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The Journal of LleuL William Feliman, of the First Perm- 
sylvania Regimenty from May 26, 1781 to April 25, 1782, em- 
bracing tJie Siege of Yorkiawn, and the SoxUhem Campaign, 

[The Society is indebtad to Horn R. Kneass, Esq., for permission to publish 
this Journal. The following letter from that gentleman to the Chairman of the 
Publishing Committee furnishes some particulars of the author.] 

Bear S*>,—Lieut. William Feltman was a native of Lancaster County, Penn- 
sylvania, which place he claimed as his residence as long as he lived. 

He died a few years before the beginning of this century, but the praiCke year 
when he died, or his age at the time of his death, I am unable now to ascertain. 
The journal was handed to me over twenty years ago by my grand-motber, 
(now deceased,) who was a sister of Lieut. Feltman, and has been in my posses- 
sion ever since. 

Very respectfully yours, 

Horn R. Kneass. 

Philadelphia^ April 27, 1853. 

York Town [Pennsylvania], 2^th May, 1781. This day we left York 
a;t 9 o'clock in the morning with about eight hunctred effective men, 
under the coriimand of Gen. Wayne, and encamped 11 miles on the 
road to Frederick Town . 

27^^. — The general beat at sunrise, and we took up the line of march, 
and halted near Peter Little's Town — it being 14 miles. 

28iA. — The troops took up the line of march at sunrise, marched 
1 ^ through Tarrcy Town and halted near Pipe Creek, being about 14 miles. 

;S 2^th May, — :The troops took up the line of march at three o^clock in 

(^ the morning, and encamped on the S. W. of Monocooy — 15 miles. 

3Q^A. — This day continued on the ground : the soldiers washed their 
clothing and furbished up their arms and accoutrements, and in the 
evening at 7 o'clock we were reviewed by Gen. Wayne. 

Zlst. — Took up the line of march at sunrise; marched through 
Frederick Town, Maryland, where thci*e was a number of British offi- 
cers (prisoners), who took a view of us as we passed through the town. 
We made a very respectable appearance. We crossed the Pomock 
[Potomac] at Newland's ferry; were obliged to cross in bad scows. 
One unfortunately sunk,' loaded with artillery, &c., and a few men, in 
which one Sergeant and three privates of our Regiment were drowned; 
encamped on this side of the river. 

A number of us dined at the Tavern (or oruery as the Virginians 
call it.) The night turned out to be very heavy with rain, and we were 
obliged to take up our quarters in Col. Clapham's Negro Quarters, I 
mean a number of the officers df our Regiment. We rose early the next 
morning and breakfasted at said Ornery — 18 miles. 

June Ist. — Continued on^ur ground until 4 o'clock in the afternoon; 
moved 5 miles towards Leesburg, where I am informed that Dan'l May 
.^ lives and keeps a public house. Loudon Co. — 5 miles. 

26fc — Continued on this ground till evening, it being very wet and 
[^ 3^. — Took up the line of march at 10 o'clock A. M. Passed through 

L 2 * 


Lee^barg, (which is but a rcrj small town and not built regular.) We 
eoeamped a<t GiM«6 Creek, being 15 miles. 

-ith, — Marched at six o'clock in the morning, and had orders from 
Gen. Way 06 to leav$ our heavy baggage at this place (Mr. Corks' s 
laiUs^, and the sick of the line under the care of a surgeon. Marched 
through a low country, roads being xcry bad, in consequence of the 
rains we had a few days before, and eacamped at the Red House, 
18 miles — Prince William County. 

bth. — A wet morning, cleared about 10 o'clock, A. M. 3Iarchcd at 
1 o'clock P. M., proceeded 12 miles towards Rappahannock, where we 
ky out without any kind of shelter — 12 miles. 
^th June. — March at six o'clock, A, M. — 9 miles, Fauquier County. 
7th. — Cohllnued on our ground in consequence of a heavj rain- 
Sth, — Took jyip the line oi ^arch at sunrise. Reached the north 
(branch of Rappahannock at 10 o'clock. The troops waded the river 
and proceeded 21 miles. Culpepper County. 

9^. — Took up the line of maich at six o'clock A. M«, qirosscd the 
south branch of Rappahannock and proceeded 6 miles into the couatij« 
The country vei^ poor and buildings very small — 14 miles. 

10/^. — Took up the line of march at 5 o'clock in the momiog — and 
joined the Marquis's troops this day, and passed a bodj of militia (Vir- 
ginia) of 1800 men. W^ had a very severe march of 23 miles this 
day. (Orange Co.) 

ll^^.-r-M arched at 4 o'clock and encamped at 10 A- M — 10 miles, 
12/^.' — Took up the line of march at G o'clock A.M.; march through 
n, thicket of fine woods, nothing but a foot path, through which wo got 
jirith a great difficulty, especially our artillery. At last we arrived on 
the main road leading to Fredericksburgh which I long ifish for, and 
encamped 6 miles from where we entered on the road. (Louisa Co-) — 
14 miles. 

13^^. -Continued on this ground in ord^r to refresh ourselves, which 
wc had great occasion for. 

Uth. — Took up the line of marehat 5 o'clock A. M. ; marched through 
a d— poor county, the water being very scarce. This day see a number 
of Negroes^ the greater j)\rt of them being naked — 12 miles. 

15fc/i.— Took up the line of march at sunrise. A great scarcity of 
water that day and a very fo-tiguing march. Refreshed oarsclvcs in an 
orchard with CqL Robinson. The Marquis and Gen. Wayne took a 
snack with us — 14 miles. (Hanover County.) 

16^ June, — Took up the line of march at day break, made a short 
day's march of six miles, being much fatigued. This day buiU a fine 
bush hut — 6 miles. 

17<A.— Took up the Uiie of march at 3 o'clock in the morning, march 
through the best country we have over seen in this State, and eneamped 
at Mr. Dandridge's, being 20 miles. 

18/^. — ^Very tine morntng. This day the enemy advanced on us. 
Our encampment struck at sunset. All the Continental Troops marched 
in order to surprise a p'trty of Tarleton's horse. We continued till day 
light, but on our arrival found they had gone some hours — 13 miles. 



19;^. — ^Laj on our arms till one o'cloclr; retired into tbe country 
4 miles, where we lay destitute of any refreshment, bedding or covering— 
4 miles, (Henrico Co.) 

20th, — Marched at 6 o'clock, three miles, and were reviewed by the 
General. Lay on our arms all night — 3 miles. 

2\st June. — Arrived at Col. Simm's mills. Marched at 12 o'clock 
A. M., 8 miles, and lay at Burrill's ornery, destitute of every necessary 
of life — 8 miles. ^ 

22d. — Marched at 2 o'clock through a well inhabited country, 
though I can give no account of the people, as I have not been in the 
inside of a house (but one or two ornerys). They sometimes come to 
the road side in order to take a view of us as we pass by, but a person 
can scarcely discern any part of them but the nose and eyes, as they 
have themselves muffled up with linens, &c., in order to prevent the* sun 
from burning their faces (I mean the female sex). At the same time 
they will have a number of blacks standing around them, all naked, 
nothing to hide their nakedness. You can easily distinguish their sex; 
I mean the blacks, for reasons already mentioned. They will also have 
their attendants dressed in the same uniform. They, will also attend 
their table in this manner. 

This day we passed through Eichmond in twenty hours after the 
enemy had evacuated it — a number of houses being destroyed by the 
enemy. They also destroyed a great quantity of Tobacco, which they 
threw into the streets and sot fire to it. The town is built close on 
James River under a bank. We encamped two miles this side of the 
town. About 6 o'clock P. M. Capt. Davis and self- made to town and 
spent the afternoon playing billiards and drinking wine — 20 miles. 

23r?.-^Took up the line of march at 2 o'clock in the morning,, 
halted at 8 for refroshraant, where we had an alarm. Our Light 
Horse brought us intelligence that the ienemy was within one mile of 
us. The army immediately formed for action and an universal joy 
prevailed, that certain success was before us. We lay on our arms ten 
hours, hourly rooeiving accounts of their advance, (our intelligence on 
this whole march was exceeding bad), but to our great mortification it 
turned out a false alarm. At six we moved our position for convenience 
of encampment, A very heavy rain came on at 12 o'clock at night — 
15 miles. 

2i(h «/Mne.— 'Continued on this ground in order to dry our clothes 
(which had got wet the night before), and the men to furbish their 
arms, &o. This day one of our soldiers belonging to the fourth Reg't^ 
Penna., was taken deserting to the enemy. At 3 o'clock P. M. he 
was trifed and sentenced to be shot, which soon he received in the 
evening at roll-call. At the same time we received orders to strike our 
tents, which we did, and marched at dark in order to sutpriso Tarleton's 
Horse (12 milea.) He got intelligence of our advancinjss (which he always 
hadj more than we) and retired«-12 miles. James City County. 




2Dth Jvne. — fjay by this day* At dark took tip out line of mavcli in 
ordei; to overtake Col. Simes's horaC) who had the rear guard with a 
great number of cattle^ plundering as he was making his way towards 
James Townj left one negro man with the smallpox lying on the road 
side in order to prevent the Virginia militia from pursuing them, which 
the enemy frequently did ) left numbers in that condition starving and 
helplesS) begging of us as we passed them for God's sake to kill them, 
as they were in mat pain and misery. 

26//i Juftc%^»At six o'clock in the morning we were informed that a 
covering party of horse were but a small distance before us. Gen. 
Wayne immediately ordered the front platoon of each battalion to turn 
out immediately, which order being complied with, being four platoons 
and Major McPherson's party of Legionary bbrse, we pursued them 
five or six miles in full speed. At last we came within a short distance 
of them. Major Hamilton had the command of the Infantry. A party 
then of about forty men of the New England troops were ordered to 
mount behind the same number of dragoons, and then pursued them and 
came up with them in a short time. VV^e had a severe 8kii;mish with 
their Horse and Infantry, in which we took a number of their horse and 
cattle, and killed forty of their Infantry. Our loss was trifling. Major 
Mcpherson's horse threw him into the field of action, who fortunately 
made his escape* I expected every moment they would have attacked 
our small party of Infantry, which was posted on a small knoll, in order 
to cover the Light Dragoons* 

2*ith June, — This day we lay at Bird's Ornery. 

28^/\. — Made some movements for advantage of ground. 

1^)th. — Manoeuvred considerably in consequence of bad intelligence. 

30^/t. — Greatly fatigued; lay by great part of this day. Our tents 
^j^me td u?» this evening. ^ 

Jal^ \st^ 'Sl-TrrMj^rcliQcl at d^y bp^al? 8 roijea tp Yori RIycTj, for tfao 
trpops to wj^ah and refresh tl^pmaelves, where on^ iQ^n ^nd Pft Downey 
pf t|^0 Qtl^ Beg't Penpa, wp^e unfort\inate]y drowned, I i^ounted 
guard th|s d^y ; yetHrncd tifeat night \o o^r former ground, I leaving the 
fiear-gua^jd oJF tl^e army. 

2d t/if^y.-^rsM^rched down \o !pir4's Or4i«^ryi returned that night to 
pur old encamp men t-r^S^ n^ilesi 

3c7,-TrMafphed at 6ur| [rise] to IVfr, Old Fields^ Manoeuvres 

retrograde and many, the t^oop ^ifpost w^rq Qut^ Yery bftt we^tf^er. 

Ath.TT^ Tfet morning; cleared VIP IQ o'qlqpl^, 

This day wo had a Peu de Jfoie ii^ celebration of oi^r Indepen4ency of 
Anievipa, i^fter t^t w^s qyor tl^e Pei^i^ylYa^i^ \\x\Q perfqrr^e4 several 
mancouyres, in whieb we gred % h;j4 tbe tj^apl^s of the j^jarqjujs, T^e feu 
dp Joii3 w?^8 wjt^ 2if running fif^iqg from right to left of tl^a s^rniy , 

^//i.^-Took lip the line of i^iarpl^ at 7 p'plpc}^ ou our way to Williams, 
burg (whicl^ I shpuld he very happy pf seeiog). ProceGde4 as fur ^^ 
Cbickahon^Q^y (jhurch, wher^ wp Uy on p^r arms till pui^rise— fi niiles, 

bill Jw7y.-r-At sunrise we took up the line of march for Jampstown, 
at which place the enemy lay encamped. 

^Ii9 ^Bt batt^lloQ of our line Tthe Pennsjrlvani^nsJ ^^g detached Y(i\]\ 

a small party of rifleioen^ which brought on a scattermg 6re in firont 
and on the flanks of our battalion (the first), that cootinued for two or 
three hours, between our lliflemen and their Yeager&; our battalion 
(the first) was then ordered to close column and advanoe, when we had 
information the 2nd and 3rd battalions with one of Infantry wore in 
^ Right of us ; we then formed ag^iin^^ displayed to the vight and left, the 
8rd battalion on our right and the 2nd on our left; being then formed, 
brought on a gjBueral engagement, our advance regular at a charge till 
we got within eighty yards of their whole army, they being regularly 
f<)rmed, standing; one yard distance from each other, their Light In- 
fantry being in front of our battalion. Wc advanced under a very heavy 
fire of grape-shot, at which distance we opened our musquctry. Then 
I received a wound with a canistcx shot in my left breast, but did not 
retreat until the whole of us retreated, which was very rapidly. Upon 
our retreat I felt very faintish, but the thoughts of falling into the 
encmy'^ hands made me push on as hard as I possibly could for about 
five miles, when I got a horse and rode to Bird's Ordinary^ being 12 
miles, where I arrived in the morning, 3 o'clock, my wound being very 
painful. List of the wounded o&cers of our line : . 

Gapt. Oropley Artillery 

Capt. Jirnney G Rcg*t Penna. 

do. Doyle do. ^« . ** 

do. \ anlear 5 ** " 

do. Stake i « " 

do- McClelland 1 « '^ . 

^0. 3Iontgoraery 4 u u 

Lieut Hcvbert wounded and taken and immediately parokd... 

Lt. White Ist. 

Lt. Picrcy 2nd- 

The number of oor killed and wounded and taken being 97 Bank 
and File- 

7lh July, — This morning dressed my wound, which was very painful, 
but a very slight wound. In the afternoon wcut td see our wounded 
officers and soldiers at Bird's Ordinary. 

Capt. Cropley's wound being very painful to him ; likewise Lieut. 
Piercy 's, both wounded through the thigh. Capts. Stake and MaClelland 
slightly, through the calf of their Ieg&. 

ith. — Early this njorning left Bird's Ordinary with our baggage, to 
join our troops, which then lay at Chickahomony Church. Marohed 
three miles towards James Kiver for camping. 

9/A- — Continued on the same ground for refreshment. 
lO^/t. — Marched at 1 o'clock P.M. to Holt's Iron Works*; went a 
fishing to a small creek, where I ste a cypress tree about 8 feet across' 
the stump. Very elegant buildings, such as a grist and saw Biill and a 
forge — 14 miles* 

l\ih. — Continued on the same ground in order for the men to wash 
and clean their linen and furbish their afms, &c« (Charles City 

\2th. — Marched at 7 o'clock A-M. towards Janes JUver. Beads 
bad— 14 miles. 



13th. — Orders for cleaning ourselves and preparing for an incorpora- 
tion, which was much wished for. 

lifh. — This day the Incorporation took place, when ottr officers knew 
who was for the Southern Campaign. 

Ibth. — This day was taken up in crossing James River, when our 
supernumerary officers took their leave of us (where I saw the eane 
growing.)— 8 miles. 

l^th July, — Marched at 3 o'clock in the morning for Chesterfield 
Court House; exceeding good water at this place. The ruins of a 
number of huts which the Vireinians built for the use of their troops. 
An exceeding fine plain for the discipline and manoeuvring of their 
troops — 8 miles. 

Vlth. — Marched at 3 o'clock in the morning and encamped at Chester* 
field Court House — 10 miles. 

18^A. — Marched at 3 o'clock P. M. to Cheatem's farm — 12 miles. 

19^^. — Marched at 4 o'clock A. M. for Good's Bridge, where we ar- 
rived early this day — 10 miles. 

2^th. — Continued this day. 

21«^ — Cloudy day. 

22cf. — This day a soldier of our regiment was hanged for marauding. 

23c?. — Paid Mr. Brooks a visit at his qnarters. 

24<A July, — Moved our encampment 200 yards in the rear. No par- 
ticular account of the enemy. 

25^7i.— About two o'clock this afternoon Good's Bridge fell into the 
creek. It was a great mercy there were no soldiers killed, as there were 
some under the bridge the time it fell. 

26^^.— Wet morning and a cloudy day. 

21th, — A clear and tine morning. 

28^^. — ^Nothing material this day. 

29^A.— Ditto. 

Z^th, — The general beat this morning at daybreak. The troops 
marched by the right to Watkin'^s Mill, where we arrived at 10 o'clock, 
A. M., being nine miles. 

olst, — Lay still this day. The country here is the most fertile I have 
seen in this State, which is Amelia County. 

August \st. — ^Took up the line of march at daybreak — 12 miles. 

August 2d. — ^This day we marched to Namozin river — 14 miles. 

3c?. — Marched tp the right abomt for the north, (Dinwiddie County,) — 
21 miles. 

4^7i.— Marched at daybreak for James Bivcr, opposite Westam — 10 

bill. — Crossed James Biver and took position on the heights of Westam 
— 2 miles. 

^th, — Remained on this ground this day, which place the enemy had 
occupied before us. 

In the afternoon went a-fishing across James River ; waded across, 
and was almost cast away, the water running very rapid. Caught no fish. 

1th, — ^This day I went to see the curious works of Mr. Ballentine.. He 
had made a canal about one mile along side of James River, which was 


about forty feet vridcr, in tbe centre of which was built a carious fish- 
basket. At the end of the canal was an elegant grist-mill with four pair 
of stones, close by which was the Bloomery or boring-mill, where they 
bored the cannon. Close by which was the Mansion House; four very 
large chimneys, built of the best brick I ever saw ; each chimuey has 
two air furnaces and a number of other works too tedious to mention. 
All those works were built at the expense of the State. 

Within half a mile of these works is a very fine brewery. 

All which elegant buildings were burnt by that d— d rascal,^ Arnold. 
The brewery was saved by the intercession of the widow who owned part 
of it. 

August Sth. — Marched at 1 o'clock in the morning, passed through 
Kichmond at daylight,, where I saw a number of Yirgiuia and Maryland 
officers who were taken prisoners to the southward and paroled, and 
some exchanged, and encamped on our old gi*oand two miles from Eich- 
mond — 9 miles. 

9th, — Took tbe line of march at one o'clock in the morning, and ar« 
rived at Savage's Farms^ where we encamped near Bottom's Bridge, 
being 1 1 miles — New Kent County. 

This day our heavy baggage arrived from Cock's Mill, which we long 
wished for. It being a very hot day, and little ruin in the morning. 

We once more came into a fine country, which we htave not been for 
some time past. 

10th. — Continued on this ground, it being very hot; 

ll^A. — Continues a cloudy and rainy day; This day I see indigo 

August 12th, — This day a soldier of the Virginia Eighteen Months* 
Men was executed for entering the tent of Capt. Kirkpatrick, of 8d 
Kegiment, and shooting him in the left eye. 

This day I sent the following letters- by Lieut. Crawford : One to 
Lieut. Johnson, one to Capt. Busk, of our Kegiment, one to my mother, 
(No. 3,) one to my brother App. (No. 1.) 

IZth, — A little rain and very cloudy all day. The Marquis's troops 
crossed Pomonkey River. Eveniug and momiDg cooL 

Uth.—The day being very cool after yesterday's raip. Morning and 
evening cool. 

l^th. — This day being a very fine and clear day, Lieut. Milligan and 
self took a walk into the country for a few miles. 

Wth. — This day, about eight o'clock in the morning, Lieut. Crawford, 
of our Ilegiment, left the place bound for Pennsylvania, with a number 
of our soldiers' wives. 

11th. — This morning, two o'clock, the general beat. The troops took 
up the line of march half an hour after, marched through a low country, 
more hilly than I have seen since wc came to the State ; encamped near 
Hanover Meeting-House, on Mr. George Philip's farm, one mile and a 
half from New Castle and four miles from Hanover Town, being 12 miles 
from Bottom's Bridge. 

This morning our wounded officers left Hanover for Pennsylvania. 

» « 
* « 

: ;•: 



This cveniDg I had an invitation from Capt. Pierson to assist him in 
eating two water-melons^ which were the best and finest I ever see. This 
country is full of them ; thejr have large patches of two and three acres 
of them. 

The negroes here raise great quantities of snaps and collcrds. They 
have no cabbage here. 12 miles. 

August 18/A. — This day Lieut. Collier and self took a walk to New 
Castle ; spent the afternoon very agreeably in playing billiards^ (which is 
a very bad one.) The town is situated on a very fine pUin ; there are 
but a small number of houses; the town is built very irregular; the 
town is covered all over with weeds. There are a few very elegant build- 
ings. A few of us bucks remained in town all night at the ornery; got 
very merry. 

Aitjmt i^tJi. — This day we were reviewed by General Wayne. Our 
men made a very soldierly appearance ; and from the parade we marched 
to a church close by our encampment, where Doct. Jones preached us a 

20^/i. — A clear and fine day. 

list, — This day went a fishing, but caught no fish. 

22c?. — After having dined, a few of us, Lieut. Collier, &c„ took a 
walk into the country about one and a half miles from our encampment, 
to one Mr. Chapman's, to eat water-melons, which we had in great plenty, 
with the addition of a little good spirits and water. His water and 
musk-Dielons were the best and finest that ever I saw either in Penn- 
sylvania, Jersey, or any other place. 

August 2Sd, — The troops took up the line of march at 9 o'clock in 
the morning for Bolton's Bridge, which we completed about one o'clock, 
P. M., and encamped at Mr. Savage's farms, being 10 miles. 

24th. — The general beat this morning at 2 o'clock, the troops took up 
the line of march half an hour after; marched through Henrico county, 
past Mr. Randol Randolph's seat, which is a very elegant building, with 
the addition of a very large deer park, wherein is erected the deceased's 

Immediately after, we came into Charles City County, where we 
marched through the most level country that ever was seen, and en- 
camped on Col. Byrd's farm close by his dwelling house, which is the 
most elegant building I ever saw. 

All those buildings are built close on James river, which makes it 
appear heavenly. 

Ue died a few years ago and was buried in his garden close by his 
house. A monument erected in the same place. 

He was married to a Miss Willing from Philadelphia. 

His neighbours are Col. Harrison, &c., where Gen. Wayne took up 
Lis quarters. 

At four o'clock, P. M., I mounted the Advance Picquet Guard. 

This day we marched a fatiguing march of twenty miles. 

This place is called Westover — 22 miles. 

August 25t7u — This morning I was relieved of picquet by Lieut. Ball. 
In the evening inspected. 


26?A.-~-Lieat. Collier and self went a fishing,- and catiglit a fine parcel 
of yellow perch. 

27^A.— This day, 2 o'clock, P. M., a ntiinber of us crossed the James 
river in a canoe, iti order to take a view of an elegant building and 
garden belonging to Colonel Mead. He very politely asked us in and 
gate/ tts a drink of grog* In the evening Lieut. Collier and self went 
ti) Capt. Wilkins' tent, and there spent the evening and part of the 

Arigmt i9(h» — The troops took tip the Hhe of inarch at 9 o'clock, 
A. M., and encamped on Manber hills near James river, and within half a 
mile of Mr. Randol Randolph's deer park— 10 miles. 

Tins day Captains Wilkin and Irvin of the Second Battalion were 
arrested by Col. /Walton Stewart in consequence of our last night's pro- 

29^A.— This day I erected myself a very elegant berth, and promising 
myself comfortable sleeping for some time, but to my great mortification 
TV as disappointed. Gen. Muhlenberg's Aide de Camp came riding post 
haste into our camp about 11 o'clock, A. M. Our orders then imme- 
diately came for tne troops to march at 2 o'clock, P. M. Lieut. Ham- 
mond and several other gentlemen, then embracing the opportutnity be- 
fore we should march, immediately urent to take a view of the monument 
which was erected in Mr. Randolph's deer park in memory of Richard 
Randolph and Jane his wife, (and also in memory of the deluge which 
happened in Virginia in the year 1771, which may be seen to endless 
ages.) Said Randolph has a very elegant seat. 

The troops took up the line of march at 2 o'clock, P.M., and a very 
warm one it was, to be sure, and encamped at Westover, (the place we 
left yesterday,) being 10 miles. 

Jugnst 80M.-*This whole day was employed in ci'ossing the troops 
and baggage over James river, and encamped on Col. JIows farm, 

This day, 2 o'clock, P. M., received the following letters, viz ; 

Two from my Brother, Michl. ApPt dated the Jgth Jwly, 81, 

One from my Cousin Harry Deriug, dated the 26th July, 81, 

One from my fi'iend Lieut. Thost X)oylo, d^ted blank. 

The above mentioned letters I received from Lieut. Blewer of oup 
line, who received them from a Virginia officer, who received theui at 

This place is called Prince George County. 

Augmt Sls^.— The general beat at half after one o'clock, P. M,, and 
the troops took up the line of march at 2 o'clock, and oncan^ped at Oa-r 
been Island, being \% i^ileii Surry county i 

Septevilef Js^.w-The troops took up the lino of march at 9 o'clocl? 
this piorning, apd encamped at S\irry Court Hou8e-w^l2 miles. 

Tlijs morning an eicpresa arrived m our camp, informing wa that the 
French fleet w^s close by n», being 28= ships of the line, and 4 frigates j 
all very largo vessels, vi* ? One of 110 guns, throe of eighty, ten of 
seven tj-five, ^nd all the rest 6ixty-fburs-»-12 miles, 

Septeyiiber 2d-r-This morning at day-light, the troops took up the line 
of fflarcl^ and encamped opposite JTai^eatQwni where lay t^ sinall English 

i : ' • 


vessel un ler the sanction of a flag, TVc lay about two hours on our 
ground expecting every moment to gee a glorious sight ; at last a num- 
ber of large boats appeared in sight with about three thousand French 
troops on board, and also three large armed vessels to cover the troops 

The troops landed on our opposite side, cm James's Island, and there 
encamped — which spread an universal joy amongst our officers and sol- 
diers. Never did I behold a more beautiful and agreeable sight. 

This morning I mounted the rear camp guard of our line. 

This evening Gen. Wayne was unfortunately wounded in the thigh 
with a buck shot, by one of the Marquis's sentinels, which renders him 
unfit for duty— 5- miles. 

Sejif. dd, — This morning the general beat at 6 o'clock. The troops 
in half an hour after marched to Jnmes River, where the French boats 
lay in order to cross our troops. Wo landed below James's Island, and 
Iny by the greatest part of the day, near the church, within half a mile 
of where we had the action of the 6th of July last. In the evening 
wo marched for the Green Springs, and there lay that night without 
tent or any other shelter. A very heavy rain the whole time of our 

Took a walk to take a view of the French troops, who make a very 
fine, soldierly appearance, they being all very tall men j their uniform is 
white coats turned up with blue, their underclothes are white. 

We left all our tents and baggage on the other side of the river. 

This day three seventy-fours and one frigate went up York river, to 
block up the British vessels. 

The Count do Grasso sent a flag to Lord CornwalUs, desiring him on 
his peril not to destroy any of his vessels, stores, &o.— 2 miles. 

Sept. 4/A.— -The troops took up the lino of march at 4 o'clock this 
raoruing for Williamsburgh, (which is a place I long wished to see,) 
joined the Marquis la Payette s corps of Infantry, about two milos from 
town — having no provisions this day nor yesterday, we formed our line 
close neur the College, and wero reoeived by the French Gon. St. Simon, 
and a number of other French gentry. In the evening our troops quar- 
tered in the College — 7 miles. 

Sept, bth. — This day marohed back again one mile in order for our 
men to wash their clothing and oook provisions. 

Took a walk to town with a number of our gantlemon, and took a 
view of the town, as it is the metropolis of Virginia. There are some 
very elegant buildings, such as the College, Palace, Capitol or State 
House, in which is erected a statue of marble, the image of Lieut. Gen. 
Berkely, Govornop of the State of Virginia, &c. 

As we passed through town Doct. Nicholson very politely a.«>ked as to 
walk with him to his house ; we wore very elegantly entertuinod with a 
good dinner, a glass of good spirits and Maderia wine. 

S(q)t^ 6/A.-— This morning 8 o'clock, the troops took up a line of 
march and marched through Williamsburg towards Yorktown, and en* 
camped near Col. Nat. Burrell's mill, which is a very advantageous post. 

At said Mr. Burrell's mill I had the pleasure of seeing rice growing. 



which I thought was a great curiosity. It grows about two feet high, 
with one long small leaf and exactly like the top or seed of Indian 
corn. It grows in low marshy ground — 4 miles. 

1th. — ^This morning I mounted the rear picquet of our line. As we 
were on the griind parade, a party of the enemy's Dragoons drove a 
piiTty of our Horse within our advance picquet, where they were very 
warmly received by them with a platoon of musketry; they immediately 
retired. All our guards marched to Mr. Burrell's mills, and there took 
post, whera we remained for some time expecting them to return again. 
We were then ordered to march to our respective post. 

In the evening I marched my picquet within one mile and a half 
York river. 

Sept. 8<A. — The troops took up the line of march this morning at 9 
o'clock, marched through WilUamsburgh, and encamped half a mile 
from town with the French army and Light Infantry — 4 miles. 

^ih, — This day our baggage came up. At 5 o'clock this evening, the 
Light Infantry, and our troops were received by the Marquis la Fayette 
and the French General, St. Simon, and a number of other gentlemen. 

Sept 10<7i.^-This day the enemy took two of our Dragoons prisoners, 
and we took five of theirs. 

11^^. — This ddy I walked with a number of French gentlemen (of the 
Huzzars) at their; request. The Baron Deweck, an elderly gentleman, 
being a German, so that he and I were very sociable. We dined at the 
widow Crings', where we had an elegant dinner, but nothing to driuk 
but small beer. 

Vlth. — This day a number of our gentlemen officers were introduced 
to the French General, St. Simon. 

In the afternoon reviewed by ditto. 

Sept, 13^A. — About one or two o'clock this morning, we hnd the 
heaviest clap of thunder (remarked) ever heard. Also a very heavy 
rain all that night. 

This day Gen. Wayne and the Baron Steuben dined with our field 

Wth. — This day I mounted the Centre Picquet near the Windmill, 
in Williamsburg. In the evening about four o'clock twenty-one pieces 
of cannon were fired on the arrival of his Excellency, General George 

There was a universal joy amongst our officers and soldiers, especially 
the French troops, on his arrival. 

This night about twelve o'clock a French officer came to my picquet 
and desired me to send a file of men with him, to the Marquis La 
Fayette's quarters, as he had a packet of letters for him from the Count 
De Grasse. He informed me (as he spoke German) there were nine 
large men of war joined the Count De Grasse the day before yesterday 
from Rhode Island under the command of Count Rochambeau. 

He likewise informed me that the day before yesterday they took 
two of the enemy's frigates of thirty two guns each. Also, the last 
vessels had a reinforcement of two thousand five hundred French In- 
fantry on board. 


I had about one hour's coufab with the gcntlemain; and he seemed 
much pleased with our present situation, and was very desirous of ex- 
plaining himself in a more explicit manner, as he spoke but very in- 
differently the German language. He was confident that Lord Corn- 
wallis would not stand it longer than eight days at farthest. 

SeptW Ibth, — This morning about two o'clock, as I was walking up 
and down past one of my sentmels in order to keep myself awake, 1 was 
very agreeably entertained by the singing of a mocking-bird. He sang 
by himself and continued his notes till day-light. One would have 
imagined that he was sensible of the merit of hiS accomplishments and 
that it was in complaisance to man as well as for his satisfaction that he 

was pleased to sing when uU was silent (but the barking of some 

dogs;. Nothing animated him so much as the stillness of nature ; 'twas 
then that he composed and executed all his tones. He raised from 
seriousness to gaiety, and from a simple song to a more sportive warbling, 
from the lightest quivers and divisions, he softened into the most 
languishing and plaintive sighs, which he afterwards forsook to return to 
his natural sprightliness. 

Interrupted by the passing and repassing of the soldiers, \f aggons, &c. 
by examining them. 

This day we had a very heavy shower of rain. 

A^ih SeptW, — This afternoon at 2 o'clock I had the pleasure of 
being introduced to his excellency Gen. Geo. Washington, Esq., Com- 
mander-in-Chief of all the American and French forces now in America. 

\lili Sep'lr. — This morning went to College Landing, crabbing; we 
caught three dozen. We also had a great deal of diverbion in catching 
them. In the afternoon heavy rain and continued until night. 

18^A. — This being a very fine day and nothing to do, went a crabbing. 

19/A. — This being a very excesssive warm day as we have had tins 
summer — found out a new billiard table in Williamsburgh but not a 
very good one. 

20Ui SeptW. — ^This morning I mounted the picquet at College 
Landing. A very great change of weather this day, it being dull uud 
very cold and unwholesome day. Kained very hard all night. 

This evening received a letter from my friend Lieut. James McLean 
dated at Philuu'a, July 22d, 1781. 

21«< SepCr, — This being a very cold day, bought our corn for three 
pounds, Virginian money. 

22(2. — This day the Northern troops arrived and landed at Burrell's 

This morniog received a letter from Lieut. Andrew Johnston froni 
York (Penna.) dated the 3d Sept'r, 1781. 

After breakfast Lieut. Benj'n Lodge and self took a walk to Licuts. 
Ball and Armstrong's quarters; spent the day very agreeably with them 
in playing whilst, fowling, &c. 

23(/ SeptW. — This day eleven o'clock A. M., I had the pleasure 
with a number of other gentlemen officers to be introduced to the Count 
liochambeau at the Marquis's quarters. He is an elderly gentleman, uf 

. . • • * r . * : 

* • • . . • * 


about fivo feet six inches high, and has a very soldierly appearance'; is 
a man well experienced of war^ &c. 

24:tk SeptW. — ^This morning I wrote the following letters, viz. 

One to my brother App. No. 8 ] one to Lieut. Johnston^ No. 2^ and 
one [to] cousin Harry Bering, No. 1. 

The above letters I sent by a soldier, Wm. Noble, who got his dis- 
charge from the 4th Keg'ty Penna. 

2bth Sept' r J '81. — Spent this day at the billiard table in town, and in 
the evening went to a hop. 

26^. — This day Lieut. Striker, 6 others and self took a ride to Col. 
Toliver's,* where Lieut. Wm. Moore lay sick with the fever and ague ; 
dined very sumptuously and spent the afternoon with him ; said Toliver 
has a very elegant seat about three miles from Williamsburgh. 

21 ih. — ^This morning half past seven o'clock the general beat, and at 
eight o'clock the Infantry and our Brigade took up the line of march 
and encamped half a mile this side of Williamsburgh along with the 
rest of the army. 

28^. — ^The whole army took up the line of march thi? morning ^-^q 
o'clock. I conjecture the whole of our army, I mean the French and 
our Continental troops, to be Fifteen Thousand Veteran Troops, besides 
the militia; they are so numerous that I have not been able to ascertain 
their number. The American army consists of six Brigades, viz: Col. 
Vons's, Lt. Col. Barber's and Lt. Col. Gemot's Battalion of Infantry 
will form one brigade and to be commanded by Brigadier Gen. Muhlen- 

Col. Scammell's Eeg't and Lt. Col. Hamilton's Battalion of Infantry 
and Harem's Reg't, a Brigade to be commanded by Brigadier Gen. 

Col. Gaskin's Virginia Reg't and the two Battalions of Pennsyl- 
vania's, a Brigade to be commanded by Brigad'r Gen. Wayne. 

The two Jersey battalions and the Rhode Island Reg't, a Brigade to 
be commanded by Col. Dayton. 

The third and fourth Maryland Regt's, a Brigade to be commanded 
by Brigad'r Gen'l Clinton. 

The American troops encamped in a wood within a mile of the 
Enemy's left line — and the French troops encamped on their right. 
Our troops remained under arms all night with their respective com- 
panies and platoons. 

The French troops saluted Col. Tarleton's Horse with a few shot of 
three pounders which made them retreat immediately. 

A number of prisoners taken this night who had been straggling 
through the country. 

29i(A. — ^This morning 7 o'clock the army took up the line of march, 
and formed in front of a morass and in front of the enemy's works, being 
about half a mile from their outworks. 

The two Brigades of Infantry crossed the morass, who were imme- 
diately saluted with a few cannon shot. One of their soldiers unfortu- 
nately lost his leg hj a cannon ball. 

* Taliaferro is thus pronounced. 



A nine pound and a three pound shot paid us a visit in oamp, but 
[we] received no damage from them. 

SOth Sepi^r. — This morning about 8 o'clock, upon strict examination, 
we found that the enemy had evacuated all their outworks, which we 
immediately took possession of. The French and British had a severe 
engagement this morning. One of the French officers lost his leg, and 
a number of the privates killed and wounded. 

Col. Scammell was wounded and taken prisoner this morning. 

Lt. Tilden and self took a walk to view their works which they 
evacuated last night, which was within musket shot of their main works, 
when we perceived a flag advancing towards us, which we -immediately 
went to meet, and on examination found that he had a letter for Lieut. 
Col. Huntington of Col. Scammel's Beg't, informiDg him of hii> cap- 
tivity, and desiring him to send his waiter and clothing to Williams- 
burghy where he would be sent on parole as soon as his wound was 

This day Capt. Davis laid a bet with me of a beaver hat that Lord 
Cornwallis and his army would be prisoners of war by the next 

This eveniog Capt. Smith of our battalion, a sub. from Col. Gas- 
kin's Reg't, and self, with fifty men, mounted^ the advance guard in front 
of the enemy's left, near the ruins of a mill. 

Ist Oct'r. — This morning the enemy discharged a number of their 
horses, which were so poor that they were scarcely able to walk. 

This afternoon, three o'clock, his excellency Gen'l Washington, Gen. 
Dnportail and several other engineers crossed at the mill dam to take 
a view of the enemy's works. His excellency sent one of his Aides de 
Camp for Capt. Smith and his guard of fifty men to march in front of 
his Exceileney as a covering party, which we did, and went under cover 
of a hill, where we posted our guard, when his Excellency Gen'l 
Washington and Gen'l Duportail with three men of our guard advanced 
within three hundred yards of the enemy's main works, which is the 
town of York. 

Capt. Smith, and Lt. Parker and self took a walk to the York River, 
where we had the pteasarc of seeing all the enemy's vessels, of which 
they had four of them sunk this side t)f the river in order to prevent 
the French shipping from passing this side. We observed at a great 
distance down the river three of the French ships riding at anchor. 

The enemy this whole day keep up a cannonading at our fatigue parties 
who were throwing up works in front of them at so short a distance as 
half a mile, but did very little damage. 

We waited this whole day very impatiently, but all to no purpose, in 
expectation of being relieved from picquet, but to our great mortifica- 
tion wc found that we were to be continued, which we very agreeably 
consented to, and built ourselves a fine bowery of pine bushes to spend 
the night and to keep the dew from us. 

2d Ocir* — ^A continual cannonading this whole day at our fatigue 
parties. One Maryland soldier's band shot off and one militia man 


One of the Maryland soldiers deserted to the enemy this afternoon 
from his post ; my waiter was in pursuit of him, but could not overtake 
him, and in his pursuing. him made him drop his arms and accoutre- 
ments, which he brought off with him. 

Four of the enemy's Dragoon horses made their escape from them 
this day and were taken up by our riflemen. 

This evening 6 o'clock our picquet was ordered to return to camp. 

This day received the following letters, viz : 

One from Lt. Johnston dated iTork Town (no date) with three news- 
papers enclosed. 

One from Lt. White dated York, 9th Sept'r. 1781. 

One from Lt. Everly at York Town, Sept'r. lOth, 1781. 

3d Oct*r, — Very little firing this whole day. Last night three men 
of Capt. Rice's comp'y were killed at our works with a cannon ball and 
one badly wounded, all with one shot. 

4th, — Last night four hundred men of our Brigade went on fatigue. 
Very little firing this day. A number of heavy pieces of artillery 
arrived in camp this day. This afternoon Capt. Steel and self paid a 
visit to Capt. John Irwin formerly of 2nd Reg't, but now in the staif 
department. We dined with him and spent the afternoon drinking a 
sup of good grog. 

This day two of the British deserted to us soldiers. 

bth Ckt'r, '81. — This morning a very heavy cannonading and firing 
with musquetry. Our patroles meeting with each other caused t(ie 

This day our Battalion was ordered on picquet at the Bedoubt No. 1, 
where a Corporal of Capt. Bond's company was shot through the rump 
with a nine-pounder as he was relieving the sentinels. He was imme- 
diately brought into the fort and the Doctor sent for, who informed us 
that his life was but short. The Doctor then ordered him to be carried 
to camp, where he lived but a short time. 

In the evening we were relieved by Col. Duey,. commanding the 
Rhode Island Reg't. 

6th Oct*r, '81. — This morning six o'clock our two Penna. Reg'ts, the 
two Reg'ts of Maryland and a number of militia were ordered each man 
to make a gabion, which we did before twelve o'clock, M. Very little 
firing done this day. 

7th. — All last night a very heavy cannonading, and this morning, at 
the French troops, two of their inen killed. Last evening about three 
thousand of the French and our troops with their arms, &c. went to 
break ground. This morning Capt. Steel, Lieut. Ball and self took a 
walk to see what work was done. We found to our great satisfaction 
that they had a parallel line from the bank of the river extending beyond 
the redoubt No. 2, with the addition of two small batteries, &c. 

This day received the following letters, viz : 

One from my Brother App dated Lancaster, Sept'r, 10th, 81, No. 8, 
but received but two, and one from Lt. Andrew Johnston dated York 
Town, Sept'r 11th, 1781, with a number of newspapers inclosed. 

This day I won a beaver hat from Capt. Davis. 


8^ Oe^n— -This day I bet a pair of silk stockings with Capt. Davis 
that Cornwallis and his army would not be prisoners of war by this day 
two weeks. 

This afternoon oar Division went on fatigue to forward our works 
near the enemy's lines. They keep up a continual firing thb whole day. 

This afternoon a French officer got his leg shot off by a cannon ball 
from the British; he was advanced in front of our works. 

9ih Oc£r. — Last night one of Capt. Bartholomew's men was killed 
with a cannon ball on our works. 

This morning we completed a very elegant battery for ten pieces 
of heavy artillery, viz: Three twenty four pounders, three eighteen 
pounders, two eight-inch howitzers^ two ten and a half inch mortars 
fixed upon carriages (and not up6n beds) in order to throw the shot 
horizontal into the enemy's works, and there to burst and destroy their 
works. We have six of those mortars; they were invented by G«n. 
Knox and proved to be of effect. 

This morning 9 o'clock A. M. a deserter from the enemy's artillery 
came to us; he left them just as their piece fired, which was advanced 
in front of the Governor's House. He informed us that Cornwallis had 
given out orders to them not to be afraid of the Americans, that they 
had not any heavy pieces of ordinance except a few pieces of field artil- 
lery* He also informed the soldiery and inhabitants that the French 
jfteet was inferior to him and were afraid to attack him ; that they came 
to this place to procure a quantity of tobacco, and if they could not be 
stipplied here, that the fleet would set sail in eight or ten days at the 
farthest, and leave the continent. Such are my Lord's addresses to his 
soldiery, but they have more sense than to believe his weak expressions. 

This day 12 o'clock M. we were relieved by Gen. Clinton's Division. 

This afternoon four o'clock our Division was ordered on Fatigue, after 
four and twenty hours' very hard working at our lines, &c. 

In the evening we opened our battery of ten pieces upon the right of 
.our works, and gave the British a few heavy shots and a number of ten 
and a half inch shells, &c. 

The French at the same time opened their batteries upon them. 

lO^A Oc^r.— This who^e day a very heavy cannonading on both sides. 

This afternoon our whole Division was turned out for fatigue for to 
make fascines, gabions, saucissons, palisades, pickets, &c« and had them 
carried to the front of our respective regiments. 

This day wrote a letter to Lt. Johnston at York Town, Penna. and 
sent it by a soldier of our Battalion. 

Wtk Oc^r, '81. — ^Last night about seven o'clock I was taking a view 
of the shells we threw into York, which was very pleasing to see, and 
shortly after I perceived a large thick black smoke rising which I con* 
jectured was the enemy's burning some of their vessels, but after 
inquiring into the matter found they were set on fire by some of our 
shells which were thrown among their shipping accidentally. This 
inoming another of their vessels was burnt. 

This day eleven o'clock our whole Division went on feitigue on the 


This wbold day we cannonaded tbe enemy, and ^ent them a number 
of shells, and drove their artillery from the embrasures^ and they had 
not the spirit to return one shot this whole day. 

Head Quarters be/ore Yorh, OcCr Wthy 1781. 

At a General Court Martiul of the line held at camp before York 
Oct'r 2d, and continued by adjournments, whereof Col. Dayton was 
President, Capt. P. Duffy of the Fourth Regiment of Artillery charged 
with scandalous and infamous behaviour unbecoming the character of 
an officer and gentleman on the night of the 28d and morning of the 
24th Sept'r last, such as drawing a sword on Capt. Ballard and at- 
tempting to stab him, and firing a pistol at him when unarmed, also for 
a most disgraceful breach of friendship in seizing from Lt. Blewer a 
loaded pistol and snapping the same at him, when attempting, at Capt. 
Duffy's own request^an amicable settlement of his (Capt. Duffy's) quarrel 
with Capt. Ballard; also charged by Lt. Col. John Stewart, ^rj;^, with 
being drunk; 2<:2, rioting in the street; 3c?, abusing a French soldier; 
4^/i, Violation of good discipline in having in a seditious and disorderly 
[manner] threatened a French guard stationed at the Hospital for the 
security of the sick — was tried. The Court, after mature deliberation, 
are of opinion that Capt. Duffy drew a. sword on Capt, Ballard and 
attempted to stab him when unarmed on the evening of the 23d 
Sept'r last, and on the morning of the 24th drew his sword on Capt. 
Ballard, he having one by his side; that Capt. Duffy also seized a 
pistol from Lt. Blewer and snapped it at him, on the before mentioned 
evening, declaring he would shoot him, when Lt. Blewer was attempting 
at Capt. Duffy's own request an amicable settlement of his quarrel with 
Capt. Ballard. It does not appear to the Court that the pistol Capt. 
Duffy seized from Lt. Blewer was loaded. The Court are of opinion 
' that Capt. Duffy's conduct, as found, is a breach of Article 21st, section 
24th, of the Bules and Articles of War — and sentence him to be dis- 
charged the service* 

The Commander-in-Chief approved the foregoing sentence. 

Vlth Oct*rj '81. — Last evening at 5 o'clock, a Detachment from our 
Division was ordered on fatigue, in order to run the second parallel, 
where I had the honour to be one of the number, and had a command 
of eighty two men and another officer with me. Every second man of 
the whole detachment carried a fascine and shovel or a spade, and every 
man a shovel, spade or grubbing hoe. 

Just at dusk we advanced within gun-Bhot of the enemy, then began 
our work. In one hour's time we Uad ourselves completely covered, so 
we disregarded their cannonading; they discharged a number of pieces 
at our party y but they had but little effect, they only wounded one of 
our men. We were in the center of two fires, from the enemy and our 
own, but the latter was very dangerous; we had two men killed and one 
badly wounded from the French batteries, also a number of shells 
bursted in the air above our heads, which was very dangerous to us. 
We dug the ditch three and a half feet deep and seven feet in width 
In the morning before daylight we were relieved by the militia. 

This morning two Hessian deserrers came to us. 



This morning the enemy threw a number of shells amongst the 
militia who were at work on the second parallel line. 

This day 12 o'clock we were relieved by Gen. Lincoln's Division, 
when our division marched off with drums beating and colours flying. 
This day I being very much fafigued. 

This afternoon a fatigue party was ordered from our Division to cut 

This day a very heavy cannonading both from the enemy and our 
side, also a great number of shells thrown. 

ISth Oct'r, '81. — This morning our whole Division went on fatigue; 
making saucissons, fascines, gabions, pickets, &c. for the use of our bat- 
teries. We completed our task before 12 o'clock M. 

This whole day cannonading from both sides. 

This afternoon Col. Moylan's Horse^ &o. marched to the southward. 

Uth OcfV.— Last night a very heavy cannonading. 

This morning 10 o'clock our Division mounted in trenches ; this day 
we had a number of our men killed and wounded. Capt. Steel had one 
of his company very badly wounded. The enemy this whole day keep 
up a continual firing of cannon and throwing a number oT five inch shells. 
The latter are very dangerous, especially in the day-time, as they cannot 
be perceived only [[except] by a little noise they make as they fall. 

This whole day our men were carrying gabions, fascines, &c. . This 
evening it is reported there is something grand to be done by our In- 

I5ih Ocfr, '81. — ^Last evening, just at dusk, two of our Regiments of 
Light Infantry, under the command of the Marquis La Fayette, came 
to the trenches. Immediately after, they advanced towards the enemy's 
two out-works, which they stormed and carried with success with the 
loss of a few killed and wounded. The following officers were wounded, 
viz: Col. Barber, Major Barber, Capt. Ohlney and a few volunteers; 
the number of men cannot be yet ascertained. The French carried one 
work and our Infantry another; both parties behaved with great spirit. 
The French had likewise a number of killed and wounded. 

In those two redoubts were taken the following officers,' viz : One 
Major, two Captains, two Lieutenants and one Ensign, and the number 
of Privates not yet known. 

The French and our Infantry killed a number of the enemy in the 

When the Light Infantry advanced, the one-half of our Division were 
ordered on fiitigue to complete our Second Parallel line ; each man of 
the fatigue party carried a fascine, a shovel or a spade ; and the remainder 
of our Division went as a Covering party to our troops who stormed the 
works. We were very much exposed to the enemy's fire, both mus- 
quetry and cannon balls and grape shot, and not a single man hurt. 

This day we completed our Second Parallel line. 

The enemy threw a number of shells this day and wounded a great 
number of men, especially the militia; several were wounded this day 
in their sleep, such is the carelessness of those stupid wretches who are 
not acquainted with the life of a soldier. 


This morning his Excellency Genl. Washington sent a flag to Lord 
Cornwallis, but what the contents were I could not learn. 

This day 12 o'clock our troops were relieved by GenL Lincoln's 
Division ) when we march off with drums beating and colours fljing^ 
after a very fatiguing night. 

Our Second Parallel line is now within two hundred and fifty yards 
of the enemy's main works, which is York Town ; where we have a very 
fine prospect of Town, River and the enemy's shipping, also of the town 
of Gloster, which is on the opposite shore. 

Upon the right of our line we are erecting a twelve-gun battery. 

This whole day being very quiet, very little firing on either side, only 
throwing a few shells. 

IQth Oct. '81. — This morning at daylight the enemy sallied out, but 
with what force we cannot learn. They took possession of one of our 
batteries and spiked a few of our cannon with their bayonets. Our 
troops immediately attacked them and drove them to town with a con; 
siderable loss. Eight of them were found dead on the spot with a 
number of wounded. 

This day 11 o'clock A. M. our Division went on fatigue, making 
saucissons, fascines, gabions, &c. 

17th Odr, — This day 11 o'clock A. M. our Division mounted the 
trenches. A few shells thrown by the enemy. 

This day flags passing and repassing. Lord Oomwallis proposed 
deputies from each army to meet at Moore's Flouse to agree on terms 
for the surrender of the garrison at York and Gloster, and hostilities to 
cease for twenty-four hours. His Excellency Genl. Washington al- 
lowed my Lord but two hours. An answer was sent at 3 o'clock P. M. 
when a cessation of arms took place. 

Lord Comwallis sent a flag \ he would surrender himself prisoner of 
war, only allowing him some small preliminaries which would be settled 
in the morning. 

This day we finished a very fine battery of fifteen pieces of heavy 

18^A' OcCr. — Flags passing and repassing this whole day. This day 
our fleet hove in sight with a detachment from Penna. 

This afternoon Lieuts. Martin, Y. Henley and self took a walk to 
the left of our lines, where we found the following batteries all ready 
to be opened at one moment's time, viz : 

No. 1. From the right. One iron 18 pounder, 2 Howitzers, 2 
Mortars and 2 Royals. 

No. 2. Ten 18 pounders, &c., three Ten-Inch Mortars, one Eight* 
Inch Howitzer, two Rojals. 

No. 3. Two 10 Inch Mortars and 2 Royals. 

No. 4. Four 18 pounders, iron pieces. 

No. 6. Four 18 pounders and 2 Twenty-fours. (All Brass.) 

No. 6. Do. Do. 

No. 7. Six Twenty-four Pounders (all brass.) 

No. 8. One Eight Inch Howitzer; Eight Thirteen Inch Mortars and 
2 Royals (all brass.) 

We could not pass the ravine to see the remainder of our work. 


19/A Ocir, '81.— At one o'clock this day Major Hamilton with a 
detachment marched into town and took possession of the batteries and 
hoisted the American flag. 

^ The British army marched out and grounded their arms in front of 
our line. Our whole army drew up for them to march through^ the 
French army on their right and the American army on their left. 

The British prisoners all appeared to be much in liquor. 

After they grounded their arms they returned to town again. 

20^A OctW. — This day the prisoners remained in town. 

Lt. Collins and self took a walk to see cur gentlemen officers who had 
just landed^ and took a sup of grog with them. 

Head Quarters near York, October 20th, 1781. 

The General congratulates the army upon the glorious event of yester- 
day. The generous proofs which his Most Christian Majesty has given 
of his attachment to the cause of America must force conviction in the 
minds of the most deceived among the enemy, relatively to the decisive 
good consequences of the alliance, and inspire every citizen of these 
States' with sentiments of the most unutterable gratitude. Hisfleet, the 
most numerous and powerful that ever appeared in these seas, commanded 
by an Admiral whose fortune and talents insure great events } an army 
of the most admirable composition, both in officers and men, are the 
pledges of his friendship to the United States, and their co-operation has 
secured us the present signal success. 

The Genl. upon this occasion intreats his Excellency Count Be 
Eochambeau to accept of his most grateful acknowledgments for his 
councils and assistance at all times. He presents his warmest thanks to 
the General Baron De Yiominel, Chevalier Chastellux, Marquis De St. 
Simon and Count De Viominel, and to Brigadier G^nl. De Choisey Twho 
had a separate command) for the illustrious manner in which they nave 
advanced the interest of the common cause. 

He requests the Count De Rochambeau will be pleased to communi- 
ate to the army under his immediate command the high sense he enter- 
tains of the distinguished merits of the officers and soldiers of every 
corps, and that he will present in his name to the regiment of Agenors 
and Deuxponts the pieces of brass ordinance captured by them, as a 
testimony for their gallantry in storming the enemy's redoubts on the 
night of the fourteenth instant, when officers and men so universally 
vied with each other in the exercise of every soldierly virtue. 

The General's thanks to each individual of merit would comprehend 
the whole army, but he thinks himself bound by affection, duty and 
gratitude to express his obligations to Major Generals Lincoln, La Fayette 
and Steuben, for their disposition in the trenches; to Gen. Dn Portail and 
Col. Carney for their vigour and knowledge which were conspicuous in 
their conduct of the attacks ; and to Gen. Knox and Col. De Abbervaille 
for their great care, attention and fatigue in bringing forward the artil- 
lery and stores, and for their judicious and spirited management of them 
in the parallels. He requests the gentlemen above mentioned to com- 
municate his thanks to the officers and soldiers of their respective com- 

- ^-y. ?v^ 


. iDgratitude, which the General hopes never to he guilty of, would be 
conspicuous in him^ was ho to omit thanking in the warmest terms his 
Excellency Qovemor Wilson^ for the aid he has received from him and 
from the militia under his command; to whose activity, emulation and 
courage such applause is due. The greatness of the acquisition would 
be an ample compensation for the hardships and hazards which they en- 
countered with so much patriotism and firmness; 

In order to diffuse the general joy in every breast^ the Genl. orders 
[that] those men belonging to the army who may now be in confinement 
shall be pardoned, released and join their respective corps. 

Divine service is to be performed in the several Brigades or Divisions* 
The Commander in Chief earnestly recommends it that the troops not 
on duty should universally attend, with that seriousness of deportment 
and gratitude of heart which the recognition of such reiterated and as- 
tonishing interpositions of Providence demands of us. 

21st. Oc^r, '81. — This afternoon the prisoners marched out of town^ 
under the care of three Divisions of militia. 

This day Lt. Thomas Doyle and self took a wiilk to town, where we 
found all the houses ruined and destroyed. 

In this day's Gen'l. Orders^ the troops are to be in readiness to move 
at the shortest notice. 

Division Orders of this day. 

The Baron Steuben feels himself particularly happy in complying 
with the request of his Excellency Genl. Washington in presenting his 
warmest thanks to the officers and soldiers of his Division, for the great 
skill and alacrity with which they performed the several duties assigned 
them during the siege against York. He ever entertained the highest 
opinion of the troops, but the spirit and bravery which was so conspicuous 
on the present occasion has given him additional confidence in them and 
secured his warmest and lasting friendship. 

He cannot be too thankful to Brigadier Genls. Wayne and Gist for 
their gallant behaviour on all occasions, and the great assistance they 
afforded him during the whole of the operations. He also wishes Col. 
Butler, Col. Stewart, Major Hamilton, Major Willis, Major Edwlirds 
and Major Hoxburgh, the officers and soldiers under their command, to 
accept his best thanks for the good conduct shewn in opening the second 
parallel, which he considers as the most important part of the siege. 
He takes pleasure in assuring them it was performed with a degree of 
bravery and dispatch that exceeded his most sanguine expectations. 

He cannot conclude without expressing in the highest terms his ap- 
probation respecting the conduct of Captain Walker, who performed 
double duty in the trenches, by mounting with his company, in addition 
to the services he rendered him as his Aide de Camp^ which was so 
great as to entitle bim to his sincere acknowledgments. 

This day received the following letters, viz : 

One from my brother Frederick Kneass, dated the 10th Oct'r. 81. 

One from my brother App, dated the 10th Oct'r. 81. 

One from Lt. Johnston, dated York Town, Oct'r. 12, 81. 

. One from some person or pther [who] signed himself Incognito. 


22d Ocfr, '81. — This morning I wrote the following letters^ viz: 
One to my mother, and one to my brother App. No. 9. 

This morning our brigade went on duty to York and Oloster. 

23c? Oci^r. — ^This morning Capt. Stevenson and self crossed the river 
to take a view of Gloster, which we found full of sick of the British. 

This afternoon Col. Tarlton was dismounted from his horse by an in- 
habitant who owned the horse. 

Spent the afternoon very agreeably drinkiug wine and claret, &c. | 

2ith. — The French troops are employed this day in taking their heavy ' 

pieces of ordinance. i 

This day wrote a letter to my Brother App., No. 10. 

Spent the afternoon with the Officers of the Third Penn'a Battalion. 

Return of the Garrison of York and Gloucester, in Virginia, which 
surrendered prisoners of war on the 19 th October, 1781 : — 

To his ExceUencif Gen. George Washington : — 

1 Lieut. General. 15 Adjutants. 

1 Brigadier General. 20 Quarter-Masters. 

2 Colonels. 14 Surgeons. 
12 Lieut. Colonels. 22 Mates. 
14 Majors. 445 Serjeants. 

88 Captains. 5780 Rank and File. 

132 Lieutenants* 187 Drummers and Fifers. 
55 Ensigns. 9 Bombardiers* 

4 Cornets. 6 Gunners. 

2 Chaplains. 154 Matrosses. 

Hospital Department, 

1 Surgeon and Field Inspector. 

3 Surgeons. 4 Stewards. 

10 Mates. 2 Ward Masters. 

2 Chaplains. 19 Assistants. 
2 Purveyors. 2 Carpenters: 

Commissary Department, 

1 Commissary of Prisoners. 2 Clerks. 

4 Commissary of Issues. 3 Issuers. 

1 Commissary of Forage. 2 Coopers. 

2 Assistants' Forage. 1 Labourer. 

Total, 7025. 

N. B. This return is exclusive of the warrant department, which adds 
upwards of 1000 to the list of prisoners. 

One hundred square-rigged vessels, and upwards of 300 pieces of 
ordnance, 80 of which are brass. 

During the siege the enemy's loss was* **00 killed, deserted, and 
made prisoners. 

25th Ocfr, '81. — This morning, after breakfast, Lieut. Weitzel, Doyle, 

* The edge of the manuscript has been accidentally barnt near the centre of 
the book. 


and self, took a walk to town to spend the afternoon, but we could not 
procure any wine or spirits, for love or money. We then crossed the 
river in expectation of getting some there. We ranged through the 
whole town, but all to no purpose. 

We also expected to see Mr. Jacob ***gler, who, I was informed, was 
on Gloucester side, and a Captain in Col. Conneirs corps. 

I have the above information from Lieut. Crarey, (a British Officer,) 
who was formerly a prisoner of war at Lancaster. 

26<A Oc^Tj '81. — ^This day our brigade was ordered for fatigue, but 
the weather being rainy, and very stormy, and very cool, which pre- 
vented us as ordered. 

27<7a. — This morning 10 o'clock our brigade mounted guard, and did 
several fatigues in town. Capt. Irwin, Lieut. Dixon, and self, had the 
Reserve Picquet. Spent the evening very agreeably, drinking wine, &c. 

%%tli OctWj '81.— This day I was very unwell from last night's carouse. 

This afternoon I received the following letters, viz : 

One from Lieut, Francis White, dated York Town, Oct. 18, *81 ; 
one from Capt. J. Stake, dated do. 

The above letters I received from Mr. Geiger. 

29^A. — This morning 9 o'clock our brigade went on fatigue to demo- 
lish the works we had the trouble to throw up when his lordship had 
possession of the town. 

This evening the officers of our line received orders to make out lists 
of clothing that they wanted, in order that they might be supplied from 
the merchants in town. 

30/A Oct^Vy '81. — This day Majors Edwards and Alexander, and 
Capt. Claypoole of our line, were chosen to purchase such clothing as 
would suit the officers of our line, from the merchants of York and 

This day took a walk to town — our heavy pieces of ordnance putting 
on board. 

This evening our agents sent to camp a fine parcel of white superfine 
broadcloth, linens, &c. 

31«^ Ocir,, '81. — This day was very busily employed by our agents in 
completing our line with clothes, linens, &c. 

A very cool day, and a little rain in the afternoon. 

NovW ls^,'81. — This day our brigade went to town, mounted guard, 
and were employed in getting the military stores on board. 

This 'afternoon a soldier (a wagoner) was killed, of tho Infantry, by 
a shell bursting as he was rolling them out of the wagon, and four 
wounded, one mortally. 

This evening bought half-a-dozen China cups and saucers, and one 
cream-pot, and one pound of excellent Green Tea, for which articles I 
paid four-milled dollars, for the use of our mess. 

Spent the evening very agreeably with a number of gentlemen, drink- 
ing port wine, &c. 

2nd NovWy '81. — ^This morning early our line and the Marylanders 
received orders to hold themselves in readiness to march on the 4th 
instant at sun-rise. ' 


This day was very busily spent in dividing our clothing, &c« 

8r(£ Nov,y '81. — ^This day a number of British and Hessian prisoners 

were marched out of town under the command of the New York troops. 
This morning Lieut. Collier and self were to town^ and bought the 

following articles for the use of our Mess^ viz : 

Virginia Money, 

To 3 lb. Bohea Tea at 12s. per lb. £1 16s. 

" 68 lb. Sugar, at Is. 6d. per lb. , . .47 

« 22 lb. Coffee, at Is. 6d. per lb. . . 1 13 

'* 2 bottles Mustard, .... 6 

<< 4 skeins Sewing Silk^ . . • . 4 

<< 1 silk Handkerchief, .... 18 

je9 4s. 

Lieut. Tilden and Capt. Steven- 

This day I drew the following 

from the merchants in York, at 

\tU Nov*r. Walked to town with 
SOU) to purchase some small articles, 
articles of clothing, which we received 
the following prices sterlings viz : 

1 piece Liuen^ 25 yds., at Is. 8}d. 

3i yds. Blue Cassimere, at 7s. 9d. 

♦* pairs Worsted Hose, 

** pairs Cotton do., • 

** pairs Silk do., 

12 yds. Cassimere, at 7s. 3d., 

1 Black B. Handkerchief, . 

1 yd. Russia Sheeting, • 
Thread and Silk, 

2 yds. Mode at Is. lOd., 
1 pair Shoes, • 

1 pair Sleeve Buttons and Thread, 
Trimmings, &c.. 
Blackball and Soap, 

This day sent the following letters to Pennsylvania, viz : 

One to my Brother App., No. 11 ; one to Lieut. Johnston. . 

This morning received orders to march to-morrow morning, sun-rise. 

bth Nbv^r, '81 — ^This day marched at eleven o'clock, A. M. Our 
line and the Maryland Regiments marched past Cheesecake Church and 
Burreli's Mills, and encamped within half a mile of said mills, being 
ten miles. 

Qth JVtfy'r.— This morning at sunrise the troops took up the line of 
march, passed Hickory Neck Church, when we got into one of our old 
routes, being 19 miles, and encamped at Bird's Ordinary. We also 
passed the Burnt Brewery. 

7th Nbv^r. — This morning at day-light the troops took up the line 


£2 28. 


1 5 







1 5 





















of march. I mounted the Provost Guard this morning, and had fifteen 

Encamped at Kent Court House^ being 14 miles. 

Sth Nov'r* — The troops took up the line of March at sunrise this 
morning. Passed Savage's Farm^ Frazer's Ordinary, and Bottom's 
Bridge, and encamped within half a mile of said bridge, being 10 miles. 

9^.— This morning at day-light the troops took up the line of march^ 
and encamped on the heights at Richmond, being 14 miles. 

10^ JVbvV. — This day the Maryland line crossed James' Kiver. 
Took a walk to town this morning. Played billiards. Spent the after- 
noon at Mr. Gait's Ornery. Dined vevy sumptuously upon rock 
fish, &c. 

11th JVbv'r.— This day the artillery cross the river. A very rainy 
and disagreeable 'day. 

12th iTov'r. — The Q'r. M'r. G'l. and stores crossed this day. 

IZth iVbv'r.— This morning our Battalion crossed James' Biver at 
Bichmond; landed at Manchester, and encamped within one mile of said 
town. In the afternoon E* Butler and self took a walk to town and 
played a few games at billiards. 

14^. — This day Lieut. Collier and self crossed the river in order to 
purchase some small articles, &c. 

Wrote a letter to my Brother App., No. 12. Spent the afternoon 
at the ornery, and playing billiards, continuing at the table all night. 

15^^ NoyW, — ^This day, 10 o'clock A. M., our line took up the line 
of march, and encamped near Osborn's Ware Houses, on James' Biver, 
being 15 miles. 

I &lt very unwell this whole day from last night's carouse. 

\%th, — ^This morning at day-break our line took up the line of march, 
passed Ware Church, and encamped near Appomattox Biver, being ten 

This afternoon Capt. Marshall, Lieut. Collier, and self, crossed the 
river in order to take a view of Petersburgh. Played billiards all the 

A number of our stores crossed this day. 

nth Nov. '81. — ^This day our line crossed the Appomattox Biver 
and encamped half a mile from Petersburg. A very rainy and disagree- 
able day. Walked to town in the afternoon, and played a few games 
of billiards. 

18^ Nov. '81. — ^This day we remained on this ground, the men to 
wash their clothing and furbish up their arms, &c. 

Lt. Collier and myself went to the river to catch a few of the scaly 
fry. This day I went on fatigue. 

19tA Nov, — This morning at sunrise the troops took up the line of 
march, and were joined by Lt. Col. White with about Two Hundred 
Horse"— one half in front and the other half in the rear of the troop; 
passed through a very fine level country— passed Pinwiddie Court 
House, Stony creek, and encamped within half a miles of said bridge, be- 
ing 19 miles. 

20^A Nov. '81. — The troops took up the line of march this morning ) 



a ncavy frost ; crossed Notaway River, Lew Jones's brUge^ and encamped 
on said Jones's farm^ Brunswick County, being 14 miles. No pines this 

21st Nov. '81. — This morning at sunrise the troops took up the line of 
march and passed two small bridges— 'UO pines. — Encamped on Earl 
Edmunds's farm — being 15 miles. 

This morning I mounted the rear guard of the army, &c, Brunswick 

Yesterday morning Ensign Beaty and Capt. Mentzcr, of the Maryland 
line, fought a duel. The latter was shot through the head ; died im- 

22 J Nov. The troops took up the line of march this morning at sun« 
rise, crossed Mayherrin Creek^ on a bad bridge made of rails, — no pines 
— and encamped near Mitchell's Ornery, Mecklenburg County, being 
16 miles. 

2Sd Nov. — This morning at sunrise, the troops took up the line of 
march, passed through a very good country, crossed Mill Creek, and en- 
camped near Mitchell's Ornery, Mecklenburg County, being 12 miles. 

2ith Nov. '81. — ^This morning at sunrise the troops took up the line 
of march by the left, crossed Allen Creek, which was within half a mile 
of the ground we left this morning. 

At about 11 o'clock, A. M., we arrived at Roanoke River-^our 
Brigade being in front. — We immediately crossed by Regiments, and 
crossed all our baggage-wagons, &c., before sunset, being a luarch of eight 
miles, and encamped two miles on the south sides of the river. Total 10 

N. B. The troops crossed at Taylor's Ferry, Mecklenburg County. 

2^th Nov. '81. — ^A very rainy and disagreeable day. This pLce 
abounds in deer and wild turkeys, &c, 

2Qth Nov. — A very fine clear sunshiny day. This day dried and 
aired our clothes, &c., which got wet from yesterday's rain. 

The men received orders to wash their clothes, &c., furbish up their 
arms for inspection this afternoon. 

Lt. David Marshall of our battalion shot a very fine deer this after- 
noon, within one mile of our encampment. 

27ih Nov. — This morning at 8unri.<:e, Capt. Lewis and Lieut. Collier 
(my messmate) went a hunting for wild deer and turkeys — ^but brought 
home no game. 

A very fine and clear day. Received orders to march to-morrow 
morning at sunrise. 

28^ ^Vov. — Last night and this morning it rained very hard, which 
prevented us from marching this day. 

29t/i Nov. '81. — ^Tbis morning at sunrise, the troops took up the line 
of march, passed through a fine level good country. Roads very sloppy* 
This day we marched * * * miles into North Carolina, and encamped 
near Williamsborough. The town is composed of one fine church, one 
tavern, one smith shop and five or six small log houses. Granville 
County. 10 miles. 

Yesterday 1 wrote a letter to Lieut. Andrew Johnston. 


30^ N(yv, '81. — ^This morning, Lieut. Reeves was left on the ground 
with a number of our sick. 

The troops took up the line of march this morning at the usual time, 
and encamped at Harrisburg. The buildings are two elegant houses 
and a few ware-houses. Granrille County. 12 miles. 

December Isf^ 1781. — ^This morning at sunrise the troops took up the 
line of march, it being excessive bad marching in consequence of last 
night's rain. 

Passed through a very fine country ; saw several very elegant orchards, 
peach and apple, and encamped on Gen. Carson's farms, which are the 
most elegant farnas I have seen since we lefi Pennsylvania. Pie has also 
a very fine apple orchard in front of his mansion bouse. His buildings 
are but trifling. 13 miles. Granville County, 

The above mentioned person has eighty-five thousand acres of land 
all in one tract. 

2c? Dec. '81. — The troops took up the line of march this morning at 
sunrise ; passed through a very fine country ; road very sloppy in conse- 
quence of last night's frost. We encamped near Pane's Ornery. Caswell 
County. 16 miles. 

3c? Dec. '81. — ^This morning at sunrise, the troops took up the line of 
march ; passed Caswell Court House, and crossed Ilico Creek, a very 
tedious and disagreeable march ; sloppy and hilly ; encamped near said 
Court House and within a stone's throw of Mr. Black's Tavern, where I 
drank tolerably good beer. Caswell County. 10 miles. 

This evening Lieuts. Dixon and Moore shot a very fine young deer, 
close by our encampment. 

Likewise a soldier of our battalion shot a fine deer. 

4:th Dec'r. — The troops took up the line of march this morning at 
sunrise. The greater part of the road being very hilly, crossed Hico 
and Country Line Creek. A snow fell this day of about four inches 
deep. Encamped at Mr. Sumner's Ordinary. 

Capt. Bartholomew, of our battalion, unfortunately broke his leg this 
evening. Caswell county. 18 miles. 

bth Dec^r, '81. — ^This day we lay still in order to give our soldiers 
rest, as they were much fatigued from yesterday's march. 

^th Dec^r. — This morning I had the honour of commanding the Bul- 
lock Guard. I marched with my detachment to one Mr. Davis's, about 
three miles from our encampment to get a fresh cornfield for the cat- 
tle, 402 in number. 

lih DecW. — The troops took up the line of mareh this morning at 
sunrise, (I still being a Bullock Guard.) Passed through a very beau- 
tiful country, no pine to be seen. Very sloppy this morning. Crossed 
Haw River. The troops were obliged to ford it, which was very disa- 
greeable this season of the year, and encamped on the banks of said 
river. 16 miles. Guilford county. 

Our heavy bag age was left on the groacid this morning, under the 
command of Major James Moore. 

%tk Dec^fy '81. — This morning at day-light the troops took up the 
line of march, passed through a very fair country (no pines,) and en- 
camped at Guilford Court House. 20 miles. 


N. B. Crossed a branch of Hico Creek, where we were obliged t<» 
make a bridge across on acconnt of its being about four feet deep. 

We encamped on the heights near Guilford Court House^ where the 
late action was fought between Gen. Oreeneand Lord Comwallis* We 
found on suid fields a number of buts of muskets, &c. 

Between the ordinary and the court house we see a negro's head 
sticking on a sapling on one side of the road, and his right hand side to 
a sapling on the opposite side. He was just hanged, then cut to 
pieces for killing a white man, Ac. 

9th DecW, '81. — This day we remained on the ground in expectation 
of getting clothing washed, but the weather turned out to be very rainy 
and disagreeable. This place is called the Irish settlement. 

10th DecTf '81. — We received orders this morning to remain on the 
ground for to wash our clothing, &c. This day very rainy and disagree- 
ably cold. 

11th DecW. — ^This morning at sunrise the troops took up the line of 
march. Passed through a very fine country, (settled by Quakers, who 
have tolerable good plantations, &c.) Crossea two branches of Deep 
Creek, and encamped near Mr. Barney •♦iddle's, on the banks of **st's 
Creek. 16 miles. Guilford county. 

12th DecW, — The troops took up the line of march this morning at 
the usual time ; passed through a country settled by Germans, who 
have very good plantations, and a small quantity of meadow, which is 
seldom to be seen. (A few pines this day.) Left Moravian to?m, 
called Salem eight miles upon our right hand. 

Yesterday Col Craig of the 3d Battalion, Penn'a, took the right of 
our Brigade, and this day our Battalion encamped upon the right as 
usual. (16 miles) long. 

Encamped on the hill near Mr. McCreary*s. Hoane county. 

ISth Dec^r, '81. — This morning at sunrise the troops took up the line 
of march. Passed through a fine country, (no pines.) Crossed the Yad- 
kin in boats. The soldiers and the baggage forded, and encamped 
within 1 mile of said river. 13 miles. 

lAth Dec'r. — ^The troops took up the line of march this morning at 
sunrise. Passed through Salisbury, which is a fine little town ; two or 
three elegant houses; and encamped within half-a-mile of said town. 7 

This evening Capt. Davis and Lieut. Collier went to town and spent 
the evening with Capt. Christr. Stake at Mr. Bream's, an old townsman 
of mine. 

Ibth Dec^r. — The troops took up the line of march this morning at 
sunrise. Passed through a very fine country ; went back to town this 
morning and wrote the following letters, viz : 

One to my Brother App., No. 13, and one to my mother, and deli- 
vered them to Capt. Christ'r Stake. Encamped at Mr. Taylor's, 
Boane county, 12 miles. 

16th />ecV.— -This morning at sunrise marched at the usual time ; 
crossed Coddle Creek, and Mr. Pheiffer's Ornery, where Capt. Bower 
and self dined. Passed through a fine country, and encamped on Rocky 
Bun. Mecklenburg county. 14 miles. 


T\ ithin half a mile of our eDcampments was an Indian Town of the 
Catawbas Nation. They arc but few in number at this plaee^ about 
eighty. About four miles from this place, I am informed, their princi- 
pal town is, where they have fifteen square miles of land. The land 
here is very good, and no pines. 

nth Dec'r, '81. — ^This day remained on ibe ground in consequenec of 

18^A Dec'r. — This morning a very great frost. The troops took up 
the line of march at the usual hour, crossed Millet Creek, marched 
through Charlotte Town, and encamped within half a mUe of said town. 
There- are but three tolerable houses in town, and about one dozen of 
ordinary buildings, &o, Mecklenburg county. 13 mile8« 

This day I mounted camp guard. 

19^^ DccV. — The troops took up the line of march this morning at 
sunrise, and crossed Mt. Coppet Creek and several other small runs, and 
encamped this side of Glenn's Branch. We saw but very few houses 
this day. 15 miles. Mecklenburg county. 

20th JDec'r, — tThis morning at sunrise the troops took up the line of 
march. Passed through a fine level country, and encamped at 12 mile 
creek, Indian Land, in South Carolina. 10 miles. Camden District. 

Lieuts. Lodge, McKinney, Strieker, y$n Court, and self took a ride 
about four miles from our encampment to see an Indian town of the 
Catawba Nation. We had a very long, tedious* and disagreeable ride, 
and all small Indian foot-paths and thick woods to ride through. We 
see one of their towns, but it was only the remains of a town, which 
was burnt by the British. We rode on half a mile farther, when we 
found a very fine bottom, but all the old houses evacuated. 

We see three Indians in a canoe^ coming down Catawba River. We 
hailed them, and brought them to, and asked them several questions. 

They informed us the town was half-a-mile the other side of the river. 
We were very desirous of seeing the town, but could not trust our 
horses on this side for fear they would he stolen # 

I marched the sick of our brigade this day. • ^ 

We could not cross the creek, it being very high water in conse- 
quence of yesterday's rain. We were obliged to fall a number of trees 
across the creek for the troops to cross over. 

21s< Dec'r. — The troops took up the line of march at 12 o'clock, M. 
Crossed 12 mile creek, passed through a very fine country, and en- 
camped at Maxwell Creek. 7 miles. 

At this place were seventeen British officers, paroled. A warm day. 

22nd Dec*r. — ^This morning at day-light the troops took up the line 
of march. Crossed Waxaw Creek, Cane Creek, Camp Creek, Gill's 
Creek, and Bear Creek, and encamped on the south side of said creek, 
on Major Barkley's farm, Creavei> county, Camden District. 10 miles. 
This a very rainy, sloppy, and disagreeable day. 

23rcf i>ec'r, '81. — ^This morning at sunrise the troops took up the line 
of march. Passed through a piney, and what they call Black Jack, a 
very fine, level road. See a number of wagons, &., destroyed, and a 
number of buts of guns, &c., and encamped one mile on the south side 
of the Flat Rock. 20 miles. Camden District. 



This is the ground whore a number of our soldiers were cut to pieces 
by Mr. Tarlton's corps^ on the retreat of Gen'l Gates. 

March through a great part of the long-leafed pine. N. B. This 
place, called the Flat Kock, is about three acres in circumference^ flat 
and solid. 

24/A De(^r^ '81.-— The troops took up the line of march at the usual 
time. This day very disagreeable marching, rainy and very sloppy, and 
encamped within two miles of Camden, in the woods. 16 miles. 

25^A />ecV, '81.— >This day remained on the ground, the men being 
much fatigued, their clothes yery dirty. Beceived an invitation to dine 
with Mr. Le Count. Seven other gentlemen besides myself. He has 
a very fine plantation. His house is built on. an Indian monument, 
about ten feet high. We dined very sumptuously on a very elegant 
dinner, and plenty of eood spirits. 

Said Mr. Le Count lives about three miles off the south side of Cam- 

I also took a view of the town, which is greatly destroyed by the 
enemy. There are yet three good houses remaining. The enemy had 
a number of outworks, which are all demolished. 

This being one of the most remarkable Christmases that ever I expe- 
rienced, very warm, &c., we passed the afternoon very agreeably, with- 
out fire in the parlour. 

. 26^ De^r^ '81. — ^The troops took up the line of march ^this morning 
at sunrise. The Maryland troops and the heavy baggage were ordered 
to remain on the ground until we had crossed the river. 

We passed through Camden, and crossed the Wateree, where we had 
but two scows to cross over troops and baggage, and encamped about 
two miles on the south side of said river in a piney woods, intermixed 
with a few Black Jacks. 5 miles. 

27/A Det^r. — ^This morning at sunrise, the troops took up the line of 
march, passed through a very disagreeable swamp for about two miles, 
half leg deep in water. No house to be seen this day but one. Nothing 
but pines. 

Encamped near one Mr. Beynolds, lately from Penn'a, a tenant of 
Col. Ganshaw's* 10 miles. 

This day I mounted the bullock guard. 

Took up my quarters at one Mr. Bennet's, ^a Quaker.) who treated 
me exceeding polite, and gave me every thing nis house afforded. We 
lived very well, &c. 

28^^ DeK^r, — This morning at sunrise our line marched (the Mary- 
land being in the rear of us,) passed through a very fine level country, 
all long-leaf pine. This day we had a very fatiguing march, being verv 
warm. See three or four tolerable good houses. Kncamped within half 
a mile of Congaree River. 23 miles. 

29^A. — ^This morning at sunrise we crossed Congaree Biver, and en- 
camped on the south of Col. Thompson's, ^a gentleman who lives 
in great affluence.) Has a verv elegant mansion bouse, which is sur- 
rounded by a number of negro houses. 

The widow Mot and Mr. Part live within sight of Col. Thompsoji's, 


on a Y^ liigh hill. The situations of both places ate very elegant; 
Orangebarg county. 5 miles. 

This being a very fine, agreeable day, the woods all green. The 
cane swamps look exceeding beautiful. A long kind of a moss grows 
on the different kinds of the trees.. 

On the north side of the Congaree river a fine parcel of curious tim- 
ber called Palmetto trees. It has long sharp leaves like the blades of 
Indian corn, from the bottom to the top, (no limbs) all leaves. 

Dec. ZQthy 'Si.^^This morning at sunrise the troops took up the line 
of. march ; passed three or four bouses near the road. . A number of 
very fine ladies came to the road to take a yiew of us as we passed by. 
A very fine level road this day's march. AH pines, intermingled with a 
few oaks and hickories. 

Encamped in a German settlement (called Tories,) near one Mr. Adam 
Freitly!s (a German,) who had a great number of negroes. 

A very fine, warm, and agreeable day. Orange county— 13 miles. 

Dec. dl«^.— The troops took up the line of march at sunrise*— passed 
through a German settlement-— passed a number of swamps— ^marched 
past Orangeburgh Town and encamped within a mile of said town. The 
enemy burnt the whole town except one house and the goal. 

There are a number of militia, horse and foot, doing duty at this 
place, to keep the tories in order, commanded by Gkn. Sumpter. Orange- 
burgh county— 13. miles. 

Yesterday evening we drew rice for forage for our horses. 

Jan. \%tj 1782.— The troops took up a line of march this morning 
at sunrise. We were obliged to cross a number of very disagreeable 
swamps. No bridges could be made, and we were obliged to wade theni 
knee deep. Very few houses on this day's march. Pines very high. 

Just as we entered our encamping ground a flock of green parrot 
quets flew through our encampment, which was a very great curiosity 
with OS* 

The trees hero all green, just as they are in Pennsylvania in the 
springy the willow, oak, pines, and a number of other trees, of which I 
cannot yet ascertain their names^ but I oan assure jou the sight is very 

. Encamped in the wilderness amongst a fine parcel of pines and sur- 
rounded by swamps, &c.— 20 miles. 

This day being very warm and agreeable so that I could have iHarched 
in my shirt sleeves. 

Very low ground this whole day's march. 
• Very few oaks or hickories on this ground. 

Jan. 2cf^ '82. — ^This morning at sunrise the troops took up the lino 
of inarch ; passed through a low, swampy and piney country. For about 
seven miles the country was exceeding level* 

Only saw one or two houses, (they are not housesi but may be prop- 
erly called huts,) and a great distance from the road side. 

This evening after we had pitched our tent| a fine flock of green 
parroquets flew throng camp. 
> After a long and fittigoing mardi we encamped ina piney woods^ 




not a Btiok of other wood ; the smoke of which is as black as charcoal 
and very disagreeable. 

Yerj likely for rain this eveniDg. 15 miles. 

N. B. Encamped within thi«e miles of Edisto river. 

Jan, 3d, '82. — This morning at nine o'clock the troops took np the 
line of march. This whole day's march was very disagreeable, through 
swamps and mud up to our knees. 

Kxceeding bad roads for wagons and artillery. 

We crossed Edisto river, on which are erected two very elegant saw 
mills, four saws in each mill, and as they saw the boards, planks, &c., 
they throw them into the river, from which they take them to Charles- 
town. The river runs very rapid. There is alsd a grist mill erected on 
said river, joining with said saw mills. 

No buildings on the farm adjoining said river but a few negro huts. 

All the Virginia troops were discharged this day, so that the Vir- 
ginians have not a single soldier left in the field. 

Encamped on Hickory Bidge within four miles of Gen. Greene's 
army— 10 miles. 

This evening the frogs in the swamp sang very sweetly. 

Jan. 4th, 1782. — A veir heavy dew and fog this morning. 

The troops took up the line of march at the usual hour. This whole 
day's march swamps as usual. 

Joined Gen. Greene's army this morning at eleven o'clock. 

Encamped in the woods at Round — 5 miles. 

Jan. ^th, 1 782.-^ Yesterday G«ns. Greene, Wayne, Gist and a number 
of other gentlemen officers went about fifteen miles into the country 
from camp to an elegant entertainment. 

This morning and all last ni^ht a very heavy dew which is very un- 
wholesome. This day very warm. 

Jan. 6th, '82. — ^The water here is very bad, no springs or rivulets, 
all ponds and swamps, which are full of little insects ; in consequence 
of which I attempted to dig a well about ten yards from our tent. I 
dug about four feet deep, when I found I was very successful in getting 
tolerable good water, cool and clear. 

This day I wrote the following letters, viz : one to my brother App. 
No. 1 4 ; one to Lieut. Johnston of our Regiment ; sent them by Capt. 
Kirkwood of the Delaware State. 

Dr. Davis, Mr. Furgeson and Mr. Baker, the latter are gentlemen in- 
habitants of this state, and the Doctor a brother of Capt. Davis's — the 
above gentlemen spent the afternoon and drank tea with us. We re- 
ceived very warm invitations to come and see them, which opportunity I 
mean to embrace in a few days. Hiis day excessive warm. 

This country here abounds in wild deer, geese, ducks, &c. The geese 
and ducks roost in the rice fields, which are at present (or in win- 
ter, as they call this season) all overflowed with water. 

Jan. 7th '82. — This day very warm. The country here abounds in 
turkey-buzzards, crows* ravens, and the blackbirds are innumerable. 

There is Five Pounds fine for shooting a turkey-buzzard. 

Jan. Sthf '82. — Thb day received an invitation to dine with Gapt. 


Andrew, an inhabitant, about two iniles from cam{>. To knorr'ow is ap- 
pointed for that purpose. Thip day yery warm. " • 

Went to see Capt. Hall and Dr. Blithe of the North Carolina line. . 

This evening at sunset we received orders to march to morrow morn- 
ing at eight o'clock, which was disagreeable news to me and others. 

Jan, ^ihf '82. — This morning at eight o'clock our Brigade took up 
tho line of march. The roads exceeding good, it was impossible for 
roads to be better, and very straight and level, just like a bowling green. 
See a number of elegant houses^ ^11 a short distance from the road, also 
a number of plantations which are all overflowed with water^ and ditches 
dug round them to drain^off the waiter. 

Marched through Tacksonborough in which are built four or five toler- 
able good frame houses and a' number of smaller houses ] and en- 
camped within a tjuarter of a mile of s«iid town — 13 miles. 

I had the pleasure of being the advance guard of our Brigade^ 
and after we arrived at our ground was obliged to mount Gk)vernor Rut- 
ledge's guard in town, where I had the pleasure of spending the after? 
ternoon and part of the night with the Govertior and a number of the 
members of Assembly, and half a dozen of very agreeable ladies ) had 
plenty of good Maderia wine and spirits, which a few day $go camo 
from Charleston. 

Our ]3rigade was sent to this place to pro^tect the Assembly whilst 

Jan, lO^A, '82. — This day our Brigade moved about two hundred 
yards in the rear of our former encampment, in consequence of our first 
situation's being rather disagreeable, the ground being rather wet and 

Jan, Will J '82. This day we made ourselves a very fine bedstead — 
dug a well about seven feet deep about three yards from our boys' tent, 
and now promising ourselves to live like Christians again. 

This day we were under the disagreeable necessity of drawing all rice 
instead of Indian Meal, and it is a very poor substitute for bread, and it 
is a mystery to see how to make it into bread. 

The Carolinians say they ,are fonder of rice bread than they are of the 
best wheat. 

Jan, Vlth, — This morning we received orders to hold ourselveffin rea- 
diness to march at the shortest notice ; in the evening we struck our 
tents, loaded ojir baggage, crossed Pon-Pon, marched all night, and in 
the morning one houf before daylight we arrived within half a mile of 
Stoneo Ferry, Col. Lawrence's Infantry in front of us, who were to sur- 
prise a party of four hundred foot and sixty horse, who were fortifying 
themselves on John's Island. Our plan fell through, daylight appear- 
ing and a number of Infantry not having crossed the marsh. Said 
marsh being very disagreeable crossing, it was middle deep with mud, 
weeds and water, a number of our Infantry stuck fast and were obliged 
to be pulled out, Ac. Our Brigade was to support the Infantry — ^22 

Jan. 13^, '82.— This morning about daylight the Infantry and our 
line marched about one mile and a half from Stoneo Ferry — lay upon 
our arms all day. Weather cold and disagreeable. No tents Or baggage. 


This day the remaining part of the army joined us. 

Jan, 14^, '82. — ^This day we built a very finebrosh hut. About 11 
o'elock^ A. Mm two of our six pounders were ordered to the Public 
Landing, (about one mile from Stoneo Ferry) in order to drive away a 
row-galley which lay at anchor in Stoneo River, to prevent our troops 
from crossing on John's Island at low water. Our artillery threw up a 
small breast work along side of the marsh, the distance was about half 
a mile, our field pieces fired about a dozen of shot at the galley, three of 
which struck her, to which I, Major Kean, Lieut. McPherson and a 
number of other gentlemen had the pleasure of being eye-witnesses. 
After receiving a shot or two she fired several shot (an eighteen pounder) 
and dropped slowly down the river. 

This evening Maj. Edwards, Lieut. Marchand and about twenty four pri- 
vates went on John's Island and found the enemy had evacuated it and 
left a number of stores behind them ; wine was one of the articles. 

Lieut. McPherson and self walked to Stoneo Ferry, where we found 
one mansion-house and a number of stores evacuated. We searched 
them and found them all plundered, the furniture broke to pieces — in 
one of the storehouses was left about two hundred weight of good cotton. 

This day we drew Indian meal again. Excessive cold weather this 

Jav?y» 15^, ^82. — ^This day^s orders, no officer or soldier to leave 
camp on any account. We were informed the enemy were out in force 
this day, in consequence of which we marched about four miles towards 
Gharlestown, and returned to our former encampment. 8 miles. 

JaiCy, \^ih, — ^This morning at sunrise the whole army took up the 
line of march, for Jacksonsburgh it was thought, but to our great mor- 
tification we found we were disappointed, and encamped it the woods 
near Mr. Frazor's farm and about four miles from Jacksonsburgh ; lay in 
the woods without our tents. This day we were obliged to wade a 
number of very disagreeable puddles. Very cool this day. 15 miles. 

JaiCy. 17th J '82. — ^This day our mess built a brush hut for ourselves 
to shelter us from the weather. (To be sure, and a poor substitate it is.) 
This afternoon the officers of our^Brigade dined with^Capt. Lusk's mess ; 
we spent the afternoon and part of the evening very agreeably, drinking 
grog, &c. 

Our encampment is surrounded by rice plantations, which are all 
overflowed with water, and in which ponds, as we may eall them, there 
are the greatest plenty of wild ducks that ever I see, thousands in one 

Jav!y* 18^, '82. — This morning I had the pleasure of mounting the 
Provost Guard, in front of Mr. Frazor's dwelling house. (It is a two 
story brick house.) This afternoon I received five prisoners of war^ who 
were taken on James's Island. 

A very rainy and disagreeable day. 

There are a number of very elegant buildings close to our encamp- 
ment — the inhabitants very polite and genteel. Balls almost every 

JarCy. 19(A. — ^Thb morning about two o'clock I had a small fire 



kindled to myself near my gaard. I was very agreeably entertained by 
the singing of a very fine bird called the large Gray Owl. He sang 
very melodious for about two hours. Very heavy firing yesterday morn- 
ing, cannon and small arms. The firing was at Glenl. Qrcene and his. 
party of Horse who were within one mile of Charlestown, reconnoi- 
tring, &c. 

JarCy, 20<A, '82. — This morning Lt. Doyle and self went to the. 
borough where our heavy baggage was left to get some clean clothes, &c ; 
dined very sumptuously with Col. Craig. Roads very sloppy. 

This day G-overnor Burke of North Carolina arrived at Head Quarters, 
who a few days ago made his escape from James's Island. He was 
paroled on said Island. 

This afternoon all the field officers of the army were called upon in 
council to inquire into the conduct of Governor Burke, whether he was 
justifiable in making his escape from the enemy whilst on parole. 

JavHy, 21«<, '82. — This morning very cool. It was reported this 
day that the Board of Officers which sat yesterday, gave it in favour of 
Gt>vr. Burke that he was justifiable in making his escape from the 

JaiCy, 22d. — ^This morning we had a white frost. 

After breakfast Lts. Doyle, McDowell, Allison and self took a walk 
to the country (about four miles) where we found a number of Carolina 
soldiers straggling through the country, which is against General Orders. 
We were taking a view of one of their rice mills, where they shell their 
rice. Wo heard a musket fired, we pursued three of said soldiers and 
caught two of them, who had shot one of the poor negroes' hogF. We 
guarded them to camp and had them confined. 

JavHy, 2Mdj '82 — ^This morning Lt. Doyle, Ball and self walked to 
our baggage, which was at Jacksons burgh, to get some clean clothes. 
& miles. 

This evening our baggage arrived from camp.- 

We are ordered in this day's General Orders to deliver all our tents 
and camp-kettles to the Qr. Mr. Gl. 

This day received the following letters, viz : One from my brother 
Frederick dated the 6th Deer. '81 5 one from my sister Nancy dated 
6th Deer., '81. 

Jan*y, 24<A, '82. — ^This morning 10 o'clock the whole army, (except 
the Light Infantry which lay about ten miles from the main ai^my,) 
took up the line of march and encamped within a mile of our old en- 
campment, opposite Mr. Frazor's seat. Nothing but pines here to bum 
for firewood, which is very disagreeable. 

This afternoon the Third or Col. Craig's Battalion of our line was 
ordered to Jacksonsburgh for the protection of the Assembly of this 
State, who are now sitting in said borough. 

They wgre alarmed last night, which was the reason of a reinforce- 
ment's being sent them. 

Jan*y. 2bth, '82. — ^This morning I had the pleasure of mounting the 
Rear Guard of the Army ; disposed of my sentinels as I though proper, 
no officer of the day appearing on the Grand Parade. My guard coU" 
sisted of 2 S, 2 C, 2 D and F, and 24 Privates. 


This day whilst on gaard I received a letter from Mr. Bandow^ dated 
at Lancaster the Gth Deo'r. '81. Last night a verj heavy frost. 

There is a very beautiful bird in this country called a Red Bird. It 
is all red and has a bluck cap on its head. It is the bigness of a mock- 
ing bird. 

davCy 26^A. — ^This morning I was relieved by Lieut. Dixon. A very 
cool day ; ice about half an inch thick. 

JavHy 21thj '82. Nothing material this day. Very windy and cold. 
The weather very changeable. 

JaiCy 28^. — This day a Subaltern and a Surgeon from the British 
army came to Head Quarters. For what reason they left Charleston I 
cannot yet ascertain. 

It is thought the enemy will soon evacuate the city. 

Jan'y 29/A. — ^This day Lieuts. Collier, Hammond, and self, received 
an invitatioD to dine at Head Quarters. We accepted the invitation^ 
dined very sumptuously. Spent the afternoon very agreeably, drinking 
wine, &c. 

t/an'y 30^.'— Last night was as cold as ever I experienced to the north- 
ward. This morning I rode to a shelling-mill, (Rice,) in order to pro* 
cure some boards to make a bed for our mess, to keep us from lying on 
the cold ground. A very cold day. Floored our tent, and built a very 
fine chimney to our tent. 

Jan'y 31rt, '82. — This whole day I employed in writing letters to my 
friends, &c., viz : One to my brother Michael App, No. 15 ) one to my 
mother ) one to my sister Nancy Kneass ] one to my friend Capt. John 
Doyle ; and sent them by Lieut. Pendergast, who promised to deliver 

FtVy Isty '82. — A very rainy and very disagreeable day.' 

FeUy 2nd, '82. — ^This morning I had the pleasure of mounting the 
rear picquet of the army. Five deserters passed my guard (all Scotch- 
men,) on their way to Tirginia. This day very cloudy. 

Feb'y Brd, '82. — This morning I was relieved by a Maryland officer. 
Very likely for rain this day. If the weather in this country clears up, 
and the sun shines before 12 o'clock, M., it is a sure sign of rain that 
day ; but if the weather clears, and the sun shines after 12 o'clock, it 
is a very true symptom of a clear day. 

Feb'y ^th^ '82.— This evening Major James Moore arrived with our 
heavy baggage and two pieces of artillery, &c. They brought with them 
two British officers, who were taken going through the country as a flag to 
settle some of their private affidrs. 

A few days ago a spy was taken looking through our army, and is 
now unde> guard at Jacksonsburgh. 

Feb^y Ibik, 82. — This day I wrote the following letters, via : One to 
my brother Frederick ; one to my cousin Harry Dering ; and one to 

Mr. W. B. 

Sent the above letters by Col. Otho Williams, inclosed in a letter to 
Btr. Nichs. Hower, Frederick Town, Maryland, 

Feb^y ^thj '82. — A few days ago I had the pleasure of seeing a young 
alligator, about one foot long. They are the same shape as a man-eater 
or a lizard, only the alligators have a sort of gills. 



This afternoon Cttpt. Smith Stodsbury and Lieut. White, joined the 
southern army, with a number of men who were left sick at Williams- 
burgh, Virg'a. Rainy and cloudy. 

FtVy 7<A, '82.-— This day twelyo deserters came to Head Quarters. 

The enemy came out as far as Beacon's Bridge, two miles this side of 
Dorchester, which is twenty miles from Charleston, and twenty-three 
miles from this place. All day very cloudy and rainy. 

This afternoon Lieut. Dennis's waiter killed a very largo rattle-snake. 
It was above six feet long, and of a prodigious thickness. 

FeVy 8<A, '82.— A very rainy and disagreeable, dull day. 

FeVy 9^, '82. — This day another rattle-snake, of about five feet two 
inches, was killed in the rear of our encampment, by the same person. 
A fine and clear day. 

Feb^y 10^, '82.-r— A very rainy and disagreeable day, so that -every 
person was obliged to stay in their tents. This day I got a suit of regi- 
mentals finished. 

FeVy WJh, — A very fine, clear, and warm day. 

FeVy 12^.~-This morning at day-light the army was under arms in 
consequence of the enemy's movements. 

This day I mounted the Rear Guard of the army. 

FeVy V6tU, — A very fine, warm, and pleasant day. 

FeVy 14fA, '82 — No particular occurrences this day. 

Feb^y \hthy '82. — This day a number of our Infantry came from the 

The peach and plumb blossoms in full bloom. 

FeVy 16^. — Five Hessian deserters came this day from the Sa- 

This day I was very much fatigued playiii^ cricket. 

Fdty nth. — A very fine, agreeable, warm day. There is a tree in 
this country called the Pride of America. It is full of berries, which 
hang in clusters. These trees are always full of Birds of different kinds, 
and [who] eat those berries. 

FeVy 18<A.— A fine and warm day. This day Mr. Frazer presented 
me with a curious smoke pipe, which is made of a brier root, called 
Bam -boo. 

FeVy 19tL — This morning we had a heavy rain. The afternoon 
cleared up very fine. 

This evening I went on command to Col. Haines's farm, whoso lot it 
was to fall unfortunately into our cruel enemy's hands, and was hung 
by those damnable murderers. Said Haines left a family of very fine, 
promising children behind him, both motherless and fatherless. Gov. 
Hutchinson has the care of the estate. 

I was ordered to take charge of the military stores, with a sergeant, 
corporal, and eighteen privates. » 

The situation of this farm is very agreeable. Avery elegant mansion 
house and an overseer's house surrounded by negro houses, a very fin& 
brick rice mill, store house, &c. A fine pond of water all around the- 
house, which affords a great quantity of fish and wild ducks. From the- 
main road to said house is a very beautiful avenue of about a mile long. 



The plantation is about three miles from Jacksonsbnrgh. A garden full 
of very fine flowers, &c. « 

FeVy 20^, '82.— 'Rained very hard all last night, and part of this 
morning. Cleared up ib the afternoon rery warm. Spent the evening 
very agreeably with Gen. Barnwell, Gov. Hutson, and five or six Assem- 
bly and Senate gentry. We sat vp until eleven o'clock at night, drink- 
ing excellent Jamaica Grog and super-excellent French Brandy in its 

FeVy 21«^ — ^This morning very foggy. A very fine and warm day. 
This evening the officer came whom I was to relieve. 

FeVy 22nd, '82.— This evening we had a very agreeable dance at 
Major Moore's Bowery. 

A number of ladies came in from the country. Amongst the number 
were the Miss Couliets, Miss Glover, Miss Williams, the Miss EUits, 
and a number of others whose names I cannot recollect. Amongst the 
number was a Miss Miles, who could neither speak nor bear, and could 
perform her dancing to admiration. 

2Se? F^'y, '82.— This day I rode to Col. Craig's Regiment. Spent 
the afternoon very agreeably, playing cricket, &e. 

24th FeVy, '82.— This day Lieuts. CoUier, White, and Strieker, 
came to see me at my quarters^ They dined with me, &c. Spent the 
evening very agreeably with a number of Assembly men, drinking good 
grog, Ac. 

2hth Feb^y, '82. — ^This day I rode to camp and reported my situation 
to the D. A. G., my men not having either mrras or dothiag. My guard 
consisted of North Carolina soldiers, &e. 

The garden here is full of beautiful flowers of different kinds. 

26<A Feb*y. — This day 1 was relieved by Lieut. Wilkins of the Artil- 
lery, who had orders to make ten thousand blank cartridges with all pos- 
sible despatch. 

Received very warm invitations from Gov. Hittson to come and visit 

27^ Feb^y. — ^This day I went on General Court Martial of the S. 

28^ Feb*y, — The army who are off duty are daily manoeuvring in 
front of the D. A. G*l. 

March Ist^ '82. — ^This day fivo soldiers were executed, four lor deser- 
tion, and one for marauding. 

March 2nd. — A very heavy rain last nigbt. A very dull, rainy, and 
eool day. 

MarehZd, — A very dn)l day, and likely for rain. 

March 4^, '82. This morning at eleven o'clock the army was re- 
viewed by Gen^l Greene } several manwuvres perlbrmed. The whole fired 
four rounds, one round by platoons, one romnd by divisions, and two 
rounds by battalions. 

Rained a little in the afternoon. 

The troops performed their several manffiuvres with the greatest ex- 
actness and regularity. 

March bih^ '82. In thi» day'^s orders Gen. Greene returns his thanks 



to the troops for their improvement iu the several manoeuvres performed 
yesterday ; and the troops to hold themselves in readiness to march to- 
morrow, eight o'clock, if the weather will permit. 

Two soldiers in the Maryland line were pardoned in this day's orders, 
who were to suffer death for that villainous crime of marauding. 

A rainy and very dull day. 

A few days ago Gkn. Marion, it is said, was surprised by the enemy ; 
very little execution done. Last evening two deserters came to Head 

March Qth, '82. — Last night very heavy rain and thunder and light- 

All this day rain. — Our march is postponed until further orders. 

March 7th. — This day rain and very disagreeable. One hundred and 
seventy North Carolinians joined us this day without arms. 

This afternoon went to see Mr. Frazer's garden, which is very elegant, 
full of different kind of flowers, &c., a few lemon trees, fig trees, and a great 
variety of others. At the foot of the garden is an elegant fish pond, 
which produces a number of fine trout, perch, &c. 

March Sth. — ^Eained all day. 

March 9ih, — A very fine, clear, and warm day. Played a few games 
of fives. 

March 10th. A rainy and dull day. Two Scotch deserters came to 
to the A. D. QeuVs. this day. 

March 11th, — Eained last night and a little this morning. Cleared 
up a fine day. 

See a number of swallows or martins. 

March 12/A.-— This day a second arrangement took place in our line. 
We were reduced to two battalions of eight companies each. A number 
of our officers left supernumerary, who are to retire to Penn'a. Eained 
and a very dull day. 

March ISth. — This day Col. Craig, Capts. Wilkin and Claypoolc, 
Major Alexander, Lieuts. Ball, Thombury, Peeble, Dixon, Strieker, 
Gillchrist and Dr. Magee set off for Penn'a. 

This day I wrote the following letters, viz : One to my mother ; one 
to my brother App. No. 16 ; one to my cousin Henry Dering ; one to 
Capt. J. Stake, and one to Capt. J. Doyle, and sent them by Lieut. 

This day it was currently reported that the enemy had evacuated the 
Quarter House, burnt all their works, returned to the city, and that two 
regiments had embarked. Cloudy all day. 

I^th March f '82. — This morning very fine and warm, agreeable; 
rained excessive hard in the afternoon ; we were almost overflowed in our 

15^ March. — ^This morning very clear^the afternoon very cloudy 
and like for rain. 

This day we sent a wagon for oysters. 

Tbis evening Major Moore with a large detachment from the army 
went to the lines. 

March 16^, '82. — This morning received an invitation from Lieut. 


Smitli to spend St. Patrick's day with him to-morrow in company with 
Lt. North, Lt. McCollam, Lt. Reed, Dr. McDowell, Ensigns Van Court 
and Cunningham. We rode to a Mr. Kennedy's, about fifteen miles from 
camp, at a place called Bantholes on Stoneo River, about twelve miles 
from Charleston, which place was very dangerous for us to remain longer 
than evening an 1 we being at a tory's house. Spent the day and greater 
part of the night very agreeably. 

17th Marchj '82. — Went to see a Mr. Williamson's garden, about a 
mile from Mr. Kennedy's, which is very beautifully laid out in beds and 
walks^ surrounded by dox ; in the centra of which he has a very large 
fish-pond, which produces a variety of the scaly fry and wild ducks. 
After having satisfied our curiosity with the garden, plucked a few of 
the finest fiowers and -sweet scented ehrubs, &c., we returned to Mr. 
Kennedy's — when dinner was laid— dined very sumptuously upon cod- 
fish, Irish potatoes, asparagus, fowls, &c. 

After dinner we surrounded a large table, which was decked with good 
Nantes Brandy, excellent spirits, &c. We then went to work in form, 
chose a President and proceeded to business. Spent the afternoon and 
greater part of the night very agreeably. 

March ISthy '82. — This morning after breakfast we started from Mr. 
Kennedy's, a little elevated with egg-nog, and unanimously agreed to 
call upon Mr. Williamson to compliment him on the elegance of his 
garden. We only intended to call and take a drink of grog with him, 
but he insisted upon our staying to dine with him and spend the after- 
noon, which we agreed to. After dinner we smoked our pipes, sang a 
song and got damnably drunk. On our starting, a short distance from 
the house my horse threw me and ran away. The rest of the company 
pursued him,, but could not overtake him until he arrived at Mr. Ken- 
nedy's, which was about a mile. There we were all obliged to remain 
until we recovered, and came a little to our senses^ which was about two 
o'clock in the morning. 

March l^ihj '82. — This morning about day-light we arrived in camp, 
when we adjourned to Mr. President's tent (Dr. McDowell ;) we brought 
half a dozen of bottles of spirits with us ; there we drank again until we 
were merry ; slept greater part of the day. 

March 20^7^, '82.^-This whole day I was very unwell, being much 
bruised, falling from my horse. 

. March 21«^ — A very heavy storm and rain last night. Mounted the 
camp guard this day. This day's orders ; the army to hold themselves 
in readiness to march to-morrow morning 9 o'clock. 

Marcli 22d. — This morning the troops took up the lino of march 
agreeable to yesterday's orders. Very sloppy roads all day. In this 
d ly's march we passed a hill, which was the first one I saw since we 
came to this state ; passed Stoneo Church and encamped within a mile 
on the east side of said church on the road to Bacon's Bridge. 10 miles. 
This day Capt. Steel joined us. 

23^ March, '82. — This day was very busily employed by ourselves 
and men in building huts and chimneys. We built a very elegant brick 
chimney to our tent. 


March 2ithj '82. — This morning at nine o'clock the army took up 
the line of march agreeahle to yesterday's orders — marched through a 
beautiful level country, roads very straight and good, and encamped in 
a wilderness in a thicket of brush, &c., about one mile from Bacon's 
Bridge. 10 miles. 

March 25th, — This afternoon Lt. Collier and self went to pay a visit 
to the Infantry, who then lay at Bacon's Bridge (a very advantageous 
post.) On our arrival there we found they (Infantry) had just marched 
for Dorchester. After taking a view of the bridge, &c. we were obliged 
to return to our encampment again through a very heavy and disagreeable 
rain ; got wet thoroughly ; rained all the afternoon. 

March 2Qth^ '82. — This day was very busily employed by l|oth of- 
ficers and soldiers in building huts, raising tents, clearing the encamp- 
ment, &c. 

This afternoon we drew spirits. This evening a detachment went 
out under the command of Capt. Willmot, of the Maryland line. Our 
officers were very much dissatisfied with such partiality. 

March 27ih, '82. — This morning I mounted camp guard upon the 
left flank of our line. A fine and warm day. 

March 28^A, '82. — ^This day Lieuts. Smith, Reed, Van Court, and 
self, took a ride to Mr. Williamson's, about fourteen miles from camp. 
In the evening a very heavy rain, so that we' were obliged to remain all 
night at Mr. Williamson's, who insisted on our staying, which we con- 
sented to. Spent the evening very agreeably, chatting and smoking a 
pipe, and drinking a glass of good grog. 

This day the following memorial was sent to Gen. G/eene in conse- 
quence of Capt. Willmot and Subalterns' going on command, viz : 

Camp, 28th March, 1782. 

Sir : — When the subjects of a State conceive their rights infringed on, 
they readily suppose it arises from some mistake in the Executive part of 
the Government, or that the Governor means to adopt a mode of governing 
altogether new, and what the subjects have hitherto been unacquainted 
with. It is natural for the good subjects (as men who have a sense of 
subordination, knowing it to be the basis on which the privileges and 
happiness of the people so much depend, and more particularly in an 
army,) to inquire and modestly ask an explanation. 

In the situation of injured subjects, do the Captains and Subalterns 
of the Pennsylvania line view themselves, when they reflect on the cir- 
cumstances attending the formation of Capt. Willmot's detachment: We 
do therefore beg the General will inform us whether it was his int-ention 
that Capt. Willmot's command should be formed on the principle it was, 
or whether by mistake. Should it prove the latter, we shall be happy, 
and have not a doubt that Gen'l Greene's sense of equity and honor 
will lead him to do justice to the feelings of a body of injured Officers. 

For the purpose of better explaining the points wherein we conceive 
ourselves agrieved, wo enclose a copy of the order. 

[Here is a blank page in the MS.] 



We have the honor to be with respect your obedient and very hnmllc 
servants. (Signed,) 

John Davis, Captain. J. Steel, Capt. 

Jos. Collier, Lieut. . "W. Feltman, Lieut. 

Henry Henly, Lieut. Francis White, Lieut. 

A. M. Dunn, Lieut. Jas. McCullocb, Lieut. 
Jno. Humphrey, Ensign. Peter Cunningham, Lieut. 
Samuel Smith, Capt. Jacob Weitzel, Lieut. 
H*y Bicker, Capt. George North, Lieut. 

J. McCullam, Lieut. Jno. McKinnej^ Lieut. 

T. Boude, Capt. Thos. Doyle, Lieut. 

J. Stotsbury, Capt. ^ Jno. Markland, Lieut. 

EbenV Denny, Ensign. D McKnight, Lieut. 

T.. B. Tilden, Lieut. James McPherson, Lieut 

Andrew Irwin, Capt. J. Bowen, Capt. 

T. Campbell, Capt. B. Allison, Lieut. 

B. Lodge, Lieut. Wm. Lusk^ Capt. 
Jerr'h Jackson, Capt. W. Bcvinb, Lieut. 
Jno. Van Court, Ensign. D. Marshall, Lieut. 
James McFarlane, Lieut. P. Smith, Lieut. 

March 29<7i, 1782.— This morning it was excessive cold, snowed a 
little ; cleared up a fine day. This morning we breakfasted at Mr. Wil- 
liamson's; started about eleven o'clock, A. M., and arrived in camp 
about dinner time. Mr. Williamson was so good as to make us a pre- 
sent of an elegant buncli of asparagus. 

This afternoon received an answer from Gen. Greene, in consequence 
of yesterday's memorial, viz : 

Head CIuarters, March 29th, 1782. 

Gentlemen : — The constitution of an army and that of civil govern- 
ment are upon such different principles, the object of one so dificrcnt from 
the other, that what might be essential to military operations in the forma- 
tion of an army, would be found too simple for the various interests and dif- 
ferent claims under civil government. The business of an army is to cover 
the country and annoy the enemy ; that of civil government to protect 
and secure the rights of individuals. Therefore to argue from analogy 
of the rights of men under these different governments, is confounding 
things that have no relation, and rcasonmg upon principles that never 
can be admitted in an army. It is necessary both to the success and the 
security of an army, that its movements should be simple and secret. 
If the constitution of an army is not upon this principle, it can never 
answer the designs of government ; and to form an army upon any plan 
which must defeat the great object of it, will burthen the community 
with great espense without utility. I am always as tender of the feel- 
ings of officers as possible ; but if they go into refinements, and urge 
injuries which have no foundation but from improper modes of reason- 
ing, I cannot sacrifice the public good and the reputation of the army at 
large to accommodate military operations to their way of thinking 


You are to consider yourselves* as officers of tHe continental army, 
bound by its laws, and governed by military maxims. You are under 
iiiilitary, not civil, gover-oracnt. If you feel any injury, it must be as 
officers of tbe line of tbe army, and not those of any particular state. 
]5ut if you will give yourselves the trouble to read military authors, and 
consider the practice of other armies, and reflect without prejudice upon 
the nature and design of detachments, you cannot but be convinced your 
grievances are imaginary 

When detachments are made, it is for pome particular purpose. To 
make it, therefore, in a manner not perfectly calculated to answer the 
design, would both sacrifice the public good, and by degrees the reputa- 
tion of the army. There are more things to be taken into consideration 
in making a detacbment than merely the military abilities of the officer 
commanding, or his rank in the line of the army. 

There is a knowledge of the country, the people, and other local cir- 
cumstances, which are very material considerations, to be attended to, to 
give success to an enterprise. 

A man of an inferior capacity, with a knowledge of these things, would 
bo able to execute and command much better with them, than a man 
of superior capacity without them. 

I have ever made it a rule, and I find it well warranted by the best 
military writers, as well as from the reason and nature of* the thing, to 
detach such men and officers as I may think requisite for the service to 
be performed. Nothing short of this can give success to an enterprise., 
I hope, therefore you will consider this explanation satisfactory. You 
may be assured I have the strongest disposition to oblige and do justice 
to the merit and services of every officer, but 1 must confine myself to 
such maxims of military government us are necessary to do justice to the 
public and the army at lar^e. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Your most obed't, humble serv' t, 

Natq. Greene. 

To Capt. John Davis and others, of the Penn'a Line. 

March 2^ih contiuued, 1782. — This afternoon Capt. Zigler joined our 

March 30^A, '82. — A very cold and disagreeable day. 

March Z\st, 1782. — Morning and evening very cold. 

Capt. Zigler ordered in this day's order to take command of Capt. 
Stevenson's company. 

April ls<, 1782. — This day I wrote the following letters, viz : one to 
my mother; one to Capt. John Doyle; and one to Capt. Abraham 

This morning I mounted the right flank picquet, about one mile from 
our encampment. 

This evening received a letter from my brother *App. This afternoon 
a Hessian Yeager (a deserter) passed my picquet. Our line mustered. 

^pril 2rt6?, '82. — 'I'his morning a very heavy white frost. 

This day wrote the following letters, viz : one to my brother A pp. 


No. 17 ; and one to* my brother Kneass, No. 1 ; and sent them with 

the rest of the letters I wrote yesterday by Joseph , from Hei- 

ger's Town, Penn'a. 

This evening received orders to gear up our wagon horses, and hold 
ourselves in readiness to march at a moment's warning. It is thought 
the enemy are determined to fight us, as they are making all preparations 
for that purpose. 

This morning and evening very cool^ and .the middle of the day very 

Last night six soldiers, prisoners of war, made their escape out of the 
Provost Guard. 

April drd, 1782. — Last night it was very cold. 

This morning we sent an answer to Gen. Greene's letter of the 29th 
of last month, viz : 

Camp, Apl. 3d, '82. 

Sib : — ^l^hat civil and military governments differ we grant. But that 
they are both constituted on principles of justice is a circumstance in itself 
too evident to admit of a doubt. 

Therefore to quote civil government, and deduce thence that a sub- 
ject, though not of a State, we had right to ask redress of grievances, 
and not to be' deemed unreasonable. For that military subjects have 
not a claim to justice, although the Government is supposed to hold it 
in its very principles, is a matter that we have never yet been acquaiot- 
ed with. From what circumstances the General judges, when he sup- 
poses us to have taken up the matter as Officers of a State, and not of 
the Continental Army, we are at a lo^s to know ; and can only answer, 
that it is not in our power to 'account for the feelings and ideas of any 
body but ourselves ; but offer to explain why it should affect us particu- 
larly, as there was an officer of our brigade sent by regular detail with 
the detachment to the Grand Parade, and was dismissed thence by Capt. 
Willmot, who produced an order vesting him ^Capt. Will mot) with 
power to approve of or reject such officers as he might think proper. 

If the Gcn'l will reflect a moment on the circumstances, he must na- 
turally conclude, (unless he supposes us void of every delicate sensation) 
that we have cause of complaint. We conclude with answering, that 
although the answer to our address was not so satisfactory as we could 
have expected, we are induced, from the peculiar situation of the army, 
and our zeal for the public good, to decline any further steps on the oc- 
casion. And remain with respect. 

Your most obedient humble serv'ts, 

[Signed on behalf of the officers,] 

John Davis, Capt. 1st Penn'a. Batt. 
J. Bower, Capt. 2nd Penn'a. Batt. 

This day a flag came to Bacon's Bridge. 

April ith, '82. — ^Lt. Collier, Doyle, and self, took a walk about a mile 
on the left of our encampment^ crossed Ashley Kiver, went to a Mr. 


Itzer's house, drank grog, &c. A warm day. This day a second flag 
came to the hridge. 

This day wrote the following letters, viz : one to my mother, and one 
to my brother App., No. 18, and sent them by Mr. Patton. 

Aj)ril bth, — This day the Light Infantry broke up and joined their 
respective regiments. 

This afternoon a third flag came to the bridge, requesting that the 
confiscated estates should not be sold, but restored to the proper own- 
ers, &c. 

A very warm and fine day. 

Ax>ril 6^A. — A very fine, warm, and agreeable day. 

April 7th, '82. — This morning mounted G-cn. Greene's guard. Lived 
exceedingly well ; plenty of good wine, &c. 

This day two deserters came to Head Quarters. A very warm day. 

April Sth, '82. — Last night very cold. This morning a British Dra- 
goon came to Head Quarters, who deserted last night from a party of 
two hundred horse, who came as far as Dorchester. He brought his 
horse and all his accoutrements with him. 

This morning was relieved by Lieut. Hammond, of our regiment. 
This morning a very heavy firing of cannon and small arms. 

April 9th, '82. — A very rainy and very disagreeable day. We were 
obliged to keep in our tents. In this day'p General Orders I was ap- 
pointed Paymaster to the First Battalion of Pennsy'a. 

April 10th, '82. — ^AIl last night excessive hard rain, thunder and 
lightning. A cloudy, rainy, and dull day. 

April 11th, — Rained all day. Last night a very heavy rain. 

This afternoon a flag came to Bacon's Bridge. 

April 12th, '82. — This morning Capt. Zigler went as a flag to the 
eneray*s lines. Cloudy all day. 

April ISthf '82. — This morning nine o'clock the whole army formed 
in a field in front of the Adjt. Genl's. Fired one round by platoons, one 
by divisions, and one by battalions. 

A very fine, warm, and agreeable day. 

April 14:thy '82. — Last night it rained very hard, and very heavy 
thunder and lightning. 

A fine, warm, and agreeable day. 

April Ibth, — This being a very warm day in camp, Lieuts. Doyle, 
Collier, and self, took a walk through the woods, and called at one Mr. 
Warren's house, where part of the fields were surrounded by palmetto 
trees, as a substitute for a fence. It has leaves about two feet long, and 
two inches wide, and very sharp at the end. The woods are all covered 
over with a very fine, sweet flower, called jessamine. 

16^^ April, — A fine and warm day. Morning and evening very cool. 

April 17th. — This evening a Capt. Orendorflf and fifty men went to 
the lines. 

April ISth, '82. — Spent the afternoon very agreeably with Lt. Cle- 
mens, of the Maryland line. This day four deserters came to Head 

April 19th, '82. — This day Lieut. McFarland and self took a ride into 


the country. Had the pleasure ojT seeiug three alligators; one of seven 
feet, one of four, and one of two feet. 

April 20^, '82. — This afternoon a Captain, Subaltern, and twenty- 
four rank and file, (Refugees,) deserted from John's Island, and came to 
Head Quarters, all armed. 

April ^Istj '82. — ^This morning Lieut. Cunningham and self rode to 
Head Quarters, with a determination .to resign our commissions, which 
were accepted of by Grenl. Greene, after making a small pause of half an 

I asked him whether he would be so obliging as to advance us a small 
sum of money, which he very politely refused, and made answer that he 
had not any money for those people who chose to return home at their 
own will. 

22d Aprils '82. — ^This day I was very busily employed in getting 
ready to start for the northward. 

23cf Aprilj '82. — This morning Capt. Campbell, Capt. Stevenson, 
Lieut. Cunningham, Lieut. Arthur and self started, and came on to a 
Mr. Dunklin's, 28 miles from camp. 

24^ April, — ^This day we passed a number of hills, &c., and quar- 
tered at Capt. Hail's, 28 miles. 

2bih April. — Dined at Col. Thompson's. Crossed the Congaree, and 
quartered at "Mr. Dawson's, where we were treated! very politely. 26 

s '