insulated 
and of sufficiently large section. 

C. P. Buchanan ♦ gives the results of a series of failure tests on 
full-sized compression members of bridges for Pennsylvania lines. 

Bursting-point of Flanged Fittings. — Results of a number of 

tests are given "f to determine the average point at which flanged 
fittings of various sizes would burst under hydraulic pressure. The 
tests were made by bolting blind flanges to the openings of the 
fittings and admitting water through a small opening in one flange. 
Extra heavy-flanged tees were also tested. Using the tees as a basis 
and the factor of safety of five, the thickness of metal required safely 
to withstand a head of 3400 feet would be 5 inches if the metal 
carried its strength through such a thick section, which is not pro- 
bable. Rankin's rule, with material having a tensile strength of 
22,000 pounds per square inch, and the same factor of safety gives 
a thickness of only 2 inches. 

The Action of Toothless Gircnlar Saws.— F. W. Harbord J gives 

the results of a microscopic examination of the revolving disc and of 
the material subjected to its action. He finds that the material 
acted upon is heated at the point of contact to a temperature 
approaching, if not equal to, the melting-point of steel, and that 
this high temperature is confined practically to the surface in contact 
with the disc. 

A. Voigt§ has investigated the distribution of pressure in iron 
subjected to the action of a cutting tool. He reviews at length the 
work of previous authors, and a bibliography is given with references 
to a large number of papers on the subject. Theoretical attempts to 
give a general formula are dealt with. The author obtains a formula 

* Engineering News, vol. Iviii. pp. 685-695. 
+ Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 1040-1041. 
X Engineer, vol. cv. p. 187. 

§ Verhandlungen des Vereins tur Befdrderung dts Gewerbjleisses, 1907, pp. 443-541 ; 
Stahl und Eisen, vol xxviii. pp. 344-346. 



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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 391 

to find the internal pressure for points inside the specimen, and de- 
scribes experiments to test the accuracy of the same. The author 
draws attention to the probable value of radiographs of metallic 
particles in different conditions as regards stress. 

Strengfth of Ohain-links. — The chain has hitherto received scant 
attention from investigators in the field of elasticity and strength of 
materials, and a welcome addition to the two or three scattered 
memoirs on the theory of the stresses in chain-links is made by a 
memoir on the strength of chain-links by G. A. Goodenough * and 
L. E. Moore. The investigation described deals with the develop- 
ment of the theory of the stresses induced in chain-links with given 
conditions as regards loading, with experimental tests of the validity 
of the theory employed, and with the assumptions made as to the 
distribution of pressure between adjacent links, and the deduction, 
from theoretical considerations alone, of rational formulae for the 
loading of chains. Experiments made on steel rings were found 
to confirm the theoretical analysis employed in the calculation of 
stresses. Experiments on various chain-links further confirm this 
analysis. The introduction of a stud in the link equalises the stresses 
throughout the link, reduces the maximum tensile stresses about 
20 per cent., and reduces the excessive compressive stress at the 
end of the link about 50 per cent. The following formulae are 
applicable to chains of the usual form : P = 0'4 cZ^S for open links, 
and P = 0*5 cPS for stud links, where P denotes the safe load, d the 
diameter of the stock, and S the maximum permissible tensile stress. 

Steel Rails. — The specifications for the new standard rails of the 
Pennsylvania railway system have been publish ed.*)* For Bessemer 
steel rails the limit of phosphorus is placed at O'l per cent. 

Details of new arrangements on the question of price and specifica- 
tion of Bessemer rails, arrived at by manufacturers in the United 
States and Canada, have been published. j; The new specification, 
to which manufacturers have agreed, embodies several new or altered 
clauses, but does not yet altogether agree with either of the speci- 
fications advanced by the bodies representing the purchasers. The 
subject of " discard " is left open in so far as the actual amount of 
discard may be decided upon between the purchaser and manufacturer, 
but a scale is drawn up regulating the prices to be charged. A 9 per 
cent, discard and rails at $28 per ton is taken as a basis, and an 
increase of price df 29 cents per ton is to be made for each additional 
1 per cent, discard. Thus with 10 per cent, discard the price will be 
$28.29 per ton ; 15 per cent, discard, $28.74 per ton ; 20 per cent, 
discard, $31.19 per ton; 25 per cent, discard, $32.64 per ton. The 
limit of phosphorus still remains at O'l per cent., the manufacturers 

* University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station ^ Bulletin No. 18. 
t Engineering, vol. Ixxxv. p. 628. 
X Ibid., p. 166. 



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392 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

decliniDg to guarantee anything lower than thi& A drop test is to 
be taken for each heat, the height of drop varying from 17 feet to 
19 feet, according to the rail section. These are grouped in three 
divisions— viz., 75 lb. to 79 lb., 80 lb. to 89 lb., and 90 lb. to 100 lb. 
sections. The tup is to be of 2000 lb. weight, and the supports not 
less than 4 feet or more than 6 feet apart. A ^' shrinkage *' clause 
is also introduced, the object of which is to insure the finishing of 
the process of rolling at as low a temperature as possibla This clause 
states that for 7 5 -lb. section rails the finishing temperature is to be 
such that the shrinkage shall not exceed 6^^^ inches for a 33-foot rail, 
with a y^^-inch extra allowance for each additional 5 lb. in section. 
No artificial cooling of the rails will be allowed, neither shall they 
be held before sawing. With regard to cambering when delivered 
to the cold straightening presses, they must not be more than 5 inches 
out of straight over their entire length. It may be added that in 
most respects this specification approaches fairly closely to that 
embodied in the majority report presented recently to the American 
Railway Association by its committee on this question. In this 
committee's report, however, the subject of discard was left undeter- 
mined, while in a minority report a discard of 20 per cent, was 
demanded. 

The progress report of the special committee on rail sections of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers has also been published.^ 



I ♦ 



Oomigation of Tramway Bails. — Results are given f that have 
been deduced from information collected by the Maintenance of 
Way Committee of the American Street and Interurban Railway 
Engineering Association on the subject of rail corrugation. The 
general opinion is that the causes of the trouble are : the rails being 
insufficiently supported, the web of the rail being weak, faulty track 
construction, and slipping of the outer wheels on curves. 

In a report on corrugations on the upper surface of rail heads 
presented at the Mannheim Conference of the German Tramway 
and Light Railways Association, ;( the definite conclusion is arrived 
at that the material of the rails is strained beyond the elastic limit 
by the action of the hard tires of the wheels when brakes are applied. 
This is to some extent in agreement with the conclusions arrived at 
by W. Worby Beaumont.§ 

G. L. Fowler || states that there appears to be no relation between 
the variations in hardness and the positions of the corrugations. In 
a girder rail of the Boston Elevated Railroad the variations were 
more pronounced, and were considered to be due to hardening in 
service, but not to an original property of the steel. The hardness 
tests were made by the Martel method by allowing a loaded punch 
to fall on the sample. The standard punch is a four-sided pyramid, 

♦ Iron Age, vol. Ixxxi. p. 267. t Electrician, vol. Ix. p. 168. 

X Zeitschri/tfilr KleinUhnen ; Electrician, vol. Ix. pp. 167-168. 
§ Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 1907. No. III. pp. 601-502. 
II Street Railway Journal^ vol. xxx. pp. 506-608. 



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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 393 

one pair of opposite edges being inclined at an angle of 60° and 

the other 9°. The hardness number is ^^, where W is the total 

weight of the punch and head to which it is attached, h the height 
of fall, and Y the volume of metal displaced. 

Nickel Oast Iron. — L. Quillet*'^ prepared alloys by adding up to 
50 per cent, of nickel to a white iron containing 3*2 per cent, total 
carbon and 0*052 per cent, graphite, and up to 12 per cent, to a grey 
iron containing 2*739 per cent, total carbon and 1*697 per cent, 
graphite. As the percentage of nickel increases, pearlite disappears, 
the cementite commences to be partially of acicular form, sorbite 
appears, afterwards y-iron appears, and also troosto-sorbite on the 
disappearance of sorbite. The separation of graphite is favoured by 
nickel. By experimenting in a similar manner with manganese 
instead of nickel, it was found that y-iron was not formed, and 
generally sorbite was not obtained. Generally the elements which 
enter into solution in the iron, nickel, aluminium, and silicon, favour 
the separation of graphite, and those which form a double carbide, 
manganese and chromium, oppose this separation. 

Iron-timgSten Alloys. — H. Harkort t describes the preparation 
of a long series of carbonless iron-tungsten alloys. Details are given 
of their solidification temperatxires and microstructure. The author 
discusses at length the causes of the inconsistent results on 
solidification of alloys of almost pure iron and tungsten. The trans- 
formation temperature, ACg, is unaffected by addition of tungsten to 
iron. The temperature from which the sample is cooled appears to 
be without effect, and the cooling curves appear to indicate the 
existence of a compound FegW in alloys containing 20 per cent, of 
tungsten and upwards. With 15*4 per cent, of tungsten there is 
distinct evidence of mixed crystals in the alloys as made. After 
heating at 800® the presence of ^-iron is recognised, and with 0-7 
and 3*38 per cent, of tungsten there was a slight separation of a 
constituent containing tungsten. With higher percentages, 11-7 and 
19*6 of tungsten, there was no doubt of the occurrence of two con- 
stituents. Heating to 1200** did not bring about the complete solution 
of this constituent rich in tungsten. 

Iron-chromiam Alloys. — H. Wedding J gives details of iron- 
chromium alloys. 

H. Wedding § has investigated the behaviour of a series of alloys 
of nickel, chromium, and iron on melting as regards mobility, the 
formation of blowholes, piping of ingots, gases evolved, <bc. 

♦ Comptes Rendus, vol. cxlv. pp. 552-653. 

t Metallurgies vol. iv. pp. 617-631. 639-647, 673-682. 

X Verhandlungen des Vereins xur Bef6rdtrung des Gewerhjleisses, 1907, pp. 221-226. 

§ Stahl und Eisen, vol. xxvii. pp. 1590-1691. 



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394 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

W. Treitschke* and G. Tammann have published some investigations 
on the alloys of iron with chromium. Early investigations seemed to 
show that chromium only mixed with iron imperfectly at 1600° C. 
This, however, is not due to the slight solubility of either metal in 
the other, but to the fact that molten chromium at temperatures in the 
neighbourhood of this melting point possess extremely great viscosity, 
and consequently only mixes with difficulty when left to mix quietly 
with the highly fluid iron. This difficulty was overcome in this series 
of experiments by using magnesium vessels instead of porcelain,whereby 
a heat of 1700° could be obtained. The chromium used is obtained by 
the Goldschmidt method, and contained 99 per cent, chromium, 0*6 per 
cent, iron, and 0*5 aluminiun. The iron was very low carbon iron, con- 
taining only 0*07 per cent, carbon, and a very small percentage of the 
other materials. The cooling curves were followed down to 600°. The 
curve of the commencement of solidification is irregular, the minima 
at about 15 and 40 per cent, of chromium, and maxima at 30 and 90 
per cent, of chromium. There is a ftu-ther irregular curve of arrest- 
points, and a eutectic at about 1260° between 30 and 40 per cent, of 
chromium. This shows that this system is one in which equilibrium 
is not attained, and a compound of iron and chromium forms with 
difficulty. The authors draw attention to the importance of the 
maximum temperature attained in making chromium steels. 

Ferro-titaniom. — 0. V. Slocum -f gives the results of some experi- 
ments on the improvement of iron and steel by the addition of ferro- 
titanium. Titanium is exceedingly plentiful, and immense deposits 
of iron ore containing that element are found in the United States 
and Canada, so that the cost may be brought so low as to be a secondary 
consideration. In 1890 the St. Thomas Car Wheel Company, Ontario, 
noticed a peculiar hardness in the tread of certain wheels which was 
subsequently found to be due to the presence of titanium. Extra- 
ordinary mileages were obtained from these wheels, an engine-wheel 
having made more than 200,000 miles with a wear of less than one- 
eighth of the chilled surface all round. The results obtained in a 
small blast-furnace erected for the smelting of titaniferous iron ores, 
and having a capacity of 3 to 4 tons per day, are described. Later 
A. J. Bossi made ferro-titanium in a small electric furnace at Niagara 
Falls. The alloy was made in flat lumps which were exceedingly 
hard, and in some instances could not be broken, and had to be 
remelted before using. On test bars 1 inch square and 12 inches 
long the transverse strength of a strong mixture was raised by the 
addition of 0*5 per cent, of a 10 per cent, titanium alloy, from 3000 
lbs. breaking strain to 3600 lbs., and a weak mixture made expressly 
for the experiments had its strength increased from 2100 lbs. to 
2950 lbs. The opinion of F. C. Weber is quoted to the effect that 
titanium introduced as an alloy at once combines with the gaseous 

* Zeitschriftfur anorganische Chemie, vol. Iv. pp. 409-411. 
t /run Trade Review, voL xli. pp. 7d3-795w 



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PHYSICAL PROPEBTIES. 395 

nitrogen present in the molten metal to form » stable nitride^ and 
reference is also made to the work of Rossi on titaniferous pig iron. 

Testing-Machines.— J. H. Wicksteed * deals with the use of large 
testing-machines. The largest machine for testing bridge struts or 
columns in compression is a machine of English manufacture installed 
at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers at Paris. It will test a 
column 80 feet long with a base plate attached measuring 20 feet by 
3 feet 3 inches and a capitol 3 feet 3 inches by 3 feet 3 inches. This 
is double the capacity for testing struts or columns of any other 
machine at present in existence. 

W. J. Lambert f describes a method of determining the extension 
of test-pieces in tensile tests. He describes a method of measuring 
the extension of test-pieces under tensile stress in order to determine 
the modulus of elasticity. Two knife-edges are fixed to the test- 
piece in such a manner that they lie in the same plane and 
immediately opposite each other. When the test-piece is extended 
the distance between the knife-edges is magnified 100 diameters, 
and is projected by a photomicrographic apparatus on to a screen. 
The width is measured by means of a sliding vernier, and the 
extension is thereby measured to O'OOOOl inch. 

A. Martens % describes the results of investigations into the limita- 
tions and possibilities of the hydraulic diaphragm measuring principle 
as applied to testing-machines. The ratio between the width of the 
unsupported portion of the diaphragm and the thickness of the dia- 
phragm should be small. Soft brass is preferable to steel. Gauges 
can be constructed of this type which will indicate accurately to 
within plus or minus 1 per cent, with a hydraulic pressure of 100 
atmospheres. The combination of a diaphragm box with two record- 
ing gauges, one to control the other, is recommended. 

Elastic Properties of Steel. — O. Wawrziniokf gives complete 
tensile tests for a series of seven carbon steels containing from 0'63 
to 1*13 per cent, of carbon, but otherwise almost similar in com- 
position. As the carbon increases the modulus of elasticity expressed 
in kilogrammes per square centimetre decreases from 2,098,000 with 
0*63 per cent, of carbon to 2,121,000 with 1-13 per cent, of carbon. 
The effect of annealing appears to be uncertain ; there is a tendency 
to low values after annealing at 500®, and to higher values at 600° or 
700®. The results of similar tests upon three chromium steels con- 
taining 0*95 per cent, carbon and 0*60 per cent, chromium, 1*18 per 
cent, carbon and 0*66 per cent, chromium, and 1 70 per cent, carbon 
and 0*97 per cent, chromium respectively. The elastic limit, tensile 
strength, and elongation were considerably lowered, and the modulus 
of elasticity slightly raised by annealing. 

♦ Times Engineering Supplement, November 20, 1907, p. 3. 

t Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, vol. clxix. pp. 349-351. 
X Mitteilungen Uber Forschungsarbeiten des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure^ No. 38, 
§ Metallurgies vol. iv. pp. 810-815. 



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396 THE IBON AND STEEL INDUSTBIES. 

At the Royal Society's soiree on May 13, the Cambridge Scientific 
Instrument Company showed a form of extensometer, for measuring 
the stretch of test-pieces under tension. The test-bar is first placed in a 
jig, and two pairs of dots are punched in it, 100 millimetres apart, 
each pair being for the location of one of the two attachments be- 
tween which the stretch of the test-piece is to be measured. By an 
arrangement of levers the extension of the test-piece causes the 
edge- wise movement of a springy blade of steel. This steel is set 
vibrating by hand, and a micrometer screw is adjusted until a sharp 
steel point comes into contact with the end of the blade. This, of 
course, makes a sound, and brings the blade rapidly to rest, forming 
a means of adjusting the micrometer with extreme accuracy. When 
the test-piece is loaded by a fresh amount, the micrometer is again 
brought into contact with the reed, and difference in reading noted. 
The divisions on the micrometer head are engraved on white cellu- 
loid, and are about a millimetre apart. One complete division corre- 
sponds to a stretch of the test-piece of 0*001 millimetre, and as a 
fair estimation can be made of a tenth of a division, the reading may 
be taken to 00001 millimetre. The expansion of the test-piece by 
the heat of a finger brought into contact with it can be easily 
observed.* 

The equipment of the mechanical testing-laboratory of the Stutt- 
gart Technical School is described by C. Bacb.f 

A. Martens]: gives the results of extensive tests of hydraulic 
diaphragm testing-machines. 

Reinforced Ooncrete.— The theory of ferro-concrete and the 
materials employed in its construction are discussed. § The steel 
should take the tension stresses and the concrete the compression 
stresses. The steel should be ductile, of a tensile strength from 
27 tons to 32 tons per square inch, with an elongation of at least 
20 per cent, on an 8-inch specimen. Sound open-hearth basic or 
acid steel coming up to these requirements is suitable for reinforced 
concrete work. High-carbon steel is unsuitable owing to its brittle- 
ness, which would occasion sudden failure of the work should its limit 
of elasticity be overstepped. Although Bessemer steel may be some- 
what cheaper, its variable and lower quality renders it an unsuitable 
metal to be employed. Bessemer basic steel should be absolutely 
excluded owing to its brittleness, due to excess of phosphorus left in 
the finished product from the pig iron. In the Hennebique system 
it is immaterial as to what form the steel may take, but as the most 
economical form and the best in every way is the round bar, that is 
the form usually employed ; the stirrup steel to resist the shearing 
strains being made of flat bars. The adherence of good concrete and 

• Engineerings vol. Ixxxv. p. 658. 

t Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscAer Ingenieure, vol. lii. pp. 241-243. 
X Engineering, voL Ixxxiv. pp. 861-862. 

§ Paper read before the British Association, Leicester, by J. S. E. De Vesian, August 6, 
1907 ; /n?« and Coal Trades Review, vol. Ixxv. pp. 646-^7. 



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PHTSICAL PROPERTIES. 397 

steel varies from about 500 lbs. to 700 lbs. per square inch of surface 
in contact. Twisting and squeezing only weaken the metal and make 
it necessary to increase the weight used to obtain equal results. 

Specifications- — H. Moldenke* discusses specifications for iron 
and steel. The subject is dealt with under the following heads : 
Carbon, machinery and malleable castings^ light castings, fuel for 
foundry work, coke, ferro-alloys, scrap, moulding sand, and com- 
mercial castings. 

New rules relating to rivet-stays and appendages, with tables of 
margin of safety, dimensions, <bc., have been issued by the Massa- 
chusetts Board of Boiler Rules, f 

Summaries of the majority and minority reports withdrawn by the 
Executive Committee from the Convention of the American Railway 
Associations Committee on standard rail and wheel sections, at the 
November meeting in New York, have been given. J 

The National Physical Laboratory. — In accordance with the 

instructions contained in a Treasury Minute of the 31st December, 
1906, a committee, composed of G. Balfour, Sir Andrew Noble, Sir J. 
"Wolfe Barry, W. J. Crossley, and R. Chalmers, was appointed to 
inquire generally into the work now performed at the National 
Physical Laboratory, with special reference to the character of the 
mechanical, physical, and chemical tests undertaken there ; the 
possibility of their interfering unduly with the business of other 
agencies ; and the desirability of publishing the results of all such 
testing work. The committee have now issued their report.§ 

Standard Notation- — Attention was drawn at a meeting of the 
Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Society to the existing confusion in 
notation for engineering formulae, and a resolution was passed " That, 
in view of the desirability of adopting as far as possible a standard 
notation and nomenclature for engineering formulae, this meeting of 
the Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Society requests the Council to 
approach the Engineering Standards Committee, the universities 
having engineering faculties, the leading engineering institutions, 
societies, and associations in the British Empire, with the object 
of bringing about concerted action in the matter, or to take such 
steps as may, in the Council's opinion, best conduce to this end." 
There can be no question that the existing confusion in engineering 
notation, particularly in connection with structural work, is to be 
regretted, and a well-considered attempt to introduce standardisation 
calls for commendation. Wise discrimination has been exercised in 
confining the scheme to notation, as the standardisation of definitions 
and nomenclature is a problem of far greater complexity. Useful 

* Iron Trade Review, vol. xli. pp. 926-928, 
t Iron Age, vol. Ixxx. pp. 1166-1166. 
X Ibid,,^. 1326. 
§ Cd. 3026 (1908). 



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398 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES, 

work has already been done in various directions by the Institution 
of Electrical Engineers in standardising electrical definitions, nomen- 
clature, and notation by the International Testing Association, and 
the Iron and Steel Institute in dealing with the nomenclature of 
iron and steel, and by the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy in 
dealing with mining weights and measures. The work already done 
needs, however, to be co-ordinated, and, as far as possible, brought 
into line with the decisions arrived at by Continental societies. * 

* Mining Journal f vol. Ixxxiii. p. 141. 



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( 399 ) 



CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. 



Passivity of Iron. — H. L. Heathcote ♦ gives the results of an 
investigation on the passivifying, passivity, and activifying of iron. 

Occluded Oases in Steel.— G. Bellocf deals with the occluded 
gases in steel. With a very mild steel containing 0"12 per cent, of 
carbon and 0*35 per cent, of manganese, the relation between the 

dv 
rate of evolution t, and the temperature t at which samples of turn- 
ings were heated for several days, was as follows. The evolution 

dv 
commenced at from 150° to 400°. ,. had a minimum value at about 

200°, and a maximum at about 400°. Between 500° and 600° there 
was a high maximum, falling to a minimum with the termination 
of interval A2. With the commencement of A3 the evolution rose, 
then fell, and continuously rose with further increase of temperature. 
Upon heating to 1200°, a volume of gas equal to from eleven to 
twelve times that of the steel was extracted. Up to 400° the gas is 
almost entirely carbon dioxide, which disappears at about 550° ; above 
400°, hydrogen and carbonic oxide ; above 550° a quantity of nitrogen 
not exceeding 10 per cent, of the total gas appears. The experiments 
show the improbability of the existence of a state of dissociation of the 
gases occluded in the steel. 

O. BoudouardJ notes the many investigations which have been 
made on gases occluded in iron and steel, and points out that while 
their important influence on the formation of blowholes is well 
known, the condition in which they exist in the metal is as yet 
unknown. The results obtained by Parry, who showed that by 
heating a steel several times in a vacuum diminishing volumes of 
gases are obtained, are commented on. In the author's own experi- 
ments he studied the conditions under which the occluded gases 
could be extracted. He used a piece of merchant bar having 
1 square centimetre in section, and containing 0*099 per cent, of 
carbon ; a piece of sheet 1 millimetre in thickuess, with 0'13 per 
cent, of carbon ; and wires 2 millimetres, 1 millimetre, and 0-5 

♦ Journal of the SocUiy of Chemical Industry ^ vol. xxvi. pp. 899-917. 
t Comptes Rendus, vol. cxlv. pp. 1280-1283 
X Revue de Metallurgies vol. v. pp. 69-74. 



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400 



THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 



millimetre in thickness, containing 0*188 per cent., 0*074 per cent., 
and 047 per cent, of carbon respectively. The apparatus employed 
and the conditions under which the gases were extracted are de- 
scribed, and tables given summarising the results of the experimenti«. 
Incidentally the experiments revealed the fact that iron heated in a 
vacuum commences to volatilise at 900° C, and that this volatilisation 
becomes pronounced at 1100° C. 

0. Boudouard * gives in the following table the weight per cent, 
of gases extracted from samples of iron wire and bar by heating to 
1100° three times:— 



Metal. 


CO,. 


H. 


CO. 


N. 


Total 




Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 




Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Wire, 0*5 millimetres in diameter . 


0035 


0-0032 


0047 


0-0105 


0-0957 


Wire, 1 millimetre in diameter 


0035 


0-0017 


0-062 


0-0042 


0-1029 


Plate, 1 millimetre thick . 


0012 


0-0018 


0081 


0-0042 


0-099 


Strip cut from 1 sqiiare centimetre 


0-021 


00056 


0-18 


0-0141 


0-2207 


bar 













The method employed is too slow to be of use as a direct method of 
estimation of nitrogen. 

H. Braune t has given an exhaustive account of the occurrence of 
nitrogen in iron and steel, and of its influence on physical properties. 
He points out that during the last ten years pig iron of a particular 
quality has, from time to time, been obtained from Swedish blast- 
furnaces, the wrought iron obtained from which has revealed inex- 
plicable qualities of brittleness and inelasticity. The chemical com- 
position of the pig iron has not varied to any notable extent from 
that of pig iron yielding excellent iron; the percentage of sulphur 
and phosphorus has, at times, been unusually low, but the proportions 
of silicon and manganese have been those usually encountered. In 
order to explain the anomalies the following explanations have been 
put forward : (1) That the percentage of carbon in the pig iron 
was unsuitable ; (2) that arsenic was present, and, in combination 
with sulphur and phosphorus^ gave rise to compounds which affected 
adversely the nature of the iron even when the separate amounts of 
these elements were insufficient to influence the result ; (3) that the 
pig iron contained considerable volumes of occluded gases, the nature 
of which was not specified, while scientific opinion would not consent 
to regard nitrogen as being one of them. All these theories were, iu 
turn, rejected, and there remained only the hypothesis of the intro- 
duction of some new element during the process of manufacture. 
Investigations carried out on a large number of Swedish pig irons iA 

♦ CompUs Rendus, vol. cxlv. pp. 1283-1284. 

t Bulletin de la SocUih de V Industrie Minirale, vol vii. pp. 48&-644. 



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CHEMICAL PBOPEBTIES. 401 

1900-1901 showed that the particular type of pig iron was produced 
when the temperature of the blast-furnace exceeded a particular limit, 
while it was also found that by employing a basic slag and a high 
temperature of fusion there was produced, in the lower portions of 
blast-furnace, a white substance which on analysis proved to be 
cyanide of potassium. This substance has only been met with in 
Swedish furnaces during the last ten years, a period coeval with the 
introduction of highly basic fluxes, high temperatures of working 
and increased production, whereas it had been frequently en- 
countered elsewhere, notably at the charcoal blast-furnaces in 
Styria, and at the blast-furnace at Mariazell, where it had been 
obtained in such quantities that it had been recovered for use in 
electrolytic processes. Circumstances led to the suspicion that there 
was a connection between the production of the inferior pig iron in 
question and the formation of cyanide. Now, it had been recognised 
that iron was capable of absorbing nitrogen from molten potassium 
cyanide, and all these circumstances appeared to indicate that the 
foreign substance introduced was nitrogen, the more so as chemistry 
had taught that such a reaction between iron and nitrogen was quite 
possible. 

According to Mendel e Jeff's periodic law, nitrogen, phosphorus, 
arsenic, antimony, and bismuth belong to the same group, nitrogen 
being the most electro-negative, and bismuth the least. All these 
elements are deleterious to the quality of iron, and the more so in 
proportion as they are electro - negative. Nitrogen, the most 
electro-negative of the five, would, a pHori^ exert the most injurious 
influence. 

The theory that the presence of nitrogen renders iron hard and 
brittle dates back to about the year 1850, when the French school of 
chemists regarded this element as one of the constituents of steel, 
and believed that it entered in considerable amounts into the com- 
position of iron. Later researches having shown that the amounts 
of nitrogen present in iron were extremely small, the theory of the 
influence of nitrogen on the quality of iron had been abandoned. A. H. 
Allen* in 1880 made some experiments to explain in what way the 
presence of nitrogen could render iron brittle, but his investigations 
only served to confirm the view that it had very little influence on 
pig iron, and he himself regarded it as a metallurgical curiosity. In 
1888, however, Tholander t reverted to the theory, and pointed out 
that the influence of small quantities of nitrogen, introduced in 
various stages of the manufacture of iron, should not be lost sight of. 

In 1903 Braune commenced to analyse different samples of iron and 
steel, made by different methods, and observed that the absorption of 
nitrogen by iron was not peculiar to blast-furnace reactions, but 
occurred whenever a basic slag, nitrogen, and fuel at an elevated 
temperature reacted on iron. He now gives the results of further 
investigations at Basle, Zurich, and Paris. 

♦ Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute, 1879, No. II. p. 480; 1880, No. I. p. 181. 
t Jemkontorets AnnaUr, vol. liii. p. 429. 



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402 



THE mON AND STEEL INDTJSTBIES. 



Nitrogen is encountered under two conditions in iron, the free state 
and combined. Investigations on its occurrence in the free state 
have been made by Miiller, Stead, Pattinson, and others, and the 
following table shows the volumes present in steel and iron made by 
various processes :— 



Nature of Specimen. 


Nitrogen. 


Hydrogen. 


Carbon 
Monoxide. 




Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent, 


Bessemer rail steel .... 


97 


90-3 


0-0 


Bessemer spring steel .... 


18-1 


81-9 


00 


Bessemer rail steel before introducing 


10-5 


88-8 


0-7 


Spiegel 








Bessemer steel for rails after addition 


23-0 


77-0 


0-0 


of Spiegel 








Steel before hammering 


5-9 


920 


1-4 


Steel after hammering .... 


23-3 


73-4 


1-3 


Open-hearth steel .... 


:io-8 


67-0 


2-2 


English haematite pig iron low in 


440 


52-1 


3-9 


manganese 








High manganese pig iron . 


35-6 


62-2 


2-8 

1 



Nitrogen in chemical combination cannot occur in iron simultaneously 
with the presence of an acid, as, in all commercial descriptions of iron 
and steel, carbon occurs, and this element, at the high temperature at 
which iron is produced and manipulated, has more affinity for acids 
than any other element. In these circumstances there are only two 
possible combinations to be met with, nitride of iron and cyanide of 
iron. 

If a cyanide of iron occurs in iron it must necessarily be a 
ferrous compound. In a reducing atmosphere the ferrous cyanide is 
stable up to 430^ 0., above which it decomposes into iron carbide and 
nitrogen. This carbide being formed by these means at a much 
lower temperature than ordinarily, it follows that, when it occurs 
thus, it is derived directly from the ferrous cyfinide by liberation of 
the nitrogen. Thus it follows that the cyanide cannot exist in iron 
at a red heat. It might be conceived that the free nitrogen liberated 
within the iron might react on the carbide during cooling to regenerate 
cyanide, but this is not likely. Various chemical considerations 
which might affect the nature or sequence of the reactions occurring 
are discussed, the conclusion being ultimately arrived at that the 
nitrogen present in iron is not in the form of a cyanide compound. 

Attention is next directed to the nitrides of iron, of which there 
are two, both well known, Fe^Ng and Fe^Ny The first of these, 
which is sometimes inaccurately written Fe2N, and is known as tetra- 
ferro-diammonium, can be prepared by conducting ammonia over iron 
reduced by hydrogen, the operation being carried out at the tem- 
perature of dissociation of ammonia, or by heating ferric chloride in 
an atmosphere of ammonia. The second nitride, Fe^N^, was obtained 



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CHEMICAL PROPERTIES. 403 

by Rogstadius on heating reduced iron to a white heat for five hours 
and subjecting it to an ammoniacal atmosphere, while Fr^my obtained 
a film of the substance on the surface of small iron cylinders treated 
to redness in an atmosphere of ammonia. In view of the importance 
of ascertaining definitely whether iron and nitrogen do combine 
directly with each other, recourse is had to the researches of Baur ♦ 
and Voermann, which show with certainty that iron and free nitrogen 
cannot, in any of the conditions accompanying the manufacture of 
iron, combine with one another. 

Nitrised iron is either a grey powder or a silvery and very hard 
substance, a bad conductor of electricity, and possessing feeble 
magnetism. All compounds are decomposed at temperatures but 
slightly above their temperatures of formation, 600*" to 7000' C. At 
higher temperatures decomposition takes place more rapidly, but it 
never becomes so complete but that small quantities of nitrogen 
remain in the iron, and may be estimated by means of methods which 
are described in great detail. 

The physical effects of the presence of nitrogen are then investi- 
gated. Its occurrence having been proved it became necessary to 
ascertain its effects, and for this purpose to prepare samples con- 
taining varying proportions of nitrogen. For this purpose the 
property of iron of absorbing nitrogen when heated at 600** to 800" 
in a current of dry ammonia, was made use of. The arrangement of 
the apparatus and the sequence of operations are described and 
illustrated. By the means employed it is possible to prepare samples 
containing from per cent to 7 per cent, of nitrogen, and even higher 
if desired. The samples absorb hydrogen as well as nitrogen, under 
the conditions described, but the hydrogen escapes in the course of a 
few days, whereas in the experiments in question the samples were 
first heated to redness, and then laid aside for three months before 
being subjected to the tests. 

Experiments made to ascertain the influence of nitrogen on the 
appearance of the fractured surface of iron and steel were incon- 
clusive. Experiments were afterwards undertaken as to the influence 
of nitrogen on the strength, hardness, and elasticity of iron and steel 
on their magnetic and electrical properties and on their structure, 
numerous photomicrographs being given to show the effects of the 
presence of this element. In conclusion the author states his belief 
that the peculiar excellence of Swedish iron is mainly due, not so 
much to their general purity as to their comparatively uniform 
lowness in nitrogen. 

A. Sieverts f states that iron showed a certain discrepancy between 
different samples. The occlusion and diffusion of hydrogen begin at 
400". A sample of reduced iron absorbed nitrogen at 900°, but 
liberated it on cooling. Nickel absorbs hydrogen below 200°, and 
diffusion may be detected from 450° upwards. Diffusion and 

* Zeitschrift fiir physikalische Chemie^ vol. lii. p. 467. 
t Ibid., yo\. Ix. pp. 129-201. 



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404 THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES. 

occlusion do not appear to be closely related to one another ; diffusion 
may be rapid with very small occlusion. The velocity of diffusion 
always increases with the temperature. The activity of hydrogen as 
a reducing agent in the pressure of nickel is attributed to occlusion. 

Direct Union of Carbon and Hydrogen at High Tempera- 
tures. — The conditions under which direct union of carbon and 
hydrogen takes place at high temperatures are discussed by J. N. 
Pring * and R. S. Hutton. 

Colour of Ferric Oxide. — L. Wohler t and 0. Condrea discuss the 
various colours of ferric oxide, and show that the variation is due to 
the size of the grains. The violet colour was obtained with salt, and 
was found to contain pure ferric oxide. The violet and the brown 
colour were converted into orange by grinding and sliming. 

Iron Salts. — Some complex iron salts in which the iron is masked 
are described by P. Pascal. J He also describes! a similar new 
series of ammonio-ferric salts. 

Experiments on the reducing and oxidising power of salts of iron 
are described by E. Muller|| and F. Kapeller. 

Ferro-silicon. — The chemical properties of high-percentage ferro- 
silicon are discussed by J. Haas.1I 

B. Neumann ** describes a new way of making iron alloys low in 
carbon. He points out the importance of having low carbon in 
the alloys to be added to the finished steel bath, and states that 
the cost of such alloys rises in inverse proportion to the carbon 
contents. He has experimented with high-grade ferro-silicon as 
the reducing agent, using a small Heroult electric furnace, and 
carrying out the reaction between the ferro-silicon and the oxide 
to be reduced, under a neutral slag composed of molten aluminate of 
lime. J3etails of reduction experiments with the oxides of chromium, 
molybdenum, tungsten, and titanium are given. 

Diamond and Carborundum Crystals in Steel. — D. G. 

Tschernoff ft discusses the occurrence of carborundum and of diamond 
crystals in steel. Microscopic observ